Very high quantum efficiency PMTs with bialkali photo-cathode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mirzoyan, R.; Laatiaoui, M.; Teshima, M.
2006-11-01
Since the mid-1960s and until today the classical PMTs with semitransparent bialkali photo-cathode provide peak Quantum Efficiency (QE) of ˜25%. About 2 years ago we started a program with the PMT manufacturers Hamamatsu, Photonis and Electron Tubes for boosting up the QE of bialkali PMTs. In the mean time we have obtained several batches of experimental PMTs from the above-mentioned manufacturers and measured few samples with QE values as high as 32-36% in the peak. Also, we want to report on the modest (5-7) % increase of the QE of the PMTs with flat input window after sandblasting. Earlier we have reported that by coating the hemi-spherical input window of bialkali PMTs with a milky layer we could enhance their QE by ˜10-20% for wavelengths ˜320 nm. Assuming that the industry can reliably produce PMTs with 32-35% QE in the peak, by applying the milky layer coating technique to the PMTs with hemi-spherical input window one shall be able to achieve peak QE values of ˜35-40%. Being by an order of magnitude cheaper and providing a matching level of QE such PMTs will become strong competitors for hybrid photo-diodes (HPD) with GaAsP photo-cathode.
Quantum efficiency temporal response and lifetime of a GaAs cathode in SRF electron gun
Wang, E.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Kewisch, J.; Burrill, A.; Rao, T.; Wu, Q.; Holmes, D.
2010-05-23
RF electron guns with a strained super lattice GaAs cathode can generate polarized electron beam of higher brightness and lower emittance than do DC guns, due to their higher field gradient at the cathode's surface. In a normal conducting RF gun, the extremely high vaccum required by these cathodes can not be met. We report on an experiment with a superconducting SRF gun, which can maintain a vacuum of nearly 10-12 torr because of cryo-pumping at the temperature of 4.2K. With conventional activation, we obtained a QE of 3% at 532 nm, with lifetime of nearly 3 days in the preparation chamber. We plan to use this cathode in a 1.3 GHz 1/2 cell SRF gun to study its performance. In addition, we studied the multipacting at the location of cathode. A new model based on the Forkker-Planck equation which can estimate the bunch length of the electron beam is discussed in this paper. Future particle accelerators such as eRHIC and ILC require high brightness, high current polarized electrons Recently, using a superlattice crystal, the maximum polarization of 95% was reached. Activation with Cs,O lowers the electron affinity and makes it energetically possible for all the electrons excited in to the conduction band and reach the surface to escape into the vacuum. Presently the polarized electron sources are based on DC gun, such as that at the CEBAF at Jlab. In these devices, the life time of the cathode is extended due to the reduced back bombardment in their UHV conditions. However, the low accelerating gradient of the DC guns lead to poor longitudinal emittance. The higher accelerating gradient of the RF gun generates low emittance beams. Superconducting RF guns combine the excellent vacuum conditions of the DC guns with the higher accelerating gradients of the RF guns and provide potentially a long lived cathode with very low transverse and longitudinal emittance. In our work at BNL, we successfully activated the GaAs. The quantum efficient is 3% at 532 nm and is expected
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, F.; Sheppard, J. C.; Vecchione, T.; Jongewaard, E.; Brachmann, A.; Corbett, J.; Gilevich, S.; Weathersby, S.
2015-05-01
Establishing good initial quantum efficiency (QE) and reliable in-situ cleaning for copper cathode in the RF gun is of critical importance for the RF gun operations. Recent studies on the SLAC RF gun test bed indicated that the pre-cleaning (plasma cleaning) in the test chamber followed by copper cathode exposure to air for cathode change leads to a very low initial QE in the RF gun, and also demonstrated that without the pre-cleaning good initial QE >4×10-5 can be routinely achieved in the RF gun with the cathodes of QE <1×10-7 measured in the test chamber. QE can decay over the time in the RF gun. The in-situ laser cleaning technique for copper cathodes in the RF gun is established and refined in comparison to previous cleaning at the linac coherent light source, resulting in an improved QE and emittance evolutions. The physics of the laser cleaning process is discussed. It is believed that the reflectivity change is one of the major factors for the QE boost with the laser cleaning.
Quantum Yield of Gold-Cathode Photomultipliers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Childs, Charles B.
1961-01-01
Two gold-cathode EMI 6255G tubes have been investigated for their quantum yield between 3100 and 1900 A. The tubes had cathodes of different appearances. One of these, numbered 3012, had a slight bluish tinge and was very transparent to visible light; the other, numbered 3021, had a definite gold coloration. The relative quantum yield of each tube was determined with the aid of a Cary model 14 recording spectrophotometer used as a monochromator. The monochromator relative-energy output was determined from the current output of a sodium-salicylate-coated RCA 1P21 photomultiplier. Each gold-cathode tube was then operated at 3000 v, and the central 1.8 cm cube of the cathode was exposed to the monochromator output.
The Quantum Efficiency and Thermal Emittance of Metal Photocathodes
Dowell, David H.; Schmerge, John F.; /SLAC
2009-03-04
Modern electron beams have demonstrated the brilliance needed to drive free electron lasers at x-ray wavelengths, with the principle improvements occurring since the invention of the photocathode gun. The state-of-the-art normalized emittance electron beams are now becoming limited by the thermal emittance of the cathode. In both DC and RF photocathode guns, details of the cathode emission physics strongly influence the quantum efficiency and the thermal emittance. Therefore improving cathode performance is essential to increasing the brightness of beams. It is especially important to understand the fundamentals of cathode quantum efficiency and thermal emittance. This paper investigates the relationship between the quantum efficiency and the thermal emittance of metal cathodes using the Fermi-Dirac model for the electron distribution. We derive the thermal emittance and its relationship to the quantum efficiency, and compare our results to those of others.
Sorting quantum systems efficiently
Ionicioiu, Radu
2016-01-01
Measuring the state of a quantum system is a fundamental process in quantum mechanics and plays an essential role in quantum information and quantum technologies. One method to measure a quantum observable is to sort the system in different spatial modes according to the measured value, followed by single-particle detectors on each mode. Examples of quantum sorters are polarizing beam-splitters (PBS) – which direct photons according to their polarization – and Stern-Gerlach devices. Here we propose a general scheme to sort a quantum system according to the value of any d-dimensional degree of freedom, such as spin, orbital angular momentum (OAM), wavelength etc. Our scheme is universal, works at the single-particle level and has a theoretical efficiency of 100%. As an application we design an efficient OAM sorter consisting of a single multi-path interferometer which is suitable for a photonic chip implementation. PMID:27142705
Sorting quantum systems efficiently
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ionicioiu, Radu
2016-05-01
Measuring the state of a quantum system is a fundamental process in quantum mechanics and plays an essential role in quantum information and quantum technologies. One method to measure a quantum observable is to sort the system in different spatial modes according to the measured value, followed by single-particle detectors on each mode. Examples of quantum sorters are polarizing beam-splitters (PBS) – which direct photons according to their polarization – and Stern-Gerlach devices. Here we propose a general scheme to sort a quantum system according to the value of any d-dimensional degree of freedom, such as spin, orbital angular momentum (OAM), wavelength etc. Our scheme is universal, works at the single-particle level and has a theoretical efficiency of 100%. As an application we design an efficient OAM sorter consisting of a single multi-path interferometer which is suitable for a photonic chip implementation.
Sorting quantum systems efficiently.
Ionicioiu, Radu
2016-01-01
Measuring the state of a quantum system is a fundamental process in quantum mechanics and plays an essential role in quantum information and quantum technologies. One method to measure a quantum observable is to sort the system in different spatial modes according to the measured value, followed by single-particle detectors on each mode. Examples of quantum sorters are polarizing beam-splitters (PBS) - which direct photons according to their polarization - and Stern-Gerlach devices. Here we propose a general scheme to sort a quantum system according to the value of any d-dimensional degree of freedom, such as spin, orbital angular momentum (OAM), wavelength etc. Our scheme is universal, works at the single-particle level and has a theoretical efficiency of 100%. As an application we design an efficient OAM sorter consisting of a single multi-path interferometer which is suitable for a photonic chip implementation. PMID:27142705
Efficient quantum secret sharing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Huawang; Dai, Yuewei
2016-05-01
An efficient quantum secret sharing scheme is proposed, in which the dealer generates some single particles and then uses the operations of quantum-controlled-not and Hadamard gate to encode a determinate secret into these particles. The participants get their shadows by performing the single-particle measurements on their particles, and even the dealer cannot know their shadows. Compared to the existing schemes, our scheme is more practical within the present technologies.
Efficient quantum walk on a quantum processor.
Qiang, Xiaogang; Loke, Thomas; Montanaro, Ashley; Aungskunsiri, Kanin; Zhou, Xiaoqi; O'Brien, Jeremy L; Wang, Jingbo B; Matthews, Jonathan C F
2016-01-01
The random walk formalism is used across a wide range of applications, from modelling share prices to predicting population genetics. Likewise, quantum walks have shown much potential as a framework for developing new quantum algorithms. Here we present explicit efficient quantum circuits for implementing continuous-time quantum walks on the circulant class of graphs. These circuits allow us to sample from the output probability distributions of quantum walks on circulant graphs efficiently. We also show that solving the same sampling problem for arbitrary circulant quantum circuits is intractable for a classical computer, assuming conjectures from computational complexity theory. This is a new link between continuous-time quantum walks and computational complexity theory and it indicates a family of tasks that could ultimately demonstrate quantum supremacy over classical computers. As a proof of principle, we experimentally implement the proposed quantum circuit on an example circulant graph using a two-qubit photonics quantum processor. PMID:27146471
Efficient quantum walk on a quantum processor
Qiang, Xiaogang; Loke, Thomas; Montanaro, Ashley; Aungskunsiri, Kanin; Zhou, Xiaoqi; O'Brien, Jeremy L.; Wang, Jingbo B.; Matthews, Jonathan C. F.
