Self-adjointness of the Fourier expansion of quantized interaction field Lagrangians
Paneitz, S. M.; Segal, I. E.
1983-01-01
Regularity properties significantly stronger than were previously known are developed for four-dimensional non-linear conformally invariant quantized fields. The Fourier coefficients of the interaction Lagrangian in the interaction representation—i.e., evaluated after substitution of the associated quantized free field—is a densely defined operator on the associated free field Hilbert space K. These Fourier coefficients are with respect to a natural basis in the universal cosmos ˜M, to which such fields canonically and maximally extend from Minkowski space-time M0, which is covariantly a submanifold of ˜M. However, conformally invariant free fields over M0 and ˜M are canonically identifiable. The kth Fourier coefficient of the interaction Lagrangian has domain inclusive of all vectors in K to which arbitrary powers of the free hamiltonian in ˜M are applicable. Its adjoint in the rigorous Hilbert space sense is a-k in the case of a hermitian Lagrangian. In particular (k = 0) the leading term in the perturbative expansion of the S-matrix for a conformally invariant quantized field in M0 is a self-adjoint operator. Thus, e.g., if ϕ(x) denotes the free massless neutral scalar field in M0, then ∫M0:ϕ(x)4:d4x is a self-adjoint operator. No coupling constant renormalization is involved here. PMID:16593346
Quantization of higher spin fields
Wagenaar, J. W.; Rijken, T. A
2009-11-15
In this article we quantize (massive) higher spin (1{<=}j{<=}2) fields by means of Dirac's constrained Hamilton procedure both in the situation were they are totally free and were they are coupled to (an) auxiliary field(s). A full constraint analysis and quantization is presented by determining and discussing all constraints and Lagrange multipliers and by giving all equal times (anti)commutation relations. Also we construct the relevant propagators. In the free case we obtain the well-known propagators and show that they are not covariant, which is also well known. In the coupled case we do obtain covariant propagators (in the spin-3/2 case this requires b=0) and show that they have a smooth massless limit connecting perfectly to the massless case (with auxiliary fields). We notice that in our system of the spin-3/2 and spin-2 case the massive propagators coupled to conserved currents only have a smooth limit to the pure massless spin-propagator, when there are ghosts in the massive case.
Nascimento, Daniel R.; DePrince, A. Eugene
2015-12-07
We present a combined cavity quantum electrodynamics/ab initio electronic structure approach for simulating plasmon-molecule interactions in the time domain. The simple Jaynes-Cummings-type model Hamiltonian typically utilized in such simulations is replaced with one in which the molecular component of the coupled system is treated in a fully ab initio way, resulting in a computationally efficient description of general plasmon-molecule interactions. Mutual polarization effects are easily incorporated within a standard ground-state Hartree-Fock computation, and time-dependent simulations carry the same formal computational scaling as real-time time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory. As a proof of principle, we apply this generalized method to the emergence of a Fano-like resonance in coupled molecule-plasmon systems; this feature is quite sensitive to the nanoparticle-molecule separation and the orientation of the molecule relative to the polarization of the external electric field.
Nascimento, Daniel R; DePrince, A Eugene
2015-12-01
We present a combined cavity quantum electrodynamics/ab initio electronic structure approach for simulating plasmon-molecule interactions in the time domain. The simple Jaynes-Cummings-type model Hamiltonian typically utilized in such simulations is replaced with one in which the molecular component of the coupled system is treated in a fully ab initio way, resulting in a computationally efficient description of general plasmon-molecule interactions. Mutual polarization effects are easily incorporated within a standard ground-state Hartree-Fock computation, and time-dependent simulations carry the same formal computational scaling as real-time time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory. As a proof of principle, we apply this generalized method to the emergence of a Fano-like resonance in coupled molecule-plasmon systems; this feature is quite sensitive to the nanoparticle-molecule separation and the orientation of the molecule relative to the polarization of the external electric field. PMID:26646866
Quantization of Electromagnetic Fields in Cavities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kakazu, Kiyotaka; Oshiro, Kazunori
1996-01-01
A quantization procedure for the electromagnetic field in a rectangular cavity with perfect conductor walls is presented, where a decomposition formula of the field plays an essential role. All vector mode functions are obtained by using the decomposition. After expanding the field in terms of the vector mode functions, we get the quantized electromagnetic Hamiltonian.
Zhang, Zhen-Lu; Huang, Yong-Chang
2014-03-15
Quantization theory gives rise to transverse phonons for the traditional Coulomb gauge condition and to scalar and longitudinal photons for the Lorentz gauge condition. We describe a new approach to quantize the general singular QED system by decomposing a general gauge potential into two orthogonal components in general field theory, which preserves scalar and longitudinal photons. Using these two orthogonal components, we obtain an expansion of the gauge-invariant Lagrangian density, from which we deduce the two orthogonal canonical momenta conjugate to the two components of the gauge potential. We then obtain the canonical Hamiltonian in the phase space and deduce the inherent constraints. In terms of the naturally deduced gauge condition, the quantization results are exactly consistent with those in the traditional Coulomb gauge condition and superior to those in the Lorentz gauge condition. Moreover, we find that all the nonvanishing quantum commutators are permanently gauge-invariant. A system can only be measured in physical experiments when it is gauge-invariant. The vanishing longitudinal vector potential means that the gauge invariance of the general QED system cannot be retained. This is similar to the nucleon spin crisis dilemma, which is an example of a physical quantity that cannot be exactly measured experimentally. However, the theory here solves this dilemma by keeping the gauge invariance of the general QED system. -- Highlights: •We decompose the general gauge potential into two orthogonal parts according to general field theory. •We identify a new approach for quantizing the general singular QED system. •The results obtained are superior to those for the Lorentz gauge condition. •The theory presented solves dilemmas such as the nucleon spin crisis.
Canonical quantization of Galilean covariant field theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santos, E. S.; de Montigny, M.; Khanna, F. C.
2005-11-01
The Galilean-invariant field theories are quantized by using the canonical method and the five-dimensional Lorentz-like covariant expressions of non-relativistic field equations. This method is motivated by the fact that the extended Galilei group in 3 + 1 dimensions is a subgroup of the inhomogeneous Lorentz group in 4 + 1 dimensions. First, we consider complex scalar fields, where the Schrödinger field follows from a reduction of the Klein-Gordon equation in the extended space. The underlying discrete symmetries are discussed, and we calculate the scattering cross-sections for the Coulomb interaction and for the self-interacting term λΦ4. Then, we turn to the Dirac equation, which, upon dimensional reduction, leads to the Lévy-Leblond equations. Like its relativistic analogue, the model allows for the existence of antiparticles. Scattering amplitudes and cross-sections are calculated for the Coulomb interaction, the electron-electron and the electron-positron scattering. These examples show that the so-called 'non-relativistic' approximations, obtained in low-velocity limits, must be treated with great care to be Galilei-invariant. The non-relativistic Proca field is discussed briefly.
Deformation quantization for contact interactions and dissipation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belchev, Borislav Stefanov
This thesis studies deformation quantization and its application to contact interactions and systems with dissipation. We consider the subtleties related to quantization when contact interactions and boundaries are present. We exploit the idea that discontinuous potentials are idealizations that should be realized as limits of smooth potentials. The Wigner functions are found for the Morse potential and in the proper limit they reduce to the Wigner functions for the infinite wall, for the most general (Robin) boundary conditions. This is possible for a very limited subset of the values of the parameters --- so-called fine tuning is necessary. It explains why Dirichlet boundary conditions are used predominantly. Secondly, we consider deformation quantization in relation to dissipative phenomena. For the damped harmonic oscillator we study a method using a modified noncommutative star product. Within this framework we resolve the non-reality problem with the Wigner function and correct the classical limit.
Quantized vortices in interacting gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Butera, Salvatore; Valiente, Manuel; Ohberg, Patrik
2015-05-01
We consider a two-dimensional weakly interacting ultracold Bose gas whose constituents are two-level atoms. We study the effects of a synthetic density-dependent gauge field that arises from laser-matter coupling in the adiabatic limit with a laser configuration such that the single-particle vector potential corresponds to a constant synthetic magnetic field. We find a new type of current non-linearity in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation which affects the dynamics of the order parameter of the condensate. We investigate on the physical conditions that make the nucleation of a quantized vortex in the system energetically favourable with respect to the non rotating solution. Two different physical interpretations can be given to this new non linearity: firstly it can be seen as a local modification of the mean field coupling constant, whose value depends on the angular momentum of the condensate. Secondly, it can be interpreted as a density modulated angular velocity given to the cloud. We analyze the physical conditions that make a single vortex state energetically favourable. In the Thomas-Fermi limit, we show that the effect of the new nonlinearity is to induce a rotation to the condensate, where the transition from non-rotating to rotating depends on the density of the cloud. The authors acknowledge support from CM-DTC and EPSRC.
Quantized vortices in interacting gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Butera, Salvatore; Valiente, Manuel; Öhberg, Patrik
2016-01-01
We consider a two-dimensional weakly interacting ultracold Bose gas whose constituents are two-level atoms. We study the effects of a synthetic density-dependent gauge field that arises from laser-matter coupling in the adiabatic limit with a laser configuration such that the single-particle zeroth-order vector potential corresponds to a constant synthetic magnetic field. We find a new exotic type of current nonlinearity in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation which affects the dynamics of the order parameter of the condensate. We investigate the rotational properties of this system in the Thomas-Fermi limit, focusing in particular on the physical conditions that make the existence of a quantized vortex in the system energetically favourable with respect to the non-rotating solution. We point out that two different physical interpretations can be given to this new nonlinearity: firstly it can be seen as a local modification of the mean field coupling constant, whose value depends on the angular momentum of the condensate. Secondly, it can be interpreted as a density modulated angular velocity given to the cloud. Looking at the problem from both of these viewpoints, we show that the effect of the new nonlinearity is to induce a rotation to the condensate, where the transition from non-rotating to rotating states depends on the density of the cloud.
Exact quantization of a paraxial electromagnetic field
Aiello, A.; Woerdman, J. P.
2005-12-15
A nonperturbative quantization of a paraxial electromagnetic field is achieved via a generalized dispersion relation imposed on the longitudinal and the transverse components of the photon wave vector. This theoretical formalism yields a seamless transition between the paraxial- and the Maxwell-equation solutions. This obviates the need to introduce either ad hoc or perturbatively defined field operators. Moreover, our (exact) formalism remains valid beyond the quasimonochromatic paraxial limit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faraji, Elham; Tavassoly, Mohammad Kazem; Baghshahi, Hamid Reza
2016-05-01
In this paper, we study the interaction between two Λ-type three-level atoms (a typical qutrit-qutrit system) and two coupled modes of a quantized radiation field in the presence of field-field interaction (parametric down conversion) which are simultaneously injected within an optical cavity. Then, by applying an appropriate canonical transformation, the introduced model is reduced to a well-known form of the generalized Jaynes-Cummings model. Under particular initial conditions for atoms (in some possible states) and the fields (in the finite dimensional pair coherent state) which may be prepared, the explicit form of the state vector of the whole system is analytically evaluated. In order to find the degree of entanglement between different parts of subsystems ("atom+atom"-field, "atom+field"-atom and atom-atom) the dynamics of entanglement through different measures, namely, linear entropy and negativity is evaluated. In each case, the effect of various types of initial atomic states on the above measures are numerically analyzed, in detail. It is indicated that the amount of entanglement can be tuned by choosing appropriate initial states of atoms. Particularly, it is shown that the entanglement sudden death (ESD) can be controlled by adjusting the initial state of the atoms.
Entropic quantization of scalar fields
Ipek, Selman; Caticha, Ariel
2015-01-13
Entropic Dynamics is an information-based framework that seeks to derive the laws of physics as an application of the methods of entropic inference. The dynamics is derived by maximizing an entropy subject to constraints that represent the physically relevant information that the motion is continuous and non-dissipative. Here we focus on the quantum theory of scalar fields. We provide an entropic derivation of Hamiltonian dynamics and using concepts from information geometry derive the standard quantum field theory in the Schrödinger representation.
Entropic quantization of scalar fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ipek, Selman; Caticha, Ariel
2015-01-01
Entropic Dynamics is an information-based framework that seeks to derive the laws of physics as an application of the methods of entropic inference. The dynamics is derived by maximizing an entropy subject to constraints that represent the physically relevant information that the motion is continuous and non-dissipative. Here we focus on the quantum theory of scalar fields. We provide an entropic derivation of Hamiltonian dynamics and using concepts from information geometry derive the standard quantum field theory in the Schrödinger representation.
Phase-space quantization of field theory.
Curtright, T.; Zachos, C.
1999-04-20
In this lecture, a limited introduction of gauge invariance in phase-space is provided, predicated on canonical transformations in quantum phase-space. Exact characteristic trajectories are also specified for the time-propagating Wigner phase-space distribution function: they are especially simple--indeed, classical--for the quantized simple harmonic oscillator. This serves as the underpinning of the field theoretic Wigner functional formulation introduced. Scalar field theory is thus reformulated in terms of distributions in field phase-space. This is a pedagogical selection from work published and reported at the Yukawa Institute Workshop ''Gauge Theory and Integrable Models'', 26-29 January, 1999.
Quantized gauged massless Rarita-Schwinger fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adler, Stephen L.
2015-10-01
We study the quantization of a minimally gauged massless Rarita-Schwinger field, by both the Dirac bracket and functional integral methods. The Dirac bracket approach in the covariant radiation gauge leads to an anticommutator that has a nonsingular limit as gauge fields approach zero, is manifestly positive semidefinite, and is Lorentz invariant. The constraints also have the form needed to apply the Faddeev-Popov method for deriving a functional integral, using the same constrained Hamiltonian and inverse constraint matrix that appear in the Dirac bracket approach.
Interactions between unidirectional quantized vortex rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, T.; Evans, M. L.; Brown, R. A.; Walmsley, P. M.; Golov, A. I.
2016-08-01
We have used the vortex filament method to numerically investigate the interactions between pairs of quantized vortex rings that are initially traveling in the same direction but with their axes offset by a variable impact parameter. The interaction of two circular rings of comparable radii produces outcomes that can be categorized into four regimes, dependent only on the impact parameter; the two rings can either miss each other on the inside or outside or reconnect leading to final states consisting of either one or two deformed rings. The fraction of energy that went into ring deformations and the transverse component of velocity of the rings are analyzed for each regime. We find that rings of very similar radius only reconnect for a very narrow range of the impact parameter, much smaller than would be expected from the geometrical cross-section alone. In contrast, when the radii of the rings are very different, the range of impact parameters producing a reconnection is close to the geometrical value. A second type of interaction considered is the collision of circular rings with a highly deformed ring. This type of interaction appears to be a productive mechanism for creating small vortex rings. The simulations are discussed in the context of experiments on colliding vortex rings and quantum turbulence in superfluid helium in the zero-temperature limit.
Quantization of non-local field theory and string field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hata, Hiroyuki
1989-02-01
The interaction vertex in covariant string field theory (SFT) is non-local in the time coordinate and the conventional canonical quantization is inapplicable to it. As an approach to quantizing this system we apply Hayashi's theory of the Hamilton formalism for field theories with non-local interactions. We find that the resulting one-loop amplitudes in covariant closed SFT coincide with those in the light-cone gauge SFT. I would like to thank T. Kugo, H. Kunitomo, M.M. Nojiri, K. Ogawa and K. Suehiro for valuable discussions, and especially Professor S. Tanaka for directing my attention to Hayashi's theory.
A physically motivated quantization of the electromagnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bennett, Robert; Barlow, Thomas M.; Beige, Almut
2016-01-01
The notion that the electromagnetic field is quantized is usually inferred from observations such as the photoelectric effect and the black-body spectrum. However accounts of the quantization of this field are usually mathematically motivated and begin by introducing a vector potential, followed by the imposition of a gauge that allows the manipulation of the solutions of Maxwell’s equations into a form that is amenable for the machinery of canonical quantization. By contrast, here we quantize the electromagnetic field in a less mathematically and more physically motivated way. Starting from a direct description of what one sees in experiments, we show that the usual expressions of the electric and magnetic field observables follow from Heisenberg’s equation of motion. In our treatment, there is no need to invoke the vector potential in a specific gauge and we avoid the commonly used notion of a fictitious cavity that applies boundary conditions to the field.
Genesis of quantization of matter and radiation field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de la Peña, Luis; Cetto, Ana María.
2015-09-01
Are we to accept quantization as a fundamental property of nature, the origin of which does not require or admit further investigation? To get an insight into this question we consider atomic systems as open systems, since they are by necessity in contact with the electromagnetic radiation field. This includes not only photonic radiation, but, more importantly for our purposes, the random zero-point or nonthermal radiation that pervades the Universe. The Heisenberg inequalities, atomic stability and the existence of discrete solutions are explained as a result of the permanent action of this field upon matter and the balance between mean absorbed and emitted powers in the equilibrium regime. A detailed study carried out along the years has led to the usual quantum-mechanical formalism as a powerful and revealing statistical description of the behavior of matter in the radiationless approximation, as well as to the radiative corrections of nonrelativistic QED. The theory presented gives thus a response to the question posed above, within a local, realist and objective framework: quantization appears as an emergent phenomenon due to the matter-field interaction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koide, T.; Kodama, T.
2015-09-01
The stochastic variational method (SVM) is the generalization of the variational approach to systems described by stochastic variables. In this paper, we investigate the applicability of SVM as an alternative field-quantization scheme, by considering the complex Klein-Gordon equation. There, the Euler-Lagrangian equation for the stochastic field variables leads to the functional Schrödinger equation, which can be interpreted as the Euler (ideal fluid) equation in the functional space. The present formulation is a quantization scheme based on commutable variables, so that there appears no ambiguity associated with the ordering of operators, e.g., in the definition of Noether charges.
Berry's phase in cavity QED: Proposal for observing an effect of field quantization
Carollo, A.; Santos, M. Franca; Vedral, V.
2003-06-01
We propose a feasible experiment to investigate quantum effects in geometric phases, arising when a classical source drives not a single quantum system, but two interacting ones. In particular, we show how to observe a signature of the quantization of the electromagnetic field through a vacuum effect in Berry's phase. To do so, we describe the interaction of an atom and a quantized cavity mode altogether driven by an external quasiclassical field. We also analyze the semiclassical limit recovering the usual Berry's phase results.
Mathematics of Quantization and Quantum Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dereziński, Jan; Gérard, Christian
2013-03-01
Preface; 1. Vector spaces; 2. Operators in Hilbert spaces; 3. Tensor algebras; 4. Analysis in L2(Rd); 5. Measures; 6. Algebras; 7. Anti-symmetric calculus; 8. Canonical commutation relations; 9. CCR on Fock spaces; 10. Symplectic invariance of CCR in finite dimensions; 11. Symplectic invariance of the CCR on Fock spaces; 12. Canonical anti-commutation relations; 13. CAR on Fock spaces; 14. Orthogonal invariance of CAR algebras; 15. Clifford relations; 16. Orthogonal invariance of the CAR on Fock spaces; 17. Quasi-free states; 18. Dynamics of quantum fields; 19. Quantum fields on space-time; 20. Diagrammatics; 21. Euclidean approach for bosons; 22. Interacting bosonic fields; Subject index; Symbols index.
Quantization of gauge fields, graph polynomials and graph homology
Kreimer, Dirk; Sars, Matthias; Suijlekom, Walter D. van
2013-09-15
We review quantization of gauge fields using algebraic properties of 3-regular graphs. We derive the Feynman integrand at n loops for a non-abelian gauge theory quantized in a covariant gauge from scalar integrands for connected 3-regular graphs, obtained from the two Symanzik polynomials. The transition to the full gauge theory amplitude is obtained by the use of a third, new, graph polynomial, the corolla polynomial. This implies effectively a covariant quantization without ghosts, where all the relevant signs of the ghost sector are incorporated in a double complex furnished by the corolla polynomial–we call it cycle homology–and by graph homology. -- Highlights: •We derive gauge theory Feynman from scalar field theory with 3-valent vertices. •We clarify the role of graph homology and cycle homology. •We use parametric renormalization and the new corolla polynomial.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silveirinha, Mário G.
2013-10-01
We quantize the macroscopic electromagnetic field in a system of nondispersive polarizable bodies moving at constant velocities possibly exceeding the Cherenkov threshold. It is shown that in general the quantized system is unstable and neither has a ground state nor supports stationary states. The quantized Hamiltonian is written in terms of quantum harmonic oscillators associated with both positive and negative frequencies, such that the oscillators associated with symmetric frequencies are coupled by an interaction term that does not preserve the quantum occupation numbers. Moreover, in the linear regime the amplitudes of the fields may grow without limit provided the velocity of the moving bodies is enforced to be constant. This requires the application of an external mechanical force that effectively pumps the system.
Enhanced current quantization in high-frequency electron pumps in a perpendicular magnetic field
Wright, S. J.; Blumenthal, M. D.; Gumbs, Godfrey; Thorn, A. L.; Pepper, M.; Anderson, D.; Jones, G. A. C.; Nicoll, C. A.; Ritchie, D. A.; Janssen, T. J. B. M.; Holmes, S. N.
2008-12-15
We present experimental results of high-frequency quantized charge pumping through a quantum dot formed by the electric field arising from applied voltages in a GaAs/AlGaAs system in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field B. Clear changes are observed in the quantized current plateaus as a function of applied magnetic field. We report on the robustness in the length of the quantized plateaus and improvements in the quantization as a result of the applied B field.
The Theory of Quantized Fields. II
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Schwinger, J.
1951-01-01
The arguments leading to the formulation of the Action Principle for a general field are presented. In association with the complete reduction of all numerical matrices into symmetrical and anti-symmetrical parts, the general field is decomposed into two sets, which are identified with Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac fields. The spin restriction on the two kinds of fields is inferred from the time reflection invariance requirement. The consistency of the theory is verified in terms of a criterion involving the various generators of infinitesimal transformations. Following a discussion of charged fields, the electromagnetic field is introduced to satisfy the postulate of general gauge invariance. As an aspect of the latter, it is recognized that the electromagnetic field and charged fields are not kinematically independent. After a discussion of the field-strength commutation relations, the independent dynamical variable of the electromagnetic field are exhibited in terms of a special gauge.
Quantized skyrmion fields in 2+1 dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marino, E. C.
2000-01-01
A fully quantized field theory is developed for the skyrmion topological excitations of the O(3) symmetric CP1-nonlinear sigma model in 2+1D. The method allows for the obtainment of arbitrary correlation functions of quantum skyrmion fields. The two-point function is evaluated in three different situations: (a) the pure theory, (b) the case when it is coupled to fermions which are otherwise noninteracting, and (c) the case when an electromagnetic interaction among the fermions is introduced. The quantum skyrmion mass is explicitly obtained in each case from the large distance behavior of the two-point function and the skyrmion statistics is inferred from an analysis of the phase of this function. The ratio between the quantum and classical skyrmion masses is obtained, confirming the tendency, observed in semiclassical calculations, that quantum effects will decrease the skyrmion mass. A brief discussion of asymptotic skyrmion states, based on the short distance behavior of the two-point function, is also presented.
On the quantization of the linearized gravitational field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grigore, D. R.
2000-01-01
We present a new point of view on the quantization of the gravitational field, namely we use exclusively the quantum framework of the second quantization. More explicitly, we take as one-particle Hilbert space, H_{graviton} the unitary irreducible representation of the Poincarégroup corresponding to a massless particle of helicity 2 and apply the second quantization procedure with Einstein-Bose statistics. The resulting Hilbert space F + (H_{graviton}) is, by definition, the Hilbert space of the gravitational field. Then we prove that this Hilbert space is canonically isomorphic to a space of the type Ker(Q ) / Im(Q ) where Q is a supercharge defined in an extension of the Hilbert space F + (H_{graviton}) by the inclusion of ghosts: some fermion ghosts u µ , tildeu µ which are vector fields and a bosonic ghost Φ which is a scalar field. This has to be contrasted with the usual approaches where only the fermion ghosts are considered. However, a rigorous proof that this is, indeed, possible seems to be lacking in the literature.
Novel properties of the q-analogue quantized radiation field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nelson, Charles A.
1993-01-01
The 'classical limit' of the q-analog quantized radiation field is studied paralleling conventional quantum optics analyses. The q-generalizations of the phase operator of Susskind and Glogower and that of Pegg and Barnett are constructed. Both generalizations and their associated number-phase uncertainty relations are manifestly q-independent in the n greater than g number basis. However, in the q-coherent state z greater than q basis, the variance of the generic electric field, (delta(E))(sup 2) is found to be increased by a factor lambda(z) where lambda(z) greater than 1 if q not equal to 1. At large amplitudes, the amplitude itself would be quantized if the available resolution of unity for the q-analog coherent states is accepted in the formulation. These consequences are remarkable versus the conventional q = 1 limit.
The Theory of Quantized Fields. III
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Schwinger, J.
1953-05-01
In this paper we discuss the electromagnetic field, as perturbed by a prescribed current. All quantities of physical interest in various situations, eigenvalues, eigenfunctions, and transformation probabilities, are derived from a general transformation function which is expressed in a non-Hermitian representation. The problems treated are: the determination of the energy-momentum eigenvalues and eigenfunctions for the isolated electromagnetic field, and the energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions for the field perturbed by a time-independent current that departs from zero only within a finite time interval, and for a time-dependent current that assumes non-vanishing time-independent values initially and finally. The results are applied in a discussion of the intra-red catastrophe and of the adiabatic theorem. It is shown how the latter can be exploited to give a uniform formulation for all problems requiring the evaluation of transition probabilities or eigenvalue displacements.
Precise quantization of anomalous Hall effect near zero magnetic field
Bestwick, A. J.; Fox, E. J.; Kou, Xufeng; Pan, Lei; Wang, Kang L.; Goldhaber-Gordon, D.
