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Sample records for quantum dot confinement

  1. Atomic and Molecular Quantum Theory Course Number: C561 10 Quantum Confinement in "Quantum dots", Thomas Fermi

    E-print Network

    Iyengar, Srinivasan S.

    Atomic and Molecular Quantum Theory Course Number: C561 10 Quantum Confinement in "Quantum dots S. Iyengar (instructor) #12;Atomic and Molecular Quantum Theory Course Number: C561 5 and Molecular Quantum Theory Course Number: C561 happens to optical transitions in quantum dots. As a result

  2. Impurity binding energies in quantum dots with parabolic confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, Arnold

    2015-03-01

    We present an effective numerical procedure to calculate the binding energies and wave functions of the hydrogen-like impurity states in a quantum dot (QD) with parabolic confinement. The unknown wave function was expressed as an expansion over one-dimensional harmonic oscillator states, which describes the electron's movement along the defined z-axis. Green's function technique used to obtain the solution of Schredinger equation for electronic states in a transverse plane. Binding energy of impurity states is defined as poles of the wave function. The dependences of the binding energy on the position of an impurity, the size of the QD and the magnetic field strength are presented and discussed.

  3. Investigation of quantum confinement behavior of zinc sulphide quantum dots synthesized via various chemical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, Meera; Sakthivel, T.; Chandran, Hrisheekesh T.; Nivea, R.; Gunasekaran, V.

    2014-10-01

    In this work, undoped and Ag-doped ZnS quantum dots were synthesized using various chemical methods. The products were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible spectroscopy and Photoluminescence spectroscopy. Our results revealed that the size of the as-prepared samples range from 1-6 nm in diameter and have a cubic zinc-blende structure. Also, we observed the emission of different wavelength of light from different sized quantum dots of the same material due to quantum confinement effect. The results will be presented in detail and ZnS can be a potential candidate for optical device development and applications.

  4. Investigation of quantum confinement behavior of zinc sulphide quantum dots synthesized via various chemical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Jose, Meera Sakthivel, T. Chandran, Hrisheekesh T. Nivea, R. Gunasekaran, V.

    2014-10-15

    In this work, undoped and Ag-doped ZnS quantum dots were synthesized using various chemical methods. The products were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible spectroscopy and Photoluminescence spectroscopy. Our results revealed that the size of the as-prepared samples range from 1–6 nm in diameter and have a cubic zinc-blende structure. Also, we observed the emission of different wavelength of light from different sized quantum dots of the same material due to quantum confinement effect. The results will be presented in detail and ZnS can be a potential candidate for optical device development and applications.

  5. Energy and binding energy of donor impurity in quantum dot with Gaussian confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hayek, I.; Sandouqa, A. S.

    2015-09-01

    Using the method of the shifted 1/N expansion, we investigate the problem of hydrogenic-like donor impurity, located at the center of a spherical semiconductor quantum dot. We have calculated the energy eigenvalues for both ground and first excited sates under the assumption of Gaussian confining potential. The binding energies for three dimensional (3D) and two dimensional (2D) quantum dots are calculated. We show their dependence on dimensionality, dot radius and potential confinement. Our present numerical results show quantitative and qualitative very good agreement with those results obtained by diagonalization, Numerov's integration, and Hartree-Fock methods.

  6. Quantum confinement effects across two-dimensional planes in MoS{sub 2} quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, Z. X.; Liu, L. Z.; Wu, H. Y.; Hao, Y. L.; Shan, Y.; Wu, X. L. E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk; Chu, Paul K. E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk

    2015-06-08

    The low quantum yield (?10{sup ?5}) has restricted practical use of photoluminescence (PL) from MoS{sub 2} composed of a few layers, but the quantum confinement effects across two-dimensional planes are believed to be able to boost the PL intensity. In this work, PL from 2 to 9?nm MoS{sub 2} quantum dots (QDs) is excluded from the solvent and the absorption and PL spectra are shown to be consistent with the size distribution. PL from MoS{sub 2} QDs is also found to be sensitive to aggregation due to the size effect.

  7. Quantum confinement effects across two-dimensional planes in MoS2 quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Z. X.; Liu, L. Z.; Wu, H. Y.; Hao, Y. L.; Shan, Y.; Wu, X. L.; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-06-01

    The low quantum yield (˜10-5) has restricted practical use of photoluminescence (PL) from MoS2 composed of a few layers, but the quantum confinement effects across two-dimensional planes are believed to be able to boost the PL intensity. In this work, PL from 2 to 9 nm MoS2 quantum dots (QDs) is excluded from the solvent and the absorption and PL spectra are shown to be consistent with the size distribution. PL from MoS2 QDs is also found to be sensitive to aggregation due to the size effect.

  8. Engineering the hole confinement for CdTe-based quantum dot molecules

    SciTech Connect

    K?opotowski, ?. Wojnar, P.; Kret, S.; Fronc, K.; Wojtowicz, T.; Karczewski, G.

    2015-06-14

    We demonstrate an efficient method to engineer the quantum confinement in a system of two quantum dots grown in a vertical stack. We achieve this by using materials with a different lattice constant for the growth of the outer and inner barriers. We monitor the resulting dot morphology with transmission electron microscopy studies and correlate the results with ensemble quantum dot photoluminescence. Furthermore, we embed the double quantum dots into diode structures and study photoluminescence as a function of bias voltage. We show that in properly engineered structures, it is possible to achieve a resonance of the hole states by tuning the energy levels with electric field. At the resonance, we observe signatures of a formation of a molecular state, hybridized over the two dots.

  9. Optimal quantum control via numerical pulse shape optimization for two exciton qubits confined to semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Reuble; Shi Yang, Hong Yi; Hall, Kimberley

    2015-03-01

    Optimal quantum control (OQC), which iteratively optimizes the control Hamiltonian to achieve a target quantum state, is a versatile approach for manipulating quantum systems. For optically-active transitions, OQC can be implemented using femtosecond pulse shaping which provides control over the amplitude and/or phase of the electric field. Optical pulse shaping has been employed to optimize physical processes such as nonlinear optical signals, photosynthesis, and has recently been applied to optimizing single-qubit gates in multiple semiconductor quantum dots. In this work, we examine the use of numerical pulse shape optimization for optimal quantum control of multiple qubits confined to quantum dots as a function of their electronic structure parameters. The numerically optimized pulse shapes were found to produce high fidelity quantum gates for a range of transition frequencies, dipole moments, and arbitrary initial and final states. This work enhances the potential for scalability by reducing the laser resources required to control multiple qubits.

  10. Effect of Phonon Confinement on Optical Phonon-Mediated Carrier Capture into CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardanyan, K. A.; Vartanian, A. L.; Kirakosyan, A. A.

    2015-08-01

    Electron capture induced by carrier heating in the CdSe/ZnS spherical quantum dot-quantum well structure is studied theoretically. The capture rate has been calculated by taking into account the phonon confinement effect. Numerical results for the capture rate as a function of dot radius, lattice temperature, and electron density in the CdSe/ZnS/H2O quantum dot (QD) system are obtained and discussed. It has been shown that the capture rate of an electron from the barrier region to the quantum dot ground state due to the emission of confined or interface optical phonons exhibits strong resonances versus dot radius. Our results reveal that the capture time is larger than 1 ns across broad ranges of quantum dot radius. We have found the increase of the capture rate due to emission of LO1 as well as IO/SO phonons with increasing temperature. However, for structures with lower electron densities ( n ? 1016 cm-3), the monotonic behavior of the capture rate in case of IO/SO phonon interactions is broken and a local maximum in the temperature dependence appears. In contrast to the GaAs/AlAs spherical quantum dot-quantum well structure, the capture rate in CdSe/ZnS/H2O QDs is very strongly dependent on the electron density.

  11. Theory of confined states of positronium in spherical and circular quantum dots with Kane's dispersion law.

    PubMed

    Dvoyan, Karen G; Matinyan, Sergey G; Vlahovic, Branislav

    2013-01-01

    Confined states of a positronium (Ps) in the spherical and circular quantum dots (QDs) are theoretically investigated in two size quantization regimes: strong and weak. Two-band approximation of Kane's dispersion law and parabolic dispersion law of charge carriers are considered. It is shown that electron-positron pair instability is a consequence of dimensionality reduction, not of the size quantization. The binding energies for the Ps in circular and spherical QDs are calculated. The Ps formation dependence on the QD radius is studied. PMID:23826867

  12. The surface termination effect on the quantum confinement and electron affinities of 3C-SiC quantum dots: a first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenkui; Dai, Ying; Yu, Lin; Guo, Meng; Huang, Baibiao; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan

    2012-02-01

    In light of the established differences between the quantum confinement effect and the electron affinities between hydrogen-passivated C and Si quantum dots, we carried out theoretical investigations on SiC quantum dots, with surfaces uniformly terminated by C-H or Si-H bonds, to explore the role of surface terminations on these two aspects. Surprisingly, it was found that the quantum confinement effect is present (or absent) in the highest occupied (or lowest unoccupied) molecular orbital of the SiC quantum dots regardless of their surface terminations. Thus, the quantum confinement effect related to the energy gap observed experimentally (Phys. Rev. Lett., 2005, 94, 026102) is contributed to by the size-dependence of the highest occupied states; the absence of quantum confinement in the lowest unoccupied states is in contrary to the usual belief based on hydrogen-passivated C quantum dots. However, the cause of the absence of the quantum confinement in C nanodots is not transferable to SiC. We propose a model that provides a clear explanation for all findings on the basis of the nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor interactions between the valence atomic p-orbital in the frontier occupied/unoccupied states. We also found that the electron affinities of the SiC quantum dots, which closely depend on the surface environments, are negative for the C-H termination and positive for the Si-H termination. The prediction of negative electron affinities in SiC quantum dots by simple C-H termination indicates a promising application for these materials in electron-emitter devices. Our model predicts that GeC quantum dots with hydrogen passivation exhibit similar features to SiC quantum dots and our study confirms the crucial role that the surface environment plays in these nanoscale systems.In light of the established differences between the quantum confinement effect and the electron affinities between hydrogen-passivated C and Si quantum dots, we carried out theoretical investigations on SiC quantum dots, with surfaces uniformly terminated by C-H or Si-H bonds, to explore the role of surface terminations on these two aspects. Surprisingly, it was found that the quantum confinement effect is present (or absent) in the highest occupied (or lowest unoccupied) molecular orbital of the SiC quantum dots regardless of their surface terminations. Thus, the quantum confinement effect related to the energy gap observed experimentally (Phys. Rev. Lett., 2005, 94, 026102) is contributed to by the size-dependence of the highest occupied states; the absence of quantum confinement in the lowest unoccupied states is in contrary to the usual belief based on hydrogen-passivated C quantum dots. However, the cause of the absence of the quantum confinement in C nanodots is not transferable to SiC. We propose a model that provides a clear explanation for all findings on the basis of the nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor interactions between the valence atomic p-orbital in the frontier occupied/unoccupied states. We also found that the electron affinities of the SiC quantum dots, which closely depend on the surface environments, are negative for the C-H termination and positive for the Si-H termination. The prediction of negative electron affinities in SiC quantum dots by simple C-H termination indicates a promising application for these materials in electron-emitter devices. Our model predicts that GeC quantum dots with hydrogen passivation exhibit similar features to SiC quantum dots and our study confirms the crucial role that the surface environment plays in these nanoscale systems. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr12099b

  13. Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartakovskii, Alexander

    2012-07-01

    Part I. Nanostructure Design and Structural Properties of Epitaxially Grown Quantum Dots and Nanowires: 1. Growth of III/V semiconductor quantum dots C. Schneider, S. Hofling and A. Forchel; 2. Single semiconductor quantum dots in nanowires: growth, optics, and devices M. E. Reimer, N. Akopian, M. Barkelid, G. Bulgarini, R. Heeres, M. Hocevar, B. J. Witek, E. Bakkers and V. Zwiller; 3. Atomic scale analysis of self-assembled quantum dots by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy and atom probe tomography J. G. Keizer and P. M. Koenraad; Part II. Manipulation of Individual Quantum States in Quantum Dots Using Optical Techniques: 4. Studies of the hole spin in self-assembled quantum dots using optical techniques B. D. Gerardot and R. J. Warburton; 5. Resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot A. N. Vamivakas, C. Matthiesen, Y. Zhao, C.-Y. Lu and M. Atature; 6. Coherent control of quantum dot excitons using ultra-fast optical techniques A. J. Ramsay and A. M. Fox; 7. Optical probing of holes in quantum dot molecules: structure, symmetry, and spin M. F. Doty and J. I. Climente; Part III. Optical Properties of Quantum Dots in Photonic Cavities and Plasmon-Coupled Dots: 8. Deterministic light-matter coupling using single quantum dots P. Senellart; 9. Quantum dots in photonic crystal cavities A. Faraon, D. Englund, I. Fushman, A. Majumdar and J. Vukovic; 10. Photon statistics in quantum dot micropillar emission M. Asmann and M. Bayer; 11. Nanoplasmonics with colloidal quantum dots V. Temnov and U. Woggon; Part IV. Quantum Dot Nano-Laboratory: Magnetic Ions and Nuclear Spins in a Dot: 12. Dynamics and optical control of an individual Mn spin in a quantum dot L. Besombes, C. Le Gall, H. Boukari and H. Mariette; 13. Optical spectroscopy of InAs/GaAs quantum dots doped with a single Mn atom O. Krebs and A. Lemaitre; 14. Nuclear spin effects in quantum dot optics B. Urbaszek, B. Eble, T. Amand and X. Marie; Part V. Electron Transport in Quantum Dots Fabricated by Lithographic Techniques: III-V Semiconductors and Carbon: 15. Electrically controlling single spin coherence in semiconductor nanostructures Y. Dovzhenko, K. Wang, M. D. Schroer and J. R. Petta; 16. Theory of electron and nuclear spins in III-V semiconductor and carbon-based dots H. Ribeiro and G. Burkard; 17. Graphene quantum dots: transport experiments and local imaging S. Schnez, J. Guettinger, F. Molitor, C. Stampfer, M. Huefner, T. Ihn and K. Ensslin; Part VI. Single Dots for Future Telecommunications Applications: 18. Electrically operated entangled light sources based on quantum dots R. M. Stevenson, A. J. Bennett and A. J. Shields; 19. Deterministic single quantum dot cavities at telecommunication wavelengths D. Dalacu, K. Mnaymneh, J. Lapointe, G. C. Aers, P. J. Poole, R. L. Williams and S. Hughes; Index.

  14. Charge-ring model for the charge-induced confinement enhancement in stacked quantum-dot transistors

    E-print Network

    Glazman, Leonid

    . The floating dot is separated from the channel dot by a thin tunnel oxide and from the control gate by a thick in a stacked quantum-dot transistor that has a floating dot on top of a channel quantum dot. The model assumes that squeezes the electrons in the channel dot toward its center. The charge on the floating dot can

  15. First-principle study of quantum confinement effect on small sized silicon quantum dots using density-functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Anas, M. M.; Othman, A. P.; Gopir, G.

    2014-09-03

    Density functional theory (DFT), as a first-principle approach has successfully been implemented to study nanoscale material. Here, DFT by numerical basis-set was used to study the quantum confinement effect as well as electronic properties of silicon quantum dots (Si-QDs) in ground state condition. Selection of quantum dot models were studied intensively before choosing the right structure for simulation. Next, the computational result were used to examine and deduce the electronic properties and its density of state (DOS) for 14 spherical Si-QDs ranging in size up to ? 2 nm in diameter. The energy gap was also deduced from the HOMO-LUMO results. The atomistic model of each silicon QDs was constructed by repeating its crystal unit cell of face-centered cubic (FCC) structure, and reconstructed until the spherical shape obtained. The core structure shows tetrahedral (T{sub d}) symmetry structure. It was found that the model need to be passivated, and hence it was noticed that the confinement effect was more pronounced. The model was optimized using Quasi-Newton method for each size of Si-QDs to get relaxed structure before it was simulated. In this model the exchange-correlation potential (V{sub xc}) of the electrons was treated by Local Density Approximation (LDA) functional and Perdew-Zunger (PZ) functional.

  16. The role of the interface in germanium quantum dots: when not only size matters for quantum confinement effects.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, S; Mio, A M; Barbagiovanni, E G; Raciti, R; Bahariqushchi, R; Miritello, M; Nicotra, G; Aydinli, A; Spinella, C; Terrasi, A; Mirabella, S

    2015-07-14

    Quantum confinement (QC) typically assumes a sharp interface between a nanostructure and its environment, leading to an abrupt change in the potential for confined electrons and holes. When the interface is not ideally sharp and clean, significant deviations from the QC rule appear and other parameters beyond the nanostructure size play a considerable role. In this work we elucidate the role of the interface on QC in Ge quantum dots (QDs) synthesized by rf-magnetron sputtering or plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Through a detailed electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) analysis we investigated the structural and chemical properties of QD interfaces. PECVD QDs exhibit a sharper interface compared to sputter ones, which also evidences a larger contribution of mixed Ge-oxide states. Such a difference strongly modifies the QC strength, as experimentally verified by light absorption spectroscopy. A large size-tuning of the optical bandgap and an increase in the oscillator strength occur when the interface is sharp. A spatially dependent effective mass (SPDEM) model is employed to account for the interface difference between Ge QDs, pointing out a larger reduction in the exciton effective mass in the sharper interface case. These results add new insights into the role of interfaces on confined systems, and open the route for reliable exploitation of QC effects. PMID:26077313

  17. Exciton states and interband absorption of cylindrical quantum dot with Morse confining potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayrapetyan, D. B.; Kazaryan, E. M.; Kotanjyan, T. V.; Tevosyan, H. Kh.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper the exciton and electron sates in cylindrical quantum dot with Morse potential made of GaAs are studied. For the regime of strong size quantization, energy spectrum with the parabolic approximation case are compared. For strong and weak size quantization regimes analytic expressions for the particle energy spectrum, absorption coefficient and dependencies of effective threshold frequencies of absorption on the geometrical parameters quantum dot are obtained. For the intermediate size quantization regime the problem solved in the framework of variation method. The selection rules corresponding to different transitions between quantum levels are found. The size dispersion distribution of growing quantum dots by the radius and height by two experimentally realizing distribution functions have been taken into account. Distribution functions of Gauss, Lifshits-Slezov have been considered.

  18. Strong quantum confinement effect and reduced Fröhlich exciton-phonon coupling in ZnO quantum dots embedded inside a SiO2 matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, J. Q.; Zheng, C. C.; Zhang, X. H.; Xu, S. J.

    2015-10-01

    ZnO quantum dots (QDs) embedded in an amorphous SiO2 matrix were examined in depth by using variable-temperature photoluminescence (PL) and optical reflectance spectroscopies. Compared with ZnO bulk crystals, ZnO quantum dots with an average size of 4 nm exhibit a strong quantum confinement effect, evidenced by a large blue shift in both PL and reflectance peaks of excitons. More interestingly, a remarkably reduced long-range Fröhlich interaction was revealed in ZnO QDs. These fascinating effects may make ZnO QDs a very appealing system in the fields of optoelectronics and others.

  19. Strong quantum confinement effect and reduced Fröhlich exciton-phonon coupling in ZnO quantum dots embedded inside a SiO2 matrix.

    PubMed

    Ning, J Q; Zheng, C C; Zhang, X H; Xu, S J

    2015-10-15

    ZnO quantum dots (QDs) embedded in an amorphous SiO2 matrix were examined in depth by using variable-temperature photoluminescence (PL) and optical reflectance spectroscopies. Compared with ZnO bulk crystals, ZnO quantum dots with an average size of 4 nm exhibit a strong quantum confinement effect, evidenced by a large blue shift in both PL and reflectance peaks of excitons. More interestingly, a remarkably reduced long-range Fröhlich interaction was revealed in ZnO QDs. These fascinating effects may make ZnO QDs a very appealing system in the fields of optoelectronics and others. PMID:26439089

  20. Electron capture processes in quantum dots due to one-and two-phonon assisted transitions: The role of optical phonon confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vartanian, A. L.; Vardanyan, K. A.; Mughnetsyan, V. N.; Kirakosyan, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    Electron capture induced by carrier heating in spherical quantum dot-quantum well (QD-QW) structure is studied theoretically. The capture rate (CR) in one- and two-polar- optical-phonon-mediated capture processes has been studied by taking into account the phonon confinement. We have derived the analytic expressions for carrier CRs which can be conveniently applied to practical calculations for the spherical quantum dot systems. The numerical results of the CR as function of dot radius, lattice temperature and electron density in GaAs/AlAs/vacuum and CdSe/ZnS/H2O QD systems are obtained and discussed.

  1. Theory of confined states of positronium in spherical and circular quantum dots with Kane’s dispersion law

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Confined states of a positronium (Ps) in the spherical and circular quantum dots (QDs) are theoretically investigated in two size quantization regimes: strong and weak. Two-band approximation of Kane’s dispersion law and parabolic dispersion law of charge carriers are considered. It is shown that electron-positron pair instability is a consequence of dimensionality reduction, not of the size quantization. The binding energies for the Ps in circular and spherical QDs are calculated. The Ps formation dependence on the QD radius is studied. PMID:23826867

  2. Quantum confinement effect in Bi anti-dot thin films with tailored pore wall widths and thicknesses

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.; Hirose, Y.; Fukumura, T.; Hasegawa, T.; Nakao, S.; Xu, J.

    2014-01-13

    We investigated quantum confinement effects in Bi anti-dot thin films grown on anodized aluminium oxide templates. The pore wall widths (w{sub Bi}) and thickness (t) of the films were tailored to have values longer or shorter than Fermi wavelength of Bi (?{sub F}?=??40?nm). Magnetoresistance measurements revealed a well-defined weak antilocalization effect below 10?K. Coherence lengths (L{sub ?}) as functions of temperature were derived from the magnetoresistance vs field curves by assuming the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka model. The anti-dot thin film with w{sub Bi} and t smaller than ?{sub F} showed low dimensional electronic behavior at low temperatures where L{sub ?}(T) exceed w{sub Bi} or t.

  3. Sandwiched confinement of quantum dots in graphene matrix for efficient electron transfer and photocurrent production

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Nan; Zheng, Kaibo; Karki, Khadga J.; Abdellah, Mohamed; Zhu, Qiushi; Carlson, Stefan; Haase, Dörthe; Žídek, Karel; Ulstrup, Jens; Canton, Sophie E.; Pullerits, Tõnu; Chi, Qijin

    2015-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) and graphene are both promising materials for the development of new-generation optoelectronic devices. Towards this end, synergic assembly of these two building blocks is a key step but remains a challenge. Here, we show a one-step strategy for organizing QDs in a graphene matrix via interfacial self-assembly, leading to the formation of sandwiched hybrid QD-graphene nanofilms. We have explored structural features, electron transfer kinetics and photocurrent generation capacity of such hybrid nanofilms using a wide variety of advanced techniques. Graphene nanosheets interlink QDs and significantly improve electronic coupling, resulting in fast electron transfer from photoexcited QDs to graphene with a rate constant of 1.3?×?109 s?1. Efficient electron transfer dramatically enhances photocurrent generation in a liquid-junction QD-sensitized solar cell where the hybrid nanofilm acts as a photoanode. We thereby demonstrate a cost-effective method to construct large-area QD-graphene hybrid nanofilms with straightforward scale-up potential for optoelectronic applications. PMID:25996307

  4. Enhancing structural transition by carrier and quantum confinement: Stabilization of cubic InN quantum dots by Mn incorporation

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Xiuqing; Wu, Fengmin; Chen, Zhanghui; Li, Shu-Shen; Chen, Zhuo; Li, Jingbo E-mail: swei@nrel.gov; State Key Laboratory for Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 ; Wu, Junqiao; Wei, Su-Huai E-mail: swei@nrel.gov

    2013-12-16

    We demonstrate in this work controllable synthesis of cubic InN nanocrystals through Mn doping. We show that the pristine nanocrystal has the wurtzite structure, but can be converted into the zinc-blende (ZB) structure when it is doped with Mn. Our first-principles calculations show that the phase transition is caused by the stronger p-d coupling between the host p valence state and the impurity d level in the ZB structure, which makes the hole generation in the ZB structure easier. Quantum confinement in the nanocrystals further enhanced this effect. This observation lays an important foundation for defects control of crystal phases.

  5. Analyzing total optical absorption coefficient of impurity doped quantum dots in presence of noise with special emphasis on electric field, magnetic field and confinement potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Arkajit; Sarkar, Sucharita; Ghosh, Arghya Pratim; Ghosh, Manas

    2015-12-01

    We make an extensive investigation of total optical absorption coefficient (TOAC) of impurity doped quantum dots (QDs) in presence and absence of Gaussian white noise. The TOAC profiles have been monitored against incident photon energy with special emphasis on the roles played by the electric field, magnetic field, and the dot confinement potential. Presence of impurity also influences the TOAC profile. In general, presence of noise causes enhancement of TOAC over that of noise-free condition. However, the interplay between the noise and the quantities like electric field, magnetic field, confinement potential and impurity potential bring about rich subtleties in the TOAC profiles. The said subtleties are often manifested by the alterations in TOAC peak intensity, extent of TOAC peak bleaching, and value of saturation intensity. The findings reveal some technologically relevant aspects of TOAC for the doped QD systems, specially in presence of noise.

  6. Electron Transport in Side Coupled Quantum Dots Fano Fano

    E-print Network

    Iye, Yasuhiro

    Electron Transport in Side Coupled Quantum Dots 21 12 #12;#12;Fano Fano Fermi Fermi Fermi Fermi Hall Hall #12;Abstract This thesis describes experiments on electron transport in side coupled quantum dots. A quantum dot is an artificial quantum system to confine electrons in a small region. Different

  7. Nanocrystalline-Si-dot multi-layers fabrication by chemical vapor deposition with H-plasma surface treatment and evaluation of structure and quantum confinement effects

    SciTech Connect

    Kosemura, Daisuke Mizukami, Yuki; Takei, Munehisa; Numasawa, Yohichiroh; Ogura, Atsushi; Ohshita, Yoshio

    2014-01-15

    100-nm-thick nanocrystalline silicon (nano-Si)-dot multi-layers on a Si substrate were fabricated by the sequential repetition of H-plasma surface treatment, chemical vapor deposition, and surface oxidation, for over 120 times. The diameter of the nano-Si dots was 5–6 nm, as confirmed by both the transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The annealing process was important to improve the crystallinity of the nano-Si dot. We investigated quantum confinement effects by Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. Based on the experimental results, we simulated the Raman spectrum using a phenomenological model. Consequently, the strain induced in the nano-Si dots was estimated by comparing the experimental and simulated results. Taking the estimated strain value into consideration, the band gap modulation was measured, and the diameter of the nano-Si dots was calculated to be 5.6 nm by using PL. The relaxation of the q ? 0 selection rule model for the nano-Si dots is believed to be important to explain both the phenomena of peak broadening on the low-wavenumber side observed in Raman spectra and the blue shift observed in PL measurements.

  8. Quantum-confined Stark shifts of quantum-dot like states in GaAs/AlGaAs core multi-shell nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Teng; Badada, Bekele; Jackson, Howard; Smith, Leigh; Zheng, Changlin; Etheridge, Joanne; Jiang, Nian; Gao, Qiang; Tan, Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2015-03-01

    A 4nm GaAs quantum well tube sandwiched by AlGaAs barriers is formed surrounding a central 50nm GaAs core. The GaAs/AlGaAs core multi-shell nanowires were grown by MOCVD. Single nanowire devices were fabricated through photolithography followed by deposition of Ti/Al metal contacts. We observed photoluminescence (PL) emission with multiple sharp peaks on a single nanowire device at 10K. We attribute these quantum-dot (QD) like states to well width and alloy fluctuations. We apply a bias across the device to investigate the quenching of PL due to external field ionization of excitons and the Stark shifts in these QD like states. Integrated PL emission show quenching on the high energy sideat a lower bias voltage compared to the low energy side.. Quantum confined Stark shifts on individual QDs are observed in the range of couple hundreds of micro-eV, suggesting QD sizes varing from 7 to 15nm. We acknowledge the NSF through DMR-1105362, 1105121 and ECCS-1100489, and the Australian Research Council.

  9. Carrier and Phonon Spectrum in Quantum Dot Superlattices for Optoelectronic and Thermoelectric Applications

    E-print Network

    Carrier and Phonon Spectrum in Quantum Dot Superlattices for Optoelectronic and Thermoelectric recently proposed for optoelectronic and thermoelectric applications. In this paper we present two models dot superlattice, quantum dot crystal, confined phonons, nanostructures, thermoelectrics. 1

  10. Charging graphene nanoribbon quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?ebrowski, D. P.; Szafran, B.

    2015-08-01

    We describe charging a quantum dot induced electrostatically within a semiconducting graphene nanoribbon by electrons or holes. The applied model is based on a tight-binding approach with the electron-electron interaction introduced by a mean-field local-spin-density approximation. The numerical approach accounts for the charge of all the pz electrons and screening of external potentials by states near the charge-neutrality point. Both a homogeneous ribbon and a graphene flake embedded within the ribbon are discussed. The formation of transport gaps as functions of the external confinement potential (top-gate potential) and the Fermi energy (back-gate potential) are described in a qualitative agreement with the experimental data. For a fixed number of excess electrons, we find that the excess charge added to the system is, - depending on the voltages defining the work point of the device, (i) delocalized outside the quantum dot, - in the transport gap due to the top-gate potential; (ii) localized inside the quantum dot, - in the transport gap due to the back-gate potential; or (iii) extended over both the quantum dot area and the ribbon connections, - outside the transport gaps. The applicability of the frozen valence-band approximation to describe charging the quantum dot by excess electrons is also discussed.

  11. Quantum Dots: Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Vukmirovic, Nenad; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2009-11-10

    This review covers the description of the methodologies typically used for the calculation of the electronic structure of self-assembled and colloidal quantum dots. These are illustrated by the results of their application to a selected set of physical effects in quantum dots.

  12. Confined acoustic phonon-mediated spin relaxation in a twodimensional quantum dot in the presence of perpendicular magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardanyan, K. A.; Vartanian, A. L.; Stepanyan, A. G.; Kirakosyan, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    The spin-relaxation time due to the electron-acoustic phonon scattering in GaAs quantum dots is studied after the exact diagonalization of the electron Hamiltonian with the spin-orbit coupling. It has been shown that in comparison with flexural phonons, the electron coupling with the dilatational phonons causes 3 orders faster spin relaxation. We have found that the relaxation rate of the spin-flip is an order of magnitude smaller than that of the spin- conserving.

  13. Carbon NanotubeCarbon Nanotube Quantum DotQuantum Dot

    E-print Network

    Fominov, Yakov

    (,,conventional") Quantum dots #12;quantumquantum dotdot ?? 2 µm #12;1d1d quantum dot (quantum dot (0d0d)) E=h/round-trip of the spin-degree of the dot spin by exchange with electrons from Fermi-reservoirs (the leads) normal case

  14. Quantum-dot supercrystals for future nanophotonics

    PubMed Central

    Baimuratov, Anvar S.; Rukhlenko, Ivan D.; Turkov, Vadim K.; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.

    2013-01-01

    The study of supercrystals made of periodically arranged semiconductor quantum dots is essential for the advancement of emerging nanophotonics technologies. By combining the strong spatial confinement of elementary excitations inside quantum dots and exceptional design flexibility, quantum-dot supercrystals provide broad opportunities for engineering desired optical responses and developing superior light manipulation techniques on the nanoscale. Here we suggest tailoring the energy spectrum and wave functions of the supercrystals' collective excitations through the variation of different structural and material parameters. In particular, by calculating the excitonic spectra of quantum dots assembled in two-dimensional Bravais lattices we demonstrate a wide variety of spectrum transformation scenarios upon alterations in the quantum dot arrangement. This feature offers unprecedented control over the supercrystal's electromagnetic properties and enables the development of new nanophotonics materials and devices.

  15. Lateral Quantum Dots for Quantum Information Processing

    E-print Network

    House, Matthew Gregory

    2012-01-01

    A charging event not related to the quantum dot occurs nearA charging event not related to the quantum dot occurs nearquantum dot system as intended. Instead it is likely that they are charging events

  16. Quantum dot optoelectronic devices: lasers, photodetectors and solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiang; Chen, Siming; Seeds, Alwyn; Liu, Huiyun

    2015-09-01

    Nanometre-scale semiconductor devices have been envisioned as next-generation technologies with high integration and functionality. Quantum dots, or the so-called ‘artificial atoms’, exhibit unique properties due to their quantum confinement in all 3D. These unique properties have brought to light the great potential of quantum dots in optoelectronic applications. Numerous efforts worldwide have been devoted to these promising nanomaterials for next-generation optoelectronic devices, such as lasers, photodetectors, amplifiers, and solar cells, with the emphasis on improving performance and functionality. Through the development in optoelectronic devices based on quantum dots over the last two decades, quantum dot devices with exceptional performance surpassing previous devices are evidenced. This review describes recent developments in quantum dot optoelectronic devices over the last few years. The paper will highlight the major progress made in 1.3??m quantum dot lasers, quantum dot infrared photodetectors, and quantum dot solar cells.

  17. Optical properties of ionized donor-bound excitons confined in strained wurtzite ZnO/MgxZn1-xO quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dongmei, Zheng; Zongchi, Wang; Boqi, Xiao

    2015-03-01

    Within the framework of the effective-mass approximation and the dipole approximation, considering the three-dimensional confinement of the electron and hole and the strong built-in electric field (BEF) in strained wurtzite ZnO/Mg0.25Zn0.75O quantum dots (QDs), the optical properties of ionized donor-bound excitons (D+, X) are investigated theoretically using a variational method. The computations are performed in the case of finite band offset. Numerical results indicate that the optical properties of (D+, X) complexes sensitively depend on the donor position, the QD size and the BEF. The binding energy of (D+, X) complexes is larger when the donor is located in the vicinity of the left interface of the QDs, and it decreases with increasing QD size. The oscillator strength reduces with an increase in the dot height and increases with an increase in the dot radius. Furthermore, when the QD size decreases, the absorption peak intensity shows a marked increment, and the absorption coefficient peak has a blueshift. The strong BEF causes a redshift of the absorption coefficient peak and causes the absorption peak intensity to decrease remarkably. The physical reasons for these relationships have been analyzed in depth. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation for Young Scientists of China (No. 11102100), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in Fujian Province University (No. JA14285) and the Program for Young Top-Notch Innovative Talents of Fujian Province of China.

  18. Polariton quantum blockade in a photonic dot

    E-print Network

    Arnaud Verger; Cristiano Ciuti; Iacopo Carusotto

    2005-11-14

    We investigate the quantum nonlinear dynamics of a resonantly excited photonic quantum dot embedding a quantum well in the strong exciton-photon coupling regime. Within a master equation approach, we study the polariton quantum blockade and the generation of single photon states due to polariton-polariton interactions as a function of the photonic dot geometry, spectral linewidths and energy detuning between quantum well exciton and confined photon mode. The second order coherence function $g^{(2)}(t,t')$ is calculated for both continuous wave and pulsed excitations.

  19. Quantum Dots: An Experiment for Physical or Materials Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, L. D.; Arceo, J. F.; Hughes, W. C.; DeGraff, B. A.; Augustine, B. H.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is conducted for obtaining quantum dots for physical or materials chemistry. This experiment serves to both reinforce the basic concept of quantum confinement and providing a useful bridge between the molecular and solid-state world.

  20. A quantum dot heterojunction photodetector

    E-print Network

    Arango, Alexi Cosmos, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents a new device architecture for photodetectors utilizing colloidally grown quantum dots as the principle photo-active component. We implement a thin film of cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dot sensitizers, ...

  1. Optical phonons in nanostructured thin films composed by zincblende zinc selenide quantum dots in strong size-quantization regime: Competition between phonon confinement and strain-related effects

    SciTech Connect

    Pejova, Biljana

    2014-05-01

    Raman scattering in combination with optical spectroscopy and structural studies by X-ray diffraction was employed to investigate the phonon confinement and strain-induced effects in 3D assemblies of variable-size zincblende ZnSe quantum dots close packed in thin film form. Nanostructured thin films were synthesized by colloidal chemical approach, while tuning of the nanocrystal size was enabled by post-deposition thermal annealing treatment. In-depth insights into the factors governing the observed trends of the position and half-width of the 1LO band as a function of the average QD size were gained. The overall shifts in the position of 1LO band were found to result from an intricate compromise between the influence of phonon confinement and lattice strain-induced effects. Both contributions were quantitatively and exactly modeled. Accurate assignments of the bands due to surface optical (SO) modes as well as of the theoretically forbidden transverse optical (TO) modes were provided, on the basis of reliable physical models (such as the dielectric continuum model of Ruppin and Englman). The size-dependence of the ratio of intensities of the TO and LO modes was studied and discussed as well. Relaxation time characterizing the phonon decay processes in as-deposited samples was found to be approximately 0.38 ps, while upon post-deposition annealing already at 200 °C it increases to about 0.50 ps. Both of these values are, however, significantly smaller than those characteristic for a macrocrystalline ZnSe sample. - Graphical abstract: Optical phonons in nanostructured thin films composed by zincblende zinc selenide quantum dots in strong size-quantization regime: competition between phonon confinement and strain-related effects. - Highlights: • Phonon confinement vs. strain-induced effects in ZnSe 3D QD assemblies were studied. • Shifts of the 1LO band result from an intricate compromise between the two effects. • SO and theoretically forbidden TO modes were accurately assigned. • Phonon relaxation time in as-deposited and annealed samples is 0.38 ps and 0.50 ps. • Both values are significantly smaller than in macrocrystalline ZnSe sample.

  2. Electron counting in quantum dots

    E-print Network

    Fominov, Yakov

    Electron counting in quantum dots Klaus Ensslin Solid State Physics ·Charge detection in quantum dots ·Time-resolved single electron interference ·Backaction ·Graphene quantum dots Zürichwith B. Küng T. Choi S. Gustavsson I. Shorubalko U. Gasser T. Ihn #12;Spectroscopy of electronic states source

  3. Spatially confined synthesis of SiOx nano-rod with size-controlled Si quantum dots in nano-porous anodic aluminum oxide membrane.

    PubMed

    Pai, Yi-Hao; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2011-01-17

    By depositing Si-rich SiOx nano-rod in nano-porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane using PECVD, the spatially confined synthesis of Si quantum-dots (Si-QDs) with ultra-bright photoluminescence spectra are demonstrated after low-temperature annealing. Spatially confined SiOx nano-rod in nano-porous AAO membrane greatly increases the density of nucleated positions for Si-QD precursors, which essentially impedes the route of thermally diffused Si atoms and confines the degree of atomic self-aggregation. The diffusion controlled growth mechanism is employed to determine the activation energy of 6.284 kJ mole(-1) and diffusion length of 2.84 nm for SiO1.5 nano-rod in nano-porous AAO membrane. HRTEM results verify that the reduced geometric dimension of the SiOx host matrix effectively constrain the buried Si-QD size at even lower annealing temperature. The spatially confined synthesis of Si-QD essentially contributes the intense PL with its spectral linewidth shrinking from 210 to 140 nm and its peak intensity enhancing by two orders of magnitude, corresponding to the reduction on both the average Si-QD size and its standard deviation from 2.6 to 2.0 nm and from 25% to 12.5%, respectively. The red-shifted PL wavelength of the Si-QD reveals an inverse exponential trend with increasing temperature of annealing, which is in good agree with the Si-QD size simulation via the atomic diffusion theory. PMID:21263629

  4. Magnetic quantum dots and magnetic edge states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. J.; Souma, S.; Ihm, G.; Chang, K. J.

    2004-04-01

    Starting with defining the magnetic edge state in a magnetic quantum dot, which becomes quite popular nowadays conjunction with a possible candidate for a high density memory device or spintronic materials, various magnetic nano-quantum structures are reviewed in detail. We study the magnetic edge states of the two dimensional electron gas in strong perpendicular magnetic fields. We find that magnetic edge states are formed along the boundary of the magnetic dot, which is formed by a nonuniform distribution of magnetic fields. These magnetic edge states circulate either clockwise or counterclockwise, depending on the number of missing flux quanta, and exhibit quite different properties, as compared to the conventional ones which are induced by electrostatic confinements in the quantum Hall system. We also find that a close relation between the quantum mechanical eigenstates and the classical trajectories in the magnetic dot. When a magnetic dot is located inside a quantum wire, the edge-channel scattering mechanism by the magnetic quantum dot is very different from that by electrostatic dots. Here, the magnetic dot is formed by two different magnetic fields inside and outside the dot. We study the ballistic edge-channel transport and magnetic edge states in this situation. When the inner field is parallel to the outer one, the two-terminal conductance is quantized and shows the features of a transmission barrier and a resonator. On the other hand, when the inner field is reversed, the conductance is not quantized and all channels can be completely reflected in some energy ranges. The difference between the above two cases results from the distinct magnetic confinements. We also describe successfully the edge states of magnetic quantum rings and others in detail.

  5. Studies of quantum dots in the quantum Hall regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldmann, Eyal

    We present two studies of quantum dots in the quantum Hall regime. In the first study, presented in Chapter 3, we investigate the edge reconstruction phenomenon believed to occur when the quantum dot filling fraction is n?1 . Our approach involves the examination of large dots (?40 electrons) using a partial diagonalization technique in which the occupancies of the deep interior orbitals are frozen. To interpret the results of this calculation, we evaluate the overlap between the diagonalized ground state and a set of trial wavefunctions which we call projected necklace (PN) states. A PN state is simply the angular momentum projection of a maximum density droplet surrounded by a ring of localized electrons. Our calculations reveal that PN states have up to 99% overlap with the diagonalized ground states, and are lower in energy than the states identified in Chamon and Wen's study of the edge reconstruction. In the second study, presented in Chapter 4, we investigate quantum dots in the fractional quantum Hall regime using a Hartree formulation of composite fermion theory. We find that under appropriate conditions, the chemical potential of the dots oscillates periodically with B due to the transfer of composite fermions between quasi-Landau bands. This effect is analogous the addition spectrum oscillations which occur in quantum dots in the integer quantum Hall regime. Period f0 oscillations are found in sharply confined dots with filling factors nu = 2/5 and nu = 2/3. Period 3 f0 oscillations are found in a parabolically confined nu = 2/5 dot. More generally, we argue that the oscillation period of dots with band pinning should vary continuously with B, whereas the period of dots without band pinning is f0 .

  6. Quantum dot cascade laser

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrated an unambiguous quantum dot cascade laser based on InGaAs/GaAs/InAs/InAlAs heterostructure by making use of self-assembled quantum dots in the Stranski-Krastanow growth mode and two-step strain compensation active region design. The prototype generates stimulated emission at ??~?6.15 ?m and a broad electroluminescence band with full width at half maximum over 3 ?m. The characteristic temperature for the threshold current density within the temperature range of 82 to 162 K is up to 400 K. Moreover, our materials show the strong perpendicular mid-infrared response at about 1,900 cm-1. These results are very promising for extending the present laser concept to terahertz quantum cascade laser, which would lead to room temperature operation. PACS 42.55.Px; 78.55.Cr; 78.67.Hc PMID:24666965

  7. Theory of electro-optic modulation via a quantum dot coupled to a

    E-print Network

    Faraon, Andrei

    Theory of electro-optic modulation via a quantum dot coupled to a nano-resonator Arka Majumdar-optic modulator based on a single quantum dot strongly coupled to a nano- resonator, where electrical control of the quantum dot frequency is achieved via quantum confined Stark effect. Using realistic system parameters, we

  8. PREFACE: Quantum Dot 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Robert A.

    2010-09-01

    These conference proceedings contain the written papers of the contributions presented at Quantum Dot 2010 (QD2010). The conference was held in Nottingham, UK, on 26-30 April 2010. The conference addressed topics in research on: 1. Epitaxial quantum dots (including self-assembled and interface structures, dots defined by electrostatic gates etc): optical properties and electron transport quantum coherence effects spin phenomena optics of dots in cavities interaction with surface plasmons in metal/semiconductor structures opto-electronics applications 2. Novel QD structures: fabrication and physics of graphene dots, dots in nano-wires etc 3. Colloidal quantum dots: growth (shape control and hybrid nanocrystals such as metal/semiconductor, magnetic/semiconductor) assembly and surface functionalisation optical properties and spin dynamics electrical and magnetic properties applications (light emitting devices and solar cells, biological and medical applications, data storage, assemblers) The Editors Acknowledgements Conference Organising Committee: Maurice Skolnick (Chair) Alexander Tartakovskii (Programme Chair) Pavlos Lagoudakis (Programme Chair) Max Migliorato (Conference Secretary) Paola Borri (Publicity) Robert Taylor (Proceedings) Manus Hayne (Treasurer) Ray Murray (Sponsorship) Mohamed Henini (Local Organiser) International Advisory Committee: Yasuhiko Arakawa (Tokyo University, Japan) Manfred Bayer (Dortmund University, Germany) Sergey Gaponenko (Stepanov Institute of Physics, Minsk, Belarus) Pawel Hawrylak (NRC, Ottawa, Canada) Fritz Henneberger (Institute for Physics, Berlin, Germany) Atac Imamoglu (ETH, Zurich, Switzerland) Paul Koenraad (TU Eindhoven, Nethehrlands) Guglielmo Lanzani (Politecnico di Milano, Italy) Jungil Lee (Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Korea) Henri Mariette (CNRS-CEA, Grenoble, France) Lu Jeu Sham (San Diego, USA) Andrew Shields (Toshiba Research Europe, Cambridge, UK) Yoshihisa Yamamoto (Stanford University, USA) Artur Zrenner (Paderborn University, Germany) International Programme Committee: Alexander Eychmüller (TU Dresden, Germany) Jonathan Finley (TU Munich, Germany) Dan Gammon (NRL, Washington, USA) Alexander Govorov (Ohio University, USA) Neil Greenham (Cavendish Laboratory, UK) Vladimir Korenev (Ioffe Institute, Russia) Leo Kouwenhoven (TU Delft, Netherlands) Wolfgang Langbein (Cardiff University, UK) Xavier Marie (CNRS Toulouse, France) David Ritchie (Cambridge, UK) Andrew Sachrajda (IMS, Ottawa, Canada) Katerina Soulantica (University of Toulouse, France) Seigo Tarucha (University of Tokyo, Japan) Carlos Tejedor (UAM, Madrid, Spain) Euijoon Yoon (Seoul National University, Korea) Ulrike Woggon (Tu Berlin, Germany) Proceedings edited and compiled by Profesor Robert A Taylor, University of Oxford

  9. Silicon quantum dots: surface matters.

    PubMed

    Dohnalová, K; Gregorkiewicz, T; K?sová, K

    2014-04-30

    Silicon quantum dots (SiQDs) hold great promise for many future technologies. Silicon is already at the core of photovoltaics and microelectronics, and SiQDs are capable of efficient light emission and amplification. This is crucial for the development of the next technological frontiers-silicon photonics and optoelectronics. Unlike any other quantum dots (QDs), SiQDs are made of non-toxic and abundant material, offering one of the spectrally broadest emission tunabilities accessible with semiconductor QDs and allowing for tailored radiative rates over many orders of magnitude. This extraordinary flexibility of optical properties is achieved via a combination of the spatial confinement of carriers and the strong influence of surface chemistry. The complex physics of this material, which is still being unraveled, leads to new effects, opening up new opportunities for applications. In this review we summarize the latest progress in this fascinating research field, with special attention given to surface-induced effects, such as the emergence of direct bandgap transitions, and collective effects in densely packed QDs, such as space separated quantum cutting. PMID:24713583

  10. Magneto-photon-phonon interaction in a parabolically confined quantum dot in the presence of high magnetic fields and intense terahertz radiation fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. Y.; Xu, W.

    2012-07-01

    We present a theoretical study on magneto-photon-phonon interaction in a parabolically confined quantum dot subjected simultaneously to static magnetic field and radiation field. A nonperturbative treatment for electron-photon interaction is proposed by solving analytically the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in which the magnetic field and the radiation field are included exactly. We employ the energy-balance equation approach on the basis of the Boltzmann equation to evaluate the energy transfer rate induced by optical transition events. It is found that for relatively low radiation levels, two peaks of the cyclotron resonance (CR) appear at two Kohn's frequencies ?±, and the strength and the width of the CR increase with radiation intensity. The CR at ?+ is more prominent than that at ?-. When the radiation become intense, the splitting of the CR peaks can be observed and the splitting increases with radiation intensity. The physics reasons behind these interesting findings are discussed. This study is pertinent to the application of intense terahertz radiation sources such as free-electron lasers in the investigation into low-dimensional semiconductor systems.

  11. Quantum Confined Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhargava, Rameshwar

    2001-03-01

    When the size of Tb3+ doped Y2O3 nanoparticles is decreased from about 10 nm to 3 nm, the luminescent efficiency of Tb3+ green-emission (f-f transition) is increased by an order of magnitude1. This enhancement of oscillator strength is interpreted due to modulation of excited-states of the Tb3+ ion, brought about by the confinement-boundary of the Y2O3 nanocrystal2. This high efficiency of 'caged' single Tb3+ or Eu3+ ion in Y2O3 has led to the first observation of an atomic blinking3. The Quantum Confined Atoms (QCA) provide a novel way to modulate the luminescent properties of a single activator atom via quantum confinement of higher excited states. This QCA-effect occurs when the size of the host is about 5 to 10 times the size of the radius of the excited-state atom. This discovery is expected to impact many applications in the area of nanotechnology. 1. R.N Bhargava, V. Chhabra, B. Kulkarni and J.V. Veliadis Phys. stat. sol. (b) 210, 621 (1998) 2. R.N. Bhargava Jour. of Crystal Growth 214, 926 (2000) 3. M. Barnes, A. Mehta, T. Thundant, R.N. Bhargava, V. Chhabra, B .Kulkarni Jour. Chem. Phys. B 104, 6099 (2000)

  12. Silicon quantum dots: fine-tuning to maturity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morello, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    Quantum dots in semiconductor heterostructures provide one of the most flexible platforms for the study of quantum phenomena at the nanoscale. The surging interest in using quantum dots for quantum computation is forcing researchers to rethink fabrication and operation methods, to obtain highly tunable dots in spin-free host materials, such as silicon. Borselli and colleagues report in Nanotechnology the fabrication of a novel Si/SiGe double quantum dot device, which combines an ultra-low disorder Si/SiGe accumulation-mode heterostructure with a stack of overlapping control gates, ensuring tight confining potentials and exquisite tunability. This work signals the technological maturity of silicon quantum dots, and their readiness to be applied to challenging projects in quantum information science.

  13. Silicon quantum dots: fine-tuning to maturity.

    PubMed

    Morello, Andrea

    2015-12-18

    Quantum dots in semiconductor heterostructures provide one of the most flexible platforms for the study of quantum phenomena at the nanoscale. The surging interest in using quantum dots for quantum computation is forcing researchers to rethink fabrication and operation methods, to obtain highly tunable dots in spin-free host materials, such as silicon. Borselli and colleagues report in Nanotechnology the fabrication of a novel Si/SiGe double quantum dot device, which combines an ultra-low disorder Si/SiGe accumulation-mode heterostructure with a stack of overlapping control gates, ensuring tight confining potentials and exquisite tunability. This work signals the technological maturity of silicon quantum dots, and their readiness to be applied to challenging projects in quantum information science. PMID:26584678

  14. Scanning Quantum Dot Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Christian; Green, Matthew F. B.; Leinen, Philipp; Deilmann, Thorsten; Krüger, Peter; Rohlfing, Michael; Temirov, Ruslan; Tautz, F. Stefan

    2015-07-01

    We introduce a scanning probe technique that enables three-dimensional imaging of local electrostatic potential fields with subnanometer resolution. Registering single electron charging events of a molecular quantum dot attached to the tip of an atomic force microscope operated at 5 K, equipped with a qPlus tuning fork, we image the quadrupole field of a single molecule. To demonstrate quantitative measurements, we investigate the dipole field of a single metal adatom adsorbed on a metal surface. We show that because of its high sensitivity the technique can probe electrostatic potentials at large distances from their sources, which should allow for the imaging of samples with increased surface roughness.

  15. Scanning Quantum Dot Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Christian; Green, Matthew F B; Leinen, Philipp; Deilmann, Thorsten; Krüger, Peter; Rohlfing, Michael; Temirov, Ruslan; Tautz, F Stefan

    2015-07-10

    We introduce a scanning probe technique that enables three-dimensional imaging of local electrostatic potential fields with subnanometer resolution. Registering single electron charging events of a molecular quantum dot attached to the tip of an atomic force microscope operated at 5 K, equipped with a qPlus tuning fork, we image the quadrupole field of a single molecule. To demonstrate quantitative measurements, we investigate the dipole field of a single metal adatom adsorbed on a metal surface. We show that because of its high sensitivity the technique can probe electrostatic potentials at large distances from their sources, which should allow for the imaging of samples with increased surface roughness. PMID:26207484

  16. Quantum entanglement and teleportation in quantum dot

    E-print Network

    Li-Guo Qin; Li-Jun Tian; Guo-Hong Yang

    2011-03-08

    We study the thermal entanglement and quantum teleportation using quantum dot as a resource. We first consider entanglement of the resource, and then focus on the effects of different parameters on the teleportation fidelity under different conditions. The critical temperature of disentanglement is obtained. Based on Bell measurements in two subspaces, we find the anisotropy measurements is optimal to the isotropy arising from the entangled eigenstates of the system in the anisotropy subspace. In addition, it is shown that the anisotropy transmission fidelity is very high and stable for quantum dot as quantum channel when the parameters are adjusted. The possible applications of quantum dot are expected in the quantum teleportation.

  17. Efficient Quantum Dot-Quantum Dot and Quantum Dot-Dye Energy Transfer in Biotemplated Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Achermann, Marc; Jeong, Sohee; Balet, Laurent; Montano, Gabriel A.; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    CdSe semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots are assembled into nanowire-like arrays employing microtubule fibers as nanoscale molecular “scaffolds.” Spectrally and time-resolved energy-transfer analysis is used to assess the assembly of the nanoparticles into the hybrid inorganic-biomolecular structure. Specifically, we demonstrate that a comprehensive study of energy transfer between quantum-dot pairs on the biotemplate, and, alternatively, between quantum dots and molecular dyes embedded in the microtubule scaffold, comprises a powerful spectroscopic tool for evaluating the assembly process. In addition to revealing the extent to which assembly has occurred, the approach allows determination of particle-to-particle (and particle-to-dye) distances within the bio-mediated array. Significantly, the characterization is realized in situ, without need for further sample workup or risk of disturbing the solution-phase constructs. Furthermore, we find that the assemblies prepared in this way exhibit efficient quantum dot-quantum dot and quantum dot-dye energy transfer that affords faster energy-transfer rates compared to densely packed quantum dot arrays on planar substrates and small-molecule-mediated quantum dot/dye couples, respectively. PMID:21314178

  18. Efficient quantum dot-quantum dot and quantum dot-dye energy transfer in biotemplated assemblies.

    PubMed

    Achermann, Marc; Jeong, Sohee; Balet, Laurent; Montano, Gabriel A; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A

    2011-03-22

    CdSe semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots are assembled into nanowire-like arrays employing microtubule fibers as nanoscale molecular "scaffolds." Spectrally and time-resolved energy-transfer analysis is used to assess the assembly of the nanoparticles into the hybrid inorganic biomolecular structure. Specifically, we demonstrate that a comprehensive study of energy transfer between quantum dot pairs on the biotemplate and, alternatively, between quantum dots and molecular dyes embedded in the microtubule scaffold comprises a powerful spectroscopic tool for evaluating the assembly process. In addition to revealing the extent to which assembly has occurred, the approach allows determination of particle-to-particle (and particle-to-dye) distances within the biomediated array. Significantly, the characterization is realized in situ, without need for further sample workup or risk of disturbing the solution-phase constructs. Furthermore, we find that the assemblies prepared in this way exhibit efficient quantum dot-quantum dot and quantum dot-dye energy transfer that affords faster energy-transfer rates compared to densely packed quantum dot arrays on planar substrates and to small-molecule-mediated quantum dot-dye couples, respectively. PMID:21314178

  19. Phonon decoherence in quantum dot qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucciolo, Eduardo R.; Vorojtsov, Serguei; Baranger, Harold U.