2016-01-01
The random walk formalism is used across a wide range of applications, from modelling share prices to predicting population genetics. Likewise, quantum walks have shown much potential as a framework for developing new quantum algorithms. Here we present explicit efficient quantum circuits for implementing continuous-time quantum walks on the circulant class of graphs. These circuits allow us to sample from the output probability distributions of quantum walks on circulant graphs efficiently. We also show that solving the same sampling problem for arbitrary circulant quantum circuits is intractable for a classical computer, assuming conjectures from computational complexity theory. This is a new link between continuous-time quantum walks and computational complexity theory and it indicates a family of tasks that could ultimately demonstrate quantum supremacy over classical computers. As a proof of principle, we experimentally implement the proposed quantum circuit on an example circulant graph using a two-qubit photonics quantum processor. PMID:27146471
Efficient quantum walk on a quantum processor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiang, Xiaogang; Loke, Thomas; Montanaro, Ashley; Aungskunsiri, Kanin; Zhou, Xiaoqi; O'Brien, Jeremy L.; Wang, Jingbo B.; Matthews, Jonathan C. F.
2016-05-01
The random walk formalism is used across a wide range of applications, from modelling share prices to predicting population genetics. Likewise, quantum walks have shown much potential as a framework for developing new quantum algorithms. Here we present explicit efficient quantum circuits for implementing continuous-time quantum walks on the circulant class of graphs. These circuits allow us to sample from the output probability distributions of quantum walks on circulant graphs efficiently. We also show that solving the same sampling problem for arbitrary circulant quantum circuits is intractable for a classical computer, assuming conjectures from computational complexity theory. This is a new link between continuous-time quantum walks and computational complexity theory and it indicates a family of tasks that could ultimately demonstrate quantum supremacy over classical computers. As a proof of principle, we experimentally implement the proposed quantum circuit on an example circulant graph using a two-qubit photonics quantum processor.
Efficient Quantum Information Processing via Quantum Compressions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Y.; Luo, M. X.; Ma, S. Y.
2016-01-01
Our purpose is to improve the quantum transmission efficiency and reduce the resource cost by quantum compressions. The lossless quantum compression is accomplished using invertible quantum transformations and applied to the quantum teleportation and the simultaneous transmission over quantum butterfly networks. New schemes can greatly reduce the entanglement cost, and partially solve transmission conflictions over common links. Moreover, the local compression scheme is useful for approximate entanglement creations from pre-shared entanglements. This special task has not been addressed because of the quantum no-cloning theorem. Our scheme depends on the local quantum compression and the bipartite entanglement transfer. Simulations show the success probability is greatly dependent of the minimal entanglement coefficient. These results may be useful in general quantum network communication.
Photoconductive Cathode Interlayer for Highly Efficient Inverted Polymer Solar Cells.
Nian, Li; Zhang, Wenqiang; Zhu, Na; Liu, Linlin; Xie, Zengqi; Wu, Hongbin; Würthner, Frank; Ma, Yuguang
2015-06-10
A highly photoconductive cathode interlayer was achieved by doping a 1 wt % light absorber, such as perylene bisimide, into a ZnO thin film, which absorbs a very small amount of light but shows highly increased conductivity of 4.50 × 10(-3) S/m under sunlight. Photovoltaic devices based on this kind of photoactive cathode interlayer exhibit significantly improved device performance, which is rather insensitive to the thickness of the cathode interlayer over a broad range. Moreover, a power conversion efficiency as high as 10.5% was obtained by incorporation of our photoconductive cathode interlayer with the PTB7-Th:PC71BM active layer, which is one of the best results for single-junction polymer solar cells. PMID:26016386
Choi, Yongman; Mebane, David S.; Wang, Jeng-Han; Liu, Meilin
2009-10-08
Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have several advantages over other types of fuels cells such as high-energy efficiency and excellent fuel flexibility. To be economically competitive, however, new materials with extraordinary transport and catalytic properties must be developed to dramatically improve the performance while reducing the cost. This article reviews recent advancements in understanding oxygen reduction on various cathode materials using phenomenological and quantum chemical approaches in order to develop novel cathode materials with high catalytic activity toward oxygen reduction. We summarize a variety of results relevant to understanding the interactions between O2 and cathode materials at the molecular level as predicted using quantum-chemical cal-culations and probed using in situ surface vibrational spectroscopy. It is hoped that this in-depth understanding may provide useful insights into the design of novel cath-ode materials for a new generation of SOFCs.
Efficient Quantum Pseudorandomness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Harrow, Aram W.; Horodecki, Michał
2016-04-01
Randomness is both a useful way to model natural systems and a useful tool for engineered systems, e.g., in computation, communication, and control. Fully random transformations require exponential time for either classical or quantum systems, but in many cases pseudorandom operations can emulate certain properties of truly random ones. Indeed, in the classical realm there is by now a well-developed theory regarding such pseudorandom operations. However, the construction of such objects turns out to be much harder in the quantum case. Here, we show that random quantum unitary time evolutions ("circuits") are a powerful source of quantum pseudorandomness. This gives for the first time a polynomial-time construction of quantum unitary designs, which can replace fully random operations in most applications, and shows that generic quantum dynamics cannot be distinguished from truly random processes. We discuss applications of our result to quantum information science, cryptography, and understanding the self-equilibration of closed quantum dynamics.
Efficient Quantum Pseudorandomness.
Brandão, Fernando G S L; Harrow, Aram W; Horodecki, Michał
2016-04-29
Randomness is both a useful way to model natural systems and a useful tool for engineered systems, e.g., in computation, communication, and control. Fully random transformations require exponential time for either classical or quantum systems, but in many cases pseudorandom operations can emulate certain properties of truly random ones. Indeed, in the classical realm there is by now a well-developed theory regarding such pseudorandom operations. However, the construction of such objects turns out to be much harder in the quantum case. Here, we show that random quantum unitary time evolutions ("circuits") are a powerful source of quantum pseudorandomness. This gives for the first time a polynomial-time construction of quantum unitary designs, which can replace fully random operations in most applications, and shows that generic quantum dynamics cannot be distinguished from truly random processes. We discuss applications of our result to quantum information science, cryptography, and understanding the self-equilibration of closed quantum dynamics. PMID:27176509
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchleitner, Andreas; Burghardt, Irene; Cheng, Yuan-Chung; Scholes, Gregory D.; Schwarz, Ulrich T.; Weber-Bargioni, Alexander; Wellens, Thomas
2014-10-01
Technologies which convert light into energy, and vice versa, rely on complex, microscopic transport processes in the condensed phase, which obey the laws of quantum mechanics, but hitherto lack systematic analysis and modeling. Given our much improved understanding of multicomponent, disordered, highly structured, open quantum systems, this ‘focus on’ collection collects cutting-edge research on theoretical and experimental aspects of quantum transport in truly complex systems as defined, e.g., by the macromolecular functional complexes at the heart of photosynthesis, by organic quantum wires, or even photovoltaic devices. To what extent microscopic quantum coherence effects can (be made to) impact on macroscopic transport behavior is an equally challenging and controversial question, and this ‘focus on’ collection provides a setting for the present state of affairs, as well as for the ‘quantum opportunities’ on the horizon.
Fully transparent quantum dot light-emitting diode integrated with graphene anode and cathode.
Seo, Jung-Tak; Han, Junebeom; Lim, Taekyung; Lee, Ki-Heon; Hwang, Jungseek; Yang, Heesun; Ju, Sanghyun
2014-12-23
A fully transparent quantum dot light-emitting diode (QD-LED) was fabricated by incorporating two types (anode and cathode) of graphene-based electrodes, which were controlled in their work functions and sheet resistances. Either gold nanoparticles or silver nanowires were inserted between layers of graphene to control the work function, whereas the sheet resistance was determined by the number of graphene layers. The inserted gold nanoparticles or silver nanowires in graphene films caused a charge transfer and changed the work function to 4.9 and 4.3 eV, respectively, from the original work function (4.5 eV) of pristine graphene. Moreover the sheet resistance values for the anode and cathode electrodes were improved from ∼63,000 to ∼110 Ω/sq and from ∼100,000 to ∼741 Ω/sq as the number of graphene layers increased from 1 to 12 and from 1 to 8, respectively. The main peak wavelength, luminance, current efficiency, and optical transmittance of the fully transparent QD-LED integrated with graphene anode and cathode were 535 nm, ∼358 cd/m2, ∼0.45 cd/A, and 70-80%, respectively. The findings of the study are expected to lay a foundation for the production of high-efficiency, fully transparent, and flexible displays using graphene-based electrodes. PMID:25426762
Efficient quantum memory for light.
Hedges, Morgan P; Longdell, Jevon J; Li, Yongmin; Sellars, Matthew J
2010-06-24
Storing and retrieving a quantum state of light on demand, without corrupting the information it carries, is an important challenge in the field of quantum information processing. Classical measurement and reconstruction strategies for storing light must necessarily destroy quantum information as a consequence of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. There has been significant effort directed towards the development of devices-so-called quantum memories-capable of avoiding this penalty. So far, successful demonstrations of non-classical storage and on-demand recall have used atomic vapours and have been limited to low efficiencies, of less than 17 per cent, using weak quantum states with an average photon number of around one. Here we report a low-noise, highly efficient (up to 69 per cent) quantum memory for light that uses a solid-state medium. The device allows the storage and recall of light more faithfully than is possible using a classical memory, for weak coherent states at the single-photon level through to bright states of up to 500 photons. For input coherent states containing on average 30 photons or fewer, the performance exceeded the no-cloning limit. This guaranteed that more information about the inputs was retrieved from the memory than was left behind or destroyed, a feature that will provide security in communications applications. PMID:20577210
Duality quantum computer and the efficient quantum simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Shi-Jie; Long, Gui-Lu
2016-03-01
Duality quantum computing is a new mode of a quantum computer to simulate a moving quantum computer passing through a multi-slit. It exploits the particle wave duality property for computing. A quantum computer with n qubits and a qudit simulates a moving quantum computer with n qubits passing through a d-slit. Duality quantum computing can realize an arbitrary sum of unitaries and therefore a general quantum operator, which is called a generalized quantum gate. All linear bounded operators can be realized by the generalized quantum gates, and unitary operators are just the extreme points of the set of generalized quantum gates. Duality quantum computing provides flexibility and a clear physical picture in designing quantum algorithms, and serves as a powerful bridge between quantum and classical algorithms. In this paper, after a brief review of the theory of duality quantum computing, we will concentrate on the applications of duality quantum computing in simulations of Hamiltonian systems. We will show that duality quantum computing can efficiently simulate quantum systems by providing descriptions of the recent efficient quantum simulation algorithm of Childs and Wiebe (Quantum Inf Comput 12(11-12):901-924, 2012) for the fast simulation of quantum systems with a sparse Hamiltonian, and the quantum simulation algorithm by Berry et al. (Phys Rev Lett 114:090502, 2015), which provides exponential improvement in precision for simulating systems with a sparse Hamiltonian.