2015-05-04
In this study, we report a nearly ideal quantum anomalous Hall effect in a three-dimensional topological insulator thin film with ferromagnetic doping. Near zero applied magnetic field we measure exact quantization in the Hall resistance to within a part per 10,000 and a longitudinal resistivity under 1 Ω per square, with chiral edge transport explicitly confirmed by nonlocal measurements. Deviations from this behavior are found to be caused by thermally activated carriers, as indicated by an Arrhenius law temperature dependence. Using the deviations as a thermometer, we demonstrate an unexpected magnetocaloric effect and use it to reach near-perfect quantization by cooling the sample below the dilution refrigerator base temperature in a process approximating adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration.
q-bosons and the q-analogue quantized field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nelson, Charles A.
1995-01-01
The q-analogue coherent states are used to identify physical signatures for the presence of a 1-analogue quantized radiation field in the q-CS classical limits where the absolute value of z is large. In this quantum-optics-like limit, the fractional uncertainties of most physical quantities (momentum, position, amplitude, phase) which characterize the quantum field are O(1). They only vanish as O(1/absolute value of z) when q = 1. However, for the number operator, N, and the N-Hamiltonian for a free q-boson gas, H(sub N) = h(omega)(N + 1/2), the fractional uncertainties do still approach zero. A signature for q-boson counting statistics is that (Delta N)(exp 2)/ (N) approaches 0 as the absolute value of z approaches infinity. Except for its O(1) fractional uncertainty, the q-generalization of the Hermitian phase operator of Pegg and Barnett, phi(sub q), still exhibits normal classical behavior. The standard number-phase uncertainty-relation, Delta(N) Delta phi(sub q) = 1/2, and the approximate commutation relation, (N, phi(sub q)) = i, still hold for the single-mode q-analogue quantized field. So, N and phi(sub q) are almost canonically conjugate operators in the q-CS classical limit. The q-analogue CS's minimize this uncertainty relation for moderate (absolute value of z)(exp 2).
Casimir effect for a scalar field via Krein quantization
Pejhan, H.; Tanhayi, M.R.; Takook, M.V.
2014-02-15
In this work, we present a rather simple method to study the Casimir effect on a spherical shell for a massless scalar field with Dirichlet boundary condition by applying the indefinite metric field (Krein) quantization technique. In this technique, the field operators are constructed from both negative and positive norm states. Having understood that negative norm states are un-physical, they are only used as a mathematical tool for renormalizing the theory and then one can get rid of them by imposing some proper physical conditions. -- Highlights: • A modification of QFT is considered to address the vacuum energy divergence problem. • Casimir energy of a spherical shell is calculated, through this approach. • In this technique, it is shown, the theory is automatically regularized.
Quantization of β-Fermi-Pasta-Ulam Lattice with Nearest and Next-nearest Neighbour Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dey, Bishwajyoti
2015-03-01
We quantize the β-Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) model with nearest and next-nearest neighbour (NNN) interactions using a number conserving approximation and a numerically exact diagonalization method. Our numerical mean field bi-phonon spectrum shows excellent agreement with the analytic mean field results of Ivic and Tsironis, except for the wave vector at the midpoint of the Brillouin zone. We then relax the mean field approximation and calculate the eigenvalue spectrum of the full Hamiltonian. We show the existence of multi-phonon bound states and analyze the properties of these states by varying the system parameters. From the calculation of the spatial correlation function we then show that these multi-phonon bound states are particle like states with finite spatial correlation. Accordingly we identify these multi-phonon bound states as the quantum equivalent of the breather solutions of the corresponding classical FPU model. The four-phonon spectrum of the system is then obtained and its properties are studied. We then generalize the study to an extended range interaction and quantize the β-FPU model with NNN interactions. We analyze the effects of the NNN interactions on the eigenvalue spectrum and the correlation functions of the system. I would like to thank DST, India and BCUD, Pune University, Pune for financial support through research projects.
Electromagnetic-field quantization and spontaneous decay in left-handed media
Dung, Ho Trung; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi; Knoell, Ludwig; Welsch, Dirk-Gunnar; Scheel, Stefan; Kaestel, Juergen
2003-10-01
We present a quantization scheme for the electromagnetic field interacting with atomic systems in the presence of dispersing and absorbing magnetodielectric media, including left-handed material having negative real part of the refractive index. The theory is applied to the spontaneous decay of a two-level atom at the center of a spherical free-space cavity surrounded by magnetodielectric matter of overlapping band-gap zones. Results for both big and small cavities are presented, and the problem of local-field corrections within the real-cavity model is addressed.
Effect of trapping in a degenerate plasma in the presence of a quantizing magnetic field
Shah, H. A.; Iqbal, M. J.; Qureshi, M. N. S.; Tsintsadze, N.; Masood, W.
2012-09-15
Effect of trapping as a microscopic phenomenon in a degenerate plasma is investigated in the presence of a quantizing magnetic field. The plasma comprises degenerate electrons and non-degenerate ions. The presence of the quantizing magnetic field is discussed briefly and the effect of trapping is investigated by using the Fermi-Dirac distribution function. The linear dispersion relation for ion acoustic wave is derived in the presence of the quantizing magnetic field and its influence on the propagation characteristics of the linear ion acoustic wave is discussed. Subsequently, fully nonlinear equations for ion acoustic waves are used to obtain the Sagdeev potential and the investigation of solitary structures. The formation of solitary structures is studied both for fully and partially degenerate plasmas in the presence of a quantizing magnetic field. Both compressive and rarefactive solitons are obtained for different conditions of temperature and magnetic field.
Effective Field Theory of Fractional Quantized Hall Nematics
Mulligan, Michael; Nayak, Chetan; Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC
2012-06-06
We present a Landau-Ginzburg theory for a fractional quantized Hall nematic state and the transition to it from an isotropic fractional quantum Hall state. This justifies Lifshitz-Chern-Simons theory - which is shown to be its dual - on a more microscopic basis and enables us to compute a ground state wave function in the symmetry-broken phase. In such a state of matter, the Hall resistance remains quantized while the longitudinal DC resistivity due to thermally-excited quasiparticles is anisotropic. We interpret recent experiments at Landau level filling factor {nu} = 7/3 in terms of our theory.
Conformally covariant quantization of the Maxwell field in de Sitter space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faci, S.; Huguet, E.; Queva, J.; Renaud, J.
2009-12-01
In this article, we quantize the Maxwell (“massless spin one”) de Sitter field in a conformally invariant gauge. This quantization is invariant under the SO0(2,4) group and consequently under the de Sitter group. We obtain a new de Sitter-invariant two-point function which is very simple. Our method relies on the one hand on a geometrical point of view which uses the realization of Minkowski, de Sitter and anti-de Sitter spaces as intersections of the null cone in R6 and a moving plane, and on the other hand on a canonical quantization scheme of the Gupta-Bleuler type.
A Heisenberg Algebra Bundle of a Vector Field in Three-Space and its Weyl Quantization
Binz, Ernst; Pods, Sonja
2006-01-04
In these notes we associate a natural Heisenberg group bundle Ha with a singularity free smooth vector field X = (id,a) on a submanifold M in a Euclidean three-space. This bundle yields naturally an infinite dimensional Heisenberg group H{sub X}{sup {infinity}}. A representation of the C*-group algebra of H{sub X}{sup {infinity}} is a quantization. It causes a natural Weyl-deformation quantization of X. The influence of the topological structure of M on this quantization is encoded in the Chern class of a canonical complex line bundle inside Ha.
The effect of quantization on the full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo sign problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolodrubetz, M. H.; Spencer, J. S.; Clark, B. K.; Foulkes, W. M. C.
2013-01-01
The sign problem in full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo (FCIQMC) without annihilation can be understood as an instability of the psi-particle population to the ground state of the matrix obtained by making all off-diagonal elements of the Hamiltonian negative. Such a matrix, and hence the sign problem, is basis dependent. In this paper, we discuss the properties of a physically important basis choice: first versus second quantization. For a given choice of single-particle orbitals, we identify the conditions under which the fermion sign problem in the second quantized basis of antisymmetric Slater determinants is identical to the sign problem in the first quantized basis of unsymmetrized Hartree products. We also show that, when the two differ, the fermion sign problem is always less severe in the second quantized basis. This supports the idea that FCIQMC, even in the absence of annihilation, improves the sign problem relative to first quantized methods. Finally, we point out some theoretically interesting classes of Hamiltonians where first and second quantized sign problems differ, and others where they do not.
Conductance Quantization at Zero Magnetic Field in InSb Nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kammhuber, Jakob; Cassidy, Maja C.; Zhang, Hao; Gül, Önder; Pei, Fei; de Moor, Michiel W. A.; Nijholt, Bas; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sébastien R.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.
2016-06-01
Ballistic electron transport is a key requirement for existence of a topological phase transition in proximitized InSb nanowires. However, measurements of quantized conductance as direct evidence of ballistic transport have so far been obscured due to the increased chance of backscattering in one dimensional nanowires. We show that by improving the nanowire-metal interface as well as the dielectric environment we can consistently achieve conductance quantization at zero magnetic field. Additionally, studying the sub-band evolution in a rotating magnetic field reveals an orbital degeneracy between the second and third sub-bands for perpendicular fields above 1T.
Thermoelectric power of n-InSb in a transverse quantizing magnetic field
Gadzhialiev, M. M. Bashirov, R. R.; Pirmagomedov, Z. Sh.; Efendieva, T. N.; Mädge, H.; Filar, K.
2015-07-15
The thermoelectric power of electronic InSb is investigated in a transverse magnetic field up to 14 T at 80 K. It is established that the experimental results for a quantizing magnetic field agree with theoretical data obtained without accounting for spin splitting of the Landau levels.
Conductance Quantization at Zero Magnetic Field in InSb Nanowires.
Kammhuber, Jakob; Cassidy, Maja C; Zhang, Hao; Gül, Önder; Pei, Fei; de Moor, Michiel W A; Nijholt, Bas; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sébastien R; Bakkers, Erik P A M; Kouwenhoven, Leo P
2016-06-01
Ballistic electron transport is a key requirement for existence of a topological phase transition in proximitized InSb nanowires. However, measurements of quantized conductance as direct evidence of ballistic transport have so far been obscured due to the increased chance of backscattering in one-dimensional nanowires. We show that by improving the nanowire-metal interface as well as the dielectric environment we can consistently achieve conductance quantization at zero magnetic field. Additionally we study the contribution of orbital effects to the sub-band dispersion for different orientation of the magnetic field, observing a near-degeneracy between the second and third sub-bands. PMID:27121534
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fröhlich, J.; Knowles, A.; Pizzo, A.
2007-03-01
Within the framework of the theory of interacting classical and quantum gases, it is shown that the atomistic constitution of gases can be understood as a consequence of (second) quantization of a continuum theory of gases. In this paper, this is explained in some detail for the theory of non-relativistic interacting Bose gases, which can be viewed as the second quantization of a continuum theory whose dynamics is given by the Hartree equation. Conversely, the Hartree equation emerges from the theory of Bose gases in the mean-field limit. It is shown that, for such systems, the time evolution of 'observables' commutes with their Wick quantization, up to quantum corrections that tend to zero in the mean-field limit. This is an Egorov-type theorem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faizal, Mir
2013-12-01
In this Letter we will analyze the creation of the multiverse. We will first calculate the wave function for the multiverse using third quantization. Then we will fourth-quantize this theory. We will show that there is no single vacuum state for this theory. Thus, we can end up with a multiverse, even after starting from a vacuum state. This will be used as a possible explanation for the creation of the multiverse. We also analyze the effect of interactions in this fourth-quantized theory.
Canonical quantization of lattice Higgs-Maxwell-Chern-Simons fields: Osterwalder-Schrader positivity
Bowman, Daniel A.; Challifour, John L.
2011-03-15
A Euclidean representation is given for a canonically quantized relativistic Maxwell-Chern-Simons field on a lattice, which approximates a complex measure on a space of distributions. Using a path-space formula for the nonself-adjoint Hamiltonian, the relation between Euclidean Osterwalder-Schrader positivity, the Krein metric, and Gauss' law is examined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Challifour, John L.; Timko, Edward J.
2016-06-01
Using a Krein indefinite metric in Fock space, the Hamiltonian for cut-off models of canonically quantized Higgs-Yang-Mills fields interpolating between the Gupta-Bleuler-Feynman and Landau gauges is shown to be essentially maximal accretive and essentially Krein selfadjoint.
Reformulation of the covering and quantizer problems as ground states of interacting particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torquato, S.
2010-11-01
It is known that the sphere-packing problem and the number-variance problem (closely related to an optimization problem in number theory) can be posed as energy minimizations associated with an infinite number of point particles in d -dimensional Euclidean space Rd interacting via certain repulsive pair potentials. We reformulate the covering and quantizer problems as the determination of the ground states of interacting particles in Rd that generally involve single-body, two-body, three-body, and higher-body interactions. This is done by linking the covering and quantizer problems to certain optimization problems involving the “void” nearest-neighbor functions that arise in the theory of random media and statistical mechanics. These reformulations, which again exemplify the deep interplay between geometry and physics, allow one now to employ theoretical and numerical optimization techniques to analyze and solve these energy minimization problems. The covering and quantizer problems have relevance in numerous applications, including wireless communication network layouts, the search of high-dimensional data parameter spaces, stereotactic radiation therapy, data compression, digital communications, meshing of space for numerical analysis, and coding and cryptography, among other examples. In the first three space dimensions, the best known solutions of the sphere-packing and number-variance problems (or their “dual” solutions) are directly related to those of the covering and quantizer problems, but such relationships may or may not exist for d≥4 , depending on the peculiarities of the dimensions involved. Our reformulation sheds light on the reasons for these similarities and differences. We also show that disordered saturated sphere packings provide relatively thin (economical) coverings and may yield thinner coverings than the best known lattice coverings in sufficiently large dimensions. In the case of the quantizer problem, we derive improved upper
Reformulation of the covering and quantizer problems as ground states of interacting particles.
Torquato, S
2010-11-01
It is known that the sphere-packing problem and the number-variance problem (closely related to an optimization problem in number theory) can be posed as energy minimizations associated with an infinite number of point particles in d-dimensional Euclidean space R(d) interacting via certain repulsive pair potentials. We reformulate the covering and quantizer problems as the determination of the ground states of interacting particles in R(d) that generally involve single-body, two-body, three-body, and higher-body interactions. This is done by linking the covering and quantizer problems to certain optimization problems involving the "void" nearest-neighbor functions that arise in the theory of random media and statistical mechanics. These reformulations, which again exemplify the deep interplay between geometry and physics, allow one now to employ theoretical and numerical optimization techniques to analyze and solve these energy minimization problems. The covering and quantizer problems have relevance in numerous applications, including wireless communication network layouts, the search of high-dimensional data parameter spaces, stereotactic radiation therapy, data compression, digital communications, meshing of space for numerical analysis, and coding and cryptography, among other examples. In the first three space dimensions, the best known solutions of the sphere-packing and number-variance problems (or their "dual" solutions) are directly related to those of the covering and quantizer problems, but such relationships may or may not exist for d≥4 , depending on the peculiarities of the dimensions involved. Our reformulation sheds light on the reasons for these similarities and differences. We also show that disordered saturated sphere packings provide relatively thin (economical) coverings and may yield thinner coverings than the best known lattice coverings in sufficiently large dimensions. In the case of the quantizer problem, we derive improved upper bounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Almosallami, Azzam
2011-03-01
In this paper we derived the relativistic Quantized force, where the force given as a function of frequency [1]. Where, in this paper we defined the relativistic momentum as a function of frequency equivalent to the energy held by a body, and time, and then the quantized force is given as the first derivative of the momentum with respect to time. Subsequently we introduce in section one Newton's second law as it is relativistic quantized, and in section two we introduce the relativistic quantized inertial force, and then the relativistic quantized gravitational force, and the quantized gravitational time dilation. At the end we shall generalize the Schwartzschild metric to describe the weak and strong gravitational field.
Field quantization and squeezed states generation in resonators with time-dependent parameters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dodonov, V. V.; Klimov, A. B.; Nikonov, D. E.
1992-01-01
The problem of electromagnetic field quantization is usually considered in textbooks under the assumption that the field occupies some empty box. The case when a nonuniform time-dependent dielectric medium is confined in some space region with time-dependent boundaries is studied. The basis of the subsequent consideration is the system of Maxwell's equations in linear passive time-dependent dielectric and magnetic medium without sources.
Uniqueness of the Fock quantization of scalar fields in spatially flat cosmological spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castelló Gomar, Laura; Cortez, Jerónimo; Martín-de Blas, Daniel; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.; Velhinho, José M.
2012-11-01
We study the Fock quantization of scalar fields in (generically) time dependent scenarios, focusing on the case in which the field propagation occurs in -either a background or effective- spacetime with spatial sections of flat compact topology. The discussion finds important applications in cosmology, like e.g. in the description of test Klein-Gordon fields and scalar perturbations in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime in the observationally favored flat case. Two types of ambiguities in the quantization are analyzed. First, the infinite ambiguity existing in the choice of a Fock representation for the canonical commutation relations, understandable as the freedom in the choice of inequivalent vacua for a given field. Besides, in cosmological situations, it is customary to scale the fields by time dependent functions, which absorb part of the evolution arising from the spacetime, which is treated classically. This leads to an additional ambiguity, this time in the choice of a canonical pair of field variables. We show that both types of ambiguities are removed by the requirements of (a) invariance of the vacuum under the symmetries of the three-torus, and (b) unitary implementation of the dynamics in the quantum theory. In this way, one arrives at a unique class of unitarily equivalent Fock quantizations for the system. This result provides considerable robustness to the quantum predictions and renders meaningful the confrontation with observation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arshad, S.; Shah, H. A.; Qureshi, M. N. S.
2014-07-01
The effect of adiabatic trapping as a microscopic phenomenon in an inhomogeneous degenerate plasma is investigated in the presence of a quantizing magnetic field, and a modified Hasegawa Mima equation for the drift ion-acoustic wave is obtained. The linear dispersion relation in the presence of the quantizing magnetic field is investigated. The modified Hasegawa Mima equation is investigated to obtain bounce frequencies of the trapped particles. The Korteweg-de Vries equation is derived for the two-dimensional case and finally the Sagdeev potential approach is used to obtain solitary structures. The theoretically obtained results have been analyzed numerically for different astrophysical plasma and quantizing magnetic field values.
Quantization of the superconducting energy gap in an intense microwave field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boris, A. A.; Krasnov, V. M.
2015-11-01
We study experimentally photon-assisted tunneling in Nb /AlOx/Nb Josephson junctions. We perform a quantitative calibration of the microwave field inside the junction. This allows direct verification of the quantum efficiency of microwave photon detection, which corresponds to tunneling of one electron per one absorbed microwave photon. We observe that voltages of photon-assisted tunneling steps vary both with the microwave power and the tunneling current. However, this variation is not monotonous but staircaselike. The phenomenon is caused by mutual locking of positive and negative step series. A similar locking is observed with Shapiro steps. As a result, the superconducting gap assumes quantized values equal to multiples of the quarter of the photon energy. The quantization is a manifestation of nonequilibrium tuning (suppression or enhancement) of superconductivity by the microwave field.
Covariant quantization of the Maxwell field in de Sitter space from SO0(2,4)-invariance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huguet, E.; Faci, S.; Queva, J.; Renaud, J.
2011-03-01
We present a SO0(2,4)-invariant quantization of the free electromagnetic field in de Sitter space. Precisely, we quantize the Maxwell ("massless spin one") de Sitter field in a conformally invariant gauge. This result is obtained thanks to a canonical quantization scheme of the Gupta-Bleuler type and to a geometrical formalism in which the Minkowski, de Sitter and anti-de Sitter spaces are realized as intersections of the five dimensional null cone of ℝ6 and a moving hyperplane. We obtain a new and simple de Sitter invariant two-point function.
Quantization of massive scalar fields over static black string backgrounds
Fernandez Piedra, Owen Pavel; Montes de Oca, Alejandro Cabo
2007-05-15
The renormalized mean value of the corresponding components of the energy-momentum tensor for massive scalar fields coupled to an arbitrary gravitational field configuration having cylindrical symmetry are analytically evaluated using the Schwinger-DeWitt approximation, up to second order in the inverse mass value. The general results are employed to explicitly derive compact analytical expressions for the energy-momentum tensor in the particular background of the black-string space-time. In the case of the black string considered in this work, we prove that a violation of the weak energy condition occurs at the horizon of the space-time for values of the coupling constant, which include as particular cases the most interesting of minimal and conformal coupling.
Quantized scalar field as DM: the axion's case
Barranco, J.; Bernal, A.
2008-12-04
We derive a rough estimation of the radius and the mass of a self-gravitating system made of axions. The system is a stationary solution of the Einstein-Klein-Gordon equations with a source term given by the vacuum expectation value of the energy-momentum operator constructed from the axion field. We found that such system would have masses of the order of asteroids ({approx}10{sup -10} M{sub {center_dot}}) and radius of the order of few centimeters. Some implications of such type of objects are discussed.
Precise Quantization of the Anomalous Hall Effect near Zero Magnetic Field.
Bestwick, A J; Fox, E J; Kou, Xufeng; Pan, Lei; Wang, Kang L; Goldhaber-Gordon, D
2015-05-01
We report a nearly ideal quantum anomalous Hall effect in a three-dimensional topological insulator thin film with ferromagnetic doping. Near zero applied magnetic field we measure exact quantization in the Hall resistance to within a part per 10 000 and a longitudinal resistivity under 1 Ω per square, with chiral edge transport explicitly confirmed by nonlocal measurements. Deviations from this behavior are found to be caused by thermally activated carriers, as indicated by an Arrhenius law temperature dependence. Using the deviations as a thermometer, we demonstrate an unexpected magnetocaloric effect and use it to reach near-perfect quantization by cooling the sample below the dilution refrigerator base temperature in a process approximating adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration. PMID:26001016
Interaction of two close quantized vortices in superfluid {sup 4}He
Tsubota, Makoto; Maekawa, Susumu
1992-11-01
The three-dimensional dynamics of two interacting quantized vortex filaments is studied. The equations of motion and the method of numerical calculation follow Schwarz. Whether two approaching filaments reconnect or not depends on their arrangement before approach. When a ring moves toward a line from a distance, only within a critical initial distance they can reconnect. The critical distance is minimized when their circulations are parallel at the closest place, while it increases as their circulations begin to deviate from being parallel. Hence the reconnection probability can be less than unity. 4 refs., 2 figs.
Interaction of half-quantized vortices in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates
Eto, Minoru; Kasamatsu, Kenichi; Nitta, Muneto; Takeuchi, Hiromitsu; Tsubota, Makoto
2011-06-15
We study the asymptotic interaction between two half-quantized vortices in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates. When two vortices in different components are placed at distance 2R, the leading order of the force between them is found to be (lnR/{xi}-1/2)/R{sup 3}, in contrast to 1/R between vortices placed in the same component. We derive it analytically using the Abrikosov ansatz and the profile functions of the vortices, confirmed numerically with the Gross-Pitaevskii model. We also find that the short-range cutoff of the intervortex potential linearly depends on the healing length.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Středa, Pavel; Jonckheere, Thibaut; Martin, Thierry
2008-04-01
A theory of the static electron polarizability of crystals whose energy spectrum is modified by quantizing magnetic fields is presented. The polarizability is strongly affected by nondissipative Hall currents induced by the presence of crossed electric and magnetic fields: these can even change its sign. Results are illustrated in detail for a two-dimensional square lattice. The polarizability and the Hall conductivity are, respectively, linked to the two topological quantum numbers entering the so-called Diophantine equation. These numbers could in principle be detected in actual experiments.
Electron electric-dipole-moment experiment using electric-field quantized slow cesium atoms
Amini, Jason M.; Munger, Charles T. Jr.; Gould, Harvey
2007-06-15
A proof-of-principle electron electric-dipole-moment (e-EDM) experiment using slow cesium atoms, nulled magnetic fields, and electric-field quantization has been performed. With the ambient magnetic fields seen by the atoms reduced to less than 200 pT, an electric field of 6 MV/m lifts the degeneracy between states of unequal |m{sub F}| and, along with the low ({approx_equal}3 m/s) velocity, suppresses the systematic effect from the motional magnetic field. The low velocity and small residual magnetic field have made it possible to induce transitions between states and to perform state preparation, analysis, and detection in regions free of applied static magnetic and electric fields. This experiment demonstrates techniques that may be used to improve the e-EDM limit by two orders of magnitude, but it is not in itself a sensitive e-EDM search, mostly due to limitations of the laser system.
Quantization of charged fields in the presence of critical potential steps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gavrilov, S. P.; Gitman, D. M.
2016-02-01
QED with strong external backgrounds that can create particles from the vacuum is well developed for the so-called t -electric potential steps, which are time-dependent external electric fields that are switched on and off at some time instants. However, there exist many physically interesting situations where external backgrounds do not switch off at the time infinity. E.g., these are time-independent nonuniform electric fields that are concentrated in restricted space areas. The latter backgrounds represent a kind of spatial x -electric potential steps for charged particles. They can also create particles from the vacuum, the Klein paradox being closely related to this process. Approaches elaborated for treating quantum effects in the t -electric potential steps are not directly applicable to the x -electric potential steps and their generalization for x -electric potential steps was not sufficiently developed. We believe that the present work represents a consistent solution of the latter problem. We have considered a canonical quantization of the Dirac and scalar fields with x -electric potential step and have found in- and out-creation and annihilation operators that allow one to have particle interpretation of the physical system under consideration. To identify in- and out-operators we have performed a detailed mathematical and physical analysis of solutions of the relativistic wave equations with an x -electric potential step with subsequent QFT analysis of correctness of such an identification. We elaborated a nonperturbative (in the external field) technique that allows one to calculate all characteristics of zero-order processes, such, for example, scattering, reflection, and electron-positron pair creation, without radiation corrections, and also to calculate Feynman diagrams that describe all characteristics of processes with interaction between the in-, out-particles and photons. These diagrams have formally the usual form, but contain special
Simultaneous observation of the quantization and the interference pattern of a plasmonic near-field
Piazza, L.; Lummen, T. T. A.; Quiñonez, E.; Murooka, Y.; Reed, B. W.; Barwick, B.; Carbone, F.
