Quantum conductance steps in solutions of multiwalled carbon nanotubes.
Urbina, A; Echeverría, I; Pérez-Garrido, A; Díaz-Sánchez, A; Abellán, J
2003-03-14
We have prepared solutions of multiwalled carbon nanotubes in Aroclor 1254, a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls. The solutions are stable at room temperature. Transport measurements were performed using a scanning-tunneling probe on a sample prepared by spin coating the solution on gold substrates. Conductance steps were clearly seen. A histogram of a high number of traces shows maximum peaks at integer values of the conductance quantum G(0)=2e(2)/h, demonstrating ballistic transport at room temperature along the carbon nanotube over distances longer than 1.4 microm. PMID:12689021
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maniv, E.; Ron, A.; Goldstein, M.; Palevski, A.; Dagan, Y.
2016-07-01
A unique nanolithography technique compatible with conducting oxide interfaces, which requires a single lithographic step with no additional amorphous deposition or etching, is presented. It is demonstrated on a SrTiO3/LaAlO3 interface where a constriction is patterned in the electron liquid. We find that an additional backgating can further confine the electron liquid into an isolated island. Conductance and differential conductance measurements show resonant tunneling through the island. The data at various temperatures and magnetic fields are analyzed and the effective island size is found to be of the order of 10 nm. The magnetic field dependence suggests the absence of spin degeneracy in the island. Our method is suitable for creating superconducting and oxide-interface-based electronic devices.
Fractional quantum conductance in edge channels of silicon quantum wells
Bagraev, Nikolay; Klyachkin, Leonid; Kudryavtsev, Andrey; Malyarenko, Anna
2013-12-04
We present the findings for the fractional quantum conductance of holes that is caused by the edge channels in the silicon nanosandwich prepared within frameworks of the Hall geometry. This nanosandwich represents the ultra-narrow p-type silicon quantum well (Si-QW), 2 nm, confined by the δ-barriers heavily doped with boron on the n-type Si (100) surface. The edge channels in the Si-QW plane are revealed by measuring the longitudinal quantum conductance staircase, G{sub xx}, as a function of the voltage applied to the Hall contacts, V{sub xy}, to a maximum of 4e{sup 2}/h. In addition to the standard plateau, 2e{sup 2}/h, the variations of the V{sub xy} voltage appear to exhibit the fractional form of the quantum conductance staircase with the plateaus and steps that bring into correlation respectively with the odd and even fractions.
Quantum Conductance in Metal Nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ugarte, Daniel
2004-03-01
Quantum Conductance in Metal Nanowires D. Ugarte Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory C.P. 6192, 13084-971 Campinas SP, Brazil. Electrical transport properties of metallic nanowires (NWs) have received great attention due to their quantum conductance behavior. Atomic scale wires can be generated by stretching metal contacts; during the elongation and just before rupture, the NW conductance shows flat plateaus and abrupt jumps of approximately a conductance quantum. In this experiments, both the NW atomic arrangement and conductance change simultaneously, making difficult to discriminate electronic and structural effects. In this work, the atomic structure of NWs was studied by time-resolved in situ experiments in a high resolution transmission electron microscope, while their electrical properties using an UHV mechanically controllable break junction (MCBJ). From the analysis of numerous HRTEM images and videos, we have deduced that metal (Au, Ag, Pt, etc.) junctions generated by tensile deformation are crystalline and free of defects. The neck structure is strongly dependent on the surface properties of the analyzed metal, this was verified by comparing different metal NWs (Au, Ag, Cu), which have similar atomic structure (FCC), but show very different faceting patterns. The correlation between the observed structural and transport properties of NW points out that the quantum conductance behavior is defined by preferred atomic arrangement at the narrowest constriction. In the case of magnetic (ex. Fe,Co,Ni) or quasi-magnetic (ex. Pd) wires, we have observed that one-atom-thick structures show a conductance of half the quantum as expected for a fully spin polarized current. This phenomenon seems to occur spontaneously for magnetic suspended atom-chains in zero magnetic field and at room temperature. These results open new opportunities for spin control in nanostructures. Funded by FAPESP, LNLS and CNPq.
Quantum mechanics and heat conduction
Bajpai, S.D. ); Mishra, S. )
1991-08-01
One of the fundamental problems in quantum mechanics is to find a solution of Schroedinger equation for different forms of potentials. The object of this paper is to obtain a series solution of a particular one-dimensional, time-dependent Schroedinger equation involving Hermite polynomials. The authors also show a relationship of their particular one-dimensional, time-dependent Schroedinger equation with an equation of heat conduction.
Conductivity of Si(111)-(7×7): the role of a single atomic step.
Martins, Bruno V C; Smeu, Manuel; Livadaru, Lucian; Guo, Hong; Wolkow, Robert A
2014-06-20
While it is known that the Si-(7×7) is a conducting surface, measured conductivity values differ by 7 orders of magnitude. Here we report a combined STM and transport method capable of surface conductivity measurement of step-free or single-step containing surface regions and having minimal interaction with the sample, and by which we quantitatively determine the intrinsic conductivity of the Si-(7×7) surface. We found that a single step has a conductivity per unit length about 50 times smaller than the flat surface. Our first principles quantum transport calculations confirm and lend insight into the experimental observation. PMID:24996100
Steps toward fault-tolerant quantum chemistry.
Taube, Andrew Garvin
2010-05-01
Developing quantum chemistry programs on the coming generation of exascale computers will be a difficult task. The programs will need to be fault-tolerant and minimize the use of global operations. This work explores the use a task-based model that uses a data-centric approach to allocate work to different processes as it applies to quantum chemistry. After introducing the key problems that appear when trying to parallelize a complicated quantum chemistry method such as coupled-cluster theory, we discuss the implications of that model as it pertains to the computational kernel of a coupled-cluster program - matrix multiplication. Also, we discuss the extensions that would required to build a full coupled-cluster program using the task-based model. Current programming models for high-performance computing are fault-intolerant and use global operations. Those properties are unsustainable as computers scale to millions of CPUs; instead one must recognize that these systems will be hierarchical in structure, prone to constant faults, and global operations will be infeasible. The FAST-OS HARE project is introducing a scale-free computing model to address these issues. This model is hierarchical and fault-tolerant by design, allows for the clean overlap of computation and communication, reducing the network load, does not require checkpointing, and avoids the complexity of many HPC runtimes. Development of an algorithm within this model requires a change in focus from imperative programming to a data-centric approach. Quantum chemistry (QC) algorithms, in particular electronic structure methods, are an ideal test bed for this computing model. These methods describe the distribution of electrons in a molecule, which determine the properties of the molecule. The computational cost of these methods is high, scaling quartically or higher in the size of the molecule, which is why QC applications are major users of HPC resources. The complexity of these algorithms means that
Surface and Step Conductivities on Si(111) Surfaces.
Just, Sven; Blab, Marcus; Korte, Stefan; Cherepanov, Vasily; Soltner, Helmut; Voigtländer, Bert
2015-08-01
Four-point measurements using a multitip scanning tunneling microscope are carried out in order to determine surface and step conductivities on Si(111) surfaces. In a first step, distance-dependent four-point measurements in the linear configuration are used in combination with an analytical three-layer model for charge transport to disentangle the 2D surface conductivity from nonsurface contributions. A termination of the Si(111) surface with either Bi or H results in the two limiting cases of a pure 2D or 3D conductance, respectively. In order to further disentangle the surface conductivity of the step-free surface from the contribution due to atomic steps, a square four-probe configuration is applied as a function of the rotation angle. In total, this combined approach leads to an atomic step conductivity of σ(step)=(29±9) Ω(-1) m(-1) and to a step-free surface conductivity of σ(surf)=(9±2)×10(-6) Ω(-1)/□ for the Si(111)-(7×7) surface. PMID:26296126
Thermodynamics of trajectories of open quantum systems, step by step
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pigeon, Simon; Xuereb, André
2016-06-01
Thermodynamics of trajectories promises to make possible the thorough analysis of the dynamical properties of an open quantum system, a sought-after goal in modern physics. Unfortunately, calculation of the relevant quantities presents severe challenges. Determining the large-deviation function that gives access to the full counting statistics associated with a dynamical order parameter is challenging, if not impossible, even for systems evolving in a restricted Liouville space. Acting on the realisation that the salient features of most dynamical systems are encoded in the first few moments of the counting statistics, in this article we present a method that gives sequential access to these moments. Our method allows for obtaining analytical result in several cases, as we illustrate, and allows using large deviation theory to reinterpret certain well-known results.
Topologically induced fractional Hall steps in the integer quantum Hall regime of MoS 2.
Islam, S K Firoz; Benjamin, Colin
2016-09-23
The quantum magnetotransport properties of a monolayer of molybdenum disulfide are derived using linear response theory. In particular, the effect of topological terms on longitudinal and Hall conductivity is analyzed. The Hall conductivity exhibits fractional steps in the integer quantum Hall regime. Further complete spin and valley polarization of the longitudinal conductivitity is seen in presence of these topological terms. Finally, the Shubnikov-de Hass oscillations are suppressed or enhanced contingent on the sign of these topological terms. PMID:27533362
Conductance Peaks in Open Quantum Dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramos, J. G. G. S.; Bazeia, D.; Hussein, M. S.; Lewenkopf, C. H.
2011-10-01
We present a simple measure of the conductance fluctuations in open ballistic chaotic quantum dots, extending the number of maxima method originally proposed for the statistical analysis of compound nuclear reactions. The average number of extreme points (maxima and minima) in the dimensionless conductance T as a function of an arbitrary external parameter Z is directly related to the autocorrelation function of T(Z). The parameter Z can be associated with an applied gate voltage causing shape deformation in quantum dot, an external magnetic field, the Fermi energy, etc. The average density of maxima is found to be ⟨ρZ⟩=αZ/Zc, where αZ is a universal constant and Zc is the conductance autocorrelation length, which is system specific. The analysis of ⟨ρZ⟩ does not require large statistic samples, providing a quite amenable way to access information about parametric correlations, such as Zc.
Comparing conductance quantization in quantum wires and quantum Hall systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alekseev, Anton Yu.; Cheianov, Vadim V.; Fröhlich, Jürg
1996-12-01
We suggest a means to calculate the dc conductance of a one-dimensional electron system described by the Luttinger model. Our approach is based on the ideas of Landauer and Büttiker on transport in ballistic channels and on the methods of current algebra. We analyze in detail the way in which the system can be coupled to external reservoirs. This determines whether the conductance is renormalized or not. We provide a parallel treatment of a quantum wire and a fractional quantum Hall system on a cylinder with two widely separated edges. Although both systems are described by the same effective theory, the physical electrons are identified with different types of excitations, and hence the coupling to external reservoirs is different. As a consequence, the conductance in the wire is quantized in integer units of e2/h per spin orientation whereas the Hall conductance allows for fractional quantization.
One Step Quantum Key Distribution Based on EPR Entanglement
Li, Jian; Li, Na; Li, Lei-Lei; Wang, Tao
2016-01-01
A novel quantum key distribution protocol is presented, based on entanglement and dense coding and allowing asymptotically secure key distribution. Considering the storage time limit of quantum bits, a grouping quantum key distribution protocol is proposed, which overcomes the vulnerability of first protocol and improves the maneuverability. Moreover, a security analysis is given and a simple type of eavesdropper’s attack would introduce at least an error rate of 46.875%. Compared with the “Ping-pong” protocol involving two steps, the proposed protocol does not need to store the qubit and only involves one step. PMID:27357865
One Step Quantum Key Distribution Based on EPR Entanglement.
Li, Jian; Li, Na; Li, Lei-Lei; Wang, Tao
2016-01-01
A novel quantum key distribution protocol is presented, based on entanglement and dense coding and allowing asymptotically secure key distribution. Considering the storage time limit of quantum bits, a grouping quantum key distribution protocol is proposed, which overcomes the vulnerability of first protocol and improves the maneuverability. Moreover, a security analysis is given and a simple type of eavesdropper's attack would introduce at least an error rate of 46.875%. Compared with the "Ping-pong" protocol involving two steps, the proposed protocol does not need to store the qubit and only involves one step. PMID:27357865
How to Conduct Surveys: A Step-by-Step Guide. Sixth Edition
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fink, Arlene
2016-01-01
Packed with new topics that reflect today's challenges, the Sixth Edition of the bestselling "How to Conduct Surveys" guides readers through the process of developing their own rigorous surveys and evaluating the credibility and transparency of surveys created by others. Offering practical, step-by-step advice and written in the same…
Step-by-step magic state encoding for efficient fault-tolerant quantum computation
Goto, Hayato
2014-01-01
Quantum error correction allows one to make quantum computers fault-tolerant against unavoidable errors due to decoherence and imperfect physical gate operations. However, the fault-tolerant quantum computation requires impractically large computational resources for useful applications. This is a current major obstacle to the realization of a quantum computer. In particular, magic state distillation, which is a standard approach to universality, consumes the most resources in fault-tolerant quantum computation. For the resource problem, here we propose step-by-step magic state encoding for concatenated quantum codes, where magic states are encoded step by step from the physical level to the logical one. To manage errors during the encoding, we carefully use error detection. Since the sizes of intermediate codes are small, it is expected that the resource overheads will become lower than previous approaches based on the distillation at the logical level. Our simulation results suggest that the resource requirements for a logical magic state will become comparable to those for a single logical controlled-NOT gate. Thus, the present method opens a new possibility for efficient fault-tolerant quantum computation. PMID:25511387
Step-by-step magic state encoding for efficient fault-tolerant quantum computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goto, Hayato
2014-12-01
Quantum error correction allows one to make quantum computers fault-tolerant against unavoidable errors due to decoherence and imperfect physical gate operations. However, the fault-tolerant quantum computation requires impractically large computational resources for useful applications. This is a current major obstacle to the realization of a quantum computer. In particular, magic state distillation, which is a standard approach to universality, consumes the most resources in fault-tolerant quantum computation. For the resource problem, here we propose step-by-step magic state encoding for concatenated quantum codes, where magic states are encoded step by step from the physical level to the logical one. To manage errors during the encoding, we carefully use error detection. Since the sizes of intermediate codes are small, it is expected that the resource overheads will become lower than previous approaches based on the distillation at the logical level. Our simulation results suggest that the resource requirements for a logical magic state will become comparable to those for a single logical controlled-NOT gate. Thus, the present method opens a new possibility for efficient fault-tolerant quantum computation.
Dirac Cellular Automaton from Split-step Quantum Walk
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mallick, Arindam; Chandrashekar, C. M.
2016-05-01
Simulations of one quantum system by an other has an implication in realization of quantum machine that can imitate any quantum system and solve problems that are not accessible to classical computers. One of the approach to engineer quantum simulations is to discretize the space-time degree of freedom in quantum dynamics and define the quantum cellular automata (QCA), a local unitary update rule on a lattice. Different models of QCA are constructed using set of conditions which are not unique and are not always in implementable configuration on any other system. Dirac Cellular Automata (DCA) is one such model constructed for Dirac Hamiltonian (DH) in free quantum field theory. Here, starting from a split-step discrete-time quantum walk (QW) which is uniquely defined for experimental implementation, we recover the DCA along with all the fine oscillations in position space and bridge the missing connection between DH-DCA-QW. We will present the contribution of the parameters resulting in the fine oscillations on the Zitterbewegung frequency and entanglement. The tuneability of the evolution parameters demonstrated in experimental implementation of QW will establish it as an efficient tool to design quantum simulator and approach quantum field theory from principles of quantum information theory.
Dirac Cellular Automaton from Split-step Quantum Walk.
Mallick, Arindam; Chandrashekar, C M
2016-01-01
Simulations of one quantum system by an other has an implication in realization of quantum machine that can imitate any quantum system and solve problems that are not accessible to classical computers. One of the approach to engineer quantum simulations is to discretize the space-time degree of freedom in quantum dynamics and define the quantum cellular automata (QCA), a local unitary update rule on a lattice. Different models of QCA are constructed using set of conditions which are not unique and are not always in implementable configuration on any other system. Dirac Cellular Automata (DCA) is one such model constructed for Dirac Hamiltonian (DH) in free quantum field theory. Here, starting from a split-step discrete-time quantum walk (QW) which is uniquely defined for experimental implementation, we recover the DCA along with all the fine oscillations in position space and bridge the missing connection between DH-DCA-QW. We will present the contribution of the parameters resulting in the fine oscillations on the Zitterbewegung frequency and entanglement. The tuneability of the evolution parameters demonstrated in experimental implementation of QW will establish it as an efficient tool to design quantum simulator and approach quantum field theory from principles of quantum information theory. PMID:27184159
Dirac Cellular Automaton from Split-step Quantum Walk
Mallick, Arindam; Chandrashekar, C. M.
2016-01-01
Simulations of one quantum system by an other has an implication in realization of quantum machine that can imitate any quantum system and solve problems that are not accessible to classical computers. One of the approach to engineer quantum simulations is to discretize the space-time degree of freedom in quantum dynamics and define the quantum cellular automata (QCA), a local unitary update rule on a lattice. Different models of QCA are constructed using set of conditions which are not unique and are not always in implementable configuration on any other system. Dirac Cellular Automata (DCA) is one such model constructed for Dirac Hamiltonian (DH) in free quantum field theory. Here, starting from a split-step discrete-time quantum walk (QW) which is uniquely defined for experimental implementation, we recover the DCA along with all the fine oscillations in position space and bridge the missing connection between DH-DCA-QW. We will present the contribution of the parameters resulting in the fine oscillations on the Zitterbewegung frequency and entanglement. The tuneability of the evolution parameters demonstrated in experimental implementation of QW will establish it as an efficient tool to design quantum simulator and approach quantum field theory from principles of quantum information theory. PMID:27184159
Quantum conductance of carbon nanotube peapods
Yoon, Young-Gui; Mazzoni, Mario S.C.; Louie, Steven G.
2003-08-01
We present a first-principles study of the quantum conductance of hybrid nanotube systems consisting of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) encapsulating either an isolated single C60 molecule or a chain of C60 molecules (nanotube peapods). The calculations show a rather weak bonding interaction between the fullerenes and the SWCNTs. The conductance of a (10,10) SWCNT with a single C60 molecule is virtually unaffected at the Fermi level, but exhibits quantized resonant reductions at the molecular levels. The nanotube peapod arrangement gives rise to high density of states for the fullerene highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital bands.
Quantum conductance of zigzag graphene oxide nanoribbons
Kan, Zhe; Nelson, Christopher; Khatun, Mahfuza
2014-04-21
The electronic properties of zigzag graphene oxide nanoribbons (ZGOR) are presented. The results show interesting behaviors which are considerably different from the properties of the perfect graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). The theoretical methods include a Huckel-tight binding approach, a Green's function methodology, and the Landauer formalism. The presence of oxygen on the edge results in band bending, a noticeable change in density of states and thus the conductance. Consequently, the occupation in the valence bands increase for the next neighboring carbon atom in the unit cell. Conductance drops in both the conduction and valence band regions are due to the reduction of allowed k modes resulting from band bending. The asymmetry of the energy band structure of the ZGOR is due to the energy differences of the atoms. The inclusion of a foreign atom's orbital energies changes the dispersion relation of the eigenvalues in energy space. These novel characteristics are important and valuable in the study of quantum transport of GNRs.
Conductance through an array of quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lobos, A. M.; Aligia, A. A.
2006-10-01
We propose a simple approach to study the conductance through an array of N interacting quantum dots, weakly coupled to metallic leads. Using a mapping to an effective site which describes the low-lying excitations and a slave-boson representation in the saddle-point approximation, we calculated the conductance through the system. Explicit results are presented for N=1 and N=3 : a linear array and an isosceles triangle. For N=1 in the Kondo limit, the results are in very good agreement with previous results obtained with numerical renormalization group. In the case of the linear trimer for odd N , when the parameters are such that electron-hole symmetry is induced, we obtain perfect conductance G0=2e2/h . The validity of the approach is discussed in detail.
Five questions to consider before conducting a stepped wedge trial.
Hargreaves, James R; Copas, Andrew J; Beard, Emma; Osrin, David; Lewis, James J; Davey, Calum; Thompson, Jennifer A; Baio, Gianluca; Fielding, Katherine L; Prost, Audrey
2015-01-01
Researchers should consider five questions before starting a stepped wedge trial. Why are you planning one? Researchers sometimes think that stepped wedge trials are useful when there is little doubt about the benefit of the intervention being tested. However, if the primary reason for an intervention is to measure its effect, without equipoise there is no ethical justification for delaying implementation in some clusters. By contrast, if you are undertaking pragmatic research, where the primary reason for rolling out the intervention is for it to exert its benefits, and if phased implementation is inevitable, a stepped wedge trial is a valid option and provides better evidence than most non-randomized evaluations. What design will you use? Two common stepped wedge designs are based on the recruitment of a closed or open cohort. In both, individuals may experience both control and intervention conditions and you should be concerned about carry-over effects. In a third, continuous-recruitment, short-exposure design, individuals are recruited as they become eligible and experience either control or intervention condition, but not both. How will you conduct the primary analysis? In stepped wedge trials, control of confounding factors through secular variation is essential. 'Vertical' approaches preserve randomization and compare outcomes between randomized groups within periods. 'Horizontal' approaches compare outcomes before and after crossover to the intervention condition. Most analysis models used in practice combine both types of comparison. The appropriate analytic strategy should be considered on a case-by-case basis. How large will your trial be? Standard sample size calculations for cluster randomized trials do not accommodate the specific features of stepped wedge trials. Methods exist for many stepped wedge designs, but simulation-based calculations provide the greatest flexibility. In some scenarios, such as when the intracluster correlation coefficient is
Two-step spin flop transition in quantum spin ladders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakai, Toru; Okamoto, Kiyomi
2008-03-01
It is well known that the antiferromagnet with easy-axis anisotropies exhibits a field-induced first-order phase transition, the so- called spin flop. In one-dimensional quantum spin systems, instead of it, a second-order phase transition occurs because of large quantum fluctuations[1]. Particularly the S=1 antiferromagnetic chain with the easy-axis single-ion anisotropy was revealed to exhibit two successive field-induced second-order transitions by our previous numerical analysis[2]. However, such transitions have not been obseved yet. Recently a two-step spin flop transition was observed in the spin ladder system IPA-CuCl3[3], which has ferromagnetic rung coupling. In order to clarify the mechanism of the two-step field-induced transition, we investigate the anisotropic spin ladder using the numerical diagonalization and the finite-size scaling analysis. As a result, we revealed that two different field-induced second-order quantum phase transitions possibly occur. Several phase diagrams are also presented. In addition we discuss on a possible two-step spin flop in other materials[4] and some frustrated systems. [1] C. N. Yang and C. P. Yang, Phys. Rev. 151 (1966) 258. [2] T. Sakai, Phys. Rev. B 58 (1998) 6268. [3] T. Masuda et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006) 047210. [4] H. Miyasaka et al, Inorg. Chem. 42 (2003) 8203.
Single-step fabrication of quantum funnels via centrifugal colloidal casting of nanoparticle films
Kim, Jin Young; Adinolfi, Valerio; Sutherland, Brandon R.; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Kwon, S. Joon; Kim, Tae Wu; Kim, Jeongho; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Kemp, Kyle; Adachi, Michael; Yuan, Mingjian; Kramer, Illan; Zhitomirsky, David; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H.
2015-01-01
Centrifugal casting of composites and ceramics has been widely employed to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of functional materials. This powerful method has yet to be deployed in the context of nanoparticles—yet size–effect tuning of quantum dots is among their most distinctive and application-relevant features. Here we report the first gradient nanoparticle films to be constructed in a single step. By creating a stable colloid of nanoparticles that are capped with electronic-conduction-compatible ligands we were able to leverage centrifugal casting for thin-films devices. This new method, termed centrifugal colloidal casting, is demonstrated to form films in a bandgap-ordered manner with efficient carrier funnelling towards the lowest energy layer. We constructed the first quantum-gradient photodiode to be formed in a single deposition step and, as a result of the gradient-enhanced electric field, experimentally measured the highest normalized detectivity of any colloidal quantum dot photodetector. PMID:26165185
Single-step fabrication of quantum funnels via centrifugal colloidal casting of nanoparticle films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jin Young; Adinolfi, Valerio; Sutherland, Brandon R.; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Kwon, S. Joon; Kim, Tae Wu; Kim, Jeongho; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Kemp, Kyle; Adachi, Michael; Yuan, Mingjian; Kramer, Illan; Zhitomirsky, David; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H.
2015-07-01
Centrifugal casting of composites and ceramics has been widely employed to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of functional materials. This powerful method has yet to be deployed in the context of nanoparticles--yet size-effect tuning of quantum dots is among their most distinctive and application-relevant features. Here we report the first gradient nanoparticle films to be constructed in a single step. By creating a stable colloid of nanoparticles that are capped with electronic-conduction-compatible ligands we were able to leverage centrifugal casting for thin-films devices. This new method, termed centrifugal colloidal casting, is demonstrated to form films in a bandgap-ordered manner with efficient carrier funnelling towards the lowest energy layer. We constructed the first quantum-gradient photodiode to be formed in a single deposition step and, as a result of the gradient-enhanced electric field, experimentally measured the highest normalized detectivity of any colloidal quantum dot photodetector.
Single-step fabrication of quantum funnels via centrifugal colloidal casting of nanoparticle films.
Kim, Jin Young; Adinolfi, Valerio; Sutherland, Brandon R; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Kwon, S Joon; Kim, Tae Wu; Kim, Jeongho; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Kemp, Kyle; Adachi, Michael; Yuan, Mingjian; Kramer, Illan; Zhitomirsky, David; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H
2015-01-01
Centrifugal casting of composites and ceramics has been widely employed to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of functional materials. This powerful method has yet to be deployed in the context of nanoparticles--yet size-effect tuning of quantum dots is among their most distinctive and application-relevant features. Here we report the first gradient nanoparticle films to be constructed in a single step. By creating a stable colloid of nanoparticles that are capped with electronic-conduction-compatible ligands we were able to leverage centrifugal casting for thin-films devices. This new method, termed centrifugal colloidal casting, is demonstrated to form films in a bandgap-ordered manner with efficient carrier funnelling towards the lowest energy layer. We constructed the first quantum-gradient photodiode to be formed in a single deposition step and, as a result of the gradient-enhanced electric field, experimentally measured the highest normalized detectivity of any colloidal quantum dot photodetector. PMID:26165185
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Micklitz, T.; Levchenko, A.; Rosch, A.
2012-07-01
We calculate the linear and nonlinear conductance of spinless fermions in clean, long quantum wires, where short-ranged interactions lead locally to equilibration. Close to the quantum phase transition, where the conductance jumps from zero to one conductance quantum, the conductance obtains a universal form governed by the ratios of temperature, bias voltage, and gate voltage. Asymptotic analytic results are compared to solutions of a Boltzmann equation which includes the effects of three-particle scattering. Surprisingly, we find that for long wires the voltage predominantly drops close to one end of the quantum wire due to a thermoelectric effect.
Quantum-limited heat conduction over macroscopic distances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Partanen, Matti; Tan, Kuan Yen; Govenius, Joonas; Lake, Russell E.; Mäkelä, Miika K.; Tanttu, Tuomo; Möttönen, Mikko
2016-05-01
The emerging quantum technological apparatuses, such as the quantum computer, call for extreme performance in thermal engineering. Cold distant heat sinks are needed for the quantized electric degrees of freedom owing to the increasing packaging density and heat dissipation. Importantly, quantum mechanics sets a fundamental upper limit for the flow of information and heat, which is quantified by the quantum of thermal conductance. However, the short distance between the heat-exchanging bodies in the previous experiments hinders their applicability in quantum technology. Here, we present experimental observations of quantum-limited heat conduction over macroscopic distances extending to a metre. We achieved this improvement of four orders of magnitude in the distance by utilizing microwave photons travelling in superconducting transmission lines. Thus, it seems that quantum-limited heat conduction has no fundamental distance cutoff. This work establishes the integration of normal-metal components into the framework of circuit quantum electrodynamics, which provides a basis for the superconducting quantum computer. Especially, our results facilitate remote cooling of nanoelectronic devices using faraway in situ-tunable heat sinks. Furthermore, quantum-limited heat conduction is important in contemporary thermodynamics. Here, the long distance may lead to ultimately efficient mesoscopic heat engines with promising practical applications.
Quantum-limited heat conduction over macroscopic distances
Partanen, Matti; Tan, Kuan Yen; Govenius, Joonas; Lake, Russell E.; Mäkelä, Miika K.; Tanttu, Tuomo; Möttönen, Mikko
2016-01-01
The emerging quantum technological apparatuses1, 2, such as the quantum computer3–6, call for extreme performance in thermal engineering7. Cold distant heat sinks are needed for the quantized electric degrees of freedom due to the increasing packaging density and heat dissipation. Importantly, quantum mechanics sets a fundamental upper limit for the flow of information and heat, which is quantified by the quantum of thermal conductance8–10. However, the short distance between the heat-exchanging bodies in the previous experiments11–14 hinders their applicability in quantum technology. Here, we present experimental observations of quantum-limited heat conduction over macroscopic distances extending to a metre. We achieved this improvement of four orders of magnitude in the distance by utilizing microwave photons travelling in superconducting transmission lines. Thus, it seems that quantum-limited heat conduction has no fundamental distance cutoff. This work establishes the integration of normal-metal components into the framework of circuit quantum electrodynamics15–17 which provides a basis for the superconducting quantum computer18–21. Especially, our results facilitate remote cooling of nanoelectronic devices using far-away in-situ-tunable heat sinks22, 23. Furthermore, quantum-limited heat conduction is important in contemporary thermodynamics24, 25. Here, the long distance may lead to ultimately efficient mesoscopic heat engines with promising practical applications26. PMID:27239219
Bioconjugated silicon quantum dots from one-step green synthesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Intartaglia, Romuald; Barchanski, Annette; Bagga, Komal; Genovese, Alessandro; Das, Gobind; Wagener, Philipp; di Fabrizio, Enzo; Diaspro, Alberto; Brandi, Fernando; Barcikowski, Stephan
2012-02-01
Biofunctionalized silicon quantum dots were prepared through a one step strategy avoiding the use of chemical precursors. UV-Vis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and HAADF-STEM prove oligonucleotide conjugation to the surface of silicon nanoparticle with an average size of 4 nm. The nanoparticle size results from the size-quenching effect during in situ conjugation. Photoemissive properties, conjugation efficiency and stability of these pure colloids were studied and demonstrate the bio-application potential, e.g. for nucleic acid vector delivery with semiconducting, biocompatible nanoparticles.Biofunctionalized silicon quantum dots were prepared through a one step strategy avoiding the use of chemical precursors. UV-Vis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and HAADF-STEM prove oligonucleotide conjugation to the surface of silicon nanoparticle with an average size of 4 nm. The nanoparticle size results from the size-quenching effect during in situ conjugation. Photoemissive properties, conjugation efficiency and stability of these pure colloids were studied and demonstrate the bio-application potential, e.g. for nucleic acid vector delivery with semiconducting, biocompatible nanoparticles. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details of sample preparation, sample characterizations. Additional results of UV-vis, HAADF-STEM, Raman spectroscopy of bioconjugated silicon dots and ICP-OES of deionized water used for the synthesis are presented in Fig. S1, S3, S2, and S4 and Table S2, respectively. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr11763k
Quantum Annealing at Google: Recent Learnings and Next Steps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neven, Hartmut
Recently we studied optimization problems with rugged energy landscapes that featured tall and narrow energy barriers separating energy minima. We found that for a crafted problem of this kind, called the weak-strong cluster glass, the D-Wave 2X processor achieves a significant advantage in runtime scaling relative to Simulated Annealing (SA). For instances with 945 variables this results in a time-to-99%-success-probability 109 times shorter than SA running on a single core. When comparing to the Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) algorithm we only observe a pre-factor advantage but the pre-factor is large, about 106 for an implementation on a single core. We should note that we expect QMC to scale like physical quantum annealing only for problems for which the tunneling transitions can be described by a dominant purely imaginary instanton. We expect these findings to carry over to other problems with similar energy landscapes. A class of practical interest are k-th order binary optimization problems. We studied 4-spin problems using numerical methods and found again that simulated quantum annealing has better scaling than SA. This leaves us with a final step to achieve a wall clock speedup of practical relevance. We need to develop an annealing architecture that supports embedding of k-th order binary optimization in a manner that preserves the runtime advantage seen prior to embedding.