Efficient universal blind quantum computation.
Giovannetti, Vittorio; Maccone, Lorenzo; Morimae, Tomoyuki; Rudolph, Terry G
2013-12-01
We give a cheat sensitive protocol for blind universal quantum computation that is efficient in terms of computational and communication resources: it allows one party to perform an arbitrary computation on a second party's quantum computer without revealing either which computation is performed, or its input and output. The first party's computational capabilities can be extremely limited: she must only be able to create and measure single-qubit superposition states. The second party is not required to use measurement-based quantum computation. The protocol requires the (optimal) exchange of O(Jlog2(N)) single-qubit states, where J is the computational depth and N is the number of qubits needed for the computation. PMID:24476238
Efficient Universal Blind Quantum Computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giovannetti, Vittorio; Maccone, Lorenzo; Morimae, Tomoyuki; Rudolph, Terry G.
2013-12-01
We give a cheat sensitive protocol for blind universal quantum computation that is efficient in terms of computational and communication resources: it allows one party to perform an arbitrary computation on a second party’s quantum computer without revealing either which computation is performed, or its input and output. The first party’s computational capabilities can be extremely limited: she must only be able to create and measure single-qubit superposition states. The second party is not required to use measurement-based quantum computation. The protocol requires the (optimal) exchange of O(Jlog2(N)) single-qubit states, where J is the computational depth and N is the number of qubits needed for the computation.
Vacuum-free transparent quantum dot light-emitting diodes with silver nanowire cathode
Jing, Pengtao; Ji, Wenyu; Zeng, Qinghui; Li, Di; Qu, Songnan; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Dandan
2015-01-01
Efficient transparent quantum-dot light emitting diodes (QD-LEDs) are demonstrated by using a silver nanowire (AgNW) cathode. The devices are fabricated through a solution technique, not any vacuum processes are involved. Almost identical performance is obtained for both sides of the transparent device, which is primary due to the high transmittance of AgNW cathode. The maximum luminance (efficiency) for ITO and AgNW side is 25,040 cd/m2 (5.6 cd/A) and 23,440 cd/m2 (5.2 cd/A), respectively. The average specular transmittance of the device (involving the glass substrate) is over 60% in the visible range. This study indicates that AgNW electrodes can serve as a cost-effective, flexible alternative to ITO, and thereby improve the economic viability and mechanical stability of QD-LEDs. All the results suggest that this is an important progress toward producing transparent QD-LEDs based displays and lighting sources. PMID:26198668
Efficiency and formalism of quantum games
Lee, C.F.; Johnson, Neil F.
2003-02-01
We show that quantum games are more efficient than classical games and provide a saturated upper bound for this efficiency. We also demonstrate that the set of finite classical games is a strict subset of the set of finite quantum games. Our analysis is based on a rigorous formulation of quantum games, from which quantum versions of the minimax theorem and the Nash equilibrium theorem can be deduced.
Enhanced quantum efficiency bialkali photo multiplier tubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mirzoyan, Razmick; Goebel, Florian; Hose, Juergen; Hsu, Ching Cheng; Ninković, Jelena; Paneque, David; Rudert, Agnes; Teshima, Masahiro
2007-03-01
Currently, the classical PMTs with semitransparent bialkali photo cathode show peak quantum efficiency (QE) of ˜25-27%. Although the above-mentioned peak QE was achieved already ˜40 years ago, nevertheless one cannot report any significant increase since then. A couple of years ago we started a development program with the main PMT manufacturers Photonis, Electron Tubes and Hamamatsu, aiming to boost-up the peak QE of the (1-2)″ size bialkali PMTs. Today we want to report that our efforts were successful: all of the three above-mentioned companies succeeded to boost the peak QE of bialkali PMTs to the level of 30-35%. In this report, we want to show the QE measurements of different tubes and discuss the future prospects. For example, it shall be possible to use the diffuse-scattering matt lacquer coating technique in order to enhance further the QE. In our previous experience application of that coating provided ˜15% increase in QE for 1-1.5″ hemispherical tubes.
Verification of high efficient broad beam cold cathode ion source.
Abdel Reheem, A M; Ahmed, M M; Abdelhamid, M M; Ashour, A H
2016-08-01
An improved form of cold cathode ion source has been designed and constructed. It consists of stainless steel hollow cylinder anode and stainless steel cathode disc, which are separated by a Teflon flange. The electrical discharge and output characteristics have been measured at different pressures using argon, nitrogen, and oxygen gases. The ion exit aperture shape and optimum distance between ion collector plate and cathode disc are studied. The stable discharge current and maximum output ion beam current have been obtained using grid exit aperture. It was found that the optimum distance between ion collector plate and ion exit aperture is equal to 6.25 cm. The cold cathode ion source is used to deposit aluminum coating layer on AZ31 magnesium alloy using argon ion beam current which equals 600 μA. Scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction techniques used for characterizing samples before and after aluminum deposition. PMID:27587108
Verification of high efficient broad beam cold cathode ion source
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdel Reheem, A. M.; Ahmed, M. M.; Abdelhamid, M. M.; Ashour, A. H.
2016-08-01
An improved form of cold cathode ion source has been designed and constructed. It consists of stainless steel hollow cylinder anode and stainless steel cathode disc, which are separated by a Teflon flange. The electrical discharge and output characteristics have been measured at different pressures using argon, nitrogen, and oxygen gases. The ion exit aperture shape and optimum distance between ion collector plate and cathode disc are studied. The stable discharge current and maximum output ion beam current have been obtained using grid exit aperture. It was found that the optimum distance between ion collector plate and ion exit aperture is equal to 6.25 cm. The cold cathode ion source is used to deposit aluminum coating layer on AZ31 magnesium alloy using argon ion beam current which equals 600 μA. Scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction techniques used for characterizing samples before and after aluminum deposition.
Outcoupling efficiency of OLEDs with 2D periodical corrugation at the cathode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belousov, Sergei; Bogdanova, Maria; Teslyuk, Anton
2016-03-01
We study theoretically the optical performance of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with 2D periodical corrugation at the cathode. We show how emergence of radiative surface plasmon resonances at the 2D corrugated cathode leads to the enhancement of the outcoupling efficiency of the OLED, which is primarily due to the outcoupling of emission generated by vertically oriented emitting excitons in the emission layer. We analyze the outcoupling efficiency of the OLED as a function of geometrical parameters of the corrugation and establish design rules for optimal outcoupling enhancement with the 2D corrugation at the cathode.
Quantum efficiency of a double quantum dot microwave photon detector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wong, Clement; Vavilov, Maxim
Motivated by recent interest in implementing circuit quantum electrodynamics with semiconducting quantum dots, we study charge transfer through a double quantum dot (DQD) capacitively coupled to a superconducting cavity subject to a microwave field. We analyze the DQD current response using input-output theory and determine the optimal parameter regime for complete absorption of radiation and efficient conversion of microwave photons to electric current. For experimentally available DQD systems, we show that the cavity-coupled DQD operates as a photon-to-charge converter with quantum efficiencies up to 80% C.W. acknowledges support by the Intelligence Community Postdoctoral Research Fellowship Program.
High efficiency ionizer using a hollow cathode discharge plasma
Alessi, J.G.; Prelec, K.
1984-01-01
A proposal for an ionizer using a hollow cathode discharge plasma is described. Ionization is via the very high current density electron beam component in the plasma, as well as from charge exchange with plasma ions. Extraction of a He/sup +/ current corresponding to approximately 50% of the incoming atomic beam flux should be possible.
Photosensor with enhanced quantum efficiency
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Janesick, James R. (Inventor); Elliott, Stythe T. (Inventor)
1989-01-01
A method to significantly increase the quantum efficiency (QE) of a CCD (or similar photosensor) applied in the UV, far UV and low energy x-ray regions of the spectrum. The increase in QE is accomplished by overthinning the backside of a CCD substrate beyond the epitaxial interface and UV flooding the sensor prior to use. The UV light photoemits electrons to the thinned surface and charges the backside negatively. This in turn forms an accumulation layer of holes near the Si-SiO.sub.2 interface creating an electric field gradient in the silicon which directs the photogenerated signal to the frontside where they are collected in pixel locations and later transferred. An oxide film, in which the backside charge resides, must have quality equivalent to a well aged native oxide which typically takes several years to form under ambient conditions. To reduce the amount of time in growing an oxide of sufficient quality, a process has been developed to grow an oxide by using deionized steam at 95.degree. C. which takes less than one hour to grow.
Robust and efficient in situ quantum control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferrie, Christopher; Moussa, Osama
2015-05-01
Precision control of quantum systems is the driving force for both quantum technology and the probing of physics at the quantum and nanoscale levels. We propose an implementation-independent method for in situ quantum control that leverages recent advances in the direct estimation of quantum gate fidelity. Our algorithm takes account of the stochasticity of the problem, is suitable for closed-loop control, and requires only a constant number of fidelity-estimating experiments per iteration independent of the dimension of the control space. It is efficient and robust to both statistical and technical noise.