    2005-05-01

    The spin of an electron confined into a lateral semiconductor quantum dot has been proposed as a possible physical realization of a qubit. While the spin has the advantage of large decoherence times, operations with more than one qubit will necessarily involve orbital degrees of freedom, namely, charge, which is much more prone to decoherence. There are also alternative quantum dot qubit proposals that are entirely based on charge. We have used a realistic model to quantify the limitations imposed by acoustic phonons on the operation of quantum dot-based qubits. Our treatment includes essential aspects of the setup geometry, wave function profile and materials characteristics. The time dependence of the qubit density matrix is the presence of a phonon bath solved within the Born-Markov approximation. We find that the inclusion of geometric form factors makes the phonon-induced decoherence rates in double dot charge qubits nearly one order of magnitude lower than estimates previously in the literature. Moreover, our theoretical prediction for the quality factor of coherent charge oscillations based on phonon decoherence are higher than the values recently observed experimentally. This allows us to conclude that phonons are not the primary source of decoherence in double quantum dot qubits.

  20. The pinning effect in quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Monisha, P. J.; Mukhopadhyay, Soma

    2014-04-24

    The pinning effect is studied in a Gaussian quantum dot using the improved Wigner-Brillouin perturbation theory (IWBPT) in the presence of electron-phonon interaction. The electron ground state plus one phonon state is degenerate with the electron in the first excited state. The electron-phonon interaction lifts the degeneracy and the first excited states get pinned to the ground state plus one phonon state as we increase the confinement frequency.

  1. Planar Dirac electrons in magnetic quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ning; Zhu, Jia-Lin

    2012-05-30

    In this paper, we explore the size- and mass-dependent energy spectra and the electronic correlation of two- and three-electron graphene magnetic quantum dots. It is found that only the magnetic dots with large size can well confine the electrons. For large graphene magnetic dots with massless (ultra-relativity) electrons, the energy level structures of two Dirac electrons and even the ground state spin and angular momentum of three electrons are quite different from those of the usual semiconductor quantum dots. Also we reveal that such differences are not due to the magnetic confinement but originate from the character of the Coulomb interaction of two-component electronic wavefunctions in graphene. We reveal that the increase of the mass leads to both the crossover of the energy spectrum structures from the ultra-relativity to non-relativity ones and the increasing of the crystallization. The results are helpful for the understanding of the mass and size effects and may be useful in controlling the few-electron states in graphene-based nanodevices. PMID:22543306

  2. Reconfigurable Quantum-Dot Molecules Created by Atom Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yi; Yang, Jianshu; Erwin, Steven C.; Kanisawa, Kiyoshi; Fölsch, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    Quantum-dot molecules were constructed on a semiconductor surface using atom manipulation by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) at 5 K. The molecules consist of several coupled quantum dots, each of which comprises a chain of charged adatoms that electrostatically confines intrinsic surface-state electrons. The coupling takes place across tunnel barriers created reversibly using the STM tip. These barriers have an invariant, reproducible atomic structure and can be positioned—and repeatedly repositioned—to create a series of reconfigurable quantum-dot molecules with atomic precision.

  3. Reconfigurable Quantum-Dot Molecules Created by Atom Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yi; Yang, Jianshu; Erwin, Steven C; Kanisawa, Kiyoshi; Fölsch, Stefan

    2015-08-14

    Quantum-dot molecules were constructed on a semiconductor surface using atom manipulation by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) at 5 K. The molecules consist of several coupled quantum dots, each of which comprises a chain of charged adatoms that electrostatically confines intrinsic surface-state electrons. The coupling takes place across tunnel barriers created reversibly using the STM tip. These barriers have an invariant, reproducible atomic structure and can be positioned-and repeatedly repositioned-to create a series of reconfigurable quantum-dot molecules with atomic precision. PMID:26317740

  4. Influence of the Nuclear Electric Quadrupolar Interaction on the Coherence Time of Hole and Electron Spins Confined in Semiconductor Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Hackmann, J; Glasenapp, Ph; Greilich, A; Bayer, M; Anders, F B

    2015-11-13

    The real-time spin dynamics and the spin noise spectra are calculated for p and n-charged quantum dots within an anisotropic central spin model extended by additional nuclear electric quadrupolar interactions and augmented by experimental data. Using realistic estimates for the distribution of coupling constants including an anisotropy parameter, we show that the characteristic long time scale is of the same order for electron and hole spins strongly determined by the quadrupolar interactions even though the analytical form of the spin decay differs significantly consistent with our measurements. The low frequency part of the electron spin noise spectrum is approximately 1/3 smaller than those for hole spins as a consequence of the spectral sum rule and the different spectral shapes. This is confirmed by our experimental spectra measured on both types of quantum dot ensembles in the low power limit of the probe laser. PMID:26613469

  5. Influence of the Nuclear Electric Quadrupolar Interaction on the Coherence Time of Hole and Electron Spins Confined in Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackmann, J.; Glasenapp, Ph.; Greilich, A.; Bayer, M.; Anders, F. B.

    2015-11-01

    The real-time spin dynamics and the spin noise spectra are calculated for p and n -charged quantum dots within an anisotropic central spin model extended by additional nuclear electric quadrupolar interactions and augmented by experimental data. Using realistic estimates for the distribution of coupling constants including an anisotropy parameter, we show that the characteristic long time scale is of the same order for electron and hole spins strongly determined by the quadrupolar interactions even though the analytical form of the spin decay differs significantly consistent with our measurements. The low frequency part of the electron spin noise spectrum is approximately 1 /3 smaller than those for hole spins as a consequence of the spectral sum rule and the different spectral shapes. This is confirmed by our experimental spectra measured on both types of quantum dot ensembles in the low power limit of the probe laser.

  6. Surface trap passivation and characterization of lead sulfide quantum dots for optical and electrical applications

    E-print Network

    Hwang, Gyuweon

    2015-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals having a size comparable to or smaller than its exciton Bohr radius. The small size of QDs leads to the quantum confinement effects in their electronic structures. Their ...

  7. A prototype silicon double quantum dot with dispersive microwave readout

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, A. R. Henry, E.; Namaan, O.; Siddiqi, I.; Lo, C. C.; Wang, Y.-T.; Bokor, J.; Yablonovitch, E.; Li, H.; Greenman, L.; Whaley, K. B.; Schenkel, T.

    2014-07-28

    We present a unique design and fabrication process for a lateral, gate-confined double quantum dot in an accumulation mode metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structure coupled to an integrated microwave resonator. All electrostatic gates for the double quantum dot are contained in a single metal layer, and use of the MOS structure allows for control of the location of the two-dimensional electron gas via the location of the accumulation gates. Numerical simulations of the electrostatic confinement potential are performed along with an estimate of the coupling of the double quantum dot to the microwave resonator. Prototype devices are fabricated and characterized by transport measurements of electron confinement and reflectometry measurements of the microwave resonator.

  8. Electron spins in semiconductor quantum dots

    E-print Network

    Electron spins in semiconductor quantum dots #12;#12;Electron spins in semiconductor quantum dots Research Laboratories, Japan Published by: Ronald Hanson Printed by: Cendris, Delft An electronic version years of experimental research on electron spins on quantum dots in the Quantum Transport group of Leo

  9. Optically active quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerard, Valerie; Govan, Joseph; Loudon, Alexander; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.; Gun'ko, Yurii K.

    2015-10-01

    The main goal of our research is to develop new types of technologically important optically active quantum dot (QD) based materials, study their properties and explore their biological applications. For the first time chiral II-VI QDs have been prepared by us using microwave induced heating with the racemic (Rac), D- and L-enantiomeric forms of penicillamine as stabilisers. Circular dichroism (CD) studies of these QDs have shown that D- and L-penicillamine stabilised particles produced mirror image CD spectra, while the particles prepared with a Rac mixture showed only a weak signal. It was also demonstrated that these QDs show very broad emission bands between 400 and 700 nm due to defects or trap states on the surfaces of the nanocrystals. These QDs have demonstrated highly specific chiral recognition of various biological species including aminoacids. The utilisation of chiral stabilisers also allowed the preparation of new water soluble white emitting CdS nano-tetrapods, which demonstrated circular dichroism in the band-edge region of the spectrum. Biological testing of chiral CdS nanotetrapods displayed a chiral bias for an uptake of the D- penicillamine stabilised nano-tetrapods by cancer cells. It is expected that this research will open new horizons in the chemistry of chiral nanomaterials and their application in nanobiotechnology, medicine and optical chemo- and bio-sensing.

  10. NREL Certifies First All-Quantum-Dot Photovoltaic Cell; Demonstrates Stability, Performance (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have certified the first all-quantum-dot photovoltaic cell, which was based on lead sulfide and demonstrated reasonable quantum dot solar cell performance for an initial efficiency measurement along with good stability. The certified open-circuit voltage of the quantum dot cell is greater than that possible from bulk lead sulfide because of quantum confinement.

  11. Nanoscale and Single-Dot Patterning of Colloidal Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Xie, Weiqiang; Gomes, Raquel; Aubert, Tangi; Bisschop, Suzanne; Zhu, Yunpeng; Hens, Zeger; Brainis, Edouard; Van Thourhout, Dries

    2015-11-11

    Using an optimized lift-off process we develop a technique for both nanoscale and single-dot patterning of colloidal quantum dot films, demonstrating feature sizes down to ?30 nm for uniform films and a yield of 40% for single-dot positioning, which is in good agreement with a newly developed theoretical model. While first of all presenting a unique tool for studying physics of single quantum dots, the process also provides a pathway toward practical quantum dot-based optoelectronic devices. PMID:26455513

  12. All inorganic colloidal quantum dot LEDs

    E-print Network

    Wood, Vanessa Claire

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents the first colloidal quantum dot light emitting devices (QD-LEDs) with metal oxide charge transport layers. Colloidally synthesized quantum dots (QDs) have shown promise as the active material in ...

  13. Excitonic fine structure splitting in type-II quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K?ápek, V.; Klenovský, P.; Šikola, T.

    2015-11-01

    Excitonic fine structure splitting in quantum dots is closely related to the lateral shape of the wave functions. We have studied theoretically the fine structure splitting in InAs quantum dots with a type-II confinement imposed by a GaAsSb capping layer. We show that very small values of the fine structure splitting comparable with the natural linewidth of the excitonic transitions are achievable for realistic quantum dots despite the structural elongation and the piezoelectric field. For example, varying the capping layer thickness allows for a fine tuning of the splitting energy. The effect is explained by a strong sensitivity of the hole wave function to the quantum dot structure and a mutual compensation of the electron and hole anisotropies. The oscillator strength of the excitonic transitions in the studied quantum dots is comparable to those with a type-I confinement which makes the dots attractive for quantum communication technology as emitters of polarization-entangled photon pairs.

  14. Holonomic quantum computation with electron spins in quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Golovach, Vitaly N.; Borhani, Massoud; Loss, Daniel

    2010-02-15

    With the help of the spin-orbit interaction, we propose a scheme to perform holonomic single-qubit gates on the electron spin confined to a quantum dot. The manipulation is done in the absence (or presence) of an applied magnetic field. By adiabatic changing the position of the confinement potential, one can rotate the spin state of the electron around the Bloch sphere in semiconductor heterostructures. The dynamics of the system is equivalent to employing an effective non-Abelian gauge potential whose structure depends on the type of the spin-orbit interaction. As an example, we find an analytic expression for the electron spin dynamics when the dot is moved around a circular path (with radius R) on the two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) and show that all single-qubit gates can be realized by tuning the radius and orientation of the circular paths. Moreover, using the Heisenberg exchange interaction, we demonstrate how one can generate two-qubit gates by bringing two quantum dots near each other, yielding a scalable scheme to perform quantum computing on arbitrary N qubits. This proposal shows a way of realizing holonomic quantum computers in solid-state systems.

  15. A colloidal quantum dot spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Jie; Bawendi, Moungi G.

    2015-07-01

    Spectroscopy is carried out in almost every field of science, whenever light interacts with matter. Although sophisticated instruments with impressive performance characteristics are available, much effort continues to be invested in the development of miniaturized, cheap and easy-to-use systems. Current microspectrometer designs mostly use interference filters and interferometric optics that limit their photon efficiency, resolution and spectral range. Here we show that many of these limitations can be overcome by replacing interferometric optics with a two-dimensional absorptive filter array composed of colloidal quantum dots. Instead of measuring different bands of a spectrum individually after introducing temporal or spatial separations with gratings or interference-based narrowband filters, a colloidal quantum dot spectrometer measures a light spectrum based on the wavelength multiplexing principle: multiple spectral bands are encoded and detected simultaneously with one filter and one detector, respectively, with the array format allowing the process to be efficiently repeated many times using different filters with different encoding so that sufficient information is obtained to enable computational reconstruction of the target spectrum. We illustrate the performance of such a quantum dot microspectrometer, made from 195 different types of quantum dots with absorption features that cover a spectral range of 300 nanometres, by measuring shifts in spectral peak positions as small as one nanometre. Given this performance, demonstrable avenues for further improvement, the ease with which quantum dots can be processed and integrated, and their numerous finely tuneable bandgaps that cover a broad spectral range, we expect that quantum dot microspectrometers will be useful in applications where minimizing size, weight, cost and complexity of the spectrometer are critical.

  16. Tuning the g-factor of neutral and charged excitons confined to self-assembled (Al,Ga)As shell quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Corfdir, P. Van Hattem, B.; Phillips, R. T.; Fontana, Y.; Russo-Averchi, E.; Heiss, M.; Fontcuberta i Morral, A.

    2014-12-01

    We study the neutral exciton (X) and charged exciton (CX) transitions from (Al,Ga)As shell quantum dots located in core-shell nanowires, in the presence of a magnetic field. The g-factors and the diamagnetic coefficients of both the X and the CX depend on the orientation of the field with respect to the nanowire axis. The aspect ratio of the X wavefunction is quantified based on the anisotropy of the diamagnetic coefficient. For specific orientations of the magnetic field, it is possible to cancel the g-factor of the bright states of the X and the CX by means of an inversion of the sign of the hole's g-factor, which is promising for quantum information processing applications.

  17. Density functional calculation of the structural and electronic properties of germanium quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Anas, M. M.; Gopir, G.

    2015-04-24

    We apply first principles density functional computational methods to study the structures, densities of states (DOS), and higher occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) – lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gaps of selected free-standing Ge semiconductor quantum dots up to 1.8nm. Our calculations are performed using numerical atomic orbital approach where linear combination of atomic orbital was applied. The surfaces of the quantum dots was passivized by hydrogen atoms. We find that surface passivation does affect the electronic properties associated with the changes of surface state, electron localization, and the energy gaps of germanium nanocrystals as well as the confinement of electrons inside the quantum dots (QDs). Our study shows that the energy gaps of germanium quantum dots decreases with the increasing dot diameter. The size-dependent variations of the computed HOMO-LUMO gaps in our quantum dots model were found to be consistent with the effects of quantum confinement reported in others theoretical and experimental calculation.

  18. Charge transfer magnetoexciton formation at vertically coupled quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A theoretical investigation is presented on the properties of charge transfer excitons at vertically coupled semiconductor quantum dots in the presence of electric and magnetic fields directed along the growth axis. Such excitons should have two interesting characteristics: an extremely long lifetime and a permanent dipole moment. We show that wave functions and the low-lying energies of charge transfer exciton can be found exactly for a special morphology of quantum dots that provides a parabolic confinement inside the layers. To take into account a difference between confinement potentials of an actual structure and of our exactly solvable model, we use the Galerkin method. The density of energy states is calculated for different InAs/GaAs quantum dots’ dimensions, the separation between layers, and the strength of the electric and magnetic fields. A possibility of a formation of a giant dipolar momentum under external electric field is predicted. PMID:23092373

  19. Optical Fiber Sensing Using Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Pedro; Martins, Manuel António; Trindade, Tito; Santos, José Luís; Farahi, Faramarz

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in the application of semiconductor nanocrystals, or quantum dots, as biochemical sensors are reviewed. Quantum dots have unique optical properties that make them promising alternatives to traditional dyes in many luminescence based bioanalytical techniques. An overview of the more relevant progresses in the application of quantum dots as biochemical probes is addressed. Special focus will be given to configurations where the sensing dots are incorporated in solid membranes and immobilized in optical fibers or planar waveguide platforms.

  20. Quantum dot quantum cascade infrared photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xue-Jiao; Zhai, Shen-Qiang; Zhuo, Ning; Liu, Jun-Qi; Liu, Feng-Qi; Liu, Shu-Man; Wang, Zhan-Guo

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate an InAs quantum dot quantum cascade infrared photodetector operating at room temperature with a peak detection wavelength of 4.3 ?m. The detector shows sensitive photoresponse for normal-incidence light, which is attributed to an intraband transition of the quantum dots and the following transfer of excited electrons on a cascade of quantum levels. The InAs quantum dots for the infrared absorption were formed by making use of self-assembled quantum dots in the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode and two-step strain-compensation design based on InAs/GaAs/InGaAs/InAlAs heterostructure, while the following extraction quantum stairs formed by LO-phonon energy are based on a strain-compensated InGaAs/InAlAs chirped superlattice. Johnson noise limited detectivities of 3.64 × 1011 and 4.83 × 106 Jones at zero bias were obtained at 80 K and room temperature, respectively. Due to the low dark current and distinct photoresponse up to room temperature, this device can form high temperature imaging.

  1. Quantum dot quantum cascade infrared photodetector

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xue-Jiao; Zhai, Shen-Qiang; Zhuo, Ning; Liu, Jun-Qi E-mail: fqliu@semi.ac.cn; Liu, Feng-Qi E-mail: fqliu@semi.ac.cn; Liu, Shu-Man; Wang, Zhan-Guo

    2014-04-28

    We demonstrate an InAs quantum dot quantum cascade infrared photodetector operating at room temperature with a peak detection wavelength of 4.3??m. The detector shows sensitive photoresponse for normal-incidence light, which is attributed to an intraband transition of the quantum dots and the following transfer of excited electrons on a cascade of quantum levels. The InAs quantum dots for the infrared absorption were formed by making use of self-assembled quantum dots in the Stranski–Krastanov growth mode and two-step strain-compensation design based on InAs/GaAs/InGaAs/InAlAs heterostructure, while the following extraction quantum stairs formed by LO-phonon energy are based on a strain-compensated InGaAs/InAlAs chirped superlattice. Johnson noise limited detectivities of 3.64?×?10{sup 11} and 4.83?×?10{sup 6} Jones at zero bias were obtained at 80?K and room temperature, respectively. Due to the low dark current and distinct photoresponse up to room temperature, this device can form high temperature imaging.

  2. A Review of Quantum Confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Connerade, Jean-Patrick

    2009-12-03

    A succinct history of the Confined Atom problem is presented. The hydrogen atom confined to the centre of an impenetrable sphere counts amongst the exactly soluble problems of physics, alongside much more noted exact solutions such as Black Body Radiation and the free Hydrogen atom in absence of any radiation field. It shares with them the disadvantage of being an idealisation, while at the same time encapsulating in a simple way particular aspects of physical reality. The problem was first formulated by Sommerfeld and Welker - henceforth cited as SW - in connection with the behaviour of atoms at very high pressures, and the solution was published on the occasion of Pauli's 60th birthday celebration. At the time, it seemed that there was not much other connection with physical reality beyond a few simple aspects connected to the properties of atoms in solids, for which more appropriate models were soon developed. Thus, confined atoms attracted little attention until the advent of the metallofullerene, which provided the first example of a confined atom with properties quite closely related to those originally considered by SW. Since then, the problem has received much more attention, and many more new features of quantum confinement, quantum compression, the quantum Faraday cage, electronic reorganisation, cavity resonances, etc have been described, which are relevant to real systems. Also, a number of other situations have been uncovered experimentally to which quantum confinement is relevant. Thus, studies of the confined atom are now more numerous, and have been extended both in terms of the models used and the systems to which they can be applied. Connections to thermodynamics are explored through the properties of a confined two-level atom adapted from Einstein's celebrated model, and issues of dynamical screening of electromagnetic radiation by the confining shell are discussed in connection with the Faraday cage produced by a confining conducting shell. The conclusions are shown to be relevant to a proposed 'quantum computer'. The description of the actual geometry of C{sub 60}, as opposed to a purely spherical approximation, leads to some qualification of the computed results.

  3. Two Electrons in a Quantum Dot: A Unified Approach

    E-print Network

    Bulent Gonul; Ebru Bakir; Koray Koksal

    2008-11-11

    Low-lying energy levels of two interacting electrons confined in a two-dimensional parabolic quantum dot in the presence of an external magnetic field have been revised within the frame of a novel model. The present formalism, which gives closed algebraic solutions for the specific values of magnetic field and spatial confinement length, enables us to see explicitly individual effects of the electron correlation.

  4. Two Electrons in a Quantum Dot: A Unified Approach

    E-print Network

    Gonul, Bulent; Koksal, Koray

    2008-01-01

    Low-lying energy levels of two interacting electrons confined in a two-dimensional parabolic quantum dot in the presence of an external magnetic field have been revised within the frame of a novel model. The present formalism, which gives closed algebraic solutions for the specific values of magnetic field and spatial confinement length, enables us to see explicitly individual effects of the electron correlation.

  5. Quantum Dots Based Rad-Hard Computing and Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, A.; Klimeck, G.; Leon, R.; Qiu, Y.; Toomarian, N.

    2001-01-01

    Quantum Dots (QDs) are solid-state structures made of semiconductors or metals that confine a small number of electrons into a small space. The confinement of electrons is achieved by the placement of some insulating material(s) around a central, well-conducting region. Thus, they can be viewed as artificial atoms. They therefore represent the ultimate limit of the semiconductor device scaling. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. CORRELATIONS IN CONFINED QUANTUM PLASMAS

    SciTech Connect

    DUFTY J W

    2012-01-11

    This is the final report for the project 'Correlations in Confined Quantum Plasmas', NSF-DOE Partnership Grant DE FG02 07ER54946, 8/1/2007 - 7/30/2010. The research was performed in collaboration with a group at Christian Albrechts University (CAU), Kiel, Germany. That collaboration, almost 15 years old, was formalized during the past four years under this NSF-DOE Partnership Grant to support graduate students at the two institutions and to facilitate frequent exchange visits. The research was focused on exploring the frontiers of charged particle physics evolving from new experimental access to unusual states associated with confinement. Particular attention was paid to combined effects of quantum mechanics and confinement. A suite of analytical and numerical tools tailored to the specific inquiry has been developed and employed

  7. Optically Induced Magnetization of CdMnTe Self-Assembled Quantum Dots

    E-print Network

    S. Mackowski; T. Gurung; T. A. Nguyen; H. E. Jackson; L. M. Smith; G. Karczewski; J. Kossut

    2004-03-11

    We demonstrate that resonant excitation of CdMnTe self-assembled quantum dots creates an ensemble of spin-polarized magnetic polarons at B=0 T. The strong spatial confinement characteristic of quantum dots significantly increases the stability of magnetic polarons so that the optically induced spin alignment is observed for temperatures > 120 K.

  8. Brightness-equalized quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Sung Jun; Zahid, Mohammad U.; Le, Phuong; Ma, Liang; Entenberg, David; Harney, Allison S.; Condeelis, John; Smith, Andrew M.

    2015-10-01

    As molecular labels for cells and tissues, fluorescent probes have shaped our understanding of biological structures and processes. However, their capacity for quantitative analysis is limited because photon emission rates from multicolour fluorophores are dissimilar, unstable and often unpredictable, which obscures correlations between measured fluorescence and molecular concentration. Here we introduce a new class of light-emitting quantum dots with tunable and equalized fluorescence brightness across a broad range of colours. The key feature is independent tunability of emission wavelength, extinction coefficient and quantum yield through distinct structural domains in the nanocrystal. Precise tuning eliminates a 100-fold red-to-green brightness mismatch of size-tuned quantum dots at the ensemble and single-particle levels, which substantially improves quantitative imaging accuracy in biological tissue. We anticipate that these materials engineering principles will vastly expand the optical engineering landscape of fluorescent probes, facilitate quantitative multicolour imaging in living tissue and improve colour tuning in light-emitting devices.

  9. Brightness-equalized quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sung Jun; Zahid, Mohammad U.; Le, Phuong; Ma, Liang; Entenberg, David; Harney, Allison S.; Condeelis, John; Smith, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    As molecular labels for cells and tissues, fluorescent probes have shaped our understanding of biological structures and processes. However, their capacity for quantitative analysis is limited because photon emission rates from multicolour fluorophores are dissimilar, unstable and often unpredictable, which obscures correlations between measured fluorescence and molecular concentration. Here we introduce a new class of light-emitting quantum dots with tunable and equalized fluorescence brightness across a broad range of colours. The key feature is independent tunability of emission wavelength, extinction coefficient and quantum yield through distinct structural domains in the nanocrystal. Precise tuning eliminates a 100-fold red-to-green brightness mismatch of size-tuned quantum dots at the ensemble and single-particle levels, which substantially improves quantitative imaging accuracy in biological tissue. We anticipate that these materials engineering principles will vastly expand the optical engineering landscape of fluorescent probes, facilitate quantitative multicolour imaging in living tissue and improve colour tuning in light-emitting devices. PMID:26437175

  10. Semiconductor double quantum dot micromaser.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y-Y; Stehlik, J; Eichler, C; Gullans, M J; Taylor, J M; Petta, J R

    2015-01-16

    The coherent generation of light, from masers to lasers, relies upon the specific structure of the individual emitters that lead to gain. Devices operating as lasers in the few-emitter limit provide opportunities for understanding quantum coherent phenomena, from terahertz sources to quantum communication. Here we demonstrate a maser that is driven by single-electron tunneling events. Semiconductor double quantum dots (DQDs) serve as a gain medium and are placed inside a high-quality factor microwave cavity. We verify maser action by comparing the statistics of the emitted microwave field above and below the maser threshold. PMID:25593187

  11. Semiconductor quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jianjun; Cao, Guozhong

    2013-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have been drawing great attention recently as a material for solar energy conversion due to their versatile optical and electrical properties. The QD-sensitized solar cell (QDSC) is one of the burgeoning semiconductor QD solar cells that shows promising developments for the next generation of solar cells. This article focuses on recent developments in QDSCs, including 1) the effect of quantum confinement on QDSCs, 2) the multiple exciton generation (MEG) of QDs, 3) fabrication methods of QDs, and 4) nanocrystalline photoelectrodes for solar cells. We also make suggestions for future research on QDSCs. Although the efficiency of QDSCs is still low, we think there will be major breakthroughs in developing QDSCs in the future. PMID:24191178

  12. Computation of hyperfine energies of hydrogen, deuterium and tritium quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çak?r, Bekir; Özmen, Ayhan; Yakar, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    The hyperfine energies and hyperfine constants of the ground and excited states of hydrogen, deuterium and tritium quantum dots(QDs) are calculated. Quantum genetic algorithm (QGA) and Hartree-Fock-Roothaan (HFR) methods are employed to calculate the unperturbed wave functions and energy eigenvalues. The results show that in the medium and strong confinement regions the hyperfine energy and hyperfine constant are strongly affected by dot radius, impurity charge, electron spin orientation, impurity spin and impurity magnetic moment. Besides, in all dot radii, the hyperfine splitting and hyperfine constant of the confined hydrogen and tritium atoms are approximately equivalent to each other and they are greater than the confined deuterium atom.

  13. Energy levels of few-electron quantum dots imaged and characterized by atomic force microscopy

    E-print Network

    Bennett, Steven D.

    Energy levels of few-electron quantum dots imaged and characterized by atomic force microscopy. nanoelectronics single-electron charging shell structure electrostatic force microscopy The ability to confine, 2009) Strong confinement of charges in few-electron systems such as in atoms, molecules, and quantum

  14. Calculation of hyperfine interaction in spherical quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakar, Yusuf; Çak?r, Bekir; Özmen, Ayhan

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we have calculated the unperturbed wavefunctions and energy eigenvalues of the ground and excited states of a spherical quantum dot, GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs, by using quantum genetic algorithm and Hartree-Fock Roothaan method. Hyperfine coupling constant and hyperfine energy of 1s, 2p, 3d and 4f levels are carried out as a function of dot radius. The results show that the hyperfine constant and hyperfine energy varies rapidly in the strong and medium confining regions as dot radius decreases. It is worth pointing out that dot radius, impurity charge and angular momentum have a strong influence on the hyperfine energy. It is also found that hyperfine energy and hyperfine splitting vary with aluminium concentration ratio x.

  15. Vertically stacked quantum dot pairs fabricated by nanohole filling.

    PubMed

    Sonnenberg, D; Küster, A; Graf, A; Heyn, Ch; Hansen, W

    2014-05-30

    Strain-free, vertically coupled GaAs quantum dots (QDs) with an ultra-low density below 1 × 10(7) cm(-2) are fabricated by filling of self-assembled nanoholes with a GaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs layer sequence. The sizes of the two QDs, forming a QD pair (QDP), as well as the AlGaAs tunnel-barrier between the dots are tuned independently. We present atomic force microscopy studies of the QDP formation steps. We have performed photoluminescence studies of single QDPs with varied dot size and tunnel-barrier thickness. The data indicate non-resonant tunnelling between the dots. Furthermore, we apply the quantum confined Stark effect to tune the photoluminescence energy by up to 25 meV. PMID:24784358

  16. Vertically stacked quantum dot pairs fabricated by nanohole filling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenberg, D.; Küster, A.; Graf, A.; Heyn, Ch; Hansen, W.

    2014-05-01

    Strain-free, vertically coupled GaAs quantum dots (QDs) with an ultra-low density below 1\\times {{10}^{7}} \\text{c}{{\\text{m}}^{-2}} are fabricated by filling of self-assembled nanoholes with a GaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs layer sequence. The sizes of the two QDs, forming a QD pair (QDP), as well as the AlGaAs tunnel-barrier between the dots are tuned independently. We present atomic force microscopy studies of the QDP formation steps. We have performed photoluminescence studies of single QDPs with varied dot size and tunnel-barrier thickness. The data indicate non-resonant tunnelling between the dots. Furthermore, we apply the quantum confined Stark effect to tune the photoluminescence energy by up to 25 meV.

  17. Quantum Dot Light Emitting Diode

    SciTech Connect

    Kahen, Keith

    2008-07-31

    The project objective is to create low cost coatable inorganic light emitting diodes, composed of quantum dot emitters and inorganic nanoparticles, which have the potential for efficiencies equivalent to that of LEDs and OLEDs and lifetime, brightness, and environmental stability between that of LEDs and OLEDs. At the end of the project the Recipient shall gain an understanding of the device physics and properties of Quantum-Dot LEDs (QD-LEDs), have reliable and accurate nanocrystal synthesis routines, and have formed green-yellow emitting QD-LEDs with a device efficiency greater than 3 lumens/W, a brightness greater than 400 cd/m{sup 2}, and a device operational lifetime of more than 1000 hours. Thus the aim of the project is to break the current cost-efficiency paradigm by creating novel low cost inorganic LEDs composed of inorganic nanoparticles.

  18. Quantum Dot Light Emitting Diode

    SciTech Connect

    Keith Kahen

    2008-07-31

    The project objective is to create low cost coatable inorganic light emitting diodes, composed of quantum dot emitters and inorganic nanoparticles, which have the potential for efficiencies equivalent to that of LEDs and OLEDs and lifetime, brightness, and environmental stability between that of LEDs and OLEDs. At the end of the project the Recipient shall gain an understanding of the device physics and properties of Quantum-Dot LEDs (QD-LEDs), have reliable and accurate nanocrystal synthesis routines, and have formed green-yellow emitting QD-LEDs with a device efficiency greater than 3 lumens/W, a brightness greater than 400 cd/m2, and a device operational lifetime of more than 1000 hours. Thus the aim of the project is to break the current cost-efficiency paradigm by creating novel low cost inorganic LEDs composed of inorganic nanoparticles.

  19. Plasmon assisted photonic crystal quantum dot sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenoi, R. V.; Ramirez, D. A.; Sharma, Y.; Attaluri, R. S.; Rosenberg, J.; Painter, O. J.; Krishna, S.

    2007-09-01

    We report Quantum Dot Infrared Detectors (QDIP) where light coupling to the self assembled quantum dots is achieved through plasmons occurring at the metal-semiconductor interface. The detector structure consists of an asymmetric InAs/InGaAs/GaAs dots-in-a-well (DWELL) structure and a thick layer of GaAs sandwiched between two highly doped n-GaAs contact layers, grown on a semi-insulating GaAs substrate. The aperture of the detector is covered with a thin metallic layer which along with the dielectric layer confines light in the vertical direction. Sub-wavelength two-dimensional periodic patterns etched in the metallic layer covering the aperture of the detector and the active region creates a micro-cavity that concentrate light in the active region leading to intersubband transitions between states in the dot and the ones in the well. The sidewalls of the detector were also covered with metal to ensure that there is no leakage of light into the active region other than through the metal covered aperture. An enhanced spectral response when compared to the normal DWELL detector is obtained despite the absence of any aperture in the detector. The spectral response measurements show that the Long Wave InfraRed (LWIR) region is enhanced when compared to the Mid Wave InfraRed (MWIR) region. This may be due to coupling of light into the active region by plasmons that are excited at the metal-semiconductor interface. The patterned metal-dielectric layers act as an optical resonator thereby enhancing the coupling efficiency of light into the active region at the specified frequency. The concept of plasmon-assisted coupling is in principle technology agnostic and can be easily integrated into present day infrared sensors.

  20. Optically active quantum dots in monolayer WSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Ajit; Sidler, Meinrad; Allain, Adrien V.; Lembke, Dominik S.; Kis, Andras; Imamo?lu, A.

    2015-06-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots have emerged as promising candidates for the implementation of quantum information processing, because they allow for a quantum interface between stationary spin qubits and propagating single photons. In the meantime, transition-metal dichalcogenide monolayers have moved to the forefront of solid-state research due to their unique band structure featuring a large bandgap with degenerate valleys and non-zero Berry curvature. Here, we report the observation of zero-dimensional anharmonic quantum emitters, which we refer to as quantum dots, in monolayer tungsten diselenide, with an energy that is 20-100?meV lower than that of two-dimensional excitons. Photon antibunching in second-order photon correlations unequivocally demonstrates the zero-dimensional anharmonic nature of these quantum emitters. The strong anisotropic magnetic response of the spatially localized emission peaks strongly indicates that radiative recombination stems from localized excitons that inherit their electronic properties from the host transition-metal dichalcogenide. The large ˜1?meV zero-field splitting shows that the quantum dots have singlet ground states and an anisotropic confinement that is most probably induced by impurities or defects. The possibility of achieving electrical control in van der Waals heterostructures and to exploit the spin-valley degree of freedom renders transition-metal-dichalcogenide quantum dots interesting for quantum information processing.

  1. Probing the excitonic states of site-controlled GaN nanowire quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Mark J; Kako, Satoshi; Choi, Kihyun; Podemski, Pawel; Arita, Munetaka; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2015-02-11

    We report the detection of fully confined excited states and the zero-absorption region of individual site-controlled GaN/AlGaN nanowire quantum dots using photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy, which provides evidence of the true zero-dimensional discrete density of states of such quantum dots. Because of the strong quantum confinement in these dots, the p-shell, d-shell, and even higher energy (including some f-shell) states of a single quantum dot are observed, which provides unprecedented insight into the electronic structure. Several emitters are measured and used to build up an average picture of the electronic structure of a single quantum dot via comparison to theoretical simulations. PMID:25574691

  2. Quantum dot enabled high color gamut LCDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian; Kan, Shihai; Lee, Ernie; Gensler, Steve; Hartlove, Jason

    2015-03-01

    Quantum dots are a new generation of phosphor material that have high photon conversion efficiency, narrow spectral line-widths and can be continuously tuned in their emission wavelengths. Since 2013, quantum dots have been adopted by the consumer electronics industry into LCDs to significantly increase their color performance. Compared to the OLED solution, quantum dot LCDs have higher energy efficiency, larger color gamut, longer lifetime, and are offered at a fraction of the cost of OLED panels. In this paper, we demonstrate that quantum-dot based LCDs can achieve more than 90% coverage of the ultra-wide color gamut, Rec. 2020, which is the new color standard for UHDTV.

  3. The Statistical Theory of Quantum Dots

    E-print Network

    Y. Alhassid

    2001-02-15

    A quantum dot is a sub-micron-scale conducting device containing up to several thousand electrons. Transport through a quantum dot at low temperatures is a quantum-coherent process. This review focuses on dots in which the electron's dynamics are chaotic or diffusive, giving rise to statistical properties that reflect the interplay between one-body chaos, quantum interference, and electron-electron interactions. The conductance through such dots displays mesoscopic fluctuations as a function of gate voltage, magnetic field, and shape deformation. The techniques used to describe these fluctuations include semiclassical methods, random-matrix theory, and the supersymmetric nonlinear $\\sigma$ model. In open dots, the approximation of noninteracting quasiparticles is justified, and electron-electron interactions contribute indirectly through their effect on the dephasing time at finite temperature. In almost-closed dots, where conductance occurs by tunneling, the charge on the dot is quantized, and electron-electron interactions play an important role. Transport is dominated by Coulomb blockade, leading to peaks in the conductance that at low temperatures provide information on the dot's ground-state properties. Several statistical signatures of electron-electron interactions have been identified, most notably in the dot's addition spectrum. The dot's spin, determined partly by exchange interactions, can also influence the fluctuation properties of the conductance. Other mesoscopic phenomena in quantum dots that are affected by the charging energy include the fluctuations of the cotunneling conductance and mesoscopic Coulomb blockade.

  4. Chiral quantum dot based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govan, Joseph; Loudon, Alexander; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.; Gun'ko, Yurii

    2014-05-01

    Recently, the use of stereospecific chiral stabilising molecules has also opened another avenue of interest in the area of quantum dot (QD) research. The main goal of our research is to develop new types of technologically important quantum dot materials containing chiral defects, study their properties and explore their applications. The utilisation of chiral penicillamine stabilisers allowed the preparation of new water soluble white emitting CdS quantum nanostructures which demonstrated circular dichroism in the band-edge region of the spectrum. It was also demonstrated that all three types of QDs (D-, L-, and Rac penicillamine stabilised) show very broad emission bands between 400 and 700 nm due to defects or trap states on the surfaces of the nanocrystals. In this work the chiral CdS based quantum nanostructures have also been doped by copper metal ions and new chiral penicilamine stabilized CuS nanoparticles have been prepared and investigated. It was found that copper doping had a strong effect at low levels in the synthesis of chiral CdS nanostructures. We expect that this research will open new horizons in the chemistry of chiral nanomaterials and their application in biotechnology, sensing and asymmetric synthesis.

  5. Quantum Transition of an Electron in an Asymmetric Quantum Dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi-Xin

    2015-10-01

    We have studied the transition probability of an electron in an asymmetric quantum dot (AQD). The energy levels and the wave functions of the ground and the first excited states of an electron in a static electric field have been calculated by using a variational method of Pekar type. And the eigen energies of the ground and the first excited states in this system may be used as a two-level qubit. We assume the electron to be in system's ground state in the initial time, the electron transits from the ground state to the excited state in presence of the external electric field F along the z axis. Numerical calculation results show that the transition probability of the electron increases with increasing the transverse confinement length and the longitudinal confinement length of AQD and decreases with increasing the electron-phonon coupling strength. The transition probability of the electron is an increasing function of the electric field strength.

  6. Charge state hysteresis in semiconductor quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C. H.; Rossi, A. Lai, N. S.; Leon, R.; Lim, W. H.; Dzurak, A. S.

    2014-11-03

    Semiconductor quantum dots provide a two-dimensional analogy for real atoms and show promise for the implementation of scalable quantum computers. Here, we investigate the charge configurations in a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor double quantum dot tunnel coupled to a single reservoir of electrons. By operating the system in the few-electron regime, the stability diagram shows hysteretic tunnelling events that depend on the history of the dots charge occupancy. We present a model which accounts for the observed hysteretic behaviour by extending the established description for transport in double dots coupled to two reservoirs. We demonstrate that this type of device operates like a single-electron memory latch.

  7. Dynamics of Quantum Dot Photonic Crystal Lasers

    E-print Network

    Bryan Ellis; Ilya Fushman; Dirk Englund; Bingyang Zhang; Yoshihisa Yamamoto; Jelena Vuckovic

    2007-03-07

    Quantum dot photonic crystal membrane lasers were fabricated and the large signal modulation characteristics were studied. We find that the modulation characteristics of quantum dot lasers can be significantly improved using cavities with large spontaneous emission coupling factor. Our experiments show, and simulations confirm, that the modulation rate is limited by the rate of carrier capture into the dots to around 30GHz in our present system.

  8. STED nanoscopy with fluorescent quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Hanne, Janina; Falk, Henning J.; Görlitz, Frederik; Hoyer, Patrick; Engelhardt, Johann; Sahl, Steffen J.; Hell, Stefan W.

    2015-01-01

    The widely popular class of quantum-dot molecular labels could so far not be utilized as standard fluorescent probes in STED (stimulated emission depletion) nanoscopy. This is because broad quantum-dot excitation spectra extend deeply into the spectral bands used for STED, thus compromising the transient fluorescence silencing required for attaining super-resolution. Here we report the discovery that STED nanoscopy of several red-emitting commercially available quantum dots is in fact successfully realized by the increasingly popular 775?nm STED laser light. A resolution of presently ?50?nm is demonstrated for single quantum dots, and sub-diffraction resolution is further shown for imaging of quantum-dot-labelled vimentin filaments in fibroblasts. The high quantum-dot photostability enables repeated STED recordings with >1,000 frames. In addition, we have evidence that the tendency of quantum-dot labels to blink is largely suppressed by combined action of excitation and STED beams. Quantum-dot STED significantly expands the realm of application of STED nanoscopy, and, given the high stability of these probes, holds promise for extended time-lapse imaging. PMID:25980788

  9. Chirality transfer from graphene quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Nakagawa, M; Rodríguez-Pérez, L; Herranz, M A; Martín, N

    2015-12-24

    Chiral graphene quantum dots were prepared by acidic exfoliation and oxidation of graphite, dialysis, and esterification with enantiomerically pure (R) or (S)-2-phenyl-1-propanol. Circular dichroism studies support the formation of supramolecular aggregates with pyrene molecules, where a transfer of chirality occurs from the chiral graphene quantum dots to the pyrene. PMID:26606894

  10. STED nanoscopy with fluorescent quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanne, Janina; Falk, Henning J.; Görlitz, Frederik; Hoyer, Patrick; Engelhardt, Johann; Sahl, Steffen J.; Hell, Stefan W.

    2015-05-01

    The widely popular class of quantum-dot molecular labels could so far not be utilized as standard fluorescent probes in STED (stimulated emission depletion) nanoscopy. This is because broad quantum-dot excitation spectra extend deeply into the spectral bands used for STED, thus compromising the transient fluorescence silencing required for attaining super-resolution. Here we report the discovery that STED nanoscopy of several red-emitting commercially available quantum dots is in fact successfully realized by the increasingly popular 775 nm STED laser light. A resolution of presently ~50 nm is demonstrated for single quantum dots, and sub-diffraction resolution is further shown for imaging of quantum-dot-labelled vimentin filaments in fibroblasts. The high quantum-dot photostability enables repeated STED recordings with >1,000 frames. In addition, we have evidence that the tendency of quantum-dot labels to blink is largely suppressed by combined action of excitation and STED beams. Quantum-dot STED significantly expands the realm of application of STED nanoscopy, and, given the high stability of these probes, holds promise for extended time-lapse imaging.

  11. Thick-shell nanocrystal quantum dots

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A. (Los Alamos, NM); Chen, Yongfen (Eugene, OR); Klimov, Victor I. (Los Alamos, NM); Htoon, Han (Los Alamos, NM); Vela, Javier (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-05-03

    Colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots comprising an inner core having an average diameter of at least 1.5 nm and an outer shell, where said outer shell comprises multiple monolayers, wherein at least 30% of the quantum dots have an on-time fraction of 0.80 or greater under continuous excitation conditions for a period of time of at least 10 minutes.

  12. STED nanoscopy with fluorescent quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Hanne, Janina; Falk, Henning J; Görlitz, Frederik; Hoyer, Patrick; Engelhardt, Johann; Sahl, Steffen J; Hell, Stefan W

    2015-01-01

    The widely popular class of quantum-dot molecular labels could so far not be utilized as standard fluorescent probes in STED (stimulated emission depletion) nanoscopy. This is because broad quantum-dot excitation spectra extend deeply into the spectral bands used for STED, thus compromising the transient fluorescence silencing required for attaining super-resolution. Here we report the discovery that STED nanoscopy of several red-emitting commercially available quantum dots is in fact successfully realized by the increasingly popular 775 nm STED laser light. A resolution of presently ? 50 nm is demonstrated for single quantum dots, and sub-diffraction resolution is further shown for imaging of quantum-dot-labelled vimentin filaments in fibroblasts. The high quantum-dot photostability enables repeated STED recordings with >1,000 frames. In addition, we have evidence that the tendency of quantum-dot labels to blink is largely suppressed by combined action of excitation and STED beams. Quantum-dot STED significantly expands the realm of application of STED nanoscopy, and, given the high stability of these probes, holds promise for extended time-lapse imaging. PMID:25980788

  13. Nanometer Distance Measurements between Multicolor Quantum Dots

    E-print Network

    Michalet, Xavier

    Nanometer Distance Measurements between Multicolor Quantum Dots Josh Antelman, Connie Wilking nanometer accuracy in individual distance measurement by suppression of quantum dot blinking and thoroughly the supramolecular architecture of cells.5-7 On the other hand, true nanometer-resolution distance measurements

  14. Optical Nonlinearities and Ultrafast Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Klimov, V.; McBranch, D.; Schwarz, C.

    1998-08-10

    Low-dimensional semiconductors have attracted great interest due to the potential for tailoring their linear and nonlinear optical properties over a wide-range. Semiconductor nanocrystals (NC's) represent a class of quasi-zero-dimensional objects or quantum dots. Due to quantum cordhement and a large surface-to-volume ratio, the linear and nonlinear optical properties, and the carrier dynamics in NC's are significantly different horn those in bulk materials. napping at surface states can lead to a fast depopulation of quantized states, accompanied by charge separation and generation of local fields which significantly modifies the nonlinear optical response in NC's. 3D carrier confinement also has a drastic effect on the energy relaxation dynamics. In strongly confined NC's, the energy-level spacing can greatly exceed typical phonon energies. This has been expected to significantly inhibit phonon-related mechanisms for energy losses, an effect referred to as a phonon bottleneck. It has been suggested recently that the phonon bottleneck in 3D-confined systems can be removed due to enhanced role of Auger-type interactions. In this paper we report femtosecond (fs) studies of ultrafast optical nonlinearities, and energy relaxation and trap ping dynamics in three types of quantum-dot systems: semiconductor NC/glass composites made by high temperature precipitation, ion-implanted NC's, and colloidal NC'S. Comparison of ultrafast data for different samples allows us to separate effects being intrinsic to quantum dots from those related to lattice imperfections and interface properties.

  15. Biocompatible Quantum Dots for Biological Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, Sandra; Chang, Jerry; Kovtun, Oleg; McBride, James; Tomlinson, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are quickly becoming a critical diagnostic tool for discerning cellular function at the molecular level. Their high brightness, long-lasting, size-tunable, and narrow luminescence set them apart from conventional fluorescence dyes. Quantum dots are being developed for a variety of biologically oriented applications, including fluorescent assays for drug discovery, disease detection, single protein tracking, and intracellular reporting. This review introduces the science behind quantum dots and describes how they are made biologically compatible. Several applications are also included, illustrating strategies toward target specificity, and are followed by a discussion on the limitations of quantum dot approaches. The article is concluded with a look at the future direction of quantum dots.

  16. Effect of hydrostatic pressure and polaronic mass of the binding energy in a spherical quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A. Rejo Jeice Gerardin, Jayam, Sr.; S. Joseph Wilson, K.

    2015-11-01

    Simultaneous effect of hydrostatic pressure and polaronic mass on the binding energies of the ground and excited states of an on-center hydrogenic impurity confined in a GaAs/GaAlAs spherical quantum dot are theoretically investigated by the variational method within the effective mass approximation. The binding energy is calculated as a function of dot radius and pressure. Our findings proved that the hydrostatic pressure led to the decrease of confined energy and the increase of donor binding energy. Conduction band non-parabolicity and the polaron masses are effective in the donor binding energy which is significant for narrow dots not in the confined energy. The maximum donor binding energy achieved by the polaronic mass in the ground and excited states are 2%–19% for the narrow dots. The confined and donor binding energies approach zero as the dot size approaches infinity.

  17. Optophononics with coupled quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerfoot, Mark L.; Govorov, Alexander O.; Czarnocki, Cyprian; Lu, Davis; Gad, Youstina N.; Bracker, Allan S.; Gammon, Daniel; Scheibner, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Modern technology is founded on the intimate understanding of how to utilize and control electrons. Next to electrons, nature uses phonons, quantized vibrations of an elastic structure, to carry energy, momentum and even information through solids. Phonons permeate the crystalline components of modern technology, yet in terms of technological utilization phonons are far from being on par with electrons. Here we demonstrate how phonons can be employed to render a single quantum dot pair optically transparent. This phonon-induced transparency is realized via the formation of a molecular polaron, the result of a Fano-type quantum interference, which proves that we have accomplished making typically incoherent and dissipative phonons behave in a coherent and non-dissipative manner. We find the transparency to be widely tunable by electronic and optical means. Thereby we show amplification of weakest coupling channels. We further outline the molecular polaron’s potential as a control element in phononic circuitry architecture.

  18. Tailoring 10 nm Scale Suspended Graphene Junctions and Quantum Dots

    E-print Network

    V. Tayari; A. C. McRae; S. Yigen; J. O. Island; J. M. Porter; A. R. Champagne

    2015-02-05

    The possibility to make 10 nm scale, and low-disorder, suspended graphene devices would open up many possibilities to study and make use of strongly coupled quantum electronics, quantum mechanics, and optics. We present a versatile method, based on the electromigration of gold-on-graphene bow-tie bridges, to fabricate low-disorder suspended graphene junctions and quantum dots with lengths ranging from 6 nm up to 55 nm. We control the length of the junctions, and shape of their gold contacts by adjusting the power at which the electromigration process is allowed to avalanche. Using carefully engineered gold contacts and a nonuniform downward electrostatic force, we can controllably tear the width of suspended graphene channels from over 100 nm down to 27 nm. We demonstrate that this lateral confinement creates high-quality suspended quantum dots. This fabrication method could be extended to other two-dimensional materials.

  19. Surface Induced Magnetism in Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Meulenberg, R W; Lee, J I

    2009-08-20

    The study of nanometer sized semiconductor crystallites, also known as quantum dots (QDs), has seen rapid advancements in recent years in scientific disciplines ranging from chemistry, physics, biology, materials science, and engineering. QD materials of CdSe, ZnSe, InP, as well as many others, can be prepared in the size range of 1-10 nm producing uniform, nearly monodisperse materials that are typically coated with organic molecules [1-3]. The strength of charge carrier confinement, which dictates the size-dependent properties, in these QDs depends on the nature of the material and can be correlated to the Bohr radius for the system of interest. For instance, the Bohr radius for CdSe is {approx} 5 nm, while in the more covalent structure of InP, the Bohr radius approaches {approx} 10 nm. The study of CdSe QDs has been particularly extensive during the last decade because they exhibit unique and tunable optical properties and are readily synthesized with high-crystallinity and narrow size dispersions. Although the core electronic properties of CdSe are explained in terms of the quantum confinement model, experimental efforts to elucidate the surface structure of these materials have been limited. Typically, colloidal CdSe QDs are coated with an organic surfactant, which typically consists of an organo-phosphine, -thiol, or -amine, that has the function of energetically relaxing defect states via coordination to partially coordinated surface atoms. The organic surfactant also acts to enhance carrier confinement and prevent agglomeration of the particles. Chemically, it has been shown that the bonding of the surfactant to the CdSe QD occurs through Cd atoms resulting cleavage of the Se atoms and formation of a Cd-rich (i.e. non-stoichiometric) particle [5].

  20. Exciton spin relaxation in resonantly excited CdTe/ZnTe self-assembled quantum dots

    E-print Network

    S. Mackowski; T. A. Nguyen; T. Gurung; K. Hewaparkarama; H. E. Jackson; L. M. Smith; J. Wrobel; K. Fronc; J. Kossut; G. Karczewski

    2003-07-28

    We study the exciton spin relaxation in CdTe self-assembled quantum dots by using polarized photoluminescence spectroscopy in magnetic field. The experiments on single CdTe quantum dots and on large quantum dot ensembles show that by combining phonon-assisted absorption with circularly polarized resonant excitation the spin-polarized excitons are photo-excited directly into the ground states of quantum dots. We find that for single symmetric quantum dots at B=0 T, where the exciton levels are degenerate, the spins randomize very rapidly, so that no net spin polarization is observed. In contrast, when this degeneracy is lifted by applying external magnetic field, optically created spin-polarized excitons maintain their polarization on a time scale much longer than the exciton recombination time. We also observe that the exciton spin polarization is conserved when the splitting between exciton states is caused by quantum dot shape asymmetry. Similar behavior is found in a large ensemble of CdTe quantum dots. These results show that while exciton spins scatter rapidly between degenerate states, the spin relaxation time increases by orders of magnitude as the exciton spin states in a quantum dot become non-degenerate. Finally, due to strong electronic confinement in CdTe quantum dots, the large spin polarization of excitons shows no dependence on the number of phonons emitted between the virtual state and the exciton ground state during the excitation.

  1. Single to quadruple quantum dots with tunable tunnel couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takakura, T.; Noiri, A.; Obata, T.; Otsuka, T.; Yoneda, J.; Yoshida, K.; Tarucha, S.

    2014-03-01

    We prepare a gate-defined quadruple quantum dot to study the gate-tunability of single to quadruple quantum dots with finite inter-dot tunnel couplings. The measured charging energies of various double dots suggest that the dot size is governed by the gate geometry. For the triple and quadruple dots, we study the gate-tunable inter-dot tunnel couplings. For the triple dot, we find that the effective tunnel coupling between side dots significantly depends on the alignment of the center dot potential. These results imply that the present quadruple dot has a gate performance relevant for implementing spin-based four-qubits with controllable exchange couplings.

  2. Ground state energy of an exciton in a spherical quantum dot in the presence of an external magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Jahan K, Luhluh Boda, Aalu; Chatterjee, Ashok

    2015-05-15

    The problem of an exciton trapped in a three dimensional Gaussian quantum dot is studied in the presence of an external magnetic field. A variational method is employed to obtain the ground state energy of the exciton as a function of the quantum dot size, the confinement strength and the magnetic field. It is also shown that the variation of the size of the exciton with the radius of the quantum dot.

  3. Improving the internal quantum efficiency of green InGaN quantum dots through coupled InGaN/GaN quantum well and quantum dot structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jiadong; Wang, Lai; Yang, Di; Hao, Zhibiao; Luo, Yi; Sun, Changzheng; Han, Yanjun; Xiong, Bing; Wang, Jian; Li, Hongtao

    2015-09-01

    The InGaN quantum dot (QD) is promising for use in green light-emitting diodes and laser diodes owing to its small strain and weak quantum-confined Stark effect. However, its small carrier capture cross section still sets a limit to its internal quantum efficiency (IQE). Tunneling-enhanced carrier transfer in a coupled InGaN/GaN quantum well (QW) and quantum dot structure has been studied on the basis of temperature-dependent and time-resolved photoluminescence. It is found that carriers can tunnel from a shallow QW to deep QDs at room temperature. Compared with the conventional single-QD layer, the IQE of the QDs can be enhanced more than two times to about 45%.

  4. Unraveling the Mesoscopic Character of Quantum Dots in Nanophotonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tighineanu, P.; Sørensen, A. S.; Stobbe, S.; Lodahl, P.

    2015-06-01

    We provide a microscopic theory for semiconductor quantum dots that explains the pronounced deviations from the prevalent point-dipole description that were recently observed in spectroscopic experiments on quantum dots in photonic nanostructures. The deviations originate from structural inhomogeneities generating a large circular quantum current density that flows inside the quantum dot over mesoscopic length scales. The model is supported by the experimental data, where a strong variation of the multipolar moments across the emission spectrum of quantum dots is observed. Our work enriches the physical understanding of quantum dots and is of significance for the fields of nanophotonics, quantum photonics, and quantum-information science, where quantum dots are actively employed.