Conductance fluctuations in chaotic bilayer graphene quantum dots.
Bao, Rui; Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso
2015-07-01
Previous studies of quantum chaotic scattering established a connection between classical dynamics and quantum transport properties: Integrable or mixed classical dynamics can lead to sharp conductance fluctuations but chaos is capable of smoothing out the conductance variations. Relativistic quantum transport through single-layer graphene systems, for which the quasiparticles are massless Dirac fermions, exhibits, due to scarring, this classical-quantum correspondence, but sharp conductance fluctuations persist to a certain extent even when the classical system is fully chaotic. There is an open issue regarding the effect of finite mass on relativistic quantum transport. To address this issue, we study quantum transport in chaotic bilayer graphene quantum dots for which the quasiparticles have a finite mass. An interesting phenomenon is that, when traveling along the classical ballistic orbit, the quasiparticle tends to hop back and forth between the two layers, exhibiting a Zitterbewegung-like effect. We find signatures of abrupt conductance variations, indicating that the mass has little effect on relativistic quantum transport. In solid-state electronic devices based on Dirac materials, sharp conductance fluctuations are thus expected, regardless of whether the quasiparticle is massless or massive and whether there is chaos in the classical limit. PMID:26274258
Conductance fluctuations in chaotic bilayer graphene quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bao, Rui; Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso
2015-07-01
Previous studies of quantum chaotic scattering established a connection between classical dynamics and quantum transport properties: Integrable or mixed classical dynamics can lead to sharp conductance fluctuations but chaos is capable of smoothing out the conductance variations. Relativistic quantum transport through single-layer graphene systems, for which the quasiparticles are massless Dirac fermions, exhibits, due to scarring, this classical-quantum correspondence, but sharp conductance fluctuations persist to a certain extent even when the classical system is fully chaotic. There is an open issue regarding the effect of finite mass on relativistic quantum transport. To address this issue, we study quantum transport in chaotic bilayer graphene quantum dots for which the quasiparticles have a finite mass. An interesting phenomenon is that, when traveling along the classical ballistic orbit, the quasiparticle tends to hop back and forth between the two layers, exhibiting a Zitterbewegung-like effect. We find signatures of abrupt conductance variations, indicating that the mass has little effect on relativistic quantum transport. In solid-state electronic devices based on Dirac materials, sharp conductance fluctuations are thus expected, regardless of whether the quasiparticle is massless or massive and whether there is chaos in the classical limit.
A variable multi-step method for transient heat conduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smolinski, Patrick
1991-01-01
A variable explicit time integration algorithm is developed for unsteady diffusion problems. The algorithm uses nodal partitioning and allows the nodal groups to be updated with different time steps. The stability of the algorithm is analyzed using energy methods and critical time steps are found in terms of element eigenvalues with no restrictions on element types. Several numerical examples are given to illustrate the accuracy of the method.
Observation of quantum-limited heat conduction over macroscopic distances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mottonen, Mikko; Partanen, Matti; Tan, Kuan Yen; Govenius, Joonas; Lake, Russell; Makela, Miika; Tanttu, Tuomo
The emerging quantum technological devices, such as the quantum computer, call for extreme performance in thermal engineering at the nanoscale. Importantly, quantum mechanics sets a fundamental upper limit for the flow of information and heat, which is quantified by the quantum of thermal conductance. We present experimental observations of quantum-limited heat conduction over macroscopic distances extending to a meter. We achieved this striking improvement of four orders of magnitude in the distance by utilizing microwave photons travelling in superconducting transmission lines. Thus it seems that quantum-limited heat conduction has no fundamental restriction in its distance. This work lays the foundation for the integration of normal-metal components into superconducting transmission lines, and hence provides an important tool for circuit quantum electrodynamics, the basis of the emerging superconducting quantum computer. In particular, our results may lead to remote cooling of nanoelectronic devices with the help of a far-away in-situ-tunable heat sink. European Research Council (ERC) is acknowledged for funding under the Grant No. 278117 (SINGLEOUT).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Xiao-Fang; Wang, Xin-Jun; Chen, Li-Qun; Li, Jian-Bo; Zhou, Wu-Xing; Zhang, Gui; Chen, Ke-Qiu
2014-06-01
We study the ballistic phonon transport and thermal conductance of six low-lying vibration modes in quantum wire modulated with quantum dot at low temperatures. A comparative analysis is made among the six vibrational modes. The results show that the transmission rates of the six vibrational modes relative to reduced frequency display periodic or quasi-periodic oscillatory behavior. Among the four acoustic modes, the thermal conductance contributed by the torsional mode is the smallest, and the thermal conductances of other acoustic modes have adjacent values. It is also found that the thermal conductance of the optical mode increases from zero monotonously. Moreover, the total thermal conductance in concavity-shaped quantum structure is lower than that in convexity-shaped quantum structure. These thermal conductance values can be adjusted by changing the structural parameters of the quantum dot.
Quantum conductance of carbon nanotubes with defects
Chico, L.; Benedict, L.X.; Louie, S.G.; Cohen, M.L. |
1996-07-01
We study the conductance of metallic carbon nanotubes with vacancies and pentagon-heptagon pair defects within the Landauer formalism. Using a tight-binding model and a Green{close_quote}s function technique to calculate the scattering matrix, we examine the one-dimensional to two-dimensional crossover in these systems and show the existence of metallic tube junctions in which the conductance is suppressed for symmetry reasons. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Logan, Kimberly
The curriculum-management audit was developed to provide school districts with a tool for making districtwide improvements. The audit can be used to help districts improve quality control over their instructional programs. This book offers a step-by-step guide to school improvement with a focus on conducting an internal audit. The first four…
Conduction pathways in microtubules, biological quantum computation, and consciousness.
Hameroff, Stuart; Nip, Alex; Porter, Mitchell; Tuszynski, Jack
2002-01-01
Technological computation is entering the quantum realm, focusing attention on biomolecular information processing systems such as proteins, as presaged by the work of Michael Conrad. Protein conformational dynamics and pharmacological evidence suggest that protein conformational states-fundamental information units ('bits') in biological systems-are governed by quantum events, and are thus perhaps akin to quantum bits ('qubits') as utilized in quantum computation. 'Real time' dynamic activities within cells are regulated by the cell cytoskeleton, particularly microtubules (MTs) which are cylindrical lattice polymers of the protein tubulin. Recent evidence shows signaling, communication and conductivity in MTs, and theoretical models have predicted both classical and quantum information processing in MTs. In this paper we show conduction pathways for electron mobility and possible quantum tunneling and superconductivity among aromatic amino acids in tubulins. The pathways within tubulin match helical patterns in the microtubule lattice structure, which lend themselves to topological quantum effects resistant to decoherence. The Penrose-Hameroff 'Orch OR' model of consciousness is reviewed as an example of the possible utility of quantum computation in MTs. PMID:11755497
Electronic Conduction through Atomic Chains, Quantum Well and Quantum Wire
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, A. C.
2011-07-01
Charge transport is dynamically and strongly linked with atomic structure, in nanostructures. We report our ab-initio calculations on electronic transport through atomic chains and the model calculations on electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering rates in presence of random impurity potential in a quantum well and in a quantum wire. We computed synthesis and ballistic transport through; (a) C and Si based atomic chains attached to metallic electrodes, (b) armchair (AC), zigzag (ZZ), mixed, rotated-AC and rotated-ZZ geometries of small molecules made of 2S, 6C & 4H atoms attaching to metallic electrodes, and (c) carbon atomic chain attached to graphene electrodes. Computed results show that synthesis of various atomic chains are practically possible and their transmission coefficients are nonzero for a wide energy range. The ab-initio calculations on electronic transport have been performed with the use of Landauer-type scattering formalism formulated in terms of Grben's functions in combination with ground-state DFT. The electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering rates have been calculated as function of excitation energy both at zero and finite temperatures for disordered 2D and 1D systems. Our model calculations suggest that electron scattering rates in a disordered system are mainly governed by effective dimensionality of a system, carrier concentration and dynamical screening effects.
Conductivity of quantum wires in uniform magnetic fields
Sinyavskii, E. P. Khamidullin, R. A.
2006-11-15
The features of the de conductivity of quantum wires in longitudinal and transverse magnetic fields are studied for degenerate and nondegenerate electron gas. The conductivity is calculated on the basis of the Kubo formalism with regard to the elastic scattering of charge carriers at long-wavelength lattice vibrations. The final theoretical results for the conductivity are compared to the experimental data. The suggested model of quantum wires allows, among other things, an interpretation of the nonmonotonic dependence of the transverse magnetoresistance on the magnetic field.
Four Simple Steps to Conduct an Assessment of Your Practice.
Gurganious, Valora S
2016-01-01
Medical practice management has never been more complex than it is today, with volumes of rapidly changing regulations, increasing cost pressures, and rising quality standards under the Affordable Care Act. These challenges have made it more critical for practices to assess their current position in order to determine how best to move the practice forward. A practice assessment begins with four simple steps: an evaluation of the long-term goals and motivation of the practice's owner; a review of key practice financials and how successfully the practice captures every dollar to which it is rightfully entitled; a measure of provider productivity and strategies to improve it; and an assessment of the talent and morale of the team of professionals at the practice. PMID:27443050
Thermal Conductivity of Quantum Wires with Surface Roughness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hershfield, Selman; Muttalib, Khandker
Quantum wires have been shown to have greatly reduced thermal conductivity compared to bulk systems because of the increased role of surface scattering. The lattice thermal conductance and conductivity is calculated in the harmonic approximation for a long quantum wire placed between two heat baths using the Landauer formula for phonons and a recursive Green function technique to compute the transmission probabilities. The width of the wires is varied in the transverse direction so as to have a root mean square value σ and correlation length L. As observed experimentally, we find that the thermal conductance is decreased with increasing σ and increased as L increases. The full scaling of the thermal conductance as a function of σ, L, the width and the length of the sample is discussed. The simulations are also compared to approximate techniques such as modeling the surfaces as having diffusive scattering.
Ballistic thermal conductance by phonons through superlattice quantum-waveguides
Xie, Zhong-Xiang Zhang, Yong; Yu, Xia; Li, Ke-Min; Chen, Qiao
2014-03-14
Ballistic thermal conductances (BTCs) by phonons through superlattice quantum-waveguides are investigated by using the scattering-matrix method and the elastic continuum theory. A comparison for the cylindrical model (CM) and the rectangular model (RM) is addressed. We find that for these two models, the quantum thermal conductance can be observed even when the superlattices exist in quantum-waveguides. At low temperature, BTCs for the CM and the RM present almost the same behaviors regardless of the periodic length of superlattices. However, at higher temperature, BTCs for the RM are larger than those for the CM stemming from lower cutoff frequencies of high order modes for the RM. We also find that BTCs undergo a noticeable transformation from the monotonic decrease to constant with increasing the periodic number of superlattices. A brief analysis of these results is given.
Multisublevel Magnetoquantum Conductance in Single and Coupled Double Quantum Wires
Lyo, Sungkwun Ken; Huang, Danhong
2001-09-15
We study the ballistic and diffusive magnetoquantum transport using a typical quantum point contact geometry for single and tunnel-coupled double wires that are wide (less than or similar to1 mum) in one perpendicular direction with densely populated sublevels and extremely confined in the other perpendicular (i.e., growth) direction. A general analytic solution to the Boltzmann equation is presented for multisublevel elastic scattering at low temperatures. The solution is employed to study interesting magnetic-field dependent behavior of the conductance such as a large enhancement and quantum oscillations of the conductance for various structures and field orientations. These phenomena originate from the following field-induced properties: magnetic confinement, displacement of the initial- and final-state wave functions for scattering, variation of the Fermi velocities, mass enhancement, depopulation of the sublevels and anticrossing (in double quantum wires). The magnetoconductance is strikingly different in long diffusive (or rough. dirty) wires from the quantized conductance in short ballistic (or clean) wires. Numerical results obtained for the rectangular confinement potentials in the growth direction are satisfactorily interpreted in terms of the analytic solutions based on harmonic confinement potentials. Some of the predicted features of the field-dependent diffusive and quantized conductances are consistent with recent data from GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs double quantum wires.
Quantum conductance of silicon-doped carbon wire nanojunctions
2012-01-01
Unknown quantum electronic conductance across nanojunctions made of silicon-doped carbon wires between carbon leads is investigated. This is done by an appropriate generalization of the phase field matching theory for the multi-scattering processes of electronic excitations at the nanojunction and the use of the tight-binding method. Our calculations of the electronic band structures for carbon, silicon, and diatomic silicon carbide are matched with the available corresponding density functional theory results to optimize the required tight-binding parameters. Silicon and carbon atoms are treated on the same footing by characterizing each with their corresponding orbitals. Several types of nanojunctions are analyzed to sample their behavior under different atomic configurations. We calculate for each nanojunction the individual contributions to the quantum conductance for the propagating σ, Π, and σ∗electron incidents from the carbon leads. The calculated results show a number of remarkable features, which include the influence of the ordered periodic configurations of silicon-carbon pairs and the suppression of quantum conductance due to minimum substitutional disorder and artificially organized symmetry on these nanojunctions. Our results also demonstrate that the phase field matching theory is an efficient tool to treat the quantum conductance of complex molecular nanojunctions. PMID:23130998
Conductance of quantum interference transistors in parallel and in series
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikolić, K.; Nikolić, P.; Šordan, R.
1999-07-01
We theoretically study the electronic conductance G and the current-voltage characteristics of two quantum interference transistors in parallel and in series. We use two different definitions of conductance, G ˜ T and G ˜ T / R. Neither can reproduce the classical additivity law in the case of coherent transport due to quantum interference for the elements in series and quasibound states when elements are in parallel. In the case of two transistors in series, we find that the quantity T / R only qualitatively better represents the additivity law, which is probably expected because this model avoids counting the contact resistance twice. However, for the parallel configuration of transistors, the conductance is almost additive for the majority of energies when G ˜ T, except for the single-mode regime. Possible use of these configurations in digital electronics for basic logic functions is discussed.
Thermal conductivity at a disordered quantum critical point
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartnoll, Sean A.; Ramirez, David M.; Santos, Jorge E.
2016-04-01
Strongly disordered and strongly interacting quantum critical points are difficult to access with conventional field theoretic methods. They are, however, both experimentally important and theoretically interesting. In particular, they are expected to realize universal incoherent transport. Such disordered quantum critical theories have recently been constructed holographically by deforming a CFT by marginally relevant disorder. In this paper we find additional disordered fixed points via relevant disordered deformations of a holographic CFT. Using recently developed methods in holographic transport, we characterize the thermal conductivity in both sets of theories in 1+1 dimensions. The thermal conductivity is found to tend to a constant at low temperatures in one class of fixed points, and to scale as T 0.3 in the other. Furthermore, in all cases the thermal conductivity exhibits discrete scale invariance, with logarithmic in temperature oscillations superimposed on the low temperature scaling behavior. At no point do we use the replica trick.
Derivation of the Drude conductivity from quantum kinetic equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kitamura, Hikaru
2015-11-01
The Drude formula of ac (frequency-dependent) electric conductivity has been established as a simple and practically useful model to understand the electromagnetic response of simple free-electron-like metals. In most textbooks of solid-state physics, the Drude formula is derived from either a classical equation of motion or the semiclassical Boltzmann transport equation. On the other hand, quantum-mechanical derivation of the Drude conductivity, which requires an appropriate treatment of phonon-assisted intraband transitions with small momentum transfer, has not been well documented except for the zero- or high-frequency case. Here, a lucid derivation of the Drude conductivity that covers the entire frequency range is presented by means of quantum kinetic equations in the density-matrix formalism. The derivation is straightforward so that advanced undergraduate students or early-year graduate students will be able to gain insight into the link between the microscopic Schrödinger equation and macroscopic transport.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hwang, Tzonelih; Luo, Yi-Ping; Yang, Chun-Wei; Lin, Tzu-Han
2014-04-01
This work proposes a new direction in quantum cryptography called quantum authencryption. Quantum authencryption (QA), a new term to distinguish from authenticated quantum secure direct communications, is used to describe the technique of combining quantum encryption and quantum authentication into one process for off-line communicants. QA provides a new way of quantum communications without the presence of a receiver on line, and thus makes many applications depending on secure one-way quantum communications, such as quantum E-mail systems, possible. An example protocol using single photons and one-way hash functions is presented to realize the requirements on QA.
Creation of ''Quantum Platelets'' via Strain-Controlled Self-Organization at Steps
Li, Adam; Liu, Feng; Petrovykh, D. Y.; Lin, J.-L.; Viernow, J.; Himpsel, F. J.; Lagally, M. G.
2000-12-18
We demonstrate, by both theory and experiment, the strain-induced self-organized formation of ''quantum platelets,'' monolayer-thick islands of finite dimensions. They form at the early stage of heteroepitaxial growth on a substrate with regularly spaced steps, and align along the steps. In the direction perpendicular to substrate steps, the island position and spacing can be preselected through substrate miscut. Along the steps, the island size and density are controlled by self-organized growth.
Dislocation-induced Charges in Quantum Dots: Step Alignment and Radiative Emission
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leon, R.; Okuno, J.; Lawton, R.; Stevens-Kalceff, M.; Phillips, M.; Zou, J.; Cockayne, D.; Lobo, C.
1999-01-01
A transition between two types of step alignment was observed in a multilayered InGaAs/GaAs quantum-dot (QD) structure. A change to larger QD sizes in smaller concentrations occurred after formation of a dislocation array.
Contactless measurement of alternating current conductance in quantum Hall structures
Drichko, I. L.; Diakonov, A. M.; Malysh, V. A.; Smirnov, I. Yu.; Ilyinskaya, N. D.; Usikova, A. A.; Galperin, Y. M.; Kummer, M.; Känel, H. von
2014-10-21
We report a procedure to determine the frequency-dependent conductance of quantum Hall structures in a broad frequency domain. The procedure is based on the combination of two known probeless methods—acoustic spectroscopy and microwave spectroscopy. By using the acoustic spectroscopy, we study the low-frequency attenuation and phase shift of a surface acoustic wave in a piezoelectric crystal in the vicinity of the electron (hole) layer. The electronic contribution is resolved using its dependence on a transverse magnetic field. At high frequencies, we study the attenuation of an electromagnetic wave in a coplanar waveguide. To quantitatively calibrate these data, we use the fact that in the quantum-Hall-effect regime the conductance at the maxima of its magnetic field dependence is determined by extended states. Therefore, it should be frequency independent in a broad frequency domain. The procedure is verified by studies of a well-characterized p-SiGe/Ge/SiGe heterostructure.
Photo-induced conductance fluctuations in mesoscopic Ge/Si systems with quantum dots
Stepina, N. P.; Dvurechenskii, A. V.; Nikiforov, A. I.; Moers, J.; Gruetzmacher, D.
2014-08-20
We study the evolution of electron transport in strongly localized mesoscopic system with quantum dots under small photon flux. Exploring devices with narrow transport channels lead to the observation of giant fluctuations of the photoconductance, which is attributed to the strong dependence of hopping current on the filling of dots by holes. In our experiments, single-photon mode operation is indicated by the linear dependence of the frequency of photo-induced fluctuations on the light intensity and the step-like response of conductance on the pulse excitation. The effect of the light wavelength, measurement temperature, size of the conductive channel on the device efficiency are considered.
One-step implementation of the 1->3 orbital state quantum cloning machine via quantum Zeno dynamics
Shao Xiaoqiang; Wang Hongfu; Zhang Shou; Chen Li; Zhao Yongfang; Yeon, Kyu-Hwang
2009-12-15
We present an approach for implementation of a 1->3 orbital state quantum cloning machine based on the quantum Zeno dynamics via manipulating three rf superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) qubits to resonantly interact with a superconducting cavity assisted by classical fields. Through appropriate modulation of the coupling constants between rf SQUIDs and classical fields, the quantum cloning machine can be realized within one step. We also discuss the effects of decoherence such as spontaneous emission and the loss of cavity in virtue of master equation. The numerical simulation result reveals that the quantum cloning machine is especially robust against the cavity decay, since all qubits evolve in the decoherence-free subspace with respect to cavity decay due to the quantum Zeno dynamics.
Constraints on conductances for Y-junctions of quantum wires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aristov, D. N.
2011-03-01
We consider the Y-junction, connecting three quantum wires, in the scattering states formalism. In the absence of fermionic interaction we analyze the restrictions on the values of conductance matrix, imposed by the unitarity of scattering S matrix. Using the combination of numerical and analytical results, we describe the four-dimensional body of values of reduced conductance matrix. We show that this body touches the unit sphere at six points only, in accordance with Birkhoff-von Neumann theorem. It implies that the Abelian bosonization analysis for the vanishing interaction strength can be performed only in the vicinity of these six points.
Direct imaging of quantum wires nucleated at diatomic steps
Molina, S. I.; Varela, M.; Sales, D. L.; Ben, T.; Pizarro, J.; Galindo, P. L.; Fuster, D.; Gonzalez, Y.; Gonzalez, L.; Pennycook, S. J.
2007-10-01
Atomic steps at growth surfaces are important heterogeneous sources for nucleation of epitaxial nano-objects. In the presence of misfit strain, we show that the nucleation process takes place preferentially at the upper terrace of the step as a result of the local stress relaxation. Evidence for strain-induced nucleation comes from the direct observation by postgrowth, atomic resolution, Z-contrast imaging of an InAs-rich region in a nanowire located on the upper terrace surface of an interfacial diatomic step.
Lattice thermal conductance of quantum wires with disorder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vyhmeister, Erik; Hershfield, Selman
We model the lattice thermal conductance in long quantum wires connected to two large heat baths at different temperatures in the harmonic approximation. The thermal conductance is computed with the Landauer formula for phonons, where it is related to the sum over all transmission probabilities for phonons through the wire. The net transmission probability is computed using a recursive Green function technique, which allows one to study long wires efficiently. We consider several different kinds of disorder to reduce the lattice thermal conductivity: periodic rectangular holes of varying sizes and shapes, periodic triangular holes, and narrow bands, averaged over randomness to account for variance in manufacturing. Depending on the model, the thermal conductance was reduced by 80 percent or more from the perfectly ordered wire case. Funded by NSF grant DMR-1461019.
Growth of Quantum Wires on Step-Bunched Substrate
Liu, Feng
2005-02-01
This proposal initiates a combined theoretical and experimental multidisciplinary research effort to explore a novel approach for growing metallic and magnetic nanowires on step-bunched semiconductor and dielectric substrates, and to lay the groundwork for understanding the growth mechanisms and the electronic, electrical, and magnetic properties of metallic and magnetic nanowires. The research will focus on four topics: (1) fundamental studies of step bunching and self-organization in a strained thin film for creating step-bunched substrates. (2) Interaction between metal adatoms (Al,Cu, and Ni) and semiconductor (Si and SiGe) and dielectric (CaF2) surface steps. (3) growth and characterization of metallic and magnetic nanowires on step-bunched templates. (4) fabrication of superlattices of nanowires by growing multilayer films. We propose to attack these problems at both a microscopic and macroscopic level, using state-of-the-art theoretical and experimental techniques. Multiscale (electronic-atomic-continuum) theories will be applied to investigate growth mechanisms of nanowires: mesoscopic modeling and simulation of step flow growth of strained thin films, in particular, step bunching and self-organization will be carried out within the framework of continuum linear elastic theory; atomistic calculation of interaction between metal adatoms and semiconductor and dielectric surface steps will be done by large-scale computations using first-principles total-energy methods. In parallel, thin films and nanowires will be grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and the resultant structure and morphology will be characterized at the atomic level up to micrometer range, using a combination of different surface/interface probes, including scanning tunneling microscopy (STM, atomic resolution), atomic force microscopy (AFM, nanometer resolution), low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM, micrometer resolution), reflectance high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), and x
Mid-infrared Photoconductive Response in AlGaN/GaN Step Quantum Wells
Rong, X.; Wang, X. Q.; Chen, G.; Zheng, X. T.; Wang, P.; Xu, F. J.; Qin, Z. X.; Tang, N.; Chen, Y. H.; Sang, L. W.; Sumiya, M.; Ge, W. K.; Shen, B.
2015-01-01
AlGaN/GaN quantum structure is an excellent candidate for high speed infrared detectors based on intersubband transitions. However, fabrication of AlGaN/GaN quantum well infrared detectors suffers from polarization-induced internal electric field, which greatly limits the carrier vertical transport. In this article, a step quantum well is proposed to attempt solving this problem, in which a novel spacer barrier layer is used to balance the internal electric field. As a result, a nearly flat band potential profile is obtained in the step barrier layers of the AlGaN/GaN step quantum wells and a bound-to-quasi-continuum (B-to-QC) type intersubband prototype device with detectable photocurrent at atmosphere window (3–5 μm) is achieved in such nitride semiconductors. PMID:26395756
Mid-infrared Photoconductive Response in AlGaN/GaN Step Quantum Wells.
Rong, X; Wang, X Q; Chen, G; Zheng, X T; Wang, P; Xu, F J; Qin, Z X; Tang, N; Chen, Y H; Sang, L W; Sumiya, M; Ge, W K; Shen, B
2015-01-01
AlGaN/GaN quantum structure is an excellent candidate for high speed infrared detectors based on intersubband transitions. However, fabrication of AlGaN/GaN quantum well infrared detectors suffers from polarization-induced internal electric field, which greatly limits the carrier vertical transport. In this article, a step quantum well is proposed to attempt solving this problem, in which a novel spacer barrier layer is used to balance the internal electric field. As a result, a nearly flat band potential profile is obtained in the step barrier layers of the AlGaN/GaN step quantum wells and a bound-to-quasi-continuum (B-to-QC) type intersubband prototype device with detectable photocurrent at atmosphere window (3-5 μm) is achieved in such nitride semiconductors. PMID:26395756
Negative Differential Conductivity in an Interacting Quantum Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Labouvie, Ralf; Santra, Bodhaditya; Heun, Simon; Wimberger, Sandro; Ott, Herwig
2015-07-01
We report on the observation of negative differential conductivity (NDC) in a quantum transport device for neutral atoms employing a multimode tunneling junction. The system is realized with a Bose-Einstein condensate loaded in a one-dimensional optical lattice with high site occupancy. We induce an initial difference in chemical potential at one site by local atom removal. The ensuing transport dynamics are governed by the interplay between the tunneling coupling, the interaction energy, and intrinsic collisions, which turn the coherent coupling into a hopping process. The resulting current-voltage characteristics exhibit NDC, for which we identify atom number-dependent tunneling as a new microscopic mechanism. Our study opens new ways for the future implementation and control of complex neutral atom quantum circuits.
Negative Differential Conductivity in an Interacting Quantum Gas.
Labouvie, Ralf; Santra, Bodhaditya; Heun, Simon; Wimberger, Sandro; Ott, Herwig
2015-07-31
We report on the observation of negative differential conductivity (NDC) in a quantum transport device for neutral atoms employing a multimode tunneling junction. The system is realized with a Bose-Einstein condensate loaded in a one-dimensional optical lattice with high site occupancy. We induce an initial difference in chemical potential at one site by local atom removal. The ensuing transport dynamics are governed by the interplay between the tunneling coupling, the interaction energy, and intrinsic collisions, which turn the coherent coupling into a hopping process. The resulting current-voltage characteristics exhibit NDC, for which we identify atom number-dependent tunneling as a new microscopic mechanism. Our study opens new ways for the future implementation and control of complex neutral atom quantum circuits. PMID:26274404
DNA-sensors based on functionalized conducting polymers and quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kjällman, Tanja; Peng, Hui; Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka; Soeller, Christian
2007-12-01
The availability of rapid and specific biosensors is of great importance for many areas of biomedical research and modern biotechnology. This includes a need for DNA sensors where the progress of molecular biology demands routine detection of minute concentrations of specific gene fragments. A promising alternative approach to traditional DNA essays utilizes novel smart materials, including conducting polymers and nanostructured materials such as quantum dots. We have constructed a number of DNA sensors based on smart materials that allow rapid one-step detection of unlabeled DNA fragments with high specificity. These sensors are based on functionalized conducting polymers derived from polypyrrole (PPy) and poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV). PPy based sensors provide intrinsic electrical readout via cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The performance of these sensors is compared to a novel self-assembled monolayer-PNA construct on a gold electrode. Characterization of the novel PNA based sensor shows that it has comparable performance to the PPy based sensors and can also be read out effectively using AC cyclic voltammetry. Complementary to such solid substrate sensors we have developed a novel optical DNA essay based on a new PPV derived cationic conducting polymer. DNA detection in this essay results from sample dependent fluorescence resonance energy transfer changes between the cationic conducting polymer and Cy3 labeled probe oligonucleotides. As an alternative to such fluorochrome based sensors we discuss the use of inorganic nanocrystals ('quantum dots') and present data from water soluble CdTe quantum dots synthesized in an aqueous environment.