Counterfactual quantum key distribution with high efficiency
Sun Ying; Wen Qiaoyan
2010-11-15
In a counterfactual quantum key distribution scheme, a secret key can be generated merely by transmitting the split vacuum pulses of single particles. We improve the efficiency of the first quantum key distribution scheme based on the counterfactual phenomenon. This scheme not only achieves the same security level as the original one but also has higher efficiency. We also analyze how to achieve the optimal efficiency under various conditions.
Li, Da; Qu, Youpeng; Liu, Jia; Liu, Guohong; Zhang, Jie; Feng, Yujie
2016-08-17
A biofilm growing on an air cathode is responsible for the decreased performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). For the undesired biofilm to be minimized, silver nanoparticles were synthesized on activated carbon as the cathodic catalyst (Ag/AC) in MFCs. Ag/AC enhanced maximum power density by 14.6% compared to that of a bare activated carbon cathode (AC) due to the additional silver catalysis. After operating MFCs over five months, protein content on the Ag/AC cathode was only 38.3% of that on the AC cathode, which resulted in a higher oxygen concentration diffusing through the Ag/AC cathode. In addition, a lower pH increment (0.2 units) was obtained near the Ag/AC catalyst surface after biofouling compared to 0.8 units of the AC cathode, indicating that less biofilm on the Ag/AC cathode had a minor resistance on hydroxide transported from the catalyst layer interfaces to the bulk solution. Therefore, less decrements of the Ag/AC activity and MFC performance were obtained. This result indicated that accelerated transport of oxygen and hydroxide, benefitting from the antibacterial property of the cathode, could efficiently maintain higher cathode stability during long-term operation. PMID:27441786
Efficient entanglement distillation without quantum memory
Abdelkhalek, Daniela; Syllwasschy, Mareike; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman
2016-01-01
Entanglement distribution between distant parties is an essential component to most quantum communication protocols. Unfortunately, decoherence effects such as phase noise in optical fibres are known to demolish entanglement. Iterative (multistep) entanglement distillation protocols have long been proposed to overcome decoherence, but their probabilistic nature makes them inefficient since the success probability decays exponentially with the number of steps. Quantum memories have been contemplated to make entanglement distillation practical, but suitable quantum memories are not realised to date. Here, we present the theory for an efficient iterative entanglement distillation protocol without quantum memories and provide a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration. The scheme is applied to phase-diffused two-mode-squeezed states and proven to distil entanglement for up to three iteration steps. The data are indistinguishable from those that an efficient scheme using quantum memories would produce. Since our protocol includes the final measurement it is particularly promising for enhancing continuous-variable quantum key distribution. PMID:27241946
Efficient entanglement distillation without quantum memory.
Abdelkhalek, Daniela; Syllwasschy, Mareike; Cerf, Nicolas J; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman
2016-01-01
Entanglement distribution between distant parties is an essential component to most quantum communication protocols. Unfortunately, decoherence effects such as phase noise in optical fibres are known to demolish entanglement. Iterative (multistep) entanglement distillation protocols have long been proposed to overcome decoherence, but their probabilistic nature makes them inefficient since the success probability decays exponentially with the number of steps. Quantum memories have been contemplated to make entanglement distillation practical, but suitable quantum memories are not realised to date. Here, we present the theory for an efficient iterative entanglement distillation protocol without quantum memories and provide a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration. The scheme is applied to phase-diffused two-mode-squeezed states and proven to distil entanglement for up to three iteration steps. The data are indistinguishable from those that an efficient scheme using quantum memories would produce. Since our protocol includes the final measurement it is particularly promising for enhancing continuous-variable quantum key distribution. PMID:27241946
Efficient entanglement distillation without quantum memory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdelkhalek, Daniela; Syllwasschy, Mareike; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman
2016-05-01
Entanglement distribution between distant parties is an essential component to most quantum communication protocols. Unfortunately, decoherence effects such as phase noise in optical fibres are known to demolish entanglement. Iterative (multistep) entanglement distillation protocols have long been proposed to overcome decoherence, but their probabilistic nature makes them inefficient since the success probability decays exponentially with the number of steps. Quantum memories have been contemplated to make entanglement distillation practical, but suitable quantum memories are not realised to date. Here, we present the theory for an efficient iterative entanglement distillation protocol without quantum memories and provide a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration. The scheme is applied to phase-diffused two-mode-squeezed states and proven to distil entanglement for up to three iteration steps. The data are indistinguishable from those that an efficient scheme using quantum memories would produce. Since our protocol includes the final measurement it is particularly promising for enhancing continuous-variable quantum key distribution.
Efficient Toffoli Gate in Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reed, Matthew; Dicarlo, Leonardo; Sun, Luyan; Frunzio, Luigi; Schoelkopf, Robert
2011-03-01
The fidelity of quantum gates in circuit quantum electrodynamics is typically limited by qubit decoherence. As such, significant improvements can be realized by shortening gate duration. The three-qubit Toffoli gate, also called the controlled-controlled NOT, is an important operation in basic quantum error correction. We report a scheme for a Toffoli gate that exploits interactions with non-computational excited states of transmon qubits which can be executed faster than an equivalent construction using one- and two-qubit gates. The application of this gate to efficient measurement-free quantum error correction will be discussed. Research supported by NSF, NSA, and ARO.
Efficient networks for quantum factoring
Beckman, D.; Chari, A.N.; Devabhaktuni, S.; Preskill, J.
1996-08-01
We consider how to optimize memory use and computation time in operating a quantum computer. In particular, we estimate the number of memory quantum bits (qubits) and the number of operations required to perform factorization, using the algorithm suggested by Shor [in {ital Proceedings} {ital of} {ital the} 35{ital th} {ital Annual} {ital Symposium} {ital on} {ital Foundations} {ital of} {ital Computer} {ital Science}, edited by S. Goldwasser (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA, 1994), p. 124]. A {ital K}-bit number can be factored in time of order {ital K}{sup 3} using a machine capable of storing 5{ital K}+1 qubits. Evaluation of the modular exponential function (the bottleneck of Shor{close_quote}s algorithm) could be achieved with about 72{ital K}{sup 3} elementary quantum gates; implementation using a linear ion trap would require about 396{ital K}{sup 3} laser pulses. A proof-of-principle demonstration of quantum factoring (factorization of 15) could be performed with only 6 trapped ions and 38 laser pulses. Though the ion trap may never be a useful computer, it will be a powerful device for exploring experimentally the properties of entangled quantum states. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Conditional efficient multiuser quantum cryptography network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xue, Peng; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can
2002-02-01
We propose a conditional quantum key distribution scheme with three nonorthogonal states. Combined with the idea presented by Lo et al. (H.-K. Lo, H. F. Chau, and M. Ardehali, e-print arXiv: quant-ph/0011056), the efficiency of this scheme is increased to tend to 100%. Also, such a refined data analysis guarantees the security of our scheme against the most general eavesdropping strategy. Then, based on the scheme, we present a quantum cryptography network with the addition of a device called ``space optical switch.'' Moreover, we give out a realization of a quantum random number generator. Thus, a feasible experimental scheme of this efficient quantum cryptography network is completely given.
Efficient multiparty quantum-secret-sharing schemes
Xiao Li; Deng Fuguo; Long Guilu; Pan Jianwei
2004-05-01
In this work, we generalize the quantum-secret-sharing scheme of Hillery, Buzek, and Berthiaume [Phys. Rev. A 59, 1829 (1999)] into arbitrary multiparties. Explicit expressions for the shared secret bit is given. It is shown that in the Hillery-Buzek-Berthiaume quantum-secret-sharing scheme the secret information is shared in the parity of binary strings formed by the measured outcomes of the participants. In addition, we have increased the efficiency of the quantum-secret-sharing scheme by generalizing two techniques from quantum key distribution. The favored-measuring-basis quantum-secret-sharing scheme is developed from the Lo-Chau-Ardehali technique [H. K. Lo, H. F. Chau, and M. Ardehali, e-print quant-ph/0011056] where all the participants choose their measuring-basis asymmetrically, and the measuring-basis-encrypted quantum-secret-sharing scheme is developed from the Hwang-Koh-Han technique [W. Y. Hwang, I. G. Koh, and Y. D. Han, Phys. Lett. A 244, 489 (1998)] where all participants choose their measuring basis according to a control key. Both schemes are asymptotically 100% in efficiency, hence nearly all the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states in a quantum-secret-sharing process are used to generate shared secret information.
Extreme ultraviolet quantum detection efficiency of rubidium bromide opaque photocathodes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Siegmund, Oswald H. W.; Gaines, Geoffrey A.
1990-01-01
Measurements are presented of the quantum detection efficiency (QDE) of three samples of RbBr photocathode layers over the 44-150-A wavelength range. The QDE of RbBr-coated microchannel plate (MCP) was measured using a back-to-back Z-stack MCP configuration in a detector with a wedge and strip position-sensitive anode, of the type described by Siegmund et al. (1984). To assess the stability of RbBr layer, the RbBr photocathode was exposed to air at about 30 percent humidity for 20 hr. It was found that the QDE values for the aged cathode were within the QDE measurement errors of the original values. A simple QDE model was developed, and it was found that its predictions are in accord with the QDE measurements.
Using elastin protein to develop highly efficient air cathodes for lithium-O2 batteries.