2015-03-02
Surface plasmon polaritons can confine electromagnetic fields in subwavelength spaces and are of interest for photonics, optical data storage devices and biosensing applications. In analogy to photons, they exhibit wave–particle duality, whose different aspects have recently been observed in separate tailored experiments. Here we demonstrate the ability of ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to simultaneously image both the spatial interference and the quantization of such confined plasmonic fields. Our experiments are accomplished by spatiotemporally overlapping electron and light pulses on a single nanowire suspended on a graphene film. The resulting energy exchange between single electrons and the quanta of the photoinducedmore » near-field is imaged synchronously with its spatial interference pattern. In conclusion, this methodology enables the control and visualization of plasmonic fields at the nanoscale, providing a promising tool for understanding the fundamental properties of confined electromagnetic fields and the development of advanced photonic circuits.« less
Simultaneous observation of the quantization and the interference pattern of a plasmonic near-field
Piazza, L.; Lummen, T. T. A.; Quiñonez, E.; Murooka, Y.; Reed, B. W.; Barwick, B.; Carbone, F.
2015-03-02
Surface plasmon polaritons can confine electromagnetic fields in subwavelength spaces and are of interest for photonics, optical data storage devices and biosensing applications. In analogy to photons, they exhibit wave–particle duality, whose different aspects have recently been observed in separate tailored experiments. Here we demonstrate the ability of ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to simultaneously image both the spatial interference and the quantization of such confined plasmonic fields. Our experiments are accomplished by spatiotemporally overlapping electron and light pulses on a single nanowire suspended on a graphene film. The resulting energy exchange between single electrons and the quanta of the photoinduced near-field is imaged synchronously with its spatial interference pattern. In conclusion, this methodology enables the control and visualization of plasmonic fields at the nanoscale, providing a promising tool for understanding the fundamental properties of confined electromagnetic fields and the development of advanced photonic circuits.
Group field theory as the second quantization of loop quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oriti, Daniele
2016-04-01
We construct a second quantized reformulation of canonical loop quantum gravity (LQG) at both kinematical and dynamical level, in terms of a Fock space of spin networks, and show in full generality that it leads directly to the group field theory (GFT) formalism. In particular, we show the correspondence between canonical LQG dynamics and GFT dynamics leading to a specific GFT model from any definition of quantum canonical dynamics of spin networks. We exemplify the correspondence of dynamics in the specific example of 3d quantum gravity. The correspondence between canonical LQG and covariant spin foam models is obtained via the GFT definition of the latter.
Unique Fock quantization of a massive fermion field in a cosmological scenario
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cortez, Jerónimo; Elizaga Navascués, Beatriz; Martín-Benito, Mercedes; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.; Velhinho, José M.
2016-04-01
It is well known that the Fock quantization of field theories in general spacetimes suffers from an infinite ambiguity, owing to the inequivalent possibilities in the selection of a representation of the canonical commutation or anticommutation relations, but also owing to the freedom in the choice of variables to describe the field among all those related by linear time-dependent transformations, including the dependence through functions of the background. In this work we remove this ambiguity (up to unitary equivalence) in the case of a massive Dirac free field propagating in a spacetime with homogeneous and isotropic spatial sections of spherical topology. Two physically reasonable conditions are imposed in order to arrive at this result: (a) The invariance of the vacuum under the spatial isometries of the background, and (b) the unitary implementability of the dynamical evolution that dictates the Dirac equation. We characterize the Fock quantizations with a nontrivial fermion dynamics that satisfy these two conditions. Then, we provide a complete proof of the unitary equivalence of the representations in this class under very mild requirements on the time variation of the background, once a criterion to discern between particles and antiparticles has been set.
Single-atom and two-atom Ramsey interferometry with quantized fields
Agarwal, G.S.; Pathak, P.K.; Scully, M.O.
2003-04-01
Implications of field quantization on Ramsey interferometry are discussed and general conditions for the occurrence of interference are obtained. Interferences do not occur if the fields in two Ramsey zones have a precise number of photons. However, in this case we show how an analog of Hanbury-Brown Twiss photon-photon correlation interferometry can be used to discern a variety of interference effects as the two independent Ramsey zones get entangled by the passage of the first atom. Interferences are restored by working with fields at a single-photon level. Generation of entangled states including states such as vertical bar 2,0>+e{sup i{theta}} vertical bar 0,2> is discussed.
Second quantized scalar QED in homogeneous time-dependent electromagnetic fields
Kim, Sang Pyo
2014-12-15
We formulate the second quantization of a charged scalar field in homogeneous, time-dependent electromagnetic fields, in which the Hamiltonian is an infinite system of decoupled, time-dependent oscillators for electric fields, but it is another infinite system of coupled, time-dependent oscillators for magnetic fields. We then employ the quantum invariant method to find various quantum states for the charged field. For time-dependent electric fields, a pair of quantum invariant operators for each oscillator with the given momentum plays the role of the time-dependent annihilation and the creation operators, constructs the exact quantum states, and gives the vacuum persistence amplitude as well as the pair-production rate. We also find the quantum invariants for the coupled oscillators for the charged field in time-dependent magnetic fields and advance a perturbation method when the magnetic fields change adiabatically. Finally, the quantum state and the pair production are discussed when a time-dependent electric field is present in parallel to the magnetic field.
Master equation with quantized atomic motion including dipole-dipole interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damanet, François; Braun, Daniel; Martin, John
2016-05-01
We derive a markovian master equation for the internal dynamics of an ensemble of two-level atoms including all effects related to the quantization of their motion. Our equation provides a unifying picture of the consequences of recoil and indistinguishability of atoms beyond the Lamb-Dicke regime on both their dissipative and conservative dynamics, and is relevant for experiments with ultracold trapped atoms. We give general expressions for the decay rates and the dipole-dipole shifts for any motional states, and we find analytical formulas for a number of relevant states (Gaussian states, Fock states and thermal states). In particular, we show that the dipole-dipole interactions and cooperative photon emission can be modulated through the external state of motion. The effects predicted should be experimentally observable with Rydberg atoms. FD would like to thank the F.R.S.-FNRS for financial support. FD is a FRIA Grant holder of the Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique-FNRS.
Masood, W.; Shaukat, Muzzamal I.; Shah, H. A.; Mirza, Arshad M.
2015-03-15
In the present investigation, linear and nonlinear propagation of low frequency (ω≪Ω{sub ci}) electrostatic waves have been studied in a spatially inhomogeneous degenerate plasma with one dimensional electron trapping in the presence of a quantizing magnetic field and finite temperature effects. Using the drift approximation, formation of 1 and 2D drift ion solitary structures have been studied both for fully and partially degenerate plasmas. The theoretical results obtained have been analyzed numerically for the parameters typically found in white dwarfs for illustrative purpose. It is observed that the inclusion of Landau quantization significantly changes the expression of the electron number density of a dense degenerate plasma which affects the linear and nonlinear propagation of drift acoustic solitary waves in such a system. The present work may be beneficial to understand the propagation of drift solitary structures with weak transverse perturbation in a variety of physical situations, such as white dwarfs and laser-induced plasmas, where the quantum effects are expected to dominate.
Homotopy of rational maps and the quantization of Skyrmions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krusch, Steffen
2003-04-01
The Skyrme model is a classical field theory which models the strong interaction between atomic nuclei. It has to be quantized in order to compare it to nuclear physics. When the Skyrme model is semi-classically quantized it is important to take the Finkelstein-Rubinstein constraints into account. The aim of this paper is to show how to calculate these FR constraints directly from the rational map ansatz using basic homotopy theory. We then apply this construction in order to quantize the Skyrme model in the simplest approximation, the zero mode quantization. This is carried out for up to 22 nucleons and the results are compared to experiment.
Field-induced Gap and Quantized Charge Pumping in Nano-helix
Qi, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2010-02-15
We propose several novel physical phenomena based on nano-scale helical wires. Applying a static electric field transverse to the helical wire induces a metal to insulator transition, with the band gap determined by the applied voltage. Similar idea can be applied to 'geometrically' constructing one-dimensional systems with arbitrary external potential. With a quadrupolar electrode configuration, the electric field could rotate in the transverse plane, leading to a quantized dc charge current proportional to the frequency of the rotation. Such a device could be used as a new standard for the high precession measurement of the electric current. The inverse effect implies that passing an electric current through a helical wire in the presence of a transverse static electric field can lead to a mechanical rotation of the helix. This effect can be used to construct nano-scale electro-mechanical motors. Finally, our methodology also enables new ways of controlling and measuring the electronic properties of helical biological molecules such as the DNA.
Interaction of Ions, Atoms and Small Molecules with Quantized Vortex Lines in Superfluid 4He
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eloranta, Jussi; Matteo, David; Williams, Gary
2015-03-01
The interaction of a number of impurities (H2, Ag, Cu, Ag2, Cu2, Li, He3+,He* (3 S), He2*(3Σu) and e-) with quantized rectilinear vortex lines in superfluid 4He is calculated using density functional methods at 0 K. The technique yields the impurity radius as well as the vortex line core parameter. The core parameter at 0 K (0.74 Å) obtained either directly from the vortex line geometry or from the trapping potential fitting is smaller than previously suggested but is compatible with a re-analysis of the Rayfield-Reif experiment. All of the impurities have significant binding energies to the vortex lines below 1 K where the thermally assisted escape process becomes very inefficient. Even at higher temperatures the trapping times, especially for larger clusters, are sufficiently long that the observed metal nanowire assembly in superfluid helium can take place at vortex lines. The binding energy of the electron bubble is predicted to decrease as a function of both temperature and pressure, which allows adjusting the trap depth for either permanent trapping or thermally assisted escape. A new scheme for determining the trapping of impurities on vortex lines by optical absorption spectroscopy is outlined and demonstrated for He*. Work supported by the NSF, Grants CHE-1262306 and DMR-1205734, and the Interdisciplinary Research Institute for the Sciences.
Interaction of ions, atoms, and small molecules with quantized vortex lines in superfluid {sup 4}He
Mateo, David; Eloranta, Jussi; Williams, Gary A.
2015-02-14
The interaction of a number of impurities (H{sub 2}, Ag, Cu, Ag{sub 2}, Cu{sub 2}, Li, He{sub 3}{sup +}, He{sup *} ({sup 3}S), He{sub 2}{sup ∗} ({sup 3}Σ{sub u}), and e{sup −}) with quantized rectilinear vortex lines in superfluid {sup 4}He is calculated by using the Orsay-Trento density functional theory (DFT) method at 0 K. The Donnelly-Parks (DP) potential function binding ions to the vortex is combined with DFT data, yielding the impurity radius as well as the vortex line core parameter. The vortex core parameter at 0 K (0.74 Å) obtained either directly from the vortex line geometry or through the DP potential fitting is smaller than previously suggested but is compatible with the value obtained from re-analysis of the Rayfield-Reif experiment. All of the impurities have significantly higher binding energies to vortex lines below 1 K than the available thermal energy, where the thermally assisted escape process becomes exponentially negligible. Even at higher temperatures 1.5-2.0 K, the trapping times for larger metal clusters are sufficiently long that the previously observed metal nanowire assembly in superfluid helium can take place at vortex lines. The binding energy of the electron bubble is predicted to decrease as a function of both temperature and pressure, which allows adjusting the trap depth for either permanent trapping or to allow thermally assisted escape. Finally, a new scheme for determining the trapping of impurities on vortex lines by optical absorption spectroscopy is outlined and demonstrated for He{sup *}.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grigoryan, G. V.; Grigoryan, R. P.
1995-03-01
The canonical quantization of a ( D=2n)-dimensional Dirac particle with spin in an arbitrary external electromagnetic field is performed in a gauge that makes it possible to describe simultaneously particles and antiparticles (both massive and massiess) already at the classical level. A pseudoclassical Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation is used to find the canonical (Newton-Wigner) coordinates. The connection between this quantization scheme and Blount's picture describing the behavior of a Dirac particle in an external electromagnetic field is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Didiş Körhasan, Nilüfer; Eryılmaz, Ali; Erkoç, Şakir
2016-01-01
Mental models are coherently organized knowledge structures used to explain phenomena. They interact with social environments and evolve with the interaction. Lacking daily experience with phenomena, the social interaction gains much more importance. In this part of our multiphase study, we investigate how instructional interactions influenced students’ mental models about the quantization of physical observables. Class observations and interviews were analysed by studying students’ mental models constructed in a modern physics course during an academic semester. The research revealed that students’ mental models were influenced by (1) the manner of teaching, including instructional methodologies and content specific techniques used by the instructor, (2) order of the topics and familiarity with concepts, and (3) peers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amooshahi, M.
2016-08-01
Modeling a nonlinear anisotropic magnetodielectric medium with spatial-temporal dispersion by two continuum collections of three dimensional harmonic oscillators, a fully canonical quantization of the electromagnetic field is demonstrated in the presence of such a medium. Some coupling tensors of various ranks are introduced that couple the magnetodielectric medium with the electromagnetic field. The polarization and magnetization fields of the medium are defined in terms of the coupling tensors and the oscillators modeling the medium. The electric and magnetic susceptibility tensors of the medium are obtained in terms of the coupling tensors. It is shown that the electric field satisfy an integral equation in frequency domain. The integral equation is solved by an iteration method and the electric field is found up to an arbitrary accuracy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Linzner, Dominik; Koster, Malte; Grusdt, Fabian; Fleischhauer, Michael
2016-05-01
Since the discovery of the quantum Hall effect, topological states of matter have attracted the attention of scientists in many fields of physics. By now there is a rather good understanding of topological order in closed, non-interacting systems. In contrast the extension to open systems in particular with interactions is entirely in its infancy. Recently there have been advances in characterizing topology in reservoir driven systems without interactions, but the topological invariants introduced lack a clear physical interpretation and are restricted to non-interacting systems. We consider a one-dimensional interacting topological system whose dynamics is entirely driven by reservoir couplings. By slowly tuning these couplings periodically in time we realize an open-system analogue of the Thouless charge pump that proves to be robust against unitary and non-unitary perturbations. Making use of this Thouless pump we introduce a topological invariant, which is applicable to interacting systems. Finally we propose a conceptual detection scheme that translates the open-system topological invariant into the context of a well understood closed system.
Anderson localization with second quantized fields in a coupled array of waveguides
Thompson, Clinton; Vemuri, Gautam; Agarwal, G. S.
2010-11-15
We report a theoretical study of Anderson localization of nonclassical light in an array of waveguides in which neighboring waveguides are evanescently coupled and in which the disorder can be added in a controlled manner. We use squeezed light at the input to investigate the effects of nonclassicality and compare the results with those obtained by using conventional classical fields, such as a coherent field and a Gaussian field. Our results show that there is an enhancement in fluctuations of localized light due to the medium's disorder. We find superbunching of the localized light, which may be useful for enhancing the interaction between radiation and matter. Another important consequence of sub-Poissonian statistics of the incoming light is to quench the total fluctuations at the output. Finally, we show that as a result of the multiplicative noise in the problem, the output field is far from Gaussian even if the input is a coherent field.
Path integral quantization of the relativistic Hopfield model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belgiorno, F.; Cacciatori, S. L.; Dalla Piazza, F.; Doronzo, M.
2016-03-01
The path-integral quantization method is applied to a relativistically covariant version of the Hopfield model, which represents a very interesting mesoscopic framework for the description of the interaction between quantum light and dielectric quantum matter, with particular reference to the context of analogue gravity. In order to take into account the constraints occurring in the model, we adopt the Faddeev-Jackiw approach to constrained quantization in the path-integral formalism. In particular, we demonstrate that the propagator obtained with the Faddeev-Jackiw approach is equivalent to the one which, in the framework of Dirac canonical quantization for constrained systems, can be directly computed as the vacuum expectation value of the time-ordered product of the fields. Our analysis also provides an explicit example of quantization of the electromagnetic field in a covariant gauge and coupled with the polarization field, which is a novel contribution to the literature on the Faddeev-Jackiw procedure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fleming, C. H.; Johnson, P. R.; Hu, B. L.
2012-06-01
We derive a set of stochastic equations of motion for a system of ordinary quantum-mechanical, spinless charged particles in a second-quantized electromagnetic field based on a consistent application of a dimensionful 1/c expansion, which is analogous to the post-Newtonian expansion in gravity. All relativistic corrections up to order 1/c3 are found, including electrostatic interactions (Coulomb), magnetostatic backreaction (Biot-Savart), dissipative backreaction (Abraham-Lorentz) and quantum-field fluctuations at zero and finite temperatures. With self-consistent backreaction of the EM field included, we show that this approach yields causal and runaway-free equations of motion, provides new insights into charged-particle backreaction and naturally leads to equations consistent with the (classical) Darwin Hamiltonian, and has quantum operator ordering consistent with the Breit Hamiltonian. To order 1/c3 the approach leads to a nonstandard mass renormalization which is associated with magnetostatic self-interactions, and no cutoff is required to prevent runaways. Our results also show that the pathologies of the standard Abraham-Lorentz equations can be seen as a consequence of applying an inconsistent (i.e. incomplete, mixed-order) expansion in 1/c, if, from the start, the analysis is viewed as generating an effective theory with all relativistic corrections considered perturbatively. Finally, we show that the 1/c expansion within a Hamiltonian framework yields well-behaved noise and dissipation, in addition to the multiple-particle interactions.
Gadjialiev, M. M. Pirmagomedov, Z. Sh.
2009-08-15
Thermopower of the Corbino disc made of InSb with n{sub 77} = 2 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3} in a transverse magnetic field as high as 30 kOe at temperatures of 60, 67, and 80 K is studied. It is established that the diffusion fraction of thermopower in a quantizing magnetic field rises according to the power law H{sup 2.2} at all mentioned temperatures. By the magnitude of saturation thermopower {alpha}{sub xx}({infinity}) in a high field, the scattering mechanism of charge carriers is determined. It is established that in a temperature region of 60-80 K, the electrons are scattered by acoustic phonons.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gray, Robert M.
1989-01-01
During the past ten years Vector Quantization (VQ) has developed from a theoretical possibility promised by Shannon's source coding theorems into a powerful and competitive technique for speech and image coding and compression at medium to low bit rates. In this survey, the basic ideas behind the design of vector quantizers are sketched and some comments made on the state-of-the-art and current research efforts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobs, Verne
2016-05-01
Semi-classical and quantum-field descriptions for the interaction of light with matter are systematically discussed. Applications of interest include resonant pump-probe optical phenomena, such as electromagnetically induced transparency. In the quantum-mechanical description of matter systems, we introduce a general reduced-density-matrix framework. Time-domain (equation-of-motion) and frequency-domain (resolvent-operator) formulations are developed in a unified and self-consistent manner, using a Liouville-space operator representation. In the semi-classical description, the electromagnetic field is described as a classical field satisfying the Maxwell equations. Compact Liouville-space operator expressions are derived for the linear and the general (n'th order) non-linear electromagnetic-response tensors describing moving many-electron systems. The tetradic matrix elements of the Liouville-space self-energy operators are evaluated for environmental collisional and radiative interactions. The quantized-field approach is essential for a fully self-consistent quantum-mechanical description. Work supported by the Office of Naval Research through the Basic Research Program at The Naval Research Laboratory.
Interactions between electromagnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwan, H. P.
1985-02-01
We applied for this grant to support a workshop at Erice, Italy. This workshop has been commonly called Erice School and the main subject of this workshop is the interaction of electromagnetic fields with biological cells and molecules. The grant from ONR enabled us to invite American scientists to participants in this workshop and deliver scientific papers. The duration of the Erice School was ten days. Therefore, we had sufficient time to discuss the problems of electromagnetic radiations. Vigorous discussions took place during official sessions and during private conversations. The participants of this workshop are mostly those who have been active in the research on bioelectromagnetics, but there are some numbers of speakers who discussed the basic electrical and magnetic properties of polyelectrolytes, biological membranes and tissue. The workshop was unique in that there were participants with a variety of training backgrounds. This enabled us to exchange the information between applied scientists and basic scientists. Also, active exchanges of opinions took place between biological scientists and physical scientists.
Bowes, J.P.; Foot, R.; Volkas, R.R.
1996-12-01
In gauge theories such as the standard model, the electric charges of the fermions can be heavily constrained from the classical structure of the theory and from the cancellation of anomalies. There is, however, mounting evidence suggesting that these anomaly constraints are not as well motivated as the classical constraints. In light of this we discuss possible modifications of the minimal standard model that will give us complete electric charge quantization from classical constraints alone. Because these modifications to the standard model involve the consideration of baryon-number-violating scalar interactions, we present a complete catalogue of the simplest ways to modify the standard model so as to introduce explicit baryon number violation. This has implications for proton decay searches and baryogenesis. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bowes, J. P.; Foot, R.; Volkas, R. R.
1996-12-01
In gauge theories such as the standard model, the electric charges of the fermions can be heavily constrained from the classical structure of the theory and from the cancellation of anomalies. There is, however, mounting evidence suggesting that these anomaly constraints are not as well motivated as the classical constraints. In light of this we discuss possible modifications of the minimal standard model that will give us complete electric charge quantization from classical constraints alone. Because these modifications to the standard model involve the consideration of baryon-number-violating scalar interactions, we present a complete catalogue of the simplest ways to modify the standard model so as to introduce explicit baryon number violation. This has implications for proton decay searches and baryogenesis.
Grigoryan, G.V.; Grigoryan, R.P.
1995-09-01
The canonical quantization of a (D=2n)-dimensional Dirac particle with spin in an arbitrary external electromagnetic field is performed in a gauge that makes it possible to describe simultaneously particles and antiparticles (both massive and massless) already at the classical level. A pseudoclassical Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation is used to find the canonical (Newton-Wigner) coordinates. The connection between this quantization scheme and Blount`s picture describing the behavior of a Dirac particle in an external electromagnetic field is discussed.
Coherent state quantization of quaternions
Muraleetharan, B. E-mail: santhar@gmail.com; Thirulogasanthar, K. E-mail: santhar@gmail.com
2015-08-15
Parallel to the quantization of the complex plane, using the canonical coherent states of a right quaternionic Hilbert space, quaternion field of quaternionic quantum mechanics is quantized. Associated upper symbols, lower symbols, and related quantities are analyzed. Quaternionic version of the harmonic oscillator and Weyl-Heisenberg algebra are also obtained.
Coherent state quantization of quaternions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muraleetharan, B.; Thirulogasanthar, K.
2015-08-01
Parallel to the quantization of the complex plane, using the canonical coherent states of a right quaternionic Hilbert space, quaternion field of quaternionic quantum mechanics is quantized. Associated upper symbols, lower symbols, and related quantities are analyzed. Quaternionic version of the harmonic oscillator and Weyl-Heisenberg algebra are also obtained.
Du, Haifeng; Liang, Dong; Jin, Chiming; Kong, Lingyao; Stolt, Matthew J.; Ning, Wei; Yang, Jiyong; Xing, Ying; Wang, Jian; Che, Renchao; Zang, Jiadong; Jin, Song; Zhang, Yuheng; Tian, Mingliang
2015-01-01
Magnetic skyrmions are topologically stable whirlpool-like spin textures that offer great promise as information carriers for future spintronic devices. To enable such applications, particular attention has been focused on the properties of skyrmions in highly confined geometries such as one-dimensional nanowires. Hitherto, it is still experimentally unclear what happens when the width of the nanowire is comparable to that of a single skyrmion. Here, we achieve this by measuring the magnetoresistance in ultra-narrow MnSi nanowires. We observe quantized jumps in magnetoresistance versus magnetic field curves. By tracking the size dependence of the jump number, we infer that skyrmions are assembled into cluster states with a tunable number of skyrmions, in agreement with the Monte Carlo simulations. Our results enable an electric reading of the number of skyrmions in the cluster states, thus laying a solid foundation to realize skyrmion-based memory devices. PMID:26143867
Consistent quantization of massive chiral electrodynamics in four dimensions
Andrianov, A. ); Bassetto, A.; Soldati, R.
1989-10-09
We discuss the quantization of a four-dimensional model in which a massive Abelian vector field interacts with chiral massless fermions. We show that, by introducing extra scalar fields, a renormalizable unitary {ital S} matrix can be obtained in a suitably defined Hilbert space of physical states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arai, Masao; Hatsugai, Yasuhiro
2011-12-01
The electronic structure of periodic lattice under uniform magnetic field was studied numerically for multi-band tight-binding models with non-orthogonal basis sets. When magnetic translational symmetry is fully taken into account, computational time can be greatly reduced. Quantized Hall conductance was evaluated by robust multi-band formulation of Chern number. We found that calculated quantized Hall conductance coincides with the semi-classical results. Discontinuous jumps of Hall conductance occur at van-Hove singularities and correspond to mod q ambiguity of the Diophantine equation of Chern number.
Completely quantized collapse and consequences
Pearle, Philip
2005-08-15
Promotion of quantum theory from a theory of measurement to a theory of reality requires an unambiguous specification of the ensemble of realizable states (and each state's probability of realization). Although not yet achieved within the framework of standard quantum theory, it has been achieved within the framework of the continuous spontaneous localization (CSL) wave-function collapse model. In CSL, a classical random field w(x,t) interacts with quantum particles. The state vector corresponding to each w(x,t) is a realizable state. In this paper, I consider a previously presented model, which is predictively equivalent to CSL. In this completely quantized collapse (CQC) model, the classical random field is quantized. It is represented by the operator W(x,t) which satisfies [W(x,t),W(x{sup '},t{sup '})]=0. The ensemble of realizable states is described by a single state vector, the 'ensemble vector'. Each superposed state which comprises the ensemble vector at time t is the direct product of an eigenstate of W(x,t{sup '}), for all x and for 0{<=}t{sup '}{<=}t, and the CSL state corresponding to that eigenvalue. These states never interfere (they satisfy a superselection rule at any time), they only branch, so the ensemble vector may be considered to be, as Schroedinger put it, a 'catalog' of the realizable states. In this context, many different interpretations (e.g., many worlds, environmental decoherence, consistent histories, modal interpretation) may be satisfactorily applied. Using this description, a long-standing problem is resolved, where the energy comes from the particles gain due to the narrowing of their wave packets by the collapse mechanism. It is shown how to define the energy of the random field and its energy of interaction with particles so that total energy is conserved for the ensemble of realizable states. As a by-product, since the random-field energy spectrum is unbounded, its canonical conjugate, a self-adjoint time operator, can be
Quantized beam shifts in graphene
de Melo Kort-Kamp, Wilton Junior; Sinitsyn, Nikolai; Dalvit, Diego Alejandro Roberto
2015-10-08
We predict the existence of quantized Imbert-Fedorov, Goos-Hanchen, and photonic spin Hall shifts for light beams impinging on a graphene-on-substrate system in an external magnetic field. In the quantum Hall regime the Imbert-Fedorov and photonic spin Hall shifts are quantized in integer multiples of the fine structure constant α, while the Goos-Hanchen ones in multiples of α^{2}. We investigate the influence on these shifts of magnetic field, temperature, and material dispersion and dissipation. An experimental demonstration of quantized beam shifts could be achieved at terahertz frequencies for moderate values of the magnetic field.