Negative Differential Conductivity in an Interacting Quantum Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santra, Bodhaditya; Labouvie, Ralf; Heun, Simon; Wimberger, Sandro; Ott, Herwig
2015-05-01
Negative differential conductivity (NDC) is a widely exploited mechanism in many areas of research dealing with particle and energy transport. We experimentally realize such a many body quantum transport system based on ultracold atoms in a periodic potential. We prepare our system by loading Bose condensed rubidium atoms in a 1D optical lattice with high atom occupancy per lattice site. Subsequently, we remove all the atoms from a central lattice site. While the atoms from neighboring sites tunnel into the empty site, we observe NDC in the resulting current voltage characteristics and investigate the microscopic mechanism behind it.
Experimental Observation of Quantum Confinement in the Conduction Band of CdSe Quantum Dots
Lee, Jonathan R. I.; Meulenberg, Robert W.; Klepeis, John E.; Terminello, Louis J.; Buuren, Tony van; Hanif, Khalid M.; Mattoussi, Hedi
2007-04-06
X-ray absorption spectroscopy has been used to characterize the evolution in the conduction band (CB) density of states of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) as a function of particle size. We have unambiguously witnessed the CdSe QD CB minimum (CBM) shift to higher energy with decreasing particle size, consistent with quantum confinement effects, and have directly compared our results with recent theoretical calculations. At the smallest particle size, evidence for a pinning of the CBM is presented. Our observations can be explained by considering a size-dependent change in the angular-momentum-resolved states at the CBM.
Modeling of graphene nanoscroll conductance with quantum capacitance effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khaledian, Mohsen; Ismail, Razali
2015-12-01
Graphene nanoscrolls (GNSs) as a new category of quasi one dimensional belong to the carbon-based nanomaterials, which have recently captivated the attention of researchers. The latest discoveries of exceptional structural and electronic properties of GNSs like, high mobility, controllable band gap and tunable core size has become a new stimuli for nanotechnology researchers. Fundamental descriptions about structure and electronic properties of GNSs have been investigated in order to apply them in nanoelectronic applications like nanotransistors and nanosensors as a new semiconducting material. By utilizing a novel approach, the analytical conductance model (G) of GNSs with the effect of Hall quantum is derived. This letter introduces a geometrydependent model to analyze the conductance of GNSs. The conductance modeling of GNS in parabolic part of the band structure which displays minimum conductance near the charge neutrality point is calculated. Subsequently, the effect of temperature and physical parameters on GNS conductivity is studied. This study emphasized that the GNS is a promising candidate for new generation of nanoelectronic devices.
Error correction in short time steps during the application of quantum gates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Castro, L. A.; Napolitano, R. d. J.
2016-04-01
We propose a modification of the standard quantum error-correction method to enable the correction of errors that occur due to the interaction with a noisy environment during quantum gates without modifying the codification used for memory qubits. Using a perturbation treatment of the noise that allows us to separate it from the ideal evolution of the quantum gate, we demonstrate that in certain cases it is necessary to divide the logical operation in short time steps intercalated by correction procedures. A prescription of how these gates can be constructed is provided, as well as a proof that, even for the cases when the division of the quantum gate in short time steps is not necessary, this method may be advantageous for reducing the total duration of the computation.
Experimental Observation of Quantum Confinement in the Conduction Band of CdSe Quantum Dots
Lee, J I; Meulenberg, R W; Hanif, K M; Mattoussi, H; Klepeis, J E; Terminello, L J; van Buuren, T
2006-12-15
Recent theoretical descriptions as to the magnitude of effect that quantum confinement has on he conduction band (CB) of CdSe quantum dots (QD) have been conflicting. In this manuscript, we experimentally identify quantum confinement effects in the CB of CdSe QDs for the first time. Using X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we have unambiguously witnessed the CB minimum shift to higher energy with decreasing particle size and have been able to compare these results to recent theories. Our experiments have been able to identify which theories correctly describe the CB states in CdSe QDs. In particular, our experiments suggest that multiple theories describe the shifts in the CB of CdSe QDs and are not mutually exclusive.
Quantum Conductance in Silicon Oxide Resistive Memory Devices
Mehonic, A.; Vrajitoarea, A.; Cueff, S.; Hudziak, S.; Howe, H.; Labbé, C.; Rizk, R.; Pepper, M.; Kenyon, A. J.
2013-01-01
Resistive switching offers a promising route to universal electronic memory, potentially replacing current technologies that are approaching their fundamental limits. In many cases switching originates from the reversible formation and dissolution of nanometre-scale conductive filaments, which constrain the motion of electrons, leading to the quantisation of device conductance into multiples of the fundamental unit of conductance, G0. Such quantum effects appear when the constriction diameter approaches the Fermi wavelength of the electron in the medium – typically several nanometres. Here we find that the conductance of silicon-rich silica (SiOx) resistive switches is quantised in half-integer multiples of G0. In contrast to other resistive switching systems this quantisation is intrinsic to SiOx, and is not due to drift of metallic ions. Half-integer quantisation is explained in terms of the filament structure and formation mechanism, which allows us to distinguish between systems that exhibit integer and half-integer quantisation. PMID:24048282
Quantum resonance catastrophe for conductance through a periodically driven barrier
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thuberg, Daniel; Reyes, Sebastián A.; Eggert, Sebastian
2016-05-01
We consider the quantum conductance in a tight-binding chain with a locally applied potential which is oscillating in time. The steady state for such a driven impurity can be calculated exactly for any energy and applied potential using the Floquet formalism. The resulting transmission has a nontrivial, nonmonotonic behavior depending on incoming momentum, driving frequency, and the strength of the applied periodic potential. Hence there is an abundance of tuning possibilities, which allows finding the resonances of total reflection for any choice of incoming momentum and periodic potential. Remarkably, this implies that even for an arbitrarily small infinitesimal impurity potential it is always possible to find a resonance frequency at which there is a catastrophic breakdown of the transmission T =0 . The points of zero transmission are closely related to the phenomenon of Fano resonances at dynamically created bound states in the continuum. The results are relevant for a variety of one-dimensional systems where local AC driving is possible, such as quantum nanodot arrays, ultracold gases in optical lattices, photonic crystals, or molecular electronics.
Enhanced conductance through side-coupled double quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Žitko, R.; Bonča, J.
2006-01-01
Conductance, on-site, and intersite charge fluctuations and spin correlations in the system of two side-coupled quantum dots are calculated using Wilson’s numerical renormalization group (NRG) technique. We also show the spectral density calculated using the density-matrix NRG, which for some parameter ranges remedies inconsistencies of the conventional approach. By changing the gate voltage and the interdot tunneling rate, the system can be tuned to a nonconducting spin-singlet state, the usual Kondo regime with an odd number of electrons occupying the dots, the two-stage Kondo regime with two electrons, or a valence-fluctuating state associated with a Fano resonance. Analytical expressions for the width of the Kondo regime and the Kondo temperature are given. We also study the effect of unequal gate voltages and the stability of the two-stage Kondo effect with respect to such perturbations.
Russo, Paola; Liang, Robert; Jabari, Elahe; Marzbanrad, Ehsan; Toyserkani, Ehsan; Zhou, Y Norman
2016-04-21
In the last few years, graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have attracted the attention of many research groups for their outstanding properties, which include low toxicity, chemical stability and photoluminescence. One of the challenges of GQD synthesis is finding a single-step, cheap and sustainable approach for synthesizing these promising nanomaterials. In this study, we demonstrate that femtosecond laser ablation of graphene oxide (GO) dispersions could be employed as a facile and environmentally friendly synthesis method for GQDs. With the proper control of laser ablation parameters, such as ablation time and laser power, it is possible to produce GQDs with average sizes of 2-5 nm, emitting a blue luminescence at 410 nm. We tested the feasibility of the synthesized GQDs as materials for electronic devices by aerosol-jet printing of an ink that is a mixture of water dispersion of laser synthesized GQDs and silver nanoparticle dispersion, which resulted in lower resistivity of the final printed patterns. Preliminary results showed that femtosecond laser synthesized GQDs can be mixed with silver nanoparticle dispersion to fabricate a hybrid material, which can be employed in printing electronic devices by either printing patterns that are more conductive and/or reducing costs of the ink by decreasing the concentration of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in the ink. PMID:27071944
XANES: observation of quantum confinement in the conduction band of colloidal PbS quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demchenko, I. N.; Chernyshova, M.; He, X.; Minikayev, R.; Syryanyy, Y.; Derkachova, A.; Derkachov, G.; Stolte, W. C.; Piskorska-Hommel, E.; Reszka, A.; Liang, H.
2013-04-01
The presented investigations aimed at development of inexpensive method for synthesized materials suitable for utilization of solar energy. This important issue was addressed by focusing, mainly, on electronic local structure studies with supporting x-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of colloidal galena nano-particles (NPs) and quantum dots (QDs) synthesized using wet chemistry under microwave irradiation. Performed x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis revealed an evidence of quantum confinement for the sample with QDs, where the bottom of the conduction band was shifted to higher energy. The QDs were found to be passivated with oxides at the surface. Existence of sulfate/sulfite and thiosulfate species in pure PbS and QDs, respectively, was identified.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Mei-Feng; Chen, Yong-Fa; Ma, Song-She
2016-04-01
Based on the quantum Zeno dynamics, a scheme is presented to implement a Toffoli gate of three separated superconducting qubits (SQs) by one step. Three separated SQs are connected by two resonators. The scheme is insensitive to the resonator decay because the Zeno subspace does not include the state of the resonators being excited. Numerical simulations indicate that the scheme is robust to the fluctuation of the parameters and the Toffoli gate can be implemented with high fidelity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Russo, Paola; Liang, Robert; Jabari, Elahe; Marzbanrad, Ehsan; Toyserkani, Ehsan; Zhou, Y. Norman
2016-04-01
In the last few years, graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have attracted the attention of many research groups for their outstanding properties, which include low toxicity, chemical stability and photoluminescence. One of the challenges of GQD synthesis is finding a single-step, cheap and sustainable approach for synthesizing these promising nanomaterials. In this study, we demonstrate that femtosecond laser ablation of graphene oxide (GO) dispersions could be employed as a facile and environmentally friendly synthesis method for GQDs. With the proper control of laser ablation parameters, such as ablation time and laser power, it is possible to produce GQDs with average sizes of 2-5 nm, emitting a blue luminescence at 410 nm. We tested the feasibility of the synthesized GQDs as materials for electronic devices by aerosol-jet printing of an ink that is a mixture of water dispersion of laser synthesized GQDs and silver nanoparticle dispersion, which resulted in lower resistivity of the final printed patterns. Preliminary results showed that femtosecond laser synthesized GQDs can be mixed with silver nanoparticle dispersion to fabricate a hybrid material, which can be employed in printing electronic devices by either printing patterns that are more conductive and/or reducing costs of the ink by decreasing the concentration of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in the ink.In the last few years, graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have attracted the attention of many research groups for their outstanding properties, which include low toxicity, chemical stability and photoluminescence. One of the challenges of GQD synthesis is finding a single-step, cheap and sustainable approach for synthesizing these promising nanomaterials. In this study, we demonstrate that femtosecond laser ablation of graphene oxide (GO) dispersions could be employed as a facile and environmentally friendly synthesis method for GQDs. With the proper control of laser ablation parameters, such as ablation time and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodríguez-Cantó, Pedro J.; Martínez-Marco, Mariluz; Abargues, Rafael; Latorre-Garrido, Victor; Martínez-Pastor, Juan P.
2013-03-01
In this work, we present a novel patternable conducting nanocomposite containing gold nanoparticles. Here, the in-situ polymerization of 3T is carried out using HAuCl4 as oxidizing agent inside PMMA as host matrix. During the bake step, the gold salt is also reduced from Au(III) to Au(0) generating Au nanoparticles in the interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) system. We found that this novel multifunctional resist shows electrical conductivity and plasmonic properties as well as potential patterning capability provided by the host matrix. The resulting nanocomposite has been investigated by TEM and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Electrical characterization was also conducted for different concentration of 3T and Au(III) following a characteristic percolation behaviour. Conductivities values from 10-5 to 10 S/cm were successfully obtained depending on the IPN formulation. Moreover, The Au nanoparticles generated exhibited a localized surface plasmon resonance at around 520 nm. This synthetic approach is of potential application to modify the conductivity of numerous insulating polymers and synthesize Au nanoparticles preserving to some extent their physical and chemical properties. In addition, combination of optical properties (Plasmonics), electrical, and lithographic capability in the same material allows for the design of materials with novel functionalities and provides the basis for next generation devices.
Control of valley dynamics in silicon quantum dots in the presence of an interface step
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boross, Péter; Széchenyi, Gábor; Culcer, Dimitrie; Pályi, András
2016-07-01
Recent experiments on silicon nanostructures have seen breakthroughs toward scalable, long-lived quantum information processing. The valley degree of freedom plays a fundamental role in these devices, and the two lowest-energy electronic states of a silicon quantum dot can form a valley qubit. In this paper, we show that a single-atom high step at the silicon/barrier interface induces a strong interaction of the qubit and in-plane electric fields and that the strength of this interaction can be controlled by varying the relative position of the electron and the step. We analyze the consequences of this enhanced interaction on the dynamics of the qubit. The charge densities of the qubit states are deformed differently by the interface step, allowing nondemolition qubit readout via valley-to-charge conversion. A gate-induced in-plane electric field together with the interface step enables fast control of the valley qubit via electrically driven valley resonance. We calculate single- and two-qubit gate times, as well as relaxation and dephasing times, and present predictions for the parameter range where the gate times can be much shorter than the relaxation time and dephasing is reduced.
Lyo, S.K.
1999-01-04
We show that the low-temperature conductance (G) of a quantum point contact consisting of ballistic tunnel-coupled double-layer quantum well wires is modulated by an in-layer magnetic field B{sub {parallel}} perpendicular to the wires due to the anticrossing. In a system with a small g factor, B{sub {parallel}} creates a V-shaped quantum staircase for G, causing it to decrease in steps of 2e{sup 2}/{Dirac_h} to a minimum and then increase to a maximum value, where G may saturate or decrease again at higher B{sub {parallel}}'s. The effect of B{sub {parallel}}-induced mass enhancement and spin splitting is studied. The relevance of the results to recent data is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burnett, Christopher; Tolley, Robert; Silvidi, Antony; Eid, Khalid
2011-10-01
We demonstrate clear quantized conductance steps in mechanical break junctions (MBJ) based on a gold wire, a springy-steel bending beam, a micrometer, a 1.5V battery , and a Teflon disc that we rotate manually. The voltage across the wire is measured using a NI-DAQ assistant unit and a simple LabVIEW program. As the wire is stretched, its resistance (i.e. voltage across it) increases gradually then follows a stair-case- like shape, which is a hallmark of quantized conductance, with steps at values of 25.8 kφ/2n, where n is an integer. The resistance jumps are clearer and more distinct for smaller n and become closer for larger n, which is a demonstration of the Correspondence Principle. The quantization occurs when the wire is thin enough that its diameter is comparable to the de Broglie wave length of the current-carrying electrons and is a direct consequence of confinement. This experiment is designed for sophomore/junior level undergraduate labs.
Suppressed Conductance From Spin Selection Rules in F-CNT-F Quantum Dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartman, Nikolaus; Morgan-Wall, Tyler; Markovic, Nina
Conductance through a quantum dot can be suppressed due to spin selection rules governing the hoping of an additional electron onto an already-occupied quantum dot. Measurements of this effect in a carbon nanotube quantum dot with ferromagnetic contacts will be presented. Suppressed conductance peaks are observed in the Coulomb diamond plots at zero field and explained using spin selection rules. The pattern of suppressed peaks is observed to change with applied magnetic field as the spin ground state of the occupied quantum dot changes. This work was supported by NSF DMR-1106167.
Huang, Liang; Yang, Rui; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Ferry, David K
2013-02-27
Quantum interference causes a wavefunction to have sensitive spatial dependence, and this has a significant effect on quantum transport. For example, in a quantum-dot system, the conductance can depend on the lead positions. We investigate, for graphene quantum dots, the conductance variations with the lead positions. Since for graphene the types of boundaries, e.g., zigzag and armchair, can fundamentally affect the quantum transport characteristics, we focus on rectangular graphene quantum dots, for which the effects of boundaries can be systematically studied. For both zigzag and armchair horizontal boundaries, we find that changing the positions of the leads can induce significant conductance variations. Depending on the Fermi energy, the variations can be either regular oscillations or random conductance fluctuations. We develop a physical theory to elucidate the origin of the conductance oscillation/fluctuation patterns. In particular, quantum interference leads to standing-wave-like-patterns in the quantum dot which, in the absence of leads, are regulated by the energy-band structure of the corresponding vertical graphene ribbon. The observed 'coexistence' of regular oscillations and random fluctuations in the conductance can be exploited for the development of graphene-based nanodevices. PMID:23343960
Quantum transport with long-range steps on Watts-Strogatz networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yan; Xu, Xin-Jian
2016-07-01
We study transport dynamics of quantum systems with long-range steps on the Watts-Strogatz network (WSN) which is generated by rewiring links of the regular ring. First, we probe physical systems modeled by the discrete nonlinear schrödinger (DNLS) equation. Using the localized initial condition, we compute the time-averaged occupation probability of the initial site, which is related to the nonlinearity, the long-range steps and rewiring links. Self-trapping transitions occur at large (small) nonlinear parameters for coupling ɛ=-1 (1), as long-range interactions are intensified. The structure disorder induced by random rewiring, however, has dual effects for ɛ=-1 and inhibits the self-trapping behavior for ɛ=1. Second, we investigate continuous-time quantum walks (CTQW) on the regular ring ruled by the discrete linear schrödinger (DLS) equation. It is found that only the presence of the long-range steps does not affect the efficiency of the coherent exciton transport, while only the allowance of random rewiring enhances the partial localization. If both factors are considered simultaneously, localization is greatly strengthened, and the transport becomes worse.
High-performance surface-normal modulators based on stepped quantum wells (Invited Paper)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohseni, H.; Chan, W. K.; An, H.; Ulmer, A.; Capewell, D.
2005-05-01
We present high-performance surface-normal modulators based on unique properties of stepped quantum wells (SQWs) around the eye-safe wavelength of 1550 nm. Fabricated devices show nearly two times better efficiency and 7 dB higher extinction ratio compared with the conventional devices with rectangular and coupled-quantum well active layers. Moreover, the optical bandwidth is about 70 nm at a 3dB modulation depth, which is more than five times wider than the optical bandwidth of the conventional devices. Such a wide optical bandwidth eliminates the need for a temperature controller. This is a critical advantage for many applications such as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and dynamic optical tags (DOTs), where limited volume, power, and weight can be allocated to the modulator system.
Highly efficient hyperentanglement concentration with two steps assisted by quantum swap gates.
Ren, Bao-Cang; Long, Gui Lu
2015-01-01
We present a two-step hyperentanglement concentration protocol (hyper-ECP) for polarization-spatial hyperentangled Bell states based on the high-capacity character of hyperentanglement resorting to the swap gates, which is used to obtain maximally hyperentangled states from partially hyperentangled pure states in long-distance quantum communication. The swap gate, which is constructed with the giant optical circular birefringence (GOCB) of a diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center embedded in a photonic crystal cavity, can be used to transfer the information in one degree of freedom (DOF) between photon systems. By transferring the useful information between hyperentangled photon pairs, more photon pairs in maximally hyperentangled state can be obtained in our hyper-ECP, and the success probability of the hyper-ECP is greatly improved. Moreover, we show that the high-fidelity quantum gate operations can be achieved by mapping the infidelities to heralded losses even in the weak coupling regime. PMID:26552898
Highly efficient hyperentanglement concentration with two steps assisted by quantum swap gates
Ren, Bao-Cang; Long, Gui Lu
2015-01-01
We present a two-step hyperentanglement concentration protocol (hyper-ECP) for polarization-spatial hyperentangled Bell states based on the high-capacity character of hyperentanglement resorting to the swap gates, which is used to obtain maximally hyperentangled states from partially hyperentangled pure states in long-distance quantum communication. The swap gate, which is constructed with the giant optical circular birefringence (GOCB) of a diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center embedded in a photonic crystal cavity, can be used to transfer the information in one degree of freedom (DOF) between photon systems. By transferring the useful information between hyperentangled photon pairs, more photon pairs in maximally hyperentangled state can be obtained in our hyper-ECP, and the success probability of the hyper-ECP is greatly improved. Moreover, we show that the high-fidelity quantum gate operations can be achieved by mapping the infidelities to heralded losses even in the weak coupling regime. PMID:26552898
Quantized steps and topological nature of universal conductance fluctuation in Bi2Te2Se
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Fengqi
Here we report the experimental observation of universal conductance fluctuations (UCF) in Bi2Te2Se. Four aspects were addressed to support the UCF's topological nature of the electronic state. i) The irregular fluctuations are repeatable in different temperature and reversal magnetic fields. ii) All the UCF features coincide after the field is normalized to the perpendicular direction. This points to a two-dimensional electronic state. iii) A parallel field is applied to suppress the bulk coherent paths, while the UCF features stays similar. This excludes a quasi-2D bulk state. iv). The intrinsic UCF magnitude is extracted, which is close to the predicted values of a topological surface state. v). Quantized steps of the UCF magnitudes are observed when the magnetic field is modulated. (Sci.Rep. 2012, 2,595; Appl. Phys. Expre. 2014,7,065202; arxiv 2015)
Dynamical conductivity at the dirty superconductor-metal quantum phase transition.
Del Maestro, Adrian; Rosenow, Bernd; Hoyos, José A; Vojta, Thomas
2010-10-01
We study the transport properties of ultrathin disordered nanowires in the neighborhood of the superconductor-metal quantum phase transition. To this end we combine numerical calculations with analytical strong-disorder renormalization group results. The quantum critical conductivity at zero temperature diverges logarithmically as a function of frequency. In the metallic phase, it obeys activated scaling associated with an infinite-randomness quantum critical point. We extend the scaling theory to higher dimensions and discuss implications for experiments. PMID:21230844
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Jiayi; He, Junhui
2012-05-01
We report a new approach for the fabrication of flexible and transparent conducting thin films via the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of oppositely charged reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and the benign step-by-step post-treatment on substrates with a low glass-transition temperature, such as glass and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). The RGO dispersions and films were characterized by means of atomic force microscopy, UV-visible absorption spectrophotometery, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, contact angle/interface systems and a four-point probe. It was found that the graphene thin films exhibited a significant increase in electrical conductivity after the step-by-step post-treatments. The graphene thin film on the PET substrate had a good conductivity retainability after multiple cycles (30 cycles) of excessively bending (bending angle: 180°), while tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films on PET showed a significant decrease in electrical conductivity. In addition, the graphene thin film had a smooth surface with tunable wettability.We report a new approach for the fabrication of flexible and transparent conducting thin films via the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of oppositely charged reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and the benign step-by-step post-treatment on substrates with a low glass-transition temperature, such as glass and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). The RGO dispersions and films were characterized by means of atomic force microscopy, UV-visible absorption spectrophotometery, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, contact angle/interface systems and a four-point probe. It was found that the graphene thin films exhibited a significant increase in electrical conductivity after the step-by-step post-treatments. The graphene thin film on the PET substrate had a good conductivity retainability after multiple cycles (30 cycles) of excessively bending (bending angle: 180°), while tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films on
Transparent conducting films of CdSe(ZnS) core(shell) quantum dot xerogels.
Korala, Lasantha; Li, Li; Brock, Stephanie L
2012-09-01
A method of fabricating sol-gel quantum dot (QD) films is demonstrated, and their optical, structural and electrical properties are evaluated. The CdSe(ZnS) xerogel films remain quantum confined, yet are highly conductive (10(-3) S cm(-1)). This approach provides a pathway for the exploitation of QD gels in optoelectronic applications. PMID:22801641
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eaves, L.
The breakdown of the dissipationless state of the quantum Hall effect at high currents sometimes occurs as a series of regular steps in the dissipative voltage drop measured along the Hall bar. The steps were first seen clearly in two of the Hall bars used to maintain the US Resistance Standard, but have also been reported in other devices. This paper describes a model to account for the origin of the steps. It is proposed that the dissipationless flow of the quantum Hall fluid is unstable at high flow rates due to inter-Landau level tunnelling processes in local microscopic regions of the Hall bar. Electron-hole pairs are generated in the quantum Hall fluid in these regions and the electronic motion can be envisaged as a quantum analogue of the von Karman vortex street which forms when a classical fluid flows past an obstacle.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gustin, C.; Faniel, S.; Hackens, B.; Melinte, S.; Shayegan, M.; Bayot, V.
2003-12-01
We report on conductance fluctuations of ballistic quantum dots in a strictly parallel magnetic field B. The quantum dots are patterned in two-dimensional electron gases (2DEG’s), confined to 15- and 45-nm-thick GaAs quantum wells (QW) with one and two occupied subbands at B=0, respectively. For both dots we observe universal conductance fluctuations (UCF’s) and, in the case of the wide QW dot, a reduction in their amplitude at large B. Our data suggest that the finite thickness of the 2DEG and the orbital effect are responsible for the parallel B-induced UCF’s.
Observation of conductance doubling in an Andreev quantum point contact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kjaergaard, M.; Nichele, F.; Suominen, H.; Nowak, M.; Wimmer, M.; Akhmerov, A.; Folk, J.; Flensberg, K.; Shabani, J.; Palmstrom, C.; Marcus, C.
One route to study the non-Abelian nature of excitations in topological superconductors is to realise gateable two dimensional (2D) semiconducting systems, with spin-orbit coupling in proximity to an s-wave superconductor. Previous work on coupling 2D electron gases (2DEG) with superconductors has been hindered by a non-ideal interface and unstable gateability. We report measurements on a gateable 2DEG coupled to superconductors through a pristine interface, and use aluminum grown in situ epitaxially on an InGaAs/InAs electron gas. We demonstrate quantization in units of 4e2 / h in a quantum point contact (QPC) in such hybrid systems. Operating the QPC as a tunnel probe, we observe a hard superconducting gap, overcoming the soft-gap problem in 2D superconductor/semiconductor systems. Our work paves way for a new and highly scalable system in which to pursue topological quantum information processing. Research supported by Microsoft Project Q and the Danish National Research Foundation.
Enhanced conductance fluctuation by quantum confinement effect in graphene nanoribbons.
Xu, Guangyu; Torres, Carlos M; Song, Emil B; Tang, Jianshi; Bai, Jingwei; Duan, Xiangfeng; Zhang, Yuegang; Wang, Kang L
2010-11-10
Conductance fluctuation is usually unavoidable in graphene nanoribbons (GNR) due to the presence of disorder along its edges. By measuring the low-frequency noise in GNR devices, we find that the conductance fluctuation is strongly correlated with the density-of-states of GNR. In single-layer GNR, the gate-dependence of noise shows peaks whose positions quantitatively match the subband positions in the band structures of GNR. This correlation provides a robust mechanism to electrically probe the band structure of GNR, especially when the subband structures are smeared out in conductance measurement. PMID:20939609
Single-step synthesis of sulfonated polyoxadiazoles and their use as proton conducting membranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomes, Dominique; Roeder, Jerusa; Ponce, Mariela L.; Nunes, Suzana P.
A single-step approach for the synthesis of sulfonated polyoxadiazoles from hydrazine sulfate was developed using non-sulfonated diacids in polyphosphoric acid. The post-sulfonation conditions were optimized by varying reaction time, medium and reagent concentrations in sulfuric acid, oleum and/or their mixtures. For the first time, a series of sulfonated polyoxadiazoles with ion exchange capacity (IEC) ranging from 1.26 to 2.7 meqiv. g -1 and high molecular weight (about 40,0000 g mol -1) were synthesized. The structures of the polymers were characterized by elemental analysis, 1H NMR, and FTIR. Sulfonated polyoxadiazole membranes with high thermal stability indicated by observed glass-transition temperatures (T g) ranging from 364 to 442 °C in sodium salt form and from 304 to 333 °C in acid form and with high mechanical properties (storage modulus about 3 GPa at 300 °C) have been prepared. The membrane stability to oxidation was investigated by soaking the film in Fenton's reagent at 80 °C for 1 h. The sulfonated polyoxadiazole membranes exhibited high oxidative stability, retaining 98-100% of their weight after the test. Proton conductivity values with the order of magnitude of 10 -1 to 10 -2 S cm -1 at 80 °C and with relative humidity ranging from 100% to 20% were obtained.
Unexpected edge conduction in mercury telluride quantum wells under broken time-reversal symmetry
Ma, Eric Yue; Calvo, M. Reyes; Wang, Jing; Lian, Biao; Mühlbauer, Mathias; Brüne, Christoph; Cui, Yong-Tao; Lai, Keji; Kundhikanjana, Worasom; Yang, Yongliang; Baenninger, Matthias; König, Markus; Ames, Christopher; Buhmann, Hartmut; Leubner, Philipp; Molenkamp, Laurens W.; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Goldhaber-Gordon, David; Kelly, Michael A.; Shen, Zhi-Xun
2015-01-01
The realization of quantum spin Hall effect in HgTe quantum wells is considered a milestone in the discovery of topological insulators. Quantum spin Hall states are predicted to allow current flow at the edges of an insulating bulk, as demonstrated in various experiments. A key prediction yet to be experimentally verified is the breakdown of the edge conduction under broken time-reversal symmetry. Here we first establish a systematic framework for the magnetic field dependence of electrostatically gated quantum spin Hall devices. We then study edge conduction of an inverted quantum well device under broken time-reversal symmetry using microwave impedance microscopy, and compare our findings to a non-inverted device. At zero magnetic field, only the inverted device shows clear edge conduction in its local conductivity profile, consistent with theory. Surprisingly, the edge conduction persists up to 9 T with little change. This indicates physics beyond simple quantum spin Hall model, including material-specific properties and possibly many-body effects. PMID:26006728
Unexpected edge conduction in mercury telluride quantum wells under broken time-reversal symmetry
Ma, Eric Yue; Calvo, M. Reyes; Wang, Jing; Lian, Biao; Muhlbauer, Mathias; Brune, Christoph; Cui, Yong -Tao; Lai, Keji; Kundhikanjana, Worasom; Yang, Yongliang; et al
2015-05-26
The realization of quantum spin Hall effect in HgTe quantum wells is considered a milestone in the discovery of topological insulators. Quantum spin Hall states are predicted to allow current flow at the edges of an insulating bulk, as demonstrated in various experiments. A key prediction yet to be experimentally verified is the breakdown of the edge conduction under broken time-reversal symmetry. Here we first establish a systematic framework for the magnetic field dependence of electrostatically gated quantum spin Hall devices. We then study edge conduction of an inverted quantum well device under broken time-reversal symmetry using microwave impedance microscopy,more » and compare our findings to a non-inverted device. At zero magnetic field, only the inverted device shows clear edge conduction in its local conductivity profile, consistent with theory. Surprisingly, the edge conduction persists up to 9 T with little change. Finally, this indicates physics beyond simple quantum spin Hall model, including material-specific properties and possibly many-body effects.« less
Unexpected edge conduction in mercury telluride quantum wells under broken time-reversal symmetry
Ma, Eric Yue; Calvo, M. Reyes; Wang, Jing; Lian, Biao; Muhlbauer, Mathias; Brune, Christoph; Cui, Yong -Tao; Lai, Keji; Kundhikanjana, Worasom; Yang, Yongliang; Baenninger, Matthias; Konig, Markus; Ames, Christopher; Buhmann, Hartmut; Leubner, Philipp; Molenkamp, Laurens W.; Zhang, Shou -Cheng; Goldhaber-Gordon, David; Kelly, Michael A.; Shen, Zhi -Xun
2015-05-26
The realization of quantum spin Hall effect in HgTe quantum wells is considered a milestone in the discovery of topological insulators. Quantum spin Hall states are predicted to allow current flow at the edges of an insulating bulk, as demonstrated in various experiments. A key prediction yet to be experimentally verified is the breakdown of the edge conduction under broken time-reversal symmetry. Here we first establish a systematic framework for the magnetic field dependence of electrostatically gated quantum spin Hall devices. We then study edge conduction of an inverted quantum well device under broken time-reversal symmetry using microwave impedance microscopy, and compare our findings to a non-inverted device. At zero magnetic field, only the inverted device shows clear edge conduction in its local conductivity profile, consistent with theory. Surprisingly, the edge conduction persists up to 9 T with little change. Finally, this indicates physics beyond simple quantum spin Hall model, including material-specific properties and possibly many-body effects.
