Science.gov

Sample records for quantum dots synthesis

  1. Quantum dots: synthesis, bioapplications, and toxicity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This review introduces quantum dots (QDs) and explores their properties, synthesis, applications, delivery systems in biology, and their toxicity. QDs are one of the first nanotechnologies to be integrated with the biological sciences and are widely anticipated to eventually find application in a number of commercial consumer and clinical products. They exhibit unique luminescence characteristics and electronic properties such as wide and continuous absorption spectra, narrow emission spectra, and high light stability. The application of QDs, as a new technology for biosystems, has been typically studied on mammalian cells. Due to the small structures of QDs, some physical properties such as optical and electron transport characteristics are quite different from those of the bulk materials. PMID:22929008

  2. Facile synthesis and photoluminescence mechanism of graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ping; Zhou, Ligang; Zhang, Shenli; Wan, Neng; Pan, Wei; Shen, Wenzhong

    2014-12-01

    We report a facile hydrothermal synthesis of intrinsic fluorescent graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with two-dimensional morphology. This synthesis uses glucose, concentrate sulfuric acid, and deionized water as reagents. Concentrated sulfuric acid is found to play a key role in controlling the transformation of as-prepared hydrothermal products from amorphous carbon nanodots to well-crystallized GQDs. These GQDs show typical absorption characteristic for graphene, and have nearly excitation-independent ultraviolet and blue intrinsic emissions. Temperature-dependent PL measurements have demonstrated strong electron-electron scattering and electron-phonon interactions, suggesting a similar temperature behavior of GQDs to inorganic semiconductor quantum dots. According to optical studies, the ultraviolet emission is found to originate from the recombination of electron-hole pairs localized in the C=C bonds, while the blue emission is from the electron transition of sp2 domains.

  3. Facile synthesis and photoluminescence mechanism of graphene quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ping; Zhou, Ligang; Zhang, Shenli; Pan, Wei Shen, Wenzhong; Wan, Neng

    2014-12-28

    We report a facile hydrothermal synthesis of intrinsic fluorescent graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with two-dimensional morphology. This synthesis uses glucose, concentrate sulfuric acid, and deionized water as reagents. Concentrated sulfuric acid is found to play a key role in controlling the transformation of as-prepared hydrothermal products from amorphous carbon nanodots to well-crystallized GQDs. These GQDs show typical absorption characteristic for graphene, and have nearly excitation-independent ultraviolet and blue intrinsic emissions. Temperature-dependent PL measurements have demonstrated strong electron-electron scattering and electron-phonon interactions, suggesting a similar temperature behavior of GQDs to inorganic semiconductor quantum dots. According to optical studies, the ultraviolet emission is found to originate from the recombination of electron-hole pairs localized in the C=C bonds, while the blue emission is from the electron transition of sp{sup 2} domains.

  4. Synthesis, Characterization and Application Of PbS Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Sarma, Sweety; Datta, Pranayee; Barua, Kishore Kr.; Karmakar, Sanjib

    2009-06-29

    Lead Chalcogenides (PbS, PbSe, PbTe) quantum dots (QDs) are ideal for fundamental studies of strongly quantum confined systems with possible technological applications. Tunable electronic transitions at near--infrared wavelengths can be obtained with these QDs. Applications of lead chalcogenides encompass quite a good number of important field viz. the fields of telecommunications, medical electronics, optoelectronics etc. Very recently, it has been proposed that 'memristor'(Memory resistor) can be realized in nanoscale systems with coupled ionic and electronic transports. The hystersis characteristics of 'memristor' are observed in many nanoscale electronic devices including semiconductor quantum dot devices. This paper reports synthesis of PbS QDs by chemical route. The fabricated samples are characterized by UV-Vis, XRD, SEM, TEM, EDS, etc. Observed characteristics confirm nano formation. I-V characteristics of the sample are studied for investigating their applications as 'memristor'.

  5. Enchanced methods of hydrophilized CdSe quantum dots synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potapkin, D. V.; Zharkova, I. S.; Goryacheva, I. Y.

    2015-03-01

    Quantum dots are bright and stable fluorescence signal sources, but for most of applications they need an additional hydrophilization step. Unfortunately, most of existing approaches lead to QD's fluorescence quenching, so there is a need for additional enhancing of hydrophilized QD's brightness like UV irradiation, which can be used both on water insoluble QD's with oleic acid ligands (in toluene) and on hydrophilized QD's covered with UV-stable polymer (in aqueous solution). For synthesis of bright water-soluble fluorescent labels CdSe/CdS/ZnS colloidal quantum dots were covered with PAMAM dendrimer and irradiated with UV lamp in quartz cuvettes for 3 hours at the room temperature and then compared with control sample.

  6. Controllable Synthesis of Highly Luminescent Boron Nitride Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongling; Tay, Roland Yingjie; Tsang, Siu Hon; Zhen, Xu; Teo, Edwin Hang Tong

    2015-12-01

    Boron nitride quantum dots (BNQDs), as a new member of heavy metal-free quantum dots, have aroused great interest in fundamental research and practical application due to their unique physical/chemical properties. However, it is still a challenge to controllably synthesize high-quality BNQDs with high quantum yield (QY), uniform size and strong fluorescent. In this work, BNQDs have been successfully fabricated by the liquid exfoliation and the subsequent solvothermal process with respect to its facileness and easy large scale up. Importantly, BNQDs with high-quality can be controllably obtained by adjusting the synthetic parameters involved in the solvothermal process including filling factor, synthesis temperature, and duration time. Encouragingly, the as-prepared BNQDs possess strong blue luminescence with QY as high as 19.5%, which can be attributed to the synergetic effect of size, surface chemistry and edge defects. In addition, this strategy presented here provides a new reference for the controllable synthesis of other heavy metal-free QDs. Furthermore, the as-prepared BNQDs are non-toxic to cells and exhibit nanosecond-scaled lifetimes, suggesting they have great potential biological and optoelectronic applications. PMID:26574683

  7. Synthesis and characterization of quantum dotpolymer composites

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Joe; Zakeri, Rashid; Aouadi, Samir

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate a facile and simple synthesis of quantum dot (QD)polymer composites. Highly fluorescent semiconducting CdSe/ZnS quantum dots were embedded in different commercially available polymers using one easy step. QDpolymer composite nanoparticles were also synthesized using template-assisted synthesis. In particular, we self-assembled lamellar micelles inside nanoporous alumina membranes which were used for the synthesis of mesoporous silica hollow nanotubes and solid nanorods. We observed that the addition of excess free octadecylamine (ODA) in the QDsilica solution resulted in gelation. The gelation time was found to be dependent on free ODA concentration. Similarly, the emission of QDpolymer composites was also found to be dependent on free ODA concentration. Highly purified QDs provided polymer composites that have a much lower emission compared to unpurified nanocomposites. This was attributed to passivation of the QD surfaces by amine, which reduced the surface defects and non-radiative pathways for excited QDs. Finally, highly fluorescent QDpolymer patterns were demonstrated on glass substrates which retained their emission in both polar and non-polar solvents. PMID:19936033

  8. Encapsulated nanocrystals and quantum dots formed by ion beam synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, C. W.; Budai, J. D.; Withrow, S. P.; Zhu, J. G.; Pennycook, S. J.; Zuhr, R. A.; Hembree, D. M., Jr.; Henderson, D. O.; Magruder, R. H.; Yacaman, M. J.; Mondragon, G.; Prawer, S.

    1997-05-01

    High-dose ion implantation has been used to synthesize a wide range of nanocrystals and quantum dots and to encapsulate them in host materials such as SiO 2, ?-Al 2O 3, and crystalline Si. When Si nanocrystals are encapsulated in SiO 2, they exhibit dose dependent absorption and photoluminescence which provides insight into the luminescence mechanism. Compound semiconductor nanocrystals (both group III-V and group II-VI) can be formed in these matrices by sequential implantation of the individual constituents, and we discuss their synthesis and some of their physical and optical properties.

  9. Encapsulated nanocrystals and quantum dots formed by ion beam synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    White, C.W.; Budai, J.D.; Withrow, S.P.

    1996-09-01

    High-dose ion implantation was used to synthesize a wide range of nanocrystals and quantum dots and to encapsulate them in host materials such as SiO{sub 2}, {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and crystalline Si. When Si nanocrystals are encapsulated in SiO{sub 2}, they exhibit dose dependent absorption and photoluminescence which provides insight into the luminescence mechanism. Compound semiconductor nanocrystals (both Group III-V and Group II-VI) can be formed in these matrices by sequential implantation of he individual constituents, and we discuss their synthesis and some of their physical and optical properties.

  10. Synthesis of CdSe quantum dots for quantum dot sensitized solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Neetu Kapoor, Avinashi; Kumar, Vinod; Mehra, R. M.

    2014-04-24

    CdSe Quantum Dots (QDs) of size 0.85 nm were synthesized using chemical route. ZnO based Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cell (QDSSC) was fabricated using CdSe QDs as sensitizer. The Pre-synthesized QDs were found to be successfully adsorbed on front ZnO electrode and had potential to replace organic dyes in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs). The efficiency of QDSSC was obtained to be 2.06 % at AM 1.5.

  11. Ion beam-induced quantum dot synthesis in glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espiau de Lamaestre, R.; Bernas, H.

    2007-04-01

    Ion beam synthesis has played a significant role in fabricating metallic or semiconducting nanocrystal arrays in glass for their optical or magnetic properties, but basic questions remain unanswered. What are the microscopic mechanisms that control nanocluster growth, determine their density and size distributions? To what extent can we control these processes in order to tailor the properties? We demonstrate the role of chemistry (redox properties; charge state equilibrium modified by irradiation) in Ag nanocluster nucleation and growth processes in glasses and extend the conclusions to PbS nanocluster synthesis. In the latter case, we show how charge state differences affect diffusion and growth and devise a strategy that produces PbS quantum dots emitting intense photoluminescence at 1.5 ?m. In the course of this work, we also showed that the lognormal shape of cluster size distributions signals a loss of information as to the formation process and hence loss of property control.

  12. Synthesis and photoluminescence of ZnS quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu Hua; Chen, Zhong; Zhou, Xiao Qun

    2008-03-01

    Single-phase zinc sulphide (ZnS) quantum dots were synthesized by a chemical method. The influence of the pH value of the Zn(CH3COO)2 solution on the size and photoluminescence properties of the ZnS quantum dots was evaluated. X-ray power diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure, size, surface states, and photoluminescence properties of ZnS quantum dots. The results showed that the crystal structure of ZnS quantum dots was a cubic zinc blende structure, and their average diameter was about 3.0 nm. ZnS quantum dots with good distribution and high purity were obtained. A strong broad band centered at about 320 nm was observed in the excitation spectrum of ZnS quantum dots. Their emission spectrum peaking at about 408 nm, was due mostly to the trap-state emission. The relative integrated emission intensity of ZnS quantum dots decreased as the pH value of the Zn(CH3COO)2 solution increased, which could be ascribed to the increase in average diameter of the ZnS quantum dots as the pH value of Zn(CH3COO)2 solution increased. PMID:18468145

  13. Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartakovskii, Alexander

    2012-07-01

    Part I. Nanostructure Design and Structural Properties of Epitaxially Grown Quantum Dots and Nanowires: 1. Growth of III/V semiconductor quantum dots C. Schneider, S. Hofling and A. Forchel; 2. Single semiconductor quantum dots in nanowires: growth, optics, and devices M. E. Reimer, N. Akopian, M. Barkelid, G. Bulgarini, R. Heeres, M. Hocevar, B. J. Witek, E. Bakkers and V. Zwiller; 3. Atomic scale analysis of self-assembled quantum dots by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy and atom probe tomography J. G. Keizer and P. M. Koenraad; Part II. Manipulation of Individual Quantum States in Quantum Dots Using Optical Techniques: 4. Studies of the hole spin in self-assembled quantum dots using optical techniques B. D. Gerardot and R. J. Warburton; 5. Resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot A. N. Vamivakas, C. Matthiesen, Y. Zhao, C.-Y. Lu and M. Atature; 6. Coherent control of quantum dot excitons using ultra-fast optical techniques A. J. Ramsay and A. M. Fox; 7. Optical probing of holes in quantum dot molecules: structure, symmetry, and spin M. F. Doty and J. I. Climente; Part III. Optical Properties of Quantum Dots in Photonic Cavities and Plasmon-Coupled Dots: 8. Deterministic light-matter coupling using single quantum dots P. Senellart; 9. Quantum dots in photonic crystal cavities A. Faraon, D. Englund, I. Fushman, A. Majumdar and J. Vukovic; 10. Photon statistics in quantum dot micropillar emission M. Asmann and M. Bayer; 11. Nanoplasmonics with colloidal quantum dots V. Temnov and U. Woggon; Part IV. Quantum Dot Nano-Laboratory: Magnetic Ions and Nuclear Spins in a Dot: 12. Dynamics and optical control of an individual Mn spin in a quantum dot L. Besombes, C. Le Gall, H. Boukari and H. Mariette; 13. Optical spectroscopy of InAs/GaAs quantum dots doped with a single Mn atom O. Krebs and A. Lemaitre; 14. Nuclear spin effects in quantum dot optics B. Urbaszek, B. Eble, T. Amand and X. Marie; Part V. Electron Transport in Quantum Dots Fabricated by Lithographic Techniques: III-V Semiconductors and Carbon: 15. Electrically controlling single spin coherence in semiconductor nanostructures Y. Dovzhenko, K. Wang, M. D. Schroer and J. R. Petta; 16. Theory of electron and nuclear spins in III-V semiconductor and carbon-based dots H. Ribeiro and G. Burkard; 17. Graphene quantum dots: transport experiments and local imaging S. Schnez, J. Guettinger, F. Molitor, C. Stampfer, M. Huefner, T. Ihn and K. Ensslin; Part VI. Single Dots for Future Telecommunications Applications: 18. Electrically operated entangled light sources based on quantum dots R. M. Stevenson, A. J. Bennett and A. J. Shields; 19. Deterministic single quantum dot cavities at telecommunication wavelengths D. Dalacu, K. Mnaymneh, J. Lapointe, G. C. Aers, P. J. Poole, R. L. Williams and S. Hughes; Index.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of aqueous quantum dots for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui

    Quantum Dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals (120 nm) exhibiting distinctive photoluminescence (PL) properties due to the quantum confinement effect. Having many advantages over organic dyes, such as broad excitation and resistance to photobleaching, QDs are widely used in bioapplications as one of most exciting nanobiotechnologies. To date, most commercial QDs are synthesized through the traditional organometallic method and contain toxic elements, such as cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, etc. The overall goal of this thesis study is to develop an aqueous synthesis method to produce nontoxic quantum dots with strong emission and good stability, suitable for biomedical imaging applications. Firstly, an aqueous, simple, environmentally friendly synthesis method was developed. With cadmium sulfide (CdS) QDs as an example system, various processing parameters and capping molecules were examined to improve the synthesis and optimize the PL properties. The obtained water soluble QDs exhibited ultra small size (5 nm), strong PL and good stability. Thereafter, using the aqueous method, the zinc sulfide (ZnS) QDs were synthesized with different capping molecules, i.e., 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) and 3-(mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPS). Especially, via a newly developed capping molecule replacement method, the present ZnS QDs exhibited bright blue emission with a quantum yield of 75% and more than 60 days lifetime in the ambient conditions. Two cytotoxicity tests with human endothelial cells verified the nontoxicity of the ZnS QDs by cell counting with Trypan blue staining and fluorescence assay with Alamar Blue. Taking advantage of the versatile surface chemistry, several strategies were explored to conjugate the water soluble QDs with biomolecules, i.e., antibody and streptavidin. Accordingly, the imaging of Salmonella t. cells and biotinylated microbeads has been successfully demonstrated. In addition, polyethylenimine (PEI)-QDs complex was formed and delivered into PC12 neuronal cells for intracellular imaging with uniform distribution. The water soluble QDs were also embedded in electrospun polymer fibers as fluorescent nanocomposite. In summary, the ease of aqueous processing and the excellent PL properties of the nontoxic water soluble ZnS QDs provide great potential for various in vivo applications.

  15. Synthesis of Cd-free InP/ZnS Quantum Dots Suitable for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Matthew A; Grandinetti, Giovanna; Fichter, Kathryn M

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescent nanocrystals, specifically quantum dots, have been a useful tool for many biomedical applications. For successful use in biological systems, quantum dots should be highly fluorescent and small/monodisperse in size. While commonly used cadmium-based quantum dots possess these qualities, they are potentially toxic due to the possible release of Cd(2+) ions through nanoparticle degradation. Indium-based quantum dots, specifically InP/ZnS, have recently been explored as a viable alternative to cadmium-based quantum dots due to their relatively similar fluorescence characteristics and size. The synthesis presented here uses standard hot-injection techniques for effective nanoparticle growth; however, nanoparticle properties such as size, emission wavelength, and emission intensity can drastically change due to small changes in the reaction conditions. Therefore, reaction conditions such temperature, reaction duration, and precursor concentration should be maintained precisely to yield reproducible products. Because quantum dots are not inherently soluble in aqueous solutions, they must also undergo surface modification to impart solubility in water. In this protocol, an amphiphilic polymer is used to interact with both hydrophobic ligands on the quantum dot surface and bulk solvent water molecules. Here, a detailed protocol is provided for the synthesis of highly fluorescent InP/ZnS quantum dots that are suitable for use in biomedical applications. PMID:26891282

  16. Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Castro, Stephanie L.; Hepp, Aloysius; Bailey, Sheila G.

    2002-10-01

    We have been investigating the synthesis of quantum dots of CdSe, CuInS2, and CuInSe2 for use in an intermediate bandgap solar cell. We have prepared a variety of quantum dots using the typical organometallic synthesis routes pioneered by Bawendi, et. al., in the early 1990's. However, unlike previous work in this area we have also utilized single-source precursor molecules in the synthesis process. We will present XRD, TEM, SEM and EDS characterization of our initial attempts at fabricating these quantum dots. Investigation of the size distributions of these nanoparticles via laser light scattering and scanning electron microscopy will be presented. Theoretical estimates on appropriate quantum dot composition, size, and inter-dot spacing along with potential scenarios for solar cell fabrication will be discussed.

  17. Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Castro, Stephanie L.; Hepp, Aloysius; Bailey, Sheila G.

    2002-01-01

    We have been investigating the synthesis of quantum dots of CdSe, CuInS2, and CuInSe2 for use in an intermediate bandgap solar cell. We have prepared a variety of quantum dots using the typical organometallic synthesis routes pioneered by Bawendi, et. al., in the early 1990's. However, unlike previous work in this area we have also utilized single-source precursor molecules in the synthesis process. We will present XRD, TEM, SEM and EDS characterization of our initial attempts at fabricating these quantum dots. Investigation of the size distributions of these nanoparticles via laser light scattering and scanning electron microscopy will be presented. Theoretical estimates on appropriate quantum dot composition, size, and inter-dot spacing along with potential scenarios for solar cell fabrication will be discussed.

  18. Semiconductor Nanocrystal Quantum Dot Synthesis Approaches Towards Large-Scale Industrial Production for Energy Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Michael Z.; Zhu, Ting

    2015-12-01

    This paper reviews the experimental synthesis and engineering developments that focused on various green approaches and large-scale process production routes for quantum dots. Fundamental process engineering principles were illustrated. In relation to the small-scale hot injection method, our discussions focus on the non-injection route that could be scaled up with engineering stir-tank reactors. In addition, applications that demand to utilize quantum dots as "commodity" chemicals are discussed, including solar cells and solid-state lightings.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of luminescent cadmium selenide/zinc selenide/zinc sulfide cholinomimetic quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ggout, Claire; McAtee, Maria L.; Bennett, Nichole M.; Viranga Tillekeratne, L. M.; Kirchhoff, Jon R.

    2012-07-01

    Luminescent quantum dots conjugated with highly selective molecular recognition ligands are widely used for targeting and imaging biological structures. In this paper, water soluble cholinomimetic cadmium selenide (core), zinc selenide/zinc sulfide (shell) quantum dots were synthesized for targeting cholinergic sites. Cholinomimetic specificity was incorporated by conjugation of the quantum dots to an aminated analogue of hemicholinium-15, a well known competitive inhibitor of the high affinity choline uptake transporter. Detailed evaluation of the nanocrystal synthesis and characterization of the final product was conducted by 1H and 31P NMR, absorption and emission spectroscopy, as well as transmission electron microscopy.Luminescent quantum dots conjugated with highly selective molecular recognition ligands are widely used for targeting and imaging biological structures. In this paper, water soluble cholinomimetic cadmium selenide (core), zinc selenide/zinc sulfide (shell) quantum dots were synthesized for targeting cholinergic sites. Cholinomimetic specificity was incorporated by conjugation of the quantum dots to an aminated analogue of hemicholinium-15, a well known competitive inhibitor of the high affinity choline uptake transporter. Detailed evaluation of the nanocrystal synthesis and characterization of the final product was conducted by 1H and 31P NMR, absorption and emission spectroscopy, as well as transmission electron microscopy. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: NMR spectra supporting the synthesis of the HC-15 QDs are available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30713h

  20. A Safer, Easier, Faster Synthesis for CdSe Quantum Dot Nanocrystals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boatman, Elizabeth M.; Lisensky, George C.; Nordell, Karen J.

    2005-01-01

    The synthesis for CdSe quantum dot nanocrystals that vary in color and are a visually engaging way to demonstrate quantum effects in chemistry is presented. CdSe nanocrystals are synthesized from CdO and elemental Se using a kinetic growth method where particle size depends on reaction time.

  1. Sized controlled synthesis, purification, and cell studies with silicon quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Shiohara, Amane; Prabakar, Sujay; Faramus, Angelique; Hsu, Chia-Yen; Lai, Ping-Shan; Northcote, Peter T; Tilley, Richard D

    2011-08-01

    This article describes the size control synthesis of silicon quantum dots with simple microemulsion techniques. The silicon nanocrystals are small enough to be in the strong confinement regime and photoluminesce in the blue region of the visible spectrum and the emission can be tuned by changing the nanocrystal size. The silicon quantum dots were capped with allylamine either a platinum catalyst or UV-radiation. An extensive purification protocol is reported and assessed using (1)H NMR to produce ultra pure silicon quantum dots suitable for biological studies. The highly pure quantum dots were used in cellular uptake experiments and monitored using confocal microscopy. The results showed that the amine terminated silicon nanocrystals accumulated in lysosome but not in nuclei and could be used as bio-markers to monitor cancer cells over long timescales. PMID:21727983

  2. Wet chemical synthesis of quantum dots for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepeda-Pérez, E. I.; López-Luke, T.; Pérez-Mayen, L.; Hidalgo, Alberto; de la Rosa, E.; Torres-Castro, Alejandro; Ceja-Fdez, Andrea; Vivero-Escoto, Juan; Gonzalez-Yebra, Ana L.

    2015-07-01

    In recent years the use of nanoparticles in medical applications has boomed. This is because the various applications that provide these materials like drug delivery, cancer cell diagnostics and therapeutics [1-5]. Biomedical applications of Quantum Dots (QDs) are focused on molecular imaging and biological sensing due to its optical properties. The size of QDs can be continuously tuned from 2 to 10 nm in diameter, which, after polymer encapsulation, generally increases to 5 - 20 nm diminishing the toxicity. The QDs prepared in our lab have a diameter between 2 to 7 nm. Particles smaller than 5 nm can interact with the cells [2]. Some of the characteristics that distinguish QDs from the commonly used fluorophores are wider range of emission, narrow and more sharply defined emission peak, brighter emission and a higher signal to noise ratio compared with organic dyes [6]. In this paper we will show our progress in the study of the interaction of quantum dots in live cells for image and Raman spectroscopy applications. We will also show the results of the interaction of quantum dots with genomic DNA for diagnostic purposes.

  3. Sized controlled synthesis, purification, and cell studies with silicon quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiohara, Amane; Prabakar, Sujay; Faramus, Angelique; Hsu, Chia-Yen; Lai, Ping-Shan; Northcote, Peter T.; Tilley, Richard D.

    2011-08-01

    This article describes the size control synthesis of silicon quantum dots with simple microemulsion techniques. The silicon nanocrystals are small enough to be in the strong confinement regime and photoluminesce in the blue region of the visible spectrum and the emission can be tuned by changing the nanocrystal size. The silicon quantum dots were capped with allylamine either a platinum catalyst or UV-radiation. An extensive purification protocol is reported and assessed using 1H NMR to produce ultra pure silicon quantum dots suitable for biological studies. The highly pure quantum dots were used in cellular uptake experiments and monitored using confocal microscopy. The results showed that the amine terminated silicon nanocrystals accumulated in lysosome but not in nuclei and could be used as bio-markers to monitor cancer cells over long timescales.This article describes the size control synthesis of silicon quantum dots with simple microemulsion techniques. The silicon nanocrystals are small enough to be in the strong confinement regime and photoluminesce in the blue region of the visible spectrum and the emission can be tuned by changing the nanocrystal size. The silicon quantum dots were capped with allylamine either a platinum catalyst or UV-radiation. An extensive purification protocol is reported and assessed using 1H NMR to produce ultra pure silicon quantum dots suitable for biological studies. The highly pure quantum dots were used in cellular uptake experiments and monitored using confocal microscopy. The results showed that the amine terminated silicon nanocrystals accumulated in lysosome but not in nuclei and could be used as bio-markers to monitor cancer cells over long timescales. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10458f

  4. Improvement of the luminescent properties of cadmium sulfide quantum dots by a post-synthesis modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Israel; Gómez, Idalia

    2014-11-01

    Here the improvement of the luminescent properties of CdS quantum dots by a post-synthesis modification with aqueous solutions of NaOH at different concentrations is presented. The CdS quantum dots were synthesized by a microwave-assisted method using citrate ions as stabilizer. The addition of the hydroxide ions increased the intensity of the orange-red emission by about 80%. Besides, a violet-blue emission was achieved by means of this post-synthesis modification. The hydroxide ions control the precipitation equilibria of the CdS and Cd(OH)2, dissolving and precipitating the surface of the quantum dots. The NaOH treatment increases the number of traps, which produces less band-edge and more deep-trap emission, which explains the decrease and increase in the intensity of the violet-blue and orange-red emissions, respectively.

  5. Green synthesis of highly efficient CdSe quantum dots for quantum-dots-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Bing; Shen, Chao; Zhang, Mengya; Yuan, Shuanglong; Yang, Yunxia E-mail: grchen@ecust.edu.cn; Chen, Guorong E-mail: grchen@ecust.edu.cn; Zhang, Bo

    2014-05-21

    Green synthesis of CdSe quantum dots for application in the quantum-dots-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) is investigated in this work. The CdSe QDs were prepared with glycerol as the solvent, with sharp emission peak, full width at half maximum around 30 nm, and absorption peak from 475 nm to 510 nm. The reaction is environmental friendly and energy saving. What's more, the green synthesized CdSe QDs are coherence to the maximum remittance region of the solar spectrum and suitable as sensitizers to assemble onto TiO{sub 2} electrodes for cell devices application. What's more, the dynamic procedure of the carriers' excitation, transportation, and recombination in the QDSCs are discussed. Because the recombination of the electrons from the conduction band of TiO{sub 2}'s to the electrolyte affects the efficiency of the solar cells greatly, 3-Mercaptopropionic acid capped water-dispersible QDs were used to cover the surface of TiO{sub 2}. The resulting green synthesized CdSe QDSCs with Cu{sub 2}S as the electrode show a photovoltaic performance with a conversion efficiency of 3.39%.

  6. Semiconductor Nanocrystal Quantum Dot Synthesis Approaches Towards Large-Scale Industrial Production for Energy Applications.

    PubMed

    Hu, Michael Z; Zhu, Ting

    2015-12-01

    This paper reviews the experimental synthesis and engineering developments that focused on various green approaches and large-scale process production routes for quantum dots. Fundamental process engineering principles were illustrated. In relation to the small-scale hot injection method, our discussions focus on the non-injection route that could be scaled up with engineering stir-tank reactors. In addition, applications that demand to utilize quantum dots as "commodity" chemicals are discussed, including solar cells and solid-state lightings. PMID:26637261

  7. Microwave-assisted low temperature synthesis of wurtzite ZnS quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Shahid, Robina; Toprak, Muhammet S.; Muhammed, Mamoun

    2012-03-15

    In this work we report, for the first time, on microwave assisted synthesis of wurtzite ZnS quantum dots (QDs) in controlled reaction at temperature as low as 150 Degree-Sign C. The synthesis can be done in different microwave absorbing solvents with multisource or single source precursors. The QDs are less than 3 nm in size as characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) using selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns to confirm the wurtzite phase of ZnS QDs. The optical properties were investigated by UV-Vis absorption which shows blue shift in absorption compared to bulk wurtzite ZnS due to quantum confinement effects. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of QDs reveal point defects related emission of ZnS QDs. - Graphical abstract: Microwave assisted synthesis of wurtzite ZnS quantum dots (QDs) have been achieved in controlled reaction at temperature as low as 150 Degree-Sign C. The synthesis was performed in different microwave absorbing solvents with multisource or single source precursors for very short reaction periods due to effective heating with microwaves. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wurtzite a high temperature phase of ZnS was synthesized at low temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low temperature synthesis was possible because of the use of microwave absorbing solvents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Capping agent was used to control the size of Quantum Dots. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two different systems were developed using single molecular precursor and multisource precursors.

  8. Synthesis and application of quantum dots-based biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai Nguyen, Ngoc; Giang Duong, Thi; Hoang, Van Nong; Thang Pham, Nam; Cao Dao, Tran; Nga Pham, Thu

    2015-03-01

    Trichlorfon (TF) is one of the organophosphorus pesticides used widely in agriculture. The content of this paper includes the exploitation of dominant optical properties of the quantum dots consisting of a core and multilayer shell CdSe/ZnSe/ZnS (QD). A biosensor was fabricated on the basis of this QD for rapidly detecting the residues of trichlofon pesticide with concentrations of 0.01 ppm to 5 ppm. The measurements were carried out to examine the morphology of the QD structure and fluorescent properties such as transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. The linking mechanism among biological agents and the specificity of the acetylcholinesterase enzymes in hydrolysis reaction of acetylthiolcholine was applied to create the changes in surroundings, affecting the fluorescence of the QD. In particular, the mechanism of bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) is discussed to clearly explain the recombination of electrons and holes in the QD.

  9. Synthesis of indium sulphide quantum dots in perfluoronated ionomer membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Sumi, R.; Warrier, Anita R.; Vijayan, C.

    2014-01-28

    In this paper, we demonstrate a simple and efficient method for synthesis of β-indium sulphide (In{sub 2}S{sub 3}) nanoparticles embedded in an ionomer matrix (nafion membrane). The influence of reaction temperature on structural, compositional and optical properties of these films were analysed using X-Ray Diffraction, EDAX, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence studies. Average particle diameter was estimated using modified effective mass approximation method. Absorption spectra of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoparticles show blue shift compared to bulk In{sub 2}S{sub 3}, indicating strong quantum size confinement effects. PL emission in the wavelength range 530–600 nm was recorded using a 488 nm line from an Ar{sup +} laser as the excitation source.

  10. Synthesis of colloidal InAs/ZnSe quantum dots and their quantum dot sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. H.; Jung, C.; Jun, Y.; Kim, S.-W.

    2015-11-01

    We report the synthesis of colloidal InAs/ZnSe core/shell quantum dots (QDs) by the hot injection method. InAs nanocrystals have a narrow band gap of 0.38 eV, a high absorption coefficient, and multiple exciton generation; hence, they are promising candidates for application in solar cells. However, poor coverage of the titania layer causes a low solar efficiency of ∼1.74%. We synthesized type-I InAs/ZnSe core/shell QDs as an effective solution; they are expected to have enhanced solar cell efficiency because of the different wettability of the ZnSe shell and their superior stability as compared to that of the unstable InAs core. We characterized the QDs by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and absorption and emission spectroscopy. The particle size increased from 2.6 nm to 5 nm, whereas the absorption and emission spectra exhibited a slight red shift, which is typical of type-I structured core/shell QDs. We then fabricated QD-based solar cells and investigated the cell properties, obtaining an open-circuit voltage (VOC) of 0.51 V, a short-circuit current density (JSC) of 12.4 mA/cm2, and a fill factor (FF) of 44%; the efficiency of 2.7% shows an improvement of more than 50% as compared to the values in previous reports.

  11. Large-Scale Programmable Synthesis of PbS Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Preske, Amanda; Liu, Jin; Prezhdo, Oleg V; Krauss, Todd D

    2016-03-01

    The most common method of synthesizing colloidal quantum dots (QDs) relies on an increasing particle size through increasing reaction time. We demonstrate a synthesis where the QD size is programmable through the use of a secondary phosphine sulfide precursor. The reaction runs to thermodynamic completion, resulting in a desired PbS diameter for a given set of specific reaction conditions, with no need for reaction quenching or post-synthesis size-separation. Moreover, this method is shown to produce high-quality PbS QDs on the grams scale. PMID:26663537

  12. A general solid-state synthesis of chemically-doped fluorescent graphene quantum dots for bioimaging and optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chong-Bo; Zhu, Zhen-Tong; Wang, Hang-Xing; Huang, Xiao; Zhang, Xiao; Qi, Xiaoying; Zhang, Hao-Li; Zhu, Yihan; Deng, Xia; Peng, Yong; Han, Yu; Zhang, Hua

    2015-05-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have attracted increasing interest because of their excellent properties such as strong photoluminescence, excellent biocompatibility and low cost. Herein, we develop a general method for the synthesis of doped and undoped GQDs, which relies on direct carbonization of organic precursors in the solid state.Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have attracted increasing interest because of their excellent properties such as strong photoluminescence, excellent biocompatibility and low cost. Herein, we develop a general method for the synthesis of doped and undoped GQDs, which relies on direct carbonization of organic precursors in the solid state. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01757b

  13. Simple synthesis of luminescent CdSe quantum dots from ascorbic acid and selenium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yilin; Yu, Meihua; Yang, Kun; Lu, Jianping; Chen, Linqing

    2015-12-01

    A simple, low-cost and convenient method was developed for the synthesis of highly luminescent CdSe quantum dots (QDs) in an aqueous medium. Compared with previous methods, this synthesis was carried out in one pot using ascorbic acid (C6 H8 O6 ) to replace NaBH4 or N2 H4 ??H2 O as a reductant, and selenium dioxide to replace selenium or its other hazardous, expensive and unstable compounds as a precursor. The mechanism of CdSe QDs formation was elucidated. The influence of various experimental variables, including refluxing time, Cd/MSA and Cd/Se molar ratios, on the luminescent properties of the QDs were systematically investigated. X-Ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy characterization indicated that the QDs had a pure cubic zinc-blended structure with a spherical shape. Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25847390

  14. Automated synthesis of photovoltaic-quality colloidal quantum dots using separate nucleation and growth stages.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jun; El-Ballouli, Ala'a O; Rollny, Lisa; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Burlakov, Victor M; Goriely, Alain; Sargent, Edward H; Bakr, Osman M

    2013-11-26

    As colloidal quantum dot (CQD) optoelectronic devices continue to improve, interest grows in the scaled-up and automated synthesis of high-quality materials. Unfortunately, all reports of record-performance CQD photovoltaics have been based on small-scale batch syntheses. Here we report a strategy for flow reactor synthesis of PbS CQDs and prove that it leads to solar cells having performance similar to that of comparable batch-synthesized nanoparticles. Specifically, we find that, only when using a dual-temperature-stage flow reactor synthesis reported herein, are the CQDs of sufficient quality to achieve high performance. We use a kinetic model to explain and optimize the nucleation and growth processes in the reactor. Compared to conventional single-stage flow-synthesized CQDs, we achieve superior quality nanocrystals via the optimized dual-stage reactor, with high photoluminescence quantum yield (50%) and narrow full width-half-maximum. The dual-stage flow reactor approach, with its versatility and rapid screening of multiple parameters, combined with its efficient materials utilization, offers an attractive path to automated synthesis of CQDs for photovoltaics and, more broadly, active optoelectronics. PMID:24131473

  15. Size control by rate control in colloidal PbSe quantum dot synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?apek, Richard Karel; Yanover, Dianna; Lifshitz, Efrat

    2015-03-01

    A recently demonstrated approach to control the size of colloidal nanoparticles, ``size control by rate control'', which was validated on the examples of colloidal CdSe- and CdS-quantum dot (CQD) synthesis, appears to be a general strategy for designing technically applicable CQD-syntheses. The ``size control by rate control'' concept allows full-yield syntheses of ensembles of CQDs with different sizes by tuning the solute formation rate. In this work, we extended this strategy to dialkylphosphine enhanced hot-injection synthesis of PbSe-CQDs. Furthermore, we provide new insight into the reaction mechanism of dialkylphosphine enhancement in TOPSe based CQD-syntheses.A recently demonstrated approach to control the size of colloidal nanoparticles, ``size control by rate control'', which was validated on the examples of colloidal CdSe- and CdS-quantum dot (CQD) synthesis, appears to be a general strategy for designing technically applicable CQD-syntheses. The ``size control by rate control'' concept allows full-yield syntheses of ensembles of CQDs with different sizes by tuning the solute formation rate. In this work, we extended this strategy to dialkylphosphine enhanced hot-injection synthesis of PbSe-CQDs. Furthermore, we provide new insight into the reaction mechanism of dialkylphosphine enhancement in TOPSe based CQD-syntheses. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional data about the reaction and growth kinetics, NMR-data and exemplary TEM images of PbSe-CQDs prepared by the procedure described in this publication. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00028a

  16. Synthesis and unique photoluminescence properties of nitrogen-rich quantum dots and their applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiuxian; Jin, Qingqing; Wu, Lizhu; Tung, ChenHo; Tang, Xinjing

    2014-11-10

    Nitrogen-rich quantum dots (N-dots) were serendipitously synthesized in methanol or aqueous solution at a reaction temperature as low as 50?C. These N-dots have a small size (less than 10?nm) and contain a high percentage of the element nitrogen, and are thus a new member of quantum-dot family. These N-dots show unique and distinct photoluminescence properties with an increasing percentage of nitrogen compared to the neighboring carbon dots. The photoluminescence behavior was adjusted from blue to green simply through variation of the reaction temperature. Furthermore, the detailed mechanism of N-dot formation was also proposed with the trapped intermediate. These N-dots have also shown promising applications as fluorescent ink and biocompatible staining in C.?elegans. PMID:25296956

  17. A general solid-state synthesis of chemically-doped fluorescent graphene quantum dots for bioimaging and optoelectronic applications.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chong-Bo; Zhu, Zhen-Tong; Wang, Hang-Xing; Huang, Xiao; Zhang, Xiao; Qi, Xiaoying; Zhang, Hao-Li; Zhu, Yihan; Deng, Xia; Peng, Yong; Han, Yu; Zhang, Hua

    2015-06-14

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have attracted increasing interest because of their excellent properties such as strong photoluminescence, excellent biocompatibility and low cost. Herein, we develop a general method for the synthesis of doped and undoped GQDs, which relies on direct carbonization of organic precursors in the solid state. PMID:25985855

  18. Synthesis of highly white-fluorescent Cu-Ga-S quantum dots for solid-state lighting devices.

    PubMed

    Jo, Dae-Yeon; Yang, Heesun

    2015-12-24

    The synthesis of highly efficient, white-emitting Cu-Ga-S quantum dots (QDs), which possess not only sufficiently wide spectral coverage of blue-to-red but an exceptional quantum yield as high as 75%, is demonstrated. These QDs are further applied as down-converters with a near-UV light-emitting diode (LED) for the fabrication of white QD-LEDs. PMID:26579551

  19. Synthesis of Luminescent Graphene Quantum Dots with High Quantum Yield and Their Toxicity Study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Dan; Chen, Yunping; Li, Na; Li, Wen; Wang, Zhenguo; Zhu, Jingli; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Bin; Xu, Shan

    2015-01-01

    High fluorescence quantum yield graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have showed up as a new generation for bioimaging. In this work, luminescent GQDs were prepared by an ameliorative photo-Fenton reaction and a subsequent hydrothermal process using graphene oxide sheets as the precursor. The as-prepared GQDs were nanomaterials with size ranging from 2.3 to 6.4 nm and emitted intense green luminescence in water. The fluorescence quantum yield was as high as 24.6% (excited at 340 nm) and the fluorescence was strongest at pH 7. Moreover, the influences of low-concentration (12.5, 25 μg/mL) GQDs on the morphology, viability, membrane integrity, internal cellular reactive oxygen species level and mortality of HeLa cells were relatively weak, and the in vitro imaging demonstrated GQDs were mainly in the cytoplasm region. More strikingly, zebrafish embryos were co-cultured with GQDs for in vivo imaging, and the results of heart rate test showed the intake of small amounts of GQDs brought little harm to the cardiovascular of zebrafish. GQDs with high quantum yield and strong photoluminescence show good biocompatibility, thus they show good promising for cell imaging, biolabeling and other biomedical applications. PMID:26709828

  20. Large Scale Synthesis and Light Emitting Fibers of Tailor-Made Graphene Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Park, Hun; Noh, Sung Hyun; Lee, Ji Hye; Lee, Won Jun; Jaung, Jae Yun; Lee, Seung Geol; Han, Tae Hee

    2015-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO), which is an oxidized form of graphene, has a mixed structure consisting of graphitic crystallites of sp(2) hybridized carbon and amorphous regions. In this work, we present a straightforward route for preparing graphene-based quantum dots (GQDs) by extraction of the crystallites from the amorphous matrix of the GO sheets. GQDs with controlled functionality are readily prepared by varying the reaction temperature, which results in precise tunability of their optical properties. Here, it was concluded that the tunable optical properties of GQDs are a result of the different fraction of chemical functionalities present. The synthesis approach presented in this paper provides an efficient strategy for achieving large-scale production and long-time optical stability of the GQDs, and the hybrid assembly of GQD and polymer has potential applications as photoluminescent fibers or films. PMID:26383257

  1. Large Scale Synthesis and Light Emitting Fibers of Tailor-Made Graphene Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hun; Hyun Noh, Sung; Hye Lee, Ji; Jun Lee, Won; Yun Jaung, Jae; Geol Lee, Seung; Hee Han, Tae

    2015-09-01

    Graphene oxide (GO), which is an oxidized form of graphene, has a mixed structure consisting of graphitic crystallites of sp2 hybridized carbon and amorphous regions. In this work, we present a straightforward route for preparing graphene-based quantum dots (GQDs) by extraction of the crystallites from the amorphous matrix of the GO sheets. GQDs with controlled functionality are readily prepared by varying the reaction temperature, which results in precise tunability of their optical properties. Here, it was concluded that the tunable optical properties of GQDs are a result of the different fraction of chemical functionalities present. The synthesis approach presented in this paper provides an efficient strategy for achieving large-scale production and long-time optical stability of the GQDs, and the hybrid assembly of GQD and polymer has potential applications as photoluminescent fibers or films.

  2. Large Scale Synthesis and Light Emitting Fibers of Tailor-Made Graphene Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hun; Hyun Noh, Sung; Hye Lee, Ji; Jun Lee, Won; Yun Jaung, Jae; Geol Lee, Seung; Hee Han, Tae

    2015-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO), which is an oxidized form of graphene, has a mixed structure consisting of graphitic crystallites of sp2 hybridized carbon and amorphous regions. In this work, we present a straightforward route for preparing graphene-based quantum dots (GQDs) by extraction of the crystallites from the amorphous matrix of the GO sheets. GQDs with controlled functionality are readily prepared by varying the reaction temperature, which results in precise tunability of their optical properties. Here, it was concluded that the tunable optical properties of GQDs are a result of the different fraction of chemical functionalities present. The synthesis approach presented in this paper provides an efficient strategy for achieving large-scale production and long-time optical stability of the GQDs, and the hybrid assembly of GQD and polymer has potential applications as photoluminescent fibers or films. PMID:26383257

  3. Quantum Dots: Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Vukmirovic, Nenad; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2009-11-10

    This review covers the description of the methodologies typically used for the calculation of the electronic structure of self-assembled and colloidal quantum dots. These are illustrated by the results of their application to a selected set of physical effects in quantum dots.

  4. One-step synthesis of biofunctional carbon quantum dots for bacterial labeling.

    PubMed

    Weng, Cheng-I; Chang, Huan-Tsung; Lin, Chia-Hua; Shen, Yu-Wei; Unnikrishnan, Binesh; Li, Yu-Jia; Huang, Chih-Ching

    2015-06-15

    In this study, we used a simple one-step dry heating method to synthesize mannose-modified fluorescent carbon quantum dots (Man-CQDs) from solid ammonium citrate and mannose, and successfully applied for labeling Escherichia coli. The highly soluble Man-CQDs had an average particle diameter of 3.11.2 nm and exhibited a quantum yield of 9.8% at excitation and emission wavelengths of 365 and 450 nm, respectively. The fluorescent Man-CQDs could selectively bind to the FimH lectin unit in the flagella of the wild-type 1 E. coli K12 strain. We optimized the labeling efficiency of the Man-CQDs by controlling the ratio of ammonium citrate to mannose during their synthesis. The specific binding of the mannose units to E. coli allowed quantitative detection of the bacteria at levels down to 450 colony forming units mL(-1) in lab samples, and facilitate the application of the Man-CQDs for bacterial analyses of real samples (tap water, apple juice, human urine). The synthesis of our Man-CQDs, their labeling, and their use in the detection of bacteria were all simple, inexpensive and efficient processes. PMID:25557286

  5. Biomimetic, Mild Chemical Synthesis of CdTe-GSH Quantum Dots with Improved Biocompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Donoso, José M.; Monrás, Juan P.; Bravo, Denisse; Aguirre, Adam; Quest, Andrew F.; Osorio-Román, Igor O.; Aroca, Ricardo F.; Chasteen, Thomas G.; Vásquez, Claudio C.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple applications of nanotechnology, especially those involving highly fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs) or quantum dots (QDs) have stimulated the research to develop simple, rapid and environmentally friendly protocols for synthesizing NPs exhibiting novel properties and increased biocompatibility. In this study, a simple protocol for the chemical synthesis of glutathione (GSH)-capped CdTe QDs (CdTe-GSH) resembling conditions found in biological systems is described. Using only CdCl2, K2TeO3 and GSH, highly fluorescent QDs were obtained under pH, temperature, buffer and oxygen conditions that allow microorganisms growth. These CdTe-GSH NPs displayed similar size, chemical composition, absorbance and fluorescence spectra and quantum yields as QDs synthesized using more complicated and expensive methods. CdTe QDs were not freely incorporated into eukaryotic cells thus favoring their biocompatibility and potential applications in biomedicine. In addition, NPs entry was facilitated by lipofectamine, resulting in intracellular fluorescence and a slight increase in cell death by necrosis. Toxicity of the as prepared CdTe QDs was lower than that observed with QDs produced by other chemical methods, probably as consequence of decreased levels of Cd+2 and higher amounts of GSH. We present here the simplest, fast and economical method for CdTe QDs synthesis described to date. Also, this biomimetic protocol favors NPs biocompatibility and helps to establish the basis for the development of new, “greener” methods to synthesize cadmium-containing QDs. PMID:22292028

  6. New quantum dot sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gun'ko, Y. K.; Moloney, M. M.; Gallagher, S.; Govan, J.; Hanley, C.

    2010-04-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are fluorescent semiconductor (e.g. II-VI) nanocrystals, which have a strong characteristic spectral emission. This emission is tunable to a desired energy by selecting variable particle size, size distribution and composition of the nanocrystals. QDs have recently attracted enormous interest due to their unique photophysical properties and range of potential applications in photonics and biochemistry. The main aim of our work is develop new chiral quantum dots (QDs) and establish fundamental principles influencing their structure, properties and biosensing behaviour. Here we present the synthesis and characterisation of chiral CdSe semiconductor nanoparticles and their utilisation as new chiral biosensors. Penicillamine stabilised CdSe nanoparticles have shown both very strong and very broad luminescence spectra. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy studies have revealed that the D- and Lpenicillamine stabilised CdSe QDs demonstrate circular dichroism and possess almost identical mirror images of CD signals. Studies of photoluminescence and CD spectra have shown that there is a clear relationship between defect emission and CD activity. We have also demonstrated that these new QDs can serve as fluorescent nanosensors for various chiral biomolecules including nucleic acids. These novel nanosensors can be potentially utilized for detection of various chiral biological and chemical species with the broad range of potential applications.

  7. Low-cost and gram-scale synthesis of water-soluble Cu-In-S/ZnS core/shell quantum dots in an electric pressure cooker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanyan; Li, Shenjie; Huang, Lijian; Pan, Daocheng

    2014-01-01

    We report an electric pressure cooker for large-scale synthesis of water-soluble Cu-In-S/ZnS core/shell quantum dots. Low-cost thioglycolic acid and sodium citrate were used as the dual stabilizers. ~3 grams of quantum dots with a tunable emission from 545 to 610 nm and quantum yield up to 40% were obtained in a batch.We report an electric pressure cooker for large-scale synthesis of water-soluble Cu-In-S/ZnS core/shell quantum dots. Low-cost thioglycolic acid and sodium citrate were used as the dual stabilizers. ~3 grams of quantum dots with a tunable emission from 545 to 610 nm and quantum yield up to 40% were obtained in a batch. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, PL decay curves, PL lifetimes, EDS spectra, chemical composition, cost analysis. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05014a

  8. Facile synthesis and photoluminescence characteristics of blue-emitting nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jian; Zhang, Xiaoping; Pang, Aimin; Yang, Jun

    2016-04-22

    A one-step hydrothermal method for synthesizing nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) from organic carbon sources is presented in this paper. The high-quality N-GQDs can be obtained via tuning the degree of dehydration/carbonization of citric acid and doping of nitrogen atoms into the graphene lattice. The micromorphology, chemical structure, composition and photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of the N-GQDs were characterized systematically. The size of the obtained N-GQDs is about 5-10 nm with typical topographic heights of 0.8-2.5 nm. There is intense blue emission and excitation-independent PL behavior when the N-GQDs are in aqueous solution. The most remarkable innovation is that the fluorescence quantum yield (FL QY) of our N-GQDs is up to 75.2%, which is much higher than that of most reported GQDs (less than 25%). Thus, it is initially believed that synthesis parameters, hydrothermal process and nitrogen doping may greatly influence the surface state and bandgap of the GQDs, which are important in determining the PL characteristics of the N-GQDs. PMID:26964866

  9. Two-step synthesis of luminescent MoS(2)-ZnS hybrid quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Clark, Rhiannon M; Carey, Benjamin J; Daeneke, Torben; Atkin, Paul; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Latham, Kay; Cole, Ivan S; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh

    2015-10-28

    A surfactant assisted technique has been used to promote the exfoliation of molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) in a water-ethanol mixture, to avoid the use of harsh organic solvents, whilst still producing sufficient concentration of MoS2 in suspension. The exfoliated flakes are converted into MoS2 quantum dots (QDs), through a hydrothermal procedure. Alternatively, when the flakes are processed with precursors for zinc sulphide (ZnS) synthesis, a simultaneous break-down and composite growth is achieved. The products are separated by centrifugation, into large ZnS spheres (200-300 nm) and small MoS2-ZnS hybrid QD materials (<100 nm), of which, the latter show favorable optical properties. Two concurrent photoluminescent (PL) peaks are seen at 380 and 450 nm, which are assigned to MoS2 and ZnS components of QDs, respectively. The PL emission from MoS2-ZnS QDs is of high energy and is more intense than the bare MoS2 flakes or QDs, with a quantum yield as high as 1.96%. The emission wavelength is independent from the excitation wavelength and does not change over time. Due to such properties, the developed hybrid QDs are potentially suitable for imaging and sensing applications. PMID:26399979

  10. Facile synthesis and photoluminescence characteristics of blue-emitting nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jian; Zhang, Xiaoping; Pang, Aimin; Yang, Jun

    2016-04-01

    A one-step hydrothermal method for synthesizing nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) from organic carbon sources is presented in this paper. The high-quality N-GQDs can be obtained via tuning the degree of dehydration/carbonization of citric acid and doping of nitrogen atoms into the graphene lattice. The micromorphology, chemical structure, composition and photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of the N-GQDs were characterized systematically. The size of the obtained N-GQDs is about 5–10 nm with typical topographic heights of 0.8–2.5 nm. There is intense blue emission and excitation-independent PL behavior when the N-GQDs are in aqueous solution. The most remarkable innovation is that the fluorescence quantum yield (FL QY) of our N-GQDs is up to 75.2%, which is much higher than that of most reported GQDs (less than 25%). Thus, it is initially believed that synthesis parameters, hydrothermal process and nitrogen doping may greatly influence the surface state and bandgap of the GQDs, which are important in determining the PL characteristics of the N-GQDs.

  11. Synthesis of Zn-In-S Quantum Dots with Tunable Composition and Optical Properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianliang; Damasco, Jossana; Shao, Wei; Ke, Yujie; Swihart, Mark T

    2016-03-01

    II-III-VI semiconductors are of interest due to their chemical stability and composition-tunable optical properties. Here, we report a methodology for the synthesis of monodisperse zinc-indium-sulfide (ZIS) alloy quantum dots (QDs, mean diameter from ∼2 to 3.5 nm) with an In content substantially below that of the stoichiometric ZnIn2 S4 compound. The effects of indium incorporation on the size, lattice constant, and optical properties of ZIS QDs are elucidated. In contrast to previous reports, we employ sulfur dissolved in oleic acid as the sulfur donor rather than thioacetamide (TAA). The size of the ZIS QDs and their crystal lattice constant increased with increasing In incorporation, but they maintained the cubic sphalerite phase of ZnS, rather than the hexagonal phase typical of ZnIn2 S4 . The QDs' absorbance onset at UV wavelengths red-shifts with increasing In content and the accompanying increase in NC size. The ZIS NCs and related materials, whose synthesis is enabled by the approach presented here, provide new opportunities to apply II-III-VI semiconductors in solution-processed UV optoelectronics. PMID:26541645

  12. Low-cost and gram-scale synthesis of water-soluble Cu-In-S/ZnS core/shell quantum dots in an electric pressure cooker.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanyan; Li, Shenjie; Huang, Lijian; Pan, Daocheng

    2014-01-01

    We report an electric pressure cooker for large-scale synthesis of water-soluble Cu-In-S/ZnS core/shell quantum dots. Low-cost thioglycolic acid and sodium citrate were used as the dual stabilizers. ∼3 grams of quantum dots with a tunable emission from 545 to 610 nm and quantum yield up to 40% were obtained in a batch. PMID:24337019

  13. 6-Mercaptohexanoic acid assisted synthesis of high quality InP quantum dots for optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Waleed E.; Chang, Y. C.; Al-Ghamdi, A. A.; Al-Marzouki, F.; Bronstein, Lyudmila M.

    2013-04-01

    Indium phosphide semiconductor quantum dots are of significant heed as their applications encompass a spacious concatenation in LEDs and solar cells technologies. For improving their serviceable prominence, there is a real demand for a fashion that furnishes prompt and large mass production of mightily monodispersed nanoparticles. This study conveys an efficacious and fast recipe of generating substantially monodispersed InP quantum dots via water based route technique using a novel surfactant. Herein, InP QDs have been prepared using 6-mercaptohexanoic acid for achieving an effective surface passivation of monodispersed InP QDs with highly luminescence at temperature 50 C. The as prepared quantum dots were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, luminescence spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The XRD depicted that the InP quantum dots have a cubic zinc blend structure. TEM image revealed that the prepared quantum dots are monodispersed and their average particle size of about 4 nm. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed the existence of organic ligand as a shell around InP nanoparticles. Time resolved spectra depicted that the capping agent passivated the InP QDs surface and enhanced the luminescence emission.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of intrinsically radiolabeled quantum dots for bimodal detection

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Minghao; Hoffman, David; Sundaresan, Gobalakrishnan; Yang, Likun; Lamichhane, Narottam; Zweit, Jamal

    2012-01-01

    A novel approach was developed to synthesize radioactive quantum dots (r-QDs) thereby enabling both optical and radionuclide signals to be detected from the same intrinsic bimodal probe. This proof-of-concept is exemplified by the incorporation of the radionuclide 109Cadmium into the core/shell of the nanoparticle. Green and near infrared (NIR) emission intrinsic r-QDs were synthesized and characterized. Zwitterionic and Poly-polyethlene glycol (PEGylated) ligands were synthesized and used to coat r-QDs. Zwitterionic NIR r-QDs (quantum yield = 11%) and PEGylated NIR r-QDs (quantum yield = 14%) with an average size of 13.8 nm and 16.8 nm were obtained respectively. The biodistribution of NIR zwitterionic and PEGylated r-QDs in nude mice was investigated and zwitterionic r-QDs showed longer blood circulation (t1/2 = 21.41.1 hrs) than their PEGylated counterparts (t1/2 = 6.40.5 min). Both zwitterionic and PEGylated r-QDs exhibited progressive accumulation in the liver and spleen, but the magnitude of the accumulation (%ID/g) was about 3-6 fold higher with the PEGylated r-QDs at all the time points. The results demonstrated the feasibility of r-QDs synthesis in quantitative yield and retention of fluorescence following incorporation of radioactivity into the core/shell of the nanoparticle. The gamma signal from the same fluorescent elemental material enabled quantitative and robust pharmacokinetic measurements and how these changed depended on the type of coating ligands used. This strategy for intrinsically radio-labeling the QDs is currently being implemented in our laboratory for the incorporation of other radiometals. PMID:23133807

  15. Extracellular Synthesis of Luminescent CdS Quantum Dots Using Plant Cell Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovaya, Mariya N.; Burlaka, Olga M.; Naumenko, Antonina P.; Blume, Yaroslav B.; Yemets, Alla I.

    2016-02-01

    The present study describes a novel method for preparation of water-soluble CdS quantum dots, using bright yellow-2 (BY-2) cell suspension culture. Acting as a stabilizing and capping agent, the suspension cell culture mediates the formation of CdS nanoparticles. These semiconductor nanoparticles were determined by means of an UV-visible spectrophotometer, photoluminescence, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and XRD. Followed by the electron diffraction analysis of a selected area, transmission electron microscopy indicated the formation of spherical, crystalline CdS ranging in diameter from 3 to 7 nm and showed wurtzite CdS quantum dots. In the present work, the toxic effect of synthesized CdS quantum dots on Nicotiana tabacum protoplasts as a very sensitive model was under study. The results of this research revealed that biologically synthesized CdS nanoparticles in low concentrations did not induce any toxic effects.

  16. Extracellular Synthesis of Luminescent CdS Quantum Dots Using Plant Cell Culture.

    PubMed

    Borovaya, Mariya N; Burlaka, Olga M; Naumenko, Antonina P; Blume, Yaroslav B; Yemets, Alla I

    2016-12-01

    The present study describes a novel method for preparation of water-soluble CdS quantum dots, using bright yellow-2 (BY-2) cell suspension culture. Acting as a stabilizing and capping agent, the suspension cell culture mediates the formation of CdS nanoparticles. These semiconductor nanoparticles were determined by means of an UV-visible spectrophotometer, photoluminescence, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and XRD. Followed by the electron diffraction analysis of a selected area, transmission electron microscopy indicated the formation of spherical, crystalline CdS ranging in diameter from 3 to 7 nm and showed wurtzite CdS quantum dots. In the present work, the toxic effect of synthesized CdS quantum dots on Nicotiana tabacum protoplasts as a very sensitive model was under study. The results of this research revealed that biologically synthesized CdS nanoparticles in low concentrations did not induce any toxic effects. PMID:26909780

  17. Two-step synthesis of luminescent MoS2-ZnS hybrid quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Rhiannon M.; Carey, Benjamin J.; Daeneke, Torben; Atkin, Paul; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Latham, Kay; Cole, Ivan S.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh

    2015-10-01

    A surfactant assisted technique has been used to promote the exfoliation of molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) in a water-ethanol mixture, to avoid the use of harsh organic solvents, whilst still producing sufficient concentration of MoS2 in suspension. The exfoliated flakes are converted into MoS2 quantum dots (QDs), through a hydrothermal procedure. Alternatively, when the flakes are processed with precursors for zinc sulphide (ZnS) synthesis, a simultaneous break-down and composite growth is achieved. The products are separated by centrifugation, into large ZnS spheres (200-300 nm) and small MoS2-ZnS hybrid QD materials (<100 nm), of which, the latter show favorable optical properties. Two concurrent photoluminescent (PL) peaks are seen at 380 and 450 nm, which are assigned to MoS2 and ZnS components of QDs, respectively. The PL emission from MoS2-ZnS QDs is of high energy and is more intense than the bare MoS2 flakes or QDs, with a quantum yield as high as 1.96%. The emission wavelength is independent from the excitation wavelength and does not change over time. Due to such properties, the developed hybrid QDs are potentially suitable for imaging and sensing applications.A surfactant assisted technique has been used to promote the exfoliation of molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) in a water-ethanol mixture, to avoid the use of harsh organic solvents, whilst still producing sufficient concentration of MoS2 in suspension. The exfoliated flakes are converted into MoS2 quantum dots (QDs), through a hydrothermal procedure. Alternatively, when the flakes are processed with precursors for zinc sulphide (ZnS) synthesis, a simultaneous break-down and composite growth is achieved. The products are separated by centrifugation, into large ZnS spheres (200-300 nm) and small MoS2-ZnS hybrid QD materials (<100 nm), of which, the latter show favorable optical properties. Two concurrent photoluminescent (PL) peaks are seen at 380 and 450 nm, which are assigned to MoS2 and ZnS components of QDs, respectively. The PL emission from MoS2-ZnS QDs is of high energy and is more intense than the bare MoS2 flakes or QDs, with a quantum yield as high as 1.96%. The emission wavelength is independent from the excitation wavelength and does not change over time. Due to such properties, the developed hybrid QDs are potentially suitable for imaging and sensing applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional XPS graphs, AFM image, PL spectra, SEM image, TEM images, EDX data, XRD patterns and quantum yield calculations included. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04790k

  18. Nitrogen and phosphorus co-doped graphene quantum dots: synthesis from adenosine triphosphate, optical properties, and cellular imaging.

    PubMed

    Ananthanarayanan, Arundithi; Wang, Yue; Routh, Parimal; Sk, Mahasin Alam; Than, Aung; Lin, Ming; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Jie; Sun, Handong; Chen, Peng

    2015-05-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are emerging zero-dimensional materials promising a wide spectrum of applications, particularly, as superior fluorescent reporters for bio-imaging and optical sensing. Heteroatom doping can endow GQDs with new or improved photoluminescence properties. Here, we demonstrate a simple strategy for the synthesis of nitrogen and phosphorus co-doped GQDs from a single biomolecule precursor (adenosine triphosphate - ATP). Such ATP-GQDs exhibit high fluorescence quantum yield, strong two-photon upconversion, small molecular weight, high photostability, and good biocompatibility. Furthermore, transferrin conjugated ATP-GQDs have been used for imaging and real-time tracking of transferrin receptors in live cells. PMID:25875153

  19. Redefining giant quantum dot functionality through synthesis and integration: from multifunctionality to directed photoluminescence (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.

    2015-09-01

    Thick-shell or "giant" core/shell nanocrystal quantum dots (gQDs) are efficient and stable emitters. Their characteristic properties of non-blinking and non-photobleaching emission, as well as suppressed non-radiative Auger recombination and minimal self-reabsorption (due to a large effective Stokes shift) make them relevant to both single-emitter and many-emitter applications, e.g., live-cell single-molecule tracking in the biosciences and down-conversion phosphors for solid-state lighting. Here, I will discuss how gQDs are also ideal "building blocks" for achieving additive functionalities through synthesis and modified emission properties through integration with fabricated photonic structures. gQDs have been synthetically incorporated into the interior of a gold shell, resulting in "plasmonic gQDs" that exhibit efficient photoluminescence combined with efficient photothermal transduction and thermometry. Furthermore, through direct patterning of gQDs into all-dielectric antennas, we show an approach for realizing emitter-antenna couples (toward controlling the motion of photons) that is both deterministic and reproducible.

