Centre for Quantum Computation & Communication Technology
NSDL National Science Digital Library
This is the homepage of "an Australian multi-university collaboration undertaking research on the fundamental physics and technology of building, at the atomic level, a solid state quantum computer in silicon together with other high potential implementations." Although attempts to develop a quantum computer have met with limited success, the centre has substantial resources invested in advancing toward practical uses of quantum computing technology. The site provides a very good introduction to the principles and implications of quantum computing, as well as details about various research projects underway at the Australian universities. Links to conference and journal papers produced by members of the centre, many from 2003, are also provided.
QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY QUANTUM COMPUTING
Bachoc, Christine
QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY QUANTUM COMPUTING 1. Quantum cryptography : from basic principles to practical realizations. 2. Quantum computing : a conceptual revolution hard to materialize Philippe Grangier, Institut d useful for quantum cryptography QUBITS | 0 | 1 cos() | 0 + sin() | 1 #12;QUANTUM COMPUTING
Enabling Technologies for Scalable Trapped Ion Quantum Computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crain, Stephen; Gaultney, Daniel; Mount, Emily; Knoernschild, Caleb; Baek, Soyoung; Maunz, Peter; Kim, Jungsang
2013-05-01
Scalability is one of the main challenges of trapped ion based quantum computation, mainly limited by the lack of enabling technologies needed to trap, manipulate and process the increasing number of qubits. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology allows one to design movable micromirrors to focus laser beams on individual ions in a chain and steer the focal point in two dimensions. Our current MEMS system is designed to steer 355 nm pulsed laser beams to carry out logic gates on a chain of Yb ions with a waist of 1.5 ?m across a 20 ?m range. In order to read the state of the qubit chain we developed a 32-channel PMT with a custom read-out circuit operating near the thermal noise limit of the readout amplifier which increases state detection fidelity. We also developed a set of digital to analog converters (DACs) used to supply analog DC voltages to the electrodes of an ion trap. We designed asynchronous DACs to avoid added noise injection at the update rate commonly found in synchronous DACs. Effective noise filtering is expected to reduce the heating rate of a surface trap, thus improving multi-qubit logic gate fidelities. Our DAC system features 96 channels and an integrated FPGA that allows the system to be controlled in real time. Scalability is one of the main challenges of trapped ion based quantum computation, mainly limited by the lack of enabling technologies needed to trap, manipulate and process the increasing number of qubits. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology allows one to design movable micromirrors to focus laser beams on individual ions in a chain and steer the focal point in two dimensions. Our current MEMS system is designed to steer 355 nm pulsed laser beams to carry out logic gates on a chain of Yb ions with a waist of 1.5 ?m across a 20 ?m range. In order to read the state of the qubit chain we developed a 32-channel PMT with a custom read-out circuit operating near the thermal noise limit of the readout amplifier which increases state detection fidelity. We also developed a set of digital to analog converters (DACs) used to supply analog DC voltages to the electrodes of an ion trap. We designed asynchronous DACs to avoid added noise injection at the update rate commonly found in synchronous DACs. Effective noise filtering is expected to reduce the heating rate of a surface trap, thus improving multi-qubit logic gate fidelities. Our DAC system features 96 channels and an integrated FPGA that allows the system to be controlled in real time. This work was supported by IARPA/ARO.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Leske, Cavin.
Moore's Law is a famous rule of thumb that says transistor density, and hence microprocessor performance, doubles approximately every eighteen months. While this trend has stood the test of time, many experts believe it will eventually grind to a halt when physical limitations prevent further miniaturization. Although this will likely not happen for twenty years or more, researchers are already looking at a potential solution.The concept of quantum computing has been around since the 1970's, but the science is still in its infancy. To learn about its profound implications, Liquid Logic (1) is a solid article with some remarkable insights into the technology. One of the most comprehensive sources on the Web is at the Centre for Quantum Computation (2) (last mentioned in the June 24, 1998 Scout Report). This has lots of introductory materials and tutorials that explain many of the basic concepts of quantum computing. The Centre's research efforts are also detailed on the site. Another good site for people new to the subject is the home page of Magiq Technologies (3). A very informative section about quantum information processing looks at some of the history of its development and its applications for the future. The company addresses some key issues in the frequently asked questions section, such as why research in this area could be so important. The Quantum Logic and Coherent Control Project Web site (4) presents extensive advanced theory about several experiments conducted with an rf (Paul) ion trap. The discussions are replete with equations and graphs, probably most suited for post graduate research. The Institute for Quantum Information (5) offers over 30 of its publications online, most of which are very recent. Because it is located at the California Institute of Technology, there are links to course home pages with lecture notes and solutions to problems. Users of the popular Mathematica software can add a powerful library of quantum computation functions with the free QuCalc package (6). The download site has documentation for the software and a few examples that include Mathematica code. Quantum Leap: Seize the Light (7) is an insightful article that discusses two recently published papers that address two promising methods of harnessing qubits (the fundamental unit of storage for quantum computation). This is necessary for the advancement of the technology, because the current methods are quite limited. EE Times hosts another article (8) about one of the newest breakthroughs in quantum information processing. Researchers at Harvard University have successfully transferred quantum information from a laser beam into and out of the spin state of rubidium atoms. The article considers the accomplishment and looks at what the group is planning next.
QuantumQuantum Computing ?Computing ?
Lomonaco Jr., Samuel J.
:This work is supported by: OverviewOverview Four TalksFour Talks ·· A Rosetta Stone for Quantum ComputationA Rosetta Stone for Quantum Computation ·· Quantum Algorithms & BeyondQuantum Algorithms & Beyond://www.csee.umbc.edu/~lomonacowww.csee.umbc.edu/~lomonaco and othersand others OverviewOverview Four TalksFour Talks ·· A Rosetta Stone for Quantum ComputationA Rosetta
QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY QUANTUM COMPUTING
Bachoc, Christine
QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY QUANTUM COMPUTING 1. Quantum cryptography : from basic principles to practical'Optique, Orsay #12;QIPC / S4P QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY A. Beveratos1, A. Villing1, F. Grosshans1, J. Wenger1, T principles of quantum key distribution (quantum cryptography)(quantum cryptography) 2. Quantum key
Dorit Aharonov
1998-12-15
In the last few years, theoretical study of quantum systems serving as computational devices has achieved tremendous progress. We now have strong theoretical evidence that quantum computers, if built, might be used as a dramatically powerful computational tool. This review is about to tell the story of theoretical quantum computation. I left out the developing topic of experimental realizations of the model, and neglected other closely related topics which are quantum information and quantum communication. As a result of narrowing the scope of this paper, I hope it has gained the benefit of being an almost self contained introduction to the exciting field of quantum computation. The review begins with background on theoretical computer science, Turing machines and Boolean circuits. In light of these models, I define quantum computers, and discuss the issue of universal quantum gates. Quantum algorithms, including Shor's factorization algorithm and Grover's algorithm for searching databases, are explained. I will devote much attention to understanding what the origins of the quantum computational power are, and what the limits of this power are. Finally, I describe the recent theoretical results which show that quantum computers maintain their complexity power even in the presence of noise, inaccuracies and finite precision. I tried to put all results in their context, asking what the implications to other issues in computer science and physics are. In the end of this review I make these connections explicit, discussing the possible implications of quantum computation on fundamental physical questions, such as the transition from quantum to classical physics.
Quantum computing (Kwantumberekening)
W. L. Fouché; J. Heidema; P. H. Potgieter
2005-09-20
There has been no lack of coverage in the past few years in scientific journals of the topic of quantum computation. Rightly so, as this is a novel idea with--so far--at least one very important practical application (prime factorisation) as soon as the technology can accommodate reasonably sized computations. Interest in quantum computing has been sparked by both the realization that increasing miniaturisation will eventually bring computer scientists face-to-face with quantum effects, and by the grasping of the potential for massive parallelism inherent in the Hilbert space representation of quantum systems and in the special effects of quantum entanglement.
Quantum Information Technology
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Spiller, Timothy.
2002-01-01
From the research laboratories of Hewlett Packard, Quantum Information Technology provides an informative look at current work in quantum information processing and communication (QIPC). The report, published in November 2002, recognizes the potential applications of QIPC and how it could revolutionize conventional information technology. It cites cryptography, quantum computers, and quantum teleportation as motivational factors for development of this technology, offering a basic introduction to each discipline. The paper concludes with an analysis of the direction current research is taking and what the future may hold. Several links to further sources of information are also included.
J. Eisert; M. M. Wolf
2006-03-17
This article gives an elementary introduction to quantum computing. It is a draft for a book chapter of the "Handbook of Nature-Inspired and Innovative Computing", Eds. A. Zomaya, G.J. Milburn, J. Dongarra, D. Bader, R. Brent, M. Eshaghian-Wilner, F. Seredynski (Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 2006).
QUANTUM COMPUTING AND QUANTUM INFORMATION
Dorlas, Teunis C.
QUANTUM COMPUTING AND QUANTUM INFORMATION Quantum computing is a generalisation of ordinary (classical) computing exploiting the specific character of quantum mechanical laws. In particular, bits between classical and quantum in order not 1 #12; to spend too much time on classical computing
Thaddeus D. Ladd; Fedor Jelezko; Raymond Laflamme; Yasunobu Nakamura; Christopher Monroe; Jeremy L. O'Brien
2010-09-12
Quantum mechanics---the theory describing the fundamental workings of nature---is famously counterintuitive: it predicts that a particle can be in two places at the same time, and that two remote particles can be inextricably and instantaneously linked. These predictions have been the topic of intense metaphysical debate ever since the theory's inception early last century. However, supreme predictive power combined with direct experimental observation of some of these unusual phenomena leave little doubt as to its fundamental correctness. In fact, without quantum mechanics we could not explain the workings of a laser, nor indeed how a fridge magnet operates. Over the last several decades quantum information science has emerged to seek answers to the question: can we gain some advantage by storing, transmitting and processing information encoded in systems that exhibit these unique quantum properties? Today it is understood that the answer is yes. Many research groups around the world are working towards one of the most ambitious goals humankind has ever embarked upon: a quantum computer that promises to exponentially improve computational power for particular tasks. A number of physical systems, spanning much of modern physics, are being developed for this task---ranging from single particles of light to superconducting circuits---and it is not yet clear which, if any, will ultimately prove successful. Here we describe the latest developments for each of the leading approaches and explain what the major challenges are for the future.
Complexity of Quantum Computers
Sherwin Algoe; Walter Hop; Robbert Klarenbeek; Giacomo Mores; Ali Niknam; Andreas Verhoeven
A quantum computer uses quantum mechanical phenomena to perform calculations. This method of computation may enable us to solve certain problems faster than any classical computer. In this paper, we present an introduction to the theory of quantum computers and explore the complexity of quantum computation. We show that quantum computers can effi ciently solve a few problems known to
Unconventional Quantum Computing Devices
Seth Lloyd
2000-03-31
This paper investigates a variety of unconventional quantum computation devices, including fermionic quantum computers and computers that exploit nonlinear quantum mechanics. It is shown that unconventional quantum computing devices can in principle compute some quantities more rapidly than `conventional' quantum computers.
Cryptography, quantum computation and trapped ions
Hughes, Richard J.
1998-03-01
The significance of quantum computation for cryptography is discussed. Following a brief survey of the requirements for quantum computational hardware, an overview of the ion trap quantum computation project at Los Alamos is presented. The physical limitations to quantum computation with trapped ions are analyzed and an assessment of the computational potential of the technology is made.
Cryptography, Quantum Computation and Trapped Ions
Richard J. Hughes
1997-12-23
The significance of quantum computation for cryptography is discussed. Following a brief survey of the requirements for quantum computational hardware, an overview of the ion trap quantum computation project at Los Alamos is presented. The physical limitations to quantum computation with trapped ions are analyzed and an assessment of the computational potential of the technology is made.
New Trends in Quantum Computing
Gilles Brassard
1996-02-19
Classical and quantum information are very different. Together they can perform feats that neither could achieve alone, such as quantum computing, quantum cryptography and quantum teleportation. Some of the applications range from helping to preventing spies from reading private communications. Among the tools that will facilitate their implementation, we note quantum purification and quantum error correction. Although some of these ideas are still beyond the grasp of current technology, quantum cryptography has been implemented and the prospects are encouraging for small-scale prototypes of quantum computation devices before the end of the millennium.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Brien, Jeremy
2013-03-01
Of the approaches to quantum computing, photons are appealing for their low-noise properties and ease of manipulation, and relevance to other quantum technologies, including communication, metrology and measurement. We report an integrated waveguide approach to photonic quantum circuits for high performance, miniaturization and scalability [6-10]. We address the challenges of scaling up quantum circuits using new insights into how controlled operations can be efficiently realised, demonstrating Shor's algorithm with consecutive CNOT gates and the iterative phase estimation algorithm. We have shown how quantum circuits can be reconfigured, using thermo-optic phase shifters to realise a highly reconfigurable quantum circuit, and electro-optic phase shifters in lithium niobate to rapidly manipulate the path and polarisation of telecomm wavelength single photons. We have addressed miniaturisation using multimode interference architectures to directly implement NxN Hadamard operations, and by using high refractive index contrast materials such as SiOxNy, in which we have implemented quantum walks of correlated photons, and Si, in which we have demonstrated generation of orbital angular momentum states of light. We have incorporated microfluidic channels for the delivery of samples to measure the concentration of a blood protein with entangled states of light. We have begun to address the integration of superconducting single photon detectors and diamond and non-linear single photon sources. Finally, we give an overview of recent work on fundamental aspects of quantum measurement, including a quantum version of Wheeler's delayed choice experiment.
Quantum Computing Projects Simulate Quantum Computation on Classical Computers
Hawick, Ken
Quantum Computing Projects Simulate Quantum Computation on Classical Computers Prof Ken Hawick k.a.hawick@massey.ac.nz, www.massey.ac.nz/~kahawick/student-projects.html Quantum computing and quantum information processing quantum computer except one with only simple capabilities. However we can simulate the actions
Quantum Computation Zoya Gavrilov
Oliva, Aude
Quantum Computation Zoya Gavrilov June 26, 2012 1 Introduction Quantum computation harnesses the power of nature by relying on the properties of quantum systems to both speed up classical computations, as well as to solve problems that are not classically computable. In essence, quantum computation makes
Seth Lloyd
2000-08-11
Necessary and sufficient conditions are given for the construction of a hybrid quantum computer that operates on both continuous and discrete quantum variables. Such hybrid computers are shown to be more efficient than conventional quantum computers for performing a variety of quantum algorithms, such as computing eigenvectors and eigenvalues.
Quantum computation and quantum information
Marius Nagy; Selim G. Akl
2006-01-01
The paper is intended to be a survey of all the important aspects and results that have shaped the field of quantum computation and quantum information. The reader is first familiarized with those features and principles of quantum mechanics providing a more efficient and secure information processing. Their applications to the general theory of information, cryptography, algorithms, computational complexity and
Quantum Computer Games: Quantum Minesweeper
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren
2010-01-01
The computer game of quantum minesweeper is introduced as a quantum extension of the well-known classical minesweeper. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. Quantum minesweeper demonstrates the effects of superposition, entanglement and their non-local characteristics. While in the classical…
Quantum Computation By Samuel L. Braunstein
Braunstein, Samuel L.
Quantum Computation By Samuel L. Braunstein 18 April 2005 It's a pleasure to be here. I'd like quantum computing is saying "let's face it, in a few years time we will have the technology to manipulate're at the atomic scale, instead of bits, our new quantum computers will use quantum bits or qubits. Simple? Well
Complexity Considerations Quantum Computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Accardi, Luigi
2013-01-01
It is usually calimed that quantum computer can outperform classical computer. Is this statement true? We discuss this issue, not in general, but in the context of the most famous algorithm of quantum computation: Shor's algorithm.
Optimal Blind Quantum Computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mantri, Atul; Pérez-Delgado, Carlos A.; Fitzsimons, Joseph F.
2013-12-01
Blind quantum computation allows a client with limited quantum capabilities to interact with a remote quantum computer to perform an arbitrary quantum computation, while keeping the description of that computation hidden from the remote quantum computer. While a number of protocols have been proposed in recent years, little is currently understood about the resources necessary to accomplish the task. Here, we present general techniques for upper and lower bounding the quantum communication necessary to perform blind quantum computation, and use these techniques to establish concrete bounds for common choices of the client’s quantum capabilities. Our results show that the universal blind quantum computation protocol of Broadbent, Fitzsimons, and Kashefi, comes within a factor of (8)/(3) of optimal when the client is restricted to preparing single qubits. However, we describe a generalization of this protocol which requires exponentially less quantum communication when the client has a more sophisticated device.
Computer Abstractions and Technology
Huang, Chun-Hsi
Chapter 1 Computer Abstractions and Technology #12;Chapter 1 -- Computer Abstractions and Technology -- 2 The Computer Revolution Progress in computer technology Underpinned by Moore's Law Makes and Technology -- 3 Classes of Computers Desktop computers General purpose, variety of software Subject to cost
QUANTUM COMPUTATION * Dorit Aharonov
Aharonov, Dorit
QUANTUM COMPUTATION * Dorit Aharonov Departments of Physics and Computer Science, The Hebrew evidence that quantum computers, if built, might be used as a dramatically powerful computaÂ tional tool the story of theoretical quantum computation. I left out the developing topic of experimental realizations
Blind topological measurement-based quantum computation
Tomoyuki Morimae; Keisuke Fujii
2012-09-06
Blind quantum computation is a novel secure quantum-computing protocol that enables Alice, who does not have sufficient quantum technology at her disposal, to delegate her quantum computation to Bob, who has a fully fledged quantum computer, in such a way that Bob cannot learn anything about Alice's input, output and algorithm. A recent proof-of-principle experiment demonstrating blind quantum computation in an optical system has raised new challenges regarding the scalability of blind quantum computation in realistic noisy conditions. Here we show that fault-tolerant blind quantum computation is possible in a topologically protected manner using the Raussendorf-Harrington-Goyal scheme. The error threshold of our scheme is 0.0043, which is comparable to that (0.0075) of non-blind topological quantum computation. As the error per gate of the order 0.001 was already achieved in some experimental systems, our result implies that secure cloud quantum computation is within reach.
Can quantum chemistry be performed on a small quantum computer?
Wecker, Dave; Clark, Bryan K; Hastings, Matthew B; Troyer, Matthias
2013-01-01
As quantum computing technology improves and quantum computers with a small but non-trivial number of N > 100 qubits appear feasible in the near future the question of possible applications of small quantum computers gains importance. One frequently mentioned application is Feynman's original proposal of simulating quantum systems, and in particular the electronic structure of molecules and materials. In this paper, we analyze the computational requirements for one of the standard algorithms to perform quantum chemistry on a quantum computer. We focus on the quantum resources required to find the ground state of a molecule twice as large as what current classical computers can solve exactly. We find that while such a problem requires about a ten-fold increase in the number of qubits over current technology, the required increase in the number of gates that can be coherently executed is many orders of magnitude larger. This suggests that for quantum computation to become useful for quantum chemistry problems, ...
Instrumentation for quantum computers
Huang, Wei-Han, 1979-
2004-01-01
Quantum computation poses challenging engineering and basic physics issues for the control of nanoscale systems. In particular, experimental realizations of up to seven-qubit NMR quantum computers have acutely illustrated ...
Quantum Computation: Introduction
de Wolf, Ronald
"weird" effects: superposition, interference, entanglement Quantum Computation: Introduction Â p. 2/2 #12, Benioff (Â±1982): What about quantum mechanical computers? Can we use those weird effects for useful
Quantum Computing and Communication Complexity
ten Cate, Balder
Quantum Computing and Communication Complexity Ronald de Wolf #12; #12; Quantum Computing: http://www.illc.uva.nl/ #12; Quantum Computing and Communication Complexity Academisch Proefschrift ter Quantum Computing 1 1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1
Quantum Computing: Lecture Notes
Schaffner, Christian
Quantum Computing: Lecture Notes Ronald de Wolf #12;Preface These lecture notes were formed in small chunks during my "Quantum computing" course at the University of Amsterdam, Feb-May 2011 as a general introduction to the area of quantum computation and information from the perspective
Quantum Computing With Addresable
Budker, Dmitry
Quantum Computing With Addresable Optical Lattices by Travis Beals UC Berkeley Physics #12;What in a 2-D lattice potential Graphic from NIST website #12;Can we make them (quantum) compute? Yes! (in theory) Satisfies the DiVincenzo criteria for quantum computing Scalable (> 103 qubits) Initializable
Quantum Computation via Paraconsistent Computation
Juan C. Agudelo; Walter Carnielli
2006-07-14
We present an original model of paraconsistent Turing machines (PTMs), a generalization of the classical Turing machines model of computation using a paraconsistent logic. Next, we briefl y describe the standard models of quantum computation: quantum Turing machines and quantum circuits, and revise quantum algorithms to solve the so-called Deutsch's problem and Deutsch-Jozsa problem. Then, we show the potentialities of the PTMs model of computation simulating the presented quantum algorithms via paraconsistent algorithms. This way, we show that PTMs can resolve some problems in exponentially less time than any classical deterministic Turing machine. Finally, We show that it is not possible to simulate all characteristics (in particular entangled states) of quantum computation by the particular model of PTMs here presented, therefore we open the possibility of constructing a new model of PTMs by which it is feasible to simulate such states.
Vivien M. Kendon; Kae Nemoto; William J. Munro
2010-01-13
We briefly review what a quantum computer is, what it promises to do for us, and why it is so hard to build one. Among the first applications anticipated to bear fruit is quantum simulation of quantum systems. While most quantum computation is an extension of classical digital computation, quantum simulation differs fundamentally in how the data is encoded in the quantum computer. To perform a quantum simulation, the Hilbert space of the system to be simulated is mapped directly onto the Hilbert space of the (logical) qubits in the quantum computer. This type of direct correspondence is how data is encoded in a classical analogue computer. There is no binary encoding, and increasing precision becomes exponentially costly: an extra bit of precision doubles the size of the computer. This has important consequences for both the precision and error correction requirements of quantum simulation, and significant open questions remain about its practicality. It also means that the quantum version of analogue computers, continuous variable quantum computers (CVQC) becomes an equally efficient architecture for quantum simulation. Lessons from past use of classical analogue computers can help us to build better quantum simulators in future.
Quantum Logic and Quantum Computation
Mladen Pavicic; Norman D. Megill
2008-12-16
We use classes of Hilbert lattice equations for an alternative representation of Hilbert lattices and Hilbert spaces of arbitrary quantum systems that might enable a direct introduction of the states of the systems into quantum computers. More specifically, we look for a way to feed a quantum computer with algebraic equations of n-th order underlying an infinite dimensional Hilbert space description of quantum systems. A number of new results on states defined on Hilbert lattices are presented and discussed and a number of recently obtained results in the field of Hilbert space equations are reviewed.
Quantum technology: the second quantum revolution.
Dowling, Jonathan P; Milburn, Gerard J
2003-08-15
We are currently in the midst of a second quantum revolution. The first quantum revolution gave us new rules that govern physical reality. The second quantum revolution will take these rules and use them to develop new technologies. In this review we discuss the principles upon which quantum technology is based and the tools required to develop it. We discuss a number of examples of research programs that could deliver quantum technologies in coming decades including: quantum information technology, quantum electromechanical systems, coherent quantum electronics, quantum optics and coherent matter technology. PMID:12952679
'Photosynthetic' Quantum Computers?
Scott M. Hitchcock
2001-08-20
Do quantum computers already exist in Nature? It is proposed that they do. Photosynthesis is one example in which a 'quantum computer' component may play a role in the 'classical' world of complex biological systems. A 'translation' of the standard metabolic description of the 'front-end' light harvesting complex in photosynthesis into the language of quantum computers is presented. Biological systems represent an untapped resource for thinking about the design and operation of hybrid quantum-classical computers and expanding our current conceptions of what defines a 'quantum computer' in Nature.
Experimental demonstration of blind quantum computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barz, Stefanie; Kashefi, Elham; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joe; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip
2012-02-01
Quantum computers are among the most promising applications of quantum-enhanced technologies. Quantum effects such as superposition and entanglement enable computational speed-ups that are unattainable using classical computers. The challenges in realising quantum computers suggest that in the near future, only a few facilities worldwide will be capable of operating such devices. In order to exploit these computers, users would seemingly have to give up their privacy. It was recently shown that this is not the case and that, via the universal blind quantum computation protocol, quantum mechanics provides a way to guarantee that the user's data remain private. Here, we demonstrate the first experimental version of this protocol using polarisation-entangled photonic qubits. We demonstrate various blind one- and two-qubit gate operations as well as blind versions of the Deutsch's and Grover's algorithms. When the technology to build quantum computers becomes available, this will become an important privacy-preserving feature of quantum information processing.
Continuous-Variable Blind Quantum Computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morimae, Tomoyuki
2012-12-01
Blind quantum computation is a secure delegated quantum computing protocol where Alice, who does not have sufficient quantum technology at her disposal, delegates her computation to Bob, who has a fully fledged quantum computer, in such a way that Bob cannot learn anything about Alice’s input, output, and algorithm. Protocols of blind quantum computation have been proposed for several qudit measurement-based computation models, such as the graph state model, the Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki model, and the Raussendorf-Harrington-Goyal topological model. Here, we consider blind quantum computation for the continuous-variable measurement-based model. We show that blind quantum computation is possible for the infinite squeezing case. We also show that the finite squeezing causes no additional problem in the blind setup apart from the one inherent to the continuous-variable measurement-based quantum computation.
Adiabatic topological quantum computing
Chris Cesare; Andrew J. Landahl; Dave Bacon; Steven T. Flammia; Alice Neels
2014-06-10
Topological quantum computing promises error-resistant quantum computation without active error correction. However, there is a worry that during the process of executing quantum gates by braiding anyons around each other, extra anyonic excitations will be created that will disorder the encoded quantum information. Here we explore this question in detail by studying adiabatic code deformations on Hamiltonians based on topological codes, notably Kitaev's surface codes and the more recently discovered color codes. We develop protocols that enable universal quantum computing by adiabatic evolution in a way that keeps the energy gap of the system constant with respect to the computation size and introduces only simple local Hamiltonian interactions. This allows one to perform holonomic quantum computing with these topological quantum computing systems. The tools we develop allow one to go beyond numerical simulations and understand these processes analytically.
Jeffrey Yepez
2001-01-01
This paper discusses a computing architecture that uses both classical parallelism and quantum parallelism. We consider a large parallel array of small quantum computers, connected together by classical communication channels. This kind of computer is called a type-II quantum computer, to differentiate it from a globally phase-coherent quantum computer, which is the first type of quantum computer that has received
Jerey Yepez
1999-01-01
This paper discusses a computing architecture that uses both classical parallelism and quantum parallelism. We consider a large parallel array of small quantum computers, connected together by classical communication channels. This kind of computer is called a type-II quantum computer ,t o dierentiate it from a globally phase-coherent quantum computer, which is the rst type of quantum computer that has
Quantum information and computation
Bennett, C.H. [Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York (United States)
1995-10-01
A new quantum theory of communication and computation is emerging, in which the stuff transmitted or processed is not classical information, but arbitrary superpositions of quantum states. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.
Universal blind quantum computation
Anne Broadbent; Joseph Fitzsimons; Elham Kashefi
2008-01-01
We present a protocol which allows a client to have a server carry out a quantum computation for her such that the client's inputs, outputs and computation remain perfectly private, and where she does not require any quantum computational power or memory. The client only needs to be able to prepare single qubits randomly chosen from a finite set and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barz, Stefanie
2013-05-01
Quantum physics has revolutionized our understanding of information processing and enables computational speed-ups that are unattainable using classical computers. In this talk I will present a series of experiments in the field of photonic quantum computing. The first experiment is in the field of photonic state engineering and realizes the generation of heralded polarization-entangled photon pairs. It overcomes the limited applicability of photon-based schemes for quantum information processing tasks, which arises from the probabilistic nature of photon generation. The second experiment uses polarization-entangled photonic qubits to implement ``blind quantum computing,'' a new concept in quantum computing. Blind quantum computing enables a nearly-classical client to access the resources of a more computationally-powerful quantum server without divulging the content of the requested computation. Finally, the concept of blind quantum computing is applied to the field of verification. A new method is developed and experimentally demonstrated, which verifies the entangling capabilities of a quantum computer based on a blind Bell test.
Ancilla-driven universal blind quantum computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sueki, Takahiro; Koshiba, Takeshi; Morimae, Tomoyuki
2013-06-01
Blind quantum computation is a new quantum secure protocol, which enables Alice who does not have enough quantum technology to delegate her computation to Bob who has a fully fledged quantum power without revealing her input, output, and algorithm. So far, blind quantum computation has been considered only for the circuit model and the measurement-based model. Here we consider the possibility and the limitation of blind quantum computation in the ancilla-driven model, which is a hybrid of the circuit and the measurement-based models.
Probabilistic Cloning and Quantum Computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Ting; Yan, Feng-Li; Wang, Zhi-Xi
2004-06-01
We discuss the usefulness of quantum cloning and present examples of quantum computation tasks for which the cloning offers an advantage which cannot be matched by any approach that does not resort to quantum cloning. In these quantum computations, we need to distribute quantum information contained in the states about which we have some partial information. To perform quantum computations, we use a state-dependent probabilistic quantum cloning procedure to distribute quantum information in the middle of a quantum computation.
Secure assisted quantum computation
Andrew M. Childs
2005-07-06
Suppose Alice wants to perform some computation that could be done quickly on a quantum computer, but she cannot do universal quantum computation. Bob can do universal quantum computation and claims he is willing to help, but Alice wants to be sure that Bob cannot learn her input, the result of her calculation, or perhaps even the function she is trying to compute. We describe a simple, efficient protocol by which Bob can help Alice perform the computation, but there is no way for him to learn anything about it. We also discuss techniques for Alice to detect whether Bob is honestly helping her or if he is introducing errors.
Permutational Quantum Computing
Stephen P. Jordan
2009-06-14
In topological quantum computation the geometric details of a particle trajectory are irrelevant; only the topology matters. Taking this one step further, we consider a model of computation that disregards even the topology of the particle trajectory, and computes by permuting particles. Whereas topological quantum computation requires anyons, permutational quantum computation can be performed with ordinary spin-1/2 particles, using a variant of the spin-network scheme of Marzuoli and Rasetti. We do not know whether permutational computation is universal. It may represent a new complexity class within BQP. Nevertheless, permutational quantum computers can in polynomial time approximate matrix elements of certain irreducible representations of the symmetric group and simulate certain processes in the Ponzano-Regge spin foam model of quantum gravity. No polynomial time classical algorithms for these problems are known.
Scalable optical quantum computer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manykin, E. A.; Mel'nichenko, E. V.
2014-12-01
A way of designing a scalable optical quantum computer based on the photon echo effect is proposed. Individual rare earth ions Pr3+, regularly located in the lattice of the orthosilicate (Y2SiO5) crystal, are suggested to be used as optical qubits. Operations with qubits are performed using coherent and incoherent laser pulses. The operation protocol includes both the method of measurement-based quantum computations and the technique of optical computations. Modern hybrid photon echo protocols, which provide a sufficient quantum efficiency when reading recorded states, are considered as most promising for quantum computations and communications.
James P. Crutchfield; Karoline Wiesner
2007-02-16
We introduce ways to measure information storage in quantum systems, using a recently introduced computation-theoretic model that accounts for measurement effects. The first, the quantum excess entropy, quantifies the shared information between a quantum process's past and its future. The second, the quantum transient information, determines the difficulty with which an observer comes to know the internal state of a quantum process through measurements. We contrast these with von Neumann entropy and quantum entropy rate and provide a closed-form expression for the latter for the class of deterministic quantum processes.
Architectures for measurement-based quantum computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raussendorf, Robert
2014-03-01
As our experience so far shows, building a quantum computer is not going to be easy. There are fundamental difficulties to overcome, such as decoherence, and suitable technologies and materials need to be identified. In between those two extremes lies the challenge of quantum computer architecture. Shall or shall we not envision a quantum computer as a von-Neumann type device, with CPU here and memory there? How are the qubits supposed to be wired? How do realistic physical constraints such translation invariance, planarity or bounded degree of the qubit connectivity graph affect quantum computer architecture? I will discuss these questions from the angle of measurement-based quantum computation.
Universal blind quantum computation
Broadbent, Anne; Kashefi, Elham
2008-01-01
We present the first protocol which allows Alice to have Bob carry out a quantum computation for her such that Alice's inputs, outputs and computation remain perfectly private, and where Alice does not require any quantum computational power or memory. She only needs to be able to prepare single qubits from a finite set and send them to Bob, who has the balance of the required quantum computational resources. Our protocol is interactive: after the initial preparation of quantum states, Alice and Bob use two-way classical communication which enables Alice to drive the computation, giving single-qubit measurement instructions to Bob, depending on previous measurement outcomes. The interaction is polynomial in the size of Alice's underlying quantum circuit. Our protocol works for inputs and outputs that are either classical or quantum. We also discuss the use of authentication in order for Alice to detect an interfering Bob. Furthermore, our construction involves a new, regular universal resource for measurement...
Towards Quantum Chemistry on a Quantum Computer
Benjamin P. Lanyon; James D. Whitfield; Geoff G. Gillet; Michael E. Goggin; Marcelo P. Almeida; Ivan Kassal; Jacob D. Biamonte; Masoud Mohseni; Ben J. Powell; Marco Barbieri; Alán Aspuru-Guzik; Andrew G. White
2009-05-08
The fundamental problem faced in quantum chemistry is the calculation of molecular properties, which are of practical importance in fields ranging from materials science to biochemistry. Within chemical precision, the total energy of a molecule as well as most other properties, can be calculated by solving the Schrodinger equation. However, the computational resources required to obtain exact solutions on a conventional computer generally increase exponentially with the number of atoms involved. This renders such calculations intractable for all but the smallest of systems. Recently, an efficient algorithm has been proposed enabling a quantum computer to overcome this problem by achieving only a polynomial resource scaling with system size. Such a tool would therefore provide an extremely powerful tool for new science and technology. Here we present a photonic implementation for the smallest problem: obtaining the energies of H2, the hydrogen molecule in a minimal basis. We perform a key algorithmic step - the iterative phase estimation algorithm - in full, achieving a high level of precision and robustness to error. We implement other algorithmic steps with assistance from a classical computer and explain how this non-scalable approach could be avoided. Finally, we provide new theoretical results which lay the foundations for the next generation of simulation experiments using quantum computers. We have made early experimental progress towards the long-term goal of exploiting quantum information to speed up quantum chemistry calculations.
Cloning and quantum computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galvão, Ernesto F.; Hardy, Lucien
2000-08-01
We discuss how quantum information distribution can improve the performance of some quantum computation tasks. This distribution can be naturally implemented with different types of quantum cloning procedures. We give two examples of tasks for which cloning provides some enhancement in performance, and briefly discuss possible extensions of the idea.
Cloning and quantum computation
Ernesto F. Galvao; Lucien Hardy
2000-02-18
We discuss how quantum information distribution can improve the performance of some quantum computation tasks. This distribution can be naturally implemented with different types of quantum cloning procedures. We give two examples of tasks for which cloning provides some enhancement in performance, and briefly discuss possible extensions of the idea.
Algorithms for Quantum Computers
Jamie Smith; Michele Mosca
2010-01-07
This paper surveys the field of quantum computer algorithms. It gives a taste of both the breadth and the depth of the known algorithms for quantum computers, focusing on some of the more recent results. It begins with a brief review of quantum Fourier transform based algorithms, followed by quantum searching and some of its early generalizations. It continues with a more in-depth description of two more recent developments: algorithms developed in the quantum walk paradigm, followed by tensor network evaluation algorithms (which include approximating the Tutte polynomial).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zak, M.
1998-01-01
Quantum analog computing is based upon similarity between mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics and phenomena to be computed. It exploits a dynamical convergence of several competing phenomena to an attractor which can represent an externum of a function, an image, a solution to a system of ODE, or a stochastic process.
Lloyd, S.
1992-12-01
Digital computers are machines that can be programmed to perform logical and arithmetical operations. Contemporary digital computers are ``universal,`` in the sense that a program that runs on one computer can, if properly compiled, run on any other computer that has access to enough memory space and time. Any one universal computer can simulate the operation of any other; and the set of tasks that any such machine can perform is common to all universal machines. Since Bennett`s discovery that computation can be carried out in a non-dissipative fashion, a number of Hamiltonian quantum-mechanical systems have been proposed whose time-evolutions over discrete intervals are equivalent to those of specific universal computers. The first quantum-mechanical treatment of computers was given by Benioff, who exhibited a Hamiltonian system with a basis whose members corresponded to the logical states of a Turing machine. In order to make the Hamiltonian local, in the sense that its structure depended only on the part of the computation being performed at that time, Benioff found it necessary to make the Hamiltonian time-dependent. Feynman discovered a way to make the computational Hamiltonian both local and time-independent by incorporating the direction of computation in the initial condition. In Feynman`s quantum computer, the program is a carefully prepared wave packet that propagates through different computational states. Deutsch presented a quantum computer that exploits the possibility of existing in a superposition of computational states to perform tasks that a classical computer cannot, such as generating purely random numbers, and carrying out superpositions of computations as a method of parallel processing. In this paper, we show that such computers, by virtue of their common function, possess a common form for their quantum dynamics.
Lloyd, S.
1992-01-01
Digital computers are machines that can be programmed to perform logical and arithmetical operations. Contemporary digital computers are universal,'' in the sense that a program that runs on one computer can, if properly compiled, run on any other computer that has access to enough memory space and time. Any one universal computer can simulate the operation of any other; and the set of tasks that any such machine can perform is common to all universal machines. Since Bennett's discovery that computation can be carried out in a non-dissipative fashion, a number of Hamiltonian quantum-mechanical systems have been proposed whose time-evolutions over discrete intervals are equivalent to those of specific universal computers. The first quantum-mechanical treatment of computers was given by Benioff, who exhibited a Hamiltonian system with a basis whose members corresponded to the logical states of a Turing machine. In order to make the Hamiltonian local, in the sense that its structure depended only on the part of the computation being performed at that time, Benioff found it necessary to make the Hamiltonian time-dependent. Feynman discovered a way to make the computational Hamiltonian both local and time-independent by incorporating the direction of computation in the initial condition. In Feynman's quantum computer, the program is a carefully prepared wave packet that propagates through different computational states. Deutsch presented a quantum computer that exploits the possibility of existing in a superposition of computational states to perform tasks that a classical computer cannot, such as generating purely random numbers, and carrying out superpositions of computations as a method of parallel processing. In this paper, we show that such computers, by virtue of their common function, possess a common form for their quantum dynamics.
Instantaneous Quantum Computation
Dan Shepherd; Michael J. Bremner
2009-01-04
We examine theoretic architectures and an abstract model for a restricted class of quantum computation, called here instantaneous quantum computation because it allows for essentially no temporal structure within the quantum dynamics. Using the theory of binary matroids, we argue that the paradigm is rich enough to enable sampling from probability distributions that cannot, classically, be sampled from efficiently and accurately. This paradigm also admits simple interactive proof games that may convince a skeptic of the existence of truly quantum effects. Furthermore, these effects can be created using significantly fewer qubits than are required for running Shor's Algorithm.
Computer Technology Institute & Press "DIOPHANTUS"
Bouras, Christos
. . . . . . . . . Computer Technology Institute & Press "DIOPHANTUS" Research Unit 6 http://ru6.cti.gr Networks, Telematics and New Services 2014 #12;Computer Technology Institute & Press "Diophantus" - Research Unit 6 Computer Technology Institute & Press "DIOPHANTUS" The Computer Technology Institute
OPTIMIZING COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION
Elizabeth Dillon-Marable; Thomas Valentine
2006-01-01
The purpose of this study was to better utiderstatid what optimal computer techtiol- ogy ititegration looks like in adult basic skills education (ABSE). One question guided the research: How is computer technology integration best conceptualized and measured? The study used the Delphi method to map the cotistruct of computer technology integratioti and required qualitative analysis of expert opinion, gathered in
Experimental verification of quantum computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barz, Stefanie; Fitzsimons, Joseph F.; Kashefi, Elham; Walther, Philip
2013-11-01
Quantum computers are expected to offer substantial speed-ups over their classical counterparts and to solve problems intractable for classical computers. Beyond such practical significance, the concept of quantum computation opens up fundamental questions, among them the issue of whether quantum computations can be certified by entities that are inherently unable to compute the results themselves. Here we present the first experimental verification of quantum computation. We show, in theory and experiment, how a verifier with minimal quantum resources can test a significantly more powerful quantum computer. The new verification protocol introduced here uses the framework of blind quantum computing and is independent of the experimental quantum-computation platform used. In our scheme, the verifier is required only to generate single qubits and transmit them to the quantum computer. We experimentally demonstrate this protocol using four photonic qubits and show how the verifier can test the computer's ability to perform quantum computation.