Unexpected edge conduction in mercury telluride quantum wells under broken time-reversal symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Eric Yue; Calvo, M. Reyes; Wang, Jing; Lian, Biao; Mühlbauer, Mathias; Brüne, Christoph; Cui, Yong-Tao; Lai, Keji; Kundhikanjana, Worasom; Yang, Yongliang; Baenninger, Matthias; König, Markus; Ames, Christopher; Buhmann, Hartmut; Leubner, Philipp; Molenkamp, Laurens W.; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Goldhaber-Gordon, David; Kelly, Michael A.; Shen, Zhi-Xun
2015-05-01
The realization of quantum spin Hall effect in HgTe quantum wells is considered a milestone in the discovery of topological insulators. Quantum spin Hall states are predicted to allow current flow at the edges of an insulating bulk, as demonstrated in various experiments. A key prediction yet to be experimentally verified is the breakdown of the edge conduction under broken time-reversal symmetry. Here we first establish a systematic framework for the magnetic field dependence of electrostatically gated quantum spin Hall devices. We then study edge conduction of an inverted quantum well device under broken time-reversal symmetry using microwave impedance microscopy, and compare our findings to a non-inverted device. At zero magnetic field, only the inverted device shows clear edge conduction in its local conductivity profile, consistent with theory. Surprisingly, the edge conduction persists up to 9 T with little change. This indicates physics beyond simple quantum spin Hall model, including material-specific properties and possibly many-body effects.
Investigating Student Understanding of Quantum Physics: Spontaneous Models of Conductivity.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wittmann, Michael C.; Steinberg, Richard N.; Redish, Edward F.
2002-01-01
Investigates student reasoning about models of conduction. Reports that students often are unable to account for the existence of free electrons in a conductor and create models that lead to incorrect predictions and responses contradictory to expert descriptions of the physics involved. (Contains 36 references.) (Author/YDS)
Single step, bulk synthesis of engineered MoS2 quantum dots for multifunctional electrocatalysis.
Tadi, Kiran Kumar; Palve, Anil M; Pal, Shubhadeep; Sudeep, P M; Narayanan, Tharangattu N
2016-07-01
Bi- or tri- functional catalysts based on atomic layers are receiving tremendous scientific attention due to their importance in various energy technologies. Recent studies on molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) nanosheets revealed that controlling the edge states and doping/modifying with suitable elements are highly important in tuning the catalytic activities of MoS2. Here we report a bulk, single step method to synthesize metal modified MoS2 quantum dots (QDs). Three elements, namely Fe, Mg and Li, are chosen to study the effects of dopants in the catalytic activities of MoS2. Fe and Mg are found to act like dopants in the MoS2 lattice forming respective doped MoS2 QDs, while Li formed an intercalated MoS2 QD. The efficacy and tunability of these luminescent doped QDs towards various electrocatalytic activities (hydrogen evolution reaction, oxygen evolution reaction and oxygen reduction action) are reported here. PMID:27231837
Single step, bulk synthesis of engineered MoS2 quantum dots for multifunctional electrocatalysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tadi, Kiran Kumar; Palve, Anil M.; Pal, Shubhadeep; Sudeep, P. M.; Narayanan, Tharangattu N.
2016-07-01
Bi- or tri- functional catalysts based on atomic layers are receiving tremendous scientific attention due to their importance in various energy technologies. Recent studies on molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) nanosheets revealed that controlling the edge states and doping/modifying with suitable elements are highly important in tuning the catalytic activities of MoS2. Here we report a bulk, single step method to synthesize metal modified MoS2 quantum dots (QDs). Three elements, namely Fe, Mg and Li, are chosen to study the effects of dopants in the catalytic activities of MoS2. Fe and Mg are found to act like dopants in the MoS2 lattice forming respective doped MoS2 QDs, while Li formed an intercalated MoS2 QD. The efficacy and tunability of these luminescent doped QDs towards various electrocatalytic activities (hydrogen evolution reaction, oxygen evolution reaction and oxygen reduction action) are reported here.
One-step synthesis of size-controlled CZTS quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arora, Leena; Singh, Vidya Nand; Partheepan, G.; Senguttuvan, T. D.; Jain, Kiran
2015-02-01
Size-controlled CZTS quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized and its application as a potential electron accepting material for polymer-based hybrid solar cell is demonstrated. The CZTS QDs with a size of 2-10 nm were synthesized in a single step by the decomposition of metal dithiocarbamate and characterized by various techniques; like, SEM, TEM, FTIR, XRD, etc. Results reveal that the CZTS QDs synthesized in oleic acid can quench the luminescence of P3HT effectively. Due to the favourable ionization potential and electron affinity values for CZTS with respect to P3HT, the CZTS QDs act as an effective electron acceptor in the hybrid solar cells based on P3HT/CZTS-QD blends which is also revealed by the charge transfer characteristics of P3HT/CZTS blend.
Quantum dynamics via Planck-scale-stepped action-carrying 'Graph Paths'
Chew, Geoffrey F.
2003-05-05
A divergence-free, parameter-free, path-based discrete-time quantum dynamics is designed to not only enlarge the achievements of general relativity and the standard particle model, by approximations at spacetime scales far above Planck scale while far below Hubble scale, but to allow tackling of hitherto inaccessible questions. ''Path space'' is larger than and precursor to Hilbert-space basis. The wave-function-propagating paths are action-carrying structured graphs-cubic and quartic structured vertices connected by structured ''fermionic'' or ''bosonic'' ''particle'' and ''nonparticle'' arcs. A Planck-scale path step determines the gravitational constant while controlling all graph structure. The basis of the theory's (zero-rest-mass) elementary-particle Hilbert space (which includes neither gravitons nor scalar bosons) resides in particle arcs. Nonparticle arcs within a path are responsible for energy and rest mass.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Figarova, S. R.; Hasiyeva, G. N.; Figarov, V. R.
2016-04-01
The effect of phonon scattering on electrical conductivity (EC) of 2D electron gas in quantum well (QW) systems with a complicated potential profile is described. Dependence of QW electrical conductivity on QW parameters (such as QW width, Fermi level positions etc.) when phonon scattering is employed has been calculated. NDC in EC when it varies with width of the QW has been found.
Biswal, Mandakini; Deshpande, Aparna; Kelkar, Sarika; Ogale, Satishchandra
2014-03-01
A conducting carbon cloth, which has an interesting turbostratic microstructure and functional groups that are distinctly different from other ordered forms of carbon, such as graphite, graphene, and carbon nanotubes, was synthesized by a simple one-step pyrolysis of cellulose fabric. This turbostratic disorder and surface chemical functionalities had interesting consequences for water splitting and hydrogen generation when such a cloth was used as an electrode in the alkaline electrolysis process. Importantly, this work also gives a new twist to carbon-assisted electrolysis. During electrolysis, the active sites in the carbon cloth allow slow oxidation of its surface to transform the surface groups from COH to COOH and so forth at a voltage as low as 0.2 V in a two-electrode system, along with platinum as the cathode, instead of 1.23 V (plus overpotential), which is required for platinum, steel, or even graphite anodes. The quantity of subthreshold hydrogen evolved was 24 mL cm(-2) h(-1) at 1 V. Interestingly, at a superthreshold potential (>1.23 V+overpotential), another remarkable phenomenon was found. At such voltages, along with the high rate and quantity of hydrogen evolution, rapid exfoliation of the tiny nanoscale (5-7 nm) units of carbon quantum dots (CQDs) are found in copious amounts due to an enhanced oxidation rate. These CQDs show bright-blue fluorescence under UV light. PMID:24492961
Conducting High Cycle Fatigue Strength Step Tests on Gamma TiAl
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lerch, Brad; Draper, Sue; Pereira, J. Mike
2002-01-01
High cycle fatigue strength testing of gamma TiAl by the step test method is investigated. A design of experiments was implemented to determine if the coaxing effect occurred during testing. Since coaxing was not observed, step testing was deemed a suitable method to define the fatigue strength at 106 cycles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Xuefen; Li, Shuping; Kang, Junyong
2016-09-01
Ultraviolet AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diodes (LDs) with step-graded quantum barriers (QBs) instead of conventional first and last QBs close to waveguide layers are proposed. The characteristics of this type of laser diodes are numerically investigated by using the software PICS3D and it is found that the performances of these LDs are greatly improved. The results indicates that the structure with step-graded QBs exhibits higher output light power, slope efficiency and emission intensity, as well as lower series resistance and threshold current density under the identical condition, compared with conventional LD structure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gustin, C.; Faniel, S.; Hackens, B.; De Poortere, E. P.; Shayegan, M.; Bayot, V.
2003-04-01
We investigate the transport properties of semiconductor ballistic cavities subject to a parallel magnetic field. Universal conductance fluctuations are observed on two GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well samples with one and two occupied carrier subbands, respectively. Large differences between the two open quantum dots in both the amplitude and frequency distribution of these fluctuations are analyzed in terms of electron orbital motion and magnetic subband depopulation.
Dynamical conductivity at the dirty superconductor-metal quantum phase transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoyos, J. A.; Del Maestro, Adrian; Rosenow, Bernd; Vojta, Thomas
2011-03-01
We study the transport properties of ultrathin disordered nanowires in the neighborhood of the superconductor-metal quantum phase transition. To this end we combine numerical calculations with analytical strong-disorder renormalization group results. The quantum critical conductivity at zero temperature diverges logarithmically as a function of frequency. In the metallic phase, it obeys activated scaling associated with an infinite-randomness quantum critical point. We extend the scaling theory to higher dimensions and discuss implications for experiments. Financial support: Fapesp, CNPq, NSF, and Research Corporation.
Exact conductance through point contacts in the {nu}=1/3 fractional quantum Hall Effect
Fendley, P.; Ludwig, A.W.W.; Saleur, H. |
1995-04-10
The conductance for tunneling through an impurity in a Luttinger liquid is described by a universal scaling function. We compute this scaling function exactly, by using the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz and a kinetic (Boltzmann) equation. This model has been proposed to describe resonant tunneling through a point contact between two {nu}=1/3 quantum Hall edges. Recent experiments on quantum Hall devices agree well with our exact results. We also derive the exact conductance and {ital I}({ital V}) curve, out of equilibrium, in this fully interacting system.
Dholabhai, Pratik P; Aguiar, Jeffery A; Misra, Amit; Uberuaga, Blas P
2014-05-21
Due to reduced dimensions and increased interfacial content, nanocomposite oxides offer improved functionalities in a wide variety of advanced technological applications, including their potential use as radiation tolerant materials. To better understand the role of interface structures in influencing the radiation damage tolerance of oxides, we have conducted atomistic calculations to elucidate the behavior of radiation-induced point defects (vacancies and interstitials) at interface steps in a model CeO2/SrTiO3 system. We find that atomic-scale steps at the interface have substantial influence on the defect behavior, which ultimately dictate the material performance in hostile irradiation environments. Distinctive steps react dissimilarly to cation and anion defects, effectively becoming biased sinks for different types of defects. Steps also attract cation interstitials, leaving behind an excess of immobile vacancies. Further, defects introduce significant structural and chemical distortions primarily at the steps. These two factors are plausible origins for the enhanced amorphization at steps seen in our recent experiments. The present work indicates that comprehensive examination of the interaction of radiation-induced point defects with the atomic-scale topology and defect structure of heterointerfaces is essential to evaluate the radiation tolerance of nanocomposites. Finally, our results have implications for other applications, such as fast ion conduction. PMID:24852551
Quantum Hall conductance of graphene combined with charge-trap memory operation.
Kang, Haeyong; Yun, Yoojoo; Park, Jeongmin; Kim, Joonggyu; Truong, Thuy Kieu; Kim, Jeong-Gyun; Park, Nahee; Yun, Hoyeol; Lee, Sang Wook; Lee, Young Hee; Suh, Dongseok
2015-08-28
The combination of quantum Hall conductance and charge-trap memory operation was qualitatively examined using a graphene field-effect transistor. The characteristics of two terminal quantum Hall conductance appeared clearly on the background of a huge conductance hysteresis during a gate-voltage sweep for a device using monolayer graphene as a channel,hexagonal boron-nitride flakes as a tunneling dielectric and defective silicon oxide as the charge storage node. Even though there was a giant shift of the charge neutrality point, the deviation of quantized resistance value at the state of filling factor 2 was less than 1.6% from half of the von Klitzing constant. At high Landau level indices, the behaviors of quantum conductance oscillation between the increasing and the decreasing electron densities were identical in spite ofa huge memory window exceeding 100 V. Our results indicate that the two physical phenomena, two-terminal quantum Hall conductance and charge-trap memory operation, can be integrated into one device without affecting each other. PMID:26242388
Tripathi, Madhvendra Nath
2014-04-24
The paper examines the effect of spatial confinement of acoustic phonons on average group velocity and consequently the lattice thermal conductivity of a free-standing PbTe quantum well structure and their temperature dependence. The average group velocity at 100 Å decreases 30% to the bulk value and falls more rapidly on reducing the width of quantum well. Moreover, the lattice thermal conductivity of 100 Å wide PbTe quantum well with value of 0.60 W/mK shows considerable decrease of 70% compared to it’s bulk value. It is observed that the effect of reduction in well width is less pronounce as temperature increases. This appears mainly due to dominance of umklapp processes over the confinement effects.
One-step instant synthesis of protein-conjugated quantum dots at room temperature.
He, Xuewen; Gao, Li; Ma, Nan
2013-01-01
We present a new general facile strategy for the preparation of protein-functionalized QDs in a single step at ambient conditions. We demonstrated that highly luminescent red to near-infrared (NIR) protein-functionalized QDs could be synthesized at room temperature in one second through a one-pot reaction that proceeds in aqueous solution. Herein protein-functionalized QDs were successfully constructed for a variety of proteins with a wide range of molecular weights and isoelectric points. The as-prepared protein-conjugated QDs exhibited high quantum yield, high photostabiliy and colloidal stability, and high functionalization efficiency. Importantly, the proteins attached to the QDs maintain their biological activities and are capable of catalyzing reactions and biotargeting. In particular, the as-prepared transferrin-QDs could be used to label cancer cells with high specificity. Moreover, we demonstrated that this synthetic strategy could be extended to prepare QDs functionalized with folic acids and peptides, which were also successfully applied to cancer cell imaging. PMID:24084780
Conductance oscillations in quantum point contacts of InAs/GaSb heterostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papaj, Michał; Cywiński, Łukasz; Wróbel, Jerzy; Dietl, Tomasz
2016-05-01
We study quantum point contacts in two-dimensional topological insulators by means of quantum transport simulations for InAs/GaSb heterostructures and HgTe/(Hg,Cd)Te quantum wells. In InAs/GaSb, the density of edge states shows an oscillatory decay as a function of the distance to the edge. This is in contrast to the behavior of the edge states in HgTe quantum wells, which decay into the bulk in a simple exponential manner. The difference between the two materials is brought about by spatial separation of electrons and holes in InAs/GaSb, which affects the magnitudes of the parameters describing the particle-hole asymmetry and the strength of intersubband coupling within the Bernevig-Hughes-Zhang model. We show that the character of the wave-function decay impacts directly the dependence of the point contact conductance on the constriction width and the Fermi energy, which can be verified experimentally and serves to accurately determine the values of the relevant parameters. In the case of InAs/GaSb heterostructures, the conductance magnitude oscillates as a function of the constriction width following the oscillations of the edge state penetration, whereas in HgTe/(Hg,Cd)Te quantum wells a single switching from transmitting to reflecting contact is predicted.
Universal conductivity in a two-dimensional superfluid-to-insulator quantum critical system.
Chen, Kun; Liu, Longxiang; Deng, Youjin; Pollet, Lode; Prokof'ev, Nikolay
2014-01-24
We compute the universal conductivity of the (2+1)-dimensional XY universality class, which is realized for a superfluid-to-Mott insulator quantum phase transition at constant density. Based on large-scale Monte Carlo simulations of the classical (2+1)-dimensional J-current model and the two-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model, we can precisely determine the conductivity on the quantum critical plateau, σ(∞) = 0.359(4)σQ with σQ the conductivity quantum. The universal conductivity curve is the standard example with the lowest number of components where the bottoms-up AdS/CFT correspondence from string theory can be tested and made to use [R. C. Myers, S. Sachdev, and A. Singh, Phys. Rev. D 83, 066017 (2011)]. For the first time, the shape of the σ(iω(n)) - σ(∞) function in the Matsubara representation is accurate enough for a conclusive comparison and establishes the particlelike nature of charge transport. We find that the holographic gauge-gravity duality theory for transport properties can be made compatible with the data if temperature of the horizon of the black brane is different from the temperature of the conformal field theory. The requirements for measuring the universal conductivity in a cold gas experiment are also determined by our calculation. PMID:24484123
Quantum-critical conductivity scaling for a metal-insulator transition
Lee; Carini; Baxter; Henderson; Gruner
2000-01-28
Temperature (T)- and frequency (omega)-dependent conductivity measurements are reported here in amorphous niobium-silicon alloys with compositions (x) near the zero-temperature metal-insulator transition. There is a one-to-one correspondence between the frequency- and temperature-dependent conductivity on both sides of the critical concentration, thus establishing the quantum-critical nature of the transition. The analysis of the conductivity leads to a universal scaling function and establishes the critical exponents. This scaling can be described by an x-, T-, and omega-dependent characteristic length, the form of which is derived by experiment. PMID:10649993
2012-01-01
The nanoscale electrical properties of individual self-assembled GeSi quantum rings (QRs) were studied by scanning probe microscopy-based techniques. The surface potential distributions of individual GeSi QRs are obtained by scanning Kelvin microscopy (SKM). Ring-shaped work function distributions are observed, presenting that the QRs' rim has a larger work function than the QRs' central hole. By combining the SKM results with those obtained by conductive atomic force microscopy and scanning capacitance microscopy, the correlations between the surface potential, conductance, and carrier density distributions are revealed, and a possible interpretation for the QRs' conductance distributions is suggested. PMID:23194252
Loukriz, Abdelhamid; Haddadi, Mourad; Messalti, Sabir
2016-05-01
Improvement of the efficiency of photovoltaic system based on new maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms is the most promising solution due to its low cost and its easy implementation without equipment updating. Many MPPT methods with fixed step size have been developed. However, when atmospheric conditions change rapidly , the performance of conventional algorithms is reduced. In this paper, a new variable step size Incremental Conductance IC MPPT algorithm has been proposed. Modeling and simulation of different operational conditions of conventional Incremental Conductance IC and proposed methods are presented. The proposed method was developed and tested successfully on a photovoltaic system based on Flyback converter and control circuit using dsPIC30F4011. Both, simulation and experimental design are provided in several aspects. A comparative study between the proposed variable step size and ﬁxed step size IC MPPT method under similar operating conditions is presented. The obtained results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed MPPT algorithm in terms of speed in MPP tracking and accuracy. PMID:26337741
Mapping out spin and particle conductances in a quantum point contact
Krinner, Sebastian; Lebrat, Martin; Husmann, Dominik; Grenier, Charles; Brantut, Jean-Philippe; Esslinger, Tilman
2016-01-01
We study particle and spin transport in a single-mode quantum point contact, using a charge neutral, quantum degenerate Fermi gas with tunable, attractive interactions. This yields the spin and particle conductance of the point contact as a function of chemical potential or confinement. The measurements cover a regime from weak attraction, where quantized conductance is observed, to the resonantly interacting superfluid. Spin conductance exhibits a broad maximum when varying the chemical potential at moderate interactions, which signals the emergence of Cooper pairing. In contrast, the particle conductance is unexpectedly enhanced even before the gas is expected to turn into a superfluid, continuously rising from the plateau at 1/h for weak interactions to plateau-like features at nonuniversal values as high as 4/h for intermediate interactions. For strong interactions, the particle conductance plateaus disappear and the spin conductance gets suppressed, confirming the spin-insulating character of a superfluid. Our observations document the breakdown of universal conductance quantization as many-body correlations appear. The observed anomalous quantization challenges a Fermi liquid description of the normal phase, shedding new light on the nature of the strongly attractive Fermi gas. PMID:27357668
Mapping out spin and particle conductances in a quantum point contact.
Krinner, Sebastian; Lebrat, Martin; Husmann, Dominik; Grenier, Charles; Brantut, Jean-Philippe; Esslinger, Tilman
2016-07-19
We study particle and spin transport in a single-mode quantum point contact, using a charge neutral, quantum degenerate Fermi gas with tunable, attractive interactions. This yields the spin and particle conductance of the point contact as a function of chemical potential or confinement. The measurements cover a regime from weak attraction, where quantized conductance is observed, to the resonantly interacting superfluid. Spin conductance exhibits a broad maximum when varying the chemical potential at moderate interactions, which signals the emergence of Cooper pairing. In contrast, the particle conductance is unexpectedly enhanced even before the gas is expected to turn into a superfluid, continuously rising from the plateau at [Formula: see text] for weak interactions to plateau-like features at nonuniversal values as high as [Formula: see text] for intermediate interactions. For strong interactions, the particle conductance plateaus disappear and the spin conductance gets suppressed, confirming the spin-insulating character of a superfluid. Our observations document the breakdown of universal conductance quantization as many-body correlations appear. The observed anomalous quantization challenges a Fermi liquid description of the normal phase, shedding new light on the nature of the strongly attractive Fermi gas. PMID:27357668
Photoreflectance spectroscopy of step-like GaInNAs/GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kudrawiec, R.; Andrzejewski, J.; Misiewicz, J.; Gollub, D.; Forchel, A.
2005-05-01
Photoreflectance (PR) spectroscopy has been applied to study of step-like GaInNAs/GaInNAs/GaAs double quantum well (DQW) structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy. PR features related to optical transitions in the active part of the step-like QW structure, i.e. GaInNAs/GaInNAs QW, as well as PR features related to transitions above the step-like barrier (SLB) have been clearly observed and analysed in this paper. The analysis of the QW transitions gives information about the number of confined states in the active part of the step-like QW structure. In addition, the analysis of the second portion of PR signal gives information about the band gap energy of the SLB and optical transitions between hole and electron levels confined above the SLB.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sato, Masatoshi; Tobe, Daijiro; Kohmoto, Mahito
2008-12-01
We consider a tight-binding model with the nearest-neighbor hopping integrals on the honeycomb lattice in a magnetic field. Assuming one of the three hopping integrals, which we denote by ta , can take a different value from the two others, we study quantum phase structures controlled by the anisotropy of the honeycomb lattice. For weak and strong ta regions, the Hall conductances are calculated algebraically by using the Diophantine equation. Except for a few specific gaps, we completely determine the Hall conductances in these two regions including those for subband gaps. In a weak magnetic field, it is found that the weak ta region shows the unconventional quantization of the Hall conductance, σxy=-(e2/h)(2n+1) (n=0,±1,±2,…) , near the half filling, while the strong ta region shows only the conventional one, σxy=-(e2/h)n (n=0,±1,±2,…) . From the topological nature of the Hall conductance, the existence of gap closing points and quantum phase transitions in the intermediate ta region is concluded. We also study numerically the quantum phase structure in detail and find that even when ta=1 , namely, in graphene case, the system is in the weak ta phase except when the Fermi energy is located near the Van Hove singularity or the lower and upper edges of the spectrum.
Unexpected edge conduction in HgTe quantum wells under broken time reversal symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Eric Yue; Calvo, M. Reyes; Wang, Jing; Lian, Biao; Muehlbauer, Matthias; Brüne, Christoph; Cui, Yongtao; Lai, Keji; Kundhikanjana, Worasom; Yang, Yongliang; Baenninger, Matthias; König, Markus; Ames, Christopher; Buhmann, Hartmut; Leubner, Philipp; Molenkamp, Laurens; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Goldhaber-Gordon, David; Kelly, Michael; Shen, Zhi-Xun
2015-03-01
A key prediction of quantum spin Hall (QSH) theory that remains to be experimentally verified is the breakdown of the edge conduction under broken TRS by a magnetic field. Here we use a unique cryogenic microwave impedance microscopy (MIM) on two HgTe QW devices, corresponding to a trivial (5.5 nm) and an inverted (7.5 nm) band structure, to find unexpectedly robust edge conduction under broken TRS. At zero field and low carrier densities, clear edge conduction is observed only in the local conductivity profile of the 7.5 nm device, consistent with QSH theory. Surprisingly, the edge conduction persists up to 9 T with little effect from the magnetic field, as confirmed by both transport and real space MIM images. This indicates physics beyond current simple QSH models, possibly associated with material-specific properties, other symmetry protection and/or electron-electron interactions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dakhlaoui, Hassen
2016-09-01
In the present work, the intersubband transition and the optical absorption coefficient between the ground and the first excited states in the Si-δ-doped step AlGaN/GaN quantum well were theoretically studied by solving Schrödinger-Poisson equations self-consistently within the framework of effective mass approximation. The delta-doped layer was inserted in three different locations (middle of the quantum well, middle of the step quantum well and middle of the left barrier). The obtained results show that the energy difference between the ground and the first excited state and the optical absorption depend not only on the doping layer concentration but also on its location. The shape of the confining potential and the wavefunctions were also changed depending on the doped layer location. It was found that doping in the middle quantum well is advantageous to obtain an optical absorption with a higher energy separation; however, doping in the left barrier gives us an optical absorption with a lower energy separation. The obtained results in optical absorption give us a new degree of freedom in optoelectronic devices based on intersubband transitions.
Negative differential conductance in InAs wire based double quantum dot induced by a charged AFM tip
Zhukov, A. A.; Volk, Ch.; Winden, A.; Hardtdegen, H.; Schaepers, Th.
2012-12-15
We investigate the conductance of an InAs nanowire in the nonlinear regime in the case of low electron density where the wire is split into quantum dots connected in series. The negative differential conductance in the wire is initiated by means of a charged atomic force microscope tip adjusting the transparency of the tunneling barrier between two adjoining quantum dots. We confirm that the negative differential conductance arises due to the resonant tunneling between these two adjoining quantum dots. The influence of the transparency of the blocking barriers and the relative position of energy states in the adjoining dots on a decrease of the negative differential conductance is investigated in detail.
Emergence of Helical Edge Conduction in Graphene in the ν = 0 Quantum Hall State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fertig, Herbert; Tikhonov, Pavel; Shimshoni, Efrat; Murthy, Ganpathy
The conductance of graphene subject to a strong, tilted magnetic field exhibits a dramatic change with tilt-angle, interpreted as an evidence for the transition from a canted antiferromagnetic (CAF) to a ferromagnetic (FM) ν = 0 quantum Hall state. We develop a theory for the electric transport in this system based on the spin-charge connection, whereby the evolution in the nature of collective spin excitations throughout this quantum phase transition is reflected in the charge-carrying modes. To this end we study quantum fluctuations of the spin-valley configuration in a system with an edge, and derive an effective theory describing collective charge edge excitations coupled to neutral bulk excitations. Focusing particularly on the FM phase, naively expected to exhibit perfect conductance due to the emergence helical edge modes, we analyze the mechanism whereby the coupling to bulk excitations assists in generating back-scattering. Finally, we calculate the conductance as a function of temperature and the Zeeman energy à€`` the parameter that tunes the transition between the two phases. Support provided by the US-Israel BSF, ISF, and NSF.
Conductance stability in chaotic and integrable quantum dots with random impurities.
Wang, Guanglei; Ying, Lei; Lai, Ying-Cheng
2015-08-01
For a quantum dot system of fixed geometry, in the presence of random impurities the average conductance over an appropriate range of the Fermi energy decreases as the impurity strength is increased. Can the nature of the corresponding classical dynamics in the dot region affect the rate of decrease? Utilizing graphene quantum dots with two semi-infinite, single-mode leads as a prototypical model, we address the device stability issue by investigating the combined effects of classical dynamics and impurities on the average conductance over the energy range of the first transverse mode. We find that, for chaotic dot systems, the rate of decrease in the average conductance with the impurity strength is in general characteristically smaller than that for integrable dots. We develop a semiclassical analysis for the phenomenon and also obtain an understanding based on the random matrix theory. Our results demonstrate that classical chaos can generally lead to a stronger stability in the device performance, strongly advocating exploiting chaos in the development of nanoscale quantum transport devices. PMID:26382470
Thibodeau, Patrick H.; Richardson, John M.; Wang, Wei; Millen, Linda; Watson, Jarod; Mendoza, Juan L.; Du, Kai; Fischman, Sharon; Senderowitz, Hanoch; Lukacs, Gergely L.; Kirk, Kevin; Thomas, Philip J.