  20. Synthesis and biological assay of GSH functionalized fluorescent quantum dots for staining Hydra vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Tortiglione, Claudia; Quarta, Alessandra; Tino, Angela; Manna, Liberato; Cingolani, Roberto; Pellegrino, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have been used extensively as fluorescent markers in several studies on living cells. Here, we report the synthesis of conjugates based on glutathione (GSH) and QDs (GSH-QDs) and we prove how these functionalized fluorescent probes can be used for staining a freshwater invertebrate called Hydra vulgaris. GSH is known to promote Hydra feeding response by inducing mouth opening. We demonstrate that GSH-QDs as well are able to elicit biological activity in such an animal, which results in the fluorescent staining of Hydra. GSH-QDs, once they reach the gastric region, are internalized by endodermal cells. The efficiency of GSH-QD internalization increases significantly when nanoparticles are coadministrated with free GSH. We also compared the behavior of bare QDs to that of GSH-QDs both in the presence and in the absence of free GSH. The conclusions from these series of experiments point to the presence of GSH binding proteins in the endodermal cell layer and uncover a novel role played by glutathione in this organism. PMID:17441682

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Quantum Dots: A Case Study Using PbS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Yi; Li, Yue Ru; Zhao, Yu; Akins, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    A research project for senior undergraduates of chemistry has been developed to introduce syntheses of a series of monodispersed semiconductor PbS quantum dots (QDs) and their characterization methodologies. In this paper, we report the preparation of monodispersed semiconductor PbS QDs with sizes smaller than the exciton Bohr radius using a

  2. Synthesis of silane surface modified ZnO quantum dots with ultrastable, strong and tunable luminescence.

    PubMed

    Shi, Han-Qiao; Li, Wan-Nan; Sun, Li-Wei; Liu, Yu; Xiao, Hong-Mei; Fu, Shao-Yun

    2011-11-21

    Surface modified ZnO quantum dots (QDs) with ultrastable, strong and tunable luminescence have been successfully prepared via silanization during the growth process by (3-(2,3-epoxypropoxy)propyl)trimethoxysilane. The as-prepared ZnO QDs are demonstrated to be promising for anti-counterfeit applications in expensive high-end liquors, etc. PMID:21975866

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Quantum Dots: A Case Study Using PbS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Yi; Li, Yue Ru; Zhao, Yu; Akins, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    A research project for senior undergraduates of chemistry has been developed to introduce syntheses of a series of monodispersed semiconductor PbS quantum dots (QDs) and their characterization methodologies. In this paper, we report the preparation of monodispersed semiconductor PbS QDs with sizes smaller than the exciton Bohr radius using a…

  4. Synthesis and optical properties of cadmium selenide quantum dots for white light-emitting diode application

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xianmei; Wang, Yilin; Gule, Teri; Luo, Qiang; Zhou, Liya; Gong, Fuzhong

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Stable CdSe QDs were synthesized by the one-step and two-level process respectively. ► The fabricated white LEDs show good white balance. ► CdSe QDs present well green to yellow band luminescence. ► CdSe QDs displayed a broad excitation band. - Abstract: Yellow light-emitting cadmium selenide quantum dots were synthesized using one-step and two-step methods in an aqueous medium. The structural luminescent properties of these quantum dots were investigated. The obtained cadmium selenide quantum dots displayed a broad excitation band suitable for blue or near-ultraviolet light-emitting diode applications. White light-emitting diodes were fabricated by coating the cadmium selenide samples onto a 460 nm-emitting indium gallium nitrite chip. Both samples exhibited good white balance. Under a 20 mA working current, the white light-emitting diode fabricated via the one-step and two-step methods showed Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage coordinates at (0.27, 0.23) and (0.27, 0.33), respectively, and a color rendering index equal to 41 and 37, respectively. The one-step approach was simpler, greener, and more effective than the two-step approach. The one-step approach can be enhanced by combining cadmium selenide quantum dots with proper phosphors.

  5. Quantum dots-from synthesis to applications in biomedicine and life sciences.

    PubMed

    Drummen, Gregor P C

    2010-01-01

    Imagine devices or particles so small that they are invisible to the naked eye. Imagine that such entities could be used to patrol our bodies and autonomously augment endogenous defense and repair mechanisms. Imagine the defeat of illness at a fraction of the current costs. Bionanotechnology is the field of science that deals with just that: the development of imaging, tracking, targeting, sensing, diagnostic, and eventually therapeutic capabilities based on particles in the nanometer range, i.e., "nanoparticles". Within the extensive group of nanoparticles, semiconducting quantum dots play a central and prominent role. Quantum dots excel at a myriad of physical properties, most notably their fluorescent properties, such as high quantum yield, photo-stability, broad absorption spectra, and their remarkable size-dependent emission-tunability. PMID:20162007

  6. CdTe and CdSe quantum dots: synthesis, characterizations and applications in agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieu Thuy Ung, Thi; Tran, Thi Kim Chi; Nga Pham, Thu; Nghia Nguyen, Duc; Khang Dinh, Duy; Liem Nguyen, Quang

    2012-12-01

    This paper highlights the results of the whole work including the synthesis of highly luminescent quantum dots (QDs), characterizations and testing applications of them in different kinds of sensors. Concretely, it presents: (i) the successful synthesis of colloidal CdTe and CdSe QDs, their core/shell structures with single- and/or double-shell made by CdS, ZnS or ZnSe/ZnS; (ii) morphology, structural and optical characterizations of the synthesized QDs; and (iii) testing examples of QDs as the fluorescence labels for agricultural-bio-medical objects (for tracing residual pesticide in agricultural products, residual clenbuterol in meat/milk and for detection of H5N1 avian influenza virus in breeding farms). Overall, the results show that the synthesized QDs have very good crystallinity, spherical shape and strongly emit at the desired wavelengths between ˜500 and 700 nm with the luminescence quantum yield (LQY) of 30-85%. These synthesized QDs were used in fabrication of the three testing fluorescence QD-based sensors for the detection of residual pesticides, clenbuterol and H5N1 avian influenza virus. The specific detection of parathion methyl (PM) pesticide at a content as low as 0.05 ppm has been realized with the biosensors made from CdTe/CdS and CdSe/ZnSe/ZnS QDs and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzymes. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based nanosensors using CdTe/CdS QDs conjugated with 2-amino-8-naphthol-6-sulfonic acid were fabricated that enable detection of diazotized clenbuterol at a content as low as 10 pg ml-1. For detection of H5N1 avian influenza virus, fluorescence biosensors using CdTe/CdS QDs bound on the surface of chromatophores extracted and purified from bacteria Rhodospirillum rubrum were prepared and characterized. The specific detection of H5N1 avian influenza virus in the range of 3-50 ng μl-1 with a detection limit of 3 ng μL-1 has been performed based on the antibody-antigen recognition.

  7. Nitrogen and phosphorus co-doped graphene quantum dots: synthesis from adenosine triphosphate, optical properties, and cellular imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananthanarayanan, Arundithi; Wang, Yue; Routh, Parimal; Sk, Mahasin Alam; Than, Aung; Lin, Ming; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Jie; Sun, Handong; Chen, Peng

    2015-04-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are emerging zero-dimensional materials promising a wide spectrum of applications, particularly, as superior fluorescent reporters for bio-imaging and optical sensing. Heteroatom doping can endow GQDs with new or improved photoluminescence properties. Here, we demonstrate a simple strategy for the synthesis of nitrogen and phosphorus co-doped GQDs from a single biomolecule precursor (adenosine triphosphate - ATP). Such ATP-GQDs exhibit high fluorescence quantum yield, strong two-photon upconversion, small molecular weight, high photostability, and good biocompatibility. Furthermore, transferrin conjugated ATP-GQDs have been used for imaging and real-time tracking of transferrin receptors in live cells.Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are emerging zero-dimensional materials promising a wide spectrum of applications, particularly, as superior fluorescent reporters for bio-imaging and optical sensing. Heteroatom doping can endow GQDs with new or improved photoluminescence properties. Here, we demonstrate a simple strategy for the synthesis of nitrogen and phosphorus co-doped GQDs from a single biomolecule precursor (adenosine triphosphate - ATP). Such ATP-GQDs exhibit high fluorescence quantum yield, strong two-photon upconversion, small molecular weight, high photostability, and good biocompatibility. Furthermore, transferrin conjugated ATP-GQDs have been used for imaging and real-time tracking of transferrin receptors in live cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Supplementary figures related to characterization, computational studies and protein conjugation. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01519g

  8. Quantum dot laser

    SciTech Connect

    Oraevsky, Anatolii N; Velichansky, Vladimir L; Scully, M O

    1998-03-31

    An analysis is made of the self-excitation condition for a laser in which the active medium is a 'quantum dot' and a whispering-gallery mode of a dielectric microsphere acts as the cavity. It is pointed out that the interaction of a quantum dot with an ensemble of degenerate or near-degenerate modes increases the laser excitation coefficient. A calculation is made of the dependence of the effective volume of a whispering-gallery mode on its index. It is shown that the field maximum of an E-type whispering-gallery mode lies on the surface of a sphere, whereas for an H-type mode this maximum is shifted along the radius into the sphere. Calculations suggest that it should be possible to construct a microlaser even on the basis of a single quantum dot. (lasers)

  9. Synthesis of magnetofluorescence Gd-doped CuInS2/ZnS quantum dots with enhanced longitudinal relaxivity.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jia-Yaw; Chen, Guan-Rong; Li, Jyun-Dong

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we describe the rapid microwave-assisted synthesis of Gd(3+)-doped CuInS2 (Gd:CIS) quaternary quantum dots (q-dots), which integrate the functions of optical fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging. Through passivation of ZnS shells around Gd:CIS cores, high-quality and robust photostable Gd:CIS/ZnS core/shell q-dots with enhanced quantum yields were obtained. The intensity and peak-to-peak linewidth of the electron spin resonance (EPR) signal were found to vary depending on the Gd(3+) concentration of Gd:CIS/ZnS. Benefiting from the incorporation of paramagnetic Gd(3+) ions, the formed q-dots exhibited well-resolved and strong signals of electron paramagnetic resonance and provided significant contrast enhancement in T1-weighted images owing to the remarkably high longitudinal relaxivity (r1 = 55.90 mM(-1) s(-1)) and low r2/r1 ratio (1.42), which are significantly higher than those of commercially available T1 contrast agents. We expect that this facile one-pot synthetic strategy can be extended to the preparation of other Cu-based sulfide quaternary nanomaterials. PMID:26887889

  10. Emulsion Synthesis of Size-Tunable CH3NH3PbBr3 Quantum Dots: An Alternative Route toward Efficient Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hailong; Zhao, Fangchao; Liu, Lige; Zhang, Feng; Wu, Xian-Gang; Shi, Lijie; Zou, Bingsuo; Pei, Qibing; Zhong, Haizheng

    2015-12-30

    We report a facile nonaqueous emulsion synthesis of colloidal halide perovskite quantum dots by controlled addition of a demulsifier into an emulsion of precursors. The size of resulting CH3NH3PbBr3 quantum dots can be tuned from 2 to 8 nm by varying the amount of demulsifier. Moreover, this emulsion synthesis also allows the purification of these quantum dots by precipitation from the colloidal solution and obtains solid-state powder which can be redissolved for thin film coating and device fabrication. The photoluminescence quantum yields of the quantum dots is generally in the range of 80-92%, and can be well-preserved after purification (?80%). Green light-emitting diodes fabricated comprising a spin-cast layer of the colloidal CH3NH3PbBr3 quantum dots exhibited maximum current efficiency of 4.5 cd/A, power efficiency of 3.5 lm/W, and external quantum efficiency of 1.1%. This provides an alternative route toward high efficient solution-processed perovskite-based light-emitting diodes. In addition, the emulsion synthesis is versatile and can be extended for the fabrication of inorganic halide perovskite colloidal CsPbBr3 nanocrystals. PMID:26652661

  11. Aqueous Synthesis of PEGylated Quantum Dots with Increased Colloidal Stability and Reduced Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Mehriban; Jonczyk, Rebecca; Walter, Johanna-Gabriela; Springer, Sergej; Lavrentieva, Antonina; Stahl, Frank; Green, Mark; Scheper, Thomas

    2016-02-17

    Ligands used on the surface of colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) have a significant impact on physiochemical properties of NPs and their interaction in biological environments. In this study, we report a one-pot aqueous synthesis of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA)-functionalized CdTe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots (Qdots) in the presence of thiol-terminated methoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) molecules as a surface coordinating ligand. The resulting mPEG-Qdots were characterized by using ζ potential, FTIR, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, and microscale thermophoresis (MST) studies. We investigated the effect of mPEG molecules and their grafting density on the Qdots photophysical properties, colloidal stability, protein binding affinity, and in vitro cellular toxicity. Moreover, cellular binding features of the resulting Qdots were examined by using three-dimensional (3D) tumor-like spheroids, and the results were discussed in detail. Promisingly, mPEG ligands were found to increase colloidal stability of Qdots, reduce adsorption of proteins to the Qdot surface, and mitigate Qdot-induced side effects to a great extent. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy studies revealed that PEGylated Qdots exhibited distinctive cellular interactions with respect to their mPEG grafting density. As a result, mPEG molecules demonstrated a minimal effect on the ZnS shell deposition and the Qdot fluorescence efficiency at a low mPEG density, whereas they showed pronounced effect on Qdot colloidal stability, protein binding affinity, cytotoxicity, and nonspecific binding at a higher mPEG grafting amount. PMID:26567697

  12. Synthesis of Porphyrin-CdSe Quantum Dot Assemblies: Controlling Ligand Binding by Substituent Effects.

    PubMed

    Chambrier, Isabelle; Banerjee, Chiranjib; Remiro-Buenamaana, Sonia; Chao, Yimin; Cammidge, Andrew N; Bochmann, Manfred

    2015-08-01

    Cadmium selenide quantum dots of 2.2-2.3 nm diameter were prepared by phosphorus-free methods using oleic acid as stabilizing surface ligand. Ligand exchange monitored quantitatively by (1)H NMR spectroscopy gave an estimate of 30-38 monodentate ligands per nanocrystal, with a ligand density of 1.8-2.3 nm(-2). The extent of ligand exchange with macrocycles carrying one or more functional groups was investigated, with the aim of producing nanocrystal-macrocycle conjugates with a limited number of coligands. Metal-free porphyrins are able to sequester the Cd(2+) ions from the Cd(oleate)2 outer layer of the nanocrystals. Zinc porphyrin complexes carrying one carboxylate function displace oleate efficiently to give porphyrin/CdSe composites with porphyrins stacked upright on the crystal surface. Porphyrins with four potential ligating sites are able to bind to the crystal surface only if the donors are at the end of sufficiently long and flexible tethers. High-dilution methods allowed the synthesis and isolation of well-defined composites of composition [CdSe{porphyrin}2], where porphyrin = 5,10,15,20-tetrakis{3-(carboxy-n-alkyloxy)phenyl}porphyrinato zinc (n = 5 or 10) and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis{3-(11-undecenyloxythiol)phenyl}porphyrinato zinc. Comparison of the composition data obtained by (1)H NMR spectroscopy with luminescence quenching behavior suggests a dependence of quenching efficiency on the tether length. Luminescence quenching was also observed for porphyrins that, according to (1)H NMR results, do not undergo surface ligand exchange. PMID:26173067

  13. Synthesis of Non-blinking Semiconductor Quantum Dots Emitting in the Near-Infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, Allison M.; Mangum, Benjamin D.; Piryatinski, Andrei; Park, Young-Shin; Htoon, Han; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.

    2012-06-21

    Our previous work demonstrates that Quasi-Type II CdSe/CdS core-shell quantum dots with thick shells (3-5 nm) exhibit unique photophysical characteristics, including improved chemical robustness over typical thin-shelled core/shell systems and the elimination of blinking through suppression of nonradiative Auger recombination. Here we describe a new thick-shelled heterostructure, InP/CdS, which exhibits a Type II bandgap alignment producing near-infrared (NIR) emission. Samples with a range of shell thicknesses were synthesized, enabling shell-thickness-dependent study of the absorbance and emission spectra, fluorescence lifetimes, and quantum yields. InP/CdS/ZnS core/shell/shell structures were also synthesized to reduce cadmium exposure for applications in the biological environment. Single particle spectroscopy indicates reduced blinking and improved photostability with increasing shell thickness, resulting in thick-shelled dots that are appropriate for single-particle tracking measurements with NIR emission.

  14. Quantum Dot Light Emitting Diode

    SciTech Connect

    Keith Kahen

    2008-07-31

    The project objective is to create low cost coatable inorganic light emitting diodes, composed of quantum dot emitters and inorganic nanoparticles, which have the potential for efficiencies equivalent to that of LEDs and OLEDs and lifetime, brightness, and environmental stability between that of LEDs and OLEDs. At the end of the project the Recipient shall gain an understanding of the device physics and properties of Quantum-Dot LEDs (QD-LEDs), have reliable and accurate nanocrystal synthesis routines, and have formed green-yellow emitting QD-LEDs with a device efficiency greater than 3 lumens/W, a brightness greater than 400 cd/m2, and a device operational lifetime of more than 1000 hours. Thus the aim of the project is to break the current cost-efficiency paradigm by creating novel low cost inorganic LEDs composed of inorganic nanoparticles.

  15. Quantum Dot Light Emitting Diode

    SciTech Connect

    Kahen, Keith

    2008-07-31

    The project objective is to create low cost coatable inorganic light emitting diodes, composed of quantum dot emitters and inorganic nanoparticles, which have the potential for efficiencies equivalent to that of LEDs and OLEDs and lifetime, brightness, and environmental stability between that of LEDs and OLEDs. At the end of the project the Recipient shall gain an understanding of the device physics and properties of Quantum-Dot LEDs (QD-LEDs), have reliable and accurate nanocrystal synthesis routines, and have formed green-yellow emitting QD-LEDs with a device efficiency greater than 3 lumens/W, a brightness greater than 400 cd/m{sup 2}, and a device operational lifetime of more than 1000 hours. Thus the aim of the project is to break the current cost-efficiency paradigm by creating novel low cost inorganic LEDs composed of inorganic nanoparticles.

  16. Quantum dot device tunable from single to triple dot system

    SciTech Connect

    Rogge, M. C.; Haug, R. J.; Pierz, K.

    2013-12-04

    We present a lateral quantum dot device which has a tunable number of quantum dots. Depending on easily tunable gate voltages, one, two or three quantum dots are found. They are investigated in transport and charge detection.

  17. Optimization of the aqueous synthesis of Cu2S quantum dots with different surface ligands.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Liu, Liwei; Wang, Qian; Hu, Siyi; Zou, Peng; Shi, Jing; Zhang, Xihe

    2016-01-01

    Surface functionalization of quantum dots (QDs) is one of the most important aspects of designing and preparing the desired QDs for intended optical and biomedical applications. In this paper, we synthesized aqueous-phase Cu2S quantum dots coating by three different stabilizers, i.e. mercaptoacetic acid, mercaptopropionic acid and glutathione (GSH). Different stabilizers can influence the coordination modes between Cu(+) on the surface of Cu2S and S(2-) of the ligand. The Cu2S QDs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and Raman spectra. Then, we performed a systematic study to evaluate the colloidal stability and in vitro toxicity of the formulations of Cu2S QDs with different stabilizers. Our results show that Cu2S QDs modified with different stabilizers have distinct functional groups on their surface and these groups make Cu2S produce different vibrations according to Raman spectra. The Cu2S-GSH exhibit the best colloidal stability in all pH buffer solutions and the lowest toxicity compare to the other two stabilizers. These properties make the Cu2S-GSH quantum dots a candidate for bioapplications in the future. PMID:26606519

  18. Optimization of the aqueous synthesis of Cu2S quantum dots with different surface ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yue; Liu, Liwei; Wang, Qian; Hu, Siyi; Zou, Peng; Shi, Jing; Zhang, Xihe

    2016-01-01

    Surface functionalization of quantum dots (QDs) is one of the most important aspects of designing and preparing the desired QDs for intended optical and biomedical applications. In this paper, we synthesized aqueous-phase Cu2S quantum dots coating by three different stabilizers, i.e. mercaptoacetic acid, mercaptopropionic acid and glutathione (GSH). Different stabilizers can influence the coordination modes between Cu+ on the surface of Cu2S and S2‑ of the ligand. The Cu2S QDs were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and Raman spectra. Then, we performed a systematic study to evaluate the colloidal stability and in vitro toxicity of the formulations of Cu2S QDs with different stabilizers. Our results show that Cu2S QDs modified with different stabilizers have distinct functional groups on their surface and these groups make Cu2S produce different vibrations according to Raman spectra. The Cu2S-GSH exhibit the best colloidal stability in all pH buffer solutions and the lowest toxicity compare to the other two stabilizers. These properties make the Cu2S-GSH quantum dots a candidate for bioapplications in the future.

  19. Synthesis of mercaptosuccinic acid/MercaptoPolyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane coated cadmium telluride quantum dots in cell labeling applications.

    PubMed

    Ghaderi, Shirin; Ramesh, Bala; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2012-06-01

    An aqueous synthesis method to obtain highly luminescent cadmium telluride nanocrystals is described. We have shown water-soluble semi-conductor quantum dots with high photoluminescence quantum yield have great potential for biological applications. The spectral properties of these nanocrystals can be easily tuned according to their particle size to yield multicolours simultaneously by a single excitation light source. A stable precursor material sodium tellurite is utilised instead of the traditional oxygen sensitive NaHTe or H2Te as Te source. We have introduced mercaptosuccinic acid and propylisobutyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane nanoparticles as novel capping agents to stabilize the nanocrystals, synthesized in borate-citrate buffering system. Inclusion of propylisobutyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane nanoparticles in the capping procedure showed enhanced stability and biocompatibility. The presence of mercaptosuccinic acid/propylisobutyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane coatings was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and average sizes of 2-5 nm by transmission electron microscopy measurements. The functionalized and targeted quantum dots detected cancer cell death on exposure to some anticancer drugs. Studies have indicated that apoptotic cells can activate signaling pathways in dendritic cells via ligation of surface receptors. Cells treated with specific class of pro-apototic drug such as anthracyclines mount an anti-tumour immune response when introduced into mice. Apoptotic cells may be immunogenic or non-immunogenic depending on the presence of calreticulin on the plasma membrane of dying tumour cells. Here the confocal microscopy showed localization of conjugated mercaptosuccinic acid/propylisobutyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane cadmium telluride quantum dots on MCF-7 cells when exposed to cadmium ions at 50 microM, compared to coated quantum dots. We have used cadmium ions as a model drug as certain anticancer drugs (anthracyclines) induce translocation of calreticulin to the cell membrane, an indicator of apoptosis. Antibodies generated against a peptide to human calreticulin and conjugated to quantum dots detected the protein on cell membrane of stimulated cells were visualized by confocal microscopy. Stimulating natural immune response, against tumours has enormous potential to improve current regimens of cancer detection and therapy. PMID:22905553

  20. Chiral quantum dot based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govan, Joseph; Loudon, Alexander; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.; Gun'ko, Yurii

    2014-05-01

    Recently, the use of stereospecific chiral stabilising molecules has also opened another avenue of interest in the area of quantum dot (QD) research. The main goal of our research is to develop new types of technologically important quantum dot materials containing chiral defects, study their properties and explore their applications. The utilisation of chiral penicillamine stabilisers allowed the preparation of new water soluble white emitting CdS quantum nanostructures which demonstrated circular dichroism in the band-edge region of the spectrum. It was also demonstrated that all three types of QDs (D-, L-, and Rac penicillamine stabilised) show very broad emission bands between 400 and 700 nm due to defects or trap states on the surfaces of the nanocrystals. In this work the chiral CdS based quantum nanostructures have also been doped by copper metal ions and new chiral penicilamine stabilized CuS nanoparticles have been prepared and investigated. It was found that copper doping had a strong effect at low levels in the synthesis of chiral CdS nanostructures. We expect that this research will open new horizons in the chemistry of chiral nanomaterials and their application in biotechnology, sensing and asymmetric synthesis.

  1. Synthesis of positively charged CdTe quantum dots and detection for uric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tiliang; Sun, Xiangying; Liu, Bin

    2011-09-01

    The CdTe dots (QDs) coated with 2-Mercaptoethylamine was prepared in aqueous solution and characterized with fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-Vis absorption spectra, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. When the ?ex = 350 nm, the fluorescence peak of positively charged CdTe quantum dots is at 592 nm. The uric acid is able to quench their fluorescence. Under optimum conditions, the change of fluorescence intensity is linearly proportional to the concentration of uric acid in the range 0.4000-3.600 ?mol L -1, and the limit of detection calculated according to IUPAC definitions is 0.1030 ?mol L -1. Compared with routine method, the present method determines uric acid in human serum with satisfactory results. The mechanism of this strategy is due to the interaction of the tautomeric keto/hydroxyl group of uric acid and the amino group coated at the CdTe QDs.

  2. Quantum Computing with Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkard, Guido; Loss, Daniel

    1998-03-01

    We report recent results on the spin dynamics of coupled quantum dots and their potential as quantum computer devices. Using the Heitler-London approach, we obtain the exchange coupling J(B,a) between the excess electrons of coupled dots.(D.P. DiVincenzo and D. Loss, Quantum Computation is Physical), to appear in Superlattices and Microstructures. Special Issue on the occasion of Rolf Landauer's 70th Birthday, ed. S. Datta. See cond- mat/9710259. The dependence of J on the magnetic field B and the interdot distance 2a is of great importance for controlling the coherent time-evolution of the two-spin system as required for quantum computation.(D. Loss and D.P. DiVincenzo, Phys. Rev. A, in press. See cond- mat/9701055.) Our result, which is in good agreement with a more refined LCAO calculation, is accessible to experimental tests via magnetic response measurements.

  3. Synthesis and optical properties of water soluble CdSe/CdS quantum dots for biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Viet Ha; Nghiem, Thi Ha Lien; Le, Tien Ha; Vu, Dinh Lam; Nhung Tran, Hong; Vu, Thi Kim Lien

    2012-06-01

    Water soluble CdSe/CdS quantum dots (QDs) have been synthesized directly in aqueous solution with sodium citrate as surfactant agent. The QDs are mono-dispersed in water and have strong luminescent emission intensity under excitation of ultraviolet light. The emission maxima of the QDs can be tuned in a wider range from 555 to 615 nm in water by changing synthesis conditions. The result of the synthesis of water-soluble CdSe and CdSe/CdS QDs shows the high quality of the QDs with the quite narrow luminescence emission band and photostability. The results show the strongest intensity of photoluminescence emission in media with pH value at about from 8-8.5, which are pH physiological environments. The luminescence intensity increases when the QDs are coated with a polyethylene glycol (PEG) or bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein layer, the lifetime also increases.

  4. Synthesis of tetrahedral quasi-type-II CdSe-CdS core-shell quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Sugunan, Abhilash; Zhao, Yichen; Mitra, Somak; Dong, Lin; Li, Shanghua; Popov, Sergei; Marcinkevicius, Saulius; Toprak, Muhammet S; Muhammed, Mamoun

    2011-10-21

    Synthesis of colloidal nanocrystals of II-VI semiconductor materials has been refined in recent decades and their size dependent optoelectronic properties have been well established. Here we report a facile synthesis of CdSe-CdS core-shell heterostructures using a two-step hot injection process. Red-shifts in absorption and photoluminescence spectra show that the obtained quantum dots have quasi-type-II alignment of energy levels. The obtained nanocrystals have a heterostructure with a large and highly faceted tetrahedral CdS shell grown epitaxially over a spherical CdSe core. The obtained morphology as well as high resolution electron microscopy confirms that the tetrahedral shell have a zinc blende crystal structure. A phenomenological mechanism for the growth and morphology of the nanocrystals is discussed. PMID:21941036

  5. PREFACE: Quantum Dot 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Robert A.

    2010-09-01

    These conference proceedings contain the written papers of the contributions presented at Quantum Dot 2010 (QD2010). The conference was held in Nottingham, UK, on 26-30 April 2010. The conference addressed topics in research on: 1. Epitaxial quantum dots (including self-assembled and interface structures, dots defined by electrostatic gates etc): optical properties and electron transport quantum coherence effects spin phenomena optics of dots in cavities interaction with surface plasmons in metal/semiconductor structures opto-electronics applications 2. Novel QD structures: fabrication and physics of graphene dots, dots in nano-wires etc 3. Colloidal quantum dots: growth (shape control and hybrid nanocrystals such as metal/semiconductor, magnetic/semiconductor) assembly and surface functionalisation optical properties and spin dynamics electrical and magnetic properties applications (light emitting devices and solar cells, biological and medical applications, data storage, assemblers) The Editors Acknowledgements Conference Organising Committee: Maurice Skolnick (Chair) Alexander Tartakovskii (Programme Chair) Pavlos Lagoudakis (Programme Chair) Max Migliorato (Conference Secretary) Paola Borri (Publicity) Robert Taylor (Proceedings) Manus Hayne (Treasurer) Ray Murray (Sponsorship) Mohamed Henini (Local Organiser) International Advisory Committee: Yasuhiko Arakawa (Tokyo University, Japan) Manfred Bayer (Dortmund University, Germany) Sergey Gaponenko (Stepanov Institute of Physics, Minsk, Belarus) Pawel Hawrylak (NRC, Ottawa, Canada) Fritz Henneberger (Institute for Physics, Berlin, Germany) Atac Imamoglu (ETH, Zurich, Switzerland) Paul Koenraad (TU Eindhoven, Nethehrlands) Guglielmo Lanzani (Politecnico di Milano, Italy) Jungil Lee (Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Korea) Henri Mariette (CNRS-CEA, Grenoble, France) Lu Jeu Sham (San Diego, USA) Andrew Shields (Toshiba Research Europe, Cambridge, UK) Yoshihisa Yamamoto (Stanford University, USA) Artur Zrenner (Paderborn University, Germany) International Programme Committee: Alexander Eychmüller (TU Dresden, Germany) Jonathan Finley (TU Munich, Germany) Dan Gammon (NRL, Washington, USA) Alexander Govorov (Ohio University, USA) Neil Greenham (Cavendish Laboratory, UK) Vladimir Korenev (Ioffe Institute, Russia) Leo Kouwenhoven (TU Delft, Netherlands) Wolfgang Langbein (Cardiff University, UK) Xavier Marie (CNRS Toulouse, France) David Ritchie (Cambridge, UK) Andrew Sachrajda (IMS, Ottawa, Canada) Katerina Soulantica (University of Toulouse, France) Seigo Tarucha (University of Tokyo, Japan) Carlos Tejedor (UAM, Madrid, Spain) Euijoon Yoon (Seoul National University, Korea) Ulrike Woggon (Tu Berlin, Germany) Proceedings edited and compiled by Profesor Robert A Taylor, University of Oxford

  6. Addition of Zn during the phosphine-based synthesis of indium phospide quantum dots: doping and surface passivation

    PubMed Central

    Vinokurov, Alexander A; Lebedev, Oleg I; Kuznetsova, Tatiana A; Dorofeev, Sergey G

    2015-01-01

    Summary Zinc-doped InP(Zn) colloidal quantum dots (QDs) with narrow size distribution and low defect concentration were grown for the first time via a novel phosphine synthetic route and over a wide range of Zn doping. We report the influence of Zn on the optical properties of the obtained quantum dots. We propose a mechanism for the introduction of Zn in the QDs and show that the incorporation of Zn atoms into the InP lattice leads to the formation of Zn acceptor levels and a luminescence tail in the red region of the spectra. Using photochemical etching with HF, we confirmed that the Zn dopant atoms are situated inside the InP nanoparticles. Moreover, doping with Zn is accompanied with the coverage of the QDs by a zinc shell. During the synthesis Zn myristate covers the QD nucleus and inhibits the particle growth. At the same time the zinc shell leads to an increase of the luminescence quantum yield through the reduction of phosphorous dangling bonds. A scenario for the growth of the colloidal InP(Zn) QDs was proposed and discussed. PMID:26114082

  7. Functionalized silicon quantum dots by N-vinylcarbazole: synthesis and spectroscopic properties

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Silicon quantum dots (Si QDs) attract increasing interest nowadays due to their excellent optical and electronic properties. However, only a few optoelectronic organic molecules were reported as ligands of colloidal Si QDs. In this report, N-vinylcarbazole - a material widely used in the optoelectronics industry - was used for the modification of Si QDs as ligands. This hybrid nanomaterial exhibits different spectroscopic properties from either free ligands or Si QDs alone. Possible mechanisms were discussed. This type of new functional Si QDs may find application potentials in bioimaging, photovoltaic, or optoelectronic devices. PMID:25147489

  8. Surfactant-assisted synthesis of water-soluble and biocompatible semiconductor quantum dot-micelles.

    SciTech Connect

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Bunge, Scott D.; Gabaldon, John; Fan, Hongyou; Scullin, Chessa; Leve, Erik W.; Wilson, Michael C.; Tallant, David Robert; Boyle, Timothy J.

    2005-04-01

    We report a simple, rapid approach to synthesize water-soluble and biocompatible fluorescent quantum dot (QD) micelles by encapsulation of monodisperse, hydrophobic QDs within surfactant/lipid micelles. Analyses of UV-vis and photo luminescence spectra, along with transmission electron microscopy, indicate that the water-soluble semiconductor QD micelles are monodisperse and retain the optical properties of the original hydrophobic QDs. The QD micelles were shown to be biocompatible and exhibited little or no aggregation when taken up by cultured rat hippocampal neurons.

  9. Quantum Dots Investigated for Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Castro, Stephanie L.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been investigating the synthesis of quantum dots of CdSe and CuInS2 for use in intermediate-bandgap solar cells. Using quantum dots in a solar cell to create an intermediate band will allow the harvesting of a much larger portion of the available solar spectrum. Theoretical studies predict a potential efficiency of 63.2 percent, which is approximately a factor of 2 better than any state-of-the-art devices available today. This technology is also applicable to thin-film devices--where it offers a potential four-fold increase in power-to-weight ratio over the state of the art. Intermediate-bandgap solar cells require that quantum dots be sandwiched in an intrinsic region between the photovoltaic solar cell's ordinary p- and n-type regions (see the preceding figure). The quantum dots form the intermediate band of discrete states that allow sub-bandgap energies to be absorbed. However, when the current is extracted, it is limited by the bandgap, not the individual photon energies. The energy states of the quantum dot can be controlled by controlling the size of the dot. Ironically, the ground-state energy levels are inversely proportional to the size of the quantum dots. We have prepared a variety of quantum dots using the typical organometallic synthesis routes pioneered by Ba Wendi et al., in the early 1990's. The most studied quantum dots prepared by this method have been of CdSe. To produce these dots, researchers inject a syringe of the desired organometallic precursors into heated triocytlphosphine oxide (TOPO) that has been vigorously stirred under an inert atmosphere (see the following figure). The solution immediately begins to change from colorless to yellow, then orange and red/brown, as the quantum dots increase in size. When the desired size is reached, the heat is removed from the flask. Quantum dots of different sizes can be identified by placing them under a "black light" and observing the various color differences in their fluorescence (see the photograph).

  10. Aqueous synthesis of highly luminescent glutathione-capped Mn?-doped ZnS quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Kolmykov, Oleksii; Coulon, Jol; Laleve, Jacques; Alem, Halima; Medjahdi, Ghouti; Schneider, Raphal

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, an aqueous-based route has been developed to prepare highly luminescent glutathione (GSH)-capped Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs). The dots obtained have an average diameter of 4.3 nm and exhibit the Mn(2+)-related orange luminescence with very low surface defect density. The highest photoluminescence was observed for a Mn(2+) to Zn(2+) molar ratio of 3%. Consecutive overcoating of the Mn:ZnS@GSH QDs by a ZnS shell was done, and the core/shell structured QDs exhibit a PL quantum yield of 23%. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, electron spin resonance, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy and spectrofluorometry have been used to characterize the crystal structure, the doping status, and the optical properties of the doped-QDs. Our systematic investigation shows that Mn:ZnS/ZnS@GSH QDs are highly promising fluorescent labels in biological applications. PMID:25280675

  11. Synthesis and characterization of hapten-quantum dots bioconjugates: Application to development of a melamine fluorescentimmunoassay.

    PubMed

    Trapiella-Alfonso, Laura; Costa-Fernandez, Jos M; Pereiro, Rosario; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2013-03-15

    A general and universal analytical strategy for characterization of hapten-BSA conjugates based on complementary optical spectroscopy and molecular mass spectrometry techniques is here described. The proposed procedure provides highly-valuable information about the molecular weight of the conjugate, its stoichiometry and the concentration of the precursors (hapten and BSA) in the conjugate; such information is of great analytical interest for further development of novel quantitative immunoassays. Further, due to great demand of new, simple and robust methodologies for the melamine analysis in milk infant formula, a new immunoprobe melamine-bovine serum albumin-quantum dot was synthetized, characterized and successfully applied in a competitive fluorescent quantum dot-based immunoassay. It should be highlighted that the limit of detection achieved without any sample pretreatment, 0.15 mg kg(-1) for melamine in milk infant formula, is one order of magnitude lower than the maximum concentration level allowed by international legislation in such type of samples. Finally, this simple approach was validated by the use of an alternative technique (HPLC-UV) for the analysis of melamine in contaminated milk infant formula, showing a good agreement between the results obtained by using both analytical methodologies. PMID:23598123

  12. Quantum Dots as Cellular Probes

    SciTech Connect

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Gu, Weiwei; Larabell, Carolyn

    2004-09-16

    Robust and bright light emitters, semiconductor nanocrystals[quantum dots (QDs)] have been adopted as a new class of fluorescent labels. Six years after the first experiments of their uses in biological applications, there have been dramatic improvements in understanding surface chemistry, biocompatibility, and targeting specificity. Many studies have shown the great potential of using quantum dots as new probes in vitro and in vivo. This review summarizes the recent advances of quantum dot usage at the cellular level, including immunolabeling, cell tracking, in situ hybridization, FRET, in vivo imaging, and other related technologies. Limitations and potential future uses of quantum dot probes are also discussed.

  13. Quantum dots as cellular probes.

    PubMed

    Alivisatos, A Paul; Gu, Weiwei; Larabell, Carolyn

    2005-01-01

    Robust and bright light emitters, semiconductor nanocrystals [quantum dots (QDs)] have been adopted as a new class of fluorescent labels. Six years after the first experiments of their uses in biological applications, there have been dramatic improvements in understanding surface chemistry, biocompatibility, and targeting specificity. Many studies have shown the great potential of using quantum dots as new probes in vitro and in vivo. This review summarizes the recent advances of quantum dot usage at the cellular level, including immunolabeling, cell tracking, in situ hybridization, FRET, in vivo imaging, and other related technologies. Limitations and potential future uses of quantum dot probes are also discussed. PMID:16004566

  14. Synthesis and optical properties of core/shell ternary/ternary CdZnSe/ZnSeS quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hai Yen; de Marcillac, Willy Daney; Lethiec, Clotilde; Phan, Ngoc Hong; Schwob, Catherine; Matre, Agns; Nguyen, Quang Liem; Le, Van Vu; Bnalloul, Paul; Coolen, Laurent; Thu Nga, Pham

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we report on the synthesis of ternary/ternary alloyed CdZnSe/ZnSeS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) by embryonic nuclei-induced alloying process. We synthesized CdZnSe core QDs emitting in the spectral range of 530-607 nm with various Cd/Zn ratios, depending on the core synthesis temperature. By shelling ZnSeS on the CdZnSe core QDs, the average luminescence quantum yield is increased by a typical factor of 2 up to 17, which we attribute to the reduction of number of non-emitting QDs. The single-photon emitter micro-photoluminescence study showed that the CdZnSe/ZnSeS core/shell QDs are good single-photon emitters and their blinking properties were improved compared to the CdZnSe core QDs. Quantum yields up to 25% were measured for the core/shell samples, demonstrating the potential for high-quality ternary/ternary QDs fabrication.

  15. Surface-treated biocompatible ZnS quantum dots: Synthesis, photo-physical and microstructural properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taherian, M.; Sabbagh Alvani, A. A.; Shokrgozar, M. A.; Salimi, R.; Moosakhani, S.; Sameie, H.; Tabatabaee, F.

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, the ZnS semiconductor quantum dots were successfully synthesized via an aqueous method utilizing glutathione (GSH), thioglycolic acid (TGA) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as capping agents. The structural, morphological and photo-physical properties and biocompatibility were investigated using comprehensive characterization techniques such as x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), UV-Vis optical absorption, photoluminescence (PL) spectrometer and MTT assay. The XRD patterns showed a cubic zinc blende crystal structure and a crystallite size of about 2-3 nm using Scherrer's equation confirmed by the electron micrographs and Effective Mass Approximation (EMA). The DLS and zeta-potential results revealed that GSH capped ZnS nanoparticles have the narrowest size distribution with an average size of 27 nm and relatively good colloidal stability. Also, the FT-IR spectrum confirmed the interaction of the capping agent groups with ZnS nanoparticles. According to the UV-Vis absorption results, optical bandgap of the spherical capped nanoparticles is higher compared to the uncapped sample and could be wider than 3.67 eV (corresponding to the bulk ZnS), which is due to the quantum confinement effect. From photoluminescence spectra, it was found that the emission becomes more intensive and shifts towards the shorter wavelengths in the presence of the capping agent. Moreover, the emission mechanism of uncapped and capped ZnS was discussed in detail. Finally, the MTT results revealed the satisfactory (>94%) biocompatibility of GSH capped ZnS quantum dots which would be a promising candidate applicable in fluorescent biological labels.

  16. In-situ synthesis of high stable CdS quantum dots and their application for photocatalytic degradation of dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadi-Maybodi, Abdolraouf; Sadeghi-Maleki, Mohammad-Rasool

    2016-01-01

    Photocatalysis based on semiconductor quantum dots, which utilize the solar energy can be used for elimination of pollutants from aqueous media and applied for water purification. In this paper, high stable CdS quantum dots (QDs) with good optical properties were successfully synthesized in a facile in-situ method, using Na2S2O3 as precursor and thioglycolic acid (TGA) as a catalyst, as well as capping agent in aqueous media. The synthesis process was optimized with a 2IV7-3 fractional factorial design method. Then, we studied the degradation of some industrial dyes including: alizarin, acid violet, mordant red and thymol blue as a tool to check the photocatalytic activity of synthesized CdS QDs. Results specified that the synthesized CdS QDs are capable for degradation of organic dyes under visible light irradiation with good recycling stability during photocatalytic experiments. Structural and spectroscopic properties of the synthesized CdS QDs were studied by TEM, XRD and absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy techniques. The synthesized TGA-capped CdS QDs have sizes in the range of 2.65-2.93 nm with cubic crystalline structures.

  17. In-situ synthesis of high stable CdS quantum dots and their application for photocatalytic degradation of dyes.

    PubMed

    Samadi-Maybodi, Abdolraouf; Sadeghi-Maleki, Mohammad-Rasool

    2016-01-01

    Photocatalysis based on semiconductor quantum dots, which utilize the solar energy can be used for elimination of pollutants from aqueous media and applied for water purification. In this paper, high stable CdS quantum dots (QDs) with good optical properties were successfully synthesized in a facile in-situ method, using Na2S2O3 as precursor and thioglycolic acid (TGA) as a catalyst, as well as capping agent in aqueous media. The synthesis process was optimized with a 2IV(7-3) fractional factorial design method. Then, we studied the degradation of some industrial dyes including: alizarin, acid violet, mordant red and thymol blue as a tool to check the photocatalytic activity of synthesized CdS QDs. Results specified that the synthesized CdS QDs are capable for degradation of organic dyes under visible light irradiation with good recycling stability during photocatalytic experiments. Structural and spectroscopic properties of the synthesized CdS QDs were studied by TEM, XRD and absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy techniques. The synthesized TGA-capped CdS QDs have sizes in the range of 2.65-2.93nm with cubic crystalline structures. PMID:26208270

  18. A primer on the synthesis, water-solubilization, and functionalization of quantum dots, their use as biological sensing agents, and present status.

    PubMed

    Tyrakowski, Christina Marie; Snee, Preston Todd

    2014-01-21

    The use of nanomaterials, specifically fluorescent semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), for biological imaging and sensing has become very topical. Here we present a historical synopsis of research in this field to help elucidate the origins of the most recent advances in QD-based technology. We further aim to educate the novice researcher concerning many important aspects of QD synthesis, water-solubilization, functionalization, and usage in biological imaging and sensing that are generally not discussed in the literature. We will also summarize several recent transformative examples of using quantum dots for in vitro and in vivo studies. PMID:24296551

  19. Quantum dot cascade laser

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrated an unambiguous quantum dot cascade laser based on InGaAs/GaAs/InAs/InAlAs heterostructure by making use of self-assembled quantum dots in the Stranski-Krastanow growth mode and two-step strain compensation active region design. The prototype generates stimulated emission at λ ~ 6.15 μm and a broad electroluminescence band with full width at half maximum over 3 μm. The characteristic temperature for the threshold current density within the temperature range of 82 to 162 K is up to 400 K. Moreover, our materials show the strong perpendicular mid-infrared response at about 1,900 cm-1. These results are very promising for extending the present laser concept to terahertz quantum cascade laser, which would lead to room temperature operation. PACS 42.55.Px; 78.55.Cr; 78.67.Hc PMID:24666965

  20. General Method for the Synthesis of Ultrastable Core/Shell Quantum Dots by Aluminum Doping.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhichun; Yao, Wei; Kong, Long; Zhao, Yixin; Li, Liang

    2015-10-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have attracted extensive attention in various applications because of their unique optical and electronic properties. However, long-term photostability remains a challenge for their practical application. Here, we present a simple method to enhance the photostability of QDs against oxidation by doping aluminum into the shell of core/shell QDs. We demonstrate that Al in the coating shell can be oxidized to Al2O3, which can serve as a self-passivation layer on the surface of the core/shell QDs and effectively stop further photodegradation during long-term light irradiation. The prepared CdSe/CdS:Al QDs survived 24 h without significant degradation when they were subjected to intense illumination under LED light (450 nm, 0.35 W/cm(2)), whereas conventional CdSe/CdS QDs were bleached within 3 h. PMID:26389704

  1. Synthesis, modification, bioconjugation of silica coated fluorescent quantum dots and their application for mycotoxin detection.

    PubMed

    Goftman, Valentina V; Aubert, Tangi; Ginste, Dries Vande; Van Deun, Rik; Beloglazova, Natalia V; Hens, Zeger; De Saeger, Sarah; Goryacheva, Irina Yu

    2016-05-15

    To create bright and stable fluorescent biolabels for immunoassay detection of mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in food and feed, CdSe/CdS/ZnS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) were encapsulated in silica nanoparticles through a water-in-oil reverse microemulsion process. The optical properties and stability of the obtained silica coated QDs (QD@SiO2), modified with amino, carboxyl and epoxy groups and stabilized with polyethylene glycol fragments, were characterized in order to assess their bioapplicability. The developed co-condensation techniques allowed maintaining 80% of the initial fluorescent properties and yielded stable fluorescent labels that could be easily activated and bioconjugated. Further, the modified QD@SiO2 were efficiently conjugated with antibodies and applied as a novel label in a microtiter plate based immunoassay and a quantitative column-based rapid immunotest for deoxynivalenol detection with IC50 of 473 and 20ng/ml, respectively. PMID:26745794

  2. Ultrasmall Black Phosphorus Quantum Dots: Synthesis and Use as Photothermal Agents.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhengbo; Xie, Hanhan; Tang, Siying; Yu, Xue-Feng; Guo, Zhinan; Shao, Jundong; Zhang, Han; Huang, Hao; Wang, Huaiyu; Chu, Paul K

    2015-09-21

    Black phosphorus quantum dots (BPQDs) were synthesized using a liquid exfoliation method that combined probe sonication and bath sonication. With a lateral size of approximately 2.6?nm and a thickness of about 1.5?nm, the ultrasmall BPQDs exhibited an excellent NIR photothermal performance with a large extinction coefficient of 14.8 L g(-1)?cm(-1) at 808?nm, a photothermal conversion efficiency of 28.4%, as well as good photostability. After PEG conjugation, the BPQDs showed enhanced stability in physiological medium, and there was no observable toxicity to different types of cells. NIR photoexcitation of the BPQDs in the presence of C6 and MCF7 cancer cells led to significant cell death, suggesting that the nanoparticles have large potential as photothermal agents. PMID:26296530

  3. Synthesis and optical properties of copper-doped ZnSe quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, Ch; Phadnis, Chinmay V.; Sonawane, Kiran G.; Mahamuni, Shailaja

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a new method to synthesize Cu-doped ZnSe quantum dots (QDs). Emission properties are tuned from the blue to the green region simply by increasing the size of the QDs. A red shift in optical absorption of Cu:ZnSe QDs compared with undoped ZnSe QDs is observed. The increase in size of QDs is explained by a change in reaction kinematics. PL measurements revealed both a band edge as well as a copper-related emission. Delocalization of electronic wave functions leads to a shift in the copper-related emission with in size. PL excitation spectra recorded at Cu emission shows ZnSe energy levels along with a feature between 350-370 nm. This feature is assigned to excited energy levels of Cu ions. Variation in electron energy levels as a function of size and on Cu incorporation is mapped.

  4. One-step synthesis of size-controlled CZTS quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, Leena; Singh, Vidya Nand; Partheepan, G.; Senguttuvan, T. D.; Jain, Kiran

    2015-02-01

    Size-controlled CZTS quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized and its application as a potential electron accepting material for polymer-based hybrid solar cell is demonstrated. The CZTS QDs with a size of 2-10 nm were synthesized in a single step by the decomposition of metal dithiocarbamate and characterized by various techniques; like, SEM, TEM, FTIR, XRD, etc. Results reveal that the CZTS QDs synthesized in oleic acid can quench the luminescence of P3HT effectively. Due to the favourable ionization potential and electron affinity values for CZTS with respect to P3HT, the CZTS QDs act as an effective electron acceptor in the hybrid solar cells based on P3HT/CZTS-QD blends which is also revealed by the charge transfer characteristics of P3HT/CZTS blend.

  5. Synthesis of surface ligands to prepare hydrophilic and biologically compatible quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uyeda, H. T.; Medintz, Igor L.; Mattoussi, Hedi

    2005-04-01

    We describe a versatile scheme to prepare an array of multidentate surface capping molecules. Such materials permit strong interactions with semiconductor nanocrystals and render them water compatible. These ligands were synthesized by reacting various chain length poly (ethylene glycols) with thioctic acid, followed by ring opening of the dithiolane moiety. Functionalization of CdSe-ZnS quantum dots with these ligands allow processing of the nanocrystals not only in aqueous but in many other polar solvents. Further synthetic processing of the ligands with biotin moieties allowed for investigating assays based on the avidin-biotin interactions. These ligands provide a straightforward means of preparing QDs that exhibit greater resistance to environmental changes, making them more amenable for use in live cell imaging and other biotechnological applications.

  6. Hydrothermal synthesis of CdTe quantum dots-TiO2-graphene hybrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinghua; Li, Xin

    2014-01-01

    CdTe-TiO2-graphene nanocomposites were successfully synthesized via a simple and relatively general hydrothermal method. During the hydrothermal environment, GO was reduced to reduced graphene oxide (RGO), accompanying with the anchoring of TiO2 nanoparticles on the surface of RGO. In the following process, CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were then in situ grown on the carbon basal planes. The morphologies and structural properties of the as-prepared composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and fluorescent spectroscopy. It is hoped that our current work could pave a way towards the fabrication of QDs-TiO2-RGO hybrid materials.

  7. Solution-based synthesis of high yield CZTS (Cu2ZnSnS4) spherical quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, G.; Muthukumarasamy, N.; Subramanian, E. P.; Venkatraman, M. R.; Agilan, S.; Ragavendran, V.; Thambidurai, M.; Velumani, S.; Yi, Junsin; Velauthapillai, Dhayalan

    2015-01-01

    High yield CZTS quantum dots have been synthesized using simple precursors by chemical precipitation technique. Formation mechanism of CZTS spherical quantum dots also has been investigated. According to the mechanism, copper sulfide nuclei firstly forms, and serves as the starting point for the nucleation and growth of CZTS. X-ray diffraction pattern, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and Raman spectra reveals the formation of pure kesterite structure Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticles. HRTEM analysis reveals the formation of CZTS quantum dots with an average particle size of ?8.3 nm. The elemental distribution of CZTS quantum dots studied using STEM elemental mapping reveals that Cu, Zn, Sn and S are present in the sample. The photoluminescence spectra of CZTS exhibit a broad red emission band at 657 nm. The optical band gap is shifted to the higher energy side and it shows the presence of quantum confinement effect.

  8. Colloidal silicon quantum dots: synthesis and luminescence tuning from the near-UV to the near-IR range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Batu; Shirahata, Naoto

    2014-02-01

    This review describes a series of representative synthesis processes, which have been developed in the last two decades to prepare silicon quantum dots (QDs). The methods include both top-down and bottom-up approaches, and their methodological advantages and disadvantages are presented. Considerable efforts in surface functionalization of QDs have categorized it into (i) a two-step process and (ii) in situ surface derivatization. Photophysical properties of QDs are summarized to highlight the continuous tuning of photoluminescence color from the near-UV through visible to the near-IR range. The emission features strongly depend on the silicon nanostructures including QD surface configurations. Possible mechanisms of photoluminescence have been summarized to ascertain the future challenges toward industrial use of silicon-based light emitters.

  9. Large-scale synthesis of N-doped carbon quantum dots and their phosphorescence properties in a polyurethane matrix.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jing; Zou, Rui; Zhang, Jie; Li, Wang; Zhang, Liqun; Yue, Dongmei

    2016-02-18

    An easy, large-scale synthesis of N-doped carbon quantum dots (CQDs) was developed by using isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) as a single carbon source under microwave irradiation. The yield of raw N-doped CQDs was about 83%, which is suitable for industrial-scale production. A detailed formation mechanism for N-doped CQDs involving self-polymerization and condensation of IPDI was demonstrated. Moreover, the obtained N-doped CQDs can be homogeneously dispersed in various organic monomers and do not need toxic organic solvents as dispersing agents. This advantage expands the range of applications of CQDs in composites. The N-doped CQDs dispersed in polyurethane (PU) matrixes emit not only fluorescence but also phosphorescence and delayed fluorescence at room temperature upon excitation with ultraviolet (UV) light. Furthermore, the phosphorescence of CQD/PU composites is sensitive to oxygen and therefore, the obtained-CQDs could be exploited in the development of novel oxygen sensors. PMID:26860279

  10. Scanning Quantum Dot Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Christian; Green, Matthew F. B.; Leinen, Philipp; Deilmann, Thorsten; Krüger, Peter; Rohlfing, Michael; Temirov, Ruslan; Tautz, F. Stefan

    2015-07-01

    We introduce a scanning probe technique that enables three-dimensional imaging of local electrostatic potential fields with subnanometer resolution. Registering single electron charging events of a molecular quantum dot attached to the tip of an atomic force microscope operated at 5 K, equipped with a qPlus tuning fork, we image the quadrupole field of a single molecule. To demonstrate quantitative measurements, we investigate the dipole field of a single metal adatom adsorbed on a metal surface. We show that because of its high sensitivity the technique can probe electrostatic potentials at large distances from their sources, which should allow for the imaging of samples with increased surface roughness.

  11. Synthesis of blue emitting InP/ZnS quantum dots through control of competition between etching and growth.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kipil; Jang, Ho Seong; Woo, Kyoungja

    2012-12-01

    Blue (<480 nm) emitting Cd-free quantum dots (QDs) are in great demand for various applications. However, their synthesis has been challenging. Here we present blue emitting InP/ZnS core/shell QDs with a band edge emission of 475 nm and a full width at half maximum of 39 nm (215 meV) from their quantum confined states. The drastic temperature drop immediately after mixing of the precursors and holding them at a temperature below 150 C was the critical factor for the synthesis of blue emitting QDs, because the blue QDs are formed by the etching of ultra-small InP cores by residual acetic acid below 150 C. Etching was dominant at temperatures below 150?C, whereas growth was dominant at temperatures above 150 C. ZnS shells were formed successfully at 150 C, yielding blue emitting InP/ZnS QDs. The colour of the InP/ZnS QDs depicted on the CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram is located close to the edge, indicating a pure blue colour compared to other InP-based QDs. PMID:23138715

  12. Synthesis of blue emitting InP/ZnS quantum dots through control of competition between etching and growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Kipil; Jang, Ho Seong; Woo, Kyoungja

    2012-12-01

    Blue (<480 nm) emitting Cd-free quantum dots (QDs) are in great demand for various applications. However, their synthesis has been challenging. Here we present blue emitting InP/ZnS core/shell QDs with a band edge emission of 475 nm and a full width at half maximum of 39 nm (215 meV) from their quantum confined states. The drastic temperature drop immediately after mixing of the precursors and holding them at a temperature below 150?C was the critical factor for the synthesis of blue emitting QDs, because the blue QDs are formed by the etching of ultra-small InP cores by residual acetic acid below 150?C. Etching was dominant at temperatures below 150?C, whereas growth was dominant at temperatures above 150?C. ZnS shells were formed successfully at 150?C, yielding blue emitting InP/ZnS QDs. The colour of the InP/ZnS QDs depicted on the CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram is located close to the edge, indicating a pure blue colour compared to other InP-based QDs.

  13. Compact biocompatible quantum dots via RAFT-mediated synthesis of imidazole-based random copolymer ligand

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenhao; Greytak, Andrew B.; Lee, Jungmin; Wong, Cliff R.; Park, Jongnam; Marshall, Lisa F.; Jiang, Wen; Curtin, Peter N.; Ting, Alice Y.; Nocera, Daniel G.; Fukumura, Dai; Jain, Rakesh K.; Bawendi, Moungi G.

    2010-01-01

    We present a new class of polymeric ligands for quantum dot (QD) water solubilization to yield biocompatible and derivatizable QDs with compact size (~10-12 nm diameter), high quantum yields (>50%), excellent stability across a large pH range (pH 5-10.5), and low nonspecific binding. To address the fundamental problem of thiol instability in traditional ligand exchange systems, the polymers here employ a stable multidentate imidazole binding motif to the QD surface. The polymers are synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT)-mediated polymerization to produce molecular weight controlled monodisperse random copolymers from three types of monomers that feature imidazole groups for QD binding, polyethylene glycol (PEG) groups for water solubilization, and either primary amines or biotin groups for derivatization. The polymer architecture can be tuned by the monomer ratios to yield aqueous QDs with targeted surface functionalities. By incorporating amino-PEG monomers, we demonstrate covalent conjugation of a dye to form a highly efficient QD-dye energy transfer pair as well as covalent conjugation to streptavidin for high-affinity single molecule imaging of biotinylated receptors on live cells with minimal non-specific binding. The small size and low serum binding of these polymer-coated QDs also allow us to demonstrate their utility for in-vivo imaging of the tumor microenvironment in live mice. PMID:20025223

  14. Efficient Quantum Dot-Quantum Dot and Quantum Dot-Dye Energy Transfer in Biotemplated Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Achermann, Marc; Jeong, Sohee; Balet, Laurent; Montano, Gabriel A.; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    CdSe semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots are assembled into nanowire-like arrays employing microtubule fibers as nanoscale molecular scaffolds. Spectrally and time-resolved energy-transfer analysis is used to assess the assembly of the nanoparticles into the hybrid inorganic-biomolecular structure. Specifically, we demonstrate that a comprehensive study of energy transfer between quantum-dot pairs on the biotemplate, and, alternatively, between quantum dots and molecular dyes embedded in the microtubule scaffold, comprises a powerful spectroscopic tool for evaluating the assembly process. In addition to revealing the extent to which assembly has occurred, the approach allows determination of particle-to-particle (and particle-to-dye) distances within the bio-mediated array. Significantly, the characterization is realized in situ, without need for further sample workup or risk of disturbing the solution-phase constructs. Furthermore, we find that the assemblies prepared in this way exhibit efficient quantum dot-quantum dot and quantum dot-dye energy transfer that affords faster energy-transfer rates compared to densely packed quantum dot arrays on planar substrates and small-molecule-mediated quantum dot/dye couples, respectively. PMID:21314178

  15. Efficient quantum dot-quantum dot and quantum dot-dye energy transfer in biotemplated assemblies.

    PubMed

    Achermann, Marc; Jeong, Sohee; Balet, Laurent; Montano, Gabriel A; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A

    2011-03-22

    CdSe semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots are assembled into nanowire-like arrays employing microtubule fibers as nanoscale molecular "scaffolds." Spectrally and time-resolved energy-transfer analysis is used to assess the assembly of the nanoparticles into the hybrid inorganic biomolecular structure. Specifically, we demonstrate that a comprehensive study of energy transfer between quantum dot pairs on the biotemplate and, alternatively, between quantum dots and molecular dyes embedded in the microtubule scaffold comprises a powerful spectroscopic tool for evaluating the assembly process. In addition to revealing the extent to which assembly has occurred, the approach allows determination of particle-to-particle (and particle-to-dye) distances within the biomediated array. Significantly, the characterization is realized in situ, without need for further sample workup or risk of disturbing the solution-phase constructs. Furthermore, we find that the assemblies prepared in this way exhibit efficient quantum dot-quantum dot and quantum dot-dye energy transfer that affords faster energy-transfer rates compared to densely packed quantum dot arrays on planar substrates and to small-molecule-mediated quantum dot-dye couples, respectively. PMID:21314178

  16. A Customizable Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata Building Block for the Synthesis of Classical and Reversible Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Moustafa, Ahmed; Younes, Ahmed; Hassan, Yasser F.

    2015-01-01

    Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) are nanoscale digital logic constructs that use electrons in arrays of quantum dots to carry out binary operations. In this paper, a basic building block for QCA will be proposed. The proposed basic building block can be customized to implement classical gates, such as XOR and XNOR gates, and reversible gates, such as CNOT and Toffoli gates, with less cell count and/or better latency than other proposed designs. PMID:26345412

  17. Synthesis and characterization of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots conjugated with poly (ethylene glycol) diamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharti, Shivani; Kaur, Gurvir; Gupta, Shikha; Tripathi, S. K.

    2015-08-01

    Bio-functionalization or surface modification is an important technique to obtain biocompatibility in semiconductor nanoparticles for biomedical applications. In this study semiconductor core/shell quantum dots of CdSe/ZnS have been prepared by chemical reduction method and then further PEGylated using Poly(ethylene glycol) diamine of Mw 2000. They were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy & Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results reveals the successful PEGylation of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots.

  18. A Customizable Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata Building Block for the Synthesis of Classical and Reversible Circuits.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Ahmed; Younes, Ahmed; Hassan, Yasser F

    2015-01-01

    Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) are nanoscale digital logic constructs that use electrons in arrays of quantum dots to carry out binary operations. In this paper, a basic building block for QCA will be proposed. The proposed basic building block can be customized to implement classical gates, such as XOR and XNOR gates, and reversible gates, such as CNOT and Toffoli gates, with less cell count and/or better latency than other proposed designs. PMID:26345412

  19. Aqueous synthesis of high bright and tunable near-infrared AgInSe2-ZnSe quantum dots for bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Che, Dongchen; Zhu, Xiaoxu; Wang, Hongzhi; Duan, Yourong; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang

    2016-02-01

    Efficient synthetic methods for near-infrared quantum dots with good biophysical properties as bioimaging agents are urgently required. In this work, a simple and fast synthesis of highly luminescent, near-infrared AgInSe2-ZnSe quantum dots (QDs) with tunable emissions in aqueous media is reported. This method avoids high temperature and pressure and organic solvents to directly generate water-dispersible AgInSe2-ZnSe QDs. The photoluminescence emission peak of the AgInSe2-ZnSe QDs ranged from 625 to 940nm, with quantum yields up to 31%. The AgInSe2-ZnSe QDs with high quantum yield, near-infrared and low cytotoxic could be used as good cell labels, showing great potential applications in bio-imaging. PMID:26513730

  20. Angiogenic Profiling of Synthesized Carbon Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Shereema, R M; Sruthi, T V; Kumar, V B Sameer; Rao, T P; Shankar, S Sharath

    2015-10-20

    A simple method was employed for the synthesis of green luminescent carbon quantum dots (CQDs) from styrene soot. The CQDs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared, and Raman spectroscopy. The prepared carbon quantum dots did not show cellular toxicity and could successfully be used for labeling cells. We also evaluated the effects of carbon quantum dots on the process of angiogenesis. Results of a chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay revealed the significant decrease in the density of branched vessels after their treatment with CQDs. Further application of CQDs significantly downregulated the expression levels of pro-angiogenic growth factors like VEGF and FGF. Expression of VEGFR2 and levels of hemoglobin were also significantly lower in CAMs treated with CQDs, indicating that the CQDs inhibit angiogenesis. Data presented here also show that CQDs can selectively target cancer cells and therefore hold potential in the field of cancer therapy. PMID:26371545

  1. Thiol antioxidant-functionalized CdSe/ZnS quantum dots: Synthesis, Characterization, Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hong; Mortensen, Luke J.; DeLouise, Lisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a growing industry with wide ranging applications in consumer product and technology development. In the biomedical field, nanoparticles are finding increasing use as imaging agents for biomolecular labeling and tumor targeting. The nanoparticle physiochemical properties must be tailored for the specific application but chemical and physical stability in the biological milieu (no oxidation, aggregation, agglomeration or toxicity) are often required. Nanoparticles used for biomolecular fluorescent imaging should also have high quantum yield (QY). The aim of this paper is to examine the QY, stability, and cell toxicity of a series of positive, negative and neutral surface charge quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles. Simple protocols are described to prepare water soluble QDs by modifying the surface with thiol containing antioxidant ligands and polymers keeping the QD core/shell composition constant. The ligands used to produce negatively charged QDs include glutathione (GSH), N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA), tiopronin (TP), bucilliamine (BUC), and mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA). Ligands used to produce positively charged QDs include cysteamine (CYS) and polyethylenimine (PEI). Dithiothreitol (DTT) was used to produce neutral charged QDs. Commercially available nonaqueous octadecylamine (ODA) capped QDs served as the starting material. Our results suggest that QD uptake and cytotoxicity are both dependent on surface ligand coating composition. The negative charged GSH coated QDs show superior performance exhibiting low cytotoxicity, high stability, high QY and therefore are best suited for bioimaging applications. PEI coated QD also show superior performance exhibiting high QY and stability. However, they are considerably more cytotoxic due to their high positive charge which is an advantageous property that can be exploited for gene transfection and/or tumor targeting applications. The synthetic procedures described are straightforward and can be easily adapted in most laboratory settings. PMID:23620993

  2. Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of a hyaluronic acid-quantum dots-melphalan conjugate.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haixing; He, Jingbo; Zhang, Yu; Fan, Lihong; Zhao, Yaqiong; Xu, Tengfei; Nie, Zhuang; Li, Xiangnan; Huang, Zhijun; Lu, Bo; Xu, Peihu

    2015-05-01

    Polymer-drug conjugates have played an important role in improving tumor cell targeting and the selectivity of anticancer drugs. In this study, quantum dots and melphalan were attached to the backbone of hyaluronic acid to synthesize a polymer-drug conjugate. The physicochemical properties of the conjugate were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, (1)H NMR, UV-Vis spectra and DLS. The in vitro drug release profiles and cell evaluation were investigated. The results showed that the conjugate was synthesized and self-assembled into nanoparticles with a diameter of 115 2.3 nm. The conjugate had a pH-sensitive drug controlled release property. It was an ideal receptor-mediated delivery system and can be internalized into the human breast cancer cell. It had a better inhibition effect on human breast cancer cell and a poorer inhibition effect on normal breast cell than melphalan. These results supported that the conjugate would be a promising candidate for cancer therapy. PMID:25659681

  3. Aqueous synthesis and biostabilization of CdS@ZnS quantum dots for bioimaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Liu, Y.; Lai, C.; Berry, R. M.; Tam, K. C.