Cortez, Jeronimo; Mena Marugan, Guillermo A.; Velhinho, Jose M.
2010-02-15
We study the Fock description of a quantum free field on the three-sphere with a mass that depends explicitly on time, also interpretable as an explicitly time dependent quadratic potential. We show that, under quite mild restrictions on the time dependence of the mass, the specific Fock representation of the canonical commutation relations which is naturally associated with a massless free field provides a unitary dynamics even when the time varying mass is present. Moreover, we demonstrate that this Fock representation is the only acceptable one, up to unitary equivalence, if the vacuum has to be SO(4)-invariant (i.e., invariant under the symmetries of the field equation) and the dynamics is required to be unitary. In particular, the analysis and uniqueness of the quantization can be applied to the treatment of cosmological perturbations around Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetimes with the spatial topology of the three-sphere, like e.g. for gravitational waves (tensor perturbations). In addition, we analyze the extension of our results to free fields with a time dependent mass defined on other compact spatial manifolds. We prove the uniqueness of the Fock representation in the case of a two-sphere as well, and discuss the case of a three-torus.
Reyes, C. M.; Urrutia, L. F.; Vergara, J. D.
2008-12-15
We study the quantization of the electromagnetic sector of the Myers-Pospelov model coupled to standard fermions. Our main objective, based upon experimental and observational evidence, is to construct an effective theory which is a genuine perturbation of QED, such that setting the Lorentz invariance violation parameters to zero will reproduce it. To this end we provide a physically motivated prescription, based on the effective character of the model, regarding the way in which the model should be constructed and how the QED limit should be approached. This amounts to the introduction of an additional coarse-graining physical energy scale M, under which we can trust the effective field theory formulation. The prescription is successfully tested in the calculation of the Lorentz invariance violating contributions arising from the electron self-energy. Such radiative corrections turn out to be properly scaled by very small factors for any reasonable values of the parameters and no fine-tuning problems are found. Microcausality violations are highly suppressed and occur only in a spacelike region extremely close to the light cone. The stability of the model is guaranteed by restricting to concordant frames satisfying 1-|v{sub max}|>6.5x10{sup -11}.
Quantized Pumping and Topology of the Phase Diagram for a System of Interacting Bosons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berg, Erez; Levin, Michael; Altman, Ehud
2011-03-01
Interacting lattice bosons at integer filling can support two distinct insulating phases, which are separated by a critical point: the Mott insulator and the Haldane insulator [E. G. Dalla Torre, E. Berg, and E. Altman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 260401 (2006).PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.97.260401]. The critical point can be gapped out by breaking lattice inversion symmetry. Here, we show that encircling this critical point adiabatically pumps one boson across the system. When multiple chains are coupled, the two insulating phases are no longer sharply distinct, but the pumping property survives. This leads to strict constraints on the topology of the phase diagram of systems of quasi-one-dimensional interacting bosons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coman, Ioana; Gabella, Maxime; Teschner, Jörg
2015-10-01
Non-perturbative aspects of N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories of class S are deeply encoded in the algebra of functions on the moduli space {M}_{flat} of flat SL( N )- connections on Riemann surfaces. Expectation values of Wilson and 't Hooft line operators are related to holonomies of flat connections, and expectation values of line operators in the low-energy effective theory are related to Fock-Goncharov coordinates on {M}_{flat} . Via the decomposition of UV line operators into IR line operators, we determine their noncommutative algebra from the quantization of Fock-Goncharov Laurent polynomials, and find that it coincides with the skein algebra studied in the context of Chern-Simons theory. Another realization of the skein algebra is generated by Verlinde network operators in Toda field theory. Comparing the spectra of these two realizations provides non-trivial support for their equivalence. Our results can be viewed as evidence for the generalization of the AGT correspondence to higher-rank class S theories.
Multiphoton dynamics of qutrits in the ultrastrong coupling regime with a quantized photonic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avetissian, H. K.; Avetissian, A. K.; Mkrtchian, G. F.; Kibis, O. V.
2015-12-01
Multiphoton resonant excitation of a three-state quantum system (a qutrit) with a single-mode photonic field is considered in the ultrastrong coupling regime, when the qutrit-photonic field coupling rate is comparable to appreciable fractions of the photon frequency. For ultrastrong couplings, the obtained solutions of the Schrödinger equation that reveal multiphoton Rabi oscillations in qutrits with the interference effects leading to the collapse and revival of atomic excitation probabilities at the direct multiphoton resonant transitions.
Quantum field theory of interacting plasmon-photon-phonon system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hieu Nguyen, Van; Nguyen, Bich Ha
2015-09-01
This work is devoted to the construction of the quantum field theory of the interacting system of plasmons, photons and phonons on the basis of general fundamental principles of electrodynamics and quantum field theory of many-body systems. Since a plasmon is a quasiparticle appearing as a resonance in the collective oscillation of the interacting electron gas in solids, the starting point is the total action functional of the interacting system comprising electron gas, electromagnetic field and phonon fields. By means of the powerful functional integral technique, this original total action is transformed into that of the system of the quantum fields describing plasmons, transverse photons, acoustic as well as optic longitudinal and transverse phonons. The collective oscillations of the electron gas is characterized by a real scalar field φ(x) called the collective oscillation field. This field is split into the static background field φ0(x) and the fluctuation field ζ(x). The longitudinal phonon fields {{{Q}}al}(x), {{{Q}}ol}(x) are also split into the background fields {Q}0al(x), {Q}0ol(x) and dynamical fields {{{q}}al}(x), {{{q}}ol}(x) while the transverse phonon fields {{{Q}}at}(x), {{{Q}}ot}(x) themselves are dynamical fields {{{q}}at}(x), {{{q}}ot}(x) without background fields. After the canonical quantization procedure, the background fields φ0(x), {Q}0al(x), {Q}0ol(x) remain the classical fields, while the fluctuation fields ζ(x) and dynamical phonon fields {{{q}}al}(x), {{{q}}at}(x), {{{q}}ol}(x), {{{q}}ot}(x) become quantum fields. In quantum theory, a plasmon is the quantum of Hermitian scalar field σ(x) called the plasmon field, longitudinal phonons as complex spinless quasiparticles are the quanta of the effective longitudinal phonon Hermitian scalar fields {{θ }a}(x), {{θ }0}(x), while transverse phonons are the quanta of the original Hermitian transverse phonon vector fields {{{q}}at}(x), {{{q}}ot}(x). By means of the functional integral
Classical limit of the interaction of a quantum system with the electromagnetic field
Braun, Lars; Strunz, Walter T.; Briggs, John S.
2004-09-01
The interaction of nonrelativistic matter with the quantized electromagnetic field is investigated in the classical limit of large photon numbers. Quantization of both matter, say an atom, and the field results in a time-independent Schroedinger equation (TISE). However, for very strong fields (quantum mechanically, large photon numbers) this is impractical to solve. The standard approach then is simply to replace the quantized field by a classical field to give a time-dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) for the atom alone. Here we show how this TDSE can be derived from the TISE for atom plus field, illustrating at each stage the approximations that are necessary to treat the field classically. An important difficulty at the semiclassical stage is a breakdown of the approximation at classical turning points. We show how the use of coherent field states can circumvent this problem. In the limit that the field can be treated classically, time emerges from the Maxwell equations and a TDSE for the atom alone results.
Canonical quantization of lattice Higgs-Maxwell-Chern-Simons fields: Krein Self-adjointness
Bowman, Daniel A.; Challifour, John L.
2006-10-15
It is shown how techniques from constructive quantum field theory may be applied to indefinite metric gauge theories in Hilbert space for the case of a Higgs-Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory on a lattice. The Hamiltonian operator is shown to be Krein essentially self-adjoint by means of unbounded but Krein unitary transformations relating the Hamiltonian to an essentially maximal accretive operator.
On abelian group actions and Galois quantizations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huru, H. L.; Lychagin, V. V.
2013-08-01
Quantizations of actions of finite abelian groups G are explicitly described by elements in the tensor square of the group algebra of G. Over algebraically closed fields of characteristic 0 these are in one to one correspondence with the second cohomology group of the dual of G. With certain adjustments this result is applied to group actions over any field of characteristic 0. In particular we consider the quantizations of Galois extensions, which are quantized by "deforming" the multiplication. For the splitting fields of products of quadratic polynomials this produces quantized Galois extensions that all are Clifford type algebras.
Extension of Nelson's stochastic quantization to finite temperature using thermo field dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobayashi, K.; Yamanaka, Y.
2011-08-01
We present an extension of Nelson's stochastic quantum mechanics to finite temperature. Utilizing the formulation of Thermo Field Dynamics (TFD), we can show that Ito's stochastic equations for tilde and non-tilde particle positions reproduce the TFD-type Schrödinger equation which is equivalent to the Liouville-von Neumann equation. In our formalism, the drift terms in the Ito's stochastic equation have the temperature dependence and the thermal fluctuation is induced through the correlation of the non-tilde and tilde particles. We show that our formalism satisfies the position-momentum uncertainty relation at finite temperature.
Seligman, Thomas H.; Prosen, Tomaz
2010-12-23
The basic ideas of second quantization and Fock space are extended to density operator states, used in treatments of open many-body systems. This can be done for fermions and bosons. While the former only requires the use of a non-orthogonal basis, the latter requires the introduction of a dual set of spaces. In both cases an operator algebra closely resembling the canonical one is developed and used to define the dual sets of bases. We here concentrated on the bosonic case where the unboundedness of the operators requires the definitions of dual spaces to support the pair of bases. Some applications, mainly to non-equilibrium steady states, will be mentioned.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abernathy, S. M.; Miller, J. C.; Lohr, L. L.; Sharp, R. R.
1998-09-01
Dissolved paramagnetic ions generally provide an efficient mechanism for the relaxation of nuclear spins in solution, a phenomenon called the nuclear magnetic resonance-paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (NMR-PRE). Metal ions with electron spins S⩾1 exhibit rich NMR relaxation phenomena originating in the properties of the zero-field splitting (zfs) interaction, which vanishes for spin-1/2 ions but which is nonzero for S⩾1 ions in site symmetry lower than cubic. For S⩾1 ions in the vicinity of the zfs-limit, i.e., at magnetic-field strengths low enough that the zfs energy exceeds the Zeeman energy, the NMR-PRE depends strongly on the detailed structure of the electron spin energy levels as well as on the spatial quantization of the spin motion. It is shown theoretically and experimentally that the NMR-PRE produced by integer spins can be influenced strongly by the small intradoublet zero-field splittings, i.e., the splittings between the components of the non-Kramers doublets, which are produced by noncylindrical components of the crystal field potential. These small splittings produce relatively low-frequency oscillations in the dipolar field associated with (the spin component along the molecule-fixed ẑ axis). These motions decouple the nuclear spin from the electron spin, thereby depressing, in some cases very strongly, the NMR-PRE. The presence of a relatively small Zeeman field, comparable in magnitude to the intradoublet spacing but small compared to the larger interdoublet zfs splittings, causes a major change in the spin wave functions which has profound effects on the motions of the electron spin. When the Zeeman energy exceeds the small zfs splitting, the oscillatory motion of damps out, with the result that the electron spin couples more effectively to the nuclear spin, providing a more efficient NMR relaxation pathway. NMR-PRE data are presented for the S=1 complex Ni(II)(o-pda)2Cl2 (o-pda=ortho-phenylenediamine) which confirm the
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hsu, J. P.
1983-01-01
The foundation of the quantum field theory is changed by introducing a new universal probability principle into field operators: one single inherent and invariant probability distribution P(/k/) is postulated for boson and fermion field oscillators. This can be accomplished only when one treats the four-dimensional symmetry from a broad viewpoint. Special relativity is too restrictive to allow such a universal probability principle. A radical length, R, appears in physics through the probability distribution P(/k/). The force between two point particles vanishes when their relative distance tends to zero. This appears to be a general property for all forces and resembles the property of asymptotic freedom. The usual infinities in vacuum fluctuations and in local interactions, however complicated they may be, are all removed from quantum field theories. In appendix A a simple finite and unitary theory of unified electroweak interactions is discussed without assuming Higgs scalar bosons.
Light-Front Quantization of Gauge Theories
Brodskey, Stanley
2002-12-01
Light-front wavefunctions provide a frame-independent representation of hadrons in terms of their physical quark and gluon degrees of freedom. The light-front Hamiltonian formalism provides new nonperturbative methods for obtaining the QCD spectrum and eigensolutions, including resolvant methods, variational techniques, and discretized light-front quantization. A new method for quantizing gauge theories in light-cone gauge using Dirac brackets to implement constraints is presented. In the case of the electroweak theory, this method of light-front quantization leads to a unitary and renormalizable theory of massive gauge particles, automatically incorporating the Lorentz and 't Hooft conditions as well as the Goldstone boson equivalence theorem. Spontaneous symmetry breaking is represented by the appearance of zero modes of the Higgs field leaving the light-front vacuum equal to the perturbative vacuum. I also discuss an ''event amplitude generator'' for automatically computing renormalized amplitudes in perturbation theory. The importance of final-state interactions for the interpretation of diffraction, shadowing, and single-spin asymmetries in inclusive reactions such as deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering is emphasized.
Berenstein, David; Correa, Diego H.; Vazquez, Samuel E.
2005-11-04
We study an XXX open spin chain with variable number of sites, where the variability is introduced only at the boundaries. This model arises naturally in the study of giant gravitons in the anti-de Sitter-space/conformal field-theory correspondence. We show how to quantize the spin chain by mapping its states to a bosonic lattice of finite length with sources and sinks of particles at the boundaries. Using coherent states, we show how the Hamiltonian for the bosonic lattice gives the correct description of semiclassical open strings ending on giant gravitons.
Escobar, M.; Meyerovich, A. E.
2014-12-15
We discuss transport of particles along random rough surfaces in quantum size effect conditions. As an intriguing application, we analyze gravitationally quantized ultracold neutrons in rough waveguides in conjunction with GRANIT experiments (ILL, Grenoble). We present a theoretical description of these experiments in the biased diffusion approximation for neutron mirrors with both one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) roughness. All system parameters collapse into a single constant which determines the depletion times for the gravitational quantum states and the exit neutron count. This constant is determined by a complicated integral of the correlation function (CF) of surface roughness. The reliable identification of this CF is always hindered by the presence of long fluctuation-driven correlation tails in finite-size samples. We report numerical experiments relevant for the identification of roughness of a new GRANIT waveguide and make predictions for ongoing experiments. We also propose a radically new design for the rough waveguide.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Escobar, M.; Meyerovich, A. E.
2014-12-01
We discuss transport of particles along random rough surfaces in quantum size effect conditions. As an intriguing application, we analyze gravitationally quantized ultracold neutrons in rough waveguides in conjunction with GRANIT experiments (ILL, Grenoble). We present a theoretical description of these experiments in the biased diffusion approximation for neutron mirrors with both one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) roughness. All system parameters collapse into a single constant which determines the depletion times for the gravitational quantum states and the exit neutron count. This constant is determined by a complicated integral of the correlation function (CF) of surface roughness. The reliable identification of this CF is always hindered by the presence of long fluctuation-driven correlation tails in finite-size samples. We report numerical experiments relevant for the identification of roughness of a new GRANIT waveguide and make predictions for ongoing experiments. We also propose a radically new design for the rough waveguide.
A note on quantizations of Galois extensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
İlhan, Aslı Güçlükan
2014-12-01
In Huru and Lychagin (2013), it is conjectured that the quantizations of splitting fields of products of quadratic polynomials, which are obtained by deforming the multiplication, are Clifford type algebras. In this paper, we prove this conjecture.
Quantization and Quantum-Like Phenomena: A Number Amplitude Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robinson, T. R.; Haven, E.
2015-12-01
Historically, quantization has meant turning the dynamical variables of classical mechanics that are represented by numbers into their corresponding operators. Thus the relationships between classical variables determine the relationships between the corresponding quantum mechanical operators. Here, we take a radically different approach to this conventional quantization procedure. Our approach does not rely on any relations based on classical Hamiltonian or Lagrangian mechanics nor on any canonical quantization relations, nor even on any preconceptions of particle trajectories in space and time. Instead we examine the symmetry properties of certain Hermitian operators with respect to phase changes. This introduces harmonic operators that can be identified with a variety of cyclic systems, from clocks to quantum fields. These operators are shown to have the characteristics of creation and annihilation operators that constitute the primitive fields of quantum field theory. Such an approach not only allows us to recover the Hamiltonian equations of classical mechanics and the Schrödinger wave equation from the fundamental quantization relations, but also, by freeing the quantum formalism from any physical connotation, makes it more directly applicable to non-physical, so-called quantum-like systems. Over the past decade or so, there has been a rapid growth of interest in such applications. These include, the use of the Schrödinger equation in finance, second quantization and the number operator in social interactions, population dynamics and financial trading, and quantum probability models in cognitive processes and decision-making. In this paper we try to look beyond physical analogies to provide a foundational underpinning of such applications.
Landau quantization effects in ultracold atom-ion collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simoni, Andrea; Launay, Jean-Michel
2011-12-01
We study ultracold atom-ion collisions in the presence of an external magnetic field. At low collision energy the field can drastically modify the translational motion of the ion, which follows quantized cyclotron orbits. We present a rigorous theoretical approach for the calculation of quantum scattering amplitudes in these conditions. Collisions in different magnetic field regimes, identified by the size of the cyclotron radius with respect to the range of the interaction potential, are investigated. Our results are important in cases where use of a magnetic field to control the atom-ion collision dynamics is envisioned.
Quantized beam shifts in graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kort-Kamp, Wilton; Sinitsyn, Nikolai; Dalvit, Diego
We show that the magneto-optical response of a graphene-on-substrate system in the presence of an external magnetic field strongly affects light beam shifts. In the quantum Hall regime, we predict quantized Imbert-Fedorov, Goos-Hänchen, and photonic spin Hall shifts. The Imbert-Fedorov and photonic spin Hall shifts are given in integer multiples of the fine structure constant α, while the Goos-Hänchen ones in discrete multiples of α2. Due to time-reversal symmetry breaking the IF shifts change sign when the direction of the applied magnetic field is reversed, while the other shifts remain unchanged. We investigate the influence on these shifts of magnetic field, temperature, and material dispersion and dissipation. An experimental demonstration of quantized beam shifts could be achieved at terahertz frequencies for moderate values of the magnetic field. We acknowledge the LANL LDRD program for financial support.
Quantum optical random walk: Quantization rules and quantum simulation of asymptotics
Ellinas, Demosthenes; Smyrnakis, Ioannis
2007-08-15
Rules for quantizing the walker-coin parts of a classical random walk are provided by treating them as interacting quantum systems. A quantum optical walk (QOW) is introduced by means of a rule that treats the quantum or classical noise affecting the coin's state as a source of quantization. The long-term asymptotic statistics of the QO walker's position, which shows enhanced diffusion rates as compared to the classical case, is exactly solved. A quantum optical implementation of the walk provides a physical framework for quantum simulation of its asymptotic statistics. The simulation utilizes interacting two-level atoms and/or randomly pulsating laser fields with fluctuating parameters.
The Hopfield model revisited: covariance and quantization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belgiorno, F.; Cacciatori, S. L.; Dalla Piazza, F.
2016-01-01
There are several possible applications of quantum electrodynamics in dielectric media which require a quantum description for the electromagnetic field interacting with matter fields. The associated quantum models can refer to macroscopic electromagnetic fields or, alternatively, to mesoscopic fields (polarization fields) describing an effective interaction between electromagnetic field and matter fields. We adopt the latter approach, and focus on the Hopfield model for the electromagnetic field in a dielectric dispersive medium in a framework in which space-time dependent mesoscopic parameters occur, like susceptibility, matter resonance frequency, and also coupling between electromagnetic field and polarization field. Our most direct goal is to describe in a phenomenological way a space-time varying dielectric perturbation induced by means of the Kerr effect in nonlinear dielectric media. This extension of the model is implemented by means of a Lorentz-invariant Lagrangian which, for constant microscopic parameters, and in the rest frame, coincides with the standard one. Moreover, we deduce a covariant scalar product and provide a canonical quantization scheme which takes into account the constraints implicit in the model. Examples of viable applications are indicated.
An, Ji-Yong; Meng, Fan-Rong; You, Zhu-Hong; Fang, Yu-Hong; Zhao, Yu-Jun; Zhang, Ming
2016-01-01
We propose a novel computational method known as RVM-LPQ that combines the Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) model and Local Phase Quantization (LPQ) to predict PPIs from protein sequences. The main improvements are the results of representing protein sequences using the LPQ feature representation on a Position Specific Scoring Matrix (PSSM), reducing the influence of noise using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and using a Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) based classifier. We perform 5-fold cross-validation experiments on Yeast and Human datasets, and we achieve very high accuracies of 92.65% and 97.62%, respectively, which is significantly better than previous works. To further evaluate the proposed method, we compare it with the state-of-the-art support vector machine (SVM) classifier on the Yeast dataset. The experimental results demonstrate that our RVM-LPQ method is obviously better than the SVM-based method. The promising experimental results show the efficiency and simplicity of the proposed method, which can be an automatic decision support tool for future proteomics research. PMID:27314023
An, Ji-Yong; Meng, Fan-Rong; You, Zhu-Hong; Fang, Yu-Hong; Zhao, Yu-Jun; Zhang, Ming
2016-01-01
We propose a novel computational method known as RVM-LPQ that combines the Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) model and Local Phase Quantization (LPQ) to predict PPIs from protein sequences. The main improvements are the results of representing protein sequences using the LPQ feature representation on a Position Specific Scoring Matrix (PSSM), reducing the influence of noise using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and using a Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) based classifier. We perform 5-fold cross-validation experiments on Yeast and Human datasets, and we achieve very high accuracies of 92.65% and 97.62%, respectively, which is significantly better than previous works. To further evaluate the proposed method, we compare it with the state-of-the-art support vector machine (SVM) classifier on the Yeast dataset. The experimental results demonstrate that our RVM-LPQ method is obviously better than the SVM-based method. The promising experimental results show the efficiency and simplicity of the proposed method, which can be an automatic decision support tool for future proteomics research. PMID:27314023
Tse, Wang-Kong; MacDonald, A H
2012-12-01
We investigate the Casimir effect between two-dimensional electron systems driven to the quantum Hall regime by a strong perpendicular magnetic field. In the large-separation (d) limit where retardation effects are essential, we find (i) that the Casimir force is quantized in units of 3ħcα(2)/8π(2)d(4) and (ii) that the force is repulsive for mirrors with the same type of carrier and attractive for mirrors with opposite types of carrier. The sign of the Casimir force is therefore electrically tunable in ambipolar materials such as graphene. The Casimir force is suppressed when one mirror is a charge-neutral graphene system in a filling factor ν=0 quantum Hall state. PMID:23368242
First quantized electrodynamics
Bennett, A.F.
2014-06-15
The parametrized Dirac wave equation represents position and time as operators, and can be formulated for many particles. It thus provides, unlike field-theoretic Quantum Electrodynamics (QED), an elementary and unrestricted representation of electrons entangled in space or time. The parametrized formalism leads directly and without further conjecture to the Bethe–Salpeter equation for bound states. The formalism also yields the Uehling shift of the hydrogenic spectrum, the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron to leading order in the fine structure constant, the Lamb shift and the axial anomaly of QED. -- Highlights: •First-quantized electrodynamics of the parametrized Dirac equation is developed. •Unrestricted entanglement in time is made explicit. •Bethe and Salpeter’s equation for relativistic bound states is derived without further conjecture. •One-loop scattering corrections and the axial anomaly are derived using a partial summation. •Wide utility of semi-classical Quantum Electrodynamics is argued.
Magnetic field evolution in interacting galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drzazga, R. T.; Chyży, K. T.; Jurusik, W.; Wiórkiewicz, K.
2011-09-01
Aims: Violent gravitational interactions can change the morphologies of galaxies and, by means of merging, transform them into elliptical galaxies. We aim to investigate how they affect the evolution of galactic magnetic fields. Methods: We selected 16 systems of interacting galaxies with available VLA archive radio data at 4.86 and 1.4 GHz and compared their radio emission and estimated magnetic field strengths with their star-forming activity, far-infrared emission, and the stage of tidal interaction. Results: The estimated mean of total magnetic field strength for our sample of interacting galaxies is 14 ± 5 μG, which is larger than for the non-interacting objects. The field regularity (of 0.27 ± 0.09) is lower than in typical spirals and indicates enhanced production of random magnetic fields in the interacting objects. We find a general evolution of magnetic fields: for weak interactions the strength of magnetic field is almost constant (10-15 μG) as interaction advances, then it increases up to 2× , peaks at the nuclear coalescence (25 μG), and decreases again, down to 5-6 μG, for the post-merger remnants. The main production of magnetic fields in colliding galaxies thus terminates somewhere close to the nuclear coalescence, after which magnetic field diffuses. The magnetic field strength for whole galaxies is weakly affected by the star formation rate (SFR), while the dependence is higher for galactic centres. We show that the morphological distortions visible in the radio total and polarized emission do not depend statistically on the global or local SFRs, while they do increase (especially in the polarization) with the advance of interaction. The constructed radio-far-infrared relations for interacting and non-interacting galaxies display a similar balance between the generation of cosmic rays, magnetic fields, and the production of the thermal energy and dust radiation. Conclusions: The regular magnetic fields are much more sensitive to
Third Quantization and Quantum Universes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Sang Pyo
2014-01-01
We study the third quantization of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology with N-minimal massless fields. The third quantized Hamiltonian for the Wheeler-DeWitt equation in the minisuperspace consists of infinite number of intrinsic time-dependent, decoupled oscillators. The Hamiltonian has a pair of invariant operators for each universe with conserved momenta of the fields that play a role of the annihilation and the creation operators and that construct various quantum states for the universe. The closed universe exhibits an interesting feature of transitions from stable states to tachyonic states depending on the conserved momenta of the fields. In the classical forbidden unstable regime, the quantum states have googolplex growing position and conjugate momentum dispersions, which defy any measurements of the position of the universe.