Guo, Guilue; Yao, Xin; Ang, Huixiang; Tan, Huiteng; Zhang, Yu; Guo, Yuanyuan; Fong, Eileen; Yan, Qingyu
2016-01-29
Transition metal-nitrogen/carbon (M-N/C, M = Fe, Co) catalysts are synthesized using environmentally friendly histidine-tag-rich elastin protein beads, metal sulfate and water soluble carbon nanotubes followed by post-annealing and acid leaching processes. The obtained catalysts are used as cathode materials in lithium-O2 batteries. It has been discovered that during discharge, Li2O2 nanoparticles first nucleate and grow around the bead-decorated CNT regions (M-N/C centres) and coat on the catalysts at a high degree of discharge. The Fe-N/C catalyst-based cathodes deliver a capacity of 12,441 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 100 mA g(-1). When they were cycled at a limited capacity of 800 mAh g(-1) at current densities of 200 or 400 mA g(-1), these cathodes showed stable charge voltages of ∼3.65 or 3.90 V, corresponding to energy efficiencies of ∼71.2 or 65.1%, respectively. These results are considerably superior to those of the cathodes based on bare annealed CNTs, which prove that the Fe-N/C catalysts developed here are promising for use in non-aqueous lithium-O2 battery cathodes. PMID:26657319
Using elastin protein to develop highly efficient air cathodes for lithium-O2 batteries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Guilue; Yao, Xin; Ang, Huixiang; Tan, Huiteng; Zhang, Yu; Guo, Yuanyuan; Fong, Eileen; Yan, Qingyu
2016-01-01
Transition metal-nitrogen/carbon (M-N/C, M = Fe, Co) catalysts are synthesized using environmentally friendly histidine-tag-rich elastin protein beads, metal sulfate and water soluble carbon nanotubes followed by post-annealing and acid leaching processes. The obtained catalysts are used as cathode materials in lithium-O2 batteries. It has been discovered that during discharge, Li2O2 nanoparticles first nucleate and grow around the bead-decorated CNT regions (M-N/C centres) and coat on the catalysts at a high degree of discharge. The Fe-N/C catalyst-based cathodes deliver a capacity of 12 441 mAh g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1. When they were cycled at a limited capacity of 800 mAh g-1 at current densities of 200 or 400 mA g-1, these cathodes showed stable charge voltages of ˜3.65 or 3.90 V, corresponding to energy efficiencies of ˜71.2 or 65.1%, respectively. These results are considerably superior to those of the cathodes based on bare annealed CNTs, which prove that the Fe-N/C catalysts developed here are promising for use in non-aqueous lithium-O2 battery cathodes.
Efficient polymer light-emitting diode with air-stable aluminum cathode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbaszadeh, D.; Wetzelaer, G. A. H.; Doumon, N. Y.; Blom, P. W. M.
2016-03-01
The fast degradation of polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) in ambient conditions is primarily due to the oxidation of highly reactive metals, such as barium or calcium, which are used as cathode materials. Here, we report the fabrication of PLEDs using an air-stable partially oxidized aluminum (AlOx) cathode. Usually, the high work function of aluminum (4.2 eV) imposes a high barrier for injecting electrons into the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the emissive polymer (2.9 eV below the vacuum level). By partially oxidizing aluminum, its work function is decreased, but not sufficiently low for efficient electron injection. Efficient injection is obtained by inserting an electron transport layer of poly[(9,9-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-(benzo[2,1,3]thiadiazol-4,8-diyl)] (F8BT), which has its LUMO at 3.3 eV below vacuum, between the AlOx cathode and the emissive polymer. The intermediate F8BT layer not only serves as a hole-blocking layer but also provides an energetic staircase for electron injection from AlOx into the emissive layer. PLEDs with an AlOx cathode and F8BT interlayer exhibit a doubling of the efficiency as compared to conventional Ba/Al PLEDs, and still operate even after being kept in ambient atmosphere for one month without encapsulation.
Quantum efficiency and false positive rate
Hallett, P. E.
1969-01-01
1. This paper presents an analysis of the efficiency of performance at the absolute threshold of human vision. The data are from the same series as the previous papers (Hallett, 1969b, c) and consist of frequency-of-seeing curves, thresholds, false positive rates and equivalent background measurements, accumulated as small samples over a number of days. 2. Quantum efficiency is defined here as the ratio of the thresholds of an ideal and a real detector performing the same task with the same sampling error. This avoids the problem as to whether the frequency-of-seeing curve of the real detector is exactly a Poisson sum or not. 3. The long-term quantum efficiency can be low (about 0·04) as a result of drifts in the mean threshold. 4. The average short-term quantum efficiency is in the region of 0·1, which is roughly the physiological limit set by Rushton's (1956b) measurements of rhodopsin density in the living rods. If this is correct, then the absorption of a quantum, and not the bleaching of a rhodopsin molecule, is sufficient for the generation of a neural event. 5. Application of a simple signal/noise theory to the data gives solutions close to those suggested by Barlow (1956) and shows that false positives almost invariably arise from errors subsequent to the signal/noise decision process. PMID:5784295
Phase III Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Utilized in Energy Efficient Aluminum Production Cells
R.A. Christini; R.K. Dawless; S.P. Ray; D.A. Weirauch, Jr.
2001-11-05
During Phase I of the present program, Alcoa developed a commercial cell concept that has been estimated to save 30% of the energy required for aluminum smelting. Phase ii involved the construction of a pilot facility and operation of two pilots. Phase iii of the Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Program was aimed at bench experiments to permit the resolution of certain questions to be followed by three pilot cells. All of the milestones related to materials, in particular metal purity, were attained with distinct improvements over work in previous phases of the program. NiO additions to the ceramic phase and Ag additions to the Cu metal phase of the cermet improved corrosion resistance sufficiently that the bench scale pencil anodes met the purity milestones. Some excellent metal purity results have been obtained with anodes of the following composition: Further improvements in anode material composition appear to be dependent on a better understanding of oxide solubilities in molten cryolite. For that reason, work was commissioned with an outside consultant to model the MeO - cryolite systems. That work has led to a better understanding of which oxides can be used to substitute into the NiO-Fe2O3 ceramic phase to stabilize the ferrites and reduce their solubility in molten cryolite. An extensive number of vertical plate bench electrolysis cells were run to try to find conditions where high current efficiencies could be attained. TiB2-G plates were very inconsistent and led to poor wetting and drainage. Pure TiB2 did produce good current efficiencies at small overlaps (shadowing) between the anodes and cathodes. This bench work with vertical plate anodes and cathodes reinforced the importance of good cathode wetting to attain high current efficiencies. Because of those conclusions, new wetting work was commissioned and became a major component of the research during the third year of Phase III. While significant progress was made in several areas, much work needs to be
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, Thomas M.; Millard, Ian S.; Lacey, David; Burroughes, Jeremy H.; Friend, Richard H.; Cacialli, Franco
2002-02-01
Efficient blue Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes (PLEDs) were fabricated by evaporating thin LiF layers between Al or Ca cathodes. Electroabsorption measurements of the built-in potential across the diodes show that devices fabricated with LiF/Ca/Al cathodes exhibit the smallest average barrier height and operating voltage (compared to both Ca and LiF/Al currently amongst the most efficient electron injectors). The turn-on bias is essentially equivalent to the built-in potential (~2.7 V), indicating an effective minimisation of the barrier to electron injection. Results are also compared with devices incorporating CsF layers and are correlated with the electroluminescent characteristics of the LEDs. A very strong dependence (~ exponential) between the built-in potential and the current and luminance at a fixed electric field (0.5MV/cm) is observed and is explained with the reduction of the cathodic barrier height brought about by the different cathode multilayers.
Liu, Wenbo; Liu, Shihao; Yu, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Wen, Xuemei; Yin, Yongming; Zhang, Letian; Chen, Ping; Xie, Wenfa
2014-03-03
Green phosphorescent inverted organic light-emitting devices (IOLEDs) with self or intentionally Ag-doped interlayer modified cathode were demonstrated. The IOLEDs show low driving voltage and high efficiency. For example, the efficiency of inverted bottom-emitting OLED with ITO cathode is comparable with the conventional bottom-emitting OLED with ITO anode. The top-emitting IOLED with Ag cathode shows high current efficiency of 76.4 cd/A which is 2.38 times of that of the conventional bottom-emitting OLED with ITO anode. The results indicate that the electron injection from cathode was observably improved by the Ag-doped interlayer and such interlayer is cathode independent relatively.
Quantum Otto cycle efficiency on coupled qudits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanchenko, E. A.
2015-09-01
Properties of the coupled particles with spin 3/2 (quartits) in a constant magnetic field, as a working substance in the quantum Otto cycle of the heat engine, are considered. It is shown that this system as a converter of heat energy in work (i) shows the efficiency 1 at the negative absolute temperatures of heat baths, (ii) at the temperatures of the opposite sign the efficiency approaches 1, (iii) at the positive temperatures of heat baths antiferromagnetic interaction raises efficiency threefold in comparison with uncoupled particles.
Quantum Otto cycle efficiency on coupled qudits.
Ivanchenko, E A
2015-09-01
Properties of the coupled particles with spin 3/2 (quartits) in a constant magnetic field, as a working substance in the quantum Otto cycle of the heat engine, are considered. It is shown that this system as a converter of heat energy in work (i) shows the efficiency 1 at the negative absolute temperatures of heat baths, (ii) at the temperatures of the opposite sign the efficiency approaches 1, (iii) at the positive temperatures of heat baths antiferromagnetic interaction raises efficiency threefold in comparison with uncoupled particles. PMID:26465443
Efficient quantum optical state engineering and applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCusker, Kevin T.
Over a century after the modern prediction of the existence of individual particles of light by Albert Einstein, a reliable source of this simple quantum state of one photon does not exist. While common light sources such as a light bulb, LED, or laser can produce a pulse of light with an average of one photon, there is (currently) no way of knowing the number of photons in that pulse without first absorbing (and thereby destroying) them. Spontaneous parametric down-conversion, a process in which one high-energy photon splits into two lower-energy photons, allows us to prepare a single-photon state by detecting one of the photons, which then heralds the existence of its twin. This process has been the workhorse of quantum optics, allowing demonstrations of a myriad of quantum processes and protocols, such as entanglement, cryptography, superdense coding, teleportation, and simple quantum computing demonstrations. All of these processes would benefit from better engineering of the underlying down-conversion process, but despite significant effort (both theoretical and experimental), optimization of this process is ongoing. The focus of this work is to optimize certain aspects of a down-conversion source, and then use this tool in novel experiments not otherwise feasible. Specifically, the goal is to optimize the heralding efficiency of the down-conversion photons, i.e., the probability that if one photon is detected, the other photon is also detected. This source is then applied to two experiments (a single-photon source, and a quantum cryptography implementation), and the detailed theory of an additional application (a source of Fock states and path-entangled states, called N00N states) is discussed, along with some other possible applications.