  5. Exciton related nonlinear optical properties of a spherical quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksahin, E.; Ustoglu Unal, V.; Tomak, M.

    2015-11-01

    The nonlinear optical properties of an exciton in a spherical quantum dot (QD) is studied analytically. The nonlinear optical coefficients are calculated within the density matrix formalism. The electronic problem is solved within the effective mass approximation. The contributions from the competing effects of the confinement, the Coulomb interaction, and the applied electric field are calculated and compared with each other. We have made no assumptions about the strength of the confinement. We concentrate the effect of the Coulomb interaction. Our results may provide an input for optimization of the nonlinear optical coefficients.

  6. Electron spin coherence near room temperature in magnetic quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Moro, Fabrizio; Turyanska, Lyudmila; Wilman, James; Fielding, Alistair J.; Fay, Michael W.; Granwehr, Josef; Patanè, Amalia

    2015-01-01

    We report on an example of confined magnetic ions with long spin coherence near room temperature. This was achieved by confining single Mn2+ spins in colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and by dispersing the QDs in a proton-spin free matrix. The controlled suppression of Mn–Mn interactions and minimization of Mn–nuclear spin dipolar interactions result in unprecedentedly long phase memory (TM?~?8??s) and spin–lattice relaxation (T1?~?10?ms) time constants for Mn2+ ions at T?=?4.5?K, and in electron spin coherence observable near room temperature (TM?~?1??s). PMID:26040432

  7. What Quantum Dots Can Do for You

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamo, Gregory

    2008-03-01

    Recent clever techniques for fabricating nanosize materials, one-atomic-layer-at-a-time, have simultaneously opened a door to a fantastic adventure at the frontier of physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering. Nanosize materials simply do not behave as the bulk. Indeed, the rules that govern the growth and behavior of these tiny structures are unexplored. In this talk we will discuss our recent efforts to be the architect of their shape, size, density, and position of nanostructures and along the way, the interactions between them that lead to their optical and electrical behavior. While self-assembly is providing exciting quantum dot (QD) structures to explore, like the QD molecules shown here, it is equally exciting to try to use the rules we uncover to encourage QD formation to take a desired path. Can we understand the formation of faceted nanostructures? Can we encourage or seed dot structures to form specific arrays? Is it possible to engineer greater homogeneity of dot shape and size? Can we design both the optical and electrical behavior of either individual or arrays of nanostructures to mimic those we find in nature? In this talk we will review our progress to answer these questions and discuss the possibilities and challenges ahead. For example, we will discuss the formation of individual faceted nanostructures as well as the fabrication of a vertically and laterally ordered QD stacks forming three-dimensional QD arrays. As another example, we will discuss the importance of surfaces with high Miller indices, as a template to the formation of nanostructures as well as their potential role in determining the shape and increased size uniformity of the confined structures. Importantly, these observations lead to an even more basic question of when and why high index surfaces are stable. Indeed, we have found that in order to understand the origin of high index surfaces that bound nanostructures we have to study them directly.

  8. Magnon-driven quantum dot refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuan; Huang, Chuankun; Liao, Tianjun; Chen, Jincan

    2015-12-01

    A new model of refrigerator consisting of a spin-splitting quantum dot coupled with two ferromagnetic reservoirs and a ferromagnetic insulator is proposed. The rate equation is used to calculate the occupation probabilities of the quantum dot. The expressions of the electron and magnon currents are obtained. The region that the system can work in as a refrigerator is determined. The cooling power and coefficient of performance (COP) of the refrigerator are derived. The influences of the magnetic field, applied voltage, and polarization of two leads on the performance are discussed. The performances of two different magnon-driven quantum dot refrigerators are compared.

  9. Fluorescent Quantum Dots for Biological Labeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Gene; Nadeau, Jay; Nealson, Kenneth; Storrie-Lomardi, Michael; Bhartia, Rohit

    2003-01-01

    Fluorescent semiconductor quantum dots that can serve as "on/off" labels for bacteria and other living cells are undergoing development. The "on/off" characterization of these quantum dots refers to the fact that, when properly designed and manufactured, they do not fluoresce until and unless they come into contact with viable cells of biological species that one seeks to detect. In comparison with prior fluorescence-based means of detecting biological species, fluorescent quantum dots show promise for greater speed, less complexity, greater sensitivity, and greater selectivity for species of interest. There are numerous potential applications in medicine, environmental monitoring, and detection of bioterrorism.

  10. Resonant Raman scattering in self-assembled quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Menendez-Proupin, E.; Trallero-Giner, C.; Ulloa, S. E.

    1999-12-15

    A theoretical treatment for first-order resonant Raman scattering in self-assembled quantum dots (SAQD's) of different materials is presented. The dots are modeled as cylindrical disks with elliptical cross section, to simulate shape and confinement anisotropies obtained from the SAQD growth conditions. Coulomb interaction between electron and hole is considered in an envelope function Hamiltonian approach and the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions are obtained by a matrix diagonalization technique. By including excitonic intermediate states in the Raman process, the scattering efficiency and cross section are calculated for long-range Froehlich exciton-phonon interaction. The Froehlich interaction in the SAQD is considered in an approach in which both the mechanical and electrostatic matching boundary conditions are fulfilled at the SAQD interfaces. Exciton and confined phonon selection rules are derived for Raman processes. Characteristic results for SAQD's are presented, including InAs dots in GaAs, as well as CdSe dots in ZnSe substrates. We analyze how Raman spectroscopy would give information on carrier masses, confinement anisotropy effects, and SAQD geometry. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

  11. Quantum dots and prion proteins

    PubMed Central

    Sobrova, Pavlina; Blazkova, Iva; Chomoucka, Jana; Drbohlavova, Jana; Vaculovicova, Marketa; Kopel, Pavel; Hubalek, Jaromir; Kizek, Rene; Adam, Vojtech

    2013-01-01

    A diagnostics of infectious diseases can be done by the immunologic methods or by the amplification of nucleic acid specific to contagious agent using polymerase chain reaction. However, in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, the infectious agent, prion protein (PrPSc), has the same sequence of nucleic acids as a naturally occurring protein. The other issue with the diagnosing based on the PrPSc detection is that the pathological form of prion protein is abundant only at late stages of the disease in a brain. Therefore, the diagnostics of prion protein caused diseases represent a sort of challenges as that hosts can incubate infectious prion proteins for many months or even years. Therefore, new in vivo assays for detection of prion proteins and for diagnosis of their relation to neurodegenerative diseases are summarized. Their applicability and future prospects in this field are discussed with particular aim at using quantum dots as fluorescent labels. PMID:24055838

  12. Instability-driven quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aqua, Jean-Noël; Frisch, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    When a film is strained in two dimensions, it can relax by developing a corrugation in the third dimension. We review here the resulting morphological instability that occurs by surface diffusion, called the Asaro-Tiller-Grinfel'd instability (ATG), especially on the paradigmatic silicon/germanium system. The instability is dictated by the balance between the elastic relaxation induced by the morphological evolution, and its surface energy cost. We focus here on its development at the nanoscales in epitaxial systems when a crystal film is coherently deposited on a substrate with a different lattice parameter, thence inducing epitaxial stresses. It eventually leads to the self-organization of quantum dots whose localization is dictated by the instability long-time dynamics. In these systems, new effects, such as film/substrate wetting or crystalline anisotropy, come into play and lead to a variety of behaviors. xml:lang="fr"

  13. Quantum Dots Investigated for Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Castro, Stephanie L.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been investigating the synthesis of quantum dots of CdSe and CuInS2 for use in intermediate-bandgap solar cells. Using quantum dots in a solar cell to create an intermediate band will allow the harvesting of a much larger portion of the available solar spectrum. Theoretical studies predict a potential efficiency of 63.2 percent, which is approximately a factor of 2 better than any state-of-the-art devices available today. This technology is also applicable to thin-film devices--where it offers a potential four-fold increase in power-to-weight ratio over the state of the art. Intermediate-bandgap solar cells require that quantum dots be sandwiched in an intrinsic region between the photovoltaic solar cell's ordinary p- and n-type regions (see the preceding figure). The quantum dots form the intermediate band of discrete states that allow sub-bandgap energies to be absorbed. However, when the current is extracted, it is limited by the bandgap, not the individual photon energies. The energy states of the quantum dot can be controlled by controlling the size of the dot. Ironically, the ground-state energy levels are inversely proportional to the size of the quantum dots. We have prepared a variety of quantum dots using the typical organometallic synthesis routes pioneered by Ba Wendi et al., in the early 1990's. The most studied quantum dots prepared by this method have been of CdSe. To produce these dots, researchers inject a syringe of the desired organometallic precursors into heated triocytlphosphine oxide (TOPO) that has been vigorously stirred under an inert atmosphere (see the following figure). The solution immediately begins to change from colorless to yellow, then orange and red/brown, as the quantum dots increase in size. When the desired size is reached, the heat is removed from the flask. Quantum dots of different sizes can be identified by placing them under a "black light" and observing the various color differences in their fluorescence (see the photograph).

  14. Control of the cavity reflectivity using a single quantum dot spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shuo; Kim, Hyochul; Solomon, Glenn; Waks, Edo

    2015-03-01

    The implementation of quantum network and distributive quantum information processing relies on interaction between stationary matter qubits and flying photons. The spin of a single electron or hole confined in a quantum dot is considered as promising matter qubit as it possesses microsecond coherence time and allows picosecond timescale control using optical pulses. The quantum dot spin can also interact with a photon by controlling the optical response of a strongly coupled cavity. Yet all the experimental demonstrations of the cavity spectrum control have used neutral dots. The spin-dependent cavity spectrum for a strongly coupled charged quantum dot and cavity system has not been reported. Here, we report an experimental realization of a spin-photon interface using a strongly coupled quantum dot and cavity system. We show large modulation of the cavity reflection spectrum by manipulating the spin states of the quantum dot. The spin-photon interface is crucial for realizing a quantum logic gate or generating hybrid entanglement between a quantum dot spin and a photon. Our results represent an important step towards semiconductor based quantum logic devices and on-chip quantum networks.

  15. Spin-orbit induced two-electron spin relaxation in double quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borhani, Massoud; Hu, Xuedong

    2011-03-01

    We study the spin decay of two electrons confined in a double quantum dots via the spin-orbit interaction and acoustic phonons. We have obtained a generic form for the spin Hamiltonian for two electrons confined in (elliptic) harmonic potentials in doubles dots and in the presence of an arbitrary applied magnetic field. Our focus is on the interdot bias regime where singlet-triplet splitting is small, in contrast to the spin-blockade regime. Our results clarify the spin-orbit mediated two-spin relaxation in lateral/nanowire quantum dots, particularly when the confining potentials are different in each dot. We thank support by NSA/LPS thorugh ARO.

  16. Photodetectors based on colloidal quantum dots

    E-print Network

    Oertel, David C. (David Charles)

    2007-01-01

    Inspired by recent work demonstrating photocurrent enhancement in quantum-dot (QD) solids via post-deposition chemical annealing and by recent successes incorporating single monolayers of QDs in light-emitting devices ...

  17. Luminescence blinking of a reacting quantum dot.

    PubMed

    Routzahn, Aaron L; Jain, Prashant K

    2015-04-01

    Luminescence blinking is an inherent feature of optical emission from individual fluorescent molecules and quantum dots. There have been intense efforts, although not with complete resolution, toward the understanding of the mechanistic origin of blinking and also its mitigation in quantum dots. As an advance in our microscopic view of blinking, we show that the luminescence blinking of a quantum dot becomes unusually heavy in the temporal vicinity of a reactive transformation. This stage of heavy blinking is a result of defects/dopants formed within the quantum dot on its path to conversion. The evolution of blinking behavior along the reaction path allows us to measure the lifetime of the critical dopant-related intermediate in the reaction. This work establishes luminescence blinking as a single-nanocrystal level probe of catalytic, photocatalytic, and electrochemical events occurring in the solid-state or on semiconductor surfaces. PMID:25730168

  18. Nanomaterials: Earthworms lit with quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilley, Richard D.; Cheong, Soshan

    2013-01-01

    Yeast, bacteria and fungi have been used to synthesize a variety of nanocrystals. Now, the metal detoxification process in the gut of an earthworm is exploited to produce biocompatible cadmium telluride quantum dots.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of infrared quantum dots

    E-print Network

    Harris, Daniel Kelly

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the development of synthetic methods to create application ready quantum dots (QDs) in the infrared for biological imaging and optoelectronic devices. I concentrated primarily on controlling the size ...

  20. The Energy Spectra of GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Said, Mohammad; Saa, M. Abu

    1998-09-01

    The energy expressions for QD presented in high- and low-magnetic fields are calculated. An interpolation formula between the energies of the quantum dot in both limits is proposed. The formula is implemented to produce the energy spectra of the parabolic quantum dot in the presence of a magnetic field of arbitrary strength. The transitions in the angular momenta of the ground state energy of interacting electrons confined in the quantum dot as a function of magnetic field strength is studied. A good agreement is obtained when our results are tested against exact numerical work.

  1. Antiferromagnetic coupling between semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tackeuchi, A.; Kuroda, T.; Sasou, R.; Nakata, Y.; Yokoyama, N.

    2002-03-01

    We have investigated magnetic coupling between semiconductor quantum dots. The antiferromagnetization process based on the interdot exchange interaction has been directly observed using time-resolved spin-dependent photoluminescence measurements. The antiferromagnetic order that proves the interdot exchange interaction energy to be negative is found to exist at temperatures lower than 50-80 K. The spin relaxation time under the antiferromagnetic order is extended to 10-12 ns, an order of magnitude longer than that in isolated quantum dots.

  2. Antiferromagnetic Coupling Between Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tackeuchi, A.; Kuroda, T.; Nakata, Y.; Yokoyama, N.

    2003-03-01

    We have investigated magnetic coupling between semiconductor quantum dots. The antiferromagnetization process based on the interdot exchange interaction has been directly observed using time-resolved spin-dependent photoluminescence measurements. The antiferromagnetic order that proves the interdot exchange interaction energy to be negative is found to exist at temperatures lower than 50-80 K. The spin relaxation time under the antiferromagnetic order is extended to 10-12 ns, an order of magnitude longer than that in isolated quantum dots.

  3. Theory of Energy Level Tuning in Quantum Dots by Surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zherebetskyy, Danylo; Wang, Lin-Wang; Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Team

    2015-03-01

    Besides quantum confinement that provides control of the quantum dot (QD) band gap, surface ligands allow control of the absolute energy levels. We theoretically investigate energy level tuning in PbS QD by surfactant exchange. We perform direct calculations of real-size QD with various surfactants within the frame of the density functional theory and explicitly analyze the influence of the surfactants on the electronic properties of the QD. This work provides a hint for predictable control of the absolute energy levels and their fine tuning within 3 eV range by modification of big and small surfactants that simultaneously passivate the QD surface.

  4. Submonolayer Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.; Bandara, Sumith V.; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Chang, Yia-Chang

    2010-01-01

    A method has been developed for inserting submonolayer (SML) quantum dots (QDs) or SML QD stacks, instead of conventional Stranski-Krastanov (S-K) QDs, into the active region of intersubband photodetectors. A typical configuration would be InAs SML QDs embedded in thin layers of GaAs, surrounded by AlGaAs barriers. Here, the GaAs and the AlGaAs have nearly the same lattice constant, while InAs has a larger lattice constant. In QD infrared photodetector, the important quantization directions are in the plane perpendicular to the normal incidence radiation. In-plane quantization is what enables the absorption of normal incidence radiation. The height of the S-K QD controls the positions of the quantized energy levels, but is not critically important to the desired normal incidence absorption properties. The SML QD or SML QD stack configurations give more control of the structure grown, retains normal incidence absorption properties, and decreases the strain build-up to allow thicker active layers for higher quantum efficiency.

  5. Transparent conducting films of CdSe(ZnS) core(shell) quantum dot xerogels

    PubMed Central

    Korala, Lasantha; Li, Li

    2012-01-01

    A method of fabricating sol-gel quantum dot (QD) films is demonstrated, and their optical, structural and electrical properties are evaluated. The CdSe(ZnS) xerogel films remain quantum confined, yet are highly conductive (10?3 S· cm?1). This approach provides a pathway for the exploitation of QD gels in optoelectronic applications. PMID:22801641

  6. Cryogenic spectroscopy of ultra-low density colloidal lead chalcogenide quantum dots on chip-scale optical cavities towards single quantum dot near-infrared cavity QED

    E-print Network

    Ranojoy Bose; Jie Gao; James F. McMillan; Alex D. Williams; Chee Wei Wong

    2009-11-09

    We present evidence of cavity quantum electrodynamics from a sparse density of strongly quantum-confined Pb-chalcogenide nanocrystals (between 1 and 10) approaching single-dot levels on moderately high-Q mesoscopic silicon optical cavities. Operating at important near-infrared (1500-nm) wavelengths, large enhancements are observed from devices and strong modifications of the QD emission are achieved. Saturation spectroscopy of coupled QDs is observed at 77K, highlighting the modified nanocrystal dynamics for quantum information processing.

  7. Quantum confinement-induced tunable exciton states in graphene oxide

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dongwook; Seo, Jiwon; Zhu, Xi; Lee, Jiyoul; Shin, Hyeon-Jin; Cole, Jacqueline M.; Shin, Taeho; Lee, Jaichan; Lee, Hangil; Su, Haibin

    2013-01-01

    Graphene oxide has recently been considered to be a potential replacement for cadmium-based quantum dots due to its expected high fluorescence. Although previously reported, the origin of the luminescence in graphene oxide is still controversial. Here, we report the presence of core/valence excitons in graphene-based materials, a basic ingredient for optical devices, induced by quantum confinement. Electron confinement in the unreacted graphitic regions of graphene oxide was probed by high resolution X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy and first-principles calculations. Using experiments and simulations, we were able to tune the core/valence exciton energy by manipulating the size of graphitic regions through the degree of oxidation. The binding energy of an exciton in highly oxidized graphene oxide is similar to that in organic electroluminescent materials. These results open the possibility of graphene oxide-based optoelectronic device technology. PMID:23872608

  8. Dot-in-Well Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath; Bandara, Sumith; Ting, David; Hill, cory; Liu, John; Mumolo, Jason; Chang, Yia Chung

    2008-01-01

    Dot-in-well (DWELL) quantum-dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) [DWELL-QDIPs] are subjects of research as potentially superior alternatives to prior QDIPs. Heretofore, there has not existed a reliable method for fabricating quantum dots (QDs) having precise, repeatable dimensions. This lack has constituted an obstacle to the development of uniform, high-performance, wavelength-tailorable QDIPs and of focal-plane arrays (FPAs) of such QDIPs. However, techniques for fabricating quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) having multiple-quantum- well (MQW) structures are now well established. In the present research on DWELL-QDIPs, the arts of fabrication of QDs and QWIPs are combined with a view toward overcoming the deficiencies of prior QDIPs. The longer-term goal is to develop focal-plane arrays of radiationhard, highly uniform arrays of QDIPs that would exhibit high performance at wavelengths from 8 to 15 m when operated at temperatures between 150 and 200 K. Increasing quantum efficiency is the key to the development of competitive QDIP-based FPAs. Quantum efficiency can be increased by increasing the density of QDs and by enhancing infrared absorption in QD-containing material. QDIPs demonstrated thus far have consisted, variously, of InAs islands on GaAs or InAs islands in InGaAs/GaAs wells. These QDIPs have exhibited low quantum efficiencies because the numbers of QD layers (and, hence, the areal densities of QDs) have been small typically five layers in each QDIP. The number of QD layers in such a device must be thus limited to prevent the aggregation of strain in the InAs/InGaAs/GaAs non-lattice- matched material system. The approach being followed in the DWELL-QDIP research is to embed In- GaAs QDs in GaAs/AlGaAs multi-quantum- well (MQW) structures (see figure). This material system can accommodate a large number of QD layers without excessive lattice-mismatch strain and the associated degradation of photodetection properties. Hence, this material system is expected to enable achievement of greater densities of QDs and correspondingly greater quantum efficiencies. The host GaAs/AlGaAs MQW structures are highly compatible with mature fabrication processes that are now used routinely in making QWIP FPAs. The hybrid InGaAs-dot/GaAs/AlGaAs-well system also offers design advantages in that the effects of variability of dot size can be partly compensated by engineering quantum-well sizes, which can be controlled precisely.

  9. Thermoelectric transport through strongly correlated quantum dots

    E-print Network

    T. A. Costi; V. Zlatic

    2010-07-08

    The thermoelectric properties of strongly correlated quantum dots, described by a single level Anderson model coupled to conduction electron leads, is investigated using Wilson's numerical renormalization group method. We calculate the electronic contribution, $K_{\\rm e}$, to the thermal conductance, the thermopower, $S$, and the electrical conductance, $G$, of a quantum dot as a function of both temperature, $T$, and gate voltage, ${\\rm v}_g$, for strong, intermediate and weak Coulomb correlations, $U$, on the dot. For strong correlations and in the Kondo regime, we find that the thermopower exhibits two sign changes, at temperatures $T_{1}({\\rm v}_g)$ and $T_{2}({\\rm v}_g)$ with $T_{1}< T_{2}$. Such sign changes in $S(T)$ are particularly sensitive signatures of strong correlations and Kondo physics. The relevance of this to recent thermopower measurements of Kondo correlated quantum dots is discussed. We discuss the figure of merit, power factor and the degree of violation of the Wiedemann-Franz law in quantum dots. The extent of temperature scaling in the thermopower and thermal conductance of quantum dots in the Kondo regime is also assessed.

  10. (In,Mn)As multilayer quantum dot structures

    SciTech Connect

    Bouravleuv, Alexei; Sapega, Victor; Nevedomskii, Vladimir; Khrebtov, Artem; Samsonenko, Yuriy; Cirlin, George

    2014-12-08

    (In,Mn)As multilayer quantum dots structures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy using a Mn selective doping of the central parts of quantum dots. The study of the structural and magneto-optical properties of the samples with three and five layers of (In,Mn)As quantum dots has shown that during the quantum dots assembly, the out-diffusion of Mn from the layers with (In,Mn)As quantum dots can occur resulting in the formation of the extended defects. To produce a high quality structures using the elaborated technique of selective doping, the number of (In,Mn)As quantum dot layers should not exceed three.

  11. Advancements in the Field of Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Sambeet; Tripathy, Pratyasha; Sinha, Swami Prasad.

    2012-08-01

    Quantum dots are defined as very small semiconductor crystals of size varying from nanometer scale to a few micron i.e. so small that they are considered dimensionless and are capable of showing many chemical properties by virtue of which they tend to be lead at one minute and gold at the second minute.Quantum dots house the electrons just the way the electrons would have been present in an atom, by applying a voltage. And therefore they are very judiciously given the name of being called as the artificial atoms. This application of voltage may also lead to the modification of the chemical nature of the material anytime it is desired, resulting in lead at one minute to gold at the other minute. But this method is quite beyond our reach. A quantum dot is basically a semiconductor of very tiny size and this special phenomenon of quantum dot, causes the band of energies to change into discrete energy levels. Band gaps and the related energy depend on the relationship between the size of the crystal and the exciton radius. The height and energy between different energy levels varies inversely with the size of the quantum dot. The smaller the quantum dot, the higher is the energy possessed by it.There are many applications of the quantum dots e.g. they are very wisely applied to:Light emitting diodes: LEDs eg. White LEDs, Photovoltaic devices: solar cells, Memory elements, Biology : =biosensors, imaging, Lasers, Quantum computation, Flat-panel displays, Photodetectors, Life sciences and so on and so forth.The nanometer sized particles are able to display any chosen colour in the entire ultraviolet visible spectrum through a small change in their size or composition.

  12. Nonadiabatic geometrical quantum gates in semiconductor quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Solinas, Paolo; Zanghi, Nino; Zanardi, Paolo; Rossi, Fausto

    2003-05-01

    In this paper, we study the implementation of nonadiabatic geometrical quantum gates with in semiconductor quantum dots. Different quantum information enconding (manipulation) schemes exploiting excitonic degrees of freedom are discussed. By means of the Aharanov-Anandan geometrical phase, one can avoid the limitations of adiabatic schemes relying on adiabatic Berry phase; fast geometrical quantum gates can be, in principle, implemented.

  13. Nonclassical Light from Single Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michler, Peter

    In this article the recent progress in the generation of nonclassical light using semiconductor quantum dots is reviewed. Photon antibunching and triggered single photon emission for both optical and electrical pumping has been observed. The coupling of a single self-assembled quantum dot to a high-quality factor cavity mode is obtained. This gives access to the study of cavity-quantum electrodynamics (QED) effects, e.g., the Purcell effect in an all-semiconductor nanostructure. The positive impact of the Purcell effect on single photon emission is presented. Triggered correlated pairs of photons and the prospects for the generation of entangled photons will also be discussed.

  14. Optically controlled spins in semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Economou, Sophia

    2010-03-01

    Spins in charged semiconductor quantum dots are currently generating much interest, both from a fundamental physics standpoint, as well as for their potential technological relevance. Being naturally a two-level quantum system, each of these spins can encode a bit of quantum information. Optically controlled spins in quantum dots possess several desirable properties: their spin coherence times are long, they allow for all-optical manipulation---which translates into fast logic gates---and their coupling to photons offers a straightforward route to exchange of quantum information between spatially separated sites. Designing the laser fields to achieve the unprecedented amount of control required for quantum information tasks is a challenging goal, towards which there has been recent progress. Special properties of hyperbolic secant optical pulses enabled the design of single qubit rotations, initially developed about the growth axis z [1], and later about an arbitrary direction [2]. Recently we demonstrated our theoretical proposal [1] in an ensemble of InAs/GaAs quantum dots by implementing ultrafast rotations about the z axis by an arbitrary angle [3], with the angle of rotation as a function of the optical detuning in excellent agreement with the theoretical prediction. We also developed two-qubit conditional control in a quantum dot `molecule' using the electron-hole exchange interaction [4]. In addition to its importance in quantum dot-based quantum computation, our two-qubit gate can also play an important role in photonic cluster state generation for measurement-based quantum computing [5]. [1] S. E. Economou, L. J. Sham, Y. Wu, D. S. Steel, Phys. Rev. 74, 205415 (2006) [2] S. E. Economou and T. L. Reinecke, Phys. Rev. Lett., 99, 217401 (2007) [3] A. Greilich, S. E. Economou et al, Nature Phys. 5, 262 (2009) [4] S. E. Economou and T. L. Reinecke, Phys. Rev. B, 78, 115306 (2008) [5] S. E. Economou, N. H. Lindner, and T. Rudolph, in preparation

  15. Disorder-mediated electron valley resonance in carbon nanotube quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Pályi, András; Burkard, Guido

    2011-02-25

    We propose a scheme for coherent rotation of the valley isospin of a single electron confined in a carbon nanotube quantum dot. The scheme exploits the ubiquitous atomic disorder of the nanotube crystal lattice, which induces time-dependent valley mixing as the confined electron is pushed back and forth along the nanotube axis by an applied ac electric field. Using experimentally determined values for the disorder strength we estimate that valley Rabi oscillations with a period on the nanosecond time scale are feasible. The valley resonance effect can be detected in the electric current through a double quantum dot in the single-electron transport regime. PMID:21405589

  16. Electron transport through a quantum dot assisted by cavity photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Nzar Rauf; Tang, Chi-Shung; Manolescu, Andrei; Gudmundsson, Vidar

    2013-11-01

    We investigate transient transport of electrons through a single quantum dot controlled by a plunger gate. The dot is embedded in a finite wire with length Lx assumed to lie along the x-direction with a parabolic confinement in the y-direction. The quantum wire, originally with hard-wall confinement at its ends, ±Lx/2, is weakly coupled at t = 0 to left and right leads acting as external electron reservoirs. The central system, the dot and the finite wire, is strongly coupled to a single cavity photon mode. A non-Markovian density-matrix formalism is employed to take into account the full electron-photon interaction in the transient regime. In the absence of a photon cavity, a resonant current peak can be found by tuning the plunger-gate voltage to lift a many-body state of the system into the source-drain bias window. In the presence of an x-polarized photon field, additional side peaks can be found due to photon-assisted transport. By appropriately tuning the plunger-gate voltage, the electrons in the left lead are allowed to undergo coherent inelastic scattering to a two-photon state above the bias window if initially one photon was present in the cavity. However, this photon-assisted feature is suppressed in the case of a y-polarized photon field due to the anisotropy of our system caused by its geometry.

  17. Electron transport through a quantum dot assisted by cavity photons.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Nzar Rauf; Tang, Chi-Shung; Manolescu, Andrei; Gudmundsson, Vidar

    2013-11-20

    We investigate transient transport of electrons through a single quantum dot controlled by a plunger gate. The dot is embedded in a finite wire with length Lx assumed to lie along the x-direction with a parabolic confinement in the y-direction. The quantum wire, originally with hard-wall confinement at its ends, ±Lx/2, is weakly coupled at t = 0 to left and right leads acting as external electron reservoirs. The central system, the dot and the finite wire, is strongly coupled to a single cavity photon mode. A non-Markovian density-matrix formalism is employed to take into account the full electron-photon interaction in the transient regime. In the absence of a photon cavity, a resonant current peak can be found by tuning the plunger-gate voltage to lift a many-body state of the system into the source-drain bias window. In the presence of an x-polarized photon field, additional side peaks can be found due to photon-assisted transport. By appropriately tuning the plunger-gate voltage, the electrons in the left lead are allowed to undergo coherent inelastic scattering to a two-photon state above the bias window if initially one photon was present in the cavity. However, this photon-assisted feature is suppressed in the case of a y-polarized photon field due to the anisotropy of our system caused by its geometry. PMID:24132041

  18. Quantum Confined Stark Effect in a GaAs/AlGaAs Nanowire Quantum Well Tube Device: Probing Exciton Localization.

    PubMed

    Badada, Bekele H; Shi, Teng; Jackson, Howard E; Smith, Leigh M; Zheng, Changlin; Etheridge, Joanne; Gao, Qiang; Tan, H Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2015-12-01

    In this Letter, we explore the nature of exciton localization in single GaAs/AlGaAs nanowire quantum well tube (QWT) devices using photocurrent (PC) spectroscopy combined with simultaneous photoluminescence (PL) and photoluminescence excitation (PLE) measurements. Excitons confined to GaAs quantum well tubes of 8 and 4 nm widths embedded into an AlGaAs barrier are seen to ionize at high bias levels. Spectroscopic signatures of the ground and excited states confined to the QWT seen in PL, PLE, and PC data are consistent with simple numerical calculations. The demonstration of good electrical contact with the QWTs enables the study of Stark effect shifts in the sharp emission lines of excitons localized to quantum dot-like states within the QWT. Atomic resolution cross-sectional TEM measurements and an analysis of the quantum confined Stark effect of these dots provide insights into the nature of the exciton localization in these nanostructures. PMID:26562619

  19. Surface treatment of nanocrystal quantum dots after film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Sykora, Milan; Koposov, Alexey; Fuke, Nobuhiro

    2015-02-03

    Provided are methods of surface treatment of nanocrystal quantum dots after film deposition so as to exchange the native ligands of the quantum dots for exchange ligands that result in improvement in charge extraction from the nanocrystals.

  20. Qubit Protection in Nuclear-Spin Quantum Dot Memories

    E-print Network

    Taylor, J. M.

    We present a mechanism to protect quantum information stored in an ensemble of nuclear spins in a semiconductor quantum dot. When the dot is charged the nuclei interact with the spin of the excess electron through the ...

  1. Nanostructured architectures for colloidal quantum dot solar cells

    E-print Network

    Jean, Joel, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    This thesis introduces a novel ordered bulk heterojunction architecture for colloidal quantum dot (QD) solar cells. Quantum dots are solution-processed nanocrystals whose tunable bandgap energies make them a promising ...

  2. Biexciton induced refractive index changes in a semiconductor quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shojaei, S.

    2015-06-01

    We present a detailed theoretical study of linear and third order nonlinear refractive index changes in a optically driven disk-like GaN quantum dot. In our numerical calculations, we consider the three level system containing biexciton, exciton, and ground states and use the compact density matrix formalism and iterative method to obtain refractive index changes. Variational method through effective mass approximation are employed to calculate the ground state energy of biexciton and exciton states. The evolution of refractive index changes around one, two and three photon resonance is investigated and discussed for different quantum dot sizes and light intensities. Size-dependent three-photon nonlinear refractive index change versus incident photon energy compared to that of two-photon is obtained and analyzed. As main result, we found that around resonance frequency at exciton-biexciton transition the quantum confinement has great influence on the linear change in refractive index so that for very large quantum dots, it decreases. Moreover, it was found that third order refractive index changes for three photon process is strongly dependent on QD size and light intensity. Our study reveals that considering our simple model leads to results which are in good agreement with other rare numerical results. Comparison with experimental results has been done.

  3. Resonant Spectroscopy of II-VI Self-Assembled Quantum Dots: Excited States and Exciton-LO Phonon Coupling

    E-print Network

    T. A. Nguyen; S. Mackowski; H. E. Jackson; L. M. Smith; J. Wrobel; K. Fronc; G. Karczewski; J. Kossut; M. Dobrowolska J. K. Furdyna; W. Heiss

    2003-09-17

    Using resonantly excited photoluminescence along with photoluminescence excitation spectroscopies, we study the carrier excitation processes in CdTe/ZnTe and CdSe/ZnSe self-assembled quantum dots. Photoluminescence excitation spectra of single CdTe quantum dots reflect two major mechanisms for carrier excitation: The first, associated with the presence of sharp and intense lines in the spectrum, is a direct excited state ? ground state transition. The second, associated with the appearance of up to four much broader excitation lines, is a LO phonon-assisted absorption directly into the quantum dot ground states. LO phonons with energies of both quantum dots and ZnTe barrier material are identified in the photoluminescence excitation spectra. Resonantly excited PL measurements for the dot ensemble as a function of excitation energy makes it possible to separate the contributions of these two mechanisms. We find that for CdTe quantum dots the distribution of excited states coupled to the ground states reflects the energy distribution of the quantum dot emission, but shifted up in energy by 100 meV. This large splitting between excited and ground states in CdTe quantum dots suggests strong spatial confinement. In contrast, the LO phonon-assisted absorption shows significant size selectivity. In the case of CdTe dots the exciton-LO phonon coupling is strongly enhanced for smaller-sized dots which have higher emission energies. In contrast, for CdSe quantum dots the exciton-LO phonon coupling is uniform over the ensemble ? that is, the energy distribution determines the intensities of LO phonon replicas. We show that for CdTe quantum dots after annealing, that is after an increase in the average dot size, the exciton-LO phonon interaction reflects the dot energy distribution, as observed for CdSe quantum dots.

  4. Electrical control of quantum dot spin qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laird, Edward Alexander

    This thesis presents experiments exploring the interactions of electron spins with electric fields in devices of up to four quantum dots. These experiments are particularly motivated by the prospect of using electric fields to control spin qubits. A novel hyperfine effect on a single spin in a quantum dot is presented in Chapter 2. Fluctuations of the nuclear polarization allow single-spin resonance to be driven by an oscillating electric field. Spin resonance spectroscopy revealed a nuclear polarization built up inside the quantum dot device by driving the resonance. The evolution of two coupled spins is controlled by the combination of hyperfine interaction, which tends to cause spin dephasing, and exchange, which tends to prevent it. In Chapter 3, dephasing is studied in a device with tunable exchange, probing the crossover between exchange-dominated and hyperfine-dominated regimes. In agreement with theoretical predictions, oscillations of the spin conversion probability and saturation of dephasing are observed. Chapter 4 deals with a three-dot device, suggested as a potential qubit controlled entirely by exchange. Preparation and readout of the qubit state are demonstrated, together with one out of two coherent exchange operations needed for arbitrary manipulations. A new readout technique allowing rapid device measurement is described. In Chapter 5, an attempt to make a two-qubit gate using a four-dot device is presented. Although spin qubit operation has not yet been possible, the electrostatic interaction between pairs of dots was measured to be sufficient in principle for coherent qubit coupling.

  5. Mid-infrared quantum dot emitters utilizing planar photonic crystal technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Subramania,Ganapathi Subramanian; Lyo, Sungkwun Kenneth; Cederberg, Jeffrey George; Passmore, Brandon Scott; El-Kady, Ihab Fathy; Shaner, Eric Arthur

    2008-09-01

    The three-dimensional confinement inherent in InAs self-assembled quantum dots (SAQDs) yields vastly different optical properties compared to one-dimensionally confined quantum well systems. Intersubband transitions in quantum dots can emit light normal to the growth surface, whereas transitions in quantum wells emit only parallel to the surface. This is a key difference that can be exploited to create a variety of quantum dot devices that have no quantum well analog. Two significant problems limit the utilization of the beneficial features of SAQDs as mid-infrared emitters. One is the lack of understanding concerning how to electrically inject carriers into electronic states that allow optical transitions to occur efficiently. Engineering of an injector stage leading into the dot can provide current injection into an upper dot state; however, to increase the likelihood of an optical transition, the lower dot states must be emptied faster than upper states are occupied. The second issue is that SAQDs have significant inhomogeneous broadening due to the random size distribution. While this may not be a problem in the long term, this issue can be circumvented by using planar photonic crystal or plasmonic approaches to provide wavelength selectivity or other useful functionality.

  6. Fast quantum dot single photon source triggered at telecommunications wavelength

    E-print Network

    Kelley Rivoire; Sonia Buckley; Arka Majumdar; Hyochul Kim; Pierre Petroff; Jelena Vuckovic

    2010-12-20

    We demonstrate a quantum dot single photon source at 900 nm triggered at 300 MHz by a continuous wave telecommunications wavelength laser followed by an electro-optic modulator. The quantum dot is excited by on-chip-generated second harmonic radiation, resonantly enhanced by a GaAs photonic crystal cavity surrounding the InAs quantum dot. Our result suggests a path toward the realization of telecommunications-wavelength-compatible quantum dot single photon sources with speeds exceeding 1 GHz.

  7. Dirac electrons in graphene-based quantum wires and quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Peres, N M R; Rodrigues, J N B; Stauber, T; Lopes Dos Santos, J M B

    2009-08-26

    In this paper we analyse the electronic properties of Dirac electrons in finite-size ribbons and in circular and hexagonal quantum dots. We show that due to the formation of sub-bands in the ribbons it is possible to spatially localize some of the electronic modes using a p-n-p junction. We also show that scattering of confined Dirac electrons in a narrow channel by an infinitely massive wall induces mode mixing, giving a qualitative reason for the fact that an analytical solution to the spectrum of Dirac electrons confined in a square box has not yet been found. A first attempt to solve this problem is presented. We find that only the trivial case k = 0 has a solution that does not require the existence of evanescent modes. We also study the spectrum of quantum dots of graphene in a perpendicular magnetic field. This problem is studied in the Dirac approximation, and its solution requires a numerical method whose details are given. The formation of Landau levels in the dot is discussed. The inclusion of the Coulomb interaction among the electrons is considered at the self-consistent Hartree level, taking into account the interaction with an image charge density necessary to keep the back-gate electrode at zero potential. The effect of a radial confining potential is discussed. The density of states of circular and hexagonal quantum dots, described by the full tight-binding model, is studied using the Lanczos algorithm. This is necessary to access the detailed shape of the density of states close to the Dirac point when one studies large systems. Our study reveals that zero-energy edge states are also present in graphene quantum dots. Our results are relevant for experimental research in graphene nanostructures. The style of writing is pedagogical, in the hope that newcomers to the subject will find this paper a good starting point for their research. PMID:21715777

  8. Dirac electrons in graphene-based quantum wires and quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peres, N. M. R.; Rodrigues, J. N. B.; Stauber, T.; Lopes dos Santos, J. M. B.

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we analyse the electronic properties of Dirac electrons in finite-size ribbons and in circular and hexagonal quantum dots. We show that due to the formation of sub-bands in the ribbons it is possible to spatially localize some of the electronic modes using a p-n-p junction. We also show that scattering of confined Dirac electrons in a narrow channel by an infinitely massive wall induces mode mixing, giving a qualitative reason for the fact that an analytical solution to the spectrum of Dirac electrons confined in a square box has not yet been found. A first attempt to solve this problem is presented. We find that only the trivial case k = 0 has a solution that does not require the existence of evanescent modes. We also study the spectrum of quantum dots of graphene in a perpendicular magnetic field. This problem is studied in the Dirac approximation, and its solution requires a numerical method whose details are given. The formation of Landau levels in the dot is discussed. The inclusion of the Coulomb interaction among the electrons is considered at the self-consistent Hartree level, taking into account the interaction with an image charge density necessary to keep the back-gate electrode at zero potential. The effect of a radial confining potential is discussed. The density of states of circular and hexagonal quantum dots, described by the full tight-binding model, is studied using the Lanczos algorithm. This is necessary to access the detailed shape of the density of states close to the Dirac point when one studies large systems. Our study reveals that zero-energy edge states are also present in graphene quantum dots. Our results are relevant for experimental research in graphene nanostructures. The style of writing is pedagogical, in the hope that newcomers to the subject will find this paper a good starting point for their research.

  9. Quantum Dot-Based Cell Motility Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Weiwei; Pellegrino, Teresa; Parak Wolfgang J; Boudreau,Rosanne; Le Gros, Mark A.; Gerion, Daniele; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2005-06-06

    Because of their favorable physical and photochemical properties, colloidal CdSe/ZnS-semiconductor nanocrystals (commonly known as quantum dots) have enormous potential for use in biological imaging. In this report, we present an assay that uses quantum dots as markers to quantify cell motility. Cells that are seeded onto a homogeneous layer of quantum dots engulf and absorb the nanocrystals and, as a consequence, leave behind a fluorescence-free trail. By subsequently determining the ratio of cell area to fluorescence-free track area, we show that it is possible to differentiate between invasive and noninvasive cancer cells. Because this assay uses simple fluorescence detection, requires no significant data processing, and can be used in live-cell studies, it has the potential to be a powerful new tool for discriminating between invasive and noninvasive cancer cell lines or for studying cell signaling events involved in migration.

  10. Angiogenic Profiling of Synthesized Carbon Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Shereema, R M; Sruthi, T V; Kumar, V B Sameer; Rao, T P; Shankar, S Sharath

    2015-10-20

    A simple method was employed for the synthesis of green luminescent carbon quantum dots (CQDs) from styrene soot. The CQDs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared, and Raman spectroscopy. The prepared carbon quantum dots did not show cellular toxicity and could successfully be used for labeling cells. We also evaluated the effects of carbon quantum dots on the process of angiogenesis. Results of a chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay revealed the significant decrease in the density of branched vessels after their treatment with CQDs. Further application of CQDs significantly downregulated the expression levels of pro-angiogenic growth factors like VEGF and FGF. Expression of VEGFR2 and levels of hemoglobin were also significantly lower in CAMs treated with CQDs, indicating that the CQDs inhibit angiogenesis. Data presented here also show that CQDs can selectively target cancer cells and therefore hold potential in the field of cancer therapy. PMID:26371545

  11. Isotopically enhanced triple-quantum-dot qubit

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Kevin; Ladd, Thaddeus D.; Smith, Aaron; Borselli, Matthew G.; Kiselev, Andrey A.; Fong, Bryan H.; Holabird, Kevin S.; Hazard, Thomas M.; Huang, Biqin; Deelman, Peter W.; Milosavljevic, Ivan; Schmitz, Adele E.; Ross, Richard S.; Gyure, Mark F.; Hunter, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Like modern microprocessors today, future processors of quantum information may be implemented using all-electrical control of silicon-based devices. A semiconductor spin qubit may be controlled without the use of magnetic fields by using three electrons in three tunnel-coupled quantum dots. Triple dots have previously been implemented in GaAs, but this material suffers from intrinsic nuclear magnetic noise. Reduction of this noise is possible by fabricating devices using isotopically purified silicon. We demonstrate universal coherent control of a triple-quantum-dot qubit implemented in an isotopically enhanced Si/SiGe heterostructure. Composite pulses are used to implement spin-echo type sequences, and differential charge sensing enables single-shot state readout. These experiments demonstrate sufficient control with sufficiently low noise to enable the long pulse sequences required for exchange-only two-qubit logic and randomized benchmarking. PMID:26601186

  12. Three-terminal quantum-dot refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanchao; Lin, Guoxing; Chen, Jincan

    2015-05-01

    Based on two capacitively coupled quantum dots in the Coulomb-blockade regime, a model of three-terminal quantum-dot refrigerators is proposed. With the help of the master equation, the transport properties of steady-state charge current and energy flow between two quantum dots and thermal reservoirs are revealed. It is expounded that such a structure can be used to construct a refrigerator by controlling the voltage bias and temperature ratio. The thermodynamic performance characteristics of the refrigerator are analyzed, including the cooling power, coefficient of performance (COP), maximum cooling power, and maximum COP. Moreover, the optimal regions of main performance parameters are determined. The influence of dissipative tunnel processes on the optimal performance is discussed in detail. Finally, the performance characteristics of the refrigerators operated in two different cases are compared.

  13. Imaging Electrons in Few-Electron Quantum Dots

    E-print Network

    Imaging Electrons in Few-Electron Quantum Dots A thesis presented by Parisa Fallahi to The Division - Parisa Fallahi All rights reserved. #12;Thesis advisor Author Robert M. Westervelt Parisa Fallahi Imaging Electrons in Few-Electron Quantum Dots Abstract Electrons in a one-electron quantum dot were imaged

  14. Acoustically induced potential dots in GaAs quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsina, F.; Stotz, J. A. H.; Hey, R.; Santos, P. V.

    2004-02-01

    Dynamic dots (DDs) consisting of confined and mobile potentials are realized by the interference of orthogonal surface acoustic wave (SAW) beams in GaAs quantum wells. Photoluminescence spectroscopy reveals that the DDs are characterized by a peculiar distribution of strain and piezoelectric fields dictated by the lattice symmetry, which is quite different from the one induced by a single SAW. We demonstrate the unique ability of DDs to control the flow of photogenerated electron-hole pairs and of photons by realizing an electronic switch based on SAWs.

  15. Molecule-induced quantum confinement in single-walled carbon nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hida, Akira; Ishibashi, Koji

    2015-04-01

    A method of fabricating quantum-confined structures with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) has been developed. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy revealed that a parabolic confinement potential appeared when collagen model peptides were attached to both ends of an individual SWNT via the formation of carboxylic anhydrides. On the other hand, the confinement potential was markedly changed by yielding the peptide bonds between the SWNT and the collagen model peptides. Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements showed that a type-II quantum dot was produced in the obtained heterostructure.

  16. Bilayer graphene quantum dot defined by topgates

    SciTech Connect

    Müller, André; Kaestner, Bernd; Hohls, Frank; Weimann, Thomas; Pierz, Klaus; Schumacher, Hans W.

    2014-06-21

    We investigate the application of nanoscale topgates on exfoliated bilayer graphene to define quantum dot devices. At temperatures below 500 mK, the conductance underneath the grounded gates is suppressed, which we attribute to nearest neighbour hopping and strain-induced piezoelectric fields. The gate-layout can thus be used to define resistive regions by tuning into the corresponding temperature range. We use this method to define a quantum dot structure in bilayer graphene showing Coulomb blockade oscillations consistent with the gate layout.

  17. Single-dot optical emission from ultralow density well-isolated InP quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Ugur, A.; Hatami, F.; Masselink, W. T.; Vamivakas, A. N.; Lombez, L.; Atatuere, M.

    2008-10-06

    We demonstrate a straightforward way to obtain single well-isolated quantum dots emitting in the visible part of the spectrum and characterize the optical emission from single quantum dots using this method. Self-assembled InP quantum dots are grown using gas-source molecular-beam epitaxy over a wide range of InP deposition rates, using an ultralow growth rate of about 0.01 atomic monolayers/s, a quantum-dot density of 1 dot/{mu}m{sup 2} is realized. The resulting isolated InP quantum dots embedded in an InGaP matrix are individually characterized without the need for lithographical patterning and masks on the substrate. Such low-density quantum dots show excitonic emission at around 670 nm with a linewidth limited by instrument resolution. This system is applicable as a single-photon source for applications such as quantum cryptography.

  18. On the physics of semiconductor quantum dots for applications in lasers and quantum optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Weng W.; Jahnke, Frank

    2013-05-01

    The progression of carrier confinement from quantum wells to quantum dots has received considerable interests because of the potential to improve the semiconductor laser performance at the underlying physics level and to explore quantum optical phenomena in semiconductors. Associated with the transition from quantum wells to quantum dots is a switch from a solid-state-like quasi-continuous density of states to an atom-like system with discrete states. As discussed in this paper, the transition changes the role of the carrier interaction processes that directly influence optical properties. Our goals in this review are two-fold. One is to identify and describe the physics that allows new applications and determines intrinsic limitations for applications in light emitters. We will analyze the use of quantum dots in conventional laser devices and in microcavity emitters, where cavity quantum electrodynamics can alter spontaneous emission and generate nonclassical light for applications in quantum information technologies. A second goal is to promote a new connection between physics and technology. This paper demonstrates how a first-principles theory may be applied to guide important technological decisions by predicting the performances of various active materials under a broad set of experimental conditions.

  19. Tunnel-injection GaN quantum dot ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, Jai; Kandaswamy, Prem Kumar; Protasenko, Vladimir; Verma, Amit; Grace Xing, Huili; Jena, Debdeep

    2013-01-28

    We demonstrate a GaN quantum dot ultraviolet light-emitting diode that uses tunnel injection of carriers through AlN barriers into the active region. The quantum dot heterostructure is grown by molecular beam epitaxy on AlN templates. The large lattice mismatch between GaN and AlN favors the formation of GaN quantum dots in the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode. Carrier injection by tunneling can mitigate losses incurred in hot-carrier injection in light emitting heterostructures. To achieve tunnel injection, relatively low composition AlGaN is used for n- and p-type layers to simultaneously take advantage of effective band alignment and efficient doping. The small height of the quantum dots results in short-wavelength emission and are simultaneously an effective tool to fight the reduction of oscillator strength from quantum-confined Stark effect due to polarization fields. The strong quantum confinement results in room-temperature electroluminescence peaks at 261 and 340 nm, well above the 365 nm bandgap of bulk GaN. The demonstration opens the doorway to exploit many varied features of quantum dot physics to realize high-efficiency short-wavelength light sources.

  20. Scalable quantum computer architecture with coupled donor-quantum dot qubits

    DOEpatents

    Schenkel, Thomas; Lo, Cheuk Chi; Weis, Christoph; Lyon, Stephen; Tyryshkin, Alexei; Bokor, Jeffrey

    2014-08-26

    A quantum bit computing architecture includes a plurality of single spin memory donor atoms embedded in a semiconductor layer, a plurality of quantum dots arranged with the semiconductor layer and aligned with the donor atoms, wherein a first voltage applied across at least one pair of the aligned quantum dot and donor atom controls a donor-quantum dot coupling. A method of performing quantum computing in a scalable architecture quantum computing apparatus includes arranging a pattern of single spin memory donor atoms in a semiconductor layer, forming a plurality of quantum dots arranged with the semiconductor layer and aligned with the donor atoms, applying a first voltage across at least one aligned pair of a quantum dot and donor atom to control a donor-quantum dot coupling, and applying a second voltage between one or more quantum dots to control a Heisenberg exchange J coupling between quantum dots and to cause transport of a single spin polarized electron between quantum dots.

  1. Quantum optics with quantum dots. Towards semiconductor sources of quantum light for quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beveratos, Alexios; Abram, Izo; Gérard, Jean-Michel; Robert-Philip, Isabelle

    2014-12-01

    For the past fifteen years, single semiconductor quantum dots, often referred to as solid-state artificial atoms, have been at the forefront of various research direction lines for experimental quantum information science, in particular in the development of practical sources of quantum states of light. Here we review the research to date, on the tailoring of the emission properties from single quantum dots producing single photons, indistinguishable single photons and entangled photon pairs. Finally, the progress and future prospects for applications of single dots in quantum information processing is considered.

  2. Synthesis of CdSe quantum dots for quantum dot sensitized solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Neetu Kapoor, Avinashi; Kumar, Vinod; Mehra, R. M.

    2014-04-24

    CdSe Quantum Dots (QDs) of size 0.85 nm were synthesized using chemical route. ZnO based Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cell (QDSSC) was fabricated using CdSe QDs as sensitizer. The Pre-synthesized QDs were found to be successfully adsorbed on front ZnO electrode and had potential to replace organic dyes in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs). The efficiency of QDSSC was obtained to be 2.06 % at AM 1.5.

  3. Optical properties of quantum-dot-doped liquid scintillators

    PubMed Central

    Aberle, C.; Li, J.J.; Weiss, S.; Winslow, L.

    2014-01-01

    Semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots) were studied in the context of liquid scintillator development for upcoming neutrino experiments. The unique optical and chemical properties of quantum dots are particularly promising for the use in neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. Liquid scintillators for large scale neutrino detectors have to meet specific requirements which are reviewed, highlighting the peculiarities of quantum-dot-doping. In this paper, we report results on laboratory-scale measurements of the attenuation length and the fluorescence properties of three commercial quantum dot samples. The results include absorbance and emission stability measurements, improvement in transparency due to filtering of the quantum dot samples, precipitation tests to isolate the quantum dots from solution and energy transfer studies with quantum dots and the fluorophore PPO. PMID:25392711

  4. Fluctuation Phenomena in Chaotic Dirac Quantum Dots: Artificial Atoms on Graphene Flakes

    E-print Network

    J. G. G. S. Ramos; M. S. Hussein; A. L. R. Barbosa

    2015-10-02

    We develop the stub model for the Dirac Quantum Dot, an electron confining device on a grapheme surface. Analytical results for the average conductance and the correlation functions are obtained and found in agreement with those found previously using semiclassical calculation. Comparison with available data are presented. The results reported here demonstrate the applicability of Random Matrix Theory in the case of Dirac electrons confined in a stadium.

  5. Fluctuation Phenomena in Chaotic Dirac Quantum Dots: Artificial Atoms on Graphene Flakes

    E-print Network

    Ramos, J G G S; Barbosa, A L R

    2015-01-01

    We develop the stub model for the Dirac Quantum Dot, an electron confining device on a grapheme surface. Analytical results for the average conductance and the correlation functions are obtained and found in agreement with those found previously using semiclassical calculation. Comparison with available data are presented. The results reported here demonstrate the applicability of Random Matrix Theory in the case of Dirac electrons confined in a stadium.

  6. The luminescence properties of colloidal quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, I. I.; Tarasov, S. A.; Lamkin, I. I.; Y Andreev, M.; Solomonov, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    Luminescent properties of systems containing lead sulfide (PbS) nanoparticles deposited on substrates of porous silicon (p-Si), oxidized porous silicon (OPS) and have been studied. It was shown that structure of the matrix and its composition are of crucial importance affecting luminescence spectra of colloidal quantum dots by setting their radiation wavelength.

  7. Producing Quantum Dots by Spray Pyrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banger, Kulbinder; Jin, Michael H.; Hepp, Aloysius

    2006-01-01

    An improved process for making nanocrystallites, commonly denoted quantum dots (QDs), is based on spray pyrolysis. Unlike the process used heretofore, the improved process is amenable to mass production of either passivated or non-passivated QDs, with computer control to ensure near uniformity of size.