Experimental verification of quantum computations
Stefanie Barz; Joseph F. Fitzsimons; Elham Kashefi; Philip Walther
2013-08-30
Quantum computers are expected to offer substantial speedups over their classical counterparts and to solve problems that are intractable for classical computers. Beyond such practical significance, the concept of quantum computation opens up new fundamental questions, among them the issue whether or not quantum computations can be certified by entities that are inherently unable to compute the results themselves. Here we present the first experimental verification of quantum computations. We show, in theory and in experiment, how a verifier with minimal quantum resources can test a significantly more powerful quantum computer. The new verification protocol introduced in this work utilizes the framework of blind quantum computing and is independent of the experimental quantum-computation platform used. In our scheme, the verifier is only required to generate single qubits and transmit them to the quantum computer. We experimentally demonstrate this protocol using four photonic qubits and show how the verifier can test the computer's ability to perform measurement-based quantum computations.
Quantum Computation: A Computer Science Perspective
Anders K. H. Bengtsson
2005-11-30
The theory of quantum computation is presented in a self contained way from a computer science perspective. The basics of classical computation and quantum mechanics is reviewed. The circuit model of quantum computation is presented in detail. Throughout there is an emphasis on the physical as well as the abstract aspects of computation and the interplay between them. This report is presented as a Master's thesis at the department of Computer Science and Engineering at G{\\"o}teborg University, G{\\"o}teborg, Sweden. The text is part of a larger work that is planned to include chapters on quantum algorithms, the quantum Turing machine model and abstract approaches to quantum computation.
High Performance Quantum Computing
Simon J. Devitt; William J. Munro; Kae Nemoto
2008-10-14
The architecture scalability afforded by recent proposals of a large scale photonic based quantum computer, utilizing the theoretical developments of topological cluster states and the photonic chip, allows us to move on to a discussion of massively scaled Quantum Information Processing (QIP). In this letter we introduce the model for a secure and unsecured topological cluster mainframe. We consider the quantum analogue of High Performance Computing, where a dedicated server farm is utilized by many users to run algorithms and share quantum data. The scaling structure of photonics based topological cluster computing leads to an attractive future for server based QIP, where dedicated mainframes can be constructed and/or expanded to serve an increasingly hungry user base with the ideal resource for individual quantum information processing.
Duality and Recycling Computing in Quantum Computers
Gui Lu Long; Yang Liu
2007-08-15
Quantum computer possesses quantum parallelism and offers great computing power over classical computer \\cite{er1,er2}. As is well-know, a moving quantum object passing through a double-slit exhibits particle wave duality. A quantum computer is static and lacks this duality property. The recently proposed duality computer has exploited this particle wave duality property, and it may offer additional computing power \\cite{r1}. Simply put it, a duality computer is a moving quantum computer passing through a double-slit. A duality computer offers the capability to perform separate operations on the sub-waves coming out of the different slits, in the so-called duality parallelism. Here we show that an $n$-dubit duality computer can be modeled by an $(n+1)$-qubit quantum computer. In a duality mode, computing operations are not necessarily unitary. A $n$-qubit quantum computer can be used as an $n$-bit reversible classical computer and is energy efficient. Our result further enables a $(n+1)$-qubit quantum computer to run classical algorithms in a $O(2^n)$-bit classical computer. The duality mode provides a natural link between classical computing and quantum computing. Here we also propose a recycling computing mode in which a quantum computer will continue to compute until the result is obtained. These two modes provide new tool for algorithm design. A search algorithm for the unsorted database search problem is designed.
G. Brassard
1992-01-01
This paper continues the study of the power of oracles to separate quantum com.plexity classes from classical (including probabilistic and nondeterministic) complexity classes, which we initiated in an earlier paper [5]. The new results are that, under appropriate oracles, (1) there is a decision problem that can be solved in polynomial time on the quantum computer, which would classically require
Quantum Computing and Communication Complexity
ten Cate, Balder
Quantum Computing and Communication Complexity Ronald de Wolf #12;#12;Quantum Computing: http://www.illc.uva.nl/ #12;Quantum Computing and Communication Complexity Academisch Proefschrift ter57760681 #12;Se non `e vero, `e ben trovato. v #12;#12;Contents Acknowledgments xiii 1 Quantum Computing 1 1
T. C. Ralph; G. J. Pryde
2011-03-31
We review the field of Optical Quantum Computation, considering the various implementations that have been proposed and the experimental progress that has been made toward realizing them. We examine both linear and nonlinear approaches and both particle and field encodings. In particular we discuss the prospects for large scale optical quantum computing in terms of the most promising physical architectures and the technical requirements for realizing them.
Universal Blind Quantum Computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fitzsimons, Joseph; Kashefi, Elham
2012-02-01
Blind Quantum Computing (BQC) allows a client to have a server carry out a quantum computation for them such that the client's inputs, outputs and computation remain private. Recently we proposed a universal unconditionally secure BQC scheme, based on the conceptual framework of the measurement-based quantum computing model, where the client only needs to be able to prepare single qubits in separable states randomly chosen from a finite set and send them to the server, who has the balance of the required quantum computational resources. Here we present a refinement of the scheme which vastly expands the class of quantum circuits which can be directly implemented as a blind computation, by introducing a new class of resource states which we term dotted-complete graph states and expanding the set of single qubit states the client is required to prepare. These two modifications significantly simplify the overall protocol and remove the previously present restriction that only nearest-neighbor circuits could be implemented as blind computations directly. As an added benefit, the refined protocol admits a substantially more intuitive and simplified verification mechanism, allowing the correctness of a blind computation to be verified with arbitrarily small probability of error.
Quantum Spin Dynamics and Quantum Computation
H. De Raedt; A. H. Hams; K. Michielsen; S. Miyashita; K. Saito
2000-01-14
We describe a simulation method for a quantum spin model of a generic, general purpose quantum computer. The use of this quantum computer simulator is illustrated through several implementations of Grover's database search algorithm. Some preliminary results on the stability of quantum algorithms are presented.
Efficient Distributed Quantum Computing
Robert Beals; Stephen Brierley; Oliver Gray; Aram Harrow; Samuel Kutin; Noah Linden; Dan Shepherd; Mark Stather
2012-11-16
We provide algorithms for efficiently addressing quantum memory in parallel. These imply that the standard circuit model can be simulated with low overhead by the more realistic model of a distributed quantum computer. As a result, the circuit model can be used by algorithm designers without worrying whether the underlying architecture supports the connectivity of the circuit. In addition, we apply our results to existing memory intensive quantum algorithms. We present a parallel quantum search algorithm and improve the time-space trade-off for the Element Distinctness and Collision problems.
Quantum-enhanced Secure Delegated Classical Computing
Vedran Dunjko; Theodoros Kapourniotis; Elham Kashefi
2014-05-18
We present a quantumly-enhanced protocol to achieve unconditionally secure delegated classical computation where the client and the server have both limited classical and quantum computing capacity. We prove the same task cannot be achieved using only classical protocols. This extends the work of Anders and Browne on the computational power of correlations to a security setting. Concretely, we present how a client with access to a non-universal classical gate such as a parity gate could achieve unconditionally secure delegated universal classical computation by exploiting minimal quantum gadgets. In particular, unlike the universal blind quantum computing protocols, the restriction of the task to classical computing removes the need for a full universal quantum machine on the side of the server and makes these new protocols readily implementable with the currently available quantum technology in the lab.
Robustness of Adiabatic Quantum Computing
Seth Lloyd
2008-05-18
Adiabatic quantum computation for performing quantum computations such as Shor's algorithm is protected against thermal errors by an energy gap of size $O(1/n)$, where $n$ is the length of the computation to be performed.
D. Gross; J. Eisert
2010-05-01
We introduce the notion of quantum computational webs: These are quantum states universal for measurement-based computation which can be built up from a collection of simple primitives. The primitive elements - reminiscent of building blocks in a construction kit - are (i) states on a one-dimensional chain of systems ("computational quantum wires") with the power to process one logical qubit and (ii) suitable couplings which connect the wires to a computationally universal "web". All elements are preparable by nearest-neighbor interactions in a single pass - a type of operation well-suited for a number of physical architectures. We provide a complete classification of qubit wires. This is first instance where a physically well-motivated class of universal resources can be fully understood. Finally, we sketch possible realizations in superlattices, and explore the power of coupling mechanisms based on Ising or exchange-interactions.
Blind topological measurement-based quantum computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morimae, Tomoyuki; Fujii, Keisuke
2012-09-01
Blind quantum computation is a novel secure quantum-computing protocol that enables Alice, who does not have sufficient quantum technology at her disposal, to delegate her quantum computation to Bob, who has a fully fledged quantum computer, in such a way that Bob cannot learn anything about Alice's input, output and algorithm. A recent proof-of-principle experiment demonstrating blind quantum computation in an optical system has raised new challenges regarding the scalability of blind quantum computation in realistic noisy conditions. Here we show that fault-tolerant blind quantum computation is possible in a topologically protected manner using the Raussendorf-Harrington-Goyal scheme. The error threshold of our scheme is 4.3×10-3, which is comparable to that (7.5×10-3) of non-blind topological quantum computation. As the error per gate of the order 10-3 was already achieved in some experimental systems, our result implies that secure cloud quantum computation is within reach.
Lecture notes on Optical Quantum Computing
Pieter Kok
2007-05-29
A quantum computer is a machine that can perform certain calculations much faster than a classical computer by using the laws of quantum mechanics. Quantum computers do not exist yet, because it is extremely difficult to control quantum mechanical systems to the necessary degree. What is more, we do at this moment not know which physical system is the best suited for making a quantum computer (although we have some ideas). It is likely that a mature quantum information processing technology will use (among others) light, because photons are ideal carriers for quantum information. These notes are an expanded version of the five lectures I gave on the possibility of making a quantum computer using light, at the Summer School in Theoretical Physics in Durban, 14-24 January, 2007. There are quite a few proposals using light for quantum computing, and I can highlight only a few here. I will focus on photonic qubits, and leave out continuous variables completely. I assume that the reader is familiar with basic quantum mechanics and introductory quantum computing.
Five Lectures on Optical Quantum Computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kok, Pieter
A quantum computer is a machine that can perform certain calculations much faster than a classical computer by using the laws of quantum mechanics. Quantum computers do not exist yet, because it is extremely difficult to control quantum mechanical systems to the necessary degree. What is more, we do at this moment not know which physical system is the best suited for making a quantum computer (although we have some ideas). It is likely that a mature quantum information processing technology will use (among others) light, because photons are ideal carriers for quantum information. These notes are an expanded version of the five lectures I gave on the possibility of making a quantum computer using light, at the Summer School in Theoretical Physics in Durban, 14-24 January, 2007. There are quite a few proposals using light for quantum computing, and I can highlight only a few here. I will focus on photonic qubits, and leave out continuous variables completely.1 I assume that the reader is familiar with basic quantum mechanics and introductory quantum computing.
Delegating Private Quantum Computations
Anne Broadbent
2015-06-03
We give a protocol for the delegation of quantum computation on encrypted data. More specifically, we show that in a client-server scenario, where the client holds the encryption key for an encrypted quantum register held by the server, it is possible for the server to perform a universal set of quantum gates on the quantum data. All Clifford group gates are non-interactive, while the remaining non-Clifford group gate that we implement (the p/8 gate) requires the client to prepare and send a single random auxiliary qubit (chosen among four possibilities), and exchange classical communication. This construction improves on previous work, which requires either multiple auxiliary qubits or two-way quantum communication. Using a reduction to an entanglement-based protocol, we show privacy against any adversarial server according to a simulation-based security definition.
Jeremy L. O'Brien
2008-03-11
In 2001 all-optical quantum computing became feasible with the discovery that scalable quantum computing is possible using only single photon sources, linear optical elements, and single photon detectors. Although it was in principle scalable, the massive resource overhead made the scheme practically daunting. However, several simplifications were followed by proof-of-principle demonstrations, and recent approaches based on cluster states or error encoding have dramatically reduced this worrying resource overhead, making an all-optical architecture a serious contender for the ultimate goal of a large-scale quantum computer. Key challenges will be the realization of high-efficiency sources of indistinguishable single photons, low-loss, scalable optical circuits, high efficiency single photon detectors, and low-loss interfacing of these components.
Quantum Chaos and Quantum Computing Structures
Carlos Pedro Gonçalves
2012-08-13
A system of quantum computing structures is introduced and proven capable of making emerge, on average, the orbits of classical bounded nonlinear maps on \\mathbb{C} through the iterative action of path-dependent quantum gates. The effects of emerging nonlinear dynamics and chaos upon the quantum averages of relevant observables and quantum probabilities are exemplified for a version of Chirikov's standard map on \\mathbb{C} . Both the individual orbits and ensemble properties are addressed so that the Poincar\\'e map for Chirikov's standard map, in the current quantum setting, is reinterpreted in terms of a quantum ensemble which is then formally introduced within the formalized system of quantum computing structures, in terms of quantum register machines, revealing three phases of quantum ensemble dynamics: the regular, the chaotic and an intermediate phase called complex quantum stochastic phase which shares similarities to the edge of chaos notion from classical cellular automata and classical random boolean networks' evolutionary computation.
Fault-tolerant quantum computation
Shor, P.W. [AT& T Research, Murray Hill, NJ (United States)
1996-12-31
It has recently been realized that use of the properties of quantum mechanics might speed up certain computations dramatically. Interest in quantum computation has since been growing. One of the main difficulties in realizing quantum computation is that decoherence tends to destroy the information in a superposition of states in a quantum computer, making long computations impossible. A further difficulty is that inaccuracies in quantum state transformations throughout the computation accumulate, rendering long computations unreliable. However, these obstacles may not be as formidable as originally believed. For any quantum computation with t gates, we show how to build a polynomial size quantum circuit that tolerates O(1/log{sup c}t) amounts of inaccuracy and decoherence per gate, for some constant c; the previous bound was O(1/t). We do this by showing that operations can be performed on quantum data encoded by quantum error-correcting codes without decoding this data.
Demonstration of blind quantum computing.
Barz, Stefanie; Kashefi, Elham; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph F; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip
2012-01-20
Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to preserve the privacy of a computation. We present an experimental demonstration of blind quantum computing in which the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. Various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover quantum algorithms, are demonstrated. The client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available. PMID:22267806
Quantum++ - A C++11 quantum computing library
Gheorghiu, Vlad
2014-01-01
Quantum++ is a general-purpose multi-threaded quantum computing library written in C++11 and composed solely of header files. The library is not restricted to qubit systems or specific quantum information processing tasks, being capable of simulating arbitrary quantum processes. The main design factors taken in consideration were ease of use, portability, and performance.
Quantum Computation Lecture 3: Quantum Circuits
Vazirani, Umesh
Quantum Computation Lecture 3: Quantum Circuits Lecturer: Umesh Vazirani Scribes: Victor Wen and Nemanja Isailovic 1 Clari#12;cation on Homework 2: Problem 3 Consider an arbitrary quantum circuit: Quantum Circuits 3.1 General Case Suppose we are given n qubits as input, but we only wish to use a single
Quantum++ - A C++11 quantum computing library
Vlad Gheorghiu
2014-12-15
Quantum++ is a general-purpose multi-threaded quantum computing library written in C++11 and composed solely of header files. The library is not restricted to qubit systems or specific quantum information processing tasks, being capable of simulating arbitrary quantum processes. The main design factors taken in consideration were ease of use, portability, and performance.
Mechanical Computation: its Computational Complexity and Technologies
Reif, John H.
Mechanical Computation: its Computational Complexity and Technologies Chapter, Encyclopedia Importance II. Introduction to Computational Complexity III. Computational Complexity of Mechanical Devices and their Movement Problems IV. Concrete Mechanical Computing Devices V. Future Directions VI. Bibliography Glossary
An Introduction to Quantum Computing
Noson S. Yanofsky
2007-08-02
Quantum Computing is a new and exciting field at the intersection of mathematics, computer science and physics. It concerns a utilization of quantum mechanics to improve the efficiency of computation. Here we present a gentle introduction to some of the ideas in quantum computing. The paper begins by motivating the central ideas of quantum mechanics and quantum computation with simple toy models. From there we move on to a formal presentation of the small fraction of (finite dimensional) quantum mechanics that we will need for basic quantum computation. Central notions of quantum architecture (qubits and quantum gates) are described. The paper ends with a presentation of one of the simplest quantum algorithms: Deutsch's algorithm. Our presentation demands neither advanced mathematics nor advanced physics.
Parallel Quantum Computing in a Single Ensemble Quantum Computer
Gui Lu Long; Li Xiao
2003-07-08
We propose a parallel quantum computing mode for ensemble quantum computer. In this mode, some qubits can be in pure states while other qubits in mixed states. It enables a single ensemble quantum computer to perform $"$single-instruction-multi-data" type of parallel computation. In Grover's algorithm and Shor's algorithm, parallel quantum computing can provide additional speedup. In addition, it also makes a fuller use of qubit resources in an ensemble quantum computer. As a result, some qubits discarded in the preparation of an effective pure state in the Schulman-Varizani, and the Cleve-DiVincenzo algorithms can be re-utilized.
Reliable quantum certification for photonic quantum technologies
L. Aolita; C. Gogolin; M. Kliesch; J. Eisert
2015-01-09
A major roadblock for large-scale photonic quantum technologies is the lack of practical reliable certification tools. We introduce an experimentally friendly - yet mathematically rigorous - certification test for experimental preparations of arbitrary m-mode pure Gaussian states, pure non-Gaussian states generated by linear-optical circuits with n-boson Fock-basis states as inputs, and states of these two classes subsequently post-selected with local measurements on ancillary modes. The protocol is efficient in m and the inverse post-selection success probability for all Gaussian states and all mentioned non-Gaussian states with constant n. We follow the mindset of an untrusted prover, who prepares the state, and a skeptic certifier, with classical computing and single-mode homodyne-detection capabilities only. No assumptions are made on the type of noise or capabilities of the prover. Our technique exploits an extremality-based fidelity bound whose estimation relies on non-Gaussian state nullifiers, which we introduce on the way as a byproduct result. The certification of many-mode photonic networks, as those used for photonic quantum simulations, boson samplers, and quantum metrology, is now within reach.
Local Hamiltonians in quantum computation
Nagaj, Daniel
2008-01-01
In this thesis, I investigate aspects of local Hamiltonians in quantum computing. First, I focus on the Adiabatic Quantum Computing model, based on evolution with a time- dependent Hamiltonian. I show that to succeed using ...
An optically driven quantum dot quantum computer
G. D. Sanders; K. W. Kim; W. C. Holton
1999-09-22
We propose a quantum computer structure based on coupled asymmetric single-electron quantum dots. Adjacent dots are strongly coupled by means of electric dipole-dipole interactions enabling rapid computation rates. Further, the asymmetric structures can be tailored for a long coherence time. The result maximizes the number of computation cycles prior to loss of coherence.
Triple-server blind quantum computation using entanglement swapping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Qin; Chan, Wai Hong; Wu, Chunhui; Wen, Zhonghua
2014-04-01
Blind quantum computation allows a client who does not have enough quantum resources or technologies to achieve quantum computation on a remote quantum server such that the client's input, output, and algorithm remain unknown to the server. Up to now, single- and double-server blind quantum computation have been considered. In this work, we propose a triple-server blind computation protocol where the client can delegate quantum computation to three quantum servers by the use of entanglement swapping. Furthermore, the three quantum servers can communicate with each other and the client is almost classical since one does not require any quantum computational power, quantum memory, and the ability to prepare any quantum states and only needs to be capable of getting access to quantum channels.
quantph/9812037 QUANTUM COMPUTATION \\Lambda
Crépeau, Claude
quantph/9812037 15 Dec 1998 QUANTUM COMPUTATION \\Lambda Dorit Aharonov Departments of Physics, theoretical study of quantum systems serving as computational devices has achieved tremendous progress. We now have strong theoretical evidence that quantum computers, if built, might be used as a dramatically
From Geometry to Quantum Computation
Kazuyuki Fujii
2001-07-26
The aim of this paper is to introduce our idea of Holonomic Quantum Computation (Computer). Our model is based on both harmonic oscillators and non-linear quantum optics, not on spins of usual quantum computation and our method is moreover completely geometrical. We hope that therefore our model may be strong for decoherence.
Adiabatic Quantum Computation is Equivalent to Standard Quantum Computation
Dorit Aharonov; Wim van Dam; Julia Kempe; Zeph Landau; Seth Lloyd; Oded Regev
2005-03-26
Adiabatic quantum computation has recently attracted attention in the physics and computer science communities, but its computational power was unknown. We describe an efficient adiabatic simulation of any given quantum algorithm, which implies that the adiabatic computation model and the conventional quantum computation model are polynomially equivalent. Our result can be extended to the physically realistic setting of particles arranged on a two-dimensional grid with nearest neighbor interactions. The equivalence between the models provides a new vantage point from which to tackle the central issues in quantum computation, namely designing new quantum algorithms and constructing fault tolerant quantum computers. In particular, by translating the main open questions in the area of quantum algorithms to the language of spectral gaps of sparse matrices, the result makes these questions accessible to a wider scientific audience, acquainted with mathematical physics, expander theory and rapidly mixing Markov chains.
Arun Sehrawat; Daniel Zemann; Berthold-Georg Englert
2010-09-25
We present a hybrid model of the unitary-evolution-based quantum computation model and the measurement-based quantum computation model. In the hybrid model part of a quantum circuit is simulated by unitary evolution and the rest by measurements on star graph states, thereby combining the advantages of the two standard quantum computation models. In the hybrid model, a complicated unitary gate under simulation is decomposed in terms of a sequence of single-qubit operations, the controlled-Z gates, and multi-qubit rotations around the z-axis. Every single-qubit- and the controlled-Z gate are realized by a respective unitary evolution, and every multi-qubit rotation is executed by a single measurement on a required star graph state. The classical information processing in our model only needs an information flow vector and propagation matrices. We provide the implementation of multi-control gates in the hybrid model. They are very useful for implementing Grover's search algorithm, which is studied as an illustrating example.
Relativistic quantum chemistry on quantum computers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Veis, Libor; Viš?ák, Jakub; Fleig, Timo; Knecht, Stefan; Saue, Trond; Visscher, Lucas; Pittner, Ji?í
2012-03-01
The past few years have witnessed a remarkable interest in the application of quantum computing for solving problems in quantum chemistry more efficiently than classical computers allow. Very recently, proof-of-principle experimental realizations have been reported. However, so far only the nonrelativistic regime (i.e., the Schrödinger equation) has been explored, while it is well known that relativistic effects can be very important in chemistry. We present a quantum algorithm for relativistic computations of molecular energies. We show how to efficiently solve the eigenproblem of the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian on a quantum computer and demonstrate the functionality of the proposed procedure by numerical simulations of computations of the spin-orbit splitting in the SbH molecule. Finally, we propose quantum circuits with three qubits and nine or ten controlled-not (cnot) gates, which implement a proof-of-principle relativistic quantum chemical calculation for this molecule and might be suitable for an experimental realization.
Relativistic quantum chemistry on quantum computers
Libor Veis; Jakub Viš?ák; Timo Fleig; Stefan Knecht; Trond Saue; Lucas Visscher; Ji?í Pittner
2012-03-26
Last years witnessed a remarkable interest in application of quantum computing for solving problems in quantum chemistry more efficiently than classical computers allow. Very recently, even first proof-of-principle experimental realizations have been reported. However, so far only the non-relativistic regime (i.e. Schroedinger equation) has been explored, while it is well known that relativistic effects can be very important in chemistry. In this letter we present the first quantum algorithm for relativistic computations of molecular energies. We show how to efficiently solve the eigenproblem of the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian on a quantum computer and demonstrate the functionality of the proposed procedure by numerical simulations of computations of the spin-orbit splitting in the SbH molecule. Finally, we propose quantum circuits with 3 qubits and 9 or 10 CNOTs, which implement a proof-of-principle relativistic quantum chemical calculation for this molecule and might be suitable for an experimental realization.
Arrighi, P; Arrighi, Pablo; Salvail, Louis
2003-01-01
We investigate the possibility of having someone carry out the work of executing a function for you, but without letting him learn anything about your input. Say Alice wants Bob to compute some well-known function f upon her input x, but wants to prevent Bob from learning anything about x. The situation arises for instance if client Alice has limited computational resources in comparison with mistrusted server Bob, or if x is an inherently mobile piece of data. Could there be a protocol whereby Bob is forced to compute f(x) "blindly", i.e. without observing x? We provide such a blind computation protocol for the class of functions which admit an efficient procedure to generate random input-output pairs, e.g. factorization. The setting is quantum, the security is unconditional, the eavesdropper is as malicious as can be. Keywords: Secure Circuit Evaluation, Secure Two-party Computation, Information Hiding, Information gain vs disturbance.
Ground state blind quantum computation on AKLT state
Tomoyuki Morimae; Vedran Dunjko; Elham Kashefi
2010-01-01
The blind quantum computing protocols (BQC) enable a classical client with limited quantum technology to delegate a computation to the quantum server(s) in such a way that the privacy of the computation is preserved. Here we present a new scheme for BQC that uses the concept of the measurement based quantum computing with the novel resource state of Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki (AKLT)
Digital Technology Group Computer Laboratory
Cambridge, University of
Digital Technology Group 1/20 Computer Laboratory Digital Technology Group Computer Laboratory William R Carson Building on the presentation by Francisco Monteiro Matlab #12;Digital Technology Group 2/20 Computer Laboratory Digital Technology Group Computer Laboratory The product: MATLAB® - The Language
Quantum computing of semiclassical formulas
B. Georgeot; O. Giraud
2008-01-30
We show that semiclassical formulas such as the Gutzwiller trace formula can be implemented on a quantum computer more efficiently than on a classical device. We give explicit quantum algorithms which yield quantum observables from classical trajectories, and which alternatively test the semiclassical approximation by computing classical actions from quantum evolution. The gain over classical computation is in general quadratic, and can be larger in some specific cases.
Quantum Computing with Superqubits
Leonardo Castellani; Pietro Antonio Grassi; Luca Sommovigo
2010-01-21
We analyze some aspects of quantum computing with super-qubits (squbits). We propose the analogue of a superfield formalism, and give a physical interpretation for the Grassmann coefficients in the squbit expansion as fermionic creation operators of an auxiliary quantum system. In the simplest case the squbit is a superposition of one Bose X Bose and one Fermi X Fermi state, and its norm is invariant under a U(2) group realized with Clifford-valued matrices. This case can be generalized to a superposition of n_B bosonic and n_F fermionic states, with a norm invariant under U(n_B + n_F). Entanglement between squbits, super quantum gates and teleportation are discussed.
Universal quantum computation with weakly integral anyons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Shawn X.; Hong, Seung-Moon; Wang, Zhenghan
2015-05-01
Harnessing non-abelian statistics of anyons to perform quantum computational tasks is getting closer to reality. While the existence of universal anyons by braiding alone such as the Fibonacci anyon is theoretically a possibility, accessible anyons with current technology all belong to a class that is called weakly integral—anyons whose squared quantum dimensions are integers. We analyze the computational power of the first non-abelian anyon system with only integral quantum dimensions—D(S_3) , the quantum double of S_3 . Since all anyons in D(S_3) have finite images of braid group representations, they cannot be universal for quantum computation by braiding alone. Based on our knowledge of the images of the braid group representations, we set up three qutrit computational models. Supplementing braidings with some measurements and ancillary states, we find a universal gate set for each model.
Quantum Annealing and Analog Quantum Computation
Arnab Das; Bikas K. Chakrabarti
2008-03-24
We review here the recent success in quantum annealing, i.e., optimization of the cost or energy functions of complex systems utilizing quantum fluctuations. The concept is introduced in successive steps through the studies of mapping of such computationally hard problems to the classical spin glass problems. The quantum spin glass problems arise with the introduction of quantum fluctuations, and the annealing behavior of the systems as these fluctuations are reduced slowly to zero. This provides a general framework for realizing analog quantum computation.
Quantum Computation vs. Firewalls
Harlow, Daniel
2013-01-01
In this paper we discuss quantum computational restrictions on the types of thought experiments recently used by Almheiri, Marolf, Polchinski, and Sully to argue against the smoothness of black hole horizons. We argue that the quantum computations required to do these experiments take a time which is exponential in the entropy of the black hole under study, and we show that for a wide variety of black holes this prevents the experiments from being done. We interpret our results as motivating a broader type of non-locality than is usually considered in the context of black hole thought experiments, and claim that once this type of non-locality is allowed there is no need for firewalls. Our results do not threaten the unitarity of of black hole evaporation or the ability of advanced civilizations to test it.
Quantum Computation vs. Firewalls
Daniel Harlow; Patrick Hayden
2013-04-06
In this paper we discuss quantum computational restrictions on the types of thought experiments recently used by Almheiri, Marolf, Polchinski, and Sully to argue against the smoothness of black hole horizons. We argue that the quantum computations required to do these experiments take a time which is exponential in the entropy of the black hole under study, and we show that for a wide variety of black holes this prevents the experiments from being done. We interpret our results as motivating a broader type of non-locality than is usually considered in the context of black hole thought experiments, and claim that once this type of non-locality is allowed there may be no need for firewalls. Our results do not threaten the unitarity of of black hole evaporation or the ability of advanced civilizations to test it.
Measurement-based quantum computation
H. J. Briegel; D. E. Browne; W. Dür; R. Raussendorf; M. Van den Nest
2009-10-09
Quantum computation offers a promising new kind of information processing, where the non-classical features of quantum mechanics can be harnessed and exploited. A number of models of quantum computation exist, including the now well-studied quantum circuit model. Although these models have been shown to be formally equivalent, their underlying elementary concepts and the requirements for their practical realization can differ significantly. The new paradigm of measurement-based quantum computation, where the processing of quantum information takes place by rounds of simple measurements on qubits prepared in a highly entangled state, is particularly exciting in this regard. In this article we discuss a number of recent developments in measurement-based quantum computation in both fundamental and practical issues, in particular regarding the power of quantum computation, the protection against noise (fault tolerance) and steps toward experimental realization. Moreover, we highlight a number of surprising connections between this field and other branches of physics and mathematics.
Quantum computing on encrypted data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fisher, K. A. G.; Broadbent, A.; Shalm, L. K.; Yan, Z.; Lavoie, J.; Prevedel, R.; Jennewein, T.; Resch, K. J.
2014-01-01
The ability to perform computations on encrypted data is a powerful tool for protecting privacy. Recently, protocols to achieve this on classical computing systems have been found. Here, we present an efficient solution to the quantum analogue of this problem that enables arbitrary quantum computations to be carried out on encrypted quantum data. We prove that an untrusted server can implement a universal set of quantum gates on encrypted quantum bits (qubits) without learning any information about the inputs, while the client, knowing the decryption key, can easily decrypt the results of the computation. We experimentally demonstrate, using single photons and linear optics, the encryption and decryption scheme on a set of gates sufficient for arbitrary quantum computations. As our protocol requires few extra resources compared with other schemes it can be easily incorporated into the design of future quantum servers. These results will play a key role in enabling the development of secure distributed quantum systems.
Quantum Gravity on a Quantum Computer?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kempf, Achim
2014-05-01
EPR-type measurements on spatially separated entangled spin qubits allow one, in principle, to detect curvature. Also the entanglement of the vacuum state is affected by curvature. Here, we ask if the curvature of spacetime can be expressed entirely in terms of the spatial entanglement structure of the vacuum. This would open up the prospect that quantum gravity could be simulated on a quantum computer and that quantum information techniques could be fully employed in the study of quantum gravity.
Quantum Gravity on a Quantum Computer?
Kempf, Achim
2013-01-01
EPR-type measurements on spatially separated entangled spin qubits allow one, in principle, to detect curvature. Also the entanglement of the vacuum state is affected by curvature. Here, we ask if the curvature of spacetime can be expressed entirely in terms of the spatial entanglement structure of the vacuum. This would open up the prospect that quantum gravity could be simulated on a quantum computer and that quantum information techniques could be fully employed in the study of quantum gravity.
Quantum Walk Schemes for Universal Quantum Computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Underwood, Michael S.
Random walks are a powerful tool for the efficient implementation of algorithms in classical computation. Their quantum-mechanical analogues, called quantum walks, hold similar promise. Quantum walks provide a model of quantum computation that has recently been shown to be equivalent in power to the standard circuit model. As in the classical case, quantum walks take place on graphs and can undergo discrete or continuous evolution, though quantum evolution is unitary and therefore deterministic until a measurement is made. This thesis considers the usefulness of continuous-time quantum walks to quantum computation from the perspectives of both their fundamental power under various formulations, and their applicability in practical experiments. In one extant scheme, logical gates are effected by scattering processes. The results of an exhaustive search for single-qubit operations in this model are presented. It is shown that the number of distinct operations increases exponentially with the number of vertices in the scattering graph. A catalogue of all graphs on up to nine vertices that implement single-qubit unitaries at a specific set of momenta is included in an appendix. I develop a novel scheme for universal quantum computation called the discontinuous quantum walk, in which a continuous-time quantum walker takes discrete steps of evolution via perfect quantum state transfer through small 'widget' graphs. The discontinuous quantum-walk scheme requires an exponentially sized graph, as do prior discrete and continuous schemes. To eliminate the inefficient vertex resource requirement, a computation scheme based on multiple discontinuous walkers is presented. In this model, n interacting walkers inhabiting a graph with 2n vertices can implement an arbitrary quantum computation on an input of length n, an exponential savings over previous universal quantum walk schemes. This is the first quantum walk scheme that allows for the application of quantum error correction. The many-particle quantum walk can be viewed as a single quantum walk undergoing perfect state transfer on a larger weighted graph, obtained via equitable partitioning. I extend this formalism to non-simple graphs. Examples of the application of equitable partitioning to the analysis of quantum walks and many-particle quantum systems are discussed.
Decoherence in adiabatic quantum computation
Tameem Albash; Daniel A. Lidar
2015-06-19
Recent experiments with increasingly larger numbers of qubits have sparked renewed interest in adiabatic quantum computation, and in particular quantum annealing. A central question that is repeatedly asked is whether quantum features of the evolution can survive over the long time-scales used for quantum annealing relative to standard measures of the decoherence time. We reconsider the role of decoherence in adiabatic quantum computation and quantum annealing using the adiabatic quantum master equation formalism. We restrict ourselves to the weak-coupling and singular-coupling limits, which correspond to decoherence in the energy eigenbasis and in the computational basis, respectively. We demonstrate that decoherence in the instantaneous energy eigenbasis does not necessarily detrimentally affect adiabatic quantum computation, and in particular that a short single-qubit $T_2$ time need not imply adverse consequences for the success of the quantum adiabatic algorithm. We further demonstrate that boundary cancellation methods, designed to improve the fidelity of adiabatic quantum computing in the closed system setting, remain beneficial in the open system setting. To address the high computational cost of master equation simulations, we also demonstrate that a quantum Monte Carlo algorithm that explicitly accounts for a thermal bosonic bath can be used to interpolate between classical and quantum annealing. Our study highlights and clarifies the significantly different role played by decoherence in the adiabatic and circuit models of quantum computing.
Decoherence in adiabatic quantum computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albash, Tameem; Lidar, Daniel A.
2015-06-01
Recent experiments with increasingly larger numbers of qubits have sparked renewed interest in adiabatic quantum computation, and in particular quantum annealing. A central question that is repeatedly asked is whether quantum features of the evolution can survive over the long time scales used for quantum annealing relative to standard measures of the decoherence time. We reconsider the role of decoherence in adiabatic quantum computation and quantum annealing using the adiabatic quantum master-equation formalism. We restrict ourselves to the weak-coupling and singular-coupling limits, which correspond to decoherence in the energy eigenbasis and in the computational basis, respectively. We demonstrate that decoherence in the instantaneous energy eigenbasis does not necessarily detrimentally affect adiabatic quantum computation, and in particular that a short single-qubit T2 time need not imply adverse consequences for the success of the quantum adiabatic algorithm. We further demonstrate that boundary cancellation methods, designed to improve the fidelity of adiabatic quantum computing in the closed-system setting, remain beneficial in the open-system setting. To address the high computational cost of master-equation simulations, we also demonstrate that a quantum Monte Carlo algorithm that explicitly accounts for a thermal bosonic bath can be used to interpolate between classical and quantum annealing. Our study highlights and clarifies the significantly different role played by decoherence in the adiabatic and circuit models of quantum computing.
Measurement-based quantum computation
D. E. Browne; R. Raussendorf; M. Van den Nest; H. J. Briegel
2009-01-01
Quantum computation offers a promising new kind of information processing, where the non-classical features of quantum mechanics are harnessed and exploited. A number of models of quantum computation exist. These models have been shown to be formally equivalent, but their underlying elementary concepts and the requirements for their practical realization can differ significantly. A particularly exciting paradigm is that of
Optical implementation of quantum computers
John Rarity; Harald Weinfurter
2004-01-01
A topical issue of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics will be devoted to recent advances in optical implementation of quantum computers. The topics to be covered will include, but are not limited to: • Linear optics quantum gates • Progress towards nonlinear optics quantum gates • Interface between optical qubits and atomic\\/solid state qubits • Novel architectures
Chaudhuri, Surajit
research conferences to present papers or posters at special sessions each year. Winners receive prizes projects. cra.org/awards/undergrad Microsoft Research Faculty Fellows Every year since 2005, we have information about how Microsoft Research tools and technologies can enhance your computer science research
The universe as quantum computer
Lloyd, Seth
2013-01-01
This article reviews the history of digital computation, and investigates just how far the concept of computation can be taken. In particular, I address the question of whether the universe itself is in fact a giant computer, and if so, just what kind of computer it is. I will show that the universe can be regarded as a giant quantum computer. The quantum computational model of the universe explains a variety of observed phenomena not encompassed by the ordinary laws of physics. In particular, the model shows that the the quantum computational universe automatically gives rise to a mix of randomness and order, and to both simple and complex systems.
Beyond Quantum Computation and Towards Quantum Field Computation
A. C. Manoharan
2003-04-19
Because the subject of relativistic quantum field theory (QFT) contains all of non-relativistic quantum mechanics, we expect quantum field computation to contain (non-relativistic) quantum computation. Although we do not yet have a quantum theory of the gravitational field, and are far from a practical implementation of a quantum field computer, some pieces of the puzzle (without gravity) are now available. We consider a general model for computation with quantum field theory, and obtain some results for relativistic quantum computation. Moreover, it is possible to see new connections between principal models of computation, namely, computation over the continuum and computation over the integers (Turing computation). Thus we identify a basic problem in QFT, namely Wightman's computation problem for domains of holomorphy, which we call WHOLO. Inspired by the same analytic functions which are central to the famous CPT theorem of QFT, it is possible to obtain a computational complexity structure for QFT and shed new light on certain complexity classes for this problem WHOLO.
Self-correcting quantum computers
Chhajlany, R W
Is the notion of a quantum computer (QC) resilient to thermal noise unphysical? We address this question from a constructive perspective and show that local quantum Hamiltonian models provide self-correcting QCs. To this ...
Quantum Walks, Quantum Gates and Quantum Computers
Andrew P. Hines; P. C. E. Stamp
2007-01-14
The physics of quantum walks on graphs is formulated in Hamiltonian language, both for simple quantum walks and for composite walks, where extra discrete degrees of freedom live at each node of the graph. It is shown how to map between quantum walk Hamiltonians and Hamiltonians for qubit systems and quantum circuits; this is done for both a single- and multi-excitation coding, and for more general mappings. Specific examples of spin chains, as well as static and dynamic systems of qubits, are mapped to quantum walks, and walks on hyperlattices and hypercubes are mapped to various gate systems. We also show how to map a quantum circuit performing the quantum Fourier transform, the key element of Shor's algorithm, to a quantum walk system doing the same. The results herein are an essential preliminary to a Hamiltonian formulation of quantum walks in which coupling to a dynamic quantum environment is included.
Quantum computing with defects
Weber, J. R.; Koehl, W. F.; Varley, J. B.; Janotti, A.; Buckley, B. B.; Van de Walle, C. G.; Awschalom, D. D.
2010-01-01
Identifying and designing physical systems for use as qubits, the basic units of quantum information, are critical steps in the development of a quantum computer. Among the possibilities in the solid state, a defect in diamond known as the nitrogen-vacancy (NV-1) center stands out for its robustness—its quantum state can be initialized, manipulated, and measured with high fidelity at room temperature. Here we describe how to systematically identify other deep center defects with similar quantum-mechanical properties. We present a list of physical criteria that these centers and their hosts should meet and explain how these requirements can be used in conjunction with electronic structure theory to intelligently sort through candidate defect systems. To illustrate these points in detail, we compare electronic structure calculations of the NV-1 center in diamond with those of several deep centers in 4H silicon carbide (SiC). We then discuss the proposed criteria for similar defects in other tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors. PMID:20404195
Quantum discord in quantum computation
Aharon Brodutch; Alexei Gilchrist; Daniel R. Terno; Christopher J. Wood
2011-01-11
Quantum discord is a measure of the quantumness of correlations. After reviewing its different versions and properties, we apply it to the questions of quantum information processing. First we show that changes in discord in the processed unentangled states indicate the need for entanglement in the distributed implementation of quantum gates. On the other hand, it was shown that zero system-environment discord is a necessary and sufficient condition for applicability of the standard completely positive description of the system's evolution. We demonstrate that this result does not translate into useful quantum process tomography. Depending on the details of the preparation procedure only absence of any initial correlations may guarantees consistency of the process tomography.