2010-01-01
The deletion of phenylalanine 508 in the first nucleotide binding domain of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator is directly associated with >90% of cystic fibrosis cases. This mutant protein fails to traffic out of the endoplasmic reticulum and is subsequently degraded by the proteasome. The effects of this mutation may be partially reversed by the application of exogenous osmolytes, expression at low temperature, and the introduction of second site suppressor mutations. However, the specific steps of folding and assembly of full-length cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) directly altered by the disease-causing mutation are unclear. To elucidate the effects of the ΔF508 mutation, on various steps in CFTR folding, a series of misfolding and suppressor mutations in the nucleotide binding and transmembrane domains were evaluated for effects on the folding and maturation of the protein. The results indicate that the isolated NBD1 responds to both the ΔF508 mutation and intradomain suppressors of this mutation. In addition, identification of a novel second site suppressor of the defect within the second transmembrane domain suggests that ΔF508 also effects interdomain interactions critical for later steps in the biosynthesis of CFTR. PMID:20667826
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bedoya-Martínez, O. N.; Barrat, Jean-Louis; Rodney, David
2014-01-01
The thermal conductivity of a model for solid argon is investigated using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics methods, as well as the traditional Boltzmann transport equation approach with input from molecular dynamics calculations, both with classical and quantum thermostats. A surprising result is that, at low temperatures, only the classical molecular dynamics technique is in agreement with the experimental data. We argue that this agreement is due to a compensation of errors and raise the issue of an appropriate method for calculating thermal conductivities at low (below Debye) temperatures.
Suppression of bulk conductivity in InAs/GaSb broken gap composite quantum wells
Charpentier, Christophe; Fält, Stefan; Reichl, Christian; Nichele, Fabrizio; Nath Pal, Atindra; Pietsch, Patrick; Ihn, Thomas; Ensslin, Klaus; Wegscheider, Werner
2013-09-09
The two-dimensional topological insulator state in InAs/GaSb quantum wells manifests itself by topologically protected helical edge channel transport relying on an insulating bulk. This work investigates a way of suppressing bulk conductivity by using gallium source materials of different degrees of impurity concentrations. While highest-purity gallium is accompanied by clear conduction through the sample bulk, intentional impurity incorporation leads to a bulk resistance over 1 MΩ, independent of applied magnetic fields. In addition, ultra high electron mobilities for GaAs/AlGaAs structures fabricated in a molecular beam epitaxy system used for the growth of Sb-based samples are reported.
Two-dimensional quantum transport in highly conductive carbon nanotube fibers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piraux, L.; Abreu Araujo, F.; Bui, T. N.; Otto, M. J.; Issi, J.-P.
2015-08-01
Measurements of the electrical resistivity, from 1.5 to 300 K, and of the low temperature magnetoresistance of highly conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) fibers, obtained by wet-spinning from liquid crystalline phase (LCP), are reported. At high temperature the results obtained on the raw CNT fibers show a typical metallic behavior and the resistivity levels without postdoping process were found to be only one order of magnitude higher than the best electrical conductors, with the specific conductivity (conductivity per unit weight) comparable to that of pure copper. At low temperature a logarithmic dependence of the resistivity and the temperature dependence of the negative magnetoresistance are consistent with a two-dimensional quantum charge transport—weak localization and Coulomb interaction—in the few-walled CNT fibers. The temperature dependence of the phase-breaking scattering rate has also been determined from magnetoresistance measurements. In the temperature range T <100 K , electron-electron scattering is found to be the dominant source of dephasing in these highly conductive CNT fibers. While quantum effects demonstrate the two-dimensional aspect of conduction in the fibers, the fact that it was found that their resistance is mainly determined by the intrinsic resistivity of the CNTs—and not by intertube resistances—suggests that better practical conductors could be obtained by improving the quality of the CNTs and the fiber morphology.
Emergence of helical edge conduction in graphene at the ν =0 quantum Hall state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tikhonov, Pavel; Shimshoni, Efrat; Fertig, H. A.; Murthy, Ganpathy
2016-03-01
The conductance of graphene subject to a strong, tilted magnetic field exhibits a dramatic change from insulating to conducting behavior with tilt angle, regarded as evidence for the transition from a canted antiferromagnetic (CAF) to a ferromagnetic (FM) ν =0 quantum Hall state. We develop a theory for the electric transport in this system based on the spin-charge connection, whereby the evolution in the nature of collective spin excitations is reflected in the charge-carrying modes. To this end, we derive an effective field-theoretical description of the low-energy excitations, associated with quantum fluctuations of the spin-valley domain-wall ground-state configuration which characterizes the two-dimensional (2D) system with an edge. This analysis yields a model describing a one-dimensional charged edge mode coupled to charge-neutral spin-wave excitations in the 2D bulk. Focusing particularly on the FM phase, naively expected to exhibit perfect conductance, we study a mechanism whereby the coupling to these bulk excitations assists in generating backscattering. Our theory yields the conductance as a function of temperature and the Zeeman energy—the parameter that tunes the transition between the FM and CAF phases—with behavior in qualitative agreement with experiment.
High temperature conductance fluctuations in an InGaAs/InAlAs open quantum dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faniel, S.; Hackens, B.; Delfosse, F.; Gustin, C.; Boutry, H.; Huynen, I.; Bayot, V.; Wallart, X.; Bollaert, S.; Cappy, A.
2002-03-01
We present magnetotransport measurements in an open quantum dot realized on an InGaAs/InAlAs narrow quantum well. The measurements are performed on a 500 nm diameter circular cavity patterned by electron beam lithography and wet etching. The electronic density can be tuned by a Ti/Pt/Au electrostatic gate. The sample is characterized down to 300mK in a magnetic field up to 5T. We observe a superposition of slowly varying reproducible magnetoconductance fluctuations and a rich pattern of universal conductance fluctuations whose characteristic magnetic field scale is much shorter. We study the evolution of these two types of fluctuations as a function of the temperature (up to 230K) and the gate voltage. We notice the persistence of fluctuations up to unexpectedly high temperatures.
Liu, Lei; Li, Yu-Xian; Zhang, Ying-Tao; Liu, Jian-Jun
2014-01-14
The transport properties in graphene-based asymmetric double velocity well (Fermi velocity inside the well less than that outside the well) and electrostatic well structures are investigated using the transfer matrix method. The results show that quantum beats occur in the oscillations of the conductance for asymmetric double velocity wells. The beating effect can also be found in asymmetric double electrostatic wells, but only if the widths of the two wells are different. The beat frequency for the asymmetric double well is exactly equal to the frequency difference between the oscillation rates in two isolated single wells with the same structures as the individual wells in the double well structure. A qualitative interpretation is proposed based on the fact that the resonant levels depend upon the sizes of the quantum wells. The beating behavior can provide a new way to identify the symmetry of double well structures.
Formation of a protected sub-band for conduction in quantum point contacts under extreme biasing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, J.; Han, J. E.; Xiao, S.; Song, J.; Reno, J. L.; Bird, J. P.
2014-02-01
Managing energy dissipation is critical to the scaling of current microelectronics and to the development of novel devices that use quantum coherence to achieve enhanced functionality. To this end, strategies are needed to tailor the electron-phonon interaction, which is the dominant mechanism for cooling non-equilibrium (`hot') carriers. In experiments aimed at controlling the quantum state, this interaction causes decoherence that fundamentally disrupts device operation. Here, we show a contrasting behaviour, in which strong electron-phonon scattering can instead be used to generate a robust mode for electrical conduction in GaAs quantum point contacts, driven into extreme non-equilibrium by nanosecond voltage pulses. When the amplitude of these pulses is much larger than all other relevant energy scales, strong electron-phonon scattering induces an attraction between electrons in the quantum-point-contact channel, which leads to the spontaneous formation of a narrow current filament and to a renormalization of the electronic states responsible for transport. The lowest of these states coalesce to form a sub-band separated from all others by an energy gap larger than the source voltage. Evidence for this renormalization is provided by a suppression of heating-related signatures in the transient conductance, which becomes pinned near 2e2/h (e, electron charge; h, Planck constant) for a broad range of source and gate voltages. This collective non-equilibrium mode is observed over a wide range of temperature (4.2-300 K) and may provide an effective means to manage electron-phonon scattering in nanoscale devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Liangjie; Mei, Shiliang; Chen, Qiuhang; Zhang, Wanlu; Zhang, Jie; Zhu, Jiatao; Chen, Guoping; Guo, Ruiqian
2016-02-01
In situ growth of ZnO layer on the surface of carbon dots was realized via a two-step method, which resulted in an enhancement of the broad visible emission with a high quantum yield. Influence of the refluxing time, the temperature and the oleylamine/octadecene ratio was investigated to address the key factors on the preparation of the carbon dots. Under the optimal conditions, the carbon dots with an average diameter of 3.4 ± 0.4 nm and a photoluminescence quantum yield of 29.3% were achieved. Remarkable improvements of photoluminescence were achieved by the hybridization of the ZnO layer, which can eliminate the surface-trap from the C cores and form the new centers of emission. The synergistic effect arising from the C/ZnO hybridized structure obviously broadened the visible emission and enhanced their photoluminescence quantum yield from 29.3% to 47.3%. The as-prepared highly emissive quantum dots exhibited a broad and stable emission with the Commission Internationaled 'E' clairage chromaticity coordinate of (0.23, 0.34), which could offer a promising solution for the future-generation white light emitting diodes.
Conductance maps of quantum rings due to a local potential perturbation.
Petrović, M D; Peeters, F M; Chaves, A; Farias, G A
2013-12-11
We performed a numerical simulation of the dynamics of a Gaussian shaped wavepacket inside a small sized quantum ring, smoothly connected to two leads and exposed to a perturbing potential of a biased atomic force microscope tip. Using the Landauer formalism, we calculated conductance maps of this system in the case of single and two subband transport. We explain the main features in the conductance maps as due to the AFM tip influence on the wavepacket phase and amplitude. In the presence of an external magnetic field, the tip modifies the ϕ0 periodic Aharonov-Bohm oscillation pattern into a ϕ0/2 periodic Al'tshuler-Aronov-Spivak oscillation pattern. Our results in the case of multiband transport suggest tip selectivity to higher subbands, making them more observable in the total conductance map. PMID:24184634
Non-linear conductance in quantum point contacts of noble metals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshida, Makoto; Takayanagi, Kunio
2004-03-01
We studied the non-linear property of the electronic conductance of the noble metal nanocontact. Specimens were cleaned by Ar ion sputtering in UHV(`2 ˜10|7[Pa]) at room temperature. Current vs voltage curves (I-V curves) were obtained, while the metal contact was stretched by STM. The bias voltage at the contact was changed within 2V (using the triangle wave voltage 3`5kHz). Au, Pt, Ag and Cu quantum point contacts showed non-linear I-V curves. These metallic contacts presented the quantized conductance of the quantum unit G0(=2e2/h). I-V curves are fitted to a cubic function ( IaV+cV3 ). The value of c/a does not depend on the zero-bias conductance value, a. However, c/a values depend on metals (c/a ; Au=0.58 0.02, Ag=0.33 0.02, Cu= 0.40 0.03). The present result indicates that metals of lower resistance (higher mobility) give lower values of c/a.
Bound states induced giant oscillations of the conductance in the quantum Hall regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kadigrobov, A. M.; Fistul, M. V.
2016-06-01
We theoretically studied the quasiparticle transport in a 2D electron gas biased in the quantum Hall regime and in the presence of a lateral potential barrier. The lateral junction hosts the specific magnetic field dependent quasiparticle states highly localized in the transverse direction. The quantum tunnelling across the barrier provides a complex bands structure of a one-dimensional energy spectrum of these bound states, {εn}≤ft( {{p}y}\\right) , where p y is the electron momentum in the longitudinal direction y. Such a spectrum manifests itself by a large number of peaks and drops in the dependence of the magnetic edge states transmission coefficient D(E ) on the electron energy E. E.g. the high value of D occurs as soon as the electron energy E reaches gaps in the spectrum. These peaks and drops of D(E) result in giant oscillations of the transverse conductance G x with the magnetic field and/or the transport voltage. Our theoretical analysis, based on the coherent macroscopic quantum superposition of the bound states and the magnetic edge states propagating along the system boundaries, is in a good accord with the experimental observations found in Kang et al (2000 Lett. Nat. 403 59)
Bound states induced giant oscillations of the conductance in the quantum Hall regime.
Kadigrobov, A M; Fistul, M V
2016-06-29
We theoretically studied the quasiparticle transport in a 2D electron gas biased in the quantum Hall regime and in the presence of a lateral potential barrier. The lateral junction hosts the specific magnetic field dependent quasiparticle states highly localized in the transverse direction. The quantum tunnelling across the barrier provides a complex bands structure of a one-dimensional energy spectrum of these bound states, [Formula: see text], where p y is the electron momentum in the longitudinal direction y. Such a spectrum manifests itself by a large number of peaks and drops in the dependence of the magnetic edge states transmission coefficient D(E ) on the electron energy E. E.g. the high value of D occurs as soon as the electron energy E reaches gaps in the spectrum. These peaks and drops of D(E) result in giant oscillations of the transverse conductance G x with the magnetic field and/or the transport voltage. Our theoretical analysis, based on the coherent macroscopic quantum superposition of the bound states and the magnetic edge states propagating along the system boundaries, is in a good accord with the experimental observations found in Kang et al (2000 Lett. Nat. 403 59). PMID:27166511
Long-wavelength corrections to Hall conductivity in fractional quantum Hall fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Bo; Haldane, F. D. M.
2013-03-01
Recent work by Hoyos and Son, then Bradlyn et al., has investigated the relation between the long-wavelength (O (q2)) corrections to the Hall conductivity σH (q) and the Hall viscosity of quantum Hall states. These works assume the presence of Galilean and rotational invariance. However, these are not generic symmetries of electrons in condensed matter. We identify translation and (2D) inversion symmetry as the only generic symmetries of an ``ideal'' quantum Hall liquid, as these are needed to guarantee the absence of any dissipationless ground state current density; then σH (q) = σH (- q) characterizes the dissipation less current that flows in response to a spatially-non-uniform electric field. We consider the general problem for fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states without Galilean or rotational invariance, when the guiding-center contribution to the Hall viscosity becomes a non-trivial tensor property related to an emergent geometry of the FQH state, (Bo Yang et,al (PRB 85,165318). Supported by DOE DE-SC0002140 and Agency for Science Technology and Research (A*STAR, Singapore).
Disorder strongly enhances Auger recombination in conductive quantum-dot solids
Gao, Yunan; Sandeep, C. S. Suchand; Schins, Juleon M.; Houtepen, Arjan J.; Siebbeles, Laurens D. A.
2013-01-01
Auger recombination (AR) can be an important loss mechanism for optoelectronic devices, but it is typically not very efficient at low excitation densities. Here we show that in conductive quantum-dot solids, AR is the dominant charge carrier decay path even at excitation densities as low as 10−3 per quantum dot, and that AR becomes faster as the charge carrier mobility increases. Monte Carlo simulations reveal that this efficient AR results from charge carrier congregation in ‘Auger hot spots’: lower-energy sites that are present because of energy disorder. Disorder-enhanced AR is a general effect that is expected to be active in all disordered materials. The observed efficient AR is an issue of concern for devices that work at charge carrier densities in excess of ~10−3 charge carriers per quantum dot. At the same time, efficient carrier congregation could be exploited for fast optical switching or to achieve optical gain in the near infrared. PMID:24029819
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moodera, Jagadeesh
Breaking time reversal symmetry (TRS) in a topological insulator (TI) with ferromagnetic perturbation can lead to many exotic quantum phenomena exhibited by Dirac surface states including the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect and dissipationless quantized Hall transport. The realization of the QAH effect in realistic materials requires ferromagnetic insulating materials and topologically non-trivial electronic band structures. In a TI, the ferromagnetic order and TRS breaking is achievable by conventional way, through doping with a magnetic element, or by ferromagnetic proximity coupling. Our experimental studies by both approaches will be discussed. In doped TI van Vleck ferromagnetism was observed. The proximity induced magnetism at the interface was stable, beyond the expected temperature range. We shall describe in a hard ferromagnetic TI system a robust QAH state and dissipationless edge current flow is achieved,1,2 a major step towards dissipationless electronic applications with no external fields, making such devices more amenable for metrology and spintronics applications. Our study of the gate and temperature dependences of local and nonlocal magnetoresistance, may elucidate the causes of the dissipative edge channels and the need for very low temperature to observe QAH. In close collaboration with: CuiZu Chang,2,3 Ferhat Katmis, 1 . 2 , 3 Peng Wei. 1 , 2 , 3 ; From Nuclear Eng. Dept. MIT, M. Li, J. Li; From Penn State U, W-W. Zhao, D. Y. Kim, C-x. Liu, J. K. Jain, M. H. W. Chan; From Oakridge National Lab, V. Lauter; From Northeastern U., B. A. Assaf, M. E. Jamer, D. Heiman; From Argonne Lab, J. W. Freeland; From Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany), F. S. Nogueira, I. Eremin; From Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics (India), B. Satpati. Work supported by NSF Grant DMR-1207469, the ONR Grant N00014-13-1-0301, and the STC Center for Integrated Quantum Materials under NSF Grant DMR-1231319.
On the quantum magnetic oscillations of electrical and thermal conductivities of graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alisultanov, Z. Z.; Reis, M. S.
2016-05-01
Oscillating thermodynamic quantities of diamagnetic materials, specially graphene, have been attracting attention of the scientific community due to the possibility to experimentally map the Fermi surface of the material. These have been the case of the de Haas-van Alphen and Shubnikov-de Haas effects, found on the magnetization and electrical conductivity, respectively. In this direction, managing the thermodynamic oscillations is of practical purpose, since from the reconstructed Fermi surface it is possible to access, for instance, the electronic density. The present work theoretically explores the quantum oscillations of electrical and thermal conductivities of a monolayer graphene under a crossed magnetic and electric fields. We found that the longitudinal electric field can increase the amplitude of the oscillations and this result is of practical and broad interest for both, experimental and device physics.
Weymann, Ireneusz
2015-05-07
We analyze the spin-dependent linear-response transport properties of double quantum dots strongly coupled to external ferromagnetic leads. By using the numerical renormalization group method, we determine the dependence of the linear conductance and tunnel magnetoresistance on the degree of spin polarization of the leads and the position of the double dot levels. We focus on the transport regime where the system exhibits the SU(4) Kondo effect. It is shown that the presence of ferromagnets generally leads the suppression of the linear conductance due to the presence of an exchange field. Moreover, the exchange field gives rise to a transition from the SU(4) to the orbital SU(2) Kondo effect. We also analyze the dependence of the tunnel magnetoresistance on the double dot levels' positions and show that it exhibits a very nontrivial behavior.
Ionic conductivity in a quantum lattice gas model with three-particle interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barry, J. H.; Muttalib, K. A.; Tanaka, T.
2012-12-01
A system of mesoscopic ions with dominant three-particle interactions is modeled by a quantum lattice liquid on the planar kagomé lattice. The two-parameter Hamiltonian contains localized attractive triplet interactions as potential energy and nearest neighbor hopping-type terms as kinetic energy. The dynamic ionic conductivity σ(ω) is theoretically investigated for ‘weak hopping’ via a quantum many-body perturbation expansion of the thermal (Matsubara) Green function (current-current correlation). A simple analytic continuation and mapping of the thermal Green function provide the temporal Fourier transform of the physical retarded Green function in the Kubo formula. Substituting pertinent exact solutions for static multi-particle correlations known from previous work, Arrhenius relations are revealed in zeroth-order approximation for the dc ionic conductivity σdc along special trajectories in density-temperature space. The Arrhenius plots directly yield static activation energies along the latter loci. Experimental possibilities relating to σdc are discussed in the presence of equilibrium aggregation. This article is part of ‘Lattice models and integrability’, a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical in honour of F Y Wu's 80th birthday.
Theory of quantum metal to superconductor transitions in highly conducting systems
Spivak, B.
2010-04-06
We derive the theory of the quantum (zero temperature) superconductor to metal transition in disordered materials when the resistance of the normal metal near criticality is small compared to the quantum of resistivity. This can occur most readily in situations in which 'Anderson's theorem' does not apply. We explicitly study the transition in superconductor-metal composites, in an swave superconducting film in the presence of a magnetic field, and in a low temperature disordered d-wave superconductor. Near the point of the transition, the distribution of the superconducting order parameter is highly inhomogeneous. To describe this situation we employ a procedure which is similar to that introduced by Mott for description of the temperature dependence of the variable range hopping conduction. As the system approaches the point of the transition from the metal to the superconductor, the conductivity of the system diverges, and the Wiedemann-Franz law is violated. In the case of d-wave (or other exotic) superconductors we predict the existence of (at least) two sequential transitions as a function of increasing disorder: a d-wave to s-wave, and then an s-wave to metal transition.
Wang, Haowei; Wang, Yishan; He, Bo; Li, Weile; Sulaman, Muhammad; Xu, Junfeng; Yang, Shengyi; Tang, Yi; Zou, Bingsuo
2016-07-20
With its properties of bandgap tunability, low cost, and substrate compatibility, colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are becoming promising materials for optoelectronic applications. Additionally, solution-processed organic, inorganic, and hybrid ligand-exchange technologies have been widely used in PbS CQDs solar cells, and currently the maximum certified power conversion efficiency of 9.9% has been reported by passivation treatment of molecular iodine. Presently, there are still some challenges, and the basic physical mechanism of charge carriers in CQDs-based solar cells is not clear. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is a monitoring technology for current by changing the frequency of applied alternating current voltage, and it provides an insight into its electrical properties that cannot be measured by direct current testing facilities. In this work, we used EIS to analyze the recombination resistance, carrier lifetime, capacitance, and conductivity of two typical PbS CQD solar cells Au/PbS-TBAl/ZnO/ITO and Au/PbS-EDT/PbS-TBAl/ZnO/ITO, in this way, to better understand the charge carriers conduction mechanism behind in PbS CQD solar cells, and it provides a guide to design high-performance quantum-dots solar cells. PMID:27176547
Two-step quantum direct communication protocol using the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pair block
Deng Fuguo; Liu Xiaoshu; Long Guilu
2003-10-01
A protocol for quantum secure direct communication using blocks of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs is proposed. A set of ordered N EPR pairs is used as a data block for sending secret message directly. The ordered N EPR set is divided into two particle sequences, a checking sequence and a message-coding sequence. After transmitting the checking sequence, the two parties of communication check eavesdropping by measuring a fraction of particles randomly chosen, with random choice of two sets of measuring bases. After insuring the security of the quantum channel, the sender Alice encodes the secret message directly on the message-coding sequence and sends them to Bob. By combining the checking and message-coding sequences together, Bob is able to read out the encoded messages directly. The scheme is secure because an eavesdropper cannot get both sequences simultaneously. We also discuss issues in a noisy channel.
Zhukov, A. A.; Volk, Ch.; Winden, A.; Hardtdegen, H.; Schaepers, Th.
2013-01-15
We performed measurements at helium temperatures of the electronic transport in the linear regime in an InAs quantum wire in the presence of a charged tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) at low electron concentration. We show that at certain concentration of electrons, only two closely placed quantum dots, both in the Coulomb blockade regime, govern conductance of the whole wire. Under this condition, two types of peculiarities-wobbling and splitting-arise in the behavior of the lines of the conductance peaks of Coulomb blockade. These peculiarities are measured in quantum-wire-based structures for the first time. We explain both peculiarities as an interplay of the conductance of two quantum dots present in the wire. Detailed modeling of wobbling behavior made in the framework of the orthodox theory of Coulomb blockade demonstrates good agreement with the obtained experimental data.
Single step deposition of an interacting layer of a perovskite matrix with embedded quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ngo, Thi Tuyen; Suarez, Isaac; Sanchez, Rafael S.; Martinez-Pastor, Juan P.; Mora-Sero, Ivan
2016-07-01
Hybrid lead halide perovskite (PS) derivatives have emerged as very promising materials for the development of optoelectronic devices in the last few years. At the same time, inorganic nanocrystals with quantum confinement (QDs) possess unique properties that make them suitable materials for the development of photovoltaics, imaging and lighting applications, among others. In this work, we report on a new methodology for the deposition of high quality, large grain size and pinhole free PS films (CH3NH3PbI3) with embedded PbS and PbS/CdS core/shell Quantum Dots (QDs). The strong interaction between both semiconductors is revealed by the formation of an exciplex state, which is monitored by photoluminescence and electroluminescence experiments. The radiative exciplex relaxation is centered in the near infrared region (NIR), ~1200 nm, which corresponds to lower energies than the corresponding band gap of both perovskite (PS) and QDs. Our approach allows the fabrication of multi-wavelength light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on a PS matrix with embedded QDs, which show considerably low turn-on potentials. The presence of the exciplex state of PS and QDs opens up a broad range of possibilities with important implications in both LEDs and solar cells.Hybrid lead halide perovskite (PS) derivatives have emerged as very promising materials for the development of optoelectronic devices in the last few years. At the same time, inorganic nanocrystals with quantum confinement (QDs) possess unique properties that make them suitable materials for the development of photovoltaics, imaging and lighting applications, among others. In this work, we report on a new methodology for the deposition of high quality, large grain size and pinhole free PS films (CH3NH3PbI3) with embedded PbS and PbS/CdS core/shell Quantum Dots (QDs). The strong interaction between both semiconductors is revealed by the formation of an exciplex state, which is monitored by photoluminescence and
Two-step synthesis of luminescent MoS(2)-ZnS hybrid quantum dots.
Clark, Rhiannon M; Carey, Benjamin J; Daeneke, Torben; Atkin, Paul; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Latham, Kay; Cole, Ivan S; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh
2015-10-28
A surfactant assisted technique has been used to promote the exfoliation of molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) in a water-ethanol mixture, to avoid the use of harsh organic solvents, whilst still producing sufficient concentration of MoS2 in suspension. The exfoliated flakes are converted into MoS2 quantum dots (QDs), through a hydrothermal procedure. Alternatively, when the flakes are processed with precursors for zinc sulphide (ZnS) synthesis, a simultaneous break-down and composite growth is achieved. The products are separated by centrifugation, into large ZnS spheres (200-300 nm) and small MoS2-ZnS hybrid QD materials (<100 nm), of which, the latter show favorable optical properties. Two concurrent photoluminescent (PL) peaks are seen at 380 and 450 nm, which are assigned to MoS2 and ZnS components of QDs, respectively. The PL emission from MoS2-ZnS QDs is of high energy and is more intense than the bare MoS2 flakes or QDs, with a quantum yield as high as 1.96%. The emission wavelength is independent from the excitation wavelength and does not change over time. Due to such properties, the developed hybrid QDs are potentially suitable for imaging and sensing applications. PMID:26399979
Single step deposition of an interacting layer of a perovskite matrix with embedded quantum dots.
Ngo, Thi Tuyen; Suarez, Isaac; Sanchez, Rafael S; Martinez-Pastor, Juan P; Mora-Sero, Ivan
2016-08-14
Hybrid lead halide perovskite (PS) derivatives have emerged as very promising materials for the development of optoelectronic devices in the last few years. At the same time, inorganic nanocrystals with quantum confinement (QDs) possess unique properties that make them suitable materials for the development of photovoltaics, imaging and lighting applications, among others. In this work, we report on a new methodology for the deposition of high quality, large grain size and pinhole free PS films (CH3NH3PbI3) with embedded PbS and PbS/CdS core/shell Quantum Dots (QDs). The strong interaction between both semiconductors is revealed by the formation of an exciplex state, which is monitored by photoluminescence and electroluminescence experiments. The radiative exciplex relaxation is centered in the near infrared region (NIR), ≈1200 nm, which corresponds to lower energies than the corresponding band gap of both perovskite (PS) and QDs. Our approach allows the fabrication of multi-wavelength light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on a PS matrix with embedded QDs, which show considerably low turn-on potentials. The presence of the exciplex state of PS and QDs opens up a broad range of possibilities with important implications in both LEDs and solar cells. PMID:27437778
Two-step synthesis of luminescent MoS2-ZnS hybrid quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, Rhiannon M.; Carey, Benjamin J.; Daeneke, Torben; Atkin, Paul; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Latham, Kay; Cole, Ivan S.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh
2015-10-01
A surfactant assisted technique has been used to promote the exfoliation of molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) in a water-ethanol mixture, to avoid the use of harsh organic solvents, whilst still producing sufficient concentration of MoS2 in suspension. The exfoliated flakes are converted into MoS2 quantum dots (QDs), through a hydrothermal procedure. Alternatively, when the flakes are processed with precursors for zinc sulphide (ZnS) synthesis, a simultaneous break-down and composite growth is achieved. The products are separated by centrifugation, into large ZnS spheres (200-300 nm) and small MoS2-ZnS hybrid QD materials (<100 nm), of which, the latter show favorable optical properties. Two concurrent photoluminescent (PL) peaks are seen at 380 and 450 nm, which are assigned to MoS2 and ZnS components of QDs, respectively. The PL emission from MoS2-ZnS QDs is of high energy and is more intense than the bare MoS2 flakes or QDs, with a quantum yield as high as 1.96%. The emission wavelength is independent from the excitation wavelength and does not change over time. Due to such properties, the developed hybrid QDs are potentially suitable for imaging and sensing applications.A surfactant assisted technique has been used to promote the exfoliation of molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) in a water-ethanol mixture, to avoid the use of harsh organic solvents, whilst still producing sufficient concentration of MoS2 in suspension. The exfoliated flakes are converted into MoS2 quantum dots (QDs), through a hydrothermal procedure. Alternatively, when the flakes are processed with precursors for zinc sulphide (ZnS) synthesis, a simultaneous break-down and composite growth is achieved. The products are separated by centrifugation, into large ZnS spheres (200-300 nm) and small MoS2-ZnS hybrid QD materials (<100 nm), of which, the latter show favorable optical properties. Two concurrent photoluminescent (PL) peaks are seen at 380 and 450 nm, which are assigned to MoS2 and ZnS components of
Baek, Songyi; Won, Byoung Yeon; Park, Ki Soo; Park, Hyun Gyu
2013-11-15
A one-step, electrochemical method for assaying methyltransferase (MTase) activity, based on the convective transport of a quantum dot (QD) signaling tracer, has been developed. The assay chip used in this system was prepared by modifying a gold matrix with CdSe/ZnS QD-tagged dsDNA, which contains a specific methylation site (5'-GATC-3') recognized by MTase. Treatment of the chip with DNA adenine methylation (Dam) MTase, generates a methylated sequence (5'-GAmTC-3') within the dsDNA. The methylated dsDNA is then subjected to a cleavage reaction, induced by DpnI, which leads to release from the gold matrix of a DNA fragment tethered to a QD. Detection of the released QD, using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode, enables the reliable quantitation of the methylated DNA. Because it is accomplished in a simple and convenient one step and does not require any complicated secondary or tedious washing steps, the new assay method holds great promise for epigenetic analysis in facility-limited environments or point-of-care testing (POCT) applications. PMID:23777705
Interaction-induced corrections to conductance and thermopower in quantum wires.