  8. The Silicon:Colloidal Quantum Dot Heterojunction.

    PubMed

    Masala, Silvia; Adinolfi, Valerio; Sun, Jon-Paul; Gobbo, Silvano Del; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Kramer, Illan J; Hill, Ian G; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-12-01

    A heterojunction between crystalline silicon and colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) is realized. A special interface modification is developed to overcome an inherent energetic band mismatch between the two semiconductors, and realize the efficient collection of infrared photocarriers generated in the CQD film. This junction is used to produce a sensitive near infrared photodetector. PMID:26460732

  9. Applications of quantum dots in cell biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barroso, Margarida; Mehdibeigi, Roshanak; Brogan, Louise

    2006-02-01

    Quantum dots promise to revolutionize the way fluorescence imaging is used in the Cell Biology field. The unique fluorescent spectral characteristics, high photostability, low photobleaching and tight emission spectra of quantum dots, position them above traditional dyes. Here we will address the ability of EviTags, which are water stabilized quantum dot products from Evident Technologies, to behave as effective FRET donors in cells. EviTag-Hops Yellow (HY; Emission 566nm; Donor) conjugated to biotin were bound to stretapvidin-Alexa568 (Acceptor) conjugates. These HYbiotin-streptavidin-Alexa568 FRET EviTag conjugates were then internalized by fluid-phase into non-polarized MDCK cells. Confocal microscopy detects these FRET EviTag conjugates in endocytic compartments, suggesting that EviTags can be used to track fluid-phase internalization and trafficking. EviTags are shown here to be effective FRET donors when internalized into cells. Upon pairing with the appropriate acceptor dyes, quantum dots will reduce the laborious data processing that is required to compensate for bleed through contamination between organic dye donor and acceptor pair signals. The EviTag technology will simplify and expand the use of FRET in the analysis of cellular processes that may involve protein-protein interactions and other complex cellular processes.

  10. Silicon based quantum dot hybrid qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dohun

    2015-03-01

    The charge and spin degrees of freedom of an electron constitute natural bases for constructing quantum two level systems, or qubits, in semiconductor quantum dots. The quantum dot charge qubit offers a simple architecture and high-speed operation, but generally suffers from fast dephasing due to strong coupling of the environment to the electron's charge. On the other hand, quantum dot spin qubits have demonstrated long coherence times, but their manipulation is often slower than desired for important future applications. This talk will present experimental progress of a `hybrid' qubit, formed by three electrons in a Si/SiGe double quantum dot, which combines desirable characteristics (speed and coherence) in the past found separately in qubits based on either charge or spin degrees of freedom. Using resonant microwaves, we first discuss qubit operations near the `sweet spot' for charge qubit operation. Along with fast (>GHz) manipulation rates for any rotation axis on the Bloch sphere, we implement two independent tomographic characterization schemes in the charge qubit regime: traditional quantum process tomography (QPT) and gate set tomography (GST). We also present resonant qubit operations of the hybrid qubit performed on the same device, DC pulsed gate operations of which were recently demonstrated. We demonstrate three-axis control and the implementation of dynamic decoupling pulse sequences. Performing QPT on the hybrid qubit, we show that AC gating yields ? rotation process fidelities higher than 93% for X-axis and 96% for Z-axis rotations, which demonstrates efficient quantum control of semiconductor qubits using resonant microwaves. We discuss a path forward for achieving fidelities better than the threshold for quantum error correction using surface codes. This work was supported in part by ARO (W911NF-12-0607), NSF (PHY-1104660), DOE (DE-FG02-03ER46028), and by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Sandia National Laboratories under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  11. Tuning the optical properties of dilute nitride site controlled quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Juska, G.; Dimastrodonato, V.; Mereni, L. O.; Gocalinska, A.; Pelucchi, E.

    2013-12-04

    We show that deterministic control of the properties of pyramidal site-controlled quantum dots (QD) could be achieved by exposing the QD layer to nitrogen precursor unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMHy). The properties that could be tuned include an expected emission reduction in dilute nitride materials, excitonic pattern (biexciton binding energy) and improved carrier confinement potential symmetry (reduced fine-structure splitting)

  12. Unraveling the Mesoscopic Character of Quantum Dots in Nanophotonics.

    PubMed

    Tighineanu, P; Sørensen, A S; Stobbe, S; Lodahl, P

    2015-06-19

    We provide a microscopic theory for semiconductor quantum dots that explains the pronounced deviations from the prevalent point-dipole description that were recently observed in spectroscopic experiments on quantum dots in photonic nanostructures. The deviations originate from structural inhomogeneities generating a large circular quantum current density that flows inside the quantum dot over mesoscopic length scales. The model is supported by the experimental data, where a strong variation of the multipolar moments across the emission spectrum of quantum dots is observed. Our work enriches the physical understanding of quantum dots and is of significance for the fields of nanophotonics, quantum photonics, and quantum-information science, where quantum dots are actively employed. PMID:26197011

  13. Optical levitation of microdroplet containing a single quantum dot

    E-print Network

    Minowa, Yosuke; Ashida, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals, also known as quantum dots (QDs), are key ingredients in current quantum optics experiments. They serve as quantum emitters and memories and have tunable energy levels that depend not only on the material but also, through the quantum confinement effect, on the size. The resulting strongly confined electron and hole wave functions lead to large transition dipole moments, which opens a path to ultra strong coupling and even deep strong coupling between light and matter. Such efficient coupling requires the precise positioning of the QD in an optical cavity with a high quality factor and small mode volume, such as micro-Fabry--Perot cavity, whispering-gallery-mode microcavity, or photonic-crystal cavity. However, the absence of a technique for free-space positioning has limited the further research on QD-based cavity quantum electrodynamics. In this paper, we present a technique to overcome this challenge by demonstrating the optical levitation or trapping in helium gas of a single Q...

  14. Production of three-dimensional quantum dot lattice of Ge/Si core-shell quantum dots and Si/Ge layers in an alumina glass matrix.

    PubMed

    Buljan, M; Radi?, N; Sancho-Paramon, J; Janicki, V; Grenzer, J; Bogdanovi?-Radovi?, I; Siketi?, Z; Ivanda, M; Utrobi?i?, A; Hübner, R; Weidauer, R; Valeš, V; Endres, J; Car, T; Jer?inovi?, M; Roško, J; Bernstorff, S; Holy, V

    2015-02-13

    We report on the formation of Ge/Si quantum dots with core/shell structure that are arranged in a three-dimensional body centered tetragonal quantum dot lattice in an amorphous alumina matrix. The material is prepared by magnetron sputtering deposition of Al2O3/Ge/Si multilayer. The inversion of Ge and Si in the deposition sequence results in the formation of thin Si/Ge layers instead of the dots. Both materials show an atomically sharp interface between the Ge and Si parts of the dots and layers. They have an amorphous internal structure that can be crystallized by an annealing treatment. The light absorption properties of these complex materials are significantly different compared to films that form quantum dot lattices of the pure Ge, Si or a solid solution of GeSi. They show a strong narrow absorption peak that characterizes a type II confinement in accordance with theoretical predictions. The prepared materials are promising for application in quantum dot solar cells. PMID:25605224

  15. Production of three-dimensional quantum dot lattice of Ge/Si core-shell quantum dots and Si/Ge layers in an alumina glass matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buljan, M.; Radi?, N.; Sancho-Paramon, J.; Janicki, V.; Grenzer, J.; Bogdanovi?-Radovi?, I.; Siketi?, Z.; Ivanda, M.; Utrobi?i?, A.; Hübner, R.; Weidauer, R.; Valeš, V.; Endres, J.; Car, T.; Jer?inovi?, M.; Roško, J.; Bernstorff, S.; Holy, V.

    2015-02-01

    We report on the formation of Ge/Si quantum dots with core/shell structure that are arranged in a three-dimensional body centered tetragonal quantum dot lattice in an amorphous alumina matrix. The material is prepared by magnetron sputtering deposition of Al2O3/Ge/Si multilayer. The inversion of Ge and Si in the deposition sequence results in the formation of thin Si/Ge layers instead of the dots. Both materials show an atomically sharp interface between the Ge and Si parts of the dots and layers. They have an amorphous internal structure that can be crystallized by an annealing treatment. The light absorption properties of these complex materials are significantly different compared to films that form quantum dot lattices of the pure Ge, Si or a solid solution of GeSi. They show a strong narrow absorption peak that characterizes a type II confinement in accordance with theoretical predictions. The prepared materials are promising for application in quantum dot solar cells.

  16. FA12 Nanoscale Devices & Systems MS Exam Solution 1. For small semiconductor quantum dot structures, the single-electron charging energy can

    E-print Network

    California at San Diego, University of

    effective mass 0 * 5.0 mmp , where m0 is the free electron mass. An infinite potential energy barrier, the single-electron charging energy can become comparable to the quantum confinement energies in the dot for the electrostatic energy required to place a single electron charge onto the quantum dot, as a function of a and m

  17. Dynamical nuclear spin polarization in a double quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramon, Guy; Deng, Changxue; Hu, Xuedong

    2006-03-01

    The hyperfine interaction between an electron spin confined in a semiconductor quantum dot and the nuclear spins in the surrounding lattice has been identified as one of the main sources for decoherence in low temperature GaAs quantum dots. Recent experiments in gated double dot systems [1] have attempted to utilize the degeneracy point between the two-electron singlet and polarized triplet states to polarize the nuclear spins, thereby reducing their decoherence effects on the electron spins. Here we analyze the dynamics of the system of two electrons and a nuclear spin bath subject to the hyperfine interaction. We consider the effective spin Hamiltonian for the two-electron system, and represent the nuclear spins in the basis of their collective states. The nuclear polarization rates are evaluated for various initial conditions of the nuclear spin system, and optimal conditions for efficient polarization are discussed. [1] J. R. Petta, A. C. Johnson, J. M. Taylor, E. A. Laird, A. Yacoby, M. D. Lukin, C. M. Marcus, M. P. Hanson, A. C. Gossard, Science 309, 2180 (2005).

  18. Coherent control of multipartite excitonic entanglement in quantum dot arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolon, Juan E.; Drut, Joaquin E.

    2015-03-01

    We propose a coherent control scheme for multipartite entanglement of exciton states in optically driven quantum dot arrays (QDAs) coupled by charge tunneling and resonant energy transfer (RET) processes. An adiabatic manipulation of the entanglement dynamics is devised by pulse shaping and time-dependent electric field sweeps. By varying the inter-dot distance and number of quantum dots (QDs) comprising the QDA, the excitonic qubit manifolds are obtained by a Feshbach projection over the resulting multilevel exciton configurations. We identify regimes in which the dynamics is confined to decoherence-free excitonic qubit manifolds taking into account spontaneous recombination and non-Markovian effects introduced by a phonon bath. We present results for entanglement monotones and measures such as the entanglement of formation and entanglement entropy for different QDA geometries and carrier injection conditions. Our results indicate that in spite of the effects of phonon-assisted relaxation, entanglement can be optimized and transferred between QDs by the controlled interplay of system geometry, pulse shaping, RET and carrier tunneling.

  19. Two-electron correlations and the acoustoelectric current through a quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giavaras, G.

    2010-02-01

    We examine the two-electron correlations in a surface acoustic wave (SAW)-induced quantum dot moving in a pinched-off channel. For a small SAW amplitude and a narrow channel, singlet and triplet states are quasidegenerate and both contribute to the second plateau of the quantized acoustoelectric current. If SAW dots containing two electrons are driven through a small static dot whose confining potential is tuned by a gate pulse, then due to the Pauli principle, the current displays a fractional plateau.

  20. Efficient Luminescence from Perovskite Quantum Dot Solids.

    PubMed

    Kim, Younghoon; Yassitepe, Emre; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Comin, Riccardo; Walters, Grant; Gong, Xiwen; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Nogueira, Ana F; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-11-18

    Nanocrystals of CsPbX3 perovskites are promising materials for light-emitting optoelectronics because of their colloidal stability, optically tunable bandgap, bright photoluminescence, and excellent photoluminescence quantum yield. Despite their promise, nanocrystal-only films of CsPbX3 perovskites have not yet been fabricated; instead, highly insulating polymers have been relied upon to compensate for nanocrystals' unstable surfaces. We develop solution chemistry that enables single-step casting of perovskite nanocrystal films and overcomes problems in both perovskite quantum dot purification and film fabrication. Centrifugally cast films retain bright photoluminescence and achieve dense and homogeneous morphologies. The new materials offer a platform for optoelectronic applications of perovskite quantum dot solids. PMID:26529572

  1. Longitudinal wave function control in single quantum dots with an applied magnetic field

    E-print Network

    Shuo Cao; Jing Tang; Yunan Gao; Yue Sun; Kangsheng Qiu; Yanhui Zhao; Min He; Jin-An Shi; Lin Gu; David A. Williams; Weidong Sheng; Kuijuan Jin; Xiulai Xu

    2015-01-29

    Controlling single-particle wave functions in single semiconductor quantum dots is in demand to implement solid-state quantum information processing and spintronics. Normally, particle wave functions can be tuned transversely by an perpendicular magnetic field. We report a longitudinal wave function control in single quantum dots with a magnetic field. For a pure InAs quantum dot with a shape of pyramid or truncated pyramid, the hole wave function always occupies the base because of the less confinement at base, which induces a permanent dipole oriented from base to apex. With applying magnetic field along the base-apex direction, the hole wave function shrinks in the base plane. Because of the linear changing of the confinement for hole wave function from base to apex, the center of effective mass moves up during shrinking process. Due to the uniform confine potential for electrons, the center of effective mass of electrons does not move much, which results in a permanent dipole moment change and an inverted electron-hole alignment along the magnetic field direction. Manipulating the wave function longitudinally not only provides an alternative way to control the charge distribution with magnetic field but also a new method to tune electron-hole interaction in single quantum dots.

  2. Recent advances in long wavelength quantum dot based lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramdane, A.; Martinez, A.; Azouigui, S.; Cong, D.-Y.; Merghem, K.; Akrout, A.; Gosset, C.; Moreau, G.; Lelarge, F.; Dagens, B.; Provost, J.-G.; Accard, A.; Le Gouezigou, O.; Krestnikov, I.; Kovsh, A.; Fischer, M.

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents recent progress in the field of semiconductor lasers based on self-assembled quantum dots grown either on GaAs or InP substrates. Quantum dot (QD) based lasers are attracting a lot of interest owing to their remarkable optoelectronic properties that result from the three dimensional carrier confinement. They are indeed expected to exhibit much improved performance than that of quantum well devices. Extremely low threshold currents as well as high temperature stability have readily been demonstrated in the InAs/GaAs material system. The unique properties of quantum dot based active layers such as broad optical gain spectrum, high saturation output power, ultrafast gain dynamics and low loss are also very attractive for the realization of mode-locked lasers. Recent results in the field of directly modulated InAs/GaAs lasers emitting in the 1.3 ?m window are discussed. We report in particular on temperature independent linewidth enhancement factor (or Henry factor ? H) up to 85°C. This is a key parameter which determines many laser dynamic properties. Optical feedback insensitive operation of specifically band-gap engineered devices, compatible with high bit rate isolator-less transmission is also reported at 1.55 ?m. Monolithic mode locked lasers based on InAs/InP quantum dashes have been investigated for 1.55 ?m applications. Subpicosecond pulse generation at very high repetition rates (> 100 GHz) is reported for self-pulsating one-section Fabry Perot devices. Specific applications based on these compact pulse generators including high bit rate clock recovery are discussed.

  3. Local Quantum Dot Tuning on Photonic Crystal Chips

    E-print Network

    Andrei Faraon; Dirk Englund; Ilya Fushman; Nick Stoltz; Pierre Petroff; Jelena Vuckovic

    2007-03-28

    Quantum networks based on InGaAs quantum dots embedded in photonic crystal devices rely on QDs being in resonance with each other and with the cavities they are embedded in. We developed a new technique based on temperature tuning to spectrally align different quantum dots located on the same chip. The technique allows for up to 1.8nm reversible on-chip quantum dot tuning.

  4. Light absorption of cylindrical quantum dot with Morse potential in the presence of parallel electrical and magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayrapetyan, D. B.; Kazaryan, E. M.; Kotanjyan, T. V.; Tevosyan, H. K.

    2015-06-01

    The electronic states and direct interband light absorption are studied in the cylindrical quantum dot with Morse confining potential made of GaAs in the presence of parallel electrical and magnetic fields. Within the framework of perturbation theory and variation method expressions are obtained for the particle energy spectrum. The effect of the external fields on direct interband light absorption of cylindrical quantum dot is investigated. Selection rules are obtained at presence of parallel electrical and magnetic fields. The dependence of the absorption threshold on geometrical parameters of quantum dots and intensities of external fields is obtained.

  5. Charge transport in strongly coupled quantum dot solids.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Cherie R; Murray, Christopher B

    2015-12-01

    The emergence of high-mobility, colloidal semiconductor quantum dot (QD) solids has triggered fundamental studies that map the evolution from carrier hopping through localized quantum-confined states to band-like charge transport in delocalized and hybridized states of strongly coupled QD solids, in analogy with the construction of solids from atoms. Increased coupling in QD solids has led to record-breaking performance in QD devices, such as electronic transistors and circuitry, optoelectronic light-emitting diodes, photovoltaic devices and photodetectors, and thermoelectric devices. Here, we review the advances in synthesis, assembly, ligand treatments and doping that have enabled high-mobility QD solids, as well as the experiments and theory that depict band-like transport in the QD solid state. We also present recent QD devices and discuss future prospects for QD materials and device design. PMID:26551016

  6. Investigation of potential profile effects in quantum dot and onion-like quantum dot-quantum well on optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elyasi, P.; SalmanOgli, A.

    2014-05-01

    This paper investigates GaAs/AlGaAs modified quantum dot nanocrystal and GaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dot-quantum well heteronanocrystal. These quantum dots have been analyzed by the finite element numerical methods. Simulations carried out for state n=1, l=0, and m=0 which are original, orbital, and magnetic state of quantum numbers. The effects of variation in radius layers such as total radius, GaAs core, shell and AlGaAs barriers radius on the wavelength and emission coefficient are studied. For the best time, it has also investigated the effect of mole fraction on emission coefficient. Meanwhile, one of the problems in biological applications is alteration of the emission wavelength of a quantum dot by changing in its dimension. This problem will be resolved by changing in potential profile.

  7. Theory of the Quantum Dot Hybrid Qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, Mark

    2015-03-01

    The quantum dot hybrid qubit, formed from three electrons in two quantum dots, combines the desirable features of charge qubits (fast manipulation) and spin qubits (long coherence times). The hybridized spin and charge states yield a unique energy spectrum with several useful properties, including two different operating regimes that are relatively immune to charge noise due to the presence of optimal working points or ``sweet spots.'' In this talk, I will describe dc and ac-driven gate operations of the quantum dot hybrid qubit. I will analyze improvements in the dephasing that are enabled by the sweet spots, and I will discuss the outlook for quantum hybrid qubits in terms of scalability. This work was supported in part by ARO (W911NF-12-0607), NSF (PHY-1104660), the USDOD, and the Intelligence Community Postdoctoral Research Fellowship Program. The views and conclusions contained in this presentation are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as representing the official policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of the US government.

  8. Quantum-dot-induced phase shift in a pillar microcavity

    SciTech Connect

    Young, A. B.; Hu, C. Y.; Rarity, J. G.; Oulton, R.; Thijssen, A. C. T.; Schneider, C.; Reitzenstein, S.; Kamp, M.; Hoefling, S.; Worschech, L.; Forchel, A.

    2011-07-15

    We perform high-resolution reflection spectroscopy of a quantum dot resonantly coupled to a pillar microcavity. We show the change in reflectivity as the quantum dot is tuned through the cavity resonance and measure the quantum-dot-induced phase shift using an ultrastable interferometer. The macroscopic phase shift we measure could be extended to the study of charged quantum dot pillar microcavity systems, where it could be exploited to realize a high-efficiency spin photon interface for hybrid quantum information schemes.

  9. Physica E 34 (2006) 500503 Tuning of tunneling rates in quantum dots using a quantum

    E-print Network

    Hohls, Frank

    2006-01-01

    a quantum point contact (QPC) to detect charging events on the dot. Since the mean charge dependsPhysica E 34 (2006) 500­503 Tuning of tunneling rates in quantum dots using a quantum point contact the influence of asymmetric tunneling rates of a lateral quantum dot connected to source and drain leads. We use

  10. Theory of dynamic nuclear polarization and feedback in quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Economou, Sophia E.; Barnes, Edwin

    2014-04-01

    An electron confined in a quantum dot interacts with its local nuclear spin environment through the hyperfine contact interaction. This interaction combined with external control and relaxation or measurement of the electron spin allows for the generation of dynamic nuclear polarization. The quantum nature of the nuclear bath, along with the interplay of coherent external fields and incoherent dynamics in these systems renders a wealth of intriguing phenomena seen in recent experiments such as electron Zeeman frequency focusing, hysteresis, and line dragging. We develop in detail a fully quantum, self-consistent theory that can be applied to such experiments and that moreover has predictive power. Our theory uses the operator sum representation formalism in order to incorporate the incoherent dynamics caused by the additional, Markovian bath, which in self-assembled dots is the vacuum field responsible for electron-hole optical recombination. The beauty of this formalism is that it reduces the complexity of the problem by encoding the joint dynamics of the external coherent and incoherent driving in an effective dynamical map that only acts on the electron spin subspace. This, together with the separation of time scales in the problem, allows for a tractable and analytically solvable formalism. The key role of entanglement between the electron spin and the nuclear spins in the formation of dynamic nuclear polarization naturally follows from our solution. We demonstrate the theory in detail for an optical pulsed experiment and present an in-depth discussion and physical explanation of our results.

  11. The electron Raman scattering in the spherical parabolic quantum dot in the present of magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaiee, S. H.; Askari, H. R.; Rahimi, M.; Fatemidokht, A.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the electron Raman scattering in a spherical quantum dot with parabolic confinement and in presence of uniform magnetic field. By solving the Schrödinger equation in effective mass and envelope function approximations, eigen-functions and eigen-energies and laws of transitions are acquired. By using eigen-functions and eigen-energies, the differential cross-section (DCS) of electron Raman scattering (ERS) is obtained. DCS is plotted a function of scattering frequency, for different transitions, emission light polarization and sizes of quantum dot.

  12. Interband optical transition energy and oscillator strength in a lead based CdSe quantum dot quantum well heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanamoorthy, S. N.; Peter, A. John

    2015-06-01

    Binding energies of the exciton and the interband optical transition energies are studied in a CdSe/Pb1-xCdxSe/CdSe spherical quantum dot-quantum well nanostructure taking into account the geometrical confinement effect. The core and shell are taken as the same material. The initial and final states of energy and the overlap integrals of electron and hole wave functions are determined by the oscillator strength. The oscillator strength and the radiative transition life time with the dot radius are investigated for various Cd alloy content in the core and shell materials.

  13. Micro-Photoluminescence Characterization of Low Density Droplet GaAs Quantum Dots for Single Photon Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, S.-K.; Song, J. D.; Lim, J. Y.; Choi, W. J.; Han, I. K.; Lee, J. I.; Bounouar, S.; Donatini, F.; Dang, L. S.; Poizat, J. P.

    2011-12-23

    The GaAs quantum dots in AlGaAs barriers were grown by droplet epitaxy, emitting around 700 nm in wavelength which is compatible with low cost Si based detectors. The excitation power dependent and time resolved micro-photoluminescence measurements identified optical characteristics of exciton and biexciton states which are attributed to good quantum confinements in GaAs QDs.

  14. Quantum dot/glycol chitosan fluorescent nanoconjugates.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Alexandra Ap; Mansur, Herman S

    2015-01-01

    In this study, novel carbohydrate-based nanoconjugates combining chemically modified chitosan with semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) were designed and synthesised via single-step aqueous route at room temperature. Glycol chitosan (G-CHI) was used as the capping ligand aiming to improve the water solubility of the nanoconjugates to produce stable and biocompatible colloidal systems. UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to characterise the synthesis and the relative stability of biopolymer-capped semiconductor nanocrystals. The results clearly demonstrated that the glycol chitosan derivative was remarkably effective at nucleating and stabilising semiconductor CdS quantum dots in aqueous suspensions under acidic, neutral, and alkaline media with an average size of approximately 2.5 nm and a fluorescent activity in the visible range of the spectra. PMID:25897312

  15. Wigner crystalline edges in ?<~1 quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldmann, Eyal; Renn, Scot R.

    1999-12-01

    We investigate the edge reconstruction phenomenon believed to occur in quantum dots in the quantum Hall regime when the filling fraction is ?<~1. Our approach involves the examination of large dots (<= 40 electrons) using a partial diagonalization technique in which the occupancies of the deep interior orbitals are frozen. To interpret the results of this calculation, we evaluate the overlap between the diagonalized ground state and a set of trial wave functions which we call projected necklace (PN) states. A PN state is simply the angular momentum projection of a maximum density droplet surrounded by a ring of localized electrons. Our calculations reveal that PN states have up to 99% overlap with the diagonalized ground states, and are lower in energy than the states identified in Chamon and Wen's study of the edge reconstruction.

  16. Microwave response of a ballistic quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvon, Z. D.; Gusev, G. M.; Levin, A. D.; Kozlov, D. A.; Rodyakina, E. E.; Latyshev, A. V.

    2014-02-01

    The microwave response (photovoltage and photoconductance) of a lateral ballistic quantum dot made of a high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas in an AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction has been studied experimentally in the frequency range of 110-170 GHz. It has been found that the asymmetry of the photovoltage with respect to the sign of the magnetic field has mesoscopic character and depends on both the magnetic field and the microwave power. This indicates the violation of the Onsager reciprocity relations regarding the electron-electron interactions in the mesoscopic photovoltaic effect. A strong increase in the conductance of the quantum dot induced by the microwave radiation and unrelated to heating, as well as the microwave-induced magneto-oscillations, has been discovered.

  17. Quantum dot/glycol chitosan fluorescent nanoconjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansur, Alexandra AP; Mansur, Herman S.

    2015-04-01

    In this study, novel carbohydrate-based nanoconjugates combining chemically modified chitosan with semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) were designed and synthesised via single-step aqueous route at room temperature. Glycol chitosan (G-CHI) was used as the capping ligand aiming to improve the water solubility of the nanoconjugates to produce stable and biocompatible colloidal systems. UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to characterise the synthesis and the relative stability of biopolymer-capped semiconductor nanocrystals. The results clearly demonstrated that the glycol chitosan derivative was remarkably effective at nucleating and stabilising semiconductor CdS quantum dots in aqueous suspensions under acidic, neutral, and alkaline media with an average size of approximately 2.5 nm and a fluorescent activity in the visible range of the spectra.

  18. Light-Emitting Quantum Dot Transistors: Emission at High Charge Carrier Densities

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    For the application of colloidal semiconductor quantum dots in optoelectronic devices, for example, solar cells and light-emitting diodes, it is crucial to understand and control their charge transport and recombination dynamics at high carrier densities. Both can be studied in ambipolar, light-emitting field-effect transistors (LEFETs). Here, we report the first quantum dot light-emitting transistor. Electrolyte-gated PbS quantum dot LEFETs exhibit near-infrared electroluminescence from a confined region within the channel, which proves true ambipolar transport in ligand-exchanged quantum dot solids. Unexpectedly, the external quantum efficiencies improve significantly with current density. This effect correlates with the unusual increase of photoluminescence quantum yield and longer average lifetimes at higher electron and hole concentrations in PbS quantum dot thin films. We attribute the initially low emission efficiencies to nonradiative losses through trap states. At higher carrier densities, these trap states are deactivated and emission is dominated by trions. PMID:25652433

  19. Floquet Majorana fermions in superconducting quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benito, Mónica; Platero, Gloria

    2015-11-01

    We consider different configurations of ac driven quantum dots coupled to superconductor leads where Majorana fermions can exist as collective quasiparticles. The main goal is to tune the existence, localization and properties of these zero energy quasiparticles by means of periodically driven external gates. In particular, we analyze the relevance of the system and driving symmetry. We predict the existence of different sweet spots with Floquet Majorana fermions in configurations where they are not present in the undriven system.

  20. Quantum Dots: Electrochemiluminescent and Photoelectrochemical Bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei-Wei; Wang, Jing; Zhu, Yuan-Cheng; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2015-10-01

    In this Feature, electrochemiluminescent (ECL) and photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties and mechanisms of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are reviewed, with emphasis on their specific fundamentals and concise comparison on their similarities and differences. With recent illustrative examples of bioanalytical applications, the main signaling strategies for QDs-based ECL and PEC bioanalysis are then highlighted. The future prospects in this field are also discussed. PMID:26023706

  1. Electrical properties of semiconductor quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Kharlamov, V. F. Korostelev, D. A.; Bogoraz, I. G.; Milovidova, O. A.; Sergeyev, V. O.

    2013-04-15

    A method, which makes it possible to obtain semiconductor particles V Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -20} cm{sup 3} in volume (quantum dots) with a concentration of up to 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2} and electrical contacts to each of them, is suggested. High variability in the electrical properties of such particles from a metal oxide (CuO or NiO) after the chemisorption of gas molecules is found.

  2. Intrinsic broadening of the energy levels of Dirac electrons in quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, E.; Jafari, S. A.

    2015-04-01

    We theoretically study the quasi bound state of Dirac electrons in cylindrically symmetric quantum dots with sharp boundary. According to the existing picture, due to Klein tunneling “relativistic electrons” can not be localized by any confinement potential. We show however that despite of Klein tunneling, interference effects can cause the trapping of electron in quantum dots. Considering the quasi bound state as the state with complex energy, to find the energy of this state we solve the wave-equation with outgoing boundary condition at infinity. The imaginary part of complex energy determines the trapping time of electron within the quantum dot. We show that for any finite confining potential corresponding to any set of quantum numbers (n, m) where n is the principal quantum number and m the magnetic quantum number, there exists a continuous band of states with finite life time. Upper and lower edges of each band corresponds to infinitely long lived states trapped inside and outside the wall of the same radius. We term this phenomenon the intrinsic broadening as it is not caused by scattering from any external potential, nor by many-body effects. This broadening appears to arise from a combination of relativistic and interference effects. The imaginary part of energy which is different for energies along the energy band is controlled by the orbital angular momentum of electron and the depth of the confining potential.

  3. Multiplexed quantum cryptography with single InP quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aichele, Thomas; Zwiller, Valery; Scholz, Matthias; Reinaudi, Gael; Persson, Jonas; Benson, Oliver

    2005-04-01

    High-efficient single-photon sources are important for fundamental experiments as well as for modern applications in the field of quantum information processing. Therefore, both the overall collection efficiency as well as the photon generation rate are important parameters. In this article, we use cascaded two-photon emission from a single quantum dot in order to double the efficient transmission rate in a quantum key distribution protocol by multiplexing on a single photon level. The energetically non-degenerate photons are separated with a single photon add/drop filter based on a Michelson interferometer. For optimizing the collection efficiency, coupling of quantum emitters to microcavities is advantageous. We also describe preliminary results towards coupling of a single quantum dot grown on a micrometer-sized tip to the whispering gallery modes of a microsphere cavity.

  4. Probing the quantum-classical connection with open quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferry, D. K.; Akis, R.; Brunner, R.

    2015-10-01

    Open quantum dots provide a natural system in which to study both classical and quantum features of transport. From the classical point of view these dots possess a mixed phase space which yields families of closed, regular orbits as well as an expansive sea of chaos. As a closed test bed, they provide a natural system with a very rich set of eigen-states. When coupled to the environment through a pair of quantum point contacts, each of which passes several modes, the original quantum environment evolves into a set of decoherent and coherent states, which eventually couple to the classical states discussed above. The manner of this connection is governed strongly by decoherence theory. The remaining coherent states possess all the properties of pointer states. Here, we discuss the quantum-classical connection and how it appears within the experimental world.

  5. Ultrasmall silicon quantum dots F. A. Zwanenburg,1,a

    E-print Network

    Ultrasmall silicon quantum dots F. A. Zwanenburg,1,a A. A. van Loon,1 G. A. Steele,1 C. E. W. M single quantum dots in p-type silicon nanowires, defined by Schottky tunnel barriers with Ni and Ni.1063/1.3155854 I. INTRODUCTION The observation of quantum states in silicon devices re- quires small structures

  6. In-plane polarization anisotropy of ground state optical intensity in InAs/GaAs quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usman, Muhammad

    2011-11-01

    The design of optical devices such as lasers and semiconductor optical amplifiers for telecommunication applications requires polarization insensitive optical emissions in the region of 1500 nm. Recent experimental measurements of the optical properties of stacked quantum dots have demonstrated that this can be achieved via exploitation of inter-dot strain interactions. In particular, the relatively large aspect ratio (AR) of quantum dots in the optically active layers of such stacks provide a two-fold advantage, both by inducing a red shift of the gap wavelength above 1300 nm, and increasing the TM001-mode, thereby decreasing the anisotropy of the polarization response. However, in large aspect ratio quantum dots (AR > 0.25), the hole confinement is significantly modified compared with that in lower AR dots—this modified confinement is manifest in the interfacial confinement of holes in the system. Since the contributions to the ground state optical intensity (GSOI) are dominated by lower-lying valence states, we therefore propose that the room temperature GSOI be a cumulative sum of optical transitions from multiple valence states. This then extends previous theoretical studies of flat (low AR) quantum dots, in which contributions arising only from the highest valence state or optical transitions between individual valence states were considered. The interfacial hole distributions also increases in-plane anisotropy in tall (high AR) quantum dots (TE110 ? TE-110), an effect that has not been previously observed in flat quantum dots. Thus, a directional degree of polarization (DOP) should be measured (or calculated) to fully characterize the polarization response of quantum dot stacks. Previous theoretical and experimental studies have considered only a single value of DOP: either [110] or [-110].

  7. Role of Surface Termination on Hot Electron Relaxation in Silicon Quantum Dots: A First-Principles Dynamics Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Kyle G; Schleife, André; Correa, Alfredo A; Kanai, Yosuke

    2015-10-14

    The role of surface termination on phonon-mediated relaxation of an excited electron in quantum dots was investigated using first-principles simulations. The surface terminations of a silicon quantum dot with hydrogen and fluorine atoms lead to distinctively different relaxation behaviors, and the fluorine termination shows a nontrivial relaxation process. The quantum confined electronic states are significantly affected by the surface of the quantum dot, and we find that a particular electronic state dictates the relaxation behavior through its infrequent coupling to neighboring electronic states. Dynamical fluctuation of this electronic state results in a slow shuttling behavior within the manifold of unoccupied electronic states, controlling the overall dynamics of the excited electron with its characteristic frequency of this shuttling behavior. The present work revealed a unique role of surface termination, dictating the hot electron relaxation process in quantum-confined systems in the way that has not been considered previously. PMID:26331672

  8. Deposition of colloidal quantum dots by microcontact printing for LED display technology

    E-print Network

    Kim, LeeAnn

    2006-01-01

    This thesis demonstrates a new deposition method of colloidal quantum dots within a quantum dot organic light-emitting diode (QD-LED). A monolayer of quantum dots is microcontact printed as small as 20 ,Lm lines as well ...

  9. Relaxation dynamics in correlated quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Andergassen, S.; Schuricht, D.; Pletyukhov, M.; Schoeller, H.

    2014-12-04

    We study quantum many-body effects on the real-time evolution of the current through quantum dots. By using a non-equilibrium renormalization group approach, we provide analytic results for the relaxation dynamics into the stationary state and identify the microscopic cutoff scales that determine the transport rates. We find rich non-equilibrium physics induced by the interplay of the different energy scales. While the short-time limit is governed by universal dynamics, the long-time behavior features characteristic oscillations as well as an interplay of exponential and power-law decay.

  10. Surface distortion effects on quantum dot helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Encinosa, Mario; Etemadi, Babak

    1999-06-01

    The Schrödinger equation for a quantum mechanical particle constrained to a surface includes a potential term dependent on surface curvature. We use differential forms to derive this term and employ Monge representations for two surfaces to obtain specific expressions for the potential. We calculate the first order perturbative effect of this potential on the ground state energy of model quantum dot helium. We find that the energy shift can be sensitive to the detailed shape of the surface distortion. This dependence arises from the Coulomb repulsion between the electron pair, which causes each electron to preferentially sample (or not sample) regions where physical curvature leads to comparatively large values of the distortion potential.

  11. Imaging ligand-gated ion channels with quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomlinson, I. D.; Orndorff, Rebecca L.; Gussin, Hélène; Mason, John N.; Blakely, Randy D.; Pepperberg, David R.; Rosenthal, Sandra J.

    2007-02-01

    In this paper we report two different methodologies for labeling ligand-gated receptors. The first of these builds upon our earlier work with serotonin conjugated quantum dots and our studies with pegilated quantum dots to reduce non specific binding. In this approach a pegilated derivative of muscimol was synthesized and attached via an amide linkage to quantum dots coated in an amphiphillic polymer derivative of poly acrylamide. These conjugates were used to image the GABA C receptor in oocytes. An alternative approach was used to image tissue sections to study nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the neuro muscular junction with biotinylated Bungerotoxin and streptavidin coated quantum dots.

  12. Three-dimensional topological insulator quantum dot for optically controlled quantum memory and quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudel, Hari P.; Leuenberger, Michael N.

    2013-08-01

    We present the model of a quantum dot (QD) consisting of a spherical core-bulk heterostructure made of three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator (TI) materials, such as PbTe/Pb0.31Sn0.69Te, with bound massless and helical Weyl states existing at the interface and being confined in all three dimensions. The number of bound states can be controlled by tuning the size of the QD and the magnitude of the core and bulk energy gaps, which determine the confining potential. We demonstrate that such bound Weyl states can be realized for QD sizes of few nanometers. We identify the spin locking and the Kramers pairs, both hallmarks of 3D TIs. In contrast to topologically trivial semiconductor QDs, the confined massless Weyl states in 3D TI QDs are localized at the interface of the QD and exhibit a mirror symmetry in the energy spectrum. We find strict optical selection rules satisfied by both interband and intraband transitions that depend on the polarization of electron-hole pairs and therefore give rise to the Faraday effect due to the Pauli exclusion principle. We show that the semiclassical Faraday effect can be used to read out spin quantum memory. When a 3D TI QD is embedded inside a cavity, the single-photon Faraday rotation provides the possibility to implement optically mediated quantum teleportation and quantum information processing with 3D TI QDs, where the qubit is defined by either an electron-hole pair, a single electron spin, or a single hole spin in a 3D TI QD. Remarkably, the combination of interband and intraband transition gives rise to a large dipole moment of up to 450 Debye. Therefore, the strong-coupling regime can be reached for a cavity quality factor of Q?104 in the infrared wavelength regime of around 10?m.

  13. Enhanced performance of quantum dot solar cells based on type II quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Feng; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Luo, Shuai; Lv, Zun-Ren; Yang, Tao

    2014-10-07

    The characteristics of quantum dot solar cells (QDSCs) based on type II QDs are investigated theoretically. Based on a drift-diffusion model, we obtained a much higher open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) as well as conversion efficiency in a type II QDSC, compared to type I QDSCs. The improved V{sub oc} and efficiency are mainly attributed to the much longer Auger recombination lifetime in type II QDs. Moreover, the influence of the carrier lifetime on devices' performance is discussed and clarified. In addition, an explicit criterion to determine the role of quantum dots in solar cells is put forward.

  14. Nanoscale patterning of colloidal quantum dots for surface plasmon generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yeonsang; Roh, Young-Geun; Kim, Un Jeong; Chung, Dae-Young; Suh, Hwansoo; Kim, Jineun; Cheon, Sangmo; Lee, Jaesoong; Kim, Tae-Ho; Cho, Kyung-Sang; Lee, Chang-Won

    2013-03-01

    The patterning of colloidal quantum dots with nanometer resolution is essential for their application in photonics and plasmonics. Several patterning approaches, such as the use of polymer composites, molecular lock-and-key methods, inkjet printing, and microcontact printing of quantum dots, have limits in fabrication resolution, positioning and the variation of structural shapes. Herein, we present an adaptation of a conventional liftoff method for patterning colloidal quantum dots. This simple method is easy and requires no complicated processes. Using this method, we formed straight lines, rings, and dot patterns of colloidal quantum dots on metallic substrates. Notably, patterned lines approximately 10 nm wide were fabricated. The patterned structures display high resolution, accurate positioning, and well-defined sidewall profiles. To demonstrate the applicability of our method, we present a surface plasmon generator elaborated from quantum dots.

  15. Optical Studies of Zero-Field Magnetization of CdMnTe Quantum Dots: Influence of Average Size and Composition of Quantum Dots

    E-print Network

    T. Gurung; S. Mackowski; H. E. Jackson; L. M. Smith; W. Heiss; J. Kossut; G. Karczewski

    2004-08-30

    We show that through the resonant optical excitation of spin-polarized excitons into CdMnTe magnetic quantum dots, we can induce a macroscopic magnetization of the Mn impurities. We observe very broad (4 meV linewidth) emission lines of single dots, which are consistent with the formation of strongly confined exciton magnetic polarons. Therefore we attribute the optically induced magnetization of the magnetic dots results to the formation of spin-polarized exciton magnetic polarons. We find that the photo-induced magnetization of magnetic polarons is weaker for larger dots which emit at lower energies within the QD distribution. We also show that the photo-induced magnetization is stronger for quantum dots with lower Mn concentration, which we ascribe to weaker Mn-Mn interaction between the nearest neighbors within the dots. Due to particular stability of the exciton magnetic polarons in QDs, where the localization of the electrons and holes is comparable to the magnetic exchange interaction, this optically induced spin alignment persists to temperatures as high as 160 K.

  16. Solution-based synthesis of high yield CZTS (Cu2ZnSnS4) spherical quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, G.; Muthukumarasamy, N.; Subramanian, E. P.; Venkatraman, M. R.; Agilan, S.; Ragavendran, V.; Thambidurai, M.; Velumani, S.; Yi, Junsin; Velauthapillai, Dhayalan

    2015-01-01

    High yield CZTS quantum dots have been synthesized using simple precursors by chemical precipitation technique. Formation mechanism of CZTS spherical quantum dots also has been investigated. According to the mechanism, copper sulfide nuclei firstly forms, and serves as the starting point for the nucleation and growth of CZTS. X-ray diffraction pattern, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and Raman spectra reveals the formation of pure kesterite structure Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticles. HRTEM analysis reveals the formation of CZTS quantum dots with an average particle size of ?8.3 nm. The elemental distribution of CZTS quantum dots studied using STEM elemental mapping reveals that Cu, Zn, Sn and S are present in the sample. The photoluminescence spectra of CZTS exhibit a broad red emission band at 657 nm. The optical band gap is shifted to the higher energy side and it shows the presence of quantum confinement effect.

  17. Implementation of Kohn's theorem for the ellipsoidal quantum dot in the presence of external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayrapetyan, D. B.; Kazaryan, E. M.; Sarkisyan, H. A.

    2016-01-01

    An electron gas in a strongly oblated ellipsoidal quantum dot with impenetrable walls in the presence of external magnetic field is considered. Influence of the walls of the quantum dot is assumed to be so strong in the direction of the minor axis (the OZ axis) that the Coulomb interaction between electrons in this direction can be neglected and considered as two-dimensional. On the basis of geometric adiabaticity we show that in the case of a few-particle gas a powerful repulsive potential of the quantum dot walls has a parabolic form and localizes the gas in the geometric center of the structure. Due to this fact, conditions occur to implement the generalized Kohn theorem for this system. The parabolic confinement potential depends on the geometry of the ellipsoid, which allows, together with the magnetic field to control resonance frequencies of transitions by changing the geometric dimensions of the QD.

  18. POSSIBLE DEFINTION OF QUANTUM BITS IN COUPLED QUANTUM DOTS

    E-print Network

    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München

    by applying transport spectroscopy at ultra low temperatures. We determine the strength of this tunnel coupled quantum dot ­ coupled to leads by tunneling barriers. Due to the ultra small capacitance the Coulomb be operated at temperatures of some 10 mK [1], but by now operation of metallic SETs at temperatures up to 100

  19. Mobile potential dots in GaAs quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stotz, J. A. H.; Sogawa, T.; Alsina, F.; Hey, H.; Santos, P. V.

    2005-06-01

    Confined and mobile potential dots (dynamic dots, DDs) are created using two orthogonally propagating surface-acoustic-wave beams. Using spatially and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements, the compressive and tensile strain fields at the DD centers have been imaged by analyzing the polarization-dependent luminescence from charge carriers transported by the DDs.

  20. Production and Targeting of Monovalent Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Southard, Kade; Jun, Young-wook; Gartner, Zev J.

    2014-01-01

    The multivalent nature of commercial quantum dots (QDs) and the difficulties associated with producing monovalent dots have limited their applications in biology, where clustering and the spatial organization of biomolecules is often the object of study. We describe here a protocol to produce monovalent quantum dots (mQDs) that can be accomplished in most biological research laboratories via a simple mixing of CdSe/ZnS core/shell QDs with phosphorothioate DNA (ptDNA) of defined length. After a single ptDNA strand has wrapped the QD, additional strands are excluded from the surface. Production of mQDs in this manner can be accomplished at small and large scale, with commercial reagents, and in minimal steps. These mQDs can be specifically directed to biological targets by hybridization to a complementary single stranded targeting DNA. We demonstrate the use of these mQDs as imaging probes by labeling SNAP-tagged Notch receptors on live mammalian cells, targeted by mQDs bearing a benzylguanine moiety. PMID:25407345

  1. Multiple stack quantum dot infrared photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vines, P.; Tan, C. H.; David, J. P. R.; Attaluri, R. S.; Vandervelde, T. E.; Krishna, S.

    2008-10-01

    Quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIP) have established themselves as promising devices for detecting infrared (IR) radiation for wavelengths <20?m due to their sensitivity to normal incidence radiation and long excited carrier lifetimes. A limiting factor of QDIPs at present is their relatively small absorption volume, leading to a lower quantum efficiency and detectivity than in quantum well infrared photodetectors and mercury cadmium telluride based detectors. One means of increasing the absorption volume is to incorporate a greater number of quantum dot (QD) stacks, thereby increasing the probability of photon capture. Growth of InAs/InGaAs dot-in-a-well (DWELL) QDIPs with greater than 10 stacks is challenging due to the increased strain between layers, leading to high dark current. It is known that strain can be reduced in QDIPs by reducing the width of the InGaAs well and incorporating a second well consisting of GaAs and barriers consisting of AlGaAs. A number of InAs/InGaAs/GaAs DWELL QDIPs with 30-80 stacks have been grown, fabricated and characterised. Dark current in these layers appears to be constant at given electric field, suggesting strain does not increase significantly if the number of QD stacks is increased. IR spectral measurements show well defined peaks at 5.5?m, 6.5?m and 8.4?m. In this work a comparison between dark current, noise, gain, responsivity and detectivity in these layers is presented and compared to existing data from conventional DWELL QDIPs.

  2. Energy levels of bilayer graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, D. R.; Zarenia, M.; Chaves, Andrey; Farias, G. A.; Peeters, F. M.

    2015-09-01

    Within a tight binding approach we investigate the energy levels of hexagonal and triangular bilayer graphene (BLG) quantum dots (QDs) with zigzag and armchair edges. We study AA- and AB- (Bernal) stacked BLG QDs and obtain the energy levels in both the absence and the presence of a perpendicular electric field (i.e., biased BLG QDs). Our results show that the size dependence of the energy levels is different from that of monolayer graphene QDs. The energy spectrum of AB-stacked BLG QDs with zigzag edges exhibits edge states which spread out into the opened energy gap in the presence of a perpendicular electric field. We found that the behavior of these edges states is different for the hexagonal and triangular geometries. In the case of AA-stacked BLG QDs, the electron and hole energy levels cross each other in both cases of armchair and zigzag edges as the dot size or the applied bias increases.

  3. Measurement Back-Action in Stacked Graphene Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, D; Eich, M; Zilberberg, O; Rössler, C; Ihn, T; Ensslin, K

    2015-09-01

    We present an electronic transport experiment in graphene where both classical and quantum mechanical charge detector back-action on a quantum dot are investigated. The device consists of two stacked graphene quantum dots separated by a thin layer of boron nitride. This device is fabricated by van der Waals stacking and is equipped with separate source and drain contacts to both dots. By applying a finite bias to one quantum dot, a current is induced in the other unbiased dot. We present an explanation of the observed measurement-induced current based on strong capacitive coupling and energy dependent tunneling barriers, breaking the spatial symmetry in the unbiased system. This is a special feature of graphene-based quantum devices. The experimental observation of transport in classically forbidden regimes is understood by considering higher-order quantum mechanical back-action mechanisms. PMID:26280388

  4. Fundamental mechanisms of the dependence of spin states on exchange correlations in quantum dots: Feynman path integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevkunov, S. V.

    2015-08-01

    The effect of permutation symmetry of nonrelativistic electron wave functions in quantum dots on the spatial correlations, energy, and distribution over the spin states is investigated. The quantitative analysis is based on ab initio calculations using the technique of Feynman path integrals of entangled quantum states in model spherically symmetrical quantum dots with the parabolic confining field. In the computer simulation, the quantum-mechanical indistinguishability and spin variable are exactly taken into account. It is demonstrated that the detailed description of the high-order spatial correlations plays a key role in the correct calculation of the equilibrium spin number and energy values.

  5. Polarization-insensitive quantum-dot coupled quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lirong; Yu, Yi; Tian, Peng; Huang, Dexiu

    2009-01-01

    The optical gain of a quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifier is usually seriously dependent on polarization; we propose a quantum-dot coupled tensile-strained quantum-well structure to obtain polarization insensitivity. The tensile-strained quantum well not only serves as a carrier injection layer of quantum dots but also offers gain to the transverse-magnetic mode. Based on the polarization-dependent coupled carrier rate-equation model, we study carrier competition among quantum well and quantum dots, and study the polarization dependence of the quantum-dot coupled quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier. We also analyze polarization-dependent photon-mediated carrier distribution among quantum well and quantum dots. It is shown that polarization-insensitive gain can be realized by optimal design.

  6. Long-wavelength infrared quantum-dot based interband photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, O.; Berggren, J.; Ekenberg, U.; Hallén, A.; Hammar, M.; Höglund, L.; Karim, A.; Noharet, B.; Wang, Q.; Gromov, A.; Almqvist, S.; Zhang, A.; Junique, S.; Andersson, J. Y.; Asplund, C.; Marcks von Würtemberg, R.; Malm, H.; Martijn, H.

    2011-05-01

    We report on the design and fabrication of (Al)GaAs(Sb)/InAs tensile strained quantum-dot (QD) based detector material for thermal infrared imaging applications in the long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) regime. The detection is based on transitions between confined dot states and continuum states in a type-II band lineup, and we therefore refer to it as a dot-to-bulk (D2B) infrared photodetector with expected benefits including long carrier lifetime due to the type-II band alignment, suppressed Shockley-Read-Hall generation-recombination due to the relatively large-bandgap matrix material, inhibited Auger recombination processes due to the tensile strain and epitaxial simplicity. Metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy was used to grow multiple (Al)GaAs(Sb) QD layers on InAs substrates at different QD nominal thicknesses, compositions, doping conditions and multilayer periods, and the material was characterized using atomic force and transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared absorption spectroscopy. Dot densities up to 1 × 10 11 cm -2, 1 × 10 12 cm -2 and 3 × 10 10 cm -2 were measured for GaAs, AlGaAs and GaAsSb QDs, respectively. Strong absorption in GaAs, AlGaAs and GaAsSb multilayer QD samples was observed in the wavelength range 6-12 ?m. From the wavelength shift in the spectral absorption for samples with varying QD thickness and composition it is believed that the absorption is due to an intra- valance band transition. From this it is possible to estimate the type-II interband transition wavelength, thereby suggesting that (Al)GaAs(Sb) QD/InAs heterostructures are suitable candidates for LWIR detection and imaging.

  7. Hole spin anisotropy in single Mn-doped quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léger, Y.; Besombes, L.; Maingault, L.; Ferrand, D.; Mariette, H.

    2005-12-01

    The anisotropy in the exchange interaction between a single magnetic atom and a single exciton confined in a quantum dot (QD) is revealed experimentally. In a transverse magnetic field we directly observe the orientation of the magnetic ion spin along the resultant direction of the external magnetic field and the hole exchange field. With an increasing transverse magnetic field, this orientation progressively cancels the exchange interaction with the hole and at a high field the fine structure is mainly controlled by the electron-Mn coupling. At intermediate fields, we observe emission replicas caused by multiple spin flips within the Zeeman split ground state of a single Mn. All these features are well modeled by the magnetic field dependence of the stationary states of a single Mn spin in the exchange field of a heavy-hole exciton.

  8. PREFACE: Quantum dots as probes in biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieplak, Marek

    2013-05-01

    The recent availability of nanostructured materials has resulted in an explosion of research focused on their unique optical, thermal, mechanical and magnetic properties. Optical imagining, magnetic enhancement of contrast and drug delivery capabilities make the nanoparticles of special interest in biomedical applications. These materials have been involved in the development of theranostics—a new field of medicine that is focused on personalized tests and treatment. It is likely that multimodal nanomaterials will be responsible for future diagnostic advances in medicine. Quantum dots (QD) are nanoparticles which exhibit luminescence either through the formation of three-dimensional excitons or excitations of the impurities. The excitonic luminescence can be tuned by changing the size (the smaller the size, the higher the frequency). QDs are usually made of semiconducting materials. Unlike fluorescent proteins and organic dyes, QDs resist photobleaching, allow for multi-wavelength excitations and have narrow emission spectra. The techniques to make QDs are cheap and surface modifications and functionalizations can be implemented. Importantly, QDs could be synthesized to exhibit useful optomagnetic properties and, upon functionalization with an appropriate biomolecule, directed towards a pre-selected target for diagnostic imaging and photodynamic therapy. This special issue on Quantum dots in Biology is focused on recent research in this area. It starts with a topical review by Sreenivasan et al on various physical mechanisms that lead to the QD luminescence and on using wavelength shifts for an improvement in imaging. The next paper by Szczepaniak et al discusses nanohybrids involving QDs made of CdSe coated by ZnS and combined covalently with a photosynthetic enzyme. These nanohybrids are shown to maintain the enzymatic activity, however the enzyme properties depend on the size of a QD. They are proposed as tools to study photosynthesis in isolated photosynthetic systems. The next paper, by Olejnik et al, discussed metallic QDs which enhance photosynthetic function in light-harvesting biomolecular complexes. Such hybrid structures with gold QDs are shown to exhibit a strong increase in the fluorescence quantum yield. The next two papers, by Sikora et al and Kaminska et al deal with the ZnO nanoparticles passivated by MgO. In the first of these two papers, the authors describe the behavior of ZnO/MgO when introduced to human cancer cells. In the second, the authors describe the QDs with an extra outer layer of Fe2O3 which makes the nanoparticles superparamagnetic and also capable of generation of reactive oxygen species which could be applied to form localized centers of toxicity for cancer treatment. Finally, in the last paper by Yatsunenko et al, the authors discuss several semiconducting QDs like ZnO with various rare-earth dopands. They propose a microwave-driven hydrothermal technology to make them, characterize their luminescence and demonstrate their usefulness in the early recognition of cancer tissues. Quantum dots as probes in biology contents Quantum dots as probes in biologyMarek Cieplak Luminescent nanoparticles and their applications in the life sciencesVarun K A Sreenivasan, Andrei V Zvyagin and Ewa M Goldys Ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase in junction with CdSe/ZnS quantum dots: characteristics of an enzymatically active nanohybrid Krzysztof Szczepaniak, Remigiusz Worch and Joanna Grzyb Spectroscopic studies of plasmon coupling between photosynthetic complexes and metallic quantum dotsMaria Olejnik, Bartosz Krajnik, Dorota Kowalska, Guanhua Lin and Sebastian Mackowski Luminescence of colloidal ZnO nanoparticles synthesized in alcohols and biological application of ZnO passivated by MgOBo?ena Sikora, Krzysztof Fronc, Izabela Kami?ska, Kamil Koper, Piotr St?pie? and Danek Elbaum Novel ZnO/MgO/Fe2O3 composite optomagnetic nanoparticles I Kami?ska, B Sikora, K Fronc, P Dziawa, K Sobczak, R Minikayev, W Paszkowicz and D Elbaum Impact of yttria stabilization on Tb3+ intra-shell luminescence efficiency in

  9. Controlling quantum dot energies using submonolayer bandstructure engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, L.; Law, S.; Wasserman, D.; Jung, D.; Lee, M. L.; Shen, J.; Cha, J. J.

    2014-08-25

    We demonstrate control of energy states in epitaxially-grown quantum dot structures formed by stacked submonolayer InAs depositions via engineering of the internal bandstructure of the dots. Transmission electron microscopy of the stacked sub-monolayer regions shows compositional inhomogeneity, indicative of the presence of quantum dots. The quantum dot ground state is manipulated not only by the number of deposited InAs layers, but also by control of the thickness and material composition of the spacing layers between submonolayer InAs depositions. In this manner, we demonstrate the ability to shift the quantum dot ground state energy at 77?K from 1.38?eV to 1.88?eV. The results presented offer a potential avenue towards enhanced control of dot energies for a variety of optoelectronic applications.