A Theory of Physical Quantum Computation: The Quantum Computer Condition
Gerald Gilbert; Michael Hamrick; F. Javier Thayer
2005-07-20
In this paper we present a new unified theoretical framework that describes the full dynamics of quantum computation. Our formulation allows any questions pertaining to the physical behavior of a quantum computer to be framed, and in principle, answered. We refer to the central organizing principle developed in this paper, on which our theoretical structure is based, as the *Quantum Computer Condition* (QCC), a rigorous mathematical statement that connects the irreversible dynamics of the quantum computing machine, with the reversible operations that comprise the quantum computation intended to be carried out by the quantum computing machine. Armed with the QCC, we derive a powerful result that we call the *Encoding No-Go Theorem*. This theorem gives a precise mathematical statement of the conditions under which fault-tolerant quantum computation becomes impossible in the presence of dissipation and/or decoherence. In connection with this theorem, we explicitly calculate a universal critical damping value for fault-tolerant quantum computation. In addition we show that the recently-discovered approach to quantum error correction known as "operator quantum error-correction" (OQEC) is a special case of our more general formulation. Our approach furnishes what we will refer to as "operator quantum fault-tolerance" (OQFT). In particular, we show how the QCC allows one to derive error thresholds for fault tolerance in a completely general context. We prove the existence of solutions to a class of time-dependent generalizations of the Lindblad equation. Using the QCC, we also show that the seemingly different circuit, graph- (including cluster-) state, and adiabatic paradigms for quantum computing are in fact all manifestations of a single, universal paradigm for all physical quantum computation.
Hypercomputation based on quantum computing
Sicard, A; Ospina, J; Sicard, Andr\\'es; V\\'elez, Mario; Ospina, Juan
2004-01-01
We present a quantum algorithm for a (classically) incomputable decision problem: the Hilbert's tenth problem; namely, we present a hypercomputation model based on quantum computation. The model is inspired by the one proposed by Tien D. Kieu. Our model exploits the quantum adiabatic process and the characteristics of the representation of the dynamical algebra su(1,1) associated to the infinite square well. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the model proposed is a universal quantum computation model.
Types for Quantum Computing Ross Duncan
Oxford, University of
Types for Quantum Computing Ross Duncan Merton College, Oxford Oxford University Computing computation. We introduce logical and graphical syntax for quantum mechanical processes and prove demonstrate how these representations may be used to reason about the behaviour of quantum computational
Quantum technology and its applications
Boshier, Malcolm [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berkeland, Dana [USG; Govindan, Tr [ARO; Abo - Shaeer, Jamil [DARPA
2010-12-10
Quantum states of matter can be exploited as high performance sensors for measuring time, gravity, rotation, and electromagnetic fields, and quantum states of light provide powerful new tools for imaging and communication. Much attention is being paid to the ultimate limits of this quantum technology. For example, it has already been shown that exotic quantum states can be used to measure or image with higher precision or higher resolution or lower radiated power than any conventional technologies, and proof-of-principle experiments demonstrating measurement precision below the standard quantum limit (shot noise) are just starting to appear. However, quantum technologies have another powerful advantage beyond pure sensing performance that may turn out to be more important in practical applications: the potential for building devices with lower size/weight/power (SWaP) and cost requirements than existing instruments. The organizers of Quantum Technology Applications Workshop (QTAW) have several goals: (1) Bring together sponsors, researchers, engineers and end users to help build a stronger quantum technology community; (2) Identify how quantum systems might improve the performance of practical devices in the near- to mid-term; and (3) Identify applications for which more long term investment is necessary to realize improved performance for realistic applications. To realize these goals, the QTAW II workshop included fifty scientists, engineers, managers and sponsors from academia, national laboratories, government and the private-sector. The agenda included twelve presentations, a panel discussion, several breaks for informal exchanges, and a written survey of participants. Topics included photon sources, optics and detectors, squeezed light, matter waves, atomic clocks and atom magnetometry. Corresponding applications included communication, imaging, optical interferometry, navigation, gravimetry, geodesy, biomagnetism, and explosives detection. Participants considered the physics and engineering of quantum and conventional technologies, and how quantum techniques could (or could not) overcome limitations of conventional systems. They identified several auxiliary technologies that needed to be further developed in order to make quantum technology more accessible. Much of the discussion also focused on specific applications of quantum technology and how to push the technology into broader communities, which would in turn identify new uses of the technology. Since our main interest is practical improvement of devices and techniques, we take a liberal definition of 'quantum technology': a system that utilizes preparation and measurement of a well-defined coherent quantum state. This nomenclature encompasses features broader than entanglement, squeezing or quantum correlations, which are often more difficult to utilize outside of a laboratory environment. Still, some applications discussed in the workshop do take advantage of these 'quantum-enhanced' features. They build on the more established quantum technologies that are amenable to manipulation at the quantum level, such as atom magnetometers and atomic clocks. Understanding and developing those technologies through traditional engineering will clarify where quantum-enhanced features can be used most effectively, in addition to providing end users with improved devices in the near-term.
Interfacing External Quantum Devices to a Universal Quantum Computer
Lagana, Antonio A.; Lohe, Max A.; von Smekal, Lorenz
2011-01-01
We present a scheme to use external quantum devices using the universal quantum computer previously constructed. We thereby show how the universal quantum computer can utilize networked quantum information resources to carry out local computations. Such information may come from specialized quantum devices or even from remote universal quantum computers. We show how to accomplish this by devising universal quantum computer programs that implement well known oracle based quantum algorithms, namely the Deutsch, Deutsch-Jozsa, and the Grover algorithms using external black-box quantum oracle devices. In the process, we demonstrate a method to map existing quantum algorithms onto the universal quantum computer. PMID:22216276
Quantum technology and cryptology for information security
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naqvi, Syed; Riguidel, Michel
2007-04-01
Cryptology and information security are set to play a more prominent role in the near future. In this regard, quantum communication and cryptography offer new opportunities to tackle ICT security. Quantum Information Processing and Communication (QIPC) is a scientific field where new conceptual foundations and techniques are being developed. They promise to play an important role in the future of information Security. It is therefore essential to have a cross-fertilizing development between quantum technology and cryptology in order to address the security challenges of the emerging quantum era. In this article, we discuss the impact of quantum technology on the current as well as future crypto-techniques. We then analyse the assumptions on which quantum computers may operate. Then we present our vision for the distribution of security attributes using a novel form of trust based on Heisenberg's uncertainty; and, building highly secure quantum networks based on the clear transmission of single photons and/or bundles of photons able to withstand unauthorized reading as a result of secure protocols based on the observations of quantum mechanics. We argue how quantum cryptographic systems need to be developed that can take advantage of the laws of physics to provide long-term security based on solid assumptions. This requires a structured integration effort to deploy quantum technologies within the existing security infrastructure. Finally, we conclude that classical cryptographic techniques need to be redesigned and upgraded in view of the growing threat of cryptanalytic attacks posed by quantum information processing devices leading to the development of post-quantum cryptography.
A potentially realizable quantum computer.
Lloyd, S
1993-09-17
Arrays of weakly coupled quantum systems might compute if subjected to a sequence of electromagnetic pulses of well-defined frequency and length. Such pulsed arrays are true quantum computers: Bits can be placed in superpositionsof 0 and 1, logical operations take place coherently, and dissipation is required only for error correction. Operated with frequent error correction, such a system functions as a parallel digital computer. Operated in a quantum-mechanically coherent manner, such a device functions as a generalpurpose quantum-mechanical micromanipulator, capable of both creating any desired quantum state of the array and transforming that state in any desired way. PMID:17798117
Cluster-state quantum computation
Michael A. Nielsen
2005-07-01
This article is a short introduction to and review of the cluster-state model of quantum computation, in which coherent quantum information processing is accomplished via a sequence of single-qubit measurements applied to a fixed quantum state known as a cluster state. We also discuss a few novel properties of the model, including a proof that the cluster state cannot occur as the exact ground state of any naturally occurring physical system, and a proof that measurements on any quantum state which is linearly prepared in one dimension can be efficiently simulated on a classical computer, and thus are not candidates for use as a substrate for quantum computation.
Multi-party Quantum Computation
Adam Smith
2001-11-06
We investigate definitions of and protocols for multi-party quantum computing in the scenario where the secret data are quantum systems. We work in the quantum information-theoretic model, where no assumptions are made on the computational power of the adversary. For the slightly weaker task of verifiable quantum secret sharing, we give a protocol which tolerates any t < n/4 cheating parties (out of n). This is shown to be optimal. We use this new tool to establish that any multi-party quantum computation can be securely performed as long as the number of dishonest players is less than n/6.
Computational Methods for Simulating Quantum Computers H. De Raedt
mechanics and quantum chemistry, it is well known that simulating an interacting quantum many-body systemComputational Methods for Simulating Quantum Computers H. De Raedt and K. Michielsen Department to simulate quantum computers. It covers the basic concepts of quantum computation and quantum algorithms
Karl Tordrup; Antonio Negretti; Klaus Molmer
2008-07-22
We propose that a single mesoscopic ensemble of trapped polar molecules can support a "holographic quantum computer" with hundreds of qubits encoded in collective excitations with definite spatial phase variations. Each phase pattern is uniquely addressed by optical Raman processes with classical optical fields, while one- and two-qubit gates are accomplished by selectively transferring the individual qubit states to a stripline microwave cavity field and a Cooper pair box where controllable two-level unitary dynamics is governed by classical microwave fields.
Geometrical perspective on quantum states and quantum computation
Zeqian Chen
2013-11-20
We interpret quantum computing as a geometric evolution process by reformulating finite quantum systems via Connes' noncommutative geometry. In this formulation, quantum states are represented as noncommutative connections, while gauge transformations on the connections play a role of unitary quantum operations. Thereby, a geometrical model for quantum computation is presented, which is equivalent to the quantum circuit model. This result shows a geometric way of realizing quantum computing and as such, provides an alternative proposal of building a quantum computer.
Quantum computing in a piece of glass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, Warner A.; Alsing, Paul M.; Kreymerman, Grigoriy; McDonald, Jonathan R.; Tison, Christopher
2011-05-01
Quantum gates and simple quantum algorithms can be designed utilizing the diffraction phenomena of a photon within a multiplexed holographic element. The quantum eigenstates we use are the photon's linear momentum (LM) as measured by the number of waves of tilt across the aperture. Two properties of quantum computing within the circuit model make this approach attractive. First, any conditional measurement can be commuted in time with any unitary quantum gate - the timeless nature of quantum computing. Second, photon entanglement can be encoded as a superposition state of a single photon in a higher-dimensional state space afforded by LM. Our theoretical and numerical results indicate that OptiGrate's photo-thermal refractive (PTR) glass is an enabling technology. We will review our previous design of a quantum projection operator and give credence to this approach on a representative quantum gate grounded on coupled-mode theory and numerical simulations, all with parameters consistent with PTR glass. We discuss the strengths (high efficiencies, robustness to environment) and limitations (scalability, crosstalk) of this technology. While not scalable, the utility and robustness of such optical elements for broader quantum information processing applications can be substantial.
Internet Archive: Computers & Technology
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2012-04-06
This particular corner of the Internet Archive brings together a variety of videos about computing and technology, paying special attention to two television programs from the 1980s and 1990s: Computer Chronicles and Net Cafe. Computer Chronicles was hosted by Stewart Cheifet and it was produced from 1983 to 2002. Visitors can watch many of these episodes and might start by looking at a profile of Bill Gates from 1998 and a rather interesting show on the possibilities of virtual reality. Visitors can also look over the rather cool Staff Picks area where they can watch shows on the Commodore 64 and MIDI Music. Net Cafe was produced from 1996 to 2002 and visitors can watch archived episodes of it as well.
Quantum computation beyond the circuit model
Jordan, Stephen Paul
2008-01-01
The quantum circuit model is the most widely used model of quantum computation. It provides both a framework for formulating quantum algorithms and an architecture for the physical construction of quantum computers. However, ...
Nonlinear optics quantum computing with circuit QED
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adhikari, Prabin; Hafezi, Mohammad; Taylor, Jacob
2012-02-01
One approach to quantum information processing is to use photons as quantum bits and rely on linear optical elements for most operations. However, some optical non-linearity is necessary to enable universal quantum computing. We consider a circuit-QED approach to linear optics quantum computing in the microwave regime, including a deterministic two-photon phase gate. Our model is a hybrid quantum system comprising an LC resonator coupled to a flux or phase superconducting qubit, which will be used to implement a non-linear two photon phase shift operation. Using this model, we show how fast, low-noise two-qubit gates between photons are possible, and discuss limitations of these ideas based on current technology.
Interactive Proofs For Quantum Computations
Dorit Aharonov; Michael Ben-Or; Elad Eban
2008-11-18
The widely held belief that BQP strictly contains BPP raises fundamental questions: Upcoming generations of quantum computers might already be too large to be simulated classically. Is it possible to experimentally test that these systems perform as they should, if we cannot efficiently compute predictions for their behavior? Vazirani has asked: If predicting Quantum Mechanical systems requires exponential resources, is QM a falsifiable theory? In cryptographic settings, an untrusted future company wants to sell a quantum computer or perform a delegated quantum computation. Can the customer be convinced of correctness without the ability to compare results to predictions? To answer these questions, we define Quantum Prover Interactive Proofs (QPIP). Whereas in standard Interactive Proofs the prover is computationally unbounded, here our prover is in BQP, representing a quantum computer. The verifier models our current computational capabilities: it is a BPP machine, with access to few qubits. Our main theorem can be roughly stated as: "Any language in BQP has a QPIP, and moreover, a fault tolerant one". We provide two proofs. The simpler one uses a new (possibly of independent interest) quantum authentication scheme (QAS) based on random Clifford elements. This QPIP however, is not fault tolerant. Our second protocol uses polynomial codes QAS due to BCGHS, combined with quantum fault tolerance and multiparty quantum computation techniques. A slight modification of our constructions makes the protocol "blind": the quantum computation and input are unknown to the prover. After we have derived the results, we have learned that Broadbent at al. have independently derived "universal blind quantum computation" using completely different methods. Their construction implicitly implies similar implications.
Time-optimal quantum computation
Austin G. Fowler
2013-02-02
Given any quantum error correcting code permitting universal fault-tolerant quantum computation and transversal measurement of logical X and Z, we describe how to perform time-optimal quantum computation, meaning the execution of an arbitrary Clifford circuit followed by a layer of independent T gates and any necessary feedforward measurement determined corrective S gates all in the time of a single physical measurement. We assume fast classical processing and classical communication, and argue the reasonableness of this assumption. This enables fault-tolerant quantum computation to be performed orders of magnitude faster than previously thought possible, with the execution time independent of the error correction strength.
Interactive Proofs For Quantum Computations
Dorit Aharonov; Michael Ben-Or; Elad Eban
2008-01-01
The widely held belief that BQP strictly contains BPP raises fundamental questions: Upcoming generations of quantum computers might already be too large to be simulated classically. Is it possible to experimentally test that these systems perform as they should, if we cannot efficiently compute predictions for their behavior? Vazirani has asked: If predicting Quantum Mechanical systems requires exponential resources, is
Interactive Proofs For Quantum Computation
Elad Eban
The widely held belief that BQP strictly contains BPP raises fundamental questions: Upcoming generations of quantum computers might already be too large to be simulated classically. Is it possible to experimentally test that the se systems perform as they should, if we cannot efficiently comp ute predictions for their behavior? Vazirani has asked (Vaz07): If computing predictions for Quantum Mechanics
Computer Technology in Massachusetts Schools.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hess, John; Sanders, Jean E., Ed.
This report focuses on the status and future of computer technology in Massachusetts schools. The report is organized into four major sections. Introductory information is provided in section 1, followed by a framework (section 2) for viewing computer technology. This framework provides information on computer hardware components, computer…
Architecture for largescale iontrap quantum computer
Michigan, University of
Architecture for largescale iontrap quantum computer Kielpinski*, Monroe+ Wineland# Research, ............................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................ Among numerous types architecture being explored quantum computers systems utilizing traps, in which. Although elementary requirements quantum computation have been demonstrated system, there exist theoretical
The Physics of Quantum Computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Falci, Giuseppe; Paladino, Elisabette
2015-10-01
Quantum Computation has emerged in the past decades as a consequence of down-scaling of electronic devices to the mesoscopic regime and of advances in the ability of controlling and measuring microscopic quantum systems. QC has many interdisciplinary aspects, ranging from physics and chemistry to mathematics and computer science. In these lecture notes we focus on physical hardware, present day challenges and future directions for design of quantum architectures.
Making Weirdness Work: Quantum Information and Computation
Preskill, John
Making Weirdness Work: Quantum Information and Computation John Preskill California Institute of in quantum physics. In fact, quantum information has weird properties that contrast sharply with the familiar
Quantum technologies with hybrid systems.
Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg
2015-03-31
An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field. PMID:25737558
Quantum computing with defects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varley, Joel
2011-03-01
The development of a quantum computer is contingent upon the identification and design of systems for use as qubits, the basic units of quantum information. One of the most promising candidates consists of a defect in diamond known as the nitrogen-vacancy (NV-1) center, since it is an individually-addressable quantum system that can be initialized, manipulated, and measured with high fidelity at room temperature. While the success of the NV-1 stems from its nature as a localized ``deep-center'' point defect, no systematic effort has been made to identify other defects that might behave in a similar way. We provide guidelines for identifying other defect centers with similar properties. We present a list of physical criteria that these centers and their hosts should meet and explain how these requirements can be used in conjunction with electronic structure theory to intelligently sort through candidate systems. To elucidate these points, we compare electronic structure calculations of the NV-1 center in diamond with those of several deep centers in 4H silicon carbide (SiC). Using hybrid functionals, we report formation energies, configuration-coordinate diagrams, and defect-level diagrams to compare and contrast the properties of these defects. We find that the NC VSi - 1 center in SiC, a structural analog of the NV-1 center in diamond, may be a suitable center with very different optical transition energies. We also discuss how the proposed criteria can be translated into guidelines to discover NV analogs in other tetrahedrally coordinated materials. This work was performed in collaboration with J. R. Weber, W. F. Koehl, B. B. Buckley, A. Janotti, C. G. Van de Walle, and D. D. Awschalom. This work was supported by ARO, AFOSR, and NSF.
Quantum Computing A Tutorial at the
Fernandez, Thomas
Quantum Computing A Tutorial at the 2008 Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO. Overview What is quantum computation? Why might it be important? How does/might it work? Simulating a quantum computer. Some quantum algorithms. Evolution of new quantum algorithms. Sources for more
Quantum computation and Shor{close_quote}s factoring algorithm
Ekert, A.; Jozsa, R. [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)] [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)
1996-07-01
Current technology is beginning to allow us to manipulate rather than just observe individual quantum phenomena. This opens up the possibility of exploiting quantum effects to perform computations beyond the scope of any classical computer. Recently Peter Shor discovered an efficient algorithm for factoring whole numbers, which uses characteristically quantum effects. The algorithm illustrates the potential power of quantum computation, as there is no known efficient classical method for solving this problem. The authors give an exposition of Shor{close_quote}s algorithm together with an introduction to quantum computation and complexity theory. They discuss experiments that may contribute to its practical implementation. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Experimental Demonstration of Blind Quantum Computing
Stefanie Barz; Elham Kashefi; Anne Broadbent; Joseph F. Fitzsimons; Anton Zeilinger; Philip Walther
2011-01-01
Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to provide the possibility of preserving the privacy of a computation. Here we show the first such experimental demonstration of blind quantum computation where the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate
Database Manipulation on Quantum Computers
Ahmed Younes
2007-05-29
Manipulating a database system on a quantum computer is an essential aim to benefit from the promising speed-up of quantum computers over classical computers in areas that take a vast amount of storage and processing time such as in databases. In this paper, the basic operations for manipulating the data in a quantum database will be defined, e.g. INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, SELECT, backing up and restoring a database file. This gives the ability to perform the data processing that usually takes a long processing time on a classical database system, in a simultaneous way on a quantum computer. Defining a quantum version of more advanced concepts used in database systems, e.g. the referential integrity and the relational algebra, is a normal extension to this work
Diagonal quantum circuits: their computational power and applications
Yoshifumi Nakata; Mio Murao
2014-08-04
Diagonal quantum circuits are quantum circuits comprising only diagonal gates in the computational basis. In spite of a classical feature of diagonal quantum circuits in the sense of commutativity of all gates, their computational power is highly likely to outperform classical one and they are exploited for applications in quantum informational tasks. We review computational power of diagonal quantum circuits and their applications. We focus on the computational power of instantaneous quantum polynomial-time (IQP) circuits, which are a special type of diagonal quantum circuits. We then review an approximate generation of random states as an application of diagonal quantum circuits, where random states are an ensemble of pure states uniformly distributed in a Hilbert space. We also present a thermalizing algorithm of classical Hamiltonians by using diagonal quantum circuits. These applications are feasible to be experimentally implemented by current technology due to a simple and robust structure of diagonal gates.
Quantum computation with graphene nanoribbon
Guo-Ping Guo; Zhi-Rong Lin; Xiao-Peng Li; Tao Tu; Guang-Can Guo
2008-08-12
We propose a scalable scheme to implement quantum computation in graphene nanoribbon. It is shown that electron or hole can be naturally localized in each zigzag region for a graphene nanoribbon with a sequence of Z-shaped structure without exploiting any confined gate. An one-dimensional graphene quantum dots chain is formed in such graphene nanoribbon, where electron or hole spin can be encoded as qubits. The coupling interaction between neighboring graphene quantum dots is found to be always-on Heisenberg type. Applying the bang-bang control strategy and decoherence free subspaces encoding method, universal quantum computation is argued to be realizable with the present techniques.
Toward a superconducting quantum computer
Tsai, Jaw-Shen
2010-01-01
Intensive research on the construction of superconducting quantum computers has produced numerous important achievements. The quantum bit (qubit), based on the Josephson junction, is at the heart of this research. This macroscopic system has the ability to control quantum coherence. This article reviews the current state of quantum computing as well as its history, and discusses its future. Although progress has been rapid, the field remains beset with unsolved issues, and there are still many new research opportunities open to physicists and engineers. PMID:20431256
Quantum computing in neural networks
P. Gralewicz
2004-02-11
According to the statistical interpretation of quantum theory, quantum computers form a distinguished class of probabilistic machines (PMs) by encoding n qubits in 2n pbits (random binary variables). This raises the possibility of a large-scale quantum computing using PMs, especially with neural networks which have the innate capability for probabilistic information processing. Restricting ourselves to a particular model, we construct and numerically examine the performance of neural circuits implementing universal quantum gates. A discussion on the physiological plausibility of proposed coding scheme is also provided.
Symmetrically private information retrieval based on blind quantum computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Zhiwei; Yu, Jianping; Wang, Ping; Xu, Lingling
2015-05-01
Universal blind quantum computation (UBQC) is a new secure quantum computing protocol which allows a user Alice who does not have any sophisticated quantum technology to delegate her computing to a server Bob without leaking any privacy. Using the features of UBQC, we propose a protocol to achieve symmetrically private information retrieval, which allows a quantum limited Alice to query an item from Bob with a fully fledged quantum computer; meanwhile, the privacy of both parties is preserved. The security of our protocol is based on the assumption that malicious Alice has no quantum computer, which avoids the impossibility proof of Lo. For the honest Alice, she is almost classical and only requires minimal quantum resources to carry out the proposed protocol. Therefore, she does not need any expensive laboratory which can maintain the coherence of complicated quantum experimental setups.
Insecurity of quantum secure computations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lo, Hoi-Kwong
1997-08-01
It had been widely claimed that quantum mechanics can protect private information during public decision in, for example, the so-called two-party secure computation. If this were the case, quantum smart-cards, storing confidential information accessible only to a proper reader, could prevent fake teller machines from learning the PIN (personal identification number) from the customers' input. Although such optimism has been challenged by the recent surprising discovery of the insecurity of the so-called quantum bit commitment, the security of quantum two-party computation itself remains unaddressed. Here I answer this question directly by showing that all one-sided two-party computations (which allow only one of the two parties to learn the result) are necessarily insecure. As corollaries to my results, quantum one-way oblivious password identification and the so-called quantum one-out-of-two oblivious transfer are impossible. I also construct a class of functions that cannot be computed securely in any two-sided two-party computation. Nevertheless, quantum cryptography remains useful in key distribution and can still provide partial security in ``quantum money'' proposed by Wiesner.
Proseminar/Seminar Quantum Computing
Grassl, Markus
Proseminar/Seminar Quantum Computing \\Gamma \\Gamma \\Gamma @ @ @ @ @ @ \\Gamma \\Gamma \\Gamma \\Gamma; Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Simulating Physics with Computers 1 (Richard P. Feynman) 1.1 Einleitung . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 i #12; ii Inhaltsverzeichnis #12; Vortrag 1 Simulating Physics with Computers Richard P. Feynman 1
Computational Power of Quantum Machines, Quantum Grammars and Feasible Computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krishnamurthy, E. V.
This paper studies the computational power of quantum computers to explore as to whether they can recognize properties which are in nondeterministic polynomial-time class (NP) and beyond. To study the computational power, we use the Feynman's path integral (FPI) formulation of quantum mechanics. From a computational point of view the Feynman's path integral computes a quantum dynamical analogue of the k-ary relation computed by an Alternating Turing machine (ATM) using AND-OR Parallelism. Hence, if we can find a suitable mapping function between an instance of a mathematical problem and the corresponding interference problem, using suitable potential functions for which FPI can be integrated exactly, the computational power of a quantum computer can be bounded to that of an alternating Turing machine that can solve problems in NP (e.g, factorization problem) and in polynomial space. Unfortunately, FPI is exactly integrable only for a few problems (e.g., the harmonic oscillator) involving quadratic potentials; otherwise, they may be only approximately computable or noncomputable. This means we cannot in general solve all quantum dynamical problems exactly except for those special cases of quadratic potentials, e.g., harmonic oscillator. Since there is a one to one correspondence between the quantum mechanical problems that can be analytically solved and the path integrals that can be exactly evaluated, we can say that the noncomputability of FPI implies quantum unsolvability. This is the analogue of classical unsolvability. The Feynman's path graph can be considered as a semantic parse graph for the quantum mechanical sentence. It provides a semantic valuation function of the terminal sentence based on probability amplitudes to disambiguate a given quantum description and obtain an interpretation in a linear time. In Feynman's path integral, the kernels are partially ordered over time (different alternate paths acting concurrently at the same time) and multiplied. The semantic valuation is computable only if the FPI is computable. Thus both the expressive power and complexity aspects quantum computing are mirrored by the exact and efficient integrability of FPI.
Computing on Anonymous Quantum Network
Hirotada Kobayashi; Keiji Matsumoto; Seiichiro Tani
2010-01-29
This paper considers distributed computing on an anonymous quantum network, a network in which no party has a unique identifier and quantum communication and computation are available. It is proved that the leader election problem can exactly (i.e., without error in bounded time) be solved with at most the same complexity up to a constant factor as that of exactly computing symmetric functions (without intermediate measurements for a distributed and superposed input), if the number of parties is given to every party. A corollary of this result is a more efficient quantum leader election algorithm than existing ones: the new quantum algorithm runs in O(n) rounds with bit complexity O(mn^2), on an anonymous quantum network with n parties and m communication links. Another corollary is the first quantum algorithm that exactly computes any computable Boolean function with round complexity O(n) and with smaller bit complexity than that of existing classical algorithms in the worst case over all (computable) Boolean functions and network topologies. More generally, any n-qubit state can be shared with that complexity on an anonymous quantum network with n parties.
Accelerating commutation circuits in quantum computer networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Min; Huang, Xu; Chen, Xiaoping; Zhang, Zeng-ke
2012-12-01
In a high speed and packet-switched quantum computer network, a packet routing delay often leads to traffic jams, becoming a severe bottleneck for speeding up the transmission rate. Based on the delayed commutation circuit proposed in Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 110502 (2006), we present an improved scheme for accelerating network transmission. For two more realistic scenarios, we utilize the characteristic of a quantum state to simultaneously implement a data switch and transmission that makes it possible to reduce the packet delay and route a qubit packet even before its address is determined. This circuit is further extended to the quantum network for the transmission of the unknown quantum information. The analysis demonstrates that quantum communication technology can considerably reduce the processing delay time and build faster and more efficient packet-switched networks.
Quantum computation using geometric algebra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matzke, Douglas James
This dissertation reports that arbitrary Boolean logic equations and operators can be represented in geometric algebra as linear equations composed entirely of orthonormal vectors using only addition and multiplication Geometric algebra is a topologically based algebraic system that naturally incorporates the inner and anticommutative outer products into a real valued geometric product, yet does not rely on complex numbers or matrices. A series of custom tools was designed and built to simplify geometric algebra expressions into a standard sum of products form, and automate the anticommutative geometric product and operations. Using this infrastructure, quantum bits (qubits), quantum registers and EPR-bits (ebits) are expressed symmetrically as geometric algebra expressions. Many known quantum computing gates, measurement operators, and especially the Bell/magic operators are also expressed as geometric products. These results demonstrate that geometric algebra can naturally and faithfully represent the central concepts, objects, and operators necessary for quantum computing, and can facilitate the design and construction of quantum computing tools.
Minimal ancilla mediated quantum computation
Timothy J. Proctor; Viv Kendon
2014-09-10
Schemes of universal quantum computation in which the interactions between the computational elements, in a computational register, are mediated by some ancillary system are of interest due to their relevance to the physical implementation of a quantum computer. Furthermore, reducing the level of control required over both the ancillary and register systems has the potential to simplify any experimental implementation. In this paper we consider how to minimise the control needed to implement universal quantum computation in an ancilla-mediated fashion. Considering computational schemes which require no measurements and hence evolve by unitary dynamics for the global system, we show that when employing an ancilla qubit there are certain fixed-time ancilla-register interactions which, along with ancilla initialisation in the computational basis, are universal for quantum computation with no additional control of either the ancilla or the register. We develop two distinct models based on locally inequivalent interactions and we then discuss the relationship between these unitary models and the measurement-based ancilla-mediated models known as ancilla-driven quantum computation.
The unity between quantum field computation, real computation, and quantum computation
A. C. Manoharan
2001-09-04
It is indicated that principal models of computation are indeed significantly related. The quantum field computation model contains the quantum computation model of Feynman. (The term "quantum field computer" was used by Freedman.) Quantum field computation (as enhanced by Wightman's model of quantum field theory) involves computation over the continuum which is remarkably related to the real computation model of Smale. The latter model was established as a generalization of Turing computation. All this is not surprising since it is well known that the physics of quantum field theory (which includes Einstein's special relativity) contains quantum mechanics which in turn contains classical mechanics. The unity of these computing models, which seem to have grown largely independently, could shed new light into questions of computational complexity, into the central P (Polynomial time) versus NP (Non-deterministic Polynomial time) problem of computer science, and also into the description of Nature by fundamental physics theories.
Surfing Electrons in Quantum Computers?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pomeau, Y.
I take this opportunity of writing a piece of science for my friend Manuel G. Velarde to discuss things dear to his heart: surfing of electrons on acoustic waves. It has been claimed recently, but not by him, that transport of electrons by surf could be used to carry quantum information in quantum computers. This is physically impossible because this would require to maintain the quantum coherence linked to localisation, a coherence decaying very fastly in the real world.
Quantum Computers, Factoring, and Decoherence
I. Chuang; Raymond Laflamme; P. Shor; W. Zurek
1995-03-08
In a quantum computer any superposition of inputs evolves unitarily into the corresponding superposition of outputs. It has been recently demonstrated that such computers can dramatically speed up the task of finding factors of large numbers -- a problem of great practical significance because of its cryptographic applications. Instead of the nearly exponential ($\\sim \\exp L^{1/3}$, for a number with $L$ digits) time required by the fastest classical algorithm, the quantum algorithm gives factors in a time polynomial in $L$ ($\\sim L^2$). This enormous speed-up is possible in principle because quantum computation can simultaneously follow all of the paths corresponding to the distinct classical inputs, obtaining the solution as a result of coherent quantum interference between the alternatives. Hence, a quantum computer is sophisticated interference device, and it is essential for its quantum state to remain coherent in the course of the operation. In this report we investigate the effect of decoherence on the quantum factorization algorithm and establish an upper bound on a ``quantum factorizable'' $L$ based on the decoherence suffered per operational step.
Error Symmetrization in Quantum Computers
Asher Peres
1999-01-01
Errors in quantum computers are of two kinds:sudden perturbations to isolated qubits, and slow,random drifts of all the qubits. Isolated errors can becorrected by using quantum codewords that represent a logical qubit in a redundant way, by severalphysical qubits. On the other hand, slow drifts can bereduced, but not completely eliminated, by means ofsymmetrization, namely by using many replicas of
Quantum Information and Computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Accardi, L.; Ohya, Masanori; Watanabe, N.
2006-03-01
Preface -- Coherent quantum control of [symbol]-atoms through the stochastic limit / L. Accardi, S. V. Kozyrev and A. N. Pechen -- Recent advances in quantum white noise calculus / L. Accardi and A. Boukas -- Control of quantum states by decoherence / L. Accardi and K. Imafuku -- Logical operations realized on the Ising chain of N qubits / M. Asano, N. Tateda and C. Ishii -- Joint extension of states of fermion subsystems / H. Araki -- Quantum filtering and optimal feedback control of a Gaussian quantum free particle / S. C. Edwards and V. P. Belavkin -- On existence of quantum zeno dynamics / P. Exner and T. Ichinose -- Invariant subspaces and control of decoherence / P. Facchi, V. L. Lepore and S. Pascazio -- Clauser-Horner inequality for electron counting statistics in multiterminal mesoscopic conductors / L. Faoro, F. Taddei and R. Fazio -- Fidelity of quantum teleportation model using beam splittings / K.-H. Fichtner, T. Miyadera and M. Ohya -- Quantum logical gates realized by beam splittings / W. Freudenberg ... [et al.] -- Information divergence for quantum channels / S. J. Hammersley and V. P. Belavkin -- On the uniqueness theorem in quantum information geometry / H. Hasegawa -- Noncanonical representations of a multi-dimensional Brownian motion / Y. Hibino -- Some of future directions of white noise theory / T. Hida -- Information, innovation and elemental random field / T. Hida -- Generalized quantum turing machine and its application to the SAT chaos algorithm / S. Iriyama, M. Ohya and I. Volovich -- A Stroboscopic approach to quantum tomography / A. Jamiolkowski -- Positive maps and separable states in matrix algebras / A. Kossakowski -- Simulating open quantum systems with trapped ions / S. Maniscalco -- A purification scheme and entanglement distillations / H. Nakazato, M. Unoki and K. Yuasa -- Generalized sectors and adjunctions to control micro-macro transitions / I. Ojima -- Saturation of an entropy bound and quantum Markov states / D. Petz -- An infinite dimensional Laplacian acting on some class of Lévy white noise functionals / K. Saitô -- Structure of linear processes / Si Si and Win Win Htay -- Group theory of dynamical maps / E. C. G. Sudarshan -- On quantum analysis, quantum transfer-matrix method, and effective information entropy / M. Suzuki -- Nonequilibrium steady states for a harmonic oscillator interacting with two bose fields-stochastic limit approach and C* algebraic approach / S. Tasaki and L. Accardi -- Control of decoherence with multipulse application / C. Uchiyama -- Quantum entanglement, purification, and linear-optics quantum gates with photonic qubits / P. Walther and A. Zeilinger -- On quantum mutual type measures and capacity / N. Watanabe.
[Earth Science Technology Office's Computational Technologies Project
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fischer, James (Technical Monitor); Merkey, Phillip
2005-01-01
This grant supported the effort to characterize the problem domain of the Earth Science Technology Office's Computational Technologies Project, to engage the Beowulf Cluster Computing Community as well as the High Performance Computing Research Community so that we can predict the applicability of said technologies to the scientific community represented by the CT project and formulate long term strategies to provide the computational resources necessary to attain the anticipated scientific objectives of the CT project. Specifically, the goal of the evaluation effort is to use the information gathered over the course of the Round-3 investigations to quantify the trends in scientific expectations, the algorithmic requirements and capabilities of high-performance computers to satisfy this anticipated need.
Quantum Computing over Finite Fields
Roshan P. James; Gerardo Ortiz; Amr Sabry
2011-01-19
In recent work, Benjamin Schumacher and Michael~D. Westmoreland investigate a version of quantum mechanics which they call "modal quantum theory" but which we prefer to call "discrete quantum theory". This theory is obtained by instantiating the mathematical framework of Hilbert spaces with a finite field instead of the field of complex numbers. This instantiation collapses much the structure of actual quantum mechanics but retains several of its distinguishing characteristics including the notions of superposition, interference, and entanglement. Furthermore, discrete quantum theory excludes local hidden variable models, has a no-cloning theorem, and can express natural counterparts of quantum information protocols such as superdense coding and teleportation. Our first result is to distill a model of discrete quantum computing from this quantum theory. The model is expressed using a monadic metalanguage built on top of a universal reversible language for finite computations, and hence is directly implementable in a language like Haskell. In addition to superpositions and invertible linear maps, the model includes conventional programming constructs including pairs, sums, higher-order functions, and recursion. Our second result is to relate this programming model to relational programming, e.g., a pure version of Prolog over finite relations. Surprisingly discrete quantum computing is identical to conventional logic programming except for a small twist that is responsible for all the ``quantum-ness.'' The twist occurs when merging sets of answers computed by several alternatives: the answers are combined using an "exclusive" version of logical disjunction. In other words, the two branches of a choice junction exhibit an "interference" effect: an answer is produced from the junction if it occurs in one or the other branch but not both.
Duality quantum computer and the efficient quantum simulations
Shi-Jie Wei; Gui-Lu Long
2015-07-12
In this paper, we firstly briefly review the duality quantum computer. Distinctly, the generalized quantum gates, the basic evolution operators in a duality quantum computer are no longer unitary, and they can be expressed in terms of linear combinations of unitary operators. All linear bounded operators can be realized in a duality quantum computer, and unitary operators are just the extreme points of the set of generalized quantum gates. A d-slits duality quantum computer can be realized in an ordinary quantum computer with an additional qudit using the duality quantum computing mode. Duality quantum computer provides flexibility and clear physical picture in designing quantum algorithms, serving as a useful bridge between quantum and classical algorithms. In this review, we will show that duality quantum computer can simulate quantum systems more efficiently than ordinary quantum computers by providing descriptions of the recent efficient quantum simulation algorithms of Childs et al [Quantum Information & Computation, 12(11-12): 901-924 (2012)] for the fast simulation of quantum systems with a sparse Hamiltonian, and the quantum simulation algorithm by Berry et al [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 090502 (2015)], which provides exponential improvement in precision for simulating systems with a sparse Hamiltonian.
Adiabatic Cluster State Quantum Computing
Dave Bacon; Steven T. Flammia
2010-01-15
Models of quantum computation are important because they change the physical requirements for achieving universal quantum computation (QC). For example, one-way QC requires the preparation of an entangled "cluster" state followed by adaptive measurement on this state, a set of requirements which is different from the standard quantum circuit model. Here we introduce a model based on one-way QC but without measurements (except for the final readout), instead using adiabatic deformation of a Hamiltonian whose initial ground state is the cluster state. This opens the possibility to use the copious results from one-way QC to build more feasible adiabatic schemes.
Self-Correcting Quantum Computers
H. Bombin; R. W. Chhajlany; M. Horodecki; M. A. Martin-Delgado
2012-09-26
Is the notion of a quantum computer resilient to thermal noise unphysical? We address this question from a constructive perspective and show that local quantum Hamiltonian models provide self-correcting quantum computers. To this end, we first give a sufficient condition on the connect- edness of excitations for a stabilizer code model to be a self-correcting quantum memory. We then study the two main examples of topological stabilizer codes in arbitrary dimensions and establish their self-correcting capabilities. Also, we address the transversality properties of topological color codes, showing that 6D color codes provide a self-correcting model that allows the transversal and local implementation of a universal set of operations in seven spatial dimensions. Finally, we give a procedure to initialize such quantum memories at finite temperature.
Early Quantum Algorithms Lecture Notes for CS2944 (Quantum Computation)
Vazirani, Umesh
Early Quantum Algorithms Lecture Notes for CS2944 (Quantum Computation) Lecturer: Umesh Vazirani early evidence of the power of quantum computation. Second, their solutions illustrate general them. The first primitive is a quantum circuit U f that `pretends' to do classical computation
Computing technology in the 1980's. [computers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stone, H. S.