Generalized gravitational entropy of interacting scalar field and Maxwell field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Wung-Hong
2014-12-01
The generalized gravitational entropy proposed recently by Lewkowycz and Maldacena is extended to the interacting real scalar field and Maxwell field system. Using the BTZ geometry we first investigate the case of free real scalar field and then show a possible way to calculate the entropy of the interacting scalar field. Next, we investigate the Maxwell field system. We exactly solve the wave equation and calculate the analytic value of the generalized gravitational entropy. We also use the Einstein equation to find the effect of backreaction of the Maxwell field on the area of horizon. The associated modified area law is consistent with the generalized gravitational entropy.
Geometric Quantization and Foliation Reduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skerritt, Paul
A standard question in the study of geometric quantization is whether symplectic reduction interacts nicely with the quantized theory, and in particular whether "quantization commutes with reduction." Guillemin and Sternberg first proposed this question, and answered it in the affirmative for the case of a free action of a compact Lie group on a compact Kahler manifold. Subsequent work has focused mainly on extending their proof to non-free actions and non-Kahler manifolds. For realistic physical examples, however, it is desirable to have a proof which also applies to non-compact symplectic manifolds. In this thesis we give a proof of the quantization-reduction problem for general symplectic manifolds. This is accomplished by working in a particular wavefunction representation, associated with a polarization that is in some sense compatible with reduction. While the polarized sections described by Guillemin and Sternberg are nonzero on a dense subset of the Kahler manifold, the ones considered here are distributional, having support only on regions of the phase space associated with certain quantized, or "admissible", values of momentum. We first propose a reduction procedure for the prequantum geometric structures that "covers" symplectic reduction, and demonstrate how both symplectic and prequantum reduction can be viewed as examples of foliation reduction. Consistency of prequantum reduction imposes the above-mentioned admissibility conditions on the quantized momenta, which can be seen as analogues of the Bohr-Wilson-Sommerfeld conditions for completely integrable systems. We then describe our reduction-compatible polarization, and demonstrate a one-to-one correspondence between polarized sections on the unreduced and reduced spaces. Finally, we describe a factorization of the reduced prequantum bundle, suggested by the structure of the underlying reduced symplectic manifold. This in turn induces a factorization of the space of polarized sections that agrees
Basis Light-Front Quantization: Recent Progress and Future Prospects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vary, James P.; Adhikari, Lekha; Chen, Guangyao; Li, Yang; Maris, Pieter; Zhao, Xingbo
2016-05-01
Light-front Hamiltonian field theory has advanced to the stage of becoming a viable non-perturbative method for solving forefront problems in strong interaction physics. Physics drivers include hadron mass spectroscopy, generalized parton distribution functions, spin structures of the hadrons, inelastic structure functions, hadronization, particle production by strong external time-dependent fields in relativistic heavy ion collisions, and many more. We review selected recent results and future prospects with basis light-front quantization that include fermion-antifermion bound states in QCD, fermion motion in a strong time-dependent external field and a novel non-perturbative renormalization scheme.
Basis Light-Front Quantization: Recent Progress and Future Prospects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vary, James P.; Adhikari, Lekha; Chen, Guangyao; Li, Yang; Maris, Pieter; Zhao, Xingbo
2016-08-01
Light-front Hamiltonian field theory has advanced to the stage of becoming a viable non-perturbative method for solving forefront problems in strong interaction physics. Physics drivers include hadron mass spectroscopy, generalized parton distribution functions, spin structures of the hadrons, inelastic structure functions, hadronization, particle production by strong external time-dependent fields in relativistic heavy ion collisions, and many more. We review selected recent results and future prospects with basis light-front quantization that include fermion-antifermion bound states in QCD, fermion motion in a strong time-dependent external field and a novel non-perturbative renormalization scheme.
Quantum field theory of photon–Dirac fermion interacting system in graphene monolayer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Bich Ha; Hieu Nguyen, Van
2016-06-01
The purpose of the present work is to elaborate quantum field theory of interacting systems comprising Dirac fermion fields in a graphene monolayer and the electromagnetic field. Since the Dirac fermions are confined in a two-dimensional plane, the interaction Hamiltonian of this system contains the projection of the electromagnetic field operator onto the plane of a graphene monolayer. Following the quantization procedure in traditional quantum electrodynamics we chose to work in the gauge determined by the weak Lorentz condition imposed on the state vectors of all physical states of the system. The explicit expression of the two-point Green function of the projection onto a graphene monolayer of a free electromagnetic field is derived. This two-point Green function and the expression of the interaction Hamiltonian together with the two-point Green functions of free Dirac fermion fields established in our previous work form the basics of the perturbation theory of the above-mentioned interacting field system. As an example, the perturbation theory is applied to the study of two-point Green functions of this interacting system of quantum fields.
Polymer quantization, stability and higher-order time derivative terms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cumsille, Patricio; Reyes, Carlos M.; Ossandon, Sebastian; Reyes, Camilo
2016-03-01
The possibility that fundamental discreteness implicit in a quantum gravity theory may act as a natural regulator for ultraviolet singularities arising in quantum field theory has been intensively studied. Here, along the same expectations, we investigate whether a nonstandard representation called polymer representation can smooth away the large amount of negative energy that afflicts the Hamiltonians of higher-order time derivative theories, rendering the theory unstable when interactions come into play. We focus on the fourth-order Pais-Uhlenbeck model which can be reexpressed as the sum of two decoupled harmonic oscillators one producing positive energy and the other negative energy. As expected, the Schrödinger quantization of such model leads to the stability problem or to negative norm states called ghosts. Within the framework of polymer quantization we show the existence of new regions where the Hamiltonian can be defined well bounded from below.
An Interacting Gauge Field Theoretic Model for Hodge Theory: Basic Canonical Brackets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
R., Kumar; Gupta, S.; R. P., Malik
2014-06-01
We derive the basic canonical brackets amongst the creation and annihilation operators for a two (1 + 1)-dimensional (2D) gauge held theoretic model of an interacting Hodge theory where a U(1) gauge field (Aμ) is coupled with the fermionic Dirac fields (ψ and bar psi). In this derivation, we exploit the spin-statistics theorem, normal ordering and the strength of the underlying six infinitesimal continuous symmetries (and the concept of their generators) that are present in the theory. We do not use the definition of the canonical conjugate momenta (corresponding to the basic fields of the theory) anywhere in our whole discussion. Thus, we conjecture that our present approach provides an alternative to the canonical method of quantization for a class of gauge field theories that are physical examples of Hodge theory where the continuous symmetries (and corresponding generators) provide the physical realizations of the de Rham cohomological operators of differential geometry at the algebraic level.
Basis light-front quantization approach to positronium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiecki, Paul; Li, Yang; Zhao, Xingbo; Maris, Pieter; Vary, James P.
2015-05-01
We present the first application of the recently developed basis light-front quantization (BLFQ) method to self-bound systems in quantum field theory, using the positronium system as a test case. Within the BLFQ framework, we develop a two-body effective interaction, operating only in the lowest Fock sector, that implements photon exchange, neglecting fermion self-energy effects. We then solve for the mass spectrum of this interaction at the unphysical coupling α =0.3 . The resulting spectrum is in good agreement with the expected Bohr spectrum of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. We examine in detail the dependence of the results on the regulators of the theory.
Interacting quantum fields and the chronometric principle
Segal, I. E.
1976-01-01
A form of interaction in quantum field theory is described that is physically intrinsic rather than superimposed via a postulated nonlinearity on a hypothetical free field. It derives from the extension to general symmetries of the distinction basic for the chronometric cosmology between the physical (driving) and the observed energies, together with general precepts of quantum field theory applicable to nonunitary representations. The resulting interacting field is covariant, causal, involves real particle production, and is devoid of nontrivial ultraviolet divergences. Possible physical applications are discussed. PMID:16592353
Sakhr, Jamal; Whelan, Niall D.; Dumont, Randall S.
2006-11-15
The semiclassical limit of the quantum few-body problem has not been studied in general terms from the point of view of periodic orbit theory. In a previous paper, we studied noninteracting two-body systems [Phys. Rev. A 62, 042109 (2000)] and discussed the fact that the periodic orbits occur in continuous families. Interactions destroy the periodic orbit families leaving a discrete set of isolated periodic orbits. In this paper, we consider the effect of weak two-body interactions, which can be thought of as symmetry-breaking perturbations and can thus be analyzed using a theory developed by Creagh [Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 248, 1 (1996)]. The Poeschl-Teller two-body system confined in a square well is analyzed to illustrate the use of the formalism. It is shown that the effect of the interaction can be evaluated for all two-particle periodic orbits, and that the coarse-grained quantum density of states can be fully reproduced from simply summing the perturbed contributions of each periodic orbit family. Good numerical estimates of the quantum singlet energies can actually be obtained, but it is found that that perturbed trace formulas cannot reproduce the multiplet splittings predicted from quantum mechanics. Several interesting properties are observed depending on the range of the interaction and on whether the interaction is attractive or repulsive.
Nonclassical vibrational states in a quantized trap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, Heping; Lin, Fucheng
1993-09-01
The quantized center-of-mass (c.m.) motions of a single two-level atom or ion confined into a one-dimensional harmonic potential and interacting with a single-mode classical traveling-wave laser field are examined. We demonstrate that trap quantum states with remarkable nonclassical properties such as quadrature and amplitude-squared squeezing and sub-Poissonian statistics can be generated in this simple trap model when the c.m. motion is initially in certain coherent trap states. Our analyses also indicate that there exist some time regions where the production of nonclassical vibrational states is possible even if squeezing or sub-Poissonian statistics do not appear.
Quantum interactions between nonperturbative vacuum fields
Millo, R.; Faccioli, P.; Scorzato, L.
2010-04-01
We develop an approach to investigate the nonperturbative dynamics of quantum field theories, in which specific vacuum field fluctuations are treated as the low-energy dynamical degrees of freedom, while all other vacuum field configurations are explicitly integrated out from the path integral. We show how to compute the effective interaction between the vacuum field degrees of freedom both perturbatively (using stochastic perturbation theory) and fully nonperturbatively (using lattice field theory simulations). The present approach holds to all orders in the couplings and does not rely on the semiclassical approximation.
Field star interactions with globular clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Wei
1992-09-01
We investigate a new interaction of globular clusters with galactic field stars. By dynamical friction, high-velocity field stars passing through individual globular clusters are decelerated. This frictional interaction contributes to cluster heating, and, in conjunction with disk shocking and other mechanisms, it helps regulate the evolution of globular clusters. Moreover, penetrating field stars with low relative velocities can even be captured by globular clusters. Our calculated rate of captures suggest that there is a substantial population of stars having an origin external to the globulars in which they now reside. Intriguing candidates for this 'immigrant' population include some blue straggler stars and short-period pulsars.
Lagrange structure and quantization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kazinski, Peter O.; Lyakhovich, Simon L.; Sharapov, Alexey A.
2005-07-01
A path-integral quantization method is proposed for dynamical systems whose classical equations of motion do not necessarily follow from the action principle. The key new notion behind this quantization scheme is the Lagrange structure which is more general than the lagrangian formalism in the same sense as Poisson geometry is more general than the symplectic one. The Lagrange structure is shown to admit a natural BRST description which is used to construct an AKSZ-type topological sigma-model. The dynamics of this sigma-model in d+1 dimensions, being localized on the boundary, are proved to be equivalent to the original theory in d dimensions. As the topological sigma-model has a well defined action, it is path-integral quantized in the usual way that results in quantization of the original (not necessarily lagrangian) theory. When the original equations of motion come from the action principle, the standard BV path-integral is explicitly deduced from the proposed quantization scheme. The general quantization scheme is exemplified by several models including the ones whose classical dynamics are not variational.
The Volume Field Model about Strong Interaction and Weak Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Rongwu
2016-03-01
For a long time researchers have believed that strong interaction and weak interaction are realized by exchanging intermediate particles. This article proposes a new mechanism as follows: Volume field is a form of material existence in plane space, it takes volume-changing motion in the form of non-continuous motion, volume fields have strong interaction or weak interaction between them by overlapping their volume fields. Based on these concepts, this article further proposes a ``bag model'' of volume field for atomic nucleus, which includes three sub-models of the complex structure of fundamental body (such as quark), the atom-like structure of hadron, and the molecule-like structure of atomic nucleus. This article also proposes a plane space model and formulates a physics model of volume field in the plane space, as well as a model of space-time conversion. The model of space-time conversion suggests that: Point space-time and plane space-time convert each other by means of merging and rupture respectively, the essence of space-time conversion is the mutual transformations of matter and energy respectively; the process of collision of high energy hadrons, the formation of black hole, and the Big Bang of universe are three kinds of space-time conversions.
The decoding method based on wavelet image En vector quantization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Chun-yang; Li, Hui; Wang, Tao
2013-12-01
With the rapidly progress of internet technology, large scale integrated circuit and computer technology, digital image processing technology has been greatly developed. Vector quantization technique plays a very important role in digital image compression. It has the advantages other than scalar quantization, which possesses the characteristics of higher compression ratio, simple algorithm of image decoding. Vector quantization, therefore, has been widely used in many practical fields. This paper will combine the wavelet analysis method and vector quantization En encoder efficiently, make a testing in standard image. The experiment result in PSNR will have a great improvement compared with the LBG algorithm.
Quantization of Two Classical Models by Means of the BRST Quantization Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bracken, Paul
2008-12-01
An elementary gauge-non-invariant model and the bosonized form of the chiral Schwinger model are introduced as classical theories. The constraint structure is then investigated. It is shown that by introducing a new field, these models can be made gauge-invariant. The BRST form of quantization is reviewed and applied to each of these models in turn such that gauge-invariance is not broken. Some consequences of this form of quantization are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rabinovich, B. I.
2006-03-01
Based on a mathematical model described in [1], some new aspects of the dynamics of a thin planar plasma ring rotating in the magnetic field of a central body are considered. The dipole field is considered assuming that the dipole has a small eccentricity, and the dipole axis is inclined at a small angle to the central body’s axis of rotation. Emphasis is placed on the problem of stability of the ring’s stationary rotation. Unlike [1], the disturbed motion is considered which has a character of eddy magneto-gyroscopic waves. The original mathematical model is reduced to a system of finite-difference equations whose asymptotic analytical solution is obtained. It is demonstrated that some “elite” rings characterized by integral quantum numbers are long-living, while “lethal” or unstable rings (antirings) are associated with half-integer quantum numbers. As a result, an evolutionally rife rotating ring of magnetized plasma turns out to be stratified into a large number of narrow elite rings separated by gaps whose positions correspond to antirings. The regions of possible existence of elite rings in near-central body space are considered. Quantum numbers determining elite eigenvalues of the mean sector velocity (normalized in a certain manner) of a ring coincide with the quantum numbers appearing in the solution to the Schrödinger equation for a hydrogen atom. Perturbations of elite orbits corresponding to these quantum numbers satisfy the de Brogli quantum-mechanical condition. This is one more illustration of the isomorphism of quantization in microcosm and macrocosm.
Quantization Effects on Complex Networks.
Wang, Ying; Wang, Lin; Yang, Wen; Wang, Xiaofan
2016-01-01
Weights of edges in many complex networks we constructed are quantized values of the real weights. To what extent does the quantization affect the properties of a network? In this work, quantization effects on network properties are investigated based on the spectrum of the corresponding Laplacian. In contrast to the intuition that larger quantization level always implies a better approximation of the quantized network to the original one, we find a ubiquitous periodic jumping phenomenon with peak-value decreasing in a power-law relationship in all the real-world weighted networks that we investigated. We supply theoretical analysis on the critical quantization level and the power laws. PMID:27226049
Quantization Effects on Complex Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ying; Wang, Lin; Yang, Wen; Wang, Xiaofan
2016-05-01
Weights of edges in many complex networks we constructed are quantized values of the real weights. To what extent does the quantization affect the properties of a network? In this work, quantization effects on network properties are investigated based on the spectrum of the corresponding Laplacian. In contrast to the intuition that larger quantization level always implies a better approximation of the quantized network to the original one, we find a ubiquitous periodic jumping phenomenon with peak-value decreasing in a power-law relationship in all the real-world weighted networks that we investigated. We supply theoretical analysis on the critical quantization level and the power laws.
Quantization Effects on Complex Networks
Wang, Ying; Wang, Lin; Yang, Wen; Wang, Xiaofan
2016-01-01
Weights of edges in many complex networks we constructed are quantized values of the real weights. To what extent does the quantization affect the properties of a network? In this work, quantization effects on network properties are investigated based on the spectrum of the corresponding Laplacian. In contrast to the intuition that larger quantization level always implies a better approximation of the quantized network to the original one, we find a ubiquitous periodic jumping phenomenon with peak-value decreasing in a power-law relationship in all the real-world weighted networks that we investigated. We supply theoretical analysis on the critical quantization level and the power laws. PMID:27226049
Experimental realization of quantized anomalous Hall effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xue, Qi-Kun
2014-03-01
Anomalous Hall effect was discovered by Edwin Hall in 1880. In this talk, we report the experimental observation of the quantized version of AHE, the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) in thin films of Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 magnetic topological insulator. At zero magnetic field, the gate-tuned anomalous Hall resistance exhibits a quantized value of h /e2 accompanied by a significant drop of the longitudinal resistance. The longitudinal resistance vanishes under a strong magnetic field whereas the Hall resistance remains at the quantized value. The realization of QAHE paves a way for developing low-power-consumption electronics. Implications on observing Majorana fermions and other exotic phenomena in magnetic topological insulators will also be discussed. The work was collaborated with Ke He, Yayu Wang, Xucun Ma, Xi Chen, Li Lv, Dai Xi, Zhong Fang and Shoucheng Zhang.
Aspects of Interacting Electromagnetic and Torsion Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaete, Patricio; Helaÿel-Neto, José A.
2011-01-01
The interaction energy is studied for the coupling of axial torsion fields with photons in the presence of an external electromagnetic field. To this end, we compute the static quantum potential. Our discussion is carried out using the gauge-invariant but path-dependent variables formalism, which is alternative to the Wilson loop approach. Our results show that the static potential is a Yukawa correction to the usual static Coulomb potential. Interestingly, when this calculation is done by considering a mass term for the gauge field, the Coulombic piece disappears leading to a screening phase.
Lyo, S.K.
1999-01-04
We show that the low-temperature conductance (G) of a quantum point contact consisting of ballistic tunnel-coupled double-layer quantum well wires is modulated by an in-layer magnetic field B{sub {parallel}} perpendicular to the wires due to the anticrossing. In a system with a small g factor, B{sub {parallel}} creates a V-shaped quantum staircase for G, causing it to decrease in steps of 2e{sup 2}/{Dirac_h} to a minimum and then increase to a maximum value, where G may saturate or decrease again at higher B{sub {parallel}}'s. The effect of B{sub {parallel}}-induced mass enhancement and spin splitting is studied. The relevance of the results to recent data is discussed.
Quantization of general linear electrodynamics
Rivera, Sergio; Schuller, Frederic P.
2011-03-15
General linear electrodynamics allow for an arbitrary linear constitutive relation between the field strength 2-form and induction 2-form density if crucial hyperbolicity and energy conditions are satisfied, which render the theory predictive and physically interpretable. Taking into account the higher-order polynomial dispersion relation and associated causal structure of general linear electrodynamics, we carefully develop its Hamiltonian formulation from first principles. Canonical quantization of the resulting constrained system then results in a quantum vacuum which is sensitive to the constitutive tensor of the classical theory. As an application we calculate the Casimir effect in a birefringent linear optical medium.
Kang, Yuhong; Ruan, Hang; Claus, Richard O; Heremans, Jean; Orlowski, Marius
2016-12-01
Quantized conductance is observed at zero magnetic field and room temperature in metal-insulator-metal structures with graphene submicron-sized nanoplatelets embedded in a 3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) polymer layer. In devices with medium concentration of graphene platelets, integer multiples of G o = 2e (2)/h (=12.91 kΩ(-1)), and in some devices partially quantized including a series of with (n/7) × G o, steps are observed. Such an organic memory device exhibits reliable memory operation with an on/off ratio of more than 10. We attribute the quantized conductance to the existence of a 1-D electron waveguide along the conductive path. The partial quantized conductance results likely from imperfect transmission coefficient due to impedance mismatch of the first waveguide modes. PMID:27044308
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Yuhong; Ruan, Hang; Claus, Richard O.; Heremans, Jean; Orlowski, Marius
2016-04-01
Quantized conductance is observed at zero magnetic field and room temperature in metal-insulator-metal structures with graphene submicron-sized nanoplatelets embedded in a 3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) polymer layer. In devices with medium concentration of graphene platelets, integer multiples of G o = 2 e 2/ h (=12.91 kΩ-1), and in some devices partially quantized including a series of with ( n/7) × G o, steps are observed. Such an organic memory device exhibits reliable memory operation with an on/off ratio of more than 10. We attribute the quantized conductance to the existence of a 1-D electron waveguide along the conductive path. The partial quantized conductance results likely from imperfect transmission coefficient due to impedance mismatch of the first waveguide modes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Xiao-Gang; Ma, Bo-Qiang
We show that black holes can be quantized in an intuitive and elegant way with results in agreement with conventional knowledge of black holes by using Bohr's idea of quantizing the motion of an electron inside the atom in quantum mechanics. We find that properties of black holes can also be derived from an ansatz of quantized entropy Δ S = 4π k Δ R/{{-{λ }}}, which was suggested in a previous work to unify the black hole entropy formula and Verlinde's conjecture to explain gravity as an entropic force. Such an Ansatz also explains gravity as an entropic force from quantum effect. This suggests a way to unify gravity with quantum theory. Several interesting and surprising results of black holes are given from which we predict the existence of primordial black holes ranging from Planck scale both in size and energy to big ones in size but with low energy behaviors.
Nonlinear Bubble Interactions in Acoustic Pressure Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barbat, Tiberiu; Ashgriz, Nasser; Liu, Ching-Shi
1996-01-01
The systems consisting of a two-phase mixture, as clouds of bubbles or drops, have shown many common features in their responses to different external force fields. One of particular interest is the effect of an unsteady pressure field applied to these systems, case in which the coupling of the vibrations induced in two neighboring components (two drops or two bubbles) may result in an interaction force between them. This behavior was explained by Bjerknes by postulating that every body that is moving in an accelerating fluid is subjected to a 'kinetic buoyancy' equal with the product of the acceleration of the fluid multiplied by the mass of the fluid displaced by the body. The external sound wave applied to a system of drops/bubbles triggers secondary sound waves from each component of the system. These secondary pressure fields integrated over the surface of the neighboring drop/bubble may result in a force additional to the effect of the primary sound wave on each component of the system. In certain conditions, the magnitude of these secondary forces may result in significant changes in the dynamics of each component, thus in the behavior of the entire system. In a system containing bubbles, the sound wave radiated by one bubble at the location of a neighboring one is dominated by the volume oscillation mode and its effects can be important for a large range of frequencies. The interaction forces in a system consisting of drops are much smaller than those consisting of bubbles. Therefore, as a first step towards the understanding of the drop-drop interaction subject to external pressure fluctuations, it is more convenient to study the bubble interactions. This paper presents experimental results and theoretical predictions concerning the interaction and the motion of two levitated air bubbles in water in the presence of an acoustic field at high frequencies (22-23 KHz).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bogolubov, Nikolai N.; Prykarpatsky, Anatoliy K.
2010-05-01
The Lagrangian and Hamiltonian properties of classical electrodynamics models and their associated Dirac quantizations are studied. Using the vacuum field theory approach developed in (Prykarpatsky et al. Theor. Math. Phys. 160(2): 1079-1095, 2009 and The field structure of a vacuum, Maxwell equations and relativity theory aspects. Preprint ICTP) consistent canonical Hamiltonian reformulations of some alternative classical electrodynamics models are devised, and these formulations include the Lorentz condition in a natural way. The Dirac quantization procedure corresponding to the Hamiltonian formulations is developed. The crucial importance of the rest reference systems, with respect to which the dynamics of charged point particles is framed, is explained and emphasized. A concise expression for the Lorentz force is derived by suitably taking into account the duality of electromagnetic field and charged particle interactions. Finally, a physical explanation of the vacuum field medium and its relativistic properties fitting the mathematical framework developed is formulated and discussed.
Interaction Between Flames and Electric Fields Studied
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yuan, Zeng-Guang; Hegde, Uday
2003-01-01
The interaction between flames and electric fields has long been an interesting research subject that has theoretical importance as well as practical significance. Many of the reactions in a flame follow an ionic pathway: that is, positive and negative ions are formed during the intermediate steps of the reaction. When an external electric field is applied, the ions move according to the electric force (the Coulomb force) exerted on them. The motion of the ions modifies the chemistry because the reacting species are altered, it changes the velocity field of the flame, and it alters the electric field distribution. As a result, the flame will change its shape and location to meet all thermal, chemical, and electrical constraints. In normal gravity, the strong buoyant effect often makes the flame multidimensional and, thus, hinders the detailed study of the problem.