Levchenko, A.; Ristivojevic, Z.; Micklitz, T.; Materials Science Division; Theorique de l'Ecole Normale Superieure; Freie Univ. Berlin
2011-01-19
We study transport properties of weakly interacting spinless electrons in one-dimensional single-channel quantum wires. The effects of interaction manifest as three-particle collisions due to the severe constraints imposed by the conservation laws on the two-body processes. We focus on short wires where the effects of equilibration on the distribution function can be neglected and the collision integral can be treated in perturbation theory. We find that interaction-induced corrections to conductance and thermopower rely on the scattering processes that change the number of right- and left-moving electrons. The latter requires transition at the bottom of the band which is exponentially suppressed at low temperatures. Our theory is based on the scattering approach that is beyond the Luttinger-liquid limit. We emphasize the crucial role of the exchange terms in the three-particle scattering amplitude that was not discussed in previous studies.
Photoluminescence quenching and conductivity enhancement of PVK induced by CdS quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masala, S.; Bizzarro, V.; Re, M.; Nenna, G.; Villani, F.; Minarini, C.; Di Luccio, T.
2012-04-01
In this work we studied the optical and transport properties of hybrid nanocomposites of CdS quantum dots (QDs) and poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) polymer. The CdS QDs were prepared by thermal decomposition (thermolysis) of a single source precursor, Cd bis-thiolate, in a high boiling solvent, octadecene (ODE). The optical characterization of the QDs has been carried out by UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy while the morphological properties have been investigated atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The analyses have shown that CdS QDs of diameter below 6 nm can be synthesized by such route with good light emission in the UV range. The QDs have been dispersed in a poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) matrix to obtain a PVK:CdS nanocomposite layers. An increase of conductivity and a quenching of the photoluminescence have been observed when the nanocomposite layer was inserted in ITO/PVK:CdS/Al structures.
Lian, Xiaojuan Cartoixà, Xavier; Miranda, Enrique; Suñé, Jordi; Perniola, Luca; Rurali, Riccardo; Long, Shibing; Liu, Ming
2014-06-28
We depart from first-principle simulations of electron transport along paths of oxygen vacancies in HfO{sub 2} to reformulate the Quantum Point Contact (QPC) model in terms of a bundle of such vacancy paths. By doing this, the number of model parameters is reduced and a much clearer link between the microscopic structure of the conductive filament (CF) and its electrical properties can be provided. The new multi-scale QPC model is applied to two different HfO{sub 2}-based devices operated in the unipolar and bipolar resistive switching (RS) modes. Extraction of the QPC model parameters from a statistically significant number of CFs allows revealing significant structural differences in the CF of these two types of devices and RS modes.
Perov, A. A. Penyagin, I. V.
2015-07-15
Quantum states of charge carriers in double periodic semiconductor superlattices of n-type quantum dots with Rashba spin–orbit coupling in an electron gas have been calculated in the one-electron approximation in the presence of mutually perpendicular electric and magnetic fields. For these structures in weak constant electric field, the solution to the quasi-classical kinetic Boltzmann equation shows that the states of carriers in magnetic Landau minibands with negative differential conductivity are possible.
Step-Scan FTIR spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations of xanthone in the triplet state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buschhaus, L.; Kleinermanns, K.
2014-10-01
Step-Scan-FTIR spectroscopy has been used to measure the infrared spectrum of xanthone in the triplet state using chloroform as solvent. Xanthone is an important triplet sensitizer and therefore suitable as model system. Xanthone was excited at 266 nm and its IR triplet spectrum measured in the range 1000-1750 cm-1. The spectrum was analyzed by comparison with DFT/B3LYP/TZVP/COSMO calculations. Further on the results were compared to gas phase IR measurements of triplet xanthone and calculations of isolated xanthone. Mainly based on the calculations we tried to identify the geometry changes from the electronic ground state to the first triplet state.
Bias voltage dependence of two-step photocurrent in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well solar cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noda, T.; Elborg, M.; Mano, T.; Kawazu, T.; Han, L.; Sakaki, H.
2016-02-01
We investigated photoresponses of AlGaAs solar cells in which coupled GaAs quantum wells were embedded in the i-region of p-i-n diodes; we studied how the bias voltage Vb affects the normal photocurrent I generated by the visible light and a "two-step" photocurrent ΔI generated by the absorption of visible and infrared photons. We found that as Vb exceeds -0.2 V, ΔI rises and peaks at 0.6 V, while the normal photocurrent I falls to about half of its saturated level. These findings are discussed in terms of a rate equation model to show that ΔI is mainly determined by the balance of escape and recombination of photogenerated carriers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Hanxuan; Wang, Zhanguo; Liang, Jiben; Xu, Bo; Jiang, Chao; Gong, Qian; Liu, Fengqi; Zhou, Wei
1998-06-01
Fourier transform photoluminescence measurements were carried out to investigate the optical transitions in {InxGa1-xAs}/{InyAl1-yAs} one-side-modulation-doped asymmetric step quantum wells. Samples with electron density ns between 0.8 and 5.3 × 10 12cm -2 are studied. Strong recombination involving one to three populated electron subbands with the first heavyhole subband is observed. Fermi edge singularity (FES) clearly can be observed for some samples. The electron subband energies in the {InGaAs}/{InAlAs} step quantum wells were calculated by a self-consistent method, taking into account strain and nonparabolicity effects and the comparison with the experimental data shows a good agreement. Our results can help improve understanding for the application of {InGaAs}/{InAlAs} step quantum wells in microelectronic and optoelectronic devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Tsan-Pei; Wang, Xiao-Qun; Guo, Guang-Yu; Anders, Frithjof; Chung, Chung-Hou
2016-05-01
The quantum criticality of the two-lead two-channel pseudogap Anderson impurity model is studied. Based on the non-crossing approximation (NCA) and numerical renormalization group (NRG) approaches, we calculate both the linear and nonlinear conductance of the model at finite temperatures with a voltage bias and a power-law vanishing conduction electron density of states, {ρ\\text{c}}(ω )\\propto |ω -{μ\\text{F}}{{|}r} (0 < r < 1) near the Fermi energy {μ\\text{F}} . At a fixed lead-impurity hybridization, a quantum phase transition from the two-channel Kondo (2CK) to the local moment (LM) phase is observed with increasing r from r = 0 to r={{r}\\text{c}}<1 . Surprisingly, in the 2CK phase, different power-law scalings from the well-known \\sqrt{T} or \\sqrt{V} form is found. Moreover, novel power-law scalings in conductances at the 2CK-LM quantum critical point are identified. Clear distinctions are found on the critical exponents between linear and non-linear conductance at criticality. The implications of these two distinct quantum critical properties for the non-equilibrium quantum criticality in general are discussed.
Wu, Tsan-Pei; Wang, Xiao-Qun; Guo, Guang-Yu; Anders, Frithjof; Chung, Chung-Hou
2016-05-01
The quantum criticality of the two-lead two-channel pseudogap Anderson impurity model is studied. Based on the non-crossing approximation (NCA) and numerical renormalization group (NRG) approaches, we calculate both the linear and nonlinear conductance of the model at finite temperatures with a voltage bias and a power-law vanishing conduction electron density of states, [Formula: see text] (0 < r < 1) near the Fermi energy [Formula: see text]. At a fixed lead-impurity hybridization, a quantum phase transition from the two-channel Kondo (2CK) to the local moment (LM) phase is observed with increasing r from r = 0 to [Formula: see text]. Surprisingly, in the 2CK phase, different power-law scalings from the well-known [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text] form is found. Moreover, novel power-law scalings in conductances at the 2CK-LM quantum critical point are identified. Clear distinctions are found on the critical exponents between linear and non-linear conductance at criticality. The implications of these two distinct quantum critical properties for the non-equilibrium quantum criticality in general are discussed. PMID:27045815
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajput, Gagan; Chand, S.; Ahluwalia, P. K.; Sharma, K. C.
2010-10-01
In this paper, we present a theoretical study of correlated electronic transport through coupled double quantum dot (DQD) system attached to normal leads, using a generalised two impurity Anderson Hamiltonian in the presence of intra- and inter-dot Coulomb interactions. A generic formulation from which different structures, i.e. series, symmetric as well as asymmetric parallel and T-shape, can be obtained easily, is developed using Keldysh non-equilibrium Green functions method. The occupation numbers and correlators appearing in the formulation have been calculated in a self-consistent manner. A special attention is paid to investigate the ZBM in the differential conductance, which appears, develops and disappears over a particular range of interdot Coulomb interaction, in the configuration of interest. The ZBM is found to result from the renormalization of energy levels induced by the interdot Coulomb interaction and therefore an attempt has been made to understand it within the framework of local density of states. The interdot tunneling is found to enhance the effect of the interdot Coulomb interaction in inducing the ZBM in all the three configurations. Calculations for the T-shape configuration reveal that non-zero value of the interdot tunneling is an essential condition for the appearance of the ZBM in the differential conductance.
Redox-driven conductance modulation of a single quantum dot in an electrolytic environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lovat, Giacomo; Choi, Boyeon; Roy, Xavier; Venkataraman, Latha
Electrons confined in zero-dimensional systems exhibit shape and size-dependent electronic and optical properties of interest for many technological applications. A realization of molecular-scale quantum dots having precise shape and size is provided by the synthesis of atomically defined isostructural metal chalcogenide clusters functionalized with organic connectors, which opens the possibility of wiring up these dots without altering significantly their electronic structure. Here, we characterize the charge transport in single molecule junctions fabricated with Co6Se8 clusters via the scanning tunneling microscope break junction technique. The cluster structure consists of an octahedron of Co atoms concentric with a cube of Se atoms; the electrical connection to the Au leads is provided by aurophilic thiol-terminated ligands attached at the Co sites. We demonstrate that conductance modulation in a cluster junction can be achieved by controlling the charge state of the cluster. The conductance of the oxidized species differs from that of the neutral ones, consistent with the value obtained in a control experiment with chemically oxidized clusters. This work was supported in part by the Columbia University NSF-MRSEC center.
Normal-state conductance used to probe superconducting tunnel junctions for quantum computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaparro, Carlos; Bavier, Richard; Kim, Yong-Seung; Kim, Eunyoung; Kline, Jeffrey S.; Pappas, David P.; Oh, Seongshik
2010-04-01
Here we report normal-state conductance measurements of three different types of superconducting tunnel junctions that are being used or proposed for quantum computing applications: p-Al/a-AlO/p-Al, e-Re/e-AlO/p-Al, and e-V/e-MgO/p-V, where p stands for polycrystalline, e for epitaxial, and a for amorphous. All three junctions exhibited significant deviations from the parabolic behavior predicted by the WKB approximation models. In the p-Al/a-AlO/p-Al junction, we observed enhancement of tunneling conductances at voltages matching harmonics of Al-O stretching modes. On the other hand, such Al-O vibration modes were missing in the epitaxial e-Re/e-AlO/p-Al junction. This suggests that absence or existence of the Al-O stretching mode might be related to the crystallinity of the AlO tunnel barrier and the interface between the electrode and the barrier. In the e-V/e-MgO/p-V junction, which is one of the candidate systems for future superconducting qubits, we observed suppression of the density of states at zero bias. This implies that the interface is electronically disordered, presumably due to oxidation of the vanadium surface underneath the MgO barrier, even if the interface was structurally well ordered, suggesting that the e-V/e-MgO/p-V junction will not be suitable for qubit applications in its present form. This also demonstrates that the normal-state conductance measurement can be effectively used to screen out low quality samples in the search for better superconducting tunnel junctions.
Parallel magnetic field-induced conductance fluctuations in GaAs/AlGaAs ballistic quantum dots.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faniel, S.; Gustin, C.; Melinte, S.; Hackens, B.; Bayot, V.; Shayegan, M.
2004-03-01
We present magnetotransport measurements in ballistic quantum dots under a parallel magnetic field. The dots were fabricated on two different GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells with thicknesses of 15 and and 45 nm and with one and two subbands occupied, respectively. The samples were patterned using e-beam lithography and wet etching. A Cr/Au electrostatic top gate was used in order to tune the width of the dot openings. The measurements were performed down to 300 mK with the magnetic field applied strictly parallel to the plane of the two-dimensional electron gas. For both dots, we observe universal conductance fluctuations and, in the case of the wide quantum well, a reduction of their amplitude at large magnetic field. We discuss these conductance fluctuations in terms of orbital effect(V.I. Fal'ko and T. Jungwirth, Phys Rev B 65), 081306 (2002) and magnetic subband depopulation.
Spin-orbit splitting of valence and conduction bands in HgTe quantum wells near the Dirac point
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minkov, G. M.; Germanenko, A. V.; Rut, O. E.; Sherstobitov, A. A.; Nestoklon, M. O.; Dvoretski, S. A.; Mikhailov, N. N.
2016-04-01
Energy spectra both of the conduction and valence bands of the HgTe quantum wells with a width close to the Dirac point were studied experimentally. Simultaneous analysis of the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations and the Hall effect over a wide range of electron and hole densities yields surprising results: the top of the valence band is strongly split by spin-orbit interaction while the splitting of the conduction band is absent, within experimental accuracy. This holds true for the structures with normal and inverted band ordering. The results obtained are inconsistent with the results of kP calculations, in which the smooth electric field across the quantum well is only reckoned in. It is shown that taking into account the asymmetry of the quantum-well interfaces within a tight-binding method gives reasonable agreement with the experimental data.
Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; Simchi, Abdolreza; Fan, Zhiyong; Aashuri, Hossein
2016-01-01
We present a novel chemical procedure to prepare three-dimensional graphene networks (3DGNs) as a transparent conductive film to enhance the photovoltaic performance of PbS quantum-dot (QD) solar cells. It is shown that 3DGN electrodes enhance electron extraction, yielding a 30% improvement in performance compared with the conventional device. PMID:26514615
Interference features in scanning gate conductance maps of quantum point contacts with disorder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolasiński, K.; Szafran, B.; Brun, B.; Sellier, H.
2016-08-01
We consider quantum point contact (QPC) defined within a disordered two-dimensional electron gas as studied by scanning gate microscopy. We evaluate the conductance maps in the Landauer approach with a wave-function picture of electron transport for samples with both low and high electron mobility at finite temperatures. We discuss the spatial distribution of the impurities in the context of the branched electron flow. We reproduce the surprising temperature stability of the experimental interference fringes far from the QPC. Next, we discuss funnel-shaped features that accompany splitting of the branches visible in previous experiments. Finally, we study elliptical interference fringes formed by an interplay of scattering by the pointlike impurities and by the scanning probe. We discuss the details of the elliptical features as functions of the tip voltage and the temperature, showing that the first interference fringe is very robust against the thermal widening of the Fermi level. We present a simple analytical model that allows for extraction of the impurity positions and the electron-gas depletion radius induced by the negatively charged tip of the atomic force microscope, and apply this model on experimental scanning gate images showing such elliptical fringes.
The Occurrence of Anomalous Conductance Plateaus and Spin Textures in Quantum Point Contacts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wan, J.; Cahay, M.; Debray, P.; Newrock, R.
2010-03-01
Recently, we used a NEGF formalism [1] to provide a theoretical explanation for the experimentally observed 0.5G0 (G0=2e^2/h) plateau in the conductance of side-gated quantum point contacts (QPCs) in the presence of lateral spin-orbit coupling (LSOC) [2]. We showed that the 0.5G0 plateau appears in the QPCs without any external magnetic field as a result of three ingredients: an asymmetric lateral confinement, a LSOC, and a strong electron-electron (e-e) interaction. In this report, we present the results of simulations for a wide range of QPC dimensions and biasing parameters showing that the same physics predicts the appearance of other anomalous plateaus at non-integer values of G0, including the well-known 0.7G0 anomaly. These features are related to a plethora of spin textures in the QPC that depend sensitively on material, device, biasing parameters, temperature, and the strength of the e-e interaction. [1] J. Wan, M. Cahay, P. Debray, and R.S. Newrock, Phys. Rev. B 80, 155440 (2009). [2] P. Debray, S.M. Rahman, J. Wan, R.S. Newrock, M. Cahay, A.T. Ngo, S.E. Ulloa, S.T. Herbert, M. Muhammad, and M. Johnson, Nature Nanotech. 4, 759 (2009).
Quantization and anomalous structures in the conductance of Si/SiGe quantum point contacts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
von Pock, J. F.; Salloch, D.; Qiao, G.; Wieser, U.; Hackbarth, T.; Kunze, U.
2016-04-01
Quantum point contacts (QPCs) are fabricated on modulation-doped Si/SiGe heterostructures and ballistic transport is studied at low temperatures. We observe quantized conductance with subband separations up to 4 meV and anomalies in the first conductance plateau at 4e2/h. At a temperature of T = 22 mK in the linear transport regime, a weak anomalous kink structure arises close to 0.5(4e2/h), which develops into a distinct plateau-like structure as temperature is raised up to T = 4 K. Under magnetic field parallel to the wire up to B = 14 T, the anomaly evolves into the Zeeman spin-split level at 0.5(4e2/h), resembling the "0.7 anomaly" in GaAs/AlGaAs QPCs. Additionally, a zero-bias anomaly (ZBA) is observed in nonlinear transport spectroscopy. At T = 22 mK, a parallel magnetic field splits the ZBA peak up into two peaks. At B = 0, elevated temperatures lead to similar splitting, which differs from the behavior of ZBAs in GaAs/AlGaAs QPCs. Under finite dc bias, the differential resistance exhibits additional plateaus approximately at 0.8(4e2/h) and 0.2(4e2/h) known as "0.85 anomaly" and "0.25 anomaly" in GaAs/AlGaAs QPCs. Unlike the first regular plateau at 4e2/h, the 0.2(4e2/h) plateau is insensitive to dc bias voltage up to at least VDS = 80 mV, in-plane magnetic fields up to B = 15 T, and to elevated temperatures up to T = 25 K. We interpret this effect as due to pinching off one of the reservoirs close to the QPC. We do not see any indication of lifting of the valley degeneracy in our samples.
Externally controlled local magnetic field in a conducting mesoscopic ring coupled to a quantum wire
Maiti, Santanu K.
2015-01-14
In the present work, the possibility of regulating local magnetic field in a quantum ring is investigated theoretically. The ring is coupled to a quantum wire and subjected to an in-plane electric field. Under a finite bias voltage across the wire a net circulating current is established in the ring which produces a strong magnetic field at its centre. This magnetic field can be tuned externally in a wide range by regulating the in-plane electric field, and thus, our present system can be utilized to control magnetic field at a specific region. The feasibility of this quantum system in designing spin-based quantum devices is also analyzed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukherjee, P. S.; Patra, S.; Chakraborty, G.; Pradhan, S. K.; Meikap, A. K.
2016-09-01
Low dimensional cubic phase ZnS quantum dots (QDs) are formed by mechanical alloying the stoichiometric mixture of Zn and S powders at room temperature. During milling process the primary mixed phase ZnS is formed at about 3.5 h of milling and strain less single phase (cubic) ZnS QDs are formed with ∼4.5 nm in size after 20 h of milling. Detailed microstructure study has been done by both Rietveld analysis of x-ray diffraction pattern and high resolution transmission electron microscope images. Dc resistivity decreases with increasing temperature which can be explained by three-dimensional hopping conduction mechanisms. Observed negative magnetoconductivity has been analyzed by wave function shrinkage model. Alternating current conductivity can be described by the correlated barrier hopping conduction mechanism. Analysis of complex impedance indicates that the grain boundary resistance is found to be dominating over the grain resistance. Relaxation behavior has been explained by the analysis of the electric modulus.
Dholabhai, Pratik P. Aguiar, Jeffery A.; Uberuaga, Blas P.; Misra, Amit
2014-05-21
Due to reduced dimensions and increased interfacial content, nanocomposite oxides offer improved functionalities in a wide variety of advanced technological applications, including their potential use as radiation tolerant materials. To better understand the role of interface structures in influencing the radiation damage tolerance of oxides, we have conducted atomistic calculations to elucidate the behavior of radiation-induced point defects (vacancies and interstitials) at interface steps in a model CeO{sub 2}/SrTiO{sub 3} system. We find that atomic-scale steps at the interface have substantial influence on the defect behavior, which ultimately dictate the material performance in hostile irradiation environments. Distinctive steps react dissimilarly to cation and anion defects, effectively becoming biased sinks for different types of defects. Steps also attract cation interstitials, leaving behind an excess of immobile vacancies. Further, defects introduce significant structural and chemical distortions primarily at the steps. These two factors are plausible origins for the enhanced amorphization at steps seen in our recent experiments. The present work indicates that comprehensive examination of the interaction of radiation-induced point defects with the atomic-scale topology and defect structure of heterointerfaces is essential to evaluate the radiation tolerance of nanocomposites. Finally, our results have implications for other applications, such as fast ion conduction.
Sahoo, Guruprasad Jain, Mahaveer K.
2015-10-15
We have investigated the temperature dependent carrier transport properties of nano-crystalline copper nitride thin films synthesized by modified activated reactive evaporation. The films, prepared in a Cu-rich growth condition are found to be highly disordered and the carrier transport in these films is mainly attributed to the impurity band conduction. We have observed that no single conduction mechanism is appropriate to elucidate the carrier transport in the entire temperature range of 20 – 300 K. Therefore, we have employed different conduction mechanisms in different temperature regimes. The carrier transport of the films in the low temperature regime (20 – 150 K) has been interpreted by implementing quantum correction to the conductivity. In the high temperature regime (200 – 300 K), the conduction mechanism has been successfully analyzed on the basis of Mott’s variable range hopping mechanism. Furthermore, it can be predicted that copper ions present at the surface of the crystallites are responsible for the hopping conduction mechanism.
Anomalous Conductivity Tensor and Quantum Oscillations in the Dirac Semimetal Na3Bi
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Jun; Kushwaha, Satya; Krizan, Jason; Liang, Tian; Cava, Robert J.; Ong, Nai Phuan
2015-03-01
Na3Bi is a 3D Dirac semimetal with protected nodes. Angle-resolved photoemission experiments have observed these massless Dirac fermions in the bulk band, but transport experiments have been hampered by the extreme air sensitivity of Na3Bi crystals. Transport experiments can potentially address interesting issues such as charge pumping between the separated Weyl nodes when the time-reversal symmetry is broken by a strong magnetic field. Here we report a transport measurement that reveals robust anomalies in both the conductivity and resistivity tensors. The resistivity ρxx is B-linear up to 35 T, while the Hall angle exhibits an unusual profile approaching a step-function. In addition, we have also observed a prominent beating pattern in the Shubnikov de Haas (SdH) oscillations indicating the existence of two nearly equal SdH frequencies when the Fermi energy falls inside the non-trivial gap-inverted regime. Supported by NSF-MRSEC (DMR 0819860), Army Research Office (ARO W911NF-11-1-0379) and MURI Grant (ARO W911NF-12-1-0461).
Effect of the Nuclear Hyperfine Field on the 2D Electron Conductivity in the Quantum Hall Regime
VITKALOV,S.A.; BOWERS,C.R.; SIMMONS,JERRY A.; RENO,JOHN L.
2000-07-13
The effect of the nuclear hyperfine interaction on the dc conductivity of 2D electrons under quantum Hall effect conditions at filling factor v= 1 is observed for the first time. The local hyperfine field enhanced by dynamic nuclear polarization is monitored via the Overhauser shift of the 2D conduction electron spin resonance in AlGaAs/GaAs multiquantum-well samples. The experimentally observed change in the dc conductivity resulting from dynamic nuclear polarization is in agreement with a thermal activation model incorporating the Zeeman energy change due to the hyperfine interaction. The relaxation decay time of the dc conductivity is, within experimental error, the same as the relaxation time of the nuclear spin polarization determined from the Overhauser shift. These findings unequivocally establish the nuclear spin origins of the observed conductivity change.
Deng, M. T.; Yu, C. L.; Huang, G. Y.; Larsson, M.; Caroff, P.; Xu, H. Q.
2014-01-01
We explore the signatures of Majorana fermions in a nanowire based topological superconductor-quantum dot-topological superconductor hybrid device by charge transport measurements. At zero magnetic field, well-defined Coulomb diamonds and the Kondo effect are observed. Under the application of a finite, sufficiently strong magnetic field, a zero-bias conductance peak structure is observed. It is found that the zero-bias conductance peak is present in many consecutive Coulomb diamonds, irrespective of the even-odd parity of the quasi-particle occupation number in the quantum dot. In addition, we find that the zero-bias conductance peak is in most cases accompanied by two differential conductance peaks, forming a triple-peak structure, and the separation between the two side peaks in bias voltage shows oscillations closely correlated to the background Coulomb conductance oscillations of the device. The observed zero-bias conductance peak and the associated triple-peak structure are in line with Majorana fermion physics in such a hybrid topological system. PMID:25434375
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sinha, Subhojyoti; Kumar Chatterjee, Sanat; Ghosh, Jiten; Kumar Meikap, Ajit
2013-03-01
We have used Rietveld refinement technique to extract the microstructural parameters of thioglycolic acid capped CdSe quantum dots. The quantum dot formation and its efficient capping are further confirmed by HR-TEM, UV-visible and FT-IR spectroscopy. Comparative study of the variation of dc conductivity with temperature (298 K ≤ T ≤ 460 K) is given considering Arrhenius formalism, small polaron hopping and Schnakenberg model. We observe that only Schnakenberg model provides good fit to the non-linear region of the variation of dc conductivity with temperature. Experimental variation of ac conductivity and dielectric parameters with temperature (298 K ≤ T ≤ 460 K) and frequency (80 Hz ≤ f ≤ 2 MHz) are discussed in the light of hopping theory and quantum confinement effect. We have elucidated the observed non-linearity in the I-V curves (measured within ±50 V), at dark and at ambient light, in view of tunneling mechanism. Tunnel exponents and non-linearity weight factors have also been evaluated in this regard.
Thermal Conductivity through the Quantum Critical Point in YbRh2Si2 at Very Low Temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taupin, M.; Knebel, G.; Matsuda, T. D.; Lapertot, G.; Machida, Y.; Izawa, K.; Brison, J.-P.; Flouquet, J.
2015-07-01
The thermal conductivity of YbRh2Si2 has been measured down to very low temperatures under field in the basal plane. An additional channel for heat transport appears below 30 mK, both in the antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic states, respectively, below and above the critical field suppressing the magnetic order. This excludes antiferromagnetic magnons as the origin of this additional contribution to thermal conductivity. Moreover, this low temperature contribution prevails a definite conclusion on the validity or violation of the Wiedemann-Franz law at the field-induced quantum critical point.
Impact ionization across the conduction-band-edge discontinuity of quantum-well heterostructures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chuang, S. L.; Hess, K.
1986-01-01
Impact ionization across the band-edge discontinuity of quantum-well heterostructures is studied theoretically. A heterolayer structure of alternating Al(x)Ga(1-x)As and GaAs layers is considered where the GaAs layers are heavily doped with donors. Thus a large number of electrons is confined to the quantum-well region. Incident electrons are heated up by applied electric fields and collide with the electrons confined in the well regions. Both the ionization rate as a function of the incident energy, and average ionization rates are computed. Device applications of such multiple quantum-well structures and the possibility of a complete analog to the conventional photomultiplier are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kapil, V.; VandeVondele, J.; Ceriotti, M.
2016-02-01
The development and implementation of increasingly accurate methods for electronic structure calculations mean that, for many atomistic simulation problems, treating light nuclei as classical particles is now one of the most serious approximations. Even though recent developments have significantly reduced the overhead for modeling the quantum nature of the nuclei, the cost is still prohibitive when combined with advanced electronic structure methods. Here we present how multiple time step integrators can be combined with ring-polymer contraction techniques (effectively, multiple time stepping in imaginary time) to reduce virtually to zero the overhead of modelling nuclear quantum effects, while describing inter-atomic forces at high levels of electronic structure theory. This is demonstrated for a combination of MP2 and semi-local DFT applied to the Zundel cation. The approach can be seamlessly combined with other methods to reduce the computational cost of path integral calculations, such as high-order factorizations of the Boltzmann operator or generalized Langevin equation thermostats.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marquette, Ian; Quesne, Christiane
2016-05-01
The purpose of this communication is to point out the connection between a 1D quantum Hamiltonian involving the fourth Painlevé transcendent PIV, obtained in the context of second-order supersymmetric quantum mechanics and third-order ladder operators, with a hierarchy of families of quantum systems called k-step rational extensions of the harmonic oscillator and related with multi-indexed Xm1,m2,…,mk Hermite exceptional orthogonal polynomials of type III. The connection between these exactly solvable models is established at the level of the equivalence of the Hamiltonians using rational solutions of the fourth Painlevé equation in terms of generalized Hermite and Okamoto polynomials. We also relate the different ladder operators obtained by various combinations of supersymmetric constructions involving Darboux-Crum and Krein-Adler supercharges, their zero modes and the corresponding energies. These results will demonstrate and clarify the relation observed for a particular case in previous papers.