1978-01-01
Advances in computing technology have been led by consistently improving semiconductor technology. The semiconductor industry has turned out ever faster, smaller, and less expensive devices since transistorized computers were first introduced 20 years ago. For the next decade, there appear to be new advances possible, with the rate of introduction of improved devices at least equal to the historic trends. The implication of these projections is that computers will enter new markets and will truly be pervasive in business, home, and factory as their cost diminishes and their computational power expands to new levels. The computer industry as we know it today will be greatly altered in the next decade, primarily because the raw computer system will give way to computer-based turn-key information and control systems.
Verification for measurement-only blind quantum computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morimae, Tomoyuki
2014-06-01
Blind quantum computing is a new secure quantum computing protocol where a client who does not have any sophisticated quantum technology can delegate her quantum computing to a server without leaking any privacy. It is known that a client who has only a measurement device can perform blind quantum computing [T. Morimae and K. Fujii, Phys. Rev. A 87, 050301(R) (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.87.050301]. It has been an open problem whether the protocol can enjoy the verification, i.e., the ability of the client to check the correctness of the computing. In this paper, we propose a protocol of verification for the measurement-only blind quantum computing.
Phase Information in Quantum Oracle Computing
Jonathan Machta
1998-01-01
Computational devices may be supplied with external sources of information (oracles). Quantum oracles may transmit phase information which is available to a quantum computer but not a classical computer. One consequence of this observation is that there is an oracle which is of no assistance to a classical computer but which allows a quantum computer to solve undecidable problems. Thus
Quantum Computation by Quantum Operations on Mixed States
Vasily E. Tarasov
2002-01-09
Usually models for quantum computations deal with unitary gates on pure states. In this paper we generalize the usual model. We consider a model of quantum computations in which the state is an operator of density matrix and the gates are quantum operations, not necessarily unitary. A mixed state (operator of density matrix) of n two-level quantum systems is considered as an element of $4^{n}$-dimensional operator Hilbert space. Unitary quantum gates and nonunitary quantum operations for n-qubit system are considered as generalized quantum gates acting on mixed state. In this paper we study universality for quantum computations by quantum operations on mixed states.
Algorithms on ensemble quantum computers
P. Oscar Boykin; Tal Mor; Vwani P. Roychowdhury; Farrokh Vatan
2010-01-01
In ensemble (or bulk) quantum computation, measurements of qubits in an individual com- puter cannot be performed. Instead, only ex- pectation values can be measured. As a re- sult of this limitation on the model of com- putation, various important algorithms cannot be processed directly on such computers, and must be modified. We provide modifications of various existing protocols, including
Interactive Proofs For Quantum Computations
Dorit Aharonov; Michael Ben-Or; Elad Eban
2010-01-01
The widely held belief that BQP strictly contains BPP raises fundamental questions: Upcoming generations of quantumcomputers might already be too large to be simulated classically. Is it possible to experimentallytest that these systems perform as they should, if we cannot efficiently compute predictions for their behavior? Vazirani has asked (21): If computing predictions for Quantum Mechanics requires exponential resources, is
Realizing universal Majorana fermionic quantum computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Ya-Jie; He, Jing; Kou, Su-Peng
2014-08-01
Majorana fermionic quantum computation (MFQC) was proposed by S. B. Bravyi and A. Yu. Kitaev [Ann. Phys. (NY) 298, 210 (2002), 10.1006/aphy.2002.6254], who indicated that a (nontopological) fault-tolerant quantum computer built from Majorana fermions may be more efficient than that built from distinguishable two-state systems. However, until now scientists have not known how to realize a MFQC in a physical system. In this paper we propose a possible realization of MFQC. We find that the end of a line defect of a p-wave superconductor or superfluid in a honeycomb lattice traps a Majorana zero mode, which becomes the starting point of MFQC. Then we show how to manipulate Majorana fermions to perform universal MFQC, which possesses possibilities for high-level local controllability through individually addressing the quantum states of individual constituent elements by using timely cold-atom technology.
Universal Single-Server Blind Quantum Computation for Classical Client
Hai-Ru Xu; Bang-Hai Wang
2014-11-12
Blind quantum computation allows a client without enough quantum technologies to delegate her quantum computation to quantum server, while keeping her input, output and algorithm secure. In this paper, we propose a universal single-server and classical-client blind quantum computation protocol based on entanglement swapping technology. In our protocol, the client interface with only one server and the only ability of the client requires is to get particles from trusted center and forward them to the server. Moreover, the protocol can be modified to make client completely classical by improving the ability of the trusted center. Numbers of blind quantum computation protocols have been presented in recent years, including single-, double- and triple-server protocols. In the single-server protocol, client needs to prepare single qubits. Though client can be classical in the double-server protocol, the two servers, who share Bell state from trusted center, are not allowed to communicate with each other. Recently, the triple-server protocol solves the noncommunication problem. Three servers, however, make the implementation of the computation sophisticated and unrealistic. Since it is impossible for blind quantum computation with only classical client and single server, blind quantum computation may work in the "Cloud + E-commerce" style in the future. Our protocol might become a key ingredient for real-life application in the first generation of quantum computations.
An overview of quantum computation models: quantum automata
Daowen Qiu; Lvzhou Li
2008-01-01
Quantum automata, as theoretical models of quantum computers, include quantum finite automata (QFA), quantum sequential machines\\u000a (QSM), quantum pushdown automata (QPDA), quantum Turing machines (QTM), quantum cellular automata (QCA), and the others, for\\u000a example, automata theory based on quantum logic (orthomodular lattice-valued automata). In this paper, we try to outline a\\u000a basic progress in the research on these models, focusing
Reflections on Quantum Computing Quantum Computing Based on Fixed Point Dynamics
Svozil, Karl
Reflections on Quantum Computing Quantum Computing Based on Fixed Point Dynamics WHEN ARE QUANTUM SPEEDUPS POSSIBLE? T his section discusses the possibility that speedups in quantum computing can the computational complexity class UP [2]. Typical examples are Shor's quantum algorithm for prime factoring [3
Quantum computing measurement and intelligence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ezziane, Zoheir
One of the grand challenges in the nanoscopic computing era is guarantees of robustness. Robust computing system design is confronted with quantum physical, probabilistic, and even biological phenomena, and guaranteeing high-reliability is much more difficult than ever before. Scaling devices down to the level of single electron operation will bring forth new challenges due to probabilistic effects and uncertainty in guaranteeing "zero-one" based computing. Minuscule devices imply billions of devices on a single chip, which may help mitigate the challenge of uncertainty by replication and redundancy. However, such device densities will create a design and validation nightmare with the sheer scale. The questions that confront computer engineers regarding the current status of nanocomputing material and the reliability of systems built from such minuscule devices are difficult to articulate and answer. This article illustrates and discusses two types of quantum algorithms as follows: (1) a simple quantum algorithm and (2) a quantum search algorithm. This article also presents a review of recent advances in quantum computing and intelligence and presents major achievements and obstacles for researchers in the near future.
Quantum Compiling for Topological Quantum Computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Svore, Krysta
2014-03-01
In a topological quantum computer, universality is achieved by braiding and quantum information is natively protected from small local errors. We address the problem of compiling single-qubit quantum operations into braid representations for non-abelian quasiparticles described by the Fibonacci anyon model. We develop a probabilistically polynomial algorithm that outputs a braid pattern to approximate a given single-qubit unitary to a desired precision. We also classify the single-qubit unitaries that can be implemented exactly by a Fibonacci anyon braid pattern and present an efficient algorithm to produce their braid patterns. Our techniques produce braid patterns that meet the uniform asymptotic lower bound on the compiled circuit depth and thus are depth-optimal asymptotically. Our compiled circuits are significantly shorter than those output by prior state-of-the-art methods, resulting in improvements in depth by factors ranging from 20 to 1000 for precisions ranging between 10-10 and 10-30.
Control aspects of quantum computing using pure and mixed states.
Schulte-Herbrüggen, Thomas; Marx, Raimund; Fahmy, Amr; Kauffman, Louis; Lomonaco, Samuel; Khaneja, Navin; Glaser, Steffen J
2012-10-13
Steering quantum dynamics such that the target states solve classically hard problems is paramount to quantum simulation and computation. And beyond, quantum control is also essential to pave the way to quantum technologies. Here, important control techniques are reviewed and presented in a unified frame covering quantum computational gate synthesis and spectroscopic state transfer alike. We emphasize that it does not matter whether the quantum states of interest are pure or not. While pure states underly the design of quantum circuits, ensemble mixtures of quantum states can be exploited in a more recent class of algorithms: it is illustrated by characterizing the Jones polynomial in order to distinguish between different (classes of) knots. Further applications include Josephson elements, cavity grids, ion traps and nitrogen vacancy centres in scenarios of closed as well as open quantum systems. PMID:22946034
Computers and Technological Forecasting
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martino, Joseph P.
1971-01-01
Forecasting is becoming increasingly automated, thanks in large measure to the computer. It is now possible for a forecaster to submit his data to a computation center and call for the appropriate program. (No knowledge of statistics is required.) (Author)
Quantum Computation of Jones' Polynomials
V. Subramaniam; P. Ramadevi
2006-08-22
It is a challenging problem to construct an efficient quantum algorithm which can compute the Jones' polynomial for any knot or link obtained from platting or capping of a $2n$-strand braid. We recapitulate the construction of braid-group representations from vertex models. We present the eigenbases and eigenvalues for the braiding generators and its usefulness in direct evaluation of Jones' polynomial. The calculation suggests that it is possible to associate a series of unitary operators for any braid word. Hence we propose a quantum algorithm using these unitary operators as quantum gates acting on a $2n$ qubit state. We show that the quantum computation gives Jones' polynomial for achiral knots and links.
Quantum Computing with Very Noisy Devices
E. Knill
2004-11-02
In theory, quantum computers can efficiently simulate quantum physics, factor large numbers and estimate integrals, thus solving otherwise intractable computational problems. In practice, quantum computers must operate with noisy devices called ``gates'' that tend to destroy the fragile quantum states needed for computation. The goal of fault-tolerant quantum computing is to compute accurately even when gates have a high probability of error each time they are used. Here we give evidence that accurate quantum computing is possible with error probabilities above 3% per gate, which is significantly higher than what was previously thought possible. However, the resources required for computing at such high error probabilities are excessive. Fortunately, they decrease rapidly with decreasing error probabilities. If we had quantum resources comparable to the considerable resources available in today's digital computers, we could implement non-trivial quantum computations at error probabilities as high as 1% per gate.
Insecurity of Quantum Secure Computations
Hoi-kwong Lo
1996-01-01
It had been widely claimed that quantum mechanics can protect private information during public decision in for example the so-called two-party se cure computation. If this were the case, quantum smart-cards could prevent fake teller machines from learning the PIN (Personal Identification Number) from the customers' input. Although such optimism has been challenged by the recent surprising discovery of the
Quantum computation with noisy operations
Ying Li
2015-06-11
In this paper, we show how to use low-fidelity operations to control the dynamics of quantum systems. Noisy operations usually drive a system to evolve into a mixed state and damage the coherence. Sometimes frequent noisy operations result in the coherent evolution of a subsystem, and the dynamics of the subsystem is controlled by tuning noisy operations. Based on this, we find that universal quantum computation can be carried out by low-fidelity (fidelity $<90\\%$) operations.
Quantum Computing in Plato's Cave
Daniel Burgarth; Paolo Facchi; Vittorio Giovannetti; Hiromichi Nakazato; Saverio Pascazio; Kazuya Yuasa
2014-03-23
We show that mere observation of a quantum system can turn its dynamics from a very simple one into a universal quantum computation. This effect, which occurs if the system is regularly observed at short time intervals, can be rephrased as a modern version of Plato's Cave allegory. More precisely, while in the original version of the myth, the reality perceived within the Cave is described by the projected shadows of some more fundamental dynamics which is intrinsically more complex, we found that in the quantum world the situation changes drastically as the "projected" reality perceived through sequences of measurements can be more complex than the one that originated it. After discussing examples we go on to show that this effect is generally to be expected: almost any quantum dynamics will become universal once "observed" as outlined above. Conversely, we show that any complex quantum dynamics can be "purified" into a simpler one in larger dimensions.
A Simple Quantum Computer Frank Rioux
Rioux, Frank
A Simple Quantum Computer Frank Rioux Giving a friend directions to his house, Yogi Berra said computer. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is a simple example of a quantum computer. Its main rise to the constructive and destructive interference that is essential to quantum computation. The MZI
Tree Search and Quantum Computation
Luís Tarrataca; Andreas Wichert
2015-02-06
Traditional tree search algorithms supply a blueprint for modeling problem solving behaviour. A diverse spectrum of problems can be formulated in terms of tree search. Quantum computation, in particular Grover's algorithm, has aroused a great deal of interest since it allows for a quadratic speedup to be obtained in search procedures. In this work we consider the impact of incorporating classical search concepts alongside Grover's algorithm into a hybrid quantum search system. Some of the crucial points examined include: (1) the reverberations of contemplating the use of non-constant branching factors; (2) determining the consequences of incorporating an heuristic perspective into a quantum tree search model.
The Mechanism of Quantum Computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castagnoli, Giuseppe
2008-08-01
I provide an alternative way of seeing quantum computation. First, I describe an idealized classical problem solving machine whose coordinates are submitted to a nonfunctional relation representing all the problem constraints; moving an input part, reversibly and nondeterministically produces a solution through a many body interaction. The machine can be considered the many body generalization of another perfect machine, the bouncing ball model of reversible computation. The mathematical description of the machine’s motion, as it is, is applicable to quantum problem solving, an extension of the quantum algorithms that comprises the physical representation of the interdependence between the problem and the solution. The configuration space of the classical machine is replaced by the phase space of the quantum machine. The relation between the coordinates of the machine parts now applies to the populations of the reduced density operators of the parts of the computer register throughout state vector reduction. Thus, reduction produces the solution of the problem under a nonfunctional relation representing the problem-solution interdependence. At the light of this finding, the quantum speed up turns out to be “precognition” of the solution, namely the reduction of the initial ignorance of the solution due to backdating, to before running the algorithm, a part of the state vector reduction on the solution (a time-symmetric part in the case of unstructured problems); as such, it is bounded by state vector reduction through an entropic inequality. The computation mechanism under discussion might also explain the wholeness appearing in the introspective analysis of perception.
A theory of quantum gravity based on quantum computation
Seth Lloyd
2005-01-01
This paper proposes a method of unifying quantum mechanics and gravity based on quantum computation. In this theory, fundamental processes are described in terms of pairwise interactions between quantum degrees of freedom. The geometry of space-time is a construct, derived from the underlying quantum information processing. The computation gives rise to a superposition of four-dimensional spacetimes, each of which obeys
Impossibility of secure cloud quantum computing for classical client
Tomoyuki Morimae; Takeshi Koshiba
2014-07-07
The first generation quantum computer will be implemented in the cloud style, since only few groups will be able to access such an expensive and high-maintenance machine. How the privacy of the client can be protected in such a cloud quantum computing? It was theoretically shown [A. Broadbent, J. F. Fitzsimons, and E. Kashefi, Proceedings of the 50th Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundation of Computer Science, 517 (2009)], and experimentally demonstrated [S. Barz, E. Kashefi, A. Broadbent, J. F. Fitzsimons, A. Zeilinger, and P. Walther, Science {\\bf335}, 303 (2012)] that a client who can generate randomly-rotated single qubit states can delegate her quantum computing to a remote quantum server without leaking any privacy. The generation of a single qubit state is not too much burden for the client, and therefore we can say that "almost classical client" can enjoy the secure cloud quantum computing. However, isn't is possible to realize a secure cloud quantum computing for a client who is completely free from any quantum technology? Here we show that perfectly-secure cloud quantum computing is impossible for a completely classical client unless classical computing can simulate quantum computing, or a breakthrough is brought in classical cryptography.
Quantum computational gradient estimation
David Bulger
2005-07-12
Classically, determining the gradient of a black-box function f:R^p->R requires p+1 evaluations. Using the quantum Fourier transform, two evaluations suffice. This is based on the approximate local periodicity of exp(2*pi*i*f(x)). It is shown that sufficiently precise machine arithmetic results in gradient estimates of any required accuracy.
Quantumness, Randomness and Computability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solis, Aldo; Hirsch, Jorge G.
2015-06-01
Randomness plays a central role in the quantum mechanical description of our interactions. We review the relationship between the violation of Bell inequalities, non signaling and randomness. We discuss the challenge in defining a random string, and show that algorithmic information theory provides a necessary condition for randomness using Borel normality. We close with a view on incomputablity and its implications in physics.
Models of quantum computation and quantum programming languages
J. A. Miszczak
2010-01-01
The goal of the presented paper is to provide an introduction to the basic computational models used in quantum information theory. We review various models of quantum Turing machine, quantum circuits and quantum random access machine (QRAM) along with their classical counterparts. We also provide an introduction to quantum programming languages, which are developed using the QRAM model. We review
Using a quantum computer to investigate quantum chaos
Ruediger Schack
1997-05-10
We show that the quantum baker's map, a prototypical map invented for theoretical studies of quantum chaos, has a very simple realization in terms of quantum gates. Chaos in the quantum baker's map could be investigated experimentally on a quantum computer based on only 3 qubits.
Computer Technology for Industry.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Aviation/Space, 1982
1982-01-01
A special National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) service is contributing to national productivity by providing industry with reusable, low-cost, government-developed computer programs. Located at the University of Georgia, NASA's Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) has developed programs for equipment…
Quantum computers: Achievements, implementation difficulties, and prospects
Yu. I. Bogdanov; K. A. Valiev; A. A. Kokin
2011-01-01
A review of the principles of operation of quantum computers and their elements is presented. The radical advantage of quantum\\u000a algorithms for processing information over the classical ones is discussed, quantum entanglement is considered as the basic\\u000a resource of quantum computations, and the most promising and interesting proposals on realization of quantum computers on\\u000a the basis of trapped ions, nuclear
Topological cluster state quantum computing
Austin G. Fowler; Kovid Goyal
2009-02-25
The quantum computing scheme described in Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 190504 (2007), when viewed as a cluster state computation, features a 3-D cluster state, novel adjustable strength error correction capable of correcting general errors through the correction of Z errors only, a threshold error rate approaching 1% and low overhead arbitrarily long-range logical gates. In this work, we review the scheme in detail framing discussion solely in terms of the required 3-D cluster state and its stabilizers.
Barium Ions for Quantum Computation Matthew Dietrich
Blinov, Boris
Barium Ions for Quantum Computation Matthew Dietrich A dissertation submitted in partial for Quantum Computation Matthew Dietrich Chair of the Supervisory Committee: Assistant Professor Boris Blinov trap and laser cooled. Isotope selective photoionization is employed to improve trapping from
Computing Technology Vendors Guide
Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of
cutting-edge PC. Background The fundamental parts of any computer system are the motherboard, central that they are compatible with each other. This is especially true with the motherboard, processor and RAM. A great place
Universal Blind Quantum Computation
Anne Broadbent; Joseph Fitzsimons; Elham Kashefi
2009-01-01
We present a protocol which allows a client to have a server carry out a\\u000aquantum computation for her such that the client's inputs, outputs and\\u000acomputation remain perfectly private, and where she does not require any\\u000aquantum computational power or memory. The client only needs to be able to\\u000aprepare single qubits randomly chosen from a finite set and
Quantum gravity motivated computer simulations
Bernd A. Berg
1989-01-01
Computer simulations are reviewed as a new tool to gain a better understanding of problems related to four-dimensional quantum gravity. There are two major directions: the more than twenty years old Regge calculus provides a discrete formulation of gravity that is well-suited for numerical investigations. Alternatively, conventional lattice gage theory methods can be used to simulate certain field theoretical models
Quantum gravity motivated computer simulations
B. A. Berg
1989-01-01
Computer simulations are reviewed as a new tool to gain a better understanding of problems related to four-dimensional quantum gravity. There are two major directions: The more than twenty years old Regge calculus provides a discrete formulation of gravity that is well-suited for numerical investigations. Alternatively, conventional lattice gauge theory methods can be used to simulate certain field theoretical models
Quantum Computing and Number Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sasaki, Yoshitaka
2013-09-01
The prime factorization can be efficiently solved on a quantum computer. This result was given by Shor in 1994. In the first half of this article, a review of Shor's algorithm with mathematical setups is given. In the second half of this article, the prime number theorem which is an essential tool to understand the distribution of prime numbers is given.
Self-correcting quantum computers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bombin, H.; Chhajlany, R. W.; Horodecki, M.; Martin-Delgado, M. A.
2013-05-01
Is the notion of a quantum computer (QC) resilient to thermal noise unphysical? We address this question from a constructive perspective and show that local quantum Hamiltonian models provide self-correcting QCs. To this end, we first give a sufficient condition on the connectedness of excitations for a stabilizer code model to be a self-correcting quantum memory. We then study the two main examples of topological stabilizer codes in arbitrary dimensions and establish their self-correcting capabilities. Also, we address the transversality properties of topological color codes, showing that six-dimensional color codes provide a self-correcting model that allows the transversal and local implementation of a universal set of operations in seven spatial dimensions. Finally, we give a procedure for initializing such quantum memories at finite temperature.
Faculty of Computer Science & Technology
Haddadi, Hamed
Faculty of Computer Science & Technology REVIEW OF THE YEAR 2007-08 Personnel Dr Cecilia Mascolo science in an entertaining way. The first prize, a visit to Google Zurich, was awarded to a pupil from Staton and Dr Bartek Klin were appointed to EPSRC Research Fellowships in Theoretical Computer Science
Experimental Demonstration of Blind Quantum Computing
Stefanie Barz; Elham Kashefi; Anne Broadbent; Joseph F. Fitzsimons; Anton Zeilinger; Philip Walther
2011-10-06
Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to provide the possibility of preserving the privacy of a computation. Here we show the first such experimental demonstration of blind quantum computation where the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. We demonstrate various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover algorithms. Remarkably, the client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for future unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available.
Experimental Demonstration of Blind Quantum Computing
Barz, Stefanie; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph F; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip
2011-01-01
Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to provide the possibility of preserving the privacy of a computation. Here we show the first such experimental demonstration of blind quantum computation where the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. We demonstrate various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover algorithms. Remarkably, the client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for future unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available.
Quantum Computing with Electrons Floating on Liquid
Dykman, Mark
Quantum Computing with Electrons Floating on Liquid Helium P. M. Platzman1 * and M. I. Dykman2 excited electrons from the surface. There is much interest in constructing analog quantum computers (AQC quantum computation is a more diffi- cult problem because these physical systems must consist
A study on neuromorphic quantum computation
Shigeo Sato; Mitsunaga Kinjo; Osamu Takahashi; Yuuki Nakamiya; Koji Nakajima
2004-01-01
A quantum computer employing a single quantum as a qubit executes real parallel computation. Several algorithms have been proposed for quantum computation. However, these algorithms are applicable only to a limited number of applications. Therefore, a general purpose algorithm should be studied and developed for practical use in the near future. We focus on the adiabatic evolution algorithm in order
KLM quantum computation as a measurement based computation
Sandu Popescu
2006-10-04
We show that the Knill Laflamme Milburn method of quantum computation with linear optics gates can be interpreted as a one-way, measurement based quantum computation of the type introduced by Briegel and Rausendorf. We also show that the permanent state of n n-dimensional systems is a universal state for quantum computation.
10.1098/rsta.2003.1221 Progress in silicon-based quantum computing
Goan, Hsi-Sheng
Computer Technology, School of Physics and 2Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Electrical Computer Technology, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne 3010, Australia 4Centre Technology towards the fabrication and demonstration of spin qubits and charge qubits based on phosphorus
Quantum Darwinism and Computability Theory
Subhash Kak
2014-10-23
This paper examines whether unitary evolution alone is sufficient to explain emergence of the classical world from the perspective of computability theory. Specifically, it looks at the problem of how the choice related to the measurement is made by the observer viewed as a quantum system. In interpretations where the system together with the observers is completely described by unitary transformations, the observer cannot make any choices and so measurement is impossible. From the perspective of computability theory, a quantum machine cannot halt and so it cannot observe the computed state, indicating that unitarity alone does not explain all matter processes. Further it is argued that the consideration of information and observation requires an overarching system of knowledge and expectations about outcomes.
Computer Technology for Industry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1982-01-01
Shell Oil Company used a COSMIC program, called VISCEL to insure the accuracy of the company's new computer code for analyzing polymers, and chemical compounds. Shell reported that there were no other programs available that could provide the necessary calculations. Shell produces chemicals for plastic products used in the manufacture of automobiles, housewares, appliances, film, textiles, electronic equipment and furniture.
Helsinki University of Technology: Computational Information Technology
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Computational Information Technology is a research group of the Laboratory of Computational Engineering at the Helsinki University of Technology in Finland. This section of the website introduces visitors to the group's work on modelling and analyzing complex physical, technical and economic processes and systems. Researchers "carry out method development and application oriented research on advanced probabilistic and information theoretic methods." Some applications include statistical modelling of financial markets, pattern recognition in neural networks, machine vision for microscope image processing, data mining, and intelligent human-machine interfaces. The Research Projects section describes the group's work in these areas and highlights the mathematical and statistical methods used, such as Bayesian methods, vision geometry, Turing's reaction-diffusion systems, and time-frequency analysis. Each research area has its own website, where the overall project and theoretical framework is described along with images and diagrams. Publications, such as theses and journal articles are listed and some conference proceedings and articles are available to download.
Simulating quantum dynamics on a quantum computer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiebe, Nathan; Berry, Dominic W.; Høyer, Peter; Sanders, Barry C.
2011-11-01
We explicitly show how to simulate time-dependent sparse Hamiltonian evolution on a quantum computer, with complexity that is close to linear in the evolution time. The complexity also depends on the magnitude of the derivatives of the Hamiltonian. We propose a range of techniques to simulate Hamiltonians with badly behaved derivatives. These include using adaptive time steps, adapting the order of the integrators, and omitting regions about discontinuities. The complexity of the algorithm is quantified by calls to an oracle, which yields information about the Hamiltonian, and accounts for all computational resources. We explicitly determine the number of bits of output that this oracle needs to provide, and show how to efficiently perform the required 1-sparse unitary operations using these bits. We also account for discretization error in the time, as well as accounting for Hamiltonians that are a sum of terms that are sparse in different bases.
Quantum Computing Using Crossed Atomic Beams
P. Blythe; B. Varcoe
2006-05-23
A quantum computer is a hypothetical device in which the laws of quantum mechanics are used to introduce a degree of parallelism into computations and which could therefore significantly improve on the computational speed of a classical computer at certain tasks. Cluster state quantum computing (recently proposed by Raussendorf and Briegel) is a new paradigm in quantum information processing and is a departure from the conventional model of quantum computation. The cluster state quantum computer begins by creating a highly entangled multi-particle state (the cluster state) which it uses as a quantum resource during the computation. Information is processed in the computer via selected measurements on individual qubits that form the cluster state. We describe in detail how a scalable quantum computer can be constructed using microwave cavity QED and, in a departure from the traditional understanding of a computer as a fixed array of computational elements, we show that cluster state quantum computing is well suited to atomic beam experiments. We show that all of the necessary elements have been individually realised, and that the construction of a truly scalable atomic beam quantum computer may be an experimental reality in the near future.
Models of quantum computation and quantum programming languages
J. A. Miszczak
2011-12-03
The goal of the presented paper is to provide an introduction to the basic computational models used in quantum information theory. We review various models of quantum Turing machine, quantum circuits and quantum random access machine (QRAM) along with their classical counterparts. We also provide an introduction to quantum programming languages, which are developed using the QRAM model. We review the syntax of several existing quantum programming languages and discuss their features and limitations.
Review: Towards Spintronic Quantum Technologies with Dopants in Silicon
Gavin W. Morley
2014-08-06
Dopants in crystalline silicon such as phosphorus (Si:P) have electronic and nuclear spins with exceptionally long coherence times making them promising platforms for quantum computing and quantum sensing. The demonstration of single-spin single-shot readout brings these ideas closer to implementation. Progress in fabricating atomic-scale Si:P structures with scanning tunnelling microscopes offers a powerful route to scale up this work, taking advantage of techniques developed by the computing industry. The experimental and theoretical sides of this emerging quantum technology are reviewed with a focus on the period from 2009 to mid-2014.
Geometry of Quantum Computation with Qutrits
Bin Li; Zu-Huan Yu; Shao-Ming Fei
2013-09-13
Determining the quantum circuit complexity of a unitary operation is an important problem in quantum computation. By using the mathematical techniques of Riemannian geometry, we investigate the efficient quantum circuits in quantum computation with $n$ qutrits. We show that the optimal quantum circuits are essentially equivalent to the shortest path between two points in a certain curved geometry of $SU(3^n)$. As an example, three-qutrit systems are investigated in detail.
Geometry of quantum computation with qutrits.
Li, Bin; Yu, Zu-Huan; Fei, Shao-Ming
2013-01-01
Determining the quantum circuit complexity of a unitary operation is an important problem in quantum computation. By using the mathematical techniques of Riemannian geometry, we investigate the efficient quantum circuits in quantum computation with n qutrits. We show that the optimal quantum circuits are essentially equivalent to the shortest path between two points in a certain curved geometry of SU(3(n)). As an example, three-qutrit systems are investigated in detail. PMID:24005379
Solid-state quantum computer based on scanning tunneling microscopy.
Berman, G P; Brown, G W; Hawley, M E; Tsifrinovich, V I
2001-08-27
We propose a solid-state nuclear-spin quantum computer based on application of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and well-developed silicon technology. It requires the measurement of tunneling-current modulation caused by the Larmor precession of a single electron spin. Our envisioned STM quantum computer would operate at the high magnetic field (approximately 10 T) and at low temperature approximately 1 K. PMID:11531599
Quantum Computation and Quantum Information: A Gentle Introduction
Isaac Chuang
2003-01-01
What is quantum computation and quantum information? This is a new field focused on quantifying and utilizing the uniquely non-classical resources available to physical systems operating in the quantum regime. Classical computation and information theory are based on mathematical algorithms operating on bits and communication limits dictated by Shannon entropies; these seek to answer questions such as `how much time
Optical quantum computation using cluster states
Michael A. Nielsen
2004-02-02
We propose an approach to optical quantum computation in which a deterministic entangling quantum gate may be performed using, on average, a few hundred coherently interacting optical elements (beamsplitters, phase shifters, single photon sources, and photodetectors with feedforward). This scheme combines ideas from the optical quantum computing proposal of Knill, Laflamme and Milburn [Nature 409 (6816), 46 (2001)], and the abstract cluster-state model of quantum computation proposed by Raussendorf and Briegel [Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5188 (2001)].
Mesoporous matrices for quantum computation with improved response through redundance
Hodgson, T; Leventis, N; D'Amico, I; 10.1063/1.2745438
2009-01-01
We present a solid state implementation of quantum computation, which improves previously proposed optically driven schemes. Our proposal is based on vertical arrays of quantum dots embedded in a mesoporous material which can be fabricated with present technology. The redundant encoding typical of the chosen hardware protects the computation against gate errors and the effects of measurement induced noise. The system parameters required for quantum computation applications are calculated for II-VI and III-V materials and found to be within the experimental range. The proposed hardware may help minimize errors due to polydispersity of dot sizes, which is at present one of the main problems in relation to quantum dot-based quantum computation.
What quantum computers may tell us about quantum mechanics
Monroe, Christopher
17 What quantum computers may tell us about quantum mechanics Christopher R. Monroe University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Quantum mechanics occupies a unique position in the history of science. It has sur successes of quantum mechanics, its foundations are often questioned, owing to the glaring difficulties
Relativistic Quantum Metrology: Exploiting relativity to improve quantum measurement technologies
Ahmadi, Mehdi; Bruschi, David Edward; Sabín, Carlos; Adesso, Gerardo; Fuentes, Ivette
2014-01-01
We present a framework for relativistic quantum metrology that is useful for both Earth-based and space-based technologies. Quantum metrology has been so far successfully applied to design precision instruments such as clocks and sensors which outperform classical devices by exploiting quantum properties. There are advanced plans to implement these and other quantum technologies in space, for instance Space-QUEST and Space Optical Clock projects intend to implement quantum communications and quantum clocks at regimes where relativity starts to kick in. However, typical setups do not take into account the effects of relativity on quantum properties. To include and exploit these effects, we introduce techniques for the application of metrology to quantum field theory. Quantum field theory properly incorporates quantum theory and relativity, in particular, at regimes where space-based experiments take place. This framework allows for high precision estimation of parameters that appear in quantum field theory including proper times and accelerations. Indeed, the techniques can be applied to develop a novel generation of relativistic quantum technologies for gravimeters, clocks and sensors. As an example, we present a high precision device which in principle improves the state-of-the-art in quantum accelerometers by exploiting relativistic effects. PMID:24851858
Relativistic Quantum Metrology: Exploiting relativity to improve quantum measurement technologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmadi, Mehdi; Bruschi, David Edward; Sabín, Carlos; Adesso, Gerardo; Fuentes, Ivette
2014-05-01
We present a framework for relativistic quantum metrology that is useful for both Earth-based and space-based technologies. Quantum metrology has been so far successfully applied to design precision instruments such as clocks and sensors which outperform classical devices by exploiting quantum properties. There are advanced plans to implement these and other quantum technologies in space, for instance Space-QUEST and Space Optical Clock projects intend to implement quantum communications and quantum clocks at regimes where relativity starts to kick in. However, typical setups do not take into account the effects of relativity on quantum properties. To include and exploit these effects, we introduce techniques for the application of metrology to quantum field theory. Quantum field theory properly incorporates quantum theory and relativity, in particular, at regimes where space-based experiments take place. This framework allows for high precision estimation of parameters that appear in quantum field theory including proper times and accelerations. Indeed, the techniques can be applied to develop a novel generation of relativistic quantum technologies for gravimeters, clocks and sensors. As an example, we present a high precision device which in principle improves the state-of-the-art in quantum accelerometers by exploiting relativistic effects.
Relativistic quantum metrology: exploiting relativity to improve quantum measurement technologies.
Ahmadi, Mehdi; Bruschi, David Edward; Sabín, Carlos; Adesso, Gerardo; Fuentes, Ivette
2014-01-01
We present a framework for relativistic quantum metrology that is useful for both Earth-based and space-based technologies. Quantum metrology has been so far successfully applied to design precision instruments such as clocks and sensors which outperform classical devices by exploiting quantum properties. There are advanced plans to implement these and other quantum technologies in space, for instance Space-QUEST and Space Optical Clock projects intend to implement quantum communications and quantum clocks at regimes where relativity starts to kick in. However, typical setups do not take into account the effects of relativity on quantum properties. To include and exploit these effects, we introduce techniques for the application of metrology to quantum field theory. Quantum field theory properly incorporates quantum theory and relativity, in particular, at regimes where space-based experiments take place. This framework allows for high precision estimation of parameters that appear in quantum field theory including proper times and accelerations. Indeed, the techniques can be applied to develop a novel generation of relativistic quantum technologies for gravimeters, clocks and sensors. As an example, we present a high precision device which in principle improves the state-of-the-art in quantum accelerometers by exploiting relativistic effects. PMID:24851858
The Quantum Human Computer (QHC) Hypothesis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali
2008-01-01
This article attempts to suggest the existence of a human computer called Quantum Human Computer (QHC) on the basis of an analogy between human beings and computers. To date, there are two types of computers: Binary and Quantum. The former operates on the basis of binary logic where an object is said to exist in either of the two states of 1 and…
Geometry of Discrete Quantum Computing
Andrew J. Hanson; Gerardo Ortiz; Amr Sabry; Yu-Tsung Tai
2013-05-16
Conventional quantum computing entails a geometry based on the description of an n-qubit state using 2^{n} infinite precision complex numbers denoting a vector in a Hilbert space. Such numbers are in general uncomputable using any real-world resources, and, if we have the idea of physical law as some kind of computational algorithm of the universe, we would be compelled to alter our descriptions of physics to be consistent with computable numbers. Our purpose here is to examine the geometric implications of using finite fields Fp and finite complexified fields Fp^2 (based on primes p congruent to 3 mod{4}) as the basis for computations in a theory of discrete quantum computing, which would therefore become a computable theory. Because the states of a discrete n-qubit system are in principle enumerable, we are able to determine the proportions of entangled and unentangled states. In particular, we extend the Hopf fibration that defines the irreducible state space of conventional continuous n-qubit theories (which is the complex projective space CP{2^{n}-1}) to an analogous discrete geometry in which the Hopf circle for any n is found to be a discrete set of p+1 points. The tally of unit-length n-qubit states is given, and reduced via the generalized Hopf fibration to DCP{2^{n}-1}, the discrete analog of the complex projective space, which has p^{2^{n}-1} (p-1)\\prod_{k=1}^{n-1} (p^{2^{k}}+1) irreducible states. Using a measure of entanglement, the purity, we explore the entanglement features of discrete quantum states and find that the n-qubit states based on the complexified field Fp^2 have p^{n} (p-1)^{n} unentangled states (the product of the tally for a single qubit) with purity 1, and they have p^{n+1}(p-1)(p+1)^{n-1} maximally entangled states with purity zero.
Experimental One-Way Quantum Computing
P. Walther; K. J. Resch; T. Rudolph; E. Schenck; H. Weinfurter; V. Vedral; M. Aspelmeyer; A. Zeilinger
2005-03-14
Standard quantum computation is based on sequences of unitary quantum logic gates which process qubits. The one-way quantum computer proposed by Raussendorf and Briegel is entirely different. It has changed our understanding of the requirements for quantum computation and more generally how we think about quantum physics. This new model requires qubits to be initialized in a highly-entangled cluster state. From this point, the quantum computation proceeds by a sequence of single-qubit measurements with classical feedforward of their outcomes. Because of the essential role of measurement a one-way quantum computer is irreversible. In the one-way quantum computer the order and choices of measurements determine the algorithm computed. We have experimentally realized four-qubit cluster states encoded into the polarization state of four photons. We fully characterize the quantum state by implementing the first experimental four-qubit quantum state tomography. Using this cluster state we demonstrate the feasibility of one-way quantum computing through a universal set of one- and two-qubit operations. Finally, our implementation of Grover's search algorithm demonstrates that one-way quantum computation is ideally suited for such tasks.
Computed tomography: A versatile technology
Armistead, R.A.; Stanley, J.H. [Advanced Research and Applications Corp. , Sunnyvale, CA (United States)
1997-02-01
Improvements in the speed and accuracy of computed tomography (CT) systems, together with new developments in software, are changing the ways CT technology supports manufacturing operations. In addition to providing quantitative nondestructive inspection at the end of the manufacturing line, CT images are now also being compiled for reverse engineering and first-article characterization and certification. The enhanced performance of a state-of-the-art CT system makes it an effective complement to other digital data-based manufacturing technologies such as computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), and computer-aided engineering (CAE). Furthermore, CT capabilities may be combined with those of rapid prototyping such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, and direct metal deposition, to support the rapid, cost-efficient production of parts in small lots. This article describes how the system works, how it is used for inspection, and how it may assist with reverse engineering.
Ladd, T D; Goldman, J R; Yamaguchi, F; Yamamoto, Y; Abe, E; Itoh, K M
2002-07-01
A solid-state implementation of a quantum computer composed entirely of silicon is proposed. Qubits are 29Si nuclear spins arranged as chains in a 28Si (spin-0) matrix with Larmor frequencies separated by a large magnetic field gradient. No impurity dopants or electrical contacts are needed. Initialization is accomplished by optical pumping, algorithmic cooling, and pseudo-pure state techniques. Magnetic resonance force microscopy is used for ensemble measurement. PMID:12097071
Holonomic quantum computation in subsystems.
Oreshkov, Ognyan
2009-08-28
We introduce a generalized method of holonomic quantum computation (HQC) based on encoding in subsystems. As an application, we propose a scheme for applying holonomic gates to unencoded qubits by the use of a noisy ancillary qubit. This scheme does not require initialization in a subspace since all dynamical effects factor out as a transformation on the ancilla. We use this approach to show how fault-tolerant HQC can be realized via 2-local Hamiltonians with perturbative gadgets. PMID:19792771
Holonomic Quantum Computation in Subsystems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oreshkov, Ognyan
2009-08-01
We introduce a generalized method of holonomic quantum computation (HQC) based on encoding in subsystems. As an application, we propose a scheme for applying holonomic gates to unencoded qubits by the use of a noisy ancillary qubit. This scheme does not require initialization in a subspace since all dynamical effects factor out as a transformation on the ancilla. We use this approach to show how fault-tolerant HQC can be realized via 2-local Hamiltonians with perturbative gadgets.