On Quantizable Odd Lie Bialgebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khoroshkin, Anton; Merkulov, Sergei; Willwacher, Thomas
2016-09-01
Motivated by the obstruction to the deformation quantization of Poisson structures in infinite dimensions, we introduce the notion of a quantizable odd Lie bialgebra. The main result of the paper is a construction of the highly non-trivial minimal resolution of the properad governing such Lie bialgebras, and its link with the theory of so-called quantizable Poisson structures.
Interaction of electromagnetic fields and biological tissues
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Darshan Shrivastava, Bhakt; Barde, Ravindra; Mishra, Ashutosh; Phadke, S.
2014-09-01
This paper deals with the electromagnetic field interact in biological tissues. It is actually one of the important challenges for the electromagnetic field for the recent years. The experimental techniques are use in Broad-band Dielectric Measurement (BDM) with LCR meters. The authors used Bones and scales of Fish taken from Narmada River (Rajghat Dist. Barwani) as biological tissues. Experimental work carried out done in inter-university consortium (IUC) Indore. The major difficulties that appear are related to the material properties, to the effect of the electromagnetic problem and to the thermal model of the biological tissues.
Magnetic Flux Quantization of the Landau Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jianhua; Li, Kang; Long, Shuming; Yuan, Yi
2014-08-01
Landau problem has a very important application in modern physics, in which two-dimensional electron gas system and quantum Hall effect are outstanding. In this paper, first we review the solution of the Pauli equation, then using the single electron wave function, we calculate moving area expectations of the ideal 2-dimensional electron gas system and the per unit area's degeneracy of the electron gas system. As a result, how to calculate the magnetic flux of the electron gas system is given. It shows that the magnetic flux of 2-dimensional electron gas system in magnetic field is quantized, and magnetic flux quantization results from the quantization of the moving area expectations of electron gas system.
Interactive ultrasonic field simulation for nondestructive testing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lambert, Jason; Rougeron, Gilles; Chatillon, Sylvain; Lacassagne, Lionel
2015-04-01
This paper presents an ultrasonic field simulation software, dedicated to Non Destructive Testing, aiming at interactivity. This work relies on Civa Software semi-analytical model. By restricting its scope to homogeneous isotropic specimens with simple geometry and half-skip modes, an almost completely regular algorithm, well suited to modern hardware, can be derived. The performance of three implementations on multicore SIMD general purpose processors (GPP), manycore accelerators (MIC) and graphical processing units (GPU) over a set of 18 realistic configurations (a standard one plus 17 variations) are presented and analysed. For GPP and the GPU, interactive performances with almost 30 fps have been reached on the standard configuration. This is, to our knowledge, the very first time for a NDT ultrasonic field simulation software.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DeBuvitz, William
2014-01-01
I am a volunteer reader at the Princeton unit of "Learning Ally" (formerly "Recording for the Blind & Dyslexic") and I recently discovered that high school students are introduced to the concept of quantization well before they take chemistry and physics. For the past few months I have been reading onto computer files a…
Phase-Field Crystals with Elastic Interactions
Stefanovic, Peter; Provatas, Nikolas; Haataja, Mikko
2006-06-09
We report on a novel extension of the recently introduced phase-field crystal (PFC) method [Elder et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 245701 (2002)], which incorporates elastic interactions as well as crystal plasticity and diffusive dynamics. In our model, elastic interactions are mediated through wave modes that propagate on time scales many orders of magnitude slower than atomic vibrations but still much faster than diffusive time scales. This allows us to preserve the quintessential advantage of the PFC model: the ability to simulate atomic-scale interactions and dynamics on time scales many orders of magnitude longer than characteristic vibrational time scales. We demonstrate the two different modes of propagation in our model and show that simulations of grain growth and elastoplastic deformation are consistent with the microstructural properties of nanocrystals.
Formulation and quantization of a generalized model related to the chiral Schwinger model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bracken, Paul
2009-07-01
A generalized theory which describes fermions interacting with a gauge field is investigated. In 1 + 1 dimensions such a model is equivalent to a theory in which a boson field appears in the Lagrangian density rather than a fermion field. In this form, the Lagrangian density can be diagonalized and then quantized in terms of the transformed fields. The case of the chiral Schwinger model can be obtained from the general model and the physics with respect to the operator form is discussed. It is shown how the theory can be made nonanomalous by means of a Wess-Zumino field.
Surface velocity fields from tidal interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koenigsberger, Gloria; Moreno, Edmundo; Harrington, David
2009-09-01
Binary stars in eccentric orbits are the clearest example of stars whose equatorial rotation velocity is not synchronized with orbital motion. Under these conditions, the surface velocity field is perturbed from its purely rotational nature, thus modifying the shape of the observationally-detectable photospheric absorption lines on a variety of timescales. Absorption lines are used to derive basic stellar parameters and gain a better physical understanding of the star. Although their variability is often interpreted in terms of non-radial pulsation theory, it is important to understand the nature of the surface velocity fields that are induced by the tidal interactions alone, especially under conditions of rapid rotation and large orbital eccentricity, where the perturbations become highly non-linear. We use a time-marching numerical calculation from first principles to model the surface velocity field due to the tidal interaction (Moreno & Koenigsberger 1999; Toledano et al. 2007). This velocity field is then projected along the line-of-sight to the observer to predict the orbital phase-dependent line-profile variability (Moreno et al. 2005). We compare our model results with very high quality observational data of the B-type binary system α Vir (Spica, HD 116658, P = 4d, e = 0.1), whose variability has in the past been modeled in the context of non-radial pulsations (Smith 1985). Our model reproduces the general features of the observations (Harrington et al. 2009). It is interesting to note that because tidal flows are associated with viscous shear energy dissipation, the question arises as to whether the atmospheric structure of an asynchronously rotating binary star may be reliably modeled using techniques that disregard the dynamical effects on the stellar surface of the tidal interactions.
Path-memory induced quantization of classical orbits
Fort, Emmanuel; Eddi, Antonin; Boudaoud, Arezki; Moukhtar, Julien; Couder, Yves
2010-01-01
A droplet bouncing on a liquid bath can self-propel due to its interaction with the waves it generates. The resulting “walker” is a dynamical association where, at a macroscopic scale, a particle (the droplet) is driven by a pilot-wave field. A specificity of this system is that the wave field itself results from the superposition of the waves generated at the points of space recently visited by the particle. It thus contains a memory of the past trajectory of the particle. Here, we investigate the response of this object to forces orthogonal to its motion. We find that the resulting closed orbits present a spontaneous quantization. This is observed only when the memory of the system is long enough for the particle to interact with the wave sources distributed along the whole orbit. An additional force then limits the possible orbits to a discrete set. The wave-sustained path memory is thus demonstrated to generate a quantization of angular momentum. Because a quantum-like uncertainty was also observed recently in these systems, the nonlocality generated by path memory opens new perspectives.
Scaled Strong Field Interactions at Long Wavelengths
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sistrunk, Emily Frances
The strong field regime describes interactions between light and matter where the electric field of the laser is a significant fraction of the binding field of the atom. Short pulsed lasers are capable of producing local fields on the order of the atomic unit of electric field. Under the influence of such strong fields, the ionization regime and electron dynamics are highly dependent on the wavelength used to drive the interaction. Few studies have been performed in the mid-infrared (MIR) spectral range. Using MIR wavelengths, the ponderomotive energy, Up, imposed on the electrons can be a factor of 20 greater than in the visible and near-infrared. Experiments on above threshold ionization (ATI) of cesium, nonsequential ionization (NSI) of noble gases, and high harmonic generation (HHG) in condensed phase media highlight the benefits of performing strong field investigations in the MIR. The photoelectron energy spectrum from above threshold ionization (ATI) of atoms provides details about the strong field interaction. Cesium atoms driven by a 3.6 mum laser indicate that excited states can play a large role in ionization from the ground state. Previous experiments on argon in the near-infrared can be compared to cesium at 3.6 im due to their similar Keldysh-scaling. Unlike argon, the measured ionization yield in cesium saturates at a higher intensity than predicted due to the Stark shift of the ground state. Such shifts have not been detected in argon. The low-lying 6P excited states of cesium produce a strong effect on the photoelectron energy spectrum, resulting in a splitting of each ATI peak. Enhancements in the photoelectron energy spectrum similar to those found in argon are observed in cesium. These enhancements are relatively insensitive to ellipticity of the drive laser. To take advantage of the large ponderomotive energy associated with Mid-IR lasers, ionization of argon, krypton and xenon is studied at 3.6 im. The factor of 20 increase in Up between the
Breathers on quantized superfluid vortices.
Salman, Hayder
2013-10-18
We consider the propagation of breathers along a quantized superfluid vortex. Using the correspondence between the local induction approximation (LIA) and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we identify a set of initial conditions corresponding to breather solutions of vortex motion governed by the LIA. These initial conditions, which give rise to a long-wavelength modulational instability, result in the emergence of large amplitude perturbations that are localized in both space and time. The emergent structures on the vortex filament are analogous to loop solitons but arise from the dual action of bending and twisting of the vortex. Although the breather solutions we study are exact solutions of the LIA equations, we demonstrate through full numerical simulations that their key emergent attributes carry over to vortex dynamics governed by the Biot-Savart law and to quantized vortices described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The breather excitations can lead to self-reconnections, a mechanism that can play an important role within the crossover range of scales in superfluid turbulence. Moreover, the observation of breather solutions on vortices in a field model suggests that these solutions are expected to arise in a wide range of other physical contexts from classical vortices to cosmological strings. PMID:24182275
Breathers on Quantized Superfluid Vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salman, Hayder
2013-10-01
We consider the propagation of breathers along a quantized superfluid vortex. Using the correspondence between the local induction approximation (LIA) and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we identify a set of initial conditions corresponding to breather solutions of vortex motion governed by the LIA. These initial conditions, which give rise to a long-wavelength modulational instability, result in the emergence of large amplitude perturbations that are localized in both space and time. The emergent structures on the vortex filament are analogous to loop solitons but arise from the dual action of bending and twisting of the vortex. Although the breather solutions we study are exact solutions of the LIA equations, we demonstrate through full numerical simulations that their key emergent attributes carry over to vortex dynamics governed by the Biot-Savart law and to quantized vortices described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The breather excitations can lead to self-reconnections, a mechanism that can play an important role within the crossover range of scales in superfluid turbulence. Moreover, the observation of breather solutions on vortices in a field model suggests that these solutions are expected to arise in a wide range of other physical contexts from classical vortices to cosmological strings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sankar Medury, Aditya; Bhat, K. N.; Bhat, Navakanta
2013-07-01
In this paper, we analyze the combined effects of size quantization and device temperature variations (T = 50 K to 400 K) on the intrinsic carrier concentration (ni), electron concentration (n) and thereby on the threshold voltage (Vth) for thin silicon film (tsi = 1 nm to 10 nm) based fully-depleted Double-Gate Silicon-on-Insulator MOSFETs. The threshold voltage (Vth) is defined as the gate voltage (Vg) at which the potential at the center of the channel (Φc) begins to saturate (Φc=Φc(sat)). It is shown that in the strong quantum confinement regime (tsi≤3nm), the effects of size quantization far over-ride the effects of temperature variations on the total change in band-gap (ΔEg(eff)), intrinsic carrier concentration (ni), electron concentration (n), Φc(sat) and the threshold voltage (Vth). On the other hand, for tsi≥4 nm, it is shown that size quantization effects recede with increasing tsi, while the effects of temperature variations become increasingly significant. Through detailed analysis, a physical model for the threshold voltage is presented both for the undoped and doped cases valid over a wide-range of device temperatures, silicon film thicknesses and substrate doping densities. Both in the undoped and doped cases, it is shown that the threshold voltage strongly depends on the channel charge density and that it is independent of incomplete ionization effects, at lower device temperatures. The results are compared with the published work available in literature, and it is shown that the present approach incorporates quantization and temperature effects over the entire temperature range. We also present an analytical model for Vth as a function of device temperature (T).
Uniform quantized electron gas.
Høye, Johan S; Lomba, Enrique
2016-10-19
In this work we study the correlation energy of the quantized electron gas of uniform density at temperature T = 0. To do so we utilize methods from classical statistical mechanics. The basis for this is the Feynman path integral for the partition function of quantized systems. With this representation the quantum mechanical problem can be interpreted as, and is equivalent to, a classical polymer problem in four dimensions where the fourth dimension is imaginary time. Thus methods, results, and properties obtained in the statistical mechanics of classical fluids can be utilized. From this viewpoint we recover the well known RPA (random phase approximation). Then to improve it we modify the RPA by requiring the corresponding correlation function to be such that electrons with equal spins can not be on the same position. Numerical evaluations are compared with well known results of a standard parameterization of Monte Carlo correlation energies. PMID:27546166
Near field interactions in terahertz metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keiser, George R.
Terahertz (THz) frequencies comprise the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum more energetic than microwaves, but less energetic than infrared light. The THz band presents many opportunities for condensed matter physics and optics engineering. From the physics perspective, advances in the generation and detection of THz radiation have opened the door for spectroscopic studies of a range of solid-state phenomena that manifest at THz frequencies. From an engineering perspective, THz frequencies are an under-used spectral region, ripe for the development of new devices. In both cases, the challenge for researchers is to overcome a lack of sources, detectors, and optics for THz light, termed the THz Gap. Metamaterials (MMs), composite structures with engineered index of refraction, n, and impedance, Z, provide one path towards realizing THz optics. MMs are an ideal platform for the design of local EM field distributions, and far-field optical properties. This is especially true at THz frequencies, where fabrication of inclusions is easily accomplished with photolithography. Historically, MM designs have been based around static configurations of resonant inclusions that work only in a narrow frequency band, limiting applications. Broadband and tunable MMs are needed to overcome this limit. This dissertation focuses on creating tunable and controllable MM structures through the manipulation of electromagnetic interactions between MM inclusions. We introduce three novel MM systems. Each system is studied computationally with CST-Studio, and experimentally via THz spectroscopy. First, we look at the tunable transmission spectrum of two coupled split ring resonators (SRRs) with different resonant frequencies. We show that introducing a lateral displacement between the two component resonators lowers the electromagnetic coupling between the SRRs, activating a new resonance. Second, we study an SRR array, coupled to a non-resonant closed ring array. We show that lowering
Interactions of charged spin-2 fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Rham, Claudia; Matas, Andrew; Ondo, Nicholas A.; Tolley, Andrew J.
2015-09-01
In light of recent progress in ghost-free theories of massive gravity and multi-gravity, we reconsider the problem of constructing a ghost-free theory of an interacting spin-2 field charged under a U(1) gauge symmetry. Our starting point is the theory originally proposed by Federbush, which is essentially Fierz-Pauli generalized to include a minimal coupling to a U(1) gauge field. We show the Federbush theory with a dynamical U(1) field is in fact ghost-free and can be treated as a healthy effective field theory to describe a massive charged spin-2 particle. It can even potentially have healthy dynamics above its strong-coupling scale. We then construct candidate gravitational extensions to the Federbush theory both by using dimensional deconstruction, and by constructing a general nonlinear completion. However, we find that the U(1) symmetry forces us to modify the form of the Einstein-Hilbert kinetic term. By performing a constraint analysis directly in the first-order form, we show that these modified kinetic terms inevitably reintroduce the Boulware-Deser ghost. As a by-product of our analysis, we present a new proof for ghost-freedom of bi-gravity in 2+1 dimensions (also known as Zwei-Dreibein gravity). We also give a complementary algebraic argument that the Einstein-Hilbert kinetic term is incompatible with a U(1) symmetry, for a finite number of gravitons.
Quantization of Constrained Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klauder, John R.
The present article is primarily a review of the projection-operator approach to quantize systems with constraints. We study the quantization of systems with general first- and second-class constraints from the point of view of coherent-state, phase-space path integration, and show that all such cases may be treated, within the original classical phase space, by using suitable path-integral measures for the Lagrange multipliers which ensure that the quantum system satisfies the appropr iate quantum constraint conditions. Unlike conventional methods, our procedures involve no delta-functionals of the classical constraints, no need for dynamical gauge fixing of first-class constraints nor any average thereover, no need to eliminate second-class constraints, no potentially ambiguous determinants, as well as no need to add auxiliary dynamical variables expanding the phase space beyond its original classical formulation, including no ghosts. Bes ides several pedagogical examples, we also study: (i) the quantization procedure for reparameterization invariant models, (ii) systems for which the original set of Lagrange multipliers are elevated to the status of dynamical variables and used to define an extended dynamical system which is completed with the addition of suitable conjugates and new sets of constraints and their associated Lagrange multipliers, (iii) special examples of alternative but equivalent formulations of given first-class constraint s, as well as (iv) a comparison of both regular and irregular constraints.
Possibility of gravitational quantization under the teleparallel theory of gravitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ming, Kian; Triyanta, Kosasih, J. S.
2016-03-01
Teleparallel gravity (TG) or tele-equivalent general relativity (TEGR) is an alternative gauge theory for gravity. In TG tetrad fields are defined to express gravitational fields and act like gauge potentials in standard gauge theory. The lagrangians for the gravitational field in TG and for the Yang-Mills field in standard gauge theory differ due to different indices that stick on the components of the corresponding fields: two external indices for tetrad field and internal and external indices for the Yang-Mills field. Different types of indices lead to different possible contractions and thus lead to different expression of the lagrangian for the Yang Mills field and for the tetrad field. As TG is a gauge theory it is then natural to quantize gravity in TG by applying the same procedure of quantization as in the standard gauge theory. Here we will discuss on the possibility to quantize gravity, canonically and functionally, under the framework of TG theory.
Hysteresis in a quantized superfluid 'atomtronic' circuit.
Eckel, Stephen; Lee, Jeffrey G; Jendrzejewski, Fred; Murray, Noel; Clark, Charles W; Lobb, Christopher J; Phillips, William D; Edwards, Mark; Campbell, Gretchen K
2014-02-13
Atomtronics is an emerging interdisciplinary field that seeks to develop new functional methods by creating devices and circuits where ultracold atoms, often superfluids, have a role analogous to that of electrons in electronics. Hysteresis is widely used in electronic circuits-it is routinely observed in superconducting circuits and is essential in radio-frequency superconducting quantum interference devices. Furthermore, it is as fundamental to superfluidity (and superconductivity) as quantized persistent currents, critical velocity and Josephson effects. Nevertheless, despite multiple theoretical predictions, hysteresis has not been previously observed in any superfluid, atomic-gas Bose-Einstein condensate. Here we directly detect hysteresis between quantized circulation states in an atomtronic circuit formed from a ring of superfluid Bose-Einstein condensate obstructed by a rotating weak link (a region of low atomic density). This contrasts with previous experiments on superfluid liquid helium where hysteresis was observed directly in systems in which the quantization of flow could not be observed, and indirectly in systems that showed quantized flow. Our techniques allow us to tune the size of the hysteresis loop and to consider the fundamental excitations that accompany hysteresis. The results suggest that the relevant excitations involved in hysteresis are vortices, and indicate that dissipation has an important role in the dynamics. Controlled hysteresis in atomtronic circuits may prove to be a crucial feature for the development of practical devices, just as it has in electronic circuits such as memories, digital noise filters (for example Schmitt triggers) and magnetometers (for example superconducting quantum interference devices). PMID:24522597
Solar wind interaction with lunar magnetic fields.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Siscoe, G. L.; Goldstein, B.
1973-01-01
Two basic interaction modes have been identified: (1) deflection currents that close above the surface, typified by a subsurface dipole with its axis perpendicular to the surface, and (2) deflection currents that intersect the lunar surface, typified by a subsurface dipole with its axis parallel to the surface. The first results in a compression of the lunar field and, if it is strong enough, can stop the wind above the surface. The extent of compression depends on how much the wind is slowed before striking the surface. The second mode results in a small deflection of the wind. In both modes, charging up of the surface is important. The effects of discharging the surface charge through the photolayer and the lunar crust are found to be unimportant for typical lunar parameters.
Interaction of Electric Fields with Vascular Cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taghian, Toloo; Sheikh, Abdul; Narmoneva, Daria; Kogan, Andrei
2012-04-01
Electrical stimulation has been shown to be effective in improving healing rate of the non-healing or slow-healing wounds, a significant high-cost clinical issue. In order to optimize this process, identifying the mechanisms underlying the interaction of vascular cells with electric field (EF) is of interest. We have developed a 3D model of the cultured cells to simulate EF distribution in the cell membrane. The electrical stimulation of cells has been performed using our novel device that generates EF without any contact between electrodes and cells. The results indicate that cells respond to EF by releasing a specific growth factor (PlGF) which is important for blood vessel growth during wound healing.
Immersion versus interactivity and analytic field.
Civitarese, Giuseppe
2008-04-01
Losing oneself in a story, a film or a picture is nothing but another step in the suspension of disbelief that permits one to become immersed in the 'novel' of reality. It is not by chance that the text-world metaphor informs classical aesthetics that, more than anything else, emphasizes emotional involvement. On the contrary, as in much of modern art, self-reflexivity and metafictional attention to the rhetoric of the real, to the framework, to the conventions and to the processes of meaning production, all involve a disenchanted, detached and sceptic vision--in short, an aesthetics of the text as game. By analogy, any analytic style or model that aims to produce a transformative experience must satisfactorily resolve the conflict between immersion (the analyst's emotional participation and sticking to the dreamlike or fictional climate of the session, dreaming knowing it's a dream) and interactivity (for the most part, interpretation as an anti-immersive device that 'wakes' one from fiction and demystifies consciousness). In analytic field theory the setting can be defined--because of the weight given to performativity of language, to the sensory matrix of the transference and the transparency of the medium--the place where an ideal balance is sought between immersion and interaction. PMID:18405284
Light-cone quantization and hadron structure
Brodsky, S.J.
1996-04-01
Quantum chromodynamics provides a fundamental description of hadronic and nuclear structure and dynamics in terms of elementary quark and gluon degrees of freedom. In practice, the direct application of QCD to reactions involving the structure of hadrons is extremely complex because of the interplay of nonperturbative effects such as color confinement and multi-quark coherence. In this talk, the author will discuss light-cone quantization and the light-cone Fock expansion as a tractable and consistent representation of relativistic many-body systems and bound states in quantum field theory. The Fock state representation in QCD includes all quantum fluctuations of the hadron wavefunction, including fax off-shell configurations such as intrinsic strangeness and charm and, in the case of nuclei, hidden color. The Fock state components of the hadron with small transverse size, which dominate hard exclusive reactions, have small color dipole moments and thus diminished hadronic interactions. Thus QCD predicts minimal absorptive corrections, i.e., color transparency for quasi-elastic exclusive reactions in nuclear targets at large momentum transfer. In other applications, such as the calculation of the axial, magnetic, and quadrupole moments of light nuclei, the QCD relativistic Fock state description provides new insights which go well beyond the usual assumptions of traditional hadronic and nuclear physics.
Quaternionic quantization principle in general relativity and supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kober, Martin
2016-01-01
A generalized quantization principle is considered, which incorporates nontrivial commutation relations of the components of the variables of the quantized theory with the components of the corresponding canonical conjugated momenta referring to other space-time directions. The corresponding commutation relations are formulated by using quaternions. At the beginning, this extended quantization concept is applied to the variables of quantum mechanics. The resulting Dirac equation and the corresponding generalized expression for plane waves are formulated and some consequences for quantum field theory are considered. Later, the quaternionic quantization principle is transferred to canonical quantum gravity. Within quantum geometrodynamics as well as the Ashtekar formalism, the generalized algebraic properties of the operators describing the gravitational observables and the corresponding quantum constraints implied by the generalized representations of these operators are determined. The generalized algebra also induces commutation relations of the several components of the quantized variables with each other. Finally, the quaternionic quantization procedure is also transferred to 𝒩 = 1 supergravity. Accordingly, the quantization principle has to be generalized to be compatible with Dirac brackets, which appear in canonical quantum supergravity.
Positronium in basis light-front quantization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Xingbo; Wiecki, Paul; Li, Yang; Maris, Pieter; Vary, James
2014-09-01
Basis light-front quantization (BLFQ) has been recently developed as a first-principles nonperturbative approach for quantum field theory. Adopting the light-front quantization and Hamiltonian formalism, it solves for the mass eigenstates of quantum field theory as the eigenvalue problem of the associated light-front Hamiltonian. In this work we apply BLFQ to the positronium system in QED and solve for its eigenspectrum in the Fock space with the lowest two Fock sectors included. We explicitly demonstrate our nonperturbative renormalization procedure, in which we infer the various needed renormalization factors through solving a series of parallel single electron problems. We then compare our numerical results for the mass spectrum to the expected Bohr spectrum from nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. Basis light-front quantization (BLFQ) has been recently developed as a first-principles nonperturbative approach for quantum field theory. Adopting the light-front quantization and Hamiltonian formalism, it solves for the mass eigenstates of quantum field theory as the eigenvalue problem of the associated light-front Hamiltonian. In this work we apply BLFQ to the positronium system in QED and solve for its eigenspectrum in the Fock space with the lowest two Fock sectors included. We explicitly demonstrate our nonperturbative renormalization procedure, in which we infer the various needed renormalization factors through solving a series of parallel single electron problems. We then compare our numerical results for the mass spectrum to the expected Bohr spectrum from nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. Supported by DOE (under Grants DESC0008485 SciDAC/NUCLEI, DE-FG02-87ER40371) and NSF (under Grant 0904782).
Divergence-based vector quantization.