Quantum wells for high-efficiency photovoltaics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alonso-Álvarez, Diego; Ekins-Daukes, Nicholas
2016-03-01
Over the last couple of decades, there has been an intense research on strain balanced semiconductor quantum wells (QW) to increase the efficiency of multi-junction solar (MJ) solar cells grown monolithically on germanium. So far, the most successful application of QWs have required just to tailor a few tens of nanometers the absorption edge of a given subcell in order to reach the optimum spectral position. However, the demand for higher efficiency devices requiring 3, 4 or more junctions, represents a major difference in the challenges QWs must face: tailoring the absorption edge of a host material is not enough, but a complete new device, absorbing light in a different spectral region, must be designed. Among the most important issues to solve is the need for an optically thick structure to absorb enough light while keeping excellent carrier extraction using highly strained materials. Improvement of the growth techniques, smarter device designs - involving superlattices and shifted QWs, for example - or the use of quantum wires rather than QWs, have proven to be very effective steps towards high efficient MJ solar cells based on nanostructures in the last couple of years. But more is to be done to reach the target performances. This work discusses all these challenges, the limitations they represent and the different approaches that are being used to overcome them.
High Quantum Efficiency OLED Lighting Systems
Shiang, Joseph
2011-09-30
The overall goal of the program was to apply improvements in light outcoupling technology to a practical large area plastic luminaire, and thus enable the product vision of an extremely thin form factor high efficiency large area light source. The target substrate was plastic and the baseline device was operating at 35 LPW at the start of the program. The target LPW of the program was a >2x improvement in the LPW efficacy and the overall amount of light to be delivered was relatively high 900 lumens. Despite the extremely difficult challenges associated with scaling up a wet solution process on plastic substrates, the program was able to make substantial progress. A small molecule wet solution process was successfully implemented on plastic substrates with almost no loss in efficiency in transitioning from the laboratory scale glass to large area plastic substrates. By transitioning to a small molecule based process, the LPW entitlement increased from 35 LPW to 60 LPW. A further 10% improvement in outcoupling efficiency was demonstrated via the use of a highly reflecting cathode, which reduced absorptive loss in the OLED device. The calculated potential improvement in some cases is even larger, ~30%, and thus there is considerable room for optimism in improving the net light coupling efficacy, provided absorptive loss mechanisms are eliminated. Further improvements are possible if scattering schemes such as the silver nanowire based hard coat structure are fully developed. The wet coating processes were successfully scaled to large area plastic substrate and resulted in the construction of a 900 lumens luminaire device.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wintucky, Edwin G.
2002-01-01
A power-efficient, miniature, easily manufactured, reservoir-type barium-dispenser thermionic cathode has been developed that offers the significant advantages of simultaneous high electron-emission current density (>2 A/sq cm) and very long life (>100,000 hr of continuous operation) when compared with the commonly used impregnated-type barium-dispenser cathodes. Important applications of this cathode are a wide variety of microwave and millimeter-wave vacuum electronic devices, where high output power and reliability (long life) are essential. We also expect it to enable the practical development of higher purveyance electron guns for lower voltage and more reliable device operation. The low cathode heater power and reduced size and mass are expected to be particularly beneficial in traveling-wave-tube amplifiers (TWTA's) for space communications, where future NASA mission requirements include smaller onboard spacecraft systems, higher data transmission rates (high frequency and output power) and greater electrical efficiency.
Efficient Controlled Quantum Secure Direct Communication Protocols
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patwardhan, Siddharth; Moulick, Subhayan Roy; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.
2016-03-01
We study controlled quantum secure direct communication (CQSDC), a cryptographic scheme where a sender can send a secret bit-string to an intended recipient, without any secure classical channel, who can obtain the complete bit-string only with the permission of a controller. We report an efficient protocol to realize CQSDC using Cluster state and then go on to construct a (2-3)-CQSDC using Brown state, where a coalition of any two of the three controllers is required to retrieve the complete message. We argue both protocols to be unconditionally secure and analyze the efficiency of the protocols to show it to outperform the existing schemes while maintaining the same security specifications.
Efficient Controlled Quantum Secure Direct Communication Protocols
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patwardhan, Siddharth; Moulick, Subhayan Roy; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.
2016-07-01
We study controlled quantum secure direct communication (CQSDC), a cryptographic scheme where a sender can send a secret bit-string to an intended recipient, without any secure classical channel, who can obtain the complete bit-string only with the permission of a controller. We report an efficient protocol to realize CQSDC using Cluster state and then go on to construct a (2-3)-CQSDC using Brown state, where a coalition of any two of the three controllers is required to retrieve the complete message. We argue both protocols to be unconditionally secure and analyze the efficiency of the protocols to show it to outperform the existing schemes while maintaining the same security specifications.
Efficient multilayer white polymer light-emitting diodes with aluminum cathodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niu, Xiaodi; Qin, Chuanjiang; Zhang, Baohua; Yang, Junwei; Xie, Zhiyuan; Cheng, Yanxiang; Wang, Lixiang
2007-05-01
Efficient multilayer white polymer light-emitting diodes (WPLEDs) with aluminum cathodes are fabricated. The multilayer structure is composed of a water soluble hole-injection layer, a toluene-soluble emissive layer, and an alcohol-soluble emissive layer. The polarity difference of the solvents used for spin coating these polymers allows for realization of the multilayer polymer structure. The recombination zone confined at the interface of the two emissive polymers avoids exciton quenching by electrodes, and white emission is realized by harvesting photons emitted from the two emissive polymers. A maximum luminous efficiency of 16.9cd/A and a power efficiency of 11.1lm/W are achieved for this WPLED.
Duality quantum algorithm efficiently simulates open quantum systems.
Wei, Shi-Jie; Ruan, Dong; Long, Gui-Lu
2016-01-01
Because of inevitable coupling with the environment, nearly all practical quantum systems are open system, where the evolution is not necessarily unitary. In this paper, we propose a duality quantum algorithm for simulating Hamiltonian evolution of an open quantum system. In contrast to unitary evolution in a usual quantum computer, the evolution operator in a duality quantum computer is a linear combination of unitary operators. In this duality quantum algorithm, the time evolution of the open quantum system is realized by using Kraus operators which is naturally implemented in duality quantum computer. This duality quantum algorithm has two distinct advantages compared to existing quantum simulation algorithms with unitary evolution operations. Firstly, the query complexity of the algorithm is O(d(3)) in contrast to O(d(4)) in existing unitary simulation algorithm, where d is the dimension of the open quantum system. Secondly, By using a truncated Taylor series of the evolution operators, this duality quantum algorithm provides an exponential improvement in precision compared with previous unitary simulation algorithm. PMID:27464855
Duality quantum algorithm efficiently simulates open quantum systems
Wei, Shi-Jie; Ruan, Dong; Long, Gui-Lu
2016-01-01
Because of inevitable coupling with the environment, nearly all practical quantum systems are open system, where the evolution is not necessarily unitary. In this paper, we propose a duality quantum algorithm for simulating Hamiltonian evolution of an open quantum system. In contrast to unitary evolution in a usual quantum computer, the evolution operator in a duality quantum computer is a linear combination of unitary operators. In this duality quantum algorithm, the time evolution of the open quantum system is realized by using Kraus operators which is naturally implemented in duality quantum computer. This duality quantum algorithm has two distinct advantages compared to existing quantum simulation algorithms with unitary evolution operations. Firstly, the query complexity of the algorithm is O(d3) in contrast to O(d4) in existing unitary simulation algorithm, where d is the dimension of the open quantum system. Secondly, By using a truncated Taylor series of the evolution operators, this duality quantum algorithm provides an exponential improvement in precision compared with previous unitary simulation algorithm. PMID:27464855
Duality quantum algorithm efficiently simulates open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Shi-Jie; Ruan, Dong; Long, Gui-Lu
2016-07-01
Because of inevitable coupling with the environment, nearly all practical quantum systems are open system, where the evolution is not necessarily unitary. In this paper, we propose a duality quantum algorithm for simulating Hamiltonian evolution of an open quantum system. In contrast to unitary evolution in a usual quantum computer, the evolution operator in a duality quantum computer is a linear combination of unitary operators. In this duality quantum algorithm, the time evolution of the open quantum system is realized by using Kraus operators which is naturally implemented in duality quantum computer. This duality quantum algorithm has two distinct advantages compared to existing quantum simulation algorithms with unitary evolution operations. Firstly, the query complexity of the algorithm is O(d3) in contrast to O(d4) in existing unitary simulation algorithm, where d is the dimension of the open quantum system. Secondly, By using a truncated Taylor series of the evolution operators, this duality quantum algorithm provides an exponential improvement in precision compared with previous unitary simulation algorithm.
Quantum efficiencies of bacteriorhodopsin photochemical reactions
Xie, A.H. )
1990-11-01
Determination of quantum efficiencies of bacteriorhodopsin (bR) photoreactions is an essential step toward a full understanding of its light-driven proton-pumping mechanism. The bR molecules can be photoconverted into and from a K state, which is stable at 110 K. I measured the absorption spectra of pure bR, and the photoequilibrium states of bR and K generated with 420, 460, 500, 510, 520, 540, 560, 570, 580, 590, and 600 nm illumination at 110 K. The fraction of the K population in the photoequilibrium state, fk, is determined by AbR and AK the absorbances of the bR and K states at the excitation wavelengths, and also by phi 1 and phi 2, the quantum efficiencies for the bR to K and K to bR photoconversion: fK = phi 1 AbR/(phi 1AbR + phi 2Ak). By assuming that the ratio phi 1/phi 2 is the same at two different but close wavelengths, for example 570 and 580 nm, the value of phi 1/phi 2 at 570 and 580 nm was determined to be 0.55 +/- 0.02, and the spectrum of the K state was obtained with the peak absorbance at 607 nm. The values of phi 1/phi 2 at the other excitation wavelengths were then evaluated using the known K spectrum, and show almost no dependence on the excitation wavelength within the main band. The result phi 1/phi 2 = 0.55 +/- 0.02 disagrees with those of many other groups. The advantages of this method over others are its minimal assumptions and its straightforward procedure.