The geometry of quantum computation
Mark R. Dowling; Michael A. Nielsen
2006-12-31
Determining the quantum circuit complexity of a unitary operation is closely related to the problem of finding minimal length paths in a particular curved geometry [Nielsen et al, Science 311, 1133-1135 (2006)]. This paper investigates many of the basic geometric objects associated to this space, including the Levi-Civita connection, the geodesic equation, the curvature, and the Jacobi equation. We show that the optimal Hamiltonian evolution for synthesis of a desired unitary necessarily obeys a simple universal geodesic equation. As a consequence, once the initial value of the Hamiltonian is set, subsequent changes to the Hamiltonian are completely determined by the geodesic equation. We develop many analytic solutions to the geodesic equation, and a set of invariants that completely determine the geodesics. We investigate the problem of finding minimal geodesics through a desired unitary, U, and develop a procedure which allows us to deform the (known) geodesics of a simple and well understood metric to the geodesics of the metric of interest in quantum computation. This deformation procedure is illustrated using some three-qubit numerical examples. We study the computational complexity of evaluating distances on Riemmanian manifolds, and show that no efficient classical algorithm for this problem exists, subject to the assumption that good pseudorandom generators exist. Finally, we develop a canonical extension procedure for unitary operations which allows ancilla qubits to be incorporated into the geometric approach to quantum computing.
Adiabatic quantum computation along quasienergies
Tanaka, Atushi; Nemoto, Kae [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); National Institute of Informatics, 2-1-2 Hitotsubashi, Chiyoda ku, Tokyo 101-8430 (Japan)
2010-02-15
The parametric deformations of quasienergies and eigenvectors of unitary operators are applied to the design of quantum adiabatic algorithms. The conventional, standard adiabatic quantum computation proceeds along eigenenergies of parameter-dependent Hamiltonians. By contrast, discrete adiabatic computation utilizes adiabatic passage along the quasienergies of parameter-dependent unitary operators. For example, such computation can be realized by a concatenation of parameterized quantum circuits, with an adiabatic though inevitably discrete change of the parameter. A design principle of adiabatic passage along quasienergy was recently proposed: Cheon's quasienergy and eigenspace anholonomies on unitary operators is available to realize anholonomic adiabatic algorithms [A. Tanaka and M. Miyamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 160407 (2007)], which compose a nontrivial family of discrete adiabatic algorithms. It is straightforward to port a standard adiabatic algorithm to an anholonomic adiabatic one, except an introduction of a parameter |v>, which is available to adjust the gaps of the quasienergies to control the running time steps. In Grover's database search problem, the costs to prepare |v> for the qualitatively different (i.e., power or exponential) running time steps are shown to be qualitatively different.
Roadmap: Computer Technology General Technology Associate of Applied Business
Sheridan, Scott
Roadmap: Computer Technology General Technology Associate of Applied Business [RE to Computer Systems or COMT 11004 Survey of Information Technology or COMT 21007 Internet Ethics and Policies 11002 Visual Basic Programming 3 COMT 11006 Introduction to Web Site Technology 3 COMT 11009 Computer
Raussendorf, R; Briegel, H J
2001-05-28
We present a scheme of quantum computation that consists entirely of one-qubit measurements on a particular class of entangled states, the cluster states. The measurements are used to imprint a quantum logic circuit on the state, thereby destroying its entanglement at the same time. Cluster states are thus one-way quantum computers and the measurements form the program. PMID:11384453
Experimental Demonstration of Quantum Lattice Gas Computation
Marco A. Pravia; Zhiying Chen; Jeffrey Yepez; David G. Cory
2003-01-01
We report an ensemble nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) implementation of a quantum lattice gas algorithm for the diffusion equation. The algorithm employs an array of quantum information processors sharing classical information, a novel architecture referred to as a type-II quantum computer. This concrete implementation provides a test example from which to probe the strengths and limitations of this new computation
Experimental Demonstration of Quantum Lattice Gas Computation
Marco A. Pravia; Zhiying Chen; Jeffrey Yepez; David G. Cory
2003-01-01
We report an ensemble nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) implementation of a quantum lattice gas algorithm for the diffusion equation. The algorithm employs an array of quantum information processors sharing classical information, a novel architecture referred to as a type-II quantum computer. This concrete implementa-tion provides a test example from which to probe the strengths and limitations of this new computation
Quantum Computation Beyond the Circuit Model
Stephen P. Jordan
2008-09-13
The quantum circuit model is the most widely used model of quantum computation. It provides both a framework for formulating quantum algorithms and an architecture for the physical construction of quantum computers. However, several other models of quantum computation exist which provide useful alternative frameworks for both discovering new quantum algorithms and devising new physical implementations of quantum computers. In this thesis, I first present necessary background material for a general physics audience and discuss existing models of quantum computation. Then, I present three results relating to various models of quantum computation: a scheme for improving the intrinsic fault tolerance of adiabatic quantum computers using quantum error detecting codes, a proof that a certain problem of estimating Jones polynomials is complete for the one clean qubit complexity class, and a generalization of perturbative gadgets which allows k-body interactions to be directly simulated using 2-body interactions. Lastly, I discuss general principles regarding quantum computation that I learned in the course of my research, and using these principles I propose directions for future research.
Is the Brain a Quantum Computer?
Abninder Litt; Chris Eliasmith; Frederick W. Kroon
We argue that computation via quantum mechanical processes is irrelevant to explaining how brains produce thought, contrary to the ongoing speculations of many theorists. First, quantum effects do not have the temporal properties required for neural information processing. Second, there are substantial physical obstacles to any organic instantiation of quantum computation. Third, there is no psychological evidence that such mental
Exploring Tuning Strategies for Quantum Chemistry Computations
Sosonkina, Masha
Exploring Tuning Strategies for Quantum Chemistry Computations Lakshminarasimhan Seshagiri1 , Meng-initio molecular quantum chemistry calculations, uses NICAN for dynamically making adaptations so as to improve: Multi-Core, GAMESS, Niagara, Adaptation, NICAN, TAU,Quantum Chemistry 1 Introduction Computational
Universal Blind Quantum Computing with Coherent States
Vedran Dunjko; Elham Kashefi; Anthony Leverrier
2011-01-01
The recently proposed Universal Blind Quantum Computation (UBQC) protocol allows a client to perform an arbitrary quantum computation on a remote server such that perfect privacy is guaranteed if the client is capable of producing random separable single qubit states. While from a theoretical point of view, this arguably constitutes the lowest possible quantum requirement, from a pragmatic point of
Making Weirdness Work: Quantum Information and Computation
John Preskill; Derek Schmitz
2006-01-01
Information is something that can be encoded in the state of a physical system, and a computation is a task that can be performed with a physically realizable device. Therefore, since the physical world is fundamentally quantum mechanical, the foundations of information theory and computer science should be sought in quantum physics. In fact, quantum information has weird properties that
Making Weirdness Work: Quantum Information and Computation
John Preskill
1988-01-01
Information is something that can be encoded in the state of a physical system, and a computation is a task that can be performed with a physically realizable device. Therefore, since the physical world is fundamentally quantum mechanical, the foundations of information theory and computer science should be sought in quantum physics. In fact, quantum information has weird properties that
Suppression of quantum chaos in a quantum computer hardware.
Lages, J; Shepelyansky, D L
2006-08-01
We present numerical and analytical studies of a quantum computer proposed by the Yamamoto group in Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 017901 (2002). The stable and quantum chaos regimes in the quantum computer hardware are identified as a function of magnetic field gradient and dipole-dipole couplings between qubits on a square lattice. It is shown that a strong magnetic field gradient leads to suppression of quantum chaos. PMID:17025526
The case for biological quantum computer elements
Wolfgang Baer; Rita Pizzi
2009-01-01
An extension to vonNeumann's analysis of quantum theory suggests self-measurement is a fundamental process of Nature. By mapping the quantum computer to the brain architecture we will argue that the cognitive experience results from a measurement of a quantum memory maintained by biological entities. The insight provided by this mapping suggests quantum effects are not restricted to small atomic and
A theory of quantum gravity based on quantum computation
Seth Lloyd
2006-04-26
This paper proposes a method of unifying quantum mechanics and gravity based on quantum computation. In this theory, fundamental processes are described in terms of pairwise interactions between quantum degrees of freedom. The geometry of space-time is a construct, derived from the underlying quantum information processing. The computation gives rise to a superposition of four-dimensional spacetimes, each of which obeys the Einstein-Regge equations. The theory makes explicit predictions for the back-reaction of the metric to computational `matter,' black-hole evaporation, holography, and quantum cosmology.
Can quantum chaos enhance stability of quantum computation?
Tomaz Prosen; Marko Znidaric
2001-06-26
We consider stability of a general quantum algorithm with respect to a fixed but unknown residual interaction between qubits, and show a surprising fact, namely that the average fidelity of quantum computation increases by decreasing average time correlation function of the perturbing operator in sequences of consecutive quantum gates. Our thinking is applied to the quantum Fourier transformation where an alternative 'less regular' quantum algorithm is devised which is qualitatively more robust against static random residual n-qubit interaction.
Xijia Miao
2011-11-22
It is shown in the paper that the unitary quantum dynamics in quantum mechanics is the universal quantum driving force to speed up a quantum computation. This assertion supports strongly in theory that the unitary quantum dynamics is the fundamental and universal principle in nature. On the other hand, the symmetric structure of Hilbert space of a composite quantum system is the quantum-computing resource that is not owned by classical computation. A new quantum-computing speedup theory is set up on the basis of the unitary quantum dynamics. Both the unitary quantum dynamics and the symmetric structure and property of the Hilbert space of the quantum system are mainly responsible for an exponential quantum-computing speedup for a general efficient quantum algorithm. The inherent importance for the unitary quantum dynamics to speed up a quantum computation lies in the unique ability of the unitary quantum dynamics to build the effective interaction between the symmetric structure of the Hilbert space of the quantum system and the mathematical symmetric structure of a problem to be solved on the quantum system. This unique ability could result in an essential difference of computational power between quantum and classical computations by combining the symmetric structure and property of the Hilbert space. The new quantum-computing speedup theory also provides reasonable mechanisms for exponential quantum-computing speedup for the existing efficient quantum algorithms based on the quantum parallel principle. These existing quantum algorithms including the hidden-subgroup-problem quantum algorithms and conventional quantum search algorithms have the common character that the symmetric structure of the Hilbert space does not have any effective effect on these quantum algorithms. This could be the main reason why these quantum algorithms are quite special and considered to be semiclassical.
Optical Computers and Space Technology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abdeldayem, Hossin A.; Frazier, Donald O.; Penn, Benjamin; Paley, Mark S.; Witherow, William K.; Banks, Curtis; Hicks, Rosilen; Shields, Angela
1995-01-01
The rapidly increasing demand for greater speed and efficiency on the information superhighway requires significant improvements over conventional electronic logic circuits. Optical interconnections and optical integrated circuits are strong candidates to provide the way out of the extreme limitations imposed on the growth of speed and complexity of nowadays computations by the conventional electronic logic circuits. The new optical technology has increased the demand for high quality optical materials. NASA's recent involvement in processing optical materials in space has demonstrated that a new and unique class of high quality optical materials are processible in a microgravity environment. Microgravity processing can induce improved orders in these materials and could have a significant impact on the development of optical computers. We will discuss NASA's role in processing these materials and report on some of the associated nonlinear optical properties which are quite useful for optical computers technology.
Magnetic resonance force microscopy quantum computer with tellurium donors in silicon.
Berman, G P; Doolen, G D; Hammel, P C; Tsifrinovich, V I
2001-03-26
We propose a magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM)-based nuclear spin quantum computer using tellurium impurities in silicon. This approach to quantum computing combines well-developed silicon technology and expected advances in MRFM. Our proposal does not use electrostatic gates to realize quantum logic operations. PMID:11290066
COMPUTER SIMULATIONS OF EXCITATIONS OF A QUANTUM
Adler, Joan
COMPUTER SIMULATIONS OF EXCITATIONS OF A QUANTUM SOLID AND OF THE MELTING TRANSITION AT HIGH PRESSURE VIACHESLAV SORKIN #12;COMPUTER SIMULATIONS OF EXCITATIONS OF A QUANTUM SOLID AND OF THE MELTING to express my gratitude to A. Weil for the help on the IUCC machines and parallel computing. I also thank
Assumptions for fault tolerant quantum computing
Knill, E.; Laflamme, R.
1996-06-01
Assumptions useful for fault tolerant quantum computing are stated and briefly discussed. We focus on assumptions related to properties of the computational system. The strongest form of the assumptions seems to be sufficient for achieving highly fault tolerant quantum computation. We discuss weakenings which are also likely to suffice.
Neuromorphic quantum computation with energy dissipation
Mitsunaga Kinjo; Shigeo Sato; Yuuki Nakamiya; Koji Nakajima
2005-01-01
Real parallel computing with a quantum computer attracts vast interest due to its extreme high potential. We propose a neuromorphic quantum computation algorithm based on an adiabatic Hamiltonian evolution with energy dissipation. This algorithm can be applied to problems if a cost function can be expressed in a quadratic form. This requirement results from the fact that our Hamiltonian is
Quantum Computing in Non Euclidean Geometry
Germano Resconi; Ignazio Licata
2009-01-01
The recent debate on hyper-computation has raised new questions both on the computational abilities of quantum systems and the Church-Turing Thesis role in Physics. We propose here the idea of geometry of effective physical process as the essentially physical notion of computation. In Quantum mechanics we cannot use the traditional Euclidean geometry but we introduce more sophisticate non Euclidean geometry
Protecting software agents from malicious hosts using quantum computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reisner, John; Donkor, Eric
2000-07-01
We evaluate how quantum computing can be applied to security problems for software agents. Agent-based computing, which merges technological advances in artificial intelligence and mobile computing, is a rapidly growing domain, especially in applications such as electronic commerce, network management, information retrieval, and mission planning. System security is one of the more eminent research areas in agent-based computing, and the specific problem of protecting a mobile agent from a potentially hostile host is one of the most difficult of these challenges. In this work, we describe our agent model, and discuss the capabilities and limitations of classical solutions to the malicious host problem. Quantum computing may be extremely helpful in addressing the limitations of classical solutions to this problem. This paper highlights some of the areas where quantum computing could be applied to agent security.
High Performance Computing Technologies Jack Dongarra
Dongarra, Jack
1 High Performance Computing Technologies Jack Dongarra University of Tennessee Oak Ridge National Network Computing -- PVM -- MPI ffl Software Repositories -- Netlib -- HighPerformance Software Exchange High Per formance Computing resources ffl The Grand Challenges of High Performance Comput ing
Blind quantum computation with AKLT chains
Morimae, Tomoyuki
2010-01-01
We propose a method for the measurement-based blind quantum computation with Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki (AKLT) chains. Alice, a client, prepares certain quantum states which conceal some secret information, and sends them to Bob. Bob, the server, creates a two-dimensional network of AKLT chains from Alice's states, and performs the measurement-based quantum computation on the network according to the feedback from Alice. He finally returns the result of the quantum computation to Alice. Throughout the whole process, Bob learns nothing about Alice's input, the algorithm she wants to run, and the final result of the computation. Furthermore, Alice can detect an interference by dishonest Bob if any. We also consider the blind quantum computation with other ground states than the AKLT state in the gapped Haldane phase. An advantage of using these states is that the quantum computation can be sheltered in the gapped ground states space.
Is the brain a quantum computer?
Litt, Abninder; Eliasmith, Chris; Kroon, Frederick W; Weinstein, Steven; Thagard, Paul
2006-05-01
We argue that computation via quantum mechanical processes is irrelevant to explaining how brains produce thought, contrary to the ongoing speculations of many theorists. First, quantum effects do not have the temporal properties required for neural information processing. Second, there are substantial physical obstacles to any organic instantiation of quantum computation. Third, there is no psychological evidence that such mental phenomena as consciousness and mathematical thinking require explanation via quantum theory. We conclude that understanding brain function is unlikely to require quantum computation or similar mechanisms. PMID:21702826
Distributed quantum computing: A distributed Shor algorithm
Anocha Yimsiriwattana; Samuel J. Lomonaco Jr
2004-03-23
We present a distributed implementation of Shor's quantum factoring algorithm on a distributed quantum network model. This model provides a means for small capacity quantum computers to work together in such a way as to simulate a large capacity quantum computer. In this paper, entanglement is used as a resource for implementing non-local operations between two or more quantum computers. These non-local operations are used to implement a distributed factoring circuit with polynomially many gates. This distributed version of Shor's algorithm requires an additional overhead of O((log N)^2) communication complexity, where N denotes the integer to be factored.
A Quantum Neural Network Computes Entanglement
E. C. Behrman; V. Chandrashekar; Z. Wang; C. K. Belur; J. E. Steck; S. R. Skinner
2002-02-22
An outstanding problem in quantum computing is the calculation of entanglement, for which no closed-form algorithm exists. Here we solve that problem, and demonstrate the utility of a quantum neural computer, by showing, in simulation, that such a device can be trained to calculate the entanglement of an input state, something neither an algorithmic quantum computer nor a classical neural net can do.
Blind quantum computation for Alice who does only measurements
Morimae, Tomoyuki
2012-01-01
Blind quantum computation is a secure quantum computing protocol which enables Alice who does not have sufficient quantum technology to ask Bob to perform quantum computation on Bob's fully-fledged quantum computer in such a way that Bob cannot learn anything about Alice's input, output, and algorithm. In previous proposals, Alice needs to have a device which generates quantum states, such as single-photon states. Here we show that Alice who does only measurements, such as the polarization measurements with a threshold detector, can perform the blind quantum computation. In several experimental setups, such as optical systems, the measurement of a state is much easier than the generation of a single-qubit state. Therefore our protocols can ease Alice's burden. Furthermore, the security of our protocols is device independent in the sense that Alice does not need to trust her measurement device. Finally, the security of our protocols is based on the no-signaling principle, which is more fundamental than quantum...
Computers [1999 technology forecast and analysis
A. Dutta-Roya
1999-01-01
This paper presents a computer technology analysis and forecast for 1999. The subjects covered include personal computers, magnetic disk storage, open operating systems, digital versatile disks and supercomputers
A quantum cellular automaton for universal quantum computation
Robert Raussendorf
2004-12-06
I describe a quantum cellular automaton capable of performing universal quantum computation. The automaton has an elementary transition function that acts on Margolus cells of $2\\times 2$ qubits, and both the ``quantum input'' and the program are encoded in the initial state of the system.
Prospects for quantum computation with trapped ions
Hughes, R.J.; James, D.F.V.
1997-12-31
Over the past decade information theory has been generalized to allow binary data to be represented by two-state quantum mechanical systems. (A single two-level system has come to be known as a qubit in this context.) The additional freedom introduced into information physics with quantum systems has opened up a variety of capabilities that go well beyond those of conventional information. For example, quantum cryptography allows two parties to generate a secret key even in the presence of eavesdropping. But perhaps the most remarkable capabilities have been predicted in the field of quantum computation. Here, a brief survey of the requirements for quantum computational hardware, and an overview of the in trap quantum computation project at Los Alamos are presented. The physical limitations to quantum computation with trapped ions are discussed.
The Heisenberg representation of quantum computers
Gottesman, D.
1998-06-24
Since Shor`s discovery of an algorithm to factor numbers on a quantum computer in polynomial time, quantum computation has become a subject of immense interest. Unfortunately, one of the key features of quantum computers--the difficulty of describing them on classical computers--also makes it difficult to describe and understand precisely what can be done with them. A formalism describing the evolution of operators rather than states has proven extremely fruitful in understanding an important class of quantum operations. States used in error correction and certain communication protocols can be described by their stabilizer, a group of tensor products of Pauli matrices. Even this simple group structure is sufficient to allow a rich range of quantum effects, although it falls short of the full power of quantum computation.
PREFACE: Quantum Information, Communication, Computation and Cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benatti, F.; Fannes, M.; Floreanini, R.; Petritis, D.
2007-07-01
The application of quantum mechanics to information related fields such as communication, computation and cryptography is a fast growing line of research that has been witnessing an outburst of theoretical and experimental results, with possible practical applications. On the one hand, quantum cryptography with its impact on secrecy of transmission is having its first important actual implementations; on the other hand, the recent advances in quantum optics, ion trapping, BEC manipulation, spin and quantum dot technologies allow us to put to direct test a great deal of theoretical ideas and results. These achievements have stimulated a reborn interest in various aspects of quantum mechanics, creating a unique interplay between physics, both theoretical and experimental, mathematics, information theory and computer science. In view of all these developments, it appeared timely to organize a meeting where graduate students and young researchers could be exposed to the fundamentals of the theory, while senior experts could exchange their latest results. The activity was structured as a school followed by a workshop, and took place at The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) and The International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) in Trieste, Italy, from 12-23 June 2006. The meeting was part of the activity of the Joint European Master Curriculum Development Programme in Quantum Information, Communication, Cryptography and Computation, involving the Universities of Cergy-Pontoise (France), Chania (Greece), Leuven (Belgium), Rennes1 (France) and Trieste (Italy). This special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical collects 22 contributions from well known experts who took part in the workshop. They summarize the present day status of the research in the manifold aspects of quantum information. The issue is opened by two review articles, the first by G Adesso and F Illuminati discussing entanglement in continuous variable systems, the second by T Prosen, discussing chaos and complexity in quantum systems. Both topics have theoretical as well as experimental relevance and are likely to witness a fast growing development in the near future. The remaining contributions present more specific and very recent results. They involve the study of the structure of quantum states and their estimation (B Baumgartner et al, C King et al, S Olivares et al, D Petz et al and W van Dam et al), of entanglement generation and its quantification (G Brida et al, F Ciccarello et al, G Costantini et al, O Romero-Isart et al, D Rossini et al, A Serafini et al and D Vitali et al), of randomness related effects on entanglement behaviour (I Akhalwaya et al, O Dahlsten et al and L Viola et al), and of abstract and applied aspects of quantum computation and communication (K Audenart, G M D'Ariano et al, N Datta et al, L C Kwek et al and M Nathanson et al). We would like to express our gratitude to the European Commission, the Abdus Salam ICTP, SISSA and Eurotech SpA (Amaro, Udine, Italy) for financial and/or logistic support. Special thanks also go to the workshop secretary Marina De Comelli, and the secretaries of the Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Trieste, Sabrina Gaspardis and Rosita Glavina for their precious help and assistance.
The one-way quantum computer - a non-network model of quantum computation
Robert Raussendorf; Daniel E. Browne; Hans J. Briegel
2001-08-27
A one-way quantum computer works by only performing a sequence of one-qubit measurements on a particular entangled multi-qubit state, the cluster state. No non-local operations are required in the process of computation. Any quantum logic network can be simulated on the one-way quantum computer. On the other hand, the network model of quantum computation cannot explain all ways of processing quantum information possible with the one-way quantum computer. In this paper, two examples of the non-network character of the one-way quantum computer are given. First, circuits in the Clifford group can be performed in a single time step. Second, the realisation of a particular circuit --the bit-reversal gate-- on the one-way quantum computer has no network interpretation. (Submitted to J. Mod. Opt, Gdansk ESF QIT conference issue.)
Fault-tolerant Operations for Universal Blind Quantum Computation
Chia-Hung Chien; Rodney Van Meter; Sy-Yen Kuo
2013-06-16
Blind quantum computation is an appealing use of quantum information technology because it can conceal both the client's data and the algorithm itself from the server. However, problems need to be solved in the practical use of blind quantum computation and fault-tolerance is a major challenge. On an example circuit, the computational cost measured in T gates executed by the client is 97 times more than performing the original computation directly, without using the server, even before applying error correction. (The client still benefits due to drastically reduced memory requirements.) Broadbent et al. proposed running error correction over blind computation, but our first protocol applies one layer of Steane's [[7,1,3
Experimental realization of quantum games on a quantum computer.
Du, Jiangfeng; Li, Hui; Xu, Xiaodong; Shi, Mingjun; Wu, Jihui; Zhou, Xianyi; Han, Rongdian
2002-04-01
We generalize the quantum prisoner's dilemma to the case where the players share a nonmaximally entangled states. We show that the game exhibits an intriguing structure as a function of the amount of entanglement with two thresholds which separate a classical region, an intermediate region, and a fully quantum region. Furthermore this quantum game is experimentally realized on our nuclear magnetic resonance quantum computer. PMID:11955126
Experimental realization of quantum games on a quantum computer
Jiangfeng Du; Hui Li; Xiaodong Xu; Mingjun Shi; Jihui Wu; Xianyi Zhou; Rongdian Han
2002-04-03
We generalize the quantum Prisoner's Dilemma to the case where the players share a non maximally entangled states. We show that the game exhibits an intriguing structure as a function of the amount of entanglement with two thresholds which separate a classical region, an intermediate region and a fully quantum region. Furthermore this quantum game is experimentally realized on our nuclear magnetic resonance quantum computer.
A Realizable Distributed Ion-Trap Quantum Computer
Darshan D. Thaker; Tzvetan S. Metodi; Frederic T. Chong
2006-01-01
Recent advances in trapped ion technology have rapidly accelerated efforts to construct a near-term, scalable quantum computer. Micro-machined electrodes in silicon are expected to trap hundreds of ions, each representing quantum bits, on a single chip. We find, however, that scalable systems must be composed of multiple chips and we explore inter-chip communication tech- nologies. Specifically, we explore the parallelization
Leadership Training in Computer Technology. [Resource Materials.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, Rockville, MD.
This manual contains papers written as part of a project to develop faculty leadership in the infusion of computer technology into graduate-level curricula in communication disorders. Titles and authors are (1) "Computer Technology in the Practice of Special Education: A General Introduction" (M. Budoff); (2)"Computer Technology in the Practice of…
Infinite possibilities: Computational structures technology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beam, Sherilee F.
1994-12-01
Computational Fluid Dynamics (or CFD) methods are very familiar to the research community. Even the general public has had some exposure to CFD images, primarily through the news media. However, very little attention has been paid to CST--Computational Structures Technology. Yet, no important design can be completed without it. During the first half of this century, researchers only dreamed of designing and building structures on a computer. Today their dreams have become practical realities as computational methods are used in all phases of design, fabrication and testing of engineering systems. Increasingly complex structures can now be built in even shorter periods of time. Over the past four decades, computer technology has been developing, and early finite element methods have grown from small in-house programs to numerous commercial software programs. When coupled with advanced computing systems, they help engineers make dramatic leaps in designing and testing concepts. The goals of CST include: predicting how a structure will behave under actual operating conditions; designing and complementing other experiments conducted on a structure; investigating microstructural damage or chaotic, unpredictable behavior; helping material developers in improving material systems; and being a useful tool in design systems optimization and sensitivity techniques. Applying CST to a structure problem requires five steps: (1) observe the specific problem; (2) develop a computational model for numerical simulation; (3) develop and assemble software and hardware for running the codes; (4) post-process and interpret the results; and (5) use the model to analyze and design the actual structure. Researchers in both industry and academia continue to make significant contributions to advance this technology with improvements in software, collaborative computing environments and supercomputing systems. As these environments and systems evolve, computational structures technology will evolve. By using CST in the design and operation of future structures systems, engineers will have a better understanding of how a system responds and lasts, more cost-effective methods of designing and testing models, and improved productivity. For informational and educational purposes, a videotape is being produced using both static and dynamic images from research institutions, software and hardware companies, private individuals, and historical photographs and drawings. The extensive number of CST resources indicates its widespread use. Applications run the gamut from simpler university-simulated problems to those requiring solutions on supercomputers. In some cases, an image or an animation will be mapped onto the actual structure to show the relevance of the computer model to the structure.
Quantum Computer Games: Schrodinger Cat and Hounds
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren
2012-01-01
The quantum computer game "Schrodinger cat and hounds" is the quantum extension of the well-known classical game fox and hounds. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. "Schrodinger cat and hounds" demonstrates the effects of superposition, destructive and constructive interference, measurements and…
Exponential rise of dynamical complexity in quantum computing through projections
Burgarth, Daniel Klaus; Facchi, Paolo; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Nakazato, Hiromichi; Pascazio, Saverio; Yuasa, Kazuya
2014-01-01
The ability of quantum systems to host exponentially complex dynamics has the potential to revolutionize science and technology. Therefore, much effort has been devoted to developing of protocols for computation, communication and metrology, which exploit this scaling, despite formidable technical difficulties. Here we show that the mere frequent observation of a small part of a quantum system can turn its dynamics from a very simple one into an exponentially complex one, capable of universal quantum computation. After discussing examples, we go on to show that this effect is generally to be expected: almost any quantum dynamics becomes universal once ‘observed’ as outlined above. Conversely, we show that any complex quantum dynamics can be ‘purified’ into a simpler one in larger dimensions. We conclude by demonstrating that even local noise can lead to an exponentially complex dynamics. PMID:25300692
How to test the ``quantumness'' of a quantum computer?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zagoskin, Alexandre; Il'ichev, Evgeni; Grajcar, Miroslav; Betouras, Joseph; Nori, Franco
2014-05-01
Recent devices, using hundreds of superconducting quantum bits, claim to perform quantum computing. However, it is not an easy task to determine and quantify the degree of quantum coherence and control used by these devices. Namely, it is a difficult task to know with certainty whether or not a given device (e.g., the D-Wave One or D-Wave Two) is a quantum computer. Such a verification of quantum computing would be more accessible if we already had some kind of working quantum computer, to be able to compare the outputs of these various computing devices. Moreover, the verification process itself could strongly depend on whether the tested device is a standard (gate-based) or, e.g., an adiabatic quantum computer. Here we do not propose a technical solution to this quantum-computing “verification problem”, but rather outline the problem in a way which would help both specialists and non-experts to see the scale of this difficult task, and indicate some possible paths towards its solution.
Nonlinear Optics Quantum Computing with Circuit QED
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adhikari, Prabin; Hafezi, Mohammad; Taylor, J. M.
2013-02-01
One approach to quantum information processing is to use photons as quantum bits and rely on linear optical elements for most operations. However, some optical nonlinearity is necessary to enable universal quantum computing. Here, we suggest a circuit-QED approach to nonlinear optics quantum computing in the microwave regime, including a deterministic two-photon phase gate. Our specific example uses a hybrid quantum system comprising a LC resonator coupled to a superconducting flux qubit to implement a nonlinear coupling. Compared to the self-Kerr nonlinearity, we find that our approach has improved tolerance to noise in the qubit while maintaining fast operation.
Computer Technology and Architecture: An Evolving Interaction
John L. Hennessy; Norman P. Jouppi
1991-01-01
The interaction between computer architecture and IC technology is examined. To evaluate the attractiveness of particular technologies, computer designs are assessed primarily on the basis of performance and cost. The focus is mainly on CPU performance, both because it is easier to measure and because the impact of technology is most easily seen in the CPU. The technology trends discussed
Secure entanglement distillation for double-server blind quantum computation
Tomoyuki Morimae; Keisuke Fujii
2013-07-13
Blind quantum computation is a new secure quantum computing protocol where a client, who does not have enough quantum technologies at her disposal, can delegate her quantum computation to a server, who has a fully-fledged quantum computer, in such a way that the server cannot learn anything about client's input, output, and program. If the client interacts with only a single server, the client has to have some minimum quantum power, such as the ability of emitting randomly rotated single-qubit states or the ability of measuring states. If the client interacts with two servers who share Bell pairs but cannot communicate with each other, the client can be completely classical. For such a double-server scheme, two servers have to share clean Bell pairs, and therefore the entanglement distillation is necessary in a realistic noisy environment. In this paper, we show that it is possible to perform entanglement distillation in the double-server scheme without degrading the security of the blind quantum computing.
Secure Entanglement Distillation for Double-Server Blind Quantum Computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morimae, Tomoyuki; Fujii, Keisuke
2013-07-01
Blind quantum computation is a new secure quantum computing protocol where a client, who does not have enough quantum technologies at her disposal, can delegate her quantum computation to a server, who has a fully fledged quantum computer, in such a way that the server cannot learn anything about the client’s input, output, and program. If the client interacts with only a single server, the client has to have some minimum quantum power, such as the ability of emitting randomly rotated single-qubit states or the ability of measuring states. If the client interacts with two servers who share Bell pairs but cannot communicate with each other, the client can be completely classical. For such a double-server scheme, two servers have to share clean Bell pairs, and therefore the entanglement distillation is necessary in a realistic noisy environment. In this Letter, we show that it is possible to perform entanglement distillation in the double-server scheme without degrading the security of blind quantum computing.
Blind quantum computation protocol in which Alice only makes measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morimae, Tomoyuki; Fujii, Keisuke
2013-05-01
Blind quantum computation is a new secure quantum computing protocol which enables Alice (who does not have sufficient quantum technology) to delegate her quantum computation to Bob (who has a full-fledged quantum computer) in such a way that Bob cannot learn anything about Alice's input, output, and algorithm. In previous protocols, Alice needs to have a device which generates quantum states, such as single-photon states. Here we propose another type of blind computing protocol where Alice does only measurements, such as the polarization measurements with a threshold detector. In several experimental setups, such as optical systems, the measurement of a state is much easier than the generation of a single-qubit state. Therefore our protocols ease Alice's burden. Furthermore, the security of our protocol is based on the no-signaling principle, which is more fundamental than quantum physics. Finally, our protocols are device independent in the sense that Alice does not need to trust her measurement device in order to guarantee the security.
The Universe and the Quantum Computer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gudder, Stan
2011-12-01
It is first pointed out that there is a common mathematical model for the universe and the quantum computer. The former is called the histories approach to quantum mechanics and the latter is called measurement-based quantum computation. Although a rigorous concrete model for the universe has not been completed, a quantum measure and integration theory has been developed which may be useful for future progress. In this work we show that the quantum integral is the unique functional satisfying certain basic physical and mathematical principles. Since the set of paths (or trajectories) for a quantum computer is finite, this theory is easier to treat and more developed. We observe that the sum of the quantum measures of the paths is unity and the total interference vanishes. Thus, constructive interference is always balanced by an equal amount of destructive interference. As an example we consider a simplified two-slit experiment.
Adiabatic Quantum Computation: Coherent Control Back Action
Goswami, Debabrata
2013-01-01
Though attractive from scalability aspects, optical approaches to quantum computing are highly prone to decoherence and rapid population loss due to nonradiative processes such as vibrational redistribution. We show that such effects can be reduced by adiabatic coherent control, in which quantum interference between multiple excitation pathways is used to cancel coupling to the unwanted, non-radiative channels. We focus on experimentally demonstrated adiabatic controlled population transfer experiments wherein the details on the coherence aspects are yet to be explored theoretically but are important for quantum computation. Such quantum computing schemes also form a back-action connection to coherent control developments. PMID:23788822
On Quantum Computation Theory Wim van Dam
ten Cate, Balder
On Quantum Computation Theory Wim van Dam #12;#12;On Quantum Computation Theory #12;ILLC woensdag 9 oktober 2002, te 14.00 uur door Willem Klaas van Dam geboren te Breda. #12;Promotor: Prof. dr. P Dam, 2002 ISBN: 9057760916 #12;" . . . Many errors have been made in the world which today
Fault-tolerant holonomic quantum computation
Ognyan Oreshkov; Todd A. Brun; Daniel A. Lidar
2009-02-20
We explain how to combine holonomic quantum computation (HQC) with fault tolerant quantum error correction. This establishes the scalability of HQC, putting it on equal footing with other models of computation, while retaining the inherent robustness the method derives from its geometric nature.
Error correction and symmetrization in quantum computers
Asher Peres
1996-01-01
Errors in quantum computers are of two kinds: sudden perturbations to isolated qubits, and slow random drifts of all the qubits. The latter may be reduced, but not eliminated, by means of symmetrization, namely by using many replicas of the computer, and forcing their joint quantum state to be completely symmetric. On the other hand, isolated errors can be corrected
Computing a Turing-Incomputable Problem from Quantum Computing
Sicard, A; Ospina, J; Sicard, Andr\\'es; V\\'elez, Mario; Ospina, Juan
2003-01-01
A hypercomputation model named Infinite Square Well Hypercomputation Model (ISWHM) is built from quantum computation. This model is inspired by the model proposed by Tien D. Kieu quant-ph/0203034 and solves an Turing-incomputable problem. For the proposed model and problem, a simulation of its behavior is made. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that ISWHM is a universal quantum computation model.
Computing a Turing-Incomputable Problem from Quantum Computing
Andrés Sicard; Mario Vélez; Juan Ospina
2003-09-26
A hypercomputation model named Infinite Square Well Hypercomputation Model (ISWHM) is built from quantum computation. This model is inspired by the model proposed by Tien D. Kieu quant-ph/0203034 and solves an Turing-incomputable problem. For the proposed model and problem, a simulation of its behavior is made. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that ISWHM is a universal quantum computation model.
The SLH Formalism and Quantum Feedback Networks ARC Centre for Quantum Computation
The SLH Formalism and Quantum Feedback Networks Matt James ARC Centre for Quantum Computation (ANU) SLH & Quantum Feedback Networks 9 / 53 #12;Modelling for Engineered Systems Quantum computer tion-based nuclear-spin quantum computer. (a) Schematic of Kane's proposal for a scalable quantum computer in linear
Center for Computation & Technology at LSU
Allen, Gabrielle
Center for Computation & Technology at LSU Gabrielle Allen Assoc. Prof. Computer Science Asst. Dir #12;7 Research Areas · HPC and programming environments Cactus Computational Toolkit · Grid) Coastal Modeling (SCOOP/DynaCode) #12;· Research · Education · Leading Facilities Supermike, LONI
Computational Power of Infinite Quantum Parallelism
Martin Ziegler
2005-01-01
Recent works have independently suggested that quantum mechanics might permit procedures that fundamentally transcend the\\u000a power of Turing Machines as well as of ‘standard’ Quantum Computers. These approaches rely on and indicate that quantum mechanics\\u000a seems to support some infinite variant of classical parallel computing.\\u000a \\u000a We compare this new one with other attempts towards hypercomputation by separating (1) its %principal
A Quantum Computer Architecture for Nonlocal Interactions
Carl Williams; Gavin Brennen; Song Daegene
2003-01-01
Several authors [see for e.g. D.P. DiVincenzo, Fortschr. Phys. 48, 771 (2000) and J. Preskill, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 454 385 (1998).] have described the basic requirements essential to build a scalable quantum computer. Because many physical implementation schemes for quantum computing rely on nearest neighbor interactions, there is a hidden quantum communication overhead to connect distant nodes
Detected-jump-error-correcting quantum codes, quantum error designs, and quantum computation
Detected-jump-error-correcting quantum codes, quantum error designs, and quantum computation G Kognitive Systeme, UniversitaÂ¨t Karlsruhe, D-76128, Germany 3 Department of Computer Science and Software July 2003 The recently introduced detected-jump-correcting quantum codes are capable of stabilizing
Experimental demonstration of deterministic one-way quantum computation on a NMR quantum computer
Ju, Chenyong; Zhu Jing; Peng Xinhua; Chong Bo; Zhou Xianyi; Du Jiangfeng [Heifei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, 230026 Hefei (China)
2010-01-15
One-way quantum computing is an important and novel approach to quantum computation. By exploiting the existing particle-particle interactions, we report an experimental realization of the complete process of deterministic one-way quantum Deutsch-Josza algorithm in NMR, including graph state preparation, single-qubit measurements, and feed-forward corrections. The findings in our experiment may shed light on the future scalable one-way quantum computation.
Quantum computer: an appliance for playing market games
Edward W. Piotrowski; Jan Sladkowski
2003-05-05
Recent development in quantum computation and quantum information theory allows to extend the scope of game theory for the quantum world. The authors have recently proposed a quantum description of financial market in terms of quantum game theory. The paper contain an analysis of such markets that shows that there would be advantage in using quantum computers and quantum strategies.
Decoherence, Control, and Symmetry in Quantum Computers
D. Bacon
2003-05-05
In this thesis we describe methods for avoiding the detrimental effects of decoherence while at the same time still allowing for computation of the quantum information. The philosophy of the method discussed in the first part of this thesis is to use a symmetry of the decoherence mechanism to find robust encodings of the quantum information. Stability, control, and methods for using decoherence-free information in a quantum computer are presented with a specific emphasis on decoherence due to a collective coupling between the system and its environment. Universal quantum computation on such collective decoherence decoherence-free encodings is demonstrated. Rigorous definitions of control and the use of encoded universality in quantum computers are addressed. Explicit gate constructions for encoded universality on ion trap and exchange based quantum computers are given. In the second part of the thesis we examine physical systems with error correcting properties. We examine systems that can store quantum information in their ground state such that decoherence processes are prohibited via energetics. We present the theory of supercoherent systems whose ground states are quantum error detecting codes and describe a spin ladder whose ground state has both the error detecting and correcting properties. We conclude by discussing naturally fault-tolerant quantum computation.
Optical technologies for quantum information science
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwiat, Paul G.; Altepeter, Joseph; Barreiro, Julio; Branning, David A.; Jeffrey, Evan R.; Peters, Nicholas; VanDevender, Aaron P.
2004-02-01
A number of optical technologies remain to be developed and optimized for various applications in quantum information processing, especially quantum communication. We will give an overview of our approach to some of these, including periodic heralded single-photon sources based on spontaneous parametric down-conversion, ultrabright sources of tunable entangled photons, near unit efficiency single- and multi-photon detectors based on an atomic vapor interaction, quantum state transducers based on high efficiency frequency up-conversion, and low-loss optical quantum memories.