    2015-10-01

    Bionanohybrids, combining biocompatible natural polymers with inorganic materials, have aroused interest because of their structural, functional, and environmental advantages. In this work, we report on the stabilization of CdS@ZnS coreshell quantum dots (QDs) using carboxylated cellulose nanocrytals (CNCs) as nanocarrieers in aqueous phase. The high colloidal stability was achieved with sufficient negative charge on CNC surface and the coordination of Cd2+ to carboxylate groups. This coordination allows the in-situ nucleation and growth of QDs on CNC surface. The influences of QD to CNC ratio, pH and ZnS coating on colloidal stability and photoluminescence property of CNC/QD nanohybirds were also studied. The results showed that products obtained at pH 8 with a CdS to CNC weight ratio of 0.19 and a ZnS/CdS molar ratio of 1.5 possessed excellent colloidal stability and highest photoluminescence intensity. By anchoring QDs on rigid bionanotemplates, CNC/CdS@ZnS exhibited long-term colloidal and optical stability. Using biocompatible CNC as nanocarriers, the products have been demonstrated to exhibit low cytotoxicity towards HeLa cells and can serve as promising red-emitting fluorescent bioimaging probes.

  4. Methotrexate-conjugated quantum dots: synthesis, characterisation and cytotoxicity in drug resistant cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Johari-Ahar, Mohammad; Barar, Jaleh; Alizadeh, Ali Mohammad; Davaran, Soodabeh; Omidi, Yadollah; Rashidi, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-02-01

    Methotrexate (MTX), a folic acid derivative, is a potent anticancer used for treatment of different malignancies, but possible initiation of drug resistance to MTX by cancer cells has limited its applications. Nanoconjugates (NCs) of MTX to quantum dots (QDs) may favour the cellular uptake via folate receptors (FRs)-mediated endocytosis that circumvents the efflux functions of cancer cells. We synthesised MTX-conjugated l-cysteine capped CdSe QDs (MTX-QD nanoconjugates) and evaluated their internalisation and cytotoxicity in the KB cells with/without resistancy to MTX. The NCs were fully characterised by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and optical spectroscopy. Upon conjugation with MTX, the photoluminescence (PL) properties of QDs altered, while an obvious quenching in PL of QDs was observed after physical mixing. The MTX-QD nanoconjugates efficiently internalised into the cancer cells, and induced markedly high cytotoxicity (IC50, 12.0?g/mL) in the MTX-resistant KB cells as compared to the free MTX molecules (IC50,105.0?g/mL), whereas, these values were respectively about 7.0 and 0.6?g/mL in the MTX-sensitive KB cells. Based on these findings, the MTX-QD nanoconjugates are proposed for the targeted therapy of MTX-resistant cancers, which may provide an improved outcome in the relapsed FR-overexpressing cancers. PMID:26176269

  5. Synthesis, COSMO-RS analysis and optical properties of surface modified ZnS quantum dots using ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahid, Robina; Muhammad, Nawshad; Gonfa, Girma; Toprak, Muhammet S.; Muhammed, Mamoun

    2015-10-01

    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized using the microwave assisted ionic liquid (MAIL) route. Three ionic liquids (ILs), namely, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM]BF4]), trihexyl(tetradecyl) phosphonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) amide ([P6,6,6,14][TSFA]) and trihexyl(tetradecyl) phosphonium chloride ([P6,6,6,14][Cl]) were used in this study. The size and structure of the QDs were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern, respectively. The synthesized QDs were of wurtzite crystalline structure with size less than 5 nm. The QDs were more uniformly distributed while using the phosponium based ILs as a reaction medium during synthesis. The optical properties were investigated by UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) emission spectroscopy. The optical properties of QDs showed the quantum confinement effect in their absorption and the effect of cation and anion structural moiety was observed on their bandedge emission. The QDs emission intensity was measured higher for [P6,6,6,14][Cl] due to their better dispersion as well as high charge density of Cl anion. The capability of the ILs in stabilizing the QDs was interpreted by density functional theory (DFT) computations. The obtained results are in good agreement with the theoretical prediction.

  6. One-step colloidal synthesis of biocompatible water-soluble ZnS quantum dot/chitosan nanoconjugates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals with great prospective for use in biomedical and environmental applications. Nonetheless, eliminating the potential cytotoxicity of the QDs made with heavy metals is still a challenge facing the research community. Thus, the aim of this work was to develop a novel facile route for synthesising biocompatible QDs employing carbohydrate ligands in aqueous colloidal chemistry with optical properties tuned by pH. The synthesis of ZnS QDs capped by chitosan was performed using a single-step aqueous colloidal process at room temperature. The nanobioconjugates were extensively characterised by several techniques, and the results demonstrated that the average size of ZnS nanocrystals and their fluorescent properties were influenced by the pH during the synthesis. Hence, novel 'cadmium-free biofunctionalised systems based on ZnS QDs capped by chitosan were successfully developed exhibiting luminescent activity that may be used in a large number of possible applications, such as probes in biology, medicine and pharmacy. PMID:24308633

  7. One-step colloidal synthesis of biocompatible water-soluble ZnS quantum dot/chitosan nanoconjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanery, Fbio P.; Mansur, Alexandra AP; Mansur, Herman S.

    2013-12-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals with great prospective for use in biomedical and environmental applications. Nonetheless, eliminating the potential cytotoxicity of the QDs made with heavy metals is still a challenge facing the research community. Thus, the aim of this work was to develop a novel facile route for synthesising biocompatible QDs employing carbohydrate ligands in aqueous colloidal chemistry with optical properties tuned by pH. The synthesis of ZnS QDs capped by chitosan was performed using a single-step aqueous colloidal process at room temperature. The nanobioconjugates were extensively characterised by several techniques, and the results demonstrated that the average size of ZnS nanocrystals and their fluorescent properties were influenced by the pH during the synthesis. Hence, novel 'cadmium-free' biofunctionalised systems based on ZnS QDs capped by chitosan were successfully developed exhibiting luminescent activity that may be used in a large number of possible applications, such as probes in biology, medicine and pharmacy.

  8. What future for quantum dot-based light emitters?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurmikko, Arto

    2015-12-01

    Synthesis of semiconductor colloidal quantum dots by low-cost, solution-based methods has produced an abundance of basic science. Can these materials be transformed to high-performance light emitters to disrupt established photonics technologies, particularly semiconductor lasers?

  9. Synthesis of Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Quantum Dots at Low Temperature for Electrochemical Sensing Trinitrotoluene.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhewei; Li, Fumin; Wu, Ping; Ji, Lijuan; Zhang, Hui; Cai, Chenxin; Gervasio, Dominic F

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) are synthesized at low temperature as a new catalyst allowing electrochemical detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). N-GQDs are made by an oxidative ultrasonication of graphene oxide (GO) forming nanometer-sized species, which are then chemically reduced and nitrogen doped by reacting with hydrazine. The as-synthesized N-GQDs have an average diameter of ?2.5 nm with an N/C atomic ratio of up to ?6.4%. To detect TNT, TNT is first accumulated on N-GQDs modified glassy carbon (N-GQDs/GC) electrode by holding the electrode at a 0 V versus Ag/AgCl for 150 s in an aqueous TNT solution. Next, the N-GQDs/GC electrode with accumulated TNT is transferred to a fresh PBS solution (0.1 M, pH 7.0, without TNT), where the TNT reduction current at -0.36 V versus Ag/AgCl in a linear scan voltammogram (LSV) shows a linear response to TNT concentration in the aqueous solution from 1 to 400 ppb, with a correlation coefficient of 0.999, a detection limit of 0.2 ppb at a signal/noise (S/N) of 3, and a detection sensitivity of 363 7 mA mM(-1) cm(-2). The detection limit of 0.2 ppb of TNT for this new method is much lower than 2 ppb set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water. Therefore, N-GQDs allow an electrochemical method for assaying TNT in drinking water to determine if levels of TNT are safe or not. PMID:26545150

  10. Quantum Dots in Cell Biology

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Margarida M.

    2011-01-01

    Quantum dots are semiconductor nanocrystals that have broad excitation spectra, narrow emission spectra, tunable emission peaks, long fluorescence lifetimes, negligible photobleaching, and ability to be conjugated to proteins, making them excellent probes for bioimaging applications. Here the author reviews the advantages and disadvantages of using quantum dots in bioimaging applications, such as single-particle tracking and fluorescence resonance energy transfer, to study receptor-mediated transport. PMID:21378278

  11. Large-scale synthesis of N-doped carbon quantum dots and their phosphorescence properties in a polyurethane matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jing; Zou, Rui; Zhang, Jie; Li, Wang; Zhang, Liqun; Yue, Dongmei

    2016-02-01

    An easy, large-scale synthesis of N-doped carbon quantum dots (CQDs) was developed by using isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) as a single carbon source under microwave irradiation. The yield of raw N-doped CQDs was about 83%, which is suitable for industrial-scale production. A detailed formation mechanism for N-doped CQDs involving self-polymerization and condensation of IPDI was demonstrated. Moreover, the obtained N-doped CQDs can be homogeneously dispersed in various organic monomers and do not need toxic organic solvents as dispersing agents. This advantage expands the range of applications of CQDs in composites. The N-doped CQDs dispersed in polyurethane (PU) matrixes emit not only fluorescence but also phosphorescence and delayed fluorescence at room temperature upon excitation with ultraviolet (UV) light. Furthermore, the phosphorescence of CQD/PU composites is sensitive to oxygen and therefore, the obtained-CQDs could be exploited in the development of novel oxygen sensors.An easy, large-scale synthesis of N-doped carbon quantum dots (CQDs) was developed by using isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) as a single carbon source under microwave irradiation. The yield of raw N-doped CQDs was about 83%, which is suitable for industrial-scale production. A detailed formation mechanism for N-doped CQDs involving self-polymerization and condensation of IPDI was demonstrated. Moreover, the obtained N-doped CQDs can be homogeneously dispersed in various organic monomers and do not need toxic organic solvents as dispersing agents. This advantage expands the range of applications of CQDs in composites. The N-doped CQDs dispersed in polyurethane (PU) matrixes emit not only fluorescence but also phosphorescence and delayed fluorescence at room temperature upon excitation with ultraviolet (UV) light. Furthermore, the phosphorescence of CQD/PU composites is sensitive to oxygen and therefore, the obtained-CQDs could be exploited in the development of novel oxygen sensors. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08516k

  12. Synthesis, solubilization, and surface functionalization of highly fluorescent quantum dots for cellular targeting through a small molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, Justin F.

    To achieve long-term fluorescence imaging with quantum dots (QDs), a CdSe core/shell must first be synthesized. The synthesis of bright CdSe QDs is not trivial and as a consequence, the role of surfactant in nucleation and growth was investigated. It was found that the type of surfactant used, either phosphonic or fatty acid, played a pivotal role in the size of the CdSe core. The study of surfactant on CdSe synthesis, ultimately led to an electrical passivation method that utilized a short-chained phosphonic acid and highly reactive organometallic precursors to achieve high quantum yield (QY) as has been previously described. The synthesis of QDs using organometallic precursors and a phosphonic acid for passivation resulted in 4 out of 9 batches of QDs achieving QYs greater than 50% and 8 out of 9 batches with QYs greater than 35%. The synthesis of CdSe QDs was done in organic solutions rendering the surface of the particle hydrophobic. To perform cell-targeting experiments, QDs must be transferred to water. The transfer of QDs to water was successfully accomplished by using single acyl chain lipids. A systematic study of different lipid combinations and coatings demonstrated that 20-40 mol% single acyl chained lipids were able to transfer QDs to water resulting in monodispersed, stable QDs without adversely affecting the QY. The advantage to water solubilization using single acyl chain lipids is that the QD have a hydrodynamic radius less than 15 nm, QYs that can exceed 50% and additional surface functionalization can be down using the reactive sites incorporated into the lipid bilayer. QDs that are bright and stable in water were studied for the purpose of targeting G protein-coupled Receptors (GPCR). GPCRs are transmembrane receptors that internalize extracellular cues, and thus mediate signal transduction. The cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Receptor 1 of the model organism Dictyostelium disodium was the receptor of interest. The Halo protein, a genetically modified dehalogenase, was added to the N-terminus of the cAR1 receptor without resulting in a phenotype. The Halo protein fused to cAR1 was then shown to bind an organic fluorophore by the cleavage of a chloroalkane bond. Though QDs functionalized with a chloroalkane were able to bind free Halo protein, no specific binding to the Halo protein fused to cAR1 was observed.

  13. Transport through graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güttinger, J.; Molitor, F.; Stampfer, C.; Schnez, S.; Jacobsen, A.; Dröscher, S.; Ihn, T.; Ensslin, K.

    2012-12-01

    We review transport experiments on graphene quantum dots and narrow graphene constrictions. In a quantum dot, electrons are confined in all lateral dimensions, offering the possibility for detailed investigation and controlled manipulation of individual quantum systems. The recently isolated two-dimensional carbon allotrope graphene is an interesting host to study quantum phenomena, due to its novel electronic properties and the expected weak interaction of the electron spin with the material. Graphene quantum dots are fabricated by etching mono-layer flakes into small islands (diameter 60-350 nm) with narrow connections to contacts (width 20-75 nm), serving as tunneling barriers for transport spectroscopy. Electron confinement in graphene quantum dots is observed by measuring Coulomb blockade and transport through excited states, a manifestation of quantum confinement. Measurements in a magnetic field perpendicular to the sample plane allowed to identify the regime with only a few charge carriers in the dot (electron-hole transition), and the crossover to the formation of the graphene specific zero-energy Landau level at high fields. After rotation of the sample into parallel magnetic field orientation, Zeeman spin splitting with a g-factor of g ≈ 2 is measured. The filling sequence of subsequent spin states is similar to what was found in GaAs and related to the non-negligible influence of exchange interactions among the electrons.

  14. Liquid-phase plasma synthesis of silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix for lithium battery anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Ying; Yu, Hang; Li, Haitao; Ming, Hai; Pan, Keming; Huang, Hui; Liu, Yang; Kang, Zhenhui

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix (SiQDs/C) were fabricated. • SiQDs/C exhibits excellent battery performance as anode materials with high specific capacity. • The good performance was attributed to the marriage of small sized SiQDs and carbon. - Abstract: Silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix (SiQDs/C) nanocomposites were prepared by a novel liquid-phase plasma assisted synthetic process. The SiQDs/C nanocomposites were demonstrated to show high specific capacity, good cycling life and high coulmbic efficiency as anode materials for lithium-ion battery.

  15. Quantum Dots in a Polymer Composite: A Convenient Particle-in-a-Box Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Charles V.; Giffin, Guinevere A.

    2008-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are at the forefront of materials science chemistry with applications in biological imaging and photovoltaic technologies. We have developed a simple laboratory experiment to measure the quantum-dot size from fluorescence spectra. A major roadblock of quantum-dot based exercises is the particle synthesis and handling;…

  16. Quantum Dots in a Polymer Composite: A Convenient Particle-in-a-Box Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Charles V.; Giffin, Guinevere A.

    2008-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are at the forefront of materials science chemistry with applications in biological imaging and photovoltaic technologies. We have developed a simple laboratory experiment to measure the quantum-dot size from fluorescence spectra. A major roadblock of quantum-dot based exercises is the particle synthesis and handling;

  17. Chiral Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaz, Milan

    2015-03-01

    Chiral optically active semiconductor quantum dots (chiral QDs) represent appealing building blocks for assembly of nanomaterials with modular structural, electronic and chiroptical properties. Chirality in QDs can originate from several distinct phenomena that can concurrently modulate the observed chiroptical and optical properties (e.g. chiral surface, orbital hybridization). We will use our experimental and theoretical data to elaborate on the origin of capping ligand induced chirality in achiral colloidal QDs. We will present a simple method to prepare chiral QDs by post-synthetic chiral ligand functionalization of achiral QDs. Importantly, capping ligands can be used not only to induce but also to control chiroptical activity of QDs. Enantiomers of chiral ligands induce mirror-image chirality in QDs, and chiroptical properties of QDs can be further modulated by the chemical structure of capping ligands as well as the size of QDs. This work was supported by by U.S. Department of Energy (Award DE-FG02-10ER46728), National Science Foundation (awards CBET-1403947 and DGE-0948027) and University of Wyoming.

  18. Optically active quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerard, Valerie; Govan, Joseph; Loudon, Alexander; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.; Gun'ko, Yurii K.

    2015-10-01

    The main goal of our research is to develop new types of technologically important optically active quantum dot (QD) based materials, study their properties and explore their biological applications. For the first time chiral II-VI QDs have been prepared by us using microwave induced heating with the racemic (Rac), D- and L-enantiomeric forms of penicillamine as stabilisers. Circular dichroism (CD) studies of these QDs have shown that D- and L-penicillamine stabilised particles produced mirror image CD spectra, while the particles prepared with a Rac mixture showed only a weak signal. It was also demonstrated that these QDs show very broad emission bands between 400 and 700 nm due to defects or trap states on the surfaces of the nanocrystals. These QDs have demonstrated highly specific chiral recognition of various biological species including aminoacids. The utilisation of chiral stabilisers also allowed the preparation of new water soluble white emitting CdS nano-tetrapods, which demonstrated circular dichroism in the band-edge region of the spectrum. Biological testing of chiral CdS nanotetrapods displayed a chiral bias for an uptake of the D- penicillamine stabilised nano-tetrapods by cancer cells. It is expected that this research will open new horizons in the chemistry of chiral nanomaterials and their application in nanobiotechnology, medicine and optical chemo- and bio-sensing.

  19. Langmuir-Blodgett thin films of quantum dots: synthesis, surface modification, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) studies.

    PubMed

    Gole, Anand; Jana, Nikhil R; Selvan, S Tamil; Ying, Jackie Y

    2008-08-01

    We describe herein studies on as-prepared hydrophobic ZnS-CdSe quantum dots (QDs) at the air-water interface. Surface pressure-area (pi-A) isotherms have been used to study the monolayer behavior. Uniform, lamellar multilayer thin films of QDs were deposited by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. The role of two different surfactant systems commonly employed in the synthesis of these QDs (trioctylphosphine oxide-octadecylamine (TOPO-ODA) system and trioctylphosphine oxide-tetradecylphosphonic acid (TOPO-TDPA) system) on the monolayer behavior and the quality of thin films produced has been investigated. The thin films were characterized by quartz crystal microgravimetry (QCM), contact angle measurements, fluorescence spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These QD films were further modified by an amphiphilic polymer, poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-tetradecene) (PMA). The hydrophobic interaction between the polymers and the surfactants attached to the QDs drove the self-assembly process. The carboxylic acid functional groups in the polymer were also used to immobilize avidin. We have demonstrated a proof of concept for the biosensing strategy wherein the avidin-coated QD films attracted biotinylated gold nanoparticles, resulting in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) quenching of the thin films. PMID:18590286

  20. SnS Thin Film Prepared by Pyrolytic Synthesis as an Efficient Counter Electrode in Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaoyan; Shi, Chengwu; Zhang, Yanru; Liu, Feng; Fang, Xiaqin; Zhu, Jun

    2015-09-01

    The SnS thin films were successfully prepared by pyrolysis procedure for the counter electrodes in quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) using the methanol solution containing stannous chloride dihydrate (0.40 mol x L(-1)) and thiourea (0.40 mol x L(-1)) as precursor solution at 300 degrees C in the air atmosphere. The electrochemical catalytic activity of the SnS thin films prepared by pyrolytic synthesis for the redox couple of S(2-)/S(2-) was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The result revealed that the charge transfer resistance of the as-prepared SnS thin film with the dipping-heating cycles of 5 was 106.4 ? and the corresponded QDSCs gave a short circuit photocurrent density of 8.69 mA x cm(-2), open circuit voltage of 0.42 V, and fill factor of 0.43, yielding the photoelectric conversion efficiency of 1.57%, under the illumination of simulated AM 1.5 sunlight (100 mWx cm(-2)). PMID:26716249

  1. Preparation of chiral quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Moloney, Mchel P; Govan, Joseph; Loudon, Alexander; Mukhina, Maria; Gun'ko, Yurii K

    2015-04-01

    Chiral quantum dots (QDs) are expected to have a range of potential applications in photocatalysis, as specific antibacterial and cytotoxic drug-delivery agents, in assays, as sensors in asymmetric synthesis and enantioseparation, and as fluorescent chiral nanoprobes in biomedical and analytical technologies. In this protocol, we present procedures for the synthesis of chiral optically active QD nanostructures and their quality control using spectroscopic studies and transmission electron microscopy imaging. We closely examine various synthetic routes for the preparation of chiral CdS, CdSe, CdTe and doped ZnS QDs, as well as of chiral CdS nanotetrapods. Most of these nanomaterials can be produced by a very fast (70 s) microwave-induced heating of the corresponding precursors in the presence of D- or L-chiral stabilizing coating ligands (stabilizers), which are crucial to generating optically active chiral QDs. Alternatively, chiral QDs can also be produced via the conventional hot injection technique, followed by a phase transfer in the presence of an appropriate chiral stabilizer. We demonstrate that the properties, structure and behavior of chiral QD nanostructures, as determined by various spectroscopic techniques, strongly depend on chiral stabilizers and that the chiral effects induced by them can be controlled via synthetic procedures. PMID:25741991

  2. Peptide Coated Quantum Dots for Biological Applications

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Gopal; Pinaud, Fabien; Tsay, James; Li, Jack J.; Bentolila, Laurent A.; Michalet, Xavier; Weiss, Shimon

    2011-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDOTs) have been widely recognized by the scientific community and the biotechnology industry, as witnessed by the exponential growth of this field in the past several years. We describe the synthesis and characterization of visible and near infrared QDotsa critical step for engineering organic molecules like proteins and peptides for building nanocomposite materials with multifunctional properties suitable for biological applications. PMID:17181021

  3. Growth and Characterization of Quantum Dots and Quantum Dots Devices

    SciTech Connect

    CEDERBERG, JEFFREY G.; BIEFELD, ROBERT M.; SCHNEIDER, H.C.; CHOW, WENG W.

    2003-04-01

    Quantum dot nanostructures were investigated experimentally and theoretically for potential applications for optoelectronic devices. We have developed the foundation to produce state-of-the-art compound semiconductor nanostructures in a variety of materials: In(AsSb) on GaAs, GaSb on GaAs, and In(AsSb) on GaSb. These materials cover a range of energies from 1.2 to 0.7 eV. We have observed a surfactant effect in InAsSb nanostructure growth. Our theoretical efforts have developed techniques to look at the optical effects induced by many-body Coulombic interactions of carriers in active regions composed of quantum dot nanostructures. Significant deviations of the optical properties from those predicted by the ''atom-like'' quantum dot picture were discovered. Some of these deviations, in particular, those relating to the real part of the optical susceptibility, have since been observed in experiments.

  4. Size-controlled synthesis of SnO2 quantum dots and their gas-sensing performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jianping; Zhao, Ruihua; Xie, Yajuan; Li, Jinping

    2015-08-01

    Tin dioxide quantum dots (TQDs) with controllable size were synthesized by changing the amount of alkaline reagent in the hydrothermal process. The gas-sensing properties were investigated by operating chemoresistor type sensor. The morphology and structure were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning/transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis and Raman spectrometry. The as-synthesized SnO2 shows the characteristics of quantum dots and the narrowest size distribution is about 2-3 nm. The gas-sensing results indicate that the responses are strongly dependent on the size of quantum dots. TQDs with different sizes exhibit different sensitivities and selectivities to volatile toxic chemicals such as aldehyde, acetone, methanol, ethanol and amine. Especially, when the sensors are exposed to 100 ppm triethylamine (TEA), the sensing response value of TQDs with small size is two times higher than that of the large-size TQDs. The maximum response values of TQDs to 1 ppm and 100 ppm TEA are 15 and 153, respectively. The response time is 1 s and the recovery time is 47 s upon exposure to 1 ppm TEA. The results suggest that it is an effective method by regulating the size of SnO2 quantum dots to detect low-concentration hazardous volatile compounds.

  5. Two-step synthesis of highly emissive C/ZnO hybridized quantum dots with a broad visible photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Liangjie; Mei, Shiliang; Chen, Qiuhang; Zhang, Wanlu; Zhang, Jie; Zhu, Jiatao; Chen, Guoping; Guo, Ruiqian

    2016-02-01

    In situ growth of ZnO layer on the surface of carbon dots was realized via a two-step method, which resulted in an enhancement of the broad visible emission with a high quantum yield. Influence of the refluxing time, the temperature and the oleylamine/octadecene ratio was investigated to address the key factors on the preparation of the carbon dots. Under the optimal conditions, the carbon dots with an average diameter of 3.4 ± 0.4 nm and a photoluminescence quantum yield of 29.3% were achieved. Remarkable improvements of photoluminescence were achieved by the hybridization of the ZnO layer, which can eliminate the surface-trap from the C cores and form the new centers of emission. The synergistic effect arising from the C/ZnO hybridized structure obviously broadened the visible emission and enhanced their photoluminescence quantum yield from 29.3% to 47.3%. The as-prepared highly emissive quantum dots exhibited a broad and stable emission with the Commission Internationaled 'E' clairage chromaticity coordinate of (0.23, 0.34), which could offer a promising solution for the future-generation white light emitting diodes.

  6. Green route synthesis of high quality CdSe quantum dots for applications in light emitting devices

    SciTech Connect

    Bera, Susnata; Singh, Shashi B.; Ray, S.K.

    2012-05-15

    Investigation was made on light emitting diodes fabricated using CdSe quantum dots. CdSe quantum dots were synthesized chemically using olive oil as the capping agent, instead of toxic phosphine. Room temperature photoluminescence investigation showed sharp 1st excitonic emission peak at 568 nm. Bi-layer organic/inorganic (P3HT/CdSe) hybrid light emitting devices were fabricated by solution process. The electroluminescence study showed low turn on voltage ({approx}2.2 V) .The EL peak intensity was found to increase by increasing the operating current. - Graphical abstract: Light emitting diode was fabricated using CdSe quantum dots using olive oil as the capping agent, instead of toxic phosphine. Bi-layer organic/inorganic (P3HT/CdSe) hybrid light emitting device shows strong electroluminescence in the range 630-661 nm. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CdSe Quantum dots were synthesized using olive oil as the capping agent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Light emitting device was fabricated using CdSe QDs/P3HT polymer heterojunction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The I-V characteristics study showed low turn on voltage at {approx}2.2 V. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The EL peak intensity increases with increasing the operating current.

  7. Quantum dot quantum cascade infrared photodetector

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xue-Jiao; Zhai, Shen-Qiang; Zhuo, Ning; Liu, Jun-Qi E-mail: fqliu@semi.ac.cn; Liu, Feng-Qi E-mail: fqliu@semi.ac.cn; Liu, Shu-Man; Wang, Zhan-Guo

    2014-04-28

    We demonstrate an InAs quantum dot quantum cascade infrared photodetector operating at room temperature with a peak detection wavelength of 4.3 μm. The detector shows sensitive photoresponse for normal-incidence light, which is attributed to an intraband transition of the quantum dots and the following transfer of excited electrons on a cascade of quantum levels. The InAs quantum dots for the infrared absorption were formed by making use of self-assembled quantum dots in the Stranski–Krastanov growth mode and two-step strain-compensation design based on InAs/GaAs/InGaAs/InAlAs heterostructure, while the following extraction quantum stairs formed by LO-phonon energy are based on a strain-compensated InGaAs/InAlAs chirped superlattice. Johnson noise limited detectivities of 3.64 × 10{sup 11} and 4.83 × 10{sup 6} Jones at zero bias were obtained at 80 K and room temperature, respectively. Due to the low dark current and distinct photoresponse up to room temperature, this device can form high temperature imaging.

  8. Chiral Graphene Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Nozomu; Wang, Yichun; Elvati, Paolo; Qu, Zhi-Bei; Kim, Kyoungwon; Jiang, Shuang; Baumeister, Elizabeth; Lee, Jaewook; Yeom, Bongjun; Bahng, Joong Hwan; Lee, Jaebeom; Violi, Angela; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2016-02-23

    Chiral nanostructures from metals and semiconductors attract wide interest as components for polarization-enabled optoelectronic devices. Similarly to other fields of nanotechnology, graphene-based materials can greatly enrich physical and chemical phenomena associated with optical and electronic properties of chiral nanostructures and facilitate their applications in biology as well as other areas. Here, we report that covalent attachment of l/d-cysteine moieties to the edges of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) leads to their helical buckling due to chiral interactions at the "crowded" edges. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the GQDs revealed bands at ca. 210-220 and 250-265 nm that changed their signs for different chirality of the cysteine edge ligands. The high-energy chiroptical peaks at 210-220 nm correspond to the hybridized molecular orbitals involving the chiral center of amino acids and atoms of graphene edges. Diverse experimental and modeling data, including density functional theory calculations of CD spectra with probabilistic distribution of GQD isomers, indicate that the band at 250-265 nm originates from the three-dimensional twisting of the graphene sheet and can be attributed to the chiral excitonic transitions. The positive and negative low-energy CD bands correspond to the left and right helicity of GQDs, respectively. Exposure of liver HepG2 cells to l/d-GQDs reveals their general biocompatibility and a noticeable difference in the toxicity of the stereoisomers. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrated that d-GQDs have a stronger tendency to accumulate within the cellular membrane than l-GQDs. Emergence of nanoscale chirality in GQDs decorated with biomolecules is expected to be a general stereochemical phenomenon for flexible sheets of nanomaterials. PMID:26743467

  9. Quantum Dots on Silicon Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Hyuk Ju; Higgins, Jeremy; Huang, Pinray; Streifer, Jeremy; Hamers, Robert; Jin, Song; Eriksson, Mark

    2007-03-01

    Silicon nanowires have single-crystal structure, well-controlled doping, and can be integrated into devices using either directed assembly and dielectrophoresis or electron-beam lithography and lift-off. Such nanowires, with nanometer size in two dimensions, provide advantages for the fabrication of ultra-small silicon quantum dots with potentially long spin coherence times. We present methods for the fabrication of silicon nanowire-based single electron transistors, and we show results of both room temperature and low temperature transport measurements. The metal electrode structure and annealing process have been intensively investigated to obtain the necessary contact properties. Either metal/nanowire contacts or electrostatically depleted regions have been used for tunneling barriers for quantum dots. Coulomb blockade has been demonstrated successfully, showing 1.3 aF and 1.1 meV for the gate capacitance and the charging energy respectively. Studies of double quantum dots and spin-dependent effects are ongoing.

  10. Quantum dots in graphene-like materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herath, Thakshila; Apalkov, Vadym

    2015-03-01

    We study numerically the electron states in silicene and germanene quantum dots within the effective low energy model of silicene and germanene. The quantum dots are realize through spatial variation of perpendicular electric field, i.e., bias voltage. The energy spectra of such quantum dots are obtained for different parameters of the dots, which are the size of the dot and the strength of external electric field. For cylindrically symmetric spatial profile of electric field, the electron states of the dot are characterized by z-component of the angular momentum. Due to strong spin-orbit interactions in such buckled graphene-like materials, the states in the quantum dots have unique spin texture, which is more pronounced for germanene quantum dots. The dependence of spin polarization of electron states in the quantum dots on the strength of electric field is also obtained.

  11. A colloidal quantum dot spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Bao, Jie; Bawendi, Moungi G

    2015-07-01

    Spectroscopy is carried out in almost every field of science, whenever light interacts with matter. Although sophisticated instruments with impressive performance characteristics are available, much effort continues to be invested in the development of miniaturized, cheap and easy-to-use systems. Current microspectrometer designs mostly use interference filters and interferometric optics that limit their photon efficiency, resolution and spectral range. Here we show that many of these limitations can be overcome by replacing interferometric optics with a two-dimensional absorptive filter array composed of colloidal quantum dots. Instead of measuring different bands of a spectrum individually after introducing temporal or spatial separations with gratings or interference-based narrowband filters, a colloidal quantum dot spectrometer measures a light spectrum based on the wavelength multiplexing principle: multiple spectral bands are encoded and detected simultaneously with one filter and one detector, respectively, with the array format allowing the process to be efficiently repeated many times using different filters with different encoding so that sufficient information is obtained to enable computational reconstruction of the target spectrum. We illustrate the performance of such a quantum dot microspectrometer, made from 195 different types of quantum dots with absorption features that cover a spectral range of 300 nanometres, by measuring shifts in spectral peak positions as small as one nanometre. Given this performance, demonstrable avenues for further improvement, the ease with which quantum dots can be processed and integrated, and their numerous finely tuneable bandgaps that cover a broad spectral range, we expect that quantum dot microspectrometers will be useful in applications where minimizing size, weight, cost and complexity of the spectrometer are critical. PMID:26135449

  12. A colloidal quantum dot spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Jie; Bawendi, Moungi G.

    2015-07-01

    Spectroscopy is carried out in almost every field of science, whenever light interacts with matter. Although sophisticated instruments with impressive performance characteristics are available, much effort continues to be invested in the development of miniaturized, cheap and easy-to-use systems. Current microspectrometer designs mostly use interference filters and interferometric optics that limit their photon efficiency, resolution and spectral range. Here we show that many of these limitations can be overcome by replacing interferometric optics with a two-dimensional absorptive filter array composed of colloidal quantum dots. Instead of measuring different bands of a spectrum individually after introducing temporal or spatial separations with gratings or interference-based narrowband filters, a colloidal quantum dot spectrometer measures a light spectrum based on the wavelength multiplexing principle: multiple spectral bands are encoded and detected simultaneously with one filter and one detector, respectively, with the array format allowing the process to be efficiently repeated many times using different filters with different encoding so that sufficient information is obtained to enable computational reconstruction of the target spectrum. We illustrate the performance of such a quantum dot microspectrometer, made from 195 different types of quantum dots with absorption features that cover a spectral range of 300 nanometres, by measuring shifts in spectral peak positions as small as one nanometre. Given this performance, demonstrable avenues for further improvement, the ease with which quantum dots can be processed and integrated, and their numerous finely tuneable bandgaps that cover a broad spectral range, we expect that quantum dot microspectrometers will be useful in applications where minimizing size, weight, cost and complexity of the spectrometer are critical.

  13. Controlled synthesis and optical properties of tunable CdSe quantum dots and effect of pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnesh, R. K.; Mehata, Mohan Singh

    2015-09-01

    Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (Q-dots) were prepared by using non-coordinating solvent octadecene instead of coordinating agent trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO). Reaction processes were carried out at various temperatures of 240, 260, 280 and 300 C under nitrogen atmosphere. The prepared CdSe Q-dots which are highly stable show uniform size distribution and tunable optical absorption and photoluminescence (PL). The growth temperature significantly influenced the particle size; spectral behavior, energy band gap and PL intensity and the full width at half maxima (FWHM). Three different methods were employed to determine the particle size and the average particle size of the CdSe Q-dots is 3.2 - 4.3 nm, grown at different temperatures. In addition, stable and mono-dispersed water soluble CdSe Q-dots were prepared by the ligand exchange technique. Thus, the water soluble Q-dots, which are sensitive to the basic pH may be important for biological applications.

  14. Hydrophobin-Encapsulated Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Shohei; Sandiford, Lydia; Cooper, Maggie; Rosca, Elena V; Ahmad Khanbeigi, Raha; Fairclough, Simon M; Thanou, Maya; Dailey, Lea Ann; Wohlleben, Wendel; von Vacano, Bernhard; T M de Rosales, Rafael; Dobson, Peter J; Owen, Dylan M; Green, Mark

    2016-02-24

    The phase transfer of quantum dots to water is an important aspect of preparing nanomaterials that are suitable for biological applications, and although numerous reports describe ligand exchange, very few describe efficient ligand encapsulation techniques. In this report, we not only report a new method of phase transferring quantum dots (QDs) using an amphiphilic protein (hydrophobin) but also describe the advantages of using a biological molecule with available functional groups and their use in imaging cancer cells in vivo and other imaging applications. PMID:26824334

  15. Quantum dot/glycol chitosan fluorescent nanoconjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansur, Alexandra AP; Mansur, Herman S.

    2015-04-01

    In this study, novel carbohydrate-based nanoconjugates combining chemically modified chitosan with semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) were designed and synthesised via single-step aqueous route at room temperature. Glycol chitosan (G-CHI) was used as the capping ligand aiming to improve the water solubility of the nanoconjugates to produce stable and biocompatible colloidal systems. UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to characterise the synthesis and the relative stability of biopolymer-capped semiconductor nanocrystals. The results clearly demonstrated that the glycol chitosan derivative was remarkably effective at nucleating and stabilising semiconductor CdS quantum dots in aqueous suspensions under acidic, neutral, and alkaline media with an average size of approximately 2.5 nm and a fluorescent activity in the visible range of the spectra.

  16. One step, microwave assisted green synthesis of biocompatible carbon quantum dots and their composites with [?-PW12O403-] for visible light photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahasrabudhe, Atharva; Pant, Shashank; Chatti, Manjunath; Maiti, Binoy; De, Priyadarsi; Roy, Soumyajit

    2014-04-01

    We report a simple, rapid and green route for synthesis of fluorescent carbon quantum dots (CQDs) by microwave assisted pyrolysis method using polyleucine polymer (Boc-L-Leu-HEMA) as precursor and self-passivating agent. The as synthesized CQDs were found to possess low cytotoxicity, thus making them suitable candidates for bioimaging and bio-labelling. Moreover, nanocomposites of as prepared CQDs with [?-PW12O403-] polyoxometalate were synthesized and were shown to possess excellent photocatalytic properties under visible light towards degradation of organic dye pollutants. Based on the control experiments, a suitable mechanism has been proposed to explain the remarkable photoactivity of the CQD/[?-PW12O403-] composites.

  17. The synthesis of highly water-dispersible and targeted CdS quantum dots and it is used for bioimaging by confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Guangcheng; Yan, Miaomiao; Ma, Liying; Zhang, Huaibin

    2012-01-01

    Synthesis of a highly dispersed hydrophilic CdS nanocrystals and their use as fluorescence labeling for live cell imaging is reported here. By carefully manipulating the surface of CdS nanocrystals, the dispersions of CdS-MAA-PEI-FA nanocrystals with high photostability is prepared. The receptor-mediated delivery of folic acid conjugated quantum dots into folate-receptor-positive cell lines such as CBRH7919 liver cancer cells was demonstrated by confocal microscopy. In the future, the further modified CdS nanoparticles can be used for the tissue imaging in vivo studies.

  18. Optical Fiber Sensing Using Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Pedro; Martins, Manuel António; Trindade, Tito; Santos, José Luís; Farahi, Faramarz

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in the application of semiconductor nanocrystals, or quantum dots, as biochemical sensors are reviewed. Quantum dots have unique optical properties that make them promising alternatives to traditional dyes in many luminescence based bioanalytical techniques. An overview of the more relevant progresses in the application of quantum dots as biochemical probes is addressed. Special focus will be given to configurations where the sensing dots are incorporated in solid membranes and immobilized in optical fibers or planar waveguide platforms.

  19. Room temperature synthesis of PbSe quantum dots in aqueous solution: stabilization by interactions with ligands.

    PubMed

    Primera-Pedrozo, Oliva M; Arslan, Zikri; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2012-02-21

    An aqueous route of synthesis is described for rapid synthesis of lead selenide quantum dots (PbSe QDs) at room temperature in an attempt to produce water-soluble and stable nanocrystals. Several thiol-ligands, including thioglycolic acid (TGA), thioglycerol (TGC), 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), 2-mercaptoethylamine hydrochloride (MEA), 6-mercaptohexanoic acid (MHA), and l-cysteine (l-cys), were used for capping/stabilization of PbSe QDs. The effects of the ligands on the stability of PbSe QDs were evaluated for a period of two months at room temperature under normal light conditions and at 4 C in the dark. The TGA- and MEA-capped QDs exhibited the highest stability prior to purification, almost two months when kept in the dark at 4 C. However, the stability of TGA-capped QDs was reduced substantially after purification to about 5 days under the same conditions, while MEA-capped QDs did not show any significant instability. The stabilization energies of Pb-thiolate complexes determined by theoretical DFT simulations supported the experimental results. The PbSe QDs capped with TGA, MPA and MEA were successfully purified and re-dispersed in water, while those stabilized with TGC, MHA and l-cys aggregated during purification attempts. The purified PbSe QDs possess very susceptible surface resulting in poor stability for about 30-45 min after re-dispersion in water. In the presence of an excess of free ligand, the stability increased up to 5 days for TGA-capped QDs at pH 7.19, 9-12 days for MPA-capped QDs at pH 7.3-7.5 and 45-47 days for MEA-capped QDs at pH 7.35. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that the QDs possess a cubic rock salt structure with the most intense peaks located at 2? = 25.3 (200) and 2? = 29.2 (100). TEM images showed that the size of the QDs ranges between 5 and 10 nm. ICP-MS results revealed that Pb?:?Se ratios were 1.26, 1.28, 3.85, 1.18, and 1.31 for the QDs capped with TGA, MPA, MEA, l-cys, and TGC, respectively. The proposed method is inexpensive, simple and utilizes environmentally friendly chemicals and solvents. PMID:22273747

  20. Room temperature synthesis of PbSe quantum dots in aqueous solution: stabilization by interactions with ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primera-Pedrozo, Oliva M.; Arslan, Zikri; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2012-02-01

    An aqueous route of synthesis is described for rapid synthesis of lead selenide quantum dots (PbSe QDs) at room temperature in an attempt to produce water-soluble and stable nanocrystals. Several thiol-ligands, including thioglycolic acid (TGA), thioglycerol (TGC), 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), 2-mercaptoethylamine hydrochloride (MEA), 6-mercaptohexanoic acid (MHA), and l-cysteine (l-cys), were used for capping/stabilization of PbSe QDs. The effects of the ligands on the stability of PbSe QDs were evaluated for a period of two months at room temperature under normal light conditions and at 4 °C in the dark. The TGA- and MEA-capped QDs exhibited the highest stability prior to purification, almost two months when kept in the dark at 4 °C. However, the stability of TGA-capped QDs was reduced substantially after purification to about 5 days under the same conditions, while MEA-capped QDs did not show any significant instability. The stabilization energies of Pb-thiolate complexes determined by theoretical DFT simulations supported the experimental results. The PbSe QDs capped with TGA, MPA and MEA were successfully purified and re-dispersed in water, while those stabilized with TGC, MHA and l-cys aggregated during purification attempts. The purified PbSe QDs possess very susceptible surface resulting in poor stability for about 30-45 min after re-dispersion in water. In the presence of an excess of free ligand, the stability increased up to 5 days for TGA-capped QDs at pH 7.19, 9-12 days for MPA-capped QDs at pH 7.3-7.5 and 45-47 days for MEA-capped QDs at pH 7.35. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that the QDs possess a cubic rock salt structure with the most intense peaks located at 2θ = 25.3° (200) and 2θ = 29.2° (100). TEM images showed that the size of the QDs ranges between 5 and 10 nm. ICP-MS results revealed that Pb : Se ratios were 1.26, 1.28, 3.85, 1.18, and 1.31 for the QDs capped with TGA, MPA, MEA, l-cys, and TGC, respectively. The proposed method is inexpensive, simple and utilizes environmentally friendly chemicals and solvents.

  1. ‘One-pot’ synthesis of multifunctional GSH-CdTe quantum dots for targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoqin; Tang, Yajun; Cai, Bing; Fan, Hongsong

    2014-06-01

    A novel quantum dots-based multifunctional nanovehicle (DOX-QD-PEG-FA) was designed for targeted drug delivery, fluorescent imaging, tracking, and cancer therapy, in which the GSH-CdTe quantum dots play a key role in imaging and drug delivery. To exert curative effects, the antineoplastic drug doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) was loaded on the GSH-CdTe quantum dots through a condensation reaction. Meanwhile, a polyethylene glycol (PEG) shell was introduced to wrap the DOX-QD, thus stabilizing the structure and preventing clearance and drug release during systemic circulation. To actively target cancer cells and prevent the nanovehicles from being absorbed by normal cells, the nanoparticles were further decorated with folic acid (FA), allowing them to target HeLa cells that express the FA receptor. The multifunctional DOX-QD-PEG-FA conjugates were simply prepared using the ‘one pot’ method. In vitro study demonstrated that this simple, multifunctional nanovehicle can deliver DOX to the targeted cancer cells and localize the nanoparticles. After reaching the tumor cells, the FA on the DOX-QD-PEG surface allowed folate receptor recognition and increased the drug concentration to realize a higher curative effect. This novel, multifunctional DOX-QD-PEG-FA system shows great potential for tumor imaging, targeting, and therapy.

  2. Synthesis of highly photo-stable CuInS2/ZnS core/shell quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jingwei; Liu, Mingming; Li, Zhichun; Li, Liang

    2015-09-01

    CuInS2 quantum dots are considered near-ideal fluorophores based on their bright emission and low toxicity. However, CuInS2 quantum dots are still bothered by their sensitivity to surface chemistry and chemical environment. Traditionally, the CIS QDs require an additional coating process to be encapsulated inside silica sphere or organic polymer. Up till now, few works have been made concerning improving the intrinsic stability of CIS QDs. In an effort to improve the stability of CuInS2 quantum dots, we came up with a new method by increasing the ZnS shell thickness. These QDs were characterized by photoluminescence, HRTEM, XRD and XRF analysis. We investigated the influence of ZnS shell thickness on the ambient stability of CIS/ZnS QDs. The results demonstrated that a thicker ZnS shell helped significantly improve both photostability and chemical stability of the QDs. Finally, the thick shell QDs were dispersed into transparent polymer matrix and fabricated into a LED device, which also gave much more stability compared with conventional QDs.

  3. Semiconductor double quantum dot micromaser.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y-Y; Stehlik, J; Eichler, C; Gullans, M J; Taylor, J M; Petta, J R

    2015-01-16

    The coherent generation of light, from masers to lasers, relies upon the specific structure of the individual emitters that lead to gain. Devices operating as lasers in the few-emitter limit provide opportunities for understanding quantum coherent phenomena, from terahertz sources to quantum communication. Here we demonstrate a maser that is driven by single-electron tunneling events. Semiconductor double quantum dots (DQDs) serve as a gain medium and are placed inside a high-quality factor microwave cavity. We verify maser action by comparing the statistics of the emitted microwave field above and below the maser threshold. PMID:25593187

  4. Brightness-equalized quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sung Jun; Zahid, Mohammad U.; Le, Phuong; Ma, Liang; Entenberg, David; Harney, Allison S.; Condeelis, John; Smith, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    As molecular labels for cells and tissues, fluorescent probes have shaped our understanding of biological structures and processes. However, their capacity for quantitative analysis is limited because photon emission rates from multicolour fluorophores are dissimilar, unstable and often unpredictable, which obscures correlations between measured fluorescence and molecular concentration. Here we introduce a new class of light-emitting quantum dots with tunable and equalized fluorescence brightness across a broad range of colours. The key feature is independent tunability of emission wavelength, extinction coefficient and quantum yield through distinct structural domains in the nanocrystal. Precise tuning eliminates a 100-fold red-to-green brightness mismatch of size-tuned quantum dots at the ensemble and single-particle levels, which substantially improves quantitative imaging accuracy in biological tissue. We anticipate that these materials engineering principles will vastly expand the optical engineering landscape of fluorescent probes, facilitate quantitative multicolour imaging in living tissue and improve colour tuning in light-emitting devices. PMID:26437175

  5. Brightness-equalized quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Sung Jun; Zahid, Mohammad U.; Le, Phuong; Ma, Liang; Entenberg, David; Harney, Allison S.; Condeelis, John; Smith, Andrew M.

    2015-10-01

    As molecular labels for cells and tissues, fluorescent probes have shaped our understanding of biological structures and processes. However, their capacity for quantitative analysis is limited because photon emission rates from multicolour fluorophores are dissimilar, unstable and often unpredictable, which obscures correlations between measured fluorescence and molecular concentration. Here we introduce a new class of light-emitting quantum dots with tunable and equalized fluorescence brightness across a broad range of colours. The key feature is independent tunability of emission wavelength, extinction coefficient and quantum yield through distinct structural domains in the nanocrystal. Precise tuning eliminates a 100-fold red-to-green brightness mismatch of size-tuned quantum dots at the ensemble and single-particle levels, which substantially improves quantitative imaging accuracy in biological tissue. We anticipate that these materials engineering principles will vastly expand the optical engineering landscape of fluorescent probes, facilitate quantitative multicolour imaging in living tissue and improve colour tuning in light-emitting devices.

  6. Brightness-equalized quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sung Jun; Zahid, Mohammad U; Le, Phuong; Ma, Liang; Entenberg, David; Harney, Allison S; Condeelis, John; Smith, Andrew M

    2015-01-01

    As molecular labels for cells and tissues, fluorescent probes have shaped our understanding of biological structures and processes. However, their capacity for quantitative analysis is limited because photon emission rates from multicolour fluorophores are dissimilar, unstable and often unpredictable, which obscures correlations between measured fluorescence and molecular concentration. Here we introduce a new class of light-emitting quantum dots with tunable and equalized fluorescence brightness across a broad range of colours. The key feature is independent tunability of emission wavelength, extinction coefficient and quantum yield through distinct structural domains in the nanocrystal. Precise tuning eliminates a 100-fold red-to-green brightness mismatch of size-tuned quantum dots at the ensemble and single-particle levels, which substantially improves quantitative imaging accuracy in biological tissue. We anticipate that these materials engineering principles will vastly expand the optical engineering landscape of fluorescent probes, facilitate quantitative multicolour imaging in living tissue and improve colour tuning in light-emitting devices. PMID:26437175

  7. Synthesis of GaN quantum dots by ion implantation in dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsella, E.; Garcia, M. A.; Mattei, G.; Maurizio, C.; Mazzoldi, P.; Cattaruzza, E.; Gonella, F.; Battaglin, G.; Quaranta, A.; D'Acapito, F.

    2001-11-01

    GaN nanocrystals (in the wurtzite phase) were synthesized by sequential implantation of Ga and N ions into either crystalline (quartz, sapphire) or amorphous (silica) dielectrics, followed by annealing of the samples in flowing NH3 gas at 900 C. GaN was formed by reaction of implanted Ga with NH3 combustion products and/or via conversion of Ga oxide/oxynitrides. A blueshift of the near-band-edge photoluminescence (quantum-confinement effect) was observed for GaN nanocrystals with size ?2-3 nm, present in all the substrates.

  8. Designing quantum dots for solotronics.

    PubMed

    Kobak, J; Smole?ski, T; Goryca, M; Papaj, M; Gietka, K; Bogucki, A; Koperski, M; Rousset, J-G; Suffczy?ski, J; Janik, E; Nawrocki, M; Golnik, A; Kossacki, P; Pacuski, W

    2014-01-01

    Solotronics, optoelectronics based on solitary dopants, is an emerging field of research and technology reaching the ultimate limit of miniaturization. It aims at exploiting quantum properties of individual ions or defects embedded in a semiconductor matrix. It has already been shown that optical control of a magnetic ion spin is feasible using the carriers confined in a quantum dot. However, a serious obstacle was the quenching of the exciton luminescence by magnetic impurities. Here we show, by photoluminescence studies on thus-far-unexplored individual CdTe dots with a single cobalt ion and CdSe dots with a single manganese ion, that even if energetically allowed, nonradiative exciton recombination through single-magnetic-ion intra-ionic transitions is negligible in such zero-dimensional structures. This opens solotronics for a wide range of as yet unconsidered systems. On the basis of results of our single-spin relaxation experiments and on the material trends, we identify optimal magnetic-ion quantum dot systems for implementation of a single-ion-based spin memory. PMID:24463946

  9. Designing quantum dots for solotronics

    PubMed Central

    Kobak, J.; Smoleński, T.; Goryca, M.; Papaj, M.; Gietka, K.; Bogucki, A.; Koperski, M.; Rousset, J.-G.; Suffczyński, J.; Janik, E.; Nawrocki, M.; Golnik, A.; Kossacki, P.; Pacuski, W.

    2014-01-01

    Solotronics, optoelectronics based on solitary dopants, is an emerging field of research and technology reaching the ultimate limit of miniaturization. It aims at exploiting quantum properties of individual ions or defects embedded in a semiconductor matrix. It has already been shown that optical control of a magnetic ion spin is feasible using the carriers confined in a quantum dot. However, a serious obstacle was the quenching of the exciton luminescence by magnetic impurities. Here we show, by photoluminescence studies on thus-far-unexplored individual CdTe dots with a single cobalt ion and CdSe dots with a single manganese ion, that even if energetically allowed, nonradiative exciton recombination through single-magnetic-ion intra-ionic transitions is negligible in such zero-dimensional structures. This opens solotronics for a wide range of as yet unconsidered systems. On the basis of results of our single-spin relaxation experiments and on the material trends, we identify optimal magnetic-ion quantum dot systems for implementation of a single-ion-based spin memory. PMID:24463946

  10. Facile synthesis and characterization of water soluble ZnSe/ZnS quantum dots for cellar imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Chang; Huang, Bin; Chen, Xiangdong; Wang, Yan; Li, Xuequan; Ding, Li; Zhong, Wenying

    2013-03-01

    Strong fluorescence and low cytotoxicity ZnSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized by a facile aqueous phase route. It overcame the defects such as instability and low quantum yield of the quantum dots synthesized by early aqueous phase route. L-Glutathione (GSH) and 3-mercaptopropaonic acid (MPA) were used as mixture stabilizers to synthesize high quality ZnSe/ZnS QDs. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) and their optical properties were investigated by using UV-vis spectrophotometer, fluorescence spectrophotometer (FL), IR spectrophotometer and confocal laser scanning microscope. The synthesized ZnSe/ZnS QDs illuminated blue fluorescence under ultraviolet lamp. Its water-soluble property is excellent and the fluorescence intensity of ZnSe/ZnS QDs almost did not change after 4 months at room temperature. The average diameter of ZnSe/ZnS nanocrystals is about 3 nm and quantum yield (QY) could reach to 70.6% after repeat determination. Low cytotoxicity was ensured by investigated SCG7901 and RAW264.7 cells. In comparison with cadmium based nanocrystals, ZnSe/ZnS QDs posed low cytotoxicity. The cells viability remained 96.7% when the QDs concentration was increased to 10 ?mol/L. The results in vitro indicate that ZnSe/ZnS QDs-based probes have good stability, low toxicity and biocompatibility for fluorescence imaging in cancer model system.

  11. A highly reactive chalcogenide precursor for the synthesis of metal chalcogenide quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Peng; Zhu, Dong-Liang; Zhu, Chun-Nan; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Pang, Dai-Wen

    2015-11-01

    Metal chalcogenide semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) are ideal inorganic materials for solar cells and biomedical labeling. In consideration of the hazard and instability of alkylphosphines, the phosphine-free synthetic route has become one of the most important trends in synthesizing selenide QDs. Here we report a novel phase transfer strategy to prepare phosphine-free chalcogenide precursors. The anions in aqueous solution were transferred to toluene via electrostatic interactions between the anions and didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB). The obtained chalcogenide precursors show high reactivity with metal ions in the organic phase and could be applied to the low-temperature synthesis of various metal chalcogenide NCs based on a simple reaction between metal ions (e.g. Ag+, Pb2+, Cd2+) and chalcogenide anions (e.g. S2-) in toluene. In addition to chalcogenide anions, other anions such as BH4- ions and AuCl4- ions can also be transferred to the organic phase for synthesizing noble metal NCs (such as Ag and Au NCs).Metal chalcogenide semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) are ideal inorganic materials for solar cells and biomedical labeling. In consideration of the hazard and instability of alkylphosphines, the phosphine-free synthetic route has become one of the most important trends in synthesizing selenide QDs. Here we report a novel phase transfer strategy to prepare phosphine-free chalcogenide precursors. The anions in aqueous solution were transferred to toluene via electrostatic interactions between the anions and didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB). The obtained chalcogenide precursors show high reactivity with metal ions in the organic phase and could be applied to the low-temperature synthesis of various metal chalcogenide NCs based on a simple reaction between metal ions (e.g. Ag+, Pb2+, Cd2+) and chalcogenide anions (e.g. S2-) in toluene. In addition to chalcogenide anions, other anions such as BH4- ions and AuCl4- ions can also be transferred to the organic phase for synthesizing noble metal NCs (such as Ag and Au NCs). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details and additional figures as described in the text. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05747g

  12. Thermoelectric energy harvesting with quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Sothmann, Bjrn; Snchez, Rafael; Jordan, Andrew N

    2015-01-21

    We review recent theoretical work on thermoelectric energy harvesting in multi-terminal quantum-dot setups. We first discuss several examples of nanoscale heat engines based on Coulomb-coupled conductors. In particular, we focus on quantum dots in the Coulomb-blockade regime, chaotic cavities and resonant tunneling through quantum dots and wells. We then turn toward quantum-dot heat engines that are driven by bosonic degrees of freedom such as phonons, magnons and microwave photons. These systems provide interesting connections to spin caloritronics and circuit quantum electrodynamics. PMID:25549281

  13. Thermoelectric energy harvesting with quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sothmann, Bjrn; Snchez, Rafael; Jordan, Andrew N.

    2015-01-01

    We review recent theoretical work on thermoelectric energy harvesting in multi-terminal quantum-dot setups. We first discuss several examples of nanoscale heat engines based on Coulomb-coupled conductors. In particular, we focus on quantum dots in the Coulomb-blockade regime, chaotic cavities and resonant tunneling through quantum dots and wells. We then turn toward quantum-dot heat engines that are driven by bosonic degrees of freedom such as phonons, magnons and microwave photons. These systems provide interesting connections to spin caloritronics and circuit quantum electrodynamics.

  14. Aqueous Cadmium Chalcogenide Quantum Dots: Synthesis, Characterization, Spectroscopic Investigation of Electron Transfer Properties and Photovoltaic Device Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, Kathleen M.

    The research presented in this thesis will focus on (1) synthesis and characterization of aqueous CdSe quantum dots (QDs) as alternatives to organic QDs; (2) the roles that linkers and capping groups play on the physical and optical properties of aqueous QDs; (3) performance of QD-sensitized solar cells (QDSSC) incorporating magic-sized clusters (MSCs) vs regular QDs (RQDs) and as a function of the molecular linkers between QDs and TiO2; and (4) the effect of the polysulfide electrolyte on QD-functionalized TiO 2 films and their performance in QDSSCs. The use of QDs as light harvesters has grown over the last few decades due to their unique properties. Water-dispersible QDs are of increasing interest because their syntheses are straightforward, environmentally-benign and more cost-effective. CdSe and CdS QDs were synthesized at room temperature under ambient conditions, by combining a Cd precursor and either Na2SeSO3 (for CdSe) or Na2S2O3 (for CdS), in basic aqueous reaction mixtures. Three different ligands were utilized as capping groups (cysteinate (Cys), mercaptopropionate (MP), and mercaptosuccinate (MS)). Changing the capping-agent, the reagent concentrations and the temperature changed the photophysical properties of the QDs. When Cys was used as the capping-agent, MSCs were formed. When high concentrations of Cys were used or when the reaction mixture was heated, RQDs were formed. When MP and MS were used in the synthesis of CdSe, RQDs were formed. In the synthesis of CdS, MS caused the formation of RQDs, and MP caused formation of a mixture of RQDs and MSCs. Transient absorption spectroscopy and photoelectrochemical experiments were performed to understand the influence of capping-agent and electronic properties (MSCs vs. RQDs) on the efficiency of electron transfer from photoexcited QDs to TiO2. The Cys-CdSe-functionalized TiO2 exhibited more efficient electron injection and/or slower recombination, leading to improved efficiency of QDSSCs. Devices made with Cys-CdSe RQDs exhibited higher efficiencies than QDSSCs with Cys-CdSe MSCs, indicating that the presence of Cys induces greater efficiency in QDSSCs. For QDSSCs, a polysulfide electrolyte is commonly used instead of I-/I3-. Effects of the polysulfide electrolyte and Na2S on CdSe-functionalized TiO2 films were explored to elucidate the chemistry that occurs when CdSe is exposed to the electrolyte in the QDSSCs. Photophysical changes to the CdSe-functionalized films occurred when exposed to the polysulfide electrolyte. Upon immersion of CdSe-functionalized TiO2 films into solutions of Na2S, an initial red shift in the absorption spectrum was observed, followed by a decrease and blue shift of the band. Based on XPS analysis of the films, it was determined that the S within the electrolyte (1) replaced Se or (2) bound to the CdSe-functionalized film without replacing Se. Photoelectrochemical measurements were acquired to analyze device performance with varying [S] within the electrolyte. Upon increase of S, the efficiency of the device increased and gave rise to a better fill factor in the photocurrent-photovoltage data collected.

  15. A highly reactive chalcogenide precursor for the synthesis of metal chalcogenide quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Peng; Zhu, Dong-Liang; Zhu, Chun-Nan; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Pang, Dai-Wen

    2015-12-01

    Metal chalcogenide semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) are ideal inorganic materials for solar cells and biomedical labeling. In consideration of the hazard and instability of alkylphosphines, the phosphine-free synthetic route has become one of the most important trends in synthesizing selenide QDs. Here we report a novel phase transfer strategy to prepare phosphine-free chalcogenide precursors. The anions in aqueous solution were transferred to toluene via electrostatic interactions between the anions and didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB). The obtained chalcogenide precursors show high reactivity with metal ions in the organic phase and could be applied to the low-temperature synthesis of various metal chalcogenide NCs based on a simple reaction between metal ions (e.g. Ag(+), Pb(2+), Cd(2+)) and chalcogenide anions (e.g. S(2-)) in toluene. In addition to chalcogenide anions, other anions such as BH4(-) ions and AuCl4(-) ions can also be transferred to the organic phase for synthesizing noble metal NCs (such as Ag and Au NCs). PMID:26531253

  16. Hybrid passivated colloidal quantum dot solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ip, Alexander H.; Thon, Susanna M.; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Zhitomirsky, David; Debnath, Ratan; Levina, Larissa; Rollny, Lisa R.; Carey, Graham H.; Fischer, Armin; Kemp, Kyle W.; Kramer, Illan J.; Ning, Zhijun; Labelle, Andr J.; Chou, Kang Wei; Amassian, Aram; Sargent, Edward H.

    2012-09-01

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) films allow large-area solution processing and bandgap tuning through the quantum size effect. However, the high ratio of surface area to volume makes CQD films prone to high trap state densities if surfaces are imperfectly passivated, promoting recombination of charge carriers that is detrimental to device performance. Recent advances have replaced the long insulating ligands that enable colloidal stability following synthesis with shorter organic linkers or halide anions, leading to improved passivation and higher packing densities. Although this substitution has been performed using solid-state ligand exchange, a solution-based approach is preferable because it enables increased control over the balance of charges on the surface of the quantum dot, which is essential for eliminating midgap trap states. Furthermore, the solution-based approach leverages recent progress in metal:chalcogen chemistry in the liquid phase. Here, we quantify the density of midgap trap states in CQD solids and show that the performance of CQD-based photovoltaics is now limited by electron-hole recombination due to these states. Next, using density functional theory and optoelectronic device modelling, we show that to improve this performance it is essential to bind a suitable ligand to each potential trap site on the surface of the quantum dot. We then develop a robust hybrid passivation scheme that involves introducing halide anions during the end stages of the synthesis process, which can passivate trap sites that are inaccessible to much larger organic ligands. An organic crosslinking strategy is then used to form the film. Finally, we use our hybrid passivated CQD solid to fabricate a solar cell with a certified efficiency of 7.0%, which is a record for a CQD photovoltaic device.