High Efficiency Colloidal Quantum Dot Phosphors
Kahen, Keith
2013-12-31
The project showed that non-Cd containing, InP-based nanocrystals (semiconductor materials with dimensions of ~6 nm) have high potential for enabling next-generation, nanocrystal-based, on chip phosphors for solid state lighting. Typical nanocrystals fall short of the requirements for on chip phosphors due to their loss of quantum efficiency under the operating conditions of LEDs, such as, high temperature (up to 150 °C) and high optical flux (up to 200 W/cm2). The InP-based nanocrystals invented during this project maintain high quantum efficiency (>80%) in polymer-based films under these operating conditions for emission wavelengths ranging from ~530 to 620 nm. These nanocrystals also show other desirable attributes, such as, lack of blinking (a common problem with nanocrystals which limits their performance) and no increase in the emission spectral width from room to 150 °C (emitters with narrower spectral widths enable higher efficiency LEDs). Prior to these nanocrystals, no nanocrystal system (regardless of nanocrystal type) showed this collection of properties; in fact, other nanocrystal systems are typically limited to showing only one desirable trait (such as high temperature stability) but being deficient in other properties (such as high flux stability). The project showed that one can reproducibly obtain these properties by generating a novel compositional structure inside of the nanomaterials; in addition, the project formulated an initial theoretical framework linking the compositional structure to the list of high performance optical properties. Over the course of the project, the synthetic methodology for producing the novel composition was evolved to enable the synthesis of these nanomaterials at a cost approximately equal to that required for forming typical conventional nanocrystals. Given the above results, the last major remaining step prior to scale up of the nanomaterials is to limit the oxidation of these materials during the tens of
Fast and efficient photodetection in nanoscale quantum-dot junctions.
Prins, Ferry; Buscema, Michele; Seldenthuis, Johannes S; Etaki, Samir; Buchs, Gilles; Barkelid, Maria; Zwiller, Val; Gao, Yunan; Houtepen, Arjan J; Siebbeles, Laurens D A; van der Zant, Herre S J
2012-11-14
We report on a photodetector in which colloidal quantum dots directly bridge nanometer-spaced electrodes. Unlike in conventional quantum-dot thin film photodetectors, charge mobility no longer plays a role in our quantum-dot junctions as charge extraction requires only two individual tunnel events. We find an efficient photoconductive gain mechanism with external quantum efficiencies of 38 electrons-per-photon in combination with response times faster than 300 ns. This compact device-architecture may open up new routes for improved photodetector performance in which efficiency and bandwidth do not go at the cost of one another. PMID:23094869
Zhang, Di; Xie, Fengxian; Lin, Peng; Choy, Wallace C H
2013-02-26
While there are challenges in tuning the properties of graphene (surface wettability, work function alignment, and carrier transport) for realizing an efficient graphene cathode in organic solar cells (OSCs), we propose and demonstrate using an Al-TiO₂ composite to modify single-layer graphene as an efficient cathode for OSCs. To unveil the contributions of the composite in addressing the aforementioned challenges, the evaporated aluminum nanoclusters in the composite benefit the graphene cathode by simultaneously achieving two roles of improving its surface wettability for subsequent TiO₂ deposition and reducing its work function to offer better energy alignment. To address challenges related to charge transport, solution-processed TiO₂ with excellent electron transport can offer charge extraction enhancement to the graphene cathode, which is essential to efficient devices. However, it is a well-known issue for methods such as spin-coating to produce uniform films on the initially hydrophobic graphene, even with improved wettability. The undesirable morphology of TiO₂ by such methods considerably inhibits its effectiveness in enhancing charge extraction. We propose a self-assembly method to deposit the solution-processed TiO₂ on the Al-covered graphene for forming the Al-TiO₂ composite. Compared with spin-coating, the self-assembly method is found to achieve more uniform coating on the graphene surface, with highly controllable thickness. Consequently, the graphene cathode modified with the Al-TiO₂ composite in inverted OSCs gives rise to enhanced power conversion efficiency of 2.58%, which is 2-fold of the previously best reported efficiency (1.27%) for graphene cathode OSCs, reaching ∼75% performance of control devices using indium tin oxide. PMID:23327464
Smedley,J.; Rao, T.; Wang, E.
2008-10-01
K{sub 2}CsSb is an attractive photocathode for high current applications. With a quantum efficiency of >4% at 532nm and >10% at 355nm, it is the only cathode to have demonstrated an average current of 35mA in an accelerator environment We describe ongoing cathode development work. for the energy recovery linac being constructed at BNL Several cathodes have been created on both copper and stainless steel substrates, and their spatial uniformity and spectral response have been characterized. Preliminary lifetime measurements have been performed at high average current densities (>1 mA/mm{sup 2}).
Wang, Xiaoguang; Kolen'ko, Yury V; Bao, Xiao-Qing; Kovnir, Kirill; Liu, Lifeng
2015-07-01
Nickel phosphide is an emerging low-cost, earth-abundant catalyst that can efficiently reduce water to generate hydrogen. However, the synthesis of nickel phosphide catalysts usually involves multiple steps and is laborious. Herein, a convenient and straightforward approach to the synthesis of a three-dimensional (3D) self-supported biphasic Ni5 P4 -Ni2 P nanosheet (NS) array cathode is presented, which is obtained by direct phosphorization of commercially available nickel foam using phosphorus vapor. The synthesized 3D Ni5 P4 -Ni2 P-NS array cathode exhibits outstanding electrocatalytic activity and long-term durability toward the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in acidic medium. The fabrication procedure reported here is scalable, showing substantial promise for use in water electrolysis. More importantly, the approach can be readily extended to synthesize other self-supported transition metal phosphide HER cathodes. PMID:26032688
A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knill, E.; Laflamme, R.; Milburn, G. J.
2001-01-01
Quantum computers promise to increase greatly the efficiency of solving problems such as factoring large integers, combinatorial optimization and quantum physics simulation. One of the greatest challenges now is to implement the basic quantum-computational elements in a physical system and to demonstrate that they can be reliably and scalably controlled. One of the earliest proposals for quantum computation is based on implementing a quantum bit with two optical modes containing one photon. The proposal is appealing because of the ease with which photon interference can be observed. Until now, it suffered from the requirement for non-linear couplings between optical modes containing few photons. Here we show that efficient quantum computation is possible using only beam splitters, phase shifters, single photon sources and photo-detectors. Our methods exploit feedback from photo-detectors and are robust against errors from photon loss and detector inefficiency. The basic elements are accessible to experimental investigation with current technology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Nan; An, Jingkun; Zhou, Lean; Li, Tian; Li, Junhui; Feng, Cuijuan; Wang, Xin
2016-02-01
Carbon black and graphite hybrid air-cathode is proved to be effective for H2O2 production in bioelectrochemical systems. The optimal mass ratio of carbon black to graphite is 1:5 with the highest H2O2 yield of 11.9 mg L-1 h-1 cm-2 (12.3 mA cm-2). Continuous flow is found to improve the current efficiency due to the avoidance of H2O2 accumulation. In the biological system, the highest H2O2 yield reaches 3.29 mg L-1h-1 (0.079 kg m-3day-1) with a current efficiency of 72%, which is higher than the abiotic system at the same current density. H2O2 produced in this system is mainly from the oxygen diffused through this air-cathode (>66%), especially when a more negative cathode potential is applied (94% at -1.0 V). This hybrid air-cathode has advantages of high H2O2 yield, high current density and no need of aeration, which make the synthesis of H2O2 more efficient and economical.
GENERAL: Efficient quantum secure communication with a publicly known key
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Xi-Han; Deng, Fu-Guo; Zhou, Hong-Yu
2008-07-01
This paper presents a simple way for an eavesdropper to eavesdrop freely the secret message in the experimental realization of quantum communication protocol proposed by Beige et al (2002 Acta Phys. Pol. A 101 357). Moreover, it introduces an efficient quantum secure communication protocol based on a publicly known key with decoy photons and two biased bases by modifying the original protocol. The total efficiency of this new protocol is double that of the original one. With a low noise quantum channel, this protocol can be used for transmitting a secret message. At present, this protocol is good for generating a private key efficiently.
A high-efficiency double quantum dot heat engine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Y. S.; Yang, X. F.; Hong, X. K.; Si, M. S.; Chi, F.; Guo, Y.
2013-08-01
High-efficiency heat engine requires a large output power at the cost of less input heat energy as possible. Here we propose a heat engine composed of serially connected two quantum dots sandwiched between two metallic electrodes. The efficiency of the heat engine can approach the maximum allowable Carnot efficiency ηC. We also find that the strong intradot Coulomb interaction can induce additional work regions for the heat engine, whereas the interdot Coulomb interaction always suppresses the efficiency. Our results presented here indicate a way to fabricate high-efficiency quantum-dot thermoelectric devices.
Efficient self-consistent quantum transport simulator for quantum devices
Gao, X. Mamaluy, D.; Nielsen, E.; Young, R. W.; Lilly, M. P.; Bishop, N. C.; Carroll, M. S.; Muller, R. P.; Shirkhorshidian, A.
2014-04-07
We present a self-consistent one-dimensional (1D) quantum transport simulator based on the Contact Block Reduction (CBR) method, aiming for very fast and robust transport simulation of 1D quantum devices. Applying the general CBR approach to 1D open systems results in a set of very simple equations that are derived and given in detail for the first time. The charge self-consistency of the coupled CBR-Poisson equations is achieved by using the predictor-corrector iteration scheme with the optional Anderson acceleration. In addition, we introduce a new way to convert an equilibrium electrostatic barrier potential calculated from an external simulator to an effective doping profile, which is then used by the CBR-Poisson code for transport simulation of the barrier under non-zero biases. The code has been applied to simulate the quantum transport in a double barrier structure and across a tunnel barrier in a silicon double quantum dot. Extremely fast self-consistent 1D simulations of the differential conductance across a tunnel barrier in the quantum dot show better qualitative agreement with experiment than non-self-consistent simulations.