  10. Power-law photoluminescence decay in quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Král, Karel; Menšík, Miroslav

    2014-05-15

    Some quantum dot samples show a long-time (power-law) behavior of their luminescence intensity decay. This effect has been recently explained as being due to a cooperation of many tunneling channels transferring electrons from small quantum dots with triplet exciton to quantum dots at which the electrons can recombine with the holes in the valence band states. In this work we show that the long-time character of the sample luminescence decay can also be caused by an intrinsic property of a single dot, namely, by a non-adiabatic effect of the electron occupation up-conversion caused by the electron-phonon multiple scattering mechanism.

  11. Precise shape engineering of epitaxial quantum dots by growth kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bietti, Sergio; Bocquel, Juanita; Adorno, Silvia; Mano, Takaaki; Keizer, Joris G.; Koenraad, Paul M.; Sanguinetti, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    We show that independent size and morphology engineering of epitaxial quantum dots can be obtained using a kinetically controlled quantum dot fabrication procedure, namely droplet epitaxy. Due to the far-from-equilibrium droplet epitaxy procedure, which is based on the crystallization, under As flux, of a nanometric droplet of Ga, independent and precise tuning of quantum dot size, aspect ratio, and faceting can be achieved. The dependence of the dot morphology on the growth conditions is interpreted and described quantitatively through a model that takes into account the crystallization kinetics of the Ga stored in the droplet under As flux.

  12. Room Temperature Single-Photon Emission from Individual Perovskite Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Shin; Guo, Shaojun; Makarov, Nikolay S; Klimov, Victor I

    2015-10-27

    Lead-halide-based perovskites have been the subject of numerous recent studies largely motivated by their exceptional performance in solar cells. Electronic and optical properties of these materials have been commonly controlled by varying the composition (e.g., the halide component) and/or crystal structure. Use of nanostructured forms of perovskites can provide additional means for tailoring their functionalities via effects of quantum confinement and wave function engineering. Furthermore, it may enable applications that explicitly rely on the quantum nature of electronic excitations. Here, we demonstrate that CsPbX3 quantum dots (X = I, Br) can serve as room-temperature sources of quantum light, as indicated by strong photon antibunching detected in single-dot photoluminescence measurements. We explain this observation by the presence of fast nonradiative Auger recombination, which renders multiexciton states virtually nonemissive and limits the fraction of photon coincidence events to ?6% on average. We analyze limitations of these quantum dots associated with irreversible photodegradation and fluctuations ("blinking") of the photoluminescence intensity. On the basis of emission intensity-lifetime correlations, we assign the "blinking" behavior to random charging/discharging of the quantum dot driven by photoassisted ionization. This study suggests that perovskite quantum dots hold significant promise for applications such as quantum emitters; however, to realize this goal, one must resolve the problems of photochemical stability and photocharging. These problems are largely similar to those of more traditional quantum dots and, hopefully, can be successfully resolved using advanced methodologies developed over the years in the field of colloidal nanostructures. PMID:26312994

  13. Design and fabrication of quantum-dot lasers

    E-print Network

    Nabanja, Sheila

    2008-01-01

    Semiconductor lasers using quantum-dots in their active regions have been reported to exhibit significant performance advantages over their bulk semiconductor and quantum-well counterparts namely: low threshold current, ...

  14. Auger recombination in In(Ga)Sb/InAs quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Zabel, T. Reuterskiöld Hedlund, C.; Gustafsson, O.; Berggren, J.; Ernerheim-Jokumsen, C.; Soldemo, M.; Weissenrieder, J.; Götelid, M.; Hammar, M.; Karim, A.; Wang, Q.

    2015-01-05

    We report on the epitaxial formation of type II In{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}Sb/InAs and InSb/InAs quantum dot ensembles using metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. Employing scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we determine spatial quantum dot dimensions smaller than the de Broglie wavelength of InGaSb, which strongly indicates a three dimensional hole confinement. Photoluminescence spectroscopy at low temperatures yields an enhanced radiative recombination in the mid-infrared regime at energies of 170–200?meV. This luminescence displays a strong excitation power dependence with a blueshift indicating a filling of excited quantum dot hole states. Furthermore, a rate equation model is used to extract the Auger recombination coefficient from the power dependent intensity at 77?K yielding values of 1.35?×?10{sup ?28} cm{sup 6}/s for In{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}Sb/InAs quantum dots and 1.47?×?10{sup ?27} cm{sup 6}/s for InSb/InAs quantum dots, which is about one order of magnitude lower as previously obtained values for InGaSb superlattices.

  15. Entanglement and Quantum Phase Transition in a One-Dimensional System of quantum Dots with Disorder

    E-print Network

    Kais, Sabre

    Entanglement and Quantum Phase Transition in a One-Dimensional System of quantum Dots with Disorder We study the entanglement of formation and quantum phase transition in a one-dimensional quantum dots, for certain parameters, the entanglement is negligible up to a critical point Uc, where a quantum phase

  16. Growth parameter optimization for fast quantum dot SESAMs

    E-print Network

    Keller, Ursula

    Growth parameter optimization for fast quantum dot SESAMs D. J. H. C. Maas,* A.-R. Bellancourt, M: maas@phys.ethz.ch Abstract: Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) using quantum dot (QD and post growth annealing on the macroscopic optical SESAM parameters, measuring both nonlinear

  17. Integrating suspended quantum dot circuits for applications in nanomechanics

    E-print Network

    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München

    Integrating suspended quantum dot circuits for applications in nanomechanics J. Kirschbaum, E. M 15 May 2002 We present an integrated nanoelectromechanical circuit designed for achieving and integrated a nanomechanical resonator with a freely sus- pended quantum dot circuit which allows us to probe

  18. Electron spins in few-electron lateral quantum dots

    E-print Network

    Electron spins in few-electron lateral quantum dots #12;#12;Electron spins in few-electron lateral of a few-electron lateral quantum dot An electronic version of this thesis, including colour figures, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval

  19. Quantum dot thermal spectroscopy for biological optical tweezer applications

    E-print Network

    Greenaway, Alan

    , mitochondrial activity and DNA integrity. The specific toxic effects of quantum dots has been shown to varyQuantum dot thermal spectroscopy for biological optical tweezer applications William T Ramsay1 useful thermal probes for biological materials. This particular application seeks to illustrate

  20. Single Electron Charging in Optically Active Nanowire Quantum Dots

    E-print Network

    Single Electron Charging in Optically Active Nanowire Quantum Dots Maarten P. van Kouwen, Michael E report optical experiments of a charge tunable, single nanowire quantum dot subject to an electric field along the nanowire growth direction. Second, we modify the chemical potential in the nanowire

  1. Single quantum dot nanowire photodetectors M. P. van Kouwen,1

    E-print Network

    Single quantum dot nanowire photodetectors M. P. van Kouwen,1 M. H. M. van Weert,1 M. E. Reimer,1 N; accepted 11 August 2010; published online 16 September 2010 We report InP nanowire photodetectors with a single InAsP quantum dot as light absorbing element. With excitation above the InP band gap, the nanowire

  2. Fast synthesize ZnO quantum dots via ultrasonic method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weimin; Zhang, Bing; Ding, Nan; Ding, Wenhao; Wang, Lixi; Yu, Mingxun; Zhang, Qitu

    2016-05-01

    Green emission ZnO quantum dots were synthesized by an ultrasonic sol-gel method. The ZnO quantum dots were synthesized in various ultrasonic temperature and time. Photoluminescence properties of these ZnO quantum dots were measured. Time-resolved photoluminescence decay spectra were also taken to discover the change of defects amount during the reaction. Both ultrasonic temperature and time could affect the type and amount of defects in ZnO quantum dots. Total defects of ZnO quantum dots decreased with the increasing of ultrasonic temperature and time. The dangling bonds defects disappeared faster than the optical defects. Types of optical defects first changed from oxygen interstitial defects to oxygen vacancy and zinc interstitial defects. Then transformed back to oxygen interstitial defects again. The sizes of ZnO quantum dots would be controlled by both ultrasonic temperature and time as well. That is, with the increasing of ultrasonic temperature and time, the sizes of ZnO quantum dots first decreased then increased. Moreover, concentrated raw materials solution brought larger sizes and more optical defects of ZnO quantum dots. PMID:26611814

  3. Study of exciton transfer in dense quantum dot nanocomposites

    E-print Network

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    Study of exciton transfer in dense quantum dot nanocomposites Burak Guzelturk,ab Pedro Ludwig. Govorov,c Xiao Wei Sun,b Qihua Xiongb and Hilmi Volkan Demir*ab Nanocomposites of colloidal quantum dots, contrary to the previous literature, efficient exciton transfer is demonstrated in the nanocomposites

  4. Confinement of Fractional Quantum Hall States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, Robert; Manfra, Michael; West, Ken; Pfeiffer, Loren

    2008-03-01

    Confinement of small-gapped fractional quantum Hall states facilitates quasiparticle manipulation and is an important step towards quasiparticle interference measurements. Demonstrated here is conduction through top gate defined, narrow channels in high density, ultra-high mobility heterostructures. Transport evidence for the persistence of a correlated state at filling fraction 5/3 is shown in channels of 2?m length but gated to near 0.3?m in width. The methods employed to achieve this confinement hold promise for interference devices proposed for studying potential non-Abelian statistics at filling fraction 5/2. R.L. Willett, M.J. Manfra, L.N. Pfeiffer, K.W. West, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 052105 (2007).

  5. A 3D topological insulator quantum dot for optically controlled quantum memory and quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudel, Hari; Leuenberger, Michael

    2014-03-01

    We present the model of a quantum dot (QD) consisting of a spherical core-bulk heterostructure made of 3D topological insulator (TI) materials with bound massless and helical Weyl states existing at the interface. The number of bound states can be controlled by tuning the size of the QD and the magnitude of the core and bulk energy gaps in QD sizes of few nanometers. The confined massless Weyl states in 3D TI QDs are localized at the interface of the QD and exhibit a mirror symmetry in the energy spectrum. The strict optical selection rules give rise to the Faraday effect due to Pauli exclusion principle. We show that the semi-classical Faraday effect can be used to read out spin quantum memory. When a 3D TI QD is embedded inside a cavity, the single-photon Faraday rotation provides the possibility to implement optically mediated quantum teleportation and quantum information processing with 3D TI QDs. Remarkably, the combination of inter- and intraband transition gives rise to a large dipole moment of up to 450 Debye. The strong-coupling regime can be reached for a cavity quality factor of Q ~104 in the infrared wavelength regime.

  6. Longitudinal wave function control in single quantum dots with an applied magnetic field

    E-print Network

    Cao, Shuo; Gao, Yunan; Sun, Yue; Qiu, Kangsheng; Zhao, Yanhui; He, Min; Shi, Jin-An; Gu, Lin; Williams, David A; Sheng, Weidong; Jin, Kuijuan; Xu, Xiulai

    2015-01-01

    Controlling single-particle wave functions in single semiconductor quantum dots is in demand to implement solid-state quantum information processing and spintronics. Normally, particle wave functions can be tuned transversely by an perpendicular magnetic field. We report a longitudinal wave function control in single quantum dots with a magnetic field. For a pure InAs quantum dot with a shape of pyramid or truncated pyramid, the hole wave function always occupies the base because of the less confinement at base, which induces a permanent dipole oriented from base to apex. With applying magnetic field along the base-apex direction, the hole wave function shrinks in the base plane. Because of the linear changing of the confinement for hole wave function from base to apex, the center of effective mass moves up during shrinking process. Due to the uniform confine potential for electrons, the center of effective mass of electrons does not move much, which results in a permanent dipole moment change and an inverted...

  7. Impurity-related intraband absorption in coupled quantum dot-ring structure under lateral electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barseghyan, M. G.; Baghramyan, H. M.; Laroze, D.; Bragard, J.; Kirakosyan, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    The effects of a lateral electric field on intraband absorption in GaAs/GaAlAs two-dimensional coupled quantum dot-ring structure with an on-center hydrogenic donor impurity are investigated. The confining potential of the system consists of two parabolas with various confinement energies. The calculations are made using the exact diagonalization technique. A selection rule for intraband transitions was found for x-polarized incident light. The absorption spectrum mainly exhibits a redshift with the increment of electric field strength. On the other hand, the absorption spectrum can exhibit either a blue- or redshift depending on the values of confinement energies of dot and ring. Additionally, electric field changes the energetic shift direction influenced by the variation of barrier thickness of the structure.

  8. Quantum dot intermixing using excimer laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Djie, H. S.; Ooi, B. S; Gunawan, O.

    2006-08-21

    The authors report a spatial control of the band gap in InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) using the combined effects of pulsed excimer laser irradiation and impurity-free dielectric cap induced intermixing technique. A large band gap shift of up to 180 meV has been obtained under laser irradiation of 480 mJ/cm{sup 2} and 150 pulses to the SiO{sub 2} capped shallow QD structure, while the nonirradiated SiO{sub 2} and Si{sub x}N{sub y} capped QDs only exhibit band gap shifts of 18 and 91 meV, respectively.

  9. Controlling quantum dot emission by plasmonic nanoarrays.

    PubMed

    Guo, R; Derom, S; Väkeväinen, A I; van Dijk-Moes, R J A; Liljeroth, P; Vanmaekelbergh, D; Törmä, P

    2015-11-01

    Metallic nanoparticle arrays support localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) and propagating surface lattice resonances (SLRs). We study the control of quantum dot (QD) emission coupled to the optical modes of silver nanoparticle arrays, both experimentally and numerically. With a hybrid lithography-functionalization method, the QDs are deposited in the vicinity of the nanoparticles. Directionality and enhancement of the emission are observed in photoluminescence spectra and fluorescence lifetime measurements, respectively. Similar features are also demonstrated in the numerical simulations. The tunable emission of this type of hybrid structures could lead to potential applications in light sources. PMID:26561091

  10. Hyperfine interactions in silicon quantum dots

    E-print Network

    Assali, Lucy V C; Capaz, Rodrigo B; Koiller, Belita; Hu, Xuedong; Sarma, S Das

    2010-01-01

    We present an all-electron calculation of the hyperfine parameters for conduction electrons in Si, showing that: (i) all parameters scale linearly with the spin density at a $^{29}$Si site; (ii) the isotropic term is over 30 times larger than the anisotropic part; (iii) conduction electron charge density at a Si nucleus is consistent with experimental estimates; (iv) Overhauser fields in natural Si quantum dots (QDs) are two orders of magnitude smaller than in GaAs QDs. This reinforces the outstanding performance of Si in keeping spin coherence and opens access to reliable quantitative information aiming at spintronic applications.

  11. Non-blinking quantum dot with a plasmonic nanoshell resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Botao; Giovanelli, Emerson; Habert, Benjamin; Spinicelli, Piernicola; Nasilowski, Michel; Xu, Xiangzhen; Lequeux, Nicolas; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Marquier, Francois; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Dubertret, Benoit

    2015-02-01

    Colloidal semiconductor quantum dots are fluorescent nanocrystals exhibiting exceptional optical properties, but their emission intensity strongly depends on their charging state and local environment. This leads to blinking at the single-particle level or even complete fluorescence quenching, and limits the applications of quantum dots as fluorescent particles. Here, we show that a single quantum dot encapsulated in a silica shell coated with a continuous gold nanoshell provides a system with a stable and Poissonian emission at room temperature that is preserved regardless of drastic changes in the local environment. This novel hybrid quantum dot/silica/gold structure behaves as a plasmonic resonator with a strong Purcell factor, in very good agreement with simulations. The gold nanoshell also acts as a shield that protects the quantum dot fluorescence and enhances its resistance to high-power photoexcitation or high-energy electron beams. This plasmonic fluorescent resonator opens the way to a new family of plasmonic nanoemitters with robust optical properties.

  12. Uniform InGaAs quantum dot arrays fabricated using nanosphere lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, X.; Li, J.; Wasserman, D.; Goodhue, W. D.

    2008-12-08

    We demonstrate the fabrication of optically active uniform InGaAs quantum dot arrays by combining nanosphere lithography and bromine ion-beam-assisted etching on a single InGaAs/GaAs quantum well. A wide range of lateral dot sizes was achieved from an oxygen plasma nanosphere resizing process. The increased lateral confinement of carriers in the dots results in low temperature photoluminescence blueshifts from 0.5 to 11 meV. Additional quantization was achieved using a selective wet-etch process. Our model suggests the presence of a 70 nm dead layer in the outer InGaAs radial edge, which we believe to be a result of defects and dislocations introduced during the dry-etch process.

  13. The impact of disorder on charge transport in three dimensional quantum dot resonant tunneling structures

    SciTech Connect

    Puthen-Veettil, B. Patterson, R.; König, D.; Conibeer, G.; Green, M. A.

    2014-10-28

    Efficient iso-entropic energy filtering of electronic waves can be realized through nanostructures with three dimensional confinement, such as quantum dot resonant tunneling structures. Large-area deployment of such structures is useful for energy selective contacts but such configuration is susceptible to structural disorders. In this work, the transport properties of quantum-dot-based wide-area resonant tunneling structures, subject to realistic disorder mechanisms, are studied. Positional variations of the quantum dots are shown to reduce the resonant transmission peaks while size variations in the device are shown to reduce as well as broaden the peaks. Increased quantum dot size distribution also results in a peak shift to lower energy which is attributed to large dots dominating transmission. A decrease in barrier thickness reduces the relative peak height while the overall transmission increases dramatically due to lower “series resistance.” While any shift away from ideality can be intuitively expected to reduce the resonance peak, quantification allows better understanding of the tolerances required for fabricating structures based on resonant tunneling phenomena/.

  14. Density and temperature dependence of carrier dynamics in self-organized InGaAs quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, T. B.; Kim, K.; Urayama, J.; Wu, Z. K.; Singh, J.; Bhattacharya, P. K.

    2005-07-01

    We have used two- and three-pulse femtosecond differential transmission spectroscopy to study the dependence of quantum dot carrier dynamics on temperature. At low temperatures and densities, the rates for relaxation between the quantum dot confined states and for capture from the barrier region into the various dot levels could be directly determined. For electron-hole pairs generated directly in the quantum dot excited state, relaxation is dominated by electron-hole scattering, and occurs on a 5 ps time scale. Capture times from the barrier into the quantum dot are of the order of 2 ps (into the excited state) and 10 ps (into the ground state). The phonon bottleneck was clearly observed in low-density capture experiments, and the conditions for its observation (namely, the suppression of electron-hole scattering for nongeminately captured electrons) were determined. As temperature increases beyond about 100 K, the dynamics become dominated by the re-emission of carriers from the lower dot levels, due to the large density of states in the wetting layer and barrier region. Measurements of the gain dynamics show fast (130 fs) gain recovery due to intradot carrier-carrier scattering, and picosecond-scale capture. Direct measurement of the transparency density versus temperature shows the dramatic effect of carrier re-emission for the quantum dots on thermally activated scattering. The carrier dynamics at elevated temperature are thus strongly dominated by the high density of the high energy continuum states relative to the dot confined levels. Deleterious hot carrier effects can be suppressed in quantum dot lasers by resonant tunnelling injection.

  15. Electric and magnetic optical polaron in quantum dot—Part 1: strong coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotue, A. J.; Issofa, N.; Tiotsop, M.; Kenfack, S. C.; Tabue Djemmo, M. P.; Fotsin, H.; Fai, L. C.

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the influence of electric field and magnetic field on the ground state energy of polaron in spherical semiconductor quantum dot (QD) using a modified Lee Low Pines (LLP) method. The numerical results show the increase of the ground state energy with the increase of the electric field and the decreasing with the magnetic field. The modulation of the electric field, magnetic field and the confinement lengths lead to the control of the decoherence of the system.

  16. Electroluminescence of carbon ‘quantum' dots - From materials to devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veca, L. Monica; Diac, Andreea; Mihalache, Iuliana; Wang, Ping; LeCroy, Gregory E.; Pavelescu, Emil Mihai; Gavrila, Raluca; Vasile, Eugeniu; Terec, Anamaria; Sun, Ya-Ping

    2014-10-01

    Carbon ‘quantum' dots or carbon dots have emerged as a new class of luminescent nanomaterials. While photoluminescence properties of carbon dots had targeted optical imaging and related usage, their unique excited state redox processes responsible for the luminescence emissions may find potentially significant optoelectronic applications. In this regard, we investigated the electroluminescence properties of the carbon dots integrated into multilayer light emitting diode devices. The devices emitted white light with a slight blue color, visible to naked eyes, thus validating the expectation that carbon dots may potentially serve as a new platform for electroluminescent nanomaterials.

  17. Energetics and Dynamics in Quantum Confined Semiconductor Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoy, Jessica

    The ability to tune the band-gap energies of semiconductor quantum dots, nanoplatelets, and quantum wires, their significant absorption cross sections, and high photoluminescence quantum yields make these nanostructures promising moieties for use in optoelectronic devices, solar concentrators, chemical sensors, and biological labels. The variable dynamics of the electron-hole pairs that occur within semiconductor nanostructures, however, can complicate the utility of these devices. The variability of the dynamics is born from the different paths accessible for the charge carriers to undergo. In this work, three pathways are proposed to be of primary consequence, namely, electronic intraband relaxation, coupling to surface-mediated processes, and tunneling to the external environment. The relative dominance of these paths will vary from sample to sample. More importantly, within a sample, the contributions of the available pathways are found to change with changes in excitation energy. To this end, I investigated the dependence of the ensemble photoluminescence (PL) quantum yields (QYs) on excitation energy for numerous semiconductor nanoparticles with quantum confinement in varying dimensions. A strong dependence of the PL QY on excitation energy is observed in quantum dots (QDs), nanoplatelets (NPLs), and quantum wires (QWs). The highest PL QYs are within the first 300 meV above the band edge, and there is a severe drop in the PL QY towards the highest excitation energies investigated, ˜3.1 eV. These high PL QYs are 91 % for CdSe/ZnS QDs, 24 % in CdSe NPLs, which are dispersed in toluene and 25 % in CdTe/CdS QWs, which is dispersed in TOP. These values drop to 12, 8, and 8 % by 3.1 eV, respectively. There are some recognized trends to the shape of this dependency. Local minima in PL QY values occur when intraband relaxation is restricted and ligand or surface mediated transitions are available. These variations in PL QY are reduced when a shell is added to produce a type-I heterostructure. This trend is realized in both QDs and QWs. However, QWs are more weakly confined systems with large surface areas. Their saw-like densities of states that result from the long, unconfined dimension of the QWs and increased valence state mixing yields a higher density of states which leads to a smoother PL QY dependence of the excitation energy. The minimal undulations in the PL QYs that do still exist in these QWs, are further minimized with the addition of a shell to create a type-I heterostructure. Conversely, the pseudo-2D confinement and atomic flatness of NPLs results in narrow, discrete bands of states separated by large energies, ˜ 200 meV. This electronic structure restricts intraband relaxation and promotes coupling to other pathways that sponsor non-radiative recombination even more efficiently than QDs. In all samples, exciting with high energies severely diminishes PL QYs as these energies generate highly excited charge-carriers that can access solvent/environmental pathways.

  18. Fourier transform spectra of quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damian, V.; Ardelean, I.; Arm??elu, Anca; Apostol, D.

    2010-05-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are nanometer-sized crystals with unique photochemical and photophysical properties that are not available from either isolated molecules or bulk solids. These nanocrystals absorb light over a very broad spectral range as compared to molecular fluorophores which have very narrow excitation spectra. High-quality QDs are proper to be use in different biological and medical applications (as fluorescent labels, the cancer treatment and the drug delivery). In this article, we discuss Fourier transform visible spectroscopy of commercial quantum dots. We reveal that QDs produced by Evident Technologies when are enlightened by laser or luminescent diode light provides a spectral shift of their fluorescence spectra correlated to exciting emission wavelengths, as shown by the ARCspectroNIR Fourier Transform Spectrometer. In the final part of this paper we show an important biological application of CdSe/ZnS core-shell ODs as microbial labeling both for pure cultures of cyanobacteria (Synechocystis PCC 6803) and for mixed cultures of phototrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms.

  19. Fourier transform spectra of quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damian, V.; Ardelean, I.; Arm??elu, Anca; Apostol, D.

    2009-09-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are nanometer-sized crystals with unique photochemical and photophysical properties that are not available from either isolated molecules or bulk solids. These nanocrystals absorb light over a very broad spectral range as compared to molecular fluorophores which have very narrow excitation spectra. High-quality QDs are proper to be use in different biological and medical applications (as fluorescent labels, the cancer treatment and the drug delivery). In this article, we discuss Fourier transform visible spectroscopy of commercial quantum dots. We reveal that QDs produced by Evident Technologies when are enlightened by laser or luminescent diode light provides a spectral shift of their fluorescence spectra correlated to exciting emission wavelengths, as shown by the ARCspectroNIR Fourier Transform Spectrometer. In the final part of this paper we show an important biological application of CdSe/ZnS core-shell ODs as microbial labeling both for pure cultures of cyanobacteria (Synechocystis PCC 6803) and for mixed cultures of phototrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms.

  20. Quantum Dot Enabled Molecular Sensing and Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tza-Huei

    2012-01-01

    Since its emergence, semiconductor nanoparticles known as quantum dots (QDs) have drawn considerable attention and have quickly extended their applicability to numerous fields within the life sciences. This is largely due to their unique optical properties such as high brightness and narrow emission band as well as other advantages over traditional organic fluorophores. New molecular sensing strategies based on QDs have been developed in pursuit of high sensitivity, high throughput, and multiplexing capabilities. For traditional biological applications, QDs have already begun to replace traditional organic fluorophores to serve as simple fluorescent reporters in immunoassays, microarrays, fluorescent imaging applications, and other assay platforms. In addition, smarter, more advanced QD probes such as quantum dot fluorescence resonance energy transfer (QD-FRET) sensors, quenching sensors, and barcoding systems are paving the way for highly-sensitive genetic and epigenetic detection of diseases, multiplexed identification of infectious pathogens, and tracking of intracellular drug and gene delivery. When combined with microfluidics and confocal fluorescence spectroscopy, the detection limit is further enhanced to single molecule level. Recently, investigations have revealed that QDs participate in series of new phenomena and exhibit interesting non-photoluminescent properties. Some of these new findings are now being incorporated into novel assays for gene copy number variation (CNV) studies and DNA methylation analysis with improved quantification resolution. Herein, we provide a comprehensive review on the latest developments of QD based molecular diagnostic platforms in which QD plays a versatile and essential role. PMID:22916072

  1. Competing interactions in semiconductor quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    van den Berg, R.; Brandino, G. P.; El Araby, O.; Konik, R. M.; Gritsev, V.; Caux, J. -S.

    2014-10-14

    In this study, we introduce an integrability-based method enabling the study of semiconductor quantum dot models incorporating both the full hyperfine interaction as well as a mean-field treatment of dipole-dipole interactions in the nuclear spin bath. By performing free induction decay and spin echo simulations we characterize the combined effect of both types of interactions on the decoherence of the electron spin, for external fields ranging from low to high values. We show that for spin echo simulations the hyperfine interaction is the dominant source of decoherence at short times for low fields, and competes with the dipole-dipole interactions at longer times. On the contrary, at high fields the main source of decay is due to the dipole-dipole interactions. In the latter regime an asymmetry in the echo is observed. Furthermore, the non-decaying fraction previously observed for zero field free induction decay simulations in quantum dots with only hyperfine interactions, is destroyed for longer times by the mean-field treatment of the dipolar interactions.

  2. Competing interactions in semiconductor quantum dots

    DOE PAGESBeta

    van den Berg, R.; Brandino, G. P.; El Araby, O.; Konik, R. M.; Gritsev, V.; Caux, J. -S.

    2014-10-14

    In this study, we introduce an integrability-based method enabling the study of semiconductor quantum dot models incorporating both the full hyperfine interaction as well as a mean-field treatment of dipole-dipole interactions in the nuclear spin bath. By performing free induction decay and spin echo simulations we characterize the combined effect of both types of interactions on the decoherence of the electron spin, for external fields ranging from low to high values. We show that for spin echo simulations the hyperfine interaction is the dominant source of decoherence at short times for low fields, and competes with the dipole-dipole interactions atmore »longer times. On the contrary, at high fields the main source of decay is due to the dipole-dipole interactions. In the latter regime an asymmetry in the echo is observed. Furthermore, the non-decaying fraction previously observed for zero field free induction decay simulations in quantum dots with only hyperfine interactions, is destroyed for longer times by the mean-field treatment of the dipolar interactions.« less

  3. Excitation transfer in stacked quantum dot chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanjanachuchai, Songphol; Xu, Ming; Jaffré, Alexandre; Jittrong, Apichart; Chokamnuai, Thitipong; Panyakeow, Somsak; Boutchich, Mohamed

    2015-05-01

    Stacked InAs quantum dot chains (QDCs) on InGaAs/GaAs cross-hatch pattern (CHP) templates yield a rich emission spectrum with an unusual carrier transfer characteristic compared to conventional quantum dot (QD) stacks. The photoluminescent spectra of the controlled, single QDC layer comprise multiple peaks from the orthogonal QDCs, the free-standing QDs, the CHP, the wetting layers and the GaAs substrate. When the QDC layers are stacked, employing a 10 nm GaAs spacer between adjacent QDC layers, the PL spectra are dominated by the top-most stack, indicating that the QDC layers are nominally uncoupled. Under high excitation power densities when the high-energy peaks of the top stack are saturated, however, low-energy PL peaks from the bottom stacks emerge as a result of carrier transfers across the GaAs spacers. These unique PL signatures contrast with the state-filling effects in conventional, coupled QD stacks and serve as a means to quickly assess the presence of electronic coupling in stacks of dissimilar-sized nanostructures.

  4. Growth, spectroscopy, and quantum optics of self-assembled quantum dot molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerardot, Brian D.

    Since their inception, semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have attracted much attention due to properties which are analogous with individual atoms. In addition to classical applications, novel applications have been identified which exploit the strong confinement of both electrons and holes in self-assembled QDs. This artificial atom analogy can be extended to artificial molecules by coupling two neighboring quantum dots. This single quantum system has been proposed for entangled photon pair emission and two bit or quantum bit gate operations. This thesis focuses on self-assembled InAs/GaAs QD molecules, which have good optical quality and tunable electronic and optical properties. One significant drawback of the spontaneous nature of self-assembly is random site nucleation. The lateral ordering of epitaxial semiconductor quantum dots is investigated using crystal growth techniques on pre-patterned substrates. Using localized surface chemical potential engineering, the ability to create ordered quantum dot lattices is demonstrated. However, this positioning technique is not precise enough to investigate coupling between neighboring QDs. Therefore, coupling between two vertically stacked QDs is explored. The strain field above the first QD induces a nucleation site for a second QD. The different nucleation conditions naturally yield different optical and electronic properties in the QD pair. By applying an electric field, carrier transfer between two QDs of different confining potentials is measured using micro-photoluminescence. The crystal growth kinetics in each QD were then carefully optimized to independently tune the two QDs ground state transitions to nearly identical energies. Optical spectroscopy of a QD molecule shows that excitons are strongly localized on each QD, therefore minimizing electronic tunneling. However, two types of electrostatic coupling are observed: Coulombic attraction and dipole-dipole interaction. Two-photon emission correlations from the rich spectra exhibit strong antibunching, unambiguously demonstrating the formation of an artificial molecule. Temperature dependent photoluminescence measurements show that directional energy transfer takes place from the high energy QD to the low energy QD. A simple rate-equation model is used to simulate the photon correlation experiment with qualitative agreement.

  5. Quantum dot spin cellular automata for realizing a quantum processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayat, Abolfazl; Creffield, Charles E.; Jefferson, John H.; Pepper, Michael; Bose, Sougato

    2015-10-01

    We show how single quantum dots, each hosting a singlet-triplet qubit, can be placed in arrays to build a spin quantum cellular automaton. A fast (˜10 ns) deterministic coherent singlet-triplet filtering, as opposed to current incoherent tunneling/slow-adiabatic based quantum gates (operation time ˜300 ns), can be employed to produce a two-qubit gate through capacitive (electrostatic) couplings that can operate over significant distances. This is the coherent version of the widely discussed charge and nano-magnet cellular automata, and would increase speed, reduce dissipation, and perform quantum computation while interfacing smoothly with its classical counterpart. This combines the best of two worlds—the coherence of spin pairs known from quantum technologies, and the strength and range of electrostatic couplings from the charge-based classical cellular automata. Significantly our system has zero electric dipole moment during the whole operation process, thereby increasing its charge dephasing time.

  6. An analytical model for quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qasaimeh, Omar

    2003-07-01

    An analytical model for the optical gain of quantum dot-semiconductor optical amplifier (QD-SOA) is presented. The model is derived by analytically solving the rate equations of the laser amplifier taking into account inhomogeneous line broadening, dot-to-dot electron tunneling and gain saturation due to spontaneous emission. Because of the unique electronic structure of quantum dots (QDs), we observed that using QD in the active region of a semiconductor optical amplifier increases the unsaturated optical gain and the output saturation intensity of the amplifier.

  7. Behavior of optical bistability in multifold quantum dot molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamedi, H. R.; Mehmannavaz, M. R.

    2015-02-01

    We analyze the optical bistability (OB) behavior in a multifold quantum dot (QD) molecule composed of five quantum dots controlled by the tunneling coupling. It is shown that the optical bistability can strongly be affected by the tunneling inter-dot coupling coefficients as well as detuning parameters. In addition, we find that the rate of an incoherent pump field has a leading role in modification of the OB threshold. We then generalize our analysis to the case of multifold quantum dot molecules where the number of the quantum dots is N (with a center dot and N-1 satellite dots). We compare the OB features that could occur in a multifold QD system consist of three (N= ), four (N=\\text{4} ), and five (N = 5) quantum dots. We realize that the OB threshold increases as the number of satellite QDs increases. Such controllable optical bistability in multiple QD molecules may provide some new possibilities for technological applications in optoelectronics and solid-state quantum information science.

  8. Using Quantum Confinement to Uniquely Identify Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, J.; Bagci, I. E.; Zawawi, M. A. M.; Sexton, J.; Hulbert, N.; Noori, Y. J.; Young, M. P.; Woodhead, C. S.; Missous, M.; Migliorato, M. A.; Roedig, U.; Young, R. J.

    2015-11-01

    Modern technology unintentionally provides resources that enable the trust of everyday interactions to be undermined. Some authentication schemes address this issue using devices that give a unique output in response to a challenge. These signatures are generated by hard-to-predict physical responses derived from structural characteristics, which lend themselves to two different architectures, known as unique objects (UNOs) and physically unclonable functions (PUFs). The classical design of UNOs and PUFs limits their size and, in some cases, their security. Here we show that quantum confinement lends itself to the provision of unique identities at the nanoscale, by using fluctuations in tunnelling measurements through quantum wells in resonant tunnelling diodes (RTDs). This provides an uncomplicated measurement of identity without conventional resource limitations whilst providing robust security. The confined energy levels are highly sensitive to the specific nanostructure within each RTD, resulting in a distinct tunnelling spectrum for every device, as they contain a unique and unpredictable structure that is presently impossible to clone. This new class of authentication device operates with minimal resources in simple electronic structures above room temperature.

  9. Using Quantum Confinement to Uniquely Identify Devices

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, J.; Bagci, I. E.; Zawawi, M. A. M.; Sexton, J.; Hulbert, N.; Noori, Y. J.; Young, M. P.; Woodhead, C. S.; Missous, M.; Migliorato, M. A.; Roedig, U.; Young, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    Modern technology unintentionally provides resources that enable the trust of everyday interactions to be undermined. Some authentication schemes address this issue using devices that give a unique output in response to a challenge. These signatures are generated by hard-to-predict physical responses derived from structural characteristics, which lend themselves to two different architectures, known as unique objects (UNOs) and physically unclonable functions (PUFs). The classical design of UNOs and PUFs limits their size and, in some cases, their security. Here we show that quantum confinement lends itself to the provision of unique identities at the nanoscale, by using fluctuations in tunnelling measurements through quantum wells in resonant tunnelling diodes (RTDs). This provides an uncomplicated measurement of identity without conventional resource limitations whilst providing robust security. The confined energy levels are highly sensitive to the specific nanostructure within each RTD, resulting in a distinct tunnelling spectrum for every device, as they contain a unique and unpredictable structure that is presently impossible to clone. This new class of authentication device operates with minimal resources in simple electronic structures above room temperature. PMID:26553435

  10. Using Quantum Confinement to Uniquely Identify Devices.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J; Bagci, I E; Zawawi, M A M; Sexton, J; Hulbert, N; Noori, Y J; Young, M P; Woodhead, C S; Missous, M; Migliorato, M A; Roedig, U; Young, R J

    2015-01-01

    Modern technology unintentionally provides resources that enable the trust of everyday interactions to be undermined. Some authentication schemes address this issue using devices that give a unique output in response to a challenge. These signatures are generated by hard-to-predict physical responses derived from structural characteristics, which lend themselves to two different architectures, known as unique objects (UNOs) and physically unclonable functions (PUFs). The classical design of UNOs and PUFs limits their size and, in some cases, their security. Here we show that quantum confinement lends itself to the provision of unique identities at the nanoscale, by using fluctuations in tunnelling measurements through quantum wells in resonant tunnelling diodes (RTDs). This provides an uncomplicated measurement of identity without conventional resource limitations whilst providing robust security. The confined energy levels are highly sensitive to the specific nanostructure within each RTD, resulting in a distinct tunnelling spectrum for every device, as they contain a unique and unpredictable structure that is presently impossible to clone. This new class of authentication device operates with minimal resources in simple electronic structures above room temperature. PMID:26553435

  11. RKKY interaction in a chirally coupled double quantum dot system

    SciTech Connect

    Heine, A. W.; Tutuc, D.; Haug, R. J.; Zwicknagl, G.; Schuh, D.; Wegscheider, W.

    2013-12-04

    The competition between the Kondo effect and the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yoshida (RKKY) interaction is investigated in a double quantum dots system, coupled via a central open conducting region. A perpendicular magnetic field induces the formation of Landau Levels which in turn give rise to the so-called Kondo chessboard pattern in the transport through the quantum dots. The two quantum dots become therefore chirally coupled via the edge channels formed in the open conducting area. In regions where both quantum dots exhibit Kondo transport the presence of the RKKY exchange interaction is probed by an analysis of the temperature dependence. The thus obtained Kondo temperature of one dot shows an abrupt increase at the onset of Kondo transport in the other, independent of the magnetic field polarity, i.e. edge state chirality in the central region.

  12. Effect of total pressure on the formation and size evolution of silicon quantum dots in silicon nitride films

    SciTech Connect

    Rezgui, B.; Sibai, A.; Nychyporuk, T.; Lemiti, M.; Bremond, G.; Maestre, D.; Palais, O.

    2010-05-03

    The size of silicon quantum dots (Si QDs) embedded in silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}) has been controlled by varying the total pressure in the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) reactor. This is evidenced by transmission electron microscopy and results in a shift in the light emission peak of the quantum dots. We show that the luminescence in our structures is attributed to the quantum confinement effect. These findings give a strong indication that the quality (density and size distribution) of Si QDs can be improved by optimizing the deposition parameters which opens a route to the fabrication of an all-Si tandem solar cell.

  13. arXiv:cond-mat/0004182v2[cond-mat.mes-hall]8Jun2000 Spintronics and Quantum Dots for

    E-print Network

    -confined nanostructures with unusually long spin dephasing times [2­4] approaching microseconds, as well as long distances of information storage etc. [1]. On the one hand, none of these devices exist yet, and experi- mental progress-confined struc- tures such as semiconductor quantum dots or atoms or molecules, satisfy all requirements needed

  14. Spin Dynamics of a Single Mn Ion in a CdTe/(Cd, Mg, Zn)Te Quantum Dot

    SciTech Connect

    Goryca, Mateusz; Kossacki, Piotr; Golnik, Andrzej; Kazimierczuk, Tomasz; Nawrocki, Michal; Wojnar, Piotr

    2010-01-04

    The spin dynamics of a single Mn ion confined in a CdTe/(Cd, Mg, Zn)Te quantum dot is determined by measurements of photon correlation of photoluminescence. The characteristic time of spin flip is a few nanoseconds and strongly depends on the excitation power.

  15. Investigations on Landé factor in a strained Ga{sub x}In{sub 1?x}As/GaAs quantum dot

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, N. R. Senthil; Peter, A. John

    2014-04-24

    The effective excitonic g-factor as functions of dot radius and the Ga alloy content, in a strained Ga{sub x}In{sub 1?x}As/GaAs quantum dot, is numerically measured. The heavy hole excitonic states are studied for various Ga alloy content taking into account the anisotropy, non-parabolicity of the conduction band and the geometrical confinement effects. The quantum dot is considered as spherical dot of InAs surrounded by a GaAs barrier material.

  16. Effects of multiple organic ligands on size uniformity and optical properties of ZnSe quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Archana, J.; Navaneethan, M.; Hayakawa, Y.; Ponnusamy, S.; Muthamizhchelvan, C.

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: ? Highly monodispersed ZnSe quantum dots have been synthesized by wet chemical route. ? Strong quantum confinement effect have been observed in ? 4 nm ZnSe quantum dots. ? Enhanced ultraviolet near band emission have been obtained using long chain polymer. -- Abstract: The effects of multi-ligands on the formation and optical transitions of ZnSe quantum dots have been investigated. The dots are synthesized using 3-mercapto-1,2-propanediol and polyvinylpyrrolidone ligands, and have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–visible absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. TEM reveals high monodispersion with an average size of 4 nm. Polymer-stabilized, organic ligand-passivated ZnSe quantum dots exhibit strong UV emission at 326 nm and strong quantum confinement in the UV–visible absorption spectrum. Uniform size and suppressed surface trap emission are observed when the polymer ligand is used. The possible growth mechanism is discussed.

  17. Surface passivated colloidal CuIn(S,Se)2 quantum dots for quantum dot heterojunction solar cells (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yassitepe, Emre; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Sargent, Edward; Nogueira, Ana Flavia F.

    2015-10-01

    Colloidal quantum dot heterojunction thin film solar cells (CQD-TFSC) utilize facile thin film deposition methods and promise high photon conversion efficiencies (PCE) to cost ratio which is highly desired for commercialization. So far, surface passivated PbS CQD-TFSCs show the highest PCE results, reaching 9.2% with good stability. Among other potential candidates, CuInSe2 CQDs stand out as a non-toxic material with high potential for performance, judging on bulk Cu(Ga,In)(S,Se)2 TFSCs reaching 20% PCE, with high stability. CuInSe2 CQDs has advantage over bulk films, mainly the much less expensive manufacturing cost of uniform deposition on large areas. Ga is known to cause phase separation in the bulk CIGS system. In a CQD form, CuInSe2 band gap can be tuned between 1 to 1.6 eV by quantum confinement without need for Ga and this eliminates the phase separation issue. Within our best knowledge, there are no reports on surface trap passivated CuInSe2 CQD-TFSCs. However Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 colloidal particles were cast in thin film form and fused to form bulk-like crystals by various annealing conditions for solar cell devices. In this work, we investigated well-passivated CuInSe2 CQDs on n-type TiO2 and ZnO layers to form depleted heterojunction structure. We prepared luminescent CuInSe2 CQDs by synthetic wet chemistry methods and passivated the surface with 3-mercaptopropionic acid or tetrabutylammonium iodide using solid-state ligand exchange. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to confirm the ligand boding and surface coverage of the quantum dots. We will present the effect of synthesis and thin film preparation conditions on the solar cell device performance

  18. Double quantum dot in a quantum dash: Optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kaczmarkiewicz, Piotr Machnikowski, Pawe?; Kuhn, Tilmann

    2013-11-14

    We study the optical properties of highly elongated, highly flattened quantum dot structures, also referred to as quantum dashes, characterized by the presence of two trapping centers located along the structure. Such a system can exhibit some of the properties characteristic for double quantum dots. We show that sub- and super-radiant states can form for certain quantum dash geometries, which is manifested by a pronounced transfer of intensity between spectral lines, accompanied by the appearance of strong electron-hole correlations. We also compare exciton absorption spectra and polarization properties of a system with a single and double trapping center and show how the geometry of multiple trapping centers influences the optical properties of the system. We show that for a broad range of trapping geometries the relative absorption intensity of the ground state is larger than that of the lowest excited states, contrary to the quantum dash systems characterized by a single trapping center. Thus, optical properties of these structures are determined by fine details of their morphology.

  19. Undoped accumulation-mode Si/SiGe quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Borselli, M G; Eng, K; Ross, R S; Hazard, T M; Holabird, K S; Huang, B; Kiselev, A A; Deelman, P W; Warren, L D; Milosavljevic, I; Schmitz, A E; Sokolich, M; Gyure, M F; Hunter, A T

    2015-09-18

    We report on a quantum dot device design that combines the low disorder properties of undoped SiGe heterostructure materials with an overlapping gate stack in which each electrostatic gate has a dominant and unique function-control of individual quantum dot occupancies and of lateral tunneling into and between dots. Control of the tunneling rate between a dot and an electron bath is demonstrated over more than nine orders of magnitude and independently confirmed by direct measurement within the bandwidth of our amplifiers. The inter-dot tunnel coupling at the [Formula: see text] charge configuration anti-crossing is directly measured to quantify the control of a single inter-dot tunnel barrier gate. A simple exponential dependence is sufficient to describe each of these tunneling processes as a function of the controlling gate voltage. PMID:26302871

  20. Quantum confinement in single layer a-Si:H films

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, S.A.; Fritzsche, H.

    1996-12-31

    Quantum confinement effects in the transmission spectrum of thin amorphous silicon, a-Si:H, films require a coherence length comparable to the film thickness, as well as good film homogeneity. After a careful investigation, the authors conclude that there is no quantum confinement in single layer a-Si:H films at room temperature.

  1. A triple quantum dot based nano-electromechanical memory device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozner, R.; Lifshitz, E.; Peskin, U.

    2015-09-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are free-standing nano-structures with chemically tunable electronic properties. This tunability offers intriguing possibilities for nano-electromechanical devices. In this work, we consider a nano-electromechanical nonvolatile memory (NVM) device incorporating a triple quantum dot (TQD) cluster. The device operation is based on a bias induced motion of a floating quantum dot (FQD) located between two bound quantum dots (BQDs). The mechanical motion is used for switching between two stable states, "ON" and "OFF" states, where ligand-mediated effective interdot forces between the BQDs and the FQD serve to hold the FQD in each stable position under zero bias. Considering realistic microscopic parameters, our quantum-classical theoretical treatment of the TQD reveals the characteristics of the NVM.

  2. Photoluminescence polarization of single InP quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Zwiller, Valery; Jarlskog, Linda; Pistol, Mats-Erik; Pryor, Craig; Castrillo, Pedro; Seifert, Werner; Samuelson, Lars

    2001-06-15

    The linear polarization dependence of photoluminescence emission was measured on single self-assembled InP quantum dots. The dots were obtained by Stranski-Krastanow growth on Ga{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}P. The highest-intensity emission occurred for light polarized parallel to the elongation of the dots in agreement with theoretical calculations. The excitation intensity was varied to obtain the polarization dependence of higher (state-filled) levels.

  3. Coherent population transfer in coupled semiconductor quantum dots

    E-print Network

    Ulrich Hohenester; Giovanna Panzarini; Filippo Troiani; Elisa Molinari; Chiara Macchiavello

    2000-08-03

    We propose a solid-state implementation of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in two coupled semiconductor quantum dots. Proper combination of two pulsed laser fields allows the coherent carrier transfer between the two nanostructures without suffering significant losses due to environment coupling. By use of a general solution scheme for the carrier states in the double-dot structure, we identify the pertinent dot and laser parameters.

  4. Multiple-frequency quantum beats of quantum confined exciton states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonov, A. V.; Gerlovin, I. Ya.; Ignatiev, I. V.; Yugova, I. A.; Cherbunin, R. V.; Efimov, Yu. P.; Eliseev, S. A.; Petrov, V. V.; Lovtcius, V. A.; Kavokin, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    Multiple frequency quantum beats of a system of the coherently excited quantum confined exciton states in a high-quality semiconductor structure containing a wide InGaAs/GaAs quantum well are experimentally detected by the spectrally resolved pump-probe method. The beat signal is observed both at positive and at negative delays between the pump and probe pulses. Several quantum beat (QB) frequencies are observed in the experiments, which coincide with the interlevel spacings in the exciton system. A theoretical model is developed, which allows one to attribute the QBs at negative delay to the four-wave mixing (FWM) signal detected at the nonstandard direction. The beat signal is strongly enhanced by the interference of the FWM signal with the secondary emission induced by the probe pulse. At positive delays, the QBs are due to the interference of the quantum confined exciton states. The decay time for QBs is of the order of several picoseconds both at positive and negative delays. This is close to the relaxation time of the exciton population that allows one to consider the exciton depopulation as the main mechanism of the coherence relaxation in the system under study.

  5. Optimal tunneling enhances the quantum photovoltaic effect in double quantum dots

    E-print Network

    Wang, Chen

    We investigate the quantum photovoltaic effect in double quantum dots by applying the nonequilibrium quantum master equation. A drastic suppression of the photovoltaic current is observed near the open circuit voltage, ...

  6. Linearly polarized emission from an embedded quantum dot using nanowire morphology control.

    PubMed

    Foster, Andrew P; Bradley, John P; Gardner, Kirsty; Krysa, Andrey B; Royall, Ben; Skolnick, Maurice S; Wilson, Luke R

    2015-03-11

    GaAs nanowires with elongated cross sections are formed using a catalyst-free growth technique. This is achieved by patterning elongated nanoscale openings within a silicon dioxide growth mask on a (111)B GaAs substrate. It is observed that MOVPE-grown vertical nanowires with cross section elongated in the [21?1?] and [1?12] directions remain faithful to the geometry of the openings. An InGaAs quantum dot with weak radial confinement is realized within each nanowire by briefly introducing indium into the reactor during nanowire growth. Photoluminescence emission from an embedded nanowire quantum dot is strongly linearly polarized (typically >90%) with the polarization direction coincident with the axis of elongation. Linearly polarized PL emission is a result of embedding the quantum dot in an anisotropic nanowire structure that supports a single strongly confined, linearly polarized optical mode. This research provides a route to the bottom-up growth of linearly polarized single photon sources of interest for quantum information applications. PMID:25674919

  7. Nonequilibrium transport of helical Luttinger liquids through a quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Sung-Po; Silotri, Salman A.; Chung, Chung-Hou

    2013-08-01

    We study a steady-state nonequilibrium transport between two interacting helical edge states of a two-dimensional topological insulator, described by helical Luttinger liquids, through a quantum dot. For a noninteracting dot, the current is obtained analytically by including the self-energy correction to the dot's Green function. For an interacting dot, we use the equation-of-motion method to study the influence of weak on-site Coulomb interaction on the transport. We find the metal-to-insulator quantum phase transition for attractive or repulsive interactions in the leads when the magnitude of the interaction strength characterized by a charge sector Luttinger parameter K goes beyond a critical value. The critical Luttinger parameter Kcr depends on the hopping strengths between the dot and the leads, as well as the energy level of the dot with respect to the Fermi levels of the leads, ranging from the weak-interaction regime for the dot level off-resonance to the strong-interaction regime for the dot in resonance with the equilibrium Fermi level. Near the transition, there are various singular behaviors of current noise, dot density of state, and the decoherence rate (inverse of lifetime) of the dot, which are briefly discussed.

  8. Quantum chromodynamics near the confinement limit

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, C.

    1985-09-01

    These nine lectures deal at an elementary level with the strong interaction between quarks and its implications for the structure of hadrons. Quarkonium systems are studied as a means for measuring the interquark interaction. This is presumably (part of) the answer a solution to QCD must yield, if it is indeed the correct theory of the strong interactions. Some elements of QCD are reviewed, and metaphors for QCD as a confining theory are introduced. The 1/N expansion is summarized as a way of guessing the consequences of QCD for hadron physics. Lattice gauge theory is developed as a means for going beyond perturbation theory in the solution of QCD. The correspondence between statistical mechanics, quantum mechanics, and field theory is made, and simple spin systems are formulated on the lattice. The lattice analog of local gauge invariance is developed, and analytic methods for solving lattice gauge theory are considered. The strong-coupling expansion indicates the existence of a confining phase, and the renormalization group provides a means for recovering the consequences of continuum field theory. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations of lattice theories give evidence for the phase structure of gauge theories, yield an estimate for the string tension characterizing the interquark force, and provide an approximate description of the quarkonium potential in encouraging good agreement with what is known from experiment.

  9. Highly Fluorescent Noble Metal Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jie; Nicovich, Philip R.; Dickson, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    Highly fluorescent, water-soluble, few-atom noble metal quantum dots have been created that behave as multi-electron artificial atoms with discrete, size-tunable electronic transitions throughout the visible and near IR. These “molecular metals” exhibit highly polarizable transitions and scale in size according to the simple relation, Efermi/N1/3, predicted by the free electron model of metallic behavior. This simple scaling indicates that fluorescence arises from intraband transitions of free electrons and that these conduction electron transitions are the low number limit of the plasmon – the collective dipole oscillations occurring when a continuous density of states is reached. Providing the “missing link” between atomic and nanoparticle behavior in noble metals, these emissive, water-soluble Au nanoclusters open new opportunities for biological labels, energy transfer pairs, and light emitting sources in nanoscale optoelectronics. PMID:17105412

  10. Luminescence studies of individual quantum dot photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Amirav, Lilac; Alivisatos, A Paul

    2013-09-01

    Using far-field optical microscopy we report the first measurements of photoluminescence from single nanoparticle photocatalysts. Fluence-dependent luminescence is investigated from metal-semiconductor heterojunction quantum dot catalysts exposed to a variety of environments, ranging from gaseous argon to liquid water containing a selection of hole scavengers. The catalysts each exhibit characteristic nonlinear fluence dependence. From these structurally and environmentally sensitive trends, we disentangle the separate rate-determining steps in each particle across the very wide range of time scales, which follow the initial light absorption process. This information will significantly benefit the design of effective artificial photocatalytic systems for renewable direct solar-to-fuel energy conversion. PMID:23895591

  11. Quantum dots as a possible oxygen sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zió?czyk, Paulina; Kur-Kowalska, Katarzyna; Przybyt, Ma?gorzata; Miller, Ewa

    Results of studies on optical properties of low toxicity quantum dots (QDs) obtained from copper doped zinc sulfate are discussed in the paper. The effect of copper admixture concentration and solution pH on the fluorescence emission intensity of QDs was investigated. Quenching of QDs fluorescence by oxygen was reported and removal of the oxygen from the environment by two methods was described. In the chemical method oxygen was eliminated by adding sodium sulfite, in the other method oxygen was removed from the solution using nitrogen gas. For elimination of oxygen by purging the solution with nitrogen the increase of fluorescence intensity with decreasing oxygen concentration obeyed Stern-Volmer equation indicating quenching. For the chemical method Stern-Volmer equation was not fulfilled. The fluorescence decays lifetimes were determined and the increase of mean lifetimes at the absence of oxygen support hypothesis that QDs fluorescence is quenched by oxygen.