Park, Dambi; Park, Sungjin; Jeong, Kwangsik; Jeong, Hong-Sik; Song, Jea Yong; Cho, Mann–Ho
2016-01-01
Single-crystal Bi2Te3 nanowires (NWs) and nanoribbons (NRs) were synthesized by a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method from Bi2Te3 powder. To investigate the thermal properties of the Bi2Te3 nanostructure, a nondestructive technique based on temperature dependent Raman mapping was carried out. The Raman peaks were red shifted with increasing temperature. In addition, the fraction of the laser power absorbed inside the Bi2Te3 nanostructures was estimated by optical simulation and used to calculate the thermal conductivity value (κ). The thermal conductivity value obtained for the Bi2Te3 NW and NR was 1.47 Wm−1K−1 and 1.81 Wm−1K−1 at 300 K, respectively. The electrical conductivity of the Bi2Te3 nanostructure was also measured. In particular, an excellent electrical conductivity value of 1.22 * 103 Ω−1 cm−1 was obtained for the Bi2Te3 NW at 300 K. This result can be attributed to topological insulator surface states. As a result of our study, the figure of merit (ZT) for the Bi2Te3 NW and NR can be significantly improved. PMID:26750563
Shin, Keun-Young; Lee, James S; Hong, Jin-Yong; Jang, Jyongsik
2014-03-21
A highly conductive and durable copper (Cu) paste was successfully fabricated via acid treatment and mechanical blending with corrosion inhibitors. A screen-printed Cu pattern was evaluated as a dipole tag-antenna with long term and thermal stability, and structural flexibility. PMID:24514876
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsai, Ho-Cheng
We carried out quantum mechanics (QM) studies aimed at improving the performance of hydrogen fuel cells. In part I, The challenge was to find a replacement for the Pt cathode that would lead to improved performance for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) while remaining stable under operational conditions and decreasing cost. Our design strategy was to find an alloy with composition Pt3M that would lead to surface segregation such that the top layer would be pure Pt, with the second and subsequent layers richer in M. Under operating conditions we expect the surface to have significant O and/or OH chemisorbed on the surface; we searched for M that would remain segregated under these conditions. Using QM we examined surface segregation for 28 Pt3M alloys, where M is a transition metal. We found that only Pt3Os and Pt3Ir showed significant surface segregation when O and OH are chemisorbed on the catalyst surfaces. This result indicates that Pt3Os and Pt 3Ir favor formation of a Pt-skin surface layer structure that would resist the acidic electrolyte corrosion during fuel cell operation environments. We chose to focus on Os because the phase diagram for Pt-Ir indicated that Pt-Ir could not form a homogeneous alloy at lower temperature. To determine the performance for ORR, we used QM to examine intermediates, reaction pathways, and reaction barriers involved in the processes for which protons from the anode reactions react with O2 to form H2O. These QM calculations used our Poisson-Boltzmann implicit solvation model include the effects of the solvent (water with dielectric constant 78 with pH 7 at 298K). We also carried out similar QM studies followed by experimental validation for the Os/Pt core-shell catalyst fabricated by the underpotential deposition (UPD) method. The QM results indicated that the RDS for ORR is a compromise between the OOH formation step (0.37 eV for Pt, 0.23 eV for Pt2ML/Os core-shell) and H2O formation steps (0.32 eV for Pt, 0.22 eV for Pt2ML
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsai, Ho-Cheng
We carried out quantum mechanics (QM) studies aimed at improving the performance of hydrogen fuel cells. In part I, The challenge was to find a replacement for the Pt cathode that would lead to improved performance for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) while remaining stable under operational conditions and decreasing cost. Our design strategy was to find an alloy with composition Pt3M that would lead to surface segregation such that the top layer would be pure Pt, with the second and subsequent layers richer in M. Under operating conditions we expect the surface to have significant O and/or OH chemisorbed on the surface; we searched for M that would remain segregated under these conditions. Using QM we examined surface segregation for 28 Pt3M alloys, where M is a transition metal. We found that only Pt3Os and Pt3Ir showed significant surface segregation when O and OH are chemisorbed on the catalyst surfaces. This result indicates that Pt3Os and Pt 3Ir favor formation of a Pt-skin surface layer structure that would resist the acidic electrolyte corrosion during fuel cell operation environments. We chose to focus on Os because the phase diagram for Pt-Ir indicated that Pt-Ir could not form a homogeneous alloy at lower temperature. To determine the performance for ORR, we used QM to examine intermediates, reaction pathways, and reaction barriers involved in the processes for which protons from the anode reactions react with O2 to form H2O. These QM calculations used our Poisson-Boltzmann implicit solvation model include the effects of the solvent (water with dielectric constant 78 with pH 7 at 298K). We also carried out similar QM studies followed by experimental validation for the Os/Pt core-shell catalyst fabricated by the underpotential deposition (UPD) method. The QM results indicated that the RDS for ORR is a compromise between the OOH formation step (0.37 eV for Pt, 0.23 eV for Pt2ML/Os core-shell) and H2O formation steps (0.32 eV for Pt, 0.22 eV for Pt2ML
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gustin, C.; Faniel, S.; Hackens, B.; Melinte, S.; Shayegan, M.; Bayot, V.
2005-04-01
Using two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) confined to wide and narrow quantum wells, we study the magnetoconductance of ballistic quantum dots as a function of the well width and the tilt angle of the magnetic field B with respect to the 2DEG. Both the wide and narrow quantum well dots feature magnetoconductance fluctuations (MCFs) at intermediate tilt angles, due to the finite thickness of the electron layer and the field-induced orbital effect. As B approaches a strictly parallel configuration, a saturation of the MCFs’ spectral distribution is observed, combined with the persistence of a limited number of frequency components in the case of the narrow quantum well dot. It is found that the onset of saturation strongly depends on the width of the confining well. Using the results of self-consistent Poisson-Schrödinger simulations, the magnetoconductance is rescaled as a function of the Fermi level in the 2DEG. We perform a power spectrum analysis of the parallel field-induced MCFs in the energy space and find a good agreement with theoretical predictions.
Farquharson, Kelly; Murphy, Kimberly A.
2016-01-01
Purpose: This paper describes methodological procedures involving execution of a large-scale, multi-site longitudinal study of language and reading comprehension in young children. Researchers in the Language and Reading Research Consortium (LARRC) developed and implemented these procedures to ensure data integrity across multiple sites, schools, and grades. Specifically, major features of our approach, as well as lessons learned, are summarized in 10 steps essential for successful completion of a large-scale longitudinal investigation in early grades. Method: Over 5 years, children in preschool through third grade were administered a battery of 35 higher- and lower-level language, listening, and reading comprehension measures (RCM). Data were collected from children, their teachers, and their parents/guardians at four sites across the United States. Substantial and rigorous effort was aimed toward maintaining consistency in processes and data management across sites for children, assessors, and staff. Conclusion: With appropriate planning, flexibility, and communication strategies in place, LARRC developed and executed a successful multi-site longitudinal research study that will meet its goal of investigating the contribution and role of language skills in the development of children's listening and reading comprehension. Through dissemination of our design strategies and lessons learned, research teams embarking on similar endeavors can be better equipped to anticipate the challenges. PMID:27064308
Petryayeva, Eleonora; Algar, W Russ
2015-06-21
The development of nanoparticle-based bioassays is an active and promising area of research, where point-of-care (POC) diagnostics are one of many prospective applications. Unfortunately, the majority of nanoparticle-based assays that have been developed to date have failed to address two important considerations for POC applications: use of instrumentation amenable to POC settings, and measurement of analytes in biological sample matrices such as serum and whole blood. To address these considerations, we present design criteria and demonstrate proof-of-concept for a semiconductor quantum dot (QD)-based assay format that utilizes smartphone readout for the single-step, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based detection of hydrolase activity in serum and whole blood, using thrombin as a model analyte. Important design criteria for assay development included (i) the size and emission wavelength of the QDs, which had to balance brightness for smartphone imaging, optical transmission through blood samples, and FRET efficiency for signaling; (ii) the wavelength of a light-emitting diode (LED) excitation source, which had to balance transmission through blood and the efficiency of excitation of QDs; and (iii) the use of an array of paper-in-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-on-glass sample chips to reproducibly limit the optical path length through blood to ca. 250 μm and permit multiplexing. Ultimately, CdSe/CdS/ZnS QDs with peak emission at 630 nm were conjugated with Alexa Fluor 647-labeled peptide substrates for thrombin and immobilized on paper test strips inside the sample cells. This FRET system was sensitive to thrombin activity, where the recovery of QD emission with hydrolytic loss of FRET permitted kinetic assays in buffer, serum and whole blood. Quantitative results were obtained in less than 30 min with a limit of detection 18 NIH units mL(-1) of activity in 12 μL of whole blood. Proof-of-concept for a competitive binding assay was also demonstrated with
Long dephasing time and high-temperature conductance fluctuations in an open InGaAs quantum dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hackens, B.; Delfosse, F.; Faniel, S.; Gustin, C.; Boutry, H.; Wallart, X.; Bollaert, S.; Cappy, A.; Bayot, V.
2002-12-01
We measure the electron phase-coherence time τφ up to 18 K using universal fluctuations in the low-temperature magnetoconductance of an open InGaAs quantum dot. The temperature dependence of τφ is quantitatively consistent with the two-dimensional model of electron-electron interactions in disordered systems. In our sample, τφ is two to four times larger than previously reported in GaAs quantum dots. We attribute this enhancement to a larger value of the Fermi energy and the lower electron effective mass in our sample. We also observe a distinct type of conductance fluctuation due to ballistic electron focusing inside the dot up to 204 K.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ozturk, Emine
2015-11-01
In this study, for a step-like GaAs- Ga_{1-x}AlxAs asymmetric quantum well (AQW) the linear and total intersubband optical absorption coefficients and the refractive index changes are calculated as dependent on the intense laser field (ILF) and the right quantum well (RQW) width. Our results show that the location and the magnitude of all absorption coefficients and refractive index changes depend on ILF and the asymmetric parameter ( d=LR/LL). Also, we showed that both ILF and d provide an important effect on the electronic and optical properties of step-like quantum well, and the changes of the energy levels, the dipole moment matrix elements and the resonant peak values of the absorption coefficients are dependent on the shape of the confinement potential. While for different asymmetric parameters the intersubband absorption spectrum shows blue shift up to the different critical ILF values, this spectrum shows red shift for ILF values greater than certain values. By considering the variation of the energy difference as dependent on the RQW width, for step-like QW the absorption spectrum shows blue or red shift. Especially, step-like QWs are used for producing terahertz radiation from intersubband transitions and they have more tunable structure parameters (the left (right) quantum well width, LL(LR), and the confinement potential in the left (right) hand side, VL (VR) with respect to other asymmetric QWs (in the present study we used LR=LL/2, LL, 3 L L/2 and V R = 2 V L/3 values). This case provides a new degree of freedom for controlling the optical properties in quantum wells (QWs). In addition, the nonlinear optics underlying the application of the ILF to asymmetric potential heterostructures becomes a subject of present-day interest. In conclusion: i) The electronic and optical properties of the step-like AQW vary by increasing ILF. ii) ILF leads to major modifications on the shape of the confining potential. iii) The position and the size of all absorption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muro, Tatsuya; Nishihara, Yoshitaka; Norimoto, Shota; Ferrier, Meydi; Arakawa, Tomonori; Kobayashi, Kensuke; Ihn, Thomas; Rössler, Clemens; Ensslin, Klaus; Reichl, Christian; Wegscheider, Werner
2016-05-01
We report a precise experimental study on the shot noise of a quantum point contact (QPC) fabricated in a GaAs/AlGaAs based high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). The combination of unprecedented cleanliness and very high measurement accuracy has enabled us to discuss the Fano factor to characterize the shot noise with a precision of 0.01. We observed that the shot noise at zero magnetic field exhibits a slight enhancement exceeding the single particle theoretical prediction, and that it gradually decreases as a perpendicular magnetic field is applied. We also confirmed that this additional noise completely vanishes in the quantum Hall regime. These phenomena can be explained by the electron heating effect near the QPC, which is suppressed with increasing magnetic field.
2014-01-01
Spin photocurrent spectra induced by Rashba- and Dresselhaus-type circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE) at inter-band excitation have been experimentally investigated in InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs step quantum wells (QWs) at room temperature. The Rashba- and Dresselhaus-induced CPGE spectra are quite similar with each other during the spectral region corresponding to the transition of the excitonic state 1H1E (the first valence subband of heavy hole to the first conduction subband of electrons). The ratio of Rashba- and Dresselhaus-induced CPGE current for the transition 1H1E is estimated to be 8.8±0.1, much larger than that obtained in symmetric QWs (4.95). Compared to symmetric QWs, the reduced well width enhances the Dresselhaus-type spin splitting, but the Rashba-type spin splitting increases more rapidly in the step QWs. Since the degree of the segregation effect of indium atoms and the intensity of build-in field in the step QWs are comparable to those in symmetric QWs, as proved by reflectance difference and photoreflectance spectra, respectively, the larger Rashba-type spin splitting is mainly induced by the additional interface introduced by step structures. PMID:24646286
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duan, Jialong; Tang, Qunwei; Li, Ru; He, Benlin; Yu, Liangmin; Yang, Peizhi
2015-06-01
Pursuit of a high efficiency and stability has been a persistent objective for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). Here we launch a strategy of synthesizing graphene implanted polyacrylamide (PAAm-G) conducting gel electrolytes for quasi-solid-state QDSCs. With an aim of elevating the dosage of S2-/Sx2- redox couples and therefore charge-transfer ability, both osmotic press across the PAAm-G and capillary force within the three-dimensional micropores are utilized as driving forces. A promising power conversion efficiency of 2.34% is recorded for the QDSCs by optimizing graphene dosage in the conducting gel electrolyte. The enhanced conversion efficiency of solar cell is attributed to the expanded catalytic area from counter electrolyte/electrolyte interface to both interface and the conducting gel electrolyte.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greshnov, A. A.; Kolesnikova, E. N.; Utesov, O. I.; Zegrya, G. G.
2010-02-01
The divergent at ω=0 quantum correction to conductivity δσ2(ω) of the leading order in (kFl)-1 has been calculated neglecting Cooperon-type contributions suppressed by moderate or strong magnetic field. In the so-called diffusion approximation this quantity is equal to zero up to the second order in (kFl)-1. More subtle treatment of the problem shows that δσ2(ω) is non-zero due to ballistic contributions neglected previously. Knowledge of δσ2(ω) allows to estimate value of the so-called unitary localization length as ξu≈lexp(1.6g2) where Drude conductivity is given by σ0=ge2/h. This estimation underpins the statement of the linear growth of σxx peaks with Landau level number n in the integer quantum Hall effect regime [1] (Greshnov and Zegrya, 2008; Greshnov et al., 2008) at least for n≤2 and calls Pruisken-Khmelnitskii hypothesis of universality [2] (Levine et al., 1983; Khmelnitskii, 1983) in question.
Reyes, Lino; Díaz-Sánchez, Celestino; Iuga, Cristina
2012-07-26
In this work, we have studied the substituent effect of several alkyl groups in the rate-determining step of the catalyzed Baeyer-Villiger (BV) reaction of phenyl alkyl ketones with performic (PFA) and trifluoroperacetic (TFPAA) acids, using quantum chemistry methods. Our results reveal that the substituent effect is more pronounced in the migration step barriers than in the corresponding addition step; that could change the rate-determining step (RDS) of the reaction, as observed in the oxidation of phenyl tert-butyl ketone with both peracids. In addition, the effect of the acid/peracid pairs used is also analyzed. We have demonstrated that the addition step is less susceptible to the acid/peracid nature since the acid strength and the nucleophilicity of the peracid have opposite effects. The effect of the acid/peracid pair is much more pronounced in the migration step because it only depends on the leaving ability of the acid, which in turn depends on its strength. These observations are relevant for understanding the effects of the substrate, the peracid, and the catalyst on the switching of the RDS in the BV reaction. PMID:22738150
Mano, T.; Noetzel, R.; Zhou, D.; Hamhuis, G.J.; Eijkemans, T.J.; Wolter, J.H.
2005-01-01
One-dimensional (In,Ga)As quantum dot (QD) arrays are created on planar singular, vicinal, and shallow mesa-patterned GaAs (100) substrates by self-organized anisotropic strain engineering of an (In,Ga)As/GaAs quantum wire (QWR) superlattice template in molecular beam epitaxy. On planar singular substrates, highly uniform single QD arrays along [0-11] are formed. On shallow [0-11] and [011] stripe-patterned substrates, the generated type-A and -B steps distinctly affect the surface migration processes which are crucial for QWR template development, i.e., strain-gradient-driven In adatom migration along [011] and surface-reconstruction-induced Ga/In adatom migration along [0-11]. In the presence of both type-A and -B steps on vicinal substrates misoriented towards [101], the direction of adatom migration is altered to rotate the QD arrays. This establishes the relationship between self-organized anisotropic strain and step engineering, which is exploited on shallow zigzag-patterned substrates for the realization of complex QD arrays and networks with well-positioned bends and branches, exhibiting high structural and optical quality.
Tamaki, Ryo Shoji, Yasushi; Okada, Yoshitaka; Miyano, Kenjiro
2014-08-18
Two-step photon absorption processes in a self-organized In{sub 0.4}Ga{sub 0.6}As/GaAs quantum dot (QD) solar cell have been investigated by monitoring the mid-infrared (IR) photoinduced modulation of the external quantum efficiency (ΔEQE) at low temperature. The first step interband and the second step intraband transitions were both spectrally resolved by scanning photon energies of visible to near-IR CW light and mid-IR pulse lasers, respectively. A peak centered at 0.20 eV corresponding to the transition to virtual bound states and a band above 0.42 eV probably due to photoexcitation to GaAs continuum states were observed in ΔEQE spectra, when the interband transition was above 1.4 eV, directly exciting wetting layers or GaAs spacer layers. On the other hand, resonant excitation of the ground state of QDs at 1.35 eV resulted in a reduction of EQE. The sign of ΔEQE below 1.40 eV changed from negative to positive by increasing the excitation intensity of the interband transition. We ascribe this to the filling of higher energy trap states.
Two-Step Reactive Aid Sintering of BaZr0.8Y0.2O3-δ Proton-Conducting Ceramics
Wang, Siwei; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Lingling; Ren, Cong; Chen, Fanglin; Brinkman, Kyle S.
2015-10-14
Ceramic-based proton conductors enable high-temperature hydrogen economy applications such as hydrogen separation membranes, fuel cells, and steam electrolyzers. BaZr0.8Y0.2O3-δ (BZY) proton-conducting oxide possesses the highest level of proton conductivity reported to date, but poor sinterability hinders its widespread utilization. Here, we report a two-step reactive aid sintering (TRAS) method involving the introduction of BaCO3 and B2O3-Li2O for the preparation of dense BZY ceramics sintered at 1500°C. The resulting BZY samples showed a pure perovskite structure with a dramatic increase in the relative density to 91.5%. In addition, the shrinkage during sintering was improved to 19.3% by a TRAS method asmore » compared to 2.6% by the conventional solid date reaction method. Moreover, the bulk conductivity was improved due to enhanced densification, while the grain boundary conductivity decreased due to the blocking behavior of the sintering aid resulting in a decrease in the total conductivity of the samples.« less
Two-Step Reactive Aid Sintering of BaZr0.8Y0.2O3- δ Proton-Conducting Ceramics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Siwei; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Lingling; Ren, Cong; Chen, Fanglin; Brinkman, Kyle S.
2015-12-01
Ceramic-based proton conductors enable high-temperature hydrogen economy applications such as hydrogen separation membranes, fuel cells, and steam electrolyzers. BaZr0.8Y0.2O3- δ (BZY) proton-conducting oxide possesses the highest level of proton conductivity reported to date, but poor sinterability hinders its widespread utilization. In this paper, we report a two-step reactive aid sintering (TRAS) method involving the introduction of BaCO3 and B2O3-Li2O for the preparation of dense BZY ceramics sintered at 1500°C. The resulting BZY samples showed a pure perovskite structure with a dramatic increase in the relative density to 91.5%. In addition, the shrinkage during sintering was improved to 19.3% by a TRAS method as compared to 2.6% by the conventional solid date reaction method. The bulk conductivity was improved due to enhanced densification, while the grain boundary conductivity decreased due to the blocking behavior of the sintering aid resulting in a decrease in the total conductivity of the samples.
Evans, Christopher M; Love, Alyssa M; Weiss, Emily A
2012-10-17
This article reports control of the competition between step-growth and living chain-growth polymerization mechanisms in the formation of cadmium chalcogenide colloidal quantum dots (QDs) from CdSe(S) clusters by varying the concentration of anionic surfactant in the synthetic reaction mixture. The growth of the particles proceeds by step-addition from initially nucleated clusters in the absence of excess phosphinic or carboxylic acids, which adsorb as their anionic conjugate bases, and proceeds indirectly by dissolution of clusters, and subsequent chain-addition of monomers to stable clusters (Ostwald ripening) in the presence of excess phosphinic or carboxylic acid. Fusion of clusters by step-growth polymerization is an explanation for the consistent observation of so-called "magic-sized" clusters in QD growth reactions. Living chain-addition (chain addition with no explicit termination step) produces QDs over a larger range of sizes with better size dispersity than step-addition. Tuning the molar ratio of surfactant to Se(2-)(S(2-)), the limiting ionic reagent, within the living chain-addition polymerization allows for stoichiometric control of QD radius without relying on reaction time. PMID:23009216
Dynamic conductivity of the bulk states of n-type HgTe/CdTe quantum well topological insulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Qinjun; Sanderson, Matthew; Cao, J. C.; Zhang, Chao
2014-11-01
We theoretically studied the frequency-dependent current response of the bulk state of topological insulator HgTe/CdTe quantum well. The optical conductivity is mainly due to the inter-band process at high frequencies. At low frequencies, intra-band process dominates with a dramatic drop to near zero before the inter-band contribution takes over. The conductivity decreases with temperature at low temperature and increases with temperature at high temperature. The transport scattering rate has an opposite frequency dependence in the low and high temperature regime. The different frequency dependence is due to the interplay of the carrier-impurity scattering and carrier population near the Fermi surface.
Observation of a 0.5 conductance plateau in asymmetrically biased GaAs quantum point contact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhandari, N.; Das, P. P.; Cahay, M.; Newrock, R. S.; Herbert, S. T.
2012-09-01
We report the observation of a robust anomalous conductance plateau near G = 0.5 G0 (G0 = 2e2/h) in asymmetrically biased AlGaAs/GaAs quantum point contacts (QPCs), with in-plane side gates in the presence of lateral spin-orbit coupling. This is interpreted as evidence of spin polarization in the narrow portion of the QPC. The appearance and evolution of the conductance anomaly has been studied at T = 4.2 K as a function of the potential asymmetry between the side gates. Because GaAs is a material with established processing techniques, high mobility, and a relatively high spin coherence length, the observation of spontaneous spin polarization in a side-gated GaAs QPC could eventually lead to the realization of an all-electric spin-valve at tens of degrees Kelvin.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aliov, M. K.; Sabur, A. R.
In this paper, hard silica/epoxy nanocomposite coatings were prepared by a spinning method on the surface of AA6082 aluminum alloy with addition of CdTe quantum dots as the second phase in hard nanocomposite coating with different ratios with respect to main phase (silica nanoparticulates). Wear and electrical conductivity test have been done on the coatings for investigation of the possible enhanced or inverse effects of addition QDs on properties of hard nanocomposite. The effect of coating time, rotating speed and SiO2/QD ratio have been investigated and it has been shown that by adding QD nanoparticulates, the electrical conductivity of layers is completely controllable without adverse effect on wear resistance. The effects of mentioned parameters on the trend of obtained curves have been discussed.
Dynamic conductivity of the bulk states of n-type HgTe/CdTe quantum well topological insulator
Chen, Qinjun; Sanderson, Matthew; Cao, J. C.; Zhang, Chao
2014-11-17
We theoretically studied the frequency-dependent current response of the bulk state of topological insulator HgTe/CdTe quantum well. The optical conductivity is mainly due to the inter-band process at high frequencies. At low frequencies, intra-band process dominates with a dramatic drop to near zero before the inter-band contribution takes over. The conductivity decreases with temperature at low temperature and increases with temperature at high temperature. The transport scattering rate has an opposite frequency dependence in the low and high temperature regime. The different frequency dependence is due to the interplay of the carrier-impurity scattering and carrier population near the Fermi surface.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moraga, Luis; Henriquez, Ricardo; Solis, Basilio
2015-08-01
We calculate the electrical conductivity of a metallic sample under the effects of distributed impurities and a random distribution of grain boundaries by means of a quantum mechanical procedure based on Kubo formula. Grain boundaries are represented either by a one-dimensional regular array of Dirac delta potentials (Mayadas and Shatzkes model) or by its three-dimensional extension (Szczyrbowski and Schmalzbauer model). We give formulas expressing the conductivity of bulk samples, thin films and thin wires of rectangular cross-sections in the case when the samples are bounded by perfectly flat surfaces. We find that, even in the absence of surface roughness, the conductivity in thin samples is reduced from its bulk value. If there are too many grain boundaries per unit length, or their scattering strength is high enough, there is a critical value Rc of the reflectivity R of an individual boundary such that the electrical conductivity vanishes for R >Rc. Also, the conductivity of thin wires shows a stepwise dependence on R. The effect of weak random variations in the strength or separation of the grain boundaries is computed by means of the method of correlation length. Finally, the resistivity of nanometric polycrystalline tungsten films reported in Choi et al. J. Appl. Phys. (2014) 115 104308 is tentatively analyzed by means of the present formalism.
Akiyama, Y.; Sakaki, H.
2006-10-30
Dense and highly ordered arrays of self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots are formed by molecular beam epitaxy along multiatomic steps on vicinal (111)B GaAs. This unique structure has been synthesized by depositing a nominally 3-nm-thick In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As layer onto a periodically corrugated surface prepared on a GaAs substrate tilted 8.5 deg. from (111)B. Each dot is typically 30-50 nm in lateral size and about 4 nm in height. Accumulation and release processes of strains in InGaAs layers deposited on stepped surfaces are discussed to suggest a possible mechanism for the aligned dot formation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janiš, Václav; Pokorný, Vladislav
2012-12-01
We propose a renormalization scheme of the Kubo formula for the electrical conductivity with multiple backscatterings contributing to the electron-hole irreducible vertex derived from the asymptotic limit to high spatial dimensions. We use this vertex to represent the two-particle Green function via a symmetrized Bethe-Salpeter equation in momentum space. We further utilize the dominance of a pole in the irreducible vertex to an approximate diagonalization of the Bethe-Salpeter equation and a non-perturbative representation of the electron-hole correlation function. The latter function is then used to derive a compact representation for the electrical conductivity at zero temperature without the necessity to evaluate separately the Drude term and vertex corrections. The electrical conductivity calculated in this way remains nonnegative also in the strongly disordered regime where the localization effects become significant and the negative vertex corrections in the standard Kubo formula overweight the Drude term.
Wood, Claire; Bremner, Brenda
2013-08-09
The Siletz Tribal Energy Program (STEP), housed in the Tribe’s Planning Department, will hire a data entry coordinator to collect, enter, analyze and store all the current and future energy efficiency and renewable energy data pertaining to administrative structures the tribe owns and operates and for homes in which tribal members live. The proposed data entry coordinator will conduct an energy options analysis in collaboration with the rest of the Siletz Tribal Energy Program and Planning Department staff. An energy options analysis will result in a thorough understanding of tribal energy resources and consumption, if energy efficiency and conservation measures being implemented are having the desired effect, analysis of tribal energy loads (current and future energy consumption), and evaluation of local and commercial energy supply options. A literature search will also be conducted. In order to educate additional tribal members about renewable energy, we will send four tribal members to be trained to install and maintain solar panels, solar hot water heaters, wind turbines and/or micro-hydro.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Allen, Philip B.
1979-01-01
Examines Drude's classical (1900) theory of electrical conduction, details the objections to and successes of the 1900 theory, and investigates the Quantum (1928) theory of conduction, reviewing its successes and limitations. (BT)
Close relation between quantum interference in molecular conductance and diradical existence.
Tsuji, Yuta; Hoffmann, Roald; Strange, Mikkel; Solomon, Gemma C
2016-01-26
An empirical observation of a relationship between a striking feature of electronic transmission through a π-system, destructive quantum interference (QI), on one hand, and the stability of diradicals on the other, leads to the proof of a general theorem that relates the two. Subject to a number of simplifying assumptions, in a π-electron system, QI occurs when electrodes are attached to those positions of an N-carbon atom N-electron closed-shell hydrocarbon where the matrix elements of the Green's function vanish. These zeros come in two types, which are called easy and hard. Suppose an N+2 atom, N+2 electron hydrocarbon is formed by substituting 2 CH2 groups at two atoms, where the electrodes were. Then, if a QI feature is associated with electrode attachment to the two atoms of the original N atom system, the resulting augmented N+2 molecule will be a diradical. If there is no QI feature, i.e., transmission of current is normal if electrodes are attached to the two atoms, the resulting hydrocarbon will not be a diradical but will have a classical closed-shell electronic structure. Moreover, where a diradical exists, the easy zero is associated with a nondisjoint diradical, and the hard zero is associated with a disjoint one. A related theorem is proven for deletion of two sites from a hydrocarbon. PMID:26755578
Close relation between quantum interference in molecular conductance and diradical existence
Tsuji, Yuta; Hoffmann, Roald; Strange, Mikkel; Solomon, Gemma C.
2016-01-01
An empirical observation of a relationship between a striking feature of electronic transmission through a π-system, destructive quantum interference (QI), on one hand, and the stability of diradicals on the other, leads to the proof of a general theorem that relates the two. Subject to a number of simplifying assumptions, in a π-electron system, QI occurs when electrodes are attached to those positions of an N-carbon atom N-electron closed-shell hydrocarbon where the matrix elements of the Green’s function vanish. These zeros come in two types, which are called easy and hard. Suppose an N+2 atom, N+2 electron hydrocarbon is formed by substituting 2 CH2 groups at two atoms, where the electrodes were. Then, if a QI feature is associated with electrode attachment to the two atoms of the original N atom system, the resulting augmented N+2 molecule will be a diradical. If there is no QI feature, i.e., transmission of current is normal if electrodes are attached to the two atoms, the resulting hydrocarbon will not be a diradical but will have a classical closed-shell electronic structure. Moreover, where a diradical exists, the easy zero is associated with a nondisjoint diradical, and the hard zero is associated with a disjoint one. A related theorem is proven for deletion of two sites from a hydrocarbon. PMID:26755578
Kapil, V; VandeVondele, J; Ceriotti, M
2016-02-01
The development and implementation of increasingly accurate methods for electronic structure calculations mean that, for many atomistic simulation problems, treating light nuclei as classical particles is now one of the most serious approximations. Even though recent developments have significantly reduced the overhead for modeling the quantum nature of the nuclei, the cost is still prohibitive when combined with advanced electronic structure methods. Here we present how multiple time step integrators can be combined with ring-polymer contraction techniques (effectively, multiple time stepping in imaginary time) to reduce virtually to zero the overhead of modelling nuclear quantum effects, while describing inter-atomic forces at high levels of electronic structure theory. This is demonstrated for a combination of MP2 and semi-local DFT applied to the Zundel cation. The approach can be seamlessly combined with other methods to reduce the computational cost of path integral calculations, such as high-order factorizations of the Boltzmann operator or generalized Langevin equation thermostats. PMID:26851912
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pecora, Louis; Wu, Dong Ho; Kim, Christopher
Tunneling rates in closed, double well quantum or wave systems in two dimensions or higher are radically different between wells with classically regular or chaotic behavior. Wells with regular dynamics have tunneling rates that fluctuate by several orders of magnitude as a function of energy or frequency. Wells with chaotic dynamics have fluctuations smaller than one order of magnitude (a regularization of the fluctuations). We examine a more realistic experimental system, a single well with two channels with tunneling barriers at their junctions with the wells. Former theories for conductance in quantum dots will not apply here. We developed a theory, which uses proper boundary conditions at the barriers and yields the scattering matrix. Results show that the transmission rates fluctuate by orders of magnitude in the regular-shaped well, but are greatly reduced (regularized) for the chaotic-shaped well. We will show experimental results that test these theoretical findings for microwave transmission through a chaotic-shaped cavity, which is made of copper and has two ports with tunneling barriers.