  17. Electron transport through double quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Wiel, W. G.; de Franceschi, S.; Elzerman, J. M.; Fujisawa, T.; Tarucha, S.; Kouwenhoven, L. P.

    2002-12-01

    Electron transport experiments on two lateral quantum dots coupled in series are reviewed. An introduction to the charge stability diagram is given in terms of the electrochemical potentials of both dots. Resonant tunneling experiments show that the double dot geometry allows for an accurate determination of the intrinsic lifetime of discrete energy states in quantum dots. The evolution of discrete energy levels in magnetic field is studied. The resolution allows one to resolve avoided crossings in the spectrum of a quantum dot. With microwave spectroscopy it is possible to probe the transition from ionic bonding (for weak interdot tunnel coupling) to covalent bonding (for strong interdot tunnel coupling) in a double dot artificial molecule. This review is motivated by the relevance of double quantum dot studies for realizing solid state quantum bits.

  18. Quantitative multiplexed quantum dot immunohistochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, E.; Ward, T.H.; Gray, N.; Womack, C.; Jayson, G.; Hughes, A.; Dive, C.; Byers, R.

    2008-09-19

    Quantum dots are photostable fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals possessing wide excitation and bright narrow, symmetrical, emission spectra. These characteristics have engendered considerable interest in their application in multiplex immunohistochemistry for biomarker quantification and co-localisation in clinical samples. Robust quantitation allows biomarker validation, and there is growing need for multiplex staining due to limited quantity of clinical samples. Most reported multiplexed quantum dot staining used sequential methods that are laborious and impractical in a high-throughput setting. Problems associated with sequential multiplex staining have been investigated and a method developed using QDs conjugated to biotinylated primary antibodies, enabling simultaneous multiplex staining with three antibodies. CD34, Cytokeratin 18 and cleaved Caspase 3 were triplexed in tonsillar tissue using an 8 h protocol, each localised to separate cellular compartments. This demonstrates utility of the method for biomarker measurement enabling rapid measurement of multiple co-localised biomarkers on single paraffin tissue sections, of importance for clinical trial studies.

  19. Lifetime blinking in nonblinking nanocrystal quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Galland, Christophe; Ghosh, Yagnaseni; Steinbrck, Andrea; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Htoon, Han; Klimov, Victor I.

    2012-01-01

    Nanocrystal quantum dots are attractive materials for applications as nanoscale light sources. One impediment to these applications is fluctuations of single-dot emission intensity, known as blinking. Recent progress in colloidal synthesis has produced nonblinking nanocrystals; however, the physics underlying blinking suppression remains unclear. Here we find that ultra-thick-shell CdSe/CdS nanocrystals can exhibit pronounced fluctuations in the emission lifetimes (lifetime blinking), despite stable nonblinking emission intensity. We demonstrate that lifetime variations are due to switching between the neutral and negatively charged state of the nanocrystal. Negative charging results in faster radiative decay but does not appreciably change the overall emission intensity because of suppressed nonradiative Auger recombination for negative trions. The Auger process involving excitation of a hole (positive trion pathway) remains efficient and is responsible for charging with excess electrons, which occurs via Auger-assisted ionization of biexcitons accompanied by ejection of holes. PMID:22713750

  20. Tunneling through a quantum dot in a quantum waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsen'ev, A. A.

    2010-07-01

    The problem is considered of scattering in a system consisting of a quantum waveguide and a quantum dot weakly coupled to the waveguide. It is assumed that the quantum waveguide is described by the Pauli equations, and the Rashba spin-orbit interaction is taken into account. The possibility of tunneling through the quantum dot is proved.

  1. An Efficient Templating Approach for the Synthesis of Redispersible Size-Controllable Carbon Quantum Dots from Graphitic Polymeric Micelles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianming; Abbasi, Farshad; Claverie, Jerome

    2015-10-19

    Access to high-quality, easily dispersible carbon quantum dots (CQDs) is essential in order to fully exploit their desirable properties. Copolymers based on N-acryloyl-D-glucosamine and acrylic acid prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization are self-assembled into micelle-like nanoreactors. After a facile graphitization process (170?C, atmospheric pressure), each micellar template is transformed into a CQD through a 1:1 copy process. These high-quality CQDs (quantum yield=22?%) with tunable sizes (2-5?nm) are decorated by carboxylic acid moieties and can be spontaneously redispersed in water and polar organic solvents. This preparation method renders the mass production of multifunctional CQDs possible. To demonstrate the versatility of this approach, CQDs hybridized TiO2 nanoparticles with enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible-light have been prepared. PMID:26471436

  2. Synthesis of high-quality near-infrared-emitting CdTeS alloyed quantum dots via the hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Weiyong; Guo, Jia; Yang, Wuli; Wang, Changchun; He, Jia; Chen, Jiyao

    2007-12-01

    We present a facile one-pot method to fabricate water-dispersed near-infrared-emitting (650-800 nm) CdTeS alloyed quantum dots with high photoluminescence quantum yields (PL QYs). Due to the hydrolysis of thiol ligands, the sulfur was incorporated into the CdTe nanocrystals, forming CdTeS alloyed QDs. The effects of the type of thiol ligands, ligand-to-Cd molar ratio, and precursor concentration on the QDs were investigated, and thus high-quality water-dispersed CdTeS alloyed QDs (PL QYs 68%) were prepared with a high efficiency via the hydrothermal method. Water-dispersed CdTeS alloyed QDs with excellent emissions in the near-IR spectrum window have great potential in biological and medical applications especially in in vivo imaging.

  3. Synthetic Developments of Nontoxic Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Das, Adita; Snee, Preston T

    2016-03-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals, or quantum dots (QDs), are candidates for biological sensing, photovoltaics, and catalysis due to their unique photophysical properties. The most studied QDs are composed of heavy metals like cadmium and lead. However, this engenders concerns over heavy metal toxicity. To address this issue, numerous studies have explored the development of nontoxic (or more accurately less toxic) quantum dots. In this Review, we select three major classes of nontoxic quantum dots composed of carbon, silicon and Group I-III-VI elements and discuss the myriad of synthetic strategies and surface modification methods to synthesize quantum dots composed of these material systems. PMID:26548450

  4. Quantum dot enabled high color gamut LCDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian; Kan, Shihai; Lee, Ernie; Gensler, Steve; Hartlove, Jason

    2015-03-01

    Quantum dots are a new generation of phosphor material that have high photon conversion efficiency, narrow spectral line-widths and can be continuously tuned in their emission wavelengths. Since 2013, quantum dots have been adopted by the consumer electronics industry into LCDs to significantly increase their color performance. Compared to the OLED solution, quantum dot LCDs have higher energy efficiency, larger color gamut, longer lifetime, and are offered at a fraction of the cost of OLED panels. In this paper, we demonstrate that quantum-dot based LCDs can achieve more than 90% coverage of the ultra-wide color gamut, Rec. 2020, which is the new color standard for UHDTV.

  5. Seed-mediated synthesis, properties and application of ?-Fe 2O 3-CdSe magnetic quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Alex W. H.; Yen Ang, Chung; Patra, Pranab K.; Han, Yu; Gu, Hongwei; Le Breton, Jean-Marie; Juraszek, Jean; Chiron, Hubert; Papaefthymiou, Georgia C.; Tamil Selvan, Subramanian; Ying, Jackie Y.

    2011-08-01

    Seed-mediated growth of fluorescent CdSe quantum dots (QDs) around ?-Fe 2O 3 magnetic cores was performed at high temperature (300 C) in the presence of organic surfactants. Bi-functional magnetic quantum dots (MQDs) with tunable emission properties were successfully prepared. The as-synthesized MQDs were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS), which confirmed the assembly of heterodimers. When a longer growth period was employed, a homogeneous dispersion of QDs around a magnetic nanoparticle was obtained. The magnetic properties of these nanocomposites were examined. The MQDs were superparamagnetic with a saturation magnetization of 0.40 emu/g and a coercivity of 138 Oe at 5 K. To demonstrate their potential application in bio-labeling, these MQDs were coated with a thin silica shell, and functionalized with a polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivative. The functionalized MQDs were effectively used for the labeling of live cell membranes of 4T1 mouse breast cancer cells and HepG2 human liver cancer cells.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of zinc sulfide quantum dots and their interaction with snake gourd (Trichosanthes anguina) seed lectin.

    PubMed

    Ayaz Ahmed, Khan Behlol; Ahalya, Pichaikkannu; Sengan, Megarajan; Kamlekar, Ravikanth; Veerappan, Anbazhagan

    2015-12-01

    Owing to the use of quantum dots in biological labeling, and the specific interaction of lectins with tumor cells, studies on lectin-QDs interaction are of potential interest. Herein, we report a facile method to prepare zinc sulfide quantum dots (ZnS QDs) using pectin as a capping agent and studied their interaction with snake gourd seed lectin (SGSL) by fluorescence spectroscopy. The QDs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The thermodynamic forces governing the interaction between ZnS-QDs and SGSL have been delineated from the temperature dependent association constant. These results suggest that the binding between ZnS QDs and SGSL is governed by enthalpic forces with negative entropic contribution. The red shift of synchronous fluorescence spectra showed that the microenvironment around the tryptophan residues of SGSL was perturbed by ZnS-QDs. The obtained results suggest that the development of optical bioimaging agents by using the conjugated lectin-QDs would be possible to diagnose cancerous tissues. PMID:26172461

  7. Quantum dot ternary-valued full-adder: Logic synthesis by a multiobjective design optimization based on a genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klymenko, M. V.; Remacle, F.

    2014-10-01

    A methodology is proposed for designing a low-energy consuming ternary-valued full adder based on a quantum dot (QD) electrostatically coupled with a single electron transistor operating as a charge sensor. The methodology is based on design optimization: the values of the physical parameters of the system required for implementing the logic operations are optimized using a multiobjective genetic algorithm. The searching space is determined by elements of the capacitance matrix describing the electrostatic couplings in the entire device. The objective functions are defined as the maximal absolute error over actual device logic outputs relative to the ideal truth tables for the sum and the carry-out in base 3. The logic units are implemented on the same device: a single dual-gate quantum dot and a charge sensor. Their physical parameters are optimized to compute either the sum or the carry out outputs and are compatible with current experimental capabilities. The outputs are encoded in the value of the electric current passing through the charge sensor, while the logic inputs are supplied by the voltage levels on the two gate electrodes attached to the QD. The complex logic ternary operations are directly implemented on an extremely simple device, characterized by small sizes and low-energy consumption compared to devices based on switching single-electron transistors. The design methodology is general and provides a rational approach for realizing non-switching logic operations on QD devices.

  8. Quantum dot ternary-valued full-adder: Logic synthesis by a multiobjective design optimization based on a genetic algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Klymenko, M. V.; Remacle, F.

    2014-10-28

    A methodology is proposed for designing a low-energy consuming ternary-valued full adder based on a quantum dot (QD) electrostatically coupled with a single electron transistor operating as a charge sensor. The methodology is based on design optimization: the values of the physical parameters of the system required for implementing the logic operations are optimized using a multiobjective genetic algorithm. The searching space is determined by elements of the capacitance matrix describing the electrostatic couplings in the entire device. The objective functions are defined as the maximal absolute error over actual device logic outputs relative to the ideal truth tables for the sum and the carry-out in base 3. The logic units are implemented on the same device: a single dual-gate quantum dot and a charge sensor. Their physical parameters are optimized to compute either the sum or the carry out outputs and are compatible with current experimental capabilities. The outputs are encoded in the value of the electric current passing through the charge sensor, while the logic inputs are supplied by the voltage levels on the two gate electrodes attached to the QD. The complex logic ternary operations are directly implemented on an extremely simple device, characterized by small sizes and low-energy consumption compared to devices based on switching single-electron transistors. The design methodology is general and provides a rational approach for realizing non-switching logic operations on QD devices.

  9. Synthesis of cadmium telluride quantum wires and the similarity of their band gaps to those of equidiameter cadmium telluride quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lin-Wang; Sun, Jianwei; Wang, Lin-Wang; Buhro, William E.

    2008-07-11

    High-quality colloidal CdTe quantum wires having purposefully controlled diameters in the range of 5-11 nm are grown by the solution-liquid-solid (SLS) method, using Bi-nanoparticle catalysts, cadmium octadecylphosphonate and trioctylphosphine telluride as precursors, and a TOPO solvent. The wires adopt the wurtzite structure, and grow along the [002] direction (parallel to the c axis). The size dependence of the band gaps in the wires are determined from the absorption spectra, and compared to the experimental results for high-quality CdTe quantum dots. In contrast to the predictions of an effective-mass approximation, particle-in-a-box model, and previous experimental results from CdSe and InP dot-wire comparisons, the band gaps of CdTe dots and wires of like diameter are found to be experimentally indistinguishable. The present results are analyzed using density functional theory under the local-density approximation by implementing a charge-patching method. The higher-level theoretical analysis finds the general existence of a threshold diameter, above which dot and wire band gaps converge. The origin and magnitude of this threshold diameter is discussed.

  10. Quantum Confined Silicon Clathrate Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusk, Mark; Brawand, Nicholas

    2013-03-01

    Silicon (Si) allotropes can be synthesized in such a way that tetrahedrally bonded atoms form cage-like structures with bulk mechanical and opto-electronic properties distinct from those of diamond silicon (dSi). We use DFT, supplemented with many-body Green function analysis, to explore the structural stability of clathrate Si quantum dots (QDs) and to characterize their confinement as a function of crystal symmetry and size. Our results show that that there is a simple relationship between the confinement character of the QDs and the effective mass of the associated bulk crystals. Clathrate QDs and dSiQDs of the same size can exhibit differences of gap energies by as much as 2 eV. This offers the potential of synthesizing Si dots on the order of 1 nm that have optical gaps in the visible range but that do not rely on high-pressure routes such as those explored for the metastable BC8 and R8 phases. These results prompt the question as to how minimal quantum confinement can be in dots composed of Si. More broadly, clathrate QDs can in principle be synthesized for a wide range of semiconductors, and the design space can be further enriched via doping. NSF Renewable Energy Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (REMRSEC) and the Golden Energy Computing Organization (GECO)

  11. Facile synthesis of N-rich carbon quantum dots by spontaneous polymerization and incision of solvents as efficient bioimaging probes and advanced electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Lei, Zhouyue; Xu, Shengjie; Wan, Jiaxun; Wu, Peiyi

    2016-01-21

    In this study, uniform nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots (N-CDs) were synthesized through a one-step solvothermal process of cyclic and nitrogen-rich solvents, such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and dimethyl-imidazolidinone (DMEU), under mild conditions. The products exhibited strong light blue fluorescence, good cell permeability and low cytotoxicity. Moreover, after a facile post-thermal treatment, it developed a lotus seedpod surface-like structure of seed-like N-CDs decorating on the surface of carbon layers with a high proportion of quaternary nitrogen moieties that exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity and long-term durability towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The peak potential was -160 mV, which was comparable to or even lower than commercial Pt/C catalysts. Therefore, this study provides an alternative facile approach to the synthesis of versatile carbon quantum dots (CDs) with widespread commercial application prospects, not only as bioimaging probes but also as promising electrocatalysts for the metal-free ORR. PMID:26739885

  12. Photoluminescence of a quantum-dot molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Kruchinin, Stanislav Yu.; Rukhlenko, Ivan D.; Baimuratov, Anvar S.; Leonov, Mikhail Yu.; Turkov, Vadim K.; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.; Gun'ko, Yurii K.

    2015-01-07

    The coherent coupling of quantum dots is a sensitive indicator of the energy and phase relaxation processes taking place in the nanostructure components. We formulate a theory of low-temperature, stationary photoluminescence from a quantum-dot molecule composed of two spherical quantum dots whose electronic subsystems are resonantly coupled via the Coulomb interaction. We show that the coupling leads to the hybridization of the first excited states of the quantum dots, manifesting itself as a pair of photoluminescence peaks with intensities and spectral positions strongly dependent on the geometric, material, and relaxation parameters of the quantum-dot molecule. These parameters are explicitly contained in the analytical expression for the photoluminescence differential cross section derived in the paper. The developed theory and expression obtained are essential in interpreting and analyzing spectroscopic data on the secondary emission of coherently coupled quantum systems.

  13. Designed short RGD peptides for one-pot aqueous synthesis of integrin-binding CdTe and CdZnTe quantum dots.

    PubMed

    He, Hua; Feng, Min; Hu, Jing; Chen, Cuixia; Wang, Jiqian; Wang, Xiaojuan; Xu, Hai; Lu, Jian R

    2012-11-01

    We have designed a series of short RGD peptide ligands and developed one-pot aqueous synthesis of integrin-binding CdTe and CdZnTe quantum dots (QDs). We first examined the effects of different RGD peptides, including RGDS, CRGDS, Ac-CRGDS, CRGDS-CONH?, Ac-CRGDS-CONH?, RGDSC, CCRGDS, and CCCRGDS, on the synthesis of CdTe QDs. CRGDS were found to be the optimal ligand, providing the CdTe QDs with well-defined wavelength ranges (500-650 nm) and relatively high photoluminescence quantum yields (up to 15%). The key synthesis parameters (the pH value of the Cd?-RGD precursors and the molar ratio of RGD/Cd?) were assessed. In order to further improve the optical properties of the RGD-capped QDs, zinc was then incorporated by the simultaneous reaction of Cd? and Zn? with NaHTe. By using a mixture of CRGDS and cysteine as the stabilizer, the quantum yields of CdZnTe alloy QDs reached as high as 60% without any post-treatment, and they also showed excellent stability against time, pH, and salinity. Note that these properties could not be obtained with CRGDS or cysteine alone as the stabilizer. Finally, we demonstrated that the RGD-capped QDs preferentially bind to cell surfaces because of the specific recognition of the RGD sequence to cell surface integrin receptors. Our synthesis strategy based on RGD peptides thus represents a convenient route for opening up QD technologies for cell-specific tagging and labeling applicable to a wide range of diagnostics and therapy. PMID:23106442

  14. Colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics: a path forward.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Illan J; Sargent, Edward H

    2011-11-22

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) offer a path toward high-efficiency photovoltaics based on low-cost materials and processes. Spectral tunability via the quantum size effect facilitates absorption of specific wavelengths from across the sun's broad spectrum. CQD materials' ease of processing derives from their synthesis, storage, and processing in solution. Rapid advances have brought colloidal quantum dot photovoltaic solar power conversion efficiencies of 6% in the latest reports. These achievements represent important first steps toward commercially compelling performance. Here we review advances in device architecture and materials science. We diagnose the principal phenomenon-electronic states within the CQD film band gap that limit both current and voltage in devices-that must be cured for CQD PV devices to fulfill their promise. We close with a prescription, expressed as bounds on the density and energy of electronic states within the CQD film band gap, that should allow device efficiencies to rise to those required for the future of the solar energy field. PMID:21967723

  15. Silicon quantum dots: surface matters.

    PubMed

    Dohnalov, K; Gregorkiewicz, T; K?sov, K

    2014-04-30

    Silicon quantum dots (SiQDs) hold great promise for many future technologies. Silicon is already at the core of photovoltaics and microelectronics, and SiQDs are capable of efficient light emission and amplification. This is crucial for the development of the next technological frontiers-silicon photonics and optoelectronics. Unlike any other quantum dots (QDs), SiQDs are made of non-toxic and abundant material, offering one of the spectrally broadest emission tunabilities accessible with semiconductor QDs and allowing for tailored radiative rates over many orders of magnitude. This extraordinary flexibility of optical properties is achieved via a combination of the spatial confinement of carriers and the strong influence of surface chemistry. The complex physics of this material, which is still being unraveled, leads to new effects, opening up new opportunities for applications. In this review we summarize the latest progress in this fascinating research field, with special attention given to surface-induced effects, such as the emergence of direct bandgap transitions, and collective effects in densely packed QDs, such as space separated quantum cutting. PMID:24713583

  16. Charge state hysteresis in semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C. H.; Rossi, A.; Lai, N. S.; Leon, R.; Lim, W. H.; Dzurak, A. S.

    2014-11-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots provide a two-dimensional analogy for real atoms and show promise for the implementation of scalable quantum computers. Here, we investigate the charge configurations in a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor double quantum dot tunnel coupled to a single reservoir of electrons. By operating the system in the few-electron regime, the stability diagram shows hysteretic tunnelling events that depend on the history of the dots charge occupancy. We present a model which accounts for the observed hysteretic behaviour by extending the established description for transport in double dots coupled to two reservoirs. We demonstrate that this type of device operates like a single-electron memory latch.

  17. Charge state hysteresis in semiconductor quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C. H.; Rossi, A. Lai, N. S.; Leon, R.; Lim, W. H.; Dzurak, A. S.

    2014-11-03

    Semiconductor quantum dots provide a two-dimensional analogy for real atoms and show promise for the implementation of scalable quantum computers. Here, we investigate the charge configurations in a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor double quantum dot tunnel coupled to a single reservoir of electrons. By operating the system in the few-electron regime, the stability diagram shows hysteretic tunnelling events that depend on the history of the dots charge occupancy. We present a model which accounts for the observed hysteretic behaviour by extending the established description for transport in double dots coupled to two reservoirs. We demonstrate that this type of device operates like a single-electron memory latch.

  18. Coherent photonic coupling of semiconductor quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Reitzenstein, S; Lffler, A; Hofmann, C; Kubanek, A; Kamp, M; Reithmaier, J P; Forchel, A; Kulakovskii, V D; Keldysh, L V; Ponomarev, I V; Reinecke, T L

    2006-06-01

    We report a new type of coupling between quantum dot excitons mediated by the strong single-photon field in a high-finesse micropillar cavity. Coherent exciton coupling is observed for two dots with energy differences of the order of the exciton-photon coupling. The coherent coupling mode is characterized by an anticrossing with a particularly large line splitting of 250 microeV. Because of the different dispersion relations with temperature, the simultaneous photonic coupling of quantum dot excitons can be easily distinguished from cases of sequential strong coupling of two quantum dots. PMID:16688279

  19. Coherent photonic coupling of semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitzenstein, S.; Lffler, A.; Hofmann, C.; Kubanek, A.; Kamp, M.; Reithmaier, J. P.; Forchel, A.; Kulakovskii, V. D.; Keldysh, L. V.; Ponomarev, I. V.; Reinecke, T. L.

    2006-06-01

    We report a new type of coupling between quantum dot excitons mediated by the strong single-photon field in a high-finesse micropillar cavity. Coherent exciton coupling is observed for two dots with energy differences of the order of the exciton-photon coupling. The coherent coupling mode is characterized by an anticrossing with a particularly large line splitting of 250 ?eV. Because of the different dispersion relations with temperature, the simultaneous photonic coupling of quantum dot excitons can be easily distinguished from cases of sequential strong coupling of two quantum dots.

  20. Imaging a single-electron quantum dot.

    PubMed

    Fallahi, Parisa; Bleszynski, Ania C; Westervelt, Robert M; Huang, Jian; Walls, Jamie D; Heller, Eric J; Hanson, Micah; Gossard, Arthur C

    2005-02-01

    Images of a single-electron quantum dot were obtained in the Coulomb blockade regime at liquid He temperatures using a cooled scanning probe microscope (SPM). The charged SPM tip shifts the lowest energy level in the dot and creates a ring in the image corresponding to a peak in the Coulomb-blockade conductance. Fits to the line shape of the ring determine the tip-induced shift of the energy of the electron state in the dot. SPM manipulation of electrons in quantum dots promises to be useful in understanding, building, and manipulating circuits for quantum information processing. PMID:15794600

  1. STED nanoscopy with fluorescent quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Hanne, Janina; Falk, Henning J.; Grlitz, Frederik; Hoyer, Patrick; Engelhardt, Johann; Sahl, Steffen J.; Hell, Stefan W.

    2015-01-01

    The widely popular class of quantum-dot molecular labels could so far not be utilized as standard fluorescent probes in STED (stimulated emission depletion) nanoscopy. This is because broad quantum-dot excitation spectra extend deeply into the spectral bands used for STED, thus compromising the transient fluorescence silencing required for attaining super-resolution. Here we report the discovery that STED nanoscopy of several red-emitting commercially available quantum dots is in fact successfully realized by the increasingly popular 775?nm STED laser light. A resolution of presently ?50?nm is demonstrated for single quantum dots, and sub-diffraction resolution is further shown for imaging of quantum-dot-labelled vimentin filaments in fibroblasts. The high quantum-dot photostability enables repeated STED recordings with >1,000 frames. In addition, we have evidence that the tendency of quantum-dot labels to blink is largely suppressed by combined action of excitation and STED beams. Quantum-dot STED significantly expands the realm of application of STED nanoscopy, and, given the high stability of these probes, holds promise for extended time-lapse imaging. PMID:25980788

  2. Chirality transfer from graphene quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Vzquez-Nakagawa, M; Rodrguez-Prez, L; Herranz, M A; Martn, N

    2015-12-24

    Chiral graphene quantum dots were prepared by acidic exfoliation and oxidation of graphite, dialysis, and esterification with enantiomerically pure (R) or (S)-2-phenyl-1-propanol. Circular dichroism studies support the formation of supramolecular aggregates with pyrene molecules, where a transfer of chirality occurs from the chiral graphene quantum dots to the pyrene. PMID:26606894

  3. STED nanoscopy with fluorescent quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanne, Janina; Falk, Henning J.; Görlitz, Frederik; Hoyer, Patrick; Engelhardt, Johann; Sahl, Steffen J.; Hell, Stefan W.

    2015-05-01

    The widely popular class of quantum-dot molecular labels could so far not be utilized as standard fluorescent probes in STED (stimulated emission depletion) nanoscopy. This is because broad quantum-dot excitation spectra extend deeply into the spectral bands used for STED, thus compromising the transient fluorescence silencing required for attaining super-resolution. Here we report the discovery that STED nanoscopy of several red-emitting commercially available quantum dots is in fact successfully realized by the increasingly popular 775 nm STED laser light. A resolution of presently ~50 nm is demonstrated for single quantum dots, and sub-diffraction resolution is further shown for imaging of quantum-dot-labelled vimentin filaments in fibroblasts. The high quantum-dot photostability enables repeated STED recordings with >1,000 frames. In addition, we have evidence that the tendency of quantum-dot labels to blink is largely suppressed by combined action of excitation and STED beams. Quantum-dot STED significantly expands the realm of application of STED nanoscopy, and, given the high stability of these probes, holds promise for extended time-lapse imaging.

  4. Thick-shell nanocrystal quantum dots

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A. (Los Alamos, NM); Chen, Yongfen (Eugene, OR); Klimov, Victor I. (Los Alamos, NM); Htoon, Han (Los Alamos, NM); Vela, Javier (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-05-03

    Colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots comprising an inner core having an average diameter of at least 1.5 nm and an outer shell, where said outer shell comprises multiple monolayers, wherein at least 30% of the quantum dots have an on-time fraction of 0.80 or greater under continuous excitation conditions for a period of time of at least 10 minutes.

  5. Synthesis of a Neutral Mixed-Valence Diferrocenyl Carborane for Molecular Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata Applications.

    PubMed

    Christie, John A; Forrest, Ryan P; Corcelli, Steven A; Wasio, Natalie A; Quardokus, Rebecca C; Brown, Ryan; Kandel, S Alex; Lu, Yuhui; Lent, Craig S; Henderson, Kenneth W

    2015-12-14

    The preparation of 7-Fc(+) -8-Fc-7,8-nido-[C2 B9 H10 ](-) (Fc(+) FcC2 B9 (-) ) demonstrates the successful incorporation of a carborane cage as an internal counteranion bridging between ferrocene and ferrocenium units. This neutral mixed-valence Fe(II) /Fe(III) complex overcomes the proximal electronic bias imposed by external counterions, a practical limitation in the use of molecular switches. A combination of UV/Vis-NIR spectroscopic and TD-DFT computational studies indicate that electron transfer within Fc(+) FcC2 B9 (-) is achieved through a bridge-mediated mechanism. This electronic framework therefore provides the possibility of an all-neutral null state, a key requirement for the implementation of quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) molecular computing. The adhesion, ordering, and characterization of Fc(+) FcC2 B9 (-) on Au(111) has been observed by scanning tunneling microscopy. PMID:26516063

  6. Large-Scale and Controllable Synthesis of Graphene Quantum Dots from Rice Husk Biomass: A Comprehensive Utilization Strategy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaofeng; Yu, Jingfang; Zhang, Xin; Li, Na; Liu, Bin; Li, Yanyan; Wang, Yuhua; Wang, Weixing; Li, Yezhou; Zhang, Lichun; Dissanayake, Shanka; Suib, Steven L; Sun, Luyi

    2016-01-20

    In this work, rice husk biomass was utilized as an abundant source to controllably prepare high-quality graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with a yield of ca. 15 wt %. The size, morphology, and structure of the rice-husk-derived GQDs were determined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The as-fabricated GQDs can be stably dispersed in water, exhibiting bright and tunable photoluminescence. A cell viability test further confirmed that the GQDs possess excellent biocompatibility, and they can be easily adopted for cell imaging via a facile translocation into the cytoplasm. It is worth noting that mesoporous silica nanoparticles were also synthesized as a byproduct during the fabrication of GQDs. As such, our strategy achieves a comprehensive utilization of rice husks, exhibiting tremendous benefits on both the economy and environment. PMID:26710249

  7. Acid-free and oxone oxidant-assisted solvothermal synthesis of graphene quantum dots using various natural carbon materials as resources.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yonghun; Park, Jintaek; Hyun, Daesun; Yang, Junghee; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Jae-Ho; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2015-03-19

    To prepare carbon-based fluorescent materials such as graphene quantum dots (GQDs), new and effective methods are needed to convert one-dimensional (1D) or two-dimensional (2D) carbon materials to 0D GQDs. Here, we report a novel acid-free and oxone oxidant-assisted solvothermal synthesis of GQDs using various natural carbon resources including graphite (G), multiwall carbon nanotubes (M), carbon fibers (CF), and charcoal (C). This acid-free method, not requiring the neutralization process of strong acids, exhibits a simple and eco-friendly purification process and also represents a recycling production process, together with mass production and high yield. Newly synthesized GQDs exhibited a strong blue photoluminescence (PL) under 365 nm UV light illumination. The PL emission peaks of all the recycled GQDs did not change. PMID:25757839

  8. Biocompatible Quantum Dots for Biological Applications

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Sandra J.; Chang, Jerry C.; Kovtun, Oleg; McBride, James R.; Tomlinson, Ian D.

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are quickly becoming a critical diagnostic tool for discerning cellular function at the molecular level. Their high brightness, long-lasting, sizetunable, and narrow luminescence set them apart from conventional fluorescence dyes. Quantum dots are being developed for a variety of biologically oriented applications, including fluorescent assays for drug discovery, disease detection, single protein tracking, and intracellular reporting. This review introduces the science behind quantum dots and describes how they are made biologically compatible. Several applications are also included, illustrating strategies toward target specificity, and are followed by a discussion on the limitations of quantum dot approaches. The article is concluded with a look at the future direction of quantum dots. PMID:21276935

  9. Biocompatible Quantum Dots for Biological Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, Sandra; Chang, Jerry; Kovtun, Oleg; McBride, James; Tomlinson, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are quickly becoming a critical diagnostic tool for discerning cellular function at the molecular level. Their high brightness, long-lasting, size-tunable, and narrow luminescence set them apart from conventional fluorescence dyes. Quantum dots are being developed for a variety of biologically oriented applications, including fluorescent assays for drug discovery, disease detection, single protein tracking, and intracellular reporting. This review introduces the science behind quantum dots and describes how they are made biologically compatible. Several applications are also included, illustrating strategies toward target specificity, and are followed by a discussion on the limitations of quantum dot approaches. The article is concluded with a look at the future direction of quantum dots.

  10. Quantum-dot supercrystals for future nanophotonics

    PubMed Central

    Baimuratov, Anvar S.; Rukhlenko, Ivan D.; Turkov, Vadim K.; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.

    2013-01-01

    The study of supercrystals made of periodically arranged semiconductor quantum dots is essential for the advancement of emerging nanophotonics technologies. By combining the strong spatial confinement of elementary excitations inside quantum dots and exceptional design flexibility, quantum-dot supercrystals provide broad opportunities for engineering desired optical responses and developing superior light manipulation techniques on the nanoscale. Here we suggest tailoring the energy spectrum and wave functions of the supercrystals' collective excitations through the variation of different structural and material parameters. In particular, by calculating the excitonic spectra of quantum dots assembled in two-dimensional Bravais lattices we demonstrate a wide variety of spectrum transformation scenarios upon alterations in the quantum dot arrangement. This feature offers unprecedented control over the supercrystal's electromagnetic properties and enables the development of new nanophotonics materials and devices.

  11. Fluorescent carbon 'quantum' dots from thermochemical functionalization of carbon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rednic, Monica I.; Lu, Zhuomin; Wang, Ping; LeCroy, Gregory E.; Yang, Fan; Liu, Yun; Qian, Haijun; Terec, Anamaria; Veca, L. Monica; Lu, Fushen; Sun, Ya-Ping

    2015-10-01

    Fluorescent carbon 'quantum' dots are generally obtained by deliberate chemical functionalization of carbon nanoparticles or by 'one-pot' carbonization processing. For brightly fluorescent carbon dots with optoelectronic polymers, a hybrid approach was developed to use pre-processed and selected carbon nanoparticles as precursor for surface passivation by poly(9-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) in one-pot thermochemical processing, thus taking advantage of the more controllable feature from the deliberate functionalization and also the versatility associated with the one-pot synthesis. The PVK-carbon dots were characterized by optical spectroscopy, microscopy, and other techniques. The broad applicability of the hybrid approach is discussed.

  12. Acid-free and oxone oxidant-assisted solvothermal synthesis of graphene quantum dots using various natural carbon materials as resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Yonghun; Park, Jintaek; Hyun, Daesun; Yang, Junghee; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Jae-Ho; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2015-03-01

    To prepare carbon-based fluorescent materials such as graphene quantum dots (GQDs), new and effective methods are needed to convert one-dimensional (1D) or two-dimensional (2D) carbon materials to 0D GQDs. Here, we report a novel acid-free and oxone oxidant-assisted solvothermal synthesis of GQDs using various natural carbon resources including graphite (G), multiwall carbon nanotubes (M), carbon fibers (CF), and charcoal (C). This acid-free method, not requiring the neutralization process of strong acids, exhibits a simple and eco-friendly purification process and also represents a recycling production process, together with mass production and high yield. Newly synthesized GQDs exhibited a strong blue photoluminescence (PL) under 365 nm UV light illumination. The PL emission peaks of all the recycled GQDs did not change.To prepare carbon-based fluorescent materials such as graphene quantum dots (GQDs), new and effective methods are needed to convert one-dimensional (1D) or two-dimensional (2D) carbon materials to 0D GQDs. Here, we report a novel acid-free and oxone oxidant-assisted solvothermal synthesis of GQDs using various natural carbon resources including graphite (G), multiwall carbon nanotubes (M), carbon fibers (CF), and charcoal (C). This acid-free method, not requiring the neutralization process of strong acids, exhibits a simple and eco-friendly purification process and also represents a recycling production process, together with mass production and high yield. Newly synthesized GQDs exhibited a strong blue photoluminescence (PL) under 365 nm UV light illumination. The PL emission peaks of all the recycled GQDs did not change. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00814j

  13. Synthesis and characterization of novel molecularly imprinted polymer - coated Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots for specific fluorescent recognition of cocaine.

    PubMed

    Chantada-Vázquez, María Pilar; Sánchez-González, Juan; Peña-Vázquez, Elena; Tabernero, María Jesús; Bermejo, Ana María; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio

    2016-01-15

    Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) coated with a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) material selective toward cocaine and its metabolites have been prepared and applied to cocaine (COC) and metabolites assessment by spectrofluorimetry. Ultrasound irradiation (37kHz) was novelty used for performing the Mn-doped ZnS QDs synthesis as well as for preparing the QD based MIP-coated composite by precipitation polymerization (imprinting process). This fact allowed the synthesis to be accomplished in four hours. In addition, the use of ultrasound irradiation during MIP-QDs synthesis increased the homogeneity of the QDs size, and reduced nanoparticles agglomeration. MIP was synthesized using COC as a template molecule, ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) as a functional monomer, divinylbenzene (DVB) as a cross-linker, and 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as an initiator. The fluorescence of MIP-coated QDs was quenched by the template (COC) and also by metabolites from COC such as benzoylecgonine (BZE), and ecgonine methyl ester (EME). Quenching was not observed when performing experiments with non-imprinted polymer (NIP)-coated QDs; and also, fluorescence quenching of MIP-coated QDs was not observed by other drugs of abuse and metabolites (heroin and cannabis abuse). This fact indicates that the prepared material recognize only COC (template) and metabolites. PMID:26319164

  14. Substitutional impurity in the graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siera?ski, K.; Szatkowski, J.

    2015-09-01

    The process of formation of the localized defect states due to substitutional impurity in sp2-bonded graphene quantum dot is considered using a simple tight-binding-type calculation. We took into account the interaction of the quantum dot atoms surrounding the substitutional impurity from the second row of elements. To saturate the external dangling sp2 orbitals of the carbon additionally 18 hydrogen atoms were introduced. The chemical formula of the quantum dot is H18C51X, where X is the symbol of substitutional atom. The position of the localized levels is determined relative to the host-atoms (C) ?p energies. We focused on the effect of substitutional doping by the B, N and O on the eigenstate energies and on the total energy change of the graphene dots including for O the effect of lattice distorsion. We conclude that B, N, and O can form stable substitutional defects in graphene quantum dot.

  15. A facile synthesis of highly luminescent nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots for the detection of 2,4,6-trinitrophenol in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Liping; Rong, Mingcong; Lu, Sisi; Song, Xinhong; Zhong, Yunxin; Yan, Jiawei; Wang, Yiru; Chen, Xi

    2015-01-01

    A facile bottom-up method for the synthesis of highly fluorescent nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) has been developed via a one-step pyrolysis of citric acid and tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane. The obtained N-GQDs emitted strong blue fluorescence under 365 nm UV light excitation with a high quantum yield of 59.2%. They displayed excitation-independent behavior, high resistance to photobleaching and high ionic strength. In addition to the good linear relationship between the fluorescence intensity of the N-GQDs and pH in the range 2-7, the fluorescence intensity of the N-GQDs could be greatly quenched by the addition of a small amount of 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP). A sensitive approach has been developed for the detection of TNP with a detection limit of 0.30 ?M, and a linearity ranging from 1 to 60 ?M TNP could be obtained. The approach was highly selective and suitable for TNP analysis in natural water samples.A facile bottom-up method for the synthesis of highly fluorescent nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) has been developed via a one-step pyrolysis of citric acid and tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane. The obtained N-GQDs emitted strong blue fluorescence under 365 nm UV light excitation with a high quantum yield of 59.2%. They displayed excitation-independent behavior, high resistance to photobleaching and high ionic strength. In addition to the good linear relationship between the fluorescence intensity of the N-GQDs and pH in the range 2-7, the fluorescence intensity of the N-GQDs could be greatly quenched by the addition of a small amount of 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP). A sensitive approach has been developed for the detection of TNP with a detection limit of 0.30 ?M, and a linearity ranging from 1 to 60 ?M TNP could be obtained. The approach was highly selective and suitable for TNP analysis in natural water samples. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06365a

  16. Unraveling the Mesoscopic Character of Quantum Dots in Nanophotonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tighineanu, P.; Srensen, A. S.; Stobbe, S.; Lodahl, P.

    2015-06-01

    We provide a microscopic theory for semiconductor quantum dots that explains the pronounced deviations from the prevalent point-dipole description that were recently observed in spectroscopic experiments on quantum dots in photonic nanostructures. The deviations originate from structural inhomogeneities generating a large circular quantum current density that flows inside the quantum dot over mesoscopic length scales. The model is supported by the experimental data, where a strong variation of the multipolar moments across the emission spectrum of quantum dots is observed. Our work enriches the physical understanding of quantum dots and is of significance for the fields of nanophotonics, quantum photonics, and quantum-information science, where quantum dots are actively employed.

  17. Multimodal Mn-doped I-III-VI quantum dots for near infrared fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging: from synthesis to in vivo application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitbon, Gary; Bouccara, Sophie; Tasso, Mariana; Francois, Aurlie; Bezdetnaya, Lina; Marchal, Frdric; Beaumont, Marine; Pons, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    The development of sensitive multimodal contrast agents is a key issue to provide better global, multi-scale images for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. Here we present the synthesis of Zn-Cu-In-(S, Se)/Zn1-xMnxS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) that can be used as markers for both near-infrared fluorescence imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We first present the synthesis of Zn-Cu-In-(S, Se) cores coated with a thick ZnS shell doped with various proportions of Mn. Their emission wavelengths can be tuned over the NIR optical window suitable for deep tissue imaging. The incorporation of manganese ions (up to a few thousand ions per QD) confers them a paramagnetic character, as demonstrated by structural analysis and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. These QDs maintain their optical properties after transfer to water using ligand exchange. They exhibit T1-relaxivities up to 1400 mM-1 [QD] s-1 at 7 T and 300 K. We finally show that these QDs are suitable multimodal in vivo probes and demonstrate MRI and NIR fluorescence detection of regional lymph nodes in mice.The development of sensitive multimodal contrast agents is a key issue to provide better global, multi-scale images for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. Here we present the synthesis of Zn-Cu-In-(S, Se)/Zn1-xMnxS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) that can be used as markers for both near-infrared fluorescence imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We first present the synthesis of Zn-Cu-In-(S, Se) cores coated with a thick ZnS shell doped with various proportions of Mn. Their emission wavelengths can be tuned over the NIR optical window suitable for deep tissue imaging. The incorporation of manganese ions (up to a few thousand ions per QD) confers them a paramagnetic character, as demonstrated by structural analysis and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. These QDs maintain their optical properties after transfer to water using ligand exchange. They exhibit T1-relaxivities up to 1400 mM-1 [QD] s-1 at 7 T and 300 K. We finally show that these QDs are suitable multimodal in vivo probes and demonstrate MRI and NIR fluorescence detection of regional lymph nodes in mice. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Determination of Mn content; magnetization measurements; additional TEM and spectroscopic data; additional NIR fluorescence image; MTT assay results. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02239d

  18. Layered double hydroxides as carriers for quantum dots@silica nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Stoica, Georgiana; Castell Serrano, Ivn; Figuerola, Albert; Ugarte, Irati; Pacios, Roberto; Palomares, Emilio

    2012-09-01

    Quantum dot-hydrotalcite layered nanoplatforms were successfully prepared following a one-pot synthesis. The process is very fast and a priori delamination of hydrotalcite is not a prerequisite for the intercalation of quantum dots. The novel materials were extensively characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry, infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, true color fluorescence microscopy, photoluminescence, and nitrogen adsorption. The quantum dot-hydrotalcite nanomaterials display extremely high stability in mimicking physiological media such as saline serum (pH 5.5) and PBS (pH 7.2). Yet, quantum dot release from the solid structure is noted. In order to prevent the leaking of quantum dots we have developed a novel strategy which consists of using tailor made double layered hydrotalcites as protecting shells for quantum dots embedded into silica nanospheres without changing either the materials or the optical properties. PMID:22825338

  19. Layered double hydroxides as carriers for quantum dots@silica nanospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoica, Georgiana; Castell Serrano, Ivn.; Palomares, Emilio

    2013-02-01

    Quantum dot-hydrotalcite layered nanoplatforms were successfully prepared following a one-pot synthesis. The process is very fast and a priori delamination of hydrotalcite is not a prerequisite for the intercalation of quantum dots. The novel materials were extensively characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry, infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, true color fluorescence microscopy, photoluminescence, and nitrogen adsorption. The quantum dot-hydrotalcite nanomaterials display extremely high stability in mimicking physiological media such as saline serum (pH 5.5) and PBS (pH 7.2). Yet, quantum dot release from the solid structure is noted. In order to prevent the leaking of quantum dots we have developed a novel strategy which consists on using tailor made double layered hydrotalcites as protecting shells for quantum dots embedded into silica nanospheres without changing either the materials or the optical properties.

  20. Layered double hydroxides as carriers for quantum dots@silica nanospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoica, Georgiana; Castell Serrano, Ivn; Figuerola, Albert; Ugarte, Irati; Pacios, Roberto; Palomares, Emilio

    2012-08-01

    Quantum dot-hydrotalcite layered nanoplatforms were successfully prepared following a one-pot synthesis. The process is very fast and a priori delamination of hydrotalcite is not a prerequisite for the intercalation of quantum dots. The novel materials were extensively characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry, infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, true color fluorescence microscopy, photoluminescence, and nitrogen adsorption. The quantum dot-hydrotalcite nanomaterials display extremely high stability in mimicking physiological media such as saline serum (pH 5.5) and PBS (pH 7.2). Yet, quantum dot release from the solid structure is noted. In order to prevent the leaking of quantum dots we have developed a novel strategy which consists of using tailor made double layered hydrotalcites as protecting shells for quantum dots embedded into silica nanospheres without changing either the materials or the optical properties.

  1. Quantum dots with single-atom precision.

    PubMed

    Flsch, Stefan; Martnez-Blanco, Jess; Yang, Jianshu; Kanisawa, Kiyoshi; Erwin, Steven C

    2014-07-01

    Quantum dots are often called artificial atoms because, like real atoms, they confine electrons to quantized states with discrete energies. However, although real atoms are identical, most quantum dots comprise hundreds or thousands of atoms, with inevitable variations in size and shape and, consequently, unavoidable variability in their wavefunctions and energies. Electrostatic gates can be used to mitigate these variations by adjusting the electron energy levels, but the more ambitious goal of creating quantum dots with intrinsically digital fidelity by eliminating statistical variations in their size, shape and arrangement remains elusive. We used a scanning tunnelling microscope to create quantum dots with identical, deterministic sizes. By using the lattice of a reconstructed semiconductor surface to fix the position of each atom, we controlled the shape and location of the dots with effectively zero error. This allowed us to construct quantum dot molecules whose coupling has no intrinsic variation but could nonetheless be tuned with arbitrary precision over a wide range. Digital fidelity opens the door to quantum dot architectures free of intrinsic broadening-an important goal for technologies from nanophotonics to quantum information processing as well as for fundamental studies of confined electrons. PMID:24974937

  2. Facile synthesis of analogous graphene quantum dots with sp2 hybridized carbon atom dominant structures and their photovoltaic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhengcheng; Shen, Yongtao; Li, Yu; Zheng, Wenjun; Xue, Yunjia; Qin, Chengqun; Zhang, Bo; Hao, Jingxiang; Feng, Wei

    2014-10-01

    Graphene quantum dot (GQD) is an emerging class of zero-dimensional nanocarbon material with many novel applications. It is of scientific importance to prepare GQDs with more perfect structures, that is, GQDs containing negligible oxygenous defects, for both optimizing their optical properties and helping in their photovoltaic applications. Herein, a new strategy for the facile preparation of ``pristine'' GQDs is reported. The method we presented is a combination of a bottom-up synthetic and a solvent-induced interface separation process, during which the target products with highly crystalline structure were selected by the organic solvent. The obtained organic soluble GQDs (O-GQDs) showed a significant difference in structure and composition compared with ordinary aqueous soluble GQDs, thus leading to a series of novel properties. Furthermore, O-GQDs were applied as electron-acceptors in a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)-based organic photovoltaic device. The performance highlights that O-GQD has potential to be a novel electron-acceptor material due to the sp2 hybridized carbon atom dominant structure and good solubility in organic solvents.Graphene quantum dot (GQD) is an emerging class of zero-dimensional nanocarbon material with many novel applications. It is of scientific importance to prepare GQDs with more perfect structures, that is, GQDs containing negligible oxygenous defects, for both optimizing their optical properties and helping in their photovoltaic applications. Herein, a new strategy for the facile preparation of ``pristine'' GQDs is reported. The method we presented is a combination of a bottom-up synthetic and a solvent-induced interface separation process, during which the target products with highly crystalline structure were selected by the organic solvent. The obtained organic soluble GQDs (O-GQDs) showed a significant difference in structure and composition compared with ordinary aqueous soluble GQDs, thus leading to a series of novel properties. Furthermore, O-GQDs were applied as electron-acceptors in a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)-based organic photovoltaic device. The performance highlights that O-GQD has potential to be a novel electron-acceptor material due to the sp2 hybridized carbon atom dominant structure and good solubility in organic solvents. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03658a

  3. Coupling and entangling of quantum states in quantum dot molecules.

    PubMed

    Bayer, M; Hawrylak, P; Hinzer, K; Fafard, S; Korkusinski, M; Wasilewski, Z R; Stern, O; Forchel, A

    2001-01-19

    We demonstrate coupling and entangling of quantum states in a pair of vertically aligned, self-assembled quantum dots by studying the emission of an interacting electron-hole pair (exciton) in a single dot molecule as a function of the separation between the dots. An interaction-induced energy splitting of the exciton is observed that exceeds 30 millielectron volts for a dot layer separation of 4 nanometers. The results are interpreted by mapping the tunneling of a particle in a double dot to the problem of a single spin. The electron-hole complex is shown to be equivalent to entangled states of two interacting spins. PMID:11161192

  4. Fluorescent Quantum Dots for Biological Labeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Gene; Nadeau, Jay; Nealson, Kenneth; Storrie-Lomardi, Michael; Bhartia, Rohit

    2003-01-01

    Fluorescent semiconductor quantum dots that can serve as "on/off" labels for bacteria and other living cells are undergoing development. The "on/off" characterization of these quantum dots refers to the fact that, when properly designed and manufactured, they do not fluoresce until and unless they come into contact with viable cells of biological species that one seeks to detect. In comparison with prior fluorescence-based means of detecting biological species, fluorescent quantum dots show promise for greater speed, less complexity, greater sensitivity, and greater selectivity for species of interest. There are numerous potential applications in medicine, environmental monitoring, and detection of bioterrorism.

  5. Magnon-driven quantum dot refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuan; Huang, Chuankun; Liao, Tianjun; Chen, Jincan

    2015-12-01

    A new model of refrigerator consisting of a spin-splitting quantum dot coupled with two ferromagnetic reservoirs and a ferromagnetic insulator is proposed. The rate equation is used to calculate the occupation probabilities of the quantum dot. The expressions of the electron and magnon currents are obtained. The region that the system can work in as a refrigerator is determined. The cooling power and coefficient of performance (COP) of the refrigerator are derived. The influences of the magnetic field, applied voltage, and polarization of two leads on the performance are discussed. The performances of two different magnon-driven quantum dot refrigerators are compared.

  6. Facile synthesis of N-rich carbon quantum dots by spontaneous polymerization and incision of solvents as efficient bioimaging probes and advanced electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Zhouyue; Xu, Shengjie; Wan, Jiaxun; Wu, Peiyi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, uniform nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots (N-CDs) were synthesized through a one-step solvothermal process of cyclic and nitrogen-rich solvents, such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and dimethyl-imidazolidinone (DMEU), under mild conditions. The products exhibited strong light blue fluorescence, good cell permeability and low cytotoxicity. Moreover, after a facile post-thermal treatment, it developed a lotus seedpod surface-like structure of seed-like N-CDs decorating on the surface of carbon layers with a high proportion of quaternary nitrogen moieties that exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity and long-term durability towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The peak potential was -160 mV, which was comparable to or even lower than commercial Pt/C catalysts. Therefore, this study provides an alternative facile approach to the synthesis of versatile carbon quantum dots (CDs) with widespread commercial application prospects, not only as bioimaging probes but also as promising electrocatalysts for the metal-free ORR.In this study, uniform nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots (N-CDs) were synthesized through a one-step solvothermal process of cyclic and nitrogen-rich solvents, such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and dimethyl-imidazolidinone (DMEU), under mild conditions. The products exhibited strong light blue fluorescence, good cell permeability and low cytotoxicity. Moreover, after a facile post-thermal treatment, it developed a lotus seedpod surface-like structure of seed-like N-CDs decorating on the surface of carbon layers with a high proportion of quaternary nitrogen moieties that exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity and long-term durability towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The peak potential was -160 mV, which was comparable to or even lower than commercial Pt/C catalysts. Therefore, this study provides an alternative facile approach to the synthesis of versatile carbon quantum dots (CDs) with widespread commercial application prospects, not only as bioimaging probes but also as promising electrocatalysts for the metal-free ORR. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Digital photographs of DMF, DMSO, DMEU, NMP after the solvothermal treatment, time-resolved AFM images of N-CDs, time-resolved FTIR spectra, XPS spectra and NMR spectrum of the N-CDs, time-resolved PL spectra of the N-CDs, cell viabilities of the N-CDs, XRD patterns of the N-CDs and the post-treated sample, CV curves of the N-CDs and Pt/C commercial catalysts, a summary of ORR performances of the CDs and other N-doped carbon materials, the electrochemical stability and methanol-tolerant ability of the post-treated N-CDs. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07335a

  7. Magnetic anisotropies of quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyborny, Karel; Han, J. E.; Oszwaldowski, Rafal; Zutic, Igor; Petukhov, A. G.

    2012-02-01

    Magnetic anisotropies in quantum dots (QDs) doped by magnetic ions are discussed in terms of two frameworks: anisotropic g-factors and magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy [1]. Two examples, related to zinc-blende p-doped materials, are given of how these frameworks are utilized: four-level Hamiltonian of a flat QD and a cuboid infinite-well QD containing a single hole. The latter model, despite being an idealization of a real QD, displays a rich phenomenology of anisotropies. We quantify the anisotropy constants for ZnSe and CdTe QDs, confirming that the Ising-like effective Hamiltonians apply to magnetic QDs [2]. Compared to bulk systems, confinement tuning offers a new way to control easy axes in magnetic QDs. [1] K. Vyborny et al., preprint (2011). [2] C. Le Gall et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 057401 (2011).

  8. Quantum dots and prion proteins

    PubMed Central

    Sobrova, Pavlina; Blazkova, Iva; Chomoucka, Jana; Drbohlavova, Jana; Vaculovicova, Marketa; Kopel, Pavel; Hubalek, Jaromir; Kizek, Rene; Adam, Vojtech

    2013-01-01

    A diagnostics of infectious diseases can be done by the immunologic methods or by the amplification of nucleic acid specific to contagious agent using polymerase chain reaction. However, in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, the infectious agent, prion protein (PrPSc), has the same sequence of nucleic acids as a naturally occurring protein. The other issue with the diagnosing based on the PrPSc detection is that the pathological form of prion protein is abundant only at late stages of the disease in a brain. Therefore, the diagnostics of prion protein caused diseases represent a sort of challenges as that hosts can incubate infectious prion proteins for many months or even years. Therefore, new in vivo assays for detection of prion proteins and for diagnosis of their relation to neurodegenerative diseases are summarized. Their applicability and future prospects in this field are discussed with particular aim at using quantum dots as fluorescent labels. PMID:24055838

  9. Quantum dot-based theranostics

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Yi-Ping; Leong, Kam W.

    2010-01-01

    Luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals, also known as quantum dots (QDs), have advanced the fields of molecular diagnostics and nanotherapeutics. Much of the initial progress for QDs in biology and medicine has focused on developing new biosensing formats to push the limit of detection sensitivity. Nevertheless, QDs can be more than passive bio-probes or labels for biological imaging and cellular studies. The high surface-to-volume ratio of QDs enables the construction of a smart multifunctional nanoplatform, where the QDs serve not only as an imaging agent but also a nanoscaffold catering for therapeutic and diagnostic (theranostic) modalities. This mini review highlights the emerging applications of functionalized QDs as fluorescence contrast agents for imaging or as nanoscale vehicles for delivery of therapeutics, with special attention paid to the promise and challenges towards QD-based theranostics. PMID:20648364

  10. Instability-driven quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aqua, Jean-Nol; Frisch, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    When a film is strained in two dimensions, it can relax by developing a corrugation in the third dimension. We review here the resulting morphological instability that occurs by surface diffusion, called the Asaro-Tiller-Grinfel'd instability (ATG), especially on the paradigmatic silicon/germanium system. The instability is dictated by the balance between the elastic relaxation induced by the morphological evolution, and its surface energy cost. We focus here on its development at the nanoscales in epitaxial systems when a crystal film is coherently deposited on a substrate with a different lattice parameter, thence inducing epitaxial stresses. It eventually leads to the self-organization of quantum dots whose localization is dictated by the instability long-time dynamics. In these systems, new effects, such as film/substrate wetting or crystalline anisotropy, come into play and lead to a variety of behaviors. xml:lang="fr"

  11. Phonon-induced Exciton Dephasing in Quantum Dots and Quantum Dot Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muljarov, E. A.; Zimmermann, R.

    2007-04-01

    The phonon-induced dephasing in quantum dots is due to two basic sources: real and virtual phonon-assisted transitions between excitonic states. We calculate the time-dependent optical polarization and absorption in single and coupled quantum dots. We show that, depending on the energy distance between exciton levels in quantum dots, the dephasing can be dominated either by real acoustic phonon-assisted transitions, or by virtual transitions.

  12. Synthesis of water-dispersible zinc oxide quantum dots with antibacterial activity and low cytotoxicity for cell labeling.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shan-hui; Lin, Ying Yi; Huang, Sherry; Lem, Kwok Wai; Nguyen, Dinh Huong; Lee, Dai Soo

    2013-11-29

    Typical photoluminescent semiconductor nanoparticles, called quantum dots (QDs), have potential applications in biological labeling. When used to label stem cells, QDs may impair the differentiation capacity of the stem cells. In this study, we synthesized zinc oxide (ZnO) QDs in methanol with an average size of ?2nm. We then employed two different types of polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules (SH-PEG-NH2 and NH2-PEG-NH2) to conjugate ZnO QDs and made them water-dispersible. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra indicated the attachment of PEG molecules on ZnO QDs. No obvious size alteration was observed for ZnO QDs after PEG conjugation. The water-dispersible ZnO QDs still retained the antibacterial activity and fluorescence intensity. The cytotoxicity evaluation revealed that ZnO QDs at higher concentrations decreased cell viability but were generally safe at 30 ppm or below. Cell lines of hepatocytes (HepG2), osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were successfully labeled by the water-dispersible ZnO QDs at 30 ppm. The ZnO QD-labeled MSCs maintained their stemness and differentiation capacity. Therefore, we conclude that the water-dispersible ZnO QDs developed in this study have antibacterial activity, low cytotoxicity, and proper labeling efficiency, and can be used to label a variety of cells including stem cells. PMID:24177451

  13. Synthesis and Optical Properties of Thiol Functionalized CdSe/ZnS (Core/Shell) Quantum Dots by Ligand Exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Huaping; Hu, Michael Z.; Shao, Lei; Yu, Kui; Dabestani, Reza T; Zaman, Md. Badruz; Liao, Dr. Shijun

    2014-03-20

    The colloidal photoluminescent quantum dots (QDs) of CdSe (core) and CdSe/ZnS (core/shell) were synthesized at different temperatures with different growth periods. The optical properties (i.e., UV/Vis spectra and photoluminescent emission spectra) of the resulting QDs were investigated. The CdSe/ZnS QDs exhibited higher photoluminescent (PL) efficiency and stability than their corresponding CdSe core QDs. Ligand exchange with various thiol molecules was performed to replace the initial surface passivation ligands, that is, trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) and trioctylphosphine (TOP), and the optical properties of the surface-modified QDs were studied. The thiol ligand molecules used included 1,4-benzenedimethanethiol, 1,16-hexadecanedithiol, 1,11-undecanedithiol, 11-mercapto-1-undecanol, and 1,8 octanedithiol. After the thiol functionalization, the CdSe/ZnS QDs exhibited significantly enhanced PL efficiency and storage stability. Besides surface passivation effect, such enhanced performance of thiol-functionalized QDs could be due to self-assembly formation of dimer/trimer clusters, in which QDs are linked by dithiol molecules. Effects of ligand concentration, type of ligand, and heating on the thiol stabilization of QDs were also discussed.

  14. Synthesis of size-controlled colloidal InAs quantum dots using triphenylarsine as a stable arsenic source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uesugi, Hideo; Kita, Masao; Omata, Takahisa

    2015-04-01

    Colloidal indium arsenide (InAs) quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized by heating an organometallic solution containing the easy-to-handle arsenic source triphenylarsine and indium tribromide in a mixture of oleylamine, tri-n-octylphosphine and octadecene. The one-pot reaction was heated at 320 C to give spherical, monodisperse QDs in less than 15 min; the size of the QDs was controlled in the range from 3 to 6 nm by changing the reaction time. Tetrahedral QDs composed of four enclosed {111} faces of zincblende InAs were obtained after reaction for 30 min. The dependence of the shape of the QDs on reaction time was rationalized in terms of the adsorption strength of the capping ligand. The obtained QDs exhibited size-dependent optical gaps and PL emission, indicating narrow size distribution and good crystal quality. Because the PL emission exhibited a large Stokes shift of 100-200 meV, the electronic transition responsible for the PL emission was related to defects inside the QDs, and must involve the relaxation of excited electrons at the quantized electron state 1Se because of the large size-dependent energy variation.

  15. Rapid microwave-assisted synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers on carbon quantum dots for fluorescent sensing of tetracycline in milk.

    PubMed

    Hou, Juan; Li, Huiyu; Wang, Long; Zhang, Ping; Zhou, Tianyu; Ding, Hong; Ding, Lan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel, selective and eco-friendly sensor for the detection of tetracycline was developed by grafting imprinted polymers onto the surface of carbon quantum dots. A simple microwave-assisted approach was utilized to fabricate the fluorescent imprinted composites rapidly for the first time, which could shorten the polymerization time and simplify the experimental procedure dramatically. The novel composites not only demonstrated excellent fluorescence stability and special binding sites, but also could selectively accumulate target analytes. Under optimal conditions, the relative fluorescence intensity of the composites decreased linearly with increasing the concentration of tetracycline from 20nM to 14M. The detection limit of tetracycline was 5.48nM. The precision and reproducibility of the proposed sensor were also acceptable. Significantly, the practicality of this ultrasensitive sensor for tetracycline detection in milk was further validated, revealing the advantages of simplicity, sensitivity, selectivity and low cost. This approach combines the high selective adsorption property of molecular imprinted polymers and the sensitivity of fluorescence detection. It is envisioned that the development of fluorescent molecularly imprinted composites will offer a new way of thinking for rapid analysis in complex samples. PMID:26695231

  16. Bioinspired, direct synthesis of aqueous CdSe quantum dots for high-sensitive copper(II) ion detection.

    PubMed

    Bu, Xiaohai; Zhou, Yuming; He, Man; Chen, Zhenjie; Zhang, Tao

    2013-11-21

    Luminescent CdSe semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), which are coated with a denatured bovine serum albumin (dBSA) shell, have been directly synthesized via a bioinspired approach. The dBSA coated CdSe QDs are ultrasmall (d < 2.0 nm) with a narrow size distribution and exhibit a strong green fluorescent emission at about 525 nm. They can be stored for months at room temperature and possess excellent stability against ultraviolet irradiation, high salt concentration, and a wide physiological range of pH. Systematic experimental investigations have shown the contribution of dBSA with free cysteine residues for both their effective ion chelating and surface passivating interactions during the formation and stabilization of CdSe QDs. The luminescent QDs are used for copper(II) ion detection due to their highly sensitive and selective fluorescence quenching response to Cu(2+). The concentration dependence of the quenching effect can be best described by the typical Stern-Volmer equation in a linearly proportional concentration of Cu(2+) ranging from 10 nM to 7.5 μM with a detection limit of 5 nM. As confirmed by various characterization results, a possible quenching mechanism is given: Cu(2+) ions are first reduced to Cu(+) by the dBSA shell and then chemical displacement between Cu(+) and Cd(2+) is performed at the surface of the ultrasmall metallic core to impact the fluorescence performance. PMID:24013872

  17. Facile synthesis of analogous graphene quantum dots with sp(2) hybridized carbon atom dominant structures and their photovoltaic application.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhengcheng; Shen, Yongtao; Li, Yu; Zheng, Wenjun; Xue, Yunjia; Qin, Chengqun; Zhang, Bo; Hao, Jingxiang; Feng, Wei

    2014-11-01

    Graphene quantum dot (GQD) is an emerging class of zero-dimensional nanocarbon material with many novel applications. It is of scientific importance to prepare GQDs with more perfect structures, that is, GQDs containing negligible oxygenous defects, for both optimizing their optical properties and helping in their photovoltaic applications. Herein, a new strategy for the facile preparation of "pristine" GQDs is reported. The method we presented is a combination of a bottom-up synthetic and a solvent-induced interface separation process, during which the target products with highly crystalline structure were selected by the organic solvent. The obtained organic soluble GQDs (O-GQDs) showed a significant difference in structure and composition compared with ordinary aqueous soluble GQDs, thus leading to a series of novel properties. Furthermore, O-GQDs were applied as electron-acceptors in a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)-based organic photovoltaic device. The performance highlights that O-GQD has potential to be a novel electron-acceptor material due to the sp(2) hybridized carbon atom dominant structure and good solubility in organic solvents. PMID:25247467

  18. Synthesis of Nanocrystalline CdS Quantum Dots via Paraffin Liquid as Solvent and Oleic Acid as the Reacting Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenjiang; Wang, Mingrui; Xie, Fei; Zhu, Sha; Zhao, Yue

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals have been widely used as fluorescent materials in chemical sensors, biotechnology, medical diagnostics, biological imaging and many other fields. Compared to the conventional organic fluorophores, the inorganic quantum dots (QDs) have many advantages, including broad absorption spectra, narrow emission spectra, good photostability and long fluorescent lifetime after excitation. Here, the high quality CdS QDs were synthesized directly from sulfur and CdO using the paraffin liquid as solvent and the oleic acid as the reacting media. The synthesized CdS QDs with a zinc blende (cubic) crystal structure were proved by X-ray diffraction. HRTEM observation revealed that the CdS QDs were uniform and the average grain size was about 4 nm. The optical properties of the CdS QDs were characterized by using photoluminescence (PL) spectrophotometer and Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectrophotometer. The formation mechanism of CdS QDs in the paraffin liquid and oleic acid system was proposed.