Computer technologies and institutional memory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bell, Christopher; Lachman, Roy
1989-01-01
NASA programs for manned space flight are in their 27th year. Scientists and engineers who worked continuously on the development of aerospace technology during that period are approaching retirement. The resulting loss to the organization will be considerable. Although this problem is general to the NASA community, the problem was explored in terms of the institutional memory and technical expertise of a single individual in the Man-Systems division. The main domain of the expert was spacecraft lighting, which became the subject area for analysis in these studies. The report starts with an analysis of the cumulative expertise and institutional memory of technical employees of organizations such as NASA. A set of solutions to this problem are examined and found inadequate. Two solutions were investigated at length: hypertext and expert systems. Illustrative examples were provided of hypertext and expert system representation of spacecraft lighting. These computer technologies can be used to ameliorate the problem of the loss of invaluable personnel.
Toward a superconducting quantum computer. Harnessing macroscopic quantum coherence.
Tsai, Jaw-Shen
2010-01-01
Intensive research on the construction of superconducting quantum computers has produced numerous important achievements. The quantum bit (qubit), based on the Josephson junction, is at the heart of this research. This macroscopic system has the ability to control quantum coherence. This article reviews the current state of quantum computing as well as its history, and discusses its future. Although progress has been rapid, the field remains beset with unsolved issues, and there are still many new research opportunities open to physicists and engineers. PMID:20431256
Secure Multi-party Quantum Computing
Claude Crepeau; Daniel Gottesman; Adam Smith
2002-06-20
Secure multi-party computing, also called "secure function evaluation", has been extensively studied in classical cryptography. We consider the extension of this task to computation with quantum inputs and circuits. Our protocols are information-theoretically secure, i.e. no assumptions are made on the computational power of the adversary. For the weaker task of verifiable quantum secret sharing, we give a protocol which tolerates any t < n/4 cheating parties (out of n). This is shown to be optimal. We use this new tool to show how to perform any multi-party quantum computation as long as the number of dishonest players is less than n/6.
Embedding quantum simulators for quantum computation of entanglement.
Di Candia, R; Mejia, B; Castillo, H; Pedernales, J S; Casanova, J; Solano, E
2013-12-13
We introduce the concept of embedding quantum simulators, a paradigm allowing the efficient quantum computation of a class of bipartite and multipartite entanglement monotones. It consists in the suitable encoding of a simulated quantum dynamics in the enlarged Hilbert space of an embedding quantum simulator. In this manner, entanglement monotones are conveniently mapped onto physical observables, overcoming the necessity of full tomography and reducing drastically the experimental requirements. Furthermore, this method is directly applicable to pure states and, assisted by classical algorithms, to the mixed-state case. Finally, we expect that the proposed embedding framework paves the way for a general theory of enhanced one-to-one quantum simulators. PMID:24483635
The case for biological quantum computer elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baer, Wolfgang; Pizzi, Rita
2009-05-01
An extension to vonNeumann's analysis of quantum theory suggests self-measurement is a fundamental process of Nature. By mapping the quantum computer to the brain architecture we will argue that the cognitive experience results from a measurement of a quantum memory maintained by biological entities. The insight provided by this mapping suggests quantum effects are not restricted to small atomic and nuclear phenomena but are an integral part of our own cognitive experience and further that the architecture of a quantum computer system parallels that of a conscious brain. We will then review the suggestions for biological quantum elements in basic neural structures and address the de-coherence objection by arguing for a self- measurement event model of Nature. We will argue that to first order approximation the universe is composed of isolated self-measurement events which guaranties coherence. Controlled de-coherence is treated as the input/output interactions between quantum elements of a quantum computer and the quantum memory maintained by biological entities cognizant of the quantum calculation results. Lastly we will present stem-cell based neuron experiments conducted by one of us with the aim of demonstrating the occurrence of quantum effects in living neural networks and discuss future research projects intended to reach this objective.
Resilient Quantum Computation: Error Models and Thresholds
Emanuel Knill; Raymond Laflamme; Wojciech H. Zurek
1997-02-26
Recent research has demonstrated that quantum computers can solve certain types of problems substantially faster than the known classical algorithms. These problems include factoring integers and certain physics simulations. Practical quantum computation requires overcoming the problems of environmental noise and operational errors, problems which appear to be much more severe than in classical computation due to the inherent fragility of quantum superpositions involving many degrees of freedom. Here we show that arbitrarily accurate quantum computations are possible provided that the error per operation is below a threshold value. The result is obtained by combining quantum error-correction, fault tolerant state recovery, fault tolerant encoding of operations and concatenation. It holds under physically realistic assumptions on the errors.
LDRD final report on quantum computing using interacting semiconductor quantum wires.
Lyo, Sungkwun Kenneth; Dunn, Roberto G.; Lilly, Michael Patrick; Tibbetts, Denise R. (.; )); Stephenson, Larry L.; Seamons, John Andrew; Reno, John Louis; Bielejec, Edward Salvador; Simmons, Jerry Alvon
2006-01-01
For several years now quantum computing has been viewed as a new paradigm for certain computing applications. Of particular importance to this burgeoning field is the development of an algorithm for factoring large numbers which obviously has deep implications for cryptography and national security. Implementation of these theoretical ideas faces extraordinary challenges in preparing and manipulating quantum states. The quantum transport group at Sandia has demonstrated world-leading, unique double quantum wires devices where we have unprecedented control over the coupling strength, number of 1 D channels, overlap and interaction strength in this nanoelectronic system. In this project, we study 1D-1D tunneling with the ultimate aim of preparing and detecting quantum states of the coupled wires. In a region of strong tunneling, electrons can coherently oscillate from one wire to the other. By controlling the velocity of the electrons, length of the coupling region and tunneling strength we will attempt to observe tunneling oscillations. This first step is critical for further development double quantum wires into the basic building block for a quantum computer, and indeed for other coupled nanoelectronic devices that will rely on coherent transport. If successful, this project will have important implications for nanoelectronics, quantum computing and information technology.
Solving a Maze With a Quantum Computer
Mark A Bashuk
2003-04-23
It is well known, and appreciated, that quantum computers have the potential to be the most powerful computational devices ever created. This newfound power comes from a quantum parallelism effect that allows the computer to be in multiple states at the same time. This property of quantum parallelism, while suited to handle common problems such as factoring and searching an unorganized database, is extremely well-suited to handle the task of solving a binary maze. I propose an algorithm that can be used to solve a binary maze on a quantum computer, with guaranteed accuracy. While it does work, it does come with a few setbacks, in that the maze must have no flaws, and that the computer requires a number of qubits equal to the number of decisions in the maze, plus log 2 of the decisions.
Effective Pure States for Bulk Quantum Computation
Emanuel Knill; Isaac Chuang; Raymond Laflamme
1997-06-24
In bulk quantum computation one can manipulate a large number of indistinguishable quantum computers by parallel unitary operations and measure expectation values of certain observables with limited sensitivity. The initial state of each computer in the ensemble is known but not pure. Methods for obtaining effective pure input states by a series of manipulations have been described by Gershenfeld and Chuang (logical labeling) and Cory et al. (spatial averaging) for the case of quantum computation with nuclear magnetic resonance. We give a different technique called temporal averaging. This method is based on classical randomization, requires no ancilla qubits and can be implemented in nuclear magnetic resonance without using gradient fields. We introduce several temporal averaging algorithms suitable for both high temperature and low temperature bulk quantum computing and analyze the signal to noise behavior of each.
Effective pure states for bulk quantum computation
Knill, E.; Chuang, I.; Laflamme, R.
1997-11-01
In bulk quantum computation one can manipulate a large number of indistinguishable quantum computers by parallel unitary operations and measure expectation values of certain observables with limited sensitivity. The initial state of each computer in the ensemble is known but not pure. Methods for obtaining effective pure input states by a series of manipulations have been described by Gershenfeld and Chuang (logical labeling) and Corey et al. (spatial averaging) for the case of quantum computation with nuclear magnetic resonance. We give a different technique called temporal averaging. This method is based on classical randomization, requires no ancilla qubits and can be implemented in nuclear magnetic resonance without using gradient fields. We introduce several temporal averaging algorithms suitable for both high temperature and low temperature bulk quantum computing and analyze the signal to noise behavior of each.
Review of cooling technologies for computer products
Richard C. Chu; Robert E. Simons; Michael J. Ellsworth; Roger R. Schmidt; Vincent Cozzolino
2004-01-01
This paper provides a broad review of the cooling technologies for computer products from desktop computers to large servers. For many years cooling technology has played a key role in enabling and facilitating the packaging and performance improvements in each new generation of computers. The role of internal and external thermal resistance in module level cooling is discussed in terms
Unifying Quantum Computation with Projective Measurements only and One-Way Quantum Computation
Philippe Jorrand; Simon Perdrix
2004-04-21
Quantum measurement is universal for quantum computation. Two models for performing measurement-based quantum computation exist: the one-way quantum computer was introduced by Briegel and Raussendorf, and quantum computation via projective measurements only by Nielsen. The more recent development of this second model is based on state transfers instead of teleportation. From this development, a finite but approximate quantum universal family of observables is exhibited, which includes only one two-qubit observable, while others are one-qubit observables. In this article, an infinite but exact quantum universal family of observables is proposed, including also only one two-qubit observable. The rest of the paper is dedicated to compare these two models of measurement-based quantum computation, i.e. one-way quantum computation and quantum computation via projective measurements only. From this comparison, which was initiated by Cirac and Verstraete, closer and more natural connections appear between these two models. These close connections lead to a unified view of measurement-based quantum computation.
Geometries for universal quantum computation with matchgates
Daniel J. Brod; Ernesto F. Galvão
2012-10-10
Matchgates are a group of two-qubit gates associated with free fermions. They are classically simulatable if restricted to act between nearest neighbors on a one-dimensional chain, but become universal for quantum computation with longer-range interactions. We describe various alternative geometries with nearest-neighbor interactions that result in universal quantum computation with matchgates only, including subtle departures from the chain. Our results pave the way for new quantum computer architectures that rely solely on the simple interactions associated with matchgates.
Concatenated codes for fault tolerant quantum computing
Knill, E.; Laflamme, R.; Zurek, W.
1995-05-01
The application of concatenated codes to fault tolerant quantum computing is discussed. We have previously shown that for quantum memories and quantum communication, a state can be transmitted with error {epsilon} provided each gate has error at most c{epsilon}. We show how this can be used with Shor`s fault tolerant operations to reduce the accuracy requirements when maintaining states not currently participating in the computation. Viewing Shor`s fault tolerant operations as a method for reducing the error of operations, we give a concatenated implementation which promises to propagate the reduction hierarchically. This has the potential of reducing the accuracy requirements in long computations.
Quantum computation with two-dimensional graphene quantum dots
Li Jie-Sen; Li Zhi-Bing; Yao Dao-Xin
2012-01-01
We study an array of graphene nano sheets that form a two-dimensional S = 1\\/2 Kagome spin lattice used for quantum computation. The edge states of the graphene nano sheets are used to form quantum dots to confine electrons and perform the computation. We propose two schemes of bang-bang control to combat decoherence and realize gate operations on this array
Quantum Computation and Shor's Factoring Algorithm Ronald de Wolf
de Wolf, Ronald
that are based on quantum mechanical principles. We give a brief introduction to the model of quantum the computational power and other proper ties of computers based on quantummechanical principles. Its main with an abstract explanation of quantum mechanics in Section 2. Section 3 explains what quantum bits and quantum
Center for Computational Structures Technology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noor, Ahmed K.; Perry, Ferman W.
1995-01-01
The Center for Computational Structures Technology (CST) is intended to serve as a focal point for the diverse CST research activities. The CST activities include the use of numerical simulation and artificial intelligence methods in modeling, analysis, sensitivity studies, and optimization of flight-vehicle structures. The Center is located at NASA Langley and is an integral part of the School of Engineering and Applied Science of the University of Virginia. The key elements of the Center are: (1) conducting innovative research on advanced topics of CST; (2) acting as pathfinder by demonstrating to the research community what can be done (high-potential, high-risk research); (3) strong collaboration with NASA scientists and researchers from universities and other government laboratories; and (4) rapid dissemination of CST to industry, through integration of industrial personnel into the ongoing research efforts.
Why now is the right time to study quantum computing
Aram W. Harrow
2014-12-30
Quantum computing is a good way to justify difficult physics experiments. But until quantum computers are built, do computer scientists need to know anything about quantum information? In fact, quantum computing is not merely a recipe for new computing devices, but a new way of looking at the world that has been astonishingly intellectually productive. In this article, I'll talk about where quantum computing came from, what it is, and what we can learn from it.
Quantum Computers What is the difference between a computer and a physics
Shor, Peter W.
Quantum Computers Peter Shor MIT #12;What is the difference between a computer and a physics. 1970). If quantum computers can be built, this would imply this "folk thesis" is probably not true. #12;Misconceptions about Quantum Computers False: Quantum computers would be able to speed up all computations
Quantum computers on multiatomic ensembles in quantum electrodynamic cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrianov, S. N.; Moiseev, S. A.
2012-03-01
Schemes for the construction of quantum computers on multiatomic ensembles in quantum electrodynamic cavity are considered. With that, both encoding of physical qubits on each separate multiatomic ensemble and logical encoding of qubits on the pairs of ensembles are introduced. Possible constructions of swapping ( SWAP, sqrt {SWAP} ) and controlled swapping gates ( CSWAP) are analyzed. Mechanism of collective blockade and dynamical elimination procedure are proposed for realization of these gates. The comparison of the scheme solutions is carried out for the construction of quantum computer at using of physical and logical qubits.
One-way quantum computation with circuit quantum electrodynamics
Wu Chunwang; Han Yang; Chen Pingxing; Li Chengzu [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Zhong Xiaojun [China Satellite Maritime Tracking and Control Department, Jiangyin 214400 (China)
2010-03-15
In this Brief Report, we propose a potential scheme to implement one-way quantum computation with circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED). Large cluster states of charge qubits can be generated in just one step with a superconducting transmission line resonator (TLR) playing the role of a dispersive coupler. A single-qubit measurement in the arbitrary basis can be implemented using a single electron transistor with the help of one-qubit gates. By examining the main decoherence sources, we show that circuit QED is a promising architecture for one-way quantum computation.
Hyper-parallel photonic quantum computation with coupled quantum dots
Ren, Bao-Cang; Deng, Fu-Guo
2014-01-01
It is well known that a parallel quantum computer is more powerful than a classical one. So far, there are some important works about the construction of universal quantum logic gates, the key elements in quantum computation. However, they are focused on operating on one degree of freedom (DOF) of quantum systems. Here, we investigate the possibility of achieving scalable hyper-parallel quantum computation based on two DOFs of photon systems. We construct a deterministic hyper-controlled-not (hyper-CNOT) gate operating on both the spatial-mode and the polarization DOFs of a two-photon system simultaneously, by exploiting the giant optical circular birefringence induced by quantum-dot spins in double-sided optical microcavities as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). This hyper-CNOT gate is implemented by manipulating the four qubits in the two DOFs of a two-photon system without auxiliary spatial modes or polarization modes. It reduces the operation time and the resources consumed in quantum information processing, and it is more robust against the photonic dissipation noise, compared with the integration of several cascaded CNOT gates in one DOF. PMID:24721781
Hyper-parallel photonic quantum computation with coupled quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Bao-Cang; Deng, Fu-Guo
2014-04-01
It is well known that a parallel quantum computer is more powerful than a classical one. So far, there are some important works about the construction of universal quantum logic gates, the key elements in quantum computation. However, they are focused on operating on one degree of freedom (DOF) of quantum systems. Here, we investigate the possibility of achieving scalable hyper-parallel quantum computation based on two DOFs of photon systems. We construct a deterministic hyper-controlled-not (hyper-CNOT) gate operating on both the spatial-mode and the polarization DOFs of a two-photon system simultaneously, by exploiting the giant optical circular birefringence induced by quantum-dot spins in double-sided optical microcavities as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). This hyper-CNOT gate is implemented by manipulating the four qubits in the two DOFs of a two-photon system without auxiliary spatial modes or polarization modes. It reduces the operation time and the resources consumed in quantum information processing, and it is more robust against the photonic dissipation noise, compared with the integration of several cascaded CNOT gates in one DOF.
Classical signal-flow in cluster-state quantum computation
Kazuto Oshima
2009-06-13
We study concretely how classical signals should be processed in quantum cluster-state computation. Deforming corresponding quantum teleportation circuit, we find a simple rule of a classical signal-flow to obtain correct quantum computation results.
Quantum Computing and Shor`s Factoring Algorithm
Igor V. Volovich
2001-09-02
Lectures on quantum computing. Contents: Algorithms. Quantum circuits. Quantum Fourier transform. Elements of number theory. Modular exponentiation. Shor`s algorithm for finding the order. Computational complexity of Schor`s algorithm. Factoring integers. NP-complete problems.
Faster quantum chemistry simulation on fault-tolerant quantum computers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cody Jones, N.; Whitfield, James D.; McMahon, Peter L.; Yung, Man-Hong; Van Meter, Rodney; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa
2012-11-01
Quantum computers can in principle simulate quantum physics exponentially faster than their classical counterparts, but some technical hurdles remain. We propose methods which substantially improve the performance of a particular form of simulation, ab initio quantum chemistry, on fault-tolerant quantum computers; these methods generalize readily to other quantum simulation problems. Quantum teleportation plays a key role in these improvements and is used extensively as a computing resource. To improve execution time, we examine techniques for constructing arbitrary gates which perform substantially faster than circuits based on the conventional Solovay-Kitaev algorithm (Dawson and Nielsen 2006 Quantum Inform. Comput. 6 81). For a given approximation error ?, arbitrary single-qubit gates can be produced fault-tolerantly and using a restricted set of gates in time which is O(log??) or O(log?log??) with sufficient parallel preparation of ancillas, constant average depth is possible using a method we call programmable ancilla rotations. Moreover, we construct and analyze efficient implementations of first- and second-quantized simulation algorithms using the fault-tolerant arbitrary gates and other techniques, such as implementing various subroutines in constant time. A specific example we analyze is the ground-state energy calculation for lithium hydride.
Introduction to Quantum Computing Emma Strubell
Siegelmann , Hava T
Introduction to Quantum Computing Part II Emma Strubell http Simon's algorithm Period-finding How it works An example Emma Strubell (University of Maine) Intro Quantum search How it works A worked example Simon's algorithm Period-finding How it works An example Emma
Is the Brain a Quantum Computer?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Litt, Abninder; Eliasmith, Chris; Kroon, Frederick W.; Weinstein, Steven; Thagard, Paul
2006-01-01
We argue that computation via quantum mechanical processes is irrelevant to explaining how brains produce thought, contrary to the ongoing speculations of many theorists. First, quantum effects do not have the temporal properties required for neural information processing. Second, there are substantial physical obstacles to any organic…
Gabrielle Allen Center for Computation & Technology
Allen, Gabrielle
System for Coastal & Environmental Modeling Louisiana Coastal Area · 1927 flood, levees, loss of wetlands1 Gabrielle Allen Center for Computation & Technology Dept Computer Science Louisiana State, growing crisis, social impact 25% lost wetlands in last century, future predictions dire; increases
Disruptive technology business models in cloud computing
Krikos, Alexis Christopher
2010-01-01
Cloud computing, a term whose origins have been in existence for more than a decade, has come into fruition due to technological capabilities and marketplace demands. Cloud computing can be defined as a scalable and flexible ...
Image segmentation on a quantum computer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caraiman, Simona; Manta, Vasile I.
2015-05-01
In this paper, we address the field of quantum information processing and analyze the prospects of applying quantum computation concepts to image processing tasks. Specifically, we discuss the development of a quantum version for the image segmentation operation. This is an important technique that comes up in many image processing applications. We consider the threshold-based segmentation and show that a quantum circuit to achieve this operation can be built using a quantum oracle that implements the thresholding function. We discuss the circuit implementation of the oracle operator and provide examples of segmenting synthetic and real images. The main advantage of the quantum version for image segmentation over the classical approach is its speedup and is provided by the special properties of quantum information processing: superposition of states and inherent parallelism.
Quantum computer of wire circuit architecture
S. A. Moiseev; F. F. Gubaidullin; S. N. Andrianov
2010-01-07
First solid state quantum computer was built using transmons (cooper pair boxes). The operation of the computer is limited because of using a number of the rigit cooper boxes working with fixed frequency at temperatures of superconducting material. Here, we propose a novel architecture of quantum computer based on a flexible wire circuit of many coupled quantum nodes containing controlled atomic (molecular) ensembles. We demonstrate wide opportunities of the proposed computer. Firstly, we reveal a perfect storage of external photon qubits to multi-mode quantum memory node and demonstrate a reversible exchange of the qubits between any arbitrary nodes. We found optimal parameters of atoms in the circuit and self quantum modes for quantum processing. The predicted perfect storage has been observed experimentally for microwave radiation on the lithium phthalocyaninate molecule ensemble. Then also, for the first time we show a realization of the efficient basic two-qubit gate with direct coupling of two arbitrary nodes by using appropriate atomic frequency shifts in the circuit nodes. Proposed two-qubit gate runs with a speed drastically accelerated proportionally to the number of atoms in the node. The direct coupling and accelerated two-qubit gate can be realized for large number of the circuit nodes. Finally, we describe two and three-dimensional scalable architectures that pave the road to construction of universal multi-qubit quantum computer operating at room temperatures.
Delayed commutation in quantum computer networks.
García-Escartín, Juan Carlos; Chamorro-Posada, Pedro
2006-09-15
In the same way that classical computer networks connect and enhance the capabilities of classical computers, quantum networks can combine the advantages of quantum information and communication. We propose a nonclassical network element, a delayed commutation switch, that can solve the problem of switching time in packet switching networks. With the help of some local ancillary qubits and superdense codes, we can route a qubit packet after part of it has left the network node. PMID:17025870
Experimental Demonstration of Quantum Lattice Gas Computation
Marco A. Pravia; Zhiying Chen; David G. Cory; Jeffrey Yepez
2003-01-01
We report an ensemble nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) implementation of a\\u000aquantum lattice gas algorithm for the diffusion equation. The algorithm employs\\u000aan array of quantum information processors sharing classical information, a\\u000anovel architecture referred to as a type-II quantum computer. This concrete\\u000aimplementation provides a test example from which to probe the strengths and\\u000alimitations of this new computation
Research of cloud computing data security technology
Yubo Tan; Xinlei Wang
2012-01-01
With cloud computing applications and research at home and abroad continue to advance cloud computing platform for users and data exchange between the greater the amount of user data transmission and storage a security threat, a cloud computing security is an important issue to be resolved. In this paper, all with state of encryption technology, presents a cloud computing data
Wei, Hai-Rui; Deng, Fu-Guo
2014-01-01
Quantum logic gates are the key elements in quantum computing. Here we investigate the possibility of achieving a scalable and compact quantum computing based on stationary electron-spin qubits, by using the giant optical circular birefringence induced by quantum-dot spins in double-sided optical microcavities as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics. We design the compact quantum circuits for implementing universal and deterministic quantum gates for electron-spin systems, including the two-qubit CNOT gate and the three-qubit Toffoli gate. They are compact and economic, and they do not require additional electron-spin qubits. Moreover, our devices have good scalability and are attractive as they both are based on solid-state quantum systems and the qubits are stationary. They are feasible with the current experimental technology, and both high fidelity and high efficiency can be achieved when the ratio of the side leakage to the cavity decay is low. PMID:25518899
Hai-Rui Wei; Fu-Guo Deng
2014-12-12
Quantum logic gates are the key elements in quantum computing. Here we investigate the possibility of achieving a scalable and compact quantum computing based on stationary electron-spin qubits, by using the giant optical circular birefringence induced by quantum-dot spins in double-sided optical microcavities as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics. We design the compact quantum circuits for implementing universal and deterministic quantum gates for electron-spin systems, including the two-qubit CNOT gate and the three-qubit Toffoli gate. They are compact and economic, and they do not require additional electron-spin qubits. Moreover, our devices have good scalability and are attractive as they both are based on solid-state quantum systems and the qubits are stationary. They are feasible with the current experimental technology, and both high fidelity and high efficiency can be achieved when the ratio of the side leakage to the cavity decay is low.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Hai-Rui; Deng, Fu-Guo
2014-12-01
Quantum logic gates are the key elements in quantum computing. Here we investigate the possibility of achieving a scalable and compact quantum computing based on stationary electron-spin qubits, by using the giant optical circular birefringence induced by quantum-dot spins in double-sided optical microcavities as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics. We design the compact quantum circuits for implementing universal and deterministic quantum gates for electron-spin systems, including the two-qubit CNOT gate and the three-qubit Toffoli gate. They are compact and economic, and they do not require additional electron-spin qubits. Moreover, our devices have good scalability and are attractive as they both are based on solid-state quantum systems and the qubits are stationary. They are feasible with the current experimental technology, and both high fidelity and high efficiency can be achieved when the ratio of the side leakage to the cavity decay is low.
Wei, Hai-Rui; Deng, Fu-Guo
2014-01-01
Quantum logic gates are the key elements in quantum computing. Here we investigate the possibility of achieving a scalable and compact quantum computing based on stationary electron-spin qubits, by using the giant optical circular birefringence induced by quantum-dot spins in double-sided optical microcavities as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics. We design the compact quantum circuits for implementing universal and deterministic quantum gates for electron-spin systems, including the two-qubit CNOT gate and the three-qubit Toffoli gate. They are compact and economic, and they do not require additional electron-spin qubits. Moreover, our devices have good scalability and are attractive as they both are based on solid-state quantum systems and the qubits are stationary. They are feasible with the current experimental technology, and both high fidelity and high efficiency can be achieved when the ratio of the side leakage to the cavity decay is low. PMID:25518899
Universal Blind Quantum Computing with Coherent States
Dunjko, Vedran; Leverrier, Anthony
2011-01-01
The recently proposed Universal Blind Quantum Computation (UBQC) protocol allows a client to perform an arbitrary quantum computation on a remote server such that perfect privacy is guaranteed if the client is capable of producing random separable single qubit states. While from a theoretical point of view, this arguably constitutes the lowest possible quantum requirement, from a pragmatic point of view, generation of random single qubits which can be sent along long distances without loss is quite challenging and can never be achieved perfectly. In analogy to the concept of \\epsilon -security developed for other cryptographic protocols, we introduce here the concept of \\epsilon -blindness for UBQC, allowing us to characterize the robustness of the protocol to possible imperfections. Following this, we present a remote blind single qubit preparation protocol, by which a client with access to realistic quantum devices (such as coherent laser light) can in a delegated fashion prepare quantum states arbitrarily ...
Brain-Computer Interfaces and Quantum Robots
Pessa, Eliano
2009-01-01
The actual (classical) Brain-Computer Interface attempts to use brain signals to drive suitable actuators performing the actions corresponding to subject's intention. However this goal is not fully reached, and when BCI works, it does only in particular situations. The reason of this unsatisfactory result is that intention cannot be conceived simply as a set of classical input-output relationships. It is therefore necessary to resort to quantum theory, allowing the occurrence of stable coherence phenomena, in turn underlying high-level mental processes such as intentions and strategies. More precisely, within the context of a dissipative Quantum Field Theory of brain operation it is possible to introduce generalized coherent states associated, within the framework of logic, to the assertions of a quantum metalanguage. The latter controls the quantum-mechanical computing corresponding to standard mental operation. It thus become possible to conceive a Quantum Cyborg in which a human mind controls, through a qu...
Experimental Demonstration of Quantum Lattice Gas Computation
Marco A. Pravia; Zhiying Chen; Jeffrey Yepez; David G. Cory
2003-03-31
We report an ensemble nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) implementation of a quantum lattice gas algorithm for the diffusion equation. The algorithm employs an array of quantum information processors sharing classical information, a novel architecture referred to as a type-II quantum computer. This concrete implementation provides a test example from which to probe the strengths and limitations of this new computation paradigm. The NMR experiment consists of encoding a mass density onto an array of 16 two-qubit quantum information processors and then following the computation through 7 time steps of the algorithm. The results show good agreement with the analytic solution for diffusive dynamics. We also describe numerical simulations of the NMR implementation. The simulations aid in determining sources of experimental errors, and they help define the limits of the implementation.
Donsez, Didier
photography and computer technology : a promising field of innovation 3 D igital C am era PC TV+STB Hom e AreaDigital photography and computer technology : a promising field of innovation 1 Digital photography: (+33) 320 43 42 56 {vcord,lecomte}@lifl.fr #12;Digital photography and computer technology
Computer Technology and Education: A Policy Delphi.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Steier, Lloyd P.
Realizing the educational potential of computer technology largely depends on developing appropriate policies related to the technology. A Policy Delphi method was used to identify changes in education that are both probable and possible on account of the introduction of computers, and to explore potential patterns for arriving at a desired…
Gabrielle Allen Center for Computation & Technology
Allen, Gabrielle
Gabrielle Allen Center for Computation & Technology Dept Computer Science Louisiana State solutions, deploy ensembles of models on the Grid, assemble realtime results with GIS technologies. · Three (Peak Winds : 120 mph ) on 24th Sep, 2:40 am CDT, Texas Louisiana Border Category 3 landfall (Peak Winds
Prior Computer Experience and Technology Acceptance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Varma, Sonali
2010-01-01
Prior computer experience with information technology has been identified as a key variable (Lee, Kozar, & Larsen, 2003) that can influence an individual's future use of newer computer technology. The lack of a theory driven approach to measuring prior experience has however led to conceptually different factors being used interchangeably in…
Quantum computation and analysis of Wigner and Husimi functions: Toward a quantum image treatment
Shepelyansky, Dima
Quantum computation and analysis of Wigner and Husimi functions: Toward a quantum image treatment M cryptography, quantum tele- portation, and quantum computation. The latter takes advantage of the laws of quantum mechanics to perform computational tasks sometimes much faster than classical de- vices. A famous
Quantum chaos border for quantum computing B. Georgeot and D. L. Shepelyansky
Shepelyansky, Dima
Quantum chaos border for quantum computing B. Georgeot and D. L. Shepelyansky Laboratoire de 20 October 1999; revised manuscript received 3 May 2000 We study a generic model of quantum computer, quantum chaos sets in, leading to quantum ergodicity of the computer eigenstates. In this regime
Quantum computation and pseudo-telepathic games
Jeffrey Bub
2010-05-14
A quantum algorithm succeeds not because the superposition principle allows 'the computation of all values of a function at once' via 'quantum parallelism,' but rather because the structure of a quantum state space allows new sorts of correlations associated with entanglement, with new possibilities for information-processing transformations between correlations, that are not possible in a classical state space. I illustrate this with an elementary example of a problem for which a quantum algorithm is more efficient than any classical algorithm. I also introduce the notion of 'pseudo-telepathic' games and show how the difference between classical and quantum correlations plays a similar role here for games that can be won by quantum players exploiting entanglement, but not by classical players whose only allowed common resource consists of shared strings of random numbers (common causes of the players' correlated responses in a game).
Molecular and Nanoscale Computing and Technology
Mary M. Eshaghian-Wilner; Amar H. Flood; Alex Khitun; J. Fraser Stoddart; Kang Wang
In this chapter, we have presented an overview of various nanoscale and molecular computing architectures. We have given a brief tutorial on various existing nanoscale and molecular devices. These include molecular switches, resonant tunnel diodes, tunnel diodes, single electron transistors, carbon nanotube field-effect transistors, quantum dots, and spin systems. We have next discussed a set of nanoscale computing modules, such
Dominant Strategies in Two Qubit Quantum Computations
Faisal Shah Khan
2015-02-04
Nash equilibrium is a solution concept in non-strictly competitive, non-cooperative game theory that finds applications in various scientific and engineering disciplines. A non-strictly competitive, non-cooperative game model is presented here for two qubit quantum computations that allows for the characterization of Nash equilibrium in these computations via the inner product of their state space. Nash equilibrium outcomes are optimal under given constraints and therefore offer a game-theoretic measure of constrained optimization of two qubit quantum computations.
Training a Quantum Neural Network Department of Computer Science
Martinez, Tony R.
Training a Quantum Neural Network Bob Ricks Department of Computer Science Brigham Young University of machine intelli- gence. The most studied quantum learning algorithm is the quantum neural network. Many to leverage quantum computation in the field of machine intelligence is the idea of a quantum neural network
Universal quantum computation with little entanglement.
Van den Nest, Maarten
2013-02-01
We show that universal quantum computation can be achieved in the standard pure-state circuit model while the entanglement entropy of every bipartition is small in each step of the computation. The entanglement entropy required for large-scale quantum computation even tends to zero. Moreover we show that the same conclusion applies to many entanglement measures commonly used in the literature. This includes e.g., the geometric measure, localizable entanglement, multipartite concurrence, squashed entanglement, witness-based measures, and more generally any entanglement measure which is continuous in a certain natural sense. These results demonstrate that many entanglement measures are unsuitable tools to assess the power of quantum computers. PMID:23432229
When Computer Technologies Meet the Learning Sciences
John Bransford; Sean Brophy; Susan Williams
2000-01-01
This article explores how insights from the learning sciences can guide the effective use of computer technologies to promote learning and how these technologies make new types of learning opportunities possible. The discussion is organized to provide three illustrations of how the introduction of new technologies can have “ripple effects” that influence many different aspects of the teaching and learning
From Computer Lab to Technology Class.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sherwood, Sandra
1999-01-01
Discussion of integrating technology into elementary school classrooms focuses on teacher training that is based on a three-year plan developed at an elementary school in Marathon, New York. Describes the role of a technology teacher who facilitates technology integration by running the computer lab, offering workshops, and developing inservice…
Brain-Computer Interfaces and Quantum Robots
Eliano Pessa; Paola zizzi
2009-09-08
The actual (classical) Brain-Computer Interface attempts to use brain signals to drive suitable actuators performing the actions corresponding to subject's intention. However this goal is not fully reached, and when BCI works, it does only in particular situations. The reason of this unsatisfactory result is that intention cannot be conceived simply as a set of classical input-output relationships. It is therefore necessary to resort to quantum theory, allowing the occurrence of stable coherence phenomena, in turn underlying high-level mental processes such as intentions and strategies. More precisely, within the context of a dissipative Quantum Field Theory of brain operation it is possible to introduce generalized coherent states associated, within the framework of logic, to the assertions of a quantum metalanguage. The latter controls the quantum-mechanical computing corresponding to standard mental operation. It thus become possible to conceive a Quantum Cyborg in which a human mind controls, through a quantum metalanguage, the operation of an artificial quantum computer.
Universal Quantum Computation with the Exchange Interaction
D. P. DiVincenzo; D. Bacon; J. Kempe; G. Burkard; K. B. Whaley
2002-05-23
Experimental implementations of quantum computer architectures are now being investigated in many different physical settings. The full set of requirements that must be met to make quantum computing a reality in the laboratory [1] is daunting, involving capabilities well beyond the present state of the art. In this report we develop a significant simplification of these requirements that can be applied in many recent solid-state approaches, using quantum dots [2], and using donor-atom nuclear spins [3] or electron spins [4]. In these approaches, the basic two-qubit quantum gate is generated by a tunable Heisenberg interaction (the Hamiltonian is $H_{ij}=J(t){\\vec S}_i\\cdot{\\vec S}_j$ between spins $i$ and $j$), while the one-qubit gates require the control of a local Zeeman field. Compared to the Heisenberg operation, the one-qubit operations are significantly slower and require substantially greater materials and device complexity, which may also contribute to increasing the decoherence rate. Here we introduce an explicit scheme in which the Heisenberg interaction alone suffices to exactly implement any quantum computer circuit, at a price of a factor of three in additional qubits and about a factor of ten in additional two-qubit operations. Even at this cost, the ability to eliminate the complexity of one-qubit operations should accelerate progress towards these solid-state implementations of quantum computation.
Reducing Computational Complexity of Quantum Correlations
Titas Chanda; Tamoghna Das; Debasis Sadhukhan; Amit Kumar Pal; Aditi Sen De; Ujjwal Sen
2015-04-18
We address the issue of reducing the resource required to compute information-theoretic quantum correlation measures like quantum discord and quantum work deficit in two qubits and higher dimensional systems. We provide a mathematical description of determining the quantum correlation measure using a restricted set of local measurements. We show that the computational error caused by the constraint over the complete set of local measurements reduces fast with an increase in the size of the restricted set. We perform quantitative analysis to investigate how the error scales with the system size, taking into account a set of plausible constructions of the constrained set. Carrying out a comparative study, we show that the resource required to optimize quantum work deficit is usually higher than that required for quantum discord. We also demonstrate that minimization of quantum discord and quantum work deficit is easier in the case of two-qubit mixed states of fixed ranks and with positive partial transpose in comparison to the corresponding states having non-positive partial transpose. For bound entangled states, we show that the error is significantly low when the measurements correspond to the spin observables along the three Cartesian coordinates.
Emerging Computing Technologies in High Energy Physics
Amir Farbin
2009-10-19
While in the early 90s High Energy Physics (HEP) lead the computing industry by establishing the HTTP protocol and the first web-servers, the long time-scale for planning and building modern HEP experiments has resulted in a generally slow adoption of emerging computing technologies which rapidly become commonplace in business and other scientific fields. I will overview some of the fundamental computing problems in HEP computing and then present the current state and future potential of employing new computing technologies in addressing these problems.
Campus Computer Store Information Technology Services
Saskatchewan, University of
Campus Computer Store Information Technology Services 20 Place Riel, 1 Campus Drive 966-8375 ccs Computer Store is administering a license for SAS. It is licensed on a yearly pro-rated basis as outlined: _____________________________________________________ Student Number (if applicable): _______________________________________________ Location of Computer
High Performance Computing Technologies Jack Dongarra
Dongarra, Jack
1 High Performance Computing Technologies Jack Dongarra University of Tennessee Oak Ridge National of investigating the world Current generation of high performance computers are making an impact in many areas are not so di erent from those in business ...? 10 High-Performance Computing Today In the past decade
Computer Technology Resources for Literacy Projects.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Florida State Council on Aging, Tallahassee.
This resource booklet was prepared to assist literacy projects and community adult education programs in determining the technology they need to serve more older persons. Section 1 contains the following reprinted articles: "The Human Touch in the Computer Age: Seniors Learn Computer Skills from Schoolkids" (Suzanne Kashuba); "Computer Instruction…
Applications of Computer Technology in Intercollegiate Debate.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kay, Jack, Ed.
1986-01-01
Focusing on how computers can and should be used in intercollegiate forensics, this journal issue offers the perspectives of a number of forensics instructors. The lead article, "Applications of Computer Technology in Intercollegiate Debate" by Theodore F. Sheckels, Jr., discusses five areas in which forensics educators might use computer…
Quantum Computing in Non Euclidean Geometry
Germano Resconi; Ignazio Licata
2009-11-04
The recent debate on hyper-computation has raised new questions both on the computational abilities of quantum systems and the Church-Turing Thesis role in Physics. We propose here the idea of geometry of effective physical process as the essentially physical notion of computation. In Quantum mechanics we cannot use the traditional Euclidean geometry but we introduce more sophisticate non Euclidean geometry which include a new kind of information diffuse in the entire universe and that we can represent as Fisher information or active information. We remark that from the Fisher information we can obtain the Bohm and Hiley quantum potential and the classical Schrodinger equation. We can see the quantum phenomena do not affect a limited region of the space but is reflected in a change of the geometry of all the universe. In conclusion any local physical change or physical process is reflected in all the universe by the change of its geometry, This is the deepest meaning of the entanglement in Quantum mechanics and quantum computing. We stress the connection between metric and information as measure of change. Because computation is not restricted to calculus but is the environment changing via physical processes, super-Turing potentialities derive from an incomputable information source embedded into the geometry of the universe in accordance with Bell's constraints. In the general relativity we define the geometry of the space time. In our approach quantum phenomena define the geometry of the parameters of the probability distribution that include also the space time parameters. To study this new approach to the computation we use the new theory of Morphogenic systems.
Fault-Tolerant Postselected Quantum Computation: Threshold Analysis
E. Knill
2004-04-19
The schemes for fault-tolerant postselected quantum computation given in [Knill, Fault-Tolerant Postselected Quantum Computation: Schemes, http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0402171] are analyzed to determine their error-tolerance. The analysis is based on computer-assisted heuristics. It indicates that if classical and quantum communication delays are negligible, then scalable qubit-based quantum computation is possible with errors above 1% per elementary quantum gate.