Das, Amit K. Ajimsha, R. S.; Kukreja, L. M.
2014-01-27
ZnO thin films degenerately doped with Si (Si{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O) in the concentrations range of ∼0.5% to 5.8% were grown by sequential pulsed laser deposition on sapphire substrates at 400 °C. The temperature dependent resistivity measurements in the range from 300 to 4.2 K revealed negative temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR) for the 0.5%, 3.8%, and 5.8% doped Si{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O films in the entire temperature range. On the contrary, the Si{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O films with Si concentrations of 1.0%, 1.7%, and 2.0% showed a transition from negative to positive TCR with increasing temperature. These observations were explained using weak localization based quantum corrections to conductivity.
Conduction band mass determinations for n-type InGaAs/InAlAs single quantum wells
Jones, E.D.; Reno, J.L.; Kotera, Nobuo; Wang, Y.
1998-05-01
The authors report the measurement of the conduction band mass in n-type single 27-ML-wide InGaAs/InAlAs quantum well lattice matched to InP using two methods: (1) Magnetoluminescence spectroscopy and (2) far-infrared cyclotron resonance. The magnetoluminescence method utilizes Landau level transitions between 0 and 14 T at 1.4 K. The far infrared cyclotron resonance measurements were made at 4.2 K and to fields as large up to 18 T. The 2D-carrier density N{sub 2D} = 3 {times} 10{sup 11} cm{sup {minus}2} at low temperatures. The magnetoluminescence technique yielded an effective conduction-band mass of m{sub c} = 0.062m{sub 0} while the far infrared cyclotron resonance measurements gave m{sub c} = 0.056m{sub 0}, where m{sub 0} is the free electron mass. Both measurements show no evidence for any significant conduction-band nonparabolicity.
Shiau, Huai-Suen; Janik, Michael J.; Liu, Wenjuan; Colby, Ralph H.
2013-11-28
A quantum-mechanical investigation on Li poly(ethylene oxide)-based ionomers was performed in the cluster-continuum solvation model (CCM) that includes specific solvation in the first shell surrounding the cation, all surrounded by a polarizable continuum. A four-state model, including a free Li cation, Li{sup +}-anion pair, triple ion, and quadrupole was used to represent the states of Li{sup +} within the ionomer in the CCM. The relative energy of each state was calculated for Li{sup +} with various anions, with dimethyl ether representing the ether oxygen solvation. The population distribution of Li{sup +} ions among states was estimated by applying Boltzmann statistics to the CCM energies. Entropy difference estimates are needed for populations to better match the true ionomer system. The total entropy change is considered to consist of four contributions: translational, rotational, electrostatic, and solvent immobilization entropies. The population of ion states is reported as a function of Bjerrum length divided by ion-pair separation with/without entropy considered to investigate the transition between states. Predicted concentrations of Li{sup +}-conducting states (free Li{sup +} and positive triple ions) are compared among a series of anions to indicate favorable features for design of an optimal Li{sup +}-conducting ionomer; the perfluorotetraphenylborate anion maximizes the conducting positive triple ion population among the series of anions considered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jian-Gan; Jin, Dandan; Zhou, Rui; Shen, Chao; Xie, Keyu; Wei, Bingqing
2016-02-01
A simple one-step and low-temperature synthesis approach has been developed to grow hierarchical NiCo2S4 ultrathin nanosheets (2-3 nm in thickness) on Ni foam. Owing to the unique nanoarchitecture, the NiCo2S4 nanosheets not only offer abundant electro-active sites for energy storage, but also have good electrical and mechanical connections to the conductive Ni foam for enhancing reaction kinetics and improving electrode integrity. When used as anodes for Li-ion batteries, the NiCo2S4 nanosheets demonstrate exceptional energy storage performance in terms of high specific capacity, excellent rate capability, and good cycling stability. The mild-solution synthesis of NiCo2S4 nanostructures and the outstanding electrochemical performance enable the novel electrodes to hold great potential for high-efficient energy storage systems.
Lai, Yi-Ting; Tai, Nyan-Hwa
2015-08-26
This work demonstrates a one-step process to synthesize uniformly dispersed hybrid nanomaterial containing silver nanowires (AgNWs) and p-type reduced graphene (p-rGO). The hybrid nanomaterial was coated onto a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate for preparing high-performance flexible transparent conductive films (TCFs). The p-rGO plays the role of bridging discrete AgNWs, providing more electron holes and lowering the resistance of the contacted AgNWs; therefore, enhancing the electrical conductivity without sacrificing too much transparence of the TCFs. Additionally, the p-rGO also improves the adhesion between AgNWs and substrate by covering the AgNWs on the substrate tightly. The study shows that coating of the hybrid nanomaterials on the PET substrate demonstrates exceptional optoelectronic properties with a transmittance of 94.68% (at a wavelength of 550 nm) and a sheet resistance of 25.0 ± 0.8 Ω/sq. No significant variation in electric resistance can be detected even when the film was subjected to a bend loading with a radius of curvature of 5.0 mm or the film was loaded with a reciprocal tension or compression for 1000 cycles. Furthermore, both chemical corrosion resistance and haze effect were improved when p-rGO was introduced. The study shows that the fabricated flexible TCFs have the potential to replace indium tin oxide film in the optoelectronic industry. PMID:26247286
Nguyen, Binh-Minh; Kiselev, Andrey A; Noah, Ramsey; Yi, Wei; Qu, Fanming; Beukman, Arjan J A; de Vries, Folkert K; van Veen, Jasper; Nadj-Perge, Stevan; Kouwenhoven, Leo P; Kjaergaard, Morten; Suominen, Henri J; Nichele, Fabrizio; Marcus, Charles M; Manfra, Michael J; Sokolich, Marko
2016-08-12
A Corbino ring geometry is utilized to analyze edge and bulk conductance of InAs/GaSb quantum well structures. We show that edge conductance exists in the trivial regime of this theoretically predicted topological system with a temperature-insensitive linear resistivity per unit length in the range of 2 kΩ/μm. A resistor network model of the device is developed to decouple the edge conductance from the bulk conductance, providing a quantitative technique to further investigate the nature of this trivial edge conductance, conclusively identified here as being of n type. PMID:27563999
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Binh-Minh; Kiselev, Andrey A.; Noah, Ramsey; Yi, Wei; Qu, Fanming; Beukman, Arjan J. A.; de Vries, Folkert K.; van Veen, Jasper; Nadj-Perge, Stevan; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.; Kjaergaard, Morten; Suominen, Henri J.; Nichele, Fabrizio; Marcus, Charles M.; Manfra, Michael J.; Sokolich, Marko
2016-08-01
A Corbino ring geometry is utilized to analyze edge and bulk conductance of InAs /GaSb quantum well structures. We show that edge conductance exists in the trivial regime of this theoretically predicted topological system with a temperature-insensitive linear resistivity per unit length in the range of 2 k Ω /μ m . A resistor network model of the device is developed to decouple the edge conductance from the bulk conductance, providing a quantitative technique to further investigate the nature of this trivial edge conductance, conclusively identified here as being of n type.
Tian, Jifa; Chang, Cuizu; Cao, Helin; He, Ke; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qikun; Chen, Yong P.
2014-01-01
Weak antilocalization (WAL) and linear magnetoresistance (LMR) are two most commonly observed magnetoresistance (MR) phenomena in topological insulators (TIs) and often attributed to the Dirac topological surface states (TSS). However, ambiguities exist because these phenomena could also come from bulk states (often carrying significant conduction in many TIs) and are observable even in non-TI materials. Here, we demonstrate back-gated ambipolar TI field-effect transistors in (Bi0.04Sb0.96)2Te3 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on SrTiO3(111), exhibiting a large carrier density tunability (by nearly 2 orders of magnitude) and a metal-insulator transition in the bulk (allowing switching off the bulk conduction). Tuning the Fermi level from bulk band to TSS strongly enhances both the WAL (increasing the number of quantum coherent channels from one to peak around two) and LMR (increasing its slope by up to 10 times). The SS-enhanced LMR is accompanied by a strongly nonlinear Hall effect, suggesting important roles of charge inhomogeneity (and a related classical LMR), although existing models of LMR cannot capture all aspects of our data. Our systematic gate and temperature dependent magnetotransport studies provide deeper insights into the nature of both MR phenomena and reveal differences between bulk and TSS transport in TI related materials. PMID:24810663
Guo, Zhiyong; Hao, Tingting; Du, Shuping; Chen, Beibei; Wang, Zebo; Li, Xing; Wang, Sui
2013-06-15
A multiplex electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunoassay for simultaneous determination of two different tumor markers, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), using multicolor quantum dots as labels and graphene as conducting bridge was developed. Herein, a typical sandwich immune complex was constructed on the glass carbon electrode, with QDs525 and QDs625 labeled on secondary anti-AFP and anti-CEA antibodies, respectively, thus to obtain distinguishable ECL signals. Because most of those QDs labeled on secondary antibodies were beyond the space domain of the ECL reaction, graphene was used as a conducting bridge to promote the electron transfer between QDs and the electrode, leading to about 30-fold enhancement of the ECL intensity. Experimental results revealed that the multiplex electrochemiluminescence immunoassay enabled the simultaneous monitoring of AFP and CEA in a single run with a working range of 0.001-0.1 pg/mL. The detection limit (LOD) for both analytes at 0.4 fg/mL was very low. No obvious cross-reactivity was found. Precision, recovery and stability were satisfactory. This novel multiplex ECL immunoassay provided a simple, sensitive, specific and reliable alternative for the simultaneous detection of tumor markers in clinical laboratory. PMID:23399472
Liu, Xiaojie; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Hupalo, Myron; Lin, Hai-Quing; Ho, Kai-Ming; Tringides, Michael C.
2014-01-06
When the thickness of ultrathin metal films approaches the nanometer scale comparable to the coherence length of the electrons, significant effects on the structure stability and the electronic properties of the metal films emerge due to electron confinement and quantization of the allowed electronic states in the direction perpendicular to the film. Using first-principles calculations, we showed that such quantum size effects can induce oscillatory electrostatic potential and thus alternating electric field on the surface of the wedge-shaped Pb(111) films. The alternating electric field has significant influence on surface reactivity, leading to selective even- or odd-layer adsorption preference depending on the charge state of the adatoms, consistent with the odd-layer preference of higher Mg coverage on wedge-shaped Pb(111) films, as observed in experiment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kirch, J. D.; Chang, C.-C.; Boyle, C.; Mawst, L. J.; Lindberg, D.; Earles, T.; Botez, D.
2016-03-01
By stepwise tapering both the barrier heights and quantum-well depths in the active regions of 8.7 μm- and 8.4 μm-emitting quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) virtually complete carrier-leakage suppression is achieved, as evidenced by high values for both the threshold-current characteristic temperature coefficient T0 (283 K and 242 K) and the slope-efficiency characteristic temperature coefficient T1 (561 K and 279 K), over the 20-60 °C heatsink-temperature range, for low- and high-doped devices, respectively. Such high values are obtained while the threshold-current density is kept relatively low for 35-period, low- and high-doped devices: 1.58 kA/cm2 and 1.88 kA/cm2, respectively. In addition, due to resonant extraction from the lower laser level, high differential-transition-efficiency values (89-90%) are obtained. In turn, the slope-efficiency for 3 mm-long, 35-period high-reflectivity (HR)-coated devices are: 1.15-1.23 W/A; that is, 30- 40 % higher than for same-geometry and similar-doping conventional 8-9 μm-emitting QCLs. As a result of both efficient carrier-leakage suppression as well as fast and efficient carrier extraction, the values for the internal differential efficiency are found to be ≍ 86%, by comparison to typical values in the 58-67 % range for conventional QCLs emitting in the 7-11 μm wavelength range.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Jiahui; Zhang, Xinguo; Zhou, Chunyan; Lan, Yuwei; Pang, Qi; Zhou, Liya
2015-01-01
A novel one-step synthesis process was used to assemble CdS quantum dots (QDs) into TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTAs). The sensitization time of the TiO2 nanotubes can be adjusted by controlling the CdS QD synthesis time. The absorption band of sensitized TNTAs red-shifted and broadened to the visible spectrum. The photoelectric conversion efficiency increased to 0.83%, the open-circuit voltage to 776 mV, and the short-circuit current density ( J SC) to 2.30 mA cm-2 with increased sensitization time. The conversion efficiency with this new sensitization method was five times that of nonsensitized TNTAs, providing novel ideas for study of TNTA solar cells.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Jin-Lei; Song, Chong; Xu, Jing; Yu, Lin; Ji, Xin; Zhang, Shou
2016-06-01
An efficient scheme is proposed for generating n-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states of n superconducting qubits separated by (n-1 ) coplanar waveguide resonators capacitively via adiabatic passage with the help of quantum Zeno dynamics in one step. In the scheme, it is not necessary to precisely control the time of the whole operation and the Rabi frequencies of classical fields because of the introduction of adiabatic passage. The numerical simulations for three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state show that the scheme is insensitive to the dissipation of the resonators and the energy relaxation of the superconducting qubits. The three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state can be deterministically generated with comparatively high fidelity in the current experimental conditions, though the scheme is somewhat sensitive to the dephasing of superconducting qubits.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hechster, Elad; Shapiro, Arthur; Lifshitz, Efrat; Sarusi, Gabby
2016-07-01
Colloidal Quantum Dots (CQDs) are of increasing interest, thanks to their quantum size effect that gives rise to their usage in various applications, such as biological tagging, solar cells and as the sensitizing layer of night vision devices. Here, we analyze the optical absorbance of chloride passivated PbS CQDs as well as revealing a correlation between their photoluminescence and sizes distribution, using theoretical models and experimental results from the literature. Next, we calculate the CQDs resistivity as a film. Although resistivity can be calculated from sheet resistance measurement using four point probes, such measurement is usually carried-out on the layer's surface that in most cases has dangling bonds and surface states, which might affect the charges flow and modify the resistivity. Therefore; our approach, which was applied in this work, is to extract the actual resistivity from measurements that are performed along the film's thickness (z-direction). For this intent, we fabricated gold capped PbS mesas devices using a single step Ion Beam Milling (IBM) process where we milled the gold and the PbS film continually, and then measured the vertical resistance. Knowing the mesas' dimensions, we calculate the resistivity. To the best of our knowledge, no previous work has extracted, vertically, the resistivity of chloride passivated PbS CQDs using the above method.
Hanke, M.; Wang, Zh. M.; Mazur, Yu. I.; Lee, J. H.; Salamo, G. J.; Schmidbauer, M.
2008-01-21
We have investigated the self-organized, step bunch assisted formation of In{sub 0.19}Ga{sub 0.81}As/GaAs quantum dots in vertical superlattices consisting of one, four, eight, and ten periods. Samples were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on vicinal 2 deg. A and 2 deg. B GaAs(001) substrates. Those with miscut along the [110] (2 deg. B) exclusively show step bunches of an aspect ratio larger than 10 but without the formation of quantum dots. This highly linear pattern is improved during subsequent periods as proved by high resolution x-ray diffraction and grazing incidence diffraction. On the other hand, a miscut along the [110] (2 deg. A) initially causes a crosslike pattern of step bunches, which finally becomes a two-dimensional arrangement of individual quantum dots.
Quantized ionic conductance in nanopores.
Zwolak, Michael; Lagerqvist, Johan; Di Ventra, Massimiliano
2009-09-18
Ionic transport in nanopores is a fundamentally and technologically important problem in view of its occurrence in biological processes and its impact on novel DNA sequencing applications. Using molecular dynamics simulations we show that ion transport may exhibit strong nonlinearities as a function of the pore radius reminiscent of the conductance quantization steps as a function of the transverse cross section of quantum point contacts. In the present case, however, conductance steps originate from the break up of the hydration layers that form around ions in aqueous solution. We discuss this phenomenon and the conditions under which it should be experimentally observable. PMID:19792463
One-step, low-temperature fabrication of CdS quantum dots by watermelon rind: a green approach
Lakshmipathy, Rajasekhar; Sarada, Nallani Chakravarthula; Chidambaram, K; Pasha, Sk Khadeer
2015-01-01
We investigated the one-step synthesis of CdS nanoparticles via green synthesis that used aqueous extract of watermelon rind as a capping and stabilizing agent. Preliminary phytochemical analysis depicted the presence of carbohydrates which can act as capping and stabilizing agents. Synthesized CdS nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, EDX, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy techniques. The CdS nanoparticles were found to be size- and shape-controlled and were stable even after 3 months of synthesis. The results suggest that watermelon rind, an agro-waste, can be used for synthesis of CdS nanoparticles without any addition of stabilizing and capping agents. PMID:26491319
Two-Step Nucleation and Growth of InP Quantum Dots via Magic-Sized Cluster Intermediates
Gary, Dylan C.; Terban, Maxwell W.; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Cossairt, Brandi M.
2015-01-30
We report on the role of magic-sized clusters (MSCs) as key intermediates in the synthesis of indium phosphide quantum dots (InP QDs) from molecular precursors. These observations suggest that previous efforts to control nucleation and growth by tuning precursor reactivity have been undermined by formation of these kinetically persistent MSCs prior to QD formation. The thermal stability of InP MSCs is influenced by the presence of exogenous bases as well as choice of the anionic ligand set. Addition of a primary amine, a common additive in previous InP QD syntheses, to carboxylate terminated MSCs was found to bypass the formationmore » of MSCs, allowing for homogeneous growth of InP QDs through a continuum of isolable sizes. Substitution of the carboxylate ligand set for a phosphonate ligand set increased the thermal stability of one particular InP MSC to 400°C. The structure and optical properties of the MSCs with both carboxylate and phosphonate ligand sets were studied by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, powder XRD analysis, and solution ³¹P{¹H} and ¹H NMR spectroscopy. Finally, the carboxylate terminated MSCs were identified as effective single source precursors (SSPs) for the synthesis of high quality InP QDs. Employing InP MSCs as SSPs for QDs effectively decouples the formation of MSCs from the subsequent second nucleation event and growth of InP QDs. The concentration dependence of this SSP reaction, as well as the shape uniformity of particles observed by TEM suggests that the stepwise growth from MSCs directly to QDs proceeds via a second nucleation event rather than an aggregative growth mechanism.« less
Two-Step Nucleation and Growth of InP Quantum Dots via Magic-Sized Cluster Intermediates
Gary, Dylan C.; Terban, Maxwell W.; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Cossairt, Brandi M.
2015-01-30
We report on the role of magic-sized clusters (MSCs) as key intermediates in the synthesis of indium phosphide quantum dots (InP QDs) from molecular precursors. These observations suggest that previous efforts to control nucleation and growth by tuning precursor reactivity have been undermined by formation of these kinetically persistent MSCs prior to QD formation. The thermal stability of InP MSCs is influenced by the presence of exogenous bases as well as choice of the anionic ligand set. Addition of a primary amine, a common additive in previous InP QD syntheses, to carboxylate terminated MSCs was found to bypass the formation of MSCs, allowing for homogeneous growth of InP QDs through a continuum of isolable sizes. Substitution of the carboxylate ligand set for a phosphonate ligand set increased the thermal stability of one particular InP MSC to 400°C. The structure and optical properties of the MSCs with both carboxylate and phosphonate ligand sets were studied by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, powder XRD analysis, and solution ³¹P{¹H} and ¹H NMR spectroscopy. Finally, the carboxylate terminated MSCs were identified as effective single source precursors (SSPs) for the synthesis of high quality InP QDs. Employing InP MSCs as SSPs for QDs effectively decouples the formation of MSCs from the subsequent second nucleation event and growth of InP QDs. The concentration dependence of this SSP reaction, as well as the shape uniformity of particles observed by TEM suggests that the stepwise growth from MSCs directly to QDs proceeds via a second nucleation event rather than an aggregative growth mechanism.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikolić, Branislav K.; Dragomirova, Ralitsa L.
2005-01-01
We investigate quantum transport through strongly disordered barriers, made of a material with exceptionally high resistivity that behaves as an Anderson insulator or a “bad metal” in the bulk, by analyzing the distribution of Landauer transmission eigenvalues for a junction where such barrier is attached to two clean metallic leads. We find that scaling of the transmission eigenvalue distribution with the junction thickness (starting from the single interface limit) always predicts a nonzero probability to find high transmission channels even in relatively thick barriers. Using this distribution, we compute the zero frequency shot noise power (as well as its sample-to-sample fluctuations) and demonstrate how it provides a single number characterization of nontrivial transmission properties of different types of disordered barriers. The appearance of open conducting channels, whose transmission eigenvalue is close to one, and corresponding violent mesoscopic fluctuations of transport quantities explain at least some of the peculiar zero-bias anomalies in the Anderson-insulator/superconductor junctions observed in recent experiments [A. Vaknin, A. Frydman, and Z. Ovadyahu, Phys. Rev. B 61, 13037 (2000)]. Our findings are also relevant for the understanding of the role of defects that can undermine quality of thin tunnel barriers made of conventional band insulators.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chemla, D. S.; Bar-Joseph, I.; Klingshirn, C.; Miller, D. A. B.; Kuo, J. M.
1987-03-01
Absorption switching in a semiconductor quantum well by electrically varying the charge density in the quantum well conducting channel of a selectively doped heterostructure transistor is reported for the first time. The phase-space absorption quenching (PAQ) is observed at room temperature in an InGaAs/InAlAs grown on InP FET, and it shows large absorption coefficient changes with relatively broad spectral bandwidth. This PAQ is large enough to be used for direct optical determination of the logic state of the FET.
Quantized ionic conductance in nanopores
Zwolak, Michael; Lagerqvist, Johan; Di Ventra, Massimilliano
2009-01-01
Ionic transport in nanopores is a fundamentally and technologically important problem in view of its ubiquitous occurrence in biological processes and its impact on DNA sequencing applications. Using microscopic calculations, we show that ion transport may exhibit strong non-liDearities as a function of the pore radius reminiscent of the conductance quantization steps as a function of the transverse cross section of quantum point contacts. In the present case, however, conductance steps originate from the break up of the hydration layers that form around ions in aqueous solution. Once in the pore, the water molecules form wavelike structures due to multiple scattering at the surface of the pore walls and interference with the radial waves around the ion. We discuss these effects as well as the conditions under which the step-like features in the ionic conductance should be experimentally observable.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Svetcov, Eric
2005-01-01
This article provides a list of the essential steps to keeping a school's or district's network safe and sound. It describes how to establish a security architecture and approach that will continually evolve as the threat environment changes over time. The article discusses the methodology for implementing this approach and then discusses the…
Capece, Luciana; Lewis-Ballester, Ariel; Batabyal, Dipanwita; Di Russo, Natali; Estrin, Dario A.
2015-01-01
Tryptophan dioxygenase (TDO) and indole-amine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) are two heme-containing enzymes which catalyze the conversion of L-tryptophan to N-formylkynurenine (NFK). In mammals, TDO is mostly expressed in liver and is involved in controlling homeostatic serum tryptophan concentrations, whereas IDO is ubiquitous and is involved in modulating immune responses. Previous studies suggested that the first step of the dioxygenase reaction involves the deprotonation of the indoleamine group of the substrate by an evolutionarily conserved distal histidine residue in TDO and the heme-bound dioxygen in IDO. Here, we used classical molecular dynamics and hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical methods to evaluate the base-catalyzed mechanism. Our data suggest that the deprotonation of the indoleamine group of the substrate by either histidine in TDO or heme-bound dioxygen in IDO is not energetically favorable. Instead, the dioxygenase reaction can be initiated by a direct attack of heme-bound dioxygen on the C2=C3 bond of the indole ring, leading to a protein-stabilized 2,3-alkylperoxide transition state and a ferryl epoxide intermediate, which subsequently recombine to generate NFK. The novel sequential two-step oxygen addition mechanism is fully supported by our recent resonance Raman data that allowed identification of the ferryl intermediate (Lewis-Ballester et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:17371–17376, 2009). The results reveal the subtle differences between the TDO and IDO reactions and highlight the importance of protein matrix in modulating stereoelectronic factors for oxygen activation and the stabilization of both transition and intermediate states. PMID:20361220
Zhang, Yongqiang; Liu, Xingyuan; Fan, Yi; Guo, Xiaoyang; Zhou, Lei; Lv, Ying; Lin, Jie
2016-08-18
A one-step microwave synthesis of N-doped hydroxyl-functionalized carbon dots (CDs) with ultra-high fluorescence quantum yields (QYs) of 99% is reported. These ultra-high QY CDs were synthesized using citric acid and amino compound-containing hydroxyls like ethanolamine and tris(hydroxylmethyl)aminomethane. Amino and carboxyl moieties can form amides through dehydration condensation reactions, and these amides act as bridges between carboxyl and hydroxyl groups, and modify hydroxyl groups on the surface of the CDs. The entire reaction can be carried out within 5 min. When the molar ratio of reactants is 1 : 1, the hydroxyl and graphitic nitrogen content is the highest, and the synergy leads to a high ratio between the radiative transition rate and nonradiative transition rate as well as a high QY. The developed pathway to N-doped hydroxyl-functionalized CDs can provide unambiguous and remarkable insights into the design of highly luminescent functionalized carbon dots, and expedite the applications of CDs. PMID:27500530
Gu, Wei; Yan, Yinghan; Zhang, Cuiling; Ding, Caiping; Xian, Yuezhong
2016-05-11
In this work, a bottom-up strategy is developed to synthesize water-soluble molybdenum disulfide quantum dots (MoS2 QDs) through a simple, one-step hydrothermal method using ammonium tetrathiomolybdate [(NH4)2MoS4] as the precursor and hydrazine hydrate as the reducing agent. The as-synthesized MoS2 QDs are few-layered with a narrow size distribution, and the average diameter is about 2.8 nm. The resultant QDs show excitation-dependent blue fluorescence due to the polydispersity of the QDs. Moreover, the fluorescence can be quenched by hyaluronic acid (HA)-functionalized gold nanoparticles through a photoinduced electron-transfer mechanism. Hyaluronidase (HAase), an endoglucosidase, can cleave HA into proangiogenic fragments and lead to the aggregation of gold nanoparticles. As a result, the electron transfer is blocked and fluorescence is recovered. On the basis of this principle, a novel fluorescence sensor for HAase is developed with a linear range from 1 to 50 U/mL and a detection limit of 0.7 U/mL. PMID:27082278
Observation of quantized conductance in neutral matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krinner, Sebastian; Stadler, David; Husmann, Dominik; Brantut, Jean-Philippe; Esslinger, Tilman
2015-01-01
In transport experiments, the quantum nature of matter becomes directly evident when changes in conductance occur only in discrete steps, with a size determined solely by Planck's constant h. Observations of quantized steps in electrical conductance have provided important insights into the physics of mesoscopic systems and have allowed the development of quantum electronic devices. Even though quantized conductance should not rely on the presence of electric charges, it has never been observed for neutral, massive particles. In its most fundamental form, it requires a quantum-degenerate Fermi gas, a ballistic and adiabatic transport channel, and a constriction with dimensions comparable to the Fermi wavelength. Here we report the observation of quantized conductance in the transport of neutral atoms driven by a chemical potential bias. The atoms are in an ultraballistic regime, where their mean free path exceeds not only the size of the transport channel, but also the size of the entire system, including the atom reservoirs. We use high-resolution lithography to shape light potentials that realize either a quantum point contact or a quantum wire for atoms. These constrictions are imprinted on a quasi-two-dimensional ballistic channel connecting the reservoirs. By varying either a gate potential or the transverse confinement of the constrictions, we observe distinct plateaux in the atom conductance. The conductance in the first plateau is found to be equal to the universal conductance quantum, 1/h. We use Landauer's formula to model our results and find good agreement for low gate potentials, with all parameters determined a priori. Our experiment lets us investigate quantum conductors with wide control not only over the channel geometry, but also over the reservoir properties, such as interaction strength, size and thermalization rate.
2012-01-01
Issues of Ge hut cluster array formation and growth at low temperatures on the Ge/Si(001) wetting layer are discussed on the basis of explorations performed by high resolution STM and in-situ RHEED. Dynamics of the RHEED patterns in the process of Ge hut array formation is investigated at low and high temperatures of Ge deposition. Different dynamics of RHEED patterns during the deposition of Ge atoms in different growth modes is observed, which reflects the difference in adatom mobility and their ‘condensation’ fluxes from Ge 2D gas on the surface for different modes, which in turn control the nucleation rates and densities of Ge clusters. Data of HRTEM studies of multilayer Ge/Si heterostructures are presented with the focus on low-temperature formation of perfect films. Heteroepitaxial Si p–i–n-diodes with multilayer stacks of Ge/Si(001) quantum dot dense arrays built in intrinsic domains have been investigated and found to exhibit the photo-emf in a wide spectral range from 0.8 to 5 μm. An effect of wide-band irradiation by infrared light on the photo-emf spectra has been observed. Photo-emf in different spectral ranges has been found to be differently affected by the wide-band irradiation. A significant increase in photo-emf is observed in the fundamental absorption range under the wide-band irradiation. The observed phenomena are explained in terms of positive and neutral charge states of the quantum dot layers and the Coulomb potential of the quantum dot ensemble. A new design of quantum dot infrared photodetectors is proposed. By using a coherent source spectrometer, first measurements of terahertz dynamical conductivity (absorptivity) spectra of Ge/Si(001) heterostructures were performed at frequencies ranged from 0.3 to 1.2 THz in the temperature interval from 300 to 5 K. The effective dynamical conductivity of the heterostructures with Ge quantum dots has been discovered to be significantly higher than that of the structure with the same amount
Quantum robots and quantum computers
Benioff, P.
1998-07-01
Validation of a presumably universal theory, such as quantum mechanics, requires a quantum mechanical description of systems that carry out theoretical calculations and systems that carry out experiments. The description of quantum computers is under active development. No description of systems to carry out experiments has been given. A small step in this direction is taken here by giving a description of quantum robots as mobile systems with on board quantum computers that interact with different environments. Some properties of these systems are discussed. A specific model based on the literature descriptions of quantum Turing machines is presented.