  19. Synthesis of CdSe quantum dots using various long-chain fatty acids and their phase transfer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Aiyu; Yang, Ping; Shen, Jianxing

    2013-06-01

    Monodispersed colloidal photoluminescent CdSe quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized via an organic approach by using cadmium oxide and elemental selenium as precursors, and long-chain fatty acids as surface ligands. The hydrocarbon chain length of the fatty acid was adjusted to investigate the effect on CdSe QDs. The fatty acid ligands with different hydrocarbon chain lengths showed an apparent effect on the nanocrystal nucleation and growth which is the key controlling the size, size distribution and crystal structure of resulting CdSe QDs. This effect was attributable to the steric hindrance of different hydrocarbon length of the fatty acids, which affected the reactivity of the monomers and nanocrystals during the nanocrystal nucleation and growth. The water-soluble CdSe QDs were obtained by encapsulating the CdSe ODs in oil phase with amphiphilic poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) (PSMA)-ethanolamine (EA) polymers, which made it possible for further applications of the CdSe QDs in aqueous environment such as surface functionalization for biological labeling and application in photocatalysis and photosensitization. PMID:23862479

  20. Laser-assisted synthesis of Staphylococcus aureus protein-capped silicon quantum dots as bio-functional nanoprobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagga, K.; Barchanski, A.; Intartaglia, R.; Dante, S.; Marotta, R.; Diaspro, A.; Sajti, C. L.; Brandi, F.

    2013-06-01

    A novel approach for nanofabricating protein-functionalized luminescent silicon nanoparticles based on infrared ultrafast laser ablation of silicon in an aqueous solution of Staphylococcus aureus protein A is reported. It is demonstrated that 8 nm protein A-capped silicon quantum dots with blue-green photoemissive properties are generated. The conjugation efficiency studies reveal a high percentage of protein A attached to the Si nanoparticle surface through physical adsorption phenomena during the in situ laser process. The biological functionality of laser-generated Staphylococcus aureus protein A-capped Si nanoparticles is investigated. Confocal and electron microscopy together with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis show that these Si-based bio-nanostructures selectively bind IgG in the cells. Cell viability studies reveal that these protein A-capped Si nanoparticles are suitable for biological applications, demonstrating their potential as universal secondary biomarkers for in vivo applications such as long-term, real-time cell labeling, cell staining and controlled drug delivery.

  1. Comparison of quantum confinement effects between quantum wires and dots

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jingbo; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2004-03-30

    Dimensionality is an important factor to govern the electronic structures of semiconductor nanocrystals. The quantum confinement energies in one-dimensional quantum wires and zero-dimensional quantum dots are quite different. Using large-scale first-principles calculations, we systematically study the electronic structures of semiconductor (including group IV, III-V, and II-VI) surface-passivated quantum wires and dots. The band-gap energies of quantum wires and dots have the same scaling with diameter for a given material. The ratio of band-gap-increases between quantum wires and dots is material-dependent, and slightly deviates from 0.586 predicted by effective-mass approximation. Highly linear polarization of photoluminescence in quantum wires is found. The degree of polarization decreases with the increasing temperature and size.

  2. Entangled exciton states in quantum dot molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, Manfred

    2002-03-01

    Currently there is strong interest in quantum information processing(See, for example, The Physics of Quantum Information, eds. D. Bouwmeester, A. Ekert and A. Zeilinger (Springer, Berlin, 2000).) in a solid state environment. Many approaches mimic atomic physics concepts in which semiconductor quantum dots are implemented as artificial atoms. An essential building block of a quantum processor is a gate which entangles the states of two quantum bits. Recently a pair of vertically aligned quantum dots has been suggested as optically driven quantum gate(P. Hawrylak, S. Fafard, and Z. R. Wasilewski, Cond. Matter News 7, 16 (1999).)(M. Bayer, P. Hawrylak, K. Hinzer, S. Fafard, M. Korkusinski, Z.R. Wasilewski, O. Stern, and A. Forchel, Science 291, 451 (2001).): The quantum bits are individual carriers either on dot zero or dot one. The different dot indices play the same role as a "spin", therefore we call them "isospin". Quantum mechanical tunneling between the dots rotates the isospin and leads to superposition of these states. The quantum gate is built when two different particles, an electron and a hole, are created optically. The two particles form entangled isospin states. Here we present spectrocsopic studies of single self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dot molecules that support the feasibility of this proposal. The evolution of the excitonic recombination spectrum with varying separation between the dots allows us to demonstrate coherent tunneling of carriers across the separating barrier and the formation of entangled exciton states: Due to the coupling between the dots the exciton states show a splitting that increases with decreasing barrier width. For barrier widths below 5 nm it exceeds the thermal energy at room temperature. For a given barrier width, we find only small variations of the tunneling induced splitting demonstrating a good homogeneity within a molecule ensemble. The entanglement may be controlled by application of electromagnetic field. For example, using an electric field along the molecule axis we can break the entanglement. Tunneling of carriers is prevented then and emission from intra-dot and inter-dot excitons in which electron and hole are located on the same and on opposite dots, respectively, is observed. The voltage required for the entanglement breaking increases with decreasing barrier width reflecting the increasing 'robustness' of the entanglement for narrow barriers.

  3. Theory Of Alkyl Terminated Silicon Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Reboredo, F; Galli, G

    2004-08-19

    We have carried out a series of ab-initio calculations to investigate changes in the optical properties of Si quantum dots as a function of surface passivation. In particular, we have compared hydrogen passivated dots with those having alkyl groups at the surface. We find that, while on clusters with reconstructed surfaces a complete alkyl passivation is possible, steric repulsion prevents full passivation of Si dots with unreconstructed surfaces. In addition, our calculations show that steric repulsion may have a dominant effect in determining the surface structure, and eventually the stability of alkyl passivated clusters, with results dependent on the length of the carbon chain. Alkyl passivation weakly affects optical gaps of silicon quantum dots, while it substantially decreases ionization potentials and electron affinities and affect their excited state properties. On the basis of our results we propose that alkyl terminated quantum dots may be size selected taking advantage of the change in ionization potential as a function of the cluster size.

  4. Single to quadruple quantum dots with tunable tunnel couplings

    SciTech Connect

    Takakura, T.; Noiri, A.; Obata, T.; Yoneda, J.; Yoshida, K.; Otsuka, T.; Tarucha, S.

    2014-03-17

    We prepare a gate-defined quadruple quantum dot to study the gate-tunability of single to quadruple quantum dots with finite inter-dot tunnel couplings. The measured charging energies of various double dots suggest that the dot size is governed by the gate geometry. For the triple and quadruple dots, we study the gate-tunable inter-dot tunnel couplings. For the triple dot, we find that the effective tunnel coupling between side dots significantly depends on the alignment of the center dot potential. These results imply that the present quadruple dot has a gate performance relevant for implementing spin-based four-qubits with controllable exchange couplings.

  5. Nonadiabatic geometrical quantum gates in semiconductor quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Solinas, Paolo; Zanghi, Nino; Zanardi, Paolo; Rossi, Fausto

    2003-05-01

    In this paper, we study the implementation of nonadiabatic geometrical quantum gates with in semiconductor quantum dots. Different quantum information enconding (manipulation) schemes exploiting excitonic degrees of freedom are discussed. By means of the Aharanov-Anandan geometrical phase, one can avoid the limitations of adiabatic schemes relying on adiabatic Berry phase; fast geometrical quantum gates can be, in principle, implemented.

  6. Ag2Te quantum dots with compact surface coatings of multivalent polymers: ambient one-pot aqueous synthesis and the second near-infrared bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Gui, Rijun; Jin, Hui; Wang, Zonghua; Zhang, Feifei; Xia, Jianfei; Bi, Sai; Xia, Yanzhi

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we described a facile ambient one-pot aqueous synthesis of fluorescent Ag2Te quantum dots (QDs) adopting multivalent polymers (poly(maleic anhydride) homopolymers) as stabilizers. In experiments, Ag2Te QDs were synthesized via a stepwise addition of the stabilizers, precursors (AgNO3/Na2TeO3) and promoters (NaBH4/N2H4 · H2O) in ambient one-pot aqueous solution. By regulating the compositions of raw materials, water-dispersed Ag2Te QDs (3.8-4.7 nm) were achieved and exhibited tunable photoluminescence (PL) emission (995-1068 nm) in the second near-infrared (NIR-II) region, accompanying with the minimized surface coating thickness (1.5-1.9 nm). Such compact coating of multivalent polymers promoted PL emission of Ag2Te QDs, so showing high PL quantum yields (PLQYs: 13.1-15.2%). In addition to compact sizes and high PLQYs, experimental results testified that the Ag2Te QDs demonstrated high photo-/colloidal stability and ultralow cytotoxicity, which implied their promising applications, especially serving as an effective nanoprobe for bioimaging in the NIR-II biological window. PMID:25546835

  7. Opportunities and challenges for quantum dot photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalenko, Maksym V.

    2015-12-01

    Although research into colloidal quantum dots has led to promising results for the realization of photovoltaic devices, a better understanding of the robustness and stability of these devices is necessary before commercial competiveness can be claimed.

  8. Nanomaterials: Earthworms lit with quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilley, Richard D.; Cheong, Soshan

    2013-01-01

    Yeast, bacteria and fungi have been used to synthesize a variety of nanocrystals. Now, the metal detoxification process in the gut of an earthworm is exploited to produce biocompatible cadmium telluride quantum dots.

  9. Towards registered single quantum dot photonic devices.

    PubMed

    Lee, K H; Brossard, F S F; Hadjipanayi, M; Xu, X; Waldermann, F; Green, A M; Sharp, D N; Turberfield, A J; Williams, D A; Taylor, R A

    2008-11-12

    We have registered the position and wavelength of a single InGaAs quantum dot using an innovative cryogenic laser lithography technique. This approach provides accurate marking of the location of self-organized dots and is particularly important for realizing any solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics scheme where the overlap of the spectral and spatial characteristics of an emitter and a cavity is essential. We demonstrate progress in two key areas towards efficient single quantum dot photonic device implementation. Firstly, we show the registration and reacquisition of a single quantum dot with 50 and 150nm accuracy, respectively. Secondly, we present data on the successful fabrication of a photonic crystal L3 cavity following the registration process. PMID:21832772

  10. Submonolayer Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.; Bandara, Sumith V.; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Chang, Yia-Chang

    2010-01-01

    A method has been developed for inserting submonolayer (SML) quantum dots (QDs) or SML QD stacks, instead of conventional Stranski-Krastanov (S-K) QDs, into the active region of intersubband photodetectors. A typical configuration would be InAs SML QDs embedded in thin layers of GaAs, surrounded by AlGaAs barriers. Here, the GaAs and the AlGaAs have nearly the same lattice constant, while InAs has a larger lattice constant. In QD infrared photodetector, the important quantization directions are in the plane perpendicular to the normal incidence radiation. In-plane quantization is what enables the absorption of normal incidence radiation. The height of the S-K QD controls the positions of the quantized energy levels, but is not critically important to the desired normal incidence absorption properties. The SML QD or SML QD stack configurations give more control of the structure grown, retains normal incidence absorption properties, and decreases the strain build-up to allow thicker active layers for higher quantum efficiency.

  11. First principle thousand atom quantum dot calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lin-Wang; Li, Jingbo

    2004-03-30

    A charge patching method and an idealized surface passivation are used to calculate the single electronic states of IV-IV, III-V, II-VI semiconductor quantum dots up to a thousand atoms. This approach scales linearly and has a 1000 fold speed-up compared to direct first principle methods with a cost of eigen energy error of about 20 meV. The calculated quantum dot band gaps are parametrized for future references.

  12. Luminescence of a semiconductor quantum dot system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, N.; Gies, C.; Wiersig, J.; Jahnke, F.

    2006-04-01

    A microscopic theory is used to study photoluminescence of semiconductor quantum dots under the influence of Coulomb and carrier-photon correlation effects beyond the Hartree-Fock level. We investigate the emission spectrum and the decay properties of the time-resolved luminescence from initially excited quantum dots. The influence of the correlations is included within a cluster expansion scheme up to the singlet-doublet level.

  13. Electron Spin Dynamics in Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Marie, X.; Belhadj, T.; Urbaszek, B.; Amand, T.; Krebs, O.; Lemaitre, A.; Voisin, P.

    2011-07-15

    An electron spin confined to a semiconductor quantum dot is not subject to the classical spin relaxation mechanisms known for free carriers but it strongly interacts with the nuclear spin system via the hyperfine interaction. We show in time resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy experiments on ensembles of self assembled InAs quantum dots in GaAs that this interaction leads to strong electron spin dephasing.

  14. Renormalization in Periodically Driven Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eissing, A. K.; Meden, V.; Kennes, D. M.

    2016-01-01

    We report on strong renormalization encountered in periodically driven interacting quantum dots in the nonadiabatic regime. Correlations between lead and dot electrons enhance or suppress the amplitude of driving depending on the sign of the interaction. Employing a newly developed flexible renormalization-group-based approach for periodic driving to an interacting resonant level we show analytically that the magnitude of this effect follows a power law. Our setup can act as a non-Markovian, single-parameter quantum pump.

  15. Renormalization in Periodically Driven Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Eissing, A K; Meden, V; Kennes, D M

    2016-01-15

    We report on strong renormalization encountered in periodically driven interacting quantum dots in the nonadiabatic regime. Correlations between lead and dot electrons enhance or suppress the amplitude of driving depending on the sign of the interaction. Employing a newly developed flexible renormalization-group-based approach for periodic driving to an interacting resonant level we show analytically that the magnitude of this effect follows a power law. Our setup can act as a non-Markovian, single-parameter quantum pump. PMID:26824557

  16. Final Progress Report for Project Entitled: Quantum Dot Tracers for Use in Engineered Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Peter; Bartl, Michael; Reimus, Paul; Williams, Mark; Mella, Mike

    2015-09-12

    The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate a new class of tracers that offer great promise for use in characterizing fracture networks in EGS reservoirs. From laboratory synthesis and testing through numerical modeling and field demonstrations, we have demonstrated the amazing versatility and applicability of quantum dot tracers. This report summarizes the results of four years of research into the design, synthesis, and characterization of semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots) for use as geothermal tracers.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and target protein binding of drug-conjugated quantum dots in vitro and in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Youngseon; Kim, Minjung; Cho, Yoojin; Yun, Eunsuk; Song, Rita

    2013-02-01

    Elucidation of unknown target proteins of a drug is of great importance in understanding cell biology and drug discovery. There have been extensive studies to discover and identify target proteins in the cell. Visualization of targets using drug-conjugated probes has been an important approach to gathering mechanistic information of drug action at the cellular level. As quantum dot (QD) nanocrystals have attracted much attention as a fluorescent probe in the bioimaging area, we prepared drug-conjugated QD to explore the potential of target discovery. As a model drug, we selected a well-known anticancer drug, methotrexate (MTX), which has been known to target dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) with high affinity binding (Kd = 0.54 nM). MTX molecules were covalently attached to amino-PEG-polymer-coated QDs. Specific interactions of MTX-conjugated QDs with DHFR were identified using agarose gel electrophoresis and fluorescence microscopy. Cellular uptake of the MTX-conjugated QDs in living CHO cells was investigated with regard to their localization and distribution pattern. MTX-QD was found to be internalized into the cells via caveolae-medicated endocytosis without significant sequestration in endosomes. A colocalization experiment of the MTX-QD conjugate with antiDHFR-TAT-QD also confirmed that MTX-QD binds to the target DHFR. This study showed the potential of the drug-QD conjugate to identify or visualize drug-target interactions in the cell, which is currently of great importance in the area of drug discovery and chemical biology.

  18. Metamorphic quantum dots: Quite different nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Seravalli, L.; Frigeri, P.; Nasi, L.; Trevisi, G.; Bocchi, C.

    2010-09-15

    In this work, we present a study of InAs quantum dots deposited on InGaAs metamorphic buffers by molecular beam epitaxy. By comparing morphological, structural, and optical properties of such nanostructures with those of InAs/GaAs quantum dot ones, we were able to evidence characteristics that are typical of metamorphic InAs/InGaAs structures. The more relevant are: the cross-hatched InGaAs surface overgrown by dots, the change in critical coverages for island nucleation and ripening, the nucleation of new defects in the capping layers, and the redshift in the emission energy. The discussion on experimental results allowed us to conclude that metamorphic InAs/InGaAs quantum dots are rather different nanostructures, where attention must be put to some issues not present in InAs/GaAs structures, namely, buffer-related defects, surface morphology, different dislocation mobility, and stacking fault energies. On the other hand, we show that metamorphic quantum dot nanostructures can provide new possibilities of tailoring various properties, such as dot positioning and emission energy, that could be very useful for innovative dot-based devices.

  19. Advancements in the Field of Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Sambeet; Tripathy, Pratyasha; Sinha, Swami Prasad.

    2012-08-01

    Quantum dots are defined as very small semiconductor crystals of size varying from nanometer scale to a few micron i.e. so small that they are considered dimensionless and are capable of showing many chemical properties by virtue of which they tend to be lead at one minute and gold at the second minute.Quantum dots house the electrons just the way the electrons would have been present in an atom, by applying a voltage. And therefore they are very judiciously given the name of being called as the artificial atoms. This application of voltage may also lead to the modification of the chemical nature of the material anytime it is desired, resulting in lead at one minute to gold at the other minute. But this method is quite beyond our reach. A quantum dot is basically a semiconductor of very tiny size and this special phenomenon of quantum dot, causes the band of energies to change into discrete energy levels. Band gaps and the related energy depend on the relationship between the size of the crystal and the exciton radius. The height and energy between different energy levels varies inversely with the size of the quantum dot. The smaller the quantum dot, the higher is the energy possessed by it.There are many applications of the quantum dots e.g. they are very wisely applied to:Light emitting diodes: LEDs eg. White LEDs, Photovoltaic devices: solar cells, Memory elements, Biology : =biosensors, imaging, Lasers, Quantum computation, Flat-panel displays, Photodetectors, Life sciences and so on and so forth.The nanometer sized particles are able to display any chosen colour in the entire ultraviolet visible spectrum through a small change in their size or composition.

  20. Quantum-dot-in-perovskite solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Zhijun; Gong, Xiwen; Comin, Riccardo; Walters, Grant; Fan, Fengjia; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Yassitepe, Emre; Buin, Andrei; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-07-01

    Heteroepitaxy--atomically aligned growth of a crystalline film atop a different crystalline substrate--is the basis of electrically driven lasers, multijunction solar cells, and blue-light-emitting diodes. Crystalline coherence is preserved even when atomic identity is modulated, a fact that is the critical enabler of quantum wells, wires, and dots. The interfacial quality achieved as a result of heteroepitaxial growth allows new combinations of materials with complementary properties, which enables the design and realization of functionalities that are not available in the single-phase constituents. Here we show that organohalide perovskites and preformed colloidal quantum dots, combined in the solution phase, produce epitaxially aligned `dots-in-a-matrix' crystals. Using transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction, we reveal heterocrystals as large as about 60 nanometres and containing at least 20 mutually aligned dots that inherit the crystalline orientation of the perovskite matrix. The heterocrystals exhibit remarkable optoelectronic properties that are traceable to their atom-scale crystalline coherence: photoelectrons and holes generated in the larger-bandgap perovskites are transferred with 80% efficiency to become excitons in the quantum dot nanocrystals, which exploit the excellent photocarrier diffusion of perovskites to produce bright-light emission from infrared-bandgap quantum-tuned materials. By combining the electrical transport properties of the perovskite matrix with the high radiative efficiency of the quantum dots, we engineer a new platform to advance solution-processed infrared optoelectronics.

  1. Quantum-dot-in-perovskite solids.

    PubMed

    Ning, Zhijun; Gong, Xiwen; Comin, Riccardo; Walters, Grant; Fan, Fengjia; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Yassitepe, Emre; Buin, Andrei; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-07-16

    Heteroepitaxy-atomically aligned growth of a crystalline film atop a different crystalline substrate-is the basis of electrically driven lasers, multijunction solar cells, and blue-light-emitting diodes. Crystalline coherence is preserved even when atomic identity is modulated, a fact that is the critical enabler of quantum wells, wires, and dots. The interfacial quality achieved as a result of heteroepitaxial growth allows new combinations of materials with complementary properties, which enables the design and realization of functionalities that are not available in the single-phase constituents. Here we show that organohalide perovskites and preformed colloidal quantum dots, combined in the solution phase, produce epitaxially aligned 'dots-in-a-matrix' crystals. Using transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction, we reveal heterocrystals as large as about 60 nanometres and containing at least 20 mutually aligned dots that inherit the crystalline orientation of the perovskite matrix. The heterocrystals exhibit remarkable optoelectronic properties that are traceable to their atom-scale crystalline coherence: photoelectrons and holes generated in the larger-bandgap perovskites are transferred with 80% efficiency to become excitons in the quantum dot nanocrystals, which exploit the excellent photocarrier diffusion of perovskites to produce bright-light emission from infrared-bandgap quantum-tuned materials. By combining the electrical transport properties of the perovskite matrix with the high radiative efficiency of the quantum dots, we engineer a new platform to advance solution-processed infrared optoelectronics. PMID:26178963

  2. Luminescent Quantum Dots as Ultrasensitive Biological Labels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Shuming

    2000-03-01

    Highly luminescent semiconductor quantum dots have been covalently coupled to biological molecules for use in ultrasensitive biological detection. This new class of luminescent labels is considerably brighter and more resistant againt photobleaching in comparison with organic dyes. Quantum dots labeled with the protein transferrin undergo receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME) in cultured HeLa cells, and those dots that were conjugated to immunomolecules recognize specific antibodies or antigens. In addition, we show that DNA functionalized quantum dots can be used to target specific genes by hybridization. We expect that quantum dot bioconjugates will have a broad range of biological applications, such as ligand-receptor interactions, real-time monitoring of molecular trafficking inside living cells, multicolor fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), high-sensitivity detection in miniaturized devices (e.g., DNA chips), and fluorescent tagging of combinatorial chemical libraries. A potential clinical application is the use of quantum dots for ultrasensitive viral RNA detection, in which as low as 100 copies of hepatitis C and HIV viruses per ml blood should be detected.

  3. Theory of quantum coherence phenomena in semiconductor quantum dots.

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, Weng Wah; Phillips, Mark Christopher; Schneider, Hans Christian

    2003-06-01

    This paper explores quantum-coherence phenomena in a semiconductor quantum-dot structure. The calculations predict the occurrence of inversionless gain, electromagnetically induced transparency, and refractive-index enhancement in the transient regime for dephasing rates typical under room temperature and high excitation conditions. They also indicate deviations from atomic systems because of strong many-body effects. Specifically, Coulomb interaction involving states of the quantum dots and the continuum belonging to the surrounding quantum well leads to collision-induced population redistribution and many-body energy and field renormalizations that modify the magnitude, spectral shape, and time dependence of quantum-coherence effects.

  4. Spectroscopy characterization and quantum yield determination of quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras Ortiz, S. N.; Mejía Ospino, E.; Cabanzo, R.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we show the characterization of two kinds of quantum dots: hydrophilic and hydrophobic, with core and core/shell respectively, using spectroscopy techniques such as UV-Vis, fluorescence and Raman. We determined the quantum yield in the quantum dots using the quinine sulphate as standard. This salt is commonly used because of its quantum yield (56%) and stability. For the CdTe excitation, we used a wavelength of 549nm and for the CdSe/ZnS excitation a wavelength of 527nm. The results show that CdSe/ZnS (49%) has better fluorescence, better quantum dots, and confirm the fluorescence result. The quantum dots have shown a good fluorescence performance, so this property will be used to replace dyes, with the advantage that quantum dots are less toxic than some dyes like the rhodamine. In addition, in this work we show different techniques to find the quantum dots emission: fluorescence spectrum, synchronous spectrum and Raman spectrum.

  5. (In,Mn)As multilayer quantum dot structures

    SciTech Connect

    Bouravleuv, Alexei; Sapega, Victor; Nevedomskii, Vladimir; Khrebtov, Artem; Samsonenko, Yuriy; Cirlin, George

    2014-12-08

    (In,Mn)As multilayer quantum dots structures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy using a Mn selective doping of the central parts of quantum dots. The study of the structural and magneto-optical properties of the samples with three and five layers of (In,Mn)As quantum dots has shown that during the quantum dots assembly, the out-diffusion of Mn from the layers with (In,Mn)As quantum dots can occur resulting in the formation of the extended defects. To produce a high quality structures using the elaborated technique of selective doping, the number of (In,Mn)As quantum dot layers should not exceed three.

  6. Optically controlled spins in semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Economou, Sophia

    2010-03-01

    Spins in charged semiconductor quantum dots are currently generating much interest, both from a fundamental physics standpoint, as well as for their potential technological relevance. Being naturally a two-level quantum system, each of these spins can encode a bit of quantum information. Optically controlled spins in quantum dots possess several desirable properties: their spin coherence times are long, they allow for all-optical manipulation---which translates into fast logic gates---and their coupling to photons offers a straightforward route to exchange of quantum information between spatially separated sites. Designing the laser fields to achieve the unprecedented amount of control required for quantum information tasks is a challenging goal, towards which there has been recent progress. Special properties of hyperbolic secant optical pulses enabled the design of single qubit rotations, initially developed about the growth axis z [1], and later about an arbitrary direction [2]. Recently we demonstrated our theoretical proposal [1] in an ensemble of InAs/GaAs quantum dots by implementing ultrafast rotations about the z axis by an arbitrary angle [3], with the angle of rotation as a function of the optical detuning in excellent agreement with the theoretical prediction. We also developed two-qubit conditional control in a quantum dot `molecule' using the electron-hole exchange interaction [4]. In addition to its importance in quantum dot-based quantum computation, our two-qubit gate can also play an important role in photonic cluster state generation for measurement-based quantum computing [5]. [1] S. E. Economou, L. J. Sham, Y. Wu, D. S. Steel, Phys. Rev. 74, 205415 (2006) [2] S. E. Economou and T. L. Reinecke, Phys. Rev. Lett., 99, 217401 (2007) [3] A. Greilich, S. E. Economou et al, Nature Phys. 5, 262 (2009) [4] S. E. Economou and T. L. Reinecke, Phys. Rev. B, 78, 115306 (2008) [5] S. E. Economou, N. H. Lindner, and T. Rudolph, in preparation

  7. Colloidal quantum dot materials for infrared optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arinze, Ebuka S.; Nyirjesy, Gabrielle; Cheng, Yan; Palmquist, Nathan; Thon, Susanna M.

    2015-09-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are an attractive material for optoelectronic applications because they combine flexible, low-cost solution-phase synthesis and processing with the potential for novel functionality arising from their nanostructure. Specifically, the bandgap of films composed of arrays of CQDs can be tuned via the quantum confinement effect for tailored spectral utilization. PbS-based CQDs can be tuned throughout the near and mid-infrared wavelengths and are a promising materials system for photovoltaic devices that harvest non-visible solar radiation. The performance of CQD solar cells is currently limited by an absorption-extraction compromise, whereby photon absorption lengths in the near infrared spectral regime exceed minority carrier diffusion lengths in the bulk films. Several light trapping strategies for overcoming this compromise and increasing the efficiency of infrared energy harvesting will be reviewed. A thin-film interference technique for creating multi-colored and transparent solar cells will be presented, and a discussion of designing plasmonic nanomaterials based on earth-abundant materials for integration into CQD solar cells is developed. The results indicate that it should be possible to achieve high absorption and color-tunability in a scalable nanomaterials system.

  8. Probing relaxation times in graphene quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Volk, Christian; Neumann, Christoph; Kazarski, Sebastian; Fringes, Stefan; Engels, Stephan; Haupt, Federica; Mller, Andr; Stampfer, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Graphene quantum dots are attractive candidates for solid-state quantum bits. In fact, the predicted weak spin-orbit and hyperfine interaction promise spin qubits with long coherence times. Graphene quantum dots have been extensively investigated with respect to their excitation spectrum, spin-filling sequence and electron-hole crossover. However, their relaxation dynamics remain largely unexplored. This is mainly due to challenges in device fabrication, in particular concerning the control of carrier confinement and the tunability of the tunnelling barriers, both crucial to experimentally investigate decoherence times. Here we report pulsed-gate transient current spectroscopy and relaxation time measurements of excited states in graphene quantum dots. This is achieved by an advanced device design that allows to individually tune the tunnelling barriers down to the low megahertz regime, while monitoring their asymmetry. Measuring transient currents through electronic excited states, we estimate a lower bound for charge relaxation times on the order of 60100?ns. PMID:23612294

  9. Dot-in-Well Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath; Bandara, Sumith; Ting, David; Hill, cory; Liu, John; Mumolo, Jason; Chang, Yia Chung

    2008-01-01

    Dot-in-well (DWELL) quantum-dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) [DWELL-QDIPs] are subjects of research as potentially superior alternatives to prior QDIPs. Heretofore, there has not existed a reliable method for fabricating quantum dots (QDs) having precise, repeatable dimensions. This lack has constituted an obstacle to the development of uniform, high-performance, wavelength-tailorable QDIPs and of focal-plane arrays (FPAs) of such QDIPs. However, techniques for fabricating quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) having multiple-quantum- well (MQW) structures are now well established. In the present research on DWELL-QDIPs, the arts of fabrication of QDs and QWIPs are combined with a view toward overcoming the deficiencies of prior QDIPs. The longer-term goal is to develop focal-plane arrays of radiationhard, highly uniform arrays of QDIPs that would exhibit high performance at wavelengths from 8 to 15 m when operated at temperatures between 150 and 200 K. Increasing quantum efficiency is the key to the development of competitive QDIP-based FPAs. Quantum efficiency can be increased by increasing the density of QDs and by enhancing infrared absorption in QD-containing material. QDIPs demonstrated thus far have consisted, variously, of InAs islands on GaAs or InAs islands in InGaAs/GaAs wells. These QDIPs have exhibited low quantum efficiencies because the numbers of QD layers (and, hence, the areal densities of QDs) have been small typically five layers in each QDIP. The number of QD layers in such a device must be thus limited to prevent the aggregation of strain in the InAs/InGaAs/GaAs non-lattice- matched material system. The approach being followed in the DWELL-QDIP research is to embed In- GaAs QDs in GaAs/AlGaAs multi-quantum- well (MQW) structures (see figure). This material system can accommodate a large number of QD layers without excessive lattice-mismatch strain and the associated degradation of photodetection properties. Hence, this material system is expected to enable achievement of greater densities of QDs and correspondingly greater quantum efficiencies. The host GaAs/AlGaAs MQW structures are highly compatible with mature fabrication processes that are now used routinely in making QWIP FPAs. The hybrid InGaAs-dot/GaAs/AlGaAs-well system also offers design advantages in that the effects of variability of dot size can be partly compensated by engineering quantum-well sizes, which can be controlled precisely.

  10. Quantum dot optoelectronic devices: lasers, photodetectors and solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiang; Chen, Siming; Seeds, Alwyn; Liu, Huiyun

    2015-09-01

    Nanometre-scale semiconductor devices have been envisioned as next-generation technologies with high integration and functionality. Quantum dots, or the so-called ‘artificial atoms’, exhibit unique properties due to their quantum confinement in all 3D. These unique properties have brought to light the great potential of quantum dots in optoelectronic applications. Numerous efforts worldwide have been devoted to these promising nanomaterials for next-generation optoelectronic devices, such as lasers, photodetectors, amplifiers, and solar cells, with the emphasis on improving performance and functionality. Through the development in optoelectronic devices based on quantum dots over the last two decades, quantum dot devices with exceptional performance surpassing previous devices are evidenced. This review describes recent developments in quantum dot optoelectronic devices over the last few years. The paper will highlight the major progress made in 1.3 μm quantum dot lasers, quantum dot infrared photodetectors, and quantum dot solar cells.

  11. A facile synthesis of bimetallic AuPt nanoparticles as a new transparent counter electrode for quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dao, Van-Duong; Choi, Youngwoo; Yong, Kijung; Larina, Liudmila L.; Shevaleevskiy, Oleg; Choi, Ho-Suk

    2015-01-01

    This study first reports the synthesis of AuPt bimetallic nanoparticles (AuPt-BNPs) on an FTO glass substrate using dry plasma reduction (DPR) and its application as an alternative transparent counter electrode (CE) for quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) operated under bi-side illumination. DPR is an economically feasible and ecologically sustainable method. The formation of ultrafine crystalline AuPt-BNPs on an FTO substrate is confirmed through TEM, HRTEM with HAADF-STEM and HAADF-STEM-EDS analyses. The mechanism for controlling the size, mono-dispersity, and areal number density of nanoparticles on the substrate surface is suggested. The CE fabricated with AuPt-BNPs exhibits a high electro-catalytic activity without losing the optical transmittance of the FTO substrate. The QDSC employing the AuPt-BNP electrode reaches efficiencies of 2.4% under front-side illumination and 2.2% under back-side illumination. Bi-side illumination yields an efficiency of 3.4%, which is comparable to an efficiency of 3.7% obtained for the QDSC with the state-of-the-art CE.

  12. Rapid and One-Pot Synthesis of Self-Assembled CdSe Quantum Dots Functionalized with ?-Cyclodextrin: Reduced Cytotoxicity and Band Gap Engineering.

    PubMed

    Guleria, Apurav; Rath, Madhab C; Singh, Ajay K; Adhikari, Soumyakanti

    2015-12-01

    We report a simple, rapid and one step method for the synthesis and in situ functionalization of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) in aqueous solution via electron beam (EB) irradiation technique. A probable mechanism has been elucidated for the formation of the QDs using pulse radiolysis technique. The average size of the QDs was found to be in the range of 2-3 nm with a size distribution of -14%. XPS measurements indicate that the -OH groups of the ?-CD molecules binds predominantly with the Cd atoms present on the surface of the QDs. These QDs displayed broad photoluminescence (PL) with two emission peaks at 525 nm and 600 nm, which could be tuned by varying the experimental parameters. The broad PL spectrum has been attributed to the polydispersity in the density and the distribution of trap/defects states. Time resolved PL decay measurements further substantiated the domination of surface state originated carrier relaxation processes in the overall PL decay dynamics of QDs synthesized at higher doses and dose rates. The present study reveals that ?-CD passivate the QDs by a non-inclusion complex, induces the self-assembling process into a networking architecture and simultaneously reduces their cytotoxicity as compared to the bare nanoparticles. The methodology described in this article may provide unique and interesting aspects to regulate and fine tune the formation of superstructures of nanomaterials vis--vis their optoelectronic properties. PMID:26682355

  13. The Interplay of Quantum Confinement and Hydrogenation in Amorphous Silicon Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Askari, Sadegh; Svrcek, Vladmir; Maguire, Paul; Mariotti, Davide

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogenation in amorphous silicon quantum dots (QDs) has a dramatic impact on the corresponding optical properties and band energy structure, leading to a quantum-confined composite material with unique characteristics. The synthesis of a-Si:H QDs is demonstrated with an atmospheric-pressure plasma process, which allows for accurate control of a highly chemically reactive non-equilibrium environment with temperatures well below the crystallization temperature of Si QDs. PMID:26523743

  14. Synthesis of AS1411-aptamer-conjugated CdTe quantum dots with high fluorescence strength for probe labeling tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Alibolandi, Mona; Abnous, Khalil; Ramezani, Mohammad; Hosseinkhani, Hossein; Hadizadeh, Farzin

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we report microwave-assisted, one-stage synthesis of high-quality functionalized water-soluble cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots (QDs). By selecting sodium tellurite as the Te source, cadmium chloride as the Cd source, mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) as the capping agent, and a borate-acetic acid buffer solution with a pH range of 5-8, CdTe nanocrystals with four colors (blue to orange) were conveniently prepared at 100 C under microwave irradiation in less than one hour (reaction time: 10-60 min). The influence of parameters such as the pH, Cd:Te molar ratio, and reaction time on the emission range and quantum yield percentage (QY%) was investigated. The structures and compositions of the prepared CdTe QDs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, selective area electron diffraction, and X-ray powder diffraction experiments. The formation mechanism of the QDs is discussed in this paper. Furthermore, AS1141-aptamer-conjugated CdTe QDs in the U87MG glioblastoma cell line were assessed with a fluorescence microscope. The obtained results showed that the best conditions for obtaining a high QY of approximately 87% are a pH of 6, a Cd:Te molar ratio of 5:1, and a 30-min reaction time at 100 C under microwave irradiation. The results showed that AS1141-aptamer-conjugated CdTe QDs could enter tumor cells efficiently. It could be concluded that a facile high-fluorescence-strength QD conjugated with a DNA aptamer, AS1411, which can recognize the extracellular matrix protein nucleolin, can specifically target U87MG human glioblastoma cells. The qualified AS1411-aptamer-conjugated QDs prepared in this study showed excellent capabilities as nanoprobes for cancer targeting and molecular imaging. PMID:25172439

  15. Highly photoluminescent MoOx quantum dots: Facile synthesis and application in off-on Pi sensing in lake water samples.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Sai Jin; Zhao, Xiao Jing; Zuo, Jun; Huang, Hai Qing; Zhang, Li

    2016-02-01

    Molybdenum oxide (MoOx) is a well-studied transition-metal semiconductor material, and has a wider band gap than MoS2 which makes it become a promising versatile probe in a variety of fields, such as gas sensor, catalysis, energy storage ect. However, few MoOx nanomaterials possessing photoluminescence have been reported until now, not to mention the application as photoluminescent probes. Herein, a one-pot method is developed for facile synthesis of highly photoluminescent MoOx quantum dots (MoOx QDs) in which commercial molybdenum disulfide powder and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are involved as the precursor and oxidant, respectively. Compared with current synthesis methods, the proposed one has the advantages of rapid, one-pot, easily prepared, environment friendly as well as strong photoluminescence. The obtained MoOx QDs is further utilized as an efficient photoluminescent probe, and a new off-on sensor has been constructed for phosphate (Pi) determination in complicated lake water samples, attributed to the fact that the binding affinity of Eu(3+) ions to the oxygen atoms from Pi is much higher than that from the surface of MoOx QDs. Under the optimal conditions, a good linear relationship was found between the enhanced photoluminescence intensity and Pi concentration in the range of 0.1-160.0?M with the detection limit of 56nM (3?/k). The first application of the photoluminescent MoOx nanomaterials for ion photochemical sensing will open the gate of employing MoOx nanomaterials as versatile probes in a variety of fields, such as chemi-/bio-sensor, cell imaging, biomedical and so on. PMID:26772134

  16. Facile one-pot synthesis of MoS2 quantum dots-graphene-TiO2 composites for highly enhanced photocatalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Gao, Weiyin; Wang, Minqiang; Ran, Chenxin; Li, Le

    2015-01-31

    We reported a simple one-pot solvothermal approach to fabricate a MoS2 quantum dots (QDs)-graphene-TiO2 (MGT) composite photocatalyst with significantly improved photocatalysis properties, which is caused by the increased charge separation, visible-light absorbance, specific surface area and reaction sites upon the introduction of MoS2 QDs. PMID:25514834

  17. Energy transfer from CdSe quantum dots to graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Chunyan; Zhu, Xiuhong

    2013-12-01

    Graphene-CdSe quantum dots hybrid is a promising structure to combine unique properties of graphene and quantum dots. In this work, graphene was firstly prepared on a 300 nm SiO2/Si substrate by mechanical exfoliation of a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite using scotch tape. Then the samples were immersed in CdSe quantum dots solutions for 15 minutes and followed by water flush. The graphene-CdSe quantum dots hybrid structures were obtained due to the electrostatic adsorption of CdSe quantum dots on graphene. Fluorescence quenching of CdSe quantum dots on graphene was found, which probably indicates the energy transfer from CdSe quantum dots to graphene. The results suggest that graphene is a good candidate for manipulating energy transfer of quantum dots due to its extremely high carrier mobility.

  18. Surface treatment of nanocrystal quantum dots after film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Sykora, Milan; Koposov, Alexey; Fuke, Nobuhiro

    2015-02-03

    Provided are methods of surface treatment of nanocrystal quantum dots after film deposition so as to exchange the native ligands of the quantum dots for exchange ligands that result in improvement in charge extraction from the nanocrystals.

  19. 3D modeling of silicon quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mili?i?, S. N.; Badrieh, F.; Vasileska, D.; Gunther, A.; Goodnick, S. M.

    2000-05-01

    We present results of full 3D self-consistent simulations of the energy spectrum in silicon-based symmetric quantum dots. Numerically derived conductance peak dependence upon the depletion and top gate biases closely resembles the experimentally measured ones, suggesting that conductance peak is measured when some discrete energy level in the dot coincides with the Fermi level. Electron wavefunction mode mixing is observed when atomistic description of the impurity distribution in the semiconductor was used.

  20. Scalable quantum computer architecture with coupled donor-quantum dot qubits

    DOEpatents

    Schenkel, Thomas; Lo, Cheuk Chi; Weis, Christoph; Lyon, Stephen; Tyryshkin, Alexei; Bokor, Jeffrey

    2014-08-26

    A quantum bit computing architecture includes a plurality of single spin memory donor atoms embedded in a semiconductor layer, a plurality of quantum dots arranged with the semiconductor layer and aligned with the donor atoms, wherein a first voltage applied across at least one pair of the aligned quantum dot and donor atom controls a donor-quantum dot coupling. A method of performing quantum computing in a scalable architecture quantum computing apparatus includes arranging a pattern of single spin memory donor atoms in a semiconductor layer, forming a plurality of quantum dots arranged with the semiconductor layer and aligned with the donor atoms, applying a first voltage across at least one aligned pair of a quantum dot and donor atom to control a donor-quantum dot coupling, and applying a second voltage between one or more quantum dots to control a Heisenberg exchange J coupling between quantum dots and to cause transport of a single spin polarized electron between quantum dots.

  1. Controlled Population Transfer in a Double Quantum Dot System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fountoulakis, Antonios; Terzis, Andreas F.; Paspalakis, Emmanuel

    2007-12-01

    We study the potential for controlled population transfer between the ground states of two anharmonic coupled quantum dots. We propose a method based on the interaction of the quantum dot structure with external electromagnetic fields. The interaction of the quantum dot system with the electromagnetic fields is studied with the use of the time-dependent Schrdinger equation. We present numerical results for an asymmetric quantum dot structure.

  2. Exciton binding energy in semiconductor quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Pokutnii, S. I.

    2010-04-15

    In the adiabatic approximation in the context of the modified effective mass approach, in which the reduced exciton effective mass {mu} = {mu}(a) is a function of the radius a of the semiconductor quantum dot, an expression for the exciton binding energy E{sub ex}(a) in the quantum dot is derived. It is found that, in the CdSe and CdS quantum dots with the radii a comparable to the Bohr exciton radii a{sub ex}, the exciton binding energy E{sub ex}(a) is substantially (respectively, 7.4 and 4.5 times) higher than the exciton binding energy in the CdSe and CdS single crystals.

  3. Quantum Dot-Based Cell Motility Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Weiwei; Pellegrino, Teresa; Parak Wolfgang J; Boudreau,Rosanne; Le Gros, Mark A.; Gerion, Daniele; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2005-06-06

    Because of their favorable physical and photochemical properties, colloidal CdSe/ZnS-semiconductor nanocrystals (commonly known as quantum dots) have enormous potential for use in biological imaging. In this report, we present an assay that uses quantum dots as markers to quantify cell motility. Cells that are seeded onto a homogeneous layer of quantum dots engulf and absorb the nanocrystals and, as a consequence, leave behind a fluorescence-free trail. By subsequently determining the ratio of cell area to fluorescence-free track area, we show that it is possible to differentiate between invasive and noninvasive cancer cells. Because this assay uses simple fluorescence detection, requires no significant data processing, and can be used in live-cell studies, it has the potential to be a powerful new tool for discriminating between invasive and noninvasive cancer cell lines or for studying cell signaling events involved in migration.

  4. Three-terminal quantum-dot refrigerators.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanchao; Lin, Guoxing; Chen, Jincan

    2015-05-01

    Based on two capacitively coupled quantum dots in the Coulomb-blockade regime, a model of three-terminal quantum-dot refrigerators is proposed. With the help of the master equation, the transport properties of steady-state charge current and energy flow between two quantum dots and thermal reservoirs are revealed. It is expounded that such a structure can be used to construct a refrigerator by controlling the voltage bias and temperature ratio. The thermodynamic performance characteristics of the refrigerator are analyzed, including the cooling power, coefficient of performance (COP), maximum cooling power, and maximum COP. Moreover, the optimal regions of main performance parameters are determined. The influence of dissipative tunnel processes on the optimal performance is discussed in detail. Finally, the performance characteristics of the refrigerators operated in two different cases are compared. PMID:26066130

  5. Isotopically enhanced triple-quantum-dot qubit

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Kevin; Ladd, Thaddeus D.; Smith, Aaron; Borselli, Matthew G.; Kiselev, Andrey A.; Fong, Bryan H.; Holabird, Kevin S.; Hazard, Thomas M.; Huang, Biqin; Deelman, Peter W.; Milosavljevic, Ivan; Schmitz, Adele E.; Ross, Richard S.; Gyure, Mark F.; Hunter, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Like modern microprocessors today, future processors of quantum information may be implemented using all-electrical control of silicon-based devices. A semiconductor spin qubit may be controlled without the use of magnetic fields by using three electrons in three tunnel-coupled quantum dots. Triple dots have previously been implemented in GaAs, but this material suffers from intrinsic nuclear magnetic noise. Reduction of this noise is possible by fabricating devices using isotopically purified silicon. We demonstrate universal coherent control of a triple-quantum-dot qubit implemented in an isotopically enhanced Si/SiGe heterostructure. Composite pulses are used to implement spin-echo type sequences, and differential charge sensing enables single-shot state readout. These experiments demonstrate sufficient control with sufficiently low noise to enable the long pulse sequences required for exchange-only two-qubit logic and randomized benchmarking. PMID:26601186

  6. Isotopically enhanced triple-quantum-dot qubit.

    PubMed

    Eng, Kevin; Ladd, Thaddeus D; Smith, Aaron; Borselli, Matthew G; Kiselev, Andrey A; Fong, Bryan H; Holabird, Kevin S; Hazard, Thomas M; Huang, Biqin; Deelman, Peter W; Milosavljevic, Ivan; Schmitz, Adele E; Ross, Richard S; Gyure, Mark F; Hunter, Andrew T

    2015-05-01

    Like modern microprocessors today, future processors of quantum information may be implemented using all-electrical control of silicon-based devices. A semiconductor spin qubit may be controlled without the use of magnetic fields by using three electrons in three tunnel-coupled quantum dots. Triple dots have previously been implemented in GaAs, but this material suffers from intrinsic nuclear magnetic noise. Reduction of this noise is possible by fabricating devices using isotopically purified silicon. We demonstrate universal coherent control of a triple-quantum-dot qubit implemented in an isotopically enhanced Si/SiGe heterostructure. Composite pulses are used to implement spin-echo type sequences, and differential charge sensing enables single-shot state readout. These experiments demonstrate sufficient control with sufficiently low noise to enable the long pulse sequences required for exchange-only two-qubit logic and randomized benchmarking. PMID:26601186

  7. Three-terminal quantum-dot refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanchao; Lin, Guoxing; Chen, Jincan

    2015-05-01

    Based on two capacitively coupled quantum dots in the Coulomb-blockade regime, a model of three-terminal quantum-dot refrigerators is proposed. With the help of the master equation, the transport properties of steady-state charge current and energy flow between two quantum dots and thermal reservoirs are revealed. It is expounded that such a structure can be used to construct a refrigerator by controlling the voltage bias and temperature ratio. The thermodynamic performance characteristics of the refrigerator are analyzed, including the cooling power, coefficient of performance (COP), maximum cooling power, and maximum COP. Moreover, the optimal regions of main performance parameters are determined. The influence of dissipative tunnel processes on the optimal performance is discussed in detail. Finally, the performance characteristics of the refrigerators operated in two different cases are compared.

  8. Quantum dot heterojunction solar cells: The mechanism of device operation and impacts of quantum dot oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihly, Rachelle

    This thesis explores the understanding of the chemistry and physics of colloidal quantum dots for practical solar energy photoconversion. Solar cell devices that make use of PbS quantum dots generally rely on constant and unchanged optical properties such that band gap energies remain tuned within the device. The design and development of unique experiments to ascertain mechanisms of optical band gap shifts occurring in PbS quantum dot thin-films exposed to air are discussed. The systematic study of the absorption properties of PbS quantum dot films exposed to air, heat, and UV illumination as a function of quantum dot size has been described. A method to improve the air-stability of films with atomic layer deposition of alumina is demonstrated. Encapsulation of quantum dot films using a protective layer of alumina results in quantum dot solids that maintain tuned absorption for 1000 hours. This thesis focuses on the use of atomic force microscopy and electrical variants thereof to study the physical and electrical characteristics of quantum dot arrays. These types of studies have broad implications in understanding charge transport mechanisms and solar cell device operation, with a particular emphasis on quantum dot transistors and solar cells. Imaging the channel potential of a PbSe quantum dot thin-film in a transistor showed a uniform distribution of charge coinciding with the transistor current voltage characteristics. In a second study, solar cell device operation of ZnO/PbS heterojunction solar cells was investigated by scanning active cross-sections with Kelvin probe microscopy as a function of applied bias, illumination and device architecture. This technique directly provides operating potential and electric field profiles to characterize drift and diffusion currents occurring in the device. SKPM established a field-free region occurring in the quantum dot layer, indicative of diffusion-limited transport. These results provide the path to optimization of future architectures that may employ drift-based transport in the quantum dot layer for enhanced charge extraction and power conversion efficiency.

  9. Bright quantum-dot-sized single-chain conjugated polyelectrolyte nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and application for specific extracellular labeling and imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Feng, Guangxue; Liu, Rongrong; Tomczak, Nikodem; Ma, Lin; Gurzadyan, Gagik G; Liu, Bin

    2014-08-13

    We report a simple method to fabricate quantum-dot-sized nanoparticles (NPs) from poly[9,9-bis((6-N,N,N-trimethylammonium)hexyl)fluorene-alt-co-2,1,3-benzo-xadiazole dibromide] (PFBD). The transmission electron microscope results reveal that the obtained NPs have a mean diameter of ?4 nm, which is composed of a single PFBD chain. The NPs show bright fluorescence with an emission maximum at ?636 nm and a quantum yield of ?26% in water. The fluorescence properties of the NPs are characterized by steady fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence dynamic study and single nanoparticle microscopy, which show superior brightness over commercial quantum dots QD655. The NPs are further conjugated with streptavidin to yield PFBD-SA NPs, which serve as a specific extracellular labeling and imaging probe with high specificity and good photostability. PMID:24729391

  10. Ambipolar quantum dots in intrinsic silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Betz, A. C. Gonzalez-Zalba, M. F.; Podd, G.; Ferguson, A. J.

    2014-10-13

    We electrically measure intrinsic silicon quantum dots with electrostatically defined tunnel barriers. The presence of both p- and n-type ohmic contacts enables the accumulation of either electrons or holes. Thus, we are able to study both transport regimes within the same device. We investigate the effect of the tunnel barriers and the electrostatically defined quantum dots. There is greater localisation of charge states under the tunnel barriers in the case of hole conduction, leading to higher charge noise in the p-type regime.

  11. Ambipolar quantum dots in intrinsic silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betz, A. C.; Gonzalez-Zalba, M. F.; Podd, G.; Ferguson, A. J.

    2014-10-01

    We electrically measure intrinsic silicon quantum dots with electrostatically defined tunnel barriers. The presence of both p- and n-type ohmic contacts enables the accumulation of either electrons or holes. Thus, we are able to study both transport regimes within the same device. We investigate the effect of the tunnel barriers and the electrostatically defined quantum dots. There is greater localisation of charge states under the tunnel barriers in the case of hole conduction, leading to higher charge noise in the p-type regime.

  12. Bilayer graphene quantum dot defined by topgates

    SciTech Connect

    Mller, Andr; Kaestner, Bernd; Hohls, Frank; Weimann, Thomas; Pierz, Klaus; Schumacher, Hans W.

    2014-06-21

    We investigate the application of nanoscale topgates on exfoliated bilayer graphene to define quantum dot devices. At temperatures below 500 mK, the conductance underneath the grounded gates is suppressed, which we attribute to nearest neighbour hopping and strain-induced piezoelectric fields. The gate-layout can thus be used to define resistive regions by tuning into the corresponding temperature range. We use this method to define a quantum dot structure in bilayer graphene showing Coulomb blockade oscillations consistent with the gate layout.

  13. Resonance fluorescence and cavity quantum electrodynamics with quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Andreas

    2007-05-01

    Next-generation information technology is expected to rely on discrete two-state quantum systems that can deterministically emit single photons. Quantum dots are mesoscopic (10,000 atoms large) semiconductor islands grown in a host crystal of larger band-gap that make well-defined two-level quantum systems and are very attractive due to stability, record coherence times, and the possibility of integrating them into larger structures, such as optical microcavities. This work presents experimental progress towards understanding the coherent optical processes that occur in single quantum dots, particularly such phenomena that might be one day utilized for quantum communication applications. High resolution low temperature optical spectroscopy is used in conjunction with first order (amplitude) and second-order (intensity) correlation measurements of the emitted field. A novel technique is introduced that is capable of harvesting the fluorescence of single dots at the same frequency as the laser, previously impossible due to insurmountable scattering. This technique enables the observation, for the first time, of single quantum dot resonance fluorescence, in both the weak and strong excitation regimes, which forms the basis for deterministic generation of single photons. Guided by the rich theoretical description available from quantum optics with atoms we obtain insight into the complex dynamics of this driven system. Quantum dots confined to novel optical microcavities were further investigated using micro photoluminescence. An optical microcavity properly coupled to a two-level system can profoundly modify its emission characteristics via quantum electrodynamical effects, which are highly attractive for single photon sources. The all-epitaxial structures we probe are distinguished by a bulk morphology that overcomes the fragility problems of existing approaches, and provides high quality factors as well as small mode volumes. Lasing is obtained with larger structures. Additionally, isolation of individual dots is further realized in smaller cavities and the Purcell effect observed in time-resolved photon counting experiments.

  14. Doping silicon nanocrystals and quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Oliva-Chatelain, Brittany L; Ticich, Thomas M; Barron, Andrew R

    2016-01-21

    The ability to incorporate a dopant element into silicon nanocrystals (NC) and quantum dots (QD) is one of the key technical challenges for the use of these materials in a number of optoelectronic applications. Unlike doping of traditional bulk semiconductor materials, the location of the doping element can be either within the crystal lattice (c-doping), on the surface (s-doping) or within the surrounding matrix (m-doping). A review of the various synthetic strategies for doping silicon NCs and QDs is presented, concentrating on the efficacy of the synthetic routes, both in situ and post synthesis, with regard to the structural location of the dopant and the doping level. Methods that have been applied to the characterization of doped NCs and QDs are summarized with regard to the information that is obtained, in particular to provide researchers with a guide to the suitable techniques for determining dopant concentration and location, as well as electronic and photonic effectiveness of the dopant. PMID:26727507

  15. Doping silicon nanocrystals and quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva-Chatelain, Brittany L.; Ticich, Thomas M.; Barron, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to incorporate a dopant element into silicon nanocrystals (NC) and quantum dots (QD) is one of the key technical challenges for the use of these materials in a number of optoelectronic applications. Unlike doping of traditional bulk semiconductor materials, the location of the doping element can be either within the crystal lattice (c-doping), on the surface (s-doping) or within the surrounding matrix (m-doping). A review of the various synthetic strategies for doping silicon NCs and QDs is presented, concentrating on the efficacy of the synthetic routes, both in situ and post synthesis, with regard to the structural location of the dopant and the doping level. Methods that have been applied to the characterization of doped NCs and QDs are summarized with regard to the information that is obtained, in particular to provide researchers with a guide to the suitable techniques for determining dopant concentration and location, as well as electronic and photonic effectiveness of the dopant.

  16. Magneto-optical absorption in semiconducting spherical quantum dots: Influence of the dot-size, confining potential, and magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Kushwaha, Manvir S.

    2014-12-15

    Semiconducting quantum dots – more fancifully dubbed artificial atoms – are quasi-zero dimensional, tiny, man-made systems with charge carriers completely confined in all three dimensions. The scientific quest behind the synthesis of quantum dots is to create and control future electronic and optical nanostructures engineered through tailoring size, shape, and composition. The complete confinement – or the lack of any degree of freedom for the electrons (and/or holes) – in quantum dots limits the exploration of spatially localized elementary excitations such as plasmons to direct rather than reciprocal space. Here we embark on a thorough investigation of the magneto-optical absorption in semiconducting spherical quantum dots characterized by a confining harmonic potential and an applied magnetic field in the symmetric gauge. This is done within the framework of Bohm-Pines’ random-phase approximation that enables us to derive and discuss the full Dyson equation that takes proper account of the Coulomb interactions. As an application of our theoretical strategy, we compute various single-particle and many-particle phenomena such as the Fock-Darwin spectrum; Fermi energy; magneto-optical transitions; probability distribution; and the magneto-optical absorption in the quantum dots. It is observed that the role of an applied magnetic field on the absorption spectrum is comparable to that of a confining potential. Increasing (decreasing) the strength of the magnetic field or the confining potential is found to be analogous to shrinking (expanding) the size of the quantum dots: resulting into a blue (red) shift in the absorption spectrum. The Fermi energy diminishes with both increasing magnetic-field and dot-size; and exhibits saw-tooth-like oscillations at large values of field or dot-size. Unlike laterally confined quantum dots, both (upper and lower) magneto-optical transitions survive even in the extreme instances. However, the intra-Landau level transitions are seen to be forbidden. The spherical quantum dots have an edge over the strictly two-dimensional quantum dots in that the additional (magnetic) quantum number makes the physics richer (but complex). A deeper grasp of the Coulomb blockade, quantum coherence, and entanglement can lead to a better insight into promising applications involving lasers, detectors, storage devices, and quantum computing.

  17. Quantum Optical Signature of Plasmonically Coupled Nanocrystal Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Karan, Niladri S; Nguyen, Hue Minh; Mangum, Benjamin D; Ghosh, Yagnaseni; Sheehan, Chris J; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A; Htoon, Han

    2015-10-01

    Small clusters of two to three silica-coated nanocrystals coupled to plasmonic gap-bar antennas can exhibit photon antibunching, a characteristic of single quantum emitters. Through a detailed analysis of their photoluminescence emissions characteristics, it is shown that the observed photon antibunching is the evidence of coupled quantum dot formation resulting from the plasmonic enhancement of dipole-dipole interaction. PMID:26140499

  18. Synthesis of Aqueous CdTe/CdS/ZnS Core/shell/shell Quantum Dots by a Chemical Aerosol Flow Method

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This work described a continuous method to synthesize CdTe/CdS/ZnS core/shell/shell quantum dots. In an integrated system by flawlessly combining the chemical aerosol flow system working at high temperature (200300C) to generate CdTe/CdS intermediate products and an additional heat-up setup at relatively low temperature to overcoat the ZnS shells, the CdTe/CdS/ZnS multishell structures were realized. The as-synthesized CdTe/CdS/ZnS core/shell/shell quantum dots are characterized by photoluminescence spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectra (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Fluorescence and XRD results confirm that the obtained quantum dots have a core/shell/shell structure. It shows the highest quantum yield above 45% when compared to the rhodamine 6G. The core/shell/shell QDs were more stable via the oxidation experiment by H2O2. PMID:20652095

  19. Silicon based quantum dot hybrid qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dohun

    2015-03-01

    The charge and spin degrees of freedom of an electron constitute natural bases for constructing quantum two level systems, or qubits, in semiconductor quantum dots. The quantum dot charge qubit offers a simple architecture and high-speed operation, but generally suffers from fast dephasing due to strong coupling of the environment to the electron's charge. On the other hand, quantum dot spin qubits have demonstrated long coherence times, but their manipulation is often slower than desired for important future applications. This talk will present experimental progress of a `hybrid' qubit, formed by three electrons in a Si/SiGe double quantum dot, which combines desirable characteristics (speed and coherence) in the past found separately in qubits based on either charge or spin degrees of freedom. Using resonant microwaves, we first discuss qubit operations near the `sweet spot' for charge qubit operation. Along with fast (>GHz) manipulation rates for any rotation axis on the Bloch sphere, we implement two independent tomographic characterization schemes in the charge qubit regime: traditional quantum process tomography (QPT) and gate set tomography (GST). We also present resonant qubit operations of the hybrid qubit performed on the same device, DC pulsed gate operations of which were recently demonstrated. We demonstrate three-axis control and the implementation of dynamic decoupling pulse sequences. Performing QPT on the hybrid qubit, we show that AC gating yields π rotation process fidelities higher than 93% for X-axis and 96% for Z-axis rotations, which demonstrates efficient quantum control of semiconductor qubits using resonant microwaves. We discuss a path forward for achieving fidelities better than the threshold for quantum error correction using surface codes. This work was supported in part by ARO (W911NF-12-0607), NSF (PHY-1104660), DOE (DE-FG02-03ER46028), and by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Sandia National Laboratories under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  20. Facile one-step sonochemical synthesis of ultrafine and stable fluorescent C-dots.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijay Bhooshan; Porat, Ze'ev; Gedanken, Aharon

    2016-01-01

    This work describes a one-step synthesis of carbon dots (C-dots), which is carried out by sonication of polyethylene glycol (PEG-400) for 0.5-3h. The effect of the various experimental parameters, such as sonication time, amplitude and temperature on the size and the fluorescence of the C-dots was studied. It was found that the average diameter of the C-dots is between 2 and 9 nm, depending on the preparation conditions. The highest quantum yield of emission was ? 16%. These high fluorescence properties of the C-dots could be used for bioimaging and for solar cell applications. PMID:26384920

  1. Colloidal quantum dots in solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolenko, L. M.; Razumov, Vladimir F.

    2013-05-01

    Published data on the use of colloidal quantum dots in solar cells are analyzed and generalized. Various types of solar cells, their design and principles of operation are considered. The key factors influencing parameters of these devices are discussed. The bibliography includes 184 references.

  2. Nanocomposites of POC and quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borriello, C.; Concilio, S.; Minarini, C.; Iannelli, P.; Di Luccio, T.

    2012-07-01

    New luminescent polymer nanocomposites were synthesized combining carbazole/oxadiazole copolymer (POC) and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) surface passivated by ionic liquids. Ionic liquid ligands improve the photostability of QDs and their compatibility with polymer allowing the deposition of homogeneous nanocomposites films. The nanocomposites were characterized by UV and photoluminescence spectroscopy.

  3. The luminescence properties of colloidal quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, I. I.; Tarasov, S. A.; Lamkin, I. I.; Y Andreev, M.; Solomonov, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    Luminescent properties of systems containing lead sulfide (PbS) nanoparticles deposited on substrates of porous silicon (p-Si), oxidized porous silicon (OPS) and have been studied. It was shown that structure of the matrix and its composition are of crucial importance affecting luminescence spectra of colloidal quantum dots by setting their radiation wavelength.

  4. The Silicon:Colloidal Quantum Dot Heterojunction.

    PubMed

    Masala, Silvia; Adinolfi, Valerio; Sun, Jon-Paul; Gobbo, Silvano Del; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Kramer, Illan J; Hill, Ian G; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-12-01

    A heterojunction between crystalline silicon and colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) is realized. A special interface modification is developed to overcome an inherent energetic band mismatch between the two semiconductors, and realize the efficient collection of infrared photocarriers generated in the CQD film. This junction is used to produce a sensitive near infrared photodetector. PMID:26460732

  5. Producing Quantum Dots by Spray Pyrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banger, Kulbinder; Jin, Michael H.; Hepp, Aloysius

    2006-01-01

    An improved process for making nanocrystallites, commonly denoted quantum dots (QDs), is based on spray pyrolysis. Unlike the process used heretofore, the improved process is amenable to mass production of either passivated or non-passivated QDs, with computer control to ensure near uniformity of size.