Efficient self-consistent quantum transport simulator for quantum devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, X.; Mamaluy, D.; Nielsen, E.; Young, R. W.; Shirkhorshidian, A.; Lilly, M. P.; Bishop, N. C.; Carroll, M. S.; Muller, R. P.
2014-04-01
We present a self-consistent one-dimensional (1D) quantum transport simulator based on the Contact Block Reduction (CBR) method, aiming for very fast and robust transport simulation of 1D quantum devices. Applying the general CBR approach to 1D open systems results in a set of very simple equations that are derived and given in detail for the first time. The charge self-consistency of the coupled CBR-Poisson equations is achieved by using the predictor-corrector iteration scheme with the optional Anderson acceleration. In addition, we introduce a new way to convert an equilibrium electrostatic barrier potential calculated from an external simulator to an effective doping profile, which is then used by the CBR-Poisson code for transport simulation of the barrier under non-zero biases. The code has been applied to simulate the quantum transport in a double barrier structure and across a tunnel barrier in a silicon double quantum dot. Extremely fast self-consistent 1D simulations of the differential conductance across a tunnel barrier in the quantum dot show better qualitative agreement with experiment than non-self-consistent simulations.
Determination of the Quantum Efficiency of a Light Detector
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kraftmakher, Yaakov
2008-01-01
The "quantum efficiency" (QE) is an important property of a light detector. This quantity can be determined in the undergraduate physics laboratory. The experimentally determined QE of a silicon photodiode appeared to be in reasonable agreement with expected values. The experiment confirms the quantum properties of light and seems to be a useful…
Wide-Band, High-Quantum-Efficiency Photodetector
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jackson, Deborah; Wilson, Daniel; Stern, Jeffrey
2007-01-01
A design has been proposed for a photodetector that would exhibit a high quantum efficiency (as much as 90 percent) over a wide wavelength band, which would typically be centered at a wavelength of 1.55 m. This and similar photodetectors would afford a capability for detecting single photons - a capability that is needed for research in quantum optics as well as for the practical development of secure optical communication systems for distribution of quantum cryptographic keys. The proposed photodetector would be of the hot-electron, phonon-cooled, thin-film superconductor type. The superconducting film in this device would be a meandering strip of niobium nitride. In the proposed photodetector, the quantum efficiency would be increased through incorporation of optiA design has been proposed for a photodetector that would exhibit a high quantum efficiency (as much as 90 percent) over a wide wavelength band, which would typically be centered at a wavelength of 1.55 m. This and similar photodetectors would afford a capability for detecting single photons - a capability that is needed for research in quantum optics as well as for the practical development of secure optical communication systems for distribution of quantum cryptographic keys. The proposed photodetector would be of the hot-electron, phonon-cooled, thin-film superconductor type. The superconducting film in this device would be a meandering strip of niobium nitride. In the proposed photodetector, the quantum efficiency would be increased through incorporation of opti-
Efficient quantum circuits for Toeplitz and Hankel matrices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahasinghe, A.; Wang, J. B.
2016-07-01
Toeplitz and Hankel matrices have been a subject of intense interest in a wide range of science and engineering related applications. In this paper, we show that quantum circuits can efficiently implement sparse or Fourier-sparse Toeplitz and Hankel matrices. This provides an essential ingredient for solving many physical problems with Toeplitz or Hankel symmetry in the quantum setting with deterministic queries.
Surface Characterization of the LCLS RF Gun Cathode
Brachmann, Axel; Decker, Franz-Josef; Ding, Yuantao; Dowell, David; Emma, Paul; Frisch, Josef; Gilevich, Sasha; Hays, Gregory; Hering, Philippe; Huang, Zhirong; Iverson, Richard; Loos, Henrik; Miahnahri, Alan; Nordlund, Dennis; Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter; Pianetta, Piero; Turner, James; Welch, James; White, William; Wu, Juhao; Xiang, Dao; /SLAC
2012-06-25
The first copper cathode installed in the LCLS RF gun was used during LCLS commissioning for more than a year. However, after high charge operation (> 500 pC), the cathode showed a decline of quantum efficiency within the area of drive laser illumination. They report results of SEM, XPS and XAS studies that were carried out on this cathode after it was removed from the gun. X-ray absorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveal surface contamination by various hydrocarbon compounds. In addition they report on the performance of the second installed cathode with emphasis on the spatial distribution of electron emission.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lloyd, Seth
2014-03-01
Femtosecond spectroscopy reveals significant quantum coherence in excitonic transport in photosynthetic organisms. How and why are living systems using quantum mechanics? This talk presents a simple theory of how to optimize energy transport in quantum systems that possess noise and disorder. Too much quantum coherence leads to destructive interference and localization, while too little coherence prevents energy from moving at all, via the watchdog or quantum Zeno effect. With just the right amount of quantum coherence, however, energy can move through photosynthetic complexes with almost 100% efficiency. This talk explains how plants and photosynthetic bacteria attain such high efficiencies for energy transport, and discusses how human-made systems could be designed to attain similar efficiencies.
High Quantum Efficiency AlGaN/InGaN Photodetectors
Buckley, James H; Leopold, Daniel
2009-11-24
High efficiency photon counting detectors in use today for high energy particle detection applications have a significant spectral mismatch with typical sources and have a number of practical problems compared with conventional bialkali photomultiplier tubes. Numerous high energy physics experiments that employ scintillation light detectors or Cherenkov detectors would benefit greatly from photomultipliers with higher quantum efficiencies. The need for extending the sensitivity of photon detectors to the blue and UV wavebands comes from the fact that both Cherenkov light and some scintillators have an emission spectrum which is peaked at short wavelengths. This research involves the development of high quantum efficiency, high gain, UV/blue photon counting detectors based on AlGaN/InGaN photocathode heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The work could eventually lead to nearly ideal light detectors with a number of distinct advantages over existing technologies for numerous applications in high-energy physics and particle astrophysics. Potential advantages include much lower noise detection, better stability and radiation resistance than other cathode structures, very low radioactive background levels for deep underground experiments and high detection efficiency of individual UV-visible photons. We are also working on the development of photocathodes with intrinsic gain, initially improving the detection efficiency of hybrid semiconductor-vacuum tube devices, and eventually leading to an all-solid-state photomultiplier device.
Absolute biphoton meter of the quantum efficiency of photomultipliers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ginzburg, V. M.; Keratishvili, N. G.; Korzhenevich, E. L.; Lunev, G. V.; Sapritskii, V. I.
1992-07-01
An biphoton absolute meter of photomultiplier quantum efficiency is presented which is based on spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Calculation and experiment results were obtained which made it possible to choose the parameters of the setup that guarantee a linear dependence of wavelength on the Z coordinate (along the axicon axis). Results of a series of absolute measurements of the quantum efficiency of a specific photomultiplier (FEU-136) are presented.
Optimal entanglement generation for efficient hybrid quantum repeaters
Azuma, Koji; Sota, Naoya; Yamamoto, Takashi; Koashi, Masato; Imoto, Nobuyuki; Namiki, Ryo; Oezdemir, Sahin Kaya
2009-12-15
We propose a realistic protocol to generate entanglement between quantum memories at neighboring nodes in hybrid quantum repeaters. Generated entanglement includes only one type of error, which enables efficient entanglement distillation. In contrast to the known protocols with such a property, our protocol with ideal detectors achieves the theoretical limit of the success probability and the fidelity to a Bell state, promising higher efficiencies in the repeaters. We also show that the advantage of our protocol remains even with realistic threshold detectors.
Direct determination of quantum efficiency of semiconducting films
Faughnan, B.W.; Hanak, J.J.
Photovoltaic quantum efficiency of semiconductor samples is determined directly, without requiring that a built-in photovoltage be generated by the sample. Electrodes are attached to the sample so as to form at least one Schottky barrier therewith. When illuminated, the generated photocurrent carriers are collected by an external bias voltage impressed across the electrodes. The generated photocurrent is measured, and photovoltaic quantum efficiency is calculated therefrom.
Direct determination of quantum efficiency of semiconducting films
Faughnan, Brian W.; Hanak, Joseph J.
1986-01-01
Photovoltaic quantum efficiency of semiconductor samples is determined directly, without requiring that a built-in photovoltage be generated by the sample. Electrodes are attached to the sample so as to form at least one Schottky barrier therewith. When illuminated, the generated photocurrent carriers are collected by an external bias voltage impressed across the electrodes. The generated photocurrent is measured, and photovoltaic quantum efficiency is calculated therefrom.
Quantum Efficient Detectors for Use in Absolute Calibration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Faust, Jessica; Eastwood, Michael; Pavri, Betina; Raney, James
1998-01-01
The trap or quantum efficient detector has a quantum efficiency of greater than 0.98 for the region from 450 to 900 nm. The region of flattest response is from 600 to 900 nm. The QED consists of three windowless Hamamatsu silicon detectors. The QED was mounted below AVIRIS to monitor the Spectralon panel for changes in radiance during radiometric calibration. The next step is to permanently mount the detector to AVIRIS and monitor the overall radiance of scenes along with calibration.
Efficient Measurement of Multiparticle Entanglement with Embedding Quantum Simulator.
Chen, Ming-Cheng; Wu, Dian; Su, Zu-En; Cai, Xin-Dong; Wang, Xi-Lin; Yang, Tao; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2016-02-19
The quantum measurement of entanglement is a demanding task in the field of quantum information. Here, we report the direct and scalable measurement of multiparticle entanglement with embedding photonic quantum simulators. In this embedding framework [R. Di Candia et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240502 (2013)], the N-qubit entanglement, which does not associate with a physical observable directly, can be efficiently measured with only two (for even N) and six (for odd N) local measurement settings. Our experiment uses multiphoton quantum simulators to mimic dynamical concurrence and three-tangle entangled systems and to track their entanglement evolutions. PMID:26943520
Magnetic control of breakdown: Toward energy-efficient hollow-cathode magnetron discharges
Baranov, O.; Romanov, M.; Kumar, S.; Zong, X. X.; Ostrikov, K.
2011-03-15
Characteristics of electrical breakdown