Biologically inspired path to quantum computer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogryzko, Vasily; Ozhigov, Yuri
2014-12-01
We describe an approach to quantum computer inspired by the information processing at the molecular level in living cells. It is based on the separation of a small ensemble of qubits inside the living system (e.g., a bacterial cell), such that coherent quantum states of this ensemble remain practically unchanged for a long time. We use the notion of a quantum kernel to describe such an ensemble. Quantum kernel is not strictly connected with certain particles; it permanently exchanges atoms and molecules with the environment, which makes quantum kernel a virtual notion. There are many reasons to expect that the state of quantum kernel of a living system can be treated as the stationary state of some Hamiltonian. While the quantum kernel is responsible for the stability of dynamics at the time scale of cellular life, at the longer inter-generation time scale it can change, varying smoothly in the course of biological evolution. To the first level of approximation, quantum kernel can be described in the framework of qubit modification of Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard model, in which the relaxation corresponds to the exchange of matter between quantum kernel and the rest of the cell and is represented as Lindblad super-operators.
Computing, Information and Communications Technology (CICT) Website
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hardman, John; Tu, Eugene (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The Computing, Information and Communications Technology Program (CICT) was established in 2001 to ensure NASA's Continuing leadership in emerging technologies. It is a coordinated, Agency-wide effort to develop and deploy key enabling technologies for a broad range of mission-critical tasks. The NASA CICT program is designed to address Agency-specific computing, information, and communications technology requirements beyond the projected capabilities of commercially available solutions. The areas of technical focus have been chosen for their impact on NASA's missions, their national importance, and the technical challenge they provide to the Program. In order to meet its objectives, the CICT Program is organized into the following four technology focused projects: 1) Computing, Networking and Information Systems (CNIS); 2) Intelligent Systems (IS); 3) Space Communications (SC); 4) Information Technology Strategic Research (ITSR).
Simulating a perceptron on a quantum computer
Maria Schuld; Ilya Sinayskiy; Francesco Petruccione
2014-12-11
Perceptrons are the basic computational unit of artificial neural networks, as they model the activation mechanism of an output neuron due to incoming signals from its neighbours. As linear classifiers, they play an important role in the foundations of machine learning. In the context of the emerging field of quantum machine learning, several attempts have been made to develop a corresponding unit using quantum information theory. Based on the quantum phase estimation algorithm, this paper introduces a quantum perceptron model imitating the step-activation function of a classical perceptron. This scheme requires resources in $\\mathcal{O}(n)$ (where $n$ is the size of the input) and promises efficient applications for more complex structures such as trainable quantum neural networks.
Composable security of delegated quantum computation
Vedran Dunjko; Joseph F. Fitzsimons; Christopher Portmann; Renato Renner
2014-09-13
Delegating difficult computations to remote large computation facilities, with appropriate security guarantees, is a possible solution for the ever-growing needs of personal computing power. For delegated computation protocols to be usable in a larger context---or simply to securely run two protocols in parallel---the security definitions need to be composable. Here, we define composable security for delegated quantum computation. We distinguish between protocols which provide only blindness---the computation is hidden from the server---and those that are also verifiable---the client can check that it has received the correct result. We show that the composable security definition capturing both these notions can be reduced to a combination of several distinct "trace-distance-type" criteria---which are, individually, non-composable security definitions. Additionally, we study the security of some known delegated quantum computation protocols, including Broadbent, Fitzsimons and Kashefi's Universal Blind Quantum Computation protocol. Even though these protocols were originally proposed with insufficient security criteria, they turn out to still be secure given the stronger composable definitions.
Universal two-body-Hamiltonian quantum computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagaj, Daniel
2012-03-01
We present a Hamiltonian quantum-computation scheme universal for quantum computation. Our Hamiltonian is a sum of a polynomial number (in the number of gates L in the quantum circuit) of constant-norm, time-independent, two-body interaction terms. Furthermore, each qubit in the system interacts only with a constant number of other qubits in a three-layer, geometrically local layout. The computer runs in three steps—it starts in a simple initial product state, evolves according to a time-independent Hamiltonian for time of order L2 (up to logarithmic factors), and finishes with a two-qubit measurement. Our model improves previous universal two-local-Hamiltonian constructions, as it avoids using perturbation gadgets and large energy-penalty terms in the Hamiltonian, which would result in a large required run time.
Neuromorphic quantum computation with energy dissipation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kinjo, Mitsunaga; Sato, Shigeo; Nakamiya, Yuuki; Nakajima, Koji
2005-11-01
Real parallel computing with a quantum computer attracts vast interest due to its extreme high potential. We propose a neuromorphic quantum computation algorithm based on an adiabatic Hamiltonian evolution with energy dissipation. This algorithm can be applied to problems if a cost function can be expressed in a quadratic form. This requirement results from the fact that our Hamiltonian is designed by following a method similar to an artificial neural network (ANN). The state of an ANN is often trapped at local minima, and the network outputs an error. Since the state of a quantum system with the proposed algorithm is always in the ground state according to the adiabatic theorem, it is not necessary to be concerned that the quantum state is trapped at local minima. However, there is no guarantee that a quantum algorithm based on an adiabatic Hamiltonian evolution with degeneration or level crossing is successfully executed. We show successful numerical simulation results with the proposed algorithm by introducing energy dissipation to keep the quantum state staying in the ground state, and then we show an application to the n -queen problem, which is one of the combinatorial optimization problems.
Neuromorphic quantum computation with energy dissipation
Kinjo, Mitsunaga; Sato, Shigeo; Nakamiya, Yuuki; Nakajima, Koji [Laboratory for Brainware Systems, Laboratory for Nanoelectronics and Spintronics, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, 980-8577, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan)
2005-11-15
Real parallel computing with a quantum computer attracts vast interest due to its extreme high potential. We propose a neuromorphic quantum computation algorithm based on an adiabatic Hamiltonian evolution with energy dissipation. This algorithm can be applied to problems if a cost function can be expressed in a quadratic form. This requirement results from the fact that our Hamiltonian is designed by following a method similar to an artificial neural network (ANN). The state of an ANN is often trapped at local minima, and the network outputs an error. Since the state of a quantum system with the proposed algorithm is always in the ground state according to the adiabatic theorem, it is not necessary to be concerned that the quantum state is trapped at local minima. However, there is no guarantee that a quantum algorithm based on an adiabatic Hamiltonian evolution with degeneration or level crossing is successfully executed. We show successful numerical simulation results with the proposed algorithm by introducing energy dissipation to keep the quantum state staying in the ground state, and then we show an application to the n-queen problem, which is one of the combinatorial optimization problems.
Local Search Methods for Quantum Computers
Tad Hogg; Mehmet Yanik
1998-02-16
Local search algorithms use the neighborhood relations among search states and often perform well for a variety of NP-hard combinatorial search problems. This paper shows how quantum computers can also use these neighborhood relations. An example of such a local quantum search is evaluated empirically for the satisfiability (SAT) problem and shown to be particularly effective for highly constrained instances. For problems with an intermediate number of constraints, it is somewhat less effective at exploiting problem structure than incremental quantum methods, in spite of the much smaller search space used by the local method.
Quantum computation with ``hot`` trapped ions
James, D.F.V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Schneider, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Univ. of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland (Australia); Milburn, G.J. [Univ. of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland (Australia)
1998-12-31
The authors describe two methods that have been proposed to circumvent the problem of heating by external electromagnetic fields in ion trap quantum computers. Firstly the higher order modes of ion oscillation (i.e., modes other than the center-of-mass mode) have much slower heating rates, and can therefore be employed as a reliable quantum information bus. Secondly they discuss a recently proposed method combining adiabatic passage and a number-state dependent phase shift which allows quantum gates to be performed using the center-of-mass mode as the information bus, regardless of its initial state.
Fidelity, quantum computations and Wilson loop
V. I. Kuvshinov; P. V. Buividovich
2005-02-19
General properties of quantum systems which interact with stochastic environment are studied with a strong emphasis on the role of physical symmetries. The similarity between the fidelity which is used to characterize the stability of such a systems and the Wilson loop in QCD is demonstrated, and the fidelity decay rates are derived. The consequences of existence of the symmetry group on the statistical properties of the system are analyzed for various physical systems - a simple quantum mechanical system, holonomic quantum computer and Yang-Mills fields.
Shu Tanaka; Ryo Tamura
2012-04-13
In this paper, we review some features of quantum annealing and related topics from viewpoints of statistical physics, condensed matter physics, and computational physics. We can obtain a better solution of optimization problems in many cases by using the quantum annealing. Actually the efficiency of the quantum annealing has been demonstrated for problems based on statistical physics. Then the quantum annealing has been expected to be an efficient and generic solver of optimization problems. Since many implementation methods of the quantum annealing have been developed and will be proposed in the future, theoretical frameworks of wide area of science and experimental technologies will be evolved through studies of the quantum annealing.
(CICT) Computing, Information, and Communications Technology Overview
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
VanDalsem, William R.
2003-01-01
The goal of the Computing, Information, and Communications Technology (CICT) program is to enable NASA's Scientific Research, Space Exploration, and Aerospace Technology Missions with greater mission assurance, for less cost, with increased science return through the development and use of advanced computing, information and communications technologies. This viewgraph presentation includes diagrams of how the political guidance behind CICT is structured. The presentation profiles each part of the NASA Mission in detail, and relates the Mission to the activities of CICT. CICT's Integrated Capability Goal is illustrated, and hypothetical missions which could be enabled by CICT are profiled. CICT technology development is profiled.
Trading classical and quantum computational resources
Sergey Bravyi; Graeme Smith; John Smolin
2015-06-03
We propose examples of a hybrid quantum-classical simulation where a classical computer assisted by a small quantum processor can efficiently simulate a larger quantum system. First we consider sparse quantum circuits such that each qubit participates in O(1) two-qubit gates. It is shown that any sparse circuit on n+k qubits can be simulated by sparse circuits on n qubits and a classical processing that takes time $2^{O(k)} poly(n)$. Secondly, we study Pauli-based computation (PBC) where allowed operations are non-destructive eigenvalue measurements of n-qubit Pauli operators. The computation begins by initializing each qubit in the so-called magic state. This model is known to be equivalent to the universal quantum computer. We show that any PBC on n+k qubits can be simulated by PBCs on n qubits and a classical processing that takes time $2^{O(k)} poly(n)$. Finally, we propose a purely classical algorithm that can simulate a PBC on n qubits in a time $2^{c n} poly(n)$ where $c\\approx 0.94$. This improves upon the brute-force simulation method which takes time $2^n poly(n)$. Our algorithm exploits the fact that n-fold tensor products of magic states admit a low-rank decomposition into n-qubit stabilizer states.
The quantum computer game: citizen science
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damgaard, Sidse; Mølmer, Klaus; Sherson, Jacob
2013-05-01
Progress in the field of quantum computation is hampered by daunting technical challenges. Here we present an alternative approach to solving these by enlisting the aid of computer players around the world. We have previously examined a quantum computation architecture involving ultracold atoms in optical lattices and strongly focused tweezers of light. In The Quantum Computer Game (see http://www.scienceathome.org/), we have encapsulated the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the problem in a graphical user interface allowing for easy user input. Players can then search the parameter space with real-time graphical feedback in a game context with a global high-score that rewards short gate times and robustness to experimental errors. The game which is still in a demo version has so far been tried by several hundred players. Extensions of the approach to other models such as Gross-Pitaevskii and Bose-Hubbard are currently under development. The game has also been incorporated into science education at high-school and university level as an alternative method for teaching quantum mechanics. Initial quantitative evaluation results are very positive. Progress in the field of quantum computation is hampered by daunting technical challenges. Here we present an alternative approach to solving these by enlisting the aid of computer players around the world. We have previously examined a quantum computation architecture involving ultracold atoms in optical lattices and strongly focused tweezers of light. In The Quantum Computer Game (see http://www.scienceathome.org/), we have encapsulated the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the problem in a graphical user interface allowing for easy user input. Players can then search the parameter space with real-time graphical feedback in a game context with a global high-score that rewards short gate times and robustness to experimental errors. The game which is still in a demo version has so far been tried by several hundred players. Extensions of the approach to other models such as Gross-Pitaevskii and Bose-Hubbard are currently under development. The game has also been incorporated into science education at high-school and university level as an alternative method for teaching quantum mechanics. Initial quantitative evaluation results are very positive. AU Ideas Center for Community Driven Research, CODER.
Towards universal quantum computation through relativistic motion
David Edward Bruschi; Carlos Sabín; Pieter Kok; Göran Johansson; Per Delsing; Ivette Fuentes
2014-07-03
We show how to use relativistic motion and local phase shifts to generate continuous variable Gaussian cluster states within cavity modes. Our results can be demonstrated experimentally using superconducting circuits where tuneable boundary conditions correspond to mirrors moving with velocities close to the speed of light. In particular, we propose the generation of a quadripartite square cluster state as a first example that can be readily implemented in the laboratory. Since cluster states are universal resources for universal one-way quantum computation, our results pave the way for relativistic quantum computation schemes.
Blind quantum computation with AKLT chains
Tomoyuki Morimae
2010-01-01
We propose a method for the measurement-based blind quantum computation with\\u000aAffleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki (AKLT) chains. Alice, a client, prepares certain\\u000aquantum states which conceal some secret information, and sends them to Bob.\\u000aBob, the server, creates a two-dimensional network of AKLT chains from Alice's\\u000astates, and performs the measurement-based quantum computation on the network\\u000aaccording to the feedback from Alice. He
Quantum Computation of Scattering in Scalar Quantum Field Theories
Stephen P. Jordan; Keith S. M. Lee; John Preskill
2011-12-20
Quantum field theory provides the framework for the most fundamental physical theories to be confirmed experimentally, and has enabled predictions of unprecedented precision. However, calculations of physical observables often require great computational complexity and can generally be performed only when the interaction strength is weak. A full understanding of the foundations and rich consequences of quantum field theory remains an outstanding challenge. We develop a quantum algorithm to compute relativistic scattering amplitudes in massive phi-fourth theory in spacetime of four and fewer dimensions. The algorithm runs in a time that is polynomial in the number of particles, their energy, and the desired precision, and applies at both weak and strong coupling. Thus, it offers exponential speedup over existing classical methods at high precision or strong coupling.
Molecular quantum computer of neuron.
Liberman, E A; Minina, S V
1995-01-01
Living cells are controlled by quantum regulators in which the price of action of elementary operations approaches Planck's constant. The description of such systems is based on four principles: (1) minimal price of action principle for control; (2) principle of optimality; (3) minimum irreversibility principle; and (4) the principle of causality. PMID:7488717
Silicon enhancement mode nanostructures for quantum computing.
Carroll, Malcolm S.
2010-03-01
Development of silicon, enhancement mode nanostructures for solid-state quantum computing will be described. A primary motivation of this research is the recent unprecedented manipulation of single electron spins in GaAs quantum dots, which has been used to demonstrate a quantum bit. Long spin decoherence times are predicted possible in silicon qubits. This talk will focus on silicon enhancement mode quantum dot structures that emulate the GaAs lateral quantum dot qubit but use an enhancement mode field effect transistor (FET) structure. One critical concern for silicon quantum dots that use oxides as insulators in the FET structure is that defects in the metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) stack can produce both detrimental electrostatic and paramagnetic effects on the qubit. Understanding the implications of defects in the Si MOS system is also relevant for other qubit architectures that have nearby dielectric passivated surfaces. Stable, lithographically defined, single-period Coulomb-blockade and single-electron charge sensing in a quantum dot nanostructure using a MOS stack will be presented. A combination of characterization of defects, modeling and consideration of modified approaches that incorporate SiGe or donors provides guidance about the enhancement mode MOS approach for future qubits and quantum circuit micro-architecture.
Technology computer aided design characterization needs and requirements
Florida, University of
Technology computer aided design characterization needs and requirements Mark E. Law Department 1995; accepted 2 August 1995 Technology computer aided design TCAD promises predictive calculations on the characterization community? © 1996 American Vacuum Society. I. INTRODUCTION Technology computer aided design TCAD
QUANTUM COMPUTING A qubit is the quantum state of a twolevel sys
Dorlas, Teunis C.
QUANTUM COMPUTING A qubit is the quantum state of a twoÂlevel sysÂ tem, e.g. a spinÂ 1 2 particle , . . . , i n # = # x#{0,1} n a x |x#. Basic Postulate: A quantum computation is the controlled (unitary from one another. 3 #12; QUANTUM GATES Definition. A quantum gate with n inputs and outputs
Tsunami Technologies: Online Cluster Computing
NSDL National Science Digital Library
TTI provides a unique cluster computing service accessible online from anywhere. TTI is committed to providing up-to-date, industry recognized, high performance computing (HPC) systems and services to companies and academia with the absolute best in customer service and support. And, because it is affordable, our services are even within reach of the individual scientist.
Information Nano-Technologies: Transition from Classical to Quantum
Alexander Yu. Vlasov
2009-12-04
In this presentation are discussed some problems, relevant with application of information technologies in nano-scale systems and devices. Some methods already developed in quantum information technologies may be very useful here. Here are considered two illustrative models: representation of data by quantum bits and transfer of signals in quantum wires.
Information Nano-Technologies: Transition from Classical to Quantum
Vlasov, Alexander Yu
2009-01-01
In this presentation are discussed some problems, relevant with application of information technologies in nano-scale systems and devices. Some methods already developed in quantum information technologies may be very useful here. Here are considered two illustrative models: representation of data by quantum bits and transfer of signals in quantum wires.
Strictly contractive quantum channels and physically realizable quantum computers Maxim Raginsky*
Raginsky, Maxim
Strictly contractive quantum channels and physically realizable quantum computers Maxim Raginsky study the robustness of quantum computers under the influence of errors modeled by strictly contractive channels render the states of the computer less distinguishable in the sense of quantum detection theory
Resilient Quantum Computation in Correlated Environments: A Quantum Phase Transition Perspective
Baranger, Harold U.
Resilient Quantum Computation in Correlated Environments: A Quantum Phase Transition Perspective E computer in a correlated environment protected from decoher- ence by quantum error correction using theorem'' of quantum computing is rephrased as a dimensional criterion. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98
Feedback-controlled adiabatic quantum computation
R. D. Wilson; A. M. Zagoskin; S. Savel'ev; M. J. Everitt; Franco Nori
2013-01-03
We propose a simple feedback-control scheme for adiabatic quantum computation with superconducting flux qubits. The proposed method makes use of existing on-chip hardware to monitor the ground-state curvature, which is then used to control the computation speed to maximize the success probability. We show that this scheme can provide a polynomial speed-up in performance and that it is possible to choose a suitable set of feedback-control parameters for an arbitrary problem Hamiltonian.
Simulation of chemical reaction dynamics on an NMR quantum computer
Lu, Dawei; Xu, Ruixue; Chen, Hongwei; Gong, Jiangbin; Peng, Xinhua; Du, Jiangfeng
2011-01-01
Quantum simulation can beat current classical computers with minimally a few tens of qubits and will likely become the first practical use of a quantum computer. One promising application of quantum simulation is to attack challenging quantum chemistry problems. Here we report an experimental demonstration that a small nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) quantum computer is already able to simulate the dynamics of a prototype chemical reaction. The experimental results agree well with classical simulations. We conclude that the quantum simulation of chemical reaction dynamics not computable on current classical computers is feasible in the near future.
Contemporary Mathematics Quantum Computing and the Jones Polynomial
Lomonaco Jr., Samuel J.
Contemporary Mathematics Quantum Computing and the Jones Polynomial Louis H. Kauffman Abstract.This paper is an exploration of relationships between the Jones polynomial and quantum computing. We discuss the structure of the Jones polynomial in relation
Computer Science Colloquium Designing a Large-Scale Quantum Architecture
of the Quantum Logic Array (QLA) architecture, which tackles critical scalability issues such as the cost of a book titled "Quantum Computing for Computer Architects" published as part of the Synthesis Lectures
Human computer interactions using language based technology
Victor W. Zue
1994-01-01
Spoken language offers an attractive alternative for human computer interface, since speech is the most natural, efficient, flexible, and economical means of communication among humans. To provide this interface, however, speech recognition technology must be combined with natural language processing technology, so that the verbal input can not only be recognized, but also understood, and appropriate actions can be taken.
Computer Technology and Maintenance Curriculum. Final Report.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Manchester Community Coll., CT.
A project was conducted by Manchester Community College and Howell Cheney Vocational Technical School in Connecticut to develop a joint curriculum for a two-year computer technology and maintenance program. During the year the project was conducted, a high technology advisory council was formed, consisting of industry and faculty representatives…
InformationTechnology ITCSand Computing Services
software), and lynda.com (www.ecu.edu/lynda). Visit the ITCS Training Web site for more informationInformationTechnology ITCSand Computing Services www.ecu.edu/itcs Technology Services at ECU Store up to 40GB of files on your secure ECU Piratedrive (www.ecu.edu/piratedrive), easy to access
Children and Computers: New Technology— Old Concerns
Ellen A. Wartella; Nancy Jennings; Walter Cronkite Regents
2000-01-01
Computer technology has ushered in a new era of mass media, bringing with it great promise and great concerns about the effect on children's development and well- being. Although we tend to see these issues as being new, similar promises and con- cerns have accompanied each new wave of media technology throughout the past century: films in the early 1900s,
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demming, Anna
2012-07-01
Technological developments sparked by quantum mechanics and wave-particle duality are still gaining ground over a hundred years after the theories were devised. While the impact of the theories in fundamental research, philosophy and even art and literature is widely appreciated, the implications in device innovations continue to breed potential. Applications inspired by these concepts include quantum computation and quantum cryptography protocols based on single photons, among many others. In this issue, researchers in Germany and the US report a step towards precisely triggered single-photon sources driven by surface acoustic waves (SAWs) [1]. The work brings technology based on quantum mechanics yet another step closer to practical device reality. Generation of single 'antibunched' photons has been one of the key challenges to progress in quantum information processing and communication. Researchers from Toshiba and Cambridge University in the UK recently reported what they described as 'the first electrically driven single-photon source capable of emitting indistinguishable photons' [2]. Single-photon sources have been reported previously [3]. However the approach demonstrated by Shields and colleagues allows electrical control, which is particularly useful for implementing in compact devices. The researchers used a layer of InAs quantum dots embedded in the intrinsic region of a p-i-n diode to demonstrate interference between single photons. They also present a complete theory based on the interference of photons with a Lorentzian spectrum, which they compare with both continuous-wave and pulsed experiments. The application of SAWs in achieving precisely triggered single-photon sources develops the work of researchers in Germany in the late 1990s [4]. Surface acoustic waves travel like sound waves, but are characterized by an amplitude that typically decays exponentially with depth into the substrate. As Rocke and colleagues demonstrated, they can be used to dissociate an optically excited exciton and spatially separate the electron and hole, thereby increasing the radiative lifetime by orders of magnitude. The interesting behaviour of SAWs has led to studies towards a number of other applications including sensing [5-7], synthesis and nanoassembly [8]. For applications in single-photon sources, the electron-hole pairs are transported by the SAW to a quantum dot where they recombine emitting a single photon. However, so far various limiting factors in the system, such as the low quality of the quantum dots used leading to multiple-exciton recombinations, have hindered potential applications of the system as a single-photon source. Control over high-quality quantum-dot self-assembly is constantly improving. Researchers at the University of California at Berkeley and Harvard University in the US report the ability to successfully position a small number of colloidal quantum dots to within less than 100 nm accuracy on metallic surfaces [9]. They use single-stranded DNA both to act as an anchor to the gold or silver substrates and to selectively bind to the quantum dots, allowing programmed assembly of quantum dots on plasmonic structures. More recently still, researchers in Germany have reported how they can controllably reduce the density of self-assembled InP quantum dots by cyclic deposition with growth interruptions [10]. The impressive control has great potential for quantum emitter use. In this issue, Völk, Krenner and colleagues use an alternative approach to demonstrate how they can improve the performance of single-photon sources using SAWs. They use an optimized system of isolated self-assembled quantum posts in a quantum-well structure and inject the carriers at a distance from the posts where recombination and emission take place [3]. The SAW dissociates the electron-hole pairs and transports them to the quantum posts, so the two carrier types arrive at the quantum post with a set time delay. Other approaches, such as Coulomb blockade ones, have struggled to achieve the sequential injection of the carriers
Semiconductor quantum computer design with 100 nm separation of nuclear-spin qubits
Privman, Vladimir
at distances of order 100 nm, attainable with the present-day semiconductor-heterostructure device technologies down, T1 = O(103 ) sec. Fig. 1. Schematic illustration of a semiconductor heterostructure quantumSemiconductor quantum computer design with 100 nm separation of nuclear-spin qubits Vladimir
Computer technology for autistic students
Marion V. Panyan
1984-01-01
The first purpose of this article is to review the literature related to the use of computers with autistic individuals. Although\\u000a only a limited number of applications have been reported, the potential of the computer to facilitate the progress of autistic\\u000a persons is promising. The second purpose is to identify specific learning problems or styles associated with autism from the
Adiabatic Quantum Computing for Random Satisfiability Problems
Tad Hogg
2004-01-23
The discrete formulation of adiabatic quantum computing is compared with other search methods, classical and quantum, for random satisfiability (SAT) problems. With the number of steps growing only as the cube of the number of variables, the adiabatic method gives solution probabilities close to 1 for problem sizes feasible to evaluate via simulation on current computers. However, for these sizes the minimum energy gaps of most instances are fairly large, so the good performance scaling seen for small problems may not reflect asymptotic behavior where costs are dominated by tiny gaps. Moreover, the resulting search costs are much higher than for other methods. Variants of the quantum algorithm that do not match the adiabatic limit give lower costs, on average, and slower growth than the conventional GSAT heuristic method.
Error correction and symmetrization in quantum computers
Peres, A
1996-01-01
Errors in quantum computers are of two kinds: sudden perturbations to isolated qubits, and slow random drifts of all the qubits. The latter may be reduced, but not eliminated, by means of symmetrization, namely by using many replicas of the computer, and forcing their joint quantum state to be completely symmetric. On the other hand, isolated errors can be corrected by quantum codewords that represent a logical qubit in a redundant way, by several physical qubits. If one of the physical qubits is perturbed, for example if it gets entangled with an unknown environment, there still is enough information encoded in the other physical qubits to restore the logical qubit, and disentangle it from the environment. The recovery procedure may consist of unitary operations, without the need of actually identifying the error.
Error correction and symmetrization in quantum computers
Asher Peres
1996-11-26
Errors in quantum computers are of two kinds: sudden perturbations to isolated qubits, and slow random drifts of all the qubits. The latter may be reduced, but not eliminated, by means of symmetrization, namely by using many replicas of the computer, and forcing their joint quantum state to be completely symmetric. On the other hand, isolated errors can be corrected by quantum codewords that represent a logical qubit in a redundant way, by several physical qubits. If one of the physical qubits is perturbed, for example if it gets entangled with an unknown environment, there still is enough information encoded in the other physical qubits to restore the logical qubit, and disentangle it from the environment. The recovery procedure may consist of unitary operations, without the need of actually identifying the error.
Quantum computation with Turaev-Viro codes
Koenig, Robert, E-mail: rkoenig@caltech.ed [Institute for Quantum Information, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kuperberg, Greg [Department of Mathematics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Reichardt, Ben W. [School of Computer Science, Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada)
2010-12-15
For a 3-manifold with triangulated boundary, the Turaev-Viro topological invariant can be interpreted as a quantum error-correcting code. The code has local stabilizers, identified by Levin and Wen, on a qudit lattice. Kitaev's toric code arises as a special case. The toric code corresponds to an abelian anyon model, and therefore requires out-of-code operations to obtain universal quantum computation. In contrast, for many categories, such as the Fibonacci category, the Turaev-Viro code realizes a non-abelian anyon model. A universal set of fault-tolerant operations can be implemented by deforming the code with local gates, in order to implement anyon braiding. We identify the anyons in the code space, and present schemes for initialization, computation and measurement. This provides a family of constructions for fault-tolerant quantum computation that are closely related to topological quantum computation, but for which the fault tolerance is implemented in software rather than coming from a physical medium.
Simulations of Probabilities for Quantum Computing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zak, M.
1996-01-01
It has been demonstrated that classical probabilities, and in particular, probabilistic Turing machine, can be simulated by combining chaos and non-LIpschitz dynamics, without utilization of any man-made devices (such as random number generators). Self-organizing properties of systems coupling simulated and calculated probabilities and their link to quantum computations are discussed.
Blind Quantum Computing with Weak Coherent Pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dunjko, Vedran; Kashefi, Elham; Leverrier, Anthony
2012-05-01
The universal blind quantum computation (UBQC) protocol [A. Broadbent, J. Fitzsimons, and E. Kashefi, in Proceedings of the 50th Annual IEEE Symposiumon Foundations of Computer Science (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, 2009), pp. 517-526.] allows a client to perform quantum computation on a remote server. In an ideal setting, perfect privacy is guaranteed if the client is capable of producing specific, randomly chosen single qubit states. While from a theoretical point of view, this may constitute the lowest possible quantum requirement, from a pragmatic point of view, generation of such states to be sent along long distances can never be achieved perfectly. We introduce the concept of ? blindness for UBQC, in analogy to the concept of ? security developed for other cryptographic protocols, allowing us to characterize the robustness and security properties of the protocol under possible imperfections. We also present a remote blind single qubit preparation protocol with weak coherent pulses for the client to prepare, in a delegated fashion, quantum states arbitrarily close to perfect random single qubit states. This allows us to efficiently achieve ?-blind UBQC for any ?>0, even if the channel between the client and the server is arbitrarily lossy.
Quantum computation with Turaev-Viro codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koenig, Robert; Kuperberg, Greg; Reichardt, Ben W.
2010-12-01
For a 3-manifold with triangulated boundary, the Turaev-Viro topological invariant can be interpreted as a quantum error-correcting code. The code has local stabilizers, identified by Levin and Wen, on a qudit lattice. Kitaev's toric code arises as a special case. The toric code corresponds to an abelian anyon model, and therefore requires out-of-code operations to obtain universal quantum computation. In contrast, for many categories, such as the Fibonacci category, the Turaev-Viro code realizes a non-abelian anyon model. A universal set of fault-tolerant operations can be implemented by deforming the code with local gates, in order to implement anyon braiding. We identify the anyons in the code space, and present schemes for initialization, computation and measurement. This provides a family of constructions for fault-tolerant quantum computation that are closely related to topological quantum computation, but for which the fault tolerance is implemented in software rather than coming from a physical medium.
Blind topological measurement-based quantum computation
Tomoyuki Morimae; Keisuke Fujii
2011-01-01
We propose a protocol of blind topological measurement-based quantum computation. It is fault-tolerant, and the threshold is $4.3\\\\times10^{-3}$ for erroneous preparation of initial states, erroneous CZ gates, and erroneous local measurements. Our protocol is also fault-tolerant against the detectable qubit loss.
Blind topological measurement-based quantum computation
Morimae, Tomoyuki
2011-01-01
We propose a protocol of blind topological measurement-based quantum computation. It is fault-tolerant, and the threshold is $4.3\\times10^{-3}$ for erroneous preparation of initial states, erroneous CZ gates, and erroneous local measurements. Our protocol is also fault-tolerant against the detectable qubit loss.
Blind quantum computing with weak coherent pulses.
Dunjko, Vedran; Kashefi, Elham; Leverrier, Anthony
2012-05-18
The universal blind quantum computation (UBQC) protocol [A. Broadbent, J. Fitzsimons, and E. Kashefi, in Proceedings of the 50th Annual IEEE Symposiumon Foundations of Computer Science (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, 2009), pp. 517-526.] allows a client to perform quantum computation on a remote server. In an ideal setting, perfect privacy is guaranteed if the client is capable of producing specific, randomly chosen single qubit states. While from a theoretical point of view, this may constitute the lowest possible quantum requirement, from a pragmatic point of view, generation of such states to be sent along long distances can never be achieved perfectly. We introduce the concept of ? blindness for UBQC, in analogy to the concept of ? security developed for other cryptographic protocols, allowing us to characterize the robustness and security properties of the protocol under possible imperfections. We also present a remote blind single qubit preparation protocol with weak coherent pulses for the client to prepare, in a delegated fashion, quantum states arbitrarily close to perfect random single qubit states. This allows us to efficiently achieve ?-blind UBQC for any ?>0, even if the channel between the client and the server is arbitrarily lossy. PMID:23003133
Quantum Computing without Magic Zdzislaw Meglicki
Quantum Computing without Magic Devices Zdzislaw Meglicki The MIT Press Cambridge, Massachusetts, 55 Hayward Street, Cambridge, MA 02142. This book was set in LATEX by the author and was printed.10 Single Qubit Gates 162 4.11 Taking Qubits for a Ride 168 4.11.1 Dragging a Qubit along an Arbitrary
Adiabatic Quantum Computation and Deutsch's Algorithm
Saurya Das; Randy Kobes; Gabor Kunstatter
2002-09-25
We show that by a suitable choice of a time dependent Hamiltonian, Deutsch's algorithm can be implemented by an adiabatic quantum computer. We extend our analysis to the Deutsch-Jozsa problem and estimate the required running time for both global and local adiabatic evolutions.
Quantum computer games: Schrödinger cat and hounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren
2012-05-01
The quantum computer game 'Schrödinger cat and hounds' is the quantum extension of the well-known classical game fox and hounds. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. 'Schrödinger cat and hounds' demonstrates the effects of superposition, destructive and constructive interference, measurements and entanglement. More advanced concepts, like particle-wave duality and decoherence, can also be taught using the game as a model. The game that has an optimal solution in the classical version, can have many different solutions and a new balance of powers in the quantum world. Game-aided lectures were given to high-school students which showed that it is a valid and entertaining teaching platform.
Another Look at Quantum Neural Computing
Kak, Subhash
2009-01-01
The term quantum neural computing was coined to indicate a unity in the functioning of the brain. We revisit the concept and also summarize new arguments related to the learning modes of the brain in response to sensory input that may be aggregated in three types: associative, reorganizational, and quantum. The associative and reorganizational types are quite apparent based on experimental findings; it is much harder to establish that the brain as an entity exhibits quantum properties. We argue that the reorganizational behavior of the brain may be viewed as inner adjustment corresponding to its quantum behavior at the system level. Not only neural structures but their higher abstractions also may be seen as whole entities. We consider the dualities associated with the behavior of the brain and how these dualities are bridged.
Computer Technologies 1.An Alien Autopsy
North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of
, Word Processing, Email, Media Player Â· Shared Libraries - Opening a URL, MP3 coding & decoding, video Â· Â· Mobile phones Â· Â· Toasters, irons, wristwatches, happy-meal toys #12;A Computer System Â· What;Implementation Technology Â· Common Links? Â· A controllable switch Â· Computers are wires and switches #12;Chips
Ubiquitous Computing Technologies for Ubiquitous Learning
Ken Sakamura; Noboru Koshizuka
2005-01-01
Ubiquitous computing is a new information and communication technology that utilize a large number of cooperative small nodes with computing and\\/or communication capabilities such as handheld terminals, smart mobile phones, sensor network nodes, contactless smart cards, RFIDs (radio frequency identification), and so on. This paper proposes the concept of ubiquitous learning that enables anyone to learn at anytime and anywhere
Computers and Writing. Tech Use Guide: Using Computer Technology.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dalton, Bridget
One of nine brief guides for special educators on using computer technology, this guide focuses on the use of computers to improve skills and attitudes in writing instruction. Pre-writing tools such as group brainstorming, story webs, free-writing, journal entries, and prewriting guides help generate ideas and can be carried out either on or off…
Computer technology forecast study for general aviation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seacord, C. L.; Vaughn, D.
1976-01-01
A multi-year, multi-faceted program is underway to investigate and develop potential improvements in airframes, engines, and avionics for general aviation aircraft. The objective of this study was to assemble information that will allow the government to assess the trends in computer and computer/operator interface technology that may have application to general aviation in the 1980's and beyond. The current state of the art of computer hardware is assessed, technical developments in computer hardware are predicted, and nonaviation large volume users of computer hardware are identified.
Quantum pathology of static internal imperfections in flawed quantum computers
Murat Cetinbas; Joshua Wilkie
2007-05-28
Even in the absence of external influences the operability of a quantum computer (QC) is not guaranteed because of the effects of residual one- and two-body imperfections. Here we investigate how these internal flaws affect the performance of a quantum controlled-NOT (CNOT) gate in an isolated flawed QC. First we find that the performance of the CNOT gate is considerably better when the two-body imperfections are strong. Secondly, we find that the largest source of error is due to a coherent shift rather than decoherence or dissipation. Our results suggest that the problem of internal imperfections should be given much more attention in designing scalable QC architectures.
Non-abelian fractional quantum hall effect for fault-resistant topological quantum computation.
Pan, Wei; Thalakulam, Madhu; Shi, Xiaoyan; Crawford, Matthew; Nielsen, Erik; Cederberg, Jeffrey George
2013-10-01
Topological quantum computation (TQC) has emerged as one of the most promising approaches to quantum computation. Under this approach, the topological properties of a non-Abelian quantum system, which are insensitive to local perturbations, are utilized to process and transport quantum information. The encoded information can be protected and rendered immune from nearly all environmental decoherence processes without additional error-correction. It is believed that the low energy excitations of the so-called =5/2 fractional quantum Hall (FQH) state may obey non-Abelian statistics. Our goal is to explore this novel FQH state and to understand and create a scientific foundation of this quantum matter state for the emerging TQC technology. We present in this report the results from a coherent study that focused on obtaining a knowledge base of the physics that underpins TQC. We first present the results of bulk transport properties, including the nature of disorder on the 5/2 state and spin transitions in the second Landau level. We then describe the development and application of edge tunneling techniques to quantify and understand the quasiparticle physics of the 5/2 state.
Quantum computing solid circuits of excitonic logical blocks
Hideaki Matsueda
1998-01-01
This paper proposes a novel solid state quantum CCN gate having a lock structure, which is effective to maintain quantum mechanical coherence and reduce both the bit error and the phase error. The stability of the dipole-dipole interaction in quantum dot array is estimated. Furthermore, the spatiotemporal dynamics of quantum computing process involving the quantum entangled pure states is illustrated.
AMO Science as an Enabler of Quantum Information Technology
Mark Heiligman
2005-01-01
This talk will present an overview on a decade's worth of innovation and progress toward developing a quantum computer, and suggest future research directions. In the eleven years since Peter Shor's quantum algorithms, quantum information science has become one of the fastest growing areas of physics. The prospect of executing quantum algorithms with no classical counterparts that accomplish tasks far
Quantum game simulator, using the circuit model of quantum computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vlachos, Panagiotis; Karafyllidis, Ioannis G.
2009-10-01
We present a general two-player quantum game simulator that can simulate any two-player quantum game described by a 2×2 payoff matrix (two strategy games).The user can determine the payoff matrices for both players, their strategies and the amount of entanglement between their initial strategies. The outputs of the simulator are the expected payoffs of each player as a function of the other player's strategy parameters and the amount of entanglement. The simulator also produces contour plots that divide the strategy spaces of the game in regions in which players can get larger payoffs if they choose to use a quantum strategy against any classical one. We also apply the simulator to two well-known quantum games, the Battle of Sexes and the Chicken game. Program summaryProgram title: Quantum Game Simulator (QGS) Catalogue identifier: AEED_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEED_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3416 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 583 553 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Matlab R2008a (C) Computer: Any computer that can sufficiently run Matlab R2008a Operating system: Any system that can sufficiently run Matlab R2008a Classification: 4.15 Nature of problem: Simulation of two player quantum games described by a payoff matrix. Solution method: The program calculates the matrices that comprise the Eisert setup for quantum games based on the quantum circuit model. There are 5 parameters that can be altered. We define 3 of them as constant. We play the quantum game for all possible values for the other 2 parameters and store the results in a matrix. Unusual features: The software provides an easy way of simulating any two-player quantum games. Running time: Approximately 0.4 sec (Region Feature) and 0.3 sec (Payoff Feature) on a Intel Core 2 Duo GHz with 2 GB of memory under Windows XP.
Quantum Computing Functions (QCF) for Matlab Charles Fox
Roberts, Stephen
Quantum Computing Functions (QCF) for Matlab Charles Fox Robotics Research Group Oxford University Quantum computing uses unitary operators acting on discrete state vectors. Matlab is a well known (classical) matrix computing environment, which makes it well suited for simulating quantum algorithms
Measurement-Based Quantum Computation and Undecidable Logic
Maarten van den Nest; Hans J. Briegel
2008-01-01
We establish a connection between measurement-based quantum computation and the field of mathematical logic. We show that the computational power of an important class of quantum states called graph states, representing resources for measurement-based quantum computation, is reflected in the expressive power of (classical) formal logic languages defined on the underlying mathematical graphs. In particular, we show that for all
A silicon-based nuclear spin quantum computer
B. E. Kane
1998-01-01
Quantum computers promise to exceed the computational efficiency of ordinary classical machines because quantum algorithms allow the execution of certain tasks in fewer steps. But practical implementation of these machines poses a formidable challenge. Here I present a scheme for implementing a quantum-mechanical computer. Information is encoded onto the nuclear spins of donor atoms in doped silicon electronic devices. Logical
Measurement-Based and Universal Blind Quantum Computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph; Kashefi, Elham
Measurement-based quantum computation (MBQC) is a novel approach to quantum computation where the notion of measurement is the main driving force of computation. This is in contrast with the more traditional circuit model which is based on unitary operation. We review here the mathematical model underlying MBQC and the first quantum cryptographic protocol designed using the unique features of MBQC.