  12. Quantum dots as a possible oxygen sensor.

    PubMed

    Zió?czyk, Paulina; Kur-Kowalska, Katarzyna; Przybyt, Ma?gorzata; Miller, Ewa

    2014-05-21

    Results of studies on optical properties of low toxicity quantum dots (QDs) obtained from copper doped zinc sulfate are discussed in the paper. The effect of copper admixture concentration and solution pH on the fluorescence emission intensity of QDs was investigated. Quenching of QDs fluorescence by oxygen was reported and removal of the oxygen from the environment by two methods was described. In the chemical method oxygen was eliminated by adding sodium sulfite, in the other method oxygen was removed from the solution using nitrogen gas. For elimination of oxygen by purging the solution with nitrogen the increase of fluorescence intensity with decreasing oxygen concentration obeyed Stern-Volmer equation indicating quenching. For the chemical method Stern-Volmer equation was not fulfilled. The fluorescence decays lifetimes were determined and the increase of mean lifetimes at the absence of oxygen support hypothesis that QDs fluorescence is quenched by oxygen. PMID:24568848

  13. Quantum dots: synthesis, bioapplications, and toxicity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This review introduces quantum dots (QDs) and explores their properties, synthesis, applications, delivery systems in biology, and their toxicity. QDs are one of the first nanotechnologies to be integrated with the biological sciences and are widely anticipated to eventually find application in a number of commercial consumer and clinical products. They exhibit unique luminescence characteristics and electronic properties such as wide and continuous absorption spectra, narrow emission spectra, and high light stability. The application of QDs, as a new technology for biosystems, has been typically studied on mammalian cells. Due to the small structures of QDs, some physical properties such as optical and electron transport characteristics are quite different from those of the bulk materials. PMID:22929008

  14. Capillary electrophoresis of quantum dots: minireview.

    PubMed

    Stanisavljevic, Maja; Vaculovicova, Marketa; Kizek, Rene; Adam, Vojtech

    2014-07-01

    It has been already three decades, since the fluorescent nanocrystals called quantum dots (QDs) appeared and attracted attention of a broad scientific community. Their excellent not only optical but also electronic properties predetermined QDs for utilization in a variety of areas. Besides lasers, solar cells, and/or computers, QDs have established themselves in the field of (bio)chemical labeling as well as medical imaging. However, due to the numerous application possibilities of QDs, there are high demands on their properties that need to be precisely controlled and characterized. CE with its versatile modes and possibilities of detection was found to be an effective tool not only for characterization of QDs size and/or surface properties but also for monitoring of their interactions with other molecules of interest. In this minireview, we are giving short insight in analysis of QDs by CE, and summarizing the advantages of this method for QDs characterization. PMID:24648211

  15. Ferritin-Templated Quantum-Dots for Quantum Logic Gates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sang H.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Chu, Sang-Hyon; Park, Yeonjoon; King, Glen C.; Lillehei, Peter T.; Kim, Seon-Jeong; Elliott, James R.

    2005-01-01

    Quantum logic gates (QLGs) or other logic systems are based on quantum-dots (QD) with a stringent requirement of size uniformity. The QD are widely known building units for QLGs. The size control of QD is a critical issue in quantum-dot fabrication. The work presented here offers a new method to develop quantum-dots using a bio-template, called ferritin, that ensures QD production in uniform size of nano-scale proportion. The bio-template for uniform yield of QD is based on a ferritin protein that allows reconstitution of core material through the reduction and chelation processes. One of the biggest challenges for developing QLG is the requirement of ordered and uniform size of QD for arrays on a substrate with nanometer precision. The QD development by bio-template includes the electrochemical/chemical reconsitution of ferritins with different core materials, such as iron, cobalt, manganese, platinum, and nickel. The other bio-template method used in our laboratory is dendrimers, precisely defined chemical structures. With ferritin-templated QD, we fabricated the heptagonshaped patterned array via direct nano manipulation of the ferritin molecules with a tip of atomic force microscope (AFM). We also designed various nanofabrication methods of QD arrays using a wide range manipulation techniques. The precise control of the ferritin-templated QD for a patterned arrangement are offered by various methods, such as a site-specific immobilization of thiolated ferritins through local oxidation using the AFM tip, ferritin arrays induced by gold nanoparticle manipulation, thiolated ferritin positioning by shaving method, etc. In the signal measurements, the current-voltage curve is obtained by measuring the current through the ferritin, between the tip and the substrate for potential sweeping or at constant potential. The measured resistance near zero bias was 1.8 teraohm for single holoferritin and 5.7 teraohm for single apoferritin, respectively.

  16. Annealing-induced change in quantum dot chain formation mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Tyler D.; Colton, John S.; Farrer, Jeffrey K.; Yang, Haeyeon; Kim, Dong Jun

    2014-12-15

    Self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot chains were grown using a modified Stranski-Krastanov method in which the InGaAs layer is deposited under a low growth temperature and high arsenic overpressure, which suppresses the formation of dots until a later annealing process. The dots are capped with a 100 nm GaAs layer. Three samples, having three different annealing temperatures of 460°C, 480°C, and 500°C, were studied by transmission electron microscopy. Results indicate two distinct types of dot formation processes: dots in the 460°C and 480°C samples form from platelet precursors in a one-to-one ratio whereas the dots in the sample annealed at 500°C form through the strain-driven self-assembly process, and then grow larger via an additional Ostwald ripening process whereby dots grow into larger dots at the expense of smaller seed islands. There are consequently significant morphological differences between the two types of dots, which explain many of the previously-reported differences in optical properties. Moreover, we also report evidence of indium segregation within the dots, with little or no indium intermixing between the dots and the surrounding GaAs barrier.

  17. Annealing-induced change in quantum dot chain formation mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Tyler D.; Colton, John S.; Farrer, Jeffrey K.; Yang, Haeyeon; Kim, Dong Jun

    2014-12-01

    Self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot chains were grown using a modified Stranski-Krastanov method in which the InGaAs layer is deposited under a low growth temperature and high arsenic overpressure, which suppresses the formation of dots until a later annealing process. The dots are capped with a 100 nm GaAs layer. Three samples, having three different annealing temperatures of 460°C, 480°C, and 500°C, were studied by transmission electron microscopy. Results indicate two distinct types of dot formation processes: dots in the 460°C and 480°C samples form from platelet precursors in a one-to-one ratio whereas the dots in the sample annealed at 500°C form through the strain-driven self-assembly process, and then grow larger via an additional Ostwald ripening process whereby dots grow into larger dots at the expense of smaller seed islands. There are consequently significant morphological differences between the two types of dots, which explain many of the previously-reported differences in optical properties. Moreover, we also report evidence of indium segregation within the dots, with little or no indium intermixing between the dots and the surrounding GaAs barrier.

  18. Temperature dependence of photoluminescence of semiconductor quantum dots upon indirect excitation in a SiO2 dielectric matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatsepin, A. F.; Biryukov, D. Yu.

    2015-08-01

    The processes of excitation and relaxation of confined excitons in semiconductor quantum dots upon indirect high-energy excitation have been considered. The temperature behavior of photoluminescence of quantum dots in a SiO2 dielectric matrix has been described using a model accounting for the process of population of quantum-dot triplet states upon excitation transfer through mobile excitons of the matrix. Analytical expressions that take into account the two-stage and three-stage schemes of relaxation transitions have been obtained. The applicability of these expressions for analyzing fluorescence properties of semiconductor quantum dots has been demonstrated using the example of silicon and carbon nanoparticles in the thin-film SiO2 matrix. It has been shown that the complex character of the temperature dependences of the photoluminescence upon indirect excitation can be an indication of a multistage relaxation of excited states of the matrix and quantum dots. The model concepts developed in this study allow one to predict the form of temperature dependences of the photoluminescence for different schemes of indirect excitation of quantum dots.

  19. Chlorine doped graphene quantum dots: Preparation, properties, and photovoltaic detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Jianhong; Xiang, Jinzhong; Tang, Libin Ji, Rongbin Yuan, Jun; Zhao, Jun; Yu, Ruiyun; Tai, Yunjian; Song, Liyuan

    2014-09-15

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are becoming one of the hottest advanced functional materials because of the opening of the bandgap due to quantum confinement effect, which shows unique optical and electrical properties. The chlorine doped GQDs (Cl-GQDs) have been fabricated by chemical exfoliation of HCl treated carbon fibers (CFs), which were prepared from degreasing cotton through an annealing process at 1000?°C for 30?min. Raman study shows that both G and 2D peaks of GQDs may be redshifted (softened) by chlorine doping, leading to an n-type doping. The first vertical (Cl)-GQDs based photovoltaic detectors have been demonstrated, both the light absorbing and electron-accepting roles for (Cl)-GQDs in photodetection have been found, resulting in an exceptionally big ratio of photocurrent to dark current as high as ?10{sup 5} at room temperature using a 405?nm laser irradiation under the reverse bias voltage. The study expands the application of (Cl)-GQDs to the important optoelectronic detection devices.

  20. Graphene-quantum-dot nonvolatile charge-trap flash memories.

    PubMed

    Sin Joo, Soong; Kim, Jungkil; Kang, Soo Seok; Kim, Sung; Choi, Suk-Ho; Hwang, Sung Won

    2014-06-27

    Nonvolatile flash-memory capacitors containing graphene quantum dots (GQDs) of 6, 12, and 27 nm average sizes (d) between SiO2 layers for use as charge traps have been prepared by sequential processes: ion-beam sputtering deposition (IBSD) of 10 nm SiO2 on a p-type wafer, spin-coating of GQDs on the SiO2 layer, and IBSD of 20 nm SiO2 on the GQD layer. The presence of almost a single array of GQDs at a distance of ?13 nm from the SiO2/Si wafer interface is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence. The memory window estimated by capacitance-voltage curves is proportional to d for sweep voltages wider than  ± 3 V, and for d = 27 nm the GQD memories show a maximum memory window of 8 V at a sweep voltage of  ± 10 V. The program and erase speeds are largest at d = 12 and 27 nm, respectively, and the endurance and data-retention properties are the best at d = 27 nm. These memory behaviors can be attributed to combined effects of edge state and quantum confinement. PMID:24896068

  1. Coherent radiation by quantum dots and magnetic nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect

    Yukalov, V. I.; Yukalova, E. P.

    2014-03-31

    The assemblies of either quantum dots or magnetic nanoclusters are studied. It is shown that such assemblies can produce coherent radiation. A method is developed for solving the systems of nonlinear equations describing the dynamics of such assemblies. The method is shown to be general and applicable to systems of different physical nature. Despite mathematical similarities of dynamical equations, the physics of the processes for quantum dots and magnetic nanoclusters is rather different. In a quantum dot assembly, coherence develops due to the Dicke effect of dot interactions through the common radiation field. For a system of magnetic clusters, coherence in the spin motion appears due to the Purcell effect caused by the feedback action of a resonator. Self-organized coherent spin radiation cannot arise without a resonator. This principal difference is connected with the different physical nature of dipole forces between the objects. Effective dipole interactions between the radiating quantum dots, appearing due to photon exchange, collectivize the dot radiation. While the dipolar spin interactions exist from the beginning, yet before radiation, and on the contrary, they dephase spin motion, thus destroying the coherence of moving spins. In addition, quantum dot radiation exhibits turbulent photon filamentation that is absent for radiating spins.

  2. Quantum dot conjugates in a sub-micrometer fluidic channel

    DOEpatents

    Stavis, Samuel M.; Edel, Joshua B.; Samiee, Kevan T.; Craighead, Harold G.

    2010-04-13

    A nanofluidic channel fabricated in fused silica with an approximately 500 nm square cross section was used to isolate, detect and identify individual quantum dot conjugates. The channel enables the rapid detection of every fluorescent entity in solution. A laser of selected wavelength was used to excite multiple species of quantum dots and organic molecules, and the emission spectra were resolved without significant signal rejection. Quantum dots were then conjugated with organic molecules and detected to demonstrate efficient multicolor detection. PCH was used to analyze coincident detection and to characterize the degree of binding. The use of a small fluidic channel to detect quantum dots as fluorescent labels was shown to be an efficient technique for multiplexed single molecule studies. Detection of single molecule binding events has a variety of applications including high throughput immunoassays.

  3. Probing specific DNA sequences with luminescent semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Jason R.; Nie, Shuming

    2001-06-01

    The development of new fluorescent probes has impacted many areas of research such as medical diagnostics, high-speed drug screening, and basic molecular biology. Main limitations to traditional organic fluorophores are their relatively weak intensities, short life times (eg., photobleaching), and broad emission spectra. The desire for more intense fluorescent probes with higher quality photostability and narrow emission wavelengths has led to the development and utilization of semiconductor quantum dots as a new label. In this work, we have modified semicondutor quantum dots (QD's) with synthetic oligonucleotides to probe a specific DNA target sequence both in solution as well as immobilized on a solid substrate. In the first approach, specific target sequences are detected in solution by using short oligonucleotide probes, which are covalently linked to semiconductor quantum dots. In the second approach, DNA target sequences are covalently attached to a glass substrate and detected using oligonucleotides linked to semiconductor quantum dots.

  4. Optical properties of GaN/AlN quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, Pierre; Gayral, Bruno

    2008-10-01

    We present here a review of the peculiar optical properties of GaN/AlN quantum dots. These systems show unusually large exciton binding energies and band-offsets. Moreover, when grown along the (0001) axis in the wurtzite phase, the optical properties are dominated by huge on-axis internal electric fields, leading to a very low oscillator strength and complex dynamical behavior. It is also possible to grow GaN quantum dots in the cubic phase or along nonpolar axis of the wurtzite cell. We discuss properties of ensembles of quantum dots, as well as of single quantum dots studied by micro-photoluminescence. To cite this article: P. Lefebvre, B. Gayral, C. R. Physique 9 (2008).

  5. Engineering a Robust Photovoltaic Device with Quantum Dots and Bacteriorhodopsin

    E-print Network

    Renugopalakrishnan, Venkatesan

    We present a route toward a radical improvement in solar cell efficiency using resonant energy transfer and sensitization of semiconductor metal oxides with a light-harvesting quantum dot (QD)/bacteriorhodopsin (bR) layer ...

  6. Silver-enhanced fluorescence emission of single quantum dot nanocomposites†

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yi; Zhang, Jian; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    2009-01-01

    A novel plasmon-coupled quantum dot (QD) nanocomposite via covalently interfacing the QD surfaces with silver nanoparticles was developed with greatly reduced blinking and enhanced emission fluorescence. PMID:19209313

  7. Hybrid organic/quantum dot thin film structures and devices

    E-print Network

    Coe-Sullivan, Seth (Seth Alexander)

    2005-01-01

    Organic light emitting diodes have undergone rapid advancement over the course of the past decade. Similarly, quantum dot synthesis has progressed to the point that room temperature highly efficient photoluminescence can ...

  8. Quantum dot conjugates in a sub-micrometer fluidic channel

    DOEpatents

    Stavis, Samuel M. (Ithaca, NY); Edel, Joshua B. (Brookline, MA); Samiee, Kevan T. (Ithaca, NY); Craighead, Harold G. (Ithaca, NY)

    2008-07-29

    A nanofluidic channel fabricated in fused silica with an approximately 500 nm square cross section was used to isolate, detect and identify individual quantum dot conjugates. The channel enables the rapid detection of every fluorescent entity in solution. A laser of selected wavelength was used to excite multiple species of quantum dots and organic molecules, and the emission spectra were resolved without significant signal rejection. Quantum dots were then conjugated with organic molecules and detected to demonstrate efficient multicolor detection. PCH was used to analyze coincident detection and to characterize the degree of binding. The use of a small fluidic channel to detect quantum dots as fluorescent labels was shown to be an efficient technique for multiplexed single molecule studies. Detection of single molecule binding events has a variety of applications including high throughput immunoassays.

  9. Analytical applications of enzymatic growth of quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Saa, Laura; Virel, Ana; Sanchez-Lopez, Jose; Pavlov, Valery

    2010-06-01

    We have developed an analytical assay to detect the enzymatic activity of acetylcholine esterase and alkaline phosphatase based on the generation of quantum dots by enzymatic products. Acetylcholine esterase converts acetylthiocholine into thiocholine. The latter enhances the rate of decomposition of sodium thiosulfate into H(2)S, which in the presence of cadmium sulfate yields CdS quantum dots showing a time dependent exponential growth, typical of autocatalytic processes. This assay was also applied to detect acetylcholine esterase inhibitors. Alkaline phosphatase hydrolyzes thiophosphate and yields H(2)S, which instantly reacts with Cd(2+) to give CdS quantum dots. The formation of CdS quantum dots in both reactions was followed by fluorescence spectroscopy and showed dependence on the concentration of enzyme and substrate. PMID:20432413

  10. Synthesis of Quantum Dots for Use as Fluorescent Probes

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Zongqin

    to the concentration of particles of interest in the original sample. Quantum dots are semiconductor nano-crystals of water and oxygen. The nanocrystal growth was stopped immediately after the injection by cooling

  11. Colloidal chemical synthesis and characterization of InAs nanocrystal quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Guzelian, A.A.; Banin, U.; Kadavanich, A.V.; Peng, X.; Alivisatos, A.P.

    1996-09-01

    InAs nanocrystal quantum dots have been prepared via colloidal chemical synthesis using the reaction of InCl{sub 3} and As[Si(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}]{sub 3}. Sizes ranging from 25 to 60 A in diameter are produced and isolated with size distributions of {plus_minus}10{percent}{endash}15{percent} in diameter. The nanocrystals are crystalline and generally spherical with surfaces passivated by trioctylphosphine giving them solubility in common organic solvents. The dots have been structurally characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) and the optical absorption and emission have been examined. Quantum confinement effects are evident with absorption onsets well to the blue of the bulk band gap and size dependent absorption and emission features. The emission is dominated by band edge luminescence. These quantum dots are particularly interesting as they provide an opportunity to make important comparisons with comparably sized InAs quantum dots synthesized by molecular beam epitaxy techniques. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Deformation potentials of CdSe quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jingbo; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2004-06-02

    The size dependent deformation potentials of CdSe quantum dots are studied by first principle and semi-empirical pseudopotentials calculations. They find that the amplitude of the quantum dot deformation potential is only slightly larger than the bulk value, and this increase is mostly caused by the off {Lambda} point deformation potentials in the bulk, which are larger in amplitude than the {Lambda} point deformation potential.

  13. Ultrafast optical properties of lithographically defined quantum dot amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Miaja-Avila, L.; Verma, V. B.; Mirin, R. P.; Silverman, K. L.; Coleman, J. J.

    2014-02-10

    We measure the ultrafast optical response of lithographically defined quantum dot amplifiers at 40?K. Recovery of the gain mostly occurs in less than 1 picosecond, with some longer-term transients attributable to carrier heating. Recovery of the absorption proceeds on a much longer timescale, representative of relaxation between quantum dot levels and carrier recombination. We also measure transparency current-density in these devices.

  14. Los Alamos Quantum Dots for Solar, Display Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Klimov, Victor

    2015-04-13

    Quantum dots are ultra-small bits of semiconductor matter that can be synthesized with nearly atomic precision via modern methods of colloidal chemistry. Their emission color can be tuned by simply varying their dimensions. Color tunability is combined with high emission efficiencies approaching 100 percent. These properties have recently become the basis of a new technology – quantum dot displays – employed, for example, in the newest generation of e-readers and video monitors.

  15. Whispering-gallery mode microcavity quantum-dot lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Kryzhanovskaya, N V; Maximov, M V; Zhukov, A E

    2014-03-28

    This review examines axisymmetric-cavity quantum-dot microlasers whose emission spectrum is determined by whisperinggallery modes. We describe the possible designs, fabrication processes and basic characteristics of the microlasers and demonstrate the possibility of lasing at temperatures above 100 °C. The feasibility of creating multichannel optical sources based on a combination of a broadband quantum-dot laser and silicon microring modulators is discussed. (review)

  16. Nanocrystals and quantum dots formed by high-dose ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    White, C.W.; Budai, J.D.; Zhu, J.G.; Withrow, S.P.; Hembree, D.M.; Henderson, D.O.; Ueda, A.; Tung, Y.S.; Mu, R.

    1996-01-01

    Ion implantation and thermal annealing have been used to produce a wide range of nanocrystals and quantum dots in amorphous (SiO{sub 2}) and crystalline (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) matrices. Nanocrystals of metals (Au), elemental semiconductors (Si and Ge), and even compound semiconductors (SiGe, CdSe, CdS) have been produced. In amorphous matrices, the nanocrystals are randomly oriented, but in crystalline matrices they are three dimensionally aligned. Evidence for photoluminescence and quantum confinement effects are presented.

  17. Electronic and Vibrational Spectra of InP Quantum Dots Formed by Sequential Ion Implantation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, C.; Mu, R.; Tung, Y. S.; Ueda, A.; Henderson, D. O.; White, C. W.

    1997-01-01

    We have performed sequential ion implantation of indium and phosphorus into silica combined with controlled thermal annealing to fabricate InP quantum dots in a dielectric host. Electronic and vibrational spectra were measured for the as-implanted and annealed samples. The annealed samples show a peak in the infrared spectra near 320/cm which is attributed to a surface phonon mode and is in good agreement with the value calculated from Frolich's theory of surface phonon polaritons. The electronic spectra show the development of a band near 390 nm that is attributed to quantum confined InP.

  18. Quantum confinement in transition metal oxide quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Miri; Lin, Chungwei; Butcher, Matthew; Posadas, Agham B.; Demkov, Alexander A.; Rodriguez, Cesar; Zollner, Stefan; He, Qian; Borisevich, Albina Y.

    2015-05-11

    We report on the quantum confinement in SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) quantum wells (QWs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The QW structure consists of LaAlO{sub 3} (LAO) and STO layers grown on LAO substrate. Structures with different QW thicknesses ranging from two to ten unit cells were grown and characterized. Optical properties (complex dielectric function) were measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry in the range of 1.0 eV–6.0 eV at room temperature. We observed that the absorption edge was blue-shifted by approximately 0.39 eV as the STO quantum well thickness was reduced to two unit cells. This demonstrates that the energy level of the first sub-band can be controlled by the QW thickness in a complex oxide material.

  19. Spectroscopy and dynamics of charge transfer excitons in type-II band aligned quantum confined heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Kushavah, Dushyant; Mohapatra, P. K.; Vasa, P.; Singh, B. P.; Rustagi, K. C.; Bahadur, D.

    2015-05-15

    We illustrate effect of charge transfer (CT) in type-II quantum confined heterostructure by comparing CdSe quantum dots (QDs), CdSe/CdTe heterostructure quantum dots (HQDs) and CdSe/CdTe/CdSe quantum well-quantum dots (QWQDs) heterostructures. CdSe core QDs were synthesized using a kinetic growth method where QD size depends on reaction time. For shell coating we used modified version of successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). Size of different QDs ?5 to 7 nm were measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Strong red shift from ?597 to ?746 nm in photoluminescence (PL) spectra from QDs to QWQDs shows high tunability which is not possible with single constituent semiconductor QDs. PL spectra have been recorded at different temperatures (10K-300K). Room temperature time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) measurements for QDs to QWQDs show three exponential radiative decay. The slowest component decay constant in QWQDs comes around eight fold to ?51 ns as compared to ?6.5 ns in HQD suggesting new opportunities to tailor the radiative carrier recombination rate of CT excitons.

  20. Spectroscopy and dynamics of charge transfer excitons in type-II band aligned quantum confined heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushavah, Dushyant; Mohapatra, P. K.; Rustagi, K. C.; Bahadur, D.; Vasa, P.; Singh, B. P.

    2015-05-01

    We illustrate effect of charge transfer (CT) in type-II quantum confined heterostructure by comparing CdSe quantum dots (QDs), CdSe/CdTe heterostructure quantum dots (HQDs) and CdSe/CdTe/CdSe quantum well-quantum dots (QWQDs) heterostructures. CdSe core QDs were synthesized using a kinetic growth method where QD size depends on reaction time. For shell coating we used modified version of successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). Size of different QDs ˜5 to 7 nm were measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Strong red shift from ˜597 to ˜746 nm in photoluminescence (PL) spectra from QDs to QWQDs shows high tunability which is not possible with single constituent semiconductor QDs. PL spectra have been recorded at different temperatures (10K-300K). Room temperature time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) measurements for QDs to QWQDs show three exponential radiative decay. The slowest component decay constant in QWQDs comes around eight fold to ˜51 ns as compared to ˜6.5 ns in HQD suggesting new opportunities to tailor the radiative carrier recombination rate of CT excitons.

  1. Quantum Monte Carlo finite temperature electronic structure of quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leino, Markku; Rantala, Tapio T.

    2002-08-01

    Quantum Monte Carlo methods allow a straightforward procedure for evaluation of electronic structures with a proper treatment of electronic correlations. This can be done even at finite temperatures [1]. We test the Path Integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) simulation method [2] for one and two electrons in one and three dimensional harmonic oscillator potentials and apply it in evaluation of finite temperature effects of single and coupled quantum dots. Our simulations show the correct finite temperature excited state populations including degeneracy in cases of one and three dimensional harmonic oscillators. The simulated one and two electron distributions of a single and coupled quantum dots are compared to those from experiments and other theoretical (0 K) methods [3]. Distributions are shown to agree and the finite temperature effects are discussed. Computational capacity is found to become the limiting factor in simulations with increasing accuracy. Other essential aspects of PIMC and its capability in this type of calculations are also discussed. [1] R.P. Feynman: Statistical Mechanics, Addison Wesley, 1972. [2] D.M. Ceperley, Rev.Mod.Phys. 67, 279 (1995). [3] M. Pi, A. Emperador and M. Barranco, Phys.Rev.B 63, 115316 (2001).

  2. Optical detection of brain tumors using quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toms, Steven A.; Daneshvar, Hamid; Muhammad, Osman; Jackson, Heather; Vogelbaum, Michael A.; Bruchez, Marcel

    2005-11-01

    Introduction: Brain tumor margin detection remains a challenging problem in the operative resection of gliomas. A novel nanoparticle, a PEGylated quantum dot, has been shown to be phagocytized by macrophages in vivo. This feature may allow quantum dots to co-localize with brain tumors and serve as an optical aid in the surgical resection of brain tumors. Methods: Sprague-Daly rats were injected intracranially with C6 gliosarcoma cell lines to establish tumors. Two weeks after implantation of brain tumors, PEGylated quantum dots emitting at 705 nm (PEG-705 QD) were injected via the tail vein. Twenty-four hours post PEG-705 QD injection, the animals were sacrificed and their tissues examined. Results: PEGylated quantum dots are avidly phagocytized by macrophages and are taken up by liver, spleen and lymph nodes. Macrophages and microglia co-localize with glioma cells, carrying the optical nanoparticle, the quantum dot. Excitation of the PEG-705 quantum dots gives off a deep red fluorescence detectable with charge coupled device (CCD) cameras, optical spectroscopy units, and in dark field fluorescence microscopy. Conclusions: PEG-705QDs co-localize with brain tumors and may serve as an optical adjunct to aid in the operative resection of gliomas. The particles may be visualized in surgery with CCD cameras or detected by optical spectroscopy.

  3. Fluorescence from a quantum dot and metallic nanosphere hybrid system

    SciTech Connect

    Schindel, Daniel G.; Singh, Mahi R.

    2014-03-31

    We present energy absorption and interference in a quantum dot-metallic nanosphere system embedded on a dielectric substrate. A control field is applied to induce dipole moments in the nanosphere and the quantum dot, and a probe field is applied to monitor absorption. Dipole moments in the quantum dot or the metal nanosphere are induced, both by the external fields and by each other's dipole fields. Thus, in addition to direct polarization, the metal nanosphere and the quantum dot will sense one another via the dipole-dipole interaction. The density matrix method was used to show that the absorption spectrum can be split from one peak to two peaks by the control field, and this can also be done by placing the metal sphere close to the quantum dot. When the two are extremely close together, a self-interaction in the quantum dot produces an asymmetry in the absorption peaks. In addition, the fluorescence efficiency can be quenched by the addition of a metal nanosphere. This hybrid system could be used to create ultra-fast switching and sensing nanodevices.

  4. Long-Term Retention of Fluorescent Quantum Dots In Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballou, Byron; Ernst, Lauren A.; Andreko, Susan; Eructiez, Marcel P.; Lagerholm, B. Christoffer; Waggoner, Alan S.

    Quantum dots that emit in the near-infrared can be used in vivo to follow circulation, to target the reticuloendothelial system, and to map lymphatic drainage from normal tissues and tumors. We have explored the role of surface charge and passivation by polyethylene glycol in determining circulating lifetimes and sites of deposition. Use of long polyethylene glycol polymers increases circulating lifetime. Changing surface charge can partially direct quantum dots to the liver and spleen, or the lymph nodes. Quantum dots are cleared in the order liver > spleen > bone marrow > lymph nodes. Quantum dots retained by lymph nodes maintained fluorescence for two years, suggesting either that the coating is extremely stable or that some endosomes preserve quantum dot function. We also explored migration from tumors to sentinel lymph nodes using tumor models in mice; surface charge and size make little difference to transport from tumors. Antibody and Fab-conjugates of polymer-coated quantum dots failed to target tumors in vivo, probably because of size.

  5. Multi-Color Emission of Hybrid Block Copolymer-Quantum Dot Microspheres by Controlled Quantum Dot Spatial Isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Kang; Kim, Minsoo; Paek, Kwanyeol; Shin, Jae; Chung, Sunhaeng; Jang, Se; Chae, Weon-Sik; Yi, Gi-Ra; Kim, Bumjoon; Se Gyu Jang Collaboration; Weon-Sik Chae Collaboration; Gi-Ra Yi Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) are promising candidates for multi-color or white light-emitting systems, however, most current systems involve undesired Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between QDs. Herein, we developed multi-color emitting hybrid microspheres with block copolymers (BCPs) and QDs through control of the locations of different-colored QDs in BCP micelles. Hydrogen interaction assisted method was exploited to confine QDs within the BCP spheres without sacrificing any quantum yield efficiency. BCP microspheres with raspberry-like surface structures were prepared by an evaporation-induced self-assembly from an emulsion. When different-colored QDs were independently incorporated into isolated micelles, FRET was completely suppressed because the size of the protective micellar corona was greater than the Forster radius. In contrast, FRET was observed when QDs were concurrently incorporated into the same micelle cores. This spatial control of QDs in microsphere was confirmed by TEM, EDX, PL, and FLIM measurements. Through the isolated BCP micelles, ratiometric control of different colored QDs can display a wide range of colors

  6. Local field effects and metamaterials based on colloidal quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porvatkina, O. V.; Tishchenko, A. A.; Strikhanov, M. N.

    2015-11-01

    Metamaterials are composite structures that exhibit interesting and unusual properties, e.g. negative refractive index. In this article we consider metamaterials based on colloidal quantum dots (CQDs). We investigate these structures taking into account the local field effects and theoretically analyze expressions for permittivity and permeability of metamaterials based on CdSe CQDs. We obtain inequality describing the conditions when material with definite concentration of CQDs is metamaterial. Also we investigate how the values of dielectric polarizability and magnetic polarizability of CQDs depend on the dots radius and properties the material the quantum dots are made of.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of aqueous quantum dots for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui

    Quantum Dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals (1˜20 nm) exhibiting distinctive photoluminescence (PL) properties due to the quantum confinement effect. Having many advantages over organic dyes, such as broad excitation and resistance to photobleaching, QDs are widely used in bioapplications as one of most exciting nanobiotechnologies. To date, most commercial QDs are synthesized through the traditional organometallic method and contain toxic elements, such as cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, etc. The overall goal of this thesis study is to develop an aqueous synthesis method to produce nontoxic quantum dots with strong emission and good stability, suitable for biomedical imaging applications. Firstly, an aqueous, simple, environmentally friendly synthesis method was developed. With cadmium sulfide (CdS) QDs as an example system, various processing parameters and capping molecules were examined to improve the synthesis and optimize the PL properties. The obtained water soluble QDs exhibited ultra small size (˜5 nm), strong PL and good stability. Thereafter, using the aqueous method, the zinc sulfide (ZnS) QDs were synthesized with different capping molecules, i.e., 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) and 3-(mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPS). Especially, via a newly developed capping molecule replacement method, the present ZnS QDs exhibited bright blue emission with a quantum yield of 75% and more than 60 days lifetime in the ambient conditions. Two cytotoxicity tests with human endothelial cells verified the nontoxicity of the ZnS QDs by cell counting with Trypan blue staining and fluorescence assay with Alamar Blue. Taking advantage of the versatile surface chemistry, several strategies were explored to conjugate the water soluble QDs with biomolecules, i.e., antibody and streptavidin. Accordingly, the imaging of Salmonella t. cells and biotinylated microbeads has been successfully demonstrated. In addition, polyethylenimine (PEI)-QDs complex was formed and delivered into PC12 neuronal cells for intracellular imaging with uniform distribution. The water soluble QDs were also embedded in electrospun polymer fibers as fluorescent nanocomposite. In summary, the ease of aqueous processing and the excellent PL properties of the nontoxic water soluble ZnS QDs provide great potential for various in vivo applications.

  8. Quantum Confined Stark Effect in Wide Parabolic Quantum Wells

    E-print Network

    Sylwia Zieli?ska-Raczy?ska; Gerard Czajkowski; David Ziemkiewicz

    2015-07-30

    We show how to compute the optical functions of Wide Parabolic Quantum Wells (WPQWs) exposed to uniform electric F applied in the growth direction, in the excitonic energy region. The effect of the coherence between the electron-hole pair and the electromagnetic field of the propagating wave including the electron-hole screened Coulomb potential is adopted, and the valence band structure is taken into account in the cylindrical approximation. The role of the interaction potential and of the applied electric field, which mix the energy states according to different quantum numbers and create symmetry forbidden transitions, is stressed. We use the Real Density Matrix Approach (RDMA) and an effective e-h potential, which enable to derive analytical expressions for the WPQWs electrooptical functions. Choosing the susceptibility, we performed numerical calculations appropriate to a GaAs/GaAlAs WPQWs. We have obtained a red shift of the absorption maxima (Quantum Confined Stark Effect), asymmetric upon the change of the direction of the applied field (F -> -F), parabolic for the ground state and strongly dependent on the confinement parameters (the QWs sizes), changes in the oscillator strengths, and new peaks related to the states with different parity for electron and hole.

  9. 1.59 {mu}m room temperature emission from metamorphic InAs/InGaAs quantum dots grown on GaAs substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Seravalli, L.; Frigeri, P.; Trevisi, G.; Franchi, S.

    2008-05-26

    We present design, preparation by molecular beam epitaxy, and characterization by photoluminescence of long-wavelength emitting, strain-engineered quantum dot nanostructures grown on GaAs, with InGaAs confining layers and additional InAlAs barriers embedding InAs dots. Quantum dot strain induced by metamorphic lower confining layers is instrumental to redshift the emission, while a-few-nanometer thick InAlAs barriers allow to significantly increase the activation energy of carriers' thermal escape. This approach results in room temperature emission at 1.59 {mu}m and, therefore, is a viable method to achieve efficient emission in the 1.55 {mu}m window and beyond from quantum dots grown on GaAs substrates.

  10. Cooper pair splitting in parallel quantum dot Josephson junctions

    PubMed Central

    Deacon, R. S.; Oiwa, A.; Sailer, J.; Baba, S.; Kanai, Y.; Shibata, K.; Hirakawa, K.; Tarucha, S.

    2015-01-01

    Devices to generate on-demand non-local spin entangled electron pairs have potential application as solid-state analogues of the entangled photon sources used in quantum optics. Recently, Andreev entanglers that use two quantum dots as filters to adiabatically split and separate the quasi-particles of Cooper pairs have shown efficient splitting through measurements of the transport charge but the spin entanglement has not been directly confirmed. Here we report measurements on parallel quantum dot Josephson junction devices allowing a Josephson current to flow due to the adiabatic splitting and recombination of the Cooper pair between the dots. The evidence for this non-local transport is confirmed through study of the non-dissipative supercurrent while tuning independently the dots with local electrical gates. As the Josephson current arises only from processes that maintain the coherence, we can confirm that a current flows from the spatially separated entangled pair. PMID:26130172

  11. QUANTUM METROLOGY WITH LATTICE-CONFINED ULTRACOLD SR ATOMS

    E-print Network

    Jin, Deborah

    QUANTUM METROLOGY WITH LATTICE-CONFINED ULTRACOLD SR ATOMS A. D. LUDLOW,1,2 G. K. CAMPBELL,1 S, 188300, Russia Quantum state engineering of ultracold matter and precise control of optical fields have states allow us to minimize quantum decoherence while strengthening the clock signal. For 87 Sr, we

  12. Thermopower of few-electron quantum dots with Kondo correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Lvzhou

    2015-03-01

    The thermopower of few-electron quantum dots is crucially influenced by on-dot electron-electron interactions, particularly in the presence of Kondo correlations. We present a comprehensive picture which elucidates the underlying relations between the thermopower and the spectral density function of two-level quantum dots. The effects of various electronic states, including the Kondo states originating from both spin and orbital degrees of freedom, are clearly unraveled. With these insights, we have exemplified an effective and viable way to control the sign of thermopower of Kondo-correlated quantum dots. This is realized by tuning the temperature and by selecting the appropriate level spacing and Coulomb repulsion strength. Such a physical picture is affirmed by accurate numerical data obtained with a hierarchical equations of motion approach. Our understandings and findings provide useful insights into controlling the direction of electric (heat) current through a quantum dot by applying a temperature (voltage) gradient across the two coupling leads. This may have important implications for novel thermoelectric applications of quantum dots. The support from the Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants No. 21033008, No. 21233007, No. 21303175, and No. 21322305) and the Strategic Priority Research Program (B) of the CAS (XDB01020000) is gratefully appreciated.

  13. Effect of carrier dynamics and temperature on two-state lasing in semiconductor quantum dot lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Korenev, V. V. Savelyev, A. V.; Zhukov, A. E.; Omelchenko, A. V.; Maximov, M. V.

    2013-10-15

    It is analytically shown that the both the charge carrier dynamics in quantum dots and their capture into the quantum dots from the matrix material have a significant effect on two-state lasing phenomenon in quantum dot lasers. In particular, the consideration of desynchronization in electron and hole capture into quantum dots allows one to describe the quenching of ground-state lasing observed at high injection currents both qualitatevely and quantitatively. At the same time, an analysis of the charge carrier dynamics in a single quantum dot allowed us to describe the temperature dependences of the emission power via the ground- and excited-state optical transitions of quantum dots.

  14. Compact Interconnection Networks Based on Quantum Dots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir; Toomarian, Nikzad; Modarress, Katayoon; Spotnitz, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    Architectures that would exploit the distinct characteristics of quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) have been proposed for digital communication networks that connect advanced digital computing circuits. In comparison with networks of wires in conventional very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuitry, the networks according to the proposed architectures would be more compact. The proposed architectures would make it possible to implement complex interconnection schemes that are required for some advanced parallel-computing algorithms and that are difficult (and in many cases impractical) to implement in VLSI circuitry. The difficulty of implementation in VLSI and the major potential advantage afforded by QCA were described previously in Implementing Permutation Matrices by Use of Quantum Dots (NPO-20801), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 10 (October 2001), page 42. To recapitulate: Wherever two wires in a conventional VLSI circuit cross each other and are required not to be in electrical contact with each other, there must be a layer of electrical insulation between them. This, in turn, makes it necessary to resort to a noncoplanar and possibly a multilayer design, which can be complex, expensive, and even impractical. As a result, much of the cost of designing VLSI circuits is associated with minimization of data routing and assignment of layers to minimize crossing of wires. Heretofore, these considerations have impeded the development of VLSI circuitry to implement complex, advanced interconnection schemes. On the other hand, with suitable design and under suitable operating conditions, QCA-based signal paths can be allowed to cross each other in the same plane without adverse effect. In principle, this characteristic could be exploited to design compact, coplanar, simple (relative to VLSI) QCA-based networks to implement complex, advanced interconnection schemes. The proposed architectures require two advances in QCA-based circuitry beyond basic QCA-based binary-signal wires described in the cited prior article. One of these advances would be the development of QCA-based wires capable of bidirectional transmission of signals. The other advance would be the development of QCA circuits capable of high-impedance state outputs. The high-impedance states would be utilized along with the 0- and 1-state outputs of QCA.

  15. Role of quantum confinement in luminescence efficiency of group IV nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Barbagiovanni, E. G.; Lockwood, D. J.; Rowell, N. L.; Costa Filho, R. N.; Berbezier, I.; Amiard, G.; Favre, L.; Ronda, A.; Faustini, M.; Grosso, D.

    2014-01-28

    Experimental results obtained previously for the photoluminescence efficiency (PL{sub eff}) of Ge quantum dots (QDs) are theoretically studied. A log-log plot of PL{sub eff} versus QD diameter (D) resulted in an identical slope for each Ge QD sample only when E{sub G}?(D{sup 2}+D){sup ?1}. We identified that above D ? 6.2?nm: E{sub G}?D{sup ?1} due to a changing effective mass (EM), while below D ? 4.6?nm: E{sub G}?D{sup ?2} due to electron/hole confinement. We propose that as the QD size is initially reduced, the EM is reduced, which increases the Bohr radius and interface scattering until eventually pure quantum confinement effects dominate at small D.

  16. Two-photon absorption and multi-exciton generation in lead salt quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilha, Lazaro A.; Nootz, Gero; Webster, Scott; Hagan, David J.; Van Stryland, Eric W.; Levina, Larissa; Sukhovatkin, Vlad; Sargent, Edward H.

    2010-02-01

    Understanding the nonlinear optical processes in semiconductor nanostructures leads to possible applications in areas including laser amplifiers, optical switches, and solar cells. Here we present a study of the frequency degenerate two-photon absorption (2PA) spectrum of a series of PbS and PbSe quantum dots (QDs). The influence of the quantum confinement is analyzed using a four-band model which considers the mixing of valence and conduction bands. In contrast to our observations of CdSe QDs, the present results point to an increase of the 2PA cross-section (normalized by the QD volume) as the quantum dot size is made smaller. This is explained by the symmetry between the valence and conduction bands which allows the density of states to remain high even for small QDs. A study of the ultrafast carrier dynamics of the PbS quantum dots is also presented. Through nondegenerate femtosecond pump-probe experiments we show evidence of multi-exciton generation with quantum yield (number of excitons generated per absorbed photon) up to 170% for excitation with h?> 3 Eg (where Eg is the bandgap energy).

  17. Size-dependent charge storage in amorphous silicon quantum dots embedded in silicon nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Nae-Man; Jeon, Sang-Hun; Yang, Hyun-Deok; Hwang, Hyunsang; Park, Seong-Ju; Choi, Suk-Ho

    2003-08-01

    Size-dependent charge storage was observed in metal-insulator-semiconductor structures containing amorphous Si quantum dots (a-Si QDs) grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. For a-Si QDs as large as 2 nm in diameter, one electron or one hole was stored in each a-Si QD. For small-sized a-Si QDs of 1.4 nm in diameter, however, the width of capacitance-voltage hysteresis was decreased, indicating that the charge density in the a-Si QDs was reduced. This can be attributed to the lowered tunneling barrier in the small-sized a-Si QDs resulting from a large quantum confinement effect. Long-term charge storage was observed in the fully charged a-Si QDs; this is attributed to a suppression of the discharge process by electrostatic repulsion among the charged dots.

  18. Oscillator strength of impurity doped quantum dots: Influence of Gaussian white noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Suvajit; Ganguly, Jayanta; Saha, Surajit; Ghosh, Manas

    2015-10-01

    We make a rigorous analysis of profiles of oscillator strength of a doped quantum dot in the presence and absence of noise. The noise employed here is a Gaussian white noise. The quantum dot is doped with repulsive Gaussian impurity. Noise has been administered additively and multiplicatively to the system. A perpendicular magnetic field is also present and a static external electric field has been applied. Profile of OS has been minutely monitored with variation of several important quantities such as confinement energy, electric field strength, dopant location, magnetic field strength, dopant potential, noise strength, Al concentration, and mode of application of noise. The profiles are enriched with significant subtleties and often reveal enhancement and maximization of oscillator strength in the presence of noise. These observations are indeed useful in the study of linear and nonlinear optical properties of doped QD systems which bear sufficient technological importance.

  19. Structure of lateral two-electron quantum dot molecules in electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popsueva, V.; Nepstad, R.; Birkeland, T.; Førre, M.; Hansen, J. P.; Lindroth, E.; Waltersson, E.

    2007-07-01

    The energy levels of laterally coupled parabolic double quantum dots are calculated for varying interdot distances. Electron-electron interaction is shown to dominate the spectra: In the diatomic molecule limit of large interdot separation, the two nearly degenerate singlet and triplet ground states are followed by a narrow band of four singlet and four triplet states. The energy spacing between the ground state and the first band of excited states scales directly with the confinement strength of the quantum wells. Similar level separation and band structure are found when the double dot is exposed to a perpendicular magnetic field. Conversely, an electric field parallel to the interdot direction results in a strong level mixing and a narrow transition from a localized state to a covalent diatomic molecular state.

  20. Analysis of the efficiency of intermediate band solar cells based on quantum dot supercrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Heshmati, S; Golmohammadi, S; Abedi, K; Taleb, H

    2014-03-28

    We have studied the influence of the quantum-dot (QD) width and the quantum-dot conduction band (QD-CB) offset on the efficiency of quantum-dot intermediate band solar cells (QD-IBSCs). Simulation results demonstrate that with increasing QD-CB offset and decreasing QD width, the maximum efficiency is achieved. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  1. Controlled Photon Switch Assisted by Coupled Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ming-Xing; Ma, Song-Ya; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Wang, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Quantum switch is a primitive element in quantum network communication. In contrast to previous switch schemes on one degree of freedom (DOF) of quantum systems, we consider controlled switches of photon system with two DOFs. These controlled photon switches are constructed by exploring the optical selection rules derived from the quantum-dot spins in one-sided optical microcavities. Several double controlled-NOT gate on different joint systems are greatly simplified with an auxiliary DOF of the controlling photon. The photon switches show that two DOFs of photons can be independently transmitted in quantum networks. This result reduces the quantum resources for quantum network communication. PMID:26095049

  2. Controlled Photon Switch Assisted by Coupled Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Ming-Xing; Ma, Song-Ya; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Wang, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Quantum switch is a primitive element in quantum network communication. In contrast to previous switch schemes on one degree of freedom (DOF) of quantum systems, we consider controlled switches of photon system with two DOFs. These controlled photon switches are constructed by exploring the optical selection rules derived from the quantum-dot spins in one-sided optical microcavities. Several double controlled-NOT gate on different joint systems are greatly simplified with an auxiliary DOF of the controlling photon. The photon switches show that two DOFs of photons can be independently transmitted in quantum networks. This result reduces the quantum resources for quantum network communication. PMID:26095049

  3. Dependence of heavy hole exciton binding energy and the strain distribution in GaAs1-xBix/GaAs finite spherical quantum dots on Bi content in the material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Subhasis; Sharma, Akant Sagar; Das, T. D.; Dhar, S.

    2015-10-01

    The ground state binding energy of heavy hole excitons confined in GaAs1-xBix/GaAs spherical quantum dots is calculated as a function of dot radius and the Bi content using a Variational method based on 1-s hydrogenic wave functions with effective mass approximation. The parameter shows strong dependence on the Bi mole fraction x, particularly at smaller values of the dot radii. The strain associated with the quantum dot is found to decrease exponentially with increase in dot radius and shows a linear increase with Bi composition.

  4. Quantum confinement in GaP nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect

    Laurich, B.K.; Smith, D.C.; Healy, M.D.

    1994-06-01

    We have prepared GaP and GaAs nanoclusters from organometallic condensation reactions of E[Si(ChH{sub 3})3]3 (E = P, As) and GaCl{sub 3}. The size of the as synthesized clusters is 10 {Angstrom} to 15 {Angstrom}. Larger clusters of 20 {Angstrom} to 30 {Angstrom} size were obtained by thermal annealing of the as grown material. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy confirm the high crystalline quality. A lattice contraction of 6.7% could be seen for 10 {Angstrom} sized GaAs clusters. The clusters are nearly spherical in shape. Optical absorption spectra show a distinct line which can be assigned to the fundamental transition of the quantum confined electronic state. The measured blue shift, with respect to the GaP bulk absorption edge is 0.53 eV. As the cluster is smaller than the exciton radius, we can calculate the cluster size from this blue shift and obtain 20.2 {Angstrom}, consistent with the results from X-ray diffraction of 19.5 {Angstrom} for the same sample.

  5. InGaAs quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy for light emission on Si substrates.

    PubMed

    Bru-Chevallier, C; El Akra, A; Pelloux-Gervais, D; Dumont, H; Canut, B; Chauvin, N; Regreny, P; Gendry, M; Patriarche, G; Jancu, J M; Even, J; Noe, P; Calvo, V; Salem, B

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study is to achieve homogeneous, high density and dislocation free InGaAs quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy for light emission on silicon substrates. This work is part of a project which aims at overcoming the severe limitation suffered by silicon regarding its optoelectronic applications, especially efficient light emission device. For this study, one of the key points is to overcome the expected type II InGaAs/Si interface by inserting the InGaAs quantum dots inside a thin silicon quantum well in SiO2 fabricated on a SOI substrate. Confinement effects of the Si/SiO2 quantum well are expected to heighten the indirect silicon bandgap and then give rise to a type I interface with the InGaAs quantum dots. Band structure and optical properties are modeled within the tight binding approximation: direct energy bandgap is demonstrated in SiO2/Si/InAs/Si/SiO2 heterostructures for very thin Si layers and absorption coefficient is calculated. Thinned SOI substrates are successfully prepared using successive etching process resulting in a 2 nm-thick Si layer on top of silica. Another key point to get light emission from InGaAs quantum dots is to avoid any dislocations or defects in the quantum dots. We investigate the quantum dot size distribution, density and structural quality at different V/III beam equivalent pressure ratios, different growth temperatures and as a function of the amount of deposited material. This study was performed for InGaAs quantum dots grown on Si(001) substrates. The capping of InGaAs quantum dots by a silicon epilayer is performed in order to get efficient photoluminescence emission from quantum dots. Scanning transmission electronic microscopy images are used to study the structural quality of the quantum dots. Dislocation free In50Ga50As QDs are successfully obtained on a (001) silicon substrate. The analysis of QDs capped with silicon by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry in a channeling geometry is also presented. PMID:22400316

  6. Effects of electric field on thermal and tunneling carrier escape in InAs/GaAs quantum dot solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Yushuai; Polly, Stephen; Hellström, Staffan; Driscoll, Kristina; Forbes, David V.; Hubbard, Seth M.; Roland, Paul J.; Ellingson, Randy J.

    2014-03-01

    The effects of electric field on carrier escape in InAs/GaAs quantum dots embedded in a p-i-n solar cell structures have been studied by quantum efficiency. Via band structure simulation, effective barrier height of carriers inside QDs is reduced with increasing local electric field, so tunneling and thermal escape are enhanced. At 300K, when electric field intensity is below 40kV/cm, thermal escape is dominant in all confined states in QDs; when electric field intensity is above 40kV/cm, tunneling is dominant in shallow confined states and thermal escape is dominant in the ground state of QDs.

  7. Sunlight assisted photodegradation by tin oxide quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shajira, P. S.; Prabhu, V. Ganeshchandra; Bushiri, M. Junaid

    2015-12-01

    Rutile phase of SnO2 quantum dots of average size of 2.5 nm were synthesized at a growth temperature of 70 °C and characterized with XRD, TEM, FTIR and Raman analysis. The effective strain within the lattice of SnO2 quantum dots was calculated by Williamson-Hall method. The broad peaks in XRD as well as Raman spectra and the presence of Raman bands at 569 and 432 cm-1 are due to lower crystallinity of nanoparticles. The optical band gap of SnO2 quantum dots was increased to 3.75 eV attributed to the quantum size effect. SnO2 quantum dots were annealed in air atmosphere and the crystallite size of the particles increased with annealing temperature. Sunlight assisted photodegration property of SnO2 quantum dots was investigated with vanillin as a model system and it shows the photodegradation efficiency of 87%. The photoluminescence and photodegradation efficiency of nanocrystallite SnO2 decreases with increase of crystallite size contributed to the reduction in population of defects and surface area.

  8. Size-Minimized Quantum Dots for Molecular and Cellular Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Andrew M.; Wen, Mary M.; Wang, May D.; Nie, Shuming

    Semiconductor quantum dots, tiny light-emitting particles on thenanometer scale, are emerging as a new class of fluorescent labels for a broad range of molecular and cellular applications. In comparison with organic dyes and fluorescent proteins, they have unique optical and electronic properties such as size-tunable light emission, intense signal brightness, resistance to photobleaching, and broadband absorption for simultaneous excitation of multiple fluorescence colors. Here we report new advances in minimizing the hydrodynamic sizes of quantum dots using multidentate and multifunctional polymer coatings. A key finding is that a linear polymer containing grafted amine and thiol coordinating groups can coat nanocrystals and lead to a highly compact size, exceptional colloidal stability, strong resistance to photobleaching, and high fluorescence quantum yields. This has allowed a new generation of bright and stable quantum dots with small hydrodynamic diameters between 5.6 and 9.7 nm with tunable fluorescence emission from the visible (515 nm) to the near infrared (720 nm). These quantum dots are well suited for molecular and cellular imaging applications in which the nanoparticle hydrodynamic size needs to be minimized. Together with the novel properties of new strain-tunable quantum dots, these findings will be especially useful for multicolor and super-resolution imaging at the single-molecule level.

  9. Carbon Quantum Dots for Zebrafish Fluorescence Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yan-Fei; Li, Yu-Hao; Fang, Yang-Wu; Xu, Yang; Wei, Xiao-Mi; Yin, Xue-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Carbon quantum dots (C-QDs) are becoming a desirable alternative to metal-based QDs and dye probes owing to their high biocompatibility, low toxicity, ease of preparation, and unique photophysical properties. Herein, we describe fluorescence bioimaging of zebrafish using C-QDs as probe in terms of the preparation of C-QDs, zebrafish husbandry, embryo harvesting, and introduction of C-QDs into embryos and larvae by soaking and microinjection. The multicolor of C-QDs was validated with their imaging for zebrafish embryo. The distribution of C-QDs in zebrafish embryos and larvae were successfully observed from their fluorescence emission. the bio-toxicity of C-QDs was tested with zebrafish as model and C-QDs do not interfere to the development of zebrafish embryo. All of the results confirmed the high biocompatibility and low toxicity of C-QDs as imaging probe. The absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion route (ADME) of C-QDs in zebrafish was revealed by their distribution. Our work provides the useful information for the researchers interested in studying with zebrafish as a model and the applications of C-QDs. The operations related zebrafish are suitable for the study of the toxicity, adverse effects, transport, and biocompatibility of nanomaterials as well as for drug screening with zebrafish as model. PMID:26135470

  10. Polymersomes containing quantum dots for cellular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Camblin, Marine; Detampel, Pascal; Kettiger, Helene; Wu, Dalin; Balasubramanian, Vimalkumar; Huwyler, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are highly fluorescent and stable probes for cellular and molecular imaging. However, poor intracellular delivery, stability, and toxicity of QDs in biological compartments hamper their use in cellular imaging. To overcome these limitations, we developed a simple and effective method to load QDs into polymersomes (Ps) made of poly(dimethylsiloxane)-poly(2-methyloxazoline) (PDMS-PMOXA) diblock copolymers without compromising the characteristics of the QDs. These Ps showed no cellular toxicity and QDs were successfully incorporated into the aqueous compartment of the Ps as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Ps containing QDs showed colloidal stability over a period of 6 weeks if stored in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at physiological pH (7.4). Efficient intracellular delivery of Ps containing QDs was achieved in human liver carcinoma cells (HepG2) and was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Ps containing QDs showed a time- and concentration-dependent uptake in HepG2 cells and exhibited better intracellular stability than liposomes. Our results suggest that Ps containing QDs can be used as nanoprobes for cellular imaging. PMID:24872691

  11. Carbon Quantum Dots for Zebrafish Fluorescence Imaging.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yan-Fei; Li, Yu-Hao; Fang, Yang-Wu; Xu, Yang; Wei, Xiao-Mi; Yin, Xue-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Carbon quantum dots (C-QDs) are becoming a desirable alternative to metal-based QDs and dye probes owing to their high biocompatibility, low toxicity, ease of preparation, and unique photophysical properties. Herein, we describe fluorescence bioimaging of zebrafish using C-QDs as probe in terms of the preparation of C-QDs, zebrafish husbandry, embryo harvesting, and introduction of C-QDs into embryos and larvae by soaking and microinjection. The multicolor of C-QDs was validated with their imaging for zebrafish embryo. The distribution of C-QDs in zebrafish embryos and larvae were successfully observed from their fluorescence emission. the bio-toxicity of C-QDs was tested with zebrafish as model and C-QDs do not interfere to the development of zebrafish embryo. All of the results confirmed the high biocompatibility and low toxicity of C-QDs as imaging probe. The absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion route (ADME) of C-QDs in zebrafish was revealed by their distribution. Our work provides the useful information for the researchers interested in studying with zebrafish as a model and the applications of C-QDs. The operations related zebrafish are suitable for the study of the toxicity, adverse effects, transport, and biocompatibility of nanomaterials as well as for drug screening with zebrafish as model. PMID:26135470

  12. Colloidal quantum dot photodetectors (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adinolfi, Valerio; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-08-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are emerging solution processed materials combining low cost, easy deposition on large and flexible substrates, and bandgap tunability. The latter feature, which allows spectral tuning of the absorption profile of the semiconductor, makes these materials particularly attractive for light detection applications. Lead sulfide (PbS) CQDs, in particular, have shown astonishing performance as a light sensitive material operating at visible and infrared (IR) wavelengths. Early studies of PbS CQDs used as a photosensitive resistor (photoconductor) showed an impressive responsivity - exceeding 1000 A/W - and a detectivity (D*) higher then 10^13 Jones. This impressive D* was preserved in the successive development of the first PbS CQD photodiode, showing the possibility to realize fast - f_3db > 1Mhz - and sensitive IR detectors. Currently, the field is moving toward the development of hybrid devices and phototransitors. PbS CQDs have been combined in field effect transistors (FETs) with graphene and MoS2 channels, showing ultra-high gain (exceeding 10^8 electrons/photons) and high D*. Recently a photo-junction FET (photo-JFET) has been reported that breaks the inherent dark current/gain/bandwidth compromise affecting photoconductive light detectors. With this presentation we offer a broad overview on CQD photodetection highlighting the past achievements, the benefits, the challenges and the prospects for the future research on this field.