Villmann, Thomas; Haase, Sven
2011-05-01
Supervised and unsupervised vector quantization methods for classification and clustering traditionally use dissimilarities, frequently taken as Euclidean distances. In this article, we investigate the applicability of divergences instead, focusing on online learning. We deduce the mathematical fundamentals for its utilization in gradient-based online vector quantization algorithms. It bears on the generalized derivatives of the divergences known as Fréchet derivatives in functional analysis, which reduces in finite-dimensional problems to partial derivatives in a natural way. We demonstrate the application of this methodology for widely applied supervised and unsupervised online vector quantization schemes, including self-organizing maps, neural gas, and learning vector quantization. Additionally, principles for hyperparameter optimization and relevance learning for parameterized divergences in the case of supervised vector quantization are given to achieve improved classification accuracy. PMID:21299418
Second quantization in bit-string physics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noyes, H. Pierre
1993-01-01
Using a new fundamental theory based on bit-strings, a finite and discrete version of the solutions of the free one particle Dirac equation as segmented trajectories with steps of length h/mc along the forward and backward light cones executed at velocity +/- c are derived. Interpreting the statistical fluctuations which cause the bends in these segmented trajectories as emission and absorption of radiation, these solutions are analogous to a fermion propagator in a second quantized theory. This allows us to interpret the mass parameter in the step length as the physical mass of the free particle. The radiation in interaction with it has the usual harmonic oscillator structure of a second quantized theory. How these free particle masses can be generated gravitationally using the combinatorial hierarchy sequence (3,10,137,2(sup 127) + 136), and some of the predictive consequences are sketched.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daneshmand, R.; Tavassoly, M. K.
2016-04-01
Based on the Jaynes-Cummings interaction model of a Ξ-type three-level atom with a single-mode quantized field, the effect of damping on teleportation is studied. To achieve this purpose, we have taken into account the decay rates of the two upper atomic levels. The influences of such atomic damping on the teleportation of atomic as well as field states are evaluated. It is shown that, by increasing the damping parameter the fidelity and success probability is decreased. Finally, beside our main motivation of the paper, we end it with some marginal, however, of interest purposes like the analyzing the dynamics of a few interesting physical properties such as entanglement, Mandel parameter and quadrature squeezing in the presence of damping.
Spin foam model from canonical quantization
Alexandrov, Sergei
2008-01-15
We suggest a modification of the Barrett-Crane spin foam model of four-dimensional Lorentzian general relativity motivated by the canonical quantization. The starting point is Lorentz covariant loop quantum gravity. Its kinematical Hilbert space is found as a space of the so-called projected spin networks. These spin networks are identified with the boundary states of a spin foam model and provide a generalization of the unique Barrett-Crane intertwiner. We propose a way to modify the Barrett-Crane quantization procedure to arrive at this generalization: the B field (bivectors) should be promoted not to generators of the gauge algebra, but to their certain projection. The modification is also justified by the canonical analysis of the Plebanski formulation. Finally, we compare our construction with other proposals to modify the Barrett-Crane model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Shuai
2009-05-01
For L-C circuit, a new quantized scheme has been proposed in the context of number-phase quantization. In this quantization scheme, the number n of the electric charge q( q= en) is quantized as the charge number operator and the phase difference θ across the capacity is quantized as phase operator. Based on the scheme of number-phase quantization and the thermo field dynamics (TFD), the quantum fluctuations of the charge number and phase difference of a mesoscopic L-C circuit in the thermal vacuum state, the thermal coherent state and the thermal squeezed state have been studied. It is shown that these quantum fluctuations of the charge number and phase difference are related to not only the parameters of circuit, the squeezing parameter, but also the temperature in these quantum states. It is proven that the number-phase quantization scheme is very useful to tackle with quantization of some mesoscopic electric circuits and the quantum effects.
Landau quantization for a neutral particle in the presence of topological defects
Bakke, K.; Ribeiro, L. R.; Furtado, C.; Nascimento, J. R.
2009-01-15
In this paper we study the Landau levels in the nonrelativistic dynamics of a neutral particle which possesses a permanent magnetic dipole moment interacting with an external electric field in the curved space-time background with the presence or absence of a torsion field. The eigenfunction and eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian are obtained. We show that the presence of the topological defect breaks the infinite degeneracy of the Landau levels arising in this system. We also apply a duality transformation to discuss this same quantization for a dynamics of a neutral particle with a permanent electric dipole moment.
VLSI Processor For Vector Quantization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tawel, Raoul
1995-01-01
Pixel intensities in each kernel compared simultaneously with all code vectors. Prototype high-performance, low-power, very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuit designed to perform compression of image data by vector-quantization method. Contains relatively simple analog computational cells operating on direct or buffered outputs of photodetectors grouped into blocks in imaging array, yielding vector-quantization code word for each such block in sequence. Scheme exploits parallel-processing nature of vector-quantization architecture, with consequent increase in speed.
Theory of the Knight Shift and Flux Quantization in Superconductors
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Cooper, L. N.; Lee, H. J.; Schwartz, B. B.; Silvert, W.
1962-05-01
Consequences of a generalization of the theory of superconductivity that yields a finite Knight shift are presented. In this theory, by introducing an electron-electron interaction that is not spatially invariant, the pairing of electrons with varying total momentum is made possible. An expression for Xs (the spin susceptibility in the superconducting state) is derived. In general Xs is smaller than Xn, but is not necessarily zero. The precise magnitude of Xs will vary from sample to sample and will depend on the nonuniformity of the samples. There should be no marked size dependence and no marked dependence on the strength of the magnetic field; this is in accord with observation. The basic superconducting properties are retained, but there are modifications in the various electromagnetic and thermal properties since the electrons paired are not time sequences of this generalized theory on flux quantization arguments are presented.(auth)
Quantized massive collective modes and massive spin fluctuations in high-Tc cuprates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanazawa, I.; Sasaki, T.
2015-10-01
We have analyzed angle-resolved photoemission spectra of the single- and double-layered Bi-family high-Tc superconductors by using quantized massive gauge fields, which might contain effects of spin fluctuations, charge fluctuations, and phonons. It is suggested strongly that the quantized massive gauge fields might be mediating Cooper pairing in high-Tc cuprates.
The Hamiltonian structure of Dirac's equation in tensor form and its Fermi quantization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reifler, Frank; Morris, Randall
1992-01-01
Currently, there is some interest in studying the tensor forms of the Dirac equation to elucidate the possibility of the constrained tensor fields admitting Fermi quantization. We demonstrate that the bispinor and tensor Hamiltonian systems have equivalent Fermi quantizations. Although the tensor Hamiltonian system is noncanonical, representing the tensor Poisson brackets as commutators for the Heisenberg operators directly leads to Fermi quantization without the use of bispinors.
QED in Krein Space Quantization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zarei, A.; Forghan, B.; Takook, M. V.
2011-08-01
In this paper we consider the QED in Krein space quantization. We show that the theory is automatically regularized. The three primitive divergences integrals in usual QED are considered in Krein QED. The photon self energy, electron self energy and vertex function are calculated in this formalism. We show that these quantities are finite. The infrared and ultraviolet divergencies do not appear. We discuss that Krein space quantization is similar to Pauli-Villars regularization, so we have called it the "Krein regularization".
Visibility of wavelet quantization noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watson, A. B.; Yang, G. Y.; Solomon, J. A.; Villasenor, J.
1997-01-01
The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) decomposes an image into bands that vary in spatial frequency and orientation. It is widely used for image compression. Measures of the visibility of DWT quantization errors are required to achieve optimal compression. Uniform quantization of a single band of coefficients results in an artifact that we call DWT uniform quantization noise; it is the sum of a lattice of random amplitude basis functions of the corresponding DWT synthesis filter. We measured visual detection thresholds for samples of DWT uniform quantization noise in Y, Cb, and Cr color channels. The spatial frequency of a wavelet is r 2-lambda, where r is display visual resolution in pixels/degree, and lambda is the wavelet level. Thresholds increase rapidly with wavelet spatial frequency. Thresholds also increase from Y to Cr to Cb, and with orientation from lowpass to horizontal/vertical to diagonal. We construct a mathematical model for DWT noise detection thresholds that is a function of level, orientation, and display visual resolution. This allows calculation of a "perceptually lossless" quantization matrix for which all errors are in theory below the visual threshold. The model may also be used as the basis for adaptive quantization schemes.
Visibility of Wavelet Quantization Noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watson, Andrew B.; Yang, Gloria Y.; Solomon, Joshua A.; Villasenor, John; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) decomposes an image into bands that vary in spatial frequency and orientation. It is widely used for image compression. Measures of the visibility of DWT quantization errors are required to achieve optimal compression. Uniform quantization of a single band of coefficients results in an artifact that is the sum of a lattice of random amplitude basis functions of the corresponding DWT synthesis filter, which we call DWT uniform quantization noise. We measured visual detection thresholds for samples of DWT uniform quantization noise in Y, Cb, and Cr color channels. The spatial frequency of a wavelet is r 2(exp)-L , where r is display visual resolution in pixels/degree, and L is the wavelet level. Amplitude thresholds increase rapidly with spatial frequency. Thresholds also increase from Y to Cr to Cb, and with orientation from low-pass to horizontal/vertical to diagonal. We describe a mathematical model to predict DWT noise detection thresholds as a function of level, orientation, and display visual resolution. This allows calculation of a "perceptually lossless" quantization matrix for which all errors are in theory below the visual threshold. The model may also be used as the basis for adaptive quantization schemes.
Dancing in the thresholds: Exploring the interactive field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodriguez, Constance S.
This dissertation is an attempt to investigate the nature of the interactive field to deepen as well as broaden its scope as it applies to depth psychology and its praxis. With a phenomenological eye toward field dynamics from other paradigms, this exploration demonstrates an additional theoretical framework within the interactive field. It opens other possibilities creating a neither/nor position from which to contain our work with an alchemical/metaphorical position and allows for the liberation of the imaginal realm through which ``the Other'' may be of service, and in fact, may ask us to be in service to it. The literature review not only surveys the three primary schools in psychology-the psychoanalytical, the classical, and archetypal as the genesis of the interactive field, but also investigates shamanic realms as a backdrop from which to see field theory. Field theory is also explored in the world of quantum physics where the universal field is examined from paradigms situated in varied consciousness models. The somatic unconscious, an intrinsic part of the interactive field in mutual engagement with two or more persons, is also woven into the fabric of this study as an intersection between the universal field and the psychodynamic field. This study, as a psychological gnosis, initiates subtle body awareness from Eastern cosmologies from a depth perspective in the psychodynamics of the interactive field. Synchronistic encounters are integrated into field theory as a threshold where universal fields engage the somatic unconscious, initiating numinous and sometimes transformative change into one's life.
Escobar, W. A.
2013-01-01
The proposed model holds that, at its most fundamental level, visual awareness is quantized. That is to say that visual awareness arises as individual bits of awareness through the action of neural circuits with hundreds to thousands of neurons in at least the human striate cortex. Circuits with specific topologies will reproducibly result in visual awareness that correspond to basic aspects of vision like color, motion, and depth. These quanta of awareness (qualia) are produced by the feedforward sweep that occurs through the geniculocortical pathway but are not integrated into a conscious experience until recurrent processing from centers like V4 or V5 select the appropriate qualia being produced in V1 to create a percept. The model proposed here has the potential to shift the focus of the search for visual awareness to the level of microcircuits and these likely exist across the kingdom Animalia. Thus establishing qualia as the fundamental nature of visual awareness will not only provide a deeper understanding of awareness, but also allow for a more quantitative understanding of the evolution of visual awareness throughout the animal kingdom. PMID:24319436
On second quantization on noncommutative spaces with twisted symmetries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiore, Gaetano
2010-04-01
By the application of the general twist-induced sstarf-deformation procedure we translate second quantization of a system of bosons/fermions on a symmetric spacetime into a noncommutative language. The procedure deforms, in a coordinated way, the spacetime algebra and its symmetries, the wave-mechanical description of a system of n bosons/fermions, the algebra of creation and annihilation operators and also the commutation relations of the latter with functions of spacetime; our key requirement is the mode-decomposition independence of the quantum field. In a minimalistic view, the use of noncommutative coordinates can be seen just as a way to better express non-local interactions of a special kind. In a non-conservative one, we obtain a closed, covariant framework for quantum field theory (QFT) on the corresponding noncommutative spacetime consistent with quantum mechanical axioms and Bose-Fermi statistics. One distinguishing feature is that the field commutation relations remain of the type 'field (anti)commutator=a distribution'. We illustrate the results by choosing as examples interacting non-relativistic and free relativistic QFT on Moyal space(time)s.
The cosmology of interacting spin-2 fields
Tamanini, Nicola; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.; Koivisto, Tomi S. E-mail: Emmanuel_Saridakis@baylor.edu
2014-02-01
We investigate the cosmology of interacting spin-2 particles, formulating the multi-gravitational theory in terms of vierbeins and without imposing any Deser-van Nieuwen-huizen-like constraint. The resulting multi-vierbein theory represents a wider class of gravitational theories if compared to the corresponding multi-metric models. Moreover, as opposed to its metric counterpart which in general seems to contain ghosts, it has already been proved to be ghost-free. We outline a discussion about the possible matter couplings and we focus on the study of cosmological scenarios in the case of three and four interacting vierbeins. We find rich behavior, including de Sitter solutions with an effective cosmological constant arising from the multi-vierbein interaction, dark-energy solutions and nonsingular bouncing behavior.
Semiclassical Quantization of the Electron-Dipole System.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Turner, J. E.
1979-01-01
This paper presents a derivation of the number given by Fermi in 1925, in his semiclassical treatment of the motion of an electron in the field of two stationary positive charges, for Bohr quantization of the electron orbits when the stationary charges are positive, and applies it to an electron moving in the field of a stationary dipole.…
Interaction mechanisms and biological effects of static magnetic fields
Tenforde, T.S.
1994-06-01
Mechanisms through which static magnetic fields interact with living systems are described and illustrated by selected experimental observations. These mechanisms include electrodynamic interactions with moving, ionic charges (blood flow and nerve impulse conduction), magnetomechanical interactions (orientation and translation of molecules structures and magnetic particles), and interactions with electronic spin states in charge transfer reactions (photo-induced electron transfer in photosynthesis). A general summary is also presented of the biological effects of static magnetic fields. There is convincing experimental evidence for magnetoreception mechanisms in several classes of lower organisms, including bacteria and marine organisms. However, in more highly evolved species of animals, there is no evidence that the interactions of static magnetic fields with flux densities up to 2 Tesla (1 Tesla [T] = 10{sup 4} Gauss) produce either behavioral or physiolocical alterations. These results, based on controlled studies with laboratory animals, are consistent with the outcome of recent epidemiological surveys on human populations exposed occupationally to static magnetic fields.
Electron Anomalous Magnetic Moment in Basis Light-Front Quantization Approach
Zhao, Xingbo; Honkanen, Heli; Maris, Pieter; Vary, James P.; Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC
2012-02-17
We apply the Basis Light-Front Quantization (BLFQ) approach to the Hamiltonian field theory of Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) in free space. We solve for the mass eigenstates corresponding to an electron interacting with a single photon in light-front gauge. Based on the resulting non-perturbative ground state light-front amplitude we evaluate the electron anomalous magnetic moment. The numerical results from extrapolating to the infinite basis limit reproduce the perturbative Schwinger result with relative deviation less than 1.2%. We report significant improvements over previous works including the development of analytic methods for evaluating the vertex matrix elements of QED.
Brief Review on Black Hole Loop Quantization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olmedo, Javier
2016-06-01
Here, we present a review about the quantization of spherically-symmetric spacetimes adopting loop quantum gravity techniques. Several models that have been studied so far share similar properties: the resolution of the classical singularity and some of them an intrinsic discretization of the geometry. We also explain the extension to Reissner---Nordstr\\"om black holes. Besides, we review how quantum test fields on these quantum geometries allow us to study phenomena, like the Casimir effect or Hawking radiation. Finally, we briefly describe a recent proposal that incorporates spherically-symmetric matter, discussing its relevance for the understanding of black hole evolution.
Cold atom simulation of interacting relativistic quantum field theories.
Cirac, J Ignacio; Maraner, Paolo; Pachos, Jiannis K
2010-11-01
We demonstrate that Dirac fermions self-interacting or coupled to dynamic scalar fields can emerge in the low energy sector of designed bosonic and fermionic cold atom systems. We illustrate this with two examples defined in two spacetime dimensions. The first one is the self-interacting Thirring model. The second one is a model of Dirac fermions coupled to a dynamic scalar field that gives rise to the Gross-Neveu model. The proposed cold atom experiments can be used to probe spectral or correlation properties of interacting quantum field theories thereby presenting an alternative to lattice gauge theory simulations. PMID:21231152
Decoherence in an interacting quantum field theory: The vacuum case
Koksma, Jurjen F.; Prokopec, Tomislav; Schmidt, Michael G.
2010-03-15
We apply the decoherence formalism to an interacting scalar field theory. In the spirit of the decoherence literature, we consider a 'system field' and an 'environment field' that interact via a cubic coupling. We solve for the propagator of the system field, where we include the self-energy corrections due to the interaction with the environment field. In this paper, we consider an environment in the vacuum state (T=0). We show that neglecting inaccessible non-Gaussian correlators increases the entropy of the system as perceived by the observer. Moreover, we consider the effect of a changing mass of the system field in the adiabatic regime, and we find that at late times no additional entropy has been generated.
Wake Fields in the Super B Factory Interaction Region
Weathersby, Stephen; Novokhatski, Alexander; /SLAC
2011-06-02
The geometry of storage ring collider interaction regions present an impedance to beam fields resulting in the generation of additional electromagnetic fields (higher order modes or wake fields) which affect the beam energy and trajectory. These affects are computed for the Super B interaction region by evaluating longitudinal loss factors and averaged transverse kicks for short range wake fields. Results indicate at least a factor of 2 lower wake field power generation in comparison with the interaction region geometry of the PEP-II B-factory collider. Wake field reduction is a consderation in the Super B design. Transverse kicks are consistent with an attractive potential from the crotch nearest the beam trajectory. The longitudinal loss factor scales as the -2.5 power of the bunch length. A factor of 60 loss factor reduction is possible with crotch geometry based on an intersecting tubes model.
On the entanglement between interacting scalar field theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mozaffar, M. Reza Mohammadi; Mollabashi, Ali
2016-03-01
We study "field space entanglement" in certain quantum field theories consisting of N number of free scalar fields interacting with each other via kinetic mixing terms. We present exact analytic expressions for entanglement and Renyi entropies between arbitrary numbers of scalar fields by which we could explore certain entanglement inequalities. Other entanglement measures such as mutual information and entanglement negativity have also been studied. We also give some comments about possible holographic realizations of such models.
Entropy of Field Interacting With Two Atoms in Bell State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiao, Zhi-Yong; Ma, Jun-Mao; Li, Ning; Fu, Xia
2009-01-01
In this paper, we investigate entropy properties of the single-mode coherent optical field interacting with the two two-level atoms initially in one of the four Bell states. It is found that the different initial states of the two atoms lead to different evolutions of field entropy and the intensity of the field plays an important role for the evolution properties of field entropy.
Compact and extended objects from self-interacting phantom fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Folomeev, Vladimir; Makhmudov, Arislan; Urazalina, Ainur; Singleton, Douglas; Scott, John
2016-07-01
In this work, we investigate localized and extended objects for gravitating, self-interacting phantom fields. The phantom fields come from two scalar fields with a "wrong-sign" (negative) kinetic energy term in the Lagrangian. This study covers several solutions supported by these phantom fields: phantom balls, traversable wormholes, phantom cosmic strings, and "phantom" domain walls. These four systems are solved numerically, and we try to draw out general, interesting features in each case.
Semiclassical Landau quantization of spin-orbit coupled systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Tommy; Horovitz, Baruch; Sushkov, Oleg P.
2016-06-01
A semiclassical quantization condition is derived for Landau levels in general spin-orbit coupled systems. This generalizes the Onsager quantization condition via a matrix-valued phase which describes spin dynamics along the classical cyclotron trajectory. We discuss measurement of the matrix phase via magnetic oscillations and electron spin resonance, which may be used to probe the spin structure of the precessing wave function. We compare the resulting semiclassical spectrum with exact results which are obtained for a variety of spin-orbit interactions in two-dimensional systems.
Periodic roads and quantized wheels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Campos Valadares, Eduardo
2016-08-01
We propose a simple approach to determine all possible wheels that can roll smoothly without slipping on a periodic roadbed, while maintaining the center of mass at a fixed height. We also address the inverse problem that of obtaining the roadbed profile compatible with a specific wheel and all other related "quantized wheels." The role of symmetry is highlighted, which might preclude the center of mass from remaining at a fixed height. A straightforward consequence of such geometric quantization is that the gravitational potential energy and the moment of inertia are discrete, suggesting a parallelism between macroscopic wheels and nano-systems, such as carbon nanotubes.
Fermionic Quantization of Hopf Solitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krusch, S.; Speight, J. M.
2006-06-01
In this paper we show how to quantize Hopf solitons using the Finkelstein-Rubinstein approach. Hopf solitons can be quantized as fermions if their Hopf charge is odd. Symmetries of classical minimal energy configurations induce loops in configuration space which give rise to constraints on the wave function. These constraints depend on whether the given loop is contractible. Our method is to exploit the relationship between the configuration spaces of the Faddeev-Hopf and Skyrme models provided by the Hopf fibration. We then use recent results in the Skyrme model to determine whether loops are contractible. We discuss possible quantum ground states up to Hopf charge Q=7.
Deformation quantization of cosmological models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cordero, Rubén; García-Compeán, Hugo; Turrubiates, Francisco J.
2011-06-01
The Weyl-Wigner-Groenewold-Moyal formalism of deformation quantization is applied to cosmological models in the minisuperspace. The quantization procedure is performed explicitly for quantum cosmology in a flat minisuperspace. The de Sitter cosmological model is worked out in detail and the computation of the Wigner functions for the Hartle-Hawking, Vilenkin and Linde wave functions are done numerically. The Wigner function is analytically calculated for the Kantowski-Sachs model in (non)commutative quantum cosmology and for string cosmology with dilaton exponential potential. Finally, baby universes solutions are described in this context and the Wigner function is obtained.
Second quantization techniques in the scattering of nonidentical composite bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Norbury, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.; Deutchman, P. A.
1986-01-01
Second quantization techniques for describing elastic and inelastic interactions between nonidentical composite bodies are presented and are applied to nucleus-nucleus collisions involving ground-state and one-particle-one-hole excitations. Evaluations of the resultant collision matrix elements are made through use of Wick's theorem.
Spin and orbital exchange interactions from Dynamical Mean Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Secchi, A.; Lichtenstein, A. I.; Katsnelson, M. I.
2016-02-01
We derive a set of equations expressing the parameters of the magnetic interactions characterizing a strongly correlated electronic system in terms of single-electron Green's functions and self-energies. This allows to establish a mapping between the initial electronic system and a spin model including up to quadratic interactions between the effective spins, with a general interaction (exchange) tensor that accounts for anisotropic exchange, Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and other symmetric terms such as dipole-dipole interaction. We present the formulas in a format that can be used for computations via Dynamical Mean Field Theory algorithms.
Analysis of magnetic field plasma interactions using microparticles as probes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dropmann, Michael; Laufer, Rene; Herdrich, Georg; Matthews, Lorin S.; Hyde, Truell W.
2015-08-01
The interaction between a magnetic field and plasma close to a nonconductive surface is of interest for both science and technology. In space, crustal magnetic fields on celestial bodies without atmosphere can interact with the solar wind. In advanced technologies such as those used in fusion or spaceflight, magnetic fields can be used to either control a plasma or protect surfaces exposed to the high heat loads produced by plasma. In this paper, a method will be discussed for investigating magnetic field plasma interactions close to a nonconductive surface inside a Gaseous Electronics Conference reference cell employing dust particles as probes. To accomplish this, a magnet covered by a glass plate was exposed to a low power argon plasma. The magnetic field was strong enough to magnetize the electrons, while not directly impacting the dynamics of the ions or the dust particles used for diagnostics. In order to investigate the interaction of the plasma with the magnetic field and the nonconductive surface, micron-sized dust particles were introduced into the plasma and their trajectories were recorded with a high-speed camera. Based on the resulting particle trajectories, the accelerations of the dust particles were determined and acceleration maps over the field of view were generated which are representative of the forces acting on the particles. The results show that the magnetic field is responsible for the development of strong electric fields in the plasma, in both horizontal and vertical directions, leading to complex motion of the dust particles.
Analysis of magnetic field plasma interactions using microparticles as probes.
Dropmann, Michael; Laufer, Rene; Herdrich, Georg; Matthews, Lorin S; Hyde, Truell W
2015-08-01
The interaction between a magnetic field and plasma close to a nonconductive surface is of interest for both science and technology. In space, crustal magnetic fields on celestial bodies without atmosphere can interact with the solar wind. In advanced technologies such as those used in fusion or spaceflight, magnetic fields can be used to either control a plasma or protect surfaces exposed to the high heat loads produced by plasma. In this paper, a method will be discussed for investigating magnetic field plasma interactions close to a nonconductive surface inside a Gaseous Electronics Conference reference cell employing dust particles as probes. To accomplish this, a magnet covered by a glass plate was exposed to a low power argon plasma. The magnetic field was strong enough to magnetize the electrons, while not directly impacting the dynamics of the ions or the dust particles used for diagnostics. In order to investigate the interaction of the plasma with the magnetic field and the nonconductive surface, micron-sized dust particles were introduced into the plasma and their trajectories were recorded with a high-speed camera. Based on the resulting particle trajectories, the accelerations of the dust particles were determined and acceleration maps over the field of view were generated which are representative of the forces acting on the particles. The results show that the magnetic field is responsible for the development of strong electric fields in the plasma, in both horizontal and vertical directions, leading to complex motion of the dust particles. PMID:26382535
Unified Field Theory and Force Formulas of Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Tian; Wang, Shouhong
2013-04-01
The main objective of this talk is to drive a unified field model coupling four interactions, based on the principle of interaction dynamics (PID) and the principle of representation invariance (PID). Intuitively, PID takes the variation of the action functional under energy-momentum conservation constraint. PRI requires that physical laws be independent of representations of the gauge groups. One important outcome of this unified field model is a natural duality between the interacting fields (g, A, W^a, S^k), corresponding to graviton, photon, intermediate vector bosons W^± and Z and gluons, and the adjoint bosonic fields (φ,, ^aw, ^ks). This duality predicts two Higgs particles of similar mass with one due to weak interaction and the other due to strong interaction. PID and PRI can be applied directly to individual interactions, leading to 1) modified Einstein equations, giving rise to a unified theory for dark matter and dark energy, 2) three levels of strong interaction potentials for quark, nucleon/hadron, and atom respectively, and 3) a weak interaction potential. These potential/force formulas offer a clear mechanism for both quark confinement and asymptotic freedom.