Quantum computational capability of a 2D valence bond solid phase
Miyake, Akimasa, E-mail: amiyake@perimeterinstitute.ca [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo Ontario, N2L 2Y5 (Canada)
2011-07-15
Highlights: > Our model is the 2D valence bond solid phase of a quantum antiferromagnet. > Universal quantum computation is processed by measurements of quantum correlations. > An intrinsic complexity of strongly-correlated quantum systems could be a resource. - Abstract: Quantum phases of naturally-occurring systems exhibit distinctive collective phenomena as manifestation of their many-body correlations, in contrast to our persistent technological challenge to engineer at will such strong correlations artificially. Here we show theoretically that quantum correlations exhibited in the 2D valence bond solid phase of a quantum antiferromagnet, modeled by Affleck, Kennedy, Lieb, and Tasaki (AKLT) as a precursor of spin liquids and topological orders, are sufficiently complex yet structured enough to simulate universal quantum computation when every single spin can be measured individually. This unveils that an intrinsic complexity of naturally-occurring 2D quantum systems-which has been a long-standing challenge for traditional computers-could be tamed as a computationally valuable resource, even if we are limited not to create newly entanglement during computation. Our constructive protocol leverages a novel way to herald the correlations suitable for deterministic quantum computation through a random sampling, and may be extensible to other ground states of various 2D valence bond phases beyond the AKLT state.
Faculty of Computer Science & Technology
Haddadi, Hamed
. Intel closed their research laboratory in Cambridge and vacated their premises in the William Gates Â£3.8m, up from Â£1.3m in 2000-01 before the move to West Cambridge. The Cambridge Computer Lab Ring of Engineering's Division B. Cambridge Enterprise continued to occupy part of the second floor, paying rent
Modular Universal Scalable Ion-trap Quantum Computer (MUSIQC)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jungsang; Maunz, Peter; Kim, Taehyun; Hussman, Jeffrey; Noek, Rachel; Mehta, Abhijit; Monroe, Christopher
2011-10-01
We describe a scalable architecture for general-purpose quantum computation based on trapped ions and photonic interconnect network. The quantum computer is made up of several elementary logic units (ELUs) each containing a modest number of trapped ions representing physical qubits. Each ELU is provided with an optical communication port through which a photon entangled with a communication ion is extracted. Quantum entanglement is distributed between an arbitrary pair of ELUs through a reconfigurable photonic network, which can be utilized to perform two-qubit quantum logic operation between any pair of physical qubits in the entire quantum computer. We show that this architecture can support universal, fault-tolerant quantum computation.
Solving Random Satisfiability Problems with Quantum Computers
Tad Hogg
2001-04-09
Quantum computer algorithms can exploit the structure of random satisfiability problems. This paper extends a previous empirical evaluation of such an algorithm and gives an approximate asymptotic analysis accounting for both the average and variation of amplitudes among search states with the same costs. The analysis predicts good performance, on average, for a variety of problems including those near a phase transition associated with a high concentration of hard cases. Based on empirical evaluation for small problems, modifying the algorithm in light of this analysis improves its performance. The algorithm improves on both GSAT, a commonly used conventional heuristic, and quantum algorithms ignoring problem structure.
Scheme for Quantum Computing Immune to Decoherence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Colin; Vatan, Farrokh
2008-01-01
A constructive scheme has been devised to enable mapping of any quantum computation into a spintronic circuit in which the computation is encoded in a basis that is, in principle, immune to quantum decoherence. The scheme is implemented by an algorithm that utilizes multiple physical spins to encode each logical bit in such a way that collective errors affecting all the physical spins do not disturb the logical bit. The scheme is expected to be of use to experimenters working on spintronic implementations of quantum logic. Spintronic computing devices use quantum-mechanical spins (typically, electron spins) to encode logical bits. Bits thus encoded (denoted qubits) are potentially susceptible to errors caused by noise and decoherence. The traditional model of quantum computation is based partly on the assumption that each qubit is implemented by use of a single two-state quantum system, such as an electron or other spin-1.2 particle. It can be surprisingly difficult to achieve certain gate operations . most notably, those of arbitrary 1-qubit gates . in spintronic hardware according to this model. However, ironically, certain 2-qubit interactions (in particular, spin-spin exchange interactions) can be achieved relatively easily in spintronic hardware. Therefore, it would be fortunate if it were possible to implement any 1-qubit gate by use of a spin-spin exchange interaction. While such a direct representation is not possible, it is possible to achieve an arbitrary 1-qubit gate indirectly by means of a sequence of four spin-spin exchange interactions, which could be implemented by use of four exchange gates. Accordingly, the present scheme provides for mapping any 1-qubit gate in the logical basis into an equivalent sequence of at most four spin-spin exchange interactions in the physical (encoded) basis. The complexity of the mathematical derivation of the scheme from basic quantum principles precludes a description within this article; it must suffice to report that the derivation provides explicit constructions for finding the exchange couplings in the physical basis needed to implement any arbitrary 1-qubit gate. These constructions lead to spintronic encodings of quantum logic that are more efficient than those of a previously published scheme that utilizes a universal but fixed set of gates.
Towards Large-Scale Quantum Computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fowler, Austin G.
2005-06-01
This thesis deals with a series of quantum computer implementation issues from the Kane 31P in 28Si architecture to Shor's integer factoring algorithm and beyond. The discussion begins with simulations of the adiabatic Kane CNOT and readout gates, followed by linear nearest neighbor implementations of 5-qubit quantum error correction with and without fast measurement. A linear nearest neighbor circuit implementing Shor's algorithm is presented, then modified to remove the need for exponentially small rotation gates. Finally, a method of constructing optimal approximations of arbitrary single-qubit fault-tolerant gates is described and applied to the specific case of the remaining rotation gates required by Shor's algorithm.
The study of entangled states in quantum computation and quantum information science
Chung, Hyeyoun, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
2008-01-01
This thesis explores the use of entangled states in quantum computation and quantum information science. Entanglement, a quantum phenomenon with no classical counterpart, has been identified as an important and quantifiable ...
High-speed linear optics quantum computing using active feed-forward
Robert Prevedel; Philip Walther; Felix Tiefenbacher; Pascal Böhi; Rainer Kaltenbaek; Thomas Jennewein; Anton Zeilinger
2007-01-04
As information carriers in quantum computing, photonic qubits have the advantage of undergoing negligible decoherence. However, the absence of any significant photon-photon interaction is problematic for the realization of non-trivial two-qubit gates. One solution is to introduce an effective nonlinearity by measurements resulting in probabilistic gate operations. In one-way quantum computation, the random quantum measurement error can be overcome by applying a feed-forward technique, such that the future measurement basis depends on earlier measurement results. This technique is crucial for achieving deterministic quantum computation once a cluster state (the highly entangled multiparticle state on which one-way quantum computation is based) is prepared. Here we realize a concatenated scheme of measurement and active feed-forward in a one-way quantum computing experiment. We demonstrate that, for a perfect cluster state and no photon loss, our quantum computation scheme would operate with good fidelity and that our feed-forward components function with very high speed and low error for detected photons. With present technology, the individual computational step (in our case the individual feed-forward cycle) can be operated in less than 150 ns using electro-optical modulators. This is an important result for the future development of one-way quantum computers, whose large-scale implementation will depend on advances in the production and detection of the required highly entangled cluster states.
Silicon enhancement mode nanostructures for quantum computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carroll, Malcolm
2010-03-01
Development of silicon, enhancement mode nanostructures for solid-state quantum computing will be described. A primary motivation of this research is the recent unprecedented manipulation of single electron spins in GaAs quantum dots, which has been used to demonstrate a quantum bit [1]. Long spin decoherence times are predicted possible in silicon qubits. This talk will focus on silicon enhancement mode quantum dot structures that emulate the GaAs lateral quantum dot qubit [1] but use an enhancement mode field effect transistor (FET) structure. One critical concern for silicon quantum dots that use oxides as insulators in the FET structure is that defects in the metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) stack can produce both detrimental electrostatic and paramagnetic effects on the qubit. Understanding the implications of defects in the Si MOS system is also relevant for other qubit architectures that have nearby dielectric passivated surfaces. Stable, lithographically defined, single-period Coulomb-blockade and single-electron charge sensing in a quantum dot nanostructure using a MOS stack will be presented. A combination of characterization of defects, modeling and consideration of modified approaches that incorporate SiGe or donors provides guidance about the enhancement mode MOS approach for future qubits and quantum circuit micro-architecture. [1] J. Petta et al., Science 309, 2180 (2005) We wish to acknowledge the research funding support provided by the laboratory directed research and development (LDRD) program at Sandia National Laboratories and the Laboratory of Physical Sciences. Sandia National Labs is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Khan, Javed I.
Roadmap: Technical and Applied Studies Computer Technology Applied Computer Security and Forensics Technology Bachelor of Technical and Applied Studies [RE-BTAS-TAS-CTAC] Regional College Catalog Requirement 3 See Kent Core Summary on page 2 Kent Core Requirement 3 See Kent Core Summary on page 2 Applied
Universal quantum gates for Single Cooper Pair Box based quantum computing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Echternach, P.; Williams, C. P.; Dultz, S. C.; Braunstein, S.; Dowling, J. P.
2000-01-01
We describe a method for achieving arbitrary 1-qubit gates and controlled-NOT gates within the context of the Single Cooper Pair Box (SCB) approach to quantum computing. Such gates are sufficient to support universal quantum computation.
Fault-tolerant quantum computer architectures using hierarchies of quantum error-correcting codes
Cross, Andrew W. (Andrew William), 1979-
2008-01-01
Quantum computers have been shown to efficiently solve a class of problems for which no efficient solution is otherwise known. Physical systems can implement quantum computation, but devising realistic schemes is an extremely ...
A ROSETTA STONE FOR QUANTUM MECHANICS WITH AN INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM COMPUTATION VERSION 1.5
SAMUEL J. LOMONACO
The purpose of these lecture notes is to provide readers, who have some mathematical background but little or no exposure to quantum mechanics and quantum computation, with enough material to begin reading the research literature in quantum computation and quantum information theory. This paper is a written version of the first of eight one hour lectures given in the American
A Rosetta Stone for Quantum Mechanics with an Introduction to Quantum Computation
Samuel J. Lomonaco; jr
2000-01-01
The purpose of these lecture notes is to provide readers, who have some mathematical background but little or no exposure to quantum mechanics and quantum computation, with enough material to begin reading the research literature in quantum computation and quantum information theory. This paper is a written version of the first of eight one hour lectures given in the American
Quantum computing gates via optimal control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atia, Yosi; Elias, Yuval; Mor, Tal; Weinstein, Yossi
2014-10-01
We demonstrate the use of optimal control to design two entropy-manipulating quantum gates which are more complex than the corresponding, commonly used, gates, such as CNOT and Toffoli (CCNOT): A two-qubit gate called polarization exchange (PE) and a three-qubit gate called polarization compression (COMP) were designed using GRAPE, an optimal control algorithm. Both gates were designed for a three-spin system. Our design provided efficient and robust nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) radio frequency (RF) pulses for 13C2-trichloroethylene (TCE), our chosen three-spin system. We then experimentally applied these two quantum gates onto TCE at the NMR lab. Such design of these gates and others could be relevant for near-future applications of quantum computing devices.
EDITORIAL: Optical implementation of quantum computers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rarity, John; Weinfurter, Harald
2005-07-01
Optical quantum computation was limited to a few photon applications such as quantum cryptography and partial teleportation until 2001. Then the possibility of performing arbitrary logic conditional on certain detection outcomes was introduced by Knill, Laflamme and Milburn (Nature 2001 409 46). Simple circuits consisting of single photon sources, entangled pair sources, linear optical elements and high efficiency photon counting detectors can be used to develop probabilistic two-photon logic gates. Initially such gates show a low probability of success but can approach the success rate of deterministic (non-linear) logic at the cost of added complexity. These developments have led to the emergence of a novel field of research aimed at improving the efficiency of linear logic and developing the efficient sources and detectors for its implementation. This topical issue of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics is devoted to recent advances in this field. Key to all linear optics gates is the interference effect between separate photons that have no previous history. In this issue we include the first experiment to show such an effect (Rarity et al), on which many later experiments are based. These interference effects can then be used to entangle separate pairs of particles into higher order entangled states (Zou et al 2005 J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 7 119-121) and also to establish entanglement between matter qubits (Kok et al). Quantum dot single photon sources suitable for linear optics quantum logic are discussed in the paper by Unitt et al while a waveguide source of pair photons is presented by Ducci et al. The difficulties in scaling linear optics quantum computing arise from the low success probabilities of the gates. Introducing a small amount of non-linearity could allow unit efficiency gates to be designed (Munro et al) while large non-linearities generated by the collective effects in EIT could be used to implement a wide variety of quantum logic functions (Petrosyan). The development of algorithms suitable for optical implementation is addressed by Ellinas et al. Key contributors to this issue are collaborating in the project IST:38864 RAMBOQ which has a primary goal of developing linear optics computation tools and techniques.
Topos logic in measurement-based quantum computation
Leon Loveridge; Raouf Dridi; Robert Raussendorf
2015-03-12
We report first steps towards elucidating the relationship between contextuality, measurement-based quantum computation (MBQC) and the non-classical logic of a topos associated with the computation. We show that, in a class of MBQC, classical universality requires non-classical logic, which is 'consumed' during the course of the computation, thereby pinpointing another potential quantum computational resource.
Barium ions for quantum computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dietrich, Matthew
Barium ion is investigated as a hyperfine qubit. 137Ba + is trapped in a linear Paul trap and laser cooled. Isotope selective photoionization is employed to improve trapping from an isotopically inpure source. Optical pumping into the magnetically insensitive 2S 1/2(F=2) mF = 0 state is shown, and readout by electron shelving into the 2D5/2 is demonstrated both directly and by adiabatic passage. Rabi flops between the 2S1/2 F=1 and F=2 states is accomplished by exposure to 8.037 GHz microwave radiation. Several methods of locking the cooling lasers have been attempted and are discussed. Stabilization of the infrared laser used to drive the D 5/2 ? S1/2 transition is of particular interest, and several novel technologies are tested in this purpose.
Period Finding with Adiabatic Quantum Computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hen, Itay
2014-03-01
We outline an efficient quantum-adiabatic algorithm that solves Simon's problem, in which one has to determine the ``period,'' or xor-mask, of a given black-box function. We show that the proposed algorithm is exponentially faster than its classical counterpart and has the same complexity as the corresponding circuit-based algorithm. Together with other related studies, this result supports a conjecture that the complexity of adiabatic quantum computation is equivalent to the circuit-based computational model in a stronger sense than the well-known, proven polynomial equivalence between the two paradigms. We also discuss the importance of the algorithm and its implications for the existence of an optimal-complexity adiabatic version of Shor's integer factorization algorithm and the experimental implementation of the latter.
Period finding with adiabatic quantum computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hen, I.
2014-03-01
We outline an efficient quantum-adiabatic algorithm that solves Simon's problem, in which one has to determine the “period”, or xor mask, of a given black-box function. We show that the proposed algorithm is exponentially faster than its classical counterpart and has the same complexity as the corresponding circuit-based algorithm. Together with other related studies, this result supports a conjecture that the complexity of adiabatic quantum computation is equivalent to the circuit-based computational model in a stronger sense than the well-known, proven polynomial equivalence between the two paradigms. We also discuss the importance of the algorithm and its theoretical and experimental implications for the existence of an adiabatic version of Shor's integer factorization algorithm that would have the same complexity as the original algorithm.
Quantum computation architecture using optical tweezers
Weitenberg, Christof [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Kuhr, Stefan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); University of Strathclyde, Department of Physics, SUPA, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Moelmer, Klaus; Sherson, Jacob F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)
2011-09-15
We present a complete architecture for scalable quantum computation with ultracold atoms in optical lattices using optical tweezers focused to the size of a lattice spacing. We discuss three different two-qubit gates based on local collisional interactions. The gates between arbitrary qubits require the transport of atoms to neighboring sites. We numerically optimize the nonadiabatic transport of the atoms through the lattice and the intensity ramps of the optical tweezer in order to maximize the gate fidelities. We find overall gate times of a few 100 {mu}s, while keeping the error probability due to vibrational excitations and spontaneous scattering below 10{sup -3}. The requirements on the positioning error and intensity noise of the optical tweezer and the magnetic field stability are analyzed and we show that atoms in optical lattices could meet the requirements for fault-tolerant scalable quantum computing.
Dual-code quantum computation model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Byung-Soo
2015-05-01
In this work, we propose the dual-code quantum computation model—a fault-tolerant quantum computation scheme which alternates between two different quantum error-correction codes. Since the chosen two codes have different sets of transversal gates, we can implement a universal set of gates transversally, thereby reducing the overall cost. We use code teleportation to convert between quantum states in different codes. The overall cost is decreased if code teleportation requires fewer resources than the fault-tolerant implementation of the non-transversal gate in a specific code. To analyze the cost reduction, we investigate two cases with different base codes, namely the Steane and Bacon-Shor codes. For the Steane code, neither the proposed dual-code model nor another variation of it achieves any cost reduction since the conventional approach is simple. For the Bacon-Shor code, the three proposed variations of the dual-code model reduce the overall cost. However, as the encoding level increases, the cost reduction decreases and becomes negative. Therefore, the proposed dual-code model is advantageous only when the encoding level is low and the cost of the non-transversal gate is relatively high.
A Rosetta Stone for Quantum Mechanics with an Introduction to Quantum Computation
Lomonaco, S J
2000-01-01
The purpose of these lecture notes is to provide readers, who have some mathematical background but little or no exposure to quantum mechanics and quantum computation, with enough material to begin reading the research literature in quantum computation and quantum information theory. This paper is a written version of the first of eight one hour lectures given in the American Mathematical Society (AMS) Short Course on Quantum Computation held in conjunction with the Annual Meeting of the AMS in Washington, DC, USA in January 2000, and will appear in the AMS PSAPM volume entitled "Quantum Computation." Part 1 of the paper is an introduction the to the concept of the qubit. Part 2 gives an introduction to quantum mechanics covering such topics as Dirac notation, quantum measurement, Heisenberg uncertainty, Schrodinger's equation, density operators, partial trace, multipartite quantum systems, the Heisenberg versus the Schrodinger picture, quantum entanglement, EPR paradox, quantum entropy. Part 3 gives a brief ...
Computational costs of data definition at the quantum - classical interface
Chris Fields
2010-05-26
Model-independent semantic requirements for user specification and interpretation of data before and after quantum computations are characterized. Classical computational costs of assigning classical data values to quantum registers and to run-time parameters passed across a classical-to-quantum application programming interface are derived. It is shown that the classical computational costs of data definition equal or exceed the classical computational cost of solving the problem of interest for all applications of quantum computing except computations defined over the integers and the simulation of linear systems with linear boundary conditions.
Electronic transient processes and optical spectra in quantum dots for quantum computing
Karel Král; P. Zdenek; Z. Khas
2004-01-01
Quantum dot systems are studied theoretically from the point of view of realization of quantum bit using the orbital state of electronic motion in a quantum dot. Attention is paid to several effects which can influence significantly the application of quantum dot electronic orbital states in quantum computing, for example, the effect of upconversion of the population and the incomplete
Anonymous RFID Authentication Using Trusted Computing Technologies
Kurt Dietrich
2010-01-01
\\u000a Anonymity protecting mechanisms are an important part of any Trusted Computing platform. They provide protection of a platform’s\\u000a anonymity and, consequently, protection of the privacy of the platform’s owners. As Trusted Computing technologies have been\\u000a introduced on mobile and embedded systems and more and more mobile devices are equipped with Near Field Communication (NFC)\\u000a modules, the question arises whether the
Extending scientific computing system with structural quantum programming capabilities
Gawron, P; Miszczak, J A; Winiarczyk, R
2010-01-01
We present a basic high-level structures used for developing quantum programming languages. The presented structures are commonly used in many existing quantum programming languages and we use quantum pseudo-code based on QCL quantum programming language to describe them. We also present the implementation of introduced structures in GNU Octave language for scientific computing. Procedures used in the implementation are available as a package quantum-octave, providing a library of functions, which facilitates the simulation of quantum computing. This package allows also to incorporate high-level programming concepts into the simulation in GNU Octave and Matlab. As such it connects features unique for high-level quantum programming languages, with the full palette of efficient computational routines commonly available in modern scientific computing systems. To present the major features of the described package we provide the implementation of selected quantum algorithms. We also show how quantum errors can be...
The Power of Noisy Fermionic Quantum Computation
Fernando de Melo; Piotr ?wikli?ski; Barbara M. Terhal
2013-04-15
We consider the realization of universal quantum computation through braiding of Majorana fermions supplemented by unprotected preparation of noisy ancillae. It has been shown by Bravyi [Phys. Rev. A 73, 042313 (2006)] that under the assumption of perfect braiding operations, universal quantum computation is possible if the noise rate on a particular 4-fermion ancilla is below 40%. We show that beyond a noise rate of 89% on this ancilla the quantum computation can be efficiently simulated classically: we explicitly show that the noisy ancilla is a convex mixture of Gaussian fermionic states in this region, while for noise rates below 53% we prove that the state is not a mixture of Gaussian states. These results were obtained by generalizing concepts in entanglement theory to the setting of Gaussian states and their convex mixtures. In particular we develop a complete set of criteria, namely the existence of a Gaussian-symmetric extension, which determine whether a state is a convex mixture of Gaussian states.
Applications of computational quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Temel, Burcin
This original research dissertation is composed of a new numerical technique based on Chebyshev polynomials that is applied on scattering problems, a phenomenological kinetics study for CO oxidation on RuO2 surface, and an experimental study on methanol coupling with doped metal oxide catalysts. Minimum Error Method (MEM), a least-squares minimization method, provides an efficient and accurate alternative to solve systems of ordinary differential equations. Existing methods usually utilize matrix methods which are computationally costful. MEM, which is based on the Chebyshev polynomials as a basis set, uses the recursion relationships and fast Chebyshev transforms which scale as O(N). For large basis set calculations this provides an enormous computational efficiency in the calculations. Chebyshev polynomials are also able to represent non-periodic problems very accurately. We applied MEM on elastic and inelastic scattering problems: it is more efficient and accurate than traditionally used Kohn variational principle, and it also provides the wave function in the interaction region. Phenomenological kinetics (PK) is widely used in industry to predict the optimum conditions for a chemical reaction. PK neglects the fluctuations, assumes no lateral interactions, and considers an ideal mix of reactants. The rate equations are tested by fitting the rate constants to the results of the experiments. Unfortunately, there are numerous examples where a fitted mechanism was later shown to be erroneous. We have undertaken a thorough comparison between the phenomenological equations and the results of kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations performed on the same system. The PK equations are qualitatively consistent with the KMC results but are quantitatively erroneous as a result of interplays between the adsorption and desorption events. The experimental study on methanol coupling with doped metal oxide catalysts demonstrates the doped metal oxides as a new class of catalysts with novel properties. Doping a metal oxide may alter its intrinsic properties drastically. A catalytically non-active material can be activated by doping. In this study, we showed that pure zirconia (ZrO2) has almost no activity in methanol coupling reaction, whereas when it is doped with aluminum, the doped catalyst produces dimethyl ether (DME), which is valuable as an alternative future energy source.
Entertainment Computing, Social Transformation and the Quantum Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rauterberg, Matthias
The abstract should summaritinment computing is on its way getting an established academic discipline. The scope of entertainment computing is quite broad (see the scope of the international journal Entertainment Computing). One unifying idea in this diverse community of entertainment researchers and developers might be a normative position to enhance human living through social transformation. One possible option in this direction is a shared ‘conscious’ field. Several ideas about a new kind of field based on quantum effects are presented and discussed. Assuming that social transformation is based on a shared collective unconscious I propose designing entertainment technology for a new kind of user experience that can transform in a positive manner the individual unconscious and therefore the collective unconscious as well. Our ALICE project can be seen as a first attempt in this direction.
Distributed quantum computation with arbitrarily poor photon detection
Matsuzaki, Yuichiro [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Benjamin, Simon C. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Fitzsimons, Joseph [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)
2010-07-15
In a distributed quantum computer, scalability is accomplished by networking together many elementary nodes. Typically the network is optical and internode entanglement involves photon detection. In complex networks the entanglement fidelity may be degraded by the twin problems of photon loss and dark counts. Here we describe an entanglement protocol which can achieve high fidelity even when these issues are arbitrarily severe; indeed the method succeeds with finite probability even if the photon detectors are entirely removed from the network. An experimental demonstration should be possible with existing technologies.
Hybrid architecture for encoded measurement-based quantum computation
Zwerger, M.; Briegel, H. J.; Dür, W.
2014-01-01
We present a hybrid scheme for quantum computation that combines the modular structure of elementary building blocks used in the circuit model with the advantages of a measurement-based approach to quantum computation. We show how to construct optimal resource states of minimal size to implement elementary building blocks for encoded quantum computation in a measurement-based way, including states for error correction and encoded gates. The performance of the scheme is determined by the quality of the resource states, where within the considered error model a threshold of the order of 10% local noise per particle for fault-tolerant quantum computation and quantum communication. PMID:24946906
Quantum Computation and Shor's Factoring Algorithm Ronald de Wolf
de Wolf, Ronald
Quantum Computation and Shor's Factoring Algorithm Ronald de Wolf CWI and University of Amsterdam computation and to its main success so far: Peter Shor's e cient quantum algorithm for factoring integers. 1 Peter Shor's 1994 discovery of e cient quantum algorithms for the problems of integer factorization
Fault-tolerant quantum computation versus Gaussian noise
Hui Khoon Ng; John Preskill
2008-10-27
We study the robustness of a fault-tolerant quantum computer subject to Gaussian non-Markovian quantum noise, and we show that scalable quantum computation is possible if the noise power spectrum satisfies an appropriate "threshold condition." Our condition is less sensitive to very-high-frequency noise than previously derived threshold conditions for non-Markovian noise.
ENTROPY-ENERGY BALANCE IN NOISY QUANTUM COMPUTERS
Raginsky, Maxim
ENTROPY-ENERGY BALANCE IN NOISY QUANTUM COMPUTERS MAXIM RAGINSKY Center for Photonic Communication and on the system size, as measured in qubits, of noisy macroscopic circuit-based quantum computers. Quantum the latter is related to the maximum number of qubits that can be processed reliably on a noisy MQC. We
A Geometric Algebra Perspective On Quantum Computational Gates And Universality In Quantum Computing
Carlo Cafaro; Stefano Mancini
2010-06-10
We investigate the utility of geometric (Clifford) algebras (GA) methods in two specific applications to quantum information science. First, using the multiparticle spacetime algebra (MSTA, the geometric algebra of a relativistic configuration space), we present an explicit algebraic description of one and two-qubit quantum states together with a MSTA characterization of one and two-qubit quantum computational gates. Second, using the above mentioned characterization and the GA description of the Lie algebras SO(3) and SU(2) based on the rotor group Spin+(3, 0) formalism, we reexamine Boykin's proof of universality of quantum gates. We conclude that the MSTA approach does lead to a useful conceptual unification where the complex qubit space and the complex space of unitary operators acting on them become united, with both being made just by multivectors in real space. Finally, the GA approach to rotations based on the rotor group does bring conceptual and computational advantages compared to standard vectorial and matricial approaches.
Extending scientific computing system with structural quantum programming capabilities
Piotr Gawron; Jaroslaw Adam Miszczak; Jerzy Klamka; Ryszard Winiarczyk
2010-01-01
We present the basic high-level structures used for developing quantum programming languages. The presented structures are commonly used in many existing quantum programming languages and we use quantum pseudo-code based on QCL quantum programming language to describe them. We also present the implementation of introduced structures in GNU Octave language for scientific computing. Procedures used in the implementation are available
CALL FOR PAPERS: Optical implementation of quantum computers
John Rarity; Harald Weinfurter
2004-01-01
A topical issue of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics will be devoted to recent advances in optical implementation of quantum computers. The topics to be covered will include, but are not limited to: bullet Linear optics quantum gates bullet Progress towards nonlinear optics quantum gates bullet Interface between optical qubits and atomic\\/solid state qubits bullet Novel architectures
Taught degrees MSc in Frontiers of Quantum Technology
Sussex, University of
teaching and research. In 2013 after successfully exploiting the growing national interest in physicsPhysics Essentials Taught degrees MSc in Frontiers of Quantum Technology MSc in Particle Physics in Frontiers of Quantum Technology A first- or second-class undergraduate honours degree in a physics
Business/Computer Technologies. State Competency Profile.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.
This document contains 272 competencies, grouped into 36 units, for tech prep programs in the business/computer technology cluster. The competencies were developed through collaboration of Ohio business, industry, and labor representatives and secondary and associate degree educators. The competencies are rated either "essential" (necessary to…
Oasis cooling packaging technology for notebook computers
G. Kuzmin
1994-01-01
It is imperative that designers, OEMs and systems integrators address system-wide thermal issues, and do it from the earliest stages of product design. As this technique is practised, engineers will be working with a broader array of technologies and disciplines than ever before. Consumer demand for powerful, portable computing products is the major driving force for new thermal techniques, An
Computer Engineering Technology. Florida Vocational Program Guide.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.
This packet contains a program guide and Career Merit Achievement Plan (Career MAP) for the implementation of a computer engineering technology program in Florida secondary and postsecondary schools. The program guide describes the program content and structure, provides a program description, lists job titles under the program, and includes a…
Instructional Technology in Computer Science Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jenny, Frederick J.
2004-01-01
The Web, the Internet, the intranet and associated resources, campus computer labs, smart classrooms, course management systems, and a plethora of software packages all offer opportunities for every classroom instructor to enrich in-class and out-of-class activities. Why should an instructor consider the integration of technology into their…
Designing Appropriate Computing Technologies for Rural Development
Parikh, Tapan S.
Designing Appropriate Computing Technologies for Rural Development Tapan S. Parikh Department billion people in the rural developing worlddeveloping world need the sameneed the same of relations 3 billion people in the rural3 billion people in the rural developing worlddeveloping world have
Quantum optical technologies for metrology, sensing and imaging
Jonathan P. Dowling; Kaushik P. Seshadreesan
2015-02-27
Over the past 20 years, bright sources of entangled photons have led to a renaissance in quantum optical interferometry. Optical interferometry has been used to test the foundations of quantum mechanics and implement some of the novel ideas associated with quantum entanglement such as quantum teleportation, quantum cryptography, quantum lithography, quantum computing logic gates, and quantum metrology. In this paper, we focus on the new ways that have been developed to exploit quantum optical entanglement in quantum metrology to beat the shot-noise limit, which can be used, e.g., in fiber optical gyroscopes and in sensors for biological or chemical targets. We also discuss how this entanglement can be used to beat the Rayleigh diffraction limit in imaging systems such as in LIDAR and optical lithography.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demming, Anna
2010-07-01
The development of quantum theory was an archetypal scientific revolution in early twentieth-century physics. In many ways, the probabilities and uncertainties that replaced the ubiquitous application of classical mechanics may have seemed a violent assault on logic and reason. 'Something unknown is doing we don't know what-that is what our theory amounts to,' Sir Arthur Eddington famously remarked, adding, 'It does not sound a particularly illuminating theory. I have read something like it elsewhere: the slithy toves, did gyre and gimble in the wabe' [1]. Today, quantum mechanics no longer seems a dark art best confined to the boundaries of physics and philosophy. Scanning probe micrographs have captured actual images of quantum-mechanical interference patterns [2], and familiarity has made the claims of quantum theory more palatable. An understanding of quantum effects is essential for nanoscale science and technology research. This special issue on quantum science and technology at the nanoscale collates some of the latest research that is extending the boundaries of our knowledge and understanding in the field. Quantum phenomena have become particularly significant in attempts to further reduce the size of electronic devices, the trend widely referred to as Moore's law. In this issue, researchers in Switzerland report results from transport studies on graphene. The researchers investigate the conductance variance in systems with superconducting contacts [3]. Also in this issue, researchers in Germany calculate the effects of spin-orbit coupling in a molecular dimer and predict nonlinear transport. They also explain how ferromagnetic electrodes can be used to probe these interactions [4]. Our understanding of spin and the ability to manipulate it has advanced greatly since the notion of spin was first proposed. However, it remains the case that little is known about local coherent fluctuations of spin polarizations, the scale on which they occur, how they are correlated, and how they influence spin currents and their fluctuations, as well as the mechanisms behind current-induced spin polarizations in chaotic ballistic systems. In a theoretical report on current-induced spin polarization from the University of Arizona, progress is made in filling in some of these gaps, and a 'spin-probe' model is proposed [5]. Spin is also an important element in quantum information research. With electron spin coherence lifetimes exceeding 1 ms at room temperature, as well as the added benefit of being optically addressable, nitrogen-vacancy defects in diamond have been identified as having considerable potential for quantum information applications. Now researchers in the US describe the fabrication and low-temperature characterization of silica microdisk cavities coupled to diamond nanoparticles, and present theoretical and experimental studies of gallium phosphide structures coupled to nitrogen-vacancy centers in bulk diamond [6]. Double quantum dots have been considered as prospective candidates for charge qubits for quantum information processors. The application of a bias voltage can be used to control tunnelling between the double quantum dots, allowing the energy states to be tuned. Researchers in Switzerland investigate experimentally the effect of ohmic heating of the phonon bath on decoherence, and find that the system can be considered as a thermoelectric generator [7]. This progress has only been made possible by advances in our understanding of the fundamental science behind quantum mechanics, and work exploring this territory is still a hotbed of activity and progress. Increasingly sophisticated tools, both numerical and experimental, have facilitated engagement with quantum phenomena in nanoscale systems. Molecular spin clusters represent an ideal setting within solid-state systems to test concepts in quantum mechanics, as highlighted in this issue by researchers in Italy, who report their work on controlling entanglement between molecular spins [8]. Nanofabrication techniques have seen tremendous advances that have en
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Howard, Mark; Vala, Jiri
2012-02-01
An obstacle affecting any proposal for a topological quantum computer based on Ising anyons is that quasiparticle braiding can only implement a finite (nonuniversal) set of quantum operations. The computational power of this restricted set of operations (often called stabilizer operations) has been studied in quantum information theory, and it is known that no quantum-computational advantage can be obtained without the help of an additional nonstabilizer operation. Similarly, a bipartite two-qubit system based on Ising anyons can not exhibit nonlocality (in the sense of violating a Bell inequality) when only topologically protected stabilizer operations are performed. To produce correlations that can not be described by a local hidden variable model again requires the use of a nonstabilizer operation. Using geometric techniques, we relate the sets of operations that enable universal quantum computing (UQC) with those that enable violation of a Bell inequality. Motivated by the fact that nonstabilizer operations are expected to be highly imperfect, our aim is to provide a benchmark for identifying UQC-enabling operations that is both experimentally practical and conceptually simple. We show that any (noisy) single-qubit nonstabilizer operation that, together with perfect stabilizer operations, enables violation of the simplest two-qubit Bell inequality, can also be used to enable UQC. This benchmarking requires finding the expectation values of two distinct Pauli measurements on each qubit of a bipartite system.
Lecture Script: Introduction to Computational Quantum Mechanics
Roman Schmied
2015-06-05
This document is the lecture script of a one-semester course taught at the University of Basel in the Fall semesters of 2012 and 2013 and in the Spring semester of 2015. It is aimed at advanced students of physics who are familiar with the concepts and notations of quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics lectures can often be separated into two classes. In the first class you get to know Schroedinger's equation and find the form and dynamics of simple physical systems (square well, harmonic oscillator, hydrogen atom); most calculations are analytic and inspired by calculations originally done in the 1920s and 1930s. In the second class you learn about large systems such as molecular structures, crystalline solids, or lattice models; these calculations are usually so complicated that it is difficult for the student to understand them in all detail. This lecture tries to bridge the gap between simple analytic calculations and complicated large-scale computations. We will revisit most of the problems encountered in introductory quantum mechanics, focusing on computer implementations for finding analytical as well as numerical solutions and their visualization. Most of these calculations are too complicated to be done by hand. Even relatively simple problems, such as two interacting particles in a one-dimensional trap, do not have analytic solutions and require the use of computers for their solution and visualization. More complex problems scale exponentially with the number of degrees of freedom, and make the use of large computer simulations unavoidable. The course is taught using the Mathematica programming language; however, the concepts presented are readily translated to any other programming language.
Trapped Ion Quantum Computer Research at Los Alamos
D. F. V. James; M. S. Gulley; M. H. Holzscheiter; R. J. Hughes; P. G. Kwiat; S. K. Lamoreaux; C. G. Peterson; V. D. Sandberg; M. M. Schauer; C. M. Simmons; D. Tupa; P. Z. Wang; A. G. White
1998-07-24
We briefly review the development and theory of an experiment to investigate quantum computation with trapped calcium ions. The ion trap, laser and ion requirements are determined, and the parameters required for simple quantum logic operations are described
Minimal computational-space implementation of multiround quantum protocols
Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Chiribella, Giulio [QUIT group, Dipartimento di Fisica ''A. Volta'', and INFN Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi 6, IT-27100 Pavia (Italy); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)
2011-02-15
A single-party strategy in a multiround quantum protocol can be implemented by sequential networks of quantum operations connected by internal memories. Here, we provide an efficient realization in terms of computational-space resources.
A general-purpose pulse sequencer for quantum computing
Pháº¡m, Paul Tân Tháº¿
2005-01-01
Quantum mechanics presents a more general and potentially more powerful model of computation than classical systems. Quantum bits have many physically different representations which nonetheless share a common need for ...
Clifford quantum computer and the Mathieu groups
Michel Planat
2009-02-24
One learned from Gottesman-Knill theorem that the Clifford model of quantum computing \\cite{Clark07} may be generated from a few quantum gates, the Hadamard, Phase and Controlled-Z gates, and efficiently simulated on a classical computer. We employ the group theoretical package GAP\\cite{GAP} for simulating the two qubit Clifford group $\\mathcal{C}_2$. We already found that the symmetric group S(6), aka the automorphism group of the generalized quadrangle W(2), controls the geometry of the two-qubit Pauli graph \\cite{Pauligraphs}. Now we find that the {\\it inner} group ${Inn}(\\mathcal{C}_2)=\\mathcal{C}_2/{Center}(\\mathcal{C}_2)$ exactly contains two normal subgroups, one isomorphic to $\\mathcal{Z}_2^{\\times 4}$ (of order 16), and the second isomorphic to the parent $A'(6)$ (of order 5760) of the alternating group A(6). The group $A'(6)$ stabilizes an {\\it hexad} in the Steiner system $S(3,6,22)$ attached to the Mathieu group M(22). Both groups A(6) and $A'(6)$ have an {\\it outer} automorphism group $\\mathcal{Z}_2\\times \\mathcal{Z}_2$, a feature we associate to two-qubit quantum entanglement.
Quantum computation over the butterfly network
Soeda, Akihito; Kinjo, Yoshiyuki; Turner, Peter S. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Murao, Mio [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Institute for Nano Quantum Information Electronics, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo (Japan)
2011-07-15
In order to investigate distributed quantum computation under restricted network resources, we introduce a quantum computation task over the butterfly network where both quantum and classical communications are limited. We consider deterministically performing a two-qubit global unitary operation on two unknown inputs given at different nodes, with outputs at two distinct nodes. By using a particular resource setting introduced by M. Hayashi [Phys. Rev. A 76, 040301(R) (2007)], which is capable of performing a swap operation by adding two maximally entangled qubits (ebits) between the two input nodes, we show that unitary operations can be performed without adding any entanglement resource, if and only if the unitary operations are locally unitary equivalent to controlled unitary operations. Our protocol is optimal in the sense that the unitary operations cannot be implemented if we relax the specifications of any of the channels. We also construct protocols for performing controlled traceless unitary operations with a 1-ebit resource and for performing global Clifford operations with a 2-ebit resource.
Quantum computation over the butterfly network
Akihito Soeda; Yoshiyuki Kinjo; Peter S. Turner; Mio Murao
2011-07-14
In order to investigate distributed quantum computation under restricted network resources, we introduce a quantum computation task over the butterfly network where both quantum and classical communications are limited. We consider deterministically performing a two-qubit global unitary operation on two unknown inputs given at different nodes, with outputs at two distinct nodes. By using a particular resource setting introduced by M. Hayashi [Phys. Rev. A \\textbf{76}, 040301(R) (2007)], which is capable of performing a swap operation by adding two maximally entangled qubits (ebits) between the two input nodes, we show that unitary operations can be performed without adding any entanglement resource, if and only if the unitary operations are locally unitary equivalent to controlled unitary operations. Our protocol is optimal in the sense that the unitary operations cannot be implemented if we relax the specifications of any of the channels. We also construct protocols for performing controlled traceless unitary operations with a 1-ebit resource and for performing global Clifford operations with a 2-ebit resource.