  13. Toxicity of carbon group quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanada, Sanshiro; Fujioka, Kouki; Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Manabe, Noriyoshi; Hirakuri, Kenji; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2009-02-01

    Carbon group quantum dots (QDs) such as carbon, silicon and germanium, have potential for biomedical applications such as bio-imaging markers and drug delivery systems and are expected to demonstrate several advantages over conventional fluorescent QDs such as CdSe, especially in biocompatibility. We assessed biocompatibility of newly manufactured silicon QDs (Si-QDs), by means of both MTT assay and LDH assay for HeLa cells in culture and thereby detected the cellular toxicity by administration of high concentration of Si-QD (>1000 ?g/mL), while we detected the high toxicity by administration of over 100 ?g/mL of CdSe-QDs. As a hypothesis for the cause of the cellular toxicity, we measured oxy-radical generation from the QDs by means of luminol reaction method. We detected generation of oxy-radicals from the Si-QDs and those were decreased by radical scavenger such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). We concluded that the Si-QD application to cultured cells in high concentration led cell membrane damage by oxy-radicals and combination usage with radical scavenger is one of the answers.

  14. Carbon Quantum Dots for Zebrafish Fluorescence Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yan-Fei; Li, Yu-Hao; Fang, Yang-Wu; Xu, Yang; Wei, Xiao-Mi; Yin, Xue-Bo

    2015-07-01

    Carbon quantum dots (C-QDs) are becoming a desirable alternative to metal-based QDs and dye probes owing to their high biocompatibility, low toxicity, ease of preparation, and unique photophysical properties. Herein, we describe fluorescence bioimaging of zebrafish using C-QDs as probe in terms of the preparation of C-QDs, zebrafish husbandry, embryo harvesting, and introduction of C-QDs into embryos and larvae by soaking and microinjection. The multicolor of C-QDs was validated with their imaging for zebrafish embryo. The distribution of C-QDs in zebrafish embryos and larvae were successfully observed from their fluorescence emission. the bio-toxicity of C-QDs was tested with zebrafish as model and C-QDs do not interfere to the development of zebrafish embryo. All of the results confirmed the high biocompatibility and low toxicity of C-QDs as imaging probe. The absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion route (ADME) of C-QDs in zebrafish was revealed by their distribution. Our work provides the useful information for the researchers interested in studying with zebrafish as a model and the applications of C-QDs. The operations related zebrafish are suitable for the study of the toxicity, adverse effects, transport, and biocompatibility of nanomaterials as well as for drug screening with zebrafish as model.

  15. Counted Sb donors in Si quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Pacheco, Jose; Bielejec, Edward; Perry, Daniel; Ten Eyck, Gregory; Bishop, Nathaniel; Wendt, Joel; Luhman, Dwight; Carroll, Malcolm; Lilly, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is critical for donor spin qubits in semiconductor based quantum computing. We have developed techniques using a focused ion beam and a diode detector integrated next to a silicon MOS single electron transistor to gain such control. With the diode detector operating in linear mode, the numbers of ions implanted have been counted and single ion implants have been detected. Poisson statistics in the number of ions implanted have been observed. Transport measurements performed on samples with counted number of implants have been performed and regular coulomb blockade and charge offsets observed. The capacitances to various gates are found to be in agreement with QCAD simulations for an electrostatically defined dot. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  16. Direct band gap silicon quantum dots achieved via electronegative capping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poddubny, A. N.; Dohnalová, K.

    2014-12-01

    We propose a theoretical concept of switching between direct and indirect band gap character in silicon quantum dots (SiQDs) by the use of surface potential induced by the ligands or environment in which SiQDs are immersed—both cases are studied. Theoretical simulations show that the density of states of confined electrons in both real and k space can be dramatically altered by engineering the local electrostatic field. Especially interesting is modification of the lowest excited states, which appear in the ? valley for electronegative field that "pulls" electrons towards the SiQD surface. Opposite sign of the field does not have such effect at all. Hence we conclude a general trend of promotion of directlike radiative transitions by electronegative capping/environment. The rates are enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude compared to "normal" SiQDs, which can be as high as the values characteristic for direct band gap semiconductors. This model is in agreement with observed experimental properties of SiQDs with covalently bonded electronegative ligands.

  17. Harmonic Generation in InAs Nanowire Double Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroer, M. D.; Jung, M.; Petersson, K. D.; Petta, J. R.

    2012-02-01

    InAs nanowires provide a useful platform for investigating the physics of confined electrons subjected to strong spin-orbit coupling. Using tunable, bottom-gated double quantum dots, we demonstrate electrical driving of single spin resonance.ootnotetextS. Nadj-Perge et al., Nature 468, 1084 (2010)^,ootnotetextM.D. Schroer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 176811 (2011) We observe a standard spin response when the applied microwave frequency equals the Larmour frequency f0. However, we also observe an anomalous signal at frequencies fn= f0/ n for integer n up to n ˜5. This is equivalent to generation of harmonics of the spin resonance field. While a f0/2 signal has observed,ootnotetextE.A. Laird et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 246601 (2007) we believe this is the first observation of higher harmonics in spin resonance. Possible mechanisms will be discussed.ootnotetextE.I. Rashba, arXiv:1110.6569 (2011) Acknowledgements: Research supported by the Sloan and Packard Foundations, the NSF, and Army Research Office.

  18. On-chip generation and guiding of quantum light from a site-controlled quantum dot

    SciTech Connect

    Jamil, Ayesha; Farrer, Ian; Griffiths, Jonathan P.; Jones, Geb A. C.; Ritchie, David A.; Skiba-Szymanska, Joanna; Kalliakos, Sokratis; Ward, Martin B.; Ellis, David J. P.; Shields, Andrew J.; Schwagmann, Andre; Brody, Yarden; Cambridge Research Laboratory, Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge, CB4 0GZ

    2014-03-10

    We demonstrate the emission and routing of single photons along a semiconductor chip originating from carrier recombination in an actively positioned InAs quantum dot. Device–scale arrays of quantum dots are formed by a two–step regrowth process. We precisely locate the propagating region of a unidirectional photonic crystal waveguide with respect to the quantum dot nucleation site. Under pulsed optical excitation, the multiphoton emission probability from the waveguide's exit is 12%?±?5% before any background correction. Our results are a major step towards the deterministic integration of a quantum emitter with the waveguiding components of photonic quantum circuits.

  19. Quantum Confinement in Hydrogen Bond of DNA and RNA

    E-print Network

    da Silva dos Santos; Elso Drigo Filho; Regina Maria Ricotta

    2015-02-09

    The hydrogen bond is a fundamental ingredient to stabilize the DNA and RNA macromolecules. The main contribution of this work is to describe quantitatively this interaction as a consequence of the quantum confinement of the hydrogen. The results for the free and confined system are compared with experimental data. The formalism to compute the energy gap of the vibration motion used to identify the spectrum lines is the Variational Method allied to Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics.

  20. Deterministic Teleportation of Electrons in a Quantum Dot Nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Visser, R. L.; Blaauboer, M.

    2006-06-01

    We present a proposal for deterministic quantum teleportation of electrons in a semiconductor nanostructure consisting of a single and a double quantum dot. The central issue addressed in this Letter is how to design and implement the most efficient—in terms of the required number of single and two-qubit operations—deterministic teleportation protocol for this system. Using a group-theoretical analysis, we show that deterministic teleportation requires a minimum of three single-qubit rotations and two entangling (SWAP) operations. These can be implemented for spin qubits in quantum dots using electron-spin resonance (for single-spin rotations) and exchange interaction (for SWAP operations).

  1. Low saturation fluence antiresonant quantum dot SESAMs for MIXSEL integration

    E-print Network

    Keller, Ursula

    Low saturation fluence antiresonant quantum dot SESAMs for MIXSEL integration Aude) semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) offer a larger design freedom than standard quantum well (QW) SESAMs. QD density, QD growth conditions, number of QD-layers, and post-growth annealing were optimized

  2. Temperature dependence of quantum dot fluorescence assisted by plasmonic nanoantennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le-Van, Q.; Le Roux, X.; Teperik, T. V.; Habert, B.; Marquier, F.; Greffet, J.-J.; Degiron, A.

    2015-02-01

    Optical antennas based on noble metal nanoparticles can increase the photoluminescence of quantum dots, but the exact strength of this enhancement depends on the brightness (i.e., the intrinsic quantum yield ?i ) of the emitters. Here we perform temperature-dependent measurements on a system of PbS colloidal quantum dots coupled with Au ring arrays that bring quantitative insight into this phenomenon. We show that although the boost in photoluminescence is lower at cryogenic temperatures where the nanocrystals become very bright emitters, the spectral signature of this enhancement is remarkably independent of ?i. These observations remain true even at wavelengths where the losses by absorption in the metal nanoparticles considerably increase due to the excitation of localized plasmon resonances, in contradiction with standard theory that treats the emitters as a collection of two-level systems. We propose a mechanism in which the quantum dots are modeled as multilevel and inhomogeneously broadened emitters to account for these findings.

  3. Long-Range Spin Transfer in Triple Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, R.; Granger, G.; Gaudreau, L.; Kam, A.; Pioro-Ladrière, M.; Studenikin, S. A.; Zawadzki, P.; Sachrajda, A. S.; Platero, G.

    2014-05-01

    Tunneling in a quantum coherent structure is not restricted to only nearest neighbors. Hopping between distant sites is possible via the virtual occupation of otherwise avoided intermediate states. Here we report the observation of long-range transitions in the transport through three quantum dots coupled in series. A single electron is delocalized between the left and right quantum dots, while the center one remains always empty. Superpositions are formed, and both charge and spin are exchanged between the outermost dots. The delocalized electron acts as a quantum bus transferring the spin state from one end to the other. Spin selection is enabled by spin correlations. The process is detected via the observation of narrow resonances which are insensitive to Pauli spin blockade.

  4. Long-range spin transfer in triple quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, R; Granger, G; Gaudreau, L; Kam, A; Pioro-Ladrière, M; Studenikin, S A; Zawadzki, P; Sachrajda, A S; Platero, G

    2014-05-01

    Tunneling in a quantum coherent structure is not restricted to only nearest neighbors. Hopping between distant sites is possible via the virtual occupation of otherwise avoided intermediate states. Here we report the observation of long-range transitions in the transport through three quantum dots coupled in series. A single electron is delocalized between the left and right quantum dots, while the center one remains always empty. Superpositions are formed, and both charge and spin are exchanged between the outermost dots. The delocalized electron acts as a quantum bus transferring the spin state from one end to the other. Spin selection is enabled by spin correlations. The process is detected via the observation of narrow resonances which are insensitive to Pauli spin blockade. PMID:24836266

  5. Understanding quantum confinement in nanowires: basics, applications and possible laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Noor S.

    2014-10-01

    A comprehensive investigation of quantum confinement in nanowires has been carried out. Though applied to silicon nanowires (SiNWs), it is general and applicable to all nanowires. Fundamentals and applications of quantum confinement in nanowires and possible laws obeyed by these nanowires, have been investigated. These laws may serve as backbones of nanowire science and technology. The relationship between energy band gap and nanowire diameter has been studied. This relationship appears to be universal. A thorough review indicates that the first principles results for quantum confinement vary widely. The possible cause of this variation has been examined. Surface passivation and surface reconstruction of nanowires have been elucidated. It has been found that quantum confinement owes its origin to surface strain resulting from surface passivation and surface reconstruction and hence thin nanowires may actually be crystalline-core/amorphous-shell (c-Si/a-Si) nanowires. Experimental data available in the literature corroborate with the suggestion. The study also reveals an intrinsic relationship between quantum confinement and the surface amorphicity of nanowires. It demonstrates that surface amorphicity may be an important tool to investigate the electronic, optoelectronic and sensorial properties of quantum-confined nanowires.

  6. Quantum Entanglement and Teleportation of Quantum-Dot States in Microcavities

    E-print Network

    A. Miranowicz; S. K. Ozdemir; Yu-xi Liu; G. Chimczak; M. Koashi; N. Imoto

    2007-02-03

    Generation and control of quantum entanglement are studied in an equivalent-neighbor system of spatially-separated semiconductor quantum dots coupled by a single-mode cavity field. Generation of genuinely multipartite entanglement of qubit states realized by conduction-band electron-spin states in quantum dots is discussed. A protocol for quantum teleportation of electron-spin states via cavity decay is briefly described.

  7. Emission energy control of semiconductor quantum dots using phase change material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanazawa, Shohei; Sato, Yu; Yamamura, Ariyoshi; Saiki, Toshiharu

    2015-03-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots have paid much attention as it is a promising candidate for quantum, optical devices, such as quantum computer and quantum dot laser. We propose a local emission energy control method of semiconductor quantum dots using applying strain by volume expansion of phase change material. Phase change material can change its phase crystalline to amorphous, and the volume expand by its phase change. This method can control energy shift direction and amount by amorphous religion and depth. Using this method, we matched emission energy of two InAs/InP quantum dots. This achievement can connect to observing superradiance phenomenon and quantum dot coupling effect.

  8. Fast gain and phase recovery of semiconductor optical amplifiers based on submonolayer quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, Bastian; Owschimikow, Nina; Schulze, Jan-Hindrik; Rosales, Ricardo; Kaptan, Yücel; Kolarczik, Mirco; Switaiski, Thomas; Strittmatter, André; Bimberg, Dieter; Pohl, Udo W.; Woggon, Ulrike

    2015-11-01

    Submonolayer quantum dots as active medium in opto-electronic devices promise to combine the high density of states of quantum wells with the fast recovery dynamics of self-assembled quantum dots. We investigate the gain and phase recovery dynamics of a semiconductor optical amplifier based on InAs submonolayer quantum dots in the regime of linear operation by one- and two-color heterodyne pump-probe spectroscopy. We find an as fast recovery dynamics as for quantum dot-in-a-well structures, reaching 2 ps at moderate injection currents. The effective quantum well embedding the submonolayer quantum dots acts as a fast and efficient carrier reservoir.

  9. Quantum computation: algorithms and implementation in quantum dot devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamble, John King

    In this thesis, we explore several aspects of both the software and hardware of quantum computation. First, we examine the computational power of multi-particle quantum random walks in terms of distinguishing mathematical graphs. We study both interacting and non-interacting multi-particle walks on strongly regular graphs, proving some limitations on distinguishing powers and presenting extensive numerical evidence indicative of interactions providing more distinguishing power. We then study the recently proposed adiabatic quantum algorithm for Google PageRank, and show that it exhibits power-law scaling for realistic WWW-like graphs. Turning to hardware, we next analyze the thermal physics of two nearby 2D electron gas (2DEG), and show that an analogue of the Coulomb drag effect exists for heat transfer. In some distance and temperature, this heat transfer is more significant than phonon dissipation channels. After that, we study the dephasing of two-electron states in a single silicon quantum dot. Specifically, we consider dephasing due to the electron-phonon coupling and charge noise, separately treating orbital and valley excitations. In an ideal system, dephasing due to charge noise is strongly suppressed due to a vanishing dipole moment. However, introduction of disorder or anharmonicity leads to large effective dipole moments, and hence possibly strong dephasing. Building on this work, we next consider more realistic systems, including structural disorder systems. We present experiment and theory, which demonstrate energy levels that vary with quantum dot translation, implying a structurally disordered system. Finally, we turn to the issues of valley mixing and valley-orbit hybridization, which occurs due to atomic-scale disorder at quantum well interfaces. We develop a new theoretical approach to study these effects, which we name the disorder-expansion technique. We demonstrate that this method successfully reproduces atomistic tight-binding techniques, while using a fraction of the computational resources and providing considerably more physical insight. Using this technique, we demonstrate that large dipole moments can exist between valley states in disordered systems, and calculate corrections to intervalley tunnel rates..

  10. Near-Infrared Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances Arising from Free Carriers in Doped Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Prashant K.; Luther, Joey; Ewers, Trevor; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2010-10-12

    Quantum confinement of electronic wavefunctions in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) yields discrete atom-like and tunable electronic levels, thereby allowing the engineering of excitation and emission spectra. Metal nanoparticles, on the other hand, display strong resonant interactions with light from localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) oscillations of free carriers, resulting in enhanced and geometrically tunable absorption and scattering resonances. The complementary attributes of these nanostructures lends strong interest toward integration into hybrid nanostructures to explore enhanced properties or the emergence of unique attributes arising from their interaction. However, the physicochemical interface between the two components can be limiting for energy transfer and synergistic coupling within such a hybrid nanostructure. Therefore, it is advantageous to realize both attributes, i.e., LSPRs and quantum confinement within the same nanostructure. Here, we describe well-defined LSPRs arising from p-type carriers in vacancy-doped semiconductor quantum dots. This opens up possibilities for light harvesting, non-linear optics, optical sensing and manipulation of solid-state processes in single nanocrystals.

  11. Magnetic polarization currents in double quantum dot devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sam Young; McKenzie, Ross H.; Kang, Kicheon; Kim, Chul Koo

    2003-02-01

    We investigate coherent electron transport through a parallel circuit of two quantum dots (QDs), each of which has a single tunable energy level. Electrons tunnelling via each dot from the left lead interfere with each other at the right lead. It is shown that due to the quantum interference of tunnelling electrons the double QD device is magnetically polarized by coherent circulation of electrons on the closed path through the dots and the leads. By varying the energy level of each dot one can make the magnetic states of the device be up-, non- or down-polarized. It is shown that for experimentally accessible temperatures and applied biases the magnetic polarization currents should be sufficiently large to observe with current nanotechnology.

  12. Quantum confined Stark effect in Gaussian quantum wells: A tight-binding study

    SciTech Connect

    Ramírez-Morales, A.; Martínez-Orozco, J. C.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I.

    2014-05-15

    The main characteristics of the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) are studied theoretically in quantum wells of Gaussian profile. The semi-empirical tight-binding model and the Green function formalism are applied in the numerical calculations. A comparison of the QCSE in quantum wells with different kinds of confining potential is presented.

  13. Detection of viral infections using colloidal quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentzen, Elizabeth L.; House, Frances S.; Utley, Thomas J.; Crowe, James E., Jr.; Wright, David W.

    2006-02-01

    Fluorescence is a tool widely employed in biological assays. Fluorescent semiconducting nanocrystals, quantum dots (QDs), are beginning to find their way into the tool box of many biologist, chemist and biochemist. These quantum dots are an attractive alternative to the traditional organic dyes due to their broad excitation spectra, narrow emission spectra and photostability. Quantum dots were used to detect and monitor the progession of viral glycoproteins, F (fusion) and G (attachment), from Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) in HEp-2 cells. Additionally, oligo-Qdot RNA probes have been developed for identification and detection of mRNA of the N(nucleocapsid) protein for RSV. The use of quantum dot-FISH probes provides another confirmatory route to diagnostics as well as a new class of probes for monitoring the flux and fate of viral RNA RSV is the most common cause of lower respiratory tract infection in children worldwide and the most common cause of hospitalization of infants in the US. Antiviral therapy is available for treatment of RSV but is only effective if given within the first 48 hours of infection. Existing test methods require a virus level of at least 1000-fold of the amount needed for infection of most children and require several days to weeks to obtain results. The use of quantum dots may provide an early, rapid method for detection and provide insight into the trafficking of viral proteins during the course of infection.

  14. Feedback-generated periodic pulse trains in quantum dot lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viktorov, Evgeny A.; Goulding, David; Hegarty, Stephen P.; Huyet, Guillaume; Erneux, Thomas; Kelleher, Bryan

    2014-05-01

    Quantum dot lasers have been shown to have greatly enhanced stability in the feedback configuration thanks to a high damping of the relaxation oscillations and they display different dynamics to those of conventional semiconductor lasers. For high feedback levels in conventional devices one obtains Low Frequency Fluctuations: sharp dropouts in intensity and subsequent gradual build-ups. Standard low frequency fluctuation-like traces are conspicuous by their absence in studies of feedback with quantum dot devices. We experimentally examine single mode quantum dot lasers at high feedback levels with a long delay and observe regular pulse-trains with a period equaling the external cavity round-trip time where each pulse features a distinctive broad trailing edge plateau. The distinctive pulse shape is very similar to the recently published strong pulse-asymmetry in two-section, passively mode-locked quantum dot lasers where this asymmetry was shown to result from the creation of different modal groups. We attribute the pulses in our experiment to the same phenomenon: each pulse corresponds to a simultaneous excitation of a number of the external cavity modes. We consider a model tailored specifically for quantum dot lasers with strong optical feedback and find it reproduces the experimentally observed trains extremely well.

  15. GaAsSb-capped InAs quantum dots: From enlarged quantum dot height to alloy fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Ulloa, J. M.; Gargallo-Caballero, R.; Moral, M. del; Guzman, A.; Hierro, A.

    2010-04-15

    The Sb-induced changes in the optical properties of GaAsSb-capped InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) are shown to be strongly correlated with structural changes. The observed redshift of the photoluminescence emission is shown to follow two different regimes. In the first regime, with Sb concentrations up to approx12%, the emission wavelength shifts up to approx1280 nm with a large enhancement of the luminescence characteristics. A structural analysis at the atomic scale by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy shows that this enhancement arises from a gradual increase in QD height, which improves carrier confinement and reduces the sensitivity of the excitonic band gap to QD size fluctuations within the ensemble. The increased QD height results from the progressive suppression of QD decomposition during the capping process due to the presence of Sb atoms on the growth surface. In the second regime, with Sb concentrations above approx12%, the emission wavelength shifts up to approx1500 nm, but the luminescence characteristics progressively degrade with the Sb content. This degradation at high Sb contents occurs as a result of composition modulation in the capping layer and strain-induced Sb migration to the top of the QDs, together with a transition to a type-II band alignment.

  16. Fabrication and optimization of light emitting devices with core-shell quantum dots

    E-print Network

    Song, Katherine Wei

    2013-01-01

    Quantum dot light emitting devices (QD-LEDs) are promising options for the next generation of solid state lighting, color displays, and other optoelectronic applications. Overcoating quantum dots (QDs) -- semiconducting ...

  17. Synthesis and structural characterization of ZnTe/ZnSe core/shell tunable quantum dots

    E-print Network

    Guan, Juan

    2008-01-01

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots have attracted much attention recently with their unique optical properties. Here we present a novel approach to synthesize ZnTe/ZnSe core/shell tunable quantum dots. ...

  18. A Quantum Dot with Spin-Orbit Interaction--Analytical Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basu, B.; Roy, B.

    2009-01-01

    The practical applicability of a semiconductor quantum dot with spin-orbit interaction gives an impetus to study analytical solutions to one- and two-electron quantum dots with or without a magnetic field.

  19. Microwave-assisted low temperature synthesis of wurtzite ZnS quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Shahid, Robina; Toprak, Muhammet S.; Muhammed, Mamoun

    2012-03-15

    In this work we report, for the first time, on microwave assisted synthesis of wurtzite ZnS quantum dots (QDs) in controlled reaction at temperature as low as 150 Degree-Sign C. The synthesis can be done in different microwave absorbing solvents with multisource or single source precursors. The QDs are less than 3 nm in size as characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) using selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns to confirm the wurtzite phase of ZnS QDs. The optical properties were investigated by UV-Vis absorption which shows blue shift in absorption compared to bulk wurtzite ZnS due to quantum confinement effects. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of QDs reveal point defects related emission of ZnS QDs. - Graphical abstract: Microwave assisted synthesis of wurtzite ZnS quantum dots (QDs) have been achieved in controlled reaction at temperature as low as 150 Degree-Sign C. The synthesis was performed in different microwave absorbing solvents with multisource or single source precursors for very short reaction periods due to effective heating with microwaves. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wurtzite a high temperature phase of ZnS was synthesized at low temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low temperature synthesis was possible because of the use of microwave absorbing solvents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Capping agent was used to control the size of Quantum Dots. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two different systems were developed using single molecular precursor and multisource precursors.

  20. Ultrafast optical control of individual quantum dot spin qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Greve, Kristiaan; Press, David; McMahon, Peter L.; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2013-09-01

    Single spins in semiconductor quantum dots form a promising platform for solid-state quantum information processing. The spin-up and spin-down states of a single electron or hole, trapped inside a quantum dot, can represent a single qubit with a reasonably long decoherence time. The spin qubit can be optically coupled to excited (charged exciton) states that are also trapped in the quantum dot, which provides a mechanism to quickly initialize, manipulate and measure the spin state with optical pulses, and to interface between a stationary matter qubit and a ‘flying’ photonic qubit for quantum communication and distributed quantum information processing. The interaction of the spin qubit with light may be enhanced by placing the quantum dot inside a monolithic microcavity. An entire system, consisting of a two-dimensional array of quantum dots and a planar microcavity, may plausibly be constructed by modern semiconductor nano-fabrication technology and could offer a path toward chip-sized scalable quantum repeaters and quantum computers. This article reviews the recent experimental developments in optical control of single quantum dot spins for quantum information processing. We highlight demonstrations of a complete set of all-optical single-qubit operations on a single quantum dot spin: initialization, an arbitrary SU(2) gate, and measurement. We review the decoherence and dephasing mechanisms due to hyperfine interaction with the nuclear-spin bath, and show how the single-qubit operations can be combined to perform spin echo sequences that extend the qubit decoherence from a few nanoseconds to several microseconds, more than 5 orders of magnitude longer than the single-qubit gate time. Two-qubit coupling is discussed, both within a single chip by means of exchange coupling of nearby spins and optically induced geometric phases, as well as over longer-distances. Long-distance spin-spin entanglement can be generated if each spin can emit a photon that is entangled with the spin, and these photons are then interfered. We review recent work demonstrating entanglement between a stationary spin qubit and a flying photonic qubit. These experiments utilize the polarization- and frequency-dependent spontaneous emission from the lowest charged exciton state to single spin Zeeman sublevels.

  1. Intermediate-band photosensitive device with quantum dots having tunneling barrier embedded in organic matrix

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2008-08-19

    A plurality of quantum dots each have a shell. The quantum dots are embedded in an organic matrix. At least the quantum dots and the organic matrix are photoconductive semiconductors. The shell of each quantum dot is arranged as a tunneling barrier to require a charge carrier (an electron or a hole) at a base of the tunneling barrier in the organic matrix to perform quantum mechanical tunneling to reach the respective quantum dot. A first quantum state in each quantum dot is between a lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and a highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of the organic matrix. Wave functions of the first quantum state of the plurality of quantum dots may overlap to form an intermediate band.

  2. Ferroelectricity in barium titanate quantum dots and wires.

    PubMed

    Fu, Huaxiang; Bellaiche, L

    2003-12-19

    Properties of BaTiO3 colloidal quantum dots and wires are simulated using a first-principles-based approach. Large atomic off-center displacements (that are robust against capping matrix materials) are found to exist in very small (<5 nm) dots. We further determine the size dependences of electrical and electromechanical responses in the studied nanostructures, as well as provide microscopic understanding of these responses. PMID:14754156

  3. Thermal gating of charge currents with Coulomb coupled quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thierschmann, H.; Arnold, F.; Mittermüller, M.; Maier, L.; Heyn, C.; Hansen, W.; Buhmann, H.; Molenkamp, L. W.

    2015-11-01

    We have observed thermal gating, i.e. electrostatic gating induced by hot electrons. The effect occurs in a device consisting of two capacitively coupled quantum dots. The double dot system is coupled to a hot electron reservoir on one side (QD1), while the conductance of the second dot (QD2) is monitored. When a bias across QD2 is applied we observe a current which is strongly dependent on the temperature of the heat reservoir. This current can be either enhanced or suppressed, depending on the relative energetic alignment of the QD levels. Thus, the system can be used to control a charge current by hot electrons.

  4. Light absorption in silicon quantum dots embedded in silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirabella, S.; Agosta, R.; Franzò, G.; Crupi, I.; Miritello, M.; Lo Savio, R.; Di Stefano, M. A.; Di Marco, S.; Simone, F.; Terrasi, A.

    2009-11-01

    The photon absorption in Si quantum dots (QDs) embedded in SiO2 has been systematically investigated by varying several parameters of the QD synthesis. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or magnetron cosputtering (MS) have been used to deposit, upon quartz substrates, single layer, or multilayer structures of Si-rich-SiO2 (SRO) with different Si content (43-46 at. %). SRO samples have been annealed for 1 h in the 450-1250 °C range and characterized by optical absorption measurements, photoluminescence analysis, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and x-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. After annealing up to 900 °C SRO films grown by MS show a higher absorption coefficient and a lower optical bandgap (˜2.0 eV) in comparison with that of PECVD samples, due to the lower density of Si-Si bonds and to the presence of nitrogen in PECVD materials. By increasing the Si content a reduction in the optical bandgap has been recorded, pointing out the role of Si-Si bonds density in the absorption process in small amorphous Si QDs. Both the photon absorption probability and energy threshold in amorphous Si QDs are higher than in bulk amorphous Si, evidencing a quantum confinement effect. For temperatures higher than 900 °C both the materials show an increase in the optical bandgap due to the amorphous-crystalline transition of the Si QDs. Fixed the SRO stoichiometry, no difference in the optical bandgap trend of multilayer or single layer structures is evidenced. These data can be profitably used to better implement Si QDs for future PV technologies.

  5. Quantum dot infrared photodetector enhanced by surface plasma wave excitation.

    PubMed

    Lee, S C; Krishna, S; Brueck, S R J

    2009-12-01

    Up to a thirty-fold detectivity enhancement is achieved for an InAs quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP) by the excitation of surface plasma waves (SPWs) using a metal photonic crystal (MPC) integrated on top of the detector absorption region. The MPC is a 100 nm-thick gold film perforated with a 3.6 microm period square array of circular holes. A bare QDIP shows a bias-tunable broadband response from approximately 6 to 10 microm associated with the quantum confined Stark (QCS) effect. On the other hand, an MPC-integrated QDIP exhibits a dominant peak at 11.3 microm with a approximately 1 microm full width at half maximum and the highly enhanced detectivity at the bias polarity optimized for long wavelength. This is very different from the photoresponse of the bare QDIP but fully consistent with the direct coupling of the QDs in the detector absorption region to the SPWs excited at the MPC/detector interface by incident photons. The SPW resonance wavelength, lambda, for the smallest coupling wavevector of the array in the MPC is close to 11.3 microm. The response also shows other SPW-coupled peaks: a significant peak at 8.1 microm (approximately lambda/radical2) and noticeable peaks at 5.8 microm (approximately lambda/2) and 5.4 microm (approximately lambda/ radical5) which correspond to higher-order coupling wavevectors. For the opposite bias, the MPC-integrated QDIP shows the highest response at 8.1 microm, providing a dramatic voltage tunability that is associated with QCS effect. SPWs propagate with TM (x, z) polarization along the MPC/detector interface. The enhanced detectivity is explained by these characteristics which increase both the effective absorption cross section with propagation and the interaction strength with TM polarization in the coupling to the QDs. Simulations show good qualitative agreement with the observed spectral behavior. PMID:20052244

  6. Time-Resolved Study of Carrier Transfer among InAs/GaAs Multi-Coupled Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tackeuchi, Atsushi; Nakata, Yoshiaki; Muto, Shunichi; Sugiyama, Yoshihiro; Usuki, Tatsuya; Nishikawa, Yuji; Yokoyama, Naoki; Wada, Osamu

    1995-11-01

    Carrier transfer among InAs/GaAs self-organized multi-coupled quantum dots was studied using time-resolved photoluminescence. In the multi-coupled quantum dots, since quantum dots couple with the other dots laterally, the photoexcited carriers tunnel into the relatively larger quantum dots which have lower energy levels. The photoluminescence decay time of multi-coupled quantum dots strongly depends on the energy in contrast with conventional quantum dots. The energy dependence can be explained with a cascade-like tunneling model assuming a tunneling time between quantum dots of 1300 ps.

  7. Enhanced refractive index without absorption in semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Nan; Shui, Tao; Qian, Biqi; Wang, Zhiping; Yu, Benli

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the absorptive-dispersive properties of a weak probe field in a ladder-type quantum dot. It is found that the enhanced refraction index without absorption can be easily controlled via adjusting properly the corresponding parameters of the system. Our scheme may provide some new possibilities for technological applications in dispersion compensation and solid-state quantum communication for quantum information processing.

  8. Toxicity of Oxidatively Degraded Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Wiecinski, Paige N.; Metz, Kevin M.; King Heiden, Tisha C.; Louis, Kacie M.; Mangham, Andrew N.; Hamers, Robert J.; Heideman, Warren; Peterson, Richard E.; Pedersen, Joel A.

    2014-01-01

    Once released into the environment, engineered nanoparticles (eNPs) are subjected to processes that may alter their physical or chemical properties, potentially altering their toxicity vis-à-vis the as-synthesized materials. We examined the toxicity to zebrafish embryos of CdSecore/ZnSshell quantum dots (QDs) before and after exposure to an in vitro chemical model designed to simulate oxidative weathering in soil environments based on a reductant-driven Fenton’s reaction. Exposure to these oxidative conditions resulted in severe degradation of the QDs: the Zn shell eroded, Cd2+ and selenium were released, and amorphous Se-containing aggregates were formed. Weathered QDs exhibited higher potency than did as-synthesized QDs. Morphological endpoints of toxicity included pericardial, ocular and yolk sac edema, non-depleted yolk, spinal curvature, tail malformations, and craniofacial malformations. To better understand the selenium-like toxicity observed in QD exposures, we examined the toxicity of selenite, selenate and amorphous selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs). Selenite exposures resulted in high mortality to embryos/larvae while selenate and SeNPs were non-toxic. Co-exposures to SeNPs + CdCl2 resulted in dramatic increase in mortality and recapitulated the morphological endpoints of toxicity observed with weathered QD exposures. Cadmium body burden was increased in larvae exposed to weathered QDs or SeNP + CdCl2 suggesting the increased potency of weathered QDs was due to selenium modulation of cadmium toxicity. Our findings highlight the need to examine the toxicity of eNPs after they have undergone environmental weathering processes. PMID:23815598

  9. Surface plasmon enhanced quantum dot infrared photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasinajindakaw, Puminun

    Quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP) is a promising technology for infrared applications especially the infrared camera. Surface plasmon (SP) resonance on metallic thin film is recognized for an intense electrical field on the thin film surface with an extraordinary transmission. This dissertation objective is to improve the performance of QDIP detector by SP structure with the capability to apply on the focal plane array. The methodology is to integrate SP structure with the QDIP detector to enhance its overall performance. Begin with the investigation on the metallic thin film SP structures; The SP excitation throughout the transmission profiles on the middle-wave and long-wave infrared region is observed and discussed. Next, the SP structure is integrated on the QDIP detector and found the enhancement on the overall performance. The performance enhancement is discussed and found to be related to the SP excitation. Two projects from the preliminary investigation are chosen to be fully investigated on QDIP. First, the wavelength selection enhancement depending on the polarization selection is reported. It is found that two wavelengths of enhancement can be achieved by the specific design of the SP structure integrated on QDIP. The performance enhancement is also reported. Second, the optimization of the performance enhancement was studied. It was found that the performance of QDIP with SP structure can be optimized by varying the metal thickness and the hole size diameter of the SP structure. We believe that we have overcome the difficulty of polarization selection of the QDIP by sidestepping with our designed SP structure. We also demonstrate the performance improvement on the QDIP with metal thickness and hole diameter variation. Both of the projects including preliminary investigation are fabricated by the standard photolithography. Hence it is compatible with focal plane any fabrication. Our results address the development of infrared sensor and potentially offer the development of focal plane array cameras which will improve the performance of infrared camera.

  10. Optical absorption of semiconductor quantum dot solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pejova, Biljana

    2014-04-01

    Several aspects concerning optical absorption in 3D assemblies of semiconductor quantum dots (QD solids) were studied. Considering the numerically simulated spectral dependences of the absorption coefficient in the case 3D QD assemblies with finite crystal size distribution, described by log-normal probability distribution functions (PDFs), several fundamental predictions were derived. First of all, it is predicted that the band gap energy of the QD solid should exhibit a certain ‘red-shift’ upon enlargement of the dispersion of the crystal size at a fixed average value thereof when the size-quantization regime in individual QDs has been entered. Furthermore, very large Urbach energy values are predicted, comparable to those characteristic for amorphous materials, for semiconductor QD solids with finite dispersion of the crystal size when the average QD size falls within the size-quantization interval. The Urbach energy in 3D assemblies composed by strongly quantized QDs with large dispersions of the PDFs characterizing the size distributions could be 100 times larger than the values in the non-quantized case (regardless of the size distribution in the latter case). Such large values are not due to the structural disorder inherent to individual QDs constituting the array, but a consequence of the disorder on the superlattice scale. Analogous arguments could be applied to predict large Urbach energies corresponding to the absorption tails in absorption spectra constructed from the spectral response of stationary nonequilibrium conductivity (photoconductivity). All these predictions are in excellent agreement with the available experimental data. Moreover, the presented approach could enable exact prediction of the optical absorption of a semiconductor QD solid if the PDF of the crystal size is known from the experiment. The smearing of excitonic absorption peaks in QD solids induced as a consequence of particle size distribution is considered and analyzed to some extent as well.

  11. Biosensing with Quantum Dots: A Microfluidic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Vannoy, Charles H.; Tavares, Anthony J.; Noor, M. Omair; Uddayasankar, Uvaraj; Krull, Ulrich J.

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have served as the basis for signal development in a variety of biosensing technologies and in applications using bioprobes. The use of QDs as physical platforms to develop biosensors and bioprobes has attracted considerable interest. This is largely due to the unique optical properties of QDs that make them excellent choices as donors in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and well suited for optical multiplexing. The large majority of QD-based bioprobe and biosensing technologies that have been described operate in bulk solution environments, where selective binding events at the surface of QDs are often associated with relatively long periods to reach a steady-state signal. An alternative approach to the design of biosensor architectures may be provided by a microfluidic system (MFS). A MFS is able to integrate chemical and biological processes into a single platform and allows for manipulation of flow conditions to achieve, by sample transport and mixing, reaction rates that are not entirely diffusion controlled. Integrating assays in a MFS provides numerous additional advantages, which include the use of very small amounts of reagents and samples, possible sample processing before detection, ultra-high sensitivity, high throughput, short analysis time, and in situ monitoring. Herein, a comprehensive review is provided that addresses the key concepts and applications of QD-based microfluidic biosensors with an added emphasis on how this combination of technologies provides for innovations in bioassay designs. Examples from the literature are used to highlight the many advantages of biosensing in a MFS and illustrate the versatility that such a platform offers in the design strategy. PMID:22163723

  12. A phonon laser using quantum dot spin states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaetskii, Alexander; Hu, Xuedong; Zutic, Igor

    2013-03-01

    Sound analog of laser (saser) has not yet been realized experimentally, though some steps in this direction have been made recently [1]. As is known, the main reason impeding coherent generation of phonons in solid state is high density of phonon states [2]. We suggest a particular realization of saser, which consists of an ensemble of quantum dots and uses the Zeeman-split spin levels of the ground orbital state in the quantum dot. We develop a complete set of saser equations taking into account the Coulomb blockade conditions for a quantum dot, and evaluate all the parameters such as the threshold, output power and efficiency of the device. Supported by NSF-ECCS and US ONR, NSF PIF,and US ARO.

  13. Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics Enhanced by Perovskite Shelling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenyu; Janmohamed, Alyf; Lan, Xinzheng; García de Arquer, F Pelayo; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Yassitepe, Emre; Kim, Gi-Hwan; Ning, Zhijun; Gong, Xiwen; Comin, Riccardo; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-11-11

    Solution-processed quantum dots are a promising material for large-scale, low-cost solar cell applications. New device architectures and improved passivation have been instrumental in increasing the performance of quantum dot photovoltaic devices. Here we report photovoltaic devices based on inks of quantum dot on which we grow thin perovskite shells in solid-state films. Passivation using the perovskite was achieved using a facile solution ligand exchange followed by postannealing. The resulting hybrid nanostructure created a more intrinsic CQD film, which, when incorporated into a photovoltaic device with graded bandstructure, achieved a record solar cell performance for single-step-deposited CQD films, exhibiting an AM1.5 solar power conversion efficiency of 8.95%. PMID:26439147

  14. Probing electric and magnetic vacuum fluctuations with quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Tighineanu, P; Andersen, M L; Sørensen, A S; Stobbe, S; Lodahl, P

    2014-07-25

    The electromagnetic-vacuum-field fluctuations are intimately linked to the process of spontaneous emission of light. Atomic emitters cannot probe electric- and magnetic-field fluctuations simultaneously because electric and magnetic transitions correspond to different selection rules. In this Letter we show that semiconductor quantum dots are fundamentally different and are capable of mediating electric-dipole, magnetic-dipole, and electric-quadrupole transitions on a single electronic resonance. As a consequence, quantum dots can probe electric and magnetic fields simultaneously and can thus be applied for sensing the electromagnetic environment of complex photonic nanostructures. Our study opens the prospect of interfacing quantum dots with optical metamaterials for tailoring the electric and magnetic light-matter interaction at the single-emitter level. PMID:25105618

  15. Highly sensitive humidity sensing properties of carbon quantum dots films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xing; Ming, Hai; Liu, Ruihua; Han, Xiao; Kang, Zhenhui; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Yonglai; State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? A humidity sensing device was fabricated based on carbon quantum dots (CQDs) films. ? The conductivity of the CQDs films shows a linear and rapid response to atmosphere humidity. ? The humidity sensing property was due to the hydrogen bonds between the functional groups on CQDs. -- Abstract: We reported the fabrication of a humidity sensing device based on carbon quantum dots (CQDs) film. The conductivity of the CQDs film has a linear and rapid response to relative humidity, providing the opportunity for the fabrication of humidity sensing devices. The mechanism of our humidity sensor was proposed to be the formation of hydrogen bonds between carbon quantum dots and water molecules in the humidity environment, which significantly promote the electrons migration. In a control experiment, this hypothesis was confirmed by comparing the humidity sensitivity of candle soot (i.e. carbon nanoparticles) with and without oxygen containing groups on the surfaces.

  16. Gate-controlled electron spins in quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhakar, Sanjay; Melnik, Roderick; Bonilla, Luis L.

    2013-12-16

    In this paper we study the properties of anisotropic semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) formed in the conduction band in the presence of the magnetic field. The Kane-type model is formulated and is analyzed by using both analytical and finite element techniques. Among other things, we demonstrate that in such quantum dots, the electron spin states in the phonon-induced spin-flip rate can be manipulated with the application of externally applied anisotropic gate potentials. More precisely, such potentials enhance the spin flip rates and reduce the level crossing points to lower quantum dot radii. This happens due to the suppression of the g-factor towards bulk crystal. We conclude that the phonon induced spin-flip rate can be controlled through the application of spin-orbit coupling. Numerical examples are shown to demonstrate these findings.

  17. Electronic structure of self-assembled InAs quantum dots in InP: An anisotropic quantum-dot system

    E-print Network

    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München

    - strates. Details on the growth of InAs dots in InP can be found in Ref. 6. The self-organized InAs dotsElectronic structure of self-assembled InAs quantum dots in InP: An anisotropic quantum-dot system embedded in an InP matrix has been investi- gated using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy

  18. Suppression of Quantum Dot Blinking in DTT-Doped Polymer Films Josh Antelman,,

    E-print Network

    Michalet, Xavier

    Suppression of Quantum Dot Blinking in DTT-Doped Polymer Films Josh Antelman,, Yuval EbensteinVised Manuscript ReceiVed: February 02, 2009 In this report we evaluate the emission properties of single quantum dots embedded in a thin, thiol-containing polymer film. We report the suppression of quantum dot

  19. Quantum Dots in a Polymer Composite: A Convenient Particle-in-a-Box Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Charles V.; Giffin, Guinevere A.

    2008-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are at the forefront of materials science chemistry with applications in biological imaging and photovoltaic technologies. We have developed a simple laboratory experiment to measure the quantum-dot size from fluorescence spectra. A major roadblock of quantum-dot based exercises is the particle synthesis and handling;…

  20. Self-organized formation of quantum dots of a material on a substrate

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Zhenyu (232 Long Bow Rd., Knoxville, TN 37922); Wendelken, John F. (925 Suwanee Rd., Knoxville, TN 37923); Chang, Ming-Che (F4-2, No. 178 Sec 5 Minsheng East Rd., Taipei, TW); Pai, Woei Wu (1F, No. 17, Alley 11, Lane 202, Ming Chyuan Rd., Pan Chou City, Taipei County, TW)

    2001-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for fabricating arrays of quantum dots. A method for making a quantum dot device, includes: forming clusters of atoms on a substrate; and charging the clusters of atoms such that the clusters of atoms repel one another. The systems and methods provide advantages because the quantum dots can be ordered with regard to spacing and/or size.

  1. Microwave spectroscopy on a double quantum dot with an on-chip Josephson oscillator

    E-print Network

    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München

    Microwave spectroscopy on a double quantum dot with an on-chip Josephson oscillator A W Holleitner://www.njp.org/) Received 19 November 1999; online 18 February 2000 Abstract. We present measurements on microwave spectroscopy on a double quantum dot with an on-chip microwave source. The quantum dots are realized in the two

  2. Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots

    E-print Network

    a single CdSe quantum dot is optically excited in close proximity to a silver nanowire, emission fromLETTERS Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots A. V the quantum dot couples directly to guided surface plasmons in the nanowire, causing the wire's ends to light

  3. Quantum dot-tetrapyrrole complexes as photodynamic therapy agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynenko, Irina; Visheratina, Anastasia; Kuznetsova, Vera; Orlova, Anna; Maslov, Vladimir; Fedorov, Anatoly; Baranov, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    Photophysical properties of complexes of semiconductor quantum dots with conventional photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (tetrapyrroles) were investigated. A luminescent study of complexes in aqueous solutions was performed using spectral- and time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy. It was found that increasing the photosensitizer relative concentration in complexes resulted in sharp drop of the nonradiative energy transfer efficiency and the quantum yield of the photosensitizer photoluminescence. This fact indicates that additional channels of nonradiative energy dissipation may take place in the complexes. Using complexes of Al(OH)-sulphophthalocyanine with CdSe/ZnS quantum dots in the aqueous solution as an typical example, we have demonstrated that new channels of the energy dissipation may arise due to aggregation of the photosensitizer molecules upon formation of the complexes with quantum dots. We also demonstrated that use of methods of complex formation preventing aggregation of photosensitizers allows to conserve the high energy transfer efficiency and quantum yield of the acceptor photoluminescence in complexes in wide range of the photosensitizer concentrations. We believe that our study allows obtaining new information about the physical mechanisms of nonradiative energy transfer in quantum dots-tetrapyrrole complexes perspective for photodynamic therapy.

  4. The energy state of an impurity donor in a type II quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Causil, Dairo A.; Beltrán, Carlos L.; Villamil, Pablo

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the following research is to show the results of applying the variational Rayleigh-Ritz method to determine the binding energy of a hydrogenic impurity in 1s-like, 2p±-like and 2pz-like states, located in a cylindrical GaAs/AlAs quantum dot and in the presence of a uniform magnetic field applied in the axial direction. The binding energy of the 1s-like state when its position varies along the axis of the cylinder is also presented. The results show that the energies decrease as the system volume increases. We also consider the competition between geometric and magnetic confinement.

  5. Size dependence of electron spin dephasing in InGaAs quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. Q.; Puttisong, Y.; Buyanova, I. A.; Yang, X. J.; Subagyo, A.; Sueoka, K.; Murayama, A.; Chen, W. M.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate ensemble electron spin dephasing in self-assembled InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) of different lateral sizes by employing optical Hanle measurements. Using low excitation power, we are able to obtain a spin dephasing time T2* (in the order of ns) of the resident electron after recombination of negative trions in the QDs. We show that T2* is determined by the hyperfine field arising from the frozen fluctuation of nuclear spins, which scales with the size of QDs following the Merkulov-Efros-Rosen model. This scaling no longer holds in large QDs, most likely due to a breakdown in the lateral electron confinement.

  6. Efficient control of coulomb enhanced second harmonic generation from excitonic transitions in quantum dot ensembles.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Hanz Y; Flórez, Jefferson; Camacho, Ángela S

    2015-10-01

    In this work, the second harmonic generation from excitonic transitions in semiconductor quantum dots is computationally studied. By integrating a density matrix treatment with a partial configuration interaction approach, we obtain the second order susceptibility as a function of externally applied electric and magnetic fields for highly confined neutral and charged excitons. Our results show an enhancement in the nonlinear response with respect to analogous optical processes based on intraband transitions, and predict their efficient tunability by taking advantage of the interplay between Coulomb effects and field-driven wave function manipulation. PMID:26313884

  7. Energy levels of magneto-optical polaron in spherical quantum dot — Part 1: Strong coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotue, A. J.; Kenfack, S. C.; Issofa, N.; Tiotsop, M.; Fotsin, H.; Mainimo, E.; Fai, L. C.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the influence of a magnetic field on the ground state energy of a polaron in a spherical semiconductor quantum dot (QD) using the modified LLP method. The ground state energy is split into sub-energy levels and there is a degeneracy of energy levels. It is also observed that the degenerate energy increase with the electron-phonon coupling constant and decrease with the magnetic field. The numerical results show that, under the influence of magnetic field and the interaction with the total momentum along the z-direction, the split energy increases and decreases with the longitudinal and the transverse confinement length, respectively.

  8. Energy-selective charging of type-II GaSb/GaAs quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, M.; Kapteyn, C.; Stock, E.; Müller-Kirsch, L.; Heitz, R.; Bimberg, D.

    2004-03-01

    The hole confinement in type-II self-organized GaSb/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) was investigated by combining optical excitation and time-resolved capacitance spectroscopy. The experimental results indicate energy-selective charging even for type-II QDs. With increasing excitation energy the apparent hole activation energy decreases, which is attributed to light absorption in sub-ensembles of QDs with decreasing hole localization. The large localization energy of about 450 meV and the possibility of optical-multiplexing makes type-II GaSb/GaAs QDs a potential material system for QD memory concepts.

  9. Detection of single quantum dots in model organisms with sheet illumination microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, Mike; Nozadze, Revaz; Gan, Qiang; Zelman-Femiak, Monika; Ermolayev, Vladimir; Wagner, Toni U.; Harms, Gregory S.

    2009-12-18

    Single-molecule detection and tracking is important for observing biomolecule interactions in the microenvironment. Here we report selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM) with single-molecule detection in living organisms, which enables fast imaging and single-molecule tracking and optical penetration beyond 300 {mu}m. We detected single nanocrystals in Drosophila larvae and zebrafish embryo. We also report our first tracking of single quantum dots during zebrafish development, which displays a transition from flow to confined motion prior to the blastula stage. The new SPIM setup represents a new technique, which enables fast single-molecule imaging and tracking in living systems.

  10. Magnetic field effect on the Coulomb interaction of acceptors in semimagnetic quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalpana, P.; Merwyn, A.; Reuben, Jasper D.; Nithiananthi, P.; Jayakumar, K.

    2015-06-01

    The Coulomb interaction of holes in a Semimagnetic Cd1-xMnxTe / CdTe Spherical and Cubical Quantum Dot (SMQD) in a magnetic field is studied using variational approach in the effective mass approximation. Since these holes in QD show a pronounced collective behavior, while distinct single particle phenomena is suppressed, their interaction in confined potential becomes very significant. It has been observed that acceptor-acceptor interaction is more in cubical QD than in spherical QD which can be controlled by the magnetic field. The results are presented and discussed.

  11. Mapping the spatial distribution of charge carriers in quantum-confined heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew M.; Lane, Lucas A.; Nie, Shuming

    2014-01-01

    Quantum-confined nanostructures are considered ‘artificial atoms’ because the wavefunctions of their charge carriers resemble those of atomic orbitals. For multiple-domain heterostructures, however, carrier wavefunctions are more complex and still not well understood. We have prepared a unique series of cation-exchanged HgxCd1?xTe quantum dots (QDs) and seven epitaxial core–shell QDs and measured their first and second exciton peak oscillator strengths as a function of size and chemical composition. A major finding is that carrier locations can be quantitatively mapped and visualized during shell growth or cation exchange simply using absorption transition strengths. These results reveal that a broad range of quantum heterostructures with different internal structures and band alignments exhibit distinct carrier localization patterns that can be used to further improve the performance of optoelectronic devices and enhance the brightness of QD probes for bioimaging. PMID:25080298

  12. Relaxation oscillations in a semiconductor quantum-dot laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koryukin, I. V.

    2015-10-01

    We study relaxation oscillations in a semiconductor quantum-dot laser using the electron-hole asymmetry model [M. Abusaa et al., Phys. Rev. A 87, 063827 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.87.063827]. Two relaxation oscillations are found at simultaneous lasing in the ground and excited states in a wide range of quantum-dot laser parameters. One of these two relaxation oscillations is close to in-phase oscillation and the other may be antiphase oscillation at certain parameters.

  13. Static gain saturation in quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Meuer, Christian; Kim, Jungho; Laemmlin, Matthias; Liebich, Sven; Capua, Amir; Eisenstein, Gadi; Kovsh, Alexey R; Mikhrin, Sergey S; Krestnikov, Igor L; Bimberg, Dieter

    2008-05-26

    Measurements of saturated amplified spontaneous emission-spectra of quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers demonstrate efficient replenishment of the quantum-dot ground state population from excited states. This saturation behavior is perfectly modeled by a rate equation model. We examined experimentally the dependence of saturation on the drive current and the saturating optical pump power as well as on the pump wavelength. A coherent noise spectral hole is observed with which we assess dynamical properties and propose optimization of the SOA operating parameters for high speed applications. PMID:18545539

  14. Carrier dynamics and homogeneous broadening in quantum dot waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Kevin L.; Mirin, Richard P.; Cundiff, Steven T.; Klein, Benjamin

    2005-04-01

    Coupling between InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots is investigated using differential transmission spectroscopy. Degenerate measurements show an initial carrier relaxation time that is relatively independent of carrier density. Two-color pump-probe techniques are used to spectrally resolve the carrier dynamics, revealing transfer between quantum dots and a homogeneous linewidth of 12 nm at room temperature. The time constant for carrier escape is shown to increase from 35 ps at room temperature to 130 ps at 230 K. We then employ a rate equation model to simulate the performance of a semiconductor optical amplifier with QDs as the active region.

  15. Entanglement dynamics of photon pairs emitted from quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Yang; Gong, Ming; Li, Chuan-Feng; Chen, Geng; Tang, Jian-Shun; Guo, Guang-Can

    2010-06-15

    We present a model that describes states of photon pairs, which have been generated by biexciton cascade decays of self-assembled quantum dots, the use of which yields a finding that agrees well with the experimental result. Furthermore, we calculate the concurrence and determine the temperature behavior associated with the so-called entanglement sudden death that prevents quantum dots emitting entangled photon pairs at raised temperatures. The relationship between the fine-structure splitting and the sudden death temperature is also provided.