  6. Quantum-dot infrared photodetectors: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.

    2009-04-01

    Quantum-dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) are positioned to become an important technology in the field of infrared (IR) detection, particularly for high-temperature, low-cost, high-yield detector arrays required for military applications. High-operating temperature (>=150 K) photodetectors reduce the cost of IR imaging systems by enabling cryogenic dewars and Stirling cooling systems to be replaced by thermo-electric coolers. QDIPs are well-suited for detecting mid-IR light at elevated temperatures, an application that could prove to be the next commercial market for quantum dots. While quantum dot epitaxial growth and intraband absorption of IR radiation are well established, quantum dot non-uniformity remains as a significant challenge. Nonetheless, state-of-the-art mid-IR detection at 150 K has been demonstrated using 70-layer InAs/GaAs QDIPs, and QDIP focal plane arrays are approaching performance comparable to HgCdTe at 77 K. By addressing critical challenges inherent to epitaxial QD material systems (e.g., controlling dopant incorporation), exploring alternative QD systems (e.g., colloidal QDs), and using bandgap engineering to reduce dark current and enhance multi-spectral detection (e.g. resonant tunneling QDIPs), the performance and applicability of QDIPs will continue to improve.

  7. Unraveling the Mesoscopic Character of Quantum Dots in Nanophotonics.

    PubMed

    Tighineanu, P; Sørensen, A S; Stobbe, S; Lodahl, P

    2015-06-19

    We provide a microscopic theory for semiconductor quantum dots that explains the pronounced deviations from the prevalent point-dipole description that were recently observed in spectroscopic experiments on quantum dots in photonic nanostructures. The deviations originate from structural inhomogeneities generating a large circular quantum current density that flows inside the quantum dot over mesoscopic length scales. The model is supported by the experimental data, where a strong variation of the multipolar moments across the emission spectrum of quantum dots is observed. Our work enriches the physical understanding of quantum dots and is of significance for the fields of nanophotonics, quantum photonics, and quantum-information science, where quantum dots are actively employed. PMID:26197011

  8. Single-dot optical emission from ultralow density well-isolated InP quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Ugur, A.; Hatami, F.; Masselink, W. T.; Vamivakas, A. N.; Lombez, L.; Atatuere, M.

    2008-10-06

    We demonstrate a straightforward way to obtain single well-isolated quantum dots emitting in the visible part of the spectrum and characterize the optical emission from single quantum dots using this method. Self-assembled InP quantum dots are grown using gas-source molecular-beam epitaxy over a wide range of InP deposition rates, using an ultralow growth rate of about 0.01 atomic monolayers/s, a quantum-dot density of 1 dot/{mu}m{sup 2} is realized. The resulting isolated InP quantum dots embedded in an InGaP matrix are individually characterized without the need for lithographical patterning and masks on the substrate. Such low-density quantum dots show excitonic emission at around 670 nm with a linewidth limited by instrument resolution. This system is applicable as a single-photon source for applications such as quantum cryptography.

  9. Hybrid quantum-state joining and splitting assisted by quantum dots in one-side optical microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ming-Xing; Ma, Song-Ya; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Wang, Xiaojun

    2015-04-01

    Quantum state joining has been recently experimentally demonstrated [C. Vitelli et al., Nat. Photon. 7, 521 (2013), 10.1038/nphoton.2013.107] which can transfer two input photonic qubits into a photonic ququart. Here, we revisit these processes from a hybrid point of view. By exploring the giant optical circular birefringence induced by quantum-dot spins in one-sided optical microcavities, we introduce some deterministic joining schemes including two quantum-dot spin joining, hybrid photon and quantum-dot spin joining, and two-photon joining. The input quantum information is represented by one photon with polarization and spatial mode degrees of freedom (DOFs). These schemes are also adapted to the inverse processes called quantum state splitting because all the joining procedures are unitary and do not require projection and feed-forward steps. The fused photon is convenient for realizing elementary logic gates such as the controlled-not (cnot) gate, swap gate, and Toffoli gate. These hybrid fusion and splitting schemes provide flexible synthesis of the quantum-dot spin and photon in quantum applications. The transmission superiority of photons and storage superiority of the quantum-dot spin may be combined for quantum network communication or quantum computations.

  10. Optical properties of quantum-dot-doped liquid scintillators

    PubMed Central

    Aberle, C.; Li, J.J.; Weiss, S.; Winslow, L.

    2014-01-01

    Semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots) were studied in the context of liquid scintillator development for upcoming neutrino experiments. The unique optical and chemical properties of quantum dots are particularly promising for the use in neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. Liquid scintillators for large scale neutrino detectors have to meet specific requirements which are reviewed, highlighting the peculiarities of quantum-dot-doping. In this paper, we report results on laboratory-scale measurements of the attenuation length and the fluorescence properties of three commercial quantum dot samples. The results include absorbance and emission stability measurements, improvement in transparency due to filtering of the quantum dot samples, precipitation tests to isolate the quantum dots from solution and energy transfer studies with quantum dots and the fluorophore PPO. PMID:25392711

  11. Sono-chemical successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction for the synthesis of CdS quantum dots onto mesoporous TiO2 photoanodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae Ho; Kim, Geon Yang; Sohn, Sang Ho

    2015-07-01

    Aiming at high efficiency of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) with CdS quantum dots (QDs)/mesoporous TiO2 (mp-TiO2) photoanodes, physical properties of CdS QDs/mp-TiO2 grown by sono-chemical successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SC-SILAR) process were studied. It is found that SC-SILAR process has less growth time and larger absorbance of CdS QDs besides a uniform penetration into mp-TiO2 films, compared with the conventional SILAR process. Experimental results show that SC-SILAR is an effective method for growing CdS QDs with high efficiency due to an extra sono-chemical energy of acoustic cavitation.

  12. Study of the self-organization processes in lead sulfide quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasov, S. A. Aleksandrova, O. A.; Maksimov, A. I.; Maraeva, E. V.; Matyushkin, L. B.; Men’kovich, E. A.; Moshnikov, V. A.; Musikhin, S. F.

    2014-12-15

    A procedure is described for the synthesis of nanoparticles based on lead chalcogenides. The procedure combines the synthesis of colloidal quantum dots (QDs) in aqueous solutions with simultaneous organization of the QDs into ordered arrays. The processes of the self-organization of QDs are analyzed at the nano- and microscopic levels by the photoluminescence method, atomic-force microscopy, and optical microscopy.

  13. Non-Markovian full counting statistics in quantum dot molecules

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Hai-Bin; Jiao, Hu-Jun; Liang, Jiu-Qing; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Full counting statistics of electron transport is a powerful diagnostic tool for probing the nature of quantum transport beyond what is obtainable from the average current or conductance measurement alone. In particular, the non-Markovian dynamics of quantum dot molecule plays an important role in the nonequilibrium electron tunneling processes. It is thus necessary to understand the non-Markovian full counting statistics in a quantum dot molecule. Here we study the non-Markovian full counting statistics in two typical quantum dot molecules, namely, serially coupled and side-coupled double quantum dots with high quantum coherence in a certain parameter regime. We demonstrate that the non-Markovian effect manifests itself through the quantum coherence of the quantum dot molecule system, and has a significant impact on the full counting statistics in the high quantum-coherent quantum dot molecule system, which depends on the coupling of the quantum dot molecule system with the source and drain electrodes. The results indicated that the influence of the non-Markovian effect on the full counting statistics of electron transport, which should be considered in a high quantum-coherent quantum dot molecule system, can provide a better understanding of electron transport through quantum dot molecules. PMID:25752245

  14. Quantum confinement effects in CdSe quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Zorman, B.; Friesner, R.A.; Ramakrishna, M.V.

    1995-05-11

    The energies of the lowest excited state of hexagonal and zinc-blende CdSe spherical quantum dots are calculated using empirical pseudopotentials of the bulk semiconductor. The lowest excited state energies computed for hexagonal clusters are in reasonable agreement with recent experiments. We predict that zinc-blende and hexagonal dots have nearly the same lowest exciton energy shifts down to very small dot sizes. We have found that small changes in the pseudopotentials can turn the lowest energy transitions of small particles into indirect gaps. 29 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Efficient Luminescence from Perovskite Quantum Dot Solids.

    PubMed

    Kim, Younghoon; Yassitepe, Emre; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Comin, Riccardo; Walters, Grant; Gong, Xiwen; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Nogueira, Ana F; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-11-18

    Nanocrystals of CsPbX3 perovskites are promising materials for light-emitting optoelectronics because of their colloidal stability, optically tunable bandgap, bright photoluminescence, and excellent photoluminescence quantum yield. Despite their promise, nanocrystal-only films of CsPbX3 perovskites have not yet been fabricated; instead, highly insulating polymers have been relied upon to compensate for nanocrystals' unstable surfaces. We develop solution chemistry that enables single-step casting of perovskite nanocrystal films and overcomes problems in both perovskite quantum dot purification and film fabrication. Centrifugally cast films retain bright photoluminescence and achieve dense and homogeneous morphologies. The new materials offer a platform for optoelectronic applications of perovskite quantum dot solids. PMID:26529572

  16. Elastic fields of quantum dots in subsurface layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanov, A. E.; Beltz, G. E.; Fischer, W. T.; Petroff, P. M.; Speck, J. S.

    2001-04-01

    In this work, models based on conventional small-strain elasticity theory are developed to evaluate the stress fields in the vicinity of a quantum dot or an ordered array of quantum dots. The models are based on three different approaches for solving the elastic boundary value problem of a misfitting inclusion embedded in a semi-infinite space. The first method treats the quantum dot as a point source of dilatation. In the second approach we approximate the dot as a misfitting oblate spheroid, for which exact analytic solutions are available. Finally, the finite element method is used to study complex, but realistic, quantum dot configurations such as cuboids and truncated pyramids. We evaluate these three levels of approximation by comparing the hydrostatic stress component near a single dot and an ordered array of dots in the presence of a free surface, and find very good agreement except in the immediate vicinity of an individual quantum dot.

  17. Probing the quantum-classical connection with open quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferry, D. K.; Akis, R.; Brunner, R.

    2015-10-01

    Open quantum dots provide a natural system in which to study both classical and quantum features of transport. From the classical point of view these dots possess a mixed phase space which yields families of closed, regular orbits as well as an expansive sea of chaos. As a closed test bed, they provide a natural system with a very rich set of eigen-states. When coupled to the environment through a pair of quantum point contacts, each of which passes several modes, the original quantum environment evolves into a set of decoherent and coherent states, which eventually couple to the classical states discussed above. The manner of this connection is governed strongly by decoherence theory. The remaining coherent states possess all the properties of pointer states. Here, we discuss the quantum-classical connection and how it appears within the experimental world.

  18. Background charges and quantum effects in quantum dots transport spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, M.; Hofheinz, M.; Jehl, X.; Sanquer, M.; Molas, G.; Vinet, M.; Deleonibus, S.

    2009-08-01

    We extend a simple model of a charge trap coupled to a single-electron box to energy ranges and parameters such that it gives new insights and predictions readily observable in many experimental systems. We show that a single background charge is enough to give lines of differential conductance in the stability diagram of the quantum dot, even within undistorted Coulomb diamonds. It also suppresses the current near degeneracy of the impurity charge, and yields negative differential lines far from this degeneracy. We compare this picture to two other accepted explanations for lines in diamonds, based respectively on the excitation spectrum of a quantum dot and on fluctuations of the density-of-states in the contacts. In order to discriminate between these models, we emphasize the specific features related to environmental charge traps. Finally we show that our model accounts very well for all the anomalous features observed in silicon nanowire quantum dots.

  19. Investigation of potential profile effects in quantum dot and onion-like quantum dot-quantum well on optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elyasi, P.; SalmanOgli, A.

    2014-05-01

    This paper investigates GaAs/AlGaAs modified quantum dot nanocrystal and GaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dot-quantum well heteronanocrystal. These quantum dots have been analyzed by the finite element numerical methods. Simulations carried out for state n=1, l=0, and m=0 which are original, orbital, and magnetic state of quantum numbers. The effects of variation in radius layers such as total radius, GaAs core, shell and AlGaAs barriers radius on the wavelength and emission coefficient are studied. For the best time, it has also investigated the effect of mole fraction on emission coefficient. Meanwhile, one of the problems in biological applications is alteration of the emission wavelength of a quantum dot by changing in its dimension. This problem will be resolved by changing in potential profile.

  20. Mitigation of Quantum Dot Cytotoxicity by Microencapsulation

    PubMed Central

    Romoser, Amelia; Ritter, Dustin; Majitha, Ravish; Meissner, Kenith E.; McShane, Michael; Sayes, Christie M.

    2011-01-01

    When CdSe/ZnS-polyethyleneimine (PEI) quantum dots (QDs) are microencapsulated in polymeric microcapsules, human fibroblasts are protected from acute cytotoxic effects. Differences in cellular morphology, uptake, and viability were assessed after treatment with either microencapsulated or unencapsulated dots. Specifically, QDs contained in microcapsules terminated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) mitigate contact with and uptake by cells, thus providing a tool to retain particle luminescence for applications such as extracellular sensing and imaging. The microcapsule serves as the first line of defense for containing the QDs. This enables the individual QD coating to be designed primarily to enhance the function of the biosensor. PMID:21814567

  1. Exciton fine structure in coupled quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyanda-Geller, Y. B.; Reinecke, T. L.; Bayer, M.

    2004-04-01

    We have developed a theoretical treatment of exciton fine structure effects in coupled quantum dots. We find that the dominant contributions giving mixing of optically bright and dark states and anticrossings between them are (i) an anisotropic Zeeman interaction for the hole and (ii) the electron spin-orbit interaction at nonzero magnetic field. Detailed calculations are given for vertically coupled InAs/GaAs dots that give a framework for the interpretation of recent experimental results. We find that anticrossings arise from deviations from axial symmetry in these systems.

  2. Interface optical phonons in spheroidal quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comas, F.; Trallero-Giner, C.; Studart, N.; Marques, G. E.

    2002-07-01

    Interface optical phonons are studied in the case of a quantum dot (QD) with prolate and oblate spheroidal geometries within the dielectric continuum approach. We considered CdSe or CdS QDs imbedded in a host material which is modelled as an infinite medium. The surface optical phonon modes, the corresponding frequencies, and the electron-phonon interaction Hamiltonian are reported. Comparison is made with previous works which only considered strictly spherical dots. We conclude that deviations from the perfect spherical shape could be responsible for observable physical effects in Raman spectra.

  3. Functional surface engineering of quantum dot hydrogels for selective fluorescence imaging of extracellular lactate release.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaomeng; Ding, Shushu; Cao, Sumei; Zhu, Anwei; Shi, Guoyue

    2016-06-15

    Selective and sensitive detection of extracellular lactate is of fundamental significance for studying the metabolic alterations in tumor progression. Here we report the rational design and synthesis of a quantum-dot-hydrogel-based fluorescent probe for biosensing and bioimaging the extracellular lactate. By surface engineering the destabilized quantum dot sol with Nile Blue, the destabilized Nile-Blue-functionalized quantum dot sol cannot only self-assemble forming quantum dot hydrogel but also monitor lactate in the presence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide cofactor and lactate dehydrogenase through fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Notably, the surface engineered quantum dot hydrogel show high selectivity toward lactate over common metal ions, amino acids and other small molecules that widely coexist in biological system. Moreover, the destabilized Nile-Blue-functionalized quantum dots can encapsulate isolated cancer cells when self-assembled into a hydrogel and thus specifically detect and image the extracellular lactate metabolism. By virtue of these properties, the functionalized quantum dot hydrogel was further successfully applied to monitor the effect of metabolic agents. PMID:26852200

  4. Quantum Dot Platform for Single-Cell Molecular Profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zrazhevskiy, Pavel S.

    In-depth understanding of the nature of cell physiology and ability to diagnose and control the progression of pathological processes heavily rely on untangling the complexity of intracellular molecular mechanisms and pathways. Therefore, comprehensive molecular profiling of individual cells within the context of their natural tissue or cell culture microenvironment is essential. In principle, this goal can be achieved by tagging each molecular target with a unique reporter probe and detecting its localization with high sensitivity at sub-cellular resolution, primarily via microscopy-based imaging. Yet, neither widely used conventional methods nor more advanced nanoparticle-based techniques have been able to address this task up to date. High multiplexing potential of fluorescent probes is heavily restrained by the inability to uniquely match probes with corresponding molecular targets. This issue is especially relevant for quantum dot probes---while simultaneous spectral imaging of up to 10 different probes is possible, only few can be used concurrently for staining with existing methods. To fully utilize multiplexing potential of quantum dots, it is necessary to design a new staining platform featuring unique assignment of each target to a corresponding quantum dot probe. This dissertation presents two complementary versatile approaches towards achieving comprehensive single-cell molecular profiling and describes engineering of quantum dot probes specifically tailored for each staining method. Analysis of expanded molecular profiles is achieved through augmenting parallel multiplexing capacity with performing several staining cycles on the same specimen in sequential manner. In contrast to other methods utilizing quantum dots or other nanoparticles, which often involve sophisticated probe synthesis, the platform technology presented here takes advantage of simple covalent bioconjugation and non-covalent self-assembly mechanisms for straightforward probe preparation and specimen labeling, requiring no advanced technical skills and being directly applicable for a wide range of molecular profiling studies. Utilization of quantum dot platform for single-cell molecular profiling promises to greatly benefit both biomedical research and clinical diagnostics by providing a tool for addressing phenotypic heterogeneity within large cell populations, opening access to studying low-abundance events often masked or completely erased by batch processing, and elucidating biomarker signatures of diseases critical for accurate diagnostics and targeted therapy.

  5. Biosynthesis of luminescent quantum dots in an earthworm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzenbaum, S. R.; Hckner, M.; Panneerselvam, A.; Levitt, J.; Bouillard, J.-S.; Taniguchi, S.; Dailey, L.-A.; Khanbeigi, R. Ahmad; Rosca, E. V.; Thanou, M.; Suhling, K.; Zayats, A. V.; Green, M.

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of designer solid-state materials by living organisms is an emerging field in bio-nanotechnology. Key examples include the use of engineered viruses as templates for cobalt oxide (Co3O4) particles, superparamagnetic cobalt-platinum alloy nanowires and gold-cobalt oxide nanowires for photovoltaic and battery-related applications. Here, we show that the earthworm's metal detoxification pathway can be exploited to produce luminescent, water-soluble semiconductor cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots that emit in the green region of the visible spectrum when excited in the ultraviolet region. Standard wild-type Lumbricus rubellus earthworms were exposed to soil spiked with CdCl2 and Na2TeO3 salts for 11 days. Luminescent quantum dots were isolated from chloragogenous tissues surrounding the gut of the worm, and were successfully used in live-cell imaging. The addition of polyethylene glycol on the surface of the quantum dots allowed for non-targeted, fluid-phase uptake by macrophage cells.

  6. Theory of the Quantum Dot Hybrid Qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, Mark

    2015-03-01

    The quantum dot hybrid qubit, formed from three electrons in two quantum dots, combines the desirable features of charge qubits (fast manipulation) and spin qubits (long coherence times). The hybridized spin and charge states yield a unique energy spectrum with several useful properties, including two different operating regimes that are relatively immune to charge noise due to the presence of optimal working points or ``sweet spots.'' In this talk, I will describe dc and ac-driven gate operations of the quantum dot hybrid qubit. I will analyze improvements in the dephasing that are enabled by the sweet spots, and I will discuss the outlook for quantum hybrid qubits in terms of scalability. This work was supported in part by ARO (W911NF-12-0607), NSF (PHY-1104660), the USDOD, and the Intelligence Community Postdoctoral Research Fellowship Program. The views and conclusions contained in this presentation are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as representing the official policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of the US government.

  7. Nanoscale optimization of quantum dot solar sells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanshu; Sergeev, Andrei; Vagidov, Nizami; Mitin, Vladimir; Sablon, Kimberly; State Univ of NY-Buffalo Team; Army Research Laboratory Team

    2015-03-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) offer possibilities for nanoscale control of photoelectron processes via engineering the band structure and potential profile. Nanoscale potential profile (potential barriers) and nanoscale band engineering (AlGaAs atomically thin barriers) effectively suppress the photoelectron capture to QDs. QDs also increase conversion efficiency of the above-bandgap photons due to extraction of electrons from QDs via Coulomb interaction with hot electrons that excited by high-energy photons. To study the effects of the band structure engineering and nanoscale potential barriers on the photovoltaic performance we fabricated 3- ?m base GaAs devices with various InAs quantum dot media and selective doping. All quantum dot devices show improvement in conversion efficiency compared with the reference cell. Quantum efficiency measurements allow us to associate the spectral characteristics of photoresponse enhancement with nanoscale structure of QD media. The dark current analysis provides valuable information about recombination in QD solar cells. The two-diode model well fit the scope of data and recovers the measured open circuit voltage.

  8. Quantum Computation Using Optically Coupled Quantum Dot Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pradhan, Prabhakar; Anantram, M. P.; Wang, K. L.; Roychowhury, V. P.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    A solid state model for quantum computation has potential advantages in terms of the ease of fabrication, characterization, and integration. The fundamental requirements for a quantum computer involve the realization of basic processing units (qubits), and a scheme for controlled switching and coupling among the qubits, which enables one to perform controlled operations on qubits. We propose a model for quantum computation based on optically coupled quantum dot arrays, which is computationally similar to the atomic model proposed by Cirac and Zoller. In this model, individual qubits are comprised of two coupled quantum dots, and an array of these basic units is placed in an optical cavity. Switching among the states of the individual units is done by controlled laser pulses via near field interaction using the NSOM technology. Controlled rotations involving two or more qubits are performed via common cavity mode photon. We have calculated critical times, including the spontaneous emission and switching times, and show that they are comparable to the best times projected for other proposed models of quantum computation. We have also shown the feasibility of accessing individual quantum dots using the NSOM technology by calculating the photon density at the tip, and estimating the power necessary to perform the basic controlled operations. We are currently in the process of estimating the decoherence times for this system; however, we have formulated initial arguments which seem to indicate that the decoherence times will be comparable, if not longer, than many other proposed models.

  9. Charge-tunable indium gallium nitride quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Teng, Chu-Hsiang; Ku, Pei-Cheng; Deng, Hui

    2016-02-01

    III-Nitride quantum dots have emerged as a new chip-scale system for quantum information science, which combines electrical and optical interfaces on a semiconductor chip that is compatible with noncryogenic operating temperatures. Yet most work has been limited to optical excitations. To enable single-spin-based quantum optical and quantum information research, we demonstrate here quantized charging in optically active, site-controlled III-nitride quantum dots. Single-electron charging was confirmed by the voltage dependence of the energy, dipole moment, fine structures, and polarization properties of the exciton states in the quantum dots. The fundamental energy structures of the quantum dots were identified, including neutral and charged excitons, fine structures of excitons, and A and B excitons. The results lay the ground for coherent control of single charges in III-nitride quantum dots, opening a door to III-nitride-based spintronics and spin-qubit quantum information processing.

  10. Systematic optimization of quantum junction colloidal quantum dot solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huan; Zhitomirsky, David; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Tang, Jiang; Kramer, Illan J.; Ning, Zhijun; Sargent, Edward H.

    2012-10-01

    The recently reported quantum junction architecture represents a promising approach to building a rectifying photovoltaic device that employs colloidal quantum dot layers on each side of the p-n junction. Here, we report an optimized quantum junction solar cell that leverages an improved aluminum zinc oxide electrode for a stable contact to the n-side of the quantum junction and silver doping of the p-layer that greatly enhances the photocurrent by expanding the depletion region in the n-side of the device. These improvements result in greater stability and a power conversion efficiency of 6.1% under AM1.5 simulated solar illumination.

  11. Entrapment in phospholipid vesicles quenches photoactivity of quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Generalov, Roman; Kavaliauskiene, Simona; Westrøm, Sara; Chen, Wei; Kristensen, Solveig; Juzenas, Petras

    2011-01-01

    Quantum dots have emerged with great promise for biological applications as fluorescent markers for immunostaining, labels for intracellular trafficking, and photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy. However, upon entry into a cell, quantum dots are trapped and their fluorescence is quenched in endocytic vesicles such as endosomes and lysosomes. In this study, the photophysical properties of quantum dots were investigated in liposomes as an in vitro vesicle model. Entrapment of quantum dots in liposomes decreases their fluorescence lifetime and intensity. Generation of free radicals by liposomal quantum dots is inhibited compared to that of free quantum dots. Nevertheless, quantum dot fluorescence lifetime and intensity increases due to photolysis of liposomes during irradiation. In addition, protein adsorption on the quantum dot surface and the acidic environment of vesicles also lead to quenching of quantum dot fluorescence, which reappears during irradiation. In conclusion, the in vitro model of phospholipid vesicles has demonstrated that those quantum dots that are fated to be entrapped in endocytic vesicles lose their fluorescence and ability to act as photosensitizers. PMID:21931483

  12. Principles of conjugating quantum dots to proteins via carbodiimide chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Fayi; Chan, Warren C. W.

    2011-12-01

    The covalent coupling of nanomaterials to bio-recognition molecules is a critical intermediate step in using nanomaterials for biology and medicine. Here we investigate the carbodiimide-mediated conjugation of fluorescent quantum dots to different proteins (e.g., immunoglobulin G, bovine serum albumin, and horseradish peroxidase). To enable these studies, we developed a simple method to isolate quantum dot bioconjugates from unconjugated quantum dots. The results show that the reactant concentrations and protein type will impact the overall number of proteins conjugated onto the surfaces of the quantum dots, homogeneity of the protein-quantum dot conjugate population, quantum efficiency, binding avidity, and enzymatic kinetics. We propose general principles that should be followed for the successful coupling of proteins to quantum dots.

  13. Direct water-phase synthesis of lead sulfide quantum dots encapsulated by ?-lactoglobulin for in vivo second near infrared window imaging with reduced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Kong, Yifei; Wang, Wei; Fang, Hongwei; Wo, Yan; Zhou, Dejian; Wu, Ziying; Li, Yunxia; Chen, Shiyi

    2016-03-01

    Compared to conventional fluorescence imaging in the visible (400-700 nm) and NIR-I regions (700-900 nm), optical fluorescence imaging in the second near infrared window (NIR-II, 1000-1400 nm) offers reduced photon scattering, deeper tissue penetration and lower auto-fluorescence. Despite excellent imaging capabilities, current NIR-II probes have not yet reached their full potential due to weak quantum yield, low water solubility and suboptimal biocompatibility. To address these problems, we report herein a new NIR-II fluorescent PbS quantum dots (QDs) that are fabricated in water using ?-lactoglobulin (LG) as a biological template. The LG-PbS QDs exhibit satisfactory dispersibility, relatively high quantum yield and favorable biocompatibility, and therefore are suitable for high-resolution in vivo imaging applications. PMID:26888668

  14. Quantum-dot-induced phase shift in a pillar microcavity

    SciTech Connect

    Young, A. B.; Hu, C. Y.; Rarity, J. G.; Oulton, R.; Thijssen, A. C. T.; Schneider, C.; Reitzenstein, S.; Kamp, M.; Hoefling, S.; Worschech, L.; Forchel, A.

    2011-07-15

    We perform high-resolution reflection spectroscopy of a quantum dot resonantly coupled to a pillar microcavity. We show the change in reflectivity as the quantum dot is tuned through the cavity resonance and measure the quantum-dot-induced phase shift using an ultrastable interferometer. The macroscopic phase shift we measure could be extended to the study of charged quantum dot pillar microcavity systems, where it could be exploited to realize a high-efficiency spin photon interface for hybrid quantum information schemes.

  15. Synthesis and characterizations of ultra-small ZnS and Zn (1- x) Fe xS quantum dots in aqueous media and spectroscopic study of their interactions with bovine serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khani, Omid; Rajabi, Hamid Reza; Yousefi, Mohammad Hasan; Khosravi, Ali Azam; Jannesari, Mohammad; Shamsipur, Mojtaba

    2011-07-01

    This work reports a new experimental methodology for the synthesis of ultra small zinc sulfide and iron doped zinc sulfide quantum dots in aqueous media. The nanoparticles were obtained using a simple procedure based on the precipitation of ZnS in aqueous solution in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol as a capping agent, at room temperature. The effect of Fe 3+ ion concentration as dopant on the optical properties of ZnS was studied. The size of quantum dots was determined to be about 1 nm, using scanning tunneling microscopy. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis absorption and photoluminescence emission spectroscopies. The presence and amount of iron impurity in the structure of Zn (1- x) Fe xS nanocrystals were confirmed by atomic absorption spectrometry. A blue shift in band-gap of ZnS was observed upon increasing incorporation of Fe 3+ ion in the iron doped zinc sulfide quantum dots. The photoluminescence investigations showed that, in the case of iron doped ZnS nanoparticles, the emission band of pure ZnS nanoparticles at 427 nm shifts to 442 nm with appearance of a new sharp emission band around 532 nm. The X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the iron doped nanoparticles are crystalline, with cubic zinc blend structure, having particle diameters of 1.7 022 nm. Finally, the interaction of the synthesized nanoparticles with bovine serum albumin was investigated at pH 7.2. The UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic methods were applied to compare the optical properties of pure and iron doped ZnS quantum dots upon interaction with BSA. It was proved that, in both cases, the fluorescence quenching of BSA by the quantum dots is mainly a result of the formation of QDs-BSA complex in solution. In the steady-state fluorescence studies, the interaction parameters including binding constants ( Ka), number of binding sites ( n), quenching constants ( KSV), and bimolecular quenching rate constants ( kq) were determined at three different temperatures and the results were then used to evaluate the corresponding thermodynamic parameters ? H, ? S and ? G.

  16. Synthesis and characterizations of ultra-small ZnS and Zn(1-x)Fe(x)S quantum dots in aqueous media and spectroscopic study of their interactions with bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Khani, Omid; Rajabi, Hamid Reza; Yousefi, Mohammad Hasan; Khosravi, Ali Azam; Jannesari, Mohammad; Shamsipur, Mojtaba

    2011-07-01

    This work reports a new experimental methodology for the synthesis of ultra small zinc sulfide and iron doped zinc sulfide quantum dots in aqueous media. The nanoparticles were obtained using a simple procedure based on the precipitation of ZnS in aqueous solution in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol as a capping agent, at room temperature. The effect of Fe(3+) ion concentration as dopant on the optical properties of ZnS was studied. The size of quantum dots was determined to be about 1nm, using scanning tunneling microscopy. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis absorption and photoluminescence emission spectroscopies. The presence and amount of iron impurity in the structure of Zn((1-x))Fe(x)S nanocrystals were confirmed by atomic absorption spectrometry. A blue shift in band-gap of ZnS was observed upon increasing incorporation of Fe(3+) ion in the iron doped zinc sulfide quantum dots. The photoluminescence investigations showed that, in the case of iron doped ZnS nanoparticles, the emission band of pure ZnS nanoparticles at 427nm shifts to 442nm with appearance of a new sharp emission band around 532nm. The X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the iron doped nanoparticles are crystalline, with cubic zinc blend structure, having particle diameters of 1.7022nm. Finally, the interaction of the synthesized nanoparticles with bovine serum albumin was investigated at pH 7.2. The UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic methods were applied to compare the optical properties of pure and iron doped ZnS quantum dots upon interaction with BSA. It was proved that, in both cases, the fluorescence quenching of BSA by the quantum dots is mainly a result of the formation of QDs-BSA complex in solution. In the steady-state fluorescence studies, the interaction parameters including binding constants (K(a)), number of binding sites (n), quenching constants ( [Formula: see text] ), and bimolecular quenching rate constants (k(q)) were determined at three different temperatures and the results were then used to evaluate the corresponding thermodynamic parameters ?H, ?S and ?G. PMID:21482179

  17. Facile labeling of lipoglycans with quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Morales Betanzos, Carlos; Gonzalez-Moa, Maria; Johnston, Stephen Albert; Svarovsky, Sergei A.

    2009-02-27

    Bacterial endotoxins or lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are among the most potent activators of the innate immune system, yet mechanisms of their action and in particular the role of glycans remain elusive. Efficient non-invasive labeling strategies are necessary for studying interactions of LPS glycans with biological systems. Here we report a new method for labeling LPS and other lipoglycans with luminescent quantum dots. The labeling is achieved by partitioning of hydrophobic quantum dots into the core of various LPS aggregates without disturbing the native LPS structure. The biofunctionality of the LPS-Qdot conjugates is demonstrated by the labeling of mouse monocytes. This simple method should find broad applicability in studies concerned with visualization of LPS biodistribution and identification of LPS binding agents.

  18. Separability and dynamical symmetry of Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, P.-M.; Zou, L.-P.; Horvathy, P.A.; Gibbons, G.W.

    2014-02-15

    The separability and Runge–Lenz-type dynamical symmetry of the internal dynamics of certain two-electron Quantum Dots, found by Simonović et al. (2003), are traced back to that of the perturbed Kepler problem. A large class of axially symmetric perturbing potentials which allow for separation in parabolic coordinates can easily be found. Apart from the 2:1 anisotropic harmonic trapping potential considered in Simonović and Nazmitdinov (2013), they include a constant electric field parallel to the magnetic field (Stark effect), the ring-shaped Hartmann potential, etc. The harmonic case is studied in detail. -- Highlights: • The separability of Quantum Dots is derived from that of the perturbed Kepler problem. • Harmonic perturbation with 2:1 anisotropy is separable in parabolic coordinates. • The system has a conserved Runge–Lenz type quantity.

  19. Water-soluble, luminescent ZnTe quantum dots: supersaturation-controlled synthesis and self-assembly into nanoballs, nanonecklaces and nanowires.

    PubMed

    Patra, Sovan Kumar; Bhushan, Bhavya; Priyam, Amiya

    2016-02-18

    A supersaturation-controlled aqueous synthesis route has been developed for ZnTe quantum dots (QDs) with high monodispersity, size tunability, stability, band-edge luminescence (full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) 10-12 nm) and negligibly small Stokes' shift (2-4 nm). The degree of supersaturation of the initial reaction mixture was varied by increasing the reagent concentration, but keeping the molar ratio Zn(2+) : thioglycolic acid : Te(2-) constant at 1 : 2.5 : 0.5. For a 10× increase in supersaturation, the photoluminescence (PL) peak underwent a 50 nm blue shift from 330 to 280 nm at pH 6. The effect was more pronounced at pH 12, where the PL peak blue-shifted by 100 nm from 327 to 227 nm. Concomitantly, the FWHM was also reduced to a low value of 10 nm, indicating high monodispersity. For a 10× change in supersaturation, the particle size decreased by 63% (from 2.2 to 0.8 nm) at pH 12, whereas it changed by 19% (from 2.1 to 1.7 nm) at pH 6. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction data further revealed that the QDs synthesized at higher supersaturation had a better crystallinity. These QDs exhibited the unique property of undergoing isotropic and anisotropic self-assembly, which resulted in a blue shift and a red shift in the absorption and PL spectra, respectively. Isotropic assembly into spherical nanoballs (100 nm diameter, 1 nm inter-QD separation) occurred when the QDs were stored at pH 12 for 3 weeks at room temperature. The nanoballs further self-assembled into a 'pearl necklace' arrangement. On the partial removal of the capping agents, the QDs self-organized anisotropically into nanowires (1.3 μm long and 4.6 nm in diameter). The self-assembled nanostructures showed exciton-exciton coupling and excellent PL properties, which may be useful in enhanced optoelectronics, photovoltaics and biochemical sensing. PMID:26830257

  20. Surface chemistry of nanostructures: 1) interactions of mixed monolayers of carboxylic acids on titania, 2) synthesis and immobilization of aqueous cadmium selenide quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevins, Jeremy S.

    2011-12-01

    This thesis will focus on (1) characterization of mixed monolayers of thiol-terminated (T) and methyl-terminated (Me) carboxylic acids on nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films, (2) the synthesis of aqueous CdSe quantum dots (QDs), with particular emphasis on the influence of capping-group functionality and reaction conditions on the kinetics and mechanism of particle growth, and (3) attachment of CdSe QDs to TiO2 thin films and their photoelectrochemical performance as a function of surfactant in QD-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). Mixed monolayers have been used in many applications, such as chemical sensing, biomolecular recognition, molecular electronics, catalysis, and as building blocks for materials assembly. Mixed monolayers of T and Me on TiO 2 underwent dimerization-induced compositional changes. Me was displaced on the surface by T because of the formation of intermolecular disulfide bonds between thiol groups of T adsorbed to the TiO2 surface. The compositional changes were found to vary as a function of solvent, alkyl chain length of T, steric bulk of adsorbates, and surface-binding and terminal functional groups. The findings illustrate that dimerization and other intermolecular interactions between adsorbates may dramatically influence the composition and terminal functionalization of mixed monolayers. Semiconductor QDs are attractive alternatives to molecular chromophores and bulk semiconductors for light-harvesting applications in photovoltaics and photocatalysis. Aqueous QDs are of particular interest due to their straightforward, cost-effective, and environmentally-benign syntheses. CdSe QDs were synthesized in basic aqueous suspensions at room temperature under ambient conditions by mixing a cadmium precursor, selenide precursor, and one of several carboxylate-functionalized capping groups (cysteinate, mercaptopropionate, and mercaptosuccinate). The photophysical properties of the QDs varied with capping-group functionality, concentration of precursors, and pH of the aqueous reaction mixture. Varying these parameters allowed for systematic control of the kinetics and mechanism of particle growth, as well as the size and size distribution of QDs at equilibrium. Under certain conditions, "magic-sized" clusters (MSCs) of CdSe, rather than regular QDs, were preferentially synthesized. The carboxylated capping groups of aqueous QDs were used as bifunctional linkers, allowing for facile attachment to nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films. Equilibrium binding experiments were performed to quantify the adsorption of regular QDs and MSCs to nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films. Finally, photoelectrochemistry was used to quantify the influence of capping-group functionality on the efficiency of electron injection from adsorbed QDs into TiO2 and the power-conversion efficiency of QDSSCs.

  1. The pinning effect in quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Monisha, P. J.; Mukhopadhyay, Soma

    2014-04-24

    The pinning effect is studied in a Gaussian quantum dot using the improved Wigner-Brillouin perturbation theory (IWBPT) in the presence of electron-phonon interaction. The electron ground state plus one phonon state is degenerate with the electron in the first excited state. The electron-phonon interaction lifts the degeneracy and the first excited states get pinned to the ground state plus one phonon state as we increase the confinement frequency.

  2. Exciton dephasing in quantum dot molecules.

    PubMed

    Borri, P; Langbein, W; Woggon, U; Schwab, M; Bayer, M; Fafard, S; Wasilewski, Z; Hawrylak, P

    2003-12-31

    We have measured the exciton dephasing time in InAs/GaAs quantum dot molecules having different interdot barrier thicknesses in the temperature range from 5 to 60 K, using a highly sensitive four-wave mixing heterodyne technique. At 5 K dephasing times of several hundred picoseconds are found. Moreover, a systematic dependence of the dephasing dynamics on the barrier thickness is observed. These results show how the quantum-mechanical coupling of the electronic wave functions in the molecules affects both the exciton radiative lifetime and the exciton-acoustic phonon interaction. PMID:14754087

  3. Relaxation dynamics in correlated quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Andergassen, S.; Schuricht, D.; Pletyukhov, M.; Schoeller, H.

    2014-12-04

    We study quantum many-body effects on the real-time evolution of the current through quantum dots. By using a non-equilibrium renormalization group approach, we provide analytic results for the relaxation dynamics into the stationary state and identify the microscopic cutoff scales that determine the transport rates. We find rich non-equilibrium physics induced by the interplay of the different energy scales. While the short-time limit is governed by universal dynamics, the long-time behavior features characteristic oscillations as well as an interplay of exponential and power-law decay.

  4. Quantum phase transition in a multilevel dot.

    PubMed

    Hofstetter, Walter; Schoeller, Herbert

    2002-01-01

    We discuss electronic transport through a lateral quantum dot close to the singlet-triplet degeneracy in the case of a single conduction channel per lead. By applying the numerical renormalization group, we obtain rigorous results for the linear conductance and the density of states. A new quantum phase transition of the Kosterlitz-Thouless-type is found, with an exponentially small energy scale T(*) close to the degeneracy point. Below T(*), the conductance is strongly suppressed, corresponding to a universal dip in the density of states. This explains recent transport measurements. PMID:11800978

  5. Surface distortion effects on quantum dot helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Encinosa, Mario; Etemadi, Babak

    1999-06-01

    The Schrdinger equation for a quantum mechanical particle constrained to a surface includes a potential term dependent on surface curvature. We use differential forms to derive this term and employ Monge representations for two surfaces to obtain specific expressions for the potential. We calculate the first order perturbative effect of this potential on the ground state energy of model quantum dot helium. We find that the energy shift can be sensitive to the detailed shape of the surface distortion. This dependence arises from the Coulomb repulsion between the electron pair, which causes each electron to preferentially sample (or not sample) regions where physical curvature leads to comparatively large values of the distortion potential.

  6. Silicon quantum dots for optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jeslin J.

    Luminescent silicon quantum dots (SiQDs) are emerging as attractive materials for optoelectronic devices, third generation photovoltaics, and bioimaging. Their applicability in the real world is contingent on their optical properties and long-term environmental stability; and in biological applications, factors such as water solubility and toxicity must also be taken into consideration. The aforementioned properties are highly dependent on the QDs' surface chemistry. In this work, SiQDs were engineered for the respective applications using liquid-phase and gas-phase functionalization techniques. Preliminary work in luminescent downshifting for photovoltaic systems are also reported. Highly luminescent SiQDs were fabricated by grafting unsaturated hydrocarbons onto the surface of hydrogen-terminated SiQDs via thermal and photochemical hydrosilylation. An industrially attractive, all gas-phase, nonthermal plasma synthesis, passivation (aided by photochemical reactions), and deposition process was also developed to reduce solvent waste. With photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQYs) nearing 60 %, the alkyl-terminated QDs are attractive materials for optical applications. The functionalized SiQDs also exhibited enhanced thermal stability as compared to their unfunctionalized counterparts, and the photochemically-hydrosilylated QDs further displayed photostability under UV irradiation. These environmentally-stable SiQDs were used as luminescent downshifting layers in photovoltaic systems, which led to enhancements in the blue photoresponse of heterojunction solar cells. Furthermore, the QD films demonstrated antireflective properties, improving the coupling efficiency of sunlight into the cell. For biological applications, oxide, amine, or hydroxyl groups were grafted onto the surface to create water-soluble SiQDs. Luminescent, water-soluble SiQDs were produced in by microplasma treating the QDs in water. Stable QYs exceeding 50 % were obtained. Radical-based and catalytic hydrosilylation reactions were also investigated to engineer individually-dispersed SiQDs in water. The results of this dissertation demonstrate the potential of SiQDs in optical applications. In the future, their application may lead to improvements in the efficiencies of photovoltaic devices and perhaps allow the cells to exceed the Shockley-Queisser limit. In biology, the stability of the SiQDs may allow long-term monitoring of biomolecules and perhaps lead to new discoveries.

  7. Quantum dot spectroscopy using a single phosphorus donor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büch, Holger; Fuechsle, Martin; Baker, William; House, Matthew G.; Simmons, Michelle Y.

    2015-12-01

    Using a deterministic single P donor placed with atomic precision accuracy next to a nanoscale silicon quantum dot, we present a way to analyze the energy spectrum of small quantum dots in silicon by tunnel-coupled transport measurements. The energy-level structure of the quantum dot is observed as resonance features within the transport bias triangles when the donor chemical potential is aligned with states within the quantum dot as confirmed by a numeric rate equation solver SIMON. This technique allows us to independently extract the quantum dot level structure irrespective of the density of states in the leads. Such a method is useful for the investigation of silicon quantum dots in the few-electron regime where the level structure is governed by an intricate interplay between the spin- and the valley-orbit degrees of freedom.

  8. Study of intersubband transition in quantum dots and quantum dot infrared photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xudong; Li, Sheng S.; Tidrow, M. Z.

    In this paper the intersubband optical transitions in quantum dots are studied. Theoretical calculations of peak wavelengths and oscillator strengths of the transitions from the bound to first and second excited states were made for the In xGa 1- xAs/GaAs and InAs/Al xGa 1- xAs systems. The results show that transition from the ground to the first excited state in the growth-direction polarization has the largest absorption. The results of our calculations were found to be in good agreement with the observed peak detection wavelengths of the quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs). The application of quantum dots structures for the mid- and long-wavelength infrared detection is also discussed.

  9. Optical resonators and quantum dots: An excursion into quantum optics, quantum information and photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianucci, Pablo

    Modern communications technology has encouraged an intimate connection between Semiconductor Physics and Optics, and this connection shows best in the combination of electron-confining structures with light-confining structures. Semiconductor quantum dots are systems engineered to trap electrons in a mesoscopic scale (the are composed of ? 10000 atoms), resulting in a behavior resembling that of atoms, but much richer. Optical microresonators are engineered to confine light, increasing its intensity and enabling a much stronger interaction with matter. Their combination opens a myriad of new directions, both in fundamental Physics and in possible applications. This dissertation explores both semiconductor quantum dots and microresonators, through experimental work done with semiconductor quantum dots and microsphere resonators spanning the fields of Quantum Optics, Quantum Information and Photonics; from quantum algorithms to polarization converters. Quantum Optics leads the way, allowing us to understand how to manipulate and measure quantum dots with light and to elucidate the interactions between them and microresonators. In the Quantum Information area, we present a detailed study of the feasibility of excitons in quantum dots to perform quantum computations, including an experimental demonstration of the single-qubit Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm performedin a single semiconductor quantum dot. Our studies in Photonics involve applications of microsphere resonators, which we have learned to fabricate and characterize. We present an elaborate description of the experimental techniques needed to study microspheres, including studies and proof of concept experiments on both ultra-sensitive microsphere sensors and whispering gallery mode polarization converters.

  10. Synthesis of water-dispersible fluorescent, radio-opaque, and paramagnetic CdS:Mn/ZnS quantum dots: a multifunctional probe for bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Santra, Swadeshmukul; Yang, Heesun; Holloway, Paul H; Stanley, Jessie T; Mericle, Robert A

    2005-02-16

    Ultra-small (3.1 nm) multifunctional CdS:Mn/ZnS core-shell semiconductor quantum dots (Qdots), which possess fluorescent, radio-opacity, and paramagnetic properties, have been shown here. To demonstrate in vivo bioimaging capability, a rat was administered endovascularly with Qdots conjugated with a TAT peptide. The labeling efficacy of these Qdots was demonstrated on the basis of the histological analysis of the microtome sliced brain tissue, clearly showing that TAT-conjugated Qdots stained brain blood vessels. PMID:15700997

  11. Polarization-insensitive quantum-dot coupled quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lirong; Yu, Yi; Tian, Peng; Huang, Dexiu

    2009-01-01

    The optical gain of a quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifier is usually seriously dependent on polarization; we propose a quantum-dot coupled tensile-strained quantum-well structure to obtain polarization insensitivity. The tensile-strained quantum well not only serves as a carrier injection layer of quantum dots but also offers gain to the transverse-magnetic mode. Based on the polarization-dependent coupled carrier rate-equation model, we study carrier competition among quantum well and quantum dots, and study the polarization dependence of the quantum-dot coupled quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier. We also analyze polarization-dependent photon-mediated carrier distribution among quantum well and quantum dots. It is shown that polarization-insensitive gain can be realized by optimal design.

  12. Electron-Hole Confinement Symmetry in Silicon Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Filipp; Konstantaras, Georgios; Spruijtenburg, Paul C; van der Wiel, Wilfred G; Zwanenburg, Floris A

    2015-08-12

    We report electrical transport measurements on a gate-defined ambipolar quantum dot in intrinsic silicon. The ambipolarity allows its operation as either an electron or a hole quantum dot of which we change the dot occupancy by 20 charge carriers in each regime. Electron-hole confinement symmetry is evidenced by the extracted gate capacitances and charging energies. The results demonstrate that ambipolar quantum dots offer great potential for spin-based quantum information processing, since confined electrons and holes can be compared and manipulated in the same crystalline environment. PMID:26134900

  13. Quantum dot solar cells: The surface plays a core role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milliron, Delia J.

    2014-08-01

    Mastering the impact of surface chemistry on the electronic properties and stability of colloidal quantum dots enables the realization of architectures with enhanced photovoltaic performance and air stability.

  14. Terahertz transmission through rings of quantum dots-nanogap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Laxmi-Narayan; Bahk, Young-Mi; Choi, Geunchang; Han, Sanghoon; Park, Namkyoo; Kim, Dai-Sik

    2016-03-01

    We report resonant funneling of terahertz (THz) waves through (9 ± 1) nm wide quantum dots-nanogap of cadmium selenide quantum dots silver nanogap metamaterials. We observed a giant THz intensity enhancement (∼104) through the quantum dots-nanogap at the resonant frequency. We, further report the experimentally measured effective mode indices for these metamaterials. A finite difference time domain simulation of the nanogap enabled by the quantum dots supports the experimentally measured THz intensity enhancement across the nanogap. We propose that these low effective mode index terahertz resonators will be useful as bio/chemical sensors, gain-enhanced antennas, and wave guides.

  15. Imaging ligand-gated ion channels with quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomlinson, I. D.; Orndorff, Rebecca L.; Gussin, Hélène; Mason, John N.; Blakely, Randy D.; Pepperberg, David R.; Rosenthal, Sandra J.

    2007-02-01

    In this paper we report two different methodologies for labeling ligand-gated receptors. The first of these builds upon our earlier work with serotonin conjugated quantum dots and our studies with pegilated quantum dots to reduce non specific binding. In this approach a pegilated derivative of muscimol was synthesized and attached via an amide linkage to quantum dots coated in an amphiphillic polymer derivative of poly acrylamide. These conjugates were used to image the GABA C receptor in oocytes. An alternative approach was used to image tissue sections to study nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the neuro muscular junction with biotinylated Bungerotoxin and streptavidin coated quantum dots.

  16. Enhanced performance of quantum dot solar cells based on type II quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Feng; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Luo, Shuai; Lv, Zun-Ren; Yang, Tao

    2014-10-07

    The characteristics of quantum dot solar cells (QDSCs) based on type II QDs are investigated theoretically. Based on a drift-diffusion model, we obtained a much higher open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) as well as conversion efficiency in a type II QDSC, compared to type I QDSCs. The improved V{sub oc} and efficiency are mainly attributed to the much longer Auger recombination lifetime in type II QDs. Moreover, the influence of the carrier lifetime on devices' performance is discussed and clarified. In addition, an explicit criterion to determine the role of quantum dots in solar cells is put forward.

  17. Silicon quantum dots: fine-tuning to maturity.

    PubMed

    Morello, Andrea

    2015-12-18

    Quantum dots in semiconductor heterostructures provide one of the most flexible platforms for the study of quantum phenomena at the nanoscale. The surging interest in using quantum dots for quantum computation is forcing researchers to rethink fabrication and operation methods, to obtain highly tunable dots in spin-free host materials, such as silicon. Borselli and colleagues report in Nanotechnology the fabrication of a novel Si/SiGe double quantum dot device, which combines an ultra-low disorder Si/SiGe accumulation-mode heterostructure with a stack of overlapping control gates, ensuring tight confining potentials and exquisite tunability. This work signals the technological maturity of silicon quantum dots, and their readiness to be applied to challenging projects in quantum information science. PMID:26584678

  18. Silicon quantum dots: fine-tuning to maturity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morello, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    Quantum dots in semiconductor heterostructures provide one of the most flexible platforms for the study of quantum phenomena at the nanoscale. The surging interest in using quantum dots for quantum computation is forcing researchers to rethink fabrication and operation methods, to obtain highly tunable dots in spin-free host materials, such as silicon. Borselli and colleagues report in Nanotechnology the fabrication of a novel Si/SiGe double quantum dot device, which combines an ultra-low disorder Si/SiGe accumulation-mode heterostructure with a stack of overlapping control gates, ensuring tight confining potentials and exquisite tunability. This work signals the technological maturity of silicon quantum dots, and their readiness to be applied to challenging projects in quantum information science.

  19. One-pot synthesis of highly greenish-yellow fluorescent nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots for pyrophosphate sensing via competitive coordination with Eu(3+) ions.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liping; Song, Xinhong; Chen, Yiying; Rong, Mingcong; Zhao, Tingting; Jiang, Yaqi; Wang, Yiru; Chen, Xi

    2015-10-01

    Highly fluorescent nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) with greenish-yellow emission and quantum yield of 13.2% have been synthesized via a one-pot hydrothermal method. The obtained N-GQDs displayed excellent optical properties, high photostability and resistance to strong ion strength. Based on the higher affinity of pyrophosphate (PPi) than carboxyl and amido groups on the surface of the N-GQDs to Eu(3+), a Eu(3+)-modulated N-GQD off-on fluorescent probe for PPi detection was constructed with a detection limit of 0.074 ?M. The detection process was simple in design, easy to operate, and showed a highly selective response to PPi in the presence of co-existing anions. This work widens the applications of N-GQDs with versatile functionality and reactivity in clinical diagnostics and as biosensors. PMID:26335520

  20. In situ synthesis of binary cobalt-ruthenium nanofiber alloy counter electrode for electrolyte-free cadmium sulfide quantum dot solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Nan; Ren, Lei; Sun, Weifu; Jin, Xiao; Zhao, Qing; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Wei, Taihuei; Li, Qinghua

    2015-06-01

    A facile, low-cost and low-temperature fabrication approach of counter electrode is essential for pursuing robust photovoltaic devices. Herein, we develop a hydrothermal in situ growth of Cobalt-Ruthenium (Co-Ru) alloy nanofiber electrode for quantum dot solar cell (QDSC) applications. Colloidal CdS QDs with tunable absorption band edge are synthesized and used as light absorber. After optimizing the QDs with the highest photoluminescence quantum yield accompanied by considerable solar light absorption ability, QDSC based on Co-Ru alloy electrode delivers a much higher power conversion efficiency than its counterparts, i.e., either pure Co or Ru metal electrodes. In detail, Co-Ru alloy electrode exhibits high specific area, excellent electrical behavior, intimate interface contact, and good stability, thus leading to notable improved device performances. The impressive robust function of Co-Ru alloy with simple manufacturing procedure highlights its potential applications in robust QDSCs.

  1. One-pot synthesis of highly greenish-yellow fluorescent nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots for pyrophosphate sensing via competitive coordination with Eu3+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Liping; Song, Xinhong; Chen, Yiying; Rong, Mingcong; Zhao, Tingting; Jiang, Yaqi; Wang, Yiru; Chen, Xi

    2015-09-01

    Highly fluorescent nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) with greenish-yellow emission and quantum yield of 13.2% have been synthesized via a one-pot hydrothermal method. The obtained N-GQDs displayed excellent optical properties, high photostability and resistance to strong ion strength. Based on the higher affinity of pyrophosphate (PPi) than carboxyl and amido groups on the surface of the N-GQDs to Eu3+, a Eu3+-modulated N-GQD off-on fluorescent probe for PPi detection was constructed with a detection limit of 0.074 ?M. The detection process was simple in design, easy to operate, and showed a highly selective response to PPi in the presence of co-existing anions. This work widens the applications of N-GQDs with versatile functionality and reactivity in clinical diagnostics and as biosensors.Highly fluorescent nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) with greenish-yellow emission and quantum yield of 13.2% have been synthesized via a one-pot hydrothermal method. The obtained N-GQDs displayed excellent optical properties, high photostability and resistance to strong ion strength. Based on the higher affinity of pyrophosphate (PPi) than carboxyl and amido groups on the surface of the N-GQDs to Eu3+, a Eu3+-modulated N-GQD off-on fluorescent probe for PPi detection was constructed with a detection limit of 0.074 ?M. The detection process was simple in design, easy to operate, and showed a highly selective response to PPi in the presence of co-existing anions. This work widens the applications of N-GQDs with versatile functionality and reactivity in clinical diagnostics and as biosensors. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04005a

  2. CdTe/CdS-MPA quantum dots as fluorescent probes to label yeast cells: synthesis, characterization and conjugation with Concanavalin A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Ilka T.; Santos, Camila C.; Benetti, Endi; Tenório, Denise P. L. A.; Cabral Filho, Paulo E.; Sabino, Caetano P.; Fontes, Adriana; Santos, Beate S.; Prates, Renato A.; Ribeiro, Martha S.

    2012-03-01

    Candida albicans is the most frequent human opportunistic pathogenic fungus and one of the most important causes of nosocomial infections. In fact, diagnosis of invasive candidiasis presents unique problems. The aim of this work was to evaluate, by fluorescence image analysis, cellular labeling of C. albicans with CdTe/CdS quantum dots conjugated or not to concanavalin A (ConA). Yeast cells were incubated with CdTe/CdS quantum dots (QD) stabilized with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) (emission peak at 530 nm) for 1 hour. In the overall study we observed no morphological alterations. The fluorescence microscopic analysis of the yeast cells showed that the non-functionalized QDs do not label C. albicans cells, while for the QD conjugated to ConA the cells showed a fluorescence profile indicating that the membrane was preferentially marked. This profile was expected since Concanavalin A is a protein that binds specifically to terminal carbohydrate residues at the membrane cell surface. The results suggest that the QD-labeled Candida cells represent a promising tool to open new possibilities for a precise evaluation of fungal infections in pathological conditions.

  3. Quantum dot spin cellular automata for realizing a quantum processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayat, Abolfazl; Creffield, Charles E.; Jefferson, John H.; Pepper, Michael; Bose, Sougato

    2015-10-01

    We show how single quantum dots, each hosting a singlet-triplet qubit, can be placed in arrays to build a spin quantum cellular automaton. A fast (10 ns) deterministic coherent singlet-triplet filtering, as opposed to current incoherent tunneling/slow-adiabatic based quantum gates (operation time 300 ns), can be employed to produce a two-qubit gate through capacitive (electrostatic) couplings that can operate over significant distances. This is the coherent version of the widely discussed charge and nano-magnet cellular automata, and would increase speed, reduce dissipation, and perform quantum computation while interfacing smoothly with its classical counterpart. This combines the best of two worldsthe coherence of spin pairs known from quantum technologies, and the strength and range of electrostatic couplings from the charge-based classical cellular automata. Significantly our system has zero electric dipole moment during the whole operation process, thereby increasing its charge dephasing time.

  4. Holonomic quantum computation with electron spins in quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Golovach, Vitaly N.; Borhani, Massoud; Loss, Daniel

    2010-02-15

    With the help of the spin-orbit interaction, we propose a scheme to perform holonomic single-qubit gates on the electron spin confined to a quantum dot. The manipulation is done in the absence (or presence) of an applied magnetic field. By adiabatic changing the position of the confinement potential, one can rotate the spin state of the electron around the Bloch sphere in semiconductor heterostructures. The dynamics of the system is equivalent to employing an effective non-Abelian gauge potential whose structure depends on the type of the spin-orbit interaction. As an example, we find an analytic expression for the electron spin dynamics when the dot is moved around a circular path (with radius R) on the two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) and show that all single-qubit gates can be realized by tuning the radius and orientation of the circular paths. Moreover, using the Heisenberg exchange interaction, we demonstrate how one can generate two-qubit gates by bringing two quantum dots near each other, yielding a scalable scheme to perform quantum computing on arbitrary N qubits. This proposal shows a way of realizing holonomic quantum computers in solid-state systems.

  5. Quantum Dots: An Experiment for Physical or Materials Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, L. D.; Arceo, J. F.; Hughes, W. C.; DeGraff, B. A.; Augustine, B. H.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is conducted for obtaining quantum dots for physical or materials chemistry. This experiment serves to both reinforce the basic concept of quantum confinement and providing a useful bridge between the molecular and solid-state world.

  6. Energy levels of bilayer graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, D. R.; Zarenia, M.; Chaves, Andrey; Farias, G. A.; Peeters, F. M.

    2015-09-01

    Within a tight binding approach we investigate the energy levels of hexagonal and triangular bilayer graphene (BLG) quantum dots (QDs) with zigzag and armchair edges. We study AA- and AB- (Bernal) stacked BLG QDs and obtain the energy levels in both the absence and the presence of a perpendicular electric field (i.e., biased BLG QDs). Our results show that the size dependence of the energy levels is different from that of monolayer graphene QDs. The energy spectrum of AB-stacked BLG QDs with zigzag edges exhibits edge states which spread out into the opened energy gap in the presence of a perpendicular electric field. We found that the behavior of these edges states is different for the hexagonal and triangular geometries. In the case of AA-stacked BLG QDs, the electron and hole energy levels cross each other in both cases of armchair and zigzag edges as the dot size or the applied bias increases.

  7. Measurement Back-Action in Stacked Graphene Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, D; Eich, M; Zilberberg, O; Rssler, C; Ihn, T; Ensslin, K

    2015-09-01

    We present an electronic transport experiment in graphene where both classical and quantum mechanical charge detector back-action on a quantum dot are investigated. The device consists of two stacked graphene quantum dots separated by a thin layer of boron nitride. This device is fabricated by van der Waals stacking and is equipped with separate source and drain contacts to both dots. By applying a finite bias to one quantum dot, a current is induced in the other unbiased dot. We present an explanation of the observed measurement-induced current based on strong capacitive coupling and energy dependent tunneling barriers, breaking the spatial symmetry in the unbiased system. This is a special feature of graphene-based quantum devices. The experimental observation of transport in classically forbidden regimes is understood by considering higher-order quantum mechanical back-action mechanisms. PMID:26280388

  8. Single-electron quantum dots in silicon MOS structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoury, M.; Gunther, A.; Mili?i?, S.; Rack, J.; Goodnick, S. M.; Vasileska, D.; Thornton, T. J.; Ferry, D. K.

    We present experimental results for two types of quantum dots, which are embedded within a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor structure. Evidence is found for single-electron charging at low temperature, and for an asymmetric shape of the dot. First results of simulations of these dots are presented.

  9. Charge transport in strongly coupled quantum dot solids.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Cherie R; Murray, Christopher B

    2015-12-01

    The emergence of high-mobility, colloidal semiconductor quantum dot (QD) solids has triggered fundamental studies that map the evolution from carrier hopping through localized quantum-confined states to band-like charge transport in delocalized and hybridized states of strongly coupled QD solids, in analogy with the construction of solids from atoms. Increased coupling in QD solids has led to record-breaking performance in QD devices, such as electronic transistors and circuitry, optoelectronic light-emitting diodes, photovoltaic devices and photodetectors, and thermoelectric devices. Here, we review the advances in synthesis, assembly, ligand treatments and doping that have enabled high-mobility QD solids, as well as the experiments and theory that depict band-like transport in the QD solid state. We also present recent QD devices and discuss future prospects for QD materials and device design. PMID:26551016

  10. Charge transport in strongly coupled quantum dot solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagan, Cherie R.; Murray, Christopher B.

    2015-12-01

    The emergence of high-mobility, colloidal semiconductor quantum dot (QD) solids has triggered fundamental studies that map the evolution from carrier hopping through localized quantum-confined states to band-like charge transport in delocalized and hybridized states of strongly coupled QD solids, in analogy with the construction of solids from atoms. Increased coupling in QD solids has led to record-breaking performance in QD devices, such as electronic transistors and circuitry, optoelectronic light-emitting diodes, photovoltaic devices and photodetectors, and thermoelectric devices. Here, we review the advances in synthesis, assembly, ligand treatments and doping that have enabled high-mobility QD solids, as well as the experiments and theory that depict band-like transport in the QD solid state. We also present recent QD devices and discuss future prospects for QD materials and device design.

  11. Bioinspired inimitable cadmium telluride quantum dots for bioimaging purposes.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Vinay; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi; Zinjarde, Smita; Gosavi, Suresh

    2013-06-01

    Synthesis of quantum nanoparticles of specific size, shape and composition are an aspect important in nanotechnology research. Although these nanostructures are routinely synthesized by chemical routes, the use of microorganisms has emerged as a promising option. The synthesis of cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots by two hitherto unreported marine bacteria (Bacillus pumilus and Serratia marcescens) is reported here. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy indicated the synthesis of CdTe nanoparticles and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns implicated their crystalline face-centered cubic nature. The size of the synthesized CdTe nanostructures estimated by XRD and dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis was found to be approximately 10 nm. Photoluminescence (PL) studies were used to confirm the fluorescence properties of these semi-conducting nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis showed the presence of well-defined nanostructures and energy dispersive spectra (EDS) confirmed the microbial synthesis of these nanoparticles. These bio-inspired CdTe nanostructures could be effectively used in imaging of yeast and animal cells. This work thus describes a cost-effective green method for synthesizing highly fluorescent biocompatible CdTe nanoparticles suitable for bio-labeling purposes. PMID:23862414

  12. Electrostatically defined silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, M.; Pacheco, J. L.; Perry, D.; Garratt, E.; Ten Eyck, G.; Bishop, N. C.; Wendt, J. R.; Manginell, R. P.; Dominguez, J.; Pluym, T.; Luhman, D. R.; Bielejec, E.; Lilly, M. P.; Carroll, M. S.

    2016-02-01

    Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is crucial to donor spin quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor based quantum computing. In this work, a focused ion beam is used to implant antimony donors in 100 nm × 150 nm windows straddling quantum dots. Ion detectors are integrated next to the quantum dots to sense the implants. The numbers of donors implanted can be counted to a precision of a single ion. In low-temperature transport measurements, regular Coulomb blockade is observed from the quantum dots. Charge offsets indicative of donor ionization are also observed in devices with counted donor implants.