Observation of quantized conductance in neutral matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krinner, Sebastian; Stadler, David; Husmann, Dominik; Brantut, Jean-Philippe; Esslinger, Tilman
2015-01-01
In transport experiments, the quantum nature of matter becomes directly evident when changes in conductance occur only in discrete steps, with a size determined solely by Planck's constant h. Observations of quantized steps in electrical conductance have provided important insights into the physics of mesoscopic systems and have allowed the development of quantum electronic devices. Even though quantized conductance should not rely on the presence of electric charges, it has never been observed for neutral, massive particles. In its most fundamental form, it requires a quantum-degenerate Fermi gas, a ballistic and adiabatic transport channel, and a constriction with dimensions comparable to the Fermi wavelength. Here we report the observation of quantized conductance in the transport of neutral atoms driven by a chemical potential bias. The atoms are in an ultraballistic regime, where their mean free path exceeds not only the size of the transport channel, but also the size of the entire system, including the atom reservoirs. We use high-resolution lithography to shape light potentials that realize either a quantum point contact or a quantum wire for atoms. These constrictions are imprinted on a quasi-two-dimensional ballistic channel connecting the reservoirs. By varying either a gate potential or the transverse confinement of the constrictions, we observe distinct plateaux in the atom conductance. The conductance in the first plateau is found to be equal to the universal conductance quantum, 1/h. We use Landauer's formula to model our results and find good agreement for low gate potentials, with all parameters determined a priori. Our experiment lets us investigate quantum conductors with wide control not only over the channel geometry, but also over the reservoir properties, such as interaction strength, size and thermalization rate.
Probing quantized Einstein-Rosen waves with massless scalar matter
Fernando Barbero, J. G.; Garay, Inaki; Villasenor, Eduardo J. S.
2006-08-15
The purpose of this paper is to discuss in detail the use of scalar matter coupled to linearly polarized Einstein-Rosen waves as a probe to study quantum gravity in the restricted setting provided by this symmetry reduction of general relativity. We will obtain the relevant Hamiltonian and quantize it with the techniques already used for the purely gravitational case. Finally, we will discuss the use of particlelike modes of the quantized fields to operationally explore some of the features of quantum gravity within this framework. Specifically, we will study two-point functions, the Newton-Wigner propagator, and radial wave functions for one-particle states.
Light-cone quantization of quantum chromodynamics
Brodsky, S.J. ); Pauli, H.C. )
1991-06-01
We discuss the light-cone quantization of gauge theories from two perspectives: as a calculational tool for representing hadrons as QCD bound-states of relativistic quarks and gluons, and also as a novel method for simulating quantum field theory on a computer. The light-cone Fock state expansion of wavefunctions at fixed light cone time provides a precise definition of the parton model and a general calculus for hadronic matrix elements. We present several new applications of light-cone Fock methods, including calculations of exclusive weak decays of heavy hadrons, and intrinsic heavy-quark contributions to structure functions. A general nonperturbative method for numerically solving quantum field theories, discretized light-cone quantization,'' is outlined and applied to several gauge theories, including QCD in one space and one time dimension, and quantum electrodynamics in physical space-time at large coupling strength. The DLCQ method is invariant under the large class of light-cone Lorentz transformations, and it can be formulated such at ultraviolet regularization is independent of the momentum space discretization. Both the bound-state spectrum and the corresponding relativistic light-cone wavefunctions can be obtained by matrix diagonalization and related techniques. We also discuss the construction of the light-cone Fock basis, the structure of the light-cone vacuum, and outline the renormalization techniques required for solving gauge theories within the light-cone Hamiltonian formalism.
Interaction of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields with humans
Tenforde, T.S.
1990-04-01
Public concern has grown in recent years concerning the possible health effects of extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields to which we are exposed in all aspects of everyday life. By definition ELF refers to the range of electromagnetic field frequencies below 300 Hz, which includes the power transmission and distribution frequencies used throughout the world. In materials with the electrical and magnetic properties of living tissues, these fields have a long wavelength (5000 m) and skin depth (150 m). As a consequence, in their interactions with humans and other living organisms ELF fields behave as though they are composed of independent electric and magnetic fields components. This paper discusses ELF fields and their interactions with humans and other living organisms as well as their biological effects.
Quantization of higher abelian gauge theory in generalized differential cohomology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szabo, R.
We review and elaborate on some aspects of the quantization of certain classes of higher abelian gauge theories using techniques of generalized differential cohomology. Particular emphasis is placed on the examples of generalized Maxwell theory and Cheeger-Simons cohomology, and of Ramond-Ramond fields in Type II superstring theory and differential K-theory.
Asymmetric error field interaction with rotating conducting walls
Paz-Soldan, C.; Brookhart, M. I.; Hegna, C. C.; Forest, C. B.
2012-07-15
The interaction of error fields with a system of differentially rotating conducting walls is studied analytically and compared to experimental data. Wall rotation causes eddy currents to persist indefinitely, attenuating and rotating the original error field. Superposition of error fields from external coils and plasma currents are found to break the symmetry in wall rotation direction. The vacuum and plasma eigenmodes are modified by wall rotation, with the error field penetration time decreased and the kink instability stabilized, respectively. Wall rotation is also predicted to reduce error field amplification by the marginally stable plasma.
Derivative self-interactions for a massive vector field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beltrán Jiménez, Jose; Heisenberg, Lavinia
2016-06-01
In this work we revisit the construction of theories for a massive vector field with derivative self-interactions such that only the 3 desired polarizations corresponding to a Proca field propagate. We start from the decoupling limit by constructing healthy interactions containing second derivatives of the Stueckelberg field with itself and also with the transverse modes. The resulting interactions can then be straightforwardly generalized beyond the decoupling limit. We then proceed to a systematic construction of the interactions by using the Levi-Civita tensors. Both approaches lead to a finite family of allowed derivative self-interactions for the Proca field. This construction allows us to show that some higher order terms recently introduced as new interactions trivialize in 4 dimensions by virtue of the Cayley-Hamilton theorem. Moreover, we discuss how the resulting derivative interactions can be written in a compact determinantal form, which can also be regarded as a generalization of the Born-Infeld lagrangian for electromagnetism. Finally, we generalize our results for a curved background and give the necessary non-minimal couplings guaranteeing that no additional polarizations propagate even in the presence of gravity.
Binary stellar winds. [flow and magnetic field interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Siscoe, G. L.; Heinemann, M. A.
1974-01-01
Stellar winds from a binary star will interact with each other along a contact discontinuity. We discuss qualitatively the geometry of the flow and field resulting from this interaction in the simplest case where the stars and winds are identical. We consider the shape of the critical surface (defined as the surface where the flow speed is equal to the sound speed) as a function of stellar separation and the role of shock waves in the flow field. The effect of stellar spin and magnetic sectors on the field configuration is given. The relative roles of mass loss and magnetic torque in the evolution of orbital parameters are discussed.
On the macroscopic quantization in mesoscopic rings and single-electron devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semenov, Andrew G.
2016-05-01
In this letter we investigate the phenomenon of macroscopic quantization and consider particle on the ring interacting with the dissipative bath as an example. We demonstrate that even in presence of environment, there is macroscopically quantized observable which can take only integer values in the zero temperature limit. This fact follows from the total angular momentum conservation combined with momentum quantization for bare particle on the ring. The nontrivial thing is that the model under consideration, including the notion of quantized observable, can be mapped onto the Ambegaokar-Eckern-Schon model of the single-electron box (SEB). We evaluate SEB observable, originating after mapping, and reveal new physics, which follows from the macroscopic quantization phenomenon and the existence of additional conservation law. Some generalizations of the obtained results are also presented.
Deformation of second and third quantization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faizal, Mir
2015-03-01
In this paper, we will deform the second and third quantized theories by deforming the canonical commutation relations in such a way that they become consistent with the generalized uncertainty principle. Thus, we will first deform the second quantized commutator and obtain a deformed version of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. Then we will further deform the third quantized theory by deforming the third quantized canonical commutation relation. This way we will obtain a deformed version of the third quantized theory for the multiverse.
Applications of Basis Light-Front Quantization to QED
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vary, James P.; Zhao, Xingbo; Ilderton, Anton; Honkanen, Heli; Maris, Pieter; Brodsky, Stanley J.
2014-06-01
Hamiltonian light-front quantum field theory provides a framework for calculating both static and dynamic properties of strongly interacting relativistic systems. Invariant masses, correlated parton amplitudes and time-dependent scattering amplitudes, possibly with strong external time-dependent fields, represent a few of the important applications. By choosing the light-front gauge and adopting an orthonormal basis function representation, we obtain a large, sparse, Hamiltonian matrix eigenvalue problem for mass eigenstates that we solve by adapting ab initio no-core methods of nuclear many-body theory. In the continuum limit, the infinite matrix limit, we recover full covariance. Guided by the symmetries of light-front quantized theory, we adopt a two-dimensional harmonic oscillator basis for transverse modes that corresponds with eigensolutions of the soft-wall anti-de Sitter/quantum chromodynamics (AdS/QCD) model obtained from light-front holography. We outline our approach and present results for non-linear Compton scattering, evaluated non-perturbatively, where a strong and time-dependent laser field accelerates the electron and produces states of higher invariant mass i.e. final states with photon emission.
Effects of an electric field on interaction of aromatic systems.
Youn, Il Seung; Cho, Woo Jong; Kim, Kwang S
2016-04-30
The effect of uniform external electric field on the interactions between small aromatic compounds and an argon atom is investigated using post-HF (MP2, SCS-MP2, and CCSD(T)) and density functional (PBE0-D3, PBE0-TS, and vdW-DF2) methods. The electric field effect is quantified by the difference of interaction energy calculated in the presence and absence of the electric field. All the post-HF methods describe electric field effects accurately although the interaction energy itself is overestimated by MP2. The electric field effect is explained by classical electrostatic models, where the permanent dipole moment from mutual polarization mainly determines its sign. The size of π-conjugated system does not have significant effect on the electric field dependence. We found out that PBE0-based methods give reasonable interaction energies and electric field response in every case, while vdW-DF2 sometimes shows spurious artifact owing to its sensitivity toward the real space electron density. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26696236
Magnetic quantization of s p3 bonding in monolayer gray tin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Szu-Chao; Wu, Chung-Lin; Wu, Jhao-Ying; Lin, Ming-Fa
2016-07-01
A generalized tight-binding model, which is based on the subenvelope functions of the different sublattices, is developed to explore the novel magnetic quantization in monolayer gray tin (tinene). The effects due to the s p3 bonding, the spin-orbital coupling, the magnetic field, and the electric field are simultaneously taken into consideration. The unique magnetoelectronic properties lie in two groups of low-lying Landau levels, with different orbital components, localization centers, state degeneracy, spin configurations, and magnetic- and electric-field dependencies. The first and second groups mainly come from the 5 pz and (5 px,5 py ) orbitals, respectively. Their Landau-level splittings are, respectively, induced by the electric field and spin-orbital interactions. The intragroup anticrossings are only revealed in the former. The unique tinene Landau levels are absent in graphene, silicene, and germanene.
Width dependent transition of quantized spin-wave modes in Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} square nanorings
Banerjee, Chandrima; Saha, Susmita; Barman, Saswati; Barman, Anjan; Rousseau, Olivier; Otani, YoshiChika
2014-10-28
We investigated optically induced ultrafast magnetization dynamics in square shaped Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} nanorings with varying ring width. Rich spin-wave spectra are observed whose frequencies showed a strong dependence on the ring width. Micromagnetic simulations showed different types of spin-wave modes, which are quantized upto very high quantization number. In the case of widest ring, the spin-wave mode spectrum shows quantized modes along the applied field direction, which is similar to the mode spectrum of an antidot array. As the ring width decreases, additional quantization in the azimuthal direction appears causing mixed modes. In the narrowest ring, the spin-waves exhibit quantization solely in azimuthal direction. The different quantization is attributed to the variation in the internal field distribution for different ring width as obtained from micromagnetic analysis and supported by magnetic force microscopy.
Plasma-satellite interaction driven magnetic field perturbations
Saeed-ur-Rehman; Marchand, Richard
2014-09-15
We report the first fully kinetic quantitative estimate of magnetic field perturbations caused by the interaction of a spacecraft with space environment. Such perturbations could affect measurements of geophysical magnetic fields made with very sensitive magnetometers on-board satellites. Our approach is illustrated with a calculation of perturbed magnetic fields near the recently launched Swarm satellites. In this case, magnetic field perturbations do not exceed 20 pT, and they are below the sensitivity threshold of the on-board magnetometers. Anticipating future missions in which satellites and instruments would be subject to more intense solar UV radiation, however, it appears that magnetic field perturbations associated with satellite interaction with space environment, might approach or exceed instruments' sensitivity thresholds.
Consistent interactions for high-spin fermion fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vrancx, Tom; de Cruz, Lesley; Ryckebusch, Jan; Vancraeyveld, Pieter
2011-10-01
We address the issue of consistent interactions for off-shell fermion fields of arbitrary spin. These interactions play a crucial role in the quantum hadrodynamical description of high-spin baryon resonances in hadronic processes. The Rarita-Schwinger (R-S) description of high-spin fermion fields involves unphysical degrees of freedom associated with their lower-spin content. These enter the interaction if not eliminated outright. The invariance condition of the interaction under the unconstrained R-S gauge removes the lower-spin content of the fermion propagator and leads to a consistent description of the interaction. We develop the most general consistent interaction structure for high-spin fermions. We find that the power of the momentum dependence of a consistent interaction rises with the spin of the fermion field. This leads to unphysical structures in the energy dependence of the computed tree-level cross sections when the short-distance physics is cut off with standard hadronic form factors. A spin-dependent hadronic form factor is proposed that suppresses the unphysical artifacts.
Heavy quarkonium in the basis light-front quantization approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yang; Vary, James; Maris, Pieter
2015-10-01
I present a study of the charmonium and bottomonium spectra using the basis light-front quantization. We implement a one-gluon exchange interaction in the leading Fock sector following Ref.. We also adopt a phenomenological confining interaction based on the AdS/QCD and light-front holography. The results are compared with the experimental data. Supported by the US DOE Grants DESC0008485 (SciDAC/NUCLEI) and DE-FG02-87ER40371.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merad, M.
2006-05-01
We present, via the path-integral approach, the quantum study of a particle without spin constrained to move on a circle and subjected to the action of an external field (V, A). In the first stage, we follow the Faddeev-Senjanovic constraints technique that is essentially based on the Dirac algorithm; and in the second stage, we use the path-integral coherent state relative to the circle, compatible with the topological properties. In the two cases, the free particle and the problem of the magnetic field are shown as an illustrative calculation.
Bohmian quantization of the big rip
Pinto-Neto, Nelson; Pantoja, Diego Moraes
2009-10-15
It is shown in this paper that minisuperspace quantization of homogeneous and isotropic geometries with phantom scalar fields, when examined in the light of the Bohm-de Broglie interpretation of quantum mechanics, does not eliminate, in general, the classical big rip singularity present in the classical model. For some values of the Hamilton-Jacobi separation constant present in a class of quantum state solutions of the Wheeler-De Witt equation, the big rip can be either completely eliminated or may still constitute a future attractor for all expanding solutions. This is contrary to the conclusion presented in [M. P. Dabrowski, C. Kiefer, and B. Sandhofer, Phys. Rev. D 74, 044022 (2006).], using a different interpretation of the wave function, where the big rip singularity is completely eliminated ('smoothed out') through quantization, independently of such a separation constant and for all members of the above mentioned class of solutions. This is an example of the very peculiar situation where different interpretations of the same quantum state of a system are predicting different physical facts, instead of just giving different descriptions of the same observable facts: in fact, there is nothing more observable than the fate of the whole Universe.
Bohmian quantization of the big rip
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinto-Neto, Nelson; Pantoja, Diego Moraes
2009-10-01
It is shown in this paper that minisuperspace quantization of homogeneous and isotropic geometries with phantom scalar fields, when examined in the light of the Bohm-de Broglie interpretation of quantum mechanics, does not eliminate, in general, the classical big rip singularity present in the classical model. For some values of the Hamilton-Jacobi separation constant present in a class of quantum state solutions of the Wheeler-De Witt equation, the big rip can be either completely eliminated or may still constitute a future attractor for all expanding solutions. This is contrary to the conclusion presented in [M. P. Dabrowski, C. Kiefer, and B. Sandhofer, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 74, 044022 (2006).10.1103/PhysRevD.74.044022], using a different interpretation of the wave function, where the big rip singularity is completely eliminated (“smoothed out”) through quantization, independently of such a separation constant and for all members of the above mentioned class of solutions. This is an example of the very peculiar situation where different interpretations of the same quantum state of a system are predicting different physical facts, instead of just giving different descriptions of the same observable facts: in fact, there is nothing more observable than the fate of the whole Universe.
Quantized Cosmology: A Simple Approach
Weinstein, M
2004-06-03
I discuss the problem of inflation in the context of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Cosmology and show how, after a simple change of variables, to quantize the problem in a way which parallels the classical discussion. The result is that two of the Einstein equations arise as exact equations of motion and one of the usual Einstein equations (suitably quantized) survives as a constraint equation to be imposed on the space of physical states. However, the Friedmann equation, which is also a constraint equation and which is the basis of the Wheeler-deWitt equation, acquires a welcome quantum correction that becomes significant for small scale factors. To clarify how things work in this formalism I briefly outline the way in which our formalism works for the exactly solvable case of de-Sitter space.
Fresnel field interaction applied to scattering from a vegetation layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fung, A. K.; Chen, M. F.; Lee, K. K.
1987-01-01
Models for scattering from a vegetation layer treated as a collection of discrete scatterers usually assume far field interaction among scatterers. In a real vegetation medium such as a deciduous forest or a soybean field it is not always true that each leaf is in the far field of other leaves. This paper examines the additional effect when scatterers are permitted to be in the Fresnel zone of one another. Both disc-shaped and needle-shaped leaves are considered. It is found that in general this causes the backscattering coefficient to be lower for the disk-shaped leaves and may be higher or lower for the needle-shaped leaves depending upon polarization, incidence angle, and frequency than those computed under the assumption of conventional far field interaction.
Field Formation in the Interaction Space of Gyrotrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nusinovich, Gregory S.; Dumbrajs, Olgierd
2016-01-01
For gyrotron applications in plasma installations, one of the most important factors is the gyrotron efficiency. To maximize the interaction efficiency, it is necessary not only to optimize such operating parameters as the magnetic field, beam voltage, and current but also the axial profile of the electromagnetic (EM) field in the interaction space. The present paper describes a study of the effect of the profile of an irregular waveguide serving as a resonator on the axial structure of the EM field. Specific attention is paid to the profile of the uptaper connecting the regular part of a resonator to the output waveguide. Conditions of applicability of the nonuniform string equation, which is widely used in gyrotron designs for finding the axial structure of the EM field, are discussed. Also discussed are the occurrence of reflections from a smooth uptaper and the analogy between the nonuniform string equation and the stationary Schrodinger equation.
Systolic architectures for vector quantization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davidson, Grant A.; Cappello, Peter R.; Gersho, Allen
1988-01-01
A family of architectural techniques are proposed which offer efficient computation of weighted Euclidean distance measures for nearest-neighbor codebook searching. The general approach uses a single metric comparator chip in conjunction with a linear array of inner product processor chips. Very high vector-quantization (VQ) throughput can be achieved for many speech and image-processing applications. Several alternative configurations allow reasonable tradeoffs between speed and VLSI chip area required.
Mean-field approach for diffusion of interacting particles.
Suárez, G; Hoyuelos, M; Mártin, H
2015-12-01
A nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation is obtained in the continuous limit of a one-dimensional lattice with an energy landscape of wells and barriers. Interaction is possible among particles in the same energy well. A parameter γ, related to the barrier's heights, is introduced. Its value is determinant for the functional dependence of the mobility and diffusion coefficient on particle concentration, but has no influence on the equilibrium solution. A relation between the mean-field potential and the microscopic interaction energy is derived. The results are illustrated with classical particles with interactions that reproduce fermion and boson statistics. PMID:26764643
Finite- to zero-range relativistic mean-field interactions
Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.; Lalazissis, G. A.; Ring, P.
2008-03-15
We study the relation between the finite-range (meson-exchange) and zero-range (point-coupling) representations of effective nuclear interactions in the relativistic mean-field framework. Starting from the phenomenological interaction DD-ME2 with density-dependent meson-nucleon couplings, we construct a family of point-coupling effective interactions for different values of the strength parameter of the isoscalar-scalar derivative term. In the meson-exchange picture this corresponds to different values of the {sigma}-meson mass. The parameters of the isoscalar-scalar and isovector-vector channels of the point-coupling interactions are adjusted to nuclear matter and ground-state properties of finite nuclei. By comparing results for infinite and semi-infinite nuclear matter, ground-state masses, charge radii, and collective excitations, we discuss constraints on the parameters of phenomenological point-coupling relativistic effective interaction.
Stellar coronal magnetic fields and star-planet interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lanza, A. F.
2009-10-01
Context: Evidence of magnetic interaction between late-type stars and close-in giant planets is provided by the observations of stellar hot spots rotating synchronously with the planets and showing an enhancement of chromospheric and X-ray fluxes. Possible photospheric signatures of such an interaction have also been reported. Aims: We investigate star-planet interaction in the framework of a magnetic field model of a stellar corona, considering the interaction between the coronal field and that of a planetary magnetosphere moving through the corona. This is motivated, among other reasons, by the difficulty of accounting for the energy budgets of the interaction phenomena with previous models. Methods: A linear force-free model is applied to describe the coronal field and study the evolution of its total magnetic energy and relative helicity according to the boundary conditions at the stellar surface and the effects related to the planetary motion through the corona. Results: The energy budget of the star-planet interaction is discussed, assuming that the planet may trigger a release of the energy of the coronal field by decreasing its relative helicity. The observed intermittent character of the star-planet interaction is explained by a topological change in the stellar coronal field, induced by a variation in its relative helicity. The model predicts the formation of many prominence-like structures in the case of highly active stars owing to the accumulation of matter evaporated from the planet inside an azimuthal flux rope in the outer corona. Moreover, the model can explain why stars accompanied by close-in planets have a higher X-ray luminosity than those with distant planets. It predicts that the best conditions for detecting radio emission from the exoplanets and their host stars are achieved when the field topology is characterized by field lines connected to the surface of the star, leading to a chromospheric hot spot rotating synchronously with the planet
Higgs particles interacting via a scalar Dark Matter field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharya, Yajnavalkya; Darewych, Jurij
2016-07-01
We study a system of two Higgs particles, interacting via a scalar Dark Matter mediating field. The variational method in the Hamiltonian formalism of QFT is used to derive relativistic wave equations for the two-Higgs system, using a truncated Fock-space trial state. Approximate solutions of the two-body equations are used to examine the existence of Higgs bound states.
Magnetic Fields generated in the Solar Wind Interaction with Mars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vennerstrom, S.; Primdahl, F.
The solar wind interaction with Mars has revealed a complexity that provide a major challenge for planetary exploration, and which places it as a central issue of current research in space physics. The combined effect of direct interaction between the solar wind and the atmosphere and the formation of mini-magnetospheres around the strong crustal anomalies is unique in the solar system and so far largely unexplored. The most extensive set of magnetic field observations near Mars comes from more than six years of operation of the Mars Global Surveyor MAG/ER measurements. These reveal both piled-up magnetic disturbances generated in the interaction with the atmosphere as well as significant perturbations associated with a direct interaction between the solar wind and the crustal fields. While the magnetic field in the pile-up region are generally closely associated with the upstream solar wind parameters, the perturbations close to the magnetic anomalies and in the ionosphere are much more complex. Combined magnetic field and plasma observations in the martian ionosphere as proposed in the Mars Escape and Magnetic Orbiter (MEMO) are clearly needed. In addition surface magnetic observations characterizing magnetic activity at Mars are highly called for.
Interaction of a free flame front with a turbulence field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tucker, Maurice
1956-01-01
Small-perturbation spectral-analysis techniques are used to obtain the root-mean-square flame-generated turbulence velocities and the attenuating pressure fluctuations stemming from interaction of a constant-pressure flame front with a field of isotropic turbulence in the absence of turbulence decay processes.
Strongly interacting photons in a synthetic magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roushan, Pedram; Neill, C.; Megrant, A.; Chen, Y.; Barends, R.; Cambell, B.; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Fowler, A.; Jeffrey, E.; Kelly, J.; Lucero, E.; Mutus, J.; O'Malley, P.; Neeley, M.; Quintana, C.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; White, T.; Kapit, E.; Martinis, J.
Interacting electrons in the presence of magnetic fields exhibit some of the most fascinating phases in condensed matter systems. Realizing these phases in an engineered platform could provide deeper insight into their. Using three superconducting qubits, we synthesize artificial magnetic fields by modulating the inter-qubit coupling. In the closed loop formed by the qubits, we observe the directional circulation of a microwave photon as well as chiral groundstate currents, the signatures of broken time-reversal symmetry. The existence of strong interactions in our system is seen via the creation of photon vacancies, or ''holes'', which circulate in the opposite direction from the photons. Our work demonstrates an experimental approach for engineering quantum phases of strongly interacting bosons.
Energy released by the interaction of coronal magnetic fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sheeley, N. R., Jr.
1976-01-01
Comparisons between coronal spectroheliograms and photospheric magnetograms are presented to support the idea that as coronal magnetic fields interact, a process of field-line reconnection usually takes place as a natural way of preventing magnetic stresses from building up in the lower corona. This suggests that the energy which would have been stored in stressed fields is continuously released as kinetic energy of material being driven aside to make way for the reconnecting fields. However, this kinetic energy is negligible compared with the thermal energy of the coronal plasma. Therefore, it appears that these slow adjustments of coronal magnetic fields cannot account for even the normal heating of the corona, much less the energetic events associated with solar flares.