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Sample records for quantum dots sensitized

  1. Semiconductor quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jianjun; Cao, Guozhong

    2013-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have been drawing great attention recently as a material for solar energy conversion due to their versatile optical and electrical properties. The QD-sensitized solar cell (QDSC) is one of the burgeoning semiconductor QD solar cells that shows promising developments for the next generation of solar cells. This article focuses on recent developments in QDSCs, including 1) the effect of quantum confinement on QDSCs, 2) the multiple exciton generation (MEG) of QDs, 3) fabrication methods of QDs, and 4) nanocrystalline photoelectrodes for solar cells. We also make suggestions for future research on QDSCs. Although the efficiency of QDSCs is still low, we think there will be major breakthroughs in developing QDSCs in the future. PMID:24191178

  2. Synthesis of CdSe quantum dots for quantum dot sensitized solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Neetu Kapoor, Avinashi; Kumar, Vinod; Mehra, R. M.

    2014-04-24

    CdSe Quantum Dots (QDs) of size 0.85 nm were synthesized using chemical route. ZnO based Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cell (QDSSC) was fabricated using CdSe QDs as sensitizer. The Pre-synthesized QDs were found to be successfully adsorbed on front ZnO electrode and had potential to replace organic dyes in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs). The efficiency of QDSSC was obtained to be 2.06 % at AM 1.5.

  3. Highly sensitive humidity sensing properties of carbon quantum dots films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xing; Ming, Hai; Liu, Ruihua; Han, Xiao; Kang, Zhenhui; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Yonglai

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► A humidity sensing device was fabricated based on carbon quantum dots (CQDs) films. ► The conductivity of the CQDs films shows a linear and rapid response to atmosphere humidity. ► The humidity sensing property was due to the hydrogen bonds between the functional groups on CQDs. -- Abstract: We reported the fabrication of a humidity sensing device based on carbon quantum dots (CQDs) film. The conductivity of the CQDs film has a linear and rapid response to relative humidity, providing the opportunity for the fabrication of humidity sensing devices. The mechanism of our humidity sensor was proposed to be the formation of hydrogen bonds between carbon quantum dots and water molecules in the humidity environment, which significantly promote the electrons migration. In a control experiment, this hypothesis was confirmed by comparing the humidity sensitivity of candle soot (i.e. carbon nanoparticles) with and without oxygen containing groups on the surfaces.

  4. Interfacial Engineering for Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chao; Fichou, Denis; Wang, Qing

    2016-04-20

    Quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) are promising solar-energy-conversion devices, as low-cost alternatives to the prevailing photovoltaic technologies. Compared with molecular dyes, nanocrystalline quantum dot (QD) light absorbers exhibit higher molar extinction coefficients and a tunable photoresponse. However, the power-conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of QDSCs are generally below 9.5 %, far behind their molecular sensitizer counterparts (up to 13 %). These low PCEs have been attributed to a large free-energy loss during sensitizer regeneration, energy loss during the charge-carrier transport and transfer processes, and inefficient charge separation at the QD/electrolyte interfaces, and various interfacial engineering strategies for enhancing the PCE and cell stability have been reported. Herein, we review recent progress in the interfacial engineering of QDSCs and discuss future prospects for the development of highly efficient and stable QDSCs. PMID:26879244

  5. Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cell with Unprecedentedly High Photocurrent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jin-Wook; Son, Dae-Yong; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Shin, Hee-Won; Kim, In Young; Hwang, Seong-Ju; Ko, Min Jae; Sul, Soohwan; Han, Hyouksoo; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    The reported photocurrent density (JSC) of PbS quantum dot (QD)-sensitized solar cell was less than 19 mA/cm2 despite the capability to generate 38 mA/cm2, which results from inefficient electron injection and fast charge recombination. Here, we report on a PbS:Hg QD-sensitized solar cell with an unprecedentedly high JSC of 30 mA/cm2. By Hg2+ doping into PbS, JSC is almost doubled with improved stability. Femtosecond transient study confirms that the improved JSC is due to enhanced electron injection and suppressed charge recombination. EXAFS reveals that Pb-S bond is reinforced and structural disorder is reduced by interstitially incorporated Hg2+, which is responsible for the enhanced electron injection, suppressed recombination and stability. Thanks to the extremely high JSC, power conversion efficiency of 5.6% is demonstrated at one sun illumination.

  6. Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cell with Unprecedentedly High Photocurrent

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin-Wook; Son, Dae-Yong; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Shin, Hee-Won; Kim, In Young; Hwang, Seong-Ju; Ko, Min Jae; Sul, Soohwan; Han, Hyouksoo; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    The reported photocurrent density (JSC) of PbS quantum dot (QD)-sensitized solar cell was less than 19 mA/cm2 despite the capability to generate 38 mA/cm2, which results from inefficient electron injection and fast charge recombination. Here, we report on a PbS:Hg QD-sensitized solar cell with an unprecedentedly high JSC of 30 mA/cm2. By Hg2+ doping into PbS, JSC is almost doubled with improved stability. Femtosecond transient study confirms that the improved JSC is due to enhanced electron injection and suppressed charge recombination. EXAFS reveals that Pb-S bond is reinforced and structural disorder is reduced by interstitially incorporated Hg2+, which is responsible for the enhanced electron injection, suppressed recombination and stability. Thanks to the extremely high JSC, power conversion efficiency of 5.6% is demonstrated at one sun illumination. PMID:23308343

  7. Computational studies of quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesov, Grigory

    This thesis presents a computational study of quantum dot (QD) sensitized solar cells. First part deals with the non-equilibrium many-body theory or non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) theory. In this approach I study electron dynamics in the quantum-dot sensitized solar cell subjected to time-dependent fields. NEGF theory, because it does not impose any conditions on a perturbation, is the fundamental one to describe ultrafast processes in small, strongly correlated systems and/or in strong fields. In this research I do not only perform analytical derivation, but also design and implement spectral numerical solution for the resulting complex system of partial integrodifferential equations. This numerical solution yielded an order of magnitude speedup over the methods used previously in the field. The forth chapter of this thesis deals with calculation of optical properties and the ground state configuration of Zn2SnO4 (ZTO). ZTO is used by experimentalists in UW to grow nanorods which are then sensitized by QDs. ZTO is a challenging material for computational analysis because of its inverse spinel structure; thus it has an immense number of configurations matching the X-ray diffraction experiments. I've applied a cluster expansion method and have found the ground state configuration and phase diagram for ZTO. Calculations of optical properties of ground state bulk ZTO were done with a recently developed DFT functional. The optical band gap obtained in these calculations matched the experimental value. The last chapter describes development of the general simulator for interdigitated array electrodes. The application of this simulation together with the experiments may lead to understanding of reaction parameters and mechanisms important for development of electrochemical solar cells.

  8. Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartakovskii, Alexander

    2012-07-01

    Part I. Nanostructure Design and Structural Properties of Epitaxially Grown Quantum Dots and Nanowires: 1. Growth of III/V semiconductor quantum dots C. Schneider, S. Hofling and A. Forchel; 2. Single semiconductor quantum dots in nanowires: growth, optics, and devices M. E. Reimer, N. Akopian, M. Barkelid, G. Bulgarini, R. Heeres, M. Hocevar, B. J. Witek, E. Bakkers and V. Zwiller; 3. Atomic scale analysis of self-assembled quantum dots by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy and atom probe tomography J. G. Keizer and P. M. Koenraad; Part II. Manipulation of Individual Quantum States in Quantum Dots Using Optical Techniques: 4. Studies of the hole spin in self-assembled quantum dots using optical techniques B. D. Gerardot and R. J. Warburton; 5. Resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot A. N. Vamivakas, C. Matthiesen, Y. Zhao, C.-Y. Lu and M. Atature; 6. Coherent control of quantum dot excitons using ultra-fast optical techniques A. J. Ramsay and A. M. Fox; 7. Optical probing of holes in quantum dot molecules: structure, symmetry, and spin M. F. Doty and J. I. Climente; Part III. Optical Properties of Quantum Dots in Photonic Cavities and Plasmon-Coupled Dots: 8. Deterministic light-matter coupling using single quantum dots P. Senellart; 9. Quantum dots in photonic crystal cavities A. Faraon, D. Englund, I. Fushman, A. Majumdar and J. Vukovic; 10. Photon statistics in quantum dot micropillar emission M. Asmann and M. Bayer; 11. Nanoplasmonics with colloidal quantum dots V. Temnov and U. Woggon; Part IV. Quantum Dot Nano-Laboratory: Magnetic Ions and Nuclear Spins in a Dot: 12. Dynamics and optical control of an individual Mn spin in a quantum dot L. Besombes, C. Le Gall, H. Boukari and H. Mariette; 13. Optical spectroscopy of InAs/GaAs quantum dots doped with a single Mn atom O. Krebs and A. Lemaitre; 14. Nuclear spin effects in quantum dot optics B. Urbaszek, B. Eble, T. Amand and X. Marie; Part V. Electron Transport in Quantum Dots Fabricated by

  9. Quantum Dot Sensitized Nanotubes for Full Solar Spectrum Photovoltaic Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanal, Sohana

    The demand for energy with limited non-renewable sources of energy has called researchers to find clean renewable energy sources. Solar light is considered good choice of the alternate energy. Our effort in this work was to investigate efficient photovoltaic (PV) systems by designing a hybrid photoelectrode with good absorption as well as charge transport properties. A coupled semiconductor material, one-dimensional TiO2 nanotubes (1D TiO2-NTs), filled with low band semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), PbS QDs, for better charge carrier transport was prepared and investigated. The vertically standing self assembled nanotubular array was attained by anodizing the Ti metal in two different solutions: (1) Ethylene Glycol with 0.5 wt% NH4F and 3 vol percent water and (2) 0.5M H3PO4 with 0.5 wt% NH4F. The anodized samples were annealed and then filled with the nanoparticles of other low band gap semiconductor materials. The CdS nanoparticles were used for the better understanding of the sensitizing process. The material was then switched to the PbS. As in the hypothesis, if PbS quantum dots are uniformly distributed in the 1D TiO2 Multiple Charge Carrier Generation can be created since PbS has a small band gap. A chemical bath deposition process in the presence of ultrasonic waves was adopted for the deposition of the QDs. Saturated lead sulfide solution was used as the lead source and the 0.2 M Na2S solution for the sulfur source. The process resulted in the successful uniform deposition of the PbS QDs onto the 1D TiO2 NTs. The deposited compound obeyed the stoichiometric ratio of 1:1 as desired. Photocurrent densities of 4.5 mA/cm2 was obtained, which is higher than the TiO2 alone in a polysulfide solution. PbS-TiO2 can be a suitable candidate for harvesting a broad solar spectrum as the UV-vis study proved that they absorb the light in the UV range.

  10. pH sensitive quantum dot-anthraquinone nanoconjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruedas-Rama, Maria Jose; Hall, Elizabeth A. H.

    2014-05-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have been shown to be highly sensitive to electron or charge transfer processes, which may alter their optical properties. This feature can be exploited for different sensing applications. Here, we demonstrate that QD-anthraquinone conjugates can function as electron transfer-based pH nanosensors. The attachment of the anthraquinones on the surface of QDs results in the reduction of electron hole recombination, and therefore a quenching of the photoluminescence intensity. For some anthraquinone derivatives tested, the quenching mechanism is simply caused by an electron transfer process from QDs to the anthraquinone, functioning as an electron acceptor. For others, electron transfer and energy transfer (FRET) processes were found. A detailed analysis of the quenching processes for CdSe/ZnS QD of two different sizes is presented. The photoluminescence quenching phenomenon of QDs is consistent with the pH sensitive anthraquinone redox chemistry. The resultant family of pH nanosensors shows pKa ranging ˜5-8, being ideal for applications of pH determination in physiological samples like blood or serum, for intracellular pH determination, and for more acidic cellular compartments such as endosomes and lysosomes. The nanosensors showed high selectivity towards many metal cations, including the most physiologically important cations which exist at high concentration in living cells. The reversibility of the proposed systems was also demonstrated. The nanosensors were applied in the determination of pH in samples mimicking the intracellular environment. Finally, the possibility of incorporating a reference QD to achieve quantitative ratiometric measurements was investigated.

  11. Synthesis of Bi2S3 quantum dots for sensitized solar cells by reverse SILAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Navjot; Sharma, J.; Tripathi, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar cells (QDSSC) have great potential to replace silicon-based solar cells. Quantum dots of various materials and sizes could be used to convert most of the visible light into the electrical current. This paper put emphasis on the synthesis of Bismuth Sulphide quantum dots and selectivity of the anionic precursor by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption Reaction (SILAR). Bismuth Sulfide (Bi2S3) (group V - Vi semiconductor) is strong contestant for cadmium free solar cells due to its optimum band gap for light harvesting. Optical, structural and electrical measurements are reported and discussed. Problem regarding the choice of precursor for anion extraction is discussed. Band gap of the synthesized quantum dots is 1.2 eV which does not match with the required energy band gap of bismuth sulfide that is 1.7eV.

  12. 6.5% efficient perovskite quantum-dot-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Jeong-Hyeok; Lee, Chang-Ryul; Lee, Jin-Wook; Park, Sang-Won; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2011-10-01

    Highly efficient quantum-dot-sensitized solar cell is fabricated using ca. 2-3 nm sized perovskite (CH3NH3)PbI3 nanocrystal. Spin-coating of the equimolar mixture of CH3NH3I and PbI2 in γ-butyrolactone solution (perovskite precursor solution) leads to (CH3NH3)PbI3 quantum dots (QDs) on nanocrystalline TiO2 surface. By electrochemical junction with iodide/iodine based redox electrolyte, perovskite QD-sensitized 3.6 μm-thick TiO2 film shows maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 78.6% at 530 nm and solar-to-electrical conversion efficiency of 6.54% at AM 1.5G 1 sun intensity (100 mW cm-2), which is by far the highest efficiency among the reported inorganic quantum dot sensitizers.Highly efficient quantum-dot-sensitized solar cell is fabricated using ca. 2-3 nm sized perovskite (CH3NH3)PbI3 nanocrystal. Spin-coating of the equimolar mixture of CH3NH3I and PbI2 in γ-butyrolactone solution (perovskite precursor solution) leads to (CH3NH3)PbI3 quantum dots (QDs) on nanocrystalline TiO2 surface. By electrochemical junction with iodide/iodine based redox electrolyte, perovskite QD-sensitized 3.6 μm-thick TiO2 film shows maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 78.6% at 530 nm and solar-to-electrical conversion efficiency of 6.54% at AM 1.5G 1 sun intensity (100 mW cm-2), which is by far the highest efficiency among the reported inorganic quantum dot sensitizers. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10867k

  13. Green synthesis of highly efficient CdSe quantum dots for quantum-dots-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Bing; Shen, Chao; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Mengya; Yuan, Shuanglong; Yang, Yunxia; Chen, Guorong

    2014-05-01

    Green synthesis of CdSe quantum dots for application in the quantum-dots-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) is investigated in this work. The CdSe QDs were prepared with glycerol as the solvent, with sharp emission peak, full width at half maximum around 30 nm, and absorption peak from 475 nm to 510 nm. The reaction is environmental friendly and energy saving. What's more, the green synthesized CdSe QDs are coherence to the maximum remittance region of the solar spectrum and suitable as sensitizers to assemble onto TiO2 electrodes for cell devices application. What's more, the dynamic procedure of the carriers' excitation, transportation, and recombination in the QDSCs are discussed. Because the recombination of the electrons from the conduction band of TiO2's to the electrolyte affects the efficiency of the solar cells greatly, 3-Mercaptopropionic acid capped water-dispersible QDs were used to cover the surface of TiO2. The resulting green synthesized CdSe QDSCs with Cu2S as the electrode show a photovoltaic performance with a conversion efficiency of 3.39%.

  14. Sensitivity to electronics error in coupled double quantum dot qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Erik; Muller, Richard; Carroll, Malcolm

    2011-03-01

    Reducing the effects of electronics control error in double quantum dot (DQD) quantum bits (qubit) is a central challenge to the creation of a solid-state quantum computing architecture. We investigate a system of capacitively coupled DQDs which implement a variant of the controlled phase gate when using each DQD as a singlet-triplet qubit. We identify regimes in which the gate action is more robust to sources of noise such as error around the applied bias point due to electronics or charge noise. Energy spectra are found using a configuration interaction (CI) method that accurately captures the (2,0) configuration of the DQD system, which is important for operating in these potentially low-noise regimes. This work was supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin company, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  15. Increased Quantum Dot Loading by pH Control Reduces Interfacial Recombination in Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Roelofs, Katherine E; Herron, Steven M; Bent, Stacey F

    2015-08-25

    The power conversion efficiency of quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) hinges on interfacial charge transfer. Increasing quantum dot (QD) loading on the TiO2 anode has been proposed as a means to block recombination of electrons in the TiO2 to the hole transport material; however, it is not known whether a corresponding increase in QD-mediated recombination processes might lead to an overall higher rate of recombination. In this work, a 3-fold increase in PbS QD loading was achieved by the addition of an aqueous base to negatively charge the TiO2 surface during Pb cation deposition. Increased QD loading improved QDSSC device efficiencies through both increased light absorption and an overall reduction in recombination. Unexpectedly, we also found increased QD size had the detrimental effect of increasing recombination. Kinetic modeling of the effect of QD size on interfacial charge transfer processes provided qualitative agreement with the observed variation in recombination lifetimes. These results demonstrate a robust method of improving QD loading, identify the specific mechanisms by which increased QD deposition impacts device performance, and provide a framework for future efforts optimizing the device architecture of QDSSCs. PMID:26244426

  16. Accurate analysis of electron transfer from quantum dots to metal oxides in quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javad Fahimi, Mohammad; Fathi, Davood; Ansari-Rad, Mehdi

    2015-09-01

    Electron transfer rate from quantum dot (QD) to metal oxide (MO) in quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) has an important role in the efficiency. In this work, we analyse the electron transfer rate from CdSe, CdS and CdTe QDs to TiO2, ZnO and SnO2 MOs by extending the related equations with considering various effects, based on the Marcus theory. In this regard, the effects of QD diameter, QD-MO spacing, the crystalline defects, temperature, and the reorganizational energy, on the electron transfer rate are investigated. The results show that, the maximum electron transfer rate is achieved for CdTe QD with the mentioned three MOs. Moreover, in order to direct the designer to reach the appropriate QDs-MOs combinations for obtaining the maximum electron transfer rate, the average electron transfer rate for various combinations is calculated. For the verification of simulation method, a part of work has been compared with the previous experimental and theoretical results, which indicates the correctness of our simulation algorithm.

  17. Quantum-dot-sensitized TiO2 inverse opals for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chuanwei; Karuturi, Siva Krishna; Liu, Lijun; Liu, Jinping; Li, Hongxing; Su, Liap Tat; Tok, Alfred Iing Yoong; Fan, Hong Jin

    2012-01-01

    A new nanoarchitecture photoelectrode design comprising CdS quantum-dot-sensitized, optically and electrically active TiO(2) inverse opals is developed for photoelectrochemical water splitting. The photoelectrochemical performance shows high photocurrent density (4.84 mA cm(-2) at 0 V vs. Ag/AgCl) under simulated solar-light illumination. PMID:22009604

  18. Photocharging Artifacts in Measurements of Electron Transfer in Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Mesoporous Titania Films.

    PubMed

    Makarov, Nikolay S; McDaniel, Hunter; Fuke, Nobuhiro; Robel, Istvan; Klimov, Victor I

    2014-01-01

    Transient absorption and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements of high-performance mesoporous TiO2 photoanodes sensitized with CuInSexS2-x quantum dots reveal the importance of hole scavenging in the characterization of photoinduced electron transfer. The apparent characteristic time of this process strongly depends on the local environment of the quantum dot/TiO2 junction due to accumulation of long-lived positive charges in the quantum dots. The presence of long-lived photoexcited holes introduces artifacts due to fast positive-trion Auger decay (60 ps time constant), which can dominate electron dynamics and thus mask true electron transfer. We show that the presence of a redox electrolyte is critical to the accurate characterization of charge transfer, since it enables fast extraction of holes and helps maintain charge neutrality of the quantum dots. Although electron transfer is observed to be relatively slow (19 ns time constant), a high electron extraction efficiency (>95%) can be achieved because in well-passivated CuInSexS2-x quantum dots neutral excitons have significantly longer lifetimes of hundreds of nanoseconds. PMID:26276189

  19. Physico-chemical mechanism for the vapors sensitivity of photoluminescent InP quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosposito, P.; De Angelis, R.; De Matteis, F.; Hatami, F.; Masselink, W. T.; Zhang, H.; Casalboni, M.

    2016-03-01

    InP/InGaP surface quantum dots are interesting materials for optical chemical sensors since they present an intense emission at room temperature, whose intensity changes rapidly and reversibly depending on the composition of the environmental atmosphere. We present here their emission properties by time resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy investigation and we discuss the physico-chemical mechanism behind their sensitivity to the surrounding atmosphere. Photoluminescence transients in inert atmosphere (N2) and in solvent vapours of methanol, clorophorm, acetone and water were measured. The presence of vapors of clorophorm, acetone and water showed a very weak effect on the transient times, while an increase of up to 15% of the decay time was observed for methanol vapour exposure. On the basis of the vapor molecule nature (polarity, proticity, steric hindrance, etc.) and of the interaction of the vapor molecules with the quantum dots surface a sensing mechanism involving quantum dots non-radiative surface states is proposed.

  20. Tandem structured quantum dot/rod sensitized solar cell based on solvothermal synthesized CdSe quantum dots and rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golobostanfard, Mohammad Reza; Abdizadeh, Hossein

    2014-06-01

    The quantum dots (QD) and quantum rods (QR) of different sizes, shapes, and crystalline phases are synthesized by modified solvothermal method spontaneously employed stirring system and controlled internal applied pressure. The tandem structure of QDs and QRs as well as tetrapods is formed on hierarchical porous titania photoanode by means of electrophoretic deposition. A tremendous enhancement in efficiency of the cell is obtained in samples synthesized at 220 °C for 24 h due to the formation of tandem structure, utilization of Cu2S/CNT composite cathode, co-sensitization of CdS and CdSe, and beneficial role of QRs in electron lifetime. Smaller size QDs with higher band gaps penetrate deeper through the macro-channels of the hierarchical porous structure, while the QRs and tetrapods with lower band gaps are placed on upper layers. Although the charge injection is improved in smaller QDs, the electron lifetime in QRs is longer mainly due to the higher absorption cross section, proper charge separation, introduction of quasi-one dimensional route for charge transport through QRs, and higher surface area available for regeneration with electrolyte. The cell shows the efficiency of 1.05% with JSC of 4.48 mA cm-2, VOC of 0.45 V, and fill factor of 0.52.

  1. High open circuit voltages of solar cells based on quantum dot and dye hybrid-sensitization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yujie; Zhao, Wanyu; Chen, Jingkuo; Li, Huayang; Fu, Wuyou E-mail: fuwy56@163.com; Sun, Guang; Cao, Jianliang; Zhang, Zhanying; Bala, Hari E-mail: fuwy56@163.com

    2014-01-06

    A type of solar cell based on quantum dot (QD) and dye hybrid-sensitized mesoporous TiO{sub 2} film electrode was designed and reported. The electrode was consisted of a TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle (NP) thin film layer sensitized with CdS quantum dot (QD) and an amorphous TiO{sub 2} coated TiO{sub 2} NP thin film layer that sensitized with C106 dye. The amorphous TiO{sub 2} layer was obtained by TiCl{sub 4} post-treatment to improve the properties of solar cells. Research showed that the solar cells fabricated with as-prepared hybrid-sensitized electrode exhibited excellent photovoltaic performances and a fairly high open circuit voltage of 796 mV was achieved.

  2. High open circuit voltages of solar cells based on quantum dot and dye hybrid-sensitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yujie; Bala, Hari; Zhao, Wanyu; Chen, Jingkuo; Li, Huayang; Fu, Wuyou; Sun, Guang; Cao, Jianliang; Zhang, Zhanying

    2014-01-01

    A type of solar cell based on quantum dot (QD) and dye hybrid-sensitized mesoporous TiO2 film electrode was designed and reported. The electrode was consisted of a TiO2 nanoparticle (NP) thin film layer sensitized with CdS quantum dot (QD) and an amorphous TiO2 coated TiO2 NP thin film layer that sensitized with C106 dye. The amorphous TiO2 layer was obtained by TiCl4 post-treatment to improve the properties of solar cells. Research showed that the solar cells fabricated with as-prepared hybrid-sensitized electrode exhibited excellent photovoltaic performances and a fairly high open circuit voltage of 796 mV was achieved.

  3. An integrated approach to realizing high-performance liquid-junction quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Hunter; Fuke, Nobuhiro; Makarov, Nikolay S.; Pietryga, Jeffrey M.; Klimov, Victor I.

    2013-01-01

    Solution-processed semiconductor quantum dot solar cells offer a path towards both reduced fabrication cost and higher efficiency enabled by novel processes such as hot-electron extraction and carrier multiplication. Here we use a new class of low-cost, low-toxicity CuInSexS2−x quantum dots to demonstrate sensitized solar cells with certified efficiencies exceeding 5%. Among other material and device design improvements studied, use of a methanol-based polysulfide electrolyte results in a particularly dramatic enhancement in photocurrent and reduced series resistance. Despite the high vapour pressure of methanol, the solar cells are stable for months under ambient conditions, which is much longer than any previously reported quantum dot sensitized solar cell. This study demonstrates the large potential of CuInSexS2−x quantum dots as active materials for the realization of low-cost, robust and efficient photovoltaics as well as a platform for investigating various advanced concepts derived from the unique physics of the nanoscale size regime. PMID:24322379

  4. CdSe Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cell with ~100% Internal Quantum Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Fuke, Nobuhiro; Hoch, Laura B.; Koposov, Alexey Y.; Manner, Virginia W.; Werder, Donald J.; Fukui, Atsushi; Koide, Naoki; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Sykora, Milan

    2010-10-20

    We have constructed and studied photoelectrochemical solar cells (PECs) consisting of a photoanode prepared by direct deposition of independently synthesized CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs) onto a nanocrystalline TiO2 film (NQD/TiO2), aqueous Na2S or Li2S electrolyte, and a Pt counter electrode. We show that light harvesting efficiency (LHE) of the NQD/TiO2 photoanode is significantly enhanced when the NQD surface passivation is changed from tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) to 4-butylamine (BA). In the PEC the use of NQDs with a shorter passivating ligand, BA, leads to a significant enhancement in both the electron injection efficiency at the NQD/TiO2 interface and charge collection efficiency at the NQD/electrolyte interface, with the latter attributed mostly to a more efficient diffusion of the electrolyte through the pores of the photoanode. We show that by utilizing BA-capped NQDs and aqueous Li2S as an electrolyte, it is possible to achieve ~100% internal quantum efficiency of photon-to-electron conversion, matching the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells.

  5. Enhanced performance of CdTe quantum dot sensitized solar cell via anion exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xuehua; Jia, Jianguang; Lin, Yuan; Zhou, Xiaowen

    2015-03-01

    We report on an eco-friendly way to prepare CdTe/CdS quantum dots for quantum dot sensitized solar cell (QDSSC). CdTe/CdS quantum dots are synthesized through an anion exchange between CdTe quantum dots (QDs) and S2- in aqueous solution at low temperature under ambient condition. The resultant QDs are bonded onto TiO2 with the help of thioglycolic acid bifunctional molecule. The uniform distribution of QDs throughout the TiO2 mesoporous film depth is confirmed by the energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) elemental mapping. Absorption, dark current, impedance spectroscopy, and intensity-modulated photocurrent analyses prove that anion exchange can efficiently extend the absorption range, suppress the charge recombination, increase the electron injection as well as accelerate the electron transportation in the cell. In combination with CdS post-treatment, a solar-to-energy conversion efficiency of 2.44% is achieved for CdTe/CdS QDSSC, which is more than 15 times that of the CdTe based cell.

  6. A structure of CdS/CuxS quantum dots sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Ting; Bian, Lu; Li, Bo; Zheng, Kaibo; Pullerits, Tönu; Tian, Jianjun

    2016-05-01

    This work introduces a type of CdS/CuxS quantum dots (QDs) as sensitizers in quantum dot sensitized solar cells by in-situ cationic exchange reaction method where CdS photoanode is directly immersed in CuCl2 methanol solution to replace Cd2+ by Cu2+. The p-type CuxS layer on the surface of the CdS QDs can be considered as hole transport material, which not only enhances the light harvesting of photoanode but also boosts the charge separation after photo-excitation. Therefore, both the electron collection efficiency and power conversion efficiency of the solar cell are improved from 80% to 92% and from 1.21% to 2.78%, respectively.

  7. Biomass-derived carbon quantum dot sensitizers for solid-state nanostructured solar cells.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Joe; Marinovic, Adam; Sevilla, Marta; Dunn, Steve; Titirici, Magdalena

    2015-04-01

    New hybrid materials consisting of ZnO nanorods sensitized with three different biomass-derived carbon quantum dots (CQDs) were synthesized, characterized, and used for the first time to build solid-state nanostructured solar cells. The performance of the devices was dependent on the functional groups found on the CQDs. The highest efficiency was obtained using a layer-by-layer coating of two different types of CQDs. PMID:25704873

  8. Simple and Sensitive Detection of HBsAg by Using a Quantum Dots Nanobeads Based Dot-Blot Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pengfei; Lu, Huiqi; Chen, Jia; Han, Huanxing; Ma, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Simple and sensitive detection of infectious disease at an affordable cost is urgently needed in developing nations. In this regard, the dot blot immunoassay has been used as a common protein detection method for detection of disease markers. However, the traditional signal reporting systems, such as those using enzymes or gold nanoparticles lack sensitivity and thus restrict the application of these methods for disease detection. In this study, we report a simple and sensitive detection method for the detection of infectious disease markers that couples the dot-blot immunoassay with quantum dots nanobeads (QDNBs) as a reporter. First, the QDNBs were prepared by an oil-in-water emulsion-evaporation technique. Because of the encapsulation of several QDs in one particle, the fluorescent signal of reporter can be amplified with QDNBs in a one-step test and be read using a UV lamp obviating the need for complicated instruments. Detection of disease-associated markers in complex mixture is possible, which demonstrates the potential of developing QDNBs into a sensitive diagnostic kit. PMID:24505238

  9. Simple and sensitive detection of HBsAg by using a quantum dots nanobeads based dot-blot immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengfei; Lu, Huiqi; Chen, Jia; Han, Huanxing; Ma, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Simple and sensitive detection of infectious disease at an affordable cost is urgently needed in developing nations. In this regard, the dot blot immunoassay has been used as a common protein detection method for detection of disease markers. However, the traditional signal reporting systems, such as those using enzymes or gold nanoparticles lack sensitivity and thus restrict the application of these methods for disease detection. In this study, we report a simple and sensitive detection method for the detection of infectious disease markers that couples the dot-blot immunoassay with quantum dots nanobeads (QDNBs) as a reporter. First, the QDNBs were prepared by an oil-in-water emulsion-evaporation technique. Because of the encapsulation of several QDs in one particle, the fluorescent signal of reporter can be amplified with QDNBs in a one-step test and be read using a UV lamp obviating the need for complicated instruments. Detection of disease-associated markers in complex mixture is possible, which demonstrates the potential of developing QDNBs into a sensitive diagnostic kit. PMID:24505238

  10. Carbon nanotube quantum dots as highly sensitive terahertz-cooled spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Rinzan, M; Jenkins, G; Drew, H D; Shafranjuk, S; Barbara, P

    2012-06-13

    Terahertz technology has recently emerged as a highly sought-after and versatile scientific tool in many fields, including medical imaging, security screening, and wireless communication. However, scientific progress has been hindered by the lack of sources and detectors in this frequency range, thereby known as the terahertz gap. Here, we show that carbon nanotube quantum dots coupled to antennas are extremely sensitive, broad-band, terahertz quantum detectors with spectral resolution. Their response is due to photon-assisted single-electron tunneling and it is substantially enhanced by a novel radiation-induced nonequilibrium cooling of the electrons, causing a sharp height increase of the Coulomb oscillation peaks. PMID:22632449

  11. Modified surface loading process for achieving improved performance of the quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Jin, Zhongxiu; Zhu, Jun; Xu, Yafeng; Zhou, Li; Dai, Songyuan

    2016-06-01

    Achieving high surface coverage of the colloidal quantum dots (QDs) on TiO2 films has been challenging for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). Herein, a general surface engineering approach was proposed to increase the loading of these QDs. It was found that S2- treatment/QD re-uptake process can significantly improve the attachment of the QDs on TiO2 films. Surface concentration of the QDs was improved by ∼60%, which in turn greatly enhances light absorption and decreases carrier recombination in QDSCs. Ensuing QDSCs with optimized QD loading exhibit a power conversion efficiency of 3.66%, 83% higher than those fabricated with standard procedures.

  12. Control of Nanostructures and Interfaces of Metal Oxide Semiconductors for Quantum-Dots-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jianjun; Cao, Guozhong

    2015-05-21

    Nanostructured metal oxide semiconductors (MOS), such as TiO2 and ZnO, have been regarded as an attractive material for the quantum dots sensitized solar cells (QDSCs), owing to their large specific surface area for loading a large amount of quantum dots (QDs) and strong scattering effect for capturing a sufficient fraction of photons. However, the large surface area of such nanostructures also provides easy pathways for charge recombination, and surface defects and connections between adjacent nanoparticles may retard effective charge injection and charge transport, leading to a loss of power conversion efficiency. Introduction of the surface modification for MOS or QDs has been thought an effective approach to improve the performance of QDSC. In this paper, the recent advances in the control of nanostructures and interfaces in QDSCs and prospects for the further development with higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) have been discussed. PMID:26263261

  13. Highly durable and efficient quantum dot-sensitized solar cells based on oligomer gel electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heejin; Hwang, Insung; Yong, Kijung

    2014-07-23

    For stable quantum dot-sensitized solar cells, an oligomer-contained gel electrolyte was employed with a carbon-based counter electrode and a hierarchically shelled ZnO photoelectrode. Poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl-ether (PEGDME) was added to the polysulfide electrolyte to enhance the stability of the methanol-based electrolyte. In addition, the nanocomposite gel electrolyte with fumed silica was used, which provided a solid three-dimensional network. A quantum-dot-modified ZnO nanowire photoanode enhanced the visible light harvesting, and a Pt/CNT-RGO counter electrode increased the catalytic activity. The oligomer gel electrolyte prevented the liquid electrolyte from leaking, and the carbon-based counter electrode retarded chemical poisoning at the counter electrode. The optimized cell exhibited 5.45% photoelectric conversion efficiency with long-term stability demonstrated over 5000 s operation time. PMID:24987930

  14. Broadband energy transfer to sensitizing dyes by mobile quantum dot mediators in solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Adhyaksa, Gede Widia Pratama; Lee, Ga In; Baek, Se-Woong; Lee, Jung-Yong; Kang, Jeung Ku

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of solar cells depends on absorption intensity of the photon collectors. Herein, mobile quantum dots (QDs) functionalized with thiol ligands in electrolyte are utilized into dye–sensitized solar cells. The QDs serve as mediators to receive and re–transmit energy to sensitized dyes, thus amplifying photon collection of sensitizing dyes in the visible range and enabling up–conversion of low-energy photons to higher-energy photons for dye absorption. The cell efficiency is boosted by dispersing QDs in electrolyte, thereby obviating the need for light scattering1 or plasmonic2 structures. Furthermore, optical spectroscopy and external quantum efficiency data reveal that resonance energy transfer due to the overlap between QD emission and dye absorption spectra becomes dominant when the QD bandgap is higher than the first excitonic peak of the dye, while co–sensitization resulting in a fast reduction of oxidized dyes is pronounced in the case of lower QD band gaps. PMID:24048384

  15. Singlet exciton fission-sensitized infrared quantum dot solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ehrler, Bruno; Wilson, Mark W B; Rao, Akshay; Friend, Richard H; Greenham, Neil C

    2012-02-01

    We demonstrate an organic/inorganic hybrid photovoltaic device architecture that uses singlet exciton fission to permit the collection of two electrons per absorbed high-energy photon while simultaneously harvesting low-energy photons. In this solar cell, infrared photons are absorbed using lead sulfide (PbS) nanocrystals. Visible photons are absorbed in pentacene to create singlet excitons, which undergo rapid exciton fission to produce pairs of triplets. Crucially, we identify that these triplet excitons can be ionized at an organic/inorganic heterointerface. We report internal quantum efficiencies exceeding 50% and power conversion efficiencies approaching 1%. These findings suggest an alternative route to circumvent the Shockley-Queisser limit on the power conversion efficiency of single-junction solar cells. PMID:22257168

  16. Ultrafast interfacial charge transfer dynamics in dye-sensitized and quantum dot solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Hirendra N.

    2013-02-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) appeared to be one of the good discovery for the solution of energy problem. We have been involved in studying ultrafast interfacial electron transfer dynamics in DSSC using femtosecond laser spectroscopy. However it has been realized that it is very difficult to design and develop higher efficient one, due to thermodynamic limitation. Again in DSSC most of the absorbed photon energy is lost as heat within the cell, which apart from decreasing the efficiency also destabilizes the device. It has been realized that quantum dot solar cell (QDSC) are the best bet where the sensitizer dye molecules can be replaced by suitable quantum dot (QD) materials in solar cell. The quantum-confinement effect in semiconductors modifies their electronic structure, which is a very important aspect of these materials. For photovoltaic applications, a long-lived charge separation remains one of the most essential criteria. One of the problems in using QDs for photovoltaic applications is their fast charge recombination caused by nonradiative Auger processes, which occur predominantly at lower particle sizes due to an increase in the Coulomb interaction between electrons and holes. Various approaches, such as the use of metal-semiconductor composites, semiconductor-polymer composite, and semiconductor core-shell heterostructures, have been attempted to minimize the fast recombination between electrons and holes. To make higher efficient solar devices it has been realised that it is very important to understand charge carrier and electron transfer dynamics in QD and QD sensitized semiconductor nanostructured materials. In the present talk, we are going to discuss on recent works on ultrafast electron transfer dynamics in dye-sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles/film [1-12] and charge (electron/hole) transfer dynamics in quantum dot core-shell nano-structured materials [13-17].

  17. Mn(II/III) complexes as promising redox mediators in quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Haring, Andrew J; Pomatto, Michelle E; Thornton, Miranda R; Morris, Amanda J

    2014-09-10

    The advancement of quantum dot sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) technology depends on optimizing directional charge transfer between light absorbing quantum dots, TiO2, and a redox mediator. The nature of the redox mediator plays a pivotal role in determining the photocurrent and photovoltage from the solar cell. Kinetically, reduction of oxidized quantum dots by the redox mediator should be rapid and faster than the back electron transfer between TiO2 and oxidized quantum dots to maintain photocurrent. Thermodynamically, the reduction potential of the redox mediator should be sufficiently positive to provide high photovoltages. To satisfy both criteria and enhance power conversion efficiencies, we introduced charge transfer spin-crossover Mn(II/III) complexes as promising redox mediator alternatives in QDSSCs. High photovoltages ∼ 1 V were achieved by a series of Mn poly(pyrazolyl)borates, with reduction potentials ∼ 0.51 V vs Ag/AgCl. Back electron transfer (recombination) rates were slower than Co(bpy)3, where bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, evidenced by electron lifetimes up to 4 orders of magnitude longer. This is indicative of a large barrier to electron transport imposed by spin-crossover in these complexes. Low solubility prevented the redox mediators from sustaining high photocurrent due to mass transport limits. However, with high fill factors (∼ 0.6) and photovoltages, they demonstrate competitive efficiencies with Co(bpy)3 redox mediator at the same concentration. More positive reduction potentials and slower recombination rates compared to current redox mediators establish the viability of Mn poly(pyrazolyl)borates as promising redox mediators. By capitalizing on these characteristics, efficient Mn(II/III)-based QDSSCs can be achieved with more soluble Mn-complexes. PMID:25137595

  18. Highly Sensitive Electrochemical Determination of Alfatoxin B1 Using Quantum Dots-Assembled Amplification Labels

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xiaoqun; Gao, Huiju; Pan, Daodong; Sun, Yangying; Cao, Jinxuan; Wu, Zhen; Pan, Zhenyu

    2015-01-01

    A competitive electrochemical immunoassay for highly sensitive detection of AFB1 is demonstrated using layer-by-layer (LBL) assembled quantum dots (QDs) as labels. To investigate the effects of the higher sensitivity of square wave voltammetric stripping (SWV) and of the LBL technique on the proposed immunoassays, the proposed assay was compared to electrochemical (EC) and fluorescent immunoassays, which did not use LBL technology. Peanut samples were analyzed using the three immunoassays. The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.018, 0.046 and 0.212 ng/mL, respectively, while the sensitivities were 0.308, 1.011 and 4.594 ng/mL, respectively. The proposed electrochemical immunoassay displayed a significant improvement in sensitivity, thereby providing a simple and sensitive alternative strategy for determining AFB1 levels in peanut samples. PMID:26307990

  19. Highly Sensitive Electrochemical Determination of Alfatoxin B1 Using Quantum Dots-Assembled Amplification Labels.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiaoqun; Gao, Huiju; Pan, Daodong; Sun, Yangying; Cao, Jinxuan; Wu, Zhen; Pan, Zhenyu

    2015-01-01

    A competitive electrochemical immunoassay for highly sensitive detection of AFB1 is demonstrated using layer-by-layer (LBL) assembled quantum dots (QDs) as labels. To investigate the effects of the higher sensitivity of square wave voltammetric stripping (SWV) and of the LBL technique on the proposed immunoassays, the proposed assay was compared to electrochemical (EC) and fluorescent immunoassays, which did not use LBL technology. Peanut samples were analyzed using the three immunoassays. The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.018, 0.046 and 0.212 ng/mL, respectively, while the sensitivities were 0.308, 1.011 and 4.594 ng/mL, respectively. The proposed electrochemical immunoassay displayed a significant improvement in sensitivity, thereby providing a simple and sensitive alternative strategy for determining AFB1 levels in peanut samples. PMID:26307990

  20. Sensitive Radio-Frequency Measurements of a Quantum Dot by Tuning to Perfect Impedance Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ares, N.; Schupp, F. J.; Mavalankar, A.; Rogers, G.; Griffiths, J.; Jones, G. A. C.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.; Smith, C. G.; Cottet, A.; Briggs, G. A. D.; Laird, E. A.

    2016-03-01

    Electrical readout of spin qubits requires fast and sensitive measurements, which are hindered by poor impedance matching to the device. We demonstrate perfect impedance matching in a radio-frequency readout circuit, using voltage-tunable varactors to cancel out parasitic capacitances. An optimized capacitance sensitivity of 1.6 aF /√{Hz } is achieved at a maximum source-drain bias of 170 -μ V root-mean-square and with a bandwidth of 18 MHz. Coulomb blockade in a quantum-dot is measured in both conductance and capacitance, and the two contributions are found to be proportional as expected from a quasistatic tunneling model. We benchmark our results against the requirements for single-shot qubit readout using quantum capacitance, a goal that has so far been elusive.

  1. Highly efficient yttrium-doped ZnO nanorods for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Gopi, Chandu V. V. M.; Srinivasa Rao, S.; Punnoose, Dinah; Kim, Hee-Je

    2016-03-01

    Yttrium-doped ZnO nanorod arrays were applied to photoanodes of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). The introduction of yttrium to ZnO nanostructures facilitates the growth of ZnO nanorods and increases the amount of QD deposition with a large surface area. Furthermore, lower electrical resistance and longer electron lifetime were achieved with yttrium-doping owing to fewer defects and trap sites on the surface of yttrium-doped ZnO nanorods. As a result, the conversion efficiency of 3.3% was achieved with the optimized concentration of yttrium.

  2. N-Ion-implanted TiO2 photoanodes in quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhagar, P.; Asokan, K.; Ito, E.; Kang, Yong Soo

    2012-03-01

    Hierarchical nanostructured titanium dioxide (TiO2) clumps were fabricated using electrostatic spray with subsequent nitrogen-ion doping by an ion-implantation technique for improvement of energy conversion efficiency for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). CdSe quantum dots were directly assembled on the produced N-ion-implanted TiO2 photoanodes by chemical bath deposition, and their photovoltaic performance was evaluated in a polysulfide electrolyte with a Pt counter electrode. We found that the photovoltaic performance of TiO2 electrodes was improved by nearly 145% upon N-ion implantation. The efficiency improvement seems to be due to (1) the enhancement of electron transport through the TiO2 layer by inter-particle necking of primary TiO2 particles and (2) an increase in the recombination resistance at TiO2/QD/electrolyte interfaces by healing the surface states or managing the oxygen vacancies upon N-ion doping. Therefore, N-ion-doped photoanodes offer a viable pathway to develop more efficient QD or dye-sensitized solar cells.Hierarchical nanostructured titanium dioxide (TiO2) clumps were fabricated using electrostatic spray with subsequent nitrogen-ion doping by an ion-implantation technique for improvement of energy conversion efficiency for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). CdSe quantum dots were directly assembled on the produced N-ion-implanted TiO2 photoanodes by chemical bath deposition, and their photovoltaic performance was evaluated in a polysulfide electrolyte with a Pt counter electrode. We found that the photovoltaic performance of TiO2 electrodes was improved by nearly 145% upon N-ion implantation. The efficiency improvement seems to be due to (1) the enhancement of electron transport through the TiO2 layer by inter-particle necking of primary TiO2 particles and (2) an increase in the recombination resistance at TiO2/QD/electrolyte interfaces by healing the surface states or managing the oxygen vacancies upon N-ion doping

  3. Efficient iron sulfide counter electrode for quantum dots-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haining; Zhu, Liqun; Liu, Huicong; Li, Weiping

    2014-01-01

    Iron sulfide is explored as the counter electrode (CE) in quantum dots-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs), which is prepared by simply immersing carbon steel in Na2S solution. The photoelectrochemical performance and the electrocatalytic property of iron sulfide are much higher than those of Pt and are very close to those of Cu2S. Since the preparation method of iron sulfide CE is simple, carbon steel substrate is stable in polysulfide electrolyte, the storage of Fe element in earth is very abundant and iron ions are environmentally friendly, iron sulfide shows much prospect as the efficient, stable, lost-cost and environmentally friendly CE of QDSCs.

  4. An oleic acid-capped CdSe quantum-dot sensitized solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Jing; Song, J. L.; Deng, W. Q.; Sun, X. W.; Jiang, C. Y.; Lei, W.; Huang, J. H.; Liu, R. S.

    2009-04-13

    In this letter, we report an oleic acid (OA)-capped CdSe quantum-dot sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) with an improved performance. The TiO{sub 2}/OA-CdSe photoanode in a two-electrode device exhibited a photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 17.5% at 400 nm. At AM1.5G irradiation with 100 mW/cm{sup 2} light intensity, the QDSSCs based on OA-capped CdSe showed a power conversion efficiency of about 1%. The function of OA was to increase QD loading, extend the absorption range and possibly suppress the surface recombination.

  5. Bifacial quantum dot-sensitized solar cells with transparent cobalt selenide counter electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chunqing; Tang, Qunwei; Zhao, Zhiyuan; Hou, Mengjin; Chen, Yuran; He, Benlin; Yu, Liangmin

    2015-03-01

    Elevation of power conversion efficiency and reduction of electricity-generation cost have been two persistent objectives for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). Here we report a bifacial QDSSC structure having impressive power conversion efficiencies of 2.11% and 1.28% for front and rear irradiations, respectively. The device comprises a CdS-sensitized TiO2 anode, a transparent cobalt selenide (Co-Se) counter electrode (CE), and a liquid electrolyte containing S2-/Sn2- redox couples. Due to high optical transparency of the binary Co-Se alloy CE, incident light can penetrate the QDSSC from either front or rear side for electron excitation. A fast start-up and modest photocurrent stability are determined in the bifacial QDSSCs due to the high electron transfer kinetics in CdS-sensitized TiO2 photoanode and electrocatalytic kinetics in Co-Se CE.

  6. Incorporation of carbon nanotubes in a hierarchical porous photoanode of tandem quantum dot sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Golobostanfard, Mohammad Reza; Abdizadeh, Hossein; Mohajerzadeh, Shamsoddin

    2014-08-29

    The incorporation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) in quantum dot (QD) sensitized solar cells (QDSC) based on CdSe QDs and quantum rods (QRs) is investigated. The composite hierarchical porous photoanode of titania/CNT is synthesized by sol-gel induced phase separation and QDs/QRs are prepared by the modified solvothermal method. The QDs and QRs form a tandem structure on the hierarchical porous photoanode after deposition by the electrophoretic method. Incorporation of MWCNT in the QDSC photoanode in optimum content (0.32 wt%) causes appreciable enhancement in cells efficiency (about 41% increase). This improvement in efficiency mainly emerges from the beneficial role of MWCNTs in charge injection and collection. The MWCNTs result in longer electron lifetime and higher electron diffusion length, which is confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. PMID:25101717

  7. Incorporation of carbon nanotubes in a hierarchical porous photoanode of tandem quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golobostanfard, Mohammad Reza; Abdizadeh, Hossein; Mohajerzadeh, Shamsoddin

    2014-08-01

    The incorporation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) in quantum dot (QD) sensitized solar cells (QDSC) based on CdSe QDs and quantum rods (QRs) is investigated. The composite hierarchical porous photoanode of titania/CNT is synthesized by sol-gel induced phase separation and QDs/QRs are prepared by the modified solvothermal method. The QDs and QRs form a tandem structure on the hierarchical porous photoanode after deposition by the electrophoretic method. Incorporation of MWCNT in the QDSC photoanode in optimum content (0.32 wt%) causes appreciable enhancement in cells efficiency (about 41% increase). This improvement in efficiency mainly emerges from the beneficial role of MWCNTs in charge injection and collection. The MWCNTs result in longer electron lifetime and higher electron diffusion length, which is confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  8. Simply synthesized TiO2 nanorods as an effective scattering layer for quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Samadpour; Azam Iraji, zad; Mehdi, Molaei

    2014-04-01

    TiO2 nanorod layers are synthesized by simple chemical oxidation of Ti substrates. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements show effective light scattering properties originating from nanorods with length scales on the order of one micron. The films are sensitized with CdSe quantum dots (QDs) by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) and integrated as a photoanode in quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). Incorporating nanorods in photoanode structures provided 4- to 8-fold enhancement in light scattering, which leads to a high power conversion efficiency, 3.03% (Voc = 497 mV, Jsc = 11.32 mA/cm2, FF = 0.54), in optimized structures. High efficiency can be obtained just by tuning the photoanode structure without further treatments, which will make this system a promising nanostructure for efficient quantum dot sensitized solar cells.

  9. Improvement of Charge Transportation in Si Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Vanadium Doped TiO2.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyunwoong; Ichida, Daiki; Hashimoto, Shinji; Itagaki, Naho; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu; Nam, Sang-Hun; Boo, Jin-Hyo

    2016-05-01

    The multiple exciton generation characteristics of quantum dots have been expected to enhance the performance of photochemical solar cells. In previous work, we first introduced Si quantum dot for sensitized solar cells. The Si quantum dots were fabricated by multi-hollow discharge plasma chemical vapor deposition, and were characterized optically and morphologically. The Si quantum dot-sensitized solar cells had poor performance due to significant electron loss by charge recombination. Although the large Si particle size resulted in the exposure of a large TiO2 surface area, there was a limit to ho much the particle size could be decreased due to the reduced absorbance of small particles. Therefore, this work focused on decreasing the internal impedance to improve charge transfer. TiO2 was electronically modified by doping with vanadium, which can improve electron transfer in the TiO2 network, and which is stable in the redox electrolyte. Photogenerated electrons can more easily arrive at the conductive electrode due to the decreased internal impedance. The dark photovoltaic properties confirmed the reduction of charge recombination, and the photon-to-current conversion efficiency reflected the improved electron transfer. Impedance analysis confirmed a decrease in internal impedance and an increased electron lifetime. Consequently, these improvements by vanadium doping enhanced the overall performance of Si quantum dot-sensitized solar cells. PMID:27483838

  10. Compact, Polyvalent Mannose Quantum Dots as Sensitive, Ratiometric FRET Probes for Multivalent Protein-Ligand Interactions.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuan; Sakonsinsiri, Chadamas; Nehlmeier, Inga; Fascione, Martin A; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Weili; Pöhlmann, Stefan; Turnbull, W Bruce; Zhou, Dejian

    2016-04-01

    A highly efficient cap-exchange approach for preparing compact, dense polyvalent mannose-capped quantum dots (QDs) has been developed. The resulting QDs have been successfully used to probe multivalent interactions of HIV/Ebola receptors DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR (collectively termed as DC-SIGN/R) using a sensitive, ratiometric Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay. The QD probes specifically bind DC-SIGN, but not its closely related receptor DC-SIGNR, which is further confirmed by its specific blocking of DC-SIGN engagement with the Ebola virus glycoprotein. Tuning the QD surface mannose valency reveals that DC-SIGN binds more efficiently to densely packed mannosides. A FRET-based thermodynamic study reveals that the binding is enthalpy-driven. This work establishes QD FRET as a rapid, sensitive technique for probing structure and thermodynamics of multivalent protein-ligand interactions. PMID:26990806

  11. Highly H2O2-sensitive electrospun quantum dots nanocomposite films for fluorescent biosensor.

    PubMed

    Tan, Longfei; He, Xiaolong; Chen, Dong; Wu, Xiaoli; Li, Hongbo; Ren, Xiangling; Meng, Xianwei; Tang, Fangqiong

    2013-01-01

    Bright CdSe quantum dots (QDs)/polycaprolactone (PCL) nanocomposite fluorescent films were fabricated by electronspinning. By using chloroform and N,N-dimethylformamide as electronspinning solvent, the oil-soluble CdSe QDs were uniformly distributed in PCL fibers, and were directly employed as optical probe without any modification processing. The fluorescences of CdSe QDs/PCL nanocomposite films were quickly quenched when the films were contacted with H2O2, solution. In the presence of glucose oxidase (GOD), the fluorescence intensities of these fluorescent films exhibit a liner change with the concentrations of glucose. The H2O2-sensitive electrospun QDs nanocomposite films are highly uniform and repeatable, demonstrating the potential to fabricate stable, sensitive and recyclable fluorescent biosensor for the detection different H2O2-generating oxidases and their substrates. PMID:23627067

  12. Compact, Polyvalent Mannose Quantum Dots as Sensitive, Ratiometric FRET Probes for Multivalent Protein–Ligand Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Sakonsinsiri, Chadamas; Nehlmeier, Inga; Fascione, Martin A.; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Weili; Pöhlmann, Stefan; Turnbull, W. Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A highly efficient cap‐exchange approach for preparing compact, dense polyvalent mannose‐capped quantum dots (QDs) has been developed. The resulting QDs have been successfully used to probe multivalent interactions of HIV/Ebola receptors DC‐SIGN and DC‐SIGNR (collectively termed as DC‐SIGN/R) using a sensitive, ratiometric Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay. The QD probes specifically bind DC‐SIGN, but not its closely related receptor DC‐SIGNR, which is further confirmed by its specific blocking of DC‐SIGN engagement with the Ebola virus glycoprotein. Tuning the QD surface mannose valency reveals that DC‐SIGN binds more efficiently to densely packed mannosides. A FRET‐based thermodynamic study reveals that the binding is enthalpy‐driven. This work establishes QD FRET as a rapid, sensitive technique for probing structure and thermodynamics of multivalent protein–ligand interactions.

  13. Compact, Polyvalent Mannose Quantum Dots as Sensitive, Ratiometric FRET Probes for Multivalent Protein–Ligand Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Sakonsinsiri, Chadamas; Nehlmeier, Inga; Fascione, Martin A.; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Weili; Pöhlmann, Stefan; Turnbull, W. Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A highly efficient cap‐exchange approach for preparing compact, dense polyvalent mannose‐capped quantum dots (QDs) has been developed. The resulting QDs have been successfully used to probe multivalent interactions of HIV/Ebola receptors DC‐SIGN and DC‐SIGNR (collectively termed as DC‐SIGN/R) using a sensitive, ratiometric Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay. The QD probes specifically bind DC‐SIGN, but not its closely related receptor DC‐SIGNR, which is further confirmed by its specific blocking of DC‐SIGN engagement with the Ebola virus glycoprotein. Tuning the QD surface mannose valency reveals that DC‐SIGN binds more efficiently to densely packed mannosides. A FRET‐based thermodynamic study reveals that the binding is enthalpy‐driven. This work establishes QD FRET as a rapid, sensitive technique for probing structure and thermodynamics of multivalent protein–ligand interactions. PMID:26990806

  14. Tuning the external optical feedback-sensitivity of a passively mode-locked quantum dot laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghunathan, R.; Grillot, F.; Mee, J. K.; Murrell, D.; Kovanis, V.; Lester, L. F.

    2014-07-01

    The external optical feedback-sensitivity of a two-section, passively mode-locked quantum dot laser operating at elevated temperature is experimentally investigated as a function of absorber bias voltage. Results show that the reverse-bias voltage on the absorber has a direct impact on the damping rate of the free-running relaxation oscillations of the optical signal output, thereby enabling interactive external control over the feedback-response of the device, even under the nearly resonant cavity configuration. The combination of high temperature operation and tunable feedback-sensitivity is highly promising from a technological standpoint, in particular, for applications requiring monolithic integration of multi-component architectures on a single chip in order to accomplish, for instance, the dual-objectives of stable pulse quality and isolation from parasitic reflections.

  15. Synthesis of colloidal InAs/ZnSe quantum dots and their quantum dot sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. H.; Jung, C.; Jun, Y.; Kim, S.-W.

    2015-11-01

    We report the synthesis of colloidal InAs/ZnSe core/shell quantum dots (QDs) by the hot injection method. InAs nanocrystals have a narrow band gap of 0.38 eV, a high absorption coefficient, and multiple exciton generation; hence, they are promising candidates for application in solar cells. However, poor coverage of the titania layer causes a low solar efficiency of ∼1.74%. We synthesized type-I InAs/ZnSe core/shell QDs as an effective solution; they are expected to have enhanced solar cell efficiency because of the different wettability of the ZnSe shell and their superior stability as compared to that of the unstable InAs core. We characterized the QDs by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and absorption and emission spectroscopy. The particle size increased from 2.6 nm to 5 nm, whereas the absorption and emission spectra exhibited a slight red shift, which is typical of type-I structured core/shell QDs. We then fabricated QD-based solar cells and investigated the cell properties, obtaining an open-circuit voltage (VOC) of 0.51 V, a short-circuit current density (JSC) of 12.4 mA/cm2, and a fill factor (FF) of 44%; the efficiency of 2.7% shows an improvement of more than 50% as compared to the values in previous reports.

  16. Passivation of PbS Quantum Dot Surface with l-Glutathione in Solid-State Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Jumabekov, Askhat N; Cordes, Niklas; Siegler, Timothy D; Docampo, Pablo; Ivanova, Alesja; Fominykh, Ksenia; Medina, Dana D; Peter, Laurence M; Bein, Thomas

    2016-02-24

    Surface oxidation of quantum dots (QDs) is one of the biggest challenges in quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs), because it introduces surface states that enhance electron-hole recombination and degrade device performance. Protection of QDs from surface oxidation by passivating the surface with organic or inorganic layers can be one way to overcome this issue. In this study, solid-state QDSCs with a PbS QD absorber layer were prepared from thin mesoporous TiO2 layers by the successive ionic layer adsorption/reaction (SILAR) method. Spiro-OMeTAD was used as the organic p-type hole transporting material (HTM). The effects on the solar cell performance of passivating the surface of the PbS QDs with the tripeptide l-glutathione (GSH) were investigated. Current-voltage characteristics and external quantum efficiency measurements of the solar cell devices showed that GSH-treatment of the QD-sensitized TiO2 electrodes more than doubled the short circuit current and conversion efficiency. Impedance spectroscopy, intensity-modulated photovoltage and photocurrent spectroscopy analysis of the devices revealed that the enhancement in solar cell performance of the GSH-treated cells originates from improved charge injection from PbS QDs into the conduction band of TiO2. Time-resolved photoluminescence decay measurements show that passivation of the surface of QDs with GSH ligands increases the exciton lifetime in the QDs. PMID:26771519

  17. Effect of Organic and Inorganic Passivation in Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, Mauricio Solis; Sánchez, Rafael S; González-Pedro, Victoria; Boix, Pablo P; Mhaisalkar, S G; Rincón, Marina E; Bisquert, Juan; Mora-Seró, Iván

    2013-05-01

    The effect of semiconductor passivation on quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) has been systematically characterized for CdS and CdS/ZnS. We have found that passivation strongly depends on the passivation agent, obtaining an enhancement of the solar cell efficiency for compounds containing amine and thiol groups and, in contrast, a decrease in performance for passivating agents with acid groups. Passivation can induce a change in the position of TiO2 conduction band and also in the recombination rate and nature, reflected in a change in the β parameter. Especially interesting is the finding that β, and consequently the fill factor can be increased with the passivation treatment. Applying this strategy, record cells of 4.65% efficiency for PbS-based QDSCs have been produced. PMID:26282308

  18. Highly Sensitive Ultraviolet Photodetectors Fabricated from ZnO Quantum Dots/Carbon Nanodots Hybrid Films

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Deng-Yang; Shan, Chong-Xin; Qu, Song-Nan; Shen, De-Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet photodetectors have been fabricated from ZnO quantum dots/carbon nanodots hybrid films, and the introduction of carbon nanodots improves the performance of the photodetectors greatly. The photodetectors can be used to detect very weak ultraviolet signals (as low as 12 nW/cm2). The detectivity and noise equivalent power of the photodetector can reach 3.1 × 1017 cmHz1/2/W and 7.8 × 10−20 W, respectively, both of which are the best values ever reported for ZnO-based photodetectors. The mechanism for the high sensitivity of the photodetectors has been attributed to the enhanced carrier-separation at the ZnO/C interface. PMID:25502422

  19. Fluorescent graphene quantum dots as traceable, pH-sensitive drug delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jichuan; Zhang, Ruibin; Li, Jianhua; Sang, Yuanhua; Tang, Wei; Rivera Gil, Pilar; Liu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) were rationally fabricated as a traceable drug delivery system for the targeted, pH-sensitive delivery of a chemotherapeutic drug into cancer cells. The GQDs served as fluorescent carriers for a well-known anticancer drug, doxorubicin (Dox). The whole system has the capacity for simultaneous tracking of the carrier and of drug release. Dox release is triggered upon acidification of the intracellular vesicles, where the carriers are located after their uptake by cancer cells. Further functionalization of the loaded carriers with targeting moieties such as arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides enhanced their uptake by cancer cells. DU-145 and PC-3 human prostate cancer cell lines were used to evaluate the anticancer ability of Dox-loaded RGD-modified GQDs (Dox-RGD-GQDs). The results demonstrated the feasibility of using GQDs as traceable drug delivery systems with the ability for the pH-triggered delivery of drugs into target cells. PMID:26604747

  20. Circular-polarization-sensitive metamaterial based on triple-quantum-dot molecules.

    PubMed

    Kotetes, Panagiotis; Jin, Pei-Qing; Marthaler, Michael; Schön, Gerd

    2014-12-01

    We propose a new type of chiral metamaterial based on an ensemble of artificial molecules formed by three identical quantum dots in a triangular arrangement. A static magnetic field oriented perpendicular to the plane breaks mirror symmetry, rendering the molecules sensitive to the circular polarization of light. By varying the orientation and magnitude of the magnetic field one can control the polarization and frequency of the emission spectrum. We identify a threshold frequency Ω, above which we find strong birefringence. In addition, Kerr rotation and circular-polarized lasing action can be implemented. We investigate the single-molecule lasing properties for different energy-level arrangements and demonstrate the possibility of circular-polarization conversion. Finally, we analyze the effect of weak stray electric fields or deviations from the equilateral triangular geometry. PMID:25526146

  1. Circular-Polarization-Sensitive Metamaterial Based on Triple-Quantum-Dot Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotetes, Panagiotis; Jin, Pei-Qing; Marthaler, Michael; Schön, Gerd

    2014-12-01

    We propose a new type of chiral metamaterial based on an ensemble of artificial molecules formed by three identical quantum dots in a triangular arrangement. A static magnetic field oriented perpendicular to the plane breaks mirror symmetry, rendering the molecules sensitive to the circular polarization of light. By varying the orientation and magnitude of the magnetic field one can control the polarization and frequency of the emission spectrum. We identify a threshold frequency Ω , above which we find strong birefringence. In addition, Kerr rotation and circular-polarized lasing action can be implemented. We investigate the single-molecule lasing properties for different energy-level arrangements and demonstrate the possibility of circular-polarization conversion. Finally, we analyze the effect of weak stray electric fields or deviations from the equilateral triangular geometry.

  2. Quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells: Assembly of CdS-quantum-dots coupling techniques of self-assembled monolayer and chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Sheng-Chih; Lee, Yuh-Lang; Chang, Chi-Hsiu; Shen, Yu-Jen; Yang, Yu-Min

    2007-04-01

    Two methods, coupling self-assembled monolayer and chemical bath deposition (CBD), were utilized to assemble cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots (QDs) onto mesoporous TiO2 films for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications. Colloidal CdS QDs were first self-assembled on the TiO2 surface. CBD was then introduced to replenish the incorporated amount and increase the coverage ratio of CdS QDs on the TiO2 surface. The preassembled CdS QDs act as nucleation sites in the CBD process, forming a CdS nanofilm with an interfacial structure capable of inhibiting the recombination of injected electrons. An efficiency as high as 1.35% for the QD-sensitized DSSC was achieved using the present strategy.

  3. Infra-red photoresponse of mesoscopic NiO-based solar cells sensitized with PbS quantum dot

    PubMed Central

    Raissi, Mahfoudh; Pellegrin, Yann; Jobic, Stéphane; Boujtita, Mohammed; Odobel, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Sensitized NiO based photocathode is a new field of investigation with increasing scientific interest in relation with the development of tandem dye-sensitized solar cells (photovoltaic) and dye-sensitized photoelectrosynthetic cells (solar fuel). We demonstrate herein that PbS quantum dots (QDs) represent promising inorganic sensitizers for NiO-based quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The solar cell sensitized with PbS quantum dot exhibits significantly higher photoconversion efficiency than solar cells sensitized with a classical and efficient molecular sensitizer (P1 dye = 4-(Bis-{4-[5-(2,2-dicyano-vinyl)-thiophene-2-yl]-phenyl}-amino)-benzoic acid). Furthermore, the system features an IPCE (Incident Photon-to-Current Efficiency) spectrum that spreads into the infra-red region, reaching operating wavelengths of 950 nm. The QDSSC photoelectrochemical device works with the complexes tris(4,4′-ditert-butyl-2,2′-bipyridine)cobalt(III/II) redox mediators, underscoring the formation of a long-lived charge-separated state. The electrochemical impedance spectrocopy measurements are consistent with a high packing of the QDs upon the NiO surface, the high density of which limits the access of the electrolyte and results in favorable light absorption cross-sections and a significant hole lifetime. These notable results highlight the potential of NiO-based photocathodes sensitized with quantum dots for accessing and exploiting the low-energy part of the solar spectrum in photovoltaic and photocatalysis applications. PMID:27125454

  4. Infra-red photoresponse of mesoscopic NiO-based solar cells sensitized with PbS quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raissi, Mahfoudh; Pellegrin, Yann; Jobic, Stéphane; Boujtita, Mohammed; Odobel, Fabrice

    2016-04-01

    Sensitized NiO based photocathode is a new field of investigation with increasing scientific interest in relation with the development of tandem dye-sensitized solar cells (photovoltaic) and dye-sensitized photoelectrosynthetic cells (solar fuel). We demonstrate herein that PbS quantum dots (QDs) represent promising inorganic sensitizers for NiO-based quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The solar cell sensitized with PbS quantum dot exhibits significantly higher photoconversion efficiency than solar cells sensitized with a classical and efficient molecular sensitizer (P1 dye = 4-(Bis-{4-[5-(2,2-dicyano-vinyl)-thiophene-2-yl]-phenyl}-amino)-benzoic acid). Furthermore, the system features an IPCE (Incident Photon-to-Current Efficiency) spectrum that spreads into the infra-red region, reaching operating wavelengths of 950 nm. The QDSSC photoelectrochemical device works with the complexes tris(4,4‧-ditert-butyl-2,2‧-bipyridine)cobalt(III/II) redox mediators, underscoring the formation of a long-lived charge-separated state. The electrochemical impedance spectrocopy measurements are consistent with a high packing of the QDs upon the NiO surface, the high density of which limits the access of the electrolyte and results in favorable light absorption cross-sections and a significant hole lifetime. These notable results highlight the potential of NiO-based photocathodes sensitized with quantum dots for accessing and exploiting the low-energy part of the solar spectrum in photovoltaic and photocatalysis applications.

  5. Infra-red photoresponse of mesoscopic NiO-based solar cells sensitized with PbS quantum dot.

    PubMed

    Raissi, Mahfoudh; Pellegrin, Yann; Jobic, Stéphane; Boujtita, Mohammed; Odobel, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Sensitized NiO based photocathode is a new field of investigation with increasing scientific interest in relation with the development of tandem dye-sensitized solar cells (photovoltaic) and dye-sensitized photoelectrosynthetic cells (solar fuel). We demonstrate herein that PbS quantum dots (QDs) represent promising inorganic sensitizers for NiO-based quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The solar cell sensitized with PbS quantum dot exhibits significantly higher photoconversion efficiency than solar cells sensitized with a classical and efficient molecular sensitizer (P1 dye = 4-(Bis-{4-[5-(2,2-dicyano-vinyl)-thiophene-2-yl]-phenyl}-amino)-benzoic acid). Furthermore, the system features an IPCE (Incident Photon-to-Current Efficiency) spectrum that spreads into the infra-red region, reaching operating wavelengths of 950 nm. The QDSSC photoelectrochemical device works with the complexes tris(4,4'-ditert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridine)cobalt(III/II) redox mediators, underscoring the formation of a long-lived charge-separated state. The electrochemical impedance spectrocopy measurements are consistent with a high packing of the QDs upon the NiO surface, the high density of which limits the access of the electrolyte and results in favorable light absorption cross-sections and a significant hole lifetime. These notable results highlight the potential of NiO-based photocathodes sensitized with quantum dots for accessing and exploiting the low-energy part of the solar spectrum in photovoltaic and photocatalysis applications. PMID:27125454

  6. Quantum Dots: Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Vukmirovic, Nenad; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2009-11-10

    This review covers the description of the methodologies typically used for the calculation of the electronic structure of self-assembled and colloidal quantum dots. These are illustrated by the results of their application to a selected set of physical effects in quantum dots.

  7. Highly efficient multiple-layer CdS quantum dot sensitized III-V solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Chung; Han, Hau-Vei; Chen, Hsin-Chu; Chen, Kuo-Ju; Tsai, Yu-Lin; Lin, Wein-Yi; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Yu, Peichen

    2014-02-01

    In this review, the concept of utilization of solar spectrum in order to increase the solar cell efficiency is discussed. Among the three mechanisms, down-shifting effect is investigated in detail. Organic dye, rare-earth minerals and quantum dots are three most popular down-shift materials. While the enhancement of solar cell efficiency was not clearly observed in the past, the advances in quantum dot fabrication have brought strong response out of the hybrid platform of a quantum dot solar cell. A multiple layer structure, including PDMS as the isolation layer, is proposed and demonstrated. With the help of pulse spray system, precise control can be achieved and the optimized concentration can be found. PMID:24749412

  8. Ab Initio Simulation of Charge Transfer at the Semiconductor Quantum Dot/TiO 2 Interface in Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xin, Xukai; Li, Bo; Jung, Jaehan; Yoon, Young Jun; Biswas, Rana; Lin, Zhiqun

    2014-07-24

    Quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) have emerged as a promising solar architecture for next-generation solar cells. The QDSSCs exhibit a remarkably fast electron transfer from the quantum dot (QD) donor to the TiO2 acceptor with size quantization properties of QDs that allows for the modulation of band energies to control photoresponse and photoconversion efficiency of solar cells. In order to understand the mechanisms that underpin this rapid charge transfer, the electronic properties of CdSe and PbSe QDs with different sizes on the TiO2 substrate are simulated using a rigorous ab initio density functional method. Our method capitalizes on localized orbitalmore » basis set, which is computationally less intensive. Quite intriguingly, a remarkable set of electron bridging states between QDs and TiO2 occurring via the strong bonding between the conduction bands of QDs and TiO2 is revealed. Such bridging states account for the fast adiabatic charge transfer from the QD donor to the TiO2 acceptor, and may be a general feature for strongly coupled donor/acceptor systems. All the QDs/TiO2 systems exhibit type II band alignments, with conduction band offsets that increase with the decrease in QD size. This facilitates the charge transfer from QDs donors to TiO2 acceptors and explains the dependence of the increased charge transfer rate with the decreased QD size.« less

  9. Highly Sensitive Homogeneous Immunoassays Based on Construction of Silver Triangular Nanoplates-Quantum Dots FRET System

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qinghui; Li, Qin; Ji, Wenyu; Bin, Xue; Song, Jie

    2016-01-01

    With growing concerns about health issues worldwide, elegant sensors with high sensitivity and specificity for virus/antigens (Ag) detection are urgent to be developed. Homogeneous immunoassays (HIA) are an important technique with the advantages of small sample volumes requirement and pretreatment-free process. HIA are becoming more favorable for the medical diagnosis and disease surveillance than heterogeneous immunoassays. An important subset of HIA relies on the effect of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) via a donor-acceptor (D–A) platform, e.g., quantum dots (QDs) donor based FRET system. Being an excellent plasmonic material, silver triangular nanoplates (STNPs) have unique advantages in displaying surface plasmon resonance in the visible to near infrared spectral region, which make them a better acceptor for pairing with QDs in a FRET-based sensing system. However, the reported STNPs generally exhibited broad size distributions, which would greatly restrict their application as HIA acceptor for high detection sensitivity and specificity purpose. In this work, uniform STNPs and red-emitting QDs are firstly applied to construct FRET nanoplatform in the advanced HIA and further be exploited for analyzing virus Ag. The uniform STNPs/QDs nanoplatform based medical sensor provides a straightforward and highly sensitive method for Ag analysis in homogeneous form. PMID:27198713

  10. Visible light induced photoelectrochemical biosensing based on oxygen-sensitive quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjing; Bao, Lei; Lei, Jianping; Tu, Wenwen; Ju, Huangxian

    2012-09-26

    A visible light induced photoelectrochemical biosensing platform based on oxygen-sensitive near-infrared quantum dots (NIR QDs) was developed for detection of glucose. The NIR QDs were synthesized in an aqueous solution, and characterized with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The as-prepared NIR QDs were employed to construct oxygen-sensitive photoelectrochemical biosensor on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) electrode. The oxygen dependency of the photocurrent was investigated at as-prepared electrode, which demonstrated the signal of photocurrent is suppressed with the decreasing of oxygen. Coupling with the consumption of oxygen during enzymatic reaction, a photoelectrochemical strategy was proposed for the detection of substrate. Using glucose oxidase (GOx) as a model enzyme, that is, GOx was covalently attached to the surface of CdTe QDs, the resulting biosensor showed the sensitive response to glucose. Under the irradiation of visible light of a wavelength at 505 nm, the proposed photoelectrochemical method could detect glucose ranging from 0.1 mM to 11 mM with a detection limit of 0.04 mM. The photoelectrochemical biosensor showed a good performance with high upper detection limit, acceptable stability and accuracy, providing an alternative method for monitoring biomolecules and extending the application of near-infrared QDs. PMID:22935371

  11. Highly sensitive detection of leukemia cells based on aptamer and quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yating; Duan, Siliang; He, Jian; Liang, Wei; Su, Jing; Zhu, Jianmeng; Hu, Nan; Zhao, Yongxiang; Lu, Xiaoling

    2016-08-01

    Detection of leukemia at the early stage with high sensitivity is a significant clinical challenge for clinicians. In the present study, we developed a sensitive detector consisting of the product of oligonucleotides hybridized with semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) to generate a stronger fluorescent signal so that leukemic cells can be captured. In the present study, a biotin-modified Sgc8 aptamer was used to identify CCRF-CEM cells, and then biotin-appended QDs were labeled with the aptamer via streptavidin and biotin amplification interactions. We described the complex as QDs-bsb-apt. CEM and Ramos cells were used to assess the specificity and sensitivity of the novel complex. These results revealed that the complex could be more effective in diagnosing leukemia at the early stage. In conclusion, an innovative structure based on aptamer and QDs for leukemia diagnosis was provided. It has the potential to image tumor cells in vitro or in vivo and to realize the early diagnosis of disease. Furthermore, it may be used to provide guidance for clinicians to implement individualized patient therapy. PMID:27375197

  12. First principles DFT study of dye-sensitized CdS quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Kalpna; Singh, Kh. S.; Kishor, Shyam; Josefesson, Ida; Odelius, Michael; Ramaniah, Lavanya M.

    2014-04-24

    Dye-sensitized quantum dots (QDs) are considered promising candidates for dye-sensitized solar cells. In order to maximize their efficiency, detailed theoretical studies are important. Here, we report a first principles density functional theory (DFT) investigation of experimentally realized dye - sensitized QD / ligand systems, viz., Cd{sub 16}S{sub 16}, capped with acetate molecules and a coumarin dye. The hybrid B3LYP functional and a 6−311+G(d,p)/LANL2dz basis set are used to study the geometric, energetic and electronic properties of these clusters. There is significant structural rearrangement in all the clusters studied - on the surface for the bare QD, and in the positions of the acetate / dye ligands for the ligated QDs. The density of states (DOS) of the bare QD shows states in the band gap, which disappear on surface passivation with the acetate molecules. Interestingly, in the dye-sensitised QD, the HOMO is found to be localized mainly on the dye molecule, while the LUMO is on the QD, as required for photo-induced electron injection from the dye to the QD.

  13. Highly Sensitive Homogeneous Immunoassays Based on Construction of Silver Triangular Nanoplates-Quantum Dots FRET System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Qinghui; Li, Qin; Ji, Wenyu; Bin, Xue; Song, Jie

    2016-05-01

    With growing concerns about health issues worldwide, elegant sensors with high sensitivity and specificity for virus/antigens (Ag) detection are urgent to be developed. Homogeneous immunoassays (HIA) are an important technique with the advantages of small sample volumes requirement and pretreatment-free process. HIA are becoming more favorable for the medical diagnosis and disease surveillance than heterogeneous immunoassays. An important subset of HIA relies on the effect of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) via a donor-acceptor (D–A) platform, e.g., quantum dots (QDs) donor based FRET system. Being an excellent plasmonic material, silver triangular nanoplates (STNPs) have unique advantages in displaying surface plasmon resonance in the visible to near infrared spectral region, which make them a better acceptor for pairing with QDs in a FRET-based sensing system. However, the reported STNPs generally exhibited broad size distributions, which would greatly restrict their application as HIA acceptor for high detection sensitivity and specificity purpose. In this work, uniform STNPs and red-emitting QDs are firstly applied to construct FRET nanoplatform in the advanced HIA and further be exploited for analyzing virus Ag. The uniform STNPs/QDs nanoplatform based medical sensor provides a straightforward and highly sensitive method for Ag analysis in homogeneous form.

  14. Highly Sensitive Homogeneous Immunoassays Based on Construction of Silver Triangular Nanoplates-Quantum Dots FRET System.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qinghui; Li, Qin; Ji, Wenyu; Bin, Xue; Song, Jie

    2016-01-01

    With growing concerns about health issues worldwide, elegant sensors with high sensitivity and specificity for virus/antigens (Ag) detection are urgent to be developed. Homogeneous immunoassays (HIA) are an important technique with the advantages of small sample volumes requirement and pretreatment-free process. HIA are becoming more favorable for the medical diagnosis and disease surveillance than heterogeneous immunoassays. An important subset of HIA relies on the effect of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) via a donor-acceptor (D-A) platform, e.g., quantum dots (QDs) donor based FRET system. Being an excellent plasmonic material, silver triangular nanoplates (STNPs) have unique advantages in displaying surface plasmon resonance in the visible to near infrared spectral region, which make them a better acceptor for pairing with QDs in a FRET-based sensing system. However, the reported STNPs generally exhibited broad size distributions, which would greatly restrict their application as HIA acceptor for high detection sensitivity and specificity purpose. In this work, uniform STNPs and red-emitting QDs are firstly applied to construct FRET nanoplatform in the advanced HIA and further be exploited for analyzing virus Ag. The uniform STNPs/QDs nanoplatform based medical sensor provides a straightforward and highly sensitive method for Ag analysis in homogeneous form. PMID:27198713

  15. A quantum dot asymmetric self-gated nanowire FET for high sensitive detection

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Zhangchun; Yang, Xiaohong Nie, Chenglei; Yin, Weihong; Han, Qin; Ni, Haiqiao; Niu, Zhichuan

    2015-01-15

    We present a novel device for weak light detection based on self-gated nanowire field effect structure with embedded quantum dots beside the nanowire current channel. The quantum dot with high localization energy will make the device work at high detecting temperature and the nano-channel structure will provide high photocurrent gain. Simulation has been done to optimize the structure, explain the working principle and electrical properties of the devices. The nonlinear current-voltage characteristics have been demonstrated at different temperatures. The responsivity of the device is proven to be more than 4.8 × 10{sup 6}A/W at 50 K.

  16. Highly Sensitive and Selective Detection of Nanomolar Ferric Ions Using Dopamine Functionalized Graphene Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Dutta Chowdhury, Ankan; Doong, Ruey-An

    2016-08-17

    The good stability, low cytotoxicity, and excellent photoluminescence property of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) make them an emerging class of promising materials in various application fields ranging from sensor to drug delivery. In the present work, the dopamine-functionalized GQDs (DA-GQDs) with stably bright blue fluorescence were successfully synthesized for low level Fe(3+) ions detection. The as-synthesized GQDs are uniform in size with narrow-distributed particle size of 4.5 ± 0.6 nm and high quantum yield of 10.2%. The amide linkage of GQDs with dopamine, confirmed by using XPS and FTIR spectra, results in the specific interaction between Fe(3+) and catechol moiety of dopamine at the interfaces for highly sensitive and selective detection of Fe(3+). A linear range of 20 nM to 2 μM with a detection limit of 7.6 nM is obtained for Fe(3+) detection by DA-GQDs. The selectivity of DA-GQDs sensing probe is significantly excellent in the presence of other interfering metal ions. In addition, the reaction mechanism for Fe(3+) detection based on the complexation and oxidation of dopamine has been proposed and validated. Results obtained in this study clearly demonstrate the superiority of surface functionalized GQDs to Fe(3+) detection, which can pave an avenue for the development of high performance and robust sensing probes for detection of metal ions and other organic metabolites in environmental and biomedical applications. PMID:27472083

  17. Employing Core-Shell Quantum Dots as Triplet Sensitizers for Photon Upconversion.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Keisuke; Mase, Kazuma; Yanai, Nobuhiro; Kimizuka, Nobuo

    2016-06-01

    A new family of surface-functionalized CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots (csQD) has been developed, which work as triplet sensitizers for triplet-triplet annihilation-based photon upconversion (TTA-UC). The surface modification of csQD with acceptor molecules plays a key role in the efficient relay of the excited energy of csQD to emitter molecules in the bulk solution, where the generated emitter triplets undergo triplet-triplet annihilation that leads to photon upconversion. Interestingly, improved UC properties were achieved with the core-shell QDs compared with core-only CdSe QDs (cQD). The threshold excitation intensity, which is defined as the necessary irradiance to achieve efficient TTA process, decreases by more than a factor of four. Furthermore, the total UC quantum yield is enhanced more than 50-fold. These enhancements should be derived from better optical properties of csQD, in which the non-radiative surface recombination sites are passivated by the shell layer with wider bandgap. PMID:27121225

  18. Facile synthesis of optical pH-sensitive molybdenum disulfide quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shan; Jia, Xiaofang; Wang, Erkang

    2016-08-18

    An effective fabrication of MoS2 quantum dots (QDs) has been developed using alkali metal-intercalation and exfoliation. The obtained MoS2 QDs are monolayers with a uniform lateral size of 4.26 ± 0.96 nm, which exhibit distinct blue fluorescence with a quantum yield of 2.28%, robust dispersibility, storage stability and pH dependent optical properties. PMID:27500821

  19. Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Castro, Stephanie L.; Hepp, Aloysius; Bailey, Sheila G.

    2002-10-01

    We have been investigating the synthesis of quantum dots of CdSe, CuInS2, and CuInSe2 for use in an intermediate bandgap solar cell. We have prepared a variety of quantum dots using the typical organometallic synthesis routes pioneered by Bawendi, et. al., in the early 1990's. However, unlike previous work in this area we have also utilized single-source precursor molecules in the synthesis process. We will present XRD, TEM, SEM and EDS characterization of our initial attempts at fabricating these quantum dots. Investigation of the size distributions of these nanoparticles via laser light scattering and scanning electron microscopy will be presented. Theoretical estimates on appropriate quantum dot composition, size, and inter-dot spacing along with potential scenarios for solar cell fabrication will be discussed.

  20. Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Castro, Stephanie L.; Hepp, Aloysius; Bailey, Sheila G.

    2002-01-01

    We have been investigating the synthesis of quantum dots of CdSe, CuInS2, and CuInSe2 for use in an intermediate bandgap solar cell. We have prepared a variety of quantum dots using the typical organometallic synthesis routes pioneered by Bawendi, et. al., in the early 1990's. However, unlike previous work in this area we have also utilized single-source precursor molecules in the synthesis process. We will present XRD, TEM, SEM and EDS characterization of our initial attempts at fabricating these quantum dots. Investigation of the size distributions of these nanoparticles via laser light scattering and scanning electron microscopy will be presented. Theoretical estimates on appropriate quantum dot composition, size, and inter-dot spacing along with potential scenarios for solar cell fabrication will be discussed.

  1. Transport studies of quantum dots sensitized single Mn-ZnO nanowire field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapkota, Keshab R.; Maloney, Francis Scott; Rimal, Gaurab; Poudyal, Uma; Tang, Jinke; Wang, Wenyong

    We present opto-electrical transport properties of Mn-CdSe quantum dots (QDs) sensitized single Mn-ZnO nanowire (NW) field effect transistors (FET). The ZnO NWs with 2 atomic % of Mn doping are grown by chemical vapor deposition. The NWs are ferromagnetic at low temperature. The as grown nanowires are transferred to clean SiO2/Si substrate and single nanowire field effect transistors (FET) are fabricated by standard e-beam lithography. Mobility and carrier concentration of Mn-ZnO NWs are estimated from FET device measurement which shows NWs are n-type semiconductors. Pulse laser deposition of Mn-CdSe QDs on the single NW FET significantly increases carrier concentration of the QD-NW system in dark where the QD monolayer conduction is negligibly small. The photoconductivity study of QD sensitized NW FET enlightens the conduction spectrum of QD-NW system and QD to NW carrier transfer mechanism. This work has been supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Award DE-FG02-10ER46728.

  2. Density functional investigation and some optical experiments on dye-sensitized quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Jain, Kalpna; Kaniyankandy, Sreejith; Kishor, Shyam; Josefsson, Ida; Ghosh, Hirendra N; Singh, Khundrakpam S; Mookerjee, Sumit; Odelius, Michael; Ramaniah, Lavanya M

    2015-11-21

    Dye-sensitized quantum dots (QDs) are promising candidates for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Here, we report steady state (absorption and photoluminescence) optical measurements on several sizes of CdS QDs ligated with Coumarin 343 dye (C-343) and two different solvents, viz., chloroform and toluene. We further report detailed first principles density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory studies of the geometric, electronic and optical (absorption and emission) properties of three different sized capped QDs, ligated with C-343 dye. The absorption spectrum shows a QD-size-independent peak, and another peak which shifts to blue with decrease in QD size. The first peak is found to arise from the dye molecule and the second one from the QD. Charge transfer using natural transition orbitals (NTOs) is found to occur from dye-to-QDs and is solvent-dependent. In the emission spectra, the luminescence intensity of the dye is quenched by the addition of the QD indicating a strong interaction between the QD and the dye. PMID:26445895

  3. Highly sensitive detection of DNA methylation levels by using a quantum dot-based FRET method.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yunfei; Zhang, Honglian; Liu, Fangming; Wu, Zhenhua; Lu, Shaohua; Jin, Qinghui; Zhao, Jianlong; Zhong, Xinhua; Mao, Hongju

    2015-11-01

    DNA methylation is the most frequently studied epigenetic modification that is strongly involved in genomic stability and cellular plasticity. Aberrant changes in DNA methylation status are ubiquitous in human cancer and the detection of these changes can be informative for cancer diagnosis. Herein, we reported a facile quantum dot-based (QD-based) fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique for the detection of DNA methylation. The method relies on methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes for the differential digestion of genomic DNA based on its methylation status. Digested DNA is then subjected to PCR amplification for the incorporation of Alexa Fluor-647 (A647) fluorophores. DNA methylation levels can be detected qualitatively through gel analysis and quantitatively by the signal amplification from QDs to A647 during FRET. Furthermore, the methylation levels of three tumor suppressor genes, PCDHGB6, HOXA9 and RASSF1A, in 20 lung adenocarcinoma and 20 corresponding adjacent nontumorous tissue (NT) samples were measured to verify the feasibility of the QD-based FRET method and a high sensitivity for cancer detection (up to 90%) was achieved. Our QD-based FRET method is a convenient, continuous and high-throughput method, and is expected to be an alternative for detecting DNA methylation as a biomarker for certain human cancers. PMID:26446775

  4. Surface treatment properties of CdS quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razzaq, Abdul; Lee, Jun Young; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar; Park, Jung-Ki

    2014-08-01

    The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are attractive due to their low cost and promising efficiency. One of the research perspectives in the respective field is to replace the expensive and photodegradable ruthenium metal-based dyes. Present work describes a simple, modified in situ route designed by mimicking the adsorption principle of dyes in DSSCs for surface modification and linking of CdS-Quantum Dots (QDs) to TiO2 electrode. An organic compound 2-mercaptoethanol (ME) was used as a surface modifying and linking agent. By following this route it was expected to get a well assembled layer of CdS QDs for better cell performance but performances were not as expected. The main reason for low photocurrent density is the partial coverage of QDs surface by ME and the spatial distance between QDs and TiO2 electrode. Additional surface treatment of the CdS QDs sensitized TiO2 electrode resulted in an increase in the photocurrent density and photovoltage. This indicates that ME is not an effective capping agent and thus partially covers the QDs surface. The remaining sites, not covered by ME were passivated by sulfur ions in the ionic solution.

  5. Ternary CuBiS2 nanoparticles as a sensitizer for quantum dot solar cells.

    PubMed

    Suriyawong, Nipapon; Aragaw, Belete; Shi, Jen-Bin; Lee, Ming-Way

    2016-07-01

    This work investigates the synthesis and application in solar cells of a novel solar absorber material CuBiS2. Ternary copper chalcogenide CuBiS2 nanoparticles were grown on a mesoporous TiO2 electrode by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The synthesized CuBiS2 nanoparticles, size 5-10nm, have an energy gap Eg of 2.1eV. Liquid-junction quantum dot-sensitized solar cells were fabricated from the CuBiS2-sensitized electrode using a polysulfide electrolyte. Three types of counter electrodes (CEs) - Pt, Au and Cu2S - were tested. The photovoltaic performance depends on the CBD reaction time and the CE. The best cell, obtained with the Cu2S CE, exhibited the photovoltaic performance of a short-circuit current density Jsc of 6.87mA/cm(2), an open-circuit voltage Voc of 0.25V, a fill factor FF of 36% and a power conversion efficiency η of 0.62%. The present work demonstrates the feasibility of CuBiS2 as a solar energy material. PMID:27054767

  6. Engineered band structure for an enhanced performance on quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Bin Bin; Wang, Ye Feng; Wei, Dong; Cui, Bin; Chen, Yu; Zeng, Jing Hui

    2016-06-01

    A photon-to-current efficiency of 2.93% is received for the Mn-doped CdS (MCdS)-quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) using Mn:ZnO (MZnO) nanowire as photoanode. Hydrothermal synthesized MZnO are spin-coated on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass with P25 paste to serve as photoanode after calcinations. MCdS was deposited on the MZnO film by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method. The long lived excitation energy state of Mn2+ is located inside the conduction band in the wide bandgap ZnO and under the conduction band of CdS, which increases the energetic overlap of donor and acceptor states, reducing the "loss-in-potential," inhibiting charge recombination, and accelerating electron injection. The engineered band structure is well reflected by the electrochemical band detected using cyclic voltammetry. Cell performances are evidenced by current density-voltage (J-V) traces, diffuse reflectance spectra, transient PL spectroscopy, and incident photon to current conversion efficiency characterizations. Further coating of CdSe on MZnO/MCdS electrode expands the light absorption band of the sensitizer, an efficiency of 4.94% is received for QDSSCs.

  7. Quantum-dot submicrobead-based immunochromatographic assay for quantitative and sensitive detection of zearalenone.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hong; Chen, Xuelan; Xu, Wei; Fu, Jinhua; Xiong, Yonghua; Wang, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Mycotoxin pollutants are commonly related to cereal products and cause fatal threats in food safety, and therefore require simple and sensitive detection. In this work, quantum-dot (QD) submicrobeads (QBs) were synthesized by encapsulating CdSe/ZnS QDs using the microemulsion technique. The resultant QBs, with approximately 2800 times brighter luminescence than the corresponding QDs, were explored as novel fluorescent probes in the immunochromatographic assay (ICA) for sensitive and quantitative detection of zearalenone (ZEN) in corns. Various parameters that influenced the sensitivity and stability of QB-based ICA (QB-ICA) were investigated and optimized. The optimal QB-ICA exhibits good dynamic linear detection for ZEN over the range of 0.125 ng/mL to 10 ng/mL with a median inhibitory concentration of 1.01±0.09 ng/mL (n=3). The detection limits for ZEN in a standard solution and real corn sample (dilution ratio of 1:30) are 0.0625 ng/mL and 3.6 µg/kg, respectively, which is much better than that of a previously reported gold nanoparticle-based ICA method. Forty-six natural corn samples are assayed using both QB-ICA and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The two methods show a highly significant correlation (R(2)=0.92). Nine ZEN-contaminated samples were further confirmed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and the QB-ICA results also exhibited good agreement with LC-MS/MS method. In brief, this work demonstrates that QB-ICA is capable of rapid, sensitive screening of toxins in food analysis, and shows great promise for point-of-care testing of other analytes. PMID:25476288

  8. Lateral Quantum Dots for Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    House, Matthew Gregory

    The possibility of building a computer that takes advantage of the most subtle nature of quantum physics has been driving a lot of research in atomic and solid state physics for some time. It is still not clear what physical system or systems can be used for this purpose. One possibility that has been attracting significant attention from researchers is to use the spin state of an electron confined in a semiconductor quantum dot. The electron spin is magnetic in nature, so it naturally is well isolated from electrical fluctuations that can a loss of quantum coherence. It can also be manipulated electrically, by taking advantage of the exchange interaction. In this work we describe several experiments we have done to study the electron spin properties of lateral quantum dots. We have developed lateral quantum dot devices based on the silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor, and studied the physics of electrons confined in these quantum dots. We measured the electron spin excited state lifetime, which was found to be as long as 30 ms at the lowest magnetic fields that we could measure. We fabricated and characterized a silicon double quantum dot. Using this double quantum dot design, we fabricated devices which combined a silicon double quantum dot with a superconducting microwave resonator. The microwave resonator was found to be sensitive to two-dimensional electrons in the transistor channel, which we measured and characterized. We developed a new method for extracting information from random telegraph signals, which are produced when we observe thermal fluctuations of electrons in quantum dots. The new statistical method, based on the hidden Markov model, allows us to detect spin-dependent effects in such fluctuations even though we are not able to directly observe the electron spin. We use this analysis technique on data from two experiments involving gallium arsenide quantum dots and use it to measure spin-dependent tunneling rates. Our results advance the

  9. A Highly Efficient Hybrid GaAs Solar Cell Based on Colloidal-Quantum-Dot-Sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hau-Vei; Lin, Chien-Chung; Tsai, Yu-Lin; Chen, Hsin-Chu; Chen, Kuo-Ju; Yeh, Yun-Ling; Lin, Wen-Yi; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Yu, Peichen

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid design, featuring a traditional GaAs-based solar cell combined with various colloidal quantum dots. This hybrid design effectively boosts photon harvesting at long wavelengths while enhancing the collection of photogenerated carriers in the ultraviolet region. The merits of using highly efficient semiconductor solar cells and colloidal quantum dots were seamlessly combined to increase overall power conversion efficiency. Several photovoltaic parameters, including short-circuit current density, open circuit voltage, and external quantum efficiency, were measured and analyzed to investigate the performance of this hybrid device. Offering antireflective features at long wavelengths and luminescent downshifting for high-energy photons, the quantum dots effectively enhanced overall power conversion efficiency by as high as 24.65% compared with traditional GaAs-based devices. The evolution of weighted reflectance as a function of the dilution factor of QDs was investigated. Further analysis of the quantum efficiency response showed that the luminescent downshifting effect can be as much as 6.6% of the entire enhancement of photogenerated current. PMID:25034623

  10. Boronic acid functionalized N-doped carbon quantum dots as fluorescent probe for selective and sensitive glucose determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Guohua; Jiang, Tengteng; Li, Xia; Wei, Zheng; Du, Xiangxiang; Wang, Xiaohong

    2014-04-01

    Nitrogen doped carbon quantum dots (NCQDs) of about 10 nm in diameter have been obtained by hydrothermal reaction from collagen. Because of the superiority of water dispersion, low toxicity and ease of functionlization, the NCQDs were designed as a glucose sensor after covalent grafting by 3-aminophenylboronic (APBA) (APBA-NCQDs). The as-prepared APBA-NCQDs were imparted with glucose sensitivity and selectivity from other saccharides via fluorescence (FL) quenching effect at physiological pH and at room temperature, which show high sensitivity and specificity for glucose determination with a wide range from 1 mM to 14 mM. FL quenching mechanism of APBA-NCQDs was also investigated by adding an external quencher. The APBA-NCQDs-based platform is an environmentally friendly way to substitute inorganic quantum dots containing heavy metals which offer a facile and low cost detection method.

  11. Efficient ternary cobalt spinel counter electrodes for quantum-dot sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qiang; Gu, Youchen; Li, Jianbao; Wang, Ning; Lin, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Cobalt-based spinel binary and ternary sulfides (Co3S4, CuCo2S4 and NiCo2S4) are prepared via an economical, facile and versatile synthesis strategy and used as counter electrodes for quantum-dot sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) in conjunction with the aqueous polysulfide electrolyte. The spinel sulfides exhibit superior catalytic activities toward the polysulfide electrolyte reduction than that of the Cu2S. Both electrochemical impedance spectroscopic and Tafel polarization measurements imply that the incorporation of Cu or Ni cation into the spinel lattices induces a significantly faster electrocatalytic rate towards the polysulfide reduction than that of the binary Co3S4. Using ternary NiCo2S4 as counter electrode, the QDSC achieves a power conversion efficiency of 3.3%; which is increased by 26% compared with the QDSC fabricated with binary Co3S4 counter electrode (2.61%). The excellent electrochemical performance of the ternary cobalt spinel sulfides suggests their promising application as counter electrodes for efficient QDSCs.

  12. Enhancement of PbS quantum dot-sensitized photocurrents using plasmonic gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kawawaki, Tokuhisa; Tatsuma, Tetsu

    2013-12-14

    For improvement of the conversion efficiency of solar cells, it is important to make effective use of near-infrared light, which accounts for about 40% of sunlight energy. Although solar cells based on quantum dots (QDs) such as PbS have been studied for the use of near-infrared light, their photoabsorption is not necessarily sufficient. In this study, we coupled PbS QD-sensitized solar cells with plasmonic Au nanoparticles (NPs) as light-harvesting antennae. As a result, the photocurrents of the cells were enhanced in the visible and near-infrared regions (500-1200 nm) due to interparticle plasmon coupling of spherical Au NPs. The maximum enhancement factor was 6. We also found that the optimum QD-NP spacing is shorter and that the maximum enhancement factor is higher when smaller QDs are used. These results suggest that a negative effect, quenching via energy transfer from QD to NP, is less significant for smaller PbS QDs. PMID:24162732

  13. A bifacial quantum dot-sensitized solar cell with all-cadmium sulfide photoanode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chunqing; Tang, Qunwei; Liu, Danyang; Zhao, Zhiyuan; He, Benlin; Chen, Haiyan; Yu, Liangmin

    2015-02-01

    Pursuit of a high power conversion efficiency and reduction of electricity-generation cost has been a persistent objective for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). We present here the fabrication of a QDSSC comprising a nanoflower-structured CdS anode, a liquid electrolyte having S2-/Sn2- redox couples, and a transparent CoSe counter electrode. Nanoflower-structured CdS anodes are prepared by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method and subsequently hydrothermal strategy free of any surfactant or template. The CdS nanoparticles synthesized by a SILAR method act as "seed crystal" for growth of CdS nanoflowers. The average electron lifetime is markedly elevated in nanoflower-structured CdS anode in comparison with CdS nanoparticle or nanoporous CdS microsphere anode. Herein, we study the effect of synthesis method on CdS morphology and solar cell's photovoltaic performance, showing a power conversion efficiency of 1.67% and 1.17% for nanoflower-structured CdS QDSSC under front and rear irradiations, respectively.

  14. A simple and sensitive label-free fluorescence sensing of heparin based on Cdte quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, B; Shahshahanipour, M; Ensafi, Ali A

    2016-06-01

    A rapid, simple and sensitive label-free fluorescence method was developed for the determination of trace amounts of an important drug, heparin. This new method was based on water-soluble glutathione-capped CdTe quantum dots (CdTe QDs) as the luminescent probe. CdTe QDs were prepared according to the published protocol and the sizes of these nanoparticles were verified through transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) with an average particle size of about 7 nm. The fluorescence intensity of glutathione-capped CdTe QDs increased with increasing heparin concentration. These changes were followed as the analytical signal. Effective variables such as pH, QD concentration and incubation time were optimized. At the optimum conditions, with this optical method, heparin could be measured within the range 10.0-200.0 ng mL(-1) with a low limit of detection, 2.0 ng mL(-1) . The constructed fluorescence sensor was also applied successfully for the determination of heparin in human serum. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26542329

  15. Carbon Counter-Electrode-Based Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells with Certified Efficiency Exceeding 11.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhonglin; Pan, Zhenxiao; Fabregat-Santiago, Francisco; Zhao, Ke; Long, Donghui; Zhang, Hua; Zhao, Yixin; Zhong, Xinhua; Yu, Jong-Sung; Bisquert, Juan

    2016-08-18

    The mean power conversion efficiency (PCE) of quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) is mainly limited by the low photovoltage and fill factor (FF), which are derived from the high redox potential of polysulfide electrolyte and the poor catalytic activity of the counter electrode (CE), respectively. Herein, we report that this problem is overcome by adopting Ti mesh supported mesoporous carbon (MC/Ti) CE. The confined area in Ti mesh substrate not only offers robust carbon film with submillimeter thickness to ensure high catalytic capacity, but also provides an efficient three-dimension electrical tunnel with better conductivity than state-of-art Cu2S/FTO CE. More importantly, the MC/Ti CE can down shift the redox potential of polysulfide electrolyte to promote high photovoltage. In all, MC/Ti CEs boost PCE of CdSe0.65Te0.35 QDSCs to a certified record of 11.16% (Jsc = 20.68 mA/cm(2), Voc = 0.798 V, FF = 0.677), an improvement of 24% related to previous record. This work thus paves a way for further improvement of performance of QDSCs. PMID:27455143

  16. Use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles biosynthesized by Bacillus mycoides in quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the major challenges of nanotechnology during the last decade has been the development of new procedures to synthesize nanoparticles. In this context, biosynthetic methods have taken hold since they are simple, safe and eco-friendly. Results In this study, we report the biosynthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles by an environmental isolate of Bacillus mycoides, a poorly described Gram-positive bacterium able to form colonies with novel morphologies. This isolate was able to produce TiO2 nanoparticles at 37°C in the presence of titanyl hydroxide. Biosynthesized nanoparticles have anatase polymorphic structure, spherical morphology, polydisperse size (40–60 nm) and an organic shell as determined by UV–vis spectroscopy, TEM, DLS and FTIR, respectively. Also, conversely to chemically produced nanoparticles, biosynthesized TiO2 do not display phototoxicity. In order to design less expensive and greener solar cells, biosynthesized nanoparticles were evaluated in Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells (QDSSCs) and compared with chemically produced TiO2 nanoparticles. Solar cell parameters such as short circuit current density (ISC) and open circuit voltage (VOC) revealed that biosynthesized TiO2 nanoparticles can mobilize electrons in QDSSCs similarly than chemically produced TiO2. Conclusions Our results indicate that bacterial extracellular production of TiO2 nanoparticles at low temperatures represents a novel alternative for the construction of green solar cells. PMID:25027643

  17. Quantum dots and p-phenylenediamine based method for the sensitive determination of glucose.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Xiaoyu; Huang, Dawei; Niu, Chenggang; Zeng, Guangming; Niu, Qiuya

    2014-11-01

    By introducing p-phenylenediamine (PPD) to the hybrid system of Mn-doped CdS/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) and glucose oxidase (GOD), a sensitive label-free method was proposed for direct detection of glucose. With glucose and PPD as substrates, 2,5-diamino-N,N'-di-(4-aminophenyl)-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-diimine (DDACD) that intensively quenches the fluorescence of QDs can be produced by the catalysis of GOD. A detection limit as low as 3.2 μM was obtained with the high-efficient fluorescence quencher. Two linear ranges, from 5.0 μM to 1000 μM and from 1.0 mM to 10.0 mM, were identified between time-gated fluorescence intensity and the concentration of glucose. It is shown that the newly proposed methods have high selectivity for glucose over other saccharides and coexisting biological species in serum. The method can be used directly to determine glucose in normal adult human serum without any complicated sample pretreatments. The recovery rate and repeatability of the method were also shown to be satisfactory. PMID:25127560

  18. Ab Initio Simulation of Charge Transfer at the Semiconductor Quantum Dot/TiO 2 Interface in Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Xin, Xukai; Li, Bo; Jung, Jaehan; Yoon, Young Jun; Biswas, Rana; Lin, Zhiqun

    2014-07-24

    Quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) have emerged as a promising solar architecture for next-generation solar cells. The QDSSCs exhibit a remarkably fast electron transfer from the quantum dot (QD) donor to the TiO2 acceptor with size quantization properties of QDs that allows for the modulation of band energies to control photoresponse and photoconversion efficiency of solar cells. In order to understand the mechanisms that underpin this rapid charge transfer, the electronic properties of CdSe and PbSe QDs with different sizes on the TiO2 substrate are simulated using a rigorous ab initio density functional method. Our method capitalizes on localized orbital basis set, which is computationally less intensive. Quite intriguingly, a remarkable set of electron bridging states between QDs and TiO2 occurring via the strong bonding between the conduction bands of QDs and TiO2 is revealed. Such bridging states account for the fast adiabatic charge transfer from the QD donor to the TiO2 acceptor, and may be a general feature for strongly coupled donor/acceptor systems. All the QDs/TiO2 systems exhibit type II band alignments, with conduction band offsets that increase with the decrease in QD size. This facilitates the charge transfer from QDs donors to TiO2 acceptors and explains the dependence of the increased charge transfer rate with the decreased QD size.

  19. Aqueous-phase linker-assisted attachment of cysteinate(2-)-capped cdse quantum dots to TiO2 for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Kathleen M; Nevins, Jeremy S; Watson, David F

    2013-09-11

    We have synthesized water-dispersible cysteinate(2-)-capped CdSe nanocrystals and attached them to TiO2 using one-step linker-assisted assembly. Room-temperature syntheses yielded CdSe magic-sized clusters (MSCs) exhibiting a narrow and intense first excitonic absorption band centered at 422 nm. Syntheses at 80 °C yielded regular CdSe quantum dots (RQDs) with broader and red-shifted first excitonic absorption bands. Cysteinate(2-)-capped CdSe MSCs and RQDs adsorbed to bare nanocrystalline TiO2 films from aqueous dispersions. CdSe-functionalized TiO2 films were incorporated into working electrodes of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). Short-circuit photocurrent action spectra of QDSSCs corresponded closely to absorptance spectra of CdSe-functionalized TiO2 films. Power-conversion efficiencies were (0.43±0.04)% for MSC-functionalized TiO2 and (0.83±0.11)% for RQD-functionalized TiO2. Absorbed photon-to-current efficiencies under white-light illumination were approximately 0.3 for both MSC- and RQD-based QDSSCs, despite the significant differences in the electronic properties of MSCs and RQDs. Cysteinate(2-) is an attractive capping group and ligand, as it engenders water-dispersibility of CdSe nanocrystals with a range of photophysical properties, enables facile all-aqueous linker-assisted attachment of nanocrystals to TiO2, and promotes efficient interfacial charge transfer. PMID:23937323

  20. Towards visible light hydrogen generation: quantum dot-sensitization via efficient light harvesting of hybrid-TiO2.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwanghyun; Kim, Myeong-Jong; Kim, Sun-I; Jang, Ji-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    We report pronounced enhancement of photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation of a quantum dot-sensitized hybrid-TiO2 (QD/H-TiO2) electrode that is composed of a mesoporous TiO2 layer sandwiched by a double sided energy harvesting layer consisting of a surface-textured TiO2 inverse opals layer on the bottom and a patterned mesoporous TiO2 layer on the top. CdSe/H-TiO2 exhibits a maximum photocurrent density of ~16.2 mA/cm(2), which is 35% higher than that of the optimized control sample (CdSe/P25), achieved by matching of the bandgap of quantum dot-sensitization with the wavelength where light harvesting of H-TiO2 is observed. Furthermore, CdSe/H-TiO2 under filtered exposure conditions recorded current density of ~14.2 mA/cm(2), the greatest value in the visible range. The excellent performance of the quantum dot-sensitized H-TiO2 suggests that alteration of the photoelectrodes to suitable nanostructures with excellent light absorption may offer optimal strategies for attaining maximum efficiency in a variety of photoconversion systems. PMID:24270426

  1. Towards Visible Light Hydrogen Generation: Quantum Dot-Sensitization via Efficient Light Harvesting of Hybrid-TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwanghyun; Kim, Myeong-Jong; Kim, Sun-I.; Jang, Ji-Hyun

    2013-11-01

    We report pronounced enhancement of photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation of a quantum dot-sensitized hybrid-TiO2 (QD/H-TiO2) electrode that is composed of a mesoporous TiO2 layer sandwiched by a double sided energy harvesting layer consisting of a surface-textured TiO2 inverse opals layer on the bottom and a patterned mesoporous TiO2 layer on the top. CdSe/H-TiO2 exhibits a maximum photocurrent density of ~16.2 mA/cm2, which is 35% higher than that of the optimized control sample (CdSe/P25), achieved by matching of the bandgap of quantum dot-sensitization with the wavelength where light harvesting of H-TiO2 is observed. Furthermore, CdSe/H-TiO2 under filtered exposure conditions recorded current density of ~14.2 mA/cm2, the greatest value in the visible range. The excellent performance of the quantum dot-sensitized H-TiO2 suggests that alteration of the photoelectrodes to suitable nanostructures with excellent light absorption may offer optimal strategies for attaining maximum efficiency in a variety of photoconversion systems.

  2. Highly sensitive detection of DNA methylation levels by using a quantum dot-based FRET method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yunfei; Zhang, Honglian; Liu, Fangming; Wu, Zhenhua; Lu, Shaohua; Jin, Qinghui; Zhao, Jianlong; Zhong, Xinhua; Mao, Hongju

    2015-10-01

    DNA methylation is the most frequently studied epigenetic modification that is strongly involved in genomic stability and cellular plasticity. Aberrant changes in DNA methylation status are ubiquitous in human cancer and the detection of these changes can be informative for cancer diagnosis. Herein, we reported a facile quantum dot-based (QD-based) fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique for the detection of DNA methylation. The method relies on methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes for the differential digestion of genomic DNA based on its methylation status. Digested DNA is then subjected to PCR amplification for the incorporation of Alexa Fluor-647 (A647) fluorophores. DNA methylation levels can be detected qualitatively through gel analysis and quantitatively by the signal amplification from QDs to A647 during FRET. Furthermore, the methylation levels of three tumor suppressor genes, PCDHGB6, HOXA9 and RASSF1A, in 20 lung adenocarcinoma and 20 corresponding adjacent nontumorous tissue (NT) samples were measured to verify the feasibility of the QD-based FRET method and a high sensitivity for cancer detection (up to 90%) was achieved. Our QD-based FRET method is a convenient, continuous and high-throughput method, and is expected to be an alternative for detecting DNA methylation as a biomarker for certain human cancers.DNA methylation is the most frequently studied epigenetic modification that is strongly involved in genomic stability and cellular plasticity. Aberrant changes in DNA methylation status are ubiquitous in human cancer and the detection of these changes can be informative for cancer diagnosis. Herein, we reported a facile quantum dot-based (QD-based) fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique for the detection of DNA methylation. The method relies on methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes for the differential digestion of genomic DNA based on its methylation status. Digested DNA is then subjected to PCR

  3. Non-toxic silver iodide (AgI) quantum dots sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Moosakhani, S.; Sabbagh Alvani, A.A.; Sarabi, A.A.; Sameie, H.; Salimi, R.; Kiani, S.; Ebrahimi, Y.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • We have demonstrated AgI sensitized solar cell for the first time. • Obtained mesoporous titania powders possessed small crystallite size, high purity and surface area, and developed mesopores with a narrow pore size distribution. • Photovoltaic measurements revealed the electron injection from AgI to TiO{sub 2}. • The assembled AgI-QD solar cells yielded a power conversion efficiency of 0.64% under one sun illumination. • AgI may be a suitable candidate material for use as a non-toxic sensitizer in QDSSC. - Abstract: The present study reports the performance of a new photosensitizer -AgI quantum dots (QDs)- and mesoporous titania (TiO{sub 2}) nanocrystals synthesized by sol–gel (SG) method for solar cells. Furthermore, the effects of n-heptane on the textural properties of TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals were comprehensively investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption measurements, and UV–vis spectroscopy. TiO{sub 2} powders exhibited an anatase-type mesoporous structure with a high surface area of 89.7 m{sup 2}/g. Afterwards, the QDs were grown on mesoporous TiO{sub 2} surface to fabricate a TiO{sub 2}/AgI electrode by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) deposition route. Current–voltage characteristics and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) data demonstrated that the injection of photoexcited electrons from AgI QDs into the TiO{sub 2} matrix produces photocurrents. The assembled AgI-QD solar cells yielded a power conversion efficiency of 0.64% and a short-circuit current of 2.13 mA/cm{sup 2} under one sun illumination.

  4. Quantum dots based mesoporous structured imprinting microspheres for the sensitive fluorescent detection of phycocyanin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhong; Li, Jinhua; Wang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Dazhong; Chen, Lingxin

    2015-05-01

    Phycocyanin with important physiological/environmental significance has attracted increasing attention; versatile molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have been applied to diverse species, but protein imprinting is still quite difficult. Herein, using phycocyanin as template via a sol-gel process, we developed a novel fluorescent probe for specific recognition and sensitive detection of phycocyanin by quantum dots (QDs) based mesoporous structured imprinting microspheres (SiO2@QDs@ms-MIPs), obeying electron-transfer-induced fluorescence quenching mechanism. When phycocyanin was present, a Meisenheimer complex would be produced between phycocyanin and primary amino groups of QDs surface, and then the photoluminescent energy of QDs would be transferred to the complex, leading to the fluorescence quenching of QDs. As a result, the fluorescent intensity of the SiO2@QDs@ms-MIPs was significantly decreased within 8 min, and accordingly a favorable linearity within 0.02-0.8 μM and a high detectability of 5.9 nM were presented. Excellent recognition specificity for phycocyanin over its analogues was displayed, with a high imprinting factor of 4.72. Furthermore, the validated probe strategy was successfully applied to seawater and lake water sample analysis, and high recoveries in the range of 94.0-105.0% were attained at three spiking levels of phycocyanin, with precisions below 5.3%. The study provided promising perspectives to develop fluorescent probes for convenient, rapid recognition and sensitive detection of trace proteins from complex matrices, and further pushed forward protein imprinting research. PMID:25875154

  5. Flow-injection chemiluminescence analysis for sensitive determination of atenolol using cadmium sulfide quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Khataee, Alireza; Lotfi, Roya; Hasanzadeh, Aliyeh; Iranifam, Mortaza; Joo, Sang Woo

    2016-03-15

    A sensitive, rapid and simple flow-injection chemiluminescence (CL) system based on the light emitted from KMnO4-cadmium sulfide quantum dots (CdS QDs) reaction in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in acidic medium was developed as a CL probe for the sensitive determination of atenolol. Optical and structural features of CdS QDs capped with l-cysteine, which synthesized via hydrothermal approach, were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence (PL), and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The CL intensity of KMnO4-CdS QDs-CTAB was remarkably enhanced in the presence of trace level of atenolol. Under optimum experimental conditions, there is a linear relationship between the increase in CL intensity of KMnO4-CdS QDs-CTAB system and atenolol concentration in a range of 0.001 to 4.0 mg L(-1) and 4.0 to 18.0 mg L(-1), with a detection limit (3σ) of 0.0010 mg L(-1). A possible mechanism for KMnO4-CdS QDs-CTAB-atenolol CL reaction is proposed. To prove the practical application of the KMnO4-CdS QDs-CTAB CL method, the method was applied for the determination of atenolol in spiked environmental water samples and commercial pharmaceutical formulation. Furthermore, corona discharge ionization ion mobility spectrometry (CD-IMS) technique was utilized for determination of atenolol. PMID:26724494

  6. Graphene frameworks promoted electron transport in quantum dot-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanyan; Meng, Xin; Cui, Huijuan; Jia, Suping; Dong, Jianhui; Zheng, Jianfeng; Zhao, Jianghong; Wang, Zhijian; Li, Li; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Zhenping

    2014-08-27

    Graphene frameworks (GFs) were incorporated into TiO2 photoanode as electron transport medium to improve the photovoltaic performance of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) for their excellent conductivity and isotropic framework structure that could permit rapid charge transport. Intensity modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results show that the electron transport time (τ(d)) of 1.5 wt % GFs/TiO2 electrode is one-fifth of that of the TiO2 electrode, and electron lifetime (τ(n)) and diffusion path length (Ln) are thrice those of the TiO2 electrode. Results also revealed that the GFs/TiO2 electrode has a shorter electron transport time (τ(d)), as well as longer electron lifetime (τ(n)) and diffusion path length (Ln), than conventional 2D graphene sheets/TiO2 electrode, thus indicating that GFs could promote rapid electron transfer in TiO2 photoanodes. Photocurrent-voltage curves demonstrated that when incorporating 1.5 wt % GFs into TiO2 photoanode, a maximum power conversion efficiency of 4.2% for QDSSCs could be achieved. This value was higher than that of TiO2 photoanode and 2D graphene sheets/TiO2 electrode. In addition, the reasons behind the sensitivity of photoelectric conversion efficiency to the graphene concentration in the TiO2 were also systematically investigated. Our results provide a basic understanding of how GFs can efficiently promote electron transport in TiO2-based solar cells. PMID:25075630

  7. FRET-Based Quantum Dot Immunoassay for Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Aspergillus amstelodami

    PubMed Central

    Kattke, Michele D.; Gao, Elizabeth J.; Sapsford, Kim E.; Stephenson, Larry D.; Kumar, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based quantum dot (QD) immunoassay for detection and identification of Aspergillus amstelodami was developed. Biosensors were formed by conjugating QDs to IgG antibodies and incubating with quencher-labeled analytes; QD energy was transferred to the quencher species through FRET, resulting in diminished fluorescence from the QD donor. During a detection event, quencher-labeled analytes are displaced by higher affinity target analytes, creating a detectable fluorescence signal increase from the QD donor. Conjugation and the resulting antibody:QD ratios were characterized with UV-Vis spectroscopy and QuantiT protein assay. The sensitivity of initial fluorescence experiments was compromised by inherent autofluorescence of mold spores, which produced low signal-to-noise and inconsistent readings. Therefore, excitation wavelength, QD, and quencher were adjusted to provide optimal signal-to-noise over spore background. Affinities of anti-Aspergillus antibody for different mold species were estimated with sandwich immunoassays, which identified A. fumigatus and A. amstelodami for use as quencher-labeled- and target-analytes, respectively. The optimized displacement immunoassay detected A. amstelodami concentrations as low as 103 spores/mL in five minutes or less. Additionally, baseline fluorescence was produced in the presence of 105 CFU/mL heat-killed E. coli O157:H7, demonstrating high specificity. This sensing modality may be useful for identification and detection of other biological threat agents, pending identification of suitable antibodies. Overall, these FRET-based QD-antibody biosensors represent a significant advancement in detection capabilities, offering sensitive and reliable detection of targets with applications in areas from biological terrorism defense to clinical analysis. PMID:22163961

  8. Visualization of the Cocaine-Sensitive Dopamine Transporter with Ligand-Conjugated Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The presynaptic dopamine (DA) transporter is responsible for DA inactivation following release and is a major target for the psychostimulants cocaine and amphetamine. Dysfunction and/or polymorphisms in human DAT (SLC6A3) have been associated with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Parkinson’s disease, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Despite the clinical importance of DAT, many uncertainties remain regarding the transporter’s regulation, in part due to the poor spatiotemporal resolution of conventional methodologies and the relative lack of efficient DAT-specific fluorescent probes. We developed a quantum dot-based labeling approach that uses a DAT-specific, biotinylated ligand, 2-β-carbomethoxy-3-β-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane (IDT444), that can be bound by streptavidin-conjugated quantum dots. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy were used to detect DAT in stably and transiently transfected mammalian cells. IDT444 is useful for quantum-dot-based fluorescent assays to monitor DAT expression, function, and plasma membrane trafficking in living cells as evidenced by the visualization of acute, protein-kinase-C (PKC)-dependent DAT internalization. PMID:22816024

  9. Quantum dot quantum cascade infrared photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xue-Jiao; Zhai, Shen-Qiang; Zhuo, Ning; Liu, Jun-Qi; Liu, Feng-Qi; Liu, Shu-Man; Wang, Zhan-Guo

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate an InAs quantum dot quantum cascade infrared photodetector operating at room temperature with a peak detection wavelength of 4.3 μm. The detector shows sensitive photoresponse for normal-incidence light, which is attributed to an intraband transition of the quantum dots and the following transfer of excited electrons on a cascade of quantum levels. The InAs quantum dots for the infrared absorption were formed by making use of self-assembled quantum dots in the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode and two-step strain-compensation design based on InAs/GaAs/InGaAs/InAlAs heterostructure, while the following extraction quantum stairs formed by LO-phonon energy are based on a strain-compensated InGaAs/InAlAs chirped superlattice. Johnson noise limited detectivities of 3.64 × 1011 and 4.83 × 106 Jones at zero bias were obtained at 80 K and room temperature, respectively. Due to the low dark current and distinct photoresponse up to room temperature, this device can form high temperature imaging.

  10. Quantum dot quantum cascade infrared photodetector

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xue-Jiao; Zhai, Shen-Qiang; Zhuo, Ning; Liu, Jun-Qi E-mail: fqliu@semi.ac.cn; Liu, Feng-Qi E-mail: fqliu@semi.ac.cn; Liu, Shu-Man; Wang, Zhan-Guo

    2014-04-28

    We demonstrate an InAs quantum dot quantum cascade infrared photodetector operating at room temperature with a peak detection wavelength of 4.3 μm. The detector shows sensitive photoresponse for normal-incidence light, which is attributed to an intraband transition of the quantum dots and the following transfer of excited electrons on a cascade of quantum levels. The InAs quantum dots for the infrared absorption were formed by making use of self-assembled quantum dots in the Stranski–Krastanov growth mode and two-step strain-compensation design based on InAs/GaAs/InGaAs/InAlAs heterostructure, while the following extraction quantum stairs formed by LO-phonon energy are based on a strain-compensated InGaAs/InAlAs chirped superlattice. Johnson noise limited detectivities of 3.64 × 10{sup 11} and 4.83 × 10{sup 6} Jones at zero bias were obtained at 80 K and room temperature, respectively. Due to the low dark current and distinct photoresponse up to room temperature, this device can form high temperature imaging.

  11. Quantum dot sensitized solar cells. A tale of two semiconductor nanocrystals: CdSe and CdTe.

    PubMed

    Bang, Jin Ho; Kamat, Prashant V

    2009-06-23

    CdSe and CdTe nanocrystals are linked to nanostructured TiO2 films using 3-mercaptopropionic acid as a linker molecule for establishing the mechanistic aspects of interfacial charge transfer processes. Both these quantum dots are energetically capable of sensitizing TiO2 films and generating photocurrents in quantum dot solar cells. These two semiconductor nanocrystals exhibit markedly different external quantum efficiencies ( approximately 70% for CdSe and approximately 0.1% for CdTe at 555 nm). Although CdTe with a more favorable conduction band energy (E(CB) = -1.0 V vs NHE) is capable of injecting electrons into TiO2 faster than CdSe (E(CB) = -0.6 V vs NHE), hole scavenging by a sulfide redox couple remains a major bottleneck. The sulfide ions dissolved in aqueous solutions are capable of scavenging photogenerated holes in photoirradiated CdSe system but not in CdTe. The anodic corrosion and exchange of Te with S dominate the charge transfer at the CdTe interface. Factors that dictate the efficiency and photostability of CdSe and CdTe quantum dots are discussed. PMID:19435373

  12. Synthesis and photoelectrochemical response of CdS quantum dot-sensitized TiO2 nanorod array photoelectrodes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A continuous and compact CdS quantum dot-sensitive layer was synthesized on TiO2 nanorods by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) and subsequent thermal annealing. The thickness of the CdS quantum dot layer was tuned by SILAR cycles, which was found to be closely related to light absorption and carrier transformation. The CdS quantum dot-sensitized TiO2 nanorod array photoelectrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet–visible absorption spectroscopy, and photoelectrochemical property measurement. The optimum sample was fabricated by SILAR in 70 cycles and then annealed at 400°C for 1 h in air atmosphere. A TiO2/CdS core-shell structure was formed with a diameter of 35 nm, which presented an improvement in light harvesting. Finally, a saturated photocurrent of 3.6 mA/cm2 was produced under the irradiation of AM1.5G simulated sunlight at 100 mW/cm2. In particular, the saturated current density maintained a fixed value of approximately 3 mA/cm2 without decadence as time passed under the light conditions, indicating the steady photoelectronic property of the photoanode. PMID:23663590

  13. Multi-dimensional titanium dioxide with desirable structural qualities for enhanced performance in quantum-dot sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Dapeng; He, Jinjin; Zhang, Shuo; Cao, Kun; Gao, Zhiyong; Xu, Fang; Jiang, Kai

    2015-05-01

    Multi-dimensional TiO2 hierarchal structures (MD-THS) assembled by mesoporous nanoribbons consisted of oriented aligned nanocrystals are prepared via thermal decomposing Ti-contained gelatin-like precursor. A unique bridge linking mechanism is proposed to illustrate the formation process of the precursor. Moreover, the as-prepared MD-THS possesses high surface area of ∼106 cm2 g-1, broad pore size distribution from several nanometers to ∼100 nm and oriented assembled primary nanocrystals, which gives rise to high CdS/CdSe quantum dots loading amount and inhibits the carries recombination in the photoanode. Thanks to these structural advantages, the cell derived from MD-THS demonstrates a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.15%, representing ∼36% improvement compared with that of the nanocrystal based cell, which permits the promising application of MD-THS as photoanode material in quantum-dot sensitized solar cells.

  14. In situ energy transfer quenching of quantum dot electrochemiluminescence for sensitive detection of cancer biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mengli; Chen, Ying; Xiang, Yun; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin

    2013-12-15

    In this work, we develop a sensitive and selective method for the detection of a cancer biomarker (carcinoembryonic antigen, CEA) based on a new electrochemiluminescence (ECL) energy transfer mechanism, in which the energy transfer occurs from the excited quantum dots (QDs) to the in situ electro-generated quenchers. A CdTe QD-containing composite film is first deposited on the electrode followed by the conjugation of the primary antibody (Ab1) on the film. Subsequent incubation of the modified sensing electrode with CEA and the secondary antibody-alkaline phosphatase-gold nanoparticle labels (Ab2-ALP-AuNP) leads to the formation of the Ab1/CEA/Ab2-ALP-AuNPs immunocomplexes on the electrode surface. The captured ALP catalyzes the p-nitrophenyl phosphate disodium salt (p-NPP) substrate in the ECL detection buffer to p-nitrophenol (p-NP). The potential sweep on the electrode results in the oxidation of p-NP to p-benzoquinone (p-BQ) and the generation of excited QDs. The ECL emission of the excited QDs is therefore quenched through direct energy transfer from the excited QDs to p-BQ. This ECL quenching effect is significantly amplified because of the numerous ALP enzymes involved in each antibody-antigen recognition event. This proposed method of amplified quenching of QD ECL emission offers a low detection limit of 1.67 pg mL(-1) for CEA. In addition, this method exhibits high reproducibility and selectivity and can also be applied to serum samples. Given these advantages, this new ECL energy transfer approach holds great promise for the detection of other biological targets and has potential applications in clinical diagnoses. PMID:23891869

  15. Quantum dots and ionic liquid-sensitized effect as an efficient and green catalyst for the sensitive determination of glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizi, Seyed Naser; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad; Shakeri, Parmis; Bekhradnia, Ahmadreza

    2015-07-01

    A novel fluorescence (FL) method using water-soluble CdSe quantum dots (QDs) is proposed for the fluorometric determination of hydrogen peroxide and glucose. Water-soluble CdSe QDs were synthesized by using thioglycolic acid as stabilizer in aqueous solutions. The nanoparticles were structurally and optically characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) emission spectroscopy and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Ionic liquid-sensitized effect in aqueous solution was then investigated. In the presence of ionic liquid as catalyst, H2O2 was decomposed into radical that could quench the fluorescence of CdSe QDs more efficiently and rapidly. Then the oxidization of glucose by glucose oxidase was coupled with the fluorescence quenching of CdSe QDs by H2O2 producer with ionic liquid catalyst, which can be used to detect glucose. Therefore, a new FL analysis system was developed for the determination of glucose. Under the optimum conditions, there is a good linear relationship between the relative PL emission intensity and the concentration of glucose in the range of 5.0 × 10-7-1.0 × 10-4 M of glucose with a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9973. The limit of detection of this system was found to be 1.0 × 10-7 M. This method is not only simple, sensitive and low cost, but also reliable for practical applications.

  16. Quantum dots and ionic liquid-sensitized effect as an efficient and green catalyst for the sensitive determination of glucose.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Seyed Naser; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad; Shakeri, Parmis; Bekhradnia, Ahmadreza

    2015-07-01

    A novel fluorescence (FL) method using water-soluble CdSe quantum dots (QDs) is proposed for the fluorometric determination of hydrogen peroxide and glucose. Water-soluble CdSe QDs were synthesized by using thioglycolic acid as stabilizer in aqueous solutions. The nanoparticles were structurally and optically characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) emission spectroscopy and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Ionic liquid-sensitized effect in aqueous solution was then investigated. In the presence of ionic liquid as catalyst, H2O2 was decomposed into radical that could quench the fluorescence of CdSe QDs more efficiently and rapidly. Then the oxidization of glucose by glucose oxidase was coupled with the fluorescence quenching of CdSe QDs by H2O2 producer with ionic liquid catalyst, which can be used to detect glucose. Therefore, a new FL analysis system was developed for the determination of glucose. Under the optimum conditions, there is a good linear relationship between the relative PL emission intensity and the concentration of glucose in the range of 5.0×10(-7)-1.0×10(-4) M of glucose with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.9973. The limit of detection of this system was found to be 1.0×10(-7) M. This method is not only simple, sensitive and low cost, but also reliable for practical applications. PMID:25819316

  17. Photodeposition of Ag2S on TiO2 nanorod arrays for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Ag2S quantum dots were deposited on the surface of TiO2 nanorod arrays by a two-step photodeposition. The prepared TiO2 nanorod arrays as well as the Ag2S deposited electrodes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope, suggesting a large coverage of Ag2S quantum dots on the ordered TiO2 nanorod arrays. UV–vis absorption spectra of Ag2S deposited electrodes show a broad absorption range of the visible light. The quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) based on these electrodes were fabricated, and the photoelectrochemical properties were examined. A high photocurrent density of 10.25 mA/cm2 with a conversion efficiency of 0.98% at AM 1.5 solar light of 100 mW/cm2 was obtained with an optimal photodeposition time. The performance of the QDSSC at different incident light intensities was also investigated. The results display a better performance at a lower incident light level with a conversion efficiency of 1.25% at 47 mW/cm2. PMID:23286551

  18. Improving the performance of quantum dot sensitized solar cells through CdNiS quantum dots with reduced recombination and enhanced electron lifetime.

    PubMed

    Gopi, Chandu V V M; Venkata-Haritha, Mallineni; Seo, Hyunwoong; Singh, Saurabh; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Shiratani, Masaharu; Kim, Hee-Je

    2016-05-28

    To make quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) competitive, we investigated the effect of Ni(2+) ion incorporation into a CdS layer to create long-lived charge carriers and reduce the electron-hole recombination. The Ni(2+)-doped CdS (simplified as CdNiS) QD layer was introduced to a TiO2 surface via the simple successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method in order to introduce intermediate-energy levels in the QDs. The effects of different Ni(2+) concentrations (5, 10, 15, and 20 mM) on the physical, chemical, and photovoltaic properties of the QDSSCs were investigated. The Ni(2+) dopant improves the light absorption of the device, accelerates the electron injection kinetics, and reduces the charge recombination, which results in improved charge transfer and collection. The 15% CdNiS cell exhibits the best photovoltaic performance with a power conversion efficiency (η) of 3.11% (JSC = 8.91 mA cm(-2), VOC = 0.643 V, FF = 0.543) under one full sun illumination (AM 1.5 G). These results are among the best achieved for CdS-based QDSSCs. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and open circuit voltage decay (OCVD) measurements confirm that the Ni(2+) dopant can suppress charge recombination, prolong the electron lifetime, and improve the power conversion efficiency of the cells. PMID:27111597

  19. Achieving effective terminal exciton delivery in quantum dot antenna-sensitized multistep DNA photonic wires.

    PubMed

    Spillmann, Christopher M; Ancona, Mario G; Buckhout-White, Susan; Algar, W Russ; Stewart, Michael H; Susumu, Kimihiro; Huston, Alan L; Goldman, Ellen R; Medintz, Igor L

    2013-08-27

    Assembling DNA-based photonic wires around semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) creates optically active hybrid architectures that exploit the unique properties of both components. DNA hybridization allows positioning of multiple, carefully arranged fluorophores that can engage in sequential energy transfer steps while the QDs provide a superior energy harvesting antenna capacity that drives a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) cascade through the structures. Although the first generation of these composites demonstrated four-sequential energy transfer steps across a distance >150 Å, the exciton transfer efficiency reaching the final, terminal dye was estimated to be only ~0.7% with no concomitant sensitized emission observed. Had the terminal Cy7 dye utilized in that construct provided a sensitized emission, we estimate that this would have equated to an overall end-to-end ET efficiency of ≤ 0.1%. In this report, we demonstrate that overall energy flow through a second generation hybrid architecture can be significantly improved by reengineering four key aspects of the composite structure: (1) making the initial DNA modification chemistry smaller and more facile to implement, (2) optimizing donor-acceptor dye pairings, (3) varying donor-acceptor dye spacing as a function of the Förster distance R0, and (4) increasing the number of DNA wires displayed around each central QD donor. These cumulative changes lead to a 2 orders of magnitude improvement in the exciton transfer efficiency to the final terminal dye in comparison to the first-generation construct. The overall end-to-end efficiency through the optimized, five-fluorophore/four-step cascaded energy transfer system now approaches 10%. The results are analyzed using Förster theory with various sources of randomness accounted for by averaging over ensembles of modeled constructs. Fits to the spectra suggest near-ideal behavior when the photonic wires have two sequential acceptor dyes (Cy3 and Cy3.5) and

  20. Photoluminescence of a quantum-dot molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Kruchinin, Stanislav Yu.; Rukhlenko, Ivan D.; Baimuratov, Anvar S.; Leonov, Mikhail Yu.; Turkov, Vadim K.; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.; Gun'ko, Yurii K.

    2015-01-07

    The coherent coupling of quantum dots is a sensitive indicator of the energy and phase relaxation processes taking place in the nanostructure components. We formulate a theory of low-temperature, stationary photoluminescence from a quantum-dot molecule composed of two spherical quantum dots whose electronic subsystems are resonantly coupled via the Coulomb interaction. We show that the coupling leads to the hybridization of the first excited states of the quantum dots, manifesting itself as a pair of photoluminescence peaks with intensities and spectral positions strongly dependent on the geometric, material, and relaxation parameters of the quantum-dot molecule. These parameters are explicitly contained in the analytical expression for the photoluminescence differential cross section derived in the paper. The developed theory and expression obtained are essential in interpreting and analyzing spectroscopic data on the secondary emission of coherently coupled quantum systems.

  1. Enhanced power conversion efficiency of CdS quantum dot sensitized solar cells with ZnO nanowire arrays as the photoanodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Junjie; Liu, Wang; Biswas, Chandan; Zhang, Guangjie; Sun, Lifang; Wang, Zengze; Hu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Yue

    2015-08-01

    We report the fabrication of CdS quantum dot sensitized solar cells with ZnO nanowire arrays as the photoanodes. The influences of precursor solution temperature and sensitizing cycles on the performance of CdS quantum dots sensitized ZnO nanowires solar cells were studied. Successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method was applied to deposit CdS quantum dots on the surface of ZnO nanowire arrays for assembling ZnO/CdS electrodes. The results of scanning electron microscopic (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy indicated that the ZnO nanowires electrodes were well-covered with CdS quantum dots. The temperature of the ethanol sensitizing solutions significantly influenced the performance of ZnO/CdS electrodes by affecting the rate of deposition reaction and the penetration ability of ethanol solution. The CdS quantum dots sensitized ZnO-based solar cells exhibited a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 3.1 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.55 V and a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 0.72%, which is much higher than that reported in literatures, under the illumination of one sun (AM 1.5, 100 mW/cm2) when the temperature of the ethanol solutions was 60 °C and ZnO arrays were sensitized for seven times.

  2. A novel sensitive pathogen detection system based on Microbead Quantum Dot System.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tzong-Yuan; Su, Yi-Yu; Shu, Wei-Hsien; Mercado, Augustus T; Wang, Shi-Kwun; Hsu, Ling-Yi; Tsai, Yow-Fu; Chen, Chung-Yung

    2016-04-15

    A fast and accurate detection system for pathogens can provide immediate measurements for the identification of infectious agents. Therefore, the Microbead Quantum-dots Detection System (MQDS) was developed to identify and measure target DNAs of pathogenic microorganisms and eliminated the need of PCR amplifications. This nanomaterial-based technique can detect different microorganisms by flow cytometry measurements. In MQDS, pathogen specific DNA probes were designed to form a hairpin structure and conjugated on microbeads. In the presence of the complementary target DNA sequence, the probes will compete for binding with the reporter probes but will not interfere with the binding between the probe and internal control DNA. To monitor the binding process by flow cytometry, both the reporter probes and internal control probes were conjugated with Quantum dots that fluoresce at different emission wavelengths using the click reaction. When MQDS was used to detect the pathogens in environmental samples, a high correlation coefficient (R=0.994) for Legionella spp., with a detection limit of 0.1 ng of the extracted DNAs and 10 CFU/test, can be achieved. Thus, this newly developed technique can also be applied to detect other pathogens, particularly viruses and other genetic diseases. PMID:26590701

  3. Hybrid solar cells of micro/mesoporous Zn( and its graphite composites sensitized by CdSe quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, SM Z.; Gayen, Taposh; Tint, Naing; Shi, Lingyan; Ebrahim, Amani M.; Seredych, Mykola; Bandosz, Teresa J.; Alfano, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Quantum efficiencies (QEs) of innovative hybrid solar cells fabricated using micro/mesoporous zinc (hydr)oxide and its graphite-based composites sensitized by semiconductor quantum dots (SQDs) are reported. High absorption coefficient of CdSe SQDs and the wide band gap of zinc (hydr)oxide and its composites with graphite oxide (GO) are essential to achieve solar cells of higher QEs. Hybrid solar cells are fabricated from zinc (hydr)oxide and its composites (with 2 and 5 wt.% of graphite oxides, termed as, ZnGO-2 and ZnGO-5, respectively) while using potassium iodide or perovskite as an electrolyte. A two-photon fluorescence (TPF) imaging technique was used to determine the internal structure of the solar cell device. The photocurrent and current-voltage measurements were used to measure short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage to calculate the fill factor and QE of these solar cells. The highest QE (up to ˜10.62%) is realized for a ZnGO-2-based solar cell using potassium iodide as its electrolyte and the CdSe quantum dot as its sensitizer.

  4. Modular, Antibody-free Time-Resolved LRET Kinase Assay Enabled by Quantum Dots and Tb3+-sensitizing Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Wei; Parker, Laurie L.

    2016-07-01

    Fluorescent drug screening assays are essential for tyrosine kinase inhibitor discovery. Here we demonstrate a flexible, antibody-free TR-LRET kinase assay strategy that is enabled by the combination of streptavidin-coated quantum dot (QD) acceptors and biotinylated, Tb3+ sensitizing peptide donors. By exploiting the spectral features of Tb3+ and QD, and the high binding affinity of the streptavidin-biotin interaction, we achieved multiplexed detection of kinase activity in a modular fashion without requiring additional covalent labeling of each peptide substrate. This strategy is compatible with high-throughput screening, and should be adaptable to the rapidly changing workflows and targets involved in kinase inhibitor discovery.

  5. A new in-situ preparation method to FeS counter electrode for quantum dots-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Linlin; Li, Weiping; Zhu, Liqun; Geng, Huifang; Chang, Xiaowen; Liu, Huicong

    2014-12-01

    FeS counter electrode (CE) with the structure of three-dimensional nanospheres for quantum dots-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) is first fabricated by alternating current (AC) etching the A3 carbon steel and characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), Transmission electron microscope (TEM), current-voltage and impedance spectroscopy. The device applying FeS CE achieves a power conversion efficiency of 3.34%, which are much higher than that of using Pt (1.01%) and conventional Cu2S (1.54%). These results indicated that AC provides an efficient, simple and cost-effective method to fabricate CE for QDSCs.

  6. Wearable and sensitive heart-rate detectors based on PbS quantum dot and multiwalled carbon nanotube blend film

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Liang; Dong, Dongdong; Qiao, Keke; Cheng, Yibing; Tang, Jiang E-mail: songhs-wnlo@mail.hust.edu.cn; Song, Haisheng E-mail: songhs-wnlo@mail.hust.edu.cn; He, Jungang; Li, Min; Liu, Huan; Cao, Furong

    2014-10-13

    Wearable and sensitive photodetectors (PDs) have been demonstrated based on a blend film of PbS quantum dots (QDs) and QDs modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Owing to the synergetic effect from high light sensitivity of PbS QDs and excellent conductive and mechanical properties of MWCNTs, the blend PDs show high sensitivity and flexibility performance: device responsivity and detectivity reach 583 mA/W and 3.25 × 10{sup 12 }Jones, respectively, and could stand large number (at least 10 000 cycles) and wide angle (up to 80°) bending. Furthermore, the wearable and sensitive PDs have been applied to measure the heart rate in both red and near infrared (NIR) ranges. The presented PDs are expected to work as sensor candidates in integrated electronic skin.

  7. Structural, optical and photovoltaic properties of co-doped CdTe QDs for quantum dots sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayyaswamy, Arivarasan; Ganapathy, Sasikala; Alsalme, Ali; Alghamdi, Abdulaziz; Ramasamy, Jayavel

    2015-12-01

    Zinc and sulfur alloyed CdTe quantum dots (QDs) sensitized TiO2 photoelectrodes have been fabricated for quantum dots sensitized solar cells. Alloyed CdTe QDs were prepared in aqueous phase using mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) as a capping agent. The influence of co-doping on the structural property of CdTe QDs was studied by XRD analysis. The enhanced optical absorption of alloyed CdTe QDs was studied using UV-vis absorption and fluorescence emission spectra. The capping of MSA molecules over CdTe QDs was confirmed by the FTIR and XPS analyses. Thermogravimetric analysis confirms that the prepared QDs were thermally stable up to 600 °C. The photovoltaic performance of alloyed CdTe QDs sensitized TiO2 photoelectrodes were studied using J-V characteristics under the illumination of light with 1 Sun intensity. These results show the highest photo conversion efficiency of η = 1.21%-5% Zn & S alloyed CdTe QDs.

  8. Reactively sputtered nickel nitride as electrocatalytic counter electrode for dye- and quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soo Kang, Jin; Park, Min-Ah; Kim, Jae-Yup; Ha Park, Sun; Young Chung, Dong; Yu, Seung-Ho; Kim, Jin; Park, Jongwoo; Choi, Jung-Woo; Jae Lee, Kyung; Jeong, Juwon; Jae Ko, Min; Ahn, Kwang-Soon; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2015-05-01

    Nickel nitride electrodes were prepared by reactive sputtering of nickel under a N2 atmosphere at room temperature for application in mesoscopic dye- or quantum dot- sensitized solar cells. This facile and reliable method led to the formation of a Ni2N film with a cauliflower-like nanostructure and tetrahedral crystal lattice. The prepared nickel nitride electrodes exhibited an excellent chemical stability toward both iodide and polysulfide redox electrolytes. Compared to conventional Pt electrodes, the nickel nitride electrodes showed an inferior electrocatalytic activity for the iodide redox electrolyte; however, it displayed a considerably superior electrocatalytic activity for the polysulfide redox electrolyte. As a result, compared to dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), with a conversion efficiency (η) = 7.62%, and CdSe-based quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs, η = 2.01%) employing Pt counter electrodes (CEs), the nickel nitride CEs exhibited a lower conversion efficiency (η = 3.75%) when applied to DSCs, but an enhanced conversion efficiency (η = 2.80%) when applied to CdSe-based QDSCs.

  9. Very High Brightness Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Devices via Enhanced Energy Transfer from a Phosphorescent Sensitizer.

    PubMed

    Zamani Siboni, Hossein; Sadeghimakki, Bahareh; Sivoththaman, Siva; Aziz, Hany

    2015-11-25

    We demonstrate very efficient and bright quantum dot light-emitting devices (QDLEDs) with the use of a phosphorescent sensitizer and a thermal annealing step. Utilizing CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots with 560 nm emission peak, bis(4,6-difluorophenylpyridinatoN,C2) picolinatoiridium as a sensitizer, and thermal annealing at 50 °C for 30 min, green-emitting QDLEDs with a maximum current efficiency of 23.9 cd/A, a power efficiency of 31 lm/W, and a brightness of 65,000 cd/m(2) are demonstrated. The high efficiency and brightness are attributed to annealing-induced enhancements in both the Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) process from the phosphorescent energy donor to the QD acceptor and hole transport across the device. The FRET enhancement is attributed to annealing-induced diffusion of the phosphorescent material molecules from the sensitizer layer into the QD layer, which results in a shorter donor-acceptor distance. We also find, quite interestingly, that FRET to a QD acceptor is strongly influenced by the QD size, and is generally less efficient to QDs with larger sizes despite their narrower bandgaps. PMID:26556102

  10. Quantum dot device tunable from single to triple dot system

    SciTech Connect

    Rogge, M. C.; Haug, R. J.; Pierz, K.

    2013-12-04

    We present a lateral quantum dot device which has a tunable number of quantum dots. Depending on easily tunable gate voltages, one, two or three quantum dots are found. They are investigated in transport and charge detection.

  11. Sensitization enhancement of europium in ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots induced by efficient energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ni; Xu, Ling; Wang, Hongyu; Xu, Jun; Su, Weining; Ma, Zhongyuan; Chen, Kunji

    2014-12-01

    Eu-doped ZnSe:/ZnS quantum dots (formed as ZnSe:Eu/ZnS QDs) were successfully synthesized by a two-step wet chemical method: nucleation doping and epitaxial shell growing. The sensitization characteristics of Eu-doped ZnSe and ZnSe/ZnS core/shell QD are studied in detail using photoluminescence (PL), PL excitation spectra (PLE) and time-resolved PL spectroscopy. The emission intensity of Eu ions is enhanced and that of ZnSe QDs is decreased, implying that energy was transferred from the excited ZnSe host materials (the donor) to the doped Eu ions (the acceptor). PLE reveals that the ZnSe QDs act as an antenna for the sensitization of Eu ions through an energy transfer process. The dynamics of ZnSe:Eu/ZnS core/shell quantum dots with different shell thicknesses and doping concentrations are studied via PL spectra and fluorescence lifetime spectra. The maximum phosphorescence efficiency is obtained when the doping concentration of Eu is approximately 6% and the sample showed strong white light under ultraviolet lamp illumination. By surface modification with ZnS shell layer, the intensity of Eu-related PL emission is increased approximately three times compared with that of pure ZnSe:Eu QDs. The emission intensity and wavelength of ZnSe:Eu/ZnS core/shell quantum dots can be modulated by different shell thickness and doping concentration. The results provide a valuable insight into the doping control for practical applications in laser, light-emitting diodes and in the field of biotechnology. PMID:24898670

  12. Flow-injection chemiluminescence analysis for sensitive determination of atenolol using cadmium sulfide quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khataee, Alireza; Lotfi, Roya; Hasanzadeh, Aliyeh; Iranifam, Mortaza; Joo, Sang Woo

    2016-03-01

    A sensitive, rapid and simple flow-injection chemiluminescence (CL) system based on the light emitted from KMnO4-cadmium sulfide quantum dots (CdS QDs) reaction in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in acidic medium was developed as a CL probe for the sensitive determination of atenolol. Optical and structural features of CdS QDs capped with L-cysteine, which synthesized via hydrothermal approach, were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence (PL), and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The CL intensity of KMnO4-CdS QDs-CTAB was remarkably enhanced in the presence of trace level of atenolol. Under optimum experimental conditions, there is a linear relationship between the increase in CL intensity of KMnO4-CdS QDs-CTAB system and atenolol concentration in a range of 0.001 to 4.0 mg L- 1 and 4.0 to 18.0 mg L- 1, with a detection limit (3σ) of 0.0010 mg L- 1. A possible mechanism for KMnO4-CdS QDs-CTAB-atenolol CL reaction is proposed. To prove the practical application of the KMnO4-CdS QDs-CTAB CL method, the method was applied for the determination of atenolol in spiked environmental water samples and commercial pharmaceutical formulation. Furthermore, corona discharge ionization ion mobility spectrometry (CD-IMS) technique was utilized for determination of atenolol. Figure S2. Optimization of the CL reaction conditions: (a) effect of KMnO4 concentration. Conditions: the concentrations of H2SO4, CdS QDs and atenolol were 1 mol L-1, 0.35 mol L-1, and 4.0 mg L-1, respectively; (b) effect of acidic media. Conditions: the concentrations of KMnO4 was 0.04 mmol L-1, other conditions were as in (a); (c) effect of CdS QDs concentration. Conditions: H2SO4 concentration was 1.0 mol L-1, other conditions were as in (b), and (d) effect of CTAB concentration. Conditions: CdS QDs concentration was 0.35 mmol L-1, other conditions were as in (c). Figure S3. UV-Vis absorption spectra of KMnO4-CdS QDs-atenolol CL system

  13. Cyclic voltammetry as a sensitive method for in situ probing of chemical transformations in quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Osipovich, Nikolai P; Poznyak, Sergei K; Lesnyak, Vladimir; Gaponik, Nikolai

    2016-04-21

    The application of electrochemical methods for the characterization of colloidal quantum dots (QDs) attracts considerable attention as these methods may allow for monitoring of some crucial parameters, such as energetic levels of conduction and valence bands as well as surface traps and ligands under real conditions of colloidal solution. In the present work we extend the applications of cyclic voltammetry (CV) to in situ monitoring of degradation processes of water-soluble CdTe QDs. This degradation occurs under lowering of pH to the values around 5, i.e. under conditions relevant to bioimaging applications of these QDs, and is accompanied by pronounced changes of their photoluminescence. Observed correlations between characteristic features of CV diagrams and the fluorescence spectra allowed us to propose mechanisms responsible for evolution of the photoluminescence properties as well as degradation pathway of CdTe QDs at low pH. PMID:27025663

  14. Permethylated-β-Cyclodextrin Capped CdTe Quantum Dot and its Sensitive Fluorescence Analysis of Malachite Green.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yujuan; Wei, Jiongling; Wu, Wei; Wang, Song; Hu, Xiaogang; Yu, Ying

    2015-09-01

    In the present work, the CdTe quantum dots were covalently conjugated with permethylated-β-cyclodextrin (OMe-β-CD) using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride as cross-linking reagent. The obtained functional quantum dots (OMe-β-CD/QDs) showed highly luminescent, water solubility and photostability as well as good inclusion ability to malachite green. A sensitive fluorescence method was developed for the analysis of malachite green in different samples. The good linearity was 2.0 × 10(-7)-1.0 × 10(-5) mol/L and the limit of detect was 1.7 × 10(-8) mol/L. The recoveries for three environmental water samples were 92.0-108.2 % with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 0.24-1.87 %, while the recovery for the fish sample was 94.3 % with RSD of 1.04 %. The results showed that the present method was sensitive and convenient to determine malachite green in complex samples. Graphical Abstract The analytical mechanism of OMe-β-CD/QDs and its linear response to MG. PMID:26250058

  15. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of a quantum dot-sensitized solar cell using a Nb-doped TiO2 electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lei; You, Ting; Deng, Wei-Qiao

    2013-10-01

    In this work Nb-doped anatase TiO2 nanocrystals are used as the photoanode of quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells. A solar cell with CdS/CdSe quantum dots co-sensitized 2.5 mol% Nb-doped anatase TiO2 nanocrystals can achieve a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 3.3%, which is almost twice as high as the 1.7% obtained by a cell based on undoped TiO2 nanocrystals. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency can reach as high as 91%, which is a record for all quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells. Detailed analysis shows that such an enhancement is due to improved lifetime and diffusion length of electrons in the solar cell.

  16. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of a quantum dot-sensitized solar cell using a Nb-doped TiO2 electrode.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lei; You, Ting; Deng, Wei-Qiao

    2013-10-18

    In this work Nb-doped anatase TiO2 nanocrystals are used as the photoanode of quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells. A solar cell with CdS/CdSe quantum dots co-sensitized 2.5 mol% Nb-doped anatase TiO2 nanocrystals can achieve a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 3.3%, which is almost twice as high as the 1.7% obtained by a cell based on undoped TiO2 nanocrystals. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency can reach as high as 91%, which is a record for all quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells. Detailed analysis shows that such an enhancement is due to improved lifetime and diffusion length of electrons in the solar cell. PMID:24045808

  17. Colloidal Double Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Conspectus Pairs of coupled quantum dots with controlled coupling between the two potential wells serve as an extremely rich system, exhibiting a plethora of optical phenomena that do not exist in each of the isolated constituent dots. Over the past decade, coupled quantum systems have been under extensive study in the context of epitaxially grown quantum dots (QDs), but only a handful of examples have been reported with colloidal QDs. This is mostly due to the difficulties in controllably growing nanoparticles that encapsulate within them two dots separated by an energetic barrier via colloidal synthesis methods. Recent advances in colloidal synthesis methods have enabled the first clear demonstrations of colloidal double quantum dots and allowed for the first exploratory studies into their optical properties. Nevertheless, colloidal double QDs can offer an extended level of structural manipulation that allows not only for a broader range of materials to be used as compared with epitaxially grown counterparts but also for more complex control over the coupling mechanisms and coupling strength between two spatially separated quantum dots. The photophysics of these nanostructures is governed by the balance between two coupling mechanisms. The first is via dipole–dipole interactions between the two constituent components, leading to energy transfer between them. The second is associated with overlap of excited carrier wave functions, leading to charge transfer and multicarrier interactions between the two components. The magnitude of the coupling between the two subcomponents is determined by the detailed potential landscape within the nanocrystals (NCs). One of the hallmarks of double QDs is the observation of dual-color emission from a single nanoparticle, which allows for detailed spectroscopy of their properties down to the single particle level. Furthermore, rational design of the two coupled subsystems enables one to tune the emission statistics from single

  18. Colloidal Double Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Teitelboim, Ayelet; Meir, Noga; Kazes, Miri; Oron, Dan

    2016-05-17

    Pairs of coupled quantum dots with controlled coupling between the two potential wells serve as an extremely rich system, exhibiting a plethora of optical phenomena that do not exist in each of the isolated constituent dots. Over the past decade, coupled quantum systems have been under extensive study in the context of epitaxially grown quantum dots (QDs), but only a handful of examples have been reported with colloidal QDs. This is mostly due to the difficulties in controllably growing nanoparticles that encapsulate within them two dots separated by an energetic barrier via colloidal synthesis methods. Recent advances in colloidal synthesis methods have enabled the first clear demonstrations of colloidal double quantum dots and allowed for the first exploratory studies into their optical properties. Nevertheless, colloidal double QDs can offer an extended level of structural manipulation that allows not only for a broader range of materials to be used as compared with epitaxially grown counterparts but also for more complex control over the coupling mechanisms and coupling strength between two spatially separated quantum dots. The photophysics of these nanostructures is governed by the balance between two coupling mechanisms. The first is via dipole-dipole interactions between the two constituent components, leading to energy transfer between them. The second is associated with overlap of excited carrier wave functions, leading to charge transfer and multicarrier interactions between the two components. The magnitude of the coupling between the two subcomponents is determined by the detailed potential landscape within the nanocrystals (NCs). One of the hallmarks of double QDs is the observation of dual-color emission from a single nanoparticle, which allows for detailed spectroscopy of their properties down to the single particle level. Furthermore, rational design of the two coupled subsystems enables one to tune the emission statistics from single photon

  19. Sensitive fluorescence response of ZnSe(S) quantum dots: an efficient fluorescence probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, K.; Deb, P.; Kalita, E.

    2013-06-01

    An efficient fluorescence probe based on ZnSe(S) alloyed quantum dots (QDs) has been reported here. The alloyed QDs were prepared through an aqueous route, where 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) was employed as the effective precursor for both the sulfur source and stabilizer in the development of the alloyed system. Five-fold quantum yield (QY) enhancement was obtained for the ZnSe(S) QDs compared to the ZnSe QDs, formed in the initial stage of the refluxing process. The ultimate alloyed systems retained their high biocompatibility characteristics similar to the conventional ZnSe QDs. The photoluminescence of the ZnSe(S) QDs showed pH dependence, which was also evidenced in mammalian lymphocyte cells suspended in biological buffer over a wide pH range of 4.00-12.00. These characteristics make our prepared ZnSe(S) an efficient system for development of cell tracking, monitoring and sensing intracellular nanoprobes and devices.

  20. PREFACE: Quantum Dot 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Robert A.

    2010-09-01

    These conference proceedings contain the written papers of the contributions presented at Quantum Dot 2010 (QD2010). The conference was held in Nottingham, UK, on 26-30 April 2010. The conference addressed topics in research on: 1. Epitaxial quantum dots (including self-assembled and interface structures, dots defined by electrostatic gates etc): optical properties and electron transport quantum coherence effects spin phenomena optics of dots in cavities interaction with surface plasmons in metal/semiconductor structures opto-electronics applications 2. Novel QD structures: fabrication and physics of graphene dots, dots in nano-wires etc 3. Colloidal quantum dots: growth (shape control and hybrid nanocrystals such as metal/semiconductor, magnetic/semiconductor) assembly and surface functionalisation optical properties and spin dynamics electrical and magnetic properties applications (light emitting devices and solar cells, biological and medical applications, data storage, assemblers) The Editors Acknowledgements Conference Organising Committee: Maurice Skolnick (Chair) Alexander Tartakovskii (Programme Chair) Pavlos Lagoudakis (Programme Chair) Max Migliorato (Conference Secretary) Paola Borri (Publicity) Robert Taylor (Proceedings) Manus Hayne (Treasurer) Ray Murray (Sponsorship) Mohamed Henini (Local Organiser) International Advisory Committee: Yasuhiko Arakawa (Tokyo University, Japan) Manfred Bayer (Dortmund University, Germany) Sergey Gaponenko (Stepanov Institute of Physics, Minsk, Belarus) Pawel Hawrylak (NRC, Ottawa, Canada) Fritz Henneberger (Institute for Physics, Berlin, Germany) Atac Imamoglu (ETH, Zurich, Switzerland) Paul Koenraad (TU Eindhoven, Nethehrlands) Guglielmo Lanzani (Politecnico di Milano, Italy) Jungil Lee (Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Korea) Henri Mariette (CNRS-CEA, Grenoble, France) Lu Jeu Sham (San Diego, USA) Andrew Shields (Toshiba Research Europe, Cambridge, UK) Yoshihisa Yamamoto (Stanford University, USA) Artur

  1. Fluorescent Quantum Dots for Biological Labeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Gene; Nadeau, Jay; Nealson, Kenneth; Storrie-Lomardi, Michael; Bhartia, Rohit

    2003-01-01

    Fluorescent semiconductor quantum dots that can serve as "on/off" labels for bacteria and other living cells are undergoing development. The "on/off" characterization of these quantum dots refers to the fact that, when properly designed and manufactured, they do not fluoresce until and unless they come into contact with viable cells of biological species that one seeks to detect. In comparison with prior fluorescence-based means of detecting biological species, fluorescent quantum dots show promise for greater speed, less complexity, greater sensitivity, and greater selectivity for species of interest. There are numerous potential applications in medicine, environmental monitoring, and detection of bioterrorism.

  2. Entanglement and Quantum Optics with Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgers, A. P.; Schaibley, J. R.; Steel, D. G.

    2015-06-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) exhibit many characteristics of simpler two-level (or few level) systems, under optical excitation. This makes atomic coherent optical spectroscopy theory and techniques well suited for understanding the behavior of quantum dots. Furthermore, the combination of the solid state nature of quantum dots and their close approximation to atomic systems makes them an attractive platform for quantum information based technologies. In this chapter, we will discuss recent studies using direct detection of light emitted from a quantum dot to investigate coherence properties and confirm entanglement between the emitted photon and an electron spin qubit confined to the QD.

  3. Dye decorated ZnO-NWs /CdS-NPs heterostructures for efficiency improvement of quantum dots sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayeri, Fatemeh Dehghan; Akbarnejad, Elaheh; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Soleimani, Ebrahim Asl; Hashemizadeh, S. A.

    2016-03-01

    High density vertically aligned ZnO nanowire was coated with CdS nanocrystals of different thicknesses by the RF magnetron sputtering process and applied as photoanode in CdS quantum dot sensitized solar cells. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), photoluminescence, and X-Ray diffraction (XRD) were utilized to characterize the samples and study their properties. Results demonstrated that, after dye decoration co-sensitized process, the ZnO/CdS heterostructures showed an overall power conversion efficiency of 2.68%, which is 76.3% improvement over that of pristine ZnO/CdS-QDSSC. Thereby, the QDSSC was assembled with modified ZnO/CdS heterostructures by Dye exhibited high performance.

  4. Electrochromic nanocrystal quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Shim, M; Guyot-Sionnest, P

    2001-03-23

    Incorporating nanocrystals into future electronic or optoelectronic devices will require a means of controlling charge-injection processes and an understanding of how the injected charges affect the properties of nanocrystals. We show that the optical properties of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots can be tuned by an electrochemical potential. The injection of electrons into the quantum-confined states of the nanocrystal leads to an electrochromic response, including a strong, size-tunable, midinfrared absorption corresponding to an intraband transition, a bleach of the visible interband exciton transitions, and a quench of the narrow band-edge photoluminescence. PMID:11264530

  5. Fabrication of micro/nano-composite porous TiO2 electrodes for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiaohui; Wang, Minqiang; Xing, Tiying; Deng, Jianping; Ding, Jijun; Yang, Zhi; Zhang, Xiangyu

    2014-05-01

    For colloidal quantum dots-sensitized solar cells (QDSSC), the penetration and distribution of quantum dots (QDs) within electrodes is very crucial for performance improvement. In view of much bigger size of colloidal QDs than that of dye molecules, a TiO2 electrode with open structure is helpful for the distribution of QDs. In this study, micro/nano-composite porous TiO2 electrodes are fabricated by incorporating polystyrene (PS) spheres into the TiO2 screen-printing paste. After sintering, the embedded PS spheres are burnt off, leaving randomly distributed submicrometer voids in the electrodes, which favor easy penetration of the colloidal CdSe QDs within the TiO2 electrodes, and thus avoiding the unfavorable clogging of pores by CdSe QDs. In addition, this kind of composite structure enhances the scattering properties of the electrodes and hence the light capture inside the device. In order to obtain optimized devices, we probe into the influence of the PS concentration on the photovoltaic performance. The result shows that a maximum conversion efficiency of 2.23% is obtained for the QDSSC made from the PS:TiO2 = 1:4 paste.

  6. Enhanced Performance of PbS-quantum-dot-sensitized Solar Cells via Optimizing Precursor Solution and Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jianjun; Shen, Ting; Liu, Xiaoguang; Fei, Chengbin; Lv, Lili; Cao, Guozhong

    2016-03-01

    This work reports a PbS-quantum-dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSC) with power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4%. PbS quantum dots (QDs) were grown on mesoporous TiO2 film using a successive ion layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The growth of QDs was found to be profoundly affected by the concentration of the precursor solution. At low concentrations, the rate-limiting factor of the crystal growth was the adsorption of the precursor ions, and the surface growth of the crystal became the limiting factor in the high concentration solution. The optimal concentration of precursor solution with respect to the quantity and size of synthesized QDs was 0.06 M. To further increase the performance of QDSCs, the 30% deionized water of polysulfide electrolyte was replaced with methanol to improve the wettability and permeability of electrolytes in the TiO2 film, which accelerated the redox couple diffusion in the electrolyte solution and improved charge transfer at the interfaces between photoanodes and electrolytes. The stability of PbS QDs in the electrolyte was also improved by methanol to reduce the charge recombination and prolong the electron lifetime. As a result, the PCE of QDSC was increased to 4.01%.

  7. Enhanced Performance of PbS-quantum-dot-sensitized Solar Cells via Optimizing Precursor Solution and Electrolytes

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jianjun; Shen, Ting; Liu, Xiaoguang; Fei, Chengbin; Lv, Lili; Cao, Guozhong

    2016-01-01

    This work reports a PbS-quantum-dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSC) with power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4%. PbS quantum dots (QDs) were grown on mesoporous TiO2 film using a successive ion layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The growth of QDs was found to be profoundly affected by the concentration of the precursor solution. At low concentrations, the rate-limiting factor of the crystal growth was the adsorption of the precursor ions, and the surface growth of the crystal became the limiting factor in the high concentration solution. The optimal concentration of precursor solution with respect to the quantity and size of synthesized QDs was 0.06 M. To further increase the performance of QDSCs, the 30% deionized water of polysulfide electrolyte was replaced with methanol to improve the wettability and permeability of electrolytes in the TiO2 film, which accelerated the redox couple diffusion in the electrolyte solution and improved charge transfer at the interfaces between photoanodes and electrolytes. The stability of PbS QDs in the electrolyte was also improved by methanol to reduce the charge recombination and prolong the electron lifetime. As a result, the PCE of QDSC was increased to 4.01%. PMID:26975216

  8. Effect of photoanode surface coverage by a sensitizer on the photovoltaic performance of titania based CdS quantum dot sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Prasad M B, Rajendra; Pathan, Habib M

    2016-04-01

    In spite of the promising design and architecture, quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) have a long way to go before they attain the actual projected photoconversion efficiencies. Such an inferior performance displayed by QDSSCs is primarily because of many unwanted recombination losses of charge carriers at various interfaces of the cell. Electron recombination due to back electron transfer at the photoanode/electrolyte interface is an important one that needs to be addressed, to improve the efficiency of these third generation nanostructured solar cells. The present work highlights the importance of conformal coverage of CdS quantum dots (QDs) on the surface of the nanocrystalline titania photoanode in arresting such recombinations, leading to improvement in the performance of the cells. Using the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) process, photoanodes are subjected to different amounts of CdS QD sensitization by varying the number of cycles of deposition. The sensitized electrodes are characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and transmission electron microscopy to evaluate the extent of surface coverage of titania electrodes by QDs. Sandwich solar cells are then fabricated using these electrodes and characterized employing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and J-V characteristics. It is observed that maximum solar cell efficiency is obtained for photoanodes with conformal coating of QDs and any further deposition of sensitizer leads to QD aggregation and so reduces the performance of the solar cells. PMID:26916535

  9. Toward the Facile and Ecofriendly Fabrication of Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells via Thiol Coadsorbent Assistance.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jia-Yaw; Li, Chen-Hei; Chiang, Ya-Han; Chen, Chia-Hung; Li, Pei-Ni

    2016-07-27

    This paper reports a facile and environmentally friendly approach to the preparation of highly efficient quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) based on a combination of aqueous CuInS2 quantum dots (QDs) and thiol coadsorbents. The photovoltaic properties of the QDSSCs were found to be dependent on the type and concentration of the thiol coadsorbent. The incorporation of thiol coadsorbents results in improved JSC and VOC because (1) they provide disulfide reductants during the QD sensitization process and (2) the coadsorbent molecules are anchored on the TiO2 surface, thus affecting the movement of the conduction band of TiO2. To the best of the our knowledge, this is the first demonstrated use of various thiol coadsorbents as reducing agents in the fabrication of high-efficiency QDSSCs. CuInS2 QDSSCs fabricated with the assistance of thioglycolic acid coadsorbents exhibited efficiencies as high as 5.90%, which is 20 times higher than that of the control device without thiol coadsorbents (0.29%). In addition, the photovoltaic properties of a device fabricated using the colloidal CuInS2 QDs coated with different bifunctional linkers were investigated for comparison. The versatility of this facile fabrication process was demonstrated in the preparation of solar cells sensitized with aqueous AgInS2 or CdSeTe QDs. The AgInS2 QDSSC showed a conversion efficiency of 2.72%, which is the highest reported for Ag-based metal sulfides QDSSCs thus far. PMID:27405921

  10. Multifunctional graphene incorporated polyacrylamide conducting gel electrolytes for efficient quasi-solid-state quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jialong; Tang, Qunwei; Li, Ru; He, Benlin; Yu, Liangmin; Yang, Peizhi

    2015-06-01

    Pursuit of a high efficiency and stability has been a persistent objective for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). Here we launch a strategy of synthesizing graphene implanted polyacrylamide (PAAm-G) conducting gel electrolytes for quasi-solid-state QDSCs. With an aim of elevating the dosage of S2-/Sx2- redox couples and therefore charge-transfer ability, both osmotic press across the PAAm-G and capillary force within the three-dimensional micropores are utilized as driving forces. A promising power conversion efficiency of 2.34% is recorded for the QDSCs by optimizing graphene dosage in the conducting gel electrolyte. The enhanced conversion efficiency of solar cell is attributed to the expanded catalytic area from counter electrolyte/electrolyte interface to both interface and the conducting gel electrolyte.

  11. Enhanced electrochemiluminescence of CdSe quantum dots composited with graphene oxide and chitosan for sensitive sensor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Teng; Zhang, Shengyi; Mao, Changjie; Song, Jiming; Niu, Helin; Jin, Baokang; Tian, Yupeng

    2012-01-15

    A novel strategy for the enhancement of electrochemiluminescence (ECL) was developed by combining CdSe quantum dots (QDs) with graphene oxide-chitosan (GO-CHIT). The ECL sensor fabricated with CdSe QDs/GO-CHIT composite exhibited high ECL intensity, good biocompatibility and long-term stability, and was used to detect of cytochrome C (Cyt C). The results show that the ECL sensor has high sensitivity for Cyt C with the linear range from 4.0 to 324 μM and the detection limit of 1.5 μM. Furthermore, the ECL sensor can selectively sense Cyt C from glucose and bovine serum albumin (BSA). PMID:22099955

  12. Quantum dots-based label-free fluorescence sensor for sensitive and non-enzymatic detection of caffeic acid.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Xia; Shi, Jianbin; Huang, Fenghong; Zheng, Mingming; Deng, Qianchun

    2015-08-15

    We have developed a label-free fluorescence sensor for caffeic acid (CA) by the use of CdTe:Zn(2+) quantum dots (CdTe:Zn(2+) QDs) as an output signal. The principle of sensor is based on the fluorescence quenching and binding properties of Fe(2+) toward QDs and CA, respectively. To provide a fluorescence turn-on mode for CA detection, Fe(2+) is first mixed with QDs solution, leading to a low fluorescence emission. With the addition of CA, the fluorescence of QDs is recovered due to the strong binding interaction between CA and Fe(2+). Thus, a QDs-based label-free fluorescence sensor, designed in a simple mix-and-detect format, is established for CA detection. This study demonstrated here not only offers simple, sensitive and non-enzymatic detection method for CA, but also brings to light a new application of QDs in the food analysis. PMID:25966400

  13. Chemical synthesis of CdS onto TiO2 nanorods for quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawar, Sachin A.; Patil, Dipali S.; Lokhande, Abhishek C.; Gang, Myeng Gil; Shin, Jae Cheol; Patil, Pramod S.; Kim, Jin Hyeok

    2016-08-01

    A quantum dot sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) is fabricated using hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanorods and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) deposited CdS. Surface morphology of the TiO2 films coated with different SILAR cycles of CdS is examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy which revealed aggregated CdS QDs coverage grow on increasing onto the TiO2 nanorods with respect to cycle number. Under AM 1.5G illumination, we found the TiO2/CdS QDSSC photoelectrode shows a power conversion efficiency of 1.75%, in an aqueous polysulfide electrolyte with short-circuit photocurrent density of 4.04 mA/cm2 which is higher than that of a bare TiO2 nanorods array.

  14. Improvement of Si Adhesion and Reduction of Electron Recombination for Si Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hyunwoong; Wang, Yuting; Sato, Muneharu; Uchida, Giichiro; Kamataki, Kunihiro; Itagaki, Naho; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2013-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) based on multiple exciton generation have attracted much attention. They are capable of generating multiple electrons by single-photon absorption. Si is one of the good QD sources and its nontoxicity and abundance are advantageous for photovoltaics. In this work, Si QDs were fabricated by multihollow discharge plasma chemical vapor deposition, and they were applied to Si QD-sensitized solar cells. Their initial performance was poor because of the weak adhesion of Si and charge recombination. In this work, we solved these problems through the functionalization of Si QDs and a ZnO barrier. Functionalized Si QDs were more adsorbed on TiO2 with strengthened adhesion and the ZnO barrier prevented the contact between TiO2 and the redox electrolyte. Consequently, the improved adhesion and the reduced electron recombination led to the enhancement of overall photovoltaic characteristics.

  15. Modular, Antibody-free Time-Resolved LRET Kinase Assay Enabled by Quantum Dots and Tb(3+)-sensitizing Peptides.

    PubMed

    Cui, Wei; Parker, Laurie L

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescent drug screening assays are essential for tyrosine kinase inhibitor discovery. Here we demonstrate a flexible, antibody-free TR-LRET kinase assay strategy that is enabled by the combination of streptavidin-coated quantum dot (QD) acceptors and biotinylated, Tb(3+) sensitizing peptide donors. By exploiting the spectral features of Tb(3+) and QD, and the high binding affinity of the streptavidin-biotin interaction, we achieved multiplexed detection of kinase activity in a modular fashion without requiring additional covalent labeling of each peptide substrate. This strategy is compatible with high-throughput screening, and should be adaptable to the rapidly changing workflows and targets involved in kinase inhibitor discovery. PMID:27426233

  16. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of quantum dot-sensitized solar cell fabricated using Al-doped ZnO nanorod electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, M.; Muthukumarasamy, N.; Velauthapillai, Dhayalan; Balasundrapraphu, R.; Senthil, T. S.; Agilan, S.

    2015-04-01

    ZnO and Al doped ZnO nanorods have been successfully synthesized on ITO substrate via solgel dip coating method without using any catalyst. The X-ray diffraction studies showed that the Al doped ZnO samples are of hexagonal wurtzite structure. The Al ions were successfully incorporated into the ZnO lattice. Scanning electron microscopy images reveal that the average diameter of ZnO nanorods and Al doped ZnO nanorods are ∼300 nm and ∼200 nm respectively. The energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) analysis confirmed the presence Al in the ZnO thin films. The CdS quantum dot sensitized Al doped ZnO solar cell exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 1.5%.

  17. ZnO Hierarchical Nanostructure Photoanode in a CdS Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cell.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Zhang, Gengmin; Sun, Wentao; Shen, Ziyong; Shi, Mingji

    2015-01-01

    A hierarchical array of ZnO nanocones covered with ZnO nanospikes was hydrothermally fabricated and employed as the photoanode in a CdS quantum dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSSC). This QDSSC outperformed the QDSSC based on a simple ZnO nanocone photoanode in all the four principal photovoltaic parameters. Using the hierarchical photoanode dramatically increased the short circuit current density and also slightly raised the open circuit voltage and the fill factor. As a result, the conversion efficiency of the QDSSC based on the hierarchical photoanode was more than twice that of the QDSSC based on the simple ZnO nanocone photoanode. This improvement is attributable to both the enlarged specific area of the photoanode and the reduction in the recombination of the photoexcited electrons. PMID:26379268

  18. ZnO Hierarchical Nanostructure Photoanode in a CdS Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cell

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huan; Zhang, Gengmin; Sun, Wentao; Shen, Ziyong; Shi, Mingji

    2015-01-01

    A hierarchical array of ZnO nanocones covered with ZnO nanospikes was hydrothermally fabricated and employed as the photoanode in a CdS quantum dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSSC). This QDSSC outperformed the QDSSC based on a simple ZnO nanocone photoanode in all the four principal photovoltaic parameters. Using the hierarchical photoanode dramatically increased the short circuit current density and also slightly raised the open circuit voltage and the fill factor. As a result, the conversion efficiency of the QDSSC based on the hierarchical photoanode was more than twice that of the QDSSC based on the simple ZnO nanocone photoanode. This improvement is attributable to both the enlarged specific area of the photoanode and the reduction in the recombination of the photoexcited electrons. PMID:26379268

  19. Electrochemiluminescence resonance energy transfer between graphene quantum dots and graphene oxide for sensitive protein kinase activity and inhibitor sensing.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ru-Ping; Qiu, Wei-Bin; Zhao, Hui-Fang; Xiang, Cai-Yun; Qiu, Jian-Ding

    2016-01-21

    Herein, a novel electrochemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (ECL-RET) biosensor using graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as donor and graphene oxide (GO) as acceptor for monitoring the activity of protein kinase was presented for the first time. Anti-phosphoserine antibody conjugated graphene oxide (Ab-GO) nonocomposite could be captured onto the phosphorylated peptide/GQDs modified electrode surface through antibody-antigen interaction in the presence of casein kinase II (CK2) and adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), resulting in ECL from the GQDs quenching by closely contacting GO. This ECL quenching degree was positively correlated with CK2 activity. Therefore, on the basis of ECL-RET between GQDs and GO, the activity of protein kinase can be detected sensitively. This biosensor can also be used for quantitative analysis CK2 activity in serum samples and qualitative screening kinase inhibition, indicating the potential application of the developed method in biochemical fundamental research and clinical diagnosis. PMID:26724763

  20. Modular, Antibody-free Time-Resolved LRET Kinase Assay Enabled by Quantum Dots and Tb3+-sensitizing Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Wei; Parker, Laurie L.

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescent drug screening assays are essential for tyrosine kinase inhibitor discovery. Here we demonstrate a flexible, antibody-free TR-LRET kinase assay strategy that is enabled by the combination of streptavidin-coated quantum dot (QD) acceptors and biotinylated, Tb3+ sensitizing peptide donors. By exploiting the spectral features of Tb3+ and QD, and the high binding affinity of the streptavidin-biotin interaction, we achieved multiplexed detection of kinase activity in a modular fashion without requiring additional covalent labeling of each peptide substrate. This strategy is compatible with high-throughput screening, and should be adaptable to the rapidly changing workflows and targets involved in kinase inhibitor discovery. PMID:27426233

  1. Enhanced photoelectric performance of PbS/CdS quantum dot co-sensitized solar cells via hydrogenated TiO2 nanorod arrays.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanli; Tao, Qiang; Fu, Wuyou; Yang, Haibin; Zhou, Xiaoming; Su, Shi; Ding, Dong; Mu, Yannan; Li, Xue; Li, Minghui

    2014-08-28

    The enhanced photoelectric performance of quantum dot sensitized solar cells via hydrogenated TiO2 is proposed. The best energy conversion efficiency is 1.5 times higher than cells without hydrogen treatment. We demonstrated that introducing oxygen vacancies by hydrogenation is an effective and feasible method for enhanced photoelectric performance. PMID:25010989

  2. An ultrasensitive "on-off-on" photoelectrochemical aptasensor based on signal amplification of a fullerene/CdTe quantum dots sensitized structure and efficient quenching by manganese porphyrin.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengjie; Zheng, Yingning; Liang, Wenbin; Yuan, Yali; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Ruo

    2016-06-21

    In this work, an ultrasensitive "on-off-on" photoelectrochemical (PEC) aptasensor was proposed based on the signal amplification of a fullerene/CdTe quantum dot (nano-C60/CdTe QDs) sensitized structure and efficient signal quenching of nano-C60/CdTe QDs by a manganese porphyrin (MnPP). PMID:27272457

  3. Sensitive targeted multiple protein quantification based on elemental detection of quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Montoro Bustos, Antonio R; Garcia-Cortes, Marta; González-Iglesias, Hector; Ruiz Encinar, Jorge; Costa-Fernández, José M; Coca-Prados, Miguel; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2015-06-16

    A generic strategy based on the use of CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots (QDs) as elemental labels for protein quantification, using immunoassays with elemental mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), detection is presented. In this strategy, streptavidin modified QDs (QDs-SA) are bioconjugated to a biotinylated secondary antibody (b-Ab2). After a multi-technique characterization of the synthesized generic platform (QDs-SA-b-Ab2) it was applied to the sequential quantification of five proteins (transferrin, complement C3, apolipoprotein A1, transthyretin and apolipoprotein A4) at different concentration levels in human serum samples. It is shown how this generic strategy does only require the appropriate unlabeled primary antibody for each protein to be detected. Therefore, it introduces a way out to the need for the cumbersome and specific bioconjugation of the QDs to the corresponding specific recognition antibody for every target analyte (protein). Results obtained were validated with those obtained using UV-vis spectrophotometry and commercial ELISA Kits. As expected, ICP-MS offered one order of magnitude lower DL (0.23 fmol absolute for transferrin) than the classical spectrophotometric detection (3.2 fmol absolute). ICP-MS precision and detection limits, however turned out to be compromised by procedural blanks. The full analytical performance of the ICP-MS-based immunoassay proposed was assessed for detection of transferrin (Tf), present at the low ng mL(-1) range in a complex "model" synthetic matrix, where the total protein concentration was 100 μg mL(-1). Finally, ICP-MS detection allowed the quantitative control of all the steps of the proposed immunoassay, by computing mass balances obtained, and the development of a faster indirect immunoassay format where the plate wells were directly coated with the whole protein mixture sample. PMID:26002480

  4. Enhanced photoelectrochemical performance of quantum dot-sensitized TiO2 nanotube arrays with Al2O3 overcoating by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Min; Peng, Xiange; Liao, Jianjun; Wang, Guizhen; Li, Yanfang; Li, Jianbao; Qin, Yong; Wilson, Joshua; Song, Aimin; Lin, Shiwei

    2016-06-29

    While TiO2 nanotube arrays cosensitized with CdS and PbS quantum dots can achieve water splitting under visible light excitation, the use of quantum dots is limited by the relatively slow interfacial hole transfer rate and low internal quantum efficiencies in the visible region. Al2O3 overcoating by atomic layer deposition (ALD) can drastically enhance the photoelectrochemical performance of the quantum dot-sensitized TiO2 nanotube arrays. 30 ALD cycles of the Al2O3 overlayer can achieve a good balance between surface coverage and charge transfer resistance. The resulting maximum photocurrent density of 5.19 mA cm(-2) under simulated solar illumination shows a 52 times improvement over the pure TiO2 nanotube arrays, and more significantly, a 60% enhancement over bare quantum dot-sensitized TiO2 nanotube arrays. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency can reach the record value of 83% at 350 nm and remain above 30% up to 450 nm. A systematic examination of the role of the ALD Al2O3 overlayer indicates that surface recombination passivation, catalytic improvement in interfacial charge transfer kinetics, and chemical stabilization might synergistically enhance the photoelectrochemical performance in the visible region. These results provide a physical insight into the facile surface treatment, which could be applied to develop and optimize high-performance photoelectrodes for artificial photosynthesis. PMID:27138558

  5. CuSbS2: a promising semiconductor photo-absorber material for quantum dot sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhifeng; Huang, Jiajun; Han, Jianhuan; Hong, Tiantian; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Zhihua

    2016-06-22

    A facile, low-cost, simple solution-based process for preparing novel promising chalcostibite CuSbS2 sensitized ZnO nanorod arrays, and the application of these as photoanodes of semiconductor quantum dot sensitized inorganic-organic solar cells (QDSSCs) is reported for the first time. ZnO/CuSbS2 nanofilms were designed and prepared through a simple successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method and heat treatment process by employing ZnO nanorods as reactive templates. Novel efficient QDSSCs based on the ZnO/CuSbS2 nanofilms plus a solid electrolyte of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) were formed, and a power conversion efficiency of 1.61% was achieved. The excellent photoelectric performance is attributed to the improved light absorption efficiency, widened light absorption region, ideal band gap value, and high speed electron injection and transportation. The results demonstrate that a novel ternary sensitizer (I-V-VI2) can be synthesized via a low-cost method as described here and has great promising potential as a sensitizer in solar cells. PMID:27297190

  6. Sensitivity improved plasmonic gold nanoholes array biosensor by coupling quantum-dots for the detection of specific biomolecular interactions.

    PubMed

    Niu, Lihong; Cheng, Ke; Wu, Yangqing; Wang, Tian; Shi, Qing; Liu, Dan; Du, Zuliang

    2013-12-15

    In this paper, we focused on the large-scale fabrication of gold nanoholes array capable of supporting surface plasmonic resonance (SPR) via the developed nanosphere lithography (NSL) technique, which could be used as high performance biosensor for the detection of specific streptavidin-biotin interactions. Direct UV-vis absorption mode measurement was used to monitor the SPR peak shift. For the better immobilization of biotin, the surface of gold nanoholes array was functionalized with 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane (MPTS) and 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES). After the streptavidin binding to the biotin, the SPR peak position showed an 11 nm wavelength shift due to the refractive index change caused by the biotin-streptavidin binding. The sealing treatment was performed by using bovine serum albumin (BSA) to eliminate the influences of nonspecific adsorption for more accurate detection. Interestingly, the detection sensitivity of the gold nanoholes array could be further enhanced by coupling the water-soluble CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs), which showed four-fold improvement in detection sensitivity as compared to the gold nanoholes array biosensor without the coupling of QDs. The mechanisms for the enhancement of detection sensitivity were also discussed. This would provide new capabilities for the highly sensitive measurements of biomolecular binding. PMID:23850779

  7. Carbon quantum dots as novel sensitizers for photoelectrochemical solar hydrogen generation and their size-dependent effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xuelian; Liu, Rongji; Zhang, Guangjin; Cao, Hongbin

    2013-08-01

    As a result of global energy needs, much research has been devoted to the conversion of solar energy to various usable forms, such as chemical energy in the form of hydrogen via water splitting. To make the conversion methods efficient, economically practical, and industrially scalable, sensitizers capable of utilizing visible and near infrared (IR) light need to be developed. Herein, water-soluble, colloidally stable carbon quantum dots (CQDs) are successfully synthesized by a facile one-step alkali-assisted electrochemical method. Owing to their broad visible light absorption, upconversion luminescence properties and efficient electron injection to TiO2, these CQDs can be used as the sensitizer for photoelectrochemical cells and show an optimized photocurrent of 1.2 mA cm-2 at 0 V versus Ag/AgCl under 100 mW cm-2 simulated sunlight. The above results indicate that the elementally abundant and environmentally friendly CQDs, as a novel sensitizer, can surely be employed to make full use of the visible spectrum of sunlight for their application in photovoltaic devices.

  8. Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Protein Biomarker Using a Portable Fluorescence Biosensor based on Quantum Dots and a Lateral Flow Test Strip

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhaohui; Wang, Ying; Wang, Jun; Tang, Zhiwen; Pounds, Joel G.; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-08-15

    A portable fluorescence biosensor with rapid and ultrasensitive response for trace protein has been built up with quantum dots and lateral flow test strip. The superior signal brightness and high photostability of quantum dots are combined with the promising advantages of lateral flow test strip and resulted in high sensitivity, selectivity and speedy for protein detection. Nitrated ceruloplasmin, a significant biomarker for cardiovascular disease, lung cancer and stress response to smoking, was used as model protein to demonstrate the good performances of this proposed Qdot-based lateral flow test strip. Quantitative detection of nitrated ceruloplasmin was realized by recording the fluorescence intensity of quantum dots captured on the test line. Under optimal conditions, this portable fluorescence biosensor displays rapid responses for nitrated ceruloplasmin in wide dynamic range with a detection limit of 0.1ng/mL (S/N=3). Furthermore, the biosensor was successfully utilized for spiked human plasma sample detection with the concentration as low as 1ng/mL. The results demonstrate that the quantum dot-based lateral flow test strip is capable for rapid, sensitive, and quantitative detection of nitrated ceruloplasmin and hold a great promise for point-of-care and in field analysis of other protein biomarkers.

  9. Quantum dots: Rethinking the electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishnoi, Dimple

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate theoretically that the Quantum dots are quite interesting for the electronics industry. Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are nanometer-scale crystals, which have unique photo physical, quantum electrical properties, size-dependent optical properties, There small size means that electrons do not have to travel as far as with larger particles, thus electronic devices can operate faster. Cheaper than modern commercial solar cells while making use of a wider variety of photon energies, including "waste heat" from the sun's energy. Quantum dots can be used in tandem cells, which are multi junction photovoltaic cells or in the intermediate band setup. PbSe (lead selenide) is commonly used in quantum dot solar cells.

  10. Fluorescent Carbon Quantum Dots Incorporated into Dye-Sensitized TiO2 Photoanodes with Dual Contributions.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan; Na, Yong; Su, Ting; Li, Liang; Yu, Jia; Fan, Ruiqing; Yang, Yulin

    2016-06-22

    Fluorescent carbon quantum dots (CQDs) were prepared through bottom-up synthesis, which possess excitation wavelength-dependent photoluminescence properties upon excitation by near visible light. For the first time, CQDs were incorporated into N719-sensitized TiO2 photoelectrodes as the electron-transport medium, presenting dual contributions to the photo-to-electrical energy conversion: 1) spectral response compensation for the dye-sensitized TiO2 film at around 400 nm was successfully observed in the incident photon-to-current conversion measurements; and 2) intensity modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy showed that the electron transport time, charge collection efficiency, and electron diffusion length in the TiO2 electrode were all improved after CQDs incorporation. An example of using the CQDs- containing photoanode in a solar cell device resulted in enhancements of 32 % and 21 % for the short-circuit current density and photo-to-electrical conversion efficiency, respectively. PMID:27218888

  11. Imprinted gold 2D nanoarray for highly sensitive and convenient PSA detection via plasmon excited quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Song, Hong Yan; Wong, Ten It; Sadovoy, Anton; Wu, Lin; Bai, Ping; Deng, Jie; Guo, Shifeng; Wang, Yi; Knoll, Wolfgang; Zhou, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    We designed and fabricated two new nanostructured biosensing chips, with which the sensitive detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA) as low as 100 pg ml(-1) can be achieved, by measuring the plasmon enhanced fluorescence through a conventional dark field microscope. The gold nanostructure arrays, one with gold nanopillars of 140 nm, the other with gold nanoholes of 140 nm, were fabricated via nanoimprinting onto glass substrate, as localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) generators to enhance the fluorescent emission of fluorophore, e.g. quantum dot (QD). A sandwich bioassay of capture anti-PSA antibody (cAb)/PSA/detection anti-PSA (dAb) labeled by QD-655 was established on the nanostructures, and the perfect LSPR excitation distance (10-15 nm) between the nanostructure and QD-655 was simulated and controlled by a cleft cAb fragment and streptavidin modified QD. QD was chosen in this study due to its photo stability, broad Stokes shift, and long lifetime. As far as we know, this is the first time that QD is applied for PSA detection on the uniform nanostructured sensing chips based on the LSPR enhanced fluorescence. Due to the miniaturized nanoarray sensing chip (1.8 mm × 1.8 mm), the convenience and specificity for the detection of PSA via the sandwich assay, and the high optical detection sensitivity, the platform has great potential for the development of a portable point-of-care (POC) system for outpatient diagnosis and treatment monitoring. PMID:25360665

  12. Accurate sensitivity of quantum dots for detection of HER2 expression in breast cancer cells and tissues.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaei-Panah, Akram-Sadat; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Ghods, Roya; Akhondi, Mohammad-Mehdi; Mojtabavi, Nazanin; Mahmoudi, Ahmad-Reza; Mirzadegan, Ebrahim; Shojaeian, Sorour; Zarnani, Amir-Hassan

    2013-03-01

    Here we introduce novel optical properties and accurate sensitivity of Quantum dot (QD)-based detection system for tracking the breast cancer marker, HER2. QD525 was used to detect HER2 using home-made HER2-specific monoclonal antibodies in fixed and living HER2(+) SKBR-3 cell line and breast cancer tissues. Additionally, we compared fluorescence intensity (FI), photostability and staining index (SI) of QD525 signals at different exposure times and two excitation wavelengths with those of the conventional organic dye, FITC. Labeling signals of QD525 in both fixed and living breast cancer cells and tissue preparations were found to be significantly higher than those of FITC at 460-495 nm excitation wavelengths. Interestingly, when excited at 330-385 nm, the superiority of QD525 was more highlighted with at least 4-5 fold higher FI and SI compared to FITC. Moreover, QDs exhibited exceptional photostability during continuous illumination of cancerous cells and tissues, while FITC signal faded very quickly. QDs can be used as sensitive reporters for in situ detection of tumor markers which in turn could be viewed as a novel approach for early detection of cancers. To take comprehensive advantage of QDs, it is necessary that their optimal excitation wavelength is employed. PMID:23212129

  13. Pulsed voltage deposited lead selenide thin film as efficient counter electrode for quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Bin Bin; Wang, Ye Feng; Wang, Xue Qing; Zeng, Jing Hui

    2016-04-01

    Lead selenide (PbSe) thin films were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass by a facile one-step pulse voltage electrodeposition method, and used as counter electrode (CE) in CdS/CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). A power conversion efficiency of 4.67% is received for the CdS/CdSe co-sensitized solar cells, which is much better than that of 2.39% received using Pt CEs. The enhanced performance is attributed to the extended absorption in the near infrared region, superior electrocatalytic activity and p-type conductivity with a reflection of the incident light at the back electrode in addition. The physical and chemical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), reflectance spectra, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel polarization measurements. The present work provides a facile pathway to an efficient CE in the QDSSCs.

  14. Luminescent Quantum Dots as Ultrasensitive Biological Labels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Shuming

    2000-03-01

    Highly luminescent semiconductor quantum dots have been covalently coupled to biological molecules for use in ultrasensitive biological detection. This new class of luminescent labels is considerably brighter and more resistant againt photobleaching in comparison with organic dyes. Quantum dots labeled with the protein transferrin undergo receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME) in cultured HeLa cells, and those dots that were conjugated to immunomolecules recognize specific antibodies or antigens. In addition, we show that DNA functionalized quantum dots can be used to target specific genes by hybridization. We expect that quantum dot bioconjugates will have a broad range of biological applications, such as ligand-receptor interactions, real-time monitoring of molecular trafficking inside living cells, multicolor fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), high-sensitivity detection in miniaturized devices (e.g., DNA chips), and fluorescent tagging of combinatorial chemical libraries. A potential clinical application is the use of quantum dots for ultrasensitive viral RNA detection, in which as low as 100 copies of hepatitis C and HIV viruses per ml blood should be detected.

  15. Improved performance of CuInS2 quantum dot-sensitized solar cells based on a multilayered architecture.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jia-Yaw; Lin, Jie-Mo; Su, Li-Fong; Chang, Chia-Fu

    2013-09-11

    This article describes a CuInS2 quantum dot (QD)-sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) with a multilayered architecture and a cascaded energy-gap structure fabricated using a successive ionic-layer adsorption and reaction process. We initially used different metal chalcogenides as interfacial buffer layers to improve unmatched band alignments between the TiO2 and CuInS2 QD sensitizers. In this design, the photovoltaic performance, in terms of the short-circuit current density (JSC), open-circuit voltage (VOC), fill factor (FF), and power conversion efficiency (PCE), was significantly improved. Both JSC and VOC were improved in CuInS2-based QDSSCs in the presence of interfacial buffer layers because of proper band alignment across the heterointerface and the negative band edge movement of TiO2. The PCE of CuInS2-based QDSSCs containing In2Se3 interfacial buffer layers was 1.35%, with JSC=5.83 mA/cm2, VOC=595 mV, and FF=39.0%. We also examined the use of alternative CdS and CdSe hybrid-sensitized layers, which were sequentially deposited onto the In2Se3/CuInS2 configuration for creating favorable cascaded energy-gap structures. Both JSC (11.3 mA cm(-2)) and FF (47.3%) for the CuInS2/CdSe hybrid-sensitized cells were higher than those for CuInS2-based cells (JSC=5.83 mA cm(-2) and FF=39.0%). In addition, the hybrid-sensitized cells had PCEs that were 1.3 times those of cells containing identically pretreated In2Se3 interfacial buffer layers. Additionally, we determined that ZnSe served as a good passivation layer on the surface of CuInS2/CdSe hybrid-sensitized QDs, prevented current leakage from the QDs to electrolytes, and lowered interfacial charge recombination. Under simulated illumination (AM 1.5, 100 mW cm(-2)), multilayered QDSSCs with distinct architectures delivered a maximum external quantum efficiency of 80% at 500 nm and a maximum PCE of 4.55%, approximately 9 times that of QDSSCs fabricated with pristine CuInS2. PMID:23937511

  16. Preparation of SnS/CdS Co-sensitized TiO2 Photoelectrodes for Quantum Dots Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yu-Long; Song, Ping; Zhao, Su-Qing

    2016-06-01

    TiO2 porous films have been prepared by electrophoresis deposition method, while tin sulfide (SnS) and cadmium sulfide quantum dots (QDs) have been deposited by a simple and inexpensive successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method. The CdS and SnS QDs modifications expanded the photoresponse range of TiO2 nanoparticles from the ultraviolet region to visible range. Such prepared SnS/CdS/TiO2 films were used as photo-anodes to assemble QDs sensitized solar cells with I-/I3 - liquid electrolyte and Pt-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass counter electrode. The best resulting cells had an open circuit voltage of 520 mV, a short circuit current density of 2.972 mA cm-2, a fill factor of 0.61, and with a conversion efficiency of 0.936%.

  17. The influence of annealing temperature on the interface and photovoltaic properties of CdS/CdSe quantum dots sensitized ZnO nanorods solar cells.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xiaofeng; Chen, Ling; Gong, Haibo; Zhu, Min; Han, Jun; Zi, Min; Yang, Xiaopeng; Ji, Changjian; Cao, Bingqiang

    2014-09-15

    Arrays of ZnO/CdS/CdSe core/shell nanocables with different annealing temperatures have been investigated for CdS/CdSe quantum dots sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). CdS/CdSe quantum dots were synthesized on the surface of ZnO nanorods that serve as the scaffold via a simple ion-exchange approach. The uniform microstructure was verified by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. UV-Visible absorption spectrum and Raman spectroscopy analysis indicated noticeable influence of annealing temperature on the interface structural and optical properties of the CdS/CdSe layers. Particularly, the relationship between annealing temperatures and photovoltaic performance of the corresponding QDSSCs was investigated employing photovoltaic conversion, quantum efficiency and electrochemical impedance spectra. It is demonstrated that higher cell efficiency can be obtained by optimizing the annealing temperature through extending the photoresponse range and improving QD layer crystal quality. PMID:24998074

  18. Three-dimensional TiO2/ZnO hybrid array as a heterostructured anode for efficient quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hao-Lin; Wu, Wu-Qiang; Rao, Hua-Shang; Wan, Quan; Li, Long-Bin; Kuang, Dai-Bin; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2015-03-11

    The development of a novel nanoarray photoanode with a heterostructure on a transparent conducting oxide substrate provides a promising scheme to fabricate efficient energy conversion devices. Herein, we successfully synthesize the vertically aligned hierarchical TiO2 nanowire/ZnO nanorod or TiO2 nanowire/ZnO nanosheet hybrid arrays, which are proven to be excellent anode candidates for superior light utilization. Consequently, the quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells based on such hybrid arrays exhibit an impressive power conversion efficiency (PCE) under AM 1.5G one sun illumination with improved short-circuit current density (JSC) and fill factor compared to pristine TiO2 nanowire arrays. Combined with the chemical-bath-deposited Cu2S counter electrode, the eventual PCE can be further optimized to as high as 4.57% for CdS/CdSe co-sensitized quantum dot solar cells. PMID:25679232

  19. A sensitive electrochemical chlorophenols sensor based on nanocomposite of ZnSe quantum dots and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianjun; Li, Xiao; Yang, Ran; Qu, Lingbo; Harrington, Peter de B

    2013-12-01

    In this work, a very sensitive and simple electrochemical sensor for chlorophenols (CPs) based on a nanocomposite of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and ZnSe quantum dots (ZnSe-CTAB) through electrostatic self-assembly technology was built for the first time. The composite of ZnSe-CTAB introduced a favorable access for the electron transfer and gave superior electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of CPs than ZnSe QDs and CTAB alone. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used for the quantitative determination of the CPs including 2-chlorophenol (2-CP), 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Under the optimum conditions, the peak currents of the CPs were proportional to their concentrations in the range from 0.02 to 10.0 μM for 2-CP, 0.006 to 9.0 μM for 2,4-DCP, and 0.06 to 8.0 for PCP. The detection limits were 0.008 μM for 2-CP, 0.002 μM for 2,4-DCP, and 0.01 μM for PCP, respectively. The method was successfully applied for the determination of CPs in waste water with satisfactory recoveries. This ZnSe-CTAB electrode system provides operational access to design environment-friendly CPs sensors. PMID:24267066

  20. Graphene quantum dots as a new substrate for immobilization and direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase: application to sensitive glucose determination.

    PubMed

    Razmi, Habib; Mohammad-Rezaei, Rahim

    2013-03-15

    Graphene quantum dots (GQD) were introduced as a novel and suitable substrate for enzyme immobilization. Glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized on GQD modified carbon ceramic electrode (CCE) and well-defined quasi-reversible redox peaks were observed. The UV-vis photoluminescence spectroscopy, transition electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry techniques were used for characterizing the electrochemical biosensor. The electron transfer coefficient (α) and the heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k(s)) for redox reaction of GOx were found to be 0.48 and 1.12 s(-1), respectively. The developed biosensor responds efficiently to glucose presence over the concentration range 5-1270 μM with the detection limit 1.73 μM (S/N=3) and sensitivity 0.085 μA μM(-1) cm(-2). The high value of surface coverage GOx-GQD|CCE (1.8×10(-9) mol/cm(2)) and the small value of Michaelis-Menten constant (0.76 mM) confirmed an excellent loading of the enzyme and a high affinity of biosensor to glucose. High performance of the biosensor is attributed to the large surface-to-volume ratio, excellent biocompatibility of GQD, porosity of GQD|CCE, and the abundance of hydrophilic edges as well as hydrophobic plane in GQD which enhances the enzyme absorption on the electrode surface. PMID:23098855

  1. Quaternary Cu2ZnSnS4 quantum dot-sensitized solar cells: Synthesis, passivation and ligand exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Bing; Kou, Dongxing; Zhou, Wenhui; Zhou, Zhengji; Tian, Qingwen; Meng, Yuena; Wu, Sixin

    2016-06-01

    The quaternary Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) QDs had been successfully introduced into quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSC) via hydrolysis approach in our previous work [Green Chem. 2015, vol. 17, p. 4377], but the obtained cell efficiency was still limited by low open-circuit voltage and fill factor. Herein, we use 1-dodecanethiol (DDT) as capping ligand for fairly small-sized CZTS QDs synthesis to improve their intrinsic properties. Since this strong bonded capping ligand can not be replaced by 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) directly, the nature cation (Cu, Zn or Sn)-DDT units of QDs are first exchanged by the preconjugated Cd-oleate via successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) procedure accompanied with the formation of a core/shell structure. The weak bonded oleic acid (OA) can be finally replaced by MPA and the constructed water soluble CZTS/CdSe QDSC achieves an impressive conversion efficiency of 4.70%. The electron transport and recombination dynamic processes are confirmed by intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS)/intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy (IMVS) measurements. It is found that the removal of long alkyl chain is conducive to improve the electron transport process and the type-II core/shell structure is beneficial to accelerate electron transport and retard charge recombination. This effective ligand removal strategy is proved to be more convenient for the applying of quaternary QDs in QDSC and would boost a more powerful efficiency in the future work.

  2. ITO@Cu2S tunnel junction nanowire arrays as efficient counter electrode for quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan; Zhang, Xing; Ge, Qian-Qing; Yu, Bin-Bin; Zou, Yu-Gang; Jiang, Wen-Jie; Song, Wei-Guo; Wan, Li-Jun; Hu, Jin-Song

    2014-01-01

    Quantum-dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) has been considered as an alternative to new generation photovoltaics, but it still presents very low power conversion efficiency. Besides the continuous effort on improving photoanodes and electrolytes, the focused investigation on charge transfer at interfaces and the rational design for counter electrodes (CEs) are recently receiving much attention. Herein, core-shell nanowire arrays with tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowire core and Cu2S nanocrystal shell (ITO@Cu2S) were dedicatedly designed and fabricated as new efficient CEs for QDSSCs in order to improve charge collection and transport and to avoid the intrinsic issue of copper dissolution in popular and most efficient Cu/Cu2S CEs. The high-quality tunnel junctions formed between n-type ITO nanowires and p-type Cu2S nanocrystals led to the considerable decrease in sheet resistance and charge transfer resistance and thus facilitated the electron transport during the operation of QDSSCs. The three-dimensional structure of nanowire arrays provided high surface area for more active catalytic sites and easy accessibility for an electrolyte. As a result, the power conversion efficiency of QDSSCs with the designed ITO@Cu2S CEs increased by 84.5 and 33.5% compared to that with planar Au and Cu2S CEs, respectively. PMID:24350879

  3. Carbon fiber/Co9S8 nanotube arrays hybrid structures for flexible quantum dot-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenxi; Chen, Chang; Ye, Meidan; Lv, Miaoqiang; Lin, Changjian

    2014-04-01

    Recently, hybrid carbon materials and inorganic nanocrystals have received an intensive amount of attention and have opened up an exciting new field in the design and fabrication of high-performance catalysts. Here we present a novel kind of hybrid counter electrode (CE) consisting of a carbon fiber (CF) and Co9S8 nanotube arrays (NTs) for fiber-shaped flexible quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The growth mechanisms of Co(CO3)0.35Cl0.20(OH)1.10 nanowire arrays (NWs) on the CFs were discussed, and the catalytic activity of the CF, Pt and Co9S8/CF hybrid structure (Co9S8@CF) were elucidated systematically as well. An absolute energy conversion efficiency of 3.79% has been demonstrated under 100 mW cm(-2) AM 1.5 illumination by using Co9S8@CF as a CE. This work not only demonstrates an innovative approach for growing cobalt sulfide NTs on flexible substrates that can be applied in flexible devices for energy harvesting and storage, but also provides a kind of hybrid structure and high-efficiency CE for QDSSCs. PMID:24562374

  4. An efficient and transparent copper sulfide nanosheet film counter electrode for bifacial quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Weijun; Fang, Guojia; Lei, Hongwei; Qin, Pingli; Tao, Hong; Zeng, Wei; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Xingzhong

    2014-02-01

    Copper sulfide (CuS) with nanosheet structure has been synthesized at a low temperature in situ on copper (Cu) film coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass and bifacial quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) were herein developed by using these CuS as counter electrodes (CEs). CuS is an environmental compatible and low toxic material. The obtained two-dimensional CuS nanosheet film presents high carrier mobility and exhibits highly catalytic performance for the polysulfide-based electrolyte. The QDSSC based on a CuS CE presents a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.65% by optimizing the thickness of the Cu film under front illumination. The QDSSC based on a CuS CE prepared with a 200 nm thick Cu film shows a very close PCE under front and rear illuminations in which the values are as high as 2.70% and 2.40%, respectively. All the PCEs of the CuS CEs are much higher than that of the Pt CE (1.34%).

  5. SnS Thin Film Prepared by Pyrolytic Synthesis as an Efficient Counter Electrode in Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaoyan; Shi, Chengwu; Zhang, Yanru; Liu, Feng; Fang, Xiaqin; Zhu, Jun

    2015-09-01

    The SnS thin films were successfully prepared by pyrolysis procedure for the counter electrodes in quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) using the methanol solution containing stannous chloride dihydrate (0.40 mol x L(-1)) and thiourea (0.40 mol x L(-1)) as precursor solution at 300 degrees C in the air atmosphere. The electrochemical catalytic activity of the SnS thin films prepared by pyrolytic synthesis for the redox couple of S(2-)/S(2-) was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The result revealed that the charge transfer resistance of the as-prepared SnS thin film with the dipping-heating cycles of 5 was 106.4 Ω and the corresponded QDSCs gave a short circuit photocurrent density of 8.69 mA x cm(-2), open circuit voltage of 0.42 V, and fill factor of 0.43, yielding the photoelectric conversion efficiency of 1.57%, under the illumination of simulated AM 1.5 sunlight (100 mWx cm(-2)). PMID:26716249

  6. FeS/nickel foam as stable and efficient counter electrode material for quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Huifang; Zhu, Liqun; Li, Weiping; Liu, Huicong; Quan, Linlin; Xi, Fanxing; Su, Xunwen

    2015-05-01

    A stable and efficient FeS/nickel foam (NF) counter electrode for quantum dots-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) is first fabricated by electrochemistry deposition and characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), current voltage and impedance spectroscopy. The QDSC based on FeS/NF CE achieves a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.39% attributing to the high fill factor (FF) of 0.58, and the PCE is much higher than that of based on FeS/FTO CE (2.76%) and other reported FeS CEs (1.76% and 3.34%). The phenomenon that the electrode can transform between FeS/NF (in the polysulfide electrolyte) and Fe2O3/NF (in the air) spontaneously is first reported. And the excellent stability in photoelectric performance of the CE is also demonstrated in the present work. Therefore, the FeS/NF is very promising as a stable and efficient CE for QDSCs.

  7. The inhibition of fluorescence resonance energy transfer between multicolor quantum dots for rapid and sensitive detection of Staphylococcus aureus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Beibei; Wang, Qi; Ma, Meihu; Cai, Zhaoxia

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we constructed the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) system between two multi-color quantum dots (QDs) of two sizes for rapid and sensitive detection of Staphylococcus aureus. In this system, green-emitting QDs conjugated with rabbit anti-S. aureus antibodies were used as energy donors while orange-emitting QDs conjugated with goat-anti-rabbit IgG were used as energy acceptors to form FRET system. Pre-binding of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) on the donor occupied the binding sites and thus blocked resonance energy transfer between two colors QDs, leading to the quenching fluorescence of the acceptor. The fluorescence of acceptor has a linear calibration graph with the concentrations of S. aureus from 52 to 2.6 × 105 CFU mL-1. The low detection limit was 10 CFU/mL. It was worth mentioning that the detection method of S. aureus had been applied to the analysis of apple juice and milk samples, which could potentially be developed into a sensor in the further study.

  8. Fluorescent nanosensors via photoinduced polymerization of hydrophobic inorganic quantum dots for the sensitive and selective detection of nitroaromatics.

    PubMed

    Bai, Min; Huang, Shuina; Xu, Suying; Hu, Gaofei; Wang, Leyu

    2015-02-17

    We developed an efficient one-pot strategy for the preparation of hydrophilic amine-functionalized nanocomposites by using hydrophobic fluorescence quantum dots ZnS:Mn(2+)@allyl mercaptan (QDs@AM) as building blocks through novel light-induced in situ polymerization. The average size of as-prepared hydrophilic nanocomposites was ∼50 nm, which could be further tuned by varying the concentrations of the monomers. Importantly, these nanocomposites were further utilized for the facile, highly sensitive, and selective detection of nitroaromatics. The linear ranges for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP) lie in 0.01-0.5 μg/mL and 0.05-8.0 μg/mL, respectively, barely interfered with by other nitroaromatics such as 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) and nitrobenzene (NB). Moreover, the novel surface modification method developed here offered a general strategy for fabricating hydrophobic nanocomposites with hydrophilic properties and indicated various potential applications including sensing and imaging. PMID:25605399

  9. Determination of trace copper ions with ultrahigh sensitivity and selectivity utilizing CdTe quantum dots coupled with enzyme inhibition.

    PubMed

    Guo, Caixin; Wang, Jinliang; Cheng, Jing; Dai, Zhifei

    2012-01-01

    A fluorescent transducer with the combination of the unique property of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) and enzymatic inhibition assays was successfully constructed for the purpose of ultrasensitive determination of Cu(2+) ions. Alcohol oxidase (AO) catalyzed the oxidation of methanol to produce hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), inducing the quenching of QDs fluorescence. In the presence of Cu(2+) ions, the activity of AO was inhibited and therefore, the quenching of QDs fluorescence was decreased. Other metal ions showed no intensive inhibition to the AO activity even at 10 or 100 times Cu(2+) ions concentration, presenting a high selectivity of this fluorescent sensor. Using this QDs-enzyme hybrid system, the detection limit for Cu(2+) ions was found to be as low as 0.176 ng/mL (2.75 nM) due to the superior fluorescence property of QDs. Practical application of the QDs-enzyme hybrid system has been demonstrated by domestic waste water, agricultural irrigation water and lake water analysis. Results of Cu(2+) determinations were in good agreement with those obtained by inductively coupled plasma analytical method. The coupling of efficient quenching of QDs photoluminescence by H(2)O(2) generated from oxidase-catalyzed reaction and the effective enzymatic inhibition make this a simple and sensitive method for heavy metal ions detection. PMID:22521943

  10. Disposable electrochemiluminescent biosensor using bidentate-chelated CdTe quantum dots as emitters for sensitive detection of glucose.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lingxiao; Deng, Shengyuan; Lei, Jianping; Ju, Huangxian

    2012-01-01

    A novel disposable solid-state electrochemiluminescent (ECL) biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing glucose oxidase and surface-unpassivated CdTe quantum dots (QDs) on a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE). The surface morphology of the biosensor was characterized with scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. With dissolved O(2) as an endogenous coreactant, QDs/SPCE showed strong ECL emission in pH 9.0 HCl-Tris buffer solution with low ECL peak potential at -0.89 V. The ECL intensity was twice that with hydrogen peroxide as coreactant at the same concentration. This phenomenon meant the ECL decreased upon consumption of dissolved O(2) and thus could be applied to the construction of oxidase-based ECL biosensors. With glucose oxidase as a model enzyme, the biosensor showed rapid response to glucose with a linear range of 0.8 to 100 μM and a detection limit of 0.3 μM. Further detection of glucose contained in human serum samples showed acceptable sensitivity and selectivity. This work provided a promising application of QDs in ECL-based disposable biosensors. PMID:22034620

  11. Co-sensitization of ZnO by CdS quantum dots in natural dye-sensitized solar cells with polymeric electrolytes to improve the cell stability

    SciTech Connect

    Junhom, W.; Magaraphan, R.

    2015-05-22

    The CdS quantum dots (QDs) were deposited on ZnO layer by chemical bath deposition method to absorb light in the shorter wavelength region and used as photoanode in the dye sensitized solar cell (DSSCs) with natural dye extracted from Noni leaves. Microstructures of CdS-ZnO from various dipping time were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM and EDX. The results showed that the CdS is hexagonal structure and the amount of CdS increases when the dipping time increases. The maximal conversion efficiency of 0.292% was achieved by the DSSCs based on CdS QDs-sensitized ZnO film obtained from 9 min-dipping time. Furthermore, the stability of DSSCs was improved by using polymeric electrolyte. Poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) and Polyacrylamide (PAM) were introduced to CdS QDs-sensitized ZnO film from 9 min-dipping time. Each polymeric electrolyte was prepared by swelling from 0.1-2.0 %w in H2O. The maximal conversion efficiency of 0.207% was achieved for DSSCs based on CdS QDs-sensitized ZnO film with PAM 1.0% and the conversion efficiency was decreased 25% when it was left for1 hr.

  12. Novel fluorescent ELISA for the sensitive detection of zearalenone based on H2O2-sensitive quantum dots for signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Shengnan; Huang, Xiaolin; Chen, Rui; Li, Juan; Xiong, Yonghua

    2016-09-01

    A direct competitive fluorescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection of zearalenone (ZEN) using ZEN labeled catalase (CAT) as a competing antigen with H2O2-sensitive CdTe quantum dots (QDs) for signal transduction. The novel fluorescent ELISA showed very high sensitivity for ZEN detection because it combined the high catalytic activity of CAT to H2O2 and H2O2-sensitive property of QDs. Under optimal conditions, the developed method showed a good dynamic linear detection for ZEN in the range of 2.4pg/mL to 1.25ng/mL with a detection limit of 4.1pg/mL. The median inhibition concentration (IC50) of ZEN was 75pg/mL, which was approximately 17-fold lower than that of horseradish peroxidase-based conventional ELISA. Moreover, our developed method also showed a high reproducibility and an excellent selectivity. In brief, the novel fluorescent ELISA shows great potential for the sensitive and economic detection of mycotoxins and other analytes in food analysis, clinical diagnosis and environmental monitoring. PMID:27343577

  13. Co-sensitization of ZnO by CdS quantum dots in natural dye-sensitized solar cells with polymeric electrolytes to improve the cell stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junhom, W.; Magaraphan, R.

    2015-05-01

    The CdS quantum dots (QDs) were deposited on ZnO layer by chemical bath deposition method to absorb light in the shorter wavelength region and used as photoanode in the dye sensitized solar cell (DSSCs) with natural dye extracted from Noni leaves. Microstructures of CdS-ZnO from various dipping time were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM and EDX. The results showed that the CdS is hexagonal structure and the amount of CdS increases when the dipping time increases. The maximal conversion efficiency of 0.292% was achieved by the DSSCs based on CdS QDs-sensitized ZnO film obtained from 9 min-dipping time. Furthermore, the stability of DSSCs was improved by using polymeric electrolyte. Poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) and Polyacrylamide (PAM) were introduced to CdS QDs-sensitized ZnO film from 9 min-dipping time. Each polymeric electrolyte was prepared by swelling from 0.1-2.0 %w in H2O. The maximal conversion efficiency of 0.207% was achieved for DSSCs based on CdS QDs-sensitized ZnO film with PAM 1.0% and the conversion efficiency was decreased 25% when it was left for1 hr.

  14. A Novel Sensor for Sensitive and Selective Detection of Iodide Using Turn-on Fluorescence Graphene Quantum Dots/Ag Nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xianghong; Wang, Yanhui

    2015-01-01

    Based on the principle of fluorescence enhancing, by the strong and specific interreaction between iodide (I(-)) ions and nanoAg on the surface of graphene quantum dots/Ag (GQDs/Ag) nanocomposite, we propose a simple label-free and turn-on method for the detection of I(-) ions with high selectivity and sensitivity by using fluorescent GQDs/Ag nanocomposite in aqueous media. PMID:26256602

  15. A sensitive fluorescent nanosensor for chloramphenicol based on molecularly imprinted polymer-capped CdTe quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Amjadi, Mohammad; Jalili, Roghayeh; Manzoori, Jamshid L

    2016-05-01

    A novel fluorescent nanosensor using molecularly imprinted silica nanospheres embedded CdTe quantum dots (CdTe@SiO2 @MIP) was developed for detection and quantification of chloramphenicol (CAP). The imprinted sensor was prepared by synthesis of molecularly imprinting polymer (MIP) on the hydrophilic CdTe quantum dots via reverse microemulsion method using small amounts of solvents. The resulting CdTe@SiO2 @MIP nanoparticles were characterized by fluorescence, UV-vis absorption and FT-IR spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. They preserved 48% of fluorescence quantum yield of the parent quantum dots. CAP remarkably quenched the fluorescence of prepared CdTe@SiO2 @MIP, probably via electron transfer mechanism. Under the optimal conditions, the relative fluorescence intensity of CdTe@SiO2 @MIP decreased with increasing CAP by a Stern-Volmer type equation in the concentration range of 40-500 µg L(-1). The corresponding detection limit was 5.0 µg L(-1). The intra-day and inter-day values for the precision of the proposed method were all <4%. The developed sensor had a good selectivity and was applied to determine CAP in spiked human and bovine serum and milk samples with satisfactory results. PMID:27037966

  16. Transport through graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güttinger, J.; Molitor, F.; Stampfer, C.; Schnez, S.; Jacobsen, A.; Dröscher, S.; Ihn, T.; Ensslin, K.

    2012-12-01

    We review transport experiments on graphene quantum dots and narrow graphene constrictions. In a quantum dot, electrons are confined in all lateral dimensions, offering the possibility for detailed investigation and controlled manipulation of individual quantum systems. The recently isolated two-dimensional carbon allotrope graphene is an interesting host to study quantum phenomena, due to its novel electronic properties and the expected weak interaction of the electron spin with the material. Graphene quantum dots are fabricated by etching mono-layer flakes into small islands (diameter 60-350 nm) with narrow connections to contacts (width 20-75 nm), serving as tunneling barriers for transport spectroscopy. Electron confinement in graphene quantum dots is observed by measuring Coulomb blockade and transport through excited states, a manifestation of quantum confinement. Measurements in a magnetic field perpendicular to the sample plane allowed to identify the regime with only a few charge carriers in the dot (electron-hole transition), and the crossover to the formation of the graphene specific zero-energy Landau level at high fields. After rotation of the sample into parallel magnetic field orientation, Zeeman spin splitting with a g-factor of g ≈ 2 is measured. The filling sequence of subsequent spin states is similar to what was found in GaAs and related to the non-negligible influence of exchange interactions among the electrons.

  17. CdS/CdSe quantum dots and ZnPc dye co-sensitized solar cells with Au nanoparticles/graphene oxide as efficient modified layer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cong; Cheng, Yu; Jin, Junjie; Dai, Qilin; Song, Hongwei

    2016-10-15

    Co-sensitization by using two or more sensitizers with complementary absorption spectra to expand the spectral response range is an effective approach to enhance device performance of quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). To improve the light-harvesting in the visible/near-infrared (NIR) region, organic dye zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) was combined with CdS/CdSe quantum dots (QDs) for co-sensitized solar cells based on ZnO inverse opals (IOs) as photoanode. The resulting co-sensitized device shows an efficient panchromatic spectral response feature to ∼750nm and presents an overall conversion efficiency of 4.01%, which is superior to that of the individual ZnPc-sensitized solar cells and CdS/CdSe-sensitized solar cells. Meanwhile, an Au nanoparticles/graphene oxide (Au NPs/GO) composite layer was successfully prepared to modify Cu2S counter electrode for the co-sensitized solar cells. Reducing the carrier recombination process by GO and catalytic process of Au NPs leads to increased power conversion efficiency(PCE) from 4.01 to 4.60% and sustainable stability remains ∼85% of its original value after 60min light exposure. In this paper, introduction of the organic dyes as co-sensitizer and Au NPs/GO as counter electrode modified layer has been proved to be an effective route to improve the performance of QDSSCs. PMID:27399618

  18. An enzymatically-sensitized sequential and concentric energy transfer relay self-assembled around semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Anirban; Walper, Scott A.; Susumu, Kimihiro; Dwyer, Chris L.; Medintz, Igor L.

    2015-04-01

    The ability to control light energy within de novo nanoscale structures and devices will greatly benefit their continuing development and ultimate application. Ideally, this control should extend from generating the light itself to its spatial propagation within the device along with providing defined emission wavelength(s), all in a stand-alone modality. Here we design and characterize macromolecular nanoassemblies consisting of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), several differentially dye-labeled peptides and the enzyme luciferase which cumulatively demonstrate many of these capabilities by engaging in multiple-sequential energy transfer steps. To create these structures, recombinantly-expressed luciferase and the dye-labeled peptides were appended with a terminal polyhistidine sequence allowing for controlled ratiometric self-assembly around the QDs via metal-affinity coordination. The QDs serve to provide multiple roles in these structures including as central assembly platforms or nanoscaffolds along with acting as a potent energy harvesting and transfer relay. The devices are activated by addition of coelenterazine H substrate which is oxidized by luciferase producing light energy which sensitizes the central 625 nm emitting QD acceptor by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET). The sensitized QD, in turn, acts as a relay and transfers the energy to a first peptide-labeled Alexa Fluor 647 acceptor dye displayed on its surface. This dye then transfers energy to a second red-shifted peptide-labeled dye acceptor on the QD surface through a second concentric Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) process. Alexa Fluor 700 and Cy5.5 are both tested in the role of this terminal FRET acceptor. Photophysical analysis of spectral profiles from the resulting sequential BRET-FRET-FRET processes allow us to estimate the efficiency of each of the transfer steps. Importantly, the efficiency of each step within this energy transfer cascade can be controlled to

  19. Intercalation of quantum dots as the new signal acquisition and amplification platform for sensitive electrochemiluminescent detection of microRNA.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Xiang, Yun; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin

    2015-09-01

    Herein, we report on the development of a simple and sensitive biosensor for electrochemiluminescent (ECL) detection of microRNAs (miRNA) based on the intercalation of doxorubicin-conjugated quantum dot nanoparticles (Dox-QDs) into the DNA/RNA hybrids as the new signal acquisition and amplification platform. The thiolated DNA capture probes are self-assembled onto gold electrodes via the formation of Au-S bonds. The sensing surface is then incubated in a target miRNA-containing buffer solution to form the double-stranded duplexes. In this case, massive Dox-QDs can intercalate into the base pairs of the hybrid duplexes, resulting in amplified ECL emissions due to their reactions with the coreactant [Formula: see text] and the dissolved oxygen in the detection buffer. The increase in ECL intensity proportional to the amount of target miRNA in the testing samples serves as the quantitative basis. Different from traditional QDs-based methods such as labeling and embedding, our sensor involves the employment of the intercalation of the Dox-QDs as the signal acquisition and amplification platform. The combination of the QDs intercalation amplification with the high sensitivity of the ECL technique enables us to detect miRNA down to the low femtomolar level. Moreover, our method is also coupled with acceptable selectivity in discriminating the target miRNA and against its family members as well as other interference sequence, and can monitor miRNAs from human prostate carcinoma (22Rv1) cell lysates. PMID:26388371

  20. Optically active quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerard, Valerie; Govan, Joseph; Loudon, Alexander; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.; Gun'ko, Yurii K.

    2015-10-01

    The main goal of our research is to develop new types of technologically important optically active quantum dot (QD) based materials, study their properties and explore their biological applications. For the first time chiral II-VI QDs have been prepared by us using microwave induced heating with the racemic (Rac), D- and L-enantiomeric forms of penicillamine as stabilisers. Circular dichroism (CD) studies of these QDs have shown that D- and L-penicillamine stabilised particles produced mirror image CD spectra, while the particles prepared with a Rac mixture showed only a weak signal. It was also demonstrated that these QDs show very broad emission bands between 400 and 700 nm due to defects or trap states on the surfaces of the nanocrystals. These QDs have demonstrated highly specific chiral recognition of various biological species including aminoacids. The utilisation of chiral stabilisers also allowed the preparation of new water soluble white emitting CdS nano-tetrapods, which demonstrated circular dichroism in the band-edge region of the spectrum. Biological testing of chiral CdS nanotetrapods displayed a chiral bias for an uptake of the D- penicillamine stabilised nano-tetrapods by cancer cells. It is expected that this research will open new horizons in the chemistry of chiral nanomaterials and their application in nanobiotechnology, medicine and optical chemo- and bio-sensing.

  1. Front-side illuminated CdS/CdSe quantum dots co-sensitized solar cells based on TiO2 nanotube arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xiao-Fang; Huang, Shu-Qing; Zhang, Quan-Xin; Shen, Xi; Sun, Hui-Cheng; Li, Dong-Mei; Luo, Yan-Hong; Yu, Ri-Cheng; Meng, Qing-Bo

    2011-11-01

    We fabricated a front-side illuminated CdS/CdSe quantum dots co-sensitized solar cell based on TiO2 nanotube arrays. The freestanding TiO2 nanotube arrays were first detached from anodic oxidized Ti foils and then transferred to the fluorine-doped tin oxide to form photoanodes. An opaque Cu2S with high electrochemical activity was used as the counter electrode. A photovoltaic conversion efficiency as high as 3.01% under one sun illumination has been achieved after optimizing the deposition time of CdSe quantum dots and the length of the TiO2 nanotube arrays. It is observed that the power conversion efficiency of quantum dots sensitized solar cells from the front-side illumination mode (3.01%) is much higher than that of the back-side illumination mode (1.32%) owing to the poor catalytic activity of Pt to polysulfide electrolytes and light absorption by the electrolytes for the latter.

  2. Simultaneous quantitative detection of multiple tumor markers with a rapid and sensitive multicolor quantum dots based immunochromatographic test strip.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunying; Hou, Fei; Ma, Yicai

    2015-06-15

    A novel multicolor quantum dots (QDs) based immunochromatographic test strip (ICTS) was developed for simultaneous quantitative detection of multiple tumor markers, by utilizing alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as models. The immunosensor could realize simultaneous quantitative detection of tumor markers with only one test line and one control line on the nitrocellulose membrane (NC membrane) due to the introduction of multicolor QDs. In this method, a mixture of mouse anti-AFP McAb and mouse anti-CEA McAb was coated on NC membrane as test line and goat anti-mouse IgG antibody was coated as control line. Anti-AFP McAb-QDs546 conjugates and anti-CEA McAb-QDs620 conjugates were mixed and applied to the conjugate pad. Simultaneous quantitative detection of multiple tumor markers was achieved by detecting the fluorescence intensity of captured QDs labels on test line and control line using a test strip reader. Under the optimum conditions, AFP and CEA could be detected as low as 3 ng/mL and 2 ng/mL in 15 min with a sample volume of 80 μL, and no obvious cross-reactivity was observed. The immunosensor was validated with 130 clinical samples and in which it exhibited high sensitivity (93% for AFP and 87% for CEA) and specificity (94% for AFP and 97% for CEA). The immunosensor also demonstrated high recoveries (87.5-113% for AFP and 90-97.3% for CEA) and low relative standard deviations (RSDs) (2.8-6.2% for AFP and 4.9-9.6% for CEA) when testing spiked human serum. This novel multicolor QDs based ICTS provides an easy and rapid, simultaneous quantitative detecting strategy for point-of-care testing of tumor markers. PMID:25562743

  3. Self-illuminating quantum dots for highly sensitive in vivo real-time luminescent mapping of sentinel lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiang; Chu, Maoquan

    2012-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) show promise as novel nanomaterials for sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping through their use in noninvasive in vivo fluorescence imaging, and they have provided remarkable results. However, in vivo fluorescence imaging has limitations mainly reflected in the strong autofluorescence and low deepness of tissue penetration associated with this technique. Here, we report on the use of self-illuminating 3-mercaptopropionic acid-capped CdTe/CdS QDs for mouse axillary SLN mapping by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, which was found to overcome these limitations [corrected]. We used CdTe/CdS QDs synthesized in aqueous solution to conjugate a mutant of the bioluminescent protein, Renilla reniformis luciferase. The nanobioconjugates obtained had an average hydrodynamic diameter of 19 nm, and their luminescence catalyzed by the substrate (coelenterazine) could penetrate into at least 20 mm of hairless pigskin, which could be observed using an in vivo imaging system equipped with a 700 nm emission filter. Conversely, the fluorescence of the nanobioconjugates penetrated no more than 10 mm of pigskin and was observed with a strong background. When 80 μL of the nanobioconjugates (containing about 0.5 μmol/L of QDs) and 5 μL of coelenterazine (1 μg/μL) were intradermally injected into a mouse paw, the axillary SLN could be imaged in real time without external excitation, and little background interference was detected. Furthermore, the decayed luminescence of QD-Luc8 in SLNs could be recovered after being intradermally reinjected with the coelenterazine. Our data showed that using self-illuminating QDs, as opposed to fluorescence QDs, has greatly enhanced sensitivity in SLN mapping, and that the SLN could be identified synchronously by the luminescence and fluorescence of the self-illuminating QDs. PMID:22848169

  4. Chiral Graphene Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Nozomu; Wang, Yichun; Elvati, Paolo; Qu, Zhi-Bei; Kim, Kyoungwon; Jiang, Shuang; Baumeister, Elizabeth; Lee, Jaewook; Yeom, Bongjun; Bahng, Joong Hwan; Lee, Jaebeom; Violi, Angela; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2016-02-23

    Chiral nanostructures from metals and semiconductors attract wide interest as components for polarization-enabled optoelectronic devices. Similarly to other fields of nanotechnology, graphene-based materials can greatly enrich physical and chemical phenomena associated with optical and electronic properties of chiral nanostructures and facilitate their applications in biology as well as other areas. Here, we report that covalent attachment of l/d-cysteine moieties to the edges of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) leads to their helical buckling due to chiral interactions at the "crowded" edges. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the GQDs revealed bands at ca. 210-220 and 250-265 nm that changed their signs for different chirality of the cysteine edge ligands. The high-energy chiroptical peaks at 210-220 nm correspond to the hybridized molecular orbitals involving the chiral center of amino acids and atoms of graphene edges. Diverse experimental and modeling data, including density functional theory calculations of CD spectra with probabilistic distribution of GQD isomers, indicate that the band at 250-265 nm originates from the three-dimensional twisting of the graphene sheet and can be attributed to the chiral excitonic transitions. The positive and negative low-energy CD bands correspond to the left and right helicity of GQDs, respectively. Exposure of liver HepG2 cells to L/D-GQDs reveals their general biocompatibility and a noticeable difference in the toxicity of the stereoisomers. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrated that d-GQDs have a stronger tendency to accumulate within the cellular membrane than L-GQDs. Emergence of nanoscale chirality in GQDs decorated with biomolecules is expected to be a general stereochemical phenomenon for flexible sheets of nanomaterials. PMID:26743467

  5. Gallium arsenide-based long-wavelength quantum dot lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Gyoungwon

    2001-09-01

    GaAs-based long-wavelength quantum dot lasers have long been studied for applications to optical interconnects. The zero-dimensional confinement potential of quantum dots opens possibility of novel devices. Also, the quantum dot itself shows very interesting characteristics. This dissertation describes the development of GaAs-based 1.3 μm quantum dot lasers and the research on the unique characteristics of quantum dot ensemble. InGaAs quantum dots grown using molecular beam epitaxy in submonolayer deposition have extended wavelength around 1.3 μm and well resolved energy levels that can be described by three-dimensional harmonic oscillator model assuming parabolic confining potential. Lasing transitions from various InGaAs quantum dot energy levels are obtained from edge-emitting lasers. With optimized quantum dot active region and device structure, continuous-wave, room-temperature lasing operation around 1.3 μm is achieved with very low threshold current. Lateral confinement of carriers and photons in the cavity with AlxO y using wet-oxidation technique results in low waveguide loss, which lowers the threshold further. InGaAs quantum dot lasers have almost temperature- insensitive lasing threshold below ~200 K with very low threshold current density close to transparency current density. The rapid increase of threshold current along with temperature above ~200 K is due to thermal excitation of carriers into the higher energy levels and increase of non-radiative recombination. Quasi- equilibrium model for carrier dynamics shows that the optical gain of quantum dot ensemble is strongly temperature dependent, and that the separation between quantum dot energy levels plays an important role in the temperature dependence of the device characteristics. Several predictions of the model are compared with the experimental results. Lasing operation with less temperature-sensitivity is achieved from InAs quantum dot lasers with increased level separation.

  6. Low Threshold Quantum Dot Lasers.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Veena Hariharan; Mahadevu, Rekha; Pandey, Anshu

    2016-04-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots have replaced conventional inorganic phosphors in numerous applications. Despite their overall successes as emitters, their impact as laser materials has been severely limited. Eliciting stimulated emission from quantum dots requires excitation by intense short pulses of light typically generated using other lasers. In this Letter, we develop a new class of quantum dots that exhibit gain under conditions of extremely low levels of continuous wave illumination. We observe thresholds as low as 74 mW/cm(2) in lasers made from these materials. Due to their strong optical absorption as well as low lasing threshold, these materials could possibly convert light from diffuse, polychromatic sources into a laser beam. PMID:26978011

  7. A colloidal quantum dot spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Jie; Bawendi, Moungi G.

    2015-07-01

    Spectroscopy is carried out in almost every field of science, whenever light interacts with matter. Although sophisticated instruments with impressive performance characteristics are available, much effort continues to be invested in the development of miniaturized, cheap and easy-to-use systems. Current microspectrometer designs mostly use interference filters and interferometric optics that limit their photon efficiency, resolution and spectral range. Here we show that many of these limitations can be overcome by replacing interferometric optics with a two-dimensional absorptive filter array composed of colloidal quantum dots. Instead of measuring different bands of a spectrum individually after introducing temporal or spatial separations with gratings or interference-based narrowband filters, a colloidal quantum dot spectrometer measures a light spectrum based on the wavelength multiplexing principle: multiple spectral bands are encoded and detected simultaneously with one filter and one detector, respectively, with the array format allowing the process to be efficiently repeated many times using different filters with different encoding so that sufficient information is obtained to enable computational reconstruction of the target spectrum. We illustrate the performance of such a quantum dot microspectrometer, made from 195 different types of quantum dots with absorption features that cover a spectral range of 300 nanometres, by measuring shifts in spectral peak positions as small as one nanometre. Given this performance, demonstrable avenues for further improvement, the ease with which quantum dots can be processed and integrated, and their numerous finely tuneable bandgaps that cover a broad spectral range, we expect that quantum dot microspectrometers will be useful in applications where minimizing size, weight, cost and complexity of the spectrometer are critical.

  8. Self-assembly drives quantum dot photoluminescence.

    PubMed

    Plain, J; Sonnefraud, Y; Viste, P; Lérondel, G; Huant, S; Royer, P

    2009-03-01

    Engineering the spectral properties of quantum dots can be achieved by a control of the quantum dots organization on a substrate. Indeed, many applications of quantum dots as LEDs are based on the realization of a 3D architecture of quantum dots. In this contribution, we present a systematic study of the quantum dot organization obtained on different chemically modified substrates. By varying the chemical affinity between the quantum dots and the substrate, the quantum dot organization is strongly modified from the 2D monolayer to the 3D aggregates. Then the photoluminescence of the different obtained samples has been systematically studied and correlated with the quantum dot film organization. We clearly show that the interaction between the substrate and the quantum dot must be stronger than the quantum dot-quantum dot interaction to avoid 3D aggregation and that these organization strongly modified the photoluminescence of the film rather than intrinsic changes of the quantum dot induced by pure surface chemistry. PMID:18792763

  9. CuInS2-Sensitized Quantum Dot Solar Cell. Electrophoretic Deposition, Excited-State Dynamics, and Photovoltaic Performance.

    PubMed

    Santra, Pralay K; Nair, Pratheesh V; George Thomas, K; Kamat, Prashant V

    2013-03-01

    Ternary metal chalcogenides such as CuInS2 offer new opportunities to design quantum dot solar cells (QDSC). Chemically synthesized CuInS2 quantum dots (particle diameter, 2.6 nm) have been successfully deposited within the mesoscopic TiO2 film using electrophoretic deposition (150 V cm(-1) dc field). The primary photoinduced process of electron injection from excited CuInS2 into TiO2 occurs with a rate constant of 5.75 × 10(11) s(-1). The TiO2/CuInS2 films are photoactive and produce anodic photocurrent with a power conversion efficiency of 1.14%. Capping the TiO2/CuInS2 film with a CdS layer decreases the interfacial charge recombination and thus offers further improvement in the power conversion efficiency (3.91%). The synergy of using CdS as a passivation layer in the composite film is also evident from the increased external quantum efficiency of the electrode in the red region where only CuInS2 absorbs the incident light. PMID:26281925

  10. New small quantum dots for neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvin, Paul

    2014-03-01

    In "New Small Quantum Dots for Neuroscience," Paul Selvin (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign) notes how the details of synapsis activity in the brain involves chemical receptors that facilitate the creation of the electrical connection between two nerves. In order to understand the details of this neuroscience phenomenon you need to be able to "see" what is happening at the scale of these receptors, which is around 10 nanometers. This is smaller than the diffraction limit of normal microscopy and it takes place on a 3 dimensional structure. Selvin describes the development of small quantum dots (on the order of 6-9 microns) that are surface-sensitized to interact with the receptors. This allows the application of photo-activated localized microscopy (PALM), a superresolution microscopy that can be scanned through focus to develop a 3D map on a scale that is the same size as the emitter, which in this case are the small quantum dots. The quantum dots are stable in time and provide access to the receptors which allows the imaging of the interactions taking place at the synoptic level.

  11. Electric Field Modulation of Semiconductor Quantum Dot Photoluminescence: Insights Into the Design of Robust Voltage-Sensitive Cellular Imaging Probes.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Clare E; Susumu, Kimihiro; Stewart, Michael H; Oh, Eunkeu; Mäkinen, Antti J; O'Shaughnessy, Thomas J; Kushto, Gary; Wolak, Mason A; Erickson, Jeffrey S; Efros, Alexander L; Huston, Alan L; Delehanty, James B

    2015-10-14

    The intrinsic properties of quantum dots (QDs) and the growing ability to interface them controllably with living cells has far-reaching potential applications in probing cellular processes such as membrane action potential. We demonstrate that an electric field typical of those found in neuronal membranes results in suppression of the QD photoluminescence (PL) and, for the first time, that QD PL is able to track the action potential profile of a firing neuron with millisecond time resolution. This effect is shown to be connected with electric-field-driven QD ionization and consequent QD PL quenching, in contradiction with conventional wisdom that suppression of the QD PL is attributable to the quantum confined Stark effect. PMID:26414396

  12. Platelike WO3 sensitized with CdS quantum dots heterostructures for photoelectrochemical dynamic sensing of H2O2 based on enzymatic etching.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhu; Gao, Chaomin; Ge, Shenguang; Yu, Jinghua; Yan, Mei

    2016-11-15

    A platelike tungsten trioxide (WO3) sensitized with CdS quantum dots (QDs) heterojunction is developed for solar-driven, real-time, and selective photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensing of H2O2 in the living cells. The structure is synthesized by hydrothermally growing platelike WO3 on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) and subsequently sensitized with CdS QDs. The as-prepared WO3-CdS QDs heterojunction achieve significant photocurrent enhancement, which is remarkably beneficial for light absorption and charge carrier separation. Based on the enzymatic etching of CdS QDs enables the activation of quenching the charge transfer efficiency, thus leading to sensitive PEC recording of H2O2 level in buffer and cellular environments. The results indicated that the proposed method will pave the way for the development of excellent PEC sensing platform with the quantum dot sensitization. This study could also provide a new train of thought on designing of self-operating photoanode in PEC sensing, promoting the application of semiconductor nanomaterials in photoelectrochemistry. PMID:27179135

  13. Optically Modulated Bistability in Quantum Dot Resonant Tunneling Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Qian-Chun; An, Zheng-Hua; Hou, Ying; Zhu, Zi-Qiang

    2013-04-01

    InAs quantum dots are introduced into resonant tunneling diodes to study the electronic transport behavior, and a wide bistability (ΔV ~ 0.8 V) is observed in the negative differential resistance region. Based on an analytic model, we attribute the observed distinct bistability of a resonant tunneling diodes with quantum dots to the feedback dependence of energy of the electron-storing quantum dots on the tunneling current density. Meanwhile, we find that this wide bistable region can be modulated sensitively by light illumination and becomes narrower with increasing light intensity. Our results suggest that the present devices can be potentially used as sensitive photodetectors in optoelectronic fields.

  14. An enzymatically-sensitized sequential and concentric energy transfer relay self-assembled around semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Anirban; Walper, Scott A.; Susumu, Kimihiro; Dwyer, Chris L.; Medintz, Igor L.

    2015-04-01

    The ability to control light energy within de novo nanoscale structures and devices will greatly benefit their continuing development and ultimate application. Ideally, this control should extend from generating the light itself to its spatial propagation within the device along with providing defined emission wavelength(s), all in a stand-alone modality. Here we design and characterize macromolecular nanoassemblies consisting of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), several differentially dye-labeled peptides and the enzyme luciferase which cumulatively demonstrate many of these capabilities by engaging in multiple-sequential energy transfer steps. To create these structures, recombinantly-expressed luciferase and the dye-labeled peptides were appended with a terminal polyhistidine sequence allowing for controlled ratiometric self-assembly around the QDs via metal-affinity coordination. The QDs serve to provide multiple roles in these structures including as central assembly platforms or nanoscaffolds along with acting as a potent energy harvesting and transfer relay. The devices are activated by addition of coelenterazine H substrate which is oxidized by luciferase producing light energy which sensitizes the central 625 nm emitting QD acceptor by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET). The sensitized QD, in turn, acts as a relay and transfers the energy to a first peptide-labeled Alexa Fluor 647 acceptor dye displayed on its surface. This dye then transfers energy to a second red-shifted peptide-labeled dye acceptor on the QD surface through a second concentric Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) process. Alexa Fluor 700 and Cy5.5 are both tested in the role of this terminal FRET acceptor. Photophysical analysis of spectral profiles from the resulting sequential BRET-FRET-FRET processes allow us to estimate the efficiency of each of the transfer steps. Importantly, the efficiency of each step within this energy transfer cascade can be controlled to

  15. Optical Fiber Sensing Using Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Pedro; Martins, Manuel António; Trindade, Tito; Santos, José Luís; Farahi, Faramarz

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in the application of semiconductor nanocrystals, or quantum dots, as biochemical sensors are reviewed. Quantum dots have unique optical properties that make them promising alternatives to traditional dyes in many luminescence based bioanalytical techniques. An overview of the more relevant progresses in the application of quantum dots as biochemical probes is addressed. Special focus will be given to configurations where the sensing dots are incorporated in solid membranes and immobilized in optical fibers or planar waveguide platforms.

  16. Immunochromatographic assay for quantitative and sensitive detection of hepatitis B virus surface antigen using highly luminescent quantum dot-beads.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jun; Zhou, Yaofeng; Fu, Fen; Xu, Hengyi; Lv, Jiaofeng; Xiong, Yonghua; Wang, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Hepatitis B virus infection is one of the major causes of hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. In this study, we used highly luminescent quantum dot-beads (QBs) as signal amplification probes in the sandwich immunochromatographic assay (ICA) for ultrasensitive and quantitative detection of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) in human serum. Various parameters that influenced the sensitivity and stability of the QB-based ICA (QB-ICA) sensor were investigated. Two linear independent regression equations for detection of serum HBsAg were expressed with Y=0.3361X-0.0059 (R(2)=0.9983) for low HBsAg concentrations between 75 pg mL(-1) and 4.8 ng mL(-1), and Y=0.8404 X-2.9364 (R(2)=0.9939) for high HBsAg concentrations in the range from 4.8 ng mL(-1) to 75 ng mL(-1). The detection limit of the proposed ICA sensor achieved was 75 pg mL(-1), which is much higher than that of the routinely-used gold nanoparticle based ICA. The intra- and inter-assays recovery rates for spiked serum samples at HBsAg concentrations of 75 pg mL(-1), 3.75 ng mL(-1) and 18.75 ng mL(-1) ranged from 90.14% to 97.6%, and coefficients of variation were all below 7%, indicating that the QB-ICA sensor has an acceptable accuracy for HBsAg detection. Additionally, the quantitative method developed showed no false positive results in an analysis of 49 real HBsAg-negative serum samples, and exhibited excellent agreement (R(2)=0.9209) with a commercial chemiluminescence immunoassay kit in identifying 47 HBsAg-positive serum samples. In summary, due to its high fluorescence intensity, the sandwich QB-ICA sensor is a very promising point-of-care test for rapid, simple and ultrasensitive detection of HBsAg, as well as other disease-related protein biomarkers. PMID:26003704

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of TiO2 Nanotubes Sensitized with CdS Quantum Dots Using a One-Step Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jiahui; Zhang, Xinguo; Zhou, Chunyan; Lan, Yuwei; Pang, Qi; Zhou, Liya

    2015-01-01

    A novel one-step synthesis process was used to assemble CdS quantum dots (QDs) into TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTAs). The sensitization time of the TiO2 nanotubes can be adjusted by controlling the CdS QD synthesis time. The absorption band of sensitized TNTAs red-shifted and broadened to the visible spectrum. The photoelectric conversion efficiency increased to 0.83%, the open-circuit voltage to 776 mV, and the short-circuit current density ( J SC) to 2.30 mA cm-2 with increased sensitization time. The conversion efficiency with this new sensitization method was five times that of nonsensitized TNTAs, providing novel ideas for study of TNTA solar cells.

  18. Semiconductor double quantum dot micromaser.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y-Y; Stehlik, J; Eichler, C; Gullans, M J; Taylor, J M; Petta, J R

    2015-01-16

    The coherent generation of light, from masers to lasers, relies upon the specific structure of the individual emitters that lead to gain. Devices operating as lasers in the few-emitter limit provide opportunities for understanding quantum coherent phenomena, from terahertz sources to quantum communication. Here we demonstrate a maser that is driven by single-electron tunneling events. Semiconductor double quantum dots (DQDs) serve as a gain medium and are placed inside a high-quality factor microwave cavity. We verify maser action by comparing the statistics of the emitted microwave field above and below the maser threshold. PMID:25593187

  19. Brightness-equalized quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Sung Jun; Zahid, Mohammad U.; Le, Phuong; Ma, Liang; Entenberg, David; Harney, Allison S.; Condeelis, John; Smith, Andrew M.

    2015-10-01

    As molecular labels for cells and tissues, fluorescent probes have shaped our understanding of biological structures and processes. However, their capacity for quantitative analysis is limited because photon emission rates from multicolour fluorophores are dissimilar, unstable and often unpredictable, which obscures correlations between measured fluorescence and molecular concentration. Here we introduce a new class of light-emitting quantum dots with tunable and equalized fluorescence brightness across a broad range of colours. The key feature is independent tunability of emission wavelength, extinction coefficient and quantum yield through distinct structural domains in the nanocrystal. Precise tuning eliminates a 100-fold red-to-green brightness mismatch of size-tuned quantum dots at the ensemble and single-particle levels, which substantially improves quantitative imaging accuracy in biological tissue. We anticipate that these materials engineering principles will vastly expand the optical engineering landscape of fluorescent probes, facilitate quantitative multicolour imaging in living tissue and improve colour tuning in light-emitting devices.

  20. Brightness-equalized quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sung Jun; Zahid, Mohammad U.; Le, Phuong; Ma, Liang; Entenberg, David; Harney, Allison S.; Condeelis, John; Smith, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    As molecular labels for cells and tissues, fluorescent probes have shaped our understanding of biological structures and processes. However, their capacity for quantitative analysis is limited because photon emission rates from multicolour fluorophores are dissimilar, unstable and often unpredictable, which obscures correlations between measured fluorescence and molecular concentration. Here we introduce a new class of light-emitting quantum dots with tunable and equalized fluorescence brightness across a broad range of colours. The key feature is independent tunability of emission wavelength, extinction coefficient and quantum yield through distinct structural domains in the nanocrystal. Precise tuning eliminates a 100-fold red-to-green brightness mismatch of size-tuned quantum dots at the ensemble and single-particle levels, which substantially improves quantitative imaging accuracy in biological tissue. We anticipate that these materials engineering principles will vastly expand the optical engineering landscape of fluorescent probes, facilitate quantitative multicolour imaging in living tissue and improve colour tuning in light-emitting devices. PMID:26437175

  1. PbS Quantum Dots Sensitized TiO2 Solar Cells Prepared by Successive Ionic Layer Absorption and Reaction with Different Adsorption Layers.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jie; Duan, Yanfang; Liu, Chunxia; Gao, Shaohong; Han, Xueting; An, Limin

    2016-04-01

    Lead sulfide (PbS) quantum dots (QDs) have been synthesized via successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) on a titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoporous film for the fabrication of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). The reaction is environmental friendly and energy saving. The green synthesized PbS QDs match the maximum remittance region of the solar spectrum and are suitable as sensitizers for TiO2 electrodes for cell devices application. PbS QDs were adsorbed in different adsorption layers in order to improve the solar cell performance. The optical properties of PbS sensitized TiO2 films were studied by scanning electron microscopy and UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy. The photovoltaic characteristics of the PbS QDSCs were analyzed by I-V characteristics and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. As a result, the light harvesting was enhanced with increasing SILAR adsorption layers. The maximum photovoltaic conversion efficiency of the PbS QDSCs (3.14%) was obtained at the 12 adsorption layers with the highest short circuit current density and lowest charge transfer resistance. PMID:27451735

  2. Designing quantum dots for solotronics

    PubMed Central

    Kobak, J.; Smoleński, T.; Goryca, M.; Papaj, M.; Gietka, K.; Bogucki, A.; Koperski, M.; Rousset, J.-G.; Suffczyński, J.; Janik, E.; Nawrocki, M.; Golnik, A.; Kossacki, P.; Pacuski, W.

    2014-01-01

    Solotronics, optoelectronics based on solitary dopants, is an emerging field of research and technology reaching the ultimate limit of miniaturization. It aims at exploiting quantum properties of individual ions or defects embedded in a semiconductor matrix. It has already been shown that optical control of a magnetic ion spin is feasible using the carriers confined in a quantum dot. However, a serious obstacle was the quenching of the exciton luminescence by magnetic impurities. Here we show, by photoluminescence studies on thus-far-unexplored individual CdTe dots with a single cobalt ion and CdSe dots with a single manganese ion, that even if energetically allowed, nonradiative exciton recombination through single-magnetic-ion intra-ionic transitions is negligible in such zero-dimensional structures. This opens solotronics for a wide range of as yet unconsidered systems. On the basis of results of our single-spin relaxation experiments and on the material trends, we identify optimal magnetic-ion quantum dot systems for implementation of a single-ion-based spin memory. PMID:24463946

  3. The role of a TiCl4 treatment on the performance of CdS quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jongmin; Choi, Hongsik; Nahm, Changwoo; Kim, Chohui; Nam, Seunghoon; Kang, Suji; Jung, Dae-Ryong; Kim, Jae Ik; Kang, Joonhyeon; Park, Byungwoo

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the interface of TiO2/CdS/polysulfide-electrolyte in CdS quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs), a thin TiO2-coating layer is deposited onto a nanocrystalline TiO2 electrode by TiCl4. This nanoscale coating enhances the power-conversion efficiency by ∼40% compared with a bare CdS-sensitized solar cell. The main contribution to the efficiency enhancement lies in the reduced recombination rate at the TiO2/polysulfide-electrolyte interface by passivating the surface defects, as confirmed by the open-circuit decay, electrochemical impedance, and chronoamperometry. While the amount of CdS sensitizer remains the same with the coating layer, the optimum coating thickness demonstrates that electrolyte diffusion is another factor affecting the performance of QDSCs.

  4. Revealing energy level structure of individual quantum dots by tunneling rate measured by single-electron sensitive electrostatic force spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Roy-Gobeil, Antoine; Miyahara, Yoichi; Grutter, Peter

    2015-04-01

    We present theoretical and experimental studies of the effect of the density of states of a quantum dot (QD) on the rate of single-electron tunneling that can be directly measured by electrostatic force microscopy (e-EFM) experiments. In e-EFM, the motion of a biased atomic force microscope cantilever tip modulates the charge state of a QD in the Coulomb blockade regime. The charge dynamics of the dot, which is detected through its back-action on the capacitavely coupled cantilever, depends on the tunneling rate of the QD to a back-electrode. The density of states of the QD can therefore be measured through its effect on the energy dependence of tunneling rate. We present experimental data on individual 5 nm colloidal gold nanoparticles that exhibit a near continuous density of state at 77 K. In contrast, our analysis of already published data on self-assembled InAs QDs at 4 K clearly reveals discrete degenerate energy levels. PMID:25761141

  5. A rapid and sensitive assay for determination of doxycycline using thioglycolic acid-capped cadmium telluride quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Tashkhourian, Javad; Absalan, Ghodratollah; Jafari, Marzieh; Zare, Saber

    2016-01-01

    A rapid, simple and inexpensive spectrofluorimetric sensor for determination of doxycycline based on its interaction with thioglycolic acid-capped cadmium telluride quantum dots (TGA/CdTe QDs) has been developed. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the sensor exhibited a fast response time of <10s. The results revealed that doxycycline could quench the fluorescence of TGA/CdTe QDs via electron transfer from the QDs to doxycycline through a dynamic quenching mechanism. The sensor permitted determination of doxycycline in a concentration range of 1.9×10(-6)-6.1×10(-5)molL(-1) with a detection limit of 1.1×10(-7)molL(-1). The sensor was applied for determination of doxycycline in honey and human serum samples. PMID:26204505

  6. A rapid and sensitive assay for determination of doxycycline using thioglycolic acid-capped cadmium telluride quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashkhourian, Javad; Absalan, Ghodratollah; Jafari, Marzieh; Zare, Saber

    2016-01-01

    A rapid, simple and inexpensive spectrofluorimetric sensor for determination of doxycycline based on its interaction with thioglycolic acid-capped cadmium telluride quantum dots (TGA/CdTe QDs) has been developed. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the sensor exhibited a fast response time of <10 s. The results revealed that doxycycline could quench the fluorescence of TGA/CdTe QDs via electron transfer from the QDs to doxycycline through a dynamic quenching mechanism. The sensor permitted determination of doxycycline in a concentration range of 1.9 × 10-6-6.1 × 10-5 mol L-1 with a detection limit of 1.1 × 10-7 mol L-1. The sensor was applied for determination of doxycycline in honey and human serum samples.

  7. Thermoelectric energy harvesting with quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Sothmann, Björn; Sánchez, Rafael; Jordan, Andrew N

    2015-01-21

    We review recent theoretical work on thermoelectric energy harvesting in multi-terminal quantum-dot setups. We first discuss several examples of nanoscale heat engines based on Coulomb-coupled conductors. In particular, we focus on quantum dots in the Coulomb-blockade regime, chaotic cavities and resonant tunneling through quantum dots and wells. We then turn toward quantum-dot heat engines that are driven by bosonic degrees of freedom such as phonons, magnons and microwave photons. These systems provide interesting connections to spin caloritronics and circuit quantum electrodynamics. PMID:25549281

  8. Fabrication of ZnO nanostructures sensitized with CdS quantum dots for photovoltaic application using a convenient solution method

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Huan; Zhang, Gengmin; Yin, Jianbo; Liang, Jia; Sun, Wentao; Shen, Ziyong

    2015-01-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures sensitized with cadmium sulfide quantum dots (CdS QDs) were fabricated using a simple and inexpensive solution method. ZnO nanostructures, in the form of either nanocones or nanorods, were first grown directly from fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates in aqueous solutions of zinc nitrate (Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA, C{sub 6}H{sub 12}N{sub 4}) under external voltages. Then, CdS QDs were attached to these ZnO nanostructures via reactions in the mixed aqueous solutions of cadmium nitrate (Cd(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) and thioacetamide (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}NS). Photovoltaic responses were obtained from the quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) in which these CdS QD-covered ZnO nanostructures were employed as the photoanodes. The morphologies of the ZnO nanostructures, which could be effectively modulated via the substrate location in the solutions during the fabrication, were found to have played an important role in determining the properties of the QDSSCs.

  9. High performance of Mn-doped CdSe quantum dot sensitized solar cells based on the vertical ZnO nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Juan; Zhao, Haifeng; Huang, Fei; Jing, Qun; Cao, Haibin; Wu, Qiang; Peng, Shanglong; Cao, Guozhong

    2016-09-01

    Doping transition metal ions Mn2+ to semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are extremely interesting for the development of photovoltaic devices. Quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) are able to show promising power conversion efficiencies (PCE) by employing Mn2+ doped QDs. Herein we achieve effective CdS/Mnsbnd CdSe/ZnS QDs co-sensitized vertical ZnO nanorod arrays film that provides an appreciable enhancement in photovoltaic performance. The measured PCE of the solar cells with Mn2+ doped CdSe QDs is 4.14%, which is higher than the efficiency of 2.91% for the solar cells without Mn2+ or a ∼42% increase. The improvement in PCE is ascribed to a higher open-circuit voltage (Voc = 0.74 V) and a superior short-circuit current density (Jsc = 12.6 mA cm-2) with the introduction of Mn2+ into CdSe QDs. The enhancement seen with Mn2+ doped CdSe QDs are investigated and explained by the fact that the enhanced light absorption and reduced charge recombination by the formation of Mnsbnd CdSe passivation layer covering the QDs.

  10. Application of DNA Aptamers and Quantum Dots to Lateral Flow Test Strips for Detection of Foodborne Pathogens with Improved Sensitivity versus Colloidal Gold

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, John G.

    2014-01-01

    Preliminary studies aimed at improving the sensitivity of foodborne pathogen detection via lateral flow (LF) test strips by use of high affinity DNA aptamers for capture and reporter functions when coupled to red-emitting quantum dots (Qdot 655) are reported. A variety of DNA aptamers developed against Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica were paired in capture and reporter combinations to determine which yielded the strongest detection of their cognate bacteria using a colloidal gold screening system. Several promising sandwich combinations were identified for each of the three bacterial LF strip systems. The best E. coli aptamer-LF system was further studied and yielded a visible limit of detection (LOD) of ~3,000 E. coli 8739 and ~6,000 E. coli O157:H7 in buffer. These LODs were reduced to ~300–600 bacterial cells per test respectively by switching to a Qdot 655 aptamer-LF system. Novel aspects of these assays such as the use of high levels of detergents to avoid quantum dot agglutination and enhance migration in analytical membranes, identification of optimal analytical membrane types, UV-immobilization of capture aptamers, and novel dual biotin/digoxigenin-end labeled aptamer streptavidin-colloidal gold or -Qdot 655 conjugates plus anti-digoxigenin antibody control lines are also discussed. In general, this work provides proof-of-principle for highly sensitive aptamer-Qdot LF strip assays for rapid foodborne pathogen detection. PMID:25437803

  11. Application of DNA Aptamers and Quantum Dots to Lateral Flow Test Strips for Detection of Foodborne Pathogens with Improved Sensitivity versus Colloidal Gold.

    PubMed

    Bruno, John G

    2014-01-01

    Preliminary studies aimed at improving the sensitivity of foodborne pathogen detection via lateral flow (LF) test strips by use of high affinity DNA aptamers for capture and reporter functions when coupled to red-emitting quantum dots (Qdot 655) are reported. A variety of DNA aptamers developed against Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica were paired in capture and reporter combinations to determine which yielded the strongest detection of their cognate bacteria using a colloidal gold screening system. Several promising sandwich combinations were identified for each of the three bacterial LF strip systems. The best E. coli aptamer-LF system was further studied and yielded a visible limit of detection (LOD) of ~3,000 E. coli 8739 and ~6,000 E. coli O157:H7 in buffer. These LODs were reduced to ~300-600 bacterial cells per test respectively by switching to a Qdot 655 aptamer-LF system. Novel aspects of these assays such as the use of high levels of detergents to avoid quantum dot agglutination and enhance migration in analytical membranes, identification of optimal analytical membrane types, UV-immobilization of capture aptamers, and novel dual biotin/digoxigenin-end labeled aptamer streptavidin-colloidal gold or -Qdot 655 conjugates plus anti-digoxigenin antibody control lines are also discussed. In general, this work provides proof-of-principle for highly sensitive aptamer-Qdot LF strip assays for rapid foodborne pathogen detection. PMID:25437803

  12. Scanning photoluminescent spectroscopy of bioconjugated quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chornokur, G.; Ostapenko, S.; Oleynik, E.; Phelan, C.; Korsunska, N.; Kryshtab, T.; Zhang, J.; Wolcott, A.; Sellers, T.

    2009-04-01

    We report on the application of the bio-conjugated quantum dots (QDs) for a "sandwich" enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) cancer testing technique. Quantum dot ELISA detection of the cancer PSA antigen at concentrations as low as 0.01 ng/ml which is ˜50 times lower than the classic "sandwich" ELISA was demonstrated. Scanning photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy was performed on dried ELISA wells and the results compared with the same QD samples dried on a solid substrate. We confirmed a "blue" up to 37 nm PL spectral shift in a case of QDs conjugated to PSA antibodies. Increasing of the "blue" spectral shift was observed at lower PSA antigen concentrations. The results can be used to improve sensitivity of "sandwich" ELISA cancer antigen detection.

  13. Quantitative multiplexed quantum dot immunohistochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, E.; Ward, T.H.; Gray, N.; Womack, C.; Jayson, G.; Hughes, A.; Dive, C.; Byers, R.

    2008-09-19

    Quantum dots are photostable fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals possessing wide excitation and bright narrow, symmetrical, emission spectra. These characteristics have engendered considerable interest in their application in multiplex immunohistochemistry for biomarker quantification and co-localisation in clinical samples. Robust quantitation allows biomarker validation, and there is growing need for multiplex staining due to limited quantity of clinical samples. Most reported multiplexed quantum dot staining used sequential methods that are laborious and impractical in a high-throughput setting. Problems associated with sequential multiplex staining have been investigated and a method developed using QDs conjugated to biotinylated primary antibodies, enabling simultaneous multiplex staining with three antibodies. CD34, Cytokeratin 18 and cleaved Caspase 3 were triplexed in tonsillar tissue using an 8 h protocol, each localised to separate cellular compartments. This demonstrates utility of the method for biomarker measurement enabling rapid measurement of multiple co-localised biomarkers on single paraffin tissue sections, of importance for clinical trial studies.

  14. Quantum Dot Light Emitting Diode

    SciTech Connect

    Keith Kahen

    2008-07-31

    The project objective is to create low cost coatable inorganic light emitting diodes, composed of quantum dot emitters and inorganic nanoparticles, which have the potential for efficiencies equivalent to that of LEDs and OLEDs and lifetime, brightness, and environmental stability between that of LEDs and OLEDs. At the end of the project the Recipient shall gain an understanding of the device physics and properties of Quantum-Dot LEDs (QD-LEDs), have reliable and accurate nanocrystal synthesis routines, and have formed green-yellow emitting QD-LEDs with a device efficiency greater than 3 lumens/W, a brightness greater than 400 cd/m2, and a device operational lifetime of more than 1000 hours. Thus the aim of the project is to break the current cost-efficiency paradigm by creating novel low cost inorganic LEDs composed of inorganic nanoparticles.

  15. Quantum Dot Light Emitting Diode

    SciTech Connect

    Kahen, Keith

    2008-07-31

    The project objective is to create low cost coatable inorganic light emitting diodes, composed of quantum dot emitters and inorganic nanoparticles, which have the potential for efficiencies equivalent to that of LEDs and OLEDs and lifetime, brightness, and environmental stability between that of LEDs and OLEDs. At the end of the project the Recipient shall gain an understanding of the device physics and properties of Quantum-Dot LEDs (QD-LEDs), have reliable and accurate nanocrystal synthesis routines, and have formed green-yellow emitting QD-LEDs with a device efficiency greater than 3 lumens/W, a brightness greater than 400 cd/m{sup 2}, and a device operational lifetime of more than 1000 hours. Thus the aim of the project is to break the current cost-efficiency paradigm by creating novel low cost inorganic LEDs composed of inorganic nanoparticles.

  16. Spin transport measurements in gallium arsenide quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folk, Joshua Alexander

    This thesis presents a series of measurements investigating the spin physics of lateral quantum dots, defined electrostatically in the 2-D electron gas at the interface of a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The experiments span a range from open dots, where the leads of the dot carry at least one fully transmitting mode, to closed dots, where the leads are set to be tunnel barriers. For open dots, spin physics is inferred from measurements of conductance fluctuations; the effects of spin degeneracy in the orbital levels as well as a spin-orbit interaction are observed. In the closed dot measurements, ground state spin transitions as electrons are added to the dot may be determined from the motion of Coulomb blockade peaks in an in-plane magnetic field. In addition, this thesis demonstrates for the first time a direct measurement of the spin polarization of current emitted from a quantum dot, or a quantum point contact, during transport. These experiments make use of a spin-sensitive focusing geometry in which a quantum point contact serves as a spin analyzer for the mesoscopic device under test. Measurements are presented both in the open dot regime, where good agreement with theory is found, as well as the closed dot regime, where the data defies a simple theoretical explanation.

  17. Nanocrystal Size-Dependent Efficiency of Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells in the Strongly Coupled CdSe Nanocrystals/TiO2 System.

    PubMed

    Yun, Hyeong Jin; Paik, Taejong; Diroll, Benjamin; Edley, Michael E; Baxter, Jason B; Murray, Christopher B

    2016-06-15

    Light absorption and electron injection are important criteria determining solar energy conversion efficiency. In this research, monodisperse CdSe quantum dots (QDs) are synthesized with five different diameters, and the size-dependent solar energy conversion efficiency of CdSe quantum dot sensitized solar cell (QDSSCs) is investigated by employing the atomic inorganic ligand, S(2-). Absorbance measurements and transmission electron microscopy show that the diameters of the uniform CdSe QDs are 2.5, 3.2, 4.2, 6.4, and 7.8 nm. Larger CdSe QDs generate a larger amount of charge under the irradiation of long wavelength photons, as verified by the absorbance results and the measurements of the external quantum efficiencies. However, the smaller QDs exhibit faster electron injection kinetics from CdSe QDs to TiO2 because of the high energy level of CBCdSe, as verified by time-resolved photoluminescence and internal quantum efficiency results. Importantly, the S(2-) ligand significantly enhances the electronic coupling between the CdSe QDs and TiO2, yielding an enhancement of the charge transfer rate at the interfacial region. As a result, the S(2-) ligand helps improve the new size-dependent solar energy conversion efficiency, showing best performance with 4.2-nm CdSe QDs, whereas conventional ligand, mercaptopropionic acid, does not show any differences in efficiency according to the size of the CdSe QDs. The findings reported herein suggest that the atomic inorganic ligand reinforces the influence of quantum confinement on the solar energy conversion efficiency of QDSSCs. PMID:27224958

  18. Tunneling through a quantum dot in a quantum waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsen'ev, A. A.

    2010-07-01

    The problem is considered of scattering in a system consisting of a quantum waveguide and a quantum dot weakly coupled to the waveguide. It is assumed that the quantum waveguide is described by the Pauli equations, and the Rashba spin-orbit interaction is taken into account. The possibility of tunneling through the quantum dot is proved.

  19. Inkjet-assisted layer-by-layer printing of quantum dot/enzyme microarrays for highly sensitive detection of organophosphorous pesticides.

    PubMed

    Luan, Enxiao; Zheng, Zhaozhu; Li, Xinyu; Gu, Hongxi; Liu, Shaoqin

    2016-04-15

    We present a facile fabrication of layer-by-layer (LbL) microarrays of quantum dots (QDs) and acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE). The resulting arrays had several unique properties, such as low cost, high integration and excellent flexibility and time-saving. The presence of organophosphorous pesticides (OPs) can inhibit the AChE activity and thus changes the fluorescent intensity of QDs/AChE microscopic dot arrays. Therefore, the QDs/AChE microscopic dot arrays were used for the sensitive visual detection of OPs. Linear calibration for parathion and paraoxon was obtained in the range of 5-100 μg L(-1) under the optimized conditions with the limit of detection (LOD) of 10 μg L(-1). The arrays have been successfully used for detection of OPs in fruits and water real samples. The new array was validated by comparison with conventional high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). PMID:27016441

  20. Modeling of the quantum dot filling and the dark current of quantum dot infrared photodetectors

    SciTech Connect

    Ameen, Tarek A.; El-Batawy, Yasser M.; Abouelsaood, A. A.

    2014-02-14

    A generalized drift-diffusion model for the calculation of both the quantum dot filling profile and the dark current of quantum dot infrared photodetectors is proposed. The confined electrons inside the quantum dots produce a space-charge potential barrier between the two contacts, which controls the quantum dot filling and limits the dark current in the device. The results of the model reasonably agree with a published experimental work. It is found that increasing either the doping level or the temperature results in an exponential increase of the dark current. The quantum dot filling turns out to be nonuniform, with a dot near the contacts containing more electrons than one in the middle of the device where the dot occupation approximately equals the number of doping atoms per dot, which means that quantum dots away from contacts will be nearly unoccupied if the active region is undoped.

  1. Improved conversion efficiency of Ag2S quantum dot-sensitized solar cells based on TiO2 nanotubes with a ZnO recombination barrier layer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We improve the conversion efficiency of Ag2S quantum dot (QD)-sensitized TiO2 nanotube-array electrodes by chemically depositing ZnO recombination barrier layer on plain TiO2 nanotube-array electrodes. The optical properties, structural properties, compositional analysis, and photoelectrochemistry properties of prepared electrodes have been investigated. It is found that for the prepared electrodes, with increasing the cycles of Ag2S deposition, the photocurrent density and the conversion efficiency increase. In addition, as compared to the Ag2S QD-sensitized TiO2 nanotube-array electrode without the ZnO layers, the conversion efficiency of the electrode with the ZnO layers increases significantly due to the formation of efficient recombination layer between the TiO2 nanotube array and electrolyte. PMID:21777458

  2. The quantum Hall effect in quantum dot systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltukov, Y. M.; Greshnov, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    It is proposed to use quantum dots in order to increase the temperatures suitable for observation of the integer quantum Hall effect. A simple estimation using Fock-Darwin spectrum of a quantum dot shows that good part of carriers localized in quantum dots generate the intervals of plateaus robust against elevated temperatures. Numerical calculations employing local trigonometric basis and highly efficient kernel polynomial method adopted for computing the Hall conductivity reveal that quantum dots may enhance peak temperature for the effect by an order of magnitude, possibly above 77 K. Requirements to potentials, quality and arrangement of the quantum dots essential for practical realization of such enhancement are indicated. Comparison of our theoretical results with the quantum Hall measurements in InAs quantum dot systems from two experimental groups is also given.

  3. Synthetic Developments of Nontoxic Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Das, Adita; Snee, Preston T

    2016-03-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals, or quantum dots (QDs), are candidates for biological sensing, photovoltaics, and catalysis due to their unique photophysical properties. The most studied QDs are composed of heavy metals like cadmium and lead. However, this engenders concerns over heavy metal toxicity. To address this issue, numerous studies have explored the development of nontoxic (or more accurately less toxic) quantum dots. In this Review, we select three major classes of nontoxic quantum dots composed of carbon, silicon and Group I-III-VI elements and discuss the myriad of synthetic strategies and surface modification methods to synthesize quantum dots composed of these material systems. PMID:26548450

  4. Improved performance of CdS/CdSe quantum dots sensitized solar cell by incorporation of ZnO nanoparticles/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite as photoelectrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoreishi, F. S.; Ahmadi, V.; Samadpour, M.

    2014-12-01

    Here we present novel quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSC) based on ZnO nanoparticles (NPs)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposite photoanodes for better light harvesting and energy conversion. Photoelectrodes are prepared by doctor blading ZnO NPs/GO nanocomposite paste on a fluorine doped tin oxide substrate which are then sintered at 450 °C to obtain ZnO NPs/RGO nanocomposites. The partial reduction of GO after thermal reduction, is studied by Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopies. Cadmium sulfide (CdS) and cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots are deposited on the films through successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction and chemical bath deposition methods, respectively. The unique properties of ZnO NPs/RGO photoanodes, lead to a significant enhancement in the photovoltaic properties of solar cells in comparison with bare ZnO photoanodes. Current-voltage characteristics of cells are studied and the best results are obtained from ZnO NPs-RGO/CdS/CdSe with photoelectric conversion efficiency of 2.20% which is almost two times higher than cells which are made by pure ZnO NPs as photoanode (1.28%). Electrochemical impedance measurements show that the enhancement can be attributed to the increase of electron transfer rate in the ZnO NPs/RGO nanocomposite photoanode which arises from the ultrahigh electron mobility in graphene (RGO) sheets.

  5. Chiral quantum dot based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govan, Joseph; Loudon, Alexander; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.; Gun'ko, Yurii

    2014-05-01

    Recently, the use of stereospecific chiral stabilising molecules has also opened another avenue of interest in the area of quantum dot (QD) research. The main goal of our research is to develop new types of technologically important quantum dot materials containing chiral defects, study their properties and explore their applications. The utilisation of chiral penicillamine stabilisers allowed the preparation of new water soluble white emitting CdS quantum nanostructures which demonstrated circular dichroism in the band-edge region of the spectrum. It was also demonstrated that all three types of QDs (D-, L-, and Rac penicillamine stabilised) show very broad emission bands between 400 and 700 nm due to defects or trap states on the surfaces of the nanocrystals. In this work the chiral CdS based quantum nanostructures have also been doped by copper metal ions and new chiral penicilamine stabilized CuS nanoparticles have been prepared and investigated. It was found that copper doping had a strong effect at low levels in the synthesis of chiral CdS nanostructures. We expect that this research will open new horizons in the chemistry of chiral nanomaterials and their application in biotechnology, sensing and asymmetric synthesis.

  6. Hybrid light sensor based on ultrathin Si nanomembranes sensitized with CdSe/ZnS colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Weina; Sampat, Siddharth; Rupich, Sara M.; Anand, Benoy; Nguyen, Hue Minh; Taylor, David; Beardon, Brandon E.; Gartstein, Yuri N.; Chabal, Yves J.; Malko, Anton V.

    2015-04-01

    We report the observation of a large enhancement of the wavelength-dependent photocurrent in ultrathin silicon nanomembranes (SiNM) decorated with colloidal CdSe/ZnS nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs). Back-gated, field-effect transistor structures based on 75 nm-thick SiNMs are functionalized with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) preventing surface oxidation and minimizing the surface defect densities. NQDs are drop cast on the active region of the device and the photocurrent is measured as a function of the excitation wavelength across the NQD absorption region. Photocurrent enhancement on the order of several hundred nA's is observed for NQD/SAM/SiNM devices compared to reference SAM/SiNM structures, with the device peak response closely correlated to the NQD absorption peak. We propose light-induced gating of the surface electrostatic potential and forward self-biasing of the FET channel as the two key mechanisms leading to the large photocurrent increase. Our findings open the possibility of employing silicon-nanocrystal hybrid structures for light sensing applications.We report the observation of a large enhancement of the wavelength-dependent photocurrent in ultrathin silicon nanomembranes (SiNM) decorated with colloidal CdSe/ZnS nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs). Back-gated, field-effect transistor structures based on 75 nm-thick SiNMs are functionalized with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) preventing surface oxidation and minimizing the surface defect densities. NQDs are drop cast on the active region of the device and the photocurrent is measured as a function of the excitation wavelength across the NQD absorption region. Photocurrent enhancement on the order of several hundred nA's is observed for NQD/SAM/SiNM devices compared to reference SAM/SiNM structures, with the device peak response closely correlated to the NQD absorption peak. We propose light-induced gating of the surface electrostatic potential and forward self-biasing of the FET channel as the

  7. Tuning of polarization sensitivity in closely stacked trilayer InAs/GaAs quantum dots induced by overgrowth dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasco, Vittorianna; Usman, Muhammad; De Giorgi, Milena; Passaseo, Adriana

    2014-02-01

    Tailoring of electronic and optical properties of self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) is a critical limit for the design of several QD-based optoelectronic devices operating in the telecom frequency range. We describe how fine control of the strain-induced surface kinetics during the growth of vertically stacked multiple layers of QDs allows for the engineering of their self-organization process. Most noticeably, this study shows that the underlying strain field induced along a QD stack can be modulated and controlled by time-dependent intermixing and segregation effects occurring after capping with a GaAs spacer. This leads to a drastic increase of the TM/TE polarization ratio of emitted light, not accessible from conventional growth parameters. Our detailed experimental measurements, supported by comprehensive multi-million atom simulations of strain, electronic and optical properties, provide in-depth analysis of the grown QD samples allowing us to give a clear picture of the atomic scale phenomena affecting the proposed growth dynamics and consequent QD polarization response.

  8. Highly-sensitive organophosphorus pesticide biosensors based on CdTe quantum dots and bi-enzyme immobilized eggshell membranes.

    PubMed

    Xue, Gao; Yue, Zhao; Bing, Zhang; Yiwei, Tang; Xiuying, Liu; Jianrong, Li

    2016-02-01

    An optical biosensing method using CdTe quantum dots (QDs) and bi-enzyme-immobilized eggshell membranes for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) has been developed. Increasing amounts of OPs led to a decrease of the enzymatic activity and thus a decrease in the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which can quench the fluorescence of the CdTe QDs. Under the optimum conditions, there was a good linear relationship between the enzyme inhibition percentage and the logarithm of paraoxon or parathion concentration in the range of 1.0 × 10(-11)-1.0 × 10(-6) mol L(-1). The detection limit (S/N = 3) of the proposed biosensors were as low as 4.30 × 10(-12) mol L(-1) for paraoxon and 2.47 × 10(-12) mol L(-1) for parathion. The bi-enzyme-immobilized eggshell membrane demonstrated a long shelf-life of at least 2 months and the results showed good repeatability. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of the OPs in real fruit samples with satisfactory results. PMID:26688862

  9. Anomalous polarization in coupled quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X. H.; Jiang, H.; Sun, X.; Lin, H. Q.

    2000-04-01

    The coupled quantum dots can be designed to possess negative polarizability in low-lying excited states. In an electric field, the coupled dots are polarized, and the dipole moment of the coupled dots is reversed by absorbing one photon. This photoswitch effect is a new photoinduced phenomenon.

  10. Charge state hysteresis in semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C. H.; Rossi, A.; Lai, N. S.; Leon, R.; Lim, W. H.; Dzurak, A. S.

    2014-11-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots provide a two-dimensional analogy for real atoms and show promise for the implementation of scalable quantum computers. Here, we investigate the charge configurations in a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor double quantum dot tunnel coupled to a single reservoir of electrons. By operating the system in the few-electron regime, the stability diagram shows hysteretic tunnelling events that depend on the history of the dots charge occupancy. We present a model which accounts for the observed hysteretic behaviour by extending the established description for transport in double dots coupled to two reservoirs. We demonstrate that this type of device operates like a single-electron memory latch.

  11. Charge state hysteresis in semiconductor quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C. H.; Rossi, A. Lai, N. S.; Leon, R.; Lim, W. H.; Dzurak, A. S.

    2014-11-03

    Semiconductor quantum dots provide a two-dimensional analogy for real atoms and show promise for the implementation of scalable quantum computers. Here, we investigate the charge configurations in a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor double quantum dot tunnel coupled to a single reservoir of electrons. By operating the system in the few-electron regime, the stability diagram shows hysteretic tunnelling events that depend on the history of the dots charge occupancy. We present a model which accounts for the observed hysteretic behaviour by extending the established description for transport in double dots coupled to two reservoirs. We demonstrate that this type of device operates like a single-electron memory latch.

  12. A quantum dot in topological insulator nanofilm.

    PubMed

    Herath, Thakshila M; Hewageegana, Prabath; Apalkov, Vadym

    2014-03-19

    We introduce a quantum dot in topological insulator nanofilm as a bump at the surface of the nanofilm. Such a quantum dot can localize an electron if the size of the dot is large enough, ≳5 nm. The quantum dot in topological insulator nanofilm has states of two types, which belong to two ('conduction' and 'valence') bands of the topological insulator nanofilm. We study the energy spectra of such defined quantum dots. We also consider intraband and interband optical transitions within the dot. The optical transitions of the two types have the same selection rules. While the interband absorption spectra have multi-peak structure, each of the intraband spectra has one strong peak and a few weak high frequency satellites. PMID:24590177

  13. Electrical and thermal properties of a carbon nanotube/polycrystalline BiFeO3/Pt photovoltaic heterojunction with CdSe quantum dots sensitization.

    PubMed

    Zang, Yongyuan; Xie, Dan; Chen, Yu; Wu, Xiao; Ren, Tianling; Wei, Jinquan; Zhu, Hongwei; Plant, David

    2012-04-28

    Electrical and thermal properties of a carbon nanotube (CNT)/multiferroic BiFeO(3) (BFO)/Pt photovoltaic heterojunction are investigated for the first time. Enhanced photovoltaic properties (J(sc)≈ 2.1 μA cm(-2) and V(oc)≈ 0.47 V), as compared to the traditional polycrystalline BFO with indium tin oxide (ITO) as the top electrode, are observed due to the unique properties of CNT. An equivalent electrical and thermal model is constructed based on the energy band diagram of the CNT/BFO/Pt heterojunction for the first time and the carriers' transportation behavior is depicted theoretically. The influence of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) sensitization on the photovoltaic properties is presented, and a clear improvement of ~4 fold in photocurrent density is observed. PMID:22456599

  14. Electrical and thermal properties of a carbon nanotube/polycrystalline BiFeO3/Pt photovoltaic heterojunction with CdSe quantum dots sensitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Yongyuan; Xie, Dan; Chen, Yu; Wu, Xiao; Ren, Tianling; Wei, Jinquan; Zhu, Hongwei; Plant, David

    2012-04-01

    Electrical and thermal properties of a carbon nanotube (CNT)/multiferroic BiFeO3 (BFO)/Pt photovoltaic heterojunction are investigated for the first time. Enhanced photovoltaic properties (Jsc ~ 2.1 μA cm-2 and Voc ~ 0.47 V), as compared to the traditional polycrystalline BFO with indium tin oxide (ITO) as the top electrode, are observed due to the unique properties of CNT. An equivalent electrical and thermal model is constructed based on the energy band diagram of the CNT/BFO/Pt heterojunction for the first time and the carriers' transportation behavior is depicted theoretically. The influence of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) sensitization on the photovoltaic properties is presented, and a clear improvement of ~4 fold in photocurrent density is observed.

  15. Study of copper sulfide counter electrode on the performances of CdS/CdSe/ZnS-sensitized hierarchical TiO2 spheres quantum dots solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buatong, Nattha; Tang, I.-Ming; Pon-On, Weeraphat

    2015-07-01

    The effects of using copper sulfide (CuS) counter electrodes on the performances of solar cells made with CdS/CdSe/ZnS quantum dots co-sensitized onto hierarchical TiO2 spheres (HTS) used as photoelectrode is reported. The HTS in the QDSSCs is composed of an assembly of numerous TiO2 spheres made by the solvolthermal method. The photoelectrical performance of HTS/CdS/CdSe/ZnS coupled to CuS counter electrode was compared to those coupled to Pt CE. The HTS/CdS/CdSe/ZnS coupled to the CuS CE showed the highest power conversion efficiency η (of 1.310 %.) which is significantly higher than those using a standard Pt CE (η = 0.374%) (3.50 fold). This higher efficiency is the results of the higher electrocatalytic activities when the copper sulfide CEs is used.

  16. STED nanoscopy with fluorescent quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanne, Janina; Falk, Henning J.; Görlitz, Frederik; Hoyer, Patrick; Engelhardt, Johann; Sahl, Steffen J.; Hell, Stefan W.

    2015-05-01

    The widely popular class of quantum-dot molecular labels could so far not be utilized as standard fluorescent probes in STED (stimulated emission depletion) nanoscopy. This is because broad quantum-dot excitation spectra extend deeply into the spectral bands used for STED, thus compromising the transient fluorescence silencing required for attaining super-resolution. Here we report the discovery that STED nanoscopy of several red-emitting commercially available quantum dots is in fact successfully realized by the increasingly popular 775 nm STED laser light. A resolution of presently ~50 nm is demonstrated for single quantum dots, and sub-diffraction resolution is further shown for imaging of quantum-dot-labelled vimentin filaments in fibroblasts. The high quantum-dot photostability enables repeated STED recordings with >1,000 frames. In addition, we have evidence that the tendency of quantum-dot labels to blink is largely suppressed by combined action of excitation and STED beams. Quantum-dot STED significantly expands the realm of application of STED nanoscopy, and, given the high stability of these probes, holds promise for extended time-lapse imaging.

  17. Thick-shell nanocrystal quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Chen, Yongfen; Klimov, Victor I.; Htoon, Han; Vela, Javier

    2011-05-03

    Colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots comprising an inner core having an average diameter of at least 1.5 nm and an outer shell, where said outer shell comprises multiple monolayers, wherein at least 30% of the quantum dots have an on-time fraction of 0.80 or greater under continuous excitation conditions for a period of time of at least 10 minutes.

  18. STED nanoscopy with fluorescent quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Hanne, Janina; Falk, Henning J.; Görlitz, Frederik; Hoyer, Patrick; Engelhardt, Johann; Sahl, Steffen J.; Hell, Stefan W.

    2015-01-01

    The widely popular class of quantum-dot molecular labels could so far not be utilized as standard fluorescent probes in STED (stimulated emission depletion) nanoscopy. This is because broad quantum-dot excitation spectra extend deeply into the spectral bands used for STED, thus compromising the transient fluorescence silencing required for attaining super-resolution. Here we report the discovery that STED nanoscopy of several red-emitting commercially available quantum dots is in fact successfully realized by the increasingly popular 775 nm STED laser light. A resolution of presently ∼50 nm is demonstrated for single quantum dots, and sub-diffraction resolution is further shown for imaging of quantum-dot-labelled vimentin filaments in fibroblasts. The high quantum-dot photostability enables repeated STED recordings with >1,000 frames. In addition, we have evidence that the tendency of quantum-dot labels to blink is largely suppressed by combined action of excitation and STED beams. Quantum-dot STED significantly expands the realm of application of STED nanoscopy, and, given the high stability of these probes, holds promise for extended time-lapse imaging. PMID:25980788

  19. A cocatalyst-free Eosin Y-sensitized p-type of Co₃O₄ quantum dot for highly efficient and stable visible-light-driven water reduction and hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Shi, Jinwen; Niu, Fujun; Wang, Jian; Guo, Liejin

    2015-09-01

    Owing to the effect of energy band bending, p-type Co3O4 quantum dots sensitized by Eosin Y showed a high and stable photocatalytic activity (∼13,440 μmol h(-1) g(-1)(cat)) for water reduction and hydrogen production under visible-light irradiation without any cocatalyst. PMID:26234704

  20. A flow injection chemiluminescence method for determination of nalidixic acid based on KMnO4-morin sensitized with CdS quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khataee, Alireza; Lotfi, Roya; Hasanzadeh, Aliyeh; Iranifam, Mortaza; Joo, Sang Woo

    2016-02-01

    A simple and sensitive flow injection chemiluminescence (CL) method was developed for determination of nalidixic acid by application of CdS quantum dots (QDs) in KMnO4-morin CL system in acidic medium. Optical and structural features of L-cysteine capped CdS quantum dots which were synthesized via hydrothermal approach were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence (PL), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. Moreover, the potential mechanism of the proposed CL method was described using the results of the kinetic curves of CL systems, the spectra of CL, PL and UV-Vis analyses. The CL intensity of the KMnO4-morin-CdS QDs system was considerably increased in the presence of nalidixic acid. Under the optimum condition, the enhanced CL intensity was linearly proportional to the concentration of nalidixic acid in the range of 0.0013 to 21.0 mg L- 1, with a detection limit of (3σ) 0.003 mg L- 1. Also, the proposed CL method was utilized for determination of nalidixic acid in environmental water samples, and commercial pharmaceutical formulation to approve its applicability. Furthermore, corona discharge ionization ion mobility spectrometry (CD-IMS) method was utilized for determination of nalidixic acid and the results of real sample analysis by two proposed methods were compared. Comparison the analytical features of these methods represented that the proposed CL method is preferable to CD-IMS method for determination of nalidixic acid due to its high sensitivity and precision.

  1. Biocompatible Quantum Dots for Biological Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, Sandra; Chang, Jerry; Kovtun, Oleg; McBride, James; Tomlinson, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are quickly becoming a critical diagnostic tool for discerning cellular function at the molecular level. Their high brightness, long-lasting, size-tunable, and narrow luminescence set them apart from conventional fluorescence dyes. Quantum dots are being developed for a variety of biologically oriented applications, including fluorescent assays for drug discovery, disease detection, single protein tracking, and intracellular reporting. This review introduces the science behind quantum dots and describes how they are made biologically compatible. Several applications are also included, illustrating strategies toward target specificity, and are followed by a discussion on the limitations of quantum dot approaches. The article is concluded with a look at the future direction of quantum dots.

  2. Biocompatible Quantum Dots for Biological Applications

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Sandra J.; Chang, Jerry C.; Kovtun, Oleg; McBride, James R.; Tomlinson, Ian D.

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are quickly becoming a critical diagnostic tool for discerning cellular function at the molecular level. Their high brightness, long-lasting, sizetunable, and narrow luminescence set them apart from conventional fluorescence dyes. Quantum dots are being developed for a variety of biologically oriented applications, including fluorescent assays for drug discovery, disease detection, single protein tracking, and intracellular reporting. This review introduces the science behind quantum dots and describes how they are made biologically compatible. Several applications are also included, illustrating strategies toward target specificity, and are followed by a discussion on the limitations of quantum dot approaches. The article is concluded with a look at the future direction of quantum dots. PMID:21276935

  3. Optophononics with coupled quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Kerfoot, Mark L; Govorov, Alexander O; Czarnocki, Cyprian; Lu, Davis; Gad, Youstina N; Bracker, Allan S; Gammon, Daniel; Scheibner, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Modern technology is founded on the intimate understanding of how to utilize and control electrons. Next to electrons, nature uses phonons, quantized vibrations of an elastic structure, to carry energy, momentum and even information through solids. Phonons permeate the crystalline components of modern technology, yet in terms of technological utilization phonons are far from being on par with electrons. Here we demonstrate how phonons can be employed to render a single quantum dot pair optically transparent. This phonon-induced transparency is realized via the formation of a molecular polaron, the result of a Fano-type quantum interference, which proves that we have accomplished making typically incoherent and dissipative phonons behave in a coherent and non-dissipative manner. We find the transparency to be widely tunable by electronic and optical means. Thereby we show amplification of weakest coupling channels. We further outline the molecular polaron's potential as a control element in phononic circuitry architecture. PMID:24534815

  4. A simple and sensitive fluorescence based biosensor for the determination of uric acid using H2O2-sensitive quantum dots/dual enzymes.

    PubMed

    Azmi, Nur Ellina; Ramli, Noor Izaanin; Abdullah, Jaafar; Abdul Hamid, Mohammad Azmi; Sidek, Hamidah; Abd Rahman, Samsulida; Ariffin, Nurhayati; Yusof, Nor Azah

    2015-05-15

    A novel optical detection system consisting of combination of uricase/HRP-CdS quantum dots (QDs) for the determination of uric acid in urine sample is described. The QDs was used as an indicator to reveal fluorescence property of the system resulting from enzymatic reaction of uricase and HRP (horseradish peroxidase), which is involved in oxidizing uric acid to allaintoin and hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide produced was able to quench the QDs fluorescence, which was proportional to uric acid concentration. The system demonstrated sufficient activity of uricase and HRP at a ratio of 5U:5U and pH 7.0. The linearity of the system toward uric acid was in the concentration range of 125-1000 µM with detection limit of 125 µM. PMID:25113659

  5. A microwave synthesized CuxS and graphene oxide nanoribbon composite as a highly efficient counter electrode for quantum dot sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Dibyendu; Halder, Ganga; Sahasrabudhe, Atharva; Bhattacharyya, Sayan

    2016-05-19

    To boost the photoconversion efficiency (PCE) of ever promising quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs), and to improve the design of photoanodes, the ability of the counter electrode (CE) to effectively reduce the oxidized electrolyte needs special attention. A composite of a 15 wt% graphene oxide nanoribbon (GOR), obtained by unzipping multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and CuxS intersecting hexagonal nanoplates, synthesized by a low cost, facile and scalable microwave synthesis route, is reported as a fascinating CE for QDSSCs. The best performing Cu1.18S-GOR CE could notably achieve a record PCE of ∼3.55% for CdS sensitized QDSSCs, ∼5.42% for in situ deposited CdS/CdSe co-sensitized QDSSCs and ∼6.81% for CdTe/CdS/CdS dual sensitized QDSSCs, apart from increasing the PCE of previously reported QDSSCs. A systematic investigation of the CE design revealed the high electrocatalytic activity of GOR due to the presence of organic functional groups, graphitic edge sites and a quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) structure, which increases the interfacial charge transfer kinetics from the CE to the polysulfide electrolyte. The highly stable Cu1.18S-GOR CE has the added advantage of a favourable energy band alignment with the redox potential of the polysulfide electrolyte, which reduces the loss of charge carriers and thus can increase the PCE of QDSSCs. PMID:27146800

  6. TiO2 Nanorod Arrays Sensitized with CdS Quantum Dots for Solar Cell Applications: Effects of Rod Geometry on Photoelectrochemical Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jing; Song, Bin; Zhao, Gaoling; Dong, Weixia; Han, Gaorong

    2012-05-01

    CdS quantum dot (QD) sensitized TiO2 nanorod array (NRA) film electrodes with different rod geometries were fabricated via a solvothermal route followed by a sequentialchemical bath deposition (S-CBD) process. By controlling the solution growth conditions, the rod geometries, especially the tip structures, of the TiO2 NRAs were tuned. The results indicated that the vertically aligned hierarchical NRAs possessed conically shaped tip geometry, which was favorable for film electrodes due to the reduced reflectance, enhanced light harvesting, fast charge-carrier separation and transfer, suppression of carrier recombination, sufficient electrolyte penetration and subsequent efficient QD assembly. CdS QD sensitized TiO2 NRA film electrodes with tapered tips exhibited an enhanced photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance, a photocurrent intensity of 5.13 mA/cm2 at a potential of 0 V vs. saturated calomel electrode, an open-circuit potential of -0.68 V vs. saturated calomel electrode and an incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of 22% in the visible-light region from 400 to 500 nm. The effects of rod geometry on the optical absorption, reflectance, hydrophilic properties and PEC performance of bare TiO2 and CdS QD sensitized TiO2 NRA film electrodes were investigated. The mechanism of charge-carrier generation and transfer in these CdS QD sensitized solar cells based on vertically aligned TiO2 nanorods is discussed.

  7. Europium-decorated graphene quantum dots as a fluorescent probe for label-free, rapid and sensitive detection of Cu(2+) and L-cysteine.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liping; Song, Xinhong; Chen, Yiying; Rong, Mingcong; Wang, Yiru; Zhao, Li; Zhao, Tingting; Chen, Xi

    2015-09-01

    In this work, europium-decorated graphene quantum dots (Eu-GQDs) were prepared by treating three-dimensional Eu-decorated graphene (3D Eu-graphene) via a strong acid treatment. Various characterizations revealed that Eu atoms were successfully complexed with the oxygen functional groups on the surface of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with the atomic ratio of 2.54%. Compared with Eu free GQDs, the introduction of Eu atoms enhanced the electron density and improved the surface chemical activities of Eu-GQDs. Therefore, the obtained Eu-GQDs were used as a novel "off-on" fluorescent probe for the label-free determination of Cu(2+) and l-cysteine (L-Cys) with high sensitivity and selectivity. The fluorescence intensity of Eu-GQDs was quenched in the presence of Cu(2+) owing to the coordination reaction between Cu(2+) and carboxyl groups on the surface of the Eu-GQDs. The fluorescence intensity of Eu-GQDs recovered with the subsequent addition of L-Cys because of the strong affinity of Cu(2+) to L-Cys via the Cu-S bond. The experimental results showed that the fluorescence variation of the proposed approach had a good linear relationship in the range of 0.1-10 μM for Cu(2+) and 0.5-50 μM for L-Cys with corresponding detection limits of 0.056 μM for Cu(2+) and 0.31 μM for L-Cys. The current approach also displayed a special response to Cu(2+) and L-Cys over the other co-existing metal ions and amino acids, and the results obtained from buffer-diluted serum samples suggested its applicability in biological samples. PMID:26388385

  8. On the missing links in quantum dot solar cells: a DFT study on fluorophore oxidation and reduction processes in sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Muzakir, Saifful Kamaluddin; Alias, Nabilah; Yusoff, Mashitah M; Jose, Rajan

    2013-10-14

    The possibility of achieving many electrons per absorbed photon of sufficient energy by quantum dots (QDs) drives the motivation to build high performance quantum dot solar cells (QDSCs). Although performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), with similar device configuration as that of QDSCs, has significantly improved in the last two decades QDSCs are yet to demonstrate impressive device performances despite the remarkable features of QDs as light harvesters. We investigated the fundamental differences in the optical properties of QDs and dyes using DFT calculations to get insights on the inferior performance of QDSCs. The CdSe QDs and the ruthenium bipyridyl dicarboxylic acid dye (N3) were used as typical examples in this study. Based on a generalized equation of state correlating material properties and photoconversion efficiency, we calculated ground and excited state properties of these absorbers at the B3LYP/lanl2dz level of DFT and analyzed them on the basis of the device performance. Five missing links have been identified in the study which provides numerous insights into building high efficiency QDSCs. They are (i) fundamental differences in the emitting states of the QDs in the strong and weak confinement regimes were observed, which explained successfully the performance differences; (ii) the crucial role of bifunctional ligands that bind the QDs and the photo-electrode was identified; in most cases use of bifunctional ligands does not lead to a QD enabled widening of the absorption of the photo-electrode; (iii) wide QDs size distribution further hinders efficient electron injections; (iv) wide absorption cross-section of QDs favours photon harvesting; and (v) the role of redox potential of the electrolyte in the QD reduction process. PMID:24000052

  9. Quantum Effects in Higher-Order Correlators of a Quantum-Dot Spin Qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechtold, A.; Li, F.; Müller, K.; Simmet, T.; Ardelt, P.-L.; Finley, J. J.; Sinitsyn, N. A.

    2016-07-01

    We measure time correlators of a spin qubit in an optically active quantum dot beyond the second order. Such higher-order correlators are shown to be directly sensitive to pure quantum effects that cannot be explained within the classical framework. They allow direct determination of ensemble and quantum dephasing times, T2* and T2, using only repeated projective measurements and without the need for coherent spin control. Our method enables studies of purely quantum behavior in solid state systems, including tests of the Leggett-Garg type of inequalities that rule out local hidden variable interpretation of the quantum-dot spin dynamics.

  10. Quantum Effects in Higher-Order Correlators of a Quantum-Dot Spin Qubit.

    PubMed

    Bechtold, A; Li, F; Müller, K; Simmet, T; Ardelt, P-L; Finley, J J; Sinitsyn, N A

    2016-07-01

    We measure time correlators of a spin qubit in an optically active quantum dot beyond the second order. Such higher-order correlators are shown to be directly sensitive to pure quantum effects that cannot be explained within the classical framework. They allow direct determination of ensemble and quantum dephasing times, T_{2}^{*} and T_{2}, using only repeated projective measurements and without the need for coherent spin control. Our method enables studies of purely quantum behavior in solid state systems, including tests of the Leggett-Garg type of inequalities that rule out local hidden variable interpretation of the quantum-dot spin dynamics. PMID:27447523

  11. [Spectral Analysis of CdZnSe Ternary Quantum Dots Sensitized TiO2 Tubes and Its Application in Visible-Light Photocatalysis].

    PubMed

    Han, Zhi-zhong; Ren, Li-li; Pan, Hai-bo; Li, Chun-yan; Chen, Jing-hua; Chen, Jian-zhong

    2015-11-01

    In this work, cadmium nitrate hexahydrate [Cd(NO₃)₂ · 6H₂O] is as a source of cadmium, zinc nitrate [Zn(NO₃)₂] as a source of zinc source, and NaHSe as a source of selenium which was prepared through reducing the elemental selenium with sodium borohydride (NaBH₄). Then water-soluble Cd₁₋xZnxSe ternary quantum dots with different component were prepared by colloid chemistry. The as-prepared Cd₁₋xZnx Se ternary quantum dots exhibit stable fluorescent property in aqueous solution, and can still maintain good dispersivity at room temperature for four months. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) were used to analyze crystal structure and morphology of the prepared Cd₁₋xZnxSe. It is found that the as-prepared ternary quantum dots are cubic phase, show as sphere, and the average of particle size is approximate 4 nm. The spectral properties and energy band structure of the as-prepared ternary quantum dots were modulated through changing the atom ratio of elements Zn and Cd. Compared with binary quantum dots CdSe and ZnSe, the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Visible) absorption spectrum and fluorescence (FL) emission spectrum of ternary quantum dots are both red-shift. The composites (Cd₀.₅ Zn₀.₅ Se@TNTs) of Cd₀.₅ Zn₀.₅ Se ternary quantum dots and TiO₂ nanotubes (TNTs) were prepared by directly immerging TNTs into quantum dots dispersive solution for 5 hours. TEM image shows that the Cd₀.₅ Zn₀.₅ Se ternary quantum dots were closely combined to nanotube surface. The infrared spectra show that the Ti-Se bond was formed between Cd₀.₅ Zn₀.₅ Se ternary quantum dots and TiO₂ nanotubes, which improve the stability of the composite. Compared to pristine TNTs, UV-Visible absorption spectrum of the composites is significantly enhanced in the visible region of light. And the absorption band edge of Cd₀.₅Zn₀.₅ Se@TNTs red-shift from 400 to 700 nm. The recombination of the

  12. Effect of sodium acetate additive in successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction on the performance of CdS quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, I.-Ping; Chen, Liang-Yih; Lee, Yuh-Lang

    2016-09-01

    Sodium acetate (NaAc) is utilized as an additive in cationic precursors of the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) process to fabricate CdS quantum-dot (QD)-sensitized photoelectrodes. The effects of the NaAc concentration on the deposition rate and distribution of QDs in mesoporous TiO2 films, as well as on the performance of CdS-sensitized solar cells are studied. The experimental results show that the presence of NaAc can significantly accelerate the deposition of CdS, improve the QD distribution across photoelectrodes, and thereby, increase the performance of solar cells. These results are mainly attributed to the pH-elevation effect of NaAc to the cationic precursors which increases the electrostatic interaction of the TiO2 film to cadmium ions. The light-to-energy conversion efficiency of the CdS-sensitized solar cell increases with increasing concentration of the NaAc and approaches a maximum value (3.11%) at 0.05 M NaAc. Additionally, an ionic exchange is carried out on the photoelectrode to transform the deposited CdS into CdS1-xSex ternary QDs. The light-absorption range of the photoelectrode is extended and an exceptional power conversion efficiency of 4.51% is achieved due to this treatment.

  13. Highly sensitive detection of caspase-3 activities via a nonconjugated gold nanoparticle-quantum dot pair mediated by an inner-filter effect.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingwen; Li, Xinming; Shi, Xiujuan; He, Xuewen; Wei, Wei; Ma, Nan; Chen, Hong

    2013-10-01

    We describe here a simple fluorometric assay for the highly sensitive detection of caspase-3 activities on the basis of the inner-filter effect of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on CdTe quantum dots (QDs). The method takes advantage of the high molar absorptivity of the plasmon band of gold nanoparticles as well as the large absorption band shift from 520 to 680 nm upon nanoparticle aggregation. When labeled with a peptide possessing the caspase-3 cleavage sequence (DEVD), the monodispersed Au-Ps (peptide-modified AuNPs) exhibited a tendency to aggregate when exposed to caspase-3, which induced the absorption band transition from 520 to 680 nm and turned on the fluorescence of the CdTe QDs for caspase-3 sensing. Under optimum conditions, a high sensitivity towards caspase-3 was achieved with a detection limit as low as 18 pM, which was much lower than the corresponding assays based on absorbance or other approaches. Overall, we demonstrated a facile and sensitive approach for caspase-3 detection, and we expected that this method could be potentially generalized to design more fluorescent assays for sensing other bioactive entities. PMID:24015837

  14. Quantum dot-embedded microspheres for remote refractive index sensing.

    PubMed

    Pang, Shuo; Beckham, Richard E; Meissner, Kenith E

    2008-06-01

    We present a refractometric sensor based on quantum dot-embedded polystyrene microspheres. Optical resonances within a microsphere, known as whispering-gallery modes (WGMs), produce narrow spectral peaks. For sensing applications, spectral shifts of these peaks are sensitive to changes in the local refractive index. In this work, two-photon excited luminescence from the quantum dots couples into several WGMs within the microresonator. By optimizing the detection area, the spectral visibility of the WGMs is improved. The spectral shifts are measured as the surrounding index of the refraction changes. The experimental sensitivity is about five times greater than that predicted by the Mie theory. PMID:19488403

  15. Quantum dot-embedded microspheres for remote refractive index sensing

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Shuo; Beckham, Richard E.; Meissner, Kenith E.

    2008-01-01

    We present a refractometric sensor based on quantum dot-embedded polystyrene microspheres. Optical resonances within a microsphere, known as whispering-gallery modes (WGMs), produce narrow spectral peaks. For sensing applications, spectral shifts of these peaks are sensitive to changes in the local refractive index. In this work, two-photon excited luminescence from the quantum dots couples into several WGMs within the microresonator. By optimizing the detection area, the spectral visibility of the WGMs is improved. The spectral shifts are measured as the surrounding index of the refraction changes. The experimental sensitivity is about five times greater than that predicted by the Mie theory. PMID:19488403

  16. Stacked Cu1.8S nanoplatelets as Counter Electrode for Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Savariraj, Dennyson A.; Rajendrakumar, G.; Selvam, Samayanan; Karthick, S. N.; Balamuralitharan, B.; Kim, Hee-Je; Viswanathan, Kodakkal K.; Vijayakumar, M.; Prabakar, Kandasamy

    2015-11-09

    It is found that electrocatalytic activity of Cu2-xS thin films used in quantum dots sensitized solar cells (QDSSC) as countner electrode (CE) for the reduction of polysulfide electrolyte depends on the the surface active sulfur species and defficiency of Cu. The preferential bonding between Cu2+ and S2- leading to the selective formation of Cu1.8S stacked platelets like morphology is determined by Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide surfactant with temperature and crab like Cu-S coordination bond formed dictates the surface area to volume ratio of the Cu1.8S thin films and the electrocatalytic activity. The Cu deficiency enhances the conductivity of the Cu1.8S thin films and exhibits near- infrared localized surface plasmon resonanc due to free carrier intraband absorption and UV-VIS absorption spectra shows excitonic effect due to quantum size effect. When these Cu1.8S thin films were employed as CE in QDSSC, robust photoconversion efficiency of 5.2 % is yielded by the film deposited at 60°C by a sinlge step chemical bath deposition method.

  17. Microwave assisted one-pot synthesis of graphene quantum dots as highly sensitive fluorescent probes for detection of iron ions and pH value.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunfang; Cui, Yanyan; Song, Li; Liu, Xiangfeng; Hu, Zhongbo

    2016-04-01

    Recently, carbon nanomaterials have received considerable attention as fluorescent probes owing to their low toxicity, water solubility and stable photochemical properties. However, the development of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) is still on its early stage. In this work, GQDs were successfully synthesized by one-step microwave assisted pyrolysis of aspartic acid (Asp) and NH4HCO3 mixture. The as-prepared GQDs exhibited strongly blue fluorescence with high quantum yield up to 14%. Strong fluorescence quenching effect of Fe(3+) on GQDs can be used for its high selectivity detection among of general metal ions. The probe exhibited a wide linear response concentration range (0-50 μM) to Fe(3+) and the limit of detection (LOD) was calculated to be 0.26 μM. In addition, GQDs are also sensitive to the pH value in the range from 2 to 12 indicating a great potential as optical pH sensors. More importantly, the GQDs possess lower cellular toxicity and high photostability and can be directly used as fluorescent probes for cell imaging. PMID:26838381

  18. Magnon-driven quantum dot refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuan; Huang, Chuankun; Liao, Tianjun; Chen, Jincan

    2015-12-01

    A new model of refrigerator consisting of a spin-splitting quantum dot coupled with two ferromagnetic reservoirs and a ferromagnetic insulator is proposed. The rate equation is used to calculate the occupation probabilities of the quantum dot. The expressions of the electron and magnon currents are obtained. The region that the system can work in as a refrigerator is determined. The cooling power and coefficient of performance (COP) of the refrigerator are derived. The influences of the magnetic field, applied voltage, and polarization of two leads on the performance are discussed. The performances of two different magnon-driven quantum dot refrigerators are compared.

  19. Spatially resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy of quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybiec, Maciej

    Recent advancements in nanotechnology create a need for a better understanding of the underlying physical processes that lead to the different behavior of nanoscale structures in comparison to bulk materials. The influence of the surrounding environment on the physical and optical properties of nanoscale objects embedded inside them is of particular interest. This research is focused on the optical properties of semiconductor quantum dots which are zero-dimensional nanostructures. There are many investigation techniques for measuring the local parameters and structural characteristics of Quantum Dot structures. They include X-ray diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Wavelength Dispersive Spectroscopy, etc. However, none of these is suitable for the study of large areas of quantum dots matrices and substrates. The existence of spatial inhomogeneity in the quantum dots allows for a deeper and better understanding of underlying physical processes responsible in particular for the observed changes in photoluminescence (PL) characteristics. Spectroscopic PL mapping can reveal areas of improved laser performance of InAs - InGaAs quantum dots structures. Establishing physical mechanisms responsible for two different types of spatial PL inhomogeneity in InAs/InGaAs quantum dots structures for laser applications was the first objective of this research. Most of the bio-applications of semiconductor quantum dots utilize their superior optical properties over organic fluorophores. Therefore, optimization of QD labeling performance with biomolecule attachment was another focus of this research. Semiconductor quantum dots suspended in liquids were investigated, especially the influence of surrounding molecules that may be attached or bio-conjugated to the quantum dots for specific use in biological reactions on the photoluminescence spectrum. Provision of underlying physical mechanisms of optical property instability of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots used for biological

  20. Quantum dots and prion proteins

    PubMed Central

    Sobrova, Pavlina; Blazkova, Iva; Chomoucka, Jana; Drbohlavova, Jana; Vaculovicova, Marketa; Kopel, Pavel; Hubalek, Jaromir; Kizek, Rene; Adam, Vojtech

    2013-01-01

    A diagnostics of infectious diseases can be done by the immunologic methods or by the amplification of nucleic acid specific to contagious agent using polymerase chain reaction. However, in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, the infectious agent, prion protein (PrPSc), has the same sequence of nucleic acids as a naturally occurring protein. The other issue with the diagnosing based on the PrPSc detection is that the pathological form of prion protein is abundant only at late stages of the disease in a brain. Therefore, the diagnostics of prion protein caused diseases represent a sort of challenges as that hosts can incubate infectious prion proteins for many months or even years. Therefore, new in vivo assays for detection of prion proteins and for diagnosis of their relation to neurodegenerative diseases are summarized. Their applicability and future prospects in this field are discussed with particular aim at using quantum dots as fluorescent labels. PMID:24055838

  1. Comparison of quantum confinement effects between quantum wires and dots

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jingbo; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2004-03-30

    Dimensionality is an important factor to govern the electronic structures of semiconductor nanocrystals. The quantum confinement energies in one-dimensional quantum wires and zero-dimensional quantum dots are quite different. Using large-scale first-principles calculations, we systematically study the electronic structures of semiconductor (including group IV, III-V, and II-VI) surface-passivated quantum wires and dots. The band-gap energies of quantum wires and dots have the same scaling with diameter for a given material. The ratio of band-gap-increases between quantum wires and dots is material-dependent, and slightly deviates from 0.586 predicted by effective-mass approximation. Highly linear polarization of photoluminescence in quantum wires is found. The degree of polarization decreases with the increasing temperature and size.

  2. Triple quantum dots as charge rectifiers.

    PubMed

    Busl, M; Platero, G

    2012-04-18

    We theoretically analyze electronic spin transport through a triple quantum dot in series, attached to electrical contacts, where the drain contact is coupled to the central dot. We show that current rectification is observed in the device due to current blockade. The current blocking mechanism is originated by a destructive interference of the electronic wavefunction at the drain dot. There, the electrons are coherently trapped in a singlet two-electron dark state, which is a coherent superposition of the electronic wavefunction in the source dot and in the dot isolated from the contacts. Its formation gives rise to zero current and current rectification as the voltage is swept. We analyze this behavior analytically and numerically for both zero and finite magnetic dc fields. On top of that, we include phenomenologically a finite spin relaxation rate and calculate the current numerically. Our results show that triple dots in series can be designed to behave as quantum charge rectifiers. PMID:22442135

  3. Entangled exciton states in quantum dot molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, Manfred

    2002-03-01

    Currently there is strong interest in quantum information processing(See, for example, The Physics of Quantum Information, eds. D. Bouwmeester, A. Ekert and A. Zeilinger (Springer, Berlin, 2000).) in a solid state environment. Many approaches mimic atomic physics concepts in which semiconductor quantum dots are implemented as artificial atoms. An essential building block of a quantum processor is a gate which entangles the states of two quantum bits. Recently a pair of vertically aligned quantum dots has been suggested as optically driven quantum gate(P. Hawrylak, S. Fafard, and Z. R. Wasilewski, Cond. Matter News 7, 16 (1999).)(M. Bayer, P. Hawrylak, K. Hinzer, S. Fafard, M. Korkusinski, Z.R. Wasilewski, O. Stern, and A. Forchel, Science 291, 451 (2001).): The quantum bits are individual carriers either on dot zero or dot one. The different dot indices play the same role as a "spin", therefore we call them "isospin". Quantum mechanical tunneling between the dots rotates the isospin and leads to superposition of these states. The quantum gate is built when two different particles, an electron and a hole, are created optically. The two particles form entangled isospin states. Here we present spectrocsopic studies of single self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dot molecules that support the feasibility of this proposal. The evolution of the excitonic recombination spectrum with varying separation between the dots allows us to demonstrate coherent tunneling of carriers across the separating barrier and the formation of entangled exciton states: Due to the coupling between the dots the exciton states show a splitting that increases with decreasing barrier width. For barrier widths below 5 nm it exceeds the thermal energy at room temperature. For a given barrier width, we find only small variations of the tunneling induced splitting demonstrating a good homogeneity within a molecule ensemble. The entanglement may be controlled by application of electromagnetic field. For

  4. Theory Of Alkyl Terminated Silicon Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Reboredo, F; Galli, G

    2004-08-19

    We have carried out a series of ab-initio calculations to investigate changes in the optical properties of Si quantum dots as a function of surface passivation. In particular, we have compared hydrogen passivated dots with those having alkyl groups at the surface. We find that, while on clusters with reconstructed surfaces a complete alkyl passivation is possible, steric repulsion prevents full passivation of Si dots with unreconstructed surfaces. In addition, our calculations show that steric repulsion may have a dominant effect in determining the surface structure, and eventually the stability of alkyl passivated clusters, with results dependent on the length of the carbon chain. Alkyl passivation weakly affects optical gaps of silicon quantum dots, while it substantially decreases ionization potentials and electron affinities and affect their excited state properties. On the basis of our results we propose that alkyl terminated quantum dots may be size selected taking advantage of the change in ionization potential as a function of the cluster size.

  5. Single to quadruple quantum dots with tunable tunnel couplings

    SciTech Connect

    Takakura, T.; Noiri, A.; Obata, T.; Yoneda, J.; Yoshida, K.; Otsuka, T.; Tarucha, S.

    2014-03-17

    We prepare a gate-defined quadruple quantum dot to study the gate-tunability of single to quadruple quantum dots with finite inter-dot tunnel couplings. The measured charging energies of various double dots suggest that the dot size is governed by the gate geometry. For the triple and quadruple dots, we study the gate-tunable inter-dot tunnel couplings. For the triple dot, we find that the effective tunnel coupling between side dots significantly depends on the alignment of the center dot potential. These results imply that the present quadruple dot has a gate performance relevant for implementing spin-based four-qubits with controllable exchange couplings.

  6. Facile synthesis of porous CuS film as a high efficient counter electrode for quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yibing; Lin, Yu; Wu, Jihuai; Zhang, Xiaolong; Fang, Biaopeng

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, porous CuS film has been successfully prepared by a facile method and employed as a counter electrode (CE) in quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) for its highest catalytic activity. This CuS thin film was deposited on FTO substrate via spin coating process which is simple to operate, and its electrochemical properties were further studied by EIS and Tafel measurement. With the cycling time of depositing CuS up to 8, it displays high electrocatalytic activity toward polysulfide reduction, rationalizing the improved QDSSCs performance. Using the CdS/CdSe-sensitized QDSSCs, the cells exhibit improved short-circuit photocurrent density ( J sc) and fill factor (FF), achieving solar cell conversion efficiency ( η) as high as 5.60 % under AM 1.5 illumination of 100 mW cm-2. This work provides a novel and simple method for the preparation of CEs, which could be utilized in other metal sulfides CEs for QDSSCs.

  7. Green and orange CdTe quantum dots as effective pH-sensitive fluorescent probes for dual simultaneous and independent detection of viruses.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhengtao; Zhang, Yun; Yue, Jiachang; Tang, Fangqiong; Wei, Qun

    2007-10-18

    One of the most highlighted and fastest moving interfaces of nanotechnology is the application of quantum dots (QDs) in biology. The unparalleled advantages of the size-tunable fluorescent emission and the simultaneous excitation at a single wavelength make QDs the great possibility for use in optical encoding detection. In this paper, we report that green and orange CdTe QDs as convenient, cheap, reversible, and effective pH-sensitive fluorescent probes could monitor the proton (H+) flux driven by ATP synthesis for dual simultaneous and independent detection of viruses on the basis of antibody-antigen reactions. A new kind of biosensor (consisting of the mixture of green-QDs-labeled chromatophores and orange-QDs-labeled chromatophores) fluorescent measurement system was established for rapid, simultaneous, and independent detection of two different kinds of viruses (i.e., H9 avian influenza virus and MHV68 virus). It is crucial to find that the green and orange QDs labeled biosensors coexisting in the detection system can work independently and do not interfere with each another in the fluorescence assays. In addition, a primary steady electric double layer (EDL) model for the QDs biosensors was proposed to illustrate the mechanism of simultaneous and independent detection of the biosensors. We believe that the pH-sensitive CdTe QDs based detection system, described in this paper, is an important step toward optical encoding and has a great potential for simultaneous and independent qualitative and quantitative multiple detection systems. PMID:17887667

  8. A highly sensitive differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry for determination of 17β-estradiol (E2) using CdSe quantum dots based on indirect competitive immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Chaisuwan, Nuanapa; Xu, He; Wu, Genying; Liu, Jianshe

    2013-08-15

    In this study a new and fast procedure was developed to determine trace 17β-estradiol (E2) concentrations using CdSe quantum dots (QDs) conjugation with bovine serum albumin (BSA)-E2. To increase the high efficiency of the method, the immunoassay design was restricted to an indirect competitive format. The E2 antigen and bioconjugate were incubated in a microtiter plate with an anti-E2 antibody and competition for antibody binding sites was established. The in situ bismuth-coated carbon electrodes were used for detecting the cadmium ions (Cd(2+)) released during the acid dissolution step. After optimization, the well-defined sharp anodic stripping voltammograms curves of the E2 concentration ranging from 50 to 1000 pg/mL was recorded, and the lowest detection limit was 50 pg/mL with 6% reproducibility and 7% repeatability. Finally, the assay was applied to tap water and wastewater samples. The detection limits were 52.56 ± 0.125 pg/mL for tap water and 51.42 ± 0.453 pg/mL for wastewater. These results show that the assay exhibited sensitive analytical performance in E2 detection with high sensitivity and accuracy with satisfactory results. PMID:23542084

  9. Application of Quantum Dot-Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Core-Shell Particles Sensitized with Graphene for Optosensing of N(ε)-Carboxymethyllysine in Dairy Products.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huilin; Chen, Xiaomo; Mu, Lin; Wang, Jing; Sun, Baoguo

    2016-06-15

    Hydrophobic CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) coated with a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) sensitized with graphene (Gra-QDs@MIP) were prepared through a one-pot reverse microemulsion polymerization at room temperature. Gra-QDs@MIP was used as a molecular recognition element to construct a N(ε)-carboxymethyllysine (CML) optosensor. Graphene was used as a polymerization platform to increase the stability and kinetic binding properties of the system. Reverse microemulsion polymerization can anchor silica spheres on the surface of the QDs. This provides functional groups on the surface of Gra-QDs@MIP, which can bind CML and improve the fluorescence stability. Selective and sensitive optosensing of CML is possible at concentrations down to 3.0 μg L(-1) using Gra-QDs@MIP. Gra-QDs@MIP can be applied to dairy samples, as a recognition and response element for determining CML concentrations. The optosensing method was validated by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The optosensor is economically and easily prepared, and the method is simple, fast, accurate, and reproducible. PMID:27237139

  10. Dual-emission of a fluorescent graphene oxide-quantum dot nanohybrid for sensitive and selective visual sensor applications based on ratiometric fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Houjuan; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Kui; Wang, Suhua

    2012-08-10

    A novel nanohybrid ratiometric fluorescence probe comprised of fluorescent graphene oxide and quantum dots (QDs) has been prepared by bringing CdTe QDs of red fluorescence and fluorescent graphene oxide (FGO) of blue fluorescence together through electrostatic attraction and hydrogen bonding interaction between their surface functional groups including carboxyl and amine groups. The nanohybrid ratiometric fluorescence probe exhibits dual emissions at 450 and 650 nm under a single excitation wavelength and shows high sensitivity for the detection of ferrous ions in the presence of H₂O₂. Ferrous ions reacts with H₂O₂ to generate very reactive hydroxyl radicals which possess a strong oxidizing nature and easily capture the electrons from the surfaces of the CdTe QDs, leading to fluorescence quenching of the QDs and no effect on the fluorescence of the graphene oxide, which hence results in a great change of the fluorescence ratio. Moreover, the ratiometric fluorescence probe is not only extremely sensitive to ferrous ions, but is also selective over other biologically relevant metal cations. The changes of fluorescence colour ratios can be used for visual sensing applications for ferrous ions in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, and can also be used for the indication of the existence of hydrogen peroxide. PMID:22797082

  11. Sensitive fluorescence assay of organophosphorus pesticides based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer between CdTe quantum dots and porphyrin.

    PubMed

    Xue, Gao; Yue, Zhao; Bing, Zhang; Yiwei, Tang; Xiuying, Liu; Jianrong, Li

    2016-08-01

    A sensitive and selective quantum dot (QD)-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensor was successfully fabricated for the detection of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). 5,10,15,20-Tetra(4-pyridyl)porphyrin (TPyP) with meso-pyridyl substituents was bound to the surface of CdTe QDs to produce self-assembled nanosensors, and the process of FRET between QDs and TPyP occurred. However, the process of FRET was switched off with the addition of OPs, due to the combination between TPyP and OPs. The fluorescence intensity of TPyP (donor) would decrease gradually with the increasing concentration of OPs. Under optimal conditions, a linear correlation was established between the fluorescence intensity ratio ITPyP/IQDs and the concentration of paraoxon in the range of 9.09 × 10(-12)-1.09 × 10(-6) mol L(-1) with a detection limit of 3.15 × 10(-12) mol L(-1). The attractive sensitivity was obtained due to the efficient FRET and the superior fluorescence properties of QDs. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of the OPs in real fruit samples with satisfactory results. PMID:27305657

  12. Enhancement of Photo-Current Conversion Efficiency in a CdS/CdSe Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cell Incorporated with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyunjune; Lee, Jongtaek; Park, Taehee; Lee, Sanghun; Yi, Whikun

    2015-02-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) and cadmium selenide (CdSe) are sequentially assembled onto a nanocrystalline TiO2 film to create a quantum-dot (QD)-sensitized solar cell application by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The results show that CdS and CdSe QDs have a complementary effect in the performance of light harvest of solar cell. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are incorporated with a CdS/CdSe QDs solar cell by mixing them with TiC2 film to enhance electron transfer. SWNTs are also sprayed onto CdSe QDs (SWNTs onto CdSe) to apply p+ type properties of SWNTs. Absorbance is increased in a wide wavelength range. In particular, cells having the sprayed SWNTs onto the QDs show a clear increase in absorbance at a low wavelength region. The fill factor of CdS/CdSe QDs solar cell with SWNTs is higher than that without SWNTs, indicating the decrease in loss of electron from TiO2 to QDs. Short-circuit current in a QD-sensitized solar cell having SWNTs on CdSe shows maximum value. Photo-current conversion efficiency of cells is increased in both cell types containing SWNTs at 10~17% compared with pristine cells. We expect that solar cells using SWNTs will affect future energy technology and devices. PMID:26353701

  13. Performances of some low-cost counter electrode materials in CdS and CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Different counter electrode (CE) materials based on carbon and Cu2S were prepared for the application in CdS and CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The CEs were prepared using low-cost and facile methods. Platinum was used as the reference CE material to compare the performances of the other materials. While carbon-based materials produced the best solar cell performance in CdS QDSSCs, platinum and Cu2S were superior in CdSe QDSSCs. Different CE materials have different performance in the two types of QDSSCs employed due to the different type of sensitizers and composition of polysulfide electrolytes used. The poor performance of QDSSCs with some CE materials is largely due to the lower photocurrent density and open-circuit voltage. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy performed on the cells showed that the poor-performing QDSSCs had higher charge-transfer resistances and CPE values at their CE/electrolyte interfaces. PMID:24512605

  14. Electrochemiluminescence immunosensor for highly sensitive detection of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine based on carbon quantum dot coated Au/SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting-Ting; Zhao, Hui-Min; Fan, Xin-Fei; Chen, Shuo; Quan, Xie

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor using Pt electrode modified with carbon quantum dot (CQDs) coated Au/SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles was proposed for sensitive detection of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in this work. Rabbit anti-8-OHdG antibody was covalently bound to CQDs on the surface of Au/SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles. Through signal amplification of Au/SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles, 8-fold enhancement of the ECL signals was achieved. Under optimal conditions, a good linear range from 0.2 to 200 ng mL(-1) with a low detection limit of 0.085 ng mL(-1) (S/N=3) for 8-OHdG detection was obtained. Interfering substances tests showed that the corresponding ECL intensity (ΔECL) of 8-OHdG is 8-18 times higher than that of guanine, uric acid (UA) and ascorbic acid, demonstrating its good selectivity for 8-OHdG detection. The ECL immunosensor exhibits long-term stability with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 8.5% even after 16 cycles of continuous potential scans. The result of analytical detection of 8-OHdG in real samples was satisfactory. The proposed ECL immunosensor shows good performance with high sensitivity, specificity, repeatability, stability and provided a powerful tool for 8-OHdG monitoring in clinical samples. PMID:25281118

  15. Highly sensitive single domain antibody-quantum dot conjugates for detection of HER2 biomarker in lung and breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rakovich, Tatsiana Y; Mahfoud, Omar K; Mohamed, Bashir M; Prina-Mello, Adriele; Crosbie-Staunton, Kieran; Van Den Broeck, Tina; De Kimpe, Line; Sukhanova, Alyona; Baty, Daniel; Rakovich, Aliaksandra; Maier, Stefan A; Alves, Frauke; Nauwelaers, Frans; Nabiev, Igor; Chames, Patrick; Volkov, Yuri

    2014-06-24

    Despite the widespread availability of immunohistochemical and other methodologies for screening and early detection of lung and breast cancer biomarkers, diagnosis of the early stage of cancers can be difficult and prone to error. The identification and validation of early biomarkers specific to lung and breast cancers, which would permit the development of more sensitive methods for detection of early disease onset, is urgently needed. In this paper, ultra-small and bright nanoprobes based on quantum dots (QDs) conjugated to single domain anti-HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) antibodies (sdAbs) were applied for immunolabeling of breast and lung cancer cell lines, and their performance was compared to that of anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies conjugated to conventional organic dyes Alexa Fluor 488 and Alexa Fluor 568. The sdAbs-QD conjugates achieved superior staining in a panel of lung cancer cell lines with differential HER2 expression. This shows their outstanding potential for the development of more sensitive assays for early detection of cancer biomarkers. PMID:24873349

  16. Sensitive Bioanalysis Based on in-Situ Droplet Anodic Stripping Voltammetric Detection of CdS Quantum Dots Label after Enhanced Cathodic Preconcentration.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiaoli; Wang, Linchun; Xie, Qingji

    2016-01-01

    We report a protocol of CdS-labeled sandwich-type amperometric bioanalysis with high sensitivity, on the basis of simultaneous chemical-dissolution/cathodic-enrichment of the CdS quantum dot biolabel and anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) detection of Cd directly on the bioelectrode. We added a microliter droplet of 0.1 M aqueous HNO₃ to dissolve CdS on the bioelectrode and simultaneously achieved the potentiostatic cathodic preconcentration of Cd by starting the potentiostatic operation before HNO₃ addition, which can largely increase the ASV signal. Our protocol was used for immunoanalysis and aptamer-based bioanalysis of several proteins, giving limits of detection of 4.5 fg·mL(-1) for human immunoglobulin G, 3.0 fg·mL(-1) for human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), 4.9 fg·mL(-1) for human α-fetoprotein (AFP), and 0.9 fM for thrombin, which are better than many reported results. The simultaneous and sensitive analysis of CEA and AFP at two screen-printed carbon electrodes was also conducted by our protocol. PMID:27563894

  17. The effects of fabrication temperature on current-voltage characteristics and energy efficiencies of quantum dot sensitized ZnOH-GO hybrid solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, S. M. Z.; Gayen, Taposh; Tint, Naing; Alfano, Robert; Shi, Lingyan; Seredych, Mykola; Bandosz, Teresa J.

    2014-11-07

    The effects of fabrication temperature are investigated on the performance of CdSe quantum dot (QD)-sensitized hybrid solar cells of the composite material of zinc (hydr)oxide (ZnOH-GO)with 2 wt. % graphite oxide. The current-voltage (I-V) and photo-current measurements show that higher fabrication temperatures yield greater photovoltaic power conversion efficiencies that essentially indicate more efficient solar cells. Two Photon Fluorescence images show the effects of temperature on the internal morphologies of the solar devices based on such materials. The CdSe-QD sensitized ZnOH-GO hybrid solar cells fabricated at 450 °C showing conversion of ∼10.60% under a tungsten lamp (12.1 mW/cm{sup 2}) are reported here, while using potassium iodide as an electrolyte. The output photocurrent, I (μA) with input power, P (mW/cm{sup 2}) is found to be superlinear, showing a relation of I = P{sup n}, where n = 1.4.

  18. Dual-emitting quantum dot/carbon nanodot-based nanoprobe for selective and sensitive detection of Fe(3+) in cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuanxi; Huang, Yijun; Jiang, Kaili; Humphrey, Mark G; Zhang, Chi

    2016-07-21

    A novel dual-emitting fluorescence probe is developed for rapid and ultrasensitive detection of Fe(3+). The nanoprobe is prepared by coating CdSe semiconductor quantum dots (SQDs) onto the surface of carbon nanodot (CND) doped TiO2 microspheres. The as-prepared nanoprobe exhibits the corresponding dual emissions at 436 and 596 nm for CNDs and CdSe, respectively, under a single excitation wavelength. The blue fluorescence of the CNDs is insensitive to Fe(3+), whereas the orange emission of the CdSe SQDs is functionalized to be selectively quenched by Fe(3+). The intensity ratio of I436/I596 shows a good linear relationship with the concentration of Fe(3+) in the range of 10(-9) to 10(-5) M. The nanoprobe provides an effective platform for the reliable detection of Fe(3+) with a detection limit as low as 10 nM. Besides, this ratiometric nanosensor exhibits good selectivity for Fe(3+) over other metal ions. The results reveal that the nanoprobe could provide a sensitive sensor for rapid detection of Fe(3+) with high selectivity and sensitivity. Moreover, 293T cells are used as models to achieve a potential application as a probe for monitoring Fe(3+) in cells. Thus, these dual-emitting nanoprobes could work as an alternative to conventional fluorescence probes for biolabeling, sensing and other applications. PMID:27197565

  19. Facile and sensitive detection of protamine by enhanced room-temperature phosphorescence of Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhifeng; Miao, Yanming; Zhang, Qindi; Yan, Guiqin

    2015-06-01

    Quantum dot (QD) nanohybrids provide an effective route to explore the new properties of materials and are increasingly used as highly valuable sensitive (bio) chemical probes. Interestingly, the room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA)-capped Mn-doped ZnS QDs could be remarkably enhanced by the addition of protamine. Based on the above finding, a simple, sensitive, and selective method for rapid detection of protamine was successfully designed. With this method, protamine as a cationic peptide interacts electrostatically with MPA-capped Mn-doped ZnS QDs to form MPA-capped Mn-doped ZnS QD/protamine complexes, which leads to the aggregation of QDs and enhances the RTP intensity. Under the optimized conditions, the RTP intensity change was linearly proportional to the concentration of protamine in the range 0.2-3.0 μg ml(-1), and the limit of detection was 0.14 μg ml(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied to detect protamine in protamine sulfate injection and human serum samples with satisfactory results, and the recovery ranged from 96.5 to 105.6%. PMID:25778393

  20. Stable core/shell CdTe/Mn-CdS quantum dots sensitized three-dimensional, macroporous ZnO nanosheet photoelectrode and their photoelectrochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Weili; Sheng, Pengtao; Feng, Hongyan; Yin, Xuehua; Zhu, Xuewei; Yang, Xu; Cai, Qingyun

    2014-08-13

    A novel photoelectrode based on ZnS/CdTe/Mn-CdS/ZnS-sensitized three-dimensional macroporous ZnO nanosheet (NS) has been prepared by electrodeposition and successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The photoelectrode performances were significantly improved through the coupling of the core/shell CdTe/Mn-CdS quantum dots (QDs) with ZnO NS, and the introduction of the ZnS layer as a potential barrier. The photocurrent density systematically increases from ZnO NS (0.45 mA/cm(2)), CdTe/Mn-CdS/ZnO NS (4.98 mA/cm(2)), to ZnS/CdTe/Mn-CdS/ZnS/ZnO (6.23 mA/cm(2)) under the irradiation of AM 1.5G simulated sunlight. More important, the ZnS/CdTe/Mn-CdS/ZnS-sensitized ZnO NS photoelectrode provides a remarkable photoelectrochemical cell efficiency of 4.20% at -0.39 V vs Ag/AgCl. PMID:25010851

  1. Quantum Dots Investigated for Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Castro, Stephanie L.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been investigating the synthesis of quantum dots of CdSe and CuInS2 for use in intermediate-bandgap solar cells. Using quantum dots in a solar cell to create an intermediate band will allow the harvesting of a much larger portion of the available solar spectrum. Theoretical studies predict a potential efficiency of 63.2 percent, which is approximately a factor of 2 better than any state-of-the-art devices available today. This technology is also applicable to thin-film devices--where it offers a potential four-fold increase in power-to-weight ratio over the state of the art. Intermediate-bandgap solar cells require that quantum dots be sandwiched in an intrinsic region between the photovoltaic solar cell's ordinary p- and n-type regions (see the preceding figure). The quantum dots form the intermediate band of discrete states that allow sub-bandgap energies to be absorbed. However, when the current is extracted, it is limited by the bandgap, not the individual photon energies. The energy states of the quantum dot can be controlled by controlling the size of the dot. Ironically, the ground-state energy levels are inversely proportional to the size of the quantum dots. We have prepared a variety of quantum dots using the typical organometallic synthesis routes pioneered by Ba Wendi et al., in the early 1990's. The most studied quantum dots prepared by this method have been of CdSe. To produce these dots, researchers inject a syringe of the desired organometallic precursors into heated triocytlphosphine oxide (TOPO) that has been vigorously stirred under an inert atmosphere (see the following figure). The solution immediately begins to change from colorless to yellow, then orange and red/brown, as the quantum dots increase in size. When the desired size is reached, the heat is removed from the flask. Quantum dots of different sizes can be identified by placing them under a "black light" and observing the various color differences in

  2. Nanomaterials: Earthworms lit with quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilley, Richard D.; Cheong, Soshan

    2013-01-01

    Yeast, bacteria and fungi have been used to synthesize a variety of nanocrystals. Now, the metal detoxification process in the gut of an earthworm is exploited to produce biocompatible cadmium telluride quantum dots.

  3. Submonolayer Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.; Bandara, Sumith V.; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Chang, Yia-Chang

    2010-01-01

    A method has been developed for inserting submonolayer (SML) quantum dots (QDs) or SML QD stacks, instead of conventional Stranski-Krastanov (S-K) QDs, into the active region of intersubband photodetectors. A typical configuration would be InAs SML QDs embedded in thin layers of GaAs, surrounded by AlGaAs barriers. Here, the GaAs and the AlGaAs have nearly the same lattice constant, while InAs has a larger lattice constant. In QD infrared photodetector, the important quantization directions are in the plane perpendicular to the normal incidence radiation. In-plane quantization is what enables the absorption of normal incidence radiation. The height of the S-K QD controls the positions of the quantized energy levels, but is not critically important to the desired normal incidence absorption properties. The SML QD or SML QD stack configurations give more control of the structure grown, retains normal incidence absorption properties, and decreases the strain build-up to allow thicker active layers for higher quantum efficiency.

  4. CuS/CdS Quantum Dot Composite Sensitizer and Its Applications to Various TiO2 Mesoporous Film-Based Solar Cell Devices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myoung; Ochirbat, Altantuya; Lee, Hyo Joong

    2015-07-14

    A nanoscale composite sensitizer composed of CuS and CdS quantum dots (QDs) was prepared by a simple but effective layer-by-layer reaction between a metal cation (Cu(2+) or Cd(2+)) and a sulfide anion (S(2-)). The as-prepared composite CuS/CdS QD sensitizer displayed an enhanced photon-to-current conversion over the sensitizing range of the visible spectrum compared to the counterpart of the pure CdS sensitizer. At the optimized ratio of the deposited amounts of CuS and CdS, the best CuS/CdS-sensitized mesoporous TiO2 cell with a polysulfide electrolyte showed an overall power conversion efficiency of 3.60% with a short circuit current (Jsc) of 11.77 mA/cm(2), an open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.65 V, and a fill factor (FF) of 0.47. From the transmission electron microscopy images, the initially deposited CuS seemed to take a nucleation site to accumulate more CdS in the later deposition. The kinetic studies by impedance and Voc decay measurements also revealed that the CuS/CdS and CdS QD sensitizers made a similar interface between TiO2 and the electrolyte, but the former had a larger resistance of charge transfer with a longer lifetime of excitons after light absorption than the latter. To enhance the sensitizing power further, a multilayer QD sensitizer of CuS/CdS/CdSe was prepared by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). This led to the best performance of 4.32% overall power conversion efficiency. Finally, a hybrid sensitizing system of inorganic QD (CuS/CdS) and organic dye (coded MK-2) was tested with a [Co(bpy)3](2+/3+) redox mediator. The CuS/CdS/MK-2 dye-sensitized cell showed over 3.0% efficiency under the standard illumination condition (1 sun). PMID:26086801

  5. Renormalization in Periodically Driven Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Eissing, A K; Meden, V; Kennes, D M

    2016-01-15

    We report on strong renormalization encountered in periodically driven interacting quantum dots in the nonadiabatic regime. Correlations between lead and dot electrons enhance or suppress the amplitude of driving depending on the sign of the interaction. Employing a newly developed flexible renormalization-group-based approach for periodic driving to an interacting resonant level we show analytically that the magnitude of this effect follows a power law. Our setup can act as a non-Markovian, single-parameter quantum pump. PMID:26824557

  6. First principle thousand atom quantum dot calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lin-Wang; Li, Jingbo

    2004-03-30

    A charge patching method and an idealized surface passivation are used to calculate the single electronic states of IV-IV, III-V, II-VI semiconductor quantum dots up to a thousand atoms. This approach scales linearly and has a 1000 fold speed-up compared to direct first principle methods with a cost of eigen energy error of about 20 meV. The calculated quantum dot band gaps are parametrized for future references.

  7. Electron Spin Dynamics in Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Marie, X.; Belhadj, T.; Urbaszek, B.; Amand, T.; Krebs, O.; Lemaitre, A.; Voisin, P.

    2011-07-15

    An electron spin confined to a semiconductor quantum dot is not subject to the classical spin relaxation mechanisms known for free carriers but it strongly interacts with the nuclear spin system via the hyperfine interaction. We show in time resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy experiments on ensembles of self assembled InAs quantum dots in GaAs that this interaction leads to strong electron spin dephasing.

  8. A microwave synthesized CuxS and graphene oxide nanoribbon composite as a highly efficient counter electrode for quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Dibyendu; Halder, Ganga; Sahasrabudhe, Atharva; Bhattacharyya, Sayan

    2016-05-01

    To boost the photoconversion efficiency (PCE) of ever promising quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs), and to improve the design of photoanodes, the ability of the counter electrode (CE) to effectively reduce the oxidized electrolyte needs special attention. A composite of a 15 wt% graphene oxide nanoribbon (GOR), obtained by unzipping multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and CuxS intersecting hexagonal nanoplates, synthesized by a low cost, facile and scalable microwave synthesis route, is reported as a fascinating CE for QDSSCs. The best performing Cu1.18S-GOR CE could notably achieve a record PCE of ~3.55% for CdS sensitized QDSSCs, ~5.42% for in situ deposited CdS/CdSe co-sensitized QDSSCs and ~6.81% for CdTe/CdS/CdS dual sensitized QDSSCs, apart from increasing the PCE of previously reported QDSSCs. A systematic investigation of the CE design revealed the high electrocatalytic activity of GOR due to the presence of organic functional groups, graphitic edge sites and a quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) structure, which increases the interfacial charge transfer kinetics from the CE to the polysulfide electrolyte. The highly stable Cu1.18S-GOR CE has the added advantage of a favourable energy band alignment with the redox potential of the polysulfide electrolyte, which reduces the loss of charge carriers and thus can increase the PCE of QDSSCs.To boost the photoconversion efficiency (PCE) of ever promising quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs), and to improve the design of photoanodes, the ability of the counter electrode (CE) to effectively reduce the oxidized electrolyte needs special attention. A composite of a 15 wt% graphene oxide nanoribbon (GOR), obtained by unzipping multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and CuxS intersecting hexagonal nanoplates, synthesized by a low cost, facile and scalable microwave synthesis route, is reported as a fascinating CE for QDSSCs. The best performing Cu1.18S-GOR CE could notably achieve a record PCE of ~3

  9. Cauliflower-like SnO2 hollow microspheres as anode and carbon fiber as cathode for high performance quantum dot and dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganapathy, Veerappan; Kong, Eui-Hyun; Park, Yoon-Cheol; Jang, Hyun Myung; Rhee, Shi-Woo

    2014-02-01

    Cauliflower-like tin oxide (SnO2) hollow microspheres (HMS) sensitized with multilayer quantum dots (QDs) as photoanode and alternative stable, low-cost counter electrode are employed for the first time in QD-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). Cauliflower-like SnO2 hollow spheres mainly consist of 50 nm-sized agglomerated nanoparticles; they possess a high internal surface area and light scattering in between the microspheres and shell layers. This makes them promising photoanode material for both QDSCs and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method and chemical bath deposition (CBD) are used for QD-sensitizing the SnO2 microspheres. Additionally, carbon-nanofiber (CNF) with a unique structure is used as an alternative counter electrode (CE) and compared with the standard platinum (Pt) CE. Their electrocatalytic properties are measured using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and Tafel-polarization. Under 1 sun illumination, solar cells made with hollow SnO2 photoanode sandwiched with the stable CNF CE showed a power conversion efficiency of 2.5% in QDSCs and 3.0% for DSCs, which is quite promising with the standard Pt CE (QDSCs: 2.1%, and DSCs: 3.6%).Cauliflower-like tin oxide (SnO2) hollow microspheres (HMS) sensitized with multilayer quantum dots (QDs) as photoanode and alternative stable, low-cost counter electrode are employed for the first time in QD-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). Cauliflower-like SnO2 hollow spheres mainly consist of 50 nm-sized agglomerated nanoparticles; they possess a high internal surface area and light scattering in between the microspheres and shell layers. This makes them promising photoanode material for both QDSCs and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method and chemical bath deposition (CBD) are used for QD-sensitizing the SnO2 microspheres. Additionally, carbon-nanofiber (CNF) with a

  10. Quantum Dots in Gated Nanowires and Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churchill, Hugh Olen Hill

    This thesis describes experiments on quantum dots made by locally gating one-dimensional quantum wires. The first experiment studies a double quantum dot device formed in a Ge/Si core/shell nanowire. In addition to measuring transport through the double dot, we detect changes in the charge occupancy of the double dot by capacitively coupling it to a third quantum dot on a separate nanowire using a floating gate. We demonstrate tunable tunnel coupling of the double dot and quantify the strength of the tunneling using the charge sensor. The second set of experiments concerns carbon nanotube double quantum dots. In the first nanotube experiment, spin-dependent transport through the double dot is compared in two sets of devices. The first set is made with carbon containing the natural abundance of 12C (99%) and 13C (1%), the second set with the 99% 13C and 1% 12C. In the devices with predominantly 13C, we find evidence in spin-dependent transport of the interaction between the electron spins and the 13C nuclear spins that was much stronger than expected and not present in the 12C devices. In the second nanotube experiment, pulsed gate experiments are used to measure the timescales of spin relaxation and dephasing in a two-electron double quantum dot. The relaxation time is longest at zero magnetic field and goes through a minimum at higher field, consistent with the spin-orbit-modified electronic spectrum of carbon nanotubes. We measure a short dephasing time consistent with the anomalously strong electron-nuclear interaction inferred from the first nanotube experiment.

  11. Surface Plasmon Enhanced Sensitive Detection for Possible Signature of Majorana Fermions via a Hybrid Semiconductor Quantum Dot-Metal Nanoparticle System

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hua-Jun; Zhu, Ka-Di

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, we theoretically propose an optical scheme to detect the possible signature of Majorana fermions via the optical pump-probe spectroscopy, which is very different from the current tunneling measurement based on electrical methods. The scheme consists of a metal nanoparticle and a semiconductor quantum dot coupled to a hybrid semiconductor/superconductor heterostructures. The results show that the probe absorption spectrum of the quantum dot presents a distinct splitting due to the existence of Majorana fermions. Owing to surface plasmon enhanced effect, this splitting will be more obvious, which makes Majorana fermions more easy to be detectable. The technique proposed here open the door for new applications ranging from robust manipulation of Majorana fermions to quantum information processing based on Majorana fermions. PMID:26310929

  12. Surface Plasmon Enhanced Sensitive Detection for Possible Signature of Majorana Fermions via a Hybrid Semiconductor Quantum Dot-Metal Nanoparticle System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hua-Jun; Zhu, Ka-Di

    2015-08-01

    In the present work, we theoretically propose an optical scheme to detect the possible signature of Majorana fermions via the optical pump-probe spectroscopy, which is very different from the current tunneling measurement based on electrical methods. The scheme consists of a metal nanoparticle and a semiconductor quantum dot coupled to a hybrid semiconductor/superconductor heterostructures. The results show that the probe absorption spectrum of the quantum dot presents a distinct splitting due to the existence of Majorana fermions. Owing to surface plasmon enhanced effect, this splitting will be more obvious, which makes Majorana fermions more easy to be detectable. The technique proposed here open the door for new applications ranging from robust manipulation of Majorana fermions to quantum information processing based on Majorana fermions.

  13. Optimal control strategies for coupled quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Räsänen, Esa; Putaja, Antti; Mardoukhi, Yousof

    2013-09-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are ideal candidates for quantum information applications in solid-state technology. However, advanced theoretical and experimental tools are required to coherently control, for example, the electronic charge in these systems. Here we demonstrate how quantum optimal control theory provides a powerful way to manipulate the electronic structure of coupled quantum dots with an extremely high fidelity. As alternative control fields we apply both laser pulses as well as electric gates, respectively. We focus on double and triple quantum dots containing a single electron or two electrons interacting via Coulomb repulsion. In the two-electron situation we also briefly demonstrate the challenges of timedependent density-functional theory within the adiabatic local-density approximation to produce comparable results with the numerically exact approach.

  14. Quantum phase transition in trigonal triple quantum dots: The case of quantum dots deviated from particle-hole symmetric point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Song-Hyok; Kang, Chol-Jin; Kim, Yon-Il; Kim, Kwang-Hyon

    2015-05-01

    We consider a triple quantum dot system in a triangular geometry with one of the dots connected to metallic leads. We investigate quantum phase transition between local moment phase and Kondo screened strong coupling phase in triple quantum dots where energy levels of dots are deviated from the particle-hole symmetric point. The effect of on-site energy of dots on quantum phase transition between local moment phase and Kondo screened strong coupling phase in triple quantum dots is studied based on the analytical arguments and the numerical renormalization group method. The results show that the critical value of tunnel coupling between side dots decreases when the energy level of embedded dot rises up from the symmetric point to the Fermi level and the critical value increases when the energy levels of two side dots rise up. The study of the influence of on-site-energy changes on the quantum phase transitions in triple quantum dots has the importance for clarifying the mechanism of Kondo screening in triple quantum dots where energy levels of dots are deviated from the particle-hole symmetric point.

  15. Efficient passivated phthalocyanine-quantum dot solar cells.

    PubMed

    Blas-Ferrando, Vicente M; Ortiz, Javier; González-Pedro, Victoria; Sánchez, Rafael S; Mora-Seró, Iván; Fernández-Lázaro, Fernando; Sastre-Santos, Ángela

    2015-01-31

    The power conversion efficiency of CdSe and CdS quantum dot sensitized solar cells is enhanced by passivation with asymmetrically substituted phthalocyanines. The introduction of the phthalocyanine dye increases the efficiency up to 45% for CdSe and 104% for CdS. The main mechanism causing this improvement is the quantum dot passivation. This study highlights the possibilities of a new generation of dyes designed to be directly linked to QDs instead of the TiO2 electrodes. PMID:25519050

  16. Optical fiber temperature sensor utilizing alloyed Zn(x)Cd(1-x)S quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fei; Kim, Jongsung

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, optical fiber temperature sensors have been prepared by using alloyed Zn(x)Cd(1-x)S quantum dots as sensing media. The surface of the optical fiber was silanized to enhance covalent bond between quantum dots and optical fiber. The quantum dots were bonded to the surface of optical fiber and further encapsulated via sol-gel coating using 3-glycidoxypropyl trimethoxysilane (GPTMS) and 3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (APTMS) in ethyl alcohol in acidic condition. Quantum dots with green, yellow, and red fluorescence were used. The dependence of photoluminescence (PL) intensity from quantum dots on ambient temperature has been studied. Linear relation between the fluorescent intensity and temperature was obtained from alloyed quantum dots immobilized on the surface of optical fiber. The PL intensity, sensitivity, and thermal stability were increased by the silica encapsulation. PMID:25936046

  17. Enhanced performance of branched TiO{sub 2} nanorod based Mn-doped CdS and Mn-doped CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Gopi, Chandu V. V. M.; Lee, Jae-Cheol; Kim, Hee-Je

    2015-04-28

    TiO{sub 2} branched nanostructures could be efficient as photoanodes for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) due to their large surface area for QD deposition. In this study, Mn-doped CdS/Mn-doped CdSe deposited branched TiO{sub 2} nanorods were fabricated to enhance the photovoltaic performance of QDSCs. Mn doping in CdS and CdSe retards the recombination losses of electrons, while branched TiO{sub 2} nanorods facilitate effective electron transport and compensate for the low surface area of the nanorod structure. As a result, the charge-transfer resistance (R{sub CT}), electron lifetime (τ{sub e}), and the amount of QD deposition were significantly improved with branched TiO{sub 2} nanorod based Mn-doped CdS/Mn-doped CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cell.

  18. Modification of ZnS-inserting layer in the TiO2 inverse opal-based photoanode to enhance the efficiency of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Fei; Wan, Xiangyu; Mei, Xingan; Fan, Runzhou; Yan, Xuemin; Wan, Li; Shi, Dean; Xiong, Yan

    2016-07-01

    Modification of ZnS-inserting layer in the titanium dioxide (TiO2) inverse opal-based photoanode was investigated, and it is an effective and easy approach to enhance the efficiency of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The introduction of ZnS between TiO2 and quantum dots (QDs) not only enhanced the light harvesting of QDs on its top, but also lessened the charge-transfer resistances at the TiO2/QD/electrolyte interfaces. The TiO2 inverse opal-based QDSSCs increased the energy conversion efficiency by modifying the ZnS-inserting layer in the photoanode, particularly the CdS/CdSe QD co-sensitized solar cells which attained 79% rate of increase in cell efficiency.

  19. Quantum-dot-in-perovskite solids.

    PubMed

    Ning, Zhijun; Gong, Xiwen; Comin, Riccardo; Walters, Grant; Fan, Fengjia; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Yassitepe, Emre; Buin, Andrei; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-07-16

    Heteroepitaxy-atomically aligned growth of a crystalline film atop a different crystalline substrate-is the basis of electrically driven lasers, multijunction solar cells, and blue-light-emitting diodes. Crystalline coherence is preserved even when atomic identity is modulated, a fact that is the critical enabler of quantum wells, wires, and dots. The interfacial quality achieved as a result of heteroepitaxial growth allows new combinations of materials with complementary properties, which enables the design and realization of functionalities that are not available in the single-phase constituents. Here we show that organohalide perovskites and preformed colloidal quantum dots, combined in the solution phase, produce epitaxially aligned 'dots-in-a-matrix' crystals. Using transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction, we reveal heterocrystals as large as about 60 nanometres and containing at least 20 mutually aligned dots that inherit the crystalline orientation of the perovskite matrix. The heterocrystals exhibit remarkable optoelectronic properties that are traceable to their atom-scale crystalline coherence: photoelectrons and holes generated in the larger-bandgap perovskites are transferred with 80% efficiency to become excitons in the quantum dot nanocrystals, which exploit the excellent photocarrier diffusion of perovskites to produce bright-light emission from infrared-bandgap quantum-tuned materials. By combining the electrical transport properties of the perovskite matrix with the high radiative efficiency of the quantum dots, we engineer a new platform to advance solution-processed infrared optoelectronics. PMID:26178963

  20. Quantum-dot-in-perovskite solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Zhijun; Gong, Xiwen; Comin, Riccardo; Walters, Grant; Fan, Fengjia; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Yassitepe, Emre; Buin, Andrei; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-07-01

    Heteroepitaxy--atomically aligned growth of a crystalline film atop a different crystalline substrate--is the basis of electrically driven lasers, multijunction solar cells, and blue-light-emitting diodes. Crystalline coherence is preserved even when atomic identity is modulated, a fact that is the critical enabler of quantum wells, wires, and dots. The interfacial quality achieved as a result of heteroepitaxial growth allows new combinations of materials with complementary properties, which enables the design and realization of functionalities that are not available in the single-phase constituents. Here we show that organohalide perovskites and preformed colloidal quantum dots, combined in the solution phase, produce epitaxially aligned `dots-in-a-matrix' crystals. Using transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction, we reveal heterocrystals as large as about 60 nanometres and containing at least 20 mutually aligned dots that inherit the crystalline orientation of the perovskite matrix. The heterocrystals exhibit remarkable optoelectronic properties that are traceable to their atom-scale crystalline coherence: photoelectrons and holes generated in the larger-bandgap perovskites are transferred with 80% efficiency to become excitons in the quantum dot nanocrystals, which exploit the excellent photocarrier diffusion of perovskites to produce bright-light emission from infrared-bandgap quantum-tuned materials. By combining the electrical transport properties of the perovskite matrix with the high radiative efficiency of the quantum dots, we engineer a new platform to advance solution-processed infrared optoelectronics.

  1. Preparation of AgInS₂ quantum dot/In₂S₃ co-sensitized photoelectrodes by a facile aqueous-phase synthesis route and their photovoltaic performance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanqiang; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang; Wang, Hongzhi

    2015-04-14

    In an aqueous-phase system, AgInS2 quantum dot (QD) sensitized TiO2 photoanodes were prepared in situ by the reaction of β-In2S3 nanocrystals and as-prepared TiO2/Ag2S-QD electrodes, followed by a covering process with a ZnS passivation layer. A facile successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method was adopted to obtain TiO2/Ag2S-QD electrodes. β-In2S3 nanocrystals synthesized by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) process serve as the reactant of AgInS2 as well as a buffer layer between the interfaces of TiO2 and AgInS2-QDs. A polysulfide electrolyte and a Pt-coated FTO glass count electrode were used to test the photovoltaic performance of the constructed devices. The characteristics of the sensitized photoelectrodes were studied in more detail by electron microscopy, X-ray techniques, and optical and photoelectric performance measurements. AgInS2 is the main photo-sensitizer for TiO2/AgInS2-QD/In2S3 electrodes and excess In2S3 appears on the surface of the electrodes. Based on the optimal Ag2S SILAR cycle, the best photovoltaic performance of the prepared TiO2/AgInS2-QD/In2S3 electrode with the short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 7.87 mA cm(-2) and power conversion efficiency (η) of 0.70% under full one-sun illumination was achieved. PMID:25779613

  2. Plasmon enhanced CdS-quantum dot sensitized solar cell using ZnO nanorods array deposited with Ag nanoparticles as photoanode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskandari, M.; Ahmadi, V.; Yousefi rad, M.; Kohnehpoushi, S.

    2015-04-01

    CdS-quantum dot sensitized solar cell using ZnO nanorods (ZnO NRs) array deposited with Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) as photoanode was fabricated. Light absorption effect of Ag NPs on improvement of the cell performance was investigated. Performance improvement of metal nanoparticles (MNPs) was controlled by the structure design and architecture. Different decorations and densities of Ag NPs were utilized on the photoanode. Results showed that using 5% Ag NPs in the photoanode results in the increased efficiency, fill factor, and circuit current density from 0.28% to 0.60%, 0.22 to 0.29, and 2.18 mA/cm2 to 3.25 mA/cm2, respectively. Also, incident photon-to-current efficiencies (IPCE) results showed that cell performance improvement is related to enhanced absorption in the photoanode, which is because of the surface plasmonic resonance and light scattering of Ag NPs in the photoanode. Measurements of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed that hole transfer kinetics increases with introduction of Ag NPs into photoanode. Also, it is shown that chemical capacitance increases with introduction of Ag NPs. Such increase can be attributed to the surface palsmonic resonance of Ag NPs which leads to absorption of more light in the photoanode and generation of more photoelectron in the photoanode.

  3. Semiconductor Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Ferricyanide/Ferrocyanide Redox Electrolyte Reaching an Open Circuit Photovoltage of 0.8 V.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Rosemarie M; Makuta, Satoshi; Yonezu, Shota; Andrews, John; Tachibana, Yasuhiro

    2016-06-01

    Semiconductor quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) have rapidly been developed, and their efficiency has recently exceeded 9%. Their performances have mainly been achieved by focusing on improving short circuit photocurrent employing polysulfide electrolytes. However, the increase of open circuit photovoltage (VOC) cannot be expected with QDSSCs based on the polysulfide electrolytes owing to their relatively negative redox potential (around -0.65 V vs Ag/AgCl). Here, we demonstrate enhancement of the open circuit voltage by employing an alternative electrolyte, ferricyanide/ferrocyanide redox couple. The solar cell performance was optimized by investigating the influence of ferricyanide and ferrocyanide concentration on their interfacial charge transfer and transport kinetics. The optimized ferricyanide/ferrocyanide species concentrations (0.01/0.2 M) result in solar energy conversion efficiency of 2% with VOC of 0.8 V. Since the potential difference between the TiO2 conduction band edge at pH 7 and the electrolyte redox potential is about 0.79 V, although the conduction band edge shifts negatively under the negative bias application into the TiO2 electrode, the solar cell with the optimized electrolyte composition has nearly reached the theoretical maximum voltage. This study suggests a promising method to optimize an electrolyte composition for maximizing solar energy conversion efficiency. PMID:27171789

  4. Simple and sensitive progesterone detection in human serum using a CdSe/ZnS quantum dot-based direct binding assay.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sung-Duk; Duong, Hong Dinh; Rhee, Jong Il

    2015-08-15

    In this study, we developed a CdSe/ZnS quantum dot (QD)-based immunoassay for use in determining the presence of progesterone (P4) in human serum. Hydrophilic QDs were conjugated to anti-progesterone antibody (P4Ab) via ethyl-3-(dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) as coupling reagents. After purification, the P4Ab-QD conjugates were immobilized onto the wells of a 96-well microtiter plate, and a direct-binding immunoassay based on the binding of P4 to immobilized P4Ab-QD conjugates had a detection limit of 0.21 ng/ml and a sensitivity of 1.37 ng/ml, with a linear range of 0.385 to 4.55 ng/ml. The proposed immunoassay was successfully used to determine the P4 concentration in real human serum, and the results showed a good correlation with the accredited radioimmunoassay (RIA). PMID:25963894

  5. Enhanced electrocatalytic activity of the Au-electrodeposited Pt nanoparticles-coated conducting oxide for the quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Yeung-Pil; Kim, Jae-Hong; Kang, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Hyunsoo; Choi, Chel-Jong; Kim, Kyong-Kook; Ahn, Kwang-Soon

    2014-08-01

    Au was electrodeposited potentiostatically at 0.3 V for 5 min on nanoporous Pt nanoparticle-coated F-doped SnO2 (FTO/Pt) substrates. For comparison, Au-electrodeposited FTO (FTO/Au) and Au-uncoated FTO/Pt were prepared. FTO/Au showed large-sized Au clusters dispersed sparsely over FTO, which resulted in lower electrocatalytic activity than FTO/Pt. In contrast, FTO/Pt exhibited poor stability unlike FTO/Au due to poisoning by the adsorption of sulfur species. The Au-electrodeposited FTO/Pt (FTO/Pt/Au) consisted of small Au clusters deposited over the entire area of Pt due to the effective Au nucleation provided by nanoporous metallic Pt. FTO/Pt/Au exhibited enhanced electrocatalytic activity and excellent stability because the small Au particles well-dispersed over the nanoporous metallic Pt network provided numerous electrochemical reaction sites, and the Pt surface was not exposed to the electrolyte. When FTO/Pt/Au was used as the counter electrode (CE) of a quantum dot-sensitized solar cell, the significantly enhanced electrocatalytic activity of the FTO/Pt/Au CE facilitated the reduction reaction of Sn2- + 2e- (CE) → Sn-12- + S2- at the CE/electrolyte interface, resulting in a significantly hindered recombination reaction, Sn2- + 2e- (TiO2 in the photoanode) → Sn-12- + S2-, and significantly improved overall energy conversion efficiency.

  6. Graphene Quantum Dot-MnO2 Nanosheet Based Optical Sensing Platform: A Sensitive Fluorescence "Turn Off-On" Nanosensor for Glutathione Detection and Intracellular Imaging.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xu; Song, Yang; Zhu, Chengzhou; Song, Junhua; Du, Dan; Su, Xingguang; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-08-31

    Glutathione (GSH) monitoring has attracted extensive attention because it serves a vital role in human pathologies. Herein, a convenient fluorescence "turn off-on" nanosensor based on graphene quantum dots (GQDs)-manganese dioxide (MnO2) nanosheet has been designed for selective detection of GSH in living cells. The fluorescence intensity of GQDs can be quenched by MnO2 nanosheets via a fluorescence resonance energy transfer. However, GSH can reduce MnO2 nanosheets to Mn(2+) cations and release GQDs, causing sufficient recovery of fluorescent signal. The MnO2 nanosheets serve as both fluorescence nanoquencher and GSH recognizer in the sensing platform. The sensing platform displayed a sensitive response to GSH in the range of 0.5-10 μmol L(-1), with a detection limit of 150 nmol L(-1). Furthermore, the chemical response of the GQDs-MnO2 nanoprobe exhibits high selectivity toward GSH over other electrolytes and biomolecules. Most importantly, the promising platform was successfully applied in monitoring the intracellular GSH in living cells, indicating its great potential to be used in disease diagnosis. Meanwhile, this GQDs-MnO2 platform is also generalizable and can be easily expanded to the detection and imaging of other reactive species in living cells. PMID:27494553

  7. CuxS counter electrodes in-situ prepared via the sulfidation of magnetron sputtering Cu film for quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuanqiang; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang; Wang, Hongzhi

    2016-06-01

    The nanosheet-structured CuxS thin films used as counter electrodes (CEs) for CdS/CdSe quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) have been in situ prepared via the sulfidation of Cu nanoparticles deposited on F-doped SnO2 glass (FTO glass) substrate by magnetron sputtering method. The thickness of the deposited Cu film affects the morphology and thickness of the obtained CuxS films. The CuxS nanosheet films have good adhesion with FTO glass and the surface exhibits uniform morphology. The characteristics of QDSSCs are studied in more detail by photocurrent-voltage performance measurements, incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The CuxS on FTO glass (CuxS/FTO) CEs show much higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) and IPCE than those of the Pt on FTO (Pt/FTO) CE because of their superior carrier mobility and electro-catalytic ability for the polysulfide redox reactions. Based on an optimal CuxS film thickness of 2.7 μm obtained by the sulfidation of the Cu film thickness of 300 nm on FTO, the best photovoltaic performance with PCE of 3.67% (Jsc = 16.47 mA cm-2, Voc = 0.481 V, FF = 0.46) under full one-sun illumination is achieved.

  8. Hierarchical Cu7S4 nanotubes assembled by hexagonal nanoplates with high catalytic performance for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Min; Chen, Wenlong; Zai, Jiantao; Huang, Shoushuang; He, Qingquan; Zhang, Wei; Qiao, Qiquan; Qian, Xuefeng

    2015-12-01

    As a kind of promising generation solar cells, the catalytic properties of counter electrodes (CEs) play a key factor on the performance of QDSSCs (quantum dot-sensitized solar cells) at present. Here, hierarchical Cu7S4 nanotubes (Cu7S4-HNT) assembled by hexagonal nanoplates have been prepared by an in-situ growth route and etching process at room temperature. The formation mechanism of the unique morphology is also proposed. Because of the rapid diffusion of electrons and electrolyte, abundant catalytic sites and high stability, the as-prepared Cu7S4-HNT combined the characteristics of nanotube and hierarchical structure can improve the catalytic performance of CEs. QDSSCs based on the Cu7S4-HNT CEs possess a high power conversion efficiency of 4.53%, superior to those with the commonly used Cu2S/brass (3.3%) or the referenced Pt (1.79%) CEs. What's more, the Cu7S4-HNT CE still shows excellent stability in electrolyte after 1000 CV cycles.

  9. A facile synthesis of bimetallic AuPt nanoparticles as a new transparent counter electrode for quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dao, Van-Duong; Choi, Youngwoo; Yong, Kijung; Larina, Liudmila L.; Shevaleevskiy, Oleg; Choi, Ho-Suk

    2015-01-01

    This study first reports the synthesis of AuPt bimetallic nanoparticles (AuPt-BNPs) on an FTO glass substrate using dry plasma reduction (DPR) and its application as an alternative transparent counter electrode (CE) for quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) operated under bi-side illumination. DPR is an economically feasible and ecologically sustainable method. The formation of ultrafine crystalline AuPt-BNPs on an FTO substrate is confirmed through TEM, HRTEM with HAADF-STEM and HAADF-STEM-EDS analyses. The mechanism for controlling the size, mono-dispersity, and areal number density of nanoparticles on the substrate surface is suggested. The CE fabricated with AuPt-BNPs exhibits a high electro-catalytic activity without losing the optical transmittance of the FTO substrate. The QDSC employing the AuPt-BNP electrode reaches efficiencies of 2.4% under front-side illumination and 2.2% under back-side illumination. Bi-side illumination yields an efficiency of 3.4%, which is comparable to an efficiency of 3.7% obtained for the QDSC with the state-of-the-art CE.

  10. Facile fabrication of highly efficient carbon nanotube thin film replacing CuS counter electrode with enhanced photovoltaic performance in quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopi, Chandu V. V. M.; Venkata-Haritha, Mallineni; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Kim, Hee-Je

    2016-04-01

    An ideal counter electrode (CE), with high electrocatalytic activity, high performance stability, cost-efficient and applicable fabrication simplicity, is necessary to give full play to the advantages of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). Herein, we report a facile one-step preparation for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been explored as an electrocatalyst and low-cost alternative to platinum (Pt) and cuprous sulfide (CuS) CEs for polysulfide reduction in QDSSCs. QDSSC using this newly prepared CNT as a CE achieves a higher power conversion efficiency of 4.67% than those with a CuS (3.67%) or Pt CE (1.56%). Besides, a preliminary stability test reveals that the new CNT CE exhibits good stability. The results of Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements revealed that the CNTs had higher electrocatalytic activity for the polysulfide redox reaction and a smaller charge transfer resistance (8.61 Ω) at the CE/electrolyte interface than the CuS (21.87 Ω) and Pt (54.99 Ω) CEs. These results indicate that the CNT CE has superior electrocatalytic activity and can potentially replace CuS and Pt as CEs in QDSSCs. The preparation method of the CNT CE is simple and shows much promise as an efficient, stable, cost-effective and environmentally friendly CE for QDSSCs.

  11. Enhanced electrocatalytic activity of electrodeposited F-doped SnO2/Cu2S electrodes for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinh Quy, Vu Hong; Kim, Jae-Hong; Kang, Soon-Hyung; Choi, Cheol-Jong; Rajesh, John Anthuvan; Ahn, Kwang-Soon

    2016-06-01

    Copper sulfide (Cu2S) films were deposited on F-doped SnO2 (FTO) substrates via the electrodeposition (ED) of copper (Cu) nanoparticles followed by sulfurization. The Cu nanoparticles were deposited on FTO substrates for various ED times ranging from 10 to 30 min at a constant -0.4 V. The FTO/Cu films consisted of flower-like nanoparticles comprised of randomly-clustering nanoflakes. The Cu nanoparticles electrodeposited for 10 min (FTO/Cu (10 min)) were dispersed sparsely over the FTO substrate, whereas the FTO/Cu (20 and 30 min) provided increased coverage. Unlike FTO/Cu2S (10 min), the FTO/Cu2S (20 and 30 min) consisted of vertically-standing large Cu2S nanosheets with numerous small nanosheets in between. This was attributed to the sufficient number of Cu seed nanoflakes, which not only facilitate ion transport of the redox couple but also increased the surface area, leading to significantly enhanced electrocatalytic activity. The quantum dot-sensitized solar cell (QD-SSC) with FTO/Cu2S (20 min) exhibited a significantly improved cell efficiency of 4.58%, compared to those with Pt and FTO/Cu2S (10 min). The QD-SSC with the FTO/Cu2S (30 min) showed similar cell efficiency to that with the FTO/Cu2S (20 min), despite the larger surface area because of its amorphous crystallographic structure offsetting the electrocatalytic activity.

  12. Mn-doped CdS quantum dots sensitized hierarchical TiO2 flower-rod for solar cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Libo; Li, Zhen; Liu, Yingbo; Cheng, Fa; Sun, Shuqing

    2014-06-01

    A double-layered TiO2 film which three dimensional (3D) flowers grown on highly ordered self-assembled one dimensional (1D) TiO2 nanorods was synthesized directly on transparent fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conducting glass substrate by a facile hydrothermal method and was applied as photoanode in Mn-doped CdS quantum dots sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The 3D TiO2 flowers with the increased surface areas can adsorb more QDs, which increased the absorption of light; meanwhile 1D TiO2 nanorods beneath the flowers offered a direct electrical pathway for photogenerated electrons, accelerating the electron transfer rate. A typical type II band alignment which can effectively separate photogenerated excitons and reduce recombination of electrons and holes was constructed by Mn-doped CdS QDs and TiO2 flower-rod. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of the Mn-doped CdS/TiO2 flower-rod solar cell reached to 40% with the polysulfide electrolyte filled in the solar cell. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.09% was obtained with the Mn-doped CdS/TiO2 flower-rod solar cell under one sun illumination (AM 1.5G, 100 mW/cm2), which is 105.7% higher than that of the CdS/TiO2 nanorod solar cell (0.53%).

  13. Spectroscopy characterization and quantum yield determination of quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras Ortiz, S. N.; Mejía Ospino, E.; Cabanzo, R.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we show the characterization of two kinds of quantum dots: hydrophilic and hydrophobic, with core and core/shell respectively, using spectroscopy techniques such as UV-Vis, fluorescence and Raman. We determined the quantum yield in the quantum dots using the quinine sulphate as standard. This salt is commonly used because of its quantum yield (56%) and stability. For the CdTe excitation, we used a wavelength of 549nm and for the CdSe/ZnS excitation a wavelength of 527nm. The results show that CdSe/ZnS (49%) has better fluorescence, better quantum dots, and confirm the fluorescence result. The quantum dots have shown a good fluorescence performance, so this property will be used to replace dyes, with the advantage that quantum dots are less toxic than some dyes like the rhodamine. In addition, in this work we show different techniques to find the quantum dots emission: fluorescence spectrum, synchronous spectrum and Raman spectrum.

  14. (In,Mn)As multilayer quantum dot structures

    SciTech Connect

    Bouravleuv, Alexei; Sapega, Victor; Nevedomskii, Vladimir; Khrebtov, Artem; Samsonenko, Yuriy; Cirlin, George

    2014-12-08

    (In,Mn)As multilayer quantum dots structures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy using a Mn selective doping of the central parts of quantum dots. The study of the structural and magneto-optical properties of the samples with three and five layers of (In,Mn)As quantum dots has shown that during the quantum dots assembly, the out-diffusion of Mn from the layers with (In,Mn)As quantum dots can occur resulting in the formation of the extended defects. To produce a high quality structures using the elaborated technique of selective doping, the number of (In,Mn)As quantum dot layers should not exceed three.

  15. Lead antimony sulfide (Pb5Sb8S17) solid-state quantum dot-sensitized solar cells with an efficiency of over 4%

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yi-Cheng; Suriyawong, Nipapon; Aragaw, Belete Asefa; Shi, Jen-Bin; Chen, Peter; Lee, Ming-Way

    2016-04-01

    Lead antimony sulfides are rare in nature and relatively unexplored ternary semiconductors. This work investigates the photovoltaic performance of Pb-Sb-S quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). Pb5Sb8S17 nanoparticles are grown on mesoporous TiO2 electrodes using the successive ionic layer adsorption reaction process. The synthesized Pb5Sb8S17 nanoparticles exhibit two attractive features for a good solar absorber material: a high optical absorption coefficient and a near optimal energy gap. Solid-state QDSCs are fabricated from the synthesized Pb5Sb8S17 nanoparticles using Spiro-OMeTAD as the hole-transporting material. The best cell yields a short-circuit current density Jsc of 11.92 mA cm-2, an open-circuit voltage Voc of 0.48 V, a fill factor FF of 30.7% and a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.76% under 1sun. The external quantum efficiency (EQE) spectrum covers a spectral range of 350-800 nm with a maximal EQE = 65% at λ = 450 nm. At the reduced light intensity of 10% sun, the PCE increases to 4.14% with Jsc = 2.0 mA cm-2 (which could be normalized to 20 mA cm-2 under 1 sun). This PCE is 65% higher than the best previous result. The respectable PCE and Jsc indicate that Pb5Sb8S17 could be a potential candidate for a solar absorber material.

  16. Luminescence studies of individual quantum dot photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Amirav, Lilac; Alivisatos, A Paul

    2013-09-01

    Using far-field optical microscopy we report the first measurements of photoluminescence from single nanoparticle photocatalysts. Fluence-dependent luminescence is investigated from metal-semiconductor heterojunction quantum dot catalysts exposed to a variety of environments, ranging from gaseous argon to liquid water containing a selection of hole scavengers. The catalysts each exhibit characteristic nonlinear fluence dependence. From these structurally and environmentally sensitive trends, we disentangle the separate rate-determining steps in each particle across the very wide range of time scales, which follow the initial light absorption process. This information will significantly benefit the design of effective artificial photocatalytic systems for renewable direct solar-to-fuel energy conversion. PMID:23895591

  17. Quantum optics with quantum dots. Towards semiconductor sources of quantum light for quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beveratos, Alexios; Abram, Izo; Gérard, Jean-Michel; Robert-Philip, Isabelle

    2014-12-01

    For the past fifteen years, single semiconductor quantum dots, often referred to as solid-state artificial atoms, have been at the forefront of various research direction lines for experimental quantum information science, in particular in the development of practical sources of quantum states of light. Here we review the research to date, on the tailoring of the emission properties from single quantum dots producing single photons, indistinguishable single photons and entangled photon pairs. Finally, the progress and future prospects for applications of single dots in quantum information processing is considered.

  18. Optical properties of charged semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Praket P.

    The effect of n-type doping on the luminescence properties of II-VI quantum dots is studied. The addition of two shells of CdS on CdSe quantum dots prevents the creation of surface traps and makes the system stable under reducing environment. The injection of electrons into films of quantum dots leads to lower photoluminescence (PL) efficiency, with the extent of quenching dependent on both the number and the quantum states of the spectator charges in the nanocrystal. It is found that a 1Pe electron is an eightfold better PL quencher than the 1Se electron. Reduced threshold for stimulated emission is also observed in doped CdSe/CdS films. Time resolved photoluminescence measurements are used to extract the recombination rates of a charged exciton, called trion. It is observed that the negative trion has a radiative rate ˜2.2 +/- 0.4x faster than a neutral exciton, while its non-radiative recombination rate is slower than the biexciton non-radiative recombination rate by a factor of 7.5 +/- 1.7. The knowledge of the recombination rates of the trion enables us to calculate the quantum yield of a negative trion to be ˜10% for the nanocrystals investigated in our work. This is larger than the off state quantum yield from a single quantum dot photoluminescence trajectory and eliminates the formation of negative trion as the possible reason for the PL blinking of single quantum dots. Single quantum dot electrochemistry has also been achieved. It is shown that by varying the Fermi level of the system electrons can be reversibly injected into and extracted out of single CdSe/CdS and CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles to modulate the photoluminescence.

  19. Optically controlled spins in semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Economou, Sophia

    2010-03-01

    Spins in charged semiconductor quantum dots are currently generating much interest, both from a fundamental physics standpoint, as well as for their potential technological relevance. Being naturally a two-level quantum system, each of these spins can encode a bit of quantum information. Optically controlled spins in quantum dots possess several desirable properties: their spin coherence times are long, they allow for all-optical manipulation---which translates into fast logic gates---and their coupling to photons offers a straightforward route to exchange of quantum information between spatially separated sites. Designing the laser fields to achieve the unprecedented amount of control required for quantum information tasks is a challenging goal, towards which there has been recent progress. Special properties of hyperbolic secant optical pulses enabled the design of single qubit rotations, initially developed about the growth axis z [1], and later about an arbitrary direction [2]. Recently we demonstrated our theoretical proposal [1] in an ensemble of InAs/GaAs quantum dots by implementing ultrafast rotations about the z axis by an arbitrary angle [3], with the angle of rotation as a function of the optical detuning in excellent agreement with the theoretical prediction. We also developed two-qubit conditional control in a quantum dot `molecule' using the electron-hole exchange interaction [4]. In addition to its importance in quantum dot-based quantum computation, our two-qubit gate can also play an important role in photonic cluster state generation for measurement-based quantum computing [5]. [1] S. E. Economou, L. J. Sham, Y. Wu, D. S. Steel, Phys. Rev. 74, 205415 (2006) [2] S. E. Economou and T. L. Reinecke, Phys. Rev. Lett., 99, 217401 (2007) [3] A. Greilich, S. E. Economou et al, Nature Phys. 5, 262 (2009) [4] S. E. Economou and T. L. Reinecke, Phys. Rev. B, 78, 115306 (2008) [5] S. E. Economou, N. H. Lindner, and T. Rudolph, in preparation

  20. Quantum dots as active material for quantum cascade lasers: comparison to quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, Stephan; Chow, Weng W.; Schneider, Hans Christian

    2016-03-01

    We review a microscopic laser theory for quantum dots as active material for quantum cascade lasers, in which carrier collisions are treated at the level of quantum kinetic equations. The computed characteristics of such a quantum-dot active material are compared to a state-of-the-art quantum-well quantum cascade laser. We find that the current requirement to achieve a comparable gain-length product is reduced compared to that of the quantum-well quantum cascade laser.

  1. Hybrid Circuit QED with Double Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petta, Jason

    2014-03-01

    Cavity quantum electrodynamics explores quantum optics at the most basic level of a single photon interacting with a single atom. We have been able to explore cavity QED in a condensed matter system by placing a double quantum dot (DQD) inside of a high quality factor microwave cavity. Our results show that measurements of the cavity field are sensitive to charge and spin dynamics in the DQD.[2,3] We can explore non-equilibrium physics by applying a finite source-drain bias across the DQD, which results in sequential tunneling. Remarkably, we observe a gain as large as 15 in the cavity transmission when the DQD energy level detuning is matched to the cavity frequency. These results will be discussed in the context of single atom lasing.[4] I will also describe recent progress towards reaching the strong-coupling limit in cavity-coupled Si DQDs. In collaboration with Manas Kulkarni, Yinyu Liu, Karl Petersson, George Stehlik, Jacob Taylor, and Hakan Tureci. We acknowledge support from the Sloan and Packard Foundations, ARO, DARPA, and NSF.

  2. Single Electron in Systems of Two and Three Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filikhin, Igor; Vlahovic, Branislav

    We consider the single electron confinement states in the system of two and three quantum dots (QDs). The InAs/GaAs QDs are modeled as laterally distributed dots, using single sub-band effective mass approach with effective potential simulating the strain effect. Electron localization in double quantum dots (DQDs) and in triple quantum dots (TQDs) is studied over the entire electron energy spectrum by varying the geometry parameters of these QDs arrays. It is shown that a small violation of the DQD shape symmetry drastically affects tunneling. This effect also appears as a numerical instability in calculations of spectral distribution of localized/delocalized electron states for small variations of the input parameters of numerical procedure. The effect of adding a third dot to a DQD is investigated. We show that the presence of a third dot increases the tunneling in the initial DQD. The spectral distribution of localized/delocalized states appears sensitive to the violation of the mirror symmetry of TQDs. This work was supported by the NSF (HRD-1345219).

  3. Origins and optimization of entanglement in plasmonically coupled quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otten, Matthew; Larson, Jeffrey; Min, Misun; Wild, Stefan M.; Pelton, Matthew; Gray, Stephen K.

    2016-08-01

    A system of two or more quantum dots interacting with a dissipative plasmonic nanostructure is investigated in detail by using a cavity quantum electrodynamics approach with a model Hamiltonian. We focus on determining and understanding system configurations that generate multiple bipartite quantum entanglements between the occupation states of the quantum dots. These configurations include allowing for the quantum dots to be asymmetrically coupled to the plasmonic system. Analytical solution of a simplified limit for an arbitrary number of quantum dots and numerical simulations and optimization for the two- and three-dot cases are used to develop guidelines for maximizing the bipartite entanglements. For any number of quantum dots, we show that through simple starting states and parameter guidelines, one quantum dot can be made to share a strong amount of bipartite entanglement with all other quantum dots in the system, while entangling all other pairs to a lesser degree.

  4. Dot-in-Well Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath; Bandara, Sumith; Ting, David; Hill, cory; Liu, John; Mumolo, Jason; Chang, Yia Chung

    2008-01-01

    Dot-in-well (DWELL) quantum-dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) [DWELL-QDIPs] are subjects of research as potentially superior alternatives to prior QDIPs. Heretofore, there has not existed a reliable method for fabricating quantum dots (QDs) having precise, repeatable dimensions. This lack has constituted an obstacle to the development of uniform, high-performance, wavelength-tailorable QDIPs and of focal-plane arrays (FPAs) of such QDIPs. However, techniques for fabricating quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) having multiple-quantum- well (MQW) structures are now well established. In the present research on DWELL-QDIPs, the arts of fabrication of QDs and QWIPs are combined with a view toward overcoming the deficiencies of prior QDIPs. The longer-term goal is to develop focal-plane arrays of radiationhard, highly uniform arrays of QDIPs that would exhibit high performance at wavelengths from 8 to 15 m when operated at temperatures between 150 and 200 K. Increasing quantum efficiency is the key to the development of competitive QDIP-based FPAs. Quantum efficiency can be increased by increasing the density of QDs and by enhancing infrared absorption in QD-containing material. QDIPs demonstrated thus far have consisted, variously, of InAs islands on GaAs or InAs islands in InGaAs/GaAs wells. These QDIPs have exhibited low quantum efficiencies because the numbers of QD layers (and, hence, the areal densities of QDs) have been small typically five layers in each QDIP. The number of QD layers in such a device must be thus limited to prevent the aggregation of strain in the InAs/InGaAs/GaAs non-lattice- matched material system. The approach being followed in the DWELL-QDIP research is to embed In- GaAs QDs in GaAs/AlGaAs multi-quantum- well (MQW) structures (see figure). This material system can accommodate a large number of QD layers without excessive lattice-mismatch strain and the associated degradation of photodetection properties. Hence, this material

  5. Dye- and quantum dot-sensitized solar cells based on nanostructured wide-bandgap semiconductors via an integrated experimental and modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Xukai

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) are two promising alternative, cost-effective concepts for solar-to-electric energy conversion that have been offered to challenge conventional Si solar cells over the past decade. The configuration of a DSSC or a QDSSC consists of sintered TiO2 nanoparticle films, ruthenium-based dyes or quantum dots (QDs) (i.e., sensitizers), and electrolytes. Upon the absorption of photons, the dyes or QDs generate excitons (i.e., electron-hole pairs). Subsequently, the electrons inject into the TiO2 photoanode to generate photocurrent; scavenged by a redox couple, holes transport to the cathode. The overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) of a DSSC or QDSSC is dictated by the light harvest efficiency, quantum yield for charge injection, and charge collection efficiency at the electrodes. The goal of our research is to understand the fundamental physics and performance of DSSCs and QDSSCs with improved PCE at the low cost based on rational engineering of TiO2 nanostructures, sensitizers, and electrodes through an integrated experimental and modeling study. In this presentation, I will discuss three aspects that I have accomplished over the last several years. (1) Effects of surface treatment and structural modification of photoanode on the performance of DSSCs. First, our research indicates that the surface treatment with both TiCl4 and oxygen plasma yields the most efficient dye-sensitized TiO2-nanoparticle solar cells. A maximum PCE is achieved with a 21 microm thick TiO2 film; the PCE further increases to 8.35% after TiCl4 and O 2 plasma treatments, compared to the untreated TiO2 ( PCE = 3.86%). Second, we used a layer of TiO2 nanoparticle film coated on the FTO glass, and a bilayer of TiO2nanoparticle/freestanding TiO2 nanotube film deposited on the FTO glass as photoanodes. The J˜V parameter analysis acquired by equivalent circuit model simulation reveals that nanotubular structures are

  6. Improved photovoltaic performance and stability of quantum dot sensitized solar cells using Mn-ZnSe shell structure with enhanced light absorption and recombination control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopi, Chandu V. V. M.; Venkata-Haritha, M.; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Kim, Hee-Je

    2015-07-01

    To make quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) competitive, photovoltaic parameters comparable to those of other emerging solar cell technologies are necessary. In the present study, ZnSe was used as an alternative to ZnS, one of the most widely used passivation materials in QDSSCs. ZnSe was deposited on a TiO2-CdS-CdSe photoanode to form a core-shell structure, which was more efficient in terms of reducing the electron recombination in QDSSCs. The development of an efficient passivation layer is a requirement for preventing recombination processes in order to attain high-performance and stable QDSSCs. A layer of inorganic Mn-ZnSe was applied to a QD-sensitized photoanode to enhance the adsorption and strongly inhibit interfacial recombination processes in QDSSCs, which greatly improved the power conversion efficiency. Impedance spectroscopy revealed that the combined Mn doping with ZnSe treatment reduces interfacial recombination and increases charge collection efficiency compared with Mn-ZnS, ZnS, and ZnSe. A solar cell based on the CdS-CdSe-Mn-ZnSe photoanode yielded excellent performance with a solar power conversion efficiency of 5.67%, Voc of 0.584 V, and Jsc of 17.59 mA cm-2. Enhanced electron transport and reduced electron recombination are responsible for the improved Jsc and Voc of the QDSSCs. The effective electron lifetime of the device with Mn-ZnSe was higher than those with Mn-ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnS, leading to more efficient electron-hole separation and slower electron recombination.To make quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) competitive, photovoltaic parameters comparable to those of other emerging solar cell technologies are necessary. In the present study, ZnSe was used as an alternative to ZnS, one of the most widely used passivation materials in QDSSCs. ZnSe was deposited on a TiO2-CdS-CdSe photoanode to form a core-shell structure, which was more efficient in terms of reducing the electron recombination in QDSSCs. The development of an

  7. Recombination control in high-performance quantum dot-sensitized solar cells with a novel TiO2/ZnS/CdS/ZnS heterostructure.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Seok; Gopi, Chandu V V M; Venkata-Haritha, Mallineni; Kim, Hee-Je

    2016-08-01

    Charge recombination occurring at the TiO2/QDs/electrolyte interface is a crucial factor that limits the power conversion efficiency (η) of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). This paper presents a new approach by inserting a ZnS layer between the TiO2 and CdS/ZnS to prepare a TiO2/ZnS/CdS/ZnS sensitized photoelectrode for QDSSC applications. The CdS QDs and ZnS passivation layers were deposited using a reproducible and controlled successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method. The TiO2/ZnS/CdS/ZnS based QDSSCs exhibited a power conversion efficiency (η) value of 3.69%, which is significantly higher than the 3.02% and 2.09% observed for solar cells with a TiO2/CdS/ZnS device and without a passivation layer (TiO2/CdS), respectively. The elevated performance of the TiO2/ZnS/CdS/ZnS-based QDSSCs was attributed to the pre-assembled ZnS layer enhancing the light harvesting and acting as a blocking layer to shield the TiO2 core from the outer QDs and the electrolyte, thereby retarding the interfacial recombination of electrons from the TiO2 with the electrolyte or with the QDs. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open circuit voltage decay measurements showed that the TiO2/ZnS/CdS/ZnS-based QDSSCs inhibit charge recombination remarkably at the photoanode/electrolyte interface and prolong the electron lifetime. PMID:27477125

  8. Biphasic photoelectrochemical sensing strategy based on in situ formation of CdS quantum dots for highly sensitive detection of acetylcholinesterase activity and inhibition.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ting; Zhang, Lianfang; Sun, Xinzhi; Li, Feng

    2016-01-15

    Herein, we reported a facile and highly sensitive biphasic photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensing strategy based on enzymatic product-mediated in situ formation of CdS quantum dots (QDs), and assayed the activity and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in its optimal state. Upon the hydrolysis of acetylthiocholine catalyzed by AChE, the product thiocholine stabilizes the in situ formation of CdS QDs in homogenous solution. Due to the electrostatic attraction, the resulting tertiary amino group-functionalized CdS QDs are attached to the surface of the negatively charged indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode, generating significant PEC response upon illumination in the presence of electron donors. By taking full advantage of the in situ formation of CdS QDs in homogenous solution, this strategy is capable of detecting AChE activity and inhibition in its optimal state. A directly measured detection limit of 0.01mU/mL for AChE activity is obtained, which is superior to those obtained by some fluorescence methods. The inhibition of AChE activity by aldicarb is successfully detected, and the corresponding IC50 is determined to be 13μg/L. In addition to high sensitivity and good selectivity, this strategy also exhibits additional advantages of simplicity, low cost and easy operation. To the best of our knowledge, the as-proposed strategy is the first example demonstrating the application of CdS QDs formed in situ for biphasic PEC detection of enzyme activity and inhibition. More significantly, it opens up a new horizon for the development of homogenous PEC sensing platforms, and has great potential in probing many other analytes. PMID:26339933

  9. A Visual Dual-Aptamer Logic Gate for Sensitive Discrimination of Prion Diseases-Associated Isoform with Reusable Magnetic Microparticles and Fluorescence Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Sai Jin; Hu, Ping Ping; Chen, Li Qiang; Zhen, Shu Jun; Peng, Li; Li, Yuan Fang; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Molecular logic gates, which have attracted increasing research interest and are crucial for the development of molecular-scale computers, simplify the results of measurements and detections, leaving the diagnosis of disease either “yes” or “no”. Prion diseases are a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders that happen in human and animals. The main problem with a diagnosis of prion diseases is how to sensitively and selectively discriminate and detection of the minute amount of PrPRes in biological samples. Our previous work had demonstrated that dual-aptamer strategy could achieve highly sensitive and selective discrimination and detection of prion protein (cellular prion protein, PrPC, and the diseases associated isoform, PrPRes) in serum and brain. Inspired by the advantages of molecular logic gate, we further conceived a new concept for dual-aptamer logic gate that responds to two chemical input signals (PrPC or PrPRes and Gdn-HCl) and generates a change in fluorescence intensity as the output signal. It was found that PrPRes performs the “OR” logic operation while PrPC performs “XOR” logic operation when they get through the gate consisted of aptamer modified reusable magnetic microparticles (MMPs-Apt1) and quantum dots (QDs-Apt2). The dual-aptamer logic gate simplifies the discrimination results of PrPRes, leaving the detection of PrPRes either “yes” or “no”. The development of OR logic gate based on dual-aptamer strategy and two chemical input signals (PrPRes and Gdn-HCl) is an important step toward the design of prion diseases diagnosis and therapy systems. PMID:23393552

  10. Hydride Generation for Headspace Solid-Phase Extraction with CdTe Quantum Dots Immobilized on Paper for Sensitive Visual Detection of Selenium.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ke; Xu, Kailai; Zhu, Wei; Yang, Lu; Hou, Xiandeng; Zheng, Chengbin

    2016-01-01

    A low-cost, simple, and highly selective analytical method was developed for sensitive visual detection of selenium in human urine both outdoors and at home, by coupling hydride generation with headspace solid-phase extraction using quantum dots (QDs) immobilized on paper. The visible fluorescence from the CdTe QDs immobilized on paper was quenched by H2Se from hydride generation reaction and headspace solid-phase extraction. The potential mechanism was investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) as well as Density Functional Theory (DFT). Potential interferences from coexisting ions, particularly Ag(+), Cu(2+), and Zn(2+), were eliminated. The selectivity was significantly increased because the selenium hydride was effectively separated from sample matrices by hydride generation. Moreover, due to the high sampling efficiency of hydride generation and headspace solid phase extraction, the sensitivity and the limit of detection (LOD) were significantly improved compared to conventional methods. A LOD of 0.1 μg L(-1) and a relative standard deviation (RSD, n = 7) of 2.4% at a concentration of 20 μg L(-1) were obtained when using a commercial spectrofluorometer as the detector. Furthermore, a visual assay based on the proposed method was developed for the detection of Se, 5 μg L(-1) of selenium in urine can be discriminated from the blank solution with the naked eye. The proposed method was validated by analysis of certified reference materials and human urine samples with satisfactory results. PMID:26631425

  11. Band engineering in core/shell ZnTe/CdSe for photovoltage and efficiency enhancement in exciplex quantum dot sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Shuang; Shen, Qing; Mora-Seró, Iván; Wang, Jin; Pan, Zhenxiao; Zhao, Ke; Kuga, Yuki; Zhong, Xinhua; Bisquert, Juan

    2015-01-27

    Even though previously reported CdTe/CdSe type-II core/shell QD sensitizers possess intrinsic superior optoelectronic properties (such as wide absorption range, fast charge separation, and slow charge recombination) in serving as light absorbers, the efficiency of the resultant solar cell is still limited by the relatively low photovoltage. To further enhance photovoltage and cell efficiency accordingly, ZnTe/CdSe type-II core/shell QDs with much larger conduction band (CB) offset in comparison with that of CdTe/CdSe (1.22 eV vs 0.27 eV) are adopted as sensitizers in the construction of quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). The augment of band offset produces an increase of the charge accumulation across the QD/TiO2 interface under illumination and induces stronger dipole effects, therefore bringing forward an upward shift of the TiO2 CB edge after sensitization and resulting in enhancement of the photovoltage of the resultant cell devices. The variation of relative chemical capacitance, Cμ, between ZnTe/CdSe and reference CdTe/CdSe cells extracted from impedance spectroscopy (IS) characterization under dark and illumination conditions clearly demonstrates that, under light irradiation conditions, the sensitization of ZnTe/CdSe QDs upshifts the CB edge of TiO2 by the level of ∼ 50 mV related to that in the reference cell and results in the enhancement of V(oc) of the corresponding cell devices. In addition, charge extraction measurements have also confirmed the photovoltage enhancement in the ZnTe/CdSe cell related to reference CdTe/CdSe cell. Furthermore, transient grating (TG) measurements have revealed a faster electron injection rate for the ZnTe/CdSe-based QDSCs in comparison with the CdSe cells. The resultant ZnTe/CdSe QD-based QDSCs exhibit a champion power conversion efficiency of 7.17% and a certified efficiency of 6.82% under AM 1.5 G full one sun illumination, which is, as far as we know, one of the highest efficiencies for liquid-junction QDSCs

  12. A simple and sensitive fluorimetric aptasensor for the ultrasensitive detection of arsenic(III) based on cysteamine stabilized CdTe/ZnS quantum dots aggregation.

    PubMed

    Ensafi, Ali A; Kazemifard, N; Rezaei, B

    2016-03-15

    A new approach for developing a fluorimetric aptasensor has been described and applied for determination of a highly toxic cation, As(III). In this method an aptamer was used to aggregate cationic cysteamine-stabilized CdTe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots, as a result fluorescence quenching was accrued. In the presence of As(III), the aptamer and As(III) make a complex, which prevents aggregation of the quantum dots. Thus, the fluorescence intensity of the quantum dots was enhanced upon the de-aggregation, which depends on the concentration of As(III). The fluorimetric assay has a very low detection limit of 1.3 pmolL(-1) As(III) with a dynamic range of 1.0 × 10(-11) to 1.0 × 10(-6) molL(-1). The interference effect of a wide variety of cations and anions was investigated, and the obtained results confirm high selectivity of the aptasensor for As(III) detection. The present assay was successfully applied for the determination of As(III) in several water samples. PMID:26457735

  13. Quantum efficiency of a double quantum dot microwave photon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Clement; Vavilov, Maxim

    Motivated by recent interest in implementing circuit quantum electrodynamics with semiconducting quantum dots, we study charge transfer through a double quantum dot (DQD) capacitively coupled to a superconducting cavity subject to a microwave field. We analyze the DQD current response using input-output theory and determine the optimal parameter regime for complete absorption of radiation and efficient conversion of microwave photons to electric current. For experimentally available DQD systems, we show that the cavity-coupled DQD operates as a photon-to-charge converter with quantum efficiencies up to 80% C.W. acknowledges support by the Intelligence Community Postdoctoral Research Fellowship Program.

  14. Bound states in continuum: Quantum dots in a quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prodanović, Nikola; Milanović, Vitomir; Ikonić, Zoran; Indjin, Dragan; Harrison, Paul

    2013-11-01

    We report on the existence of a bound state in the continuum (BIC) of quantum rods (QR). QRs are novel elongated InGaAs quantum dot nanostructures embedded in the shallower InGaAs quantum well. BIC appears as an excited confined dot state and energetically above the bottom of a well subband continuum. We prove that high height-to-diameter QR aspect ratio and the presence of a quantum well are indispensable conditions for accommodating the BIC. QRs are unique semiconductor nanostructures, exhibiting this mathematical curiosity predicted 83 years ago by Wigner and von Neumann.

  15. Surface treatment of nanocrystal quantum dots after film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Sykora, Milan; Koposov, Alexey; Fuke, Nobuhiro

    2015-02-03

    Provided are methods of surface treatment of nanocrystal quantum dots after film deposition so as to exchange the native ligands of the quantum dots for exchange ligands that result in improvement in charge extraction from the nanocrystals.

  16. Scalable quantum computer architecture with coupled donor-quantum dot qubits

    DOEpatents

    Schenkel, Thomas; Lo, Cheuk Chi; Weis, Christoph; Lyon, Stephen; Tyryshkin, Alexei; Bokor, Jeffrey

    2014-08-26

    A quantum bit computing architecture includes a plurality of single spin memory donor atoms embedded in a semiconductor layer, a plurality of quantum dots arranged with the semiconductor layer and aligned with the donor atoms, wherein a first voltage applied across at least one pair of the aligned quantum dot and donor atom controls a donor-quantum dot coupling. A method of performing quantum computing in a scalable architecture quantum computing apparatus includes arranging a pattern of single spin memory donor atoms in a semiconductor layer, forming a plurality of quantum dots arranged with the semiconductor layer and aligned with the donor atoms, applying a first voltage across at least one aligned pair of a quantum dot and donor atom to control a donor-quantum dot coupling, and applying a second voltage between one or more quantum dots to control a Heisenberg exchange J coupling between quantum dots and to cause transport of a single spin polarized electron between quantum dots.

  17. Electrical control of quantum dot spin qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laird, Edward Alexander

    This thesis presents experiments exploring the interactions of electron spins with electric fields in devices of up to four quantum dots. These experiments are particularly motivated by the prospect of using electric fields to control spin qubits. A novel hyperfine effect on a single spin in a quantum dot is presented in Chapter 2. Fluctuations of the nuclear polarization allow single-spin resonance to be driven by an oscillating electric field. Spin resonance spectroscopy revealed a nuclear polarization built up inside the quantum dot device by driving the resonance. The evolution of two coupled spins is controlled by the combination of hyperfine interaction, which tends to cause spin dephasing, and exchange, which tends to prevent it. In Chapter 3, dephasing is studied in a device with tunable exchange, probing the crossover between exchange-dominated and hyperfine-dominated regimes. In agreement with theoretical predictions, oscillations of the spin conversion probability and saturation of dephasing are observed. Chapter 4 deals with a three-dot device, suggested as a potential qubit controlled entirely by exchange. Preparation and readout of the qubit state are demonstrated, together with one out of two coherent exchange operations needed for arbitrary manipulations. A new readout technique allowing rapid device measurement is described. In Chapter 5, an attempt to make a two-qubit gate using a four-dot device is presented. Although spin qubit operation has not yet been possible, the electrostatic interaction between pairs of dots was measured to be sufficient in principle for coherent qubit coupling.

  18. Nonvolatile Quantum Dot Gate Memory (NVQDM): Tunneling Rate from Quantum Well Channel to Quantum Dot Gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasaneen, El-Sayed; Heller, Evan; Bansal, Rajeev; Jain, Faquir

    2003-10-01

    In this paper, we compute the tunneling of electrons in a nonvolatile quantum dot memory (NVQDM) cell during the WRITE operation. The transition rate of electrons from a quantum well channel to the quantum dots forming the floating gate is calculated using a recently reported method by Chuang et al.[1]. Tunneling current is computed based on transport of electrons from the channel to the floating quantum dots. The maximum number of electrons on a dot is calculated using surface electric field and break down voltage of the tunneling dielectric material. Comparison of tunneling for silicon oxide and high-k dielectric gate insulators is also described. Capacitance-Voltage characteristics of a NVQDM device are calculated by solving the Schrodinger and Poisson equations self-consistently. In addition, the READ operation of the memory has been investigated analytically. Results for 70 nm channel length Si NVQDMs are presented. Threshold voltage is calculated including the effect of the charge on nanocrystal quantum dots. Current-voltage characteristics are obtained using BSIM3v3 model [2-3]. This work is supported by Office of Navel Research (N00014210883, Dr. D. Purdy, Program Monitor), Connecticut Innovations Inc./TranSwitch (CII # 00Y17), and National Science Foundation (CCR-0210428) grants. [1] S. L. Chuang and N. Holonyak, Appl. Phys. Lett., 80, pp. 1270, 2002. [2] Y. Chen et. al., BSIM3v3 Manual, Elect. Eng. and Comp. Dept., U. California, Berkeley, CA, 1996. [3] W. Liu, MOSFET Models for SPICE Simulation, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2001.

  19. Controlled Population Transfer in a Double Quantum Dot System

    SciTech Connect

    Fountoulakis, Antonios; Terzis, Andreas F.; Paspalakis, Emmanuel

    2007-12-26

    We study the potential for controlled population transfer between the ground states of two anharmonic coupled quantum dots. We propose a method based on the interaction of the quantum dot structure with external electromagnetic fields. The interaction of the quantum dot system with the electromagnetic fields is studied with the use of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. We present numerical results for an asymmetric quantum dot structure.

  20. Isotopically enhanced triple-quantum-dot qubit

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Kevin; Ladd, Thaddeus D.; Smith, Aaron; Borselli, Matthew G.; Kiselev, Andrey A.; Fong, Bryan H.; Holabird, Kevin S.; Hazard, Thomas M.; Huang, Biqin; Deelman, Peter W.; Milosavljevic, Ivan; Schmitz, Adele E.; Ross, Richard S.; Gyure, Mark F.; Hunter, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Like modern microprocessors today, future processors of quantum information may be implemented using all-electrical control of silicon-based devices. A semiconductor spin qubit may be controlled without the use of magnetic fields by using three electrons in three tunnel-coupled quantum dots. Triple dots have previously been implemented in GaAs, but this material suffers from intrinsic nuclear magnetic noise. Reduction of this noise is possible by fabricating devices using isotopically purified silicon. We demonstrate universal coherent control of a triple-quantum-dot qubit implemented in an isotopically enhanced Si/SiGe heterostructure. Composite pulses are used to implement spin-echo type sequences, and differential charge sensing enables single-shot state readout. These experiments demonstrate sufficient control with sufficiently low noise to enable the long pulse sequences required for exchange-only two-qubit logic and randomized benchmarking. PMID:26601186

  1. Isotopically enhanced triple-quantum-dot qubit.

    PubMed

    Eng, Kevin; Ladd, Thaddeus D; Smith, Aaron; Borselli, Matthew G; Kiselev, Andrey A; Fong, Bryan H; Holabird, Kevin S; Hazard, Thomas M; Huang, Biqin; Deelman, Peter W; Milosavljevic, Ivan; Schmitz, Adele E; Ross, Richard S; Gyure, Mark F; Hunter, Andrew T

    2015-05-01

    Like modern microprocessors today, future processors of quantum information may be implemented using all-electrical control of silicon-based devices. A semiconductor spin qubit may be controlled without the use of magnetic fields by using three electrons in three tunnel-coupled quantum dots. Triple dots have previously been implemented in GaAs, but this material suffers from intrinsic nuclear magnetic noise. Reduction of this noise is possible by fabricating devices using isotopically purified silicon. We demonstrate universal coherent control of a triple-quantum-dot qubit implemented in an isotopically enhanced Si/SiGe heterostructure. Composite pulses are used to implement spin-echo type sequences, and differential charge sensing enables single-shot state readout. These experiments demonstrate sufficient control with sufficiently low noise to enable the long pulse sequences required for exchange-only two-qubit logic and randomized benchmarking. PMID:26601186

  2. A label-free fluorescence biosensor for highly sensitive detection of lectin based on carboxymethyl chitosan-quantum dots and gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ziping; Liu, Hua; Wang, Lei; Su, Xingguang

    2016-08-17

    In this work, we report a novel label-free fluorescence "turn off-on" biosensor for lectin detection. The highly sensitive and selective sensing system is based on the integration of carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-CHIT), CuInS2 quantum dots (QDs) and Au nanoparticles (NPs). Firstly, CuInS2 QDs featuring carboxyl groups were directly synthesized via a hydrothermal synthesis method. Then, the carboxyl groups on the CuInS2 QDs surface were interacted with the amino groups (NH2), carboxyl groups (COOH) and hydroxyl groups (OH) within CM-CHIT polymeric chains via electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonding to form CM-CHIT-QDs assemblies. Introduction of Au NPs could quench the fluorescence of CM-CHIT-QDs through electron and energy transfer. In the presence of lectin, lectin could bind exclusively with CM-CHIT-QDs by means of specific multivalent carbohydrate-protein interaction. Thus, the electron and energy transfer process between CM-CHIT-QDs and Au NPs was inhibited, and as a result, the fluorescence of CM-CHIT-QDs was effectively "turned on". Under the optimum conditions, there was a good linear relationship between the fluorescence intensity ratio I/I0 (I and I0 were the fluorescence intensity of CM-CHIT-QDs-Au NPs in the presence and absence of lectin, respectively) and lectin concentration in the range of 0.2-192.5 nmol L(-1), And the detection limit could be down to 0.08 nmol L(-1). Furthermore, the proposed biosensor was employed for the determination of lectin in fetal bovine serum samples with satisfactory results. PMID:27286773

  3. Enhanced electrocatalytic activity of the Au-electrodeposited Pt nanoparticles-coated conducting oxide for the quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Yeung-Pil; Kim, Jae-Hong; Ahn, Kwang-Soon; Kang, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Hyunsoo; Choi, Chel-Jong; Kim, Kyong-Kook

    2014-08-25

    Au was electrodeposited potentiostatically at 0.3 V for 5 min on nanoporous Pt nanoparticle-coated F-doped SnO{sub 2} (FTO/Pt) substrates. For comparison, Au-electrodeposited FTO (FTO/Au) and Au-uncoated FTO/Pt were prepared. FTO/Au showed large-sized Au clusters dispersed sparsely over FTO, which resulted in lower electrocatalytic activity than FTO/Pt. In contrast, FTO/Pt exhibited poor stability unlike FTO/Au due to poisoning by the adsorption of sulfur species. The Au-electrodeposited FTO/Pt (FTO/Pt/Au) consisted of small Au clusters deposited over the entire area of Pt due to the effective Au nucleation provided by nanoporous metallic Pt. FTO/Pt/Au exhibited enhanced electrocatalytic activity and excellent stability because the small Au particles well-dispersed over the nanoporous metallic Pt network provided numerous electrochemical reaction sites, and the Pt surface was not exposed to the electrolyte. When FTO/Pt/Au was used as the counter electrode (CE) of a quantum dot-sensitized solar cell, the significantly enhanced electrocatalytic activity of the FTO/Pt/Au CE facilitated the reduction reaction of S{sub n}{sup 2− }+ 2e{sup −} (CE) → S{sub n−1}{sup 2−} + S{sup 2−} at the CE/electrolyte interface, resulting in a significantly hindered recombination reaction, S{sub n}{sup 2− }+ 2e{sup −} (TiO{sub 2} in the photoanode) → S{sub n-1}{sup 2−} + S{sup 2−}, and significantly improved overall energy conversion efficiency.

  4. Simple and Sensitive Molecularly Imprinted Polymer - Mn-Doped ZnS Quantum Dots Based Fluorescence Probe for Cocaine and Metabolites Determination in Urine.

    PubMed

    Chantada-Vázquez, María Pilar; Sánchez-González, Juan; Peña-Vázquez, Elena; Tabernero, María Jesús; Bermejo, Ana María; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio

    2016-03-01

    A new molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP)-based fluorescent artificial receptor has been prepared by anchoring a selective MIP for cocaine (COC) on the surface of polyethylene glycol (PEG) modified Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs). The prepared material combines the high selectivity attributed to MIPs and the sensitive fluorescent property of the Mn-doped ZnS QDs. Simple and low cost methods have therefore been optimized for assessing cocaine abuse in urine by monitoring the fluorescence quenching when the template (COC) and also metabolites from COC [benzoylecgonine (BZE) and ecgonine methyl ester (EME)] are present. Fluorescence quenching was not observed when performing experiments with other drugs of abuse (and their metabolites) or when using nonimprinted polymer (NIP)-coated QDs. Under optimized operating conditions (1.5 mL of 200 mg L(-1) MIP-coated QDs solution, pH 5.5, and 15 min before fluorescence scanning) two analytical methods were developed/validated. One of the procedures (direct method) consisted of urine sample 1:20 dilution before fluorescence measurements. The method has been found to be fast, precise, and accurate, but the standard addition technique for performing the analysis was required because of the existence of matrix effect. The second procedure performed a solid phase extraction (SPE) first, avoiding matrix effect and allowing external calibration. The limits of detection of the methods were 0.076 mg L(-1) (direct method) and 0.0042 mg L(-1) (SPE based method), which are lower than the cutoff values for confirmative conclusions regarding cocaine abuse. PMID:26857857

  5. Enhanced electrocatalytic activity of electrodeposited F-doped SnO2/Cu2S electrodes for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinh Quy, Vu Hong; Kim, Jae-Hong; Kang, Soon-Hyung; Choi, Cheol-Jong; Rajesh, John Anthuvan; Ahn, Kwang-Soon

    2016-06-01

    Copper sulfide (Cu2S) films were deposited on F-doped SnO2 (FTO) substrates via the electrodeposition (ED) of copper (Cu) nanoparticles followed by sulfurization. The Cu nanoparticles were deposited on FTO substrates for various ED times ranging from 10 to 30 min at a constant -0.4 V. The FTO/Cu films consisted of flower-like nanoparticles comprised of randomly-clustering nanoflakes. The Cu nanoparticles electrodeposited for 10 min (FTO/Cu (10 min)) were dispersed sparsely over the FTO substrate, whereas the FTO/Cu (20 and 30 min) provided increased coverage. Unlike FTO/Cu2S (10 min), the FTO/Cu2S (20 and 30 min) consisted of vertically-standing large Cu2S nanosheets with numerous small nanosheets in between. This was attributed to the sufficient number of Cu seed nanoflakes, which not only facilitate ion transport of the redox couple but also increased the surface area, leading to significantly enhanced electrocatalytic activity. The quantum dot-sensitized solar cell (QD-SSC) with FTO/Cu2S (20 min) exhibited a significantly improved cell efficiency of 4.58%, compared to those with Pt and FTO/Cu2S (10 min). The QD-SSC with the FTO/Cu2S (30 min) showed similar cell efficiency to that with the FTO/Cu2S (20 min), despite the larger surface area because of its amorphous crystallographic structure offsetting the electrocatalytic activity.

  6. Rapid, sensitive, and simultaneous detection of three foodborne pathogens using magnetic nanobead-based immunoseparation and quantum dot-based multiplex immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Li, Yanbin; Wang, Andrew; Slavik, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Losses caused by foodborne diseases are enormous in terms of human life, illness, medical costs, and food product recalls. Rapid detection of multiple bacterial pathogens in foods is extremely important to ensure food safety. The objective of this research was to develop a multiplex immunoassay by integrating magnetic nanobeads (MNBs) for immunoseparation with quantum dots (QDs) as fluorescent labels for rapid, sensitive, and simultaneous detection of three major pathogenic bacteria, Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes, in food products. In this research, both streptavidin-conjugated MNBs (30- and 150-nm diameter) and QDs (530-, 580-, and 620-nm emission wavelength) were separately coated with biotinylated anti-Salmonella, anti-E. coli, and anti-Listeria antibodies. The immuno-MNBs were mixed with a food sample to capture the three target bacteria. After being magnetically separated from the sample, the MNB-cell conjugates were mixed with the immuno-QDs to form the MNB-cell-QD complexes, and unattached QDs were removed. The fluorescence intensity of the MNB-cell-QD complexes was measured at wavelengths of 530, 580, and 620 nm to determine the populations of Salmonella Typhimurium, E. coli O157:H7, and L. monocytogenes, respectively. This multiplex immunoassay simultaneously detected Salmonella Typhimurium, E. coli O157:H7, and L. monocytogenes at levels as low as 20 to 50 CFU/ml in food samples in less than 2 h without enrichment. The change in fluorescence intensity was linearly correlated (R(2) > 0.96) with the logarithmic value of bacterial level in the range of 10 to 10(3) CFU/ml. More than 85% of the three target pathogens could be simultaneously separated from food samples. The multiplex immunoassay could be expanded to detect more target pathogens, depending on the availability of specific antibodies and QDs with different emission wavelengths. PMID:22186043

  7. Kondo effect in triple quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žitko, R.; Bonča, J.; Ramšak, A.; Rejec, T.

    2006-04-01

    Numerical analysis of the simplest odd-numbered system of coupled quantum dots reveals an interplay between magnetic ordering, charge fluctuations, and the tendency of itinerant electrons in the leads to screen magnetic moments. The transition from local-moment to molecular-orbital behavior is visible in the evolution of correlation functions as the interdot coupling is increased. Resulting Kondo phases are presented in a phase diagram which can be sampled by measuring the zero-bias conductance. We discuss the origin of the even-odd effects by comparing with the double quantum dot.

  8. Ambipolar quantum dots in intrinsic silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Betz, A. C. Gonzalez-Zalba, M. F.; Podd, G.; Ferguson, A. J.

    2014-10-13

    We electrically measure intrinsic silicon quantum dots with electrostatically defined tunnel barriers. The presence of both p- and n-type ohmic contacts enables the accumulation of either electrons or holes. Thus, we are able to study both transport regimes within the same device. We investigate the effect of the tunnel barriers and the electrostatically defined quantum dots. There is greater localisation of charge states under the tunnel barriers in the case of hole conduction, leading to higher charge noise in the p-type regime.

  9. Bilayer graphene quantum dot defined by topgates

    SciTech Connect

    Müller, André; Kaestner, Bernd; Hohls, Frank; Weimann, Thomas; Pierz, Klaus; Schumacher, Hans W.

    2014-06-21

    We investigate the application of nanoscale topgates on exfoliated bilayer graphene to define quantum dot devices. At temperatures below 500 mK, the conductance underneath the grounded gates is suppressed, which we attribute to nearest neighbour hopping and strain-induced piezoelectric fields. The gate-layout can thus be used to define resistive regions by tuning into the corresponding temperature range. We use this method to define a quantum dot structure in bilayer graphene showing Coulomb blockade oscillations consistent with the gate layout.

  10. Base-Excision-Repair-Induced Construction of a Single Quantum-Dot-Based Sensor for Sensitive Detection of DNA Glycosylase Activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Juan; Ma, Fei; Tang, Bo; Zhang, Chun-Yang

    2016-08-01

    DNA glycosylase is an initiating enzyme of cellular base excision repair pathway which is responsible for the repair of various DNA lesions and the maintenance of genomic stability, and the dysregulation of DNA glycosylase activity is associated with a variety of human pathology. Accurate detection of DNA glycosylase activity is critical to both clinical diagnosis and therapeutics, but conventional methods for the DNA glycosylase assay are usually time-consuming with poor sensitivity. Here, we demonstrate the base-excision-repair-induced construction of a single quantum dot (QD)-based sensor for highly sensitive measurement of DNA glycosylase activity. We use human 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase 1 (hOGG1), which is responsible for specifically repairing the damaged 8-hydroxyguanine (8-oxoG, one of the most abundant and widely studied DNA damage products), as a model DNA glycosylase. In the presence of biotin-labeled DNA substrate, the hOGG1 may catalyze the removal of 8-oxo G from 8-oxoG·C base pairs to generate an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site. With the assistance of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1), the cleavage of the AP site results in the generation of a single-nucleotide gap. Subsequently, DNA polymerase β incorporates a Cy5-labeled dGTP into the DNA substrate to fill the gap. With the addition of streptavidin-coated QDs, a QD-DNA-Cy5 nanostructure is formed via specific biotin-streptavidin binding, inducing the occurrence of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from the QD to Cy5. The resulting Cy5 signal can be simply monitored by total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) imaging. The proposed method enables highly sensitive measurement of hOGG1 activity with a detection limit of 1.8 × 10(-6) U/μL. Moreover, it can be used to measure the enzyme kinetic parameters and detect the hOGG1 activity in crude cell extracts, offering a powerful tool for biomedical research and clinical diagnosis. PMID:27401302

  11. A recognition-before-labeling strategy for sensitive detection of lung cancer cells with a quantum dot-aptamer complex.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunlei; Liu, Jianbo; Zhang, Pengfei; Li, Jing; Ji, Haining; Yang, Xiaohai; Wang, Kemin

    2015-09-01

    A highly specific recognition-before-labeling strategy has been developed for sensitive detection of non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells, by using fluorescent QDs as signal units and DNA aptamers as recognition elements. A QD-aptamer system used for cell imaging and bioanalysis mostly relies on the recognition-after-labeling strategy in which aptamers were firstly labeled with QDs and then the QD-aptamer conjugates as a whole were utilized for specific recognition. Here in our strategy, aptamers were used firstly to recognize target cells, and then fluorescent QDs were sequentially added to bind the aptamers and light the target cells. The proposed recognition-before-labeling strategy didn't require the complex process of QD functionalization, and avoided the possible impact on the aptamer configuration from steric hindrance. Meanwhile, QDs, with strong fluorescence and good photostability, also give this method a high signal-to-background ratio (S/B). The recognition-before-labeling strategy is simple and sensitive, suggesting a new method for in vitro diagnostic assays of cancer cells. PMID:26200911

  12. Quantum Optical Signature of Plasmonically Coupled Nanocrystal Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Karan, Niladri S; Nguyen, Hue Minh; Mangum, Benjamin D; Ghosh, Yagnaseni; Sheehan, Chris J; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A; Htoon, Han

    2015-10-01

    Small clusters of two to three silica-coated nanocrystals coupled to plasmonic gap-bar antennas can exhibit photon antibunching, a characteristic of single quantum emitters. Through a detailed analysis of their photoluminescence emissions characteristics, it is shown that the observed photon antibunching is the evidence of coupled quantum dot formation resulting from the plasmonic enhancement of dipole-dipole interaction. PMID:26140499

  13. Cavity quantum electrodynamics with carbon nanotube quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontos, Takis

    Cavity quantum electrodynamics techniques have turned out to be instrumental to probe or manipulate the electronic states of nanoscale circuits. Recently, cavity QED architectures have been extended to quantum dot circuits. These circuits are appealing since other degrees of freedom than the traditional ones (e.g. those of superconducting circuits) can be investigated. I will show how one can use carbon nanotube based quantum dots in that context. In particular, I will focus on the coherent coupling of a single spin or non-local Cooper pairs to cavity photons. Quantum dots also exhibit a wide variety of many body phenomena. The cQED architecture could also be instrumental for understanding them. One of the most paradigmatic phenomenon is the Kondo effect which is at the heart of many electron correlation effects. I will show that a cQED architecture has allowed us to observe the decoupling of spin and charge excitations in a Kondo system.

  14. Formation and ordering of epitaxial quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, Paola; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Bremner, Stephen P.; Ritchie, David A.

    2008-10-01

    Single quantum dots (QDs) have great potential as building blocks for quantum information processing devices. However, one of the major difficulties in the fabrication of such devices is the placement of a single dot at a pre-determined position in the device structure, for example, in the centre of a photonic cavity. In this article we review some recent investigations in the site-controlled growth of InAs QDs on GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy. The method we use is ex-situ patterning of the GaAs substrate by electron beam lithography and conventional wet or dry etching techniques to form shallow pits in the surface which then determine the nucleation site of an InAs dot. This method is easily scalable and can be incorporated with marker structures to enable simple post-growth lithographic alignment of devices to each site-controlled dot. We demonstrate good site-control for arrays with up to 10 micron spacing between patterned sites, with no dots nucleating between the sites. We discuss the mechanism and the effect of pattern size, InAs deposition amount and growth conditions on this site-control method. Finally we discuss the photoluminescence from these dots and highlight the remaining challenges for this technique. To cite this article: P. Atkinson et al., C. R. Physique 9 (2008).

  15. Electronic Structure of Helium Atom in a Quantum Dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayanta, K. Saha; Bhattacharyya, S.; T. K., Mukherjee

    2016-03-01

    Bound and resonance states of helium atom have been investigated inside a quantum dot by using explicitly correlated Hylleraas type basis set within the framework of stabilization method. To be specific, precise energy eigenvalues of bound 1sns (1Se) (n = 1-6) states and the resonance parameters i.e. positions and widths of 1Se states due to 2sns (n = 2-5) and 2pnp (n = 2-5) configurations of confined helium below N = 2 ionization threshold of He+ have been estimated. The two-parameter (Depth and Width) finite oscillator potential is used to represent the confining potential due to the quantum dot. It has been explicitly demonstrated that the electronic structural properties become sensitive functions of the dot size. It is observed from the calculations of ionization potential that the stability of an impurity ion within a quantum dot may be manipulated by varying the confinement parameters. A possibility of controlling the autoionization lifetime of doubly excited states of two-electron ions by tuning the width of the quantum cavity is also discussed here. TKM Gratefully Acknowledges Financial Support under Grant No. 37(3)/14/27/2014-BRNS from the Department of Atomic Energy, BRNS, Government of India. SB Acknowledges Financial Support under Grant No. PSW-160/14-15(ERO) from University Grants Commission, Government of India

  16. Silicon based quantum dot hybrid qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dohun

    2015-03-01

    The charge and spin degrees of freedom of an electron constitute natural bases for constructing quantum two level systems, or qubits, in semiconductor quantum dots. The quantum dot charge qubit offers a simple architecture and high-speed operation, but generally suffers from fast dephasing due to strong coupling of the environment to the electron's charge. On the other hand, quantum dot spin qubits have demonstrated long coherence times, but their manipulation is often slower than desired for important future applications. This talk will present experimental progress of a `hybrid' qubit, formed by three electrons in a Si/SiGe double quantum dot, which combines desirable characteristics (speed and coherence) in the past found separately in qubits based on either charge or spin degrees of freedom. Using resonant microwaves, we first discuss qubit operations near the `sweet spot' for charge qubit operation. Along with fast (>GHz) manipulation rates for any rotation axis on the Bloch sphere, we implement two independent tomographic characterization schemes in the charge qubit regime: traditional quantum process tomography (QPT) and gate set tomography (GST). We also present resonant qubit operations of the hybrid qubit performed on the same device, DC pulsed gate operations of which were recently demonstrated. We demonstrate three-axis control and the implementation of dynamic decoupling pulse sequences. Performing QPT on the hybrid qubit, we show that AC gating yields π rotation process fidelities higher than 93% for X-axis and 96% for Z-axis rotations, which demonstrates efficient quantum control of semiconductor qubits using resonant microwaves. We discuss a path forward for achieving fidelities better than the threshold for quantum error correction using surface codes. This work was supported in part by ARO (W911NF-12-0607), NSF (PHY-1104660), DOE (DE-FG02-03ER46028), and by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Sandia National Laboratories

  17. Stable hydrogen generation from vermiculite sensitized by CdS quantum dot photocatalytic splitting of water under visible-light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Zhu, Wenfeng; Liu, Xiaoheng

    2014-06-28

    CdS quantum dot/vermiculite (CdS/VMT) nanocomposites have been synthesized via a facile one-step method and characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The photocatalytic hydrogen generation activities of these samples were evaluated using Na2S and Na2SO3 as sacrificial reagents in water under visible-light illumination (λ ≥ 420 nm). The most important aspect of this work is the use of natural products (VMT) as host photocatalysts. The effect of CdS content on the rate of visible light photocatalytic hydrogen generation was investigated for different CdS loadings. The synergistic effect of VMT and CdS quantum dots (QDs) leads to efficient separation of the photogenerated charge carriers and, consequently, enhances the visible light photocatalytic hydrogen production activity of the photocatalyst. The CdS/VMT composite with an optimal ratio of 5% exhibits the highest hydrogen evolution rate of 92 μmol h(-1) under visible light irradiation and the highest apparent quantum efficiency of 17.7% at 420 nm. A possible photocatalytic mechanism of the CdS/VMT nanocomposite is proposed and corroborated by photoelectrochemical curves. PMID:24819860

  18. Photodynamic antibacterial effect of graphene quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Ristic, Biljana Z; Milenkovic, Marina M; Dakic, Ivana R; Todorovic-Markovic, Biljana M; Milosavljevic, Momir S; Budimir, Milica D; Paunovic, Verica G; Dramicanin, Miroslav D; Markovic, Zoran M; Trajkovic, Vladimir S

    2014-05-01

    Synthesis of new antibacterial agents is becoming increasingly important in light of the emerging antibiotic resistance. In the present study we report that electrochemically produced graphene quantum dots (GQD), a new class of carbon nanoparticles, generate reactive oxygen species when photoexcited (470 nm, 1 W), and kill two strains of pathogenic bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Bacterial killing was demonstrated by the reduction in number of bacterial colonies in a standard plate count method, the increase in propidium iodide uptake confirming the cell membrane damage, as well as by morphological defects visualized by atomic force microscopy. The induction of oxidative stress in bacteria exposed to photoexcited GQD was confirmed by staining with a redox-sensitive fluorochrome dihydrorhodamine 123. Neither GQD nor light exposure alone were able to cause oxidative stress and reduce the viability of bacteria. Importantly, mouse spleen cells were markedly less sensitive in the same experimental conditions, thus indicating a fairly selective antibacterial photodynamic action of GQD. PMID:24612819

  19. Reconfigurable visible quantum dot microlasers integrated on a silicon chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrabani, Simin; Hunt, Heather K.; Armani, Andrea M.

    2012-02-01

    Developing on-chip, dynamically reconfigurable visible lasers that can be integrated with additional optical and electronic components will enable adaptive optical components. In the present work, we demonstrate a reconfigurable quantum dot laser based on an integrated silica ultra high-Q microcavity. By attaching the quantum dot using a reversible, non-destructive bioconjugation process, the ability to remove and replace it with an alternative quantum dot without damaging the underlying microcavity device has been demonstrated. As a result of the absorption/emission characteristics of quantum dots, the same laser source can be used to excite quantum dots with distinct emission wavelengths.

  20. Nanocomposites of POC and quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borriello, C.; Concilio, S.; Minarini, C.; Iannelli, P.; Di Luccio, T.

    2012-07-01

    New luminescent polymer nanocomposites were synthesized combining carbazole/oxadiazole copolymer (POC) and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) surface passivated by ionic liquids. Ionic liquid ligands improve the photostability of QDs and their compatibility with polymer allowing the deposition of homogeneous nanocomposites films. The nanocomposites were characterized by UV and photoluminescence spectroscopy.

  1. Producing Quantum Dots by Spray Pyrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banger, Kulbinder; Jin, Michael H.; Hepp, Aloysius

    2006-01-01

    An improved process for making nanocrystallites, commonly denoted quantum dots (QDs), is based on spray pyrolysis. Unlike the process used heretofore, the improved process is amenable to mass production of either passivated or non-passivated QDs, with computer control to ensure near uniformity of size.

  2. Quantum-dot infrared photodetectors: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.

    2009-04-01

    Quantum-dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) are positioned to become an important technology in the field of infrared (IR) detection, particularly for high-temperature, low-cost, high-yield detector arrays required for military applications. High-operating temperature (>=150 K) photodetectors reduce the cost of IR imaging systems by enabling cryogenic dewars and Stirling cooling systems to be replaced by thermo-electric coolers. QDIPs are well-suited for detecting mid-IR light at elevated temperatures, an application that could prove to be the next commercial market for quantum dots. While quantum dot epitaxial growth and intraband absorption of IR radiation are well established, quantum dot non-uniformity remains as a significant challenge. Nonetheless, state-of-the-art mid-IR detection at 150 K has been demonstrated using 70-layer InAs/GaAs QDIPs, and QDIP focal plane arrays are approaching performance comparable to HgCdTe at 77 K. By addressing critical challenges inherent to epitaxial QD material systems (e.g., controlling dopant incorporation), exploring alternative QD systems (e.g., colloidal QDs), and using bandgap engineering to reduce dark current and enhance multi-spectral detection (e.g. resonant tunneling QDIPs), the performance and applicability of QDIPs will continue to improve.

  3. Single-dot optical emission from ultralow density well-isolated InP quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Ugur, A.; Hatami, F.; Masselink, W. T.; Vamivakas, A. N.; Lombez, L.; Atatuere, M.

    2008-10-06

    We demonstrate a straightforward way to obtain single well-isolated quantum dots emitting in the visible part of the spectrum and characterize the optical emission from single quantum dots using this method. Self-assembled InP quantum dots are grown using gas-source molecular-beam epitaxy over a wide range of InP deposition rates, using an ultralow growth rate of about 0.01 atomic monolayers/s, a quantum-dot density of 1 dot/{mu}m{sup 2} is realized. The resulting isolated InP quantum dots embedded in an InGaP matrix are individually characterized without the need for lithographical patterning and masks on the substrate. Such low-density quantum dots show excitonic emission at around 670 nm with a linewidth limited by instrument resolution. This system is applicable as a single-photon source for applications such as quantum cryptography.

  4. Optical properties of quantum-dot-doped liquid scintillators

    PubMed Central

    Aberle, C.; Li, J.J.; Weiss, S.; Winslow, L.

    2014-01-01

    Semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots) were studied in the context of liquid scintillator development for upcoming neutrino experiments. The unique optical and chemical properties of quantum dots are particularly promising for the use in neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. Liquid scintillators for large scale neutrino detectors have to meet specific requirements which are reviewed, highlighting the peculiarities of quantum-dot-doping. In this paper, we report results on laboratory-scale measurements of the attenuation length and the fluorescence properties of three commercial quantum dot samples. The results include absorbance and emission stability measurements, improvement in transparency due to filtering of the quantum dot samples, precipitation tests to isolate the quantum dots from solution and energy transfer studies with quantum dots and the fluorophore PPO. PMID:25392711

  5. Non-Markovian full counting statistics in quantum dot molecules

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Hai-Bin; Jiao, Hu-Jun; Liang, Jiu-Qing; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Full counting statistics of electron transport is a powerful diagnostic tool for probing the nature of quantum transport beyond what is obtainable from the average current or conductance measurement alone. In particular, the non-Markovian dynamics of quantum dot molecule plays an important role in the nonequilibrium electron tunneling processes. It is thus necessary to understand the non-Markovian full counting statistics in a quantum dot molecule. Here we study the non-Markovian full counting statistics in two typical quantum dot molecules, namely, serially coupled and side-coupled double quantum dots with high quantum coherence in a certain parameter regime. We demonstrate that the non-Markovian effect manifests itself through the quantum coherence of the quantum dot molecule system, and has a significant impact on the full counting statistics in the high quantum-coherent quantum dot molecule system, which depends on the coupling of the quantum dot molecule system with the source and drain electrodes. The results indicated that the influence of the non-Markovian effect on the full counting statistics of electron transport, which should be considered in a high quantum-coherent quantum dot molecule system, can provide a better understanding of electron transport through quantum dot molecules. PMID:25752245

  6. Cadmium sulfide quantum dots induce oxidative stress and behavioral impairments in the marine clam Scrobicularia plana.

    PubMed

    Buffet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Zalouk-Vergnoux, Aurore; Poirier, Laurence; Lopes, Christelle; Risso-de-Faverney, Christine; Guibbolini, Marielle; Gilliland, Douglas; Perrein-Ettajani, Hanane; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Mouneyrac, Catherine

    2015-07-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots have a number of current applications in electronics and solar cells and significant future potential in medicine. The aim of the present study was to examine the toxic effects of CdS quantum dots on the marine clam Scrobicularia plana exposed for 14 d to these nanomaterials (10 µg Cd L(-1) ) in natural seawater and to compare them with soluble Cd. Measurement of labile Cd released from CdS quantum dots showed that 52% of CdS quantum dots remained in the nanoparticulate form. Clams accumulated the same levels of Cd regardless of the form in which it was delivered (soluble Cd vs CdS quantum dots). However, significant changes in biochemical responses were observed in clams exposed to CdS quantum dots compared with soluble Cd. Increased activities of catalase and glutathione-S-transferase were significantly higher in clams exposed in seawater to Cd as the nanoparticulate versus the soluble form, suggesting a specific nano effect. The behavior of S. plana in sediment showed impairments of foot movements only in the case of exposure to CdS quantum dots. The results show that oxidative stress and behavior biomarkers are sensitive predictors of CdS quantum dots toxicity in S. plana. Such responses, appearing well before changes might occur at the population level, demonstrate the usefulness of this model species and type of biomarker in the assessment of nanoparticle contamination in estuarine ecosystems. PMID:25772261

  7. Efficient Luminescence from Perovskite Quantum Dot Solids.

    PubMed

    Kim, Younghoon; Yassitepe, Emre; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Comin, Riccardo; Walters, Grant; Gong, Xiwen; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Nogueira, Ana F; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-11-18

    Nanocrystals of CsPbX3 perovskites are promising materials for light-emitting optoelectronics because of their colloidal stability, optically tunable bandgap, bright photoluminescence, and excellent photoluminescence quantum yield. Despite their promise, nanocrystal-only films of CsPbX3 perovskites have not yet been fabricated; instead, highly insulating polymers have been relied upon to compensate for nanocrystals' unstable surfaces. We develop solution chemistry that enables single-step casting of perovskite nanocrystal films and overcomes problems in both perovskite quantum dot purification and film fabrication. Centrifugally cast films retain bright photoluminescence and achieve dense and homogeneous morphologies. The new materials offer a platform for optoelectronic applications of perovskite quantum dot solids. PMID:26529572

  8. "Turn-off" fluorescent data array sensor based on double quantum dots coupled with chemometrics for highly sensitive and selective detection of multicomponent pesticides.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yao; Liu, Li; Sun, Donglei; Lan, Hanyue; Fu, Haiyan; Yang, Tianming; She, Yuanbin; Ni, Chuang

    2016-04-15

    As a popular detection model, the fluorescence "turn-off" sensor based on quantum dots (QDs) has already been successfully employed in the detections of many materials, especially in the researches on the interactions between pesticides. However, the previous studies are mainly focused on simple single track or the comparison based on similar concentration of drugs. In this work, a new detection method based on the fluorescence "turn-off" model with water-soluble ZnCdSe and CdSe QDs simultaneously as the fluorescent probes is established to detect various pesticides. The fluorescence of the two QDs can be quenched by different pesticides with varying degrees, which leads to the differences in positions and intensities of two peaks. By combining with chemometrics methods, all the pesticides can be qualitative and quantitative respectively even in real samples with the limit of detection was 2 × 10(-8) mol L(-1) and a recognition rate of 100%. This work is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report on the detection of pesticides based on the fluorescence quenching phenomenon of double quantum dots combined with chemometrics methods. What's more, the excellent selectivity of the system has been verified in different mediums such as mixed ion disruption, waste water, tea and water extraction liquid drugs. PMID:27016442

  9. Simultaneous Quantitative Detection of Helicobacter Pylori Based on a Rapid and Sensitive Testing Platform using Quantum Dots-Labeled Immunochromatiographic Test Strips.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu; Wang, Kan; Zhang, Jingjing; Qin, Weijian; Yan, Xinyu; Shen, Guangxia; Gao, Guo; Pan, Fei; Cui, Daxiang

    2016-12-01

    Quantum dots-labeled urea-enzyme antibody-based rapid immunochromatographic test strips have been developed as quantitative fluorescence point-of-care tests (POCTs) to detect helicobacter pylori. Presented in this study is a new test strip reader designed to run on tablet personal computers (PCs), which is portable for outdoor detection even without an alternating current (AC) power supply. A Wi-Fi module was integrated into the reader to improve its portability. Patient information was loaded by a barcode scanner, and an application designed to run on tablet PCs was developed to handle the acquired images. A vision algorithm called Kmeans was used for picture processing. Different concentrations of various human blood samples were tested to evaluate the stability and accuracy of the fabricated device. Results demonstrate that the reader can provide an easy, rapid, simultaneous, quantitative detection for helicobacter pylori. The proposed test strip reader has a lighter weight than existing detection readers, and it can run for long durations without an AC power supply, thus verifying that it possesses advantages for outdoor detection. Given its fast detection speed and high accuracy, the proposed reader combined with quantum dots-labeled test strips is suitable for POCTs and owns great potential in applications such as screening patients with infection of helicobacter pylori, etc. in near future. PMID:26842795

  10. Simultaneous Quantitative Detection of Helicobacter Pylori Based on a Rapid and Sensitive Testing Platform using Quantum Dots-Labeled Immunochromatiographic Test Strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yu; Wang, Kan; Zhang, Jingjing; Qin, Weijian; Yan, Xinyu; Shen, Guangxia; Gao, Guo; Pan, Fei; Cui, Daxiang

    2016-02-01

    Quantum dots-labeled urea-enzyme antibody-based rapid immunochromatographic test strips have been developed as quantitative fluorescence point-of-care tests (POCTs) to detect helicobacter pylori. Presented in this study is a new test strip reader designed to run on tablet personal computers (PCs), which is portable for outdoor detection even without an alternating current (AC) power supply. A Wi-Fi module was integrated into the reader to improve its portability. Patient information was loaded by a barcode scanner, and an application designed to run on tablet PCs was developed to handle the acquired images. A vision algorithm called Kmeans was used for picture processing. Different concentrations of various human blood samples were tested to evaluate the stability and accuracy of the fabricated device. Results demonstrate that the reader can provide an easy, rapid, simultaneous, quantitative detection for helicobacter pylori. The proposed test strip reader has a lighter weight than existing detection readers, and it can run for long durations without an AC power supply, thus verifying that it possesses advantages for outdoor detection. Given its fast detection speed and high accuracy, the proposed reader combined with quantum dots-labeled test strips is suitable for POCTs and owns great potential in applications such as screening patients with infection of helicobacter pylori, etc. in near future.

  11. Quantum dot circuits: Single-electron switch and few-electron quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Ian Hin-Yun

    A strongly capacitively-coupled parallel double quantum dot was studied as a single-electron switch. The double dot was fabricated in a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. An electrically-floating coupling gate increased capacitive-coupling between the dots, while an etched trench prevented tunnel-coupling between them. Split Coulomb blockade peaks were observed in each dot, and the Coulomb blockade conductance of the double dot formed a hexagonal pattern characteristic of coupled dots. A fractional peak splitting f = 0.34 was measured, which corresponds to a fractional capacitive-coupling alpha ≡ CINT/CSigma = 0.20. This is an order of magnitude larger than reported for similar lateral quantum dots, and shows that the coupling gate works. The strong capacitive-coupling in our device allowed the charge state of one dot to strongly influence the conductance of the other dot and enabled it to work as a single-electron switch. By moving in a combination of gate voltages, electrons are induced in one dot (the "trigger" dot) only. In response to the change in the charge state, the conductance of the other dot (the "switched" dot) is turned on and off. The abruptness of the conductance switching in gate voltage (the switching lineshape) is determined by how well charge is quantized on the trigger dot, and was found to follow tanh and arctan forms for (respectively) good and poor charge quantization in the trigger dot. A few-electron tunnel-coupled series double dot was studied for possible application to quantum computing. The device was fabricated in a square-well 2DEG in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The dots were emptied of electrons in order to define the absolute number of electrons in the dot. Finite bias Coulomb blockade measurements on each dot showed that the last Coulomb blockade diamonds did not close and thus that both dots could be emptied. A three-dimensional conductance measurement of one dot in the one sidegate and the

  12. Graphene/Si-quantum-dot heterojunction diodes showing high photosensitivity compatible with quantum confinement effect.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Hee; Kim, Sung; Kim, Jong Min; Jang, Chan Wook; Kim, Ju Hwan; Lee, Kyeong Won; Kim, Jungkil; Oh, Si Duck; Lee, Dae Hun; Kang, Soo Seok; Kim, Chang Oh; Choi, Suk-Ho; Kim, Kyung Joong

    2015-04-24

    Graphene/Si quantum dot (QD) heterojunction diodes are reported for the first time. The photoresponse, very sensitive to variations in the size of the QDs as well as in the doping concentration of graphene and consistent with the quantum-confinement effect, is remarkably enhanced in the near-ultraviolet range compared to commercially available bulk-Si photodetectors. The photoresponse proves to be dominated by the carriertunneling mechanism. PMID:25776865

  13. Enhanced charge collection and reduced recombination of CdS /TiO2 quantum-dots sensitized solar cells in the presence of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wonjoo; Lee, Jungwoo; Lee, Sangjin; Yi, Whikun; Han, Sung-Hwan; Cho, Byung Won

    2008-04-01

    This paper reports the modification of CdS /TiO2 quantum-dot sensitized solar cells by using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) on indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. The presence of the SWCNT layers on an ITO electrode increased the short-circuit current under the irradiation condition and also reduced the charge recombination process under the dark condition. The power conversion efficiency of CdS /TiO2 on ITO increased 50.0% in the presence of SWCNTs due to the improved charge-collecting efficiency and reduced recombination.

  14. Förster Resonance Energy Transfer between Quantum Dot Donors and Quantum Dot Acceptors

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Kenny F.; Dennis, Allison M.

    2015-01-01

    Förster (or fluorescence) resonance energy transfer amongst semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) is reviewed, with particular interest in biosensing applications. The unique optical properties of QDs provide certain advantages and also specific challenges with regards to sensor design, compared to other FRET systems. The brightness and photostability of QDs make them attractive for highly sensitive sensing and long-term, repetitive imaging applications, respectively, but the overlapping donor and acceptor excitation signals that arise when QDs serve as both the donor and acceptor lead to high background signals from direct excitation of the acceptor. The fundamentals of FRET within a nominally homogeneous QD population as well as energy transfer between two distinct colors of QDs are discussed. Examples of successful sensors are highlighted, as is cascading FRET, which can be used for solar harvesting. PMID:26057041

  15. Ultrasensitive solution-cast quantum dot photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantatos, Gerasimos; Howard, Ian; Fischer, Armin; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Clifford, Jason; Klem, Ethan; Levina, Larissa; Sargent, Edward H.

    2006-07-01

    Solution-processed electronic and optoelectronic devices offer low cost, large device area, physical flexibility and convenient materials integration compared to conventional epitaxially grown, lattice-matched, crystalline semiconductor devices. Although the electronic or optoelectronic performance of these solution-processed devices is typically inferior to that of those fabricated by conventional routes, this can be tolerated for some applications in view of the other benefits. Here we report the fabrication of solution-processed infrared photodetectors that are superior in their normalized detectivity (D*, the figure of merit for detector sensitivity) to the best epitaxially grown devices operating at room temperature. We produced the devices in a single solution-processing step, overcoating a prefabricated planar electrode array with an unpatterned layer of PbS colloidal quantum dot nanocrystals. The devices showed large photoconductive gains with responsivities greater than 103AW-1. The best devices exhibited a normalized detectivity D* of 1.8 × 1013jones (1jones = 1cmHz1/2W-1) at 1.3µm at room temperature: today's highest performance infrared photodetectors are photovoltaic devices made from epitaxially grown InGaAs that exhibit peak D* in the 1012jones range at room temperature, whereas the previous record for D* from a photoconductive detector lies at 1011jones. The tailored selection of absorption onset energy through the quantum size effect, combined with deliberate engineering of the sequence of nanoparticle fusing and surface trap functionalization, underlie the superior performance achieved in this readily fabricated family of devices.

  16. Quantum Computation Using Optically Coupled Quantum Dot Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pradhan, Prabhakar; Anantram, M. P.; Wang, K. L.; Roychowhury, V. P.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    A solid state model for quantum computation has potential advantages in terms of the ease of fabrication, characterization, and integration. The fundamental requirements for a quantum computer involve the realization of basic processing units (qubits), and a scheme for controlled switching and coupling among the qubits, which enables one to perform controlled operations on qubits. We propose a model for quantum computation based on optically coupled quantum dot arrays, which is computationally similar to the atomic model proposed by Cirac and Zoller. In this model, individual qubits are comprised of two coupled quantum dots, and an array of these basic units is placed in an optical cavity. Switching among the states of the individual units is done by controlled laser pulses via near field interaction using the NSOM technology. Controlled rotations involving two or more qubits are performed via common cavity mode photon. We have calculated critical times, including the spontaneous emission and switching times, and show that they are comparable to the best times projected for other proposed models of quantum computation. We have also shown the feasibility of accessing individual quantum dots using the NSOM technology by calculating the photon density at the tip, and estimating the power necessary to perform the basic controlled operations. We are currently in the process of estimating the decoherence times for this system; however, we have formulated initial arguments which seem to indicate that the decoherence times will be comparable, if not longer, than many other proposed models.

  17. Ferromagnetic Kondo Effect in a Triple Quantum Dot System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruselli, P. P.; Requist, R.; Fabrizio, M.; Tosatti, E.

    2013-07-01

    A simple device of three laterally coupled quantum dots, the central one contacted by metal leads, provides a realization of the ferromagnetic Kondo model, which is characterized by interesting properties like a nonanalytic inverted zero-bias anomaly and an extreme sensitivity to a magnetic field. Tuning the gate voltages of the lateral dots allows us to study the transition from a ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic Kondo effect, a simple case of a Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition. We model the device by three coupled Anderson impurities that we study by numerical renormalization group. We calculate the single-particle spectral function of the central dot, which at zero frequency is proportional to the zero-bias conductance, across the transition, both in the absence and in the presence of a magnetic field.

  18. Ferromagnetic Kondo effect in a triple quantum dot system.

    PubMed

    Baruselli, P P; Requist, R; Fabrizio, M; Tosatti, E

    2013-07-26

    A simple device of three laterally coupled quantum dots, the central one contacted by metal leads, provides a realization of the ferromagnetic Kondo model, which is characterized by interesting properties like a nonanalytic inverted zero-bias anomaly and an extreme sensitivity to a magnetic field. Tuning the gate voltages of the lateral dots allows us to study the transition from a ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic Kondo effect, a simple case of a Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition. We model the device by three coupled Anderson impurities that we study by numerical renormalization group. We calculate the single-particle spectral function of the central dot, which at zero frequency is proportional to the zero-bias conductance, across the transition, both in the absence and in the presence of a magnetic field. PMID:23931401

  19. A novel research approach on the dynamic properties of photogenerated charge carriers at Ag{sub 2}S quantum-dots-sensitized TiO{sub 2} films by a frequency-modulated surface photovoltage technology

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Tengfeng; Wang, Dejun; Song, Xi-Ming

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: The changed SPV with chopping frequencies indicate the separation speeds of photogenerated charge carriers in different films. - Highlights: • Ag{sub 2}S-sensitized TiO{sub 2} films show good photoelectric responses in visible-light region. • Frequency-modulated SPV give dynamic information and evidence of Ag{sub 2}S QDSSCs’ performance. • Frequency-modulated SPV can supply complementary information in the study of Ag{sub 2}S ODSSCs. - Abstract: Ag{sub 2}S quantum-dots-sensitized TiO{sub 2} films with different amount of Ag{sub 2}S were fabricated by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The separation and transport of photogenerated charge carriers at different spectral regions were studied by the frequency-modulated surface photovoltage technology. Some novel dynamic information of photogenerated charge carriers in a wide spectral range is found. The results indicate that the rate and direction of separation (diffusion) for photogenerated charge carriers are closely related to the performance of quantum-dots-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) based on the Ag{sub 2}S/TiO{sub 2} nano-structure.

  20. Quantum-dot-induced phase shift in a pillar microcavity

    SciTech Connect

    Young, A. B.; Hu, C. Y.; Rarity, J. G.; Oulton, R.; Thijssen, A. C. T.; Schneider, C.; Reitzenstein, S.; Kamp, M.; Hoefling, S.; Worschech, L.; Forchel, A.

    2011-07-15

    We perform high-resolution reflection spectroscopy of a quantum dot resonantly coupled to a pillar microcavity. We show the change in reflectivity as the quantum dot is tuned through the cavity resonance and measure the quantum-dot-induced phase shift using an ultrastable interferometer. The macroscopic phase shift we measure could be extended to the study of charged quantum dot pillar microcavity systems, where it could be exploited to realize a high-efficiency spin photon interface for hybrid quantum information schemes.

  1. Reconfigurable quadruple quantum dots in a silicon nanowire transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betz, A. C.; Tagliaferri, M. L. V.; Vinet, M.; Broström, M.; Sanquer, M.; Ferguson, A. J.; Gonzalez-Zalba, M. F.

    2016-05-01

    We present a reconfigurable metal-oxide-semiconductor multi-gate transistor that can host a quadruple quantum dot in silicon. The device consists of an industrial quadruple-gate silicon nanowire field-effect transistor. Exploiting the corner effect, we study the versatility of the structure in the single quantum dot and the serial double quantum dot regimes and extract the relevant capacitance parameters. We address the fabrication variability of the quadruple-gate approach which, paired with improved silicon fabrication techniques, makes the corner state quantum dot approach a promising candidate for a scalable quantum information architecture.

  2. Photoelectrochemical cell/dye-sensitized solar cell tandem water splitting systems with transparent and vertically aligned quantum dot sensitized TiO2 nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Kahee; Yoo, Ji-Beom; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2013-03-01

    The present work reports fabrication of vertically aligned CdS sensitized TiO2 nanorod arrays grown on transparent conducting oxide substrate with high transparency as a photoanode in photoelectrochemical cell for water splitting. To realize an unassisted water splitting system, the photoanode and dye-sensitized solar cell tandem structures are tried and their electrochemical behaviors are also investigated. The hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanorod arrays followed by CdS nanoparticle decoration can improve the light absorption of long wavelength light resulting in increased photocurrent density. Two different techniques (electrodeposition and spray pyrolysis deposition) of CdS nanoparticle sensitization are carried out and their water splitting behaviors in the tandem cell are compared.

  3. Charge transport in semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentzel, Tamar Shoshana

    In this thesis, we study charge transport in arrays of semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots. Nanocrystals are synthesized in solution, and an organic ligand on the surface of the nanocrystal creates a potential barrier that confines charges in the nanocrystal. Optical absorption measurements reveal discrete electronic energy levels in the nanocrystals resulting from quantum confinement. When nanocrystals are deposited on a surface, they self-assemble into a close-packed array forming a nanocrystal solid. We report electrical transport measurements of a PbSe nanocrystal solid that serves as the channel of an inverted field-effect transistor. We measure the conductance as a function of temperature, source-drain bias and. gate voltage. The data indicates that holes are the majority carriers; the Fermi energy lies in impurity states in the bandgap of the nanocrystal; and charges hop between the highest occupied valence state in the nanocrystals (the 1S h states). At low source-drain voltages, the activation energy for hopping is given by the energy required to generate holes in the 1Sh state plus activation over barriers resulting from site disorder. The barriers from site disorder are eliminated with a sufficiently high source-drain bias. From the gate effect, we extract the Thomas-Fermi screening length and a density of states that is consistent with the estimated value. We consider variable-range hopping as an alternative model, and find no self-consistent evidence for it. Next, we employ charge sensing as an alternative to current measurements for studying transport in materials with localized sites. A narrow-channel MOSFET serves as a charge sensor because its conductance is sensitive to potential fluctuations in the nearby environment caused by the motion of charge. In particular, it is sensitive to the fluctuation of single electrons at the silicon-oxide interface within the MOSFET. We pattern a strip of amorphous germanium within 100 nm of the transistor. The

  4. Graphene quantum dots: Highly active bifunctional nanoprobes for nonenzymatic photoluminescence detection of hydroquinone.

    PubMed

    He, Yuezhen; Sun, Jian; Feng, Dexiang; Chen, Hongqi; Gao, Feng; Wang, Lun

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, a simple and sensitive photoluminescence method is developed for the hydroquinone quantitation by using graphene quantum dots which simultaneously serve as a peroxidase-mimicking catalyst and a photoluminescence indicator. In the presence of dissolved oxygen, graphene quantum dots with intrinsic peroxidase-mimicking catalytic activity can catalyze the oxidation of hydroquinone to produce p-benzoquinone, an intermediate, which can efficiently quench graphene quantum dots' photoluminescence. Based on this effect, a novel fluorescent platform is proposed for the sensing of hydroquinone, and the detection limit of 5 nM is found. PMID:26164014

  5. Quantum Dots — Characterization, Preparation and Usage in Biological Systems

    PubMed Central

    Drbohlavova, Jana; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene; Hubalek, Jaromir

    2009-01-01

    The use of fluorescent nanoparticles as probes for bioanalytical applications is a highly promising technique because fluorescence-based techniques are very sensitive. Quantum dots (QDs) seem to show the greatest promise as labels for tagging and imaging in biological systems owing to their impressive photostability, which allow long-term observations of biomolecules. The usage of QDs in practical applications has started only recently, therefore, the research on QDs is extremely important in order to provide safe and effective biosensing materials for medicine. This review reports on the recent methods for the preparation of quantum dots, their physical and chemical properties, surface modification as well as on some interesting examples of their experimental use. PMID:19333427

  6. Small bright charged colloidal quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wei; Liu, Heng; Guyot-Sionnest, Philippe

    2014-01-28

    Using electrochemical charge injection, the fluorescence lifetimes of negatively charged core/shell CdTe/CdSe QDs are measured as a function of core size and shell thickness. It is found that the ensemble negative trion lifetimes reach a maximum (∼4.5 ns) for an intermediate shell thickness. This leads to the smallest particles (∼4.5 nm) with the brightest trion to date. Single dot measurements show that the negative charge suppresses blinking and that the trion can be as bright as the exciton at room temperature. In contrast, the biexciton lifetimes remain short and exhibit only a monotonous increase with shell thickness, showing no correlation with the negative trion decays. The suppression of the Auger process in small negatively charged CdTe/CdSe quantum dots is unprecedented and a significant departure from prior results with ultrathick CdSe/CdS core/shell or dot-in-rod structures. The proposed reason for the optimum shell thickness is that the electron-hole overlap is restricted to the CdTe core while the electron is tuned to have zero kinetic energy in the core for that optimum shell thickness. The different trend of the biexciton lifetime is not explained but tentatively attributed to shorter-lived positive trions at smaller sizes. These results improve our understanding of multiexciton recombination in colloidal quantum dots and may lead to the design of bright charged QDs for more efficient light-emitting devices. PMID:24350673

  7. Conductance Peaks in Open Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, J. G. G. S.; Bazeia, D.; Hussein, M. S.; Lewenkopf, C. H.

    2011-10-01

    We present a simple measure of the conductance fluctuations in open ballistic chaotic quantum dots, extending the number of maxima method originally proposed for the statistical analysis of compound nuclear reactions. The average number of extreme points (maxima and minima) in the dimensionless conductance T as a function of an arbitrary external parameter Z is directly related to the autocorrelation function of T(Z). The parameter Z can be associated with an applied gate voltage causing shape deformation in quantum dot, an external magnetic field, the Fermi energy, etc. The average density of maxima is found to be ⟨ρZ⟩=αZ/Zc, where αZ is a universal constant and Zc is the conductance autocorrelation length, which is system specific. The analysis of ⟨ρZ⟩ does not require large statistic samples, providing a quite amenable way to access information about parametric correlations, such as Zc.

  8. Quantum dot/glycol chitosan fluorescent nanoconjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansur, Alexandra AP; Mansur, Herman S.

    2015-04-01

    In this study, novel carbohydrate-based nanoconjugates combining chemically modified chitosan with semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) were designed and synthesised via single-step aqueous route at room temperature. Glycol chitosan (G-CHI) was used as the capping ligand aiming to improve the water solubility of the nanoconjugates to produce stable and biocompatible colloidal systems. UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to characterise the synthesis and the relative stability of biopolymer-capped semiconductor nanocrystals. The results clearly demonstrated that the glycol chitosan derivative was remarkably effective at nucleating and stabilising semiconductor CdS quantum dots in aqueous suspensions under acidic, neutral, and alkaline media with an average size of approximately 2.5 nm and a fluorescent activity in the visible range of the spectra.

  9. Magnetoconductance fluctuations in open bismuth quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackens, B.; Minet, J. P.; Farhi, G.; Crahay, A.; Faniel, S.; Gustin, C.; Bayot, V.

    2002-03-01

    We investigate the low temperature (300 mK - 10 K) magnetoconductance of open circular bismuth quantum dots (diameter: 500 nm). The structures are fabricated using a combination of electron beam lithography, lift off and plasma etching techniques on bismuth thin films evaporated on heated SiO2 substrates. We observe reproducible magnetoconductance fluctuations (UCFs) up to 5T, qualitatively similar to conductance fluctuations evidenced in open quantum dots patterned in high mobility semiconductor heterostructures. In our samples, UCFs are superposed on a slowly varying negative magnetoconductance background. We also observe a sharp conductance maximum centered in B=0, which is reminescent of the spin-orbit induced anti-localisation phenomenon. The behavior of UCFs and of the conductance maximum is discussed as a function of the temperature, thickness and degree of cristallinity of the cavity.

  10. Protease-activated quantum dot probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Emmanuel; Sun, Jiantang; Miller, Jordan S.; Yu, William W.; Colvin, Vicki L.; West, Jennifer L.; Drezek, Rebekah

    2006-04-01

    We demonstrate a novel quantum dot based probe with inherent signal amplification upon interaction with a targeted proteolytic enzyme. This probe may be useful for imaging in cancer detection and diagnosis. In this system, quantum dots (QDs) are bound to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) via a proteolytically-degradable peptide sequence to non-radiatively suppress luminescence. A 71% reduction in luminescence was achieved with conjugation of AuNPs to QDs. Peptide cleavage results in release of AuNPs and restores radiative QD photoluminescence. Initial studies observed a 52% rise in luminescence over 47 hours of exposure to 0.2 mg/mL collagenase. These probes can be customized for targeted degradation simply by changing the sequence of the peptide linker.

  11. Separability and dynamical symmetry of Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, P.-M.; Zou, L.-P.; Horvathy, P.A.; Gibbons, G.W.

    2014-02-15

    The separability and Runge–Lenz-type dynamical symmetry of the internal dynamics of certain two-electron Quantum Dots, found by Simonović et al. (2003), are traced back to that of the perturbed Kepler problem. A large class of axially symmetric perturbing potentials which allow for separation in parabolic coordinates can easily be found. Apart from the 2:1 anisotropic harmonic trapping potential considered in Simonović and Nazmitdinov (2013), they include a constant electric field parallel to the magnetic field (Stark effect), the ring-shaped Hartmann potential, etc. The harmonic case is studied in detail. -- Highlights: • The separability of Quantum Dots is derived from that of the perturbed Kepler problem. • Harmonic perturbation with 2:1 anisotropy is separable in parabolic coordinates. • The system has a conserved Runge–Lenz type quantity.

  12. Electrical properties of semiconductor quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Kharlamov, V. F. Korostelev, D. A.; Bogoraz, I. G.; Milovidova, O. A.; Sergeyev, V. O.

    2013-04-15

    A method, which makes it possible to obtain semiconductor particles V Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -20} cm{sup 3} in volume (quantum dots) with a concentration of up to 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2} and electrical contacts to each of them, is suggested. High variability in the electrical properties of such particles from a metal oxide (CuO or NiO) after the chemisorption of gas molecules is found.

  13. Inverted colloidal quantum dot solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gi-Hwan; Walker, Bright; Kim, Hak-Beom; Kim, Jin Young; Sargent, Edward H; Park, Jongnam; Kim, Jin Young

    2014-05-28

    An inverted architecture of quantum dot solar cells is demonstrated by introducing a novel ZnO method on top of the PbS CQD film. Improvements in device characteristics stem from constructive optical interference from the ZnO layer that enhances absorption in the PbS CQD layer. Outstanding diode characteristics arising from a superior PbS/ZnO junction provide a further electronic advantage. PMID:24677118

  14. Sensitivity and selectivity determination of BPA in real water samples using PAMAM dendrimer and CoTe quantum dots modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Yin, Huanshun; Zhou, Yunlei; Ai, Shiyun; Chen, Quanpeng; Zhu, Xiangbin; Liu, Xianggang; Zhu, Lusheng

    2010-02-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental pollutant to disrupt endocrine system or cause cancer, thus the detection of BPA is very important. Herein, an amperometric sensor was fabricated based on immobilized CoTe quantum dots (CoTe QDs) and PAMAM dendrimer (PAMAM) onto glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface. The cyclic voltammogram of BPA on the sensor exhibited a well-defined anodic peak at 0.490V in 0.1M pH 8.0 PBS. The determination conditions were optimized and the kinetic parameters were calculated. The linear range was 1.3 x 10(-8) to 9.89 x 10(-6)M with the correlation coefficient of 0.9999. The limit of detection was estimated to be 1 x 10(-9)M. The current reached the steady-state current within about 5s. Furthermore, the fabricated sensor was successfully applied to determine BPA in real water samples. PMID:19782469

  15. Study on dynamics of photoexcited charge injection and trapping in CdS quantum dots sensitized TiO2 nanowire array film electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Shan; Cheng, Ke; Yuan, Zhanqiang; Xu, Suyun; Cheng, Gang; Du, Zuliang

    2014-05-01

    The photoexcited electrons transfer dynamics of the CdS quantum dots (QDs) deposited in TiO2 nanowire array films are studied using surface photovoltage (SPV) and transient photovoltage (TPV) techniques. By comparing the SPV results with different thicknesses of QDs layers, we can separate the dynamic characteristics of photoexcited electrons injection and trapping. It is found that the TPV signals of photoexcited electrons trapped in the CdS QDs occur at timescales of about 2 × 10-8 s, which is faster than that of the photoexcited electrons injected from CdS into TiO2. More than 90 nm of the thickness of the CdS QDs layer will seriously affect the photoexcited electrons transfer and injection.

  16. Study on dynamics of photoexcited charge injection and trapping in CdS quantum dots sensitized TiO{sub 2} nanowire array film electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, Shan; Cheng, Ke; Yuan, Zhanqiang; Xu, Suyun; Cheng, Gang; Du, Zuliang

    2014-05-19

    The photoexcited electrons transfer dynamics of the CdS quantum dots (QDs) deposited in TiO{sub 2} nanowire array films are studied using surface photovoltage (SPV) and transient photovoltage (TPV) techniques. By comparing the SPV results with different thicknesses of QDs layers, we can separate the dynamic characteristics of photoexcited electrons injection and trapping. It is found that the TPV signals of photoexcited electrons trapped in the CdS QDs occur at timescales of about 2 × 10{sup −8} s, which is faster than that of the photoexcited electrons injected from CdS into TiO{sub 2}. More than 90 nm of the thickness of the CdS QDs layer will seriously affect the photoexcited electrons transfer and injection.

  17. Highly fluorescent and morphology-controllable graphene quantum dots-chitosan hybrid xerogels for in vivo imaging and pH-sensitive drug carrier.

    PubMed

    Lv, Ouyang; Tao, Yongxin; Qin, Yong; Chen, Chuanxiang; Pan, Yan; Deng, Linhong; Liu, Li; Kong, Yong

    2016-10-01

    Highly fluorescent graphene quantum dots (GQDs)-chitosan (CS) hybrid xerogels (GQDs-CS) were facilely synthesized, and the morphology of GQDs-CS was controllable by varying the content of GQDs in the xerogel. The GQDs-CS exhibited a porous and three-dimensional (3D) network structure when the content of GQDs reached 43% (wt%) in the xerogel, which was beneficial for drug loading and sustained release. The as-prepared GQDs-CS could also be applied for in vivo imaging since it showed strong blue, green and red luminescence under excitation of varying wavelengths. Moreover, the pH-induced protonation/deprotonation of the -NH2 groups on CS chains can result in a pH-dependent drug delivery behavior of the GQDs-CS hybrid xerogel. PMID:27287145

  18. Relaxation dynamics in correlated quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Andergassen, S.; Schuricht, D.; Pletyukhov, M.; Schoeller, H.

    2014-12-04

    We study quantum many-body effects on the real-time evolution of the current through quantum dots. By using a non-equilibrium renormalization group approach, we provide analytic results for the relaxation dynamics into the stationary state and identify the microscopic cutoff scales that determine the transport rates. We find rich non-equilibrium physics induced by the interplay of the different energy scales. While the short-time limit is governed by universal dynamics, the long-time behavior features characteristic oscillations as well as an interplay of exponential and power-law decay.

  19. Ultra-bright alkylated graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lan; Tang, Xing-Yan; Zhong, Yun-Xin; Liu, Yue-Wen; Song, Xue-Huan; Deng, Shun-Liu; Xie, Su-Yuan; Yan, Jia-Wei; Zheng, Lan-Sun

    2014-10-01

    Highly efficient and stable photoluminescence (PL) are urgently desired for graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to facilitate their prospective applications as optical materials. Here, we report the facile and straightforward synthesis of alkylated graphene quantum dots (AGQDs) via the solvothermal reaction of propagatively alkylated graphene sheets (PAGenes). In contrast to most GQDs reported so far, the synthesized AGQDs process pH-independent and ultra-bright PL with a relative quantum yield of up to 65%. Structural and chemical composition characterization demonstrated that the synthesized AGQDs are nearly oxygen-defect-free with alkyl groups decorated on edges and basal plane, which may contribute to their greatly improved pH tolerance and high quantum efficiency. The photocatalytic performance of AGQDs-P25 nanocomposites was evaluated by the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible light. The photocatalytic rate is ca. 5.9 times higher than that of pure P25, indicating that AGQDs could harness the visible spectrum of sunlight for energy conversion or environmental therapy.Highly efficient and stable photoluminescence (PL) are urgently desired for graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to facilitate their prospective applications as optical materials. Here, we report the facile and straightforward synthesis of alkylated graphene quantum dots (AGQDs) via the solvothermal reaction of propagatively alkylated graphene sheets (PAGenes). In contrast to most GQDs reported so far, the synthesized AGQDs process pH-independent and ultra-bright PL with a relative quantum yield of up to 65%. Structural and chemical composition characterization demonstrated that the synthesized AGQDs are nearly oxygen-defect-free with alkyl groups decorated on edges and basal plane, which may contribute to their greatly improved pH tolerance and high quantum efficiency. The photocatalytic performance of AGQDs-P25 nanocomposites was evaluated by the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible light. The

  20. The impact of quantum dot filling on dual-band optical transitions via intermediate quantum states

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jiang; Passmore, Brandon; Manasreh, M. O.

    2015-08-28

    InAs/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors with different doping levels were investigated to understand the effect of quantum dot filling on both intraband and interband optical transitions. The electron filling of self-assembled InAs quantum dots was varied by direct doping of quantum dots with different concentrations. Photoresponse in the near infrared and middle wavelength infrared spectral region was observed from samples with low quantum dot filling. Although undoped quantum dots were favored for interband transitions with the absence of a second optical excitation in the near infrared region, doped quantum dots were preferred to improve intraband transitions in the middle wavelength infrared region. As a result, partial filling of quantum dot was required, to the extent of maintaining a low dark current, to enhance the dual-band photoresponse through the confined electron states.

  1. Quantum dot spectroscopy using a single phosphorus donor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büch, Holger; Fuechsle, Martin; Baker, William; House, Matthew G.; Simmons, Michelle Y.

    2015-12-01

    Using a deterministic single P donor placed with atomic precision accuracy next to a nanoscale silicon quantum dot, we present a way to analyze the energy spectrum of small quantum dots in silicon by tunnel-coupled transport measurements. The energy-level structure of the quantum dot is observed as resonance features within the transport bias triangles when the donor chemical potential is aligned with states within the quantum dot as confirmed by a numeric rate equation solver SIMON. This technique allows us to independently extract the quantum dot level structure irrespective of the density of states in the leads. Such a method is useful for the investigation of silicon quantum dots in the few-electron regime where the level structure is governed by an intricate interplay between the spin- and the valley-orbit degrees of freedom.

  2. Quantum Dot Platform for Single-Cell Molecular Profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zrazhevskiy, Pavel S.

    In-depth understanding of the nature of cell physiology and ability to diagnose and control the progression of pathological processes heavily rely on untangling the complexity of intracellular molecular mechanisms and pathways. Therefore, comprehensive molecular profiling of individual cells within the context of their natural tissue or cell culture microenvironment is essential. In principle, this goal can be achieved by tagging each molecular target with a unique reporter probe and detecting its localization with high sensitivity at sub-cellular resolution, primarily via microscopy-based imaging. Yet, neither widely used conventional methods nor more advanced nanoparticle-based techniques have been able to address this task up to date. High multiplexing potential of fluorescent probes is heavily restrained by the inability to uniquely match probes with corresponding molecular targets. This issue is especially relevant for quantum dot probes---while simultaneous spectral imaging of up to 10 different probes is possible, only few can be used concurrently for staining with existing methods. To fully utilize multiplexing potential of quantum dots, it is necessary to design a new staining platform featuring unique assignment of each target to a corresponding quantum dot probe. This dissertation presents two complementary versatile approaches towards achieving comprehensive single-cell molecular profiling and describes engineering of quantum dot probes specifically tailored for each staining method. Analysis of expanded molecular profiles is achieved through augmenting parallel multiplexing capacity with performing several staining cycles on the same specimen in sequential manner. In contrast to other methods utilizing quantum dots or other nanoparticles, which often involve sophisticated probe synthesis, the platform technology presented here takes advantage of simple covalent bioconjugation and non-covalent self-assembly mechanisms for straightforward probe

  3. Hybrid 2D-0D MoS2 -PbS quantum dot photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Kufer, Dominik; Nikitskiy, Ivan; Lasanta, Tania; Navickaite, Gabriele; Koppens, Frank H L; Konstantatos, Gerasimos

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid phototransistor consisting of colloidal PbS quantum dots and few layers of MoS2 (≥2 layers) is demonstrated. The hybrid benefits from tailored light absorption in the quantum dots throughout the visible/near infrared region, efficient charge-carrier separation at the p-n interface, and fast carrier transport through the MoS2 channel. It shows responsivity of up to 10(6) A W(-1) and backgate-dependent sensitivity. PMID:25400160

  4. Quantum dots fluorescence quantum yield measured by Thermal Lens Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Estupiñán-López, Carlos; Dominguez, Christian Tolentino; Cabral Filho, Paulo E; Fontes, Adriana; de Araujo, Renato E

    2014-01-01

    An essential parameter to evaluate the light emission properties of fluorophores is the fluorescence quantum yield, which quantify the conversion efficiency of absorbed photons to emitted photons. We detail here an alternative nonfluorescent method to determine the absolute fluorescence quantum yield of quantum dots (QDs). The method is based in the so-called Thermal Lens Spectroscopy (TLS) technique, which consists on the evaluation of refractive index gradient thermally induced in the fluorescent material by the absorption of light. Aqueous dispersion carboxyl-coated cadmium telluride (CdTe) QDs samples were used to demonstrate the Thermal Lens Spectroscopy technical procedure. PMID:25103802

  5. Quantum limit for nuclear spin polarization in semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildmann, Julia; Kavousanaki, Eleftheria; Burkard, Guido; Ribeiro, Hugo

    2014-05-01

    A recent experiment [E. A. Chekhovich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 066804 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.066804] has demonstrated that high nuclear spin polarization can be achieved in self-assembled quantum dots by exploiting an optically forbidden transition between a heavy hole and a trion state. However, a fully polarized state is not achieved as expected from a classical rate equation. Here, we theoretically investigate this problem with the help of a quantum master equation and we demonstrate that a fully polarized state cannot be achieved due to formation of a nuclear dark state. Moreover, we show that the maximal degree of polarization depends on structural properties of the quantum dot.

  6. Functional surface engineering of quantum dot hydrogels for selective fluorescence imaging of extracellular lactate release.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaomeng; Ding, Shushu; Cao, Sumei; Zhu, Anwei; Shi, Guoyue

    2016-06-15

    Selective and sensitive detection of extracellular lactate is of fundamental significance for studying the metabolic alterations in tumor progression. Here we report the rational design and synthesis of a quantum-dot-hydrogel-based fluorescent probe for biosensing and bioimaging the extracellular lactate. By surface engineering the destabilized quantum dot sol with Nile Blue, the destabilized Nile-Blue-functionalized quantum dot sol cannot only self-assemble forming quantum dot hydrogel but also monitor lactate in the presence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide cofactor and lactate dehydrogenase through fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Notably, the surface engineered quantum dot hydrogel show high selectivity toward lactate over common metal ions, amino acids and other small molecules that widely coexist in biological system. Moreover, the destabilized Nile-Blue-functionalized quantum dots can encapsulate isolated cancer cells when self-assembled into a hydrogel and thus specifically detect and image the extracellular lactate metabolism. By virtue of these properties, the functionalized quantum dot hydrogel was further successfully applied to monitor the effect of metabolic agents. PMID:26852200

  7. Polarized quantum dot emission in electrohydrodynamic jet printed photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    See, Gloria G.; Xu, Lu; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Sutanto, Erick; Alleyne, Andrew G.; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2015-08-03

    Tailored optical output, such as color purity and efficient optical intensity, are critical considerations for displays, particularly in mobile applications. To this end, we demonstrate a replica molded photonic crystal structure with embedded quantum dots. Electrohydrodynamic jet printing is used to control the position of the quantum dots within the device structure. This results in significantly less waste of the quantum dot material than application through drop-casting or spin coating. In addition, the targeted placement of the quantum dots minimizes any emission outside of the resonant enhancement field, which enables an 8× output enhancement and highly polarized emission from the photonic crystal structure.

  8. Imaging ligand-gated ion channels with quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomlinson, I. D.; Orndorff, Rebecca L.; Gussin, Hélène; Mason, John N.; Blakely, Randy D.; Pepperberg, David R.; Rosenthal, Sandra J.

    2007-02-01

    In this paper we report two different methodologies for labeling ligand-gated receptors. The first of these builds upon our earlier work with serotonin conjugated quantum dots and our studies with pegilated quantum dots to reduce non specific binding. In this approach a pegilated derivative of muscimol was synthesized and attached via an amide linkage to quantum dots coated in an amphiphillic polymer derivative of poly acrylamide. These conjugates were used to image the GABA C receptor in oocytes. An alternative approach was used to image tissue sections to study nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the neuro muscular junction with biotinylated Bungerotoxin and streptavidin coated quantum dots.

  9. Enhanced performance of quantum dot solar cells based on type II quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Feng; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Luo, Shuai; Lv, Zun-Ren; Yang, Tao

    2014-10-07

    The characteristics of quantum dot solar cells (QDSCs) based on type II QDs are investigated theoretically. Based on a drift-diffusion model, we obtained a much higher open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) as well as conversion efficiency in a type II QDSC, compared to type I QDSCs. The improved V{sub oc} and efficiency are mainly attributed to the much longer Auger recombination lifetime in type II QDs. Moreover, the influence of the carrier lifetime on devices' performance is discussed and clarified. In addition, an explicit criterion to determine the role of quantum dots in solar cells is put forward.

  10. Single-electron Spin Resonance in a Quadruple Quantum Dot

    PubMed Central

    Otsuka, Tomohiro; Nakajima, Takashi; Delbecq, Matthieu R.; Amaha, Shinichi; Yoneda, Jun; Takeda, Kenta; Allison, Giles; Ito, Takumi; Sugawara, Retsu; Noiri, Akito; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D.; Tarucha, Seigo

    2016-01-01

    Electron spins in semiconductor quantum dots are good candidates of quantum bits for quantum information processing. Basic operations of the qubit have been realized in recent years: initialization, manipulation of single spins, two qubit entanglement operations, and readout. Now it becomes crucial to demonstrate scalability of this architecture by conducting spin operations on a scaled up system. Here, we demonstrate single-electron spin resonance in a quadruple quantum dot. A few-electron quadruple quantum dot is formed within a magnetic field gradient created by a micro-magnet. We oscillate the wave functions of the electrons in the quantum dots by applying microwave voltages and this induces electron spin resonance. The resonance energies of the four quantum dots are slightly different because of the stray field created by the micro-magnet and therefore frequency-resolved addressable control of each electron spin resonance is possible. PMID:27550534

  11. Silicon quantum dots: fine-tuning to maturity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morello, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    Quantum dots in semiconductor heterostructures provide one of the most flexible platforms for the study of quantum phenomena at the nanoscale. The surging interest in using quantum dots for quantum computation is forcing researchers to rethink fabrication and operation methods, to obtain highly tunable dots in spin-free host materials, such as silicon. Borselli and colleagues report in Nanotechnology the fabrication of a novel Si/SiGe double quantum dot device, which combines an ultra-low disorder Si/SiGe accumulation-mode heterostructure with a stack of overlapping control gates, ensuring tight confining potentials and exquisite tunability. This work signals the technological maturity of silicon quantum dots, and their readiness to be applied to challenging projects in quantum information science.

  12. Single-electron Spin Resonance in a Quadruple Quantum Dot.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Tomohiro; Nakajima, Takashi; Delbecq, Matthieu R; Amaha, Shinichi; Yoneda, Jun; Takeda, Kenta; Allison, Giles; Ito, Takumi; Sugawara, Retsu; Noiri, Akito; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D; Tarucha, Seigo

    2016-01-01

    Electron spins in semiconductor quantum dots are good candidates of quantum bits for quantum information processing. Basic operations of the qubit have been realized in recent years: initialization, manipulation of single spins, two qubit entanglement operations, and readout. Now it becomes crucial to demonstrate scalability of this architecture by conducting spin operations on a scaled up system. Here, we demonstrate single-electron spin resonance in a quadruple quantum dot. A few-electron quadruple quantum dot is formed within a magnetic field gradient created by a micro-magnet. We oscillate the wave functions of the electrons in the quantum dots by applying microwave voltages and this induces electron spin resonance. The resonance energies of the four quantum dots are slightly different because of the stray field created by the micro-magnet and therefore frequency-resolved addressable control of each electron spin resonance is possible. PMID:27550534

  13. Quantum confinement effects across two-dimensional planes in MoS{sub 2} quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, Z. X.; Liu, L. Z.; Wu, H. Y.; Hao, Y. L.; Shan, Y.; Wu, X. L. E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk; Chu, Paul K. E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk

    2015-06-08

    The low quantum yield (∼10{sup −5}) has restricted practical use of photoluminescence (PL) from MoS{sub 2} composed of a few layers, but the quantum confinement effects across two-dimensional planes are believed to be able to boost the PL intensity. In this work, PL from 2 to 9 nm MoS{sub 2} quantum dots (QDs) is excluded from the solvent and the absorption and PL spectra are shown to be consistent with the size distribution. PL from MoS{sub 2} QDs is also found to be sensitive to aggregation due to the size effect.

  14. Ultra-bright alkylated graphene quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lan; Tang, Xing-Yan; Zhong, Yun-Xin; Liu, Yue-Wen; Song, Xue-Huan; Deng, Shun-Liu; Xie, Su-Yuan; Yan, Jia-Wei; Zheng, Lan-Sun

    2014-11-01

    Highly efficient and stable photoluminescence (PL) are urgently desired for graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to facilitate their prospective applications as optical materials. Here, we report the facile and straightforward synthesis of alkylated graphene quantum dots (AGQDs) via the solvothermal reaction of propagatively alkylated graphene sheets (PAGenes). In contrast to most GQDs reported so far, the synthesized AGQDs process pH-independent and ultra-bright PL with a relative quantum yield of up to 65%. Structural and chemical composition characterization demonstrated that the synthesized AGQDs are nearly oxygen-defect-free with alkyl groups decorated on edges and basal plane, which may contribute to their greatly improved pH tolerance and high quantum efficiency. The photocatalytic performance of AGQDs-P25 nanocomposites was evaluated by the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible light. The photocatalytic rate is ca. 5.9 times higher than that of pure P25, indicating that AGQDs could harness the visible spectrum of sunlight for energy conversion or environmental therapy. PMID:25192187

  15. Biosensing with Quantum Dots: A Microfluidic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Vannoy, Charles H.; Tavares, Anthony J.; Noor, M. Omair; Uddayasankar, Uvaraj; Krull, Ulrich J.

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have served as the basis for signal development in a variety of biosensing technologies and in applications using bioprobes. The use of QDs as physical platforms to develop biosensors and bioprobes has attracted considerable interest. This is largely due to the unique optical properties of QDs that make them excellent choices as donors in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and well suited for optical multiplexing. The large majority of QD-based bioprobe and biosensing technologies that have been described operate in bulk solution environments, where selective binding events at the surface of QDs are often associated with relatively long periods to reach a steady-state signal. An alternative approach to the design of biosensor architectures may be provided by a microfluidic system (MFS). A MFS is able to integrate chemical and biological processes into a single platform and allows for manipulation of flow conditions to achieve, by sample transport and mixing, reaction rates that are not entirely diffusion controlled. Integrating assays in a MFS provides numerous additional advantages, which include the use of very small amounts of reagents and samples, possible sample processing before detection, ultra-high sensitivity, high throughput, short analysis time, and in situ monitoring. Herein, a comprehensive review is provided that addresses the key concepts and applications of QD-based microfluidic biosensors with an added emphasis on how this combination of technologies provides for innovations in bioassay designs. Examples from the literature are used to highlight the many advantages of biosensing in a MFS and illustrate the versatility that such a platform offers in the design strategy. PMID:22163723

  16. The quantum dot nanoconjugate tool box (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomlinson, I. D.; Wright, D. W.; Giorgio, T. D.; Blakely, R. D.; Pennycook, S. J.; Hercules, D.; Bentzen, L.; Smith, R. A.; McBride, J.; Vergne, M. J.; Rosenthal, S.

    2005-04-01

    The surface coating of quantum dots has been characterised using Z-stem. Quantum dots have been pegylated to increase stability in aqueous solution. The fluorescence intensity of the quantum dots was modulated pegylation. PEG was coupled using different ratios of EDC, PEG and NHS. Optimum coupling conditions were found to occur when 2000 equivalents of PEG were reacted with 1 equivalent of dot in the presence of 1500 equivalents of NHS and EDC. Angiotensin II was also conjugated to quantum dots and these conjugates were shown to be biologically active. Quantum dots have also been surface functionalised with other peptides such as NGR with subsequent demonstration of cell surface binding and can be characterized by flow cytometry.

  17. Quantum dot spin cellular automata for realizing a quantum processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayat, Abolfazl; Creffield, Charles E.; Jefferson, John H.; Pepper, Michael; Bose, Sougato

    2015-10-01

    We show how single quantum dots, each hosting a singlet-triplet qubit, can be placed in arrays to build a spin quantum cellular automaton. A fast (˜10 ns) deterministic coherent singlet-triplet filtering, as opposed to current incoherent tunneling/slow-adiabatic based quantum gates (operation time ˜300 ns), can be employed to produce a two-qubit gate through capacitive (electrostatic) couplings that can operate over significant distances. This is the coherent version of the widely discussed charge and nano-magnet cellular automata, and would increase speed, reduce dissipation, and perform quantum computation while interfacing smoothly with its classical counterpart. This combines the best of two worlds—the coherence of spin pairs known from quantum technologies, and the strength and range of electrostatic couplings from the charge-based classical cellular automata. Significantly our system has zero electric dipole moment during the whole operation process, thereby increasing its charge dephasing time.

  18. Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Immunosensing Platform Based on CdSeTe@CdS:Mn Core-Shell Quantum Dots-Sensitized TiO2 Amplified by CuS Nanocrystals Conjugated Signal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Fan, Gao-Chao; Zhu, Hua; Du, Dan; Zhang, Jian-Rong; Zhu, Jun-Jie; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-03-15

    A new, ultrasensitive photoelectrochemical immunosensing platform was established on the basis of CdSeTe@CdS:Mn core-shell quantum dots-sensitized TiO2 coupled with signal amplification of CuS nanocrystals conjugated signal antibodies. In this proposal, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, Ag) was selected as an example of target analyte to show the analytical performances of the platform. Specifically, TiO2-modified electrode was first assembled with CdSeTe alloyed quantum dots (AQDs) via electrostatic adsorption assisted by oppositely charged polyelectrolyte, and then further deposited with CdS:Mn shells on the surface of CdSeTe AQDs via successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction strategy, forming TiO2/CdSeTe@CdS:Mn sensitization structure, which was used as photoelectrochemical matrix to immobilize capture CEA antibodies (Ab1); signal CEA antibodies (Ab2) were labeled with CuS nanocrystals (NCs) to form Ab2-CuS conjugates, which were employed as signal amplification elements when specific immunoreaction occurred. The ultrahigh sensitivity of this immunoassay resulted from the following two aspects. Before detection of target Ag, the TiO2/CdSeTe@CdS:Mn sensitization structure could adequately harvest the exciting light with different bands, evidently expedite the electron transfer, and effectively depress the charge recombination, resulting in noticeably increased photocurrent. When target Ag existed, the Ab2-CuS conjugates could dramatically decrease the photocurrent due to competitive absorption of exciting light and consumption of electron donor for CuS NCs coupled with steric hindrance of Ab2 molecules. The fabricated photoelectrochemical immunosensor showed a low limit of detection of 0.16 pg/mL and a wide linear range from 0.5 pg/mL to 100 ng/mL for CEA detection, and it also exhibited good specificity, reproducibility, and stability. PMID:26910366

  19. Dispersive Readout of a Few-Electron Double Quantum Dot with Fast rf Gate Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colless, J. I.; Mahoney, A. C.; Hornibrook, J. M.; Doherty, A. C.; Lu, H.; Gossard, A. C.; Reilly, D. J.

    2013-01-01

    We report the dispersive charge-state readout of a double quantum dot in the few-electron regime using the in situ gate electrodes as sensitive detectors. We benchmark this gate sensing technique against the well established quantum point contact charge detector and find comparable performance with a bandwidth of ˜10MHz and an equivalent charge sensitivity of ˜6.3×10-3e/Hz. Dispersive gate sensing alleviates the burden of separate charge detectors for quantum dot systems and promises to enable readout of qubits in scaled-up arrays.

  20. Quantum Dots: An Experiment for Physical or Materials Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, L. D.; Arceo, J. F.; Hughes, W. C.; DeGraff, B. A.; Augustine, B. H.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is conducted for obtaining quantum dots for physical or materials chemistry. This experiment serves to both reinforce the basic concept of quantum confinement and providing a useful bridge between the molecular and solid-state world.

  1. ZnO@Ag2S core-shell nanowire arrays for environmentally friendly solid-state quantum dot-sensitized solar cells with panchromatic light capture and enhanced electron collection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Liu, Jianhua; Zhang, Jindan; Vlachopoulos, Nick; Johansson, Erik M J

    2015-05-21

    A solid-state environmentally friendly Ag2S quantum dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) is demonstrated. The photovoltaic device is fabricated by applying ZnO@Ag2S core-shell nanowire arrays (NWAs) as light absorbers and electron conductors, and poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) as a solid-state hole conductor. Ag2S quantum dots (QDs) were directly grown on the ZnO nanowires by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method to obtain the core-shell nanostructure. The number of SILAR cycles for QD formation and the length of the core-shell NWs significantly affect the photocurrent. The device with a core-shell NWAs photoanode shows a power conversion efficiency increase by 32% compared with the device based on a typical nanoparticle-based photoanode with Ag2S QDs. The enhanced performance is attributed to enhanced collection of the photogenerated electrons utilizing the ZnO nanowire as an efficient pathway for transporting the photogenerated electrons from the QD to the contact. PMID:25907247

  2. Lifetime blinking in nonblinking nanocrystal quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Galland, Christophe; Ghosh, Yagnaseni; Steinbrück, Andrea; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A; Htoon, Han; Klimov, Victor I

    2012-01-01

    Nanocrystal quantum dots are attractive materials for applications as nanoscale light sources. One impediment to these applications is fluctuations of single-dot emission intensity, known as blinking. Recent progress in colloidal synthesis has produced nonblinking nanocrystals; however, the physics underlying blinking suppression remains unclear. Here we find that ultra-thick-shell CdSe/CdS nanocrystals can exhibit pronounced fluctuations in the emission lifetimes (lifetime blinking), despite stable nonblinking emission intensity. We demonstrate that lifetime variations are due to switching between the neutral and negatively charged state of the nanocrystal. Negative charging results in faster radiative decay but does not appreciably change the overall emission intensity because of suppressed nonradiative Auger recombination for negative trions. The Auger process involving excitation of a hole (positive trion pathway) remains efficient and is responsible for charging with excess electrons, which occurs via Auger-assisted ionization of biexcitons accompanied by ejection of holes. PMID:22713750

  3. Individual Cr atom in a semiconductor quantum dot: Optical addressability and spin-strain coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafuente-Sampietro, A.; Utsumi, H.; Boukari, H.; Kuroda, S.; Besombes, L.

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate the optical addressability of the spin of an individual chromium atom (Cr) embedded in a semiconductor quantum dot. The emission of Cr-doped quantum dots and their evolution in magnetic field reveal a large magnetic anisotropy of the Cr spin induced by local strain. This results in the zero field splitting of the 0, ±1 , and ±2 Cr spin states and in a thermalization on the magnetic ground states 0 and ±1 . The observed strong spin to strain coupling of Cr is of particular interest for the development of hybrid spin-mechanical devices where coherent mechanical driving of an individual spin in an oscillator is needed. The magneto-optical properties of Cr-doped quantum dots are modeled by a spin Hamiltonian including the sensitivity of the Cr spin to the strain and the influence of the quantum dot symmetry on the carrier-Cr spin coupling.

  4. Real-time optical imaging using quantum dot and related nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Kosaka, Nobuyuki; McCann, Thomas E; Mitsunaga, Makoto; Choyke, Peter L; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2012-01-01

    Biomedical optical imaging is rapidly evolving because of its desirable features of rapid frame rates, high sensitivity, low cost, portability and lack of radiation. Quantum dots are attractive as imaging agents owing to their high brightness, and photo- and bio-stability. Here, the current status of in vitro and in vivo real-time optical imaging with quantum dots is reviewed. In addition, we consider related nanocrystals based on solid-state semiconductors, including upconverting nanoparticles and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer quantum dots. These particles can improve the signal-to-background ratio for real-time imaging largely by suppressing background signal. Although toxicity and biodistribution of quantum dots and their close relatives remain prime concerns for translation to human imaging, these agents have many desirable features that should be explored for medical purposes. PMID:20662647

  5. Synthesis and characterization of chitosan-based polyelectrolyte complexes, doped by quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abuzova, N. V.; Gerasimova, M. A.; Slabko, V. V.; Slyusareva, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    Doping of polymer particles by a fluorophores results in the sensitization within the visible spectral region becoming very promising materials for sensor applications. Colloids of biocompatible chitosan-based polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) doped with quantum dots (QD) of CdTe and CdSe/ZnS (with sizes of 2.0-2.4 nm) were synthesized and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, ζ-potential measurements, absorption and luminescence (including time-resolved) spectroscopy. The influence of ionic strength (0.02-1.5 M) on absorption and photoluminescence properties of encapsulated into PEC and unencapsulated quantum dots was investigated. The stability of the emission intensity of the encapsulated quantum dots has been shown to be strongly dependent on concentration of quantum dots.

  6. Lateral excitonic switching in vertically stacked quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarzynka, Jarosław R.; McDonald, Peter G.; Shumway, John; Galbraith, Ian

    2016-06-01

    We show that the application of a vertical electric field to the Coulomb interacting system in stacked quantum dots leads to a 90° in-plane switching of charge probability distribution in contrast to a single dot, where no such switching exists. Results are obtained using path integral quantum Monte Carlo with realistic dot geometry, alloy composition, and piezo-electric potential profiles. The origin of the switching lies in the strain interactions between the stacked dots hence the need for more than one layer of dots. The lateral polarization and electric field dependence of the radiative lifetimes of the excitonic switch are also discussed.

  7. Nano-laser on silicon quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei-Qi; Liu, Shi-Rong; Qin, Chao-Jian; Lü, Quan; Xu, Li

    2011-04-01

    A new conception of nano-laser is proposed in which depending on the size of nano-clusters (silicon quantum dots (QD)), the pumping level of laser can be tuned by the quantum confinement (QC) effect, and the population inversion can be formed between the valence band and the localized states in gap produced from the surface bonds of nano-clusters. Here we report the experimental demonstration of nano-laser on silicon quantum dots fabricated by nanosecond pulse laser. The peaks of stimulated emission are observed at 605 nm and 693 nm. Through the micro-cavity of nano-laser, a full width at half maximum of the peak at 693 nm can reach to 0.5 nm. The theoretical model and the experimental results indicate that it is a necessary condition for setting up nano-laser that the smaller size of QD (d < 3 nm) can make the localized states into band gap. The emission energy of nano-laser will be limited in the range of 1.7-2.3 eV generally due to the position of the localized states in gap, which is in good agreement between the experiments and the theory.

  8. Power-law photoluminescence decay in quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Král, Karel; Menšík, Miroslav

    2014-05-15

    Some quantum dot samples show a long-time (power-law) behavior of their luminescence intensity decay. This effect has been recently explained as being due to a cooperation of many tunneling channels transferring electrons from small quantum dots with triplet exciton to quantum dots at which the electrons can recombine with the holes in the valence band states. In this work we show that the long-time character of the sample luminescence decay can also be caused by an intrinsic property of a single dot, namely, by a non-adiabatic effect of the electron occupation up-conversion caused by the electron-phonon multiple scattering mechanism.

  9. Quantum Dot Device Design Optimization for Resonator Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Cameron; Coppersmith, S. N.; Friesen, Mark

    Coupling a semiconductor quantum dot qubit to a superconducting resonator broadens the possibilities for interqubit communication and potentially allows integration of quantum dots with other qubit systems. The major technological hurdle that must be overcome is reaching the strong coupling limit, where the coupling frequency between the resonator and the qubit is larger than both the qubit decoherence rate and the photon loss rate of the resonator. In this work, we examine optimization of the quantum dot device design. Using the Thomas-Fermi approximation in conjunction with a metallic dot capacitive model, we focus on improving the capacitive coupling between a resonator gate and a quantum dot while decreasing the cross-coupling to nearby dots. Through these simulations, we find that the optimization follows an intuitive geometric relation. This work was supported in part by ARO (W911NF-12-0607), NSF (PHY-1104660), and ONR (N00014-15-1-0029).

  10. Thermodynamic properties of a quantum Hall anti-dot interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy Schreier, Sarah; Stern, Ady; Rosenow, Bernd; Halperin, Bertrand I.

    2016-02-01

    We study quantum Hall interferometers in which the interference loop encircles a quantum anti-dot. We base our study on thermodynamic considerations, which we believe reflect the essential aspects of interference transport phenomena. We find that similar to the more conventional Fabry-Perot quantum Hall interferometers, in which the interference loop forms a quantum dot, the anti-dot interferometer is affected by the electro-static Coulomb interaction between the edge modes defining the loop. We show that in the Aharonov-Bohm regime, in which effects of fractional statistics should be visible, is easier to access in interferometers based on anti-dots than in those based on dots. We discuss the relevance of our results to recent measurements on anti-dots interferometers.

  11. Controlling quantum dot energies using submonolayer bandstructure engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, L.; Law, S.; Wasserman, D.; Jung, D.; Lee, M. L.; Shen, J.; Cha, J. J.

    2014-08-25

    We demonstrate control of energy states in epitaxially-grown quantum dot structures formed by stacked submonolayer InAs depositions via engineering of the internal bandstructure of the dots. Transmission electron microscopy of the stacked sub-monolayer regions shows compositional inhomogeneity, indicative of the presence of quantum dots. The quantum dot ground state is manipulated not only by the number of deposited InAs layers, but also by control of the thickness and material composition of the spacing layers between submonolayer InAs depositions. In this manner, we demonstrate the ability to shift the quantum dot ground state energy at 77 K from 1.38 eV to 1.88 eV. The results presented offer a potential avenue towards enhanced control of dot energies for a variety of optoelectronic applications.

  12. A hybrid silicon evanescent quantum dot laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Bongyong; Tanabe, Katsuaki; Kako, Satoshi; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Tsuchizawa, Tai; Nishi, Hidetaka; Hatori, Nobuaki; Noguchi, Masataka; Nakamura, Takahiro; Takemasa, Keizo; Sugawara, Mitsuru; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2016-09-01

    We report the first demonstration of a hybrid silicon quantum dot (QD) laser, evanescently coupled to a silicon waveguide. InAs/GaAs QD laser structures with thin AlGaAs lower cladding layers were transferred by direct wafer bonding onto silicon waveguides defining cavities with adiabatic taper structures and distributed Bragg reflectors. The laser operates at temperatures up to 115 °C under pulsed current conditions, with a characteristic temperature T 0 of 303 K near room temperature. Furthermore, by reducing the width of the GaAs/AlGaAs mesa down to 8 µm, continuous-wave operation is realized at 25 °C.

  13. Fabrication of a graphene quantum dot device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeong Il; Kim, Eunseong

    2014-03-01

    Graphene, which exhibits a massless Dirac-like spectrum for its electrons, has shown impressive properties for nano-electronics applications including a high mobility and a width dependent bandgap. We will report the preliminary report on the transport property of the suspended graphene nano-ribbon(GNR) quantum dot device down to dilution refrigerator temperature. This GNR QD device was fabricated to realize an ideal probe to investigate Kondo physics--a characteristic phenomenon in the physics of strongly correlated electrons. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support by the National Research Foundation of Korea through the Creative Research Initiatives.

  14. Superexchange blockade in triple quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Rafael; Gallego-Marcos, Fernando; Platero, Gloria

    2014-04-01

    We propose the interaction of two electrons in a triple quantum dot as a minimal system to control long-range superexchange transitions. These are probed by transport spectroscopy. Narrow resonances appear indicating the transfer of charge from one side of the sample to the other with the central one being occupied only virtually. We predict that two different intermediate states establish the two arms of a one-dimensional interferometer. We find configurations where destructive interference of the two superexchange trajectories totally blocks the current through the system. We emphasize the role of spin correlations giving rise to lifetime-enhanced resonances.

  15. Implementing of Quantum Cloning with Spatially Separated Quantum Dot Spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jing-Ji; Yeon, Kyu-Hwang; Du, Xin; Lv, Jia; Wang, Ming; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou

    2016-07-01

    We propose some schemes for implementing optimal symmetric (asymmetric) 1 → 2 universal quantum cloning, optimal symmetric (asymmetric) 1 → 2 phase-covariant cloning, optimal symmetric 1 → 3 economical phase-covariant cloning and optimal symmetric 1 → 3 economical real state cloning with spatially separated quantum dot spins by choosing the single-qubit rotation angles appropriately. The decoherences of the spontaneous emission of QDs, cavity decay and fiber loss are suppressed since the effective long-distance off-resonant interaction between two distant QDs is mediated by the vacuum fields of the fiber and cavity, and during the whole process no system is excited.

  16. Quantum Adiabatic Pumping by Modulating Tunnel Phase in Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Masahiko; Nakajima, Satoshi; Kubo, Toshihiro; Tokura, Yasuhiro

    2016-08-01

    In a mesoscopic system, under zero bias voltage, a finite charge is transferred by quantum adiabatic pumping by adiabatically and periodically changing two or more control parameters. We obtained expressions for the pumped charge for a ring of three quantum dots (QDs) by choosing the magnetic flux penetrating the ring as one of the control parameters. We found that the pumped charge shows a steplike behavior with respect to the variance of the flux. The value of the step heights is not universal but depends on the trajectory of the control parameters. We discuss the physical origin of this behavior on the basis of the Fano resonant condition of the ring.

  17. Implementing of Quantum Cloning with Spatially Separated Quantum Dot Spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jing-Ji; Yeon, Kyu-Hwang; Du, Xin; Lv, Jia; Wang, Ming; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou

    2016-02-01

    We propose some schemes for implementing optimal symmetric (asymmetric) 1 → 2 universal quantum cloning, optimal symmetric (asymmetric) 1 → 2 phase-covariant cloning, optimal symmetric 1 → 3 economical phase-covariant cloning and optimal symmetric 1 → 3 economical real state cloning with spatially separated quantum dot spins by choosing the single-qubit rotation angles appropriately. The decoherences of the spontaneous emission of QDs, cavity decay and fiber loss are suppressed since the effective long-distance off-resonant interaction between two distant QDs is mediated by the vacuum fields of the fiber and cavity, and during the whole process no system is excited.

  18. Fast synthesize ZnO quantum dots via ultrasonic method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weimin; Zhang, Bing; Ding, Nan; Ding, Wenhao; Wang, Lixi; Yu, Mingxun; Zhang, Qitu

    2016-05-01

    Green emission ZnO quantum dots were synthesized by an ultrasonic sol-gel method. The ZnO quantum dots were synthesized in various ultrasonic temperature and time. Photoluminescence properties of these ZnO quantum dots were measured. Time-resolved photoluminescence decay spectra were also taken to discover the change of defects amount during the reaction. Both ultrasonic temperature and time could affect the type and amount of defects in ZnO quantum dots. Total defects of ZnO quantum dots decreased with the increasing of ultrasonic temperature and time. The dangling bonds defects disappeared faster than the optical defects. Types of optical defects first changed from oxygen interstitial defects to oxygen vacancy and zinc interstitial defects. Then transformed back to oxygen interstitial defects again. The sizes of ZnO quantum dots would be controlled by both ultrasonic temperature and time as well. That is, with the increasing of ultrasonic temperature and time, the sizes of ZnO quantum dots first decreased then increased. Moreover, concentrated raw materials solution brought larger sizes and more optical defects of ZnO quantum dots. PMID:26611814

  19. A Nanowire-Based Plasmonic Quantum Dot Laser.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jinfa; Tatebayashi, Jun; Sergent, Sylvain; Fong, Chee Fai; Ota, Yasutomo; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2016-04-13

    Quantum dots enable strong carrier confinement and exhibit a delta-function like density of states, offering significant improvements to laser performance and high-temperature stability when used as a gain medium. However, quantum dot lasers have been limited to photonic cavities that are diffraction-limited and further miniaturization to meet the demands of nanophotonic-electronic integration applications is challenging based on existing designs. Here we introduce the first quantum dot-based plasmonic laser to reduce the cross-sectional area of nanowire quantum dot lasers below the cutoff limit of photonic modes while maintaining the length in the order of the lasing wavelength. Metal organic chemical vapor deposition grown GaAs-AlGaAs core-shell nanowires containing InGaAs quantum dot stacks are placed directly on a silver film, and lasing was observed from single nanowires originating from the InGaAs quantum dot emission into the low-loss higher order plasmonic mode. Lasing threshold pump fluences as low as ∼120 μJ/cm(2) was observed at 7 K, and lasing was observed up to 125 K. Temperature stability from the quantum dot gain, leading to a high characteristic temperature was demonstrated. These results indicate that high-performance, miniaturized quantum dot lasers can be realized with plasmonics. PMID:27030886

  20. The development of a new optical sensor based on the Mn doped ZnS quantum dots modified with the molecularly imprinted polymers for sensitive recognition of florfenicol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Susan; Jahani, Moslem; Belador, Foroogh

    2016-04-01

    The Mn doped ZnS quantum dots (Mn:ZnS QDs) capped with the florfenicol molecularly imprinted polymer (Mn:ZnS QDs@MIP) were prepared via the sol-gel surface imprinting approach using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) as the functional monomer and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as the cross-linker for the optosensing of the florfenicol. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffractometer, IR spectroscopy, UV-Vis absorption spectrophotometry, and spectrofluorometry were used to elucidate the formation, morphology, and identification of the products. To illustrate the usefulness of the new imprinted material, the non-imprinted coated Mn:ZnS QDs (Mn:ZnS QDs@NIP) were synthesized without the presence of the florfenicol. It was revealed that the fluorescence (FL) intensity of the Mn:ZnS QDs@MIP increased with increasing the FF concentration. Under the optimal conditions, changes in the FL intensity in the presence of the target molecule showed a linear response in the concentration range of 30-700 μmol L- 1 with a detection limit of 24 μmol L- 1. The developed method was finally applied successfully to the determination of FF in different meat samples with satisfactory recoveries.

  1. Selective and sensitive determination of cypermethrin in fish via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-like method based on molecularly imprinted artificial antibody-quantum dot optosensing materials.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ting-Ting; Shi, Xi-Zhi; Jiao, Hai-Feng; Sun, Ai-Li; Ding, Hao; Zhang, Rong-Rrong; Pan, Dao-Dong; Li, De-Xiang; Chen, Jiong

    2016-01-15

    Molecularly imprinted silica layers appended to quantum dots (MIP-QDs) with customized selective artificial recognition sites were fabricated in this study by optimizing the ratio of the functional monomer to the template. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer–emmett–teller, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and selectivity assay analyses were also performed. Results demonstrated that the selective fluorescence quenching properties of MIP-QDs toward cypermethrin (CYP) are due to strong interactions between these molecules. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-like method based on the MIP-QDs was established under optimal conditions. The fluorescence quenching observed from this method showed a linear relationship with CYP concentration over the range of 0.05–60.0 mg/kg with a correlation coefficient of 0.9838. Good recovery (82.7–92.4%) and a relative standard deviation of less than 10.1% were obtained from fish samples spiked with three levels of CYP. This method also demonstrated a low detection limit of 1.2 μg/kg. The ELISA-like method based on MIP-QDs can be successfully employed to detect residual of CYP in fish samples. PMID:26283587

  2. The development of a new optical sensor based on the Mn doped ZnS quantum dots modified with the molecularly imprinted polymers for sensitive recognition of florfenicol.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Susan; Jahani, Moslem; Belador, Foroogh

    2016-04-15

    The Mn doped ZnS quantum dots (Mn:ZnS QDs) capped with the florfenicol molecularly imprinted polymer (Mn:ZnS QDs@MIP) were prepared via the sol-gel surface imprinting approach using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) as the functional monomer and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as the cross-linker for the optosensing of the florfenicol. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffractometer, IR spectroscopy, UV-Vis absorption spectrophotometry, and spectrofluorometry were used to elucidate the formation, morphology, and identification of the products. To illustrate the usefulness of the new imprinted material, the non-imprinted coated Mn:ZnS QDs (Mn:ZnS QDs@NIP) were synthesized without the presence of the florfenicol. It was revealed that the fluorescence (FL) intensity of the Mn:ZnS QDs@MIP increased with increasing the FF concentration. Under the optimal conditions, changes in the FL intensity in the presence of the target molecule showed a linear response in the concentration range of 30-700μmolL(-1) with a detection limit of 24μmolL(-1). The developed method was finally applied successfully to the determination of FF in different meat samples with satisfactory recoveries. PMID:26828536

  3. Double quantum dot in a quantum dash: Optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kaczmarkiewicz, Piotr Machnikowski, Paweł; Kuhn, Tilmann

    2013-11-14

    We study the optical properties of highly elongated, highly flattened quantum dot structures, also referred to as quantum dashes, characterized by the presence of two trapping centers located along the structure. Such a system can exhibit some of the properties characteristic for double quantum dots. We show that sub- and super-radiant states can form for certain quantum dash geometries, which is manifested by a pronounced transfer of intensity between spectral lines, accompanied by the appearance of strong electron-hole correlations. We also compare exciton absorption spectra and polarization properties of a system with a single and double trapping center and show how the geometry of multiple trapping centers influences the optical properties of the system. We show that for a broad range of trapping geometries the relative absorption intensity of the ground state is larger than that of the lowest excited states, contrary to the quantum dash systems characterized by a single trapping center. Thus, optical properties of these structures are determined by fine details of their morphology.

  4. Hyper-parallel photonic quantum computation with coupled quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Bao-Cang; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2014-04-01

    It is well known that a parallel quantum computer is more powerful than a classical one. So far, there are some important works about the construction of universal quantum logic gates, the key elements in quantum computation. However, they are focused on operating on one degree of freedom (DOF) of quantum systems. Here, we investigate the possibility of achieving scalable hyper-parallel quantum computation based on two DOFs of photon systems. We construct a deterministic hyper-controlled-not (hyper-CNOT) gate operating on both the spatial-mode and the polarization DOFs of a two-photon system simultaneously, by exploiting the giant optical circular birefringence induced by quantum-dot spins in double-sided optical microcavities as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). This hyper-CNOT gate is implemented by manipulating the four qubits in the two DOFs of a two-photon system without auxiliary spatial modes or polarization modes. It reduces the operation time and the resources consumed in quantum information processing, and it is more robust against the photonic dissipation noise, compared with the integration of several cascaded CNOT gates in one DOF.

  5. Numerical simulation of optical feedback on a quantum dot lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Khursan, Amin H.; Ghalib, Basim Abdullattif; Al-Obaidi, Sabri J.

    2012-02-15

    We use multi-population rate equations model to study feedback oscillations in the quantum dot laser. This model takes into account all peculiar characteristics in the quantum dots such as inhomogeneous broadening of the gain spectrum, the presence of the excited states on the quantum dot and the non-confined states due to the presence of wetting layer and the barrier. The contribution of quantum dot groups, which cannot follow by other models, is simulated. The results obtained from this model show the feedback oscillations, the periodic oscillations which evolves to chaos at higher injection current of higher feedback levels. The frequency fluctuation is attributed mainly to wetting layer with a considerable contribution from excited states. The simulation shows that is must be not using simple rate equation models to express quantum dots working at excited state transition.

  6. Non-blinking quantum dot with a plasmonic nanoshell resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Botao; Giovanelli, Emerson; Habert, Benjamin; Spinicelli, Piernicola; Nasilowski, Michel; Xu, Xiangzhen; Lequeux, Nicolas; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Marquier, Francois; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Dubertret, Benoit

    2015-02-01

    Colloidal semiconductor quantum dots are fluorescent nanocrystals exhibiting exceptional optical properties, but their emission intensity strongly depends on their charging state and local environment. This leads to blinking at the single-particle level or even complete fluorescence quenching, and limits the applications of quantum dots as fluorescent particles. Here, we show that a single quantum dot encapsulated in a silica shell coated with a continuous gold nanoshell provides a system with a stable and Poissonian emission at room temperature that is preserved regardless of drastic changes in the local environment. This novel hybrid quantum dot/silica/gold structure behaves as a plasmonic resonator with a strong Purcell factor, in very good agreement with simulations. The gold nanoshell also acts as a shield that protects the quantum dot fluorescence and enhances its resistance to high-power photoexcitation or high-energy electron beams. This plasmonic fluorescent resonator opens the way to a new family of plasmonic nanoemitters with robust optical properties.

  7. Fast Hybrid Silicon Double-Quantum-Dot Qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhan; Simmons, C. B.; Prance, J. R.; Gamble, John King; Koh, Teck Seng; Shim, Yun-Pil; Hu, Xuedong; Savage, D. E.; Lagally, M. G.; Eriksson, M. A.; Friesen, Mark; Coppersmith, S. N.

    2012-04-01

    We propose a quantum dot qubit architecture that has an attractive combination of speed and fabrication simplicity. It consists of a double quantum dot with one electron in one dot and two electrons in the other. The qubit itself is a set of two states with total spin quantum numbers S2=3/4 (S=1/2) and Sz=-1/2, with the two different states being singlet and triplet in the doubly occupied dot. Gate operations can be implemented electrically and the qubit is highly tunable, enabling fast implementation of one- and two-qubit gates in a simpler geometry and with fewer operations than in other proposed quantum dot qubit architectures with fast operations. Moreover, the system has potentially long decoherence times. These are all extremely attractive properties for use in quantum information processing devices.

  8. Biosensing with Luminescent Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Sapsford, Kim E.; Pons, Thomas; Medintz, Igor L.; Mattoussi, Hedi

    2006-01-01

    Luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs) are a recently developed class of nanomaterial whose unique photophysical properties are helping to create a new generation of robust fluorescent biosensors. QD properties of interest for biosensing include high quantum yields, broad absorption spectra coupled to narrow size-tunable photoluminescent emissions and exceptional resistance to both photobleaching and chemical degradation. In this review, we examine the progress in adapting QDs for several predominantly in vitro biosensing applications including use in immunoassays, as generalized probes, in nucleic acid detection and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) - based sensing. We also describe several important considerations when working with QDs mainly centered on the choice of material(s) and appropriate strategies for attaching biomolecules to the QDs.

  9. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Graphene based quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H. G.; Hu, H.; Pan, Y.; Mao, J. H.; Gao, M.; Guo, H. M.; Du, S. X.; Greber, T.; Gao, H.-J.

    2010-08-01

    Laterally localized electronic states are identified on a single layer of graphene on ruthenium by low temperature scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). The individual states are separated by 3 nm and comprise regions of about 90 carbon atoms. This constitutes a highly regular quantum dot-array with molecular precision. It is evidenced by quantum well resonances (QWRs) with energies that relate to the corrugation of the graphene layer. The dI/dV conductance spectra are modeled by a layer height dependent potential-well with a delta-function potential that describes the barrier for electron penetration into graphene. The resulting QWRs are strongest and lowest in energy on the isolated 'hill' regions with a diameter of 2 nm, where the graphene is decoupled from the surface.

  10. Electron states in semiconductor quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Dhayal, Suman S.; Ramaniah, Lavanya M.; Ruda, Harry E.; Nair, Selvakumar V.

    2014-11-28

    In this work, the electronic structures of quantum dots (QDs) of nine direct band gap semiconductor materials belonging to the group II-VI and III-V families are investigated, within the empirical tight-binding framework, in the effective bond orbital model. This methodology is shown to accurately describe these systems, yielding, at the same time, qualitative insights into their electronic properties. Various features of the bulk band structure such as band-gaps, band curvature, and band widths around symmetry points affect the quantum confinement of electrons and holes. These effects are identified and quantified. A comparison with experimental data yields good agreement with the calculations. These theoretical results would help quantify the optical response of QDs of these materials and provide useful input for applications.

  11. Tunneling rate in double quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filikhin, Igor; Matinyan, Sergei; Vlahovic, Branislav

    2014-03-01

    We study spectral properties of electron tunneling in double quantum dots (DQDs) (and double quantum wells (DQWs)) and their relation to the geometry. In particular we compare the tunneling in DQW with chaotic and regular geometry, taking into account recent evidence about regularization of the tunneling rate when the QW geometry is chaotic. Our calculations do not support this assumption. We confirm high influence of the QW geometry boundaries on the rate fluctuation along the spectrum. The factors of the effective mass anisotropy and violation of the symmetry of DQD and DQW are also considered. Generally, we found that the small violation of the symmetry drastically affects tunneling. This work is supported by the NSF (HRD-0833184) and NASA (NNX09AV07A).

  12. Universal Braess paradox in open quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, A L R; Bazeia, D; Ramos, J G G S

    2014-10-01

    We present analytical and numerical results that demonstrate the presence of the Braess paradox in chaotic quantum dots. The paradox that we identify, originally perceived in classical networks, shows that the addition of more capacity to the network can suppress the current flow in the universal regime. We investigate the weak localization term, showing that it presents the paradox encoded in a saturation minimum of the conductance, under the presence of hyperflow in the external leads. In addition, we demonstrate that the weak localization suffers a transition signal depending on the overcapacity lead and presents an echo on the magnetic crossover before going to zero due to the full time-reversal symmetry breaking. We also show that the quantum interference contribution can dominate the Ohm term in the presence of constrictions and that the corresponding Fano factor engenders an anomalous behavior. PMID:25375575

  13. Universal Braess paradox in open quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, A. L. R.; Bazeia, D.; Ramos, J. G. G. S.

    2014-10-01

    We present analytical and numerical results that demonstrate the presence of the Braess paradox in chaotic quantum dots. The paradox that we identify, originally perceived in classical networks, shows that the addition of more capacity to the network can suppress the current flow in the universal regime. We investigate the weak localization term, showing that it presents the paradox encoded in a saturation minimum of the conductance, under the presence of hyperflow in the external leads. In addition, we demonstrate that the weak localization suffers a transition signal depending on the overcapacity lead and presents an echo on the magnetic crossover before going to zero due to the full time-reversal symmetry breaking. We also show that the quantum interference contribution can dominate the Ohm term in the presence of constrictions and that the corresponding Fano factor engenders an anomalous behavior.

  14. Silicon quantum dots for biological applications.

    PubMed

    Chinnathambi, Shanmugavel; Chen, Song; Ganesan, Singaravelu; Hanagata, Nobutaka

    2014-01-01

    Semiconductor nanoparticles (or quantum dots, QDs) exhibit unique optical and electronic properties such as size-controlled fluorescence, high quantum yields, and stability against photobleaching. These properties allow QDs to be used as optical labels for multiplexed imaging and in drug delivery detection systems. Luminescent silicon QDs and surface-modified silicon QDs have also been developed as potential minimally toxic fluorescent probes for bioapplications. Silicon, a well-known power electronic semiconductor material, is considered an extremely biocompatible material, in particular with respect to blood. This review article summarizes existing knowledge related to and recent research progress made in the methods for synthesizing silicon QDs, as well as their optical properties and surface-modification processes. In addition, drug delivery systems and in vitro and in vivo imaging applications that use silicon QDs are also discussed. PMID:23949967

  15. Semiconductor Quantum Dots for Biomedicial Applications

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Lijia; Gao, Yanfang; Yan, Feng

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are nanometre-scale crystals, which have unique photophysical properties, such as size-dependent optical properties, high fluorescence quantum yields, and excellent stability against photobleaching. These properties enable QDs as the promising optical labels for the biological applications, such as multiplexed analysis of immunocomplexes or DNA hybridization processes, cell sorting and tracing, in vivo imaging and diagnostics in biomedicine. Meanwhile, QDs can be used as labels for the electrochemical detection of DNA or proteins. This article reviews the synthesis and toxicity of QDs and their optical and electrochemical bioanalytical applications. Especially the application of QDs in biomedicine such as delivering, cell targeting and imaging for cancer research, and in vivo photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer are briefly discussed. PMID:22247690

  16. Luminescence upconversion in colloidal double quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Zvicka; Neeman, Lior; Oron, Dan

    2013-09-01

    Luminescence upconversion nanocrystals capable of converting two low-energy photons into a single photon at a higher energy are sought-after for a variety of applications, including bioimaging and photovoltaic light harvesting. Currently available systems, based on rare-earth-doped dielectrics, are limited in both tunability and absorption cross-section. Here we present colloidal double quantum dots as an alternative nanocrystalline upconversion system, combining the stability of an inorganic crystalline structure with the spectral tunability afforded by quantum confinement. By tailoring its composition and morphology, we form a semiconducting nanostructure in which excited electrons are delocalized over the entire structure, but a double potential well is formed for holes. Upconversion occurs by excitation of an electron in the lower energy transition, followed by intraband absorption of the hole, allowing it to cross the barrier to a higher energy state. An overall conversion efficiency of 0.1% per double excitation event is achieved. PMID:23912060

  17. Spin and orbital blockade in quantum transport through double quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ai-Xian; Duan, Su-Qing; Zhang, Wei

    2012-05-01

    Spin and orbital degrees of freedom play different roles in quantum transport through nanostructures. In this paper, we study spin and orbital blockade in quantum transport through an asymmetric double quantum dot with inhomogeneous Zeeman splittings in the presence of crossed dc and ac magnetic fields. The interplay among electron spin resonance, Pauli exclusion, resonant tunneling, and quantum interference leads to quite different current responses for forward/backward bias in the slow/fast spin-flip regime. In particular, as change of the dc magnetic field, we observe both spin blockade (due to multiple particle spin correlation) and orbital blockade (due to quantum destructive interference) in the same system. Under suitable conditions, our system can act as bipolar spin filter, sensitive spin switch, and spin inverter.

  18. Fast and efficient photodetection in nanoscale quantum-dot junctions.

    PubMed

    Prins, Ferry; Buscema, Michele; Seldenthuis, Johannes S; Etaki, Samir; Buchs, Gilles; Barkelid, Maria; Zwiller, Val; Gao, Yunan; Houtepen, Arjan J; Siebbeles, Laurens D A; van der Zant, Herre S J

    2012-11-14

    We report on a photodetector in which colloidal quantum dots directly bridge nanometer-spaced electrodes. Unlike in conventional quantum-dot thin film photodetectors, charge mobility no longer plays a role in our quantum-dot junctions as charge extraction requires only two individual tunnel events. We find an efficient photoconductive gain mechanism with external quantum efficiencies of 38 electrons-per-photon in combination with response times faster than 300 ns. This compact device-architecture may open up new routes for improved photodetector performance in which efficiency and bandwidth do not go at the cost of one another. PMID:23094869

  19. Colloidal quantum dot light-emitting devices.

    PubMed

    Wood, Vanessa; Bulović, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dot light-emitting devices (QD-LEDs) have generated considerable interest for applications such as thin film displays with improved color saturation and white lighting with a high color rendering index (CRI). We review the key advantages of using quantum dots (QDs) in display and lighting applications, including their color purity, solution processability, and stability. After highlighting the main developments in QD-LED technology in the past 15 years, we describe the three mechanisms for exciting QDs - optical excitation, Förster energy transfer, and direct charge injection - that have been leveraged to create QD-LEDs. We outline the challenges facing QD-LED development, such as QD charging and QD luminescence quenching in QD thin films. We describe how optical downconversion schemes have enabled researchers to overcome these challenges and develop commercial lighting products that incorporate QDs to achieve desirable color temperature and a high CRI while maintaining efficiencies comparable to inorganic white LEDs (>65 lumens per Watt). We conclude by discussing some current directions in QD research that focus on achieving higher efficiency and air-stable QD-LEDs using electrical excitation of the luminescent QDs. PMID:22110863

  20. Competing interactions in semiconductor quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    van den Berg, R.; Brandino, G. P.; El Araby, O.; Konik, R. M.; Gritsev, V.; Caux, J. -S.

    2014-10-14

    In this study, we introduce an integrability-based method enabling the study of semiconductor quantum dot models incorporating both the full hyperfine interaction as well as a mean-field treatment of dipole-dipole interactions in the nuclear spin bath. By performing free induction decay and spin echo simulations we characterize the combined effect of both types of interactions on the decoherence of the electron spin, for external fields ranging from low to high values. We show that for spin echo simulations the hyperfine interaction is the dominant source of decoherence at short times for low fields, and competes with the dipole-dipole interactions at longer times. On the contrary, at high fields the main source of decay is due to the dipole-dipole interactions. In the latter regime an asymmetry in the echo is observed. Furthermore, the non-decaying fraction previously observed for zero field free induction decay simulations in quantum dots with only hyperfine interactions, is destroyed for longer times by the mean-field treatment of the dipolar interactions.

  1. Using quantum dot photoluminescence for load detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moebius, M.; Martin, J.; Hartwig, M.; Baumann, R. R.; Otto, T.; Gessner, T.

    2016-08-01

    We propose a novel concept for an integrable and flexible sensor capable to visualize mechanical impacts on lightweight structures by quenching the photoluminescence (PL) of CdSe quantum dots. Considering the requirements such as visibility, storage time and high optical contrast of PL quenching with low power consumption, we have investigated a symmetrical and an asymmetrical layer stack consisting of semiconductor organic N,N,N',N'-Tetrakis(3-methylphenyl)-3,3'-dimethylbenzidine (HMTPD) and CdSe quantum dots with elongated CdS shell. Time-resolved series of PL spectra from layer stacks with applied voltages of different polarity and simultaneous observation of power consumption have shown that a variety of mechanisms such as photo-induced charge separation and charge injection, cause PL quenching. However, mechanisms such as screening of external field as well as Auger-assisted charge ejection is working contrary to that. Investigations regarding the influence of illumination revealed that the positive biased asymmetrical layer stack is the preferred sensor configuration, due to a charge carrier injection at voltages of 10 V without the need of coincident illumination.

  2. Competing interactions in semiconductor quantum dots

    DOE PAGESBeta

    van den Berg, R.; Brandino, G. P.; El Araby, O.; Konik, R. M.; Gritsev, V.; Caux, J. -S.

    2014-10-14

    In this study, we introduce an integrability-based method enabling the study of semiconductor quantum dot models incorporating both the full hyperfine interaction as well as a mean-field treatment of dipole-dipole interactions in the nuclear spin bath. By performing free induction decay and spin echo simulations we characterize the combined effect of both types of interactions on the decoherence of the electron spin, for external fields ranging from low to high values. We show that for spin echo simulations the hyperfine interaction is the dominant source of decoherence at short times for low fields, and competes with the dipole-dipole interactions atmore » longer times. On the contrary, at high fields the main source of decay is due to the dipole-dipole interactions. In the latter regime an asymmetry in the echo is observed. Furthermore, the non-decaying fraction previously observed for zero field free induction decay simulations in quantum dots with only hyperfine interactions, is destroyed for longer times by the mean-field treatment of the dipolar interactions.« less

  3. Excitation transfer in stacked quantum dot chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanjanachuchai, Songphol; Xu, Ming; Jaffré, Alexandre; Jittrong, Apichart; Chokamnuai, Thitipong; Panyakeow, Somsak; Boutchich, Mohamed

    2015-05-01

    Stacked InAs quantum dot chains (QDCs) on InGaAs/GaAs cross-hatch pattern (CHP) templates yield a rich emission spectrum with an unusual carrier transfer characteristic compared to conventional quantum dot (QD) stacks. The photoluminescent spectra of the controlled, single QDC layer comprise multiple peaks from the orthogonal QDCs, the free-standing QDs, the CHP, the wetting layers and the GaAs substrate. When the QDC layers are stacked, employing a 10 nm GaAs spacer between adjacent QDC layers, the PL spectra are dominated by the top-most stack, indicating that the QDC layers are nominally uncoupled. Under high excitation power densities when the high-energy peaks of the top stack are saturated, however, low-energy PL peaks from the bottom stacks emerge as a result of carrier transfers across the GaAs spacers. These unique PL signatures contrast with the state-filling effects in conventional, coupled QD stacks and serve as a means to quickly assess the presence of electronic coupling in stacks of dissimilar-sized nanostructures.

  4. Room-temperature synthesis of Cu(2-x)E (E = S, Se) nanotubes with hierarchical architecture as high-performance counter electrodes of quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin Qi; Li, Zhen; Bai, Yang; Sun, Qiao; Wang, Lian Zhou; Dou, Shi Xue

    2015-01-12

    Copper chalcogenide nanostructures (e.g. one-dimensional nanotubes) have been the focus of interest because of their unique properties and great potential in various applications. Their current fabrications mainly rely on high-temperature or complicated processes. Here, with the assistance of theoretical prediction, we prepared Cu(2-x)E (E = S, Se) micro-/nanotubes (NTs) with a hierarchical architecture by using copper nanowires (Cu NWs), stable sulfur and selenium powder as precursors at room temperature. The influence of reaction parameters (e.g. precursor ratio, ligands, ligand ratio, and reaction time) on the formation of nanotubes was comprehensively investigated. The resultant Cu(2-x)E (E = S, Se) NTs were used as counter electrodes (CE) of quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) to achieve a conversion efficiency (η) of 5.02 and 6.25%, respectively, much higher than that of QDSSCs made with Au CE (η = 2.94%). PMID:25400022

  5. Electron Spin Qubits in Si/SiGe Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, Mark

    2010-10-01

    It is intriguing that silicon, the central material of modern classical electronics, also has properties well suited to quantum electronics. Recent advances in Si/SiGe quantum devices have enabled the creation of high-quality silicon quantum dots, also known as artificial atoms. Motivated in part by the potential for very long spin coherence times in this material, we are pursuing the development of individual electron spin qubits in silicon quantum dots. I will discuss recent demonstrations of single-shot spin measurement in a Si/SiGe quantum dot spin qubit, and the demonstration of spin-relaxation times longer than one second in such a system. These and similar measurements depend on a knowledge of tunnel rates between quantum dots and nearby reservoirs or between pairs of quantum dots. Measurements of such rates provide an opportunity to revisit classic experiments in quantum mechanics. At the same time, the unique features of the silicon conduction band lead to novel and unexpected effects, demonstrating that Si/SiGe quantum dots provide a highly controlled experimental system in which to study ideas at the heart of quantum physics.

  6. Manipulating single electron spins and coherence in quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awschalom, David

    2008-05-01

    The non-destructive detection of a single electron spin in a quantum dot (QD) is demonstrated using a time- averaged magneto-optical Kerr rotation measurementootnotetextJ. Berezovsky, M. H. Mikkelsen, O. Gywat, N. G. Stoltz, L. A. Coldren, and D. D. Awschalom, Science 314, 1916 (2006).. This technique provides a means to directly probe the spin off- resonance, thus minimally disturbing the system. Furthermore, the ability to sequentially initialize, manipulate, and read out the state of a qubit, such as an electron spin in a quantum dot, is necessary for virtually any scheme for quantum information processing. In addition to the time-averaged measurements, we have extended the single dot KR technique into the time domain with pulsed pump and probe lasers, allowing the observation of the coherent evolution of an electron spin stateootnotetextM. H. Mikkelsen, J. Berezovsky, N. G. Stoltz, L. A. Coldren, and D. D. Awschalom, Nature Physics 3, 770 (2007).. The dot is formed by interface fluctuations of a GaAs quantum well and embedded in a diode structure to allow controllable gating/charging of the QD. To enhance the small single spin signal, the QD is positioned within a vertical optical cavity. Observations of coherent single spin precession in an applied magnetic field allow a direct measurement of the electron g-factor and transverse spin lifetime. These measurements reveal information about the relevant spin decoherence mechanisms, while also providing a sensitive probe of the local nuclear spin environment. Finally, we have recently eveloped a scheme for high speed all-optical manipulation of the spin state that enables multiple operations within the coherence timeootnotetextJ. Berezovsky, M. H. Mikkelsen, N. G. Stoltz, L. A. Coldren, and D. D. Awschalom, accepted for publication (2008).. The results represent progress toward the control and coupling of single spins and photons for quantum information processingootnotetextS. Ghosh, W.H. Wang, F. M. Mendoza, R. C

  7. Photon Cascade from a Single Crystal Phase Nanowire Quantum Dot.

    PubMed

    Bouwes Bavinck, Maaike; Jöns, Klaus D; Zieliński, Michal; Patriarche, Gilles; Harmand, Jean-Christophe; Akopian, Nika; Zwiller, Val

    2016-02-10

    We report the first comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the optical properties of single crystal phase quantum dots in InP nanowires. Crystal phase quantum dots are defined by a transition in the crystallographic lattice between zinc blende and wurtzite segments and therefore offer unprecedented potential to be controlled with atomic layer accuracy without random alloying. We show for the first time that crystal phase quantum dots are a source of pure single-photons and cascaded photon-pairs from type II transitions with excellent optical properties in terms of intensity and line width. We notice that the emission spectra consist often of two peaks close in energy, which we explain with a comprehensive theory showing that the symmetry of the system plays a crucial role for the hole levels forming hybridized orbitals. Our results state that crystal phase quantum dots have promising quantum optical properties for single photon application and quantum optics. PMID:26806321

  8. Atomically precise, coupled quantum dots fabricated by cleaved edge overgrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegscheider, W.; Schedelbeck, G.; Bichler, M.; Abstreiter, G.

    Recent progress in the fabrication of quantum dots by molecular beam epitaxy along three directions in space is reviewed. The optical properties of different sample structures consisting of individual quantum dots, pairs of coupled dots as well as of linear arrays of dots are studied by microscopic photoluminescence spectroscopy. The high degree of control over shape, composition and position of the 7×7×7 nm3 size GaAs quantum dots, which form at the intesection of three orthogonal quantum wells, allows a detailed investigation of the influence of coupling between almost identical zero-dimensional objects. In contrast to the inhomogeneously broadened quantum well and quantum wire signals originating from the complex twofold cleaved edge overgrowth structure, the photoluminescence spetrum of an individual quantum dot exhibits a single sharp line (full width at half maximum <70μeV) almost free of background signal. Microscopic photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy directly reveals the discreteness of the energy levels of the zero-dimensional structures and justifies the denomination "artificial atoms" for the quantum dots. It is further demonstrated that an "artifical molecule", characterized by the existence of bonding and antibonding states can be assembled from two of such "artificial atoms". The coupling strength between the "artificial atoms" is adjusted by the "interatomic" distance and is reflected in the energetic separation of the bonding and antibonding levels and the linewidths of the corresponding interband transitions.

  9. Microanalysis of quantum dots with type II band alignments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarney, Wendy; Little, John; Svensson, Stefan

    2006-03-01

    We will discuss the structural characterization of a system consisting of undoped self-assembled InSb quantum dots having a type II band alignment with the surrounding In0.53Ga0.47As matrix. This differs from systems using conventional type-I quantum dots that must be doped and that rely on intersubband transitions for infrared photoresponse. Type II dots grown in a superlattice structure combine the advantages of quantum dots (3-dimensional confinement) with the tunability and photovoltaic operation of the type II superlattice. We grew a high surface density of InSb quantum dots with a narrow distribution of sizes and shapes and free of dislocations within the body of the dots. The dots are relaxed due to an array of misfit dislocations confined at the basal dot/matrix interface. This makes burying the dots with InGaAs not feasible without generating dislocations due to the large dot/matrix lattice mismatch. We are experimenting with strain-compensating or graded strain overlayers to lower the lattice mismatch.

  10. Chemically Triggered Formation of Two-Dimensional Epitaxial Quantum Dot Superlattices.

    PubMed

    Walravens, Willem; De Roo, Jonathan; Drijvers, Emile; Ten Brinck, Stephanie; Solano, Eduardo; Dendooven, Jolien; Detavernier, Christophe; Infante, Ivan; Hens, Zeger

    2016-07-26

    Two dimensional superlattices of epitaxially connected quantum dots enable size-quantization effects to be combined with high charge carrier mobilities, an essential prerequisite for highly performing QD devices based on charge transport. Here, we demonstrate that surface active additives known to restore nanocrystal stoichiometry can trigger the formation of epitaxial superlattices of PbSe and PbS quantum dots. More specifically, we show that both chalcogen-adding (sodium sulfide) and lead oleate displacing (amines) additives induce small area epitaxial superlattices of PbSe quantum dots. In the latter case, the amine basicity is a sensitive handle to tune the superlattice symmetry, with strong and weak bases yielding pseudohexagonal or quasi-square lattices, respectively. Through density functional theory calculations and in situ titrations monitored by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we link this observation to the concomitantly different coordination enthalpy and ligand displacement potency of the amine. Next to that, an initial ∼10% reduction of the initial ligand density prior to monolayer formation and addition of a mild, lead oleate displacing chemical trigger such as aniline proved key to induce square superlattices with long-range, square micrometer order; an effect that is the more pronounced the larger the quantum dots. Because the approach applies to PbS quantum dots as well, we conclude that it offers a reproducible and rational method for the formation of highly ordered epitaxial quantum dot superlattices. PMID:27383262

  11. Ferritin-Templated Quantum-Dots for Quantum Logic Gates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sang H.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Chu, Sang-Hyon; Park, Yeonjoon; King, Glen C.; Lillehei, Peter T.; Kim, Seon-Jeong; Elliott, James R.

    2005-01-01

    Quantum logic gates (QLGs) or other logic systems are based on quantum-dots (QD) with a stringent requirement of size uniformity. The QD are widely known building units for QLGs. The size control of QD is a critical issue in quantum-dot fabrication. The work presented here offers a new method to develop quantum-dots using a bio-template, called ferritin, that ensures QD production in uniform size of nano-scale proportion. The bio-template for uniform yield of QD is based on a ferritin protein that allows reconstitution of core material through the reduction and chelation processes. One of the biggest challenges for developing QLG is the requirement of ordered and uniform size of QD for arrays on a substrate with nanometer precision. The QD development by bio-template includes the electrochemical/chemical reconsitution of ferritins with different core materials, such as iron, cobalt, manganese, platinum, and nickel. The other bio-template method used in our laboratory is dendrimers, precisely defined chemical structures. With ferritin-templated QD, we fabricated the heptagonshaped patterned array via direct nano manipulation of the ferritin molecules with a tip of atomic force microscope (AFM). We also designed various nanofabrication methods of QD arrays using a wide range manipulation techniques. The precise control of the ferritin-templated QD for a patterned arrangement are offered by various methods, such as a site-specific immobilization of thiolated ferritins through local oxidation using the AFM tip, ferritin arrays induced by gold nanoparticle manipulation, thiolated ferritin positioning by shaving method, etc. In the signal measurements, the current-voltage curve is obtained by measuring the current through the ferritin, between the tip and the substrate for potential sweeping or at constant potential. The measured resistance near zero bias was 1.8 teraohm for single holoferritin and 5.7 teraohm for single apoferritin, respectively.

  12. Behavior of optical bistability in multifold quantum dot molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamedi, H. R.; Mehmannavaz, M. R.

    2015-02-01

    We analyze the optical bistability (OB) behavior in a multifold quantum dot (QD) molecule composed of five quantum dots controlled by the tunneling coupling. It is shown that the optical bistability can strongly be affected by the tunneling inter-dot coupling coefficients as well as detuning parameters. In addition, we find that the rate of an incoherent pump field has a leading role in modification of the OB threshold. We then generalize our analysis to the case of multifold quantum dot molecules where the number of the quantum dots is N (with a center dot and N-1 satellite dots). We compare the OB features that could occur in a multifold QD system consist of three (N= ), four (N=\\text{4} ), and five (N = 5) quantum dots. We realize that the OB threshold increases as the number of satellite QDs increases. Such controllable optical bistability in multiple QD molecules may provide some new possibilities for technological applications in optoelectronics and solid-state quantum information science.

  13. RKKY interaction in a chirally coupled double quantum dot system

    SciTech Connect

    Heine, A. W.; Tutuc, D.; Haug, R. J.; Zwicknagl, G.; Schuh, D.; Wegscheider, W.

    2013-12-04

    The competition between the Kondo effect and the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yoshida (RKKY) interaction is investigated in a double quantum dots system, coupled via a central open conducting region. A perpendicular magnetic field induces the formation of Landau Levels which in turn give rise to the so-called Kondo chessboard pattern in the transport through the quantum dots. The two quantum dots become therefore chirally coupled via the edge channels formed in the open conducting area. In regions where both quantum dots exhibit Kondo transport the presence of the RKKY exchange interaction is probed by an analysis of the temperature dependence. The thus obtained Kondo temperature of one dot shows an abrupt increase at the onset of Kondo transport in the other, independent of the magnetic field polarity, i.e. edge state chirality in the central region.

  14. Spin-based all-optical quantum computation with quantum dots: Understanding and suppressing decoherence

    SciTech Connect

    Calarco, T.; Datta, A.; Fedichev, P.; Zoller, P.; Pazy, E.

    2003-07-01

    We present an all-optical implementation of quantum computation using semiconductor quantum dots. Quantum memory is represented by the spin of an excess electron stored in each dot. Two-qubit gates are realized by switching on trion-trion interactions between different dots. State selectivity is achieved via conditional laser excitation exploiting Pauli exclusion principle. Read out is performed via a quantum-jump technique. We analyze the effect on our scheme's performance of the main imperfections present in real quantum dots: exciton decay, hole mixing, and phonon decoherence. We introduce an adiabatic gate procedure that allows one to circumvent these effects and evaluate quantitatively its fidelity.

  15. Quantum Dots-based Reverse Phase Protein Microarray

    SciTech Connect

    Shingyoji, Masato; Gerion, Daniele; Pinkel, Dan; Gray, Joe W.; Chen, Fanqing

    2005-07-15

    CdSe nanocrystals, also called quantum dots (Qdots) are a novel class of fluorophores, which have a diameter of a few nanometers and possess high quantum yield, tunable emission wavelength and photostability. They are an attractive alternative to conventional fluorescent dyes. Quantum dots can be silanized to be soluble in aqueous solution under biological conditions, and thus be used in bio-detection. In this study, we established a novel Qdot-based technology platform that can perform accurate and reproducible quantification of protein concentration in a crude cell lysate background. Protein lysates have been spiked with a target protein, and a dilution series of the cell lysate with a dynamic range of three orders of magnitude has been used for this proof-of-concept study. The dilution series has been spotted in microarray format, and protein detection has been achieved with a sensitivity that is at least comparable to standard commercial assays, which are based on horseradish peroxidase (HRP) catalyzed diaminobenzidine (DAB) chromogenesis. The data obtained through the Qdot method has shown a close linear correlation between relative fluorescence unit and relative protein concentration. The Qdot results are in almost complete agreement with data we obtained with the well-established HRP-DAB colorimetric array (R{sup 2} = 0.986). This suggests that Qdots can be used for protein quantification in microarray format, using the platform presented here.

  16. Subtle leakage of a Majorana mode into a quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernek, E.; Penteado, P. H.; Seridonio, A. C.; Egues, J. C.

    2014-04-01

    We investigate quantum transport through a quantum dot connected to source and drain leads and side coupled to a topological superconducting nanowire (Kitaev chain) sustaining Majorana end modes. Using a recursive Green's-function approach, we determine the local density of states of the system and find that the end Majorana mode of the wire leaks into the dot, thus, emerging as a unique dot level pinned to the Fermi energy ɛF of the leads. Surprisingly, this resonance pinning, resembling, in this sense, a "Kondo resonance," occurs even when the gate-controlled dot level ɛdot(Vg) is far above or far below ɛF. The calculated conductance G of the dot exhibits an unambiguous signature for the Majorana end mode of the wire: In essence, an off-resonance dotdot(Vg)≠ɛF], which should have G =0, shows, instead, a conductance e2/2h over a wide range of Vg due to this pinned dot mode. Interestingly, this pinning effect only occurs when the dot level is coupled to a Majorana mode; ordinary fermionic modes (e.g., disorder) in the wire simply split and broaden (if a continuum) the dot level. We discuss experimental scenarios to probe Majorana modes in wires via these leaked/pinned dot modes.

  17. Quantum dot nanoparticle conjugation, characterization, and applications in neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Smita

    Quantum dot are semiconducting nanoparticles that have been used for decades in a variety of applications such as solar cells, LEDs and medical imaging. Their use in the last area, however, has been extremely limited despite their potential as revolutionary new biological labeling tools. Quantum dots are much brighter and more stable than conventional fluorophores, making them optimal for high resolution imaging and long term studies. Prior work in this area involves synthesizing and chemically conjugating quantum dots to molecules of interest in-house. However this method is both time consuming and prone to human error. Additionally, non-specific binding and nanoparticle aggregation currently prevent researchers from utilizing this system to its fullest capacity. Another critical issue that has not been addressed is determining the number of ligands bound to nanoparticles, which is crucial for proper interpretation of results. In this work, methods to label fixed cells using two types of chemically modified quantum dots are studied. Reproducible non-specific artifact labeling is consistently demonstrated if antibody-quantum dot conditions are less than optimal. In order to explain this, antibodies bound to quantum dots were characterized and quantified. While other groups have qualitatively characterized antibody functionalized quantum dots using TEM, AFM, UV spectroscopy and gel electrophoresis, and in some cases have reported calculated estimates of the putative number of total antibodies bound to quantum dots, no quantitative experimental results had been reported prior to this work. The chemical functionalization and characterization of quantum dot nanocrystals achieved in this work elucidates binding mechanisms of ligands to nanoparticles and allows researchers to not only translate our tools to studies in their own areas of interest but also derive quantitative results from these studies. This research brings ease of use and increased reliability to

  18. Photoconductivity of structures based on the SnO{sub 2} porous matrix coupled with core-shell CdSe/CdS quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Drozdov, K. A.; Kochnev, V. I.; Dobrovolsky, A. A.; Khokhlov, D. R.; Popelo, A. V.; Rumyantseva, M. N.; Gaskov, A. M.; Ryabova, L. I.; Vasiliev, R. B.

    2013-09-23

    Embedding of quantum dots into porous oxide matrixes is a perspective technique for photosensitization of a structure. We show that the sensitization efficiency may be increased by the use of core-shell quantum dots. It is demonstrated that the photoresponse amplitude in a SnO{sub 2} porous matrix with CdSe/CdS quantum dots depends non-monotonously on the number of atomic layers in a shell. The best results are obtained for SnO{sub 2} matrixes coupled with the quantum dots with three atomic layers of a shell. Mechanisms responsible for the structure sensitization are discussed.

  19. A triple quantum dot based nano-electromechanical memory device

    SciTech Connect

    Pozner, R.; Lifshitz, E.; Peskin, U.

    2015-09-14

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are free-standing nano-structures with chemically tunable electronic properties. This tunability offers intriguing possibilities for nano-electromechanical devices. In this work, we consider a nano-electromechanical nonvolatile memory (NVM) device incorporating a triple quantum dot (TQD) cluster. The device operation is based on a bias induced motion of a floating quantum dot (FQD) located between two bound quantum dots (BQDs). The mechanical motion is used for switching between two stable states, “ON” and “OFF” states, where ligand-mediated effective interdot forces between the BQDs and the FQD serve to hold the FQD in each stable position under zero bias. Considering realistic microscopic parameters, our quantum-classical theoretical treatment of the TQD reveals the characteristics of the NVM.

  20. Gate-controlled electromechanical backaction induced by a quantum dot.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yuma; Mahboob, Imran; Onomitsu, Koji; Sasaki, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Semiconductor-based quantum structures integrated into mechanical resonators have emerged as a unique platform for generating entanglement between macroscopic phononic and mesocopic electronic degrees of freedom. A key challenge to realizing this is the ability to create and control the coupling between two vastly dissimilar systems. Here, such coupling is demonstrated in a hybrid device composed of a gate-defined quantum dot integrated into a piezoelectricity-based mechanical resonator enabling milli-Kelvin phonon states to be detected via charge fluctuations in the quantum dot. Conversely, the single electron transport in the quantum dot can induce a backaction onto the mechanics where appropriate bias of the quantum dot can enable damping and even current-driven amplification of the mechanical motion. Such electron transport induced control of the mechanical resonator dynamics paves the way towards a new class of hybrid semiconductor devices including a current injected phonon laser and an on-demand single phonon emitter. PMID:27063939