  13. Plasmon assisted photonic crystal quantum dot sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenoi, R. V.; Ramirez, D. A.; Sharma, Y.; Attaluri, R. S.; Rosenberg, J.; Painter, O. J.; Krishna, S.

    2007-09-01

    We report Quantum Dot Infrared Detectors (QDIP) where light coupling to the self assembled quantum dots is achieved through plasmons occurring at the metal-semiconductor interface. The detector structure consists of an asymmetric InAs/InGaAs/GaAs dots-in-a-well (DWELL) structure and a thick layer of GaAs sandwiched between two highly doped n-GaAs contact layers, grown on a semi-insulating GaAs substrate. The aperture of the detector is covered with a thin metallic layer which along with the dielectric layer confines light in the vertical direction. Sub-wavelength two-dimensional periodic patterns etched in the metallic layer covering the aperture of the detector and the active region creates a micro-cavity that concentrate light in the active region leading to intersubband transitions between states in the dot and the ones in the well. The sidewalls of the detector were also covered with metal to ensure that there is no leakage of light into the active region other than through the metal covered aperture. An enhanced spectral response when compared to the normal DWELL detector is obtained despite the absence of any aperture in the detector. The spectral response measurements show that the Long Wave InfraRed (LWIR) region is enhanced when compared to the Mid Wave InfraRed (MWIR) region. This may be due to coupling of light into the active region by plasmons that are excited at the metal-semiconductor interface. The patterned metal-dielectric layers act as an optical resonator thereby enhancing the coupling efficiency of light into the active region at the specified frequency. The concept of plasmon-assisted coupling is in principle technology agnostic and can be easily integrated into present day infrared sensors.

  14. Nano-laser on silicon quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei-Qi; Liu, Shi-Rong; Qin, Chao-Jian; Lü, Quan; Xu, Li

    2011-04-01

    A new conception of nano-laser is proposed in which depending on the size of nano-clusters (silicon quantum dots (QD)), the pumping level of laser can be tuned by the quantum confinement (QC) effect, and the population inversion can be formed between the valence band and the localized states in gap produced from the surface bonds of nano-clusters. Here we report the experimental demonstration of nano-laser on silicon quantum dots fabricated by nanosecond pulse laser. The peaks of stimulated emission are observed at 605 nm and 693 nm. Through the micro-cavity of nano-laser, a full width at half maximum of the peak at 693 nm can reach to 0.5 nm. The theoretical model and the experimental results indicate that it is a necessary condition for setting up nano-laser that the smaller size of QD (d < 3 nm) can make the localized states into band gap. The emission energy of nano-laser will be limited in the range of 1.7-2.3 eV generally due to the position of the localized states in gap, which is in good agreement between the experiments and the theory.

  15. Inversion of hysteresis in quantum dot controlled quantum-wire transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mller, C. R.; Worschech, L.; Forchel, A.

    2009-05-01

    In a quantum-wire transistor, pronounced floating-gate function of quantum dots is demonstrated with large threshold hysteresis exceeding 1.5 V. The charge state of the quantum dots is electrically controlled and, by applying a critical bias voltage along the quantum wire, the charging mechanism of the quantum dots is deactivated or, for bias voltages above this critical bias point, even inverted. It is shown that the charging as well as discharging of the quantum dots can be selectively switched off; i.e., the floating-gate function of the quantum dots is suppressed. The inversion of the hysteresis is explained within the framework of a capacitor model and the control of the charging mechanism is attributed to a dynamic gate efficiency of the quantum wire, which can be either larger or smaller than the quantum dot gate efficiency.

  16. Effect of shells on photoluminescence of aqueous CdTe quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Zhimin; Yang, Ping

    2013-07-15

    Graphical abstract: Size-tunable CdTe coated with several shells using an aqueous solution synthesis. CdTe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots exhibited high PL efficiency up to 80% which implies the promising applications for biomedical labeling. - Highlights: • CdTe quantum dots were fabricated using an aqueous synthesis. • CdS, ZnS, and CdS/ZnS shells were subsequently deposited on CdTe cores. • Outer ZnS shells provide an efficient confinement of electron and hole inside the QDs. • Inside CdS shells can reduce the strain on the QDs. • Aqueous CdTe/CdS/ZnS QDs exhibited high stability and photoluminescence efficiency of 80%. - Abstract: CdTe cores with various sizes were fabricated in aqueous solutions. Inorganic shells including CdS, ZnS, and CdS/ZnS were subsequently deposited on the cores through a similar aqueous procedure to investigate the effect of shells on the photoluminescence properties of the cores. In the case of CdTe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots, the outer ZnS shell provides an efficient confinement of electron and hole wavefunctions inside the quantum dots, while the middle CdS shell sandwiched between the CdTe core and ZnS shell can be introduced to obviously reduce the strain on the quantum dots because the lattice parameters of CdS is situated at the intermediate-level between those of CdTe and ZnS. In comparison with CdTe/ZnS core–shell quantum dots, the as-prepared water-soluble CdTe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots in our case can exhibit high photochemical stability and photoluminescence efficiency up to 80% in an aqueous solution, which implies the promising applications in the field of biomedical labeling.

  17. Quantum dot multi-section light emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Yongchun

    2006-04-01

    InxGa1-xAs quantum dot (QD) lasers grown on a GaAs substrate with 1.3-mum emission are currently a subject of strong interest, and the work presented here extends this research to the field of multi-section light emitters. Multi-section QD devices are useful for materials characterization and their flexibility in layout makes multi-functional in their device performance. This dissertation discusses the use of multi-section light emitters to produce new methods in the optical characterization of materials, QD mode-locked lasers (MLLs) and QD super-luminescent light emitting diodes (SLEDs). An improved, alternate approach to the "multi-section method" for the measurement of optical gain and absorption is presented, and for the first time, low noise, accurate gain and absorption spectra under real CW working conditions are obtained. With the improved multi-section method and MLL characteristic testing, the relationship between quantum dot MLL performance and quantum dot parameters is studied. With the highly flexible, reconfigurable multi-section approach, we demonstrate novel designs of QD MLLs and SLEDs. The multi-section MLL significantly increases the peak pulsed power (> 45%) and improves the pulse width (>35%) of the device. With the ability to change absorber position in the optical cavity at will, harmonic mode-locking from 7.2 GHz to 51 GHz is achieved. The ridge-waveguide multi-section QD SLED allows independent adjustment of the power and the spectral bandwidth relative to the ground state (GS) and the excited state (ES) of the QD and demonstrates simultaneous ultra-wide 3-dB bandwidth (> 150 nm) and an output power greater than 1 mW with a uniform multi-stack QD structure.

  18. Precise shape engineering of epitaxial quantum dots by growth kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bietti, Sergio; Bocquel, Juanita; Adorno, Silvia; Mano, Takaaki; Keizer, Joris G.; Koenraad, Paul M.; Sanguinetti, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    We show that independent size and morphology engineering of epitaxial quantum dots can be obtained using a kinetically controlled quantum dot fabrication procedure, namely droplet epitaxy. Due to the far-from-equilibrium droplet epitaxy procedure, which is based on the crystallization, under As flux, of a nanometric droplet of Ga, independent and precise tuning of quantum dot size, aspect ratio, and faceting can be achieved. The dependence of the dot morphology on the growth conditions is interpreted and described quantitatively through a model that takes into account the crystallization kinetics of the Ga stored in the droplet under As flux.

  19. Power-law photoluminescence decay in quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Král, Karel; Menšík, Miroslav

    2014-05-15

    Some quantum dot samples show a long-time (power-law) behavior of their luminescence intensity decay. This effect has been recently explained as being due to a cooperation of many tunneling channels transferring electrons from small quantum dots with triplet exciton to quantum dots at which the electrons can recombine with the holes in the valence band states. In this work we show that the long-time character of the sample luminescence decay can also be caused by an intrinsic property of a single dot, namely, by a non-adiabatic effect of the electron occupation up-conversion caused by the electron-phonon multiple scattering mechanism.

  20. Power-law photoluminescence decay in quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krl, Karel; Menk, Miroslav

    2014-05-01

    Some quantum dot samples show a long-time (power-law) behavior of their luminescence intensity decay. This effect has been recently explained as being due to a cooperation of many tunneling channels transferring electrons from small quantum dots with triplet exciton to quantum dots at which the electrons can recombine with the holes in the valence band states. In this work we show that the long-time character of the sample luminescence decay can also be caused by an intrinsic property of a single dot, namely, by a non-adiabatic effect of the electron occupation up-conversion caused by the electron-phonon multiple scattering mechanism.

  1. Controlling quantum dot energies using submonolayer bandstructure engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, L.; Law, S.; Wasserman, D.; Jung, D.; Lee, M. L.; Shen, J.; Cha, J. J.

    2014-08-25

    We demonstrate control of energy states in epitaxially-grown quantum dot structures formed by stacked submonolayer InAs depositions via engineering of the internal bandstructure of the dots. Transmission electron microscopy of the stacked sub-monolayer regions shows compositional inhomogeneity, indicative of the presence of quantum dots. The quantum dot ground state is manipulated not only by the number of deposited InAs layers, but also by control of the thickness and material composition of the spacing layers between submonolayer InAs depositions. In this manner, we demonstrate the ability to shift the quantum dot ground state energy at 77 K from 1.38 eV to 1.88 eV. The results presented offer a potential avenue towards enhanced control of dot energies for a variety of optoelectronic applications.

  2. Thermodynamic properties of a quantum Hall anti-dot interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy Schreier, Sarah; Stern, Ady; Rosenow, Bernd; Halperin, Bertrand I.

    2016-02-01

    We study quantum Hall interferometers in which the interference loop encircles a quantum anti-dot. We base our study on thermodynamic considerations, which we believe reflect the essential aspects of interference transport phenomena. We find that similar to the more conventional Fabry-Perot quantum Hall interferometers, in which the interference loop forms a quantum dot, the anti-dot interferometer is affected by the electro-static Coulomb interaction between the edge modes defining the loop. We show that in the Aharonov-Bohm regime, in which effects of fractional statistics should be visible, is easier to access in interferometers based on anti-dots than in those based on dots. We discuss the relevance of our results to recent measurements on anti-dots interferometers.

  3. Quantum dot intermixing using excimer laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Djie, H. S.; Ooi, B. S; Gunawan, O.

    2006-08-21

    The authors report a spatial control of the band gap in InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) using the combined effects of pulsed excimer laser irradiation and impurity-free dielectric cap induced intermixing technique. A large band gap shift of up to 180 meV has been obtained under laser irradiation of 480 mJ/cm{sup 2} and 150 pulses to the SiO{sub 2} capped shallow QD structure, while the nonirradiated SiO{sub 2} and Si{sub x}N{sub y} capped QDs only exhibit band gap shifts of 18 and 91 meV, respectively.

  4. Quantum-dot cluster-state computing with encoded qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, Yaakov S.; Hellberg, C. Stephen; Levy, Jeremy

    2005-08-01

    A class of architectures is advanced for cluster-state quantum computation using quantum dots. These architectures include using single and multiple dots as logical qubits. Special attention is given to supercoherent qubits introduced by Bacon [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 247902 (2001)] for which we discuss the effects of various errors and present a means of error protection.

  5. Fast synthesize ZnO quantum dots via ultrasonic method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weimin; Zhang, Bing; Ding, Nan; Ding, Wenhao; Wang, Lixi; Yu, Mingxun; Zhang, Qitu

    2016-05-01

    Green emission ZnO quantum dots were synthesized by an ultrasonic sol-gel method. The ZnO quantum dots were synthesized in various ultrasonic temperature and time. Photoluminescence properties of these ZnO quantum dots were measured. Time-resolved photoluminescence decay spectra were also taken to discover the change of defects amount during the reaction. Both ultrasonic temperature and time could affect the type and amount of defects in ZnO quantum dots. Total defects of ZnO quantum dots decreased with the increasing of ultrasonic temperature and time. The dangling bonds defects disappeared faster than the optical defects. Types of optical defects first changed from oxygen interstitial defects to oxygen vacancy and zinc interstitial defects. Then transformed back to oxygen interstitial defects again. The sizes of ZnO quantum dots would be controlled by both ultrasonic temperature and time as well. That is, with the increasing of ultrasonic temperature and time, the sizes of ZnO quantum dots first decreased then increased. Moreover, concentrated raw materials solution brought larger sizes and more optical defects of ZnO quantum dots. PMID:26611814

  6. Implementing of Quantum Cloning with Spatially Separated Quantum Dot Spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jing-Ji; Yeon, Kyu-Hwang; Du, Xin; Lv, Jia; Wang, Ming; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou

    2016-02-01

    We propose some schemes for implementing optimal symmetric (asymmetric) 1 → 2 universal quantum cloning, optimal symmetric (asymmetric) 1 → 2 phase-covariant cloning, optimal symmetric 1 → 3 economical phase-covariant cloning and optimal symmetric 1 → 3 economical real state cloning with spatially separated quantum dot spins by choosing the single-qubit rotation angles appropriately. The decoherences of the spontaneous emission of QDs, cavity decay and fiber loss are suppressed since the effective long-distance off-resonant interaction between two distant QDs is mediated by the vacuum fields of the fiber and cavity, and during the whole process no system is excited.

  7. Gold Nanocluster and Quantum Dot Complex in Protein for Biofriendly White-Light-Emitting Material.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Satyapriya; Pramanik, Sabyasachi; Khandelia, Rumi; Chattopadhyay, Arun

    2016-01-27

    We report the synthesis of a biofriendly highly luminescent white-light-emitting nanocomposite. The composite consisted of Au nanoclusters and ZnQ2 complex (on the surface of ZnS quantum dots) embedded in protein. The combination of red, green, and blue luminescence from clusters, complex, and protein, respectively, led to white light generation. PMID:26741861

  8. Nonlinear optical response and exciton dephasing in quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muljarov, E. A.; Zimmermann, R.

    2006-08-01

    The full time-dependent four-wave mixing polarization in quantum dots is microscopically calculated, taking into account acoustic phonon-assisted transitions between different exciton states of the dot. It is shown that quite different dephasing times of higher exciton states in pancake anisotropic InGaAs quantum dots are responsible for the experimentally observed [1] double-exponential decay in the photon echo signal.

  9. Minimal Self-Contained Quantum Refrigeration Machine Based on Four Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturelli, Davide; Fazio, Rosario; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2013-06-01

    We present a theoretical study of an electronic quantum refrigerator based on four quantum dots arranged in a square configuration, in contact with as many thermal reservoirs. We show that the system implements the minimal mechanism for acting as a self-contained quantum refrigerator, by demonstrating heat extraction from the coldest reservoir and the cooling of the nearby quantum dot.

  10. Double quantum dot in a quantum dash: Optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kaczmarkiewicz, Piotr Machnikowski, Pawe?; Kuhn, Tilmann

    2013-11-14

    We study the optical properties of highly elongated, highly flattened quantum dot structures, also referred to as quantum dashes, characterized by the presence of two trapping centers located along the structure. Such a system can exhibit some of the properties characteristic for double quantum dots. We show that sub- and super-radiant states can form for certain quantum dash geometries, which is manifested by a pronounced transfer of intensity between spectral lines, accompanied by the appearance of strong electron-hole correlations. We also compare exciton absorption spectra and polarization properties of a system with a single and double trapping center and show how the geometry of multiple trapping centers influences the optical properties of the system. We show that for a broad range of trapping geometries the relative absorption intensity of the ground state is larger than that of the lowest excited states, contrary to the quantum dash systems characterized by a single trapping center. Thus, optical properties of these structures are determined by fine details of their morphology.

  11. Quantum Dots in Diagnostics and Detection: Principles and Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Pisanic, T. R.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, T. H.

    2014-01-01

    Quantum dots are semiconductor nanocrystals that exhibit exceptional optical and electrical behaviors not found in their bulk counterparts. Following seminal work in the development of water-soluble quantum dots in the late 1990's, researchers have sought to develop interesting and novel ways of exploiting the extraordinary properties of quantum dots for biomedical applications. Since that time, over 10,000 articles have been published related to the use of quantum dots in biomedicine, many of which regard their use in detection and diagnostic bioassays. This review presents a didactic overview of fundamental physical phenomena associated with quantum dots and paradigm examples of how these phenomena can and have been readily exploited for manifold uses in nanobiotechnology with a specific focus on their implementation in in vitro diagnostic assays and biodetection. PMID:24770716

  12. Numerical simulation of optical feedback on a quantum dot lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Khursan, Amin H.; Ghalib, Basim Abdullattif; Al-Obaidi, Sabri J.

    2012-02-15

    We use multi-population rate equations model to study feedback oscillations in the quantum dot laser. This model takes into account all peculiar characteristics in the quantum dots such as inhomogeneous broadening of the gain spectrum, the presence of the excited states on the quantum dot and the non-confined states due to the presence of wetting layer and the barrier. The contribution of quantum dot groups, which cannot follow by other models, is simulated. The results obtained from this model show the feedback oscillations, the periodic oscillations which evolves to chaos at higher injection current of higher feedback levels. The frequency fluctuation is attributed mainly to wetting layer with a considerable contribution from excited states. The simulation shows that is must be not using simple rate equation models to express quantum dots working at excited state transition.

  13. Non-blinking quantum dot with a plasmonic nanoshell resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Botao; Giovanelli, Emerson; Habert, Benjamin; Spinicelli, Piernicola; Nasilowski, Michel; Xu, Xiangzhen; Lequeux, Nicolas; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Marquier, Francois; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Dubertret, Benoit

    2015-02-01

    Colloidal semiconductor quantum dots are fluorescent nanocrystals exhibiting exceptional optical properties, but their emission intensity strongly depends on their charging state and local environment. This leads to blinking at the single-particle level or even complete fluorescence quenching, and limits the applications of quantum dots as fluorescent particles. Here, we show that a single quantum dot encapsulated in a silica shell coated with a continuous gold nanoshell provides a system with a stable and Poissonian emission at room temperature that is preserved regardless of drastic changes in the local environment. This novel hybrid quantum dot/silica/gold structure behaves as a plasmonic resonator with a strong Purcell factor, in very good agreement with simulations. The gold nanoshell also acts as a shield that protects the quantum dot fluorescence and enhances its resistance to high-power photoexcitation or high-energy electron beams. This plasmonic fluorescent resonator opens the way to a new family of plasmonic nanoemitters with robust optical properties.

  14. Interaction of porphyrins with CdTe quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xing; Liu, Zhongxin; Ma, Lun; Hossu, Marius; Chen, Wei

    2011-05-01

    Porphyrins may be used as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy, photocatalysts for organic pollutant dissociation, agents for medical imaging and diagnostics, applications in luminescence and electronics. The detection of porphyrins is significantly important and here the interaction of protoporphyrin-IX (PPIX) with CdTe quantum dots was studied. It was observed that the luminescence of CdTe quantum dots was quenched dramatically in the presence of PPIX. When CdTe quantum dots were embedded into silica layers, almost no quenching by PPIX was observed. This indicates that PPIX may interact and alter CdTe quantum dots and thus quench their luminescence. The oxidation of the stabilizers such as thioglycolic acid (TGA) as well as the nanoparticles by the singlet oxygen generated from PPIX is most likely responsible for the luminescence quenching. The quenching of quantum dot luminescence by porphyrins may provide a new method for photosensitizer detection.

  15. Hyper-parallel photonic quantum computation with coupled quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Ren, Bao-Cang; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that a parallel quantum computer is more powerful than a classical one. So far, there are some important works about the construction of universal quantum logic gates, the key elements in quantum computation. However, they are focused on operating on one degree of freedom (DOF) of quantum systems. Here, we investigate the possibility of achieving scalable hyper-parallel quantum computation based on two DOFs of photon systems. We construct a deterministic hyper-controlled-not (hyper-CNOT) gate operating on both the spatial-mode and the polarization DOFs of a two-photon system simultaneously, by exploiting the giant optical circular birefringence induced by quantum-dot spins in double-sided optical microcavities as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). This hyper-CNOT gate is implemented by manipulating the four qubits in the two DOFs of a two-photon system without auxiliary spatial modes or polarization modes. It reduces the operation time and the resources consumed in quantum information processing, and it is more robust against the photonic dissipation noise, compared with the integration of several cascaded CNOT gates in one DOF. PMID:24721781

  16. Hyper-parallel photonic quantum computation with coupled quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Bao-Cang; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that a parallel quantum computer is more powerful than a classical one. So far, there are some important works about the construction of universal quantum logic gates, the key elements in quantum computation. However, they are focused on operating on one degree of freedom (DOF) of quantum systems. Here, we investigate the possibility of achieving scalable hyper-parallel quantum computation based on two DOFs of photon systems. We construct a deterministic hyper-controlled-not (hyper-CNOT) gate operating on both the spatial-mode and the polarization DOFs of a two-photon system simultaneously, by exploiting the giant optical circular birefringence induced by quantum-dot spins in double-sided optical microcavities as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). This hyper-CNOT gate is implemented by manipulating the four qubits in the two DOFs of a two-photon system without auxiliary spatial modes or polarization modes. It reduces the operation time and the resources consumed in quantum information processing, and it is more robust against the photonic dissipation noise, compared with the integration of several cascaded CNOT gates in one DOF. PMID:24721781

  17. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Glutathione-Capped CdTe/CdSe Near-Infrared Quantum Dots for Cell Imaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaogang; Li, Liang; Lai, Yongxian; Yan, Jianna; Tang, Yichen; Wang, Xiuli

    2015-01-01

    These glutathione (GSH)-conjugated CdTe/CdSe core/shell quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles in aqueous solution were synthesized using a microwave-assisted approach. The prepared type II core/shell QD nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis absorption, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). Results revealed that the QD nanoparticles exhibited good dispersity, a uniform size distribution and tunable fluorescence emission in the near-infrared (NIR) region. In addition, these nanoparticles exhibited good biocompatibility and photoluminescence in cell imaging. In particular, this type of core/shell NIR QDs may have potential applications in molecular imaging. PMID:25997004

  18. Dielectric barrier discharge-assisted one-pot synthesis of carbon quantum dots as fluorescent probes for selective and sensitive detection of hydrogen peroxide and glucose.

    PubMed

    He, Duhong; Zheng, Chengbin; Wang, Qiang; He, Chunlin; Lee, Yong-Ill; Wu, Li; Hou, Xiandeng

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we proposed a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD)-assisted one-pot strategy to fabricate carbon quantum dots (CQDs) using only one reagent N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF) at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The experimental conditions were carefully investigated, and the prepared CQDs were characterized by using UV-vis spectrophotometer, fluorescence spectrophotometer, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS). The CQDs have an average size of 3.6 nm in diameter with narrow size distribution, and can be used as highly selective and sensitive fluorescence probes for hydrogen peroxide and glucose, with limits of detection of 3.8 ?M and 3.5 ?M, respectively. PMID:26003691

  19. Chemically grown vertically aligned 1D ZnO nanorods with CdS coating for efficient quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSC): a controlled synthesis route.

    PubMed

    Mali, Sawanta S; Kim, Hyungjin; Patil, Pramod S; Hong, Chang Kook

    2013-12-28

    In the present article, vertically aligned ZnO nanorod arrays were synthesized by an aqueous chemical growth (ACG) route on a fluoride doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrate. These nanorods were further sensitized with cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots (QDs) by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique. The synthesized CdS coated ZnO nanorods were characterized for their structural and morphological properties with X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Finally, prepared CdS coated 1D ZnO photoelectrodes were tested for their photoelectrochemical performance. Our results show that the sample deposited after 40 SILAR cycles shows 5.61 mA cm(-2) short current density (JSC) with ? = 1.61% power conversion efficiency. PMID:24097343

  20. Nucleation temperature-controlled synthesis and in vitro toxicity evaluation of l-cysteine-capped Mn:ZnS quantum dots for intracellular imaging.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vivek; Pandey, Gajanan; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Yadav, Sapna; Mudiam, Mohana Krishna Reddy

    2016-03-01

    Quantum dots (QDs), one of the fastest developing and most exciting fluorescent materials, have attracted increasing interest in bioimaging and biomedical applications. The long-term stability and emission in the visible region of QDs have proved their applicability as a significant fluorophore in cell labelling. In this study, an attempt has been made to explore the efficacy of l-cysteine as a capping agent for Mn-doped ZnS QD for intracellular imaging. A room temperature nucleation strategy was adopted to prepare non-toxic, water-dispersible and biocompatible Mn:ZnS QDs. Aqueous and room temperature QDs with l-cysteine as a capping agent were found to be non-toxic even at a concentration of 1500 µg/mL and have wide applications in intracellular imaging. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26179189

  1. Semiconductor quantum dots for future optical applications.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Kohki

    2014-03-01

    Research and development of the semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) for optical applications are reviewed. The QDs are small crystals composed of ILL-V, II-VI, IV and IV-VI semiconductors, the size of which is about 10 nm. They are categorized into two groups. One is called the self-assembled QDs which are grown epitaxially on the semiconductor substrate, and the other is the colloidal QDs synthesized in the solvent using chemical technique. Since the emission wavelength of both QDs covers wide range, i.e., from visible to infrared, the QDs are attractive to various application fields. In this article, we focus on the progress in the three application fields, i.e., the replacement of existing products, the quantum information devices, and the solar cells. PMID:24745208

  2. Biosensing with Luminescent Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Sapsford, Kim E.; Pons, Thomas; Medintz, Igor L.; Mattoussi, Hedi

    2006-01-01

    Luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs) are a recently developed class of nanomaterial whose unique photophysical properties are helping to create a new generation of robust fluorescent biosensors. QD properties of interest for biosensing include high quantum yields, broad absorption spectra coupled to narrow size-tunable photoluminescent emissions and exceptional resistance to both photobleaching and chemical degradation. In this review, we examine the progress in adapting QDs for several predominantly in vitro biosensing applications including use in immunoassays, as generalized probes, in nucleic acid detection and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) - based sensing. We also describe several important considerations when working with QDs mainly centered on the choice of material(s) and appropriate strategies for attaching biomolecules to the QDs.

  3. Semiconductor quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jianjun; Cao, Guozhong

    2013-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have been drawing great attention recently as a material for solar energy conversion due to their versatile optical and electrical properties. The QD-sensitized solar cell (QDSC) is one of the burgeoning semiconductor QD solar cells that shows promising developments for the next generation of solar cells. This article focuses on recent developments in QDSCs, including 1) the effect of quantum confinement on QDSCs, 2) the multiple exciton generation (MEG) of QDs, 3) fabrication methods of QDs, and 4) nanocrystalline photoelectrodes for solar cells. We also make suggestions for future research on QDSCs. Although the efficiency of QDSCs is still low, we think there will be major breakthroughs in developing QDSCs in the future. PMID:24191178

  4. Electron states in semiconductor quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Dhayal, Suman S.; Ramaniah, Lavanya M.; Ruda, Harry E.; Nair, Selvakumar V.

    2014-11-28

    In this work, the electronic structures of quantum dots (QDs) of nine direct band gap semiconductor materials belonging to the group II-VI and III-V families are investigated, within the empirical tight-binding framework, in the effective bond orbital model. This methodology is shown to accurately describe these systems, yielding, at the same time, qualitative insights into their electronic properties. Various features of the bulk band structure such as band-gaps, band curvature, and band widths around symmetry points affect the quantum confinement of electrons and holes. These effects are identified and quantified. A comparison with experimental data yields good agreement with the calculations. These theoretical results would help quantify the optical response of QDs of these materials and provide useful input for applications.

  5. Synthesis of Cu2O Octadecahedron/TiO2 Quantum Dot Heterojunctions with High Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity and High Stability.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xu; Gao, Zhonghui; Cui, Zhenduo; Liang, Yanqin; Li, Zhaoyang; Zhu, Shengli; Yang, Xianjin; Ma, Jianmin

    2016-01-13

    Since p-n heterojunction photocatalysts with higher energy facets exposed usually possess greatly enhanced photocatalytic activities than single-phase catalysts, a novel Cu2O octadecahedron/TiO2 quantum dot (Cu2O-O/TiO2-QD) p-n heterojunctions composite was designed and synthesized in this study. Cu2O octadecahedra (Cu2O-O) with {110} facets and {100} facets exposed were synthesized first, then highly dispersed TiO2 quantum dots (TiO2-QDs) were loaded on Cu2O-O by the precipitation of TiO2-QDs sol in the presence of absolute ethanol. The morphology, crystal structure, chemical composition, optical properties, photocatalytic activity, and stability of Cu2O-O/TiO2-QD heterojunctions were characterized and investigated. It was found that TiO2-QDs were firmly anchored on Cu2O-O single crystals with good dispersibility. The Cu2O-O/TiO2-QD heterojunctions with partial coverage of TiO2-QDs showed a strong absorbance of visible light and exhibited an effective transfer of photoexcited electrons. The degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation indicated that the photocatalytic activity of Cu2O-O/TiO2-QD heterojunctions was significantly enhanced compared with that of Cu2O-O. This Cu2O-O/TiO2-QD heterojunctions composite exhibited high stability in MO degradation process and after storage in air. The high visible light photocatalytic activity and good stability were attributed to high utilization of light, effective separation of photoexcited electron-hole pairs, and instant scavenging of holes in the unique heterojunction structure. PMID:26651845

  6. Seed-mediated synthesis, properties and application of {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CdSe magnetic quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Alex W.H.; Ang, Chung Yen; Patra, Pranab K.; Han Yu; Gu Hongwei; Le Breton, Jean-Marie; Juraszek, Jean; Chiron, Hubert; Papaefthymiou, Georgia C.; Tamil Selvan, Subramanian; Ying, Jackie Y.

    2011-08-15

    Seed-mediated growth of fluorescent CdSe quantum dots (QDs) around {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} magnetic cores was performed at high temperature (300 deg. C) in the presence of organic surfactants. Bi-functional magnetic quantum dots (MQDs) with tunable emission properties were successfully prepared. The as-synthesized MQDs were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS), which confirmed the assembly of heterodimers. When a longer growth period was employed, a homogeneous dispersion of QDs around a magnetic nanoparticle was obtained. The magnetic properties of these nanocomposites were examined. The MQDs were superparamagnetic with a saturation magnetization of 0.40 emu/g and a coercivity of 138 Oe at 5 K. To demonstrate their potential application in bio-labeling, these MQDs were coated with a thin silica shell, and functionalized with a polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivative. The functionalized MQDs were effectively used for the labeling of live cell membranes of 4T1 mouse breast cancer cells and HepG2 human liver cancer cells. - Graphical abstract: (a) HRTEM image of oleic acid capped MPs. The size of MPs ranges from 8 to 10 nm. (b) XRD pattern of {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} MPs. Highlights: > The fabrication of MQDs through a seed-mediated approach has been demonstrated. > The formation and assembly of these bi-functional nanocomposites have been elucidated. > The MQDs exhibit superparamagnetism and tunable emissions characteristic of the components. > MQDs with thin silica coating were successfully employed in the labeling of cancer cell membranes.

  7. Cadmium-free quantum dots in aqueous solution: Potential for fingermark detection, synthesis and an application to the detection of fingermarks in blood on non-porous surfaces.

    PubMed

    Moret, Sébastien; Bécue, Andy; Champod, Christophe

    2013-01-10

    The use of quantum dots (QDs) in the area of fingermark detection is currently receiving a lot of attention in the forensic literature. Most of the research efforts have been devoted to cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots often applied as powders to the surfaces of interests. Both the use of cadmium and the nano size of these particles raise important issues in terms of health and safety. This paper proposes to replace CdTe QDs by zinc sulphide QDs doped with copper (ZnS:Cu) to address these issues. Zinc sulphide-copper doped QDs were successfully synthesized, characterized in terms of size and optical properties and optimized to be applied for the detection of impressions left in blood, where CdTe QDs proved to be efficient. Effectiveness of detection was assessed in comparison with CdTe QDs and Acid Yellow 7 (AY7, an effective blood reagent), using two series of depletive blood fingermarks from four donors prepared on four non-porous substrates, i.e. glass, transparent polypropylene, black polyethylene and aluminium foil. The marks were cut in half and processed separately with both reagents, leading to two comparison series (ZnS:Cu vs. CdTe, and ZnS:Cu vs. AY7). ZnS:Cu proved to be better than AY7 and at least as efficient as CdTe on most substrates. Consequently, copper-doped ZnS QDs constitute a valid substitute for cadmium-based QDs to detect blood marks on non-porous substrates and offer a safer alternative for routine use. PMID:23246071

  8. One step, microwave assisted green synthesis of biocompatible carbon quantum dots and their composites with [α−PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 3−}] for visible light photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sahasrabudhe, Atharva Pant, Shashank Chatti, Manjunath Maiti, Binoy De, Priyadarsi Roy, Soumyajit

    2014-04-24

    We report a simple, rapid and green route for synthesis of fluorescent carbon quantum dots (CQDs) by microwave assisted pyrolysis method using polyleucine polymer (Boc-L-Leu-HEMA) as precursor and self-passivating agent. The as synthesized CQDs were found to possess low cytotoxicity, thus making them suitable candidates for bioimaging and bio-labelling. Moreover, nanocomposites of as prepared CQDs with [α−PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 3−}] polyoxometalate were synthesized and were shown to possess excellent photocatalytic properties under visible light towards degradation of organic dye pollutants. Based on the control experiments, a suitable mechanism has been proposed to explain the remarkable photoactivity of the CQD/[α−PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 3−}] composites.

  9. Quantum Dot Enabled Molecular Sensing and Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tza-Huei

    2012-01-01

    Since its emergence, semiconductor nanoparticles known as quantum dots (QDs) have drawn considerable attention and have quickly extended their applicability to numerous fields within the life sciences. This is largely due to their unique optical properties such as high brightness and narrow emission band as well as other advantages over traditional organic fluorophores. New molecular sensing strategies based on QDs have been developed in pursuit of high sensitivity, high throughput, and multiplexing capabilities. For traditional biological applications, QDs have already begun to replace traditional organic fluorophores to serve as simple fluorescent reporters in immunoassays, microarrays, fluorescent imaging applications, and other assay platforms. In addition, smarter, more advanced QD probes such as quantum dot fluorescence resonance energy transfer (QD-FRET) sensors, quenching sensors, and barcoding systems are paving the way for highly-sensitive genetic and epigenetic detection of diseases, multiplexed identification of infectious pathogens, and tracking of intracellular drug and gene delivery. When combined with microfluidics and confocal fluorescence spectroscopy, the detection limit is further enhanced to single molecule level. Recently, investigations have revealed that QDs participate in series of new phenomena and exhibit interesting non-photoluminescent properties. Some of these new findings are now being incorporated into novel assays for gene copy number variation (CNV) studies and DNA methylation analysis with improved quantification resolution. Herein, we provide a comprehensive review on the latest developments of QD based molecular diagnostic platforms in which QD plays a versatile and essential role. PMID:22916072

  10. Excitation transfer in stacked quantum dot chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanjanachuchai, Songphol; Xu, Ming; Jaffré, Alexandre; Jittrong, Apichart; Chokamnuai, Thitipong; Panyakeow, Somsak; Boutchich, Mohamed

    2015-05-01

    Stacked InAs quantum dot chains (QDCs) on InGaAs/GaAs cross-hatch pattern (CHP) templates yield a rich emission spectrum with an unusual carrier transfer characteristic compared to conventional quantum dot (QD) stacks. The photoluminescent spectra of the controlled, single QDC layer comprise multiple peaks from the orthogonal QDCs, the free-standing QDs, the CHP, the wetting layers and the GaAs substrate. When the QDC layers are stacked, employing a 10 nm GaAs spacer between adjacent QDC layers, the PL spectra are dominated by the top-most stack, indicating that the QDC layers are nominally uncoupled. Under high excitation power densities when the high-energy peaks of the top stack are saturated, however, low-energy PL peaks from the bottom stacks emerge as a result of carrier transfers across the GaAs spacers. These unique PL signatures contrast with the state-filling effects in conventional, coupled QD stacks and serve as a means to quickly assess the presence of electronic coupling in stacks of dissimilar-sized nanostructures.

  11. Fourier transform spectra of quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damian, V.; Ardelean, I.; Arm??elu, Anca; Apostol, D.

    2009-09-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are nanometer-sized crystals with unique photochemical and photophysical properties that are not available from either isolated molecules or bulk solids. These nanocrystals absorb light over a very broad spectral range as compared to molecular fluorophores which have very narrow excitation spectra. High-quality QDs are proper to be use in different biological and medical applications (as fluorescent labels, the cancer treatment and the drug delivery). In this article, we discuss Fourier transform visible spectroscopy of commercial quantum dots. We reveal that QDs produced by Evident Technologies when are enlightened by laser or luminescent diode light provides a spectral shift of their fluorescence spectra correlated to exciting emission wavelengths, as shown by the ARCspectroNIR Fourier Transform Spectrometer. In the final part of this paper we show an important biological application of CdSe/ZnS core-shell ODs as microbial labeling both for pure cultures of cyanobacteria (Synechocystis PCC 6803) and for mixed cultures of phototrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms.

  12. Fourier transform spectra of quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damian, V.; Ardelean, I.; Arm??elu, Anca; Apostol, D.

    2010-05-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are nanometer-sized crystals with unique photochemical and photophysical properties that are not available from either isolated molecules or bulk solids. These nanocrystals absorb light over a very broad spectral range as compared to molecular fluorophores which have very narrow excitation spectra. High-quality QDs are proper to be use in different biological and medical applications (as fluorescent labels, the cancer treatment and the drug delivery). In this article, we discuss Fourier transform visible spectroscopy of commercial quantum dots. We reveal that QDs produced by Evident Technologies when are enlightened by laser or luminescent diode light provides a spectral shift of their fluorescence spectra correlated to exciting emission wavelengths, as shown by the ARCspectroNIR Fourier Transform Spectrometer. In the final part of this paper we show an important biological application of CdSe/ZnS core-shell ODs as microbial labeling both for pure cultures of cyanobacteria (Synechocystis PCC 6803) and for mixed cultures of phototrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms.

  13. Colloidal quantum dot light-emitting devices

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Vanessa; Bulovi?, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dot light-emitting devices (QD-LEDs) have generated considerable interest for applications such as thin film displays with improved color saturation and white lighting with a high color rendering index (CRI). We review the key advantages of using quantum dots (QDs) in display and lighting applications, including their color purity, solution processability, and stability. After highlighting the main developments in QD-LED technology in the past 15 years, we describe the three mechanisms for exciting QDs - optical excitation, Frster energy transfer, and direct charge injection - that have been leveraged to create QD-LEDs. We outline the challenges facing QD-LED development, such as QD charging and QD luminescence quenching in QD thin films. We describe how optical downconversion schemes have enabled researchers to overcome these challenges and develop commercial lighting products that incorporate QDs to achieve desirable color temperature and a high CRI while maintaining efficiencies comparable to inorganic white LEDs (>65 lumens per Watt). We conclude by discussing some current directions in QD research that focus on achieving higher efficiency and air-stable QD-LEDs using electrical excitation of the luminescent QDs. PMID:22110863

  14. Study of metallothionein-quantum dots interactions.

    PubMed

    Tmejova, Katerina; Hynek, David; Kopel, Pavel; Krizkova, Sona; Blazkova, Iva; Trnkova, Libuse; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2014-05-01

    Nanoparticles have gained increasing interest in medical and in vivo applications. Metallothionein (MT) is well known as a maintainer of metal ions balance in intracellular space. This is due to high affinity of this protein to any reactive species including metals and reactive oxygen species. The purpose of this study was to determine the metallothionein-quantum dots interactions that were investigated by spectral and electrochemical techniques. CuS, CdS, PbS, and CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were analysed. The highest intensity was shown for CdTe, than for CdS measured by fluorescence. These results were supported by statistical analysis and considered as significant. Further, these interactions were analysed using gel electrophoresis, where MT aggregates forming after interactions with QDs were detected. Using differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction, QDs and MT were studied. This method allowed us to confirm spectral results and, moreover, to observe the changes in MT structure causing new voltammetric peaks called X and Y, which enhanced with the prolonged time of interaction up to 6 h. PMID:24703633

  15. Competing interactions in semiconductor quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    van den Berg, R.; Brandino, G. P.; El Araby, O.; Konik, R. M.; Gritsev, V.; Caux, J. -S.

    2014-10-14

    In this study, we introduce an integrability-based method enabling the study of semiconductor quantum dot models incorporating both the full hyperfine interaction as well as a mean-field treatment of dipole-dipole interactions in the nuclear spin bath. By performing free induction decay and spin echo simulations we characterize the combined effect of both types of interactions on the decoherence of the electron spin, for external fields ranging from low to high values. We show that for spin echo simulations the hyperfine interaction is the dominant source of decoherence at short times for low fields, and competes with the dipole-dipole interactions at longer times. On the contrary, at high fields the main source of decay is due to the dipole-dipole interactions. In the latter regime an asymmetry in the echo is observed. Furthermore, the non-decaying fraction previously observed for zero field free induction decay simulations in quantum dots with only hyperfine interactions, is destroyed for longer times by the mean-field treatment of the dipolar interactions.

  16. Reentrant Magnetic Polaron Formation in Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pientka, James; Oszwaldowski, Rafal; Han, Jong; Zutic, Igor; Petukhov, Andre

    2012-02-01

    Recently, there have been several theoretical studies that show multiple ways of manipulating magnetic ordering in Quantum Dots (QD) [1,2]. Experiments [3,4] display the formation of Magnetic Polarons in both colloidal and self-assembled QDs. We focus on a type-II QD band profile, where the electrons reside in the barrier, while the holes are localized in the QD interior, which contains the magnetic impurities. In our model, photo-excitation of carriers induces a quasi equilibrium. We consider various QD states to describe the carrier-mediated magnetic ordering in QDs. Allowing for different QD states changes the magnetic properties due to different carrier spin density [5], which affects the alignment of the magnetic impurities. [1] R. M. Abolfath, A. G. Petukhov, and I. Zutic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 207202 (2008); [2] I. Zutic and A. G. Petukhov, Nature Mater.4, 623 (2009). [3] R. Beaulac et al., Science 325, 973 (2009). [4] I. R. Sellers, R. Oszwaldowski, et al., Phys. Rev. B 82, 195320 (2010). [5] J. M. Pientka, R. Oszwaldowski, A. G. Petukhov, J. E. Han, and I. Zutic, Reentrant Magnetic Polaron Formation in Quantum Dots, preprint.

  17. Competing interactions in semiconductor quantum dots

    DOE PAGESBeta

    van den Berg, R.; Brandino, G. P.; El Araby, O.; Konik, R. M.; Gritsev, V.; Caux, J. -S.

    2014-10-14

    In this study, we introduce an integrability-based method enabling the study of semiconductor quantum dot models incorporating both the full hyperfine interaction as well as a mean-field treatment of dipole-dipole interactions in the nuclear spin bath. By performing free induction decay and spin echo simulations we characterize the combined effect of both types of interactions on the decoherence of the electron spin, for external fields ranging from low to high values. We show that for spin echo simulations the hyperfine interaction is the dominant source of decoherence at short times for low fields, and competes with the dipole-dipole interactions atmore » longer times. On the contrary, at high fields the main source of decay is due to the dipole-dipole interactions. In the latter regime an asymmetry in the echo is observed. Furthermore, the non-decaying fraction previously observed for zero field free induction decay simulations in quantum dots with only hyperfine interactions, is destroyed for longer times by the mean-field treatment of the dipolar interactions.« less

  18. Electron Spin Qubits in Si/SiGe Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, Mark

    2010-10-01

    It is intriguing that silicon, the central material of modern classical electronics, also has properties well suited to quantum electronics. Recent advances in Si/SiGe quantum devices have enabled the creation of high-quality silicon quantum dots, also known as artificial atoms. Motivated in part by the potential for very long spin coherence times in this material, we are pursuing the development of individual electron spin qubits in silicon quantum dots. I will discuss recent demonstrations of single-shot spin measurement in a Si/SiGe quantum dot spin qubit, and the demonstration of spin-relaxation times longer than one second in such a system. These and similar measurements depend on a knowledge of tunnel rates between quantum dots and nearby reservoirs or between pairs of quantum dots. Measurements of such rates provide an opportunity to revisit classic experiments in quantum mechanics. At the same time, the unique features of the silicon conduction band lead to novel and unexpected effects, demonstrating that Si/SiGe quantum dots provide a highly controlled experimental system in which to study ideas at the heart of quantum physics.

  19. Coherent control of energy transfer in a quantum dot strongly coupled to a photonic crystal molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Tao; Bose, Ranojoy; Choudhury, Kaushik R.; Solomon, Glenn S.; Waks, Edo

    2015-03-01

    Vacuum Rabi oscillation is a damped oscillation in which energy can transfer between an atomic excitation and a photon when an atom is strongly coupled to a photonic cavity. This process is challenging to be coherently controlled due to the fact that interaction between the atom and the electromagnetic resonator needs to be modulated in a quick manner compared to vacuum Rabi frequency. This control has been achieved at microwave frequencies, but has remained challenging to be implemented in the optical domain. Here we demonstrated coherent control of energy transfer in a semiconductor quantum dot strongly coupled to a photonic crystal molecule by manipulating the vacuum Rabi oscillation of the system. Instead of using a single photonic crystal cavity, we utilized a photonic crystal molecule consisting two coupled photonic crystal defect cavities to obtain both strong quantum dot-cavity coupling and cavityenhanced AC stark shift. In our system the AC stark shift modulates the coupling interaction between the quantum dot and the cavity by shifting the quantum dot resonance, on timescales (picosecond) shorter than the vacuum Rabi period. We demonstrated the ability to transfer excitation between a quantum dot and cavity, and performed coherent control of light-matter states. Our results provides an ultra-fast approach for probing and controlling light-matter interactions in an integrated nanophotonic device, and could pave the way for gigahertz rate synthesis of arbitrary quantum states of light at optical frequencies.

  20. Photon Cascade from a Single Crystal Phase Nanowire Quantum Dot.

    PubMed

    Bouwes Bavinck, Maaike; Jns, Klaus D; Zieli?ski, Michal; Patriarche, Gilles; Harmand, Jean-Christophe; Akopian, Nika; Zwiller, Val

    2016-02-10

    We report the first comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the optical properties of single crystal phase quantum dots in InP nanowires. Crystal phase quantum dots are defined by a transition in the crystallographic lattice between zinc blende and wurtzite segments and therefore offer unprecedented potential to be controlled with atomic layer accuracy without random alloying. We show for the first time that crystal phase quantum dots are a source of pure single-photons and cascaded photon-pairs from type II transitions with excellent optical properties in terms of intensity and line width. We notice that the emission spectra consist often of two peaks close in energy, which we explain with a comprehensive theory showing that the symmetry of the system plays a crucial role for the hole levels forming hybridized orbitals. Our results state that crystal phase quantum dots have promising quantum optical properties for single photon application and quantum optics. PMID:26806321

  1. Charge-extraction strategies for colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Xinzheng; Masala, Silvia; Sargent, Edward H.

    2014-03-01

    The solar-power conversion efficiencies of colloidal quantum dot solar cells have advanced from sub-1% reported in 2005 to a record value of 8.5% in 2013. Much focus has deservedly been placed on densifying, passivating and crosslinking the colloidal quantum dot solid. Here we review progress in improving charge extraction, achieved by engineering the composition and structure of the electrode materials that contact the colloidal quantum dot film. New classes of structured electrodes have been developed and integrated to form bulk heterojunction devices that enhance photocharge extraction. Control over band offsets, doping and interfacial trap state densities have been essential for achieving improved electrical communication with colloidal quantum dot solids. Quantum junction devices that not only tune the optical absorption spectrum, but also provide inherently matched bands across the interface between p- and n-materials, have proven that charge separation can occur efficiently across an all-quantum-tuned rectifying junction.

  2. Optimum quantum dot size for highly efficient fluorescence bioimaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martnez Maestro, Laura; Jacinto, Carlos; Rocha, Uslen; Carmen Iglesias-de la Cruz, M.; Sanz-Rodriguez, Francisco; Juarranz, Angeles; Garca Sol, Jos; Jaque, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots of few nanometers have demonstrated a great potential for bioimaging. The size determines the emitted color, but it is also expected to play an important role in the image brightness. In this work, the size dependence of the fluorescence quantum yield of the highly thermal sensitive CdTe quantum dots has been systematically investigated by thermal lens spectroscopy. It has been found that an optimum quantum yield is reached for 3.8-nm quantum dots. The presence of this optimum size has been corroborated in both one-photon excited fluorescence experiments and two-photon fluorescence microscopy of dot-incubated cancer cells. Combination of quantum yield and fluorescence decay time measurements supports that the existence of this optimum size emerges from the interplay between the frequency-dependent radiative emission rate and the size-dependent coupling strength between bulk excitons and surface trapping states.

  3. Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystals and graphene quantum dots for photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Xin, Xukai; Lin, Zhiqun

    2011-08-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots exhibit great potential for applications in next generation high efficiency, low cost solar cells because of their unique optoelectronic properties. Cu(2)ZnSnS(4) (CZTS) nanocrystals and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have recently received much attention as building blocks for use in solar energy conversion due to their outstanding properties and advantageous characteristics, including high optical absorptivity, tunable bandgap, and earth abundant chemical composition. In this Feature Article, recent advances in the synthesis and utilization of CZTS nanocrystals and colloidal GQDs for photovoltaics are highlighted, followed by an outlook on the future research efforts in these areas. PMID:21713274

  4. Manipulating Single Spins in Quantum Dots Coupled to Ferromagnetic Leads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Jürgen; Braun, Matthias; Martinek, Jan

    We discuss the possibility to generate, manipulate, and probe single spins in single-level quantum dots coupled to ferromagnetic leads. The spin-polarized currents flowing between dot and leads lead to a non-equilibrium spin accumulation, i.e., a finite polarization of the dot spin. Both the magnitude and the direction of the dot's spin polarization depends on the magnetic properties of leads and their coupling to the dot. They can be, furthermore, manipulated by either an externally applied magnetic field or an intrinsically present exchange field that arises due to the tunnel coupling of the strongly-interacting quantum-dot states to spin-polarized leads. The exchange field can be tuned by both the gate and bias voltage, which, therefore, provide convenient handles to manipulate the quantum-dot spin. Since the transmission through the quantum-dot spin valve sensitively depends on the state of the quantum-dot spin, all the dynamics of the latter is reflected in the transport properties of the device.

  5. A fast synthesis of near-infrared emitting CdTe/CdSe quantum dots with small hydrodynamic diameter for in vivo imaging probes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dehong; Zhang, Pengfei; Gong, Ping; Lian, Shuhong; Lu, Yangyang; Gao, Duyang; Cai, Lintao

    2011-11-01

    Highly luminescent near-infrared (NIR) emitting CdTe/CdSe quantum dots (QDs) were prepared through a fast and convenient method, and a new type of multivalent polymer ligands was used as the surface substituents to prepare highly stable hydrophilic QDs with small sizes. The well-defined CdTe/CdSe QDs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, respectively. The as-prepared CdTe/CdSe QDs were photostable with high PL quantum yields (QYs) (up to 66% at room temperature), low toxicity to cells at experimental dosages, and the QDs' fluorescence emissions were tunable between 700 and 820 nm. Furthermore, fluorescence imaging using CdTe/CdSe QDs conjugated with the AS1411 aptamer (targeting nucleolin) probe in cancer cells was reported, and the CdTe/CdSe QDs were also successfully applied for the fluorescence imaging of living animals. Our preliminary results illustrated that the CdTe/CdSe NIR-QDs with small sizes would be an alternative probe for ultrasensitive, multicolor, and multiplex applications, especially for in vivo imaging applications. PMID:21989776

  6. Microwave assisted one-pot synthesis of graphene quantum dots as highly sensitive fluorescent probes for detection of iron ions and pH value.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunfang; Cui, Yanyan; Song, Li; Liu, Xiangfeng; Hu, Zhongbo

    2016-04-01

    Recently, carbon nanomaterials have received considerable attention as fluorescent probes owing to their low toxicity, water solubility and stable photochemical properties. However, the development of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) is still on its early stage. In this work, GQDs were successfully synthesized by one-step microwave assisted pyrolysis of aspartic acid (Asp) and NH4HCO3 mixture. The as-prepared GQDs exhibited strongly blue fluorescence with high quantum yield up to 14%. Strong fluorescence quenching effect of Fe(3+) on GQDs can be used for its high selectivity detection among of general metal ions. The probe exhibited a wide linear response concentration range (0-50μM) to Fe(3+) and the limit of detection (LOD) was calculated to be 0.26μM. In addition, GQDs are also sensitive to the pH value in the range from 2 to 12 indicating a great potential as optical pH sensors. More importantly, the GQDs possess lower cellular toxicity and high photostability and can be directly used as fluorescent probes for cell imaging. PMID:26838381

  7. Low-Temperature Hydrothermal Synthesis of Green Luminescent Carbon Quantum Dots (CQD), and Optical Properties of Blends of the CQD with Poly(3-hexylthiophene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiaoting; Zhao, Yongqiang; Yan, Lingpeng; Zhang, Yi; He, Yuheng; Yang, Yongzhen; Liu, Xuguang

    2015-10-01

    Carbon quantum dots (CQD) emitting green photoluminescence (PL; emission peak at 500 nm) with satisfactory quantum yield (12.1%) were synthesized by a low-temperature hydrothermal method (90°C for 2 h) with l-ascorbic acid as carbon source and ethanediamine as catalyst. The as-prepared CQD dispersed readily in aqueous media, were of average diameter 6.2 nm, and their PL performance was excitation-independent. The photoluminescence wavelength of the CQD was pH-independent but the photoluminescence intensity was pH-dependent. Films of the composite materials poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and the CQD were prepared by spin-coating and characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrophotometry and fluorescence spectrometry. The results revealed enhanced ultraviolet-visible absorption of the P3HT-CQD film compared with pure P3HT and substantially reduced PL intensity of the blend film. Experimental and theoretical results indicate the feasibility of using the CQD as a new acceptor material in polymeric photovoltaic devices.

  8. Isolated single quantum dot emitters in all-epitaxial microcavities.

    PubMed

    Muller, Andreas; Shih, Chih-Kang; Ahn, Jaemin; Lu, Dingyuan; Deppe, Dennis G

    2006-02-15

    Data are presented on a fabrication approach that places an isolated single quantum dot at the center of a semiconductor microcavity. The microcavity is based on an all-epitaxial mesa-confined design that is mechanically robust and provides the thermal dissipation needed for a single photon source device technology. Microphotoluminescence is used to reveal single quantum dot emission with the essential optical properties of single quantum emitters. PMID:16496909

  9. Gate-defined quantum dots in intrinsic silicon.

    PubMed

    Angus, Susan J; Ferguson, Andrew J; Dzurak, Andrew S; Clark, Robert G

    2007-07-01

    We report the fabrication and measurement of silicon quantum dots with tunable tunnel barriers in a narrow-channel field-effect transistor. Low-temperature transport spectroscopy is performed in both the many-electron ( approximately 100 electrons) regime and the few-electron ( approximately 10 electrons) regime. Excited states in the bias spectroscopy provide evidence of quantum confinement. These results demonstrate that depletion gates are an effective technique for defining quantum dots in silicon. PMID:17567176

  10. Ferritin-Templated Quantum-Dots for Quantum Logic Gates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sang H.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Chu, Sang-Hyon; Park, Yeonjoon; King, Glen C.; Lillehei, Peter T.; Kim, Seon-Jeong; Elliott, James R.

    2005-01-01

    Quantum logic gates (QLGs) or other logic systems are based on quantum-dots (QD) with a stringent requirement of size uniformity. The QD are widely known building units for QLGs. The size control of QD is a critical issue in quantum-dot fabrication. The work presented here offers a new method to develop quantum-dots using a bio-template, called ferritin, that ensures QD production in uniform size of nano-scale proportion. The bio-template for uniform yield of QD is based on a ferritin protein that allows reconstitution of core material through the reduction and chelation processes. One of the biggest challenges for developing QLG is the requirement of ordered and uniform size of QD for arrays on a substrate with nanometer precision. The QD development by bio-template includes the electrochemical/chemical reconsitution of ferritins with different core materials, such as iron, cobalt, manganese, platinum, and nickel. The other bio-template method used in our laboratory is dendrimers, precisely defined chemical structures. With ferritin-templated QD, we fabricated the heptagonshaped patterned array via direct nano manipulation of the ferritin molecules with a tip of atomic force microscope (AFM). We also designed various nanofabrication methods of QD arrays using a wide range manipulation techniques. The precise control of the ferritin-templated QD for a patterned arrangement are offered by various methods, such as a site-specific immobilization of thiolated ferritins through local oxidation using the AFM tip, ferritin arrays induced by gold nanoparticle manipulation, thiolated ferritin positioning by shaving method, etc. In the signal measurements, the current-voltage curve is obtained by measuring the current through the ferritin, between the tip and the substrate for potential sweeping or at constant potential. The measured resistance near zero bias was 1.8 teraohm for single holoferritin and 5.7 teraohm for single apoferritin, respectively.

  11. Electron correlation in metal clusters, quantum dots and quantum rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manninen, M.; Reimann, S. M.

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents a few case studies of finite electron systems for which strong correlations play a dominant role. In simple metal clusters, the valence electrons determine the stability and shape of the clusters. The ionic skeleton of alkali metals is soft, and cluster geometries are often solely determined by electron correlations. In quantum dots and rings, the electrons may be confined by an external electrostatic potential formed by a gated heterostructure. In the low-density limit, the electrons may form the so-called Wigner molecules, for which the many-body quantum spectra reveal the classical vibration modes. High rotational states increase the tendency for the electrons to localize. At low angular momenta, the electrons may form a quantum Hall liquid with vortices. In this case, the vortices act as quasi-particles with long-range effective interactions that localize in a vortex molecule, in much analogy with the electron localization at strong rotation.

  12. RKKY interaction in a chirally coupled double quantum dot system

    SciTech Connect

    Heine, A. W.; Tutuc, D.; Haug, R. J.; Zwicknagl, G.; Schuh, D.; Wegscheider, W.

    2013-12-04

    The competition between the Kondo effect and the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yoshida (RKKY) interaction is investigated in a double quantum dots system, coupled via a central open conducting region. A perpendicular magnetic field induces the formation of Landau Levels which in turn give rise to the so-called Kondo chessboard pattern in the transport through the quantum dots. The two quantum dots become therefore chirally coupled via the edge channels formed in the open conducting area. In regions where both quantum dots exhibit Kondo transport the presence of the RKKY exchange interaction is probed by an analysis of the temperature dependence. The thus obtained Kondo temperature of one dot shows an abrupt increase at the onset of Kondo transport in the other, independent of the magnetic field polarity, i.e. edge state chirality in the central region.

  13. An analytical model for quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qasaimeh, Omar

    2003-07-01

    An analytical model for the optical gain of quantum dot-semiconductor optical amplifier (QD-SOA) is presented. The model is derived by analytically solving the rate equations of the laser amplifier taking into account inhomogeneous line broadening, dot-to-dot electron tunneling and gain saturation due to spontaneous emission. Because of the unique electronic structure of quantum dots (QDs), we observed that using QD in the active region of a semiconductor optical amplifier increases the unsaturated optical gain and the output saturation intensity of the amplifier.

  14. Electroluminescence of carbon quantum' dots - From materials to devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veca, L. Monica; Diac, Andreea; Mihalache, Iuliana; Wang, Ping; LeCroy, Gregory E.; Pavelescu, Emil Mihai; Gavrila, Raluca; Vasile, Eugeniu; Terec, Anamaria; Sun, Ya-Ping

    2014-10-01

    Carbon quantum' dots or carbon dots have emerged as a new class of luminescent nanomaterials. While photoluminescence properties of carbon dots had targeted optical imaging and related usage, their unique excited state redox processes responsible for the luminescence emissions may find potentially significant optoelectronic applications. In this regard, we investigated the electroluminescence properties of the carbon dots integrated into multilayer light emitting diode devices. The devices emitted white light with a slight blue color, visible to naked eyes, thus validating the expectation that carbon dots may potentially serve as a new platform for electroluminescent nanomaterials.

  15. Kondo and mixed-valence regimes in multilevel quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Chudnovskiy, A. L.; Ulloa, S. E.

    2001-04-15

    We investigate the dependence of the ground state of a multilevel quantum dot on the coupling to an external fermionic system and on the interactions in the dot. As the coupling to the external system increases, the rearrangement of the effective energy levels in the dot signals the transition from the Kondo regime to a mixed-valence (MV) regime. The MV regime in a two-level dot is characterized by an intrinsic mixing of the levels in the dot, resulting in nonperturbative subtunneling and supertunneling phenomena that strongly influence the Kondo effect.

  16. Size-Dependent Photoluminescence and Electroluminescence of Colloidal CdSe Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, S. C.; Nath, S. S.

    2013-04-01

    Here we adopt a convenient green chemical route for synthesis of CdSe quantum dots, their characterization by UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction study and transmission electron microscopy. We carry out photoluminescence and electroluminescence spectroscopy to investigate the variation in electro-optical property with size. By UV/Vis spectroscopy, blue shift is revealed and bandgap is also calculated. X-ray diffraction spectrum reveals cubic structure and transmission electron micrographs show quantum dots of different size distributions (in the range 2-8 nm). Both the luminescence spectroscopies reveal green-orange luminescence depending upon the size distribution and indicate the possibility of using CdSe quantum dots as light emitting devices with better compatibility and faster response.

  17. Defects related emission and nanosecond optical power limiting in CuS quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ann Mary, K. A.; Unnikrishnan, N. V.; Philip, Reji

    2015-11-01

    We report optical and nonlinear optical properties of CuS quantum dots and nanoparticles prepared through a nontoxic, green, one-pot synthesis method. The presence of surface states and defects in the quantum dots are evident from the luminescent behavior and enhanced nonlinear optical properties measured using the open aperture Z-scan, employing 5 ns laser pulses at 532 nm. The quantum dots exhibit large effective third order nonlinear optical coefficients with a relatively lower optical limiting threshold of 2.3 J cm-2, and the optical nonlinearity arises largely from absorption saturation and excited state absorption. Results suggest that these materials are potential candidates for designing efficient optical limiters with applications in laser safety devices.

  18. Quantum Monte Carlo finite temperature electronic structure of quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leino, Markku; Rantala, Tapio T.

    2002-08-01

    Quantum Monte Carlo methods allow a straightforward procedure for evaluation of electronic structures with a proper treatment of electronic correlations. This can be done even at finite temperatures [1]. We test the Path Integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) simulation method [2] for one and two electrons in one and three dimensional harmonic oscillator potentials and apply it in evaluation of finite temperature effects of single and coupled quantum dots. Our simulations show the correct finite temperature excited state populations including degeneracy in cases of one and three dimensional harmonic oscillators. The simulated one and two electron distributions of a single and coupled quantum dots are compared to those from experiments and other theoretical (0 K) methods [3]. Distributions are shown to agree and the finite temperature effects are discussed. Computational capacity is found to become the limiting factor in simulations with increasing accuracy. Other essential aspects of PIMC and its capability in this type of calculations are also discussed. [1] R.P. Feynman: Statistical Mechanics, Addison Wesley, 1972. [2] D.M. Ceperley, Rev.Mod.Phys. 67, 279 (1995). [3] M. Pi, A. Emperador and M. Barranco, Phys.Rev.B 63, 115316 (2001).