  16. Overview of Stabilizing Ligands for Biocompatible Quantum Dot Nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanjie; Clapp, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Luminescent colloidal quantum dots (QDs) possess numerous advantages as fluorophores in biological applications. However, a principal challenge is how to retain the desirable optical properties of quantum dots in aqueous media while maintaining biocompatibility. Because QD photophysical properties are directly related to surface states, it is critical to control the surface chemistry that renders QDs biocompatible while maintaining electronic passivation. For more than a decade, investigators have used diverse strategies for altering the QD surface. This review summarizes the most successful approaches for preparing biocompatible QDs using various chemical ligands. PMID:22247651

  17. Electron Spin Flip by Antiferromagnetic Coupling between Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tackeuchi, Atsushi; Kuroda, Takamasa; Nakata, Yoshiaki; Murayama, Masahiro; Kitamura, Takamitsu; Yokoyama, Naoki

    2003-07-01

    We have investigated antiferromagnetic coupling between semiconductor quantum dots. Electron spin is observed to flip at 80 ps after photoexcitation via the interdot-exchange interaction. The spin relaxation time under the antiferromagnetic order is extended to 10-12 ns, one order of magnitude longer than that in isolated quantum dots. The antiferromagnetic order exists at temperatures lower than 50-80 K. The photoluminescence experiments for various carrier densities show that antiferromagnetic coupling disappears when the electron pairing probability is low. A model calculation based on the Heitler-London approximation supports the finding that the antiferromagnetic order is observable at low temperature.

  18. Magnetic ordering in quantum dots: Open versus closed shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pientka, J. M.; Oszwa?dowski, R.; Petukhov, A. G.; Han, J. E.; Žuti?, Igor

    2015-10-01

    In magnetically doped quantum dots, changing the carrier occupancy from open to closed shells leads to qualitatively different forms of carrier-mediated magnetic ordering. While it is common to study such nanoscale magnets within a mean-field approximation, excluding the spin fluctuations can mask important phenomena and lead to spurious thermodynamic phase transitions in small magnetic systems. By employing coarse-grained, variational, and Monte Carlo methods on singly and doubly occupied quantum dots to include spin fluctuations, we evaluate the relevance of the mean-field description and distinguish different finite-size scaling in nanoscale magnets.

  19. Lateral photoconductivity in structures with Ge/Si quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Panevin, V. Yu. Sofronov, A. N.; Vorobjev, L. E.; Firsov, D. A.; Shalygin, V. A.; Vinnichenko, M. Ya.; Balagula, R. M.; Tonkikh, A. A.; Werner, P.; Fuhrman, B.; Schmidt, G.

    2013-12-15

    The spectra of lateral photoconductivity and optical absorption caused by the intraband optical transitions of holes in Ge/Si quantum dots are studied at different lattice temperatures. Polarization-dependent spectral features related to the transitions of holes from the quantum dot (QD) ground state are revealed in the optical spectra. Temperature photoconductivity quenching caused by the reverse trapping of nonequilibrium free holes by the QD bound state is observed. The obtained experimental data make it possible to determine the height of the surface band bending at the QD heterointerface.

  20. Efficient numerical schemes for electronic states in coupled quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Tsung-Min; Wang, Wei-Hua; Wang, Weichung

    2008-07-01

    Electronic states in coupled quantum dots are studied numerically and qualitatively in this article. A second-order finite volume scheme based on uniform meshes is first developed to solve the three-dimensional Schrödinger equation. The scheme is used to solve the eigenvalue problem with more than 12 million unknowns. Using these efficient numerical tools, we study quantum structure induced interactions, with emphases on the effects of dot size and space layer thickness. The numerical experiments have predicted the phenomena that envelope functions become delocalized over two QDs and the energy levels show anticrossing behavior. PMID:19051927

  1. Dark current model and characteristics of quantum dot infrared photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Jianqi; Wang, Lixiang

    2015-11-01

    Dark current of quantum dot photodetectors is one of the most important factors which affects the performance of the device. A theoretical dark current model of QDIPs is developed and presented in this paper. This model takes into account the influence of the distribution of activation energy in nanoscale mechanism due to the nonuniformity in size of quantum dots on dark current. The simulated results are in a good agreement with the experimental data, which shows the validity of the dark current model. Additionally, the influence of design parameters of QDIPs on dark current is also analyzed in the paper.

  2. Perspectives on the toxicology of cadmium-based quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feiyu; Shu, Linjing; Wang, Jing; Pan, Xiongfei; Huang, Renhuan; Lin, Yunfeng; Cai, Xiaoxiao

    2013-10-01

    As the number of applications of quantum dots (QDs) grows, the likelihood of exposure increases. Because these metals have the potential for detrimental environmental and health effects, concerns have been raised over our lack of understanding about the fate of these products. Among various types of QDs, cadmium-based quantum dots attract the greatest attention due to their wide applications. To properly assess the potential risk of cadmium-containing QDs, we summarize the current state of academic knowledge on the toxicity of cadmium-based QDs. PMID:24016111

  3. Quantum-dot based nanothermometry in optical plasmonic recording media

    SciTech Connect

    Maestro, Laura Martinez; Zhang, Qiming; Li, Xiangping; Gu, Min; Jaque, Daniel

    2014-11-03

    We report on the direct experimental determination of the temperature increment caused by laser irradiation in a optical recording media constituted by a polymeric film in which gold nanorods have been incorporated. The incorporation of CdSe quantum dots in the recording media allowed for single beam thermal reading of the on-focus temperature from a simple analysis of the two-photon excited fluorescence of quantum dots. Experimental results have been compared with numerical simulations revealing an excellent agreement and opening a promising avenue for further understanding and optimization of optical writing processes and media.

  4. Optical control of the emission direction of a quantum dot

    SciTech Connect

    Luxmoore, I. J.; Wasley, N. A.; Fox, A. M.; Skolnick, M. S.; Ramsay, A. J.; Thijssen, A. C. T.; Oulton, R.; Hugues, M.; CNRS-CRHEA, rue Bernard Grégory, 06560 Valbonne

    2013-12-09

    Using the helicity of a non-resonant excitation laser, control over the emission direction of an InAs/GaAs quantum dot is demonstrated. The quantum dot is located off-center in a crossed-waveguide structure, such that photons of opposite circular polarization are emitted into opposite waveguide directions. By preferentially exciting spin-polarized excitons, the direction of emission can therefore be controlled. The directional control is quantified by using the ratio of the intensity of the light coupled into the two waveguides, which reaches a maximum of ±35%.

  5. One- and two-photon photoluminescence excitation spectra of CdTe quantum dots in a cryogenic confocal microscopy platform.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Diogo B; de Thomaz, André A; Carvalho, Hernandes F; Cesar, Carlos L

    2015-07-27

    In this work we describe a method to obtain photoluminescente excitation spectra, through one and two photon absorption, of CdTe quantum dots, based on a confocal microscope platform. This system becomes an analytical multipurpose characterization platform with spatial, and spectral resolution with temperature control. The capabilities of such platform were demonstrated by photoluminescence and second harmonic generation spectra acquisition as a function of temperature from 10 K to room temperature. The differences for one and two photons transition selection rules between the quantum dot confined levels provide access to intra and inter band, forbidden in one photon transitions, information that could be used to validate confinement models. The results agree well with the transition selection rules calculated with a parabolic model. PMID:26367629

  6. Inter-dot strain field effect on the optoelectronic properties of realistic InP lateral quantum-dot molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Barettin, Daniele Auf der Maur, Matthias; De Angelis, Roberta; Prosposito, Paolo; Casalboni, Mauro; Pecchia, Alessandro

    2015-03-07

    We report on numerical simulations of InP surface lateral quantum-dot molecules on In{sub 0.48}Ga{sub 0.52?}P buffer, using a model strictly derived by experimental results by extrapolation of the molecules shape from atomic force microscopy images. Our study has been inspired by the comparison of a photoluminescence spectrum of a high-density InP surface quantum dot sample with a numerical ensemble average given by a weighted sum of simulated single quantum-dot spectra. A lack of experimental optical response from the smaller dots of the sample is found to be due to strong inter-dot strain fields, which influence the optoelectronic properties of lateral quantum-dot molecules. Continuum electromechanical, k{sup ?}·p{sup ?} bandstructure, and optical calculations are presented for two different molecules, the first composed of two dots of nearly identical dimensions (homonuclear), the second of two dots with rather different sizes (heteronuclear). We show that in the homonuclear molecule the hydrostatic strain raises a potential barrier for the electrons in the connection zone between the dots, while conversely the holes do not experience any barrier, which considerably increases the coupling. Results for the heteronuclear molecule show instead that its dots do not appear as two separate and distinguishable structures, but as a single large dot, and no optical emission is observed in the range of higher energies where the smaller dot is supposed to emit. We believe that in samples of such a high density the smaller dots result as practically incorporated into bigger molecular structures, an effect strongly enforced by the inter-dot strain fields, and consequently it is not possible to experimentally obtain a separate optical emission from the smaller dots.

  7. Förster Resonance Energy Transfer between Quantum Dot Donors and Quantum Dot Acceptors.

    PubMed

    Chou, Kenny F; Dennis, Allison M

    2015-01-01

    Förster (or fluorescence) resonance energy transfer amongst semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) is reviewed, with particular interest in biosensing applications. The unique optical properties of QDs provide certain advantages and also specific challenges with regards to sensor design, compared to other FRET systems. The brightness and photostability of QDs make them attractive for highly sensitive sensing and long-term, repetitive imaging applications, respectively, but the overlapping donor and acceptor excitation signals that arise when QDs serve as both the donor and acceptor lead to high background signals from direct excitation of the acceptor. The fundamentals of FRET within a nominally homogeneous QD population as well as energy transfer between two distinct colors of QDs are discussed. Examples of successful sensors are highlighted, as is cascading FRET, which can be used for solar harvesting. PMID:26057041

  8. Förster Resonance Energy Transfer between Quantum Dot Donors and Quantum Dot Acceptors

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Kenny F.; Dennis, Allison M.

    2015-01-01

    Förster (or fluorescence) resonance energy transfer amongst semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) is reviewed, with particular interest in biosensing applications. The unique optical properties of QDs provide certain advantages and also specific challenges with regards to sensor design, compared to other FRET systems. The brightness and photostability of QDs make them attractive for highly sensitive sensing and long-term, repetitive imaging applications, respectively, but the overlapping donor and acceptor excitation signals that arise when QDs serve as both the donor and acceptor lead to high background signals from direct excitation of the acceptor. The fundamentals of FRET within a nominally homogeneous QD population as well as energy transfer between two distinct colors of QDs are discussed. Examples of successful sensors are highlighted, as is cascading FRET, which can be used for solar harvesting. PMID:26057041

  9. Effects of Shape and Strain Distribution of Quantum Dots on Optical Transition in the Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.-F.; Chen, X.-S.; Lu, W.; Fu, Y.

    2008-12-01

    We present a systemic theoretical study of the electronic properties of the quantum dots inserted in quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs). The strain distribution of three different shaped quantum dots (QDs) with a same ratio of the base to the vertical aspect is calculated by using the short-range valence-force-field (VFF) approach. The calculated results show that the hydrostatic strain ?H varies little with change of the shape, while the biaxial strain ?B changes a lot for different shapes of QDs. The recursion method is used to calculate the energy levels of the bound states in QDs. Compared with the strain, the shape plays a key role in the difference of electronic bound energy levels. The numerical results show that the deference of bound energy levels of lenslike InAs QD matches well with the experimental results. Moreover, the pyramid-shaped QD has the greatest difference from the measured experimental data.

  10. QCAD simulation and optimization of semiconductor double quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Erik; Gao, Xujiao; Kalashnikova, Irina; Muller, Richard Partain; Salinger, Andrew Gerhard; Young, Ralph Watson

    2013-12-01

    We present the Quantum Computer Aided Design (QCAD) simulator that targets modeling quantum devices, particularly silicon double quantum dots (DQDs) developed for quantum qubits. The simulator has three di erentiating features: (i) its core contains nonlinear Poisson, e ective mass Schrodinger, and Con guration Interaction solvers that have massively parallel capability for high simulation throughput, and can be run individually or combined self-consistently for 1D/2D/3D quantum devices; (ii) the core solvers show superior convergence even at near-zero-Kelvin temperatures, which is critical for modeling quantum computing devices; (iii) it couples with an optimization engine Dakota that enables optimization of gate voltages in DQDs for multiple desired targets. The Poisson solver includes Maxwell- Boltzmann and Fermi-Dirac statistics, supports Dirichlet, Neumann, interface charge, and Robin boundary conditions, and includes the e ect of dopant incomplete ionization. The solver has shown robust nonlinear convergence even in the milli-Kelvin temperature range, and has been extensively used to quickly obtain the semiclassical electrostatic potential in DQD devices. The self-consistent Schrodinger-Poisson solver has achieved robust and monotonic convergence behavior for 1D/2D/3D quantum devices at very low temperatures by using a predictor-correct iteration scheme. The QCAD simulator enables the calculation of dot-to-gate capacitances, and comparison with experiment and between solvers. It is observed that computed capacitances are in the right ballpark when compared to experiment, and quantum con nement increases capacitance when the number of electrons is xed in a quantum dot. In addition, the coupling of QCAD with Dakota allows to rapidly identify which device layouts are more likely leading to few-electron quantum dots. Very efficient QCAD simulations on a large number of fabricated and proposed Si DQDs have made it possible to provide fast feedback for design comparison and optimization.

  11. 1170 IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 33, NO. 7, JULY 1997 Quantum-Dot Cascade Laser: Proposal for an

    E-print Network

    Stafford, Charles

    1170 IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 33, NO. 7, JULY 1997 Quantum-Dot Cascade Laser--We propose a quantum-dot version of the quantum- well cascade laser of Faist et al. The elimination of single demonstration by Faist et al. [1] of a laser based on a cascade of coupled quantum wells (QW's) has opened up

  12. Influence of damping on the frequency-dependent polarizabilities of doped quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Suvajit; Ghosh, Manas

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the profiles of diagonal components of frequency-dependent linear (?xx and ?yy), and first nonlinear (?xxx and ?yyy) optical response of repulsive impurity doped quantum dots. The dopant impurity potential chosen assumes Gaussian form. The study principally focuses on investigating the role of damping on the polarizability components. In view of this the dopant is considered to be propagating under damped condition which is otherwise linear inherently. The frequency-dependent polarizabilities are then analyzed by placing the doped dot to a periodically oscillating external electric field of given intensity. The damping strength, in conjunction with external oscillation frequency and confinement potentials, fabricate the polarizability components in a fascinating manner which is adorned with emergence of maximization, minimization, and saturation. The discrimination in the values of the polarizability components in x and y-directions has also been addressed in the present context.

  13. Symmetry-induced hole-spin mixing in quantum dot molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planelles, Josep; Rajadell, Fernando; Climente, Juan I.

    2015-07-01

    We investigate theoretically the spin purity of single holes confined in vertically coupled GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots (QDs) under longitudinal magnetic fields. A unique behavior is observed for triangular QDs, by which the spin is largely pure when the hole is in one of the dots, but it becomes strongly mixed when an electric field is used to drive it into molecular resonance. The spin admixture is due to the valence-band spin-orbit interaction, which is greatly enhanced in C3 h symmetry environments. The strong yet reversible electrical control of hole spin suggests that molecules with C3-symmetry QDs, like those obtained with [111] growth, can outperform the usual C2-symmetry QDs obtained with [001] growth for the development of scalable qubit architectures.

  14. Spin-split antibonding molecular ground state in manganese-doped quantum dot molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Fanyao; Villegas-Lelovsky, L.; Morais, P. C.

    2015-09-01

    Tunnel coupling between two dots in manganese-doped InAs/GaAs quantum dot molecules (QDMs), valence band mixing, and p -d exchange interaction between holes and localized d electrons give rise to a tunability of charge, spin, and molecular orbitals. The interplay among them determines the nature of the molecular ground state. Remarkably, unlike usual diatomic molecules in which the bonding (BD) state is always the ground state, we found that the molecular ground state in Mn-doped QDMs is of antibonding (AB) character. Furthermore, it is a spin-split state and can be switched into the spin-split BD type. We also demonstrate that this unusual behavior can be tuned by the lateral confinement strength of the QDMs, the concentration, and the distribution of manganese as well as the electric field applied along the direction of the QDM axis.

  15. Spin relaxation and antiferromagnetic coupling in semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tackeuchi, A.; Kuroda, T.; Yamaguchi, K.; Nakata, Y.; Yokoyama, N.; Takagahara, T.

    2006-05-01

    We report carrier spin dynamics in highly uniform self-assembled InAs quantum dots and the observation of antiferromagnetic coupling between semiconductor quantum dots. The spin relaxation times in the ground state and the first excited state were measured to be 1.0 and 0.6 ns, respectively, without the disturbance of inhomogeneous broadening. The measured spin relaxation time decreases rapidly from 1.1 ns at 10 K to 200 ps at 130 K. This large change in the spin relaxation time is well-explained in terms of the mechanism of acoustic phonon emission. In coupled quantum dots, the formation of antiferromagnetic coupling is directly observed. Electron spins are found to flip at 80 ps after photoexcitation via the interdot exchange interaction. The antiferromagnetic coupling exists at temperatures lower than 50-80 K. A model calculation based on the Heitler-London approximation supports the finding that the antiferromagnetic coupling is observable at low temperature. These carrier spin features in quantum dots are suitable for the future quantum computation.

  16. Field-induced confined states in graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Moriyama, Satoshi; Morita, Yoshifumi; Watanabe, Eiichiro; Tsuya, Daiju

    2014-02-03

    We report an approach to confine the carriers in single-layer graphene, which leads to quantum devices with field-induced quantum confinement. We demonstrated that the Coulomb-blockade effect evolves under a uniform magnetic field perpendicular to the graphene device. Our experimental results show that field-induced quantum dots are realized in graphene, and a quantum confinement-deconfinement transition is switched by the magnetic field.

  17. Coulomb interaction of acceptors in Cd{sub 1?x}Mn{sub x}Te/CdTe quantum dot

    SciTech Connect

    Kalpana, P.; Nithiananthi, P. Jayakumar, K.; Reuben, A. Merwyn Jasper D.

    2014-04-24

    The investigation on the effect of confining potential like isotropic harmonic oscillator type potential on the binding and the Coulomb interaction energy of the double acceptors in the presence of magnetic field in a Cd{sub 1?x}Mn{sub x}Te/CdTe Spherical Quantum Dot has been made for the Mn ion composition x=0.3 and compared with the results obtained from the square well type potential using variational procedure in the effective mass approximation.

  18. Quantum dot-sized organic fluorescent dots for long-term cell tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kai; Tang, Ben Zhong; Liu, Bin

    2014-03-01

    Fluorescence techniques have been extensively employed to develop non-invasive methodologies for tracking and understanding complex biological processes both in vitro and in vivo, which is of high importance in modern life science research. Among a variety of fluorescent probes, inorganic semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have shown advantages in terms of better photostability, larger Stokes shift and more feasible surface functionalization. However, their intrinsic toxic heavy metal components and unstable fluorescence at low pH greatly impede the applications of QDs in in vivo studies. In this work, we developed novel fluorescent probes that can outperform currently available QD based probes in practice. Using conjugated oligomer with aggregation-induced emission characteristics as the fluorescent domain and biocompatible lipid-PEG derivatives as the encapsulation matrix, the obtained organic dots have shown higher brightness, better stability in biological medium and comparable size and photostability as compared to their counterparts of inorganic QDs. More importantly, unlike QD-based probes, the organic fluorescent dots do not blink, and also do not contain heavy metal ions that could be potentially toxic when applied for living biosubstrates. Upon surface functionalization with a cell-penetrating peptide, the organic dots greatly outperform inorganic quantum dots in both in vitro and in vivo long-term cell tracing studies, which will be beneficial to answer crucial questions in stem cell/immune cell therapies. Considering the customized fluorescent properties and surface functionalities of the organic dots, a series of biocompatible organic dots will be developed to serve as a promising platform for multifarious bioimaging tasks in future.

  19. Long-lived charge carrier dynamics in polymer/quantum dot blends and organometal halide perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaoka, Hirokazu

    Solution-processable semiconductors offer a potential route to deploy solar panels on a wide scale, based on the possibility of reduced manufacturing costs by using earth-abundant materials and inexpensive production technologies, such as inkjet or roll-to-roll printing. Understanding the fundamental physics underlying device operation is important to realize this goal. This dissertation describes studies of two kinds of solar cells: hybrid polymer/PbS quantum dot solar cells and organometal halide perovskite solar cells. Chapter two discusses details of the experimental techniques. Chapter three and four explore the mechanisms of charge transfer and energy transfer spectroscopically, and find that both processes contribute to the device photocurrent. Chapter four investigates the important question of how the energy level alignment of quantum dot acceptors affects the operation of hybrid polymer/quantum dot solar cells, by making use of the size-tunable energy levels of PbS quantum dots. We observe that long-lived charge transfer yield is diminished at larger dot sizes as the energy level offset at the polymer/quantum dot interface is changed through decreasing quantum confinement using a combination of spectroscopy and device studies. Chapter five discusses the effects of TiO2 surface chemistry on the performance of organometal halide perovskite solar cells. Specifically, chapter five studies the effect of replacing the conventional TiO2 electrode with Zr-doped TiO2 (Zr-TiO2). We aim to explore the correlation between charge carrier dynamics and device studies by incorporating zirconium into TiO2. We find that, compared to Zr-free controls, solar cells employing Zr-TiO2 give rise to an increase in overall power conversion efficiency, and a decrease in hysteresis. We also observe longer carrier lifetimes and higher charge carrier densities in devices on Zr-TiO2 electrodes at microsecond times in transient photovoltage experiments, as well as at longer persistent photovoltages extending from ~millisecond to tens of sec. Finally, we characterize the combined effects of pyridine treatment and Zr-TiO2 on device performance and carrier lifetimes.

  20. Simulations of the spontaneous emission of a quantum dot near a gap plasmon waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Perera, Chamanei S. Vernon, Kristy C.; Mcleod, Angus

    2014-02-07

    In this paper, we modeled a quantum dot at near proximity to a gap plasmon waveguide to study the quantum dot-plasmon interactions. Assuming that the waveguide is single mode, this paper is concerned about the dependence of spontaneous emission rate of the quantum dot on waveguide dimensions such as width and height. We compare coupling efficiency of a gap waveguide with symmetric configuration and asymmetric configuration illustrating that symmetric waveguide has a better coupling efficiency to the quantum dot. We also demonstrate that optimally placed quantum dot near a symmetric waveguide with 50?nm?×?50?nm cross section can capture 80% of the spontaneous emission into a guided plasmon mode.

  1. Investigation of the shape of submonolayer quantum dots using a polarization-dependent photocurrent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jun Oh; Ku, Zahyun; Urbas, Augustine; Lee, Sang Jun

    2015-11-01

    Structural and optical characterization of multi-stack InAs/InGaAs submonolayer quantum dots (SML-QDs) grown under the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode was performed via a polarization-dependent study. Various angular in-plane (plane perpendicular to growth direction) and out-of-plane (plane parallel to the 45°-polished facet) polarization-dependent spectral photocurrents were measured to investigate the three-dimensional quantum confinement in multi-stack 0.3 monolayer InAs SML-QDs (the shape of SML-QDs embedded in an SML-QD based photodetector). Scanning transmission electron microscopy images revealed the interdiffusion of indium atoms between SML-QDs and the InGaAs quantum well due to an insufficient amount of indium, which agrees well with the tendency of s- to z-polarized response ratios.

  2. A charged quantum dot micropillar system for deterministic light matter interactions

    E-print Network

    Petros Androvitsaneas; Andrew B. Young; Chritian Schneider; Sebastian Maier; Martin Kamp; Sven Höfling; Sebastian Knauer; Edmund Harbord; Cheng-Yong Hu; John G. Rarity; Ruth Oulton

    2015-11-27

    Quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanostructures in which a three dimensional potential trap produces an electronic quantum confinement, thus mimicking the behaviour of single atomic dipole-like transitions. However unlike atoms, QDs can be incorporated into solid state photonic devices such as cavities or waveguides that enhance the light-matter interaction. A near unit efficiency light-matter interaction is essential for deterministic, scalable quantum information (QI) devices. In this limit, a single photon input into the device will undergo a large rotation of the polarization of the light field due to the strong interaction with the QD. In this paper we measure a macroscopic ($\\sim6^o$) phase shift of light as a result of the interaction with a negatively charged QD coupled to a low quality-factor (Q$\\sim290$) pillar microcavity. This unexpectedly large rotation angle demonstrates this simple low Q-factor design would enable near deterministic light-matter interactions.

  3. On-chip electrically controlled routing of photons from a single quantum dot

    SciTech Connect

    Bentham, C.; Coles, R. J.; Royall, B.; O'Hara, J.; Prtljaga, N.; Fox, A. M.; Skolnick, M. S.; Wilson, L. R.; Itskevich, I. E.; Clarke, E.

    2015-06-01

    Electrical control of on-chip routing of photons emitted by a single InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dot (SAQD) is demonstrated in a photonic crystal cavity-waveguide system. The SAQD is located inside an H1 cavity, which is coupled to two photonic crystal waveguides. The SAQD emission wavelength is electrically tunable by the quantum-confined Stark effect. When the SAQD emission is brought into resonance with one of two H1 cavity modes, it is preferentially routed to the waveguide to which that mode is selectively coupled. This proof of concept provides the basis for scalable, low-power, high-speed operation of single-photon routers for use in integrated quantum photonic circuits.

  4. Lithographically defined few-electron silicon quantum dots based on a silicon-on-insulator substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Horibe, Kosuke; Oda, Shunri; Kodera, Tetsuo

    2015-02-23

    Silicon quantum dot (QD) devices with a proximal single-electron transistor (SET) charge sensor have been fabricated in a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure based on a silicon-on-insulator substrate. The charge state of the QDs was clearly read out using the charge sensor via the SET current. The lithographically defined small QDs enabled clear observation of the few-electron regime of a single QD and a double QD by charge sensing. Tunnel coupling on tunnel barriers of the QDs can be controlled by tuning the top-gate voltages, which can be used for manipulation of the spin quantum bit via exchange interaction between tunnel-coupled QDs. The lithographically defined silicon QD device reported here is technologically simple and does not require electrical gates to create QD confinement potentials, which is advantageous for the integration of complicated constructs such as multiple QD structures with SET charge sensors for the purpose of spin-based quantum computing.

  5. Out-of-Equilibrium Kondo Effect in Double Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Aguado, Ramon; Langreth, David C.

    2000-08-28

    The out-of-equilibrium transport properties of a double quantum dot system in the Kondo regime are studied theoretically by means of a two-impurity Anderson Hamiltonian with interimpurity hopping. The Hamiltonian is solved by means of a nonequilibrium generalization of the slave-boson mean-field theory. It is demonstrated that measurements of the differential conductance dI/dV , for appropriate values of voltages and tunneling couplings, can give a direct observation of the coherent superposition between the many-body Kondo states of each dot. For large voltages and arbitrarily large interdot tunneling, there is a critical voltage above which the physical behavior of the system again resembles that of two decoupled quantum dots. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  6. Quantum control and process tomography of a semiconductor quantum dot hybrid qubit.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dohun; Shi, Zhan; Simmons, C B; Ward, D R; Prance, J R; Koh, Teck Seng; Gamble, John King; Savage, D E; Lagally, M G; Friesen, Mark; Coppersmith, S N; Eriksson, Mark A

    2014-07-01

    The similarities between gated quantum dots and the transistors in modern microelectronics--in fabrication methods, physical structure and voltage scales for manipulation--have led to great interest in the development of quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor quantum dots. Although quantum dot spin qubits have demonstrated long coherence times, their manipulation is often slower than desired for important future applications, such as factoring. Furthermore, scalability and manufacturability are enhanced when qubits are as simple as possible. Previous work has increased the speed of spin qubit rotations by making use of integrated micromagnets, dynamic pumping of nuclear spins or the addition of a third quantum dot. Here we demonstrate a qubit that is a hybrid of spin and charge. It is simple, requiring neither nuclear-state preparation nor micromagnets. Unlike previous double-dot qubits, the hybrid qubit enables fast rotations about two axes of the Bloch sphere. We demonstrate full control on the Bloch sphere with ?-rotation times of less than 100 picoseconds in two orthogonal directions, which is more than an order of magnitude faster than any other double-dot qubit. The speed arises from the qubit's charge-like characteristics, and its spin-like features result in resistance to decoherence over a wide range of gate voltages. We achieve full process tomography in our electrically controlled semiconductor quantum dot qubit, extracting high fidelities of 85 per cent for X rotations (transitions between qubit states) and 94 per cent for Z rotations (phase accumulation between qubit states). PMID:24990747

  7. Fluorescent carbon nanomaterials: "quantum dots" or nanoclusters?

    PubMed

    Dekaliuk, Mariia O; Viagin, Oleg; Malyukin, Yuriy V; Demchenko, Alexander P

    2014-08-14

    Despite many efforts, the mechanisms of light absorption and emission of small fluorescent carbon nanoparticles (C-dots) are still unresolved and are a subject of active discussion. In this work we address the question as to whether the fluorescence is a collective property of these nanoparticles or they are composed of assembled individual emitters. Selecting three types of C-dots with "violet", "blue" and "green" emissions and performing a detailed study of fluorescence intensity, lifetime and time-resolved anisotropy as a function of excitation and emission wavelengths together with the effect of viscogen and dynamic fluorescence quencher, we demonstrate that the C-dots represent assemblies of surface-exposed fluorophores. They behave as individual emitters, display electronic anisotropy, do not exchange their excited-state energies via homo-FRET and possibly display sub-nanosecond intra-particle mobility. PMID:24965696

  8. Horseradish peroxidase enzyme immobilized graphene quantum dots as electrochemical biosensors.

    PubMed

    Muthurasu, A; Ganesh, V

    2014-10-01

    Green colour emitting graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are prepared by a simple acid reflux reaction of graphene oxide (GO) produced using a modified Hummer's method. Structural and morphological characterizations of such GQDs are performed using spectroscopic (FTIR, UV-vis and photoluminescence) and microscopic (transmission electron microscopy) techniques. These studies reveal the formation of stable, uniform spherical particles of GQDs which emit a green colour and possess surface functional moieties such as epoxide, hydroxyl (-OH) and carboxyl (-COOH) groups. Further, the possibility of immobilizing biomolecules on GQDs using these surface active functional groups is explored. As an example, an enzyme namely horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is shown to be anchored on these GQDs using a coupling reaction between an acid and amine leading to the formation of a peptide amide bond. Enzymatic activity of HRP is investigated by simply drop-casting HRP-immobilized GQDs onto a glassy carbon electrode. Electrochemical studies clearly reveal the formation of a well-defined redox peak and the dependence of redox peak current on scan rate suggests that the HRP enzyme is anchored onto the electrode, surface confined and exhibits a direct electron transfer process that is predominantly controlled by a diffusion process. These HRP-functionalized GQDs are used as a sensing platform for hydrogen peroxide detection. This particular electrochemical biosensor shows the sensitivity values of 0.905 and 7.057 ?A/mM and detection limits of ~530 nM and 2.16 ?M along with a fast response time of ~2-3 s. PMID:24984603

  9. Bit-Serial Adder Based on Quantum Dots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir; Toomarian, Nikzad; Modarress, Katayoon; Spotnitz, Mathew

    2003-01-01

    A proposed integrated circuit based on quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) would function as a bit-serial adder. This circuit would serve as a prototype building block for demonstrating the feasibility of quantum-dots computing and for the further development of increasingly complex and increasingly capable quantum-dots computing circuits. QCA-based bit-serial adders would be especially useful in that they would enable the development of highly parallel and systolic processors for implementing fast Fourier, cosine, Hartley, and wavelet transforms. The proposed circuit would complement the QCA-based circuits described in "Implementing Permutation Matrices by Use of Quantum Dots" (NPO-20801), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 10 (October 2001), page 42 and "Compact Interconnection Networks Based on Quantum Dots" (NPO-20855), which appears elsewhere in this issue. Those articles described the limitations of very-large-scale-integrated (VLSI) circuitry and the major potential advantage afforded by QCA. To recapitulate: In a VLSI circuit, signal paths that are required not to interact with each other must not cross in the same plane. In contrast, for reasons too complex to describe in the limited space available for this article, suitably designed and operated QCA-based signal paths that are required not to interact with each other can nevertheless be allowed to cross each other in the same plane without adverse effect. In principle, this characteristic could be exploited to design compact, coplanar, simple (relative to VLSI) QCA-based networks to implement complex, advanced interconnection schemes. To enable a meaningful description of the proposed bit-serial adder, it is necessary to further recapitulate the description of a quantum-dot cellular automation from the first-mentioned prior article: A quantum-dot cellular automaton contains four quantum dots positioned at the corners of a square cell. The cell contains two extra mobile electrons that can tunnel (in the quantum-mechanical sense) between neighboring dots within the cell. The Coulomb repulsion between the two electrons tends to make them occupy antipodal dots in the cell. For an isolated cell, there are two energetically equivalent arrangements (denoted polarization states) of the extra electrons. The cell polarization is used to encode binary information. Because the polarization of a nonisolated cell depends on Coulomb-repulsion interactions with neighboring cells, universal logic gates and binary wires could be constructed, in principle, by arraying QCA of suitable design in suitable patterns. Again, for reasons too complex to describe here, in order to ensure accuracy and timeliness of the output of a QCA array, it is necessary to resort to an adiabatic switching scheme in which the QCA array is divided into subarrays, each controlled by a different phase of a multiphase clock signal. In this scheme, each subarray is given time to perform its computation, then its state is frozen by raising its inter-dot potential barriers and its output is fed as the input to the successor subarray. The successor subarray is kept in an unpolarized state so it does not influence the calculation of preceding subarray. Such a clocking scheme is consistent with pipeline computation in the sense that each different subarray can perform a different part of an overall computation. In other words, QCA arrays are inherently suitable for pipeline and, moreover, systolic computations. This sequential or pipeline aspect of QCA would be utilized in the proposed bit-serial adders.

  10. Microsecond-sustained lasing from colloidal quantum dot solids.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Michael M; Fan, Fengjia; Sellan, Daniel P; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Houtepen, Arjan J; Parrish, Kevin D; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Malen, Jonathan A; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dots have grown in interest as materials for light amplification and lasing in view of their bright photoluminescence, convenient solution processing and size-controlled spectral tunability. To date, lasing in colloidal quantum dot solids has been limited to the nanosecond temporal regime, curtailing their application in systems that require more sustained emission. Here we find that the chief cause of nanosecond-only operation has been thermal runaway: the combination of rapid heat injection from the pump source, poor heat removal and a highly temperature-dependent threshold. We show microsecond-sustained lasing, achieved by placing ultra-compact colloidal quantum dot films on a thermally conductive substrate, the combination of which minimizes heat accumulation. Specifically, we employ inorganic-halide-capped quantum dots that exhibit high modal gain (1,200?cm(-1)) and an ultralow amplified spontaneous emission threshold (average peak power of ?50?kW?cm(-2)) and rely on an optical structure that dissipates heat while offering minimal modal loss. PMID:26493282

  11. Cooperative Effects in Quartz Media with Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pishenko, A. V.; Gladush, M. G.; Prokhorov, A. V.

    2015-09-01

    We theoretically consider a problem of generation of infrared pulses of superradiation (SR) in a dielectric medium hosting a dense ensemble of quantum dots produced using the narrow gap semiconductors. We have studied the influence of complex local-field corrections on cooperative optical processes in such a material due to essential modifications of the effective values of the spontaneous relaxation rates.

  12. Patterning of Protein/Quantum Dot Hybrid Bionanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Nandwana, Vikas; Mout, Rubul; Yeh, Yi-Cheun; Dickert, Stefan; Tuominen, Mark T.; Rotello, Vincent M.

    2013-01-01

    Here we demonstrate patterning of protein/quantum dot hybrid bionanostructures via electrostatic assembly of engineered negatively charged fluorescent protein with positively charged CdSe/ZnS QD patterns formed through e-beam lithography and post-patterning modification with cationic ligands. PMID:23543831

  13. Quantum Dots for Live Cell and In Vivo Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Walling, Maureen A; Novak, Jennifer A; Shepard, Jason R. E

    2009-01-01

    In the past few decades, technology has made immeasurable strides to enable visualization, identification, and quantitation in biological systems. Many of these technological advancements are occurring on the nanometer scale, where multiple scientific disciplines are combining to create new materials with enhanced properties. The integration of inorganic synthetic methods with a size reduction to the nano-scale has lead to the creation of a new class of optical reporters, called quantum dots. These semiconductor quantum dot nanocrystals have emerged as an alternative to organic dyes and fluorescent proteins, and are brighter and more stable against photobleaching than standard fluorescent indicators. Quantum dots have tunable optical properties that have proved useful in a wide range of applications from multiplexed analysis such as DNA detection and cell sorting and tracking, to most recently demonstrating promise for in vivo imaging and diagnostics. This review provides an in-depth discussion of past, present, and future trends in quantum dot use with an emphasis on in vivo imaging and its related applications. PMID:19333416

  14. Molecular Imaging: Physics and Bioapplications of Quantum Dots

    E-print Network

    Michalet, Xavier

    in Biological Imaging 121 8.5.1 Immuno-Cytochemistry and Fluorescence in situ Hybridization 122 8.5.2 Live Cell 8.3.6 Lasers, LED, and Photovoltaic Cells 117 8.4 Synthesis of Colloidal Nanocrystals 119 8CHAPTER 8 Molecular Imaging: Physics and Bioapplications of Quantum Dots Xavier Michalet, Laurent A

  15. Facile preparation and multifunctional applications of boron nitride quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Lei, Zhouyue; Xu, Shengjie; Wan, Jiaxun; Wu, Peiyi

    2015-12-01

    Boron nitride quantum dots are obtained by a facile sonication-solvothermal technique. They are proven to be promising fluorescent bioimaging probes for bioimaging with remarkably low cytotoxicity and easily integrated into high-performance proton exchange membranes. This work will probably trigger research interest in BN and its new applications in a variety of fields. PMID:26523452

  16. Making Ternary Quantum Dots From Single-Source Precursors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila; Banger, Kulbinder; Castro, Stephanie; Hepp, Aloysius

    2007-01-01

    A process has been devised for making ternary (specifically, CuInS2) nanocrystals for use as quantum dots (QDs) in a contemplated next generation of high-efficiency solar photovoltaic cells. The process parameters can be chosen to tailor the sizes (and, thus, the absorption and emission spectra) of the QDs.

  17. Optoelectronic and photonic control of single quantum dots

    E-print Network

    Dewhurst, Samuel James

    2010-10-12

    linear polarisations due to the unpolarised nature of the far-field of the mode. Finally, a new kind of cavity based on photonic crystal waveguides was developed. A Purcell enhancement of the in-plane spontaneous emission from a quantum dot coupled to a...

  18. Microsecond-sustained lasing from colloidal quantum dot solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Michael M.; Fan, Fengjia; Sellan, Daniel P.; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Houtepen, Arjan J.; Parrish, Kevin D.; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Malen, Jonathan A.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-10-01

    Colloidal quantum dots have grown in interest as materials for light amplification and lasing in view of their bright photoluminescence, convenient solution processing and size-controlled spectral tunability. To date, lasing in colloidal quantum dot solids has been limited to the nanosecond temporal regime, curtailing their application in systems that require more sustained emission. Here we find that the chief cause of nanosecond-only operation has been thermal runaway: the combination of rapid heat injection from the pump source, poor heat removal and a highly temperature-dependent threshold. We show microsecond-sustained lasing, achieved by placing ultra-compact colloidal quantum dot films on a thermally conductive substrate, the combination of which minimizes heat accumulation. Specifically, we employ inorganic-halide-capped quantum dots that exhibit high modal gain (1,200 cm-1) and an ultralow amplified spontaneous emission threshold (average peak power of ~50 kW cm-2) and rely on an optical structure that dissipates heat while offering minimal modal loss.

  19. Application of zinc oxide quantum dots in food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc oxide quantum dots (ZnO QDs) are nanoparticles of purified powdered ZnO. The ZnO QDs were directly added into liquid foods or coated on the surface of glass jars using polylactic acid (PLA) as a carrier. The antimicrobial activities of ZnO QDs against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteriti...

  20. Photoluminescence Measurements of Quantum-Dot-Containing Microdisks

    E-print Network

    a whispering gallery mode (WGM) of a microdisk is a function of a number of factors, including the position light into and extracting the light emitted by semiconductor quantum dots into microdisk whispering gallery modes. The immediate device application that we study #12;182 here is room-temperature, fiber

  1. Folded-Light-Path Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    E-print Network

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    avenues to overcoming limited electronic transport in these materials. Progress has recently been madeFolded-Light-Path Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells Ghada I. Koleilat*, Illan J. Kramer*, Chris T-processed solar cells offer the promise of low cost, large-area processing, and, prospectively, high solar power

  2. Thermal rectification in the nonequilibrium quantum-dots-system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tian; Wang, Xiang-Bin

    2015-08-01

    We study thermal rectification of a two-quantum-dots system with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction and coupling to two bosonic reservoirs. Compared with other proposals (Zhang et al., 2009 [9]), our model can offer larger rectification efficiency through different modulations in small size systems (N=2).

  3. Fluorescent determination of graphene quantum dots in water samples.

    PubMed

    Benítez-Martínez, Sandra; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2015-10-01

    This work presents a simple, fast and sensitive method for the preconcentration and quantification of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) in aqueous samples. GQDs are considered an object of analysis (analyte) not an analytical tool which is the most frequent situation in Analytical Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. This approach is based on the preconcentration of graphene quantum dots on an anion exchange sorbent by solid phase extraction and their subsequent elution prior fluorimetric analysis of the solution containing graphene quantum dots. Parameters of the extraction procedure such as sample volume, type of solvent, sample pH, sample flow rate and elution conditions were investigated in order to achieve extraction efficiency. The limits of detection and quantification were 7.5 ?g L(-1) and 25 ?g L(-1), respectively. The precision for 200 ?g L(-1), expressed as %RSD, was 2.8%. Recoveries percentages between 86.9 and 103.9% were obtained for two different concentration levels. Interferences from other nanoparticles were studied and no significant changes were observed at the concentration levels tested. Consequently, the optimized procedure has great potential to be applied to the determination of graphene quantum dots at trace levels in drinking and environmental waters. PMID:26481990

  4. Quantum dot-based nanomaterials for biological imaging

    E-print Network

    Zimmer, John P. (John Philip)

    2006-01-01

    Quantum dot-based fluorescent probes were synthesized and applied to biological imaging in two distinct size regimes: (1) 100-1000 nm and (2) < 10 nm in diameter. The larger diameter range was accessed by doping CdSe/ZnS ...

  5. Cavity Enhancement of Single Quantum Dot Emission in the Blue

    E-print Network

    2009-12-27

    December 2009 ? The Author(s) 2009. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com Abstract Cavity-enhanced single-photon emission in the blue spectral region was measured from single InGaN/GaN quantum dots. The low-Q microcavities used were...

  6. Fractional decay of quantum dots in real photonic crystals

    E-print Network

    Philip Kristensen; A. Femius Koenderink; Peter Lodahl; Bjarne Tromborg; Jesper Mork

    2008-03-26

    We show that fractional decay may be observable in experiments using quantum dots and photonic crystals with parameters that are currently achievable. We focus on the case of inverse opal photonic crystals and locate the position in the crystal where the effect is most pronounced. Furthermore, we quantify the influence of absorptive loss and show that it is a limiting but not prohibitive effect.

  7. & Vesicles |Hot Paper| Unilamellar Vesicles from Amphiphilic Graphene Quantum Dots

    E-print Network

    Jelinek, Raz

    & Vesicles |Hot Paper| Unilamellar Vesicles from Amphiphilic Graphene Quantum Dots Sukhendu Nandi-functionalized with hydrocarbon chains (i.e., amphiphilic GQDs) self-assemble into unilamellar spherical vesicles in aqueous solution. The amphiphilic GQD vesicles exhibit multicolor luminescence that can be readily exploited

  8. Characterization of the Uptake of Quantum Dots by Algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Lin, Sijie; Sun, Xiaoqian; Brune, David; Ke, Pu-Chun

    2009-03-01

    The exposure of living systems to nanoparticles is inevitable due to a dramatic increase in their release into the environment, the most likely pathways being through inhalation, ingestion and skin uptake. The extremely small size of the nanoparticles may facilitate their tissue and cellular uptake by plants and animals, resulting in either positive (drug delivery, antioxidation) or negative (toxicity, cellular dysfunction) effects. Here we report the effects of quantum dots uptake by algae, the single-celled plant species and major food sources for aquatic organisms. In our studies, the presence of quantum dots in algal cells was detected using fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy. Using spectrophotometry we found a supralinear increase of the uptake with the concentration of quantum dots, with a saturation of the uptake occurring beyond a concentration of 15 mg/mL. Using a bicarbonate indicator we further evaluated the effects of quantum dots uptake on algal photosynthesis and respiration. Such study facilitates our understanding of the environmental impact of nanomaterials.

  9. Quantum dots trace lymphatic drainage from the mouse eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Alex L. C.; Gupta, Neeru; Zhang, Zhexue; Yücel, Yeni H.

    2011-10-01

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness in the world, often associated with elevated eye pressure. Currently, all glaucoma treatments aim to lower eye pressure by improving fluid exit from the eye. We recently reported the presence of lymphatics in the human eye. The lymphatic circulation is known to drain fluid from organ tissues and, as such, lymphatics may also play a role in draining fluid from the eye. We investigated whether lymphatic drainage from the eye is present in mice by visualizing the trajectory of quantum dots once injected into the eye. Whole-body hyperspectral fluorescence imaging was performed in 17 live mice. In vivo imaging was conducted prior to injection, and 5, 20, 40 and 70 min, and 2, 6 and 24 h after injection. A quantum dot signal was observed in the left neck region at 6 h after tracer injection into the eye. Examination of immunofluorescence-labelled sections using confocal microscopy showed the presence of a quantum dot signal in the left submandibular lymph node. This is the first direct evidence of lymphatic drainage from the mouse eye. The use of quantum dots to image this lymphatic pathway in vivo is a novel tool to stimulate new treatments to reduce eye pressure and prevent blindness from glaucoma.

  10. Towards quantum-dot arrays of entangled photon emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juska, Gediminas; Dimastrodonato, Valeria; Mereni, Lorenzo O.; Gocalinska, Agnieszka; Pelucchi, Emanuele

    2013-07-01

    To make photonic quantum information a reality, a number of extraordinary challenges need to be overcome. One challenge is to achieve large arrays of reproducible `entangled' photon generators, while maintaining compatibility for integration with optical devices and detectors. Semiconductor quantum dots are potentially ideal for this as they allow photons to be generated on demand without relying on probabilistic processes. Nevertheless, most quantum-dot systems are limited by their intrinsic lack of symmetry, which allows only a small number (typically 1 out of 100, or worse) of good dots to be achieved per chip. The recent retraction of Mohan et al. seemed to question the very possibility of simultaneously achieving site control and high symmetry. Here, we show that with a new family of (111)-grown pyramidal site-controlled InGaAs1-?N? quantum dots it is possible to overcome previous hurdles and obtain areas with up to 15% of polarization-entangled photon emitters, with fidelities as high as 0.721 +/- 0.043.

  11. Optical levitation of a microdroplet containing a single quantum dot.

    PubMed

    Minowa, Yosuke; Kawai, Ryoichi; Ashida, Masaaki

    2015-03-15

    We demonstrate the optical levitation or trapping in helium gas of a single quantum dot (QD) within a liquid droplet. Bright single photon emission from the levitated QD in the droplet was observed for more than 200 s. The observed photon count rates are consistent with the value theoretically estimated from the two-photon-action cross section. This Letter presents the realization of an optically levitated solid-state quantum emitter. PMID:25768143

  12. Electro-magnetic weak coupling optical polaron and temperature effect in quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiotsop, M.; Fotue, A. J.; Kenfack, S. C.; Issofa, N.; Wirngo, A. V.; Tabue Djemmo, M. P.; Fotsin, H.; Fai, L. C.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the influence of the electric field and magnetic fields on the ground state energy of a polaron in a spherical semiconductor quantum dot (QD) using the modified Lee Low Pines (LLP) method. The numerical results show the increase of the ground state energy with the increase of the electric field and the electron–phonon coupling constant, and the decrease with the magnetic field and the longitudinal confinement length. It is also seen that the temperature is an increasing function of the cyclotron frequency and the coupling constant whereas it decreases with the electric field strength. The modulation of the electric field, the magnetic field and the confinement length leads to the control of decoherence in the system.

  13. Homogeneous broadening in quantum dots due to Auger scattering with wetting layer carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, H. H.; Zhang, J.-Z.; Galbraith, I.

    2005-11-01

    The homogeneous broadening in semiconductor quantum dot (QD) lasers and optical amplifiers is studied theoretically. Based on a model for the electronic states of the coupled QD wetting layer (WL) system, Coulomb interaction matrix elements are calculated, including both screening and exchange interaction. The homogeneous broadening due to various Auger processes, involving scattering of carriers between WL states and confined QD states, is calculated. The effects of the orthogonalization of WL states, QD confinement, QD density, and carrier density on the homogeneous broadening are studied systematically. We found that such WL-assisted Auger scattering is very efficient with subpicosecond dephasing times, and it is the dominant channel for the homogeneous broadening at high carrier density. Good agreement is achieved when comparing our theoretical results and recent experimental data.

  14. Raman spectroscopy of Cd1-xMnxS quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romcevic, N.; Kostic, R.; Romcevic, M.; Comor, M. I.; Nedeljkovic, J. M.

    2005-12-01

    Powders consisting of 44 Å Cd1-xMnxS (x = 0; 0.05; 0.1; 0.15; 0.3) quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized using the colloidal chemistry method and characterized by Raman scattering measurements. The dominant Raman line of the 44 Å Cd1-xMnxS QDs was at about 300 cm-1 showing asymmetric broadening for ? < 300 cm-1. A significant change in the intensity of the first harmonic for different x and excitation energies was noticed. Also, the second harmonic of confined Raman modes was experimentally observed. A theoretical model was used to calculate the relative contributions of the confined Raman scattering modes for the 44 Å CdS QDs and satisfactory agreement with experimental results was found.

  15. Spin-based quantum-information processing with semiconductor quantum dots and cavity QED

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Mang; D'Amico, Irene; Zanardi, Paolo; Rossi, Fausto

    2003-01-01

    A quantum-information-processing scheme is proposed with semiconductor quantum dots located in a high-Q single-mode QED cavity. The spin degrees of freedom of one excess conduction electron of the quantum dots are employed as qubits. Excitonic states, which can be produced ultrafast with optical operation, are used as auxiliary states in the realization of quantum gates. We show how properly tailored ultrafast laser pulses and Pauli-blocking effects can be used to achieve a universal encoded quantum computing.

  16. Fabrication and characterization of an undoped GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dot device

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hai-Ou; Cao, Gang; Xiao, Ming You, Jie; Wei, Da; Tu, Tao; Guo, Guang-Can; Guo, Guo-Ping; Jiang, Hong-Wen

    2014-11-07

    We demonstrate the development of a double quantum dot with an integrated charge sensor fabricated in undoped GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures using a double top-gated design. Based on the evaluation of the integrated charge sensor, the double quantum dot can be tuned to a few-electron region. Additionally, the inter-dot coupling of the double quantum dot can be tuned to a large extent according to the voltage on the middle gate. The quantum dot is shown to be tunable from a single dot to a well-isolated double dot. To assess the stability of such design, the potential fluctuation induced by 1/f noise was measured. Based on the findings herein, the quantum dot design developed in the undoped GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor shows potential for the future exploitation of nano-devices.

  17. Optical investigation of InAs quantum dots inserted in AlGaAs/GaAs modulation doped heterostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Khmissi, H.; Baira, M.; Bouzaieene, L.; Saidi, F.; Maaref, H.; Sfaxi, L.; Bru-Chevallier, C.

    2011-03-01

    Optical properties of InAs quantum dots (QDs) inserted in AlGaAs/GaAs modulation doped heterostructure are investigated. To study the effect of carrier transfer behavior on the luminescence of self-assembled quantum dots, a series of sample has been prepared using molecular beam epitaxy (Riber 32 system) in which we have varied the thickness separating the delta dopage and the InAs quantum dots layer. Photoluminescence spectra show the existence of two peaks that can be attributed to transition energies from the ground state (E{sub 1}-HH{sub 1}) and the first excited state (E{sub 2}-HH{sub 2}). Two antagonist effects have been observed, a blue shift of the emission energies result from electron transferred from the AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction to the InAs quantum dots and a red shift caused by the quantum confined Stark effect due to the internal electric field existing In the AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction.

  18. Optical spectroscopy of quantum confined states in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Teng; Fickenscher, Melodie; Smith, Leigh; Jackson, Howard; Yarrison-Rice, Jan; Gao, Qiang; Tan, Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati; Etheridge, Joanne; Wong, Bryan M.

    2013-12-04

    We have investigated the quantum confinement of electronic states in GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}As nanowire heterostructures which contain radial GaAs quantum wells of either 4nm or 8nm. Photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy are performed on single nanowires. We observed emission and excitation of electron and hole confined states. Numerical calculations of the quantum confined states using the detailed structural information on the quantum well tubes show excellent agreement with these optical results.

  19. Exploring electro-optic effect of impurity doped quantum dots in presence of Gaussian white noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Suvajit; Ganguly, Jayanta; Saha, Surajit; Ghosh, Manas

    2016-01-01

    We explore the profiles of electro-optic effect (EOE) of impurity doped quantum dots (QDs) in presence and absence of noise. We have invoked Gaussian white noise in the present study. The quantum dot is doped with Gaussian impurity. Noise has been administered to the system additively and multiplicatively. A perpendicular magnetic field acts as a confinement source and a static external electric field has been applied. The EOE profiles have been followed as a function of incident photon energy when several important parameters such as electric field strength, magnetic field strength, confinement energy, dopant location, relaxation time, Al concentration, dopant potential, and noise strength possess different values. In addition, the role of mode of application of noise (additive/multiplicative) on the EOE profiles has also been scrutinized. The EOE profiles are found to be adorned with interesting observations such as shift of peak position and maximization/minimization of peak intensity. However, the presence of noise and also the pathway of its application bring about rich variety in the features of EOE profiles through some noticeable manifestations. The observations indicate possibilities of harnessing the EOE susceptibility of doped QD systems in presence of noise.

  20. Time-resolved magnetophotoluminescence studies of magnetic polaron dynamics in type-II quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, B.; Oszwa?dowski, R.; Schweidenback, L.; Russ, A. H.; Pientka, J. M.; Tsai, Y.; Chou, W.-C.; Fan, W. C.; Murphy, J. R.; Cartwright, A. N.; Sellers, I. R.; Petukhov, A. G.; Žuti?, I.; McCombe, B. D.; Petrou, A.

    2015-07-01

    We used continuous wave photoluminescence (cw-PL) and time-resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) spectroscopy to compare the properties of magnetic polarons (MP) in two related spatially indirect II-VI epitaxially grown quantum dot systems. In the ZnTe /(Zn ,Mn )Se system the holes are confined in the nonmagnetic ZnTe quantum dots (QDs), and the electrons reside in the magnetic (Zn,Mn)Se matrix. On the other hand, in the (Zn ,Mn )Te /ZnSe system, the holes are confined in the magnetic (Zn,Mn)Te QDs, while the electrons remain in the surrounding nonmagnetic ZnSe matrix. The magnetic polaron formation energies EMP in both systems were measured from the temporal redshift of the band-edge emission. The magnetic polaron exhibits distinct characteristics depending on the location of the Mn ions. In the ZnTe /(Zn ,Mn )Se system the magnetic polaron shows conventional behavior with EMP decreasing with increasing temperature T and increasing magnetic field B . In contrast, EMP in the (Zn ,Mn )Te /ZnSe system has unconventional dependence on temperature T and magnetic field B ; EMP is weakly dependent on T as well as on B . We discuss a possible origin for such a striking difference in the MP properties in two closely related QD systems.