  19. Full counting statistics of quantum dot resonance fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Matthiesen, Clemens; Stanley, Megan J; Hugues, Maxime; Clarke, Edmund; Atatre, Mete

    2014-01-01

    The electronic energy levels and optical transitions of a semiconductor quantum dot are subject to dynamics within the solid-state environment. In particular, fluctuating electric fields due to nearby charge traps or other quantum dots shift the transition frequencies via the Stark effect. The environment dynamics are mapped directly onto the fluorescence under resonant excitation and diminish the prospects of quantum dots as sources of indistinguishable photons in optical quantum computing. Here, we present an analysis of resonance fluorescence fluctuations based on photon counting statistics which captures the underlying time-averaged electric field fluctuations of the local environment. The measurement protocol avoids dynamic feedback on the electric environment and the dynamics of the quantum dot's nuclear spin bath by virtue of its resonant nature and by keeping experimental control parameters such as excitation frequency and external fields constant throughout. The method introduced here is experimentally undemanding. PMID:24810097

  20. Full counting statistics of quantum dot resonance fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Matthiesen, Clemens; Stanley, Megan J.; Hugues, Maxime; Clarke, Edmund; Atatre, Mete

    2014-01-01

    The electronic energy levels and optical transitions of a semiconductor quantum dot are subject to dynamics within the solid-state environment. In particular, fluctuating electric fields due to nearby charge traps or other quantum dots shift the transition frequencies via the Stark effect. The environment dynamics are mapped directly onto the fluorescence under resonant excitation and diminish the prospects of quantum dots as sources of indistinguishable photons in optical quantum computing. Here, we present an analysis of resonance fluorescence fluctuations based on photon counting statistics which captures the underlying time-averaged electric field fluctuations of the local environment. The measurement protocol avoids dynamic feedback on the electric environment and the dynamics of the quantum dot's nuclear spin bath by virtue of its resonant nature and by keeping experimental control parameters such as excitation frequency and external fields constant throughout. The method introduced here is experimentally undemanding. PMID:24810097

  1. What Quantum Dots Can Do for You

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamo, Gregory

    2008-03-01

    Recent clever techniques for fabricating nanosize materials, one-atomic-layer-at-a-time, have simultaneously opened a door to a fantastic adventure at the frontier of physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering. Nanosize materials simply do not behave as the bulk. Indeed, the rules that govern the growth and behavior of these tiny structures are unexplored. In this talk we will discuss our recent efforts to be the architect of their shape, size, density, and position of nanostructures and along the way, the interactions between them that lead to their optical and electrical behavior. While self-assembly is providing exciting quantum dot (QD) structures to explore, like the QD molecules shown here, it is equally exciting to try to use the rules we uncover to encourage QD formation to take a desired path. Can we understand the formation of faceted nanostructures? Can we encourage or seed dot structures to form specific arrays? Is it possible to engineer greater homogeneity of dot shape and size? Can we design both the optical and electrical behavior of either individual or arrays of nanostructures to mimic those we find in nature? In this talk we will review our progress to answer these questions and discuss the possibilities and challenges ahead. For example, we will discuss the formation of individual faceted nanostructures as well as the fabrication of a vertically and laterally ordered QD stacks forming three-dimensional QD arrays. As another example, we will discuss the importance of surfaces with high Miller indices, as a template to the formation of nanostructures as well as their potential role in determining the shape and increased size uniformity of the confined structures. Importantly, these observations lead to an even more basic question of when and why high index surfaces are stable. Indeed, we have found that in order to understand the origin of high index surfaces that bound nanostructures we have to study them directly.

  2. Phonon-Induced Exciton Dephasing in Quantum Dot Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muljarov, E. A.; Takagahara, T.; Zimmermann, R.

    2005-10-01

    A new microscopic approach to the optical transitions in quantum dots and quantum dot molecules, which accounts for both diagonal and nondiagonal exciton-phonon interaction, is developed. The cumulant expansion of the linear polarization is generalized to a multilevel system and is applied to calculation of the full time dependence of the polarization and the absorption spectrum. In particular, the broadening of zero-phonon lines is evaluated directly and discussed in terms of real and virtual phonon-assisted transitions. The influence of Coulomb interaction, tunneling, and structural asymmetry on the exciton dephasing in quantum dot molecules is analyzed.

  3. Reconfigurable Quantum-Dot Molecules Created by Atom Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yi; Yang, Jianshu; Erwin, Steven C.; Kanisawa, Kiyoshi; Fölsch, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    Quantum-dot molecules were constructed on a semiconductor surface using atom manipulation by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) at 5 K. The molecules consist of several coupled quantum dots, each of which comprises a chain of charged adatoms that electrostatically confines intrinsic surface-state electrons. The coupling takes place across tunnel barriers created reversibly using the STM tip. These barriers have an invariant, reproducible atomic structure and can be positioned—and repeatedly repositioned—to create a series of reconfigurable quantum-dot molecules with atomic precision.

  4. Energy levels in self-assembled quantum arbitrarily shaped dots.

    PubMed

    Tablero, C

    2005-02-01

    A model to determine the electronic structure of self-assembled quantum arbitrarily shaped dots is applied. This model is based principally on constant effective mass and constant potentials of the barrier and quantum dot material. An analysis of the different parameters of this model is done and compared with those which take into account the variation of confining potentials, bands, and effective masses due to strain. The results are compared with several spectra reported in literature. By considering the symmetry, the computational cost is reduced with respect to other methods in literature. In addition, this model is not limited by the geometry of the quantum dot. PMID:15740390

  5. Reconfigurable Quantum-Dot Molecules Created by Atom Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yi; Yang, Jianshu; Erwin, Steven C; Kanisawa, Kiyoshi; Flsch, Stefan

    2015-08-14

    Quantum-dot molecules were constructed on a semiconductor surface using atom manipulation by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) at 5 K. The molecules consist of several coupled quantum dots, each of which comprises a chain of charged adatoms that electrostatically confines intrinsic surface-state electrons. The coupling takes place across tunnel barriers created reversibly using the STM tip. These barriers have an invariant, reproducible atomic structure and can be positioned-and repeatedly repositioned-to create a series of reconfigurable quantum-dot molecules with atomic precision. PMID:26317740

  6. Semiconductor Quantum Dots in Chemical Sensors and Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Frasco, Manuela F.; Chaniotakis, Nikos

    2009-01-01

    Quantum dots are nanometre-scale semiconductor crystals with unique optical properties that are advantageous for the development of novel chemical sensors and biosensors. The surface chemistry of luminescent quantum dots has encouraged the development of multiple probes based on linked recognition molecules such as peptides, nucleic acids or small-molecule ligands. This review overviews the design of sensitive and selective nanoprobes, ranging from the type of target molecules to the optical transduction scheme. Representative examples of quantum dot-based optical sensors from this fast-moving field have been selected and are discussed towards the most promising directions for future research. PMID:22423206

  7. Coherent single-electron transfer in coupled quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fountoulakis, Antonios; Terzis, Andreas F.; Paspalakis, Emmanuel

    2009-10-01

    We theoretically investigate the coherent transfer of one electron between the ground states of a double coupled quantum dot structure. The coherent transfer of the electron is externally controlled by applied electromagnetic fields with on- or close-resonance driving frequencies and various shapes and duration. We derive the analytical expressions for the parameters of the external fields by approximating the quantum dot system as a three-level ?-type system. The analytical solutions are compared with numerical results and good agreement is found. The control methods developed here are applicable in symmetric and asymmetric quantum dot nanostructures.

  8. Nuclear spin physics in quantum dots: An optical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbaszek, Bernhard; Marie, Xavier; Amand, Thierry; Krebs, Olivier; Voisin, Paul; Maletinsky, Patrick; Hgele, Alexander; Imamoglu, Atac

    2013-01-01

    The mesoscopic spin system formed by the 104-106 nuclear spins in a semiconductor quantum dot offers a unique setting for the study of many-body spin physics in the condensed matter. The dynamics of this system and its coupling to electron spins is fundamentally different from its bulk counterpart or the case of individual atoms due to increased fluctuations that result from reduced dimensions. In recent years, the interest in studying quantum-dot nuclear spin systems and their coupling to confined electron spins has been further fueled by its importance for possible quantum information processing applications. The fascinating nonlinear (quantum) dynamics of the coupled electron-nuclear spin system is universal in quantum dot optics and transport. In this article, experimental work performed over the last decade in studying this mesoscopic, coupled electron-nuclear spin system is reviewed. Here a special focus is on how optical addressing of electron spins can be exploited to manipulate and read out the quantum-dot nuclei. Particularly exciting recent developments in applying optical techniques to efficiently establish nonzero mean nuclear spin polarizations and using them to reduce intrinsic nuclear spin fluctuations are discussed. Both results critically influence the preservation of electron-spin coherence in quantum dots. This overall recently gained understanding of the quantum-dot nuclear spin system could enable exciting new research avenues such as experimental observations of spontaneous spin ordering or nonclassical behavior of the nuclear spin bath.

  9. PREFACE: Quantum dots as probes in biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieplak, Marek

    2013-05-01

    The recent availability of nanostructured materials has resulted in an explosion of research focused on their unique optical, thermal, mechanical and magnetic properties. Optical imagining, magnetic enhancement of contrast and drug delivery capabilities make the nanoparticles of special interest in biomedical applications. These materials have been involved in the development of theranostics—a new field of medicine that is focused on personalized tests and treatment. It is likely that multimodal nanomaterials will be responsible for future diagnostic advances in medicine. Quantum dots (QD) are nanoparticles which exhibit luminescence either through the formation of three-dimensional excitons or excitations of the impurities. The excitonic luminescence can be tuned by changing the size (the smaller the size, the higher the frequency). QDs are usually made of semiconducting materials. Unlike fluorescent proteins and organic dyes, QDs resist photobleaching, allow for multi-wavelength excitations and have narrow emission spectra. The techniques to make QDs are cheap and surface modifications and functionalizations can be implemented. Importantly, QDs could be synthesized to exhibit useful optomagnetic properties and, upon functionalization with an appropriate biomolecule, directed towards a pre-selected target for diagnostic imaging and photodynamic therapy. This special issue on Quantum dots in Biology is focused on recent research in this area. It starts with a topical review by Sreenivasan et al on various physical mechanisms that lead to the QD luminescence and on using wavelength shifts for an improvement in imaging. The next paper by Szczepaniak et al discusses nanohybrids involving QDs made of CdSe coated by ZnS and combined covalently with a photosynthetic enzyme. These nanohybrids are shown to maintain the enzymatic activity, however the enzyme properties depend on the size of a QD. They are proposed as tools to study photosynthesis in isolated photosynthetic systems. The next paper, by Olejnik et al, discussed metallic QDs which enhance photosynthetic function in light-harvesting biomolecular complexes. Such hybrid structures with gold QDs are shown to exhibit a strong increase in the fluorescence quantum yield. The next two papers, by Sikora et al and Kaminska et al deal with the ZnO nanoparticles passivated by MgO. In the first of these two papers, the authors describe the behavior of ZnO/MgO when introduced to human cancer cells. In the second, the authors describe the QDs with an extra outer layer of Fe2O3 which makes the nanoparticles superparamagnetic and also capable of generation of reactive oxygen species which could be applied to form localized centers of toxicity for cancer treatment. Finally, in the last paper by Yatsunenko et al, the authors discuss several semiconducting QDs like ZnO with various rare-earth dopands. They propose a microwave-driven hydrothermal technology to make them, characterize their luminescence and demonstrate their usefulness in the early recognition of cancer tissues. Quantum dots as probes in biology contents Quantum dots as probes in biologyMarek Cieplak Luminescent nanoparticles and their applications in the life sciencesVarun K A Sreenivasan, Andrei V Zvyagin and Ewa M Goldys Ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase in junction with CdSe/ZnS quantum dots: characteristics of an enzymatically active nanohybrid Krzysztof Szczepaniak, Remigiusz Worch and Joanna Grzyb Spectroscopic studies of plasmon coupling between photosynthetic complexes and metallic quantum dotsMaria Olejnik, Bartosz Krajnik, Dorota Kowalska, Guanhua Lin and Sebastian Mackowski Luminescence of colloidal ZnO nanoparticles synthesized in alcohols and biological application of ZnO passivated by MgOBożena Sikora, Krzysztof Fronc, Izabela Kamińska, Kamil Koper, Piotr Stępień and Danek Elbaum Novel ZnO/MgO/Fe2O3 composite optomagnetic nanoparticles I Kamińska, B Sikora, K Fronc, P Dziawa, K Sobczak, R Minikayev, W Paszkowicz and D Elbaum Impact of yttria stabilization on Tb3+ intra-shell luminescence efficiency in zirconium dioxide nanopowdersS Yatsunenko, J Kaszewski, J Grzyb, I Pełech, M M Godlewski, E Mijowska, U Narkiewicz and M Godlewski

  10. Quantum Dot-Based Nanoprobes for In Vivo Targeted Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yian; Hong, Hao; Xu, Zhi Ping; Li, Zhen; Cai, Weibo

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have attracted tremendous attention over the last decade. The superior optical properties of QDs over conventional organic dyes make them attractive labels for a wide variety of biomedical applications, whereas their potential toxicity and instability in biological environment has puzzled scientific researchers. Much research effort has been devoted to surface modification and functionalization of QDs to make them versatile probes for biomedical applications, and significant progress has been made over the last several years. This review article aims to describe the current state-of-the-art of the synthesis, modification, bioconjugation, and applications of QDs for in vivo targeted imaging. In addition, QD-based multifunctional nanoprobes are also summarized. PMID:24206136

  11. Bioconjugated Quantum Dots for In Vivo Molecular and Cellular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew M.; Duan, Hongwei; Mohs, Aaron M.; Nie, Shuming

    2008-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are tiny light-emitting particles on the nanometer scale, and are emerging as a new class of fluorescent labels for biology and medicine. In comparison with organic dyes and fluorescent proteins, they have unique optical and electronic properties, with size-tunable light emission, superior signal brightness, resistance to photobleaching, and broad absorption spectra for simultaneous excitation of multiple fluorescence colors. QDs also provide a versatile nanoscale scaffold for designing multifunctional nanoparticles with both imaging and therapeutic functions. When linked with targeting ligands such as antibodies, peptides or small molecules, QDs can be used to target tumor biomarkers as well as tumor vasculatures with high affinity and specificity. Here we discuss the synthesis and development of state-of-the-art QD probes and their use for molecular and cellular imaging. We also examine key issues for in vivo imaging and therapy, such as nanoparticle biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology. PMID:18495291

  12. Chiroptical activity in colloidal quantum dots coated with achiral ligands.

    PubMed

    Melnikau, Dzmitry; Savateeva, Diana; Gaponik, Nikolai; Govorov, Alexander O; Rakovich, Yury P

    2016-01-25

    We studied the chiroptical properties of colloidal solution of CdSe and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) with a cubic lattice structure which were initially prepared without use of any chiral molecules and coated with achiral ligands. We demonstrate circular dichroism (CD) activity around first and second excitonic transition of these CdSe based nanocrystals. We consider that this chiroptical activity is caused by imbalance in racemic mixtures of QDs between the left and right handed nanoparticles, which appears as a result of the formation of various defects or incorporation of impurities into crystallographic structure during their synthesis. We demonstrate that optical activity of colloidal solution of CdSe QDs with achiral ligands weakly depends on the QDs size and number of ZnS monolayers, but does not depend on the nature of achiral ligands or polarity of the solution. PMID:26832599

  13. Polaronic effects in a Gaussian quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanar, Sonay; Sevim, Ata; Boyacioglu, B.; Saglam, Mesude; Mukhopadhyaya, Soma; Chatterjee, Ashok

    2008-03-01

    The problem of an electron interacting with longitudinal-optical (LO) phonons is investigated in an N-dimensional quantum dot with symmetric Gaussian confinement in all directions using the Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory, a variant of the canonical transformation method of Lee-Low-Pines, and the sophisticated apparatus of the Feynman-Haken path-integral technique for the entire range of the coupling parameters and the results for N=2 and N=3 are obtained as special cases. It is shown that the polaronic effects are quite significant for small dots with deep confining potential well and the parabolic potential is only a poor approximation of the Gaussian confinement. The Feynman-Haken path-integral technique in general gives a good upper bound to the ground state energy for all values of the system parameters and therefore is used as a benchmark for comparison between different methods. It is shown that the perturbation theory yields for the ground state polaron self-energy a simple closed-form analytic expression containing only Gamma functions and in the weak-coupling regime it provides the lowest energy because of an efficient partitioning of the Gaussian potential and the subsequent use of a mean-field kind of treatment. The polarization potential, the polaron radius and the number of virtual phonons in the polaron cloud are obtained using the Lee-Low-Pines-Huybrechts method and their variations with respect to different parameters of the system are discussed.

  14. Spectroscopic analysis of semiconductor quantum dot surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulenberg, Robert William

    An important field of research recently in nanoscience is to examine the effect of an impurity atom on the physics of quantum dots (QDs). An intriguing question to ask is how an unintentional dopant, such as a surface atom, can affect the optical and vibrational properties of the QD. In this dissertation these effects are analyzed by using resonance Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopies. The data indicates that changes in the nature of electron-phonon (el-ph) coupling in the strongly confined regime leads to changes in lattice ionicity for CdSe QDs. The changes in lattice ionicity is strictly evident in the vibrational properties of the QDs, as slight changes in the chemical preparation of the dots can induce various levels of surface strain on the QDs. More proof indicating that chemical preparation can alter the physics of these materials is evident in the positron annihilation data obtained in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The trends in the data suggest the positron localization is changed as the colloidal preparation is changed. Correlation of these experiments indicates that the surface chemistry and physics of QDs are very complex and cannot be ignored.

  15. Shape and stability of quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pehlke, E.; Moll, N.; Kley, A.; Scheffler, M.

    The formation of dislocation-free three-dimensional islands by heteroepitaxial growth of lattice mismatched materials is utilized to produce partially ordered arrays of quantum dots. The equilibrium shape of these islands results from the competition between surface and elastic energies. We have studied the system InAs/GaAs(001) in detail. InAs surface energies have been computed ab initio for several orientations, and the elastic energy of the islands has been calculated within a continuum theory. The resulting equilibrium islands are hills bounded by {110}, {111}, and { } facets and a (001) surface on top. We compare to experiment and discuss the influence of growth kinetics on the shape.

  16. Capillary electrophoresis of quantum dots: minireview.

    PubMed

    Stanisavljevic, Maja; Vaculovicova, Marketa; Kizek, Rene; Adam, Vojtech

    2014-07-01

    It has been already three decades, since the fluorescent nanocrystals called quantum dots (QDs) appeared and attracted attention of a broad scientific community. Their excellent not only optical but also electronic properties predetermined QDs for utilization in a variety of areas. Besides lasers, solar cells, and/or computers, QDs have established themselves in the field of (bio)chemical labeling as well as medical imaging. However, due to the numerous application possibilities of QDs, there are high demands on their properties that need to be precisely controlled and characterized. CE with its versatile modes and possibilities of detection was found to be an effective tool not only for characterization of QDs size and/or surface properties but also for monitoring of their interactions with other molecules of interest. In this minireview, we are giving short insight in analysis of QDs by CE, and summarizing the advantages of this method for QDs characterization. PMID:24648211

  17. Subdiffusive exciton transport in quantum dot solids.

    PubMed

    Akselrod, Gleb M; Prins, Ferry; Poulikakos, Lisa V; Lee, Elizabeth M Y; Weidman, Mark C; Mork, A Jolene; Willard, Adam P; Bulovi?, Vladimir; Tisdale, William A

    2014-06-11

    Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) are promising materials for use in solar cells, light-emitting diodes, lasers, and photodetectors, but the mechanism and length of exciton transport in QD materials is not well understood. We use time-resolved optical microscopy to spatially visualize exciton transport in CdSe/ZnCdS core/shell QD assemblies. We find that the exciton diffusion length, which exceeds 30 nm in some cases, can be tuned by adjusting the inorganic shell thickness and organic ligand length, offering a powerful strategy for controlling exciton movement. Moreover, we show experimentally and through kinetic Monte Carlo simulations that exciton diffusion in QD solids does not occur by a random-walk process; instead, energetic disorder within the inhomogeneously broadened ensemble causes the exciton diffusivity to decrease over time. These findings reveal new insights into exciton dynamics in disordered systems and demonstrate the flexibility of QD materials for photonic and optoelectronic applications. PMID:24807586

  18. Spectral Properties of Multiply Charged Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Yalcin, Sibel Ebru; Labastide, Joelle A.; Sowle, Danielle L.; Barnes, Michael D.

    2011-10-12

    Spectrally resolved fluorescence imaging of single CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs), charged by electrospray deposition under negative bias has revealed a surprising net blue shift (~60 meV peak-to-peak) in the distribution of center frequencies in QD band-edge luminescence. Electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) on the electrospray QD samples showed a subpopulation of charged QDs with 4.7 0.7 excess electrons, as well as a significant fraction of uncharged QDs as evidenced by the distinct cantilever response under bias. We show that the blue-shifted peak recombination energy can be understood as a first-order electronic perturbation that affects the band-edge electron- and hole-states differently. These studies provide new insight into the role of electronic perturbations of QD luminescence by excess charges.

  19. Red-Emitting Semiconductor Quantum Dot Lasers

    PubMed

    Fafard; Hinzer; Raymond; Dion; McCaffrey; Feng; Charbonneau

    1996-11-22

    Visible-stimulated emission in a semiconductor quantum dot (QD) laser structure has been demonstrated. Red-emitting, self-assembled QDs of highly strained InAlAs have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a GaAs substrate. Carriers injected electrically from the doped regions of a separate confinement heterostructure thermalized efficiently into the zero-dimensional QD states, and stimulated emission at approximately 707 nanometers was observed at 77 kelvin with a threshold current of 175 milliamperes for a 60-micrometer by 400-micrometer broad area laser. An external efficiency of approximately 8.5 percent at low temperature and a peak power greater than 200 milliwatts demonstrate the good size distribution and high gain in these high-quality QDs. PMID:8910269

  20. Quantum dots as a possible oxygen sensor.

    PubMed

    Zi?czyk, Paulina; Kur-Kowalska, Katarzyna; Przybyt, Ma?gorzata; Miller, Ewa

    2014-05-21

    Results of studies on optical properties of low toxicity quantum dots (QDs) obtained from copper doped zinc sulfate are discussed in the paper. The effect of copper admixture concentration and solution pH on the fluorescence emission intensity of QDs was investigated. Quenching of QDs fluorescence by oxygen was reported and removal of the oxygen from the environment by two methods was described. In the chemical method oxygen was eliminated by adding sodium sulfite, in the other method oxygen was removed from the solution using nitrogen gas. For elimination of oxygen by purging the solution with nitrogen the increase of fluorescence intensity with decreasing oxygen concentration obeyed Stern-Volmer equation indicating quenching. For the chemical method Stern-Volmer equation was not fulfilled. The fluorescence decays lifetimes were determined and the increase of mean lifetimes at the absence of oxygen support hypothesis that QDs fluorescence is quenched by oxygen. PMID:24568848

  1. Multifunctional Quantum Dots for Personalized Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zrazhevskiy, Pavel; Gao, Xiaohu

    2009-01-01

    Successes in biomedical research and state-of-the-art medicine have undoubtedly improved the quality of life. However, a number of diseases, such as cancer, immunodeficiencies, and neurological disorders, still evade conventional diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. A transformation towards personalized medicine may help to combat these diseases. For this, identification of disease molecular fingerprints and their association with prognosis and targeted therapy must become available. Quantum dots (QDs), semiconductor nanocrystals with unique photo-physical properties, represent a novel class of fluorescence probes to address many of the needs of personalized medicine. This review outlines the properties of QDs that make them a suitable platform for advancing personalized medicine, examines several proof-of-concept studies showing utility of QDs for clinically relevant applications, and discusses current challenges in introducing QDs into clinical practice. PMID:20161004

  2. Highly Fluorescent Noble Metal Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jie; Nicovich, Philip R.; Dickson, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    Highly fluorescent, water-soluble, few-atom noble metal quantum dots have been created that behave as multi-electron artificial atoms with discrete, size-tunable electronic transitions throughout the visible and near IR. These molecular metals exhibit highly polarizable transitions and scale in size according to the simple relation, Efermi/N1/3, predicted by the free electron model of metallic behavior. This simple scaling indicates that fluorescence arises from intraband transitions of free electrons and that these conduction electron transitions are the low number limit of the plasmon the collective dipole oscillations occurring when a continuous density of states is reached. Providing the missing link between atomic and nanoparticle behavior in noble metals, these emissive, water-soluble Au nanoclusters open new opportunities for biological labels, energy transfer pairs, and light emitting sources in nanoscale optoelectronics. PMID:17105412

  3. Tunable Quantum Dot Solids: Impact of Interparticle Interactions on Bulk Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Fan, Hongyou; Brener, Igal; Liu, Sheng; Luk, Ting S.; Li, Binsong

    2015-09-01

    QD-solids comprising self-assembled semiconductor nanocrystals such as CdSe are currently under investigation for use in a wide array of applications including light emitting diodes, solar cells, field effect transistors, photodetectors, and biosensors. The goal of this LDRD project was develop a fundamental understanding of the relationship between nanoparticle interactions and the different regimes of charge and energy transport in semiconductor quantum dot (QD) solids. Interparticle spacing was tuned through the application of hydrostatic pressure in a diamond anvil cell, and the impact on interparticle interactions was probed using x-ray scattering and a variety of static and transient optical spectroscopies. During the course of this LDRD, we discovered a new, previously unknown, route to synthesize semiconductor quantum wires using high pressure sintering of self-assembled quantum dot crystals. We believe that this new, pressure driven synthesis approach holds great potential as a new tool for nanomaterials synthesis and engineering.

  4. Undoped accumulation-mode Si/SiGe quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Borselli, M G; Eng, K; Ross, R S; Hazard, T M; Holabird, K S; Huang, B; Kiselev, A A; Deelman, P W; Warren, L D; Milosavljevic, I; Schmitz, A E; Sokolich, M; Gyure, M F; Hunter, A T

    2015-09-18

    We report on a quantum dot device design that combines the low disorder properties of undoped SiGe heterostructure materials with an overlapping gate stack in which each electrostatic gate has a dominant and unique function-control of individual quantum dot occupancies and of lateral tunneling into and between dots. Control of the tunneling rate between a dot and an electron bath is demonstrated over more than nine orders of magnitude and independently confirmed by direct measurement within the bandwidth of our amplifiers. The inter-dot tunnel coupling at the [Formula: see text] charge configuration anti-crossing is directly measured to quantify the control of a single inter-dot tunnel barrier gate. A simple exponential dependence is sufficient to describe each of these tunneling processes as a function of the controlling gate voltage. PMID:26302871

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Anti-HER2 Antibody Conjugated CdSe/CdZnS Quantum Dots for Fluorescence Imaging of Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Dhermendra K.; Tanaka, Shin-Ichi; Inouye, Yasushi; Yoshizawa, Keiko; Watanabe, Tomonobu M.; Jin, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    The early detection of HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) status in breast cancer patients is very important for the effective implementation of anti-HER2 antibody therapy. Recently, HER2 detections using antibody conjugated quantum dots (QDs) have attracted much attention. QDs are a new class of fluorescent materials that have superior properties such as high brightness, high resistance to photo-bleaching, and multi-colored emission by a single-light source excitation. In this study, we synthesized three types of anti-HER2 antibody conjugated QDs (HER2Ab-QDs) using different coupling agents (EDC/sulfo-NHS, iminothiolane/sulfo-SMCC, and sulfo-SMCC). As water-soluble QDs for the conjugation of antibody, we used glutathione coated CdSe/CdZnS QDs (GSH-QDs) with fluorescence quantum yields of 0.23?0.39 in aqueous solution. Dispersibility, hydrodynamic size, and apparent molecular weights of the GSH-QDs and HER2Ab-QDs were characterized by using dynamic light scattering, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, atomic force microscope, and size-exclusion HPLC. Fluorescence imaging of HER2 overexpressing cells (KPL-4 human breast cancer cell line) was performed by using HER2Ab-QDs as fluorescent probes. We found that the HER2Ab-QD prepared by using SMCC coupling with partially reduced antibody is a most effective probe for the detection of HER2 expression in KPL-4 cells. We have also studied the size dependency of HER2Ab-QDs (with green, orange, and red emission) on the fluorescence image of KPL-4 cells. PMID:22291567

  6. Synthesis and Optical Properties of CdTe(x)Se(1-x)-Based Red to Near-Infrared Emitting Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qian; Yue, Hanxiao; Zhu, Yuanna; Wang, Junpeng; Che, Quande; Shi, Ruixia; Yang, Ping

    2015-06-01

    A series of red to near-infrared (NIR) emitting quantum dots (QDs) with spherical morphologies and tunable photoluminescence (PL) properties have been synthesized by a facile organic route using octadecene (ODE) as solvent and oleic acid (OA) as single capping agent. CdSe cores with the average size of 4.5 nm display the typical optical behaviors with the PL emission peak around 610 nm. The coating CdZnS shells are introduced on the surface of CdSe cores for improving the photostability and PL efficiency of the initial QDs. As the thickness of CdZnS shells increasing, the gradual red-shift of emission wavelength varying from 617 to 634 nm of the resulting QDs can be observed, along with the remarkable increase of PL quantum yield (QY). The composition-dependent CdTe(x)Se(1-x) (CdTeSe) cores with the emission in NIR region are easily carried out by adjusting the molar ratio of Se/Te. The abnormal variation of optical bowling effect is mainly ascribed to the composition effect of alloyed QDs. Compared with CdTe0.1Se0.9/CdZnS core/shell QDs, the introducing of CdZnS shells on CdTe0.05Se0.95 cores can exhibit better passivation effect on surface status, consequently leading to the red-shifted emission peaks in the range of 739-752 nm with the maximum PL QY reaching up to 45.09%. The unique PL properties of CdTeSe-based QDs in the red to NIR range make these core/shell QDs attractive for future biological sensing and labeling applications. PMID:26369063

  7. Electron beam induced and microemulsion templated synthesis of CdSe quantum dots: tunable broadband emission and charge carrier recombination dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guleria, Apurav; Singh, Ajay K.; Rath, Madhab C.; Adhikari, Soumyakanti

    2015-04-01

    CdSe quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized by a rapid and one step templated approach inside the water pool of AOT (sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate) based water-in-oil microemulsions (MEs) via electron beam (EB) irradiation technique with high dose rate, which favours high nucleation rate. The interplay of different experimental parameters such as precursor concentration, absorbed dose and {{W}0} values (aqueous phase to surfactant molar ratio) of MEs were found to have interesting consequences on the morphology, photoluminescence (PL), surface composition and carrier recombination dynamics of as-grown QDs. For instance, highly stable ultrasmall (?1.7 nm) bluish-white light emitting QDs were obtained with quantum efficiency (?) of ?9%. Furthermore, QDs were found to exhibit tunable broadband light emission extending from 450 to 750 nm (maximum FWHM ?180 nm). This could be realized from the CIE (Commission Internationale dEclairage) chromaticity co-ordinates, which varied across the blue region to the orange region thereby, conferring their potential application in white light emitting diodes. Additionally, the average PL lifetime ?ft( ?ft< ? \\right> \\right) values could be varied from 18 ns to as high as 74 ns, which reflect the role of surface states in terms of their density and distribution. Another interesting revelation was the self-assembling of the initially formed QDs into nanorods with high aspect ratios ranging from 7 to 20, in correspondence with the {{W}0} values. Besides, the fundamental roles of the chemical nature of water pool and the interfacial fluidity of AOT MEs in influencing the photophysical properties of QDs were investigated by carrying out a similar study in CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide; cationic surfactant) based MEs. Surprisingly, very profound and contrasting results were observed wherein ?ft< ? \\right> and ? of the QDs in case of CTAB MEs were found to be at least three times lower as compared to that in AOT MEs.

  8. Radiolytic synthesis and spectroscopic investigations of cadmium selenide quantum dots grown in cationic surfactant based quaternary water-in-oil microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Singh, S; Guleria, A; Singh, A K; Rath, M C; Adhikari, S; Sarkar, S K

    2013-05-15

    Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (QDs) were grown in cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) based water-in-oil microemulsions using high-energy electron beam irradiation. The sizes of the primary QDs were determined from the absorption spectra as well as from high-resolution transmission electron microscope images and were found to be within 3 nm. Effects of experimental parameters, such as w0 (molar ratio of water to surfactant in a microemulsion) values and precursor concentrations on the optical properties of these QDs were investigated in detail. The QDs exhibited broad photoluminescence (PL) in the wavelength region extending from 450 to 750 nm at room temperature. The time-resolved PL showed multiexponential decay and the average lifetime was estimated to be 4.1 ns and the PL decay curve analysis indicated the presence of predominating trap state emission from the as obtained CdSe QDs. The quantum yield exhibited by as-grown QDs was determined to be 2.4%, without involving any postprocessing techniques. However, these QDs possessing ultra small size (?5 nm) were found to exhibit CIE (Commission Internationale d'Eclairage) chromaticity x, y co-ordinates close to (0.36,0.36), which confirms their potential as white light emitters. Besides, their light emitting color tunability can be conveniently achieved just by varying the experimental parameters. Therefore, the present method employing electron beam irradiation, accompanied by various advantages of CTAB based water-in-oil microemulsion as the host matrix, offers a simple and one step method to obtain CdSe QDs possessing potential applications in white light emitting devices. PMID:23489608

  9. Engineering of perturbation effects in onion-like heteronanocrystal quantum dot-quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SalmanOgli, A.; Rostami, R.

    2013-10-01

    In this article, the perturbation influences on optical characterization of quantum dot and quantum dot-quantum well (modified quantum dot) heteronanocrystal is investigated. The original aim of this article is to investigate the quantum dot-quantum well heteronanocrystal advantages and disadvantages, when used as a functionalized particle in biomedical applications. Therefore, all of the critical features of quantum dots are fundamentally studied and their influences on optical properties are simulated. For the first time, the perturbation effects on optical characteristics are observed in the quantum dot-quantum well heteronanocrystals by 8-band K.P theory. The impact of perturbation on optical features such as photoluminescence and shifting of wavelength is studied. The photoluminescence and operation wavelength of quantum dots play a vital role in biomedical applications, where their absorption and emission in biological assays are altered by shifting of wavelength. Furthermore, in biomedical applications, by tuning the emission wavelengths of the quantum dot into far-red and near-infrared ranges, non-invasive in-vivo imaging techniques have been easily developed. In this wavelength window, tissue absorption, scattering and auto-fluorescence intensities have minimum quantities; thus fixing or minimizing of wavelength shifting can be regarded as an important goal which is investigated in this work.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and applications of carboxylated and polyethylene-glycolated bifunctionalized InP/ZnS quantum dots in cellular internalization mediated by cell-penetrating peptides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Betty R; Winiarz, Jeffrey G; Moon, Jong-Sik; Lo, Shih-Yen; Huang, Yue-Wern; Aronstam, Robert S; Lee, Han-Jung

    2013-11-01

    Semiconductor nanoparticles, also known as quantum dots (QDs), are widely used in biomedical imaging studies and pharmaceutical research. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are a group of small peptides that are able to traverse cell membrane and deliver a variety of cargoes into living cells. CPPs deliver QDs into cells with minimal nonspecific absorption and toxic effect. In this study, water-soluble, monodisperse, carboxyl-functionalized indium phosphide (InP)/zinc sulfide (ZnS) QDs coated with polyethylene glycol lipids (designated QInP) were synthesized for the first time. The physicochemical properties (optical absorption, fluorescence and charging state) and cellular internalization of QInP and CPP/QInP complexes were characterized. CPPs noncovalently interact with QInP in vitro to form stable CPP/QInP complexes, which can then efficiently deliver QInP into human A549 cells. The introduction of 500nM of CPP/QInP complexes and QInP at concentrations of less than 1?M did not reduce cell viability. These results indicate that carboxylated and polyethylene-glycolylated (PEGylated) bifunctionalized QInP are biocompatible nanoparticles with potential for use in biomedical imaging studies and drug delivery applications. PMID:23792556

  11. Synthesis of CdTe quantum dot-conjugated CC49 and their application for in vitro imaging of gastric adenocarcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yun-Peng; Sun, Peng; Zhang, Xu-Rui; Yang, Wu-Li; Si, Cheng-Shuai

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the visible imaging of gastric adenocarcinoma cells in vitro by targeting tumor-associated glycoprotein 72 (TAG-72) with near-infrared quantum dots (QDs). QDs with an emission wavelength of about 550 to 780 nm were conjugated to CC49 monoclonal antibodies against TAG-72, resulting in a probe named as CC49-QDs. A gastric adenocarcinoma cell line (MGC80-3) expressing high levels of TAG-72 was cultured for fluorescence imaging, and a gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1) was used for the negative control group. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that the average diameter of CC49-QDs was 0.2 nm higher compared with that of the primary QDs. Also, fluorescence spectrum analysis indicated that the CC49-QDs did not have different optical properties compared to the primary QDs. Immunohistochemical examination and in vitro fluorescence imaging of the tumors showed that the CC49-QDs probe could bind TAG-72 expressed on MGC80-3 cells.

  12. Quantum computing with quantum dots using the Heisenberg exchange interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewaele, Nick J.

    One of the most promising systems for creating a working quantum computer is the triple quantum dots in a linear semiconductor. One of the biggest advantages is that we are able to perform Heisenberg exchange gates on the physical qubits. These exchanges are both fast and relatively low energy. Which means that they would be excellent for producing fast and accurate operations. In order to prevent leakage errors we use a 3 qubit DFS to encode a logical qubit. Here we determine the theoretical time dependent affects of applying the Heisenberg exchange gates in the DFS basis as well as the effect of applying multiple exchange gates at the same time. we also find that applying two heisenberg exchange gates at the same time is an effective way of implementing a leakage elimination operator.

  13. Unity quantum yield of photogenerated charges and band-like transport in quantum-dot solids.

    PubMed

    Talgorn, Elise; Gao, Yunan; Aerts, Michiel; Kunneman, Lucas T; Schins, Juleon M; Savenije, T J; van Huis, Marijn A; van der Zant, Herre S J; Houtepen, Arjan J; Siebbeles, Laurens D A

    2011-11-01

    Solid films of colloidal quantum dots show promise in the manufacture of photodetectors and solar cells. These devices require high yields of photogenerated charges and high carrier mobilities, which are difficult to achieve in quantum-dot films owing to a strong electron-hole interaction and quantum confinement. Here, we show that the quantum yield of photogenerated charges in strongly coupled PbSe quantum-dot films is unity over a large temperature range. At high photoexcitation density, a transition takes place from hopping between localized states to band-like transport. These strongly coupled quantum-dot films have electrical properties that approach those of crystalline bulk semiconductors, while retaining the size tunability and cheap processing properties of colloidal quantum dots. PMID:21946709

  14. Decoherence and Entanglement Simulation in a Model of Quantum Neural Network Based on Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altaisky, Mikhail V.; Zolnikova, Nadezhda N.; Kaputkina, Natalia E.; Krylov, Victor A.; Lozovik, Yurii E.; Dattani, Nikesh S.

    2016-02-01

    We present the results of the simulation of a quantum neural network based on quantum dots using numerical method of path integral calculation. In the proposed implementation of the quantum neural network using an array of single-electron quantum dots with dipole-dipole interaction, the coherence is shown to survive up to 0.1 nanosecond in time and up to the liquid nitrogen temperature of 77K.We study the quantum correlations between the quantum dots by means of calculation of the entanglement of formation in a pair of quantum dots on the GaAs based substrate with dot size of 100 ÷ 101 nanometer and interdot distance of 101 ÷ 102 nanometers order.

  15. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Dots for "green" Quantum Dot Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Sun, Pengfei; Cong, Shan; Wu, Jiang; Gao, Lijun; Wang, Yun; Dai, Xiao; Yi, Qinghua; Zou, Guifu

    2016-12-01

    Considering the environment protection, "green" materials are increasingly explored for photovoltaics. Here, we developed a kind of quantum dots solar cell based on nitrogen-doped carbon dots. The nitrogen-doped carbon dots were prepared by direct pyrolysis of citric acid and ammonia. The nitrogen-doped carbon dots' excitonic absorption depends on the N-doping content in the carbon dots. The N-doping can be readily modified by the mass ratio of reactants. The constructed "green" nitrogen-doped carbon dots solar cell achieves the best power conversion efficiency of 0.79 % under AM 1.5 G one full sun illumination, which is the highest efficiency for carbon dot-based solar cells. PMID:26781285

  16. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Dots for "green" Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Sun, Pengfei; Cong, Shan; Wu, Jiang; Gao, Lijun; Wang, Yun; Dai, Xiao; Yi, Qinghua; Zou, Guifu

    2016-01-01

    Considering the environment protection, "green" materials are increasingly explored for photovoltaics. Here, we developed a kind of quantum dots solar cell based on nitrogen-doped carbon dots. The nitrogen-doped carbon dots were prepared by direct pyrolysis of citric acid and ammonia. The nitrogen-doped carbon dots' excitonic absorption depends on the N-doping content in the carbon dots. The N-doping can be readily modified by the mass ratio of reactants. The constructed "green" nitrogen-doped carbon dots solar cell achieves the best power conversion efficiency of 0.79 % under AM 1.5 G one full sun illumination, which is the highest efficiency for carbon dot-based solar cells.

  17. Multi-million atom electronic structure calculations for quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usman, Muhammad

    Quantum dots grown by self-assembly process are typically constructed by 50,000 to 5,000,000 structural atoms which confine a small, countable number of extra electrons or holes in a space that is comparable in size to the electron wavelength. Under such conditions quantum dots can be interpreted as artificial atoms with the potential to be custom tailored to new functionality. In the past decade or so, these nanostructures have attracted significant experimental and theoretical attention in the field of nanoscience. The new and tunable optical and electrical properties of these artificial atoms have been proposed in a variety of different fields, for example in communication and computing systems, medical and quantum computing applications. Predictive and quantitative modeling and simulation of these structures can help to narrow down the vast design space to a range that is experimentally affordable and move this part of nanoscience to nano-Technology. Modeling of such quantum dots pose a formidable challenge to theoretical physicists because: (1) Strain originating from the lattice mismatch of the materials penetrates deep inside the buffer surrounding the quantum dots and require large scale (multi-million atom) simulations to correctly capture its effect on the electronic structure, (2) The interface roughness, the alloy randomness, and the atomistic granularity require the calculation of electronic structure at the atomistic scale. Most of the current or past theoretical calculations are based on continuum approach such as effective mass approximation or k.p modeling capturing either no or one of the above mentioned effects, thus missing some of the essential physics. The Objectives of this thesis are: (1) to model and simulate the experimental quantum dot topologies at the atomistic scale; (2) to theoretically explore the essential physics i.e. long range strain, linear and quadratic piezoelectricity, interband optical transition strengths, quantum confined stark shift, coherent coupling of electronic states in a quantum dot molecule etc.; (3) to assess the potential use of the quantum dots in real device implementation and to provide physical insight to the experimentalists. Full three dimensional strain and electronic structure simulations of quantum dot structures containing multi-million atoms are done using NEMO 3-D. Both single and vertically stacked quantum dot structures are analyzed in detail. The results show that the strain and the piezoelectricity significantly impact the electronic structure of these devices. This work shows that the InAs quantum dots when placed in the InGaAs quantum well red shifts the emission wavelength. Such InAs/GaAs-based optical devices can be used for optical-fiber based communication systems at longer wavelengths (1.3um -- 1.5um). Our atomistic simulations of InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots quantitatively match with the experiment and give the critical insight of the physics involved in these structures. A single quantum dot molecule is studied for coherent quantum coupling of electronic states under the influence of static electric field applied in the growth direction. Such nanostructures can be used in the implementation of quantum information technologies. A close quantitative match with the experimental optical measurements allowed us to get a physical insight into the complex physics of quantum tunnel couplings of electronic states as the device operation switches between atomic and molecular regimes. Another important aspect is to design the quantum dots for a desired isotropic polarization of the optical emissions. Both single and coupled quantum dots are studied for TE/TM ratio engineering. The atomistic study provides a detailed physical analysis of these computationally expensive large nanostructures and serves as a guide for the experimentalists for the design of the polarization independent devices for the optical communication systems.

  18. Air-stable n-type colloidal quantum dot solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Zhijun; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Pan, Jun; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Adinolfi, Valerio; Xu, Jixian; Li, Min; Kirmani, Ahmad R.; Sun, Jon-Paul; Minor, James; Kemp, Kyle W.; Dong, Haopeng; Rollny, Lisa; Labelle, Andr; Carey, Graham; Sutherland, Brandon; Hill, Ian; Amassian, Aram; Liu, Huan; Tang, Jiang; Bakr, Osman M.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2014-08-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) offer promise in flexible electronics, light sensing and energy conversion. These applications rely on rectifying junctions that require the creation of high-quality CQD solids that are controllably n-type (electron-rich) or p-type (hole-rich). Unfortunately, n-type semiconductors made using soft matter are notoriously prone to oxidation within minutes of air exposure. Here we report high-performance, air-stable n-type CQD solids. Using density functional theory we identify inorganic passivants that bind strongly to the CQD surface and repel oxidative attack. A materials processing strategy that wards off strong protic attack by polar solvents enabled the synthesis of an air-stable n-type PbS CQD solid. This material was used to build an air-processed inverted quantum junction device, which shows the highest current density from any CQD solar cell and a solar power conversion efficiency as high as 8%. We also feature the n-type CQD solid in the rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of atmospheric NO2. This work paves the way for new families of electronic devices that leverage air-stable quantum-tuned materials.

  19. Air-stable n-type colloidal quantum dot solids.

    PubMed

    Ning, Zhijun; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Pan, Jun; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Adinolfi, Valerio; Xu, Jixian; Li, Min; Kirmani, Ahmad R; Sun, Jon-Paul; Minor, James; Kemp, Kyle W; Dong, Haopeng; Rollny, Lisa; Labelle, Andr; Carey, Graham; Sutherland, Brandon; Hill, Ian; Amassian, Aram; Liu, Huan; Tang, Jiang; Bakr, Osman M; Sargent, Edward H

    2014-08-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) offer promise in flexible electronics, light sensing and energy conversion. These applications rely on rectifying junctions that require the creation of high-quality CQD solids that are controllably n-type (electron-rich) or p-type (hole-rich). Unfortunately, n-type semiconductors made using soft matter are notoriously prone to oxidation within minutes of air exposure. Here we report high-performance, air-stable n-type CQD solids. Using density functional theory we identify inorganic passivants that bind strongly to the CQD surface and repel oxidative attack. A materials processing strategy that wards off strong protic attack by polar solvents enabled the synthesis of an air-stable n-type PbS CQD solid. This material was used to build an air-processed inverted quantum junction device, which shows the highest current density from any CQD solar cell and a solar power conversion efficiency as high as 8%. We also feature the n-type CQD solid in the rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of atmospheric NO2. This work paves the way for new families of electronic devices that leverage air-stable quantum-tuned materials. PMID:24907929

  20. Heterovalent cation substitutional doping for quantum dot homojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavrinadis, Alexandros; Rath, Arup K.; de Arquer, F. Pelayo Garca; Diedenhofen, Silke L.; Magn, Csar; Martinez, Luis; So, David; Konstantatos, Gerasimos

    2013-12-01

    Colloidal quantum dots have emerged as a material platform for low-cost high-performance optoelectronics. At the heart of optoelectronic devices lies the formation of a junction, which requires the intimate contact of n-type and p-type semiconductors. Doping in bulk semiconductors has been largely deployed for many decades, yet electronically active doping in quantum dots has remained a challenge and the demonstration of robust functional optoelectronic devices had thus far been elusive. Here we report an optoelectronic device, a quantum dot homojunction solar cell, based on heterovalent cation substitution. We used PbS quantum dots as a reference material, which is a p-type semiconductor, and we employed Bi-doping to transform it into an n-type semiconductor. We then combined the two layers into a homojunction device operating as a solar cell robustly under ambient air conditions with power conversion efficiency of 2.7%.

  1. Heterovalent cation substitutional doping for quantum dot homojunction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Stavrinadis, Alexandros; Rath, Arup K; de Arquer, F Pelayo Garca; Diedenhofen, Silke L; Magn, Csar; Martinez, Luis; So, David; Konstantatos, Gerasimos

    2013-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dots have emerged as a material platform for low-cost high-performance optoelectronics. At the heart of optoelectronic devices lies the formation of a junction, which requires the intimate contact of n-type and p-type semiconductors. Doping in bulk semiconductors has been largely deployed for many decades, yet electronically active doping in quantum dots has remained a challenge and the demonstration of robust functional optoelectronic devices had thus far been elusive. Here we report an optoelectronic device, a quantum dot homojunction solar cell, based on heterovalent cation substitution. We used PbS quantum dots as a reference material, which is a p-type semiconductor, and we employed Bi-doping to transform it into an n-type semiconductor. We then combined the two layers into a homojunction device operating as a solar cell robustly under ambient air conditions with power conversion efficiency of 2.7%. PMID:24346430

  2. Probing specific DNA sequences with luminescent semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Jason R.; Nie, Shuming

    2001-06-01

    The development of new fluorescent probes has impacted many areas of research such as medical diagnostics, high-speed drug screening, and basic molecular biology. Main limitations to traditional organic fluorophores are their relatively weak intensities, short life times (eg., photobleaching), and broad emission spectra. The desire for more intense fluorescent probes with higher quality photostability and narrow emission wavelengths has led to the development and utilization of semiconductor quantum dots as a new label. In this work, we have modified semicondutor quantum dots (QD's) with synthetic oligonucleotides to probe a specific DNA target sequence both in solution as well as immobilized on a solid substrate. In the first approach, specific target sequences are detected in solution by using short oligonucleotide probes, which are covalently linked to semiconductor quantum dots. In the second approach, DNA target sequences are covalently attached to a glass substrate and detected using oligonucleotides linked to semiconductor quantum dots.

  3. Prospects for thermoelectricity in quantum dot hybrid arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Jeffrey J.

    2015-12-01

    The electronic, chemical and mechanical properties of quantum dot structures may lead to thermoelectric devices with a range of advantages with respect to existing ones based on bulk polycrystalline materials.

  4. Heterovalent cation substitutional doping for quantum dot homojunction solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Stavrinadis, Alexandros; Rath, Arup K.; de Arquer, F. Pelayo Garca; Diedenhofen, Silke L.; Magn, Csar; Martinez, Luis; So, David; Konstantatos, Gerasimos

    2013-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dots have emerged as a material platform for low-cost high-performance optoelectronics. At the heart of optoelectronic devices lies the formation of a junction, which requires the intimate contact of n-type and p-type semiconductors. Doping in bulk semiconductors has been largely deployed for many decades, yet electronically active doping in quantum dots has remained a challenge and the demonstration of robust functional optoelectronic devices had thus far been elusive. Here we report an optoelectronic device, a quantum dot homojunction solar cell, based on heterovalent cation substitution. We used PbS quantum dots as a reference material, which is a p-type semiconductor, and we employed Bi-doping to transform it into an n-type semiconductor. We then combined the two layers into a homojunction device operating as a solar cell robustly under ambient air conditions with power conversion efficiency of 2.7%. PMID:24346430

  5. Silver-enhanced fluorescence emission of single quantum dot nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yi; Zhang, Jian; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    2009-01-01

    A novel plasmon-coupled quantum dot (QD) nanocomposite via covalently interfacing the QD surfaces with silver nanoparticles was developed with greatly reduced blinking and enhanced emission fluorescence. PMID:19209313

  6. Quantum dot conjugates in a sub-micrometer fluidic channel

    DOEpatents

    Stavis, Samuel M.; Edel, Joshua B.; Samiee, Kevan T.; Craighead, Harold G.

    2010-04-13

    A nanofluidic channel fabricated in fused silica with an approximately 500 nm square cross section was used to isolate, detect and identify individual quantum dot conjugates. The channel enables the rapid detection of every fluorescent entity in solution. A laser of selected wavelength was used to excite multiple species of quantum dots and organic molecules, and the emission spectra were resolved without significant signal rejection. Quantum dots were then conjugated with organic molecules and detected to demonstrate efficient multicolor detection. PCH was used to analyze coincident detection and to characterize the degree of binding. The use of a small fluidic channel to detect quantum dots as fluorescent labels was shown to be an efficient technique for multiplexed single molecule studies. Detection of single molecule binding events has a variety of applications including high throughput immunoassays.

  7. Quantum dot conjugates in a sub-micrometer fluidic channel

    DOEpatents

    Stavis, Samuel M. (Ithaca, NY); Edel, Joshua B. (Brookline, MA); Samiee, Kevan T. (Ithaca, NY); Craighead, Harold G. (Ithaca, NY)

    2008-07-29

    A nanofluidic channel fabricated in fused silica with an approximately 500 nm square cross section was used to isolate, detect and identify individual quantum dot conjugates. The channel enables the rapid detection of every fluorescent entity in solution. A laser of selected wavelength was used to excite multiple species of quantum dots and organic molecules, and the emission spectra were resolved without significant signal rejection. Quantum dots were then conjugated with organic molecules and detected to demonstrate efficient multicolor detection. PCH was used to analyze coincident detection and to characterize the degree of binding. The use of a small fluidic channel to detect quantum dots as fluorescent labels was shown to be an efficient technique for multiplexed single molecule studies. Detection of single molecule binding events has a variety of applications including high throughput immunoassays.

  8. Growth of cubic GaN quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Schupp, T.; Lischka, K.; As, D. J.; Meisch, T.; Neuschl, B.; Feneberg, M.; Thonke, K.

    2010-11-01

    Zinc-blende GaN quantum dots were grown on 3C-AlN(001) by two different methods in a molecular beam epitaxy system. The quantum dots in method A were fabricated by the Stranski-Krastanov growth process. The quantum dots in method B were fabricated by droplet epitaxy, a vapor-liquid-solid process. The density of the quantum dots was controllable in a range of 10{sup 8} cm{sup -2} to 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}. Reflection high energy electron diffraction analysis confirmed the zinc-blende crystal structure of the QDs. Photoluminescence spectroscopy revealed the optical activity of the QDs, the emission energy was in agreement with the exciton ground state transition energy of theoretical calculations.

  9. Entanglement switching via the Kondo effect in triple quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tooski, S. B.; Bu?ka, Bogdan R.; itko, Rok; Ramak, Anton

    2014-06-01

    We consider a triple quantum dot system in a triangular geometry with one of the dots connected to metallic leads. Using Wilson's numerical renormalization group method, we investigate quantum entanglement and its relation to the thermodynamic and transport properties in the regime where each of the dots is singly occupied on average, but with non-negligible charge fluctuations. It is shown that even in the regime of significant charge fluctuations the formation of the Kondo singlets induces switching between separable and perfectly entangled states. The quantum phase transition between unentangled and entangled states is analyzed quantitatively and the corresponding phase diagram is explained by exactly solvable spin model. In the framework of an effective model we also explain smearing of the entanglement transition for cases when the symmetry of the triple quantum dot system is relaxed.

  10. Improved dot size uniformity and luminescense of InAs quantum dots on InP substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qiu, Y.; Uhl, D.

    2002-01-01

    InAs self-organized quantum dots have been grown in InGaAs quantum well on InP substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. Atomic Force Microscopy confirmed of quantum dot formation with dot density of 3X10(sup 10) cm(sup -2). Improved dot size uniformity and strong room temperature photoluminescence up to 2 micron were observed after modifying the InGaAs well.

  11. Spin Qubits with Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarucha, Seigo; Yamamoto, Michihisa; Oiwa, Akira; Choi, Byung-Soo; Tokura, Yasuhiro

    This section describes recent progresses on the research of spin qubits realized in semiconductor quantum dot (QD) systems. After we argue the scheme of initialization and detection of individual spin states, we discuss the key idea of the universal gates constituted with QDs proposed by D. Loss and D. P. DiVincenzo. In order to achieve universal quantum gate operations, we need single qubit coherent manipulations and two qubit controlled-NOT or control-Z gates. For the first type of gate, instead of the standard rf magnetic field driven electron spin resonance (ESR), we proposed and implemented electric dipole induced spin resonance (EDSR), which has various advantages over ESR, including low dissipation, individual access to the spins and integrability. We describes recent progress in the fast Rabi oscillations. The second type of gate can be realized by the exchange coupling between nearby QDs. We also discuss the experiments combining single- and two-qubit operations. Finally, we argue the progress of the coupling of the spins in QDs with the "flying qubits", namely, photons of visible or microwave and itinerant electrons in the wave guides.

  12. Coherent spin transport through dynamic quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Stotz, James A H; Hey, Rudolf; Santos, Paulo V; Ploog, Klaus H

    2005-08-01

    Spin transport and manipulation in semiconductors have been studied intensively with the ultimate goal of realizing spintronic devices. Previous work in GaAs has focused on controlling the carrier density, crystallographic orientation and dimensionality to limit the electron spin decoherence and allow transport over long distances. Here, we introduce a new method for the coherent transport of spin-polarized electronic wave packets using dynamic quantum dots (DQDs) created by the piezoelectric field of coherent acoustic phonons. Photogenerated spin carriers transported by the DQDs in undoped GaAs (001) quantum wells exhibit a spin coherence length exceeding 100 microm, which is attributed to the simultaneous control of the carrier density and the dimensionality by the DQDs during transport. In the absence of an applied magnetic field, we observe the precession of the electron spin induced by the internal magnetic field associated with the spin splitting of the conduction band (Dresselhaus term). The coherent manipulation of the precession frequency is also achieved by applying an external magnetic field. PMID:16041380

  13. Facile synthesis and characterization of highly fluorescent and biocompatible N-acetyl-l-cysteine capped CdTe/CdS/ZnS core/shell/shell quantum dots in aqueous phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Qi; Huang, Shan; Su, Wei; Chan, W. H.; Liu, Yi

    2012-12-01

    The synthesis of water-soluble quantum dots (QDs) in aqueous phase has received much attention recently. To date various kinds of QDs such as CdTe, CdSe, CdTe/CdS and CdSe/ZnS have been synthesized by aqueous methods. However, generally poor-quality QDs (photoluminescent quantum yield (PLQY) lower than 30%) are obtained via this method and the 3-mercaptopropionic acid stabilizer is notorious for its toxicity and awful odor. Here we introduce a novel thiol ligand, N-acetyl-l-cysteine, as an ideal stabilizer that is successfully employed to synthesize high-quality CdTe/CdS/ZnS QDs via a simple aqueous phase. The core/shell/shell structures of the CdTe/CdS/ZnS QDs were verified by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. These QDs not only possess a high PLQY but also have excellent photostability and favorable biocompatibility, which is vital for many biological applications. This type of water-dispersed QD is a promising candidate for fluorescent probes in biological and medical fields.

  14. One-pot green synthesis of oxygen-rich nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots and their potential application in pH-sensitive photoluminescence and detection of mercury(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bingfang; Zhang, Liangliang; Lan, Chuanqing; Zhao, Jingjin; Su, Yubin; Zhao, Shulin

    2015-09-01

    Nitrogen doping has been a powerful method to modulate the properties of carbon materials for various applications, and N-doped graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have gained remarkable interest because of their unique chemical, electronic, and optical properties. Herein, we introduce a facile one-pot solid-phase synthesis strategy for N-doped GQDs using citric acid (CA) as the carbon source and 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-DOPA) as the N source. The as-prepared N-GQDs with oxygen-rich functional groups are uniform with an average diameter of 12.5 nm. Because of the introduction of nitrogen atoms, N-GQDs exhibit excitation-wavelength-independent fluorescence with the maximum emission at 445 nm, and a high quantum yield of 18% is achieved at an excitation wavelength of 346 nm. Furthermore, a highly efficient fluorosensor based on the as-prepared N-GQDs was developed for the detection of Hg(2+) because of the effective quenching effect of metal ions via nonradiative electron transfer. This fluorosensor exhibits high sensitivity toward Hg(2+) with a detection limit of 8.6 nM. The selectivity experiments reveal that the fluorescent sensor is specific for Hg(2+). Most importantly, the practical use of the sensor based on N-GQDs for Hg(2+) detection was successfully demonstrated in river-water samples. PMID:26003702

  15. Coherent radiation by quantum dots and magnetic nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect

    Yukalov, V. I.; Yukalova, E. P.

    2014-03-31

    The assemblies of either quantum dots or magnetic nanoclusters are studied. It is shown that such assemblies can produce coherent radiation. A method is developed for solving the systems of nonlinear equations describing the dynamics of such assemblies. The method is shown to be general and applicable to systems of different physical nature. Despite mathematical similarities of dynamical equations, the physics of the processes for quantum dots and magnetic nanoclusters is rather different. In a quantum dot assembly, coherence develops due to the Dicke effect of dot interactions through the common radiation field. For a system of magnetic clusters, coherence in the spin motion appears due to the Purcell effect caused by the feedback action of a resonator. Self-organized coherent spin radiation cannot arise without a resonator. This principal difference is connected with the different physical nature of dipole forces between the objects. Effective dipole interactions between the radiating quantum dots, appearing due to photon exchange, collectivize the dot radiation. While the dipolar spin interactions exist from the beginning, yet before radiation, and on the contrary, they dephase spin motion, thus destroying the coherence of moving spins. In addition, quantum dot radiation exhibits turbulent photon filamentation that is absent for radiating spins.

  16. Magnetic Polarons and Bipolarons in Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oszwaldowski, Rafal

    2012-02-01

    Magnetically doped (typically by Mn) semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) allow a control of magnetic ordering in ways not available in the bulk. For example, onset of magnetism can be realized by adding a single carrier or changing symmetry of the quantum confinement, even at a fixed carrier number [1]. Recent experiments revisit the concept of magnetic polaron [2], formed when a single carrier added to a QD aligns the Mn spins through exchange interaction. The experiments [3,4] show that the induced magnetization persists at relatively high temperatures. First, we discuss a QD system, in which the experimental magnetic polaron energy, in addition to its relatively high value, shows a surprisingly weak temperature dependence [4]. We explain this effect by magnetic anisotropy of the QD. Next, we turn to the case where a magnetic QD contains two carriers. We find theoretically that Mn spins align, forming a magnetic 'bipolaron', even when the ground state has zero carrier-spin [5]. The corresponding state breaks spatial symmetry, unlike in the case of a single magnetic polaron. We propose experimental tests of our prediction. We also explore the stability of the broken-symmetry state with zero net magnetization versus other patterns of magnetization [6]. Finally, we show some interesting consequences of diffusive coupling of a magnetic QD to a reservoir of carriers [7]. This work was done in collaboration with P. Stano, J. Pientka, A. Petukhov, and I. Zutic.[4pt] [1] R. M. Abolfath, et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 207202 (2008).[0pt] [2] Maksimov, A. et al. Phys. Rev. B 62, R7767 (2000), J. Seufert et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 027402 (2002).[0pt] [3] R. Beaulac et al., Science 325, 973 (2009).[0pt] [4] I. R. Sellers, et al., Phys. Rev. B 82, 195320 (2010).[0pt] [5] R. Oszwaldowski, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 177201 (2011)[0pt] [6] P. Stano, R. Oszwaldowski, A. G. Petukhov, and I. Zutic, preprint.[0pt] [7] J. M. Pientka, R. Oszwaldowski, A. G. Petukhov, J. E. Han and I. Zutic, Reentrant Magnetic Polaron Formation in Quantum Dots, preprint.

  17. Quantum Phase Transitions in Cavity Coupled Dot systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasisomayajula, Vijay; Russo, Onofrio

    2011-03-01

    We investigate a Quantum Dot System, in which the transconductance, in part, is due to spin coupling, with each dot subjected to a biasing voltage. When this system is housed in a QED cavity, the cavity dot coupling alters the spin coupling of the coupled dots significantly via the Purcell Effect. In this paper we show the extent to which one can control the various coupling parameters: the inter dot coupling, the individual dots coupling with the cavity and the coupled dots coupling with the cavity as a single entity. We show that the dots coupled to each other and to the cavity, the spin transport can be controlled selectively. We derive the conditions for such control explicitly. Further, we discuss the Quantum phase transition effects due to the charge and spin transport through the dots. The electron transport through the dots, electron-electron spin interaction and the electron-photon interaction are treated using the Non-equilibrium Green's Function Formalism. http://publish.aps.org/search/field/author/Trif_Mircea (Trif Mircea), http://publish.aps.org/search/field/author/Golovach_Vitaly_N (Vitaly N. Golovach), and http://publish.aps.org/search/field/author/Loss_Daniel (Daniel Loss), Phys. Rev. B 75, 085307 (2007)

  18. Coupling capacitance between double quantum dots tunable by the number of electrons in Si quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, Takafumi Arita, Masashi; Takahashi, Yasuo; Fujiwara, Akira

    2015-02-28

    Tunability of capacitive coupling in the Si double-quantum-dot system is discussed by changing the number of electrons in quantum dots (QDs), in which the QDs are fabricated using pattern-dependent oxidation (PADOX) of a Si nanowire and multi-fine-gate structure. A single QD formed by PADOX is divided into multiple QDs by additional oxidation through the gap between the fine gates. When the number of electrons occupying the QDs is large, the coupling capacitance increases gradually and almost monotonically with the number of electrons. This phenomenon is attributed to the gradual growth in the effective QD size due to the increase in the number of electrons in the QDs. On the other hand, when the number of electrons changes in the few-electron regime, the coupling capacitance irregularly changes. This irregularity can be observed even up to 40 electrons. This behavior is attributable the rough structure of Si nano-dots made by PADOX. This roughness is thought to induce complicated change in the electron wave function when an electron is added to or subtracted from a QD.

  19. Ultrafast optical properties of lithographically defined quantum dot amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Miaja-Avila, L.; Verma, V. B.; Mirin, R. P.; Silverman, K. L.; Coleman, J. J.

    2014-02-10

    We measure the ultrafast optical response of lithographically defined quantum dot amplifiers at 40 K. Recovery of the gain mostly occurs in less than 1 picosecond, with some longer-term transients attributable to carrier heating. Recovery of the absorption proceeds on a much longer timescale, representative of relaxation between quantum dot levels and carrier recombination. We also measure transparency current-density in these devices.

  20. Dissipative laser bullets in dielectric media containing quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubin, M. Yu.; Leksin, A. Yu.; Gladush, M. G.; Arakelian, S. M.; Prokhorov, A. V.

    2015-09-01

    The formation of three-dimensional spatiotemporal dissipative solitons (laser bullets) in a dense ensemble of two-level quantum dots imbedded into a dielectric host is analyzed theoretically taking into account complex local field corrections. The possibility of satisfying stability conditions for laser bullets in a wide range of concentration and quantum dot size parameters is demonstrated. Substantial increase in dimensions of the found areas of stability when choosing all-dielectric metamaterials as a host medium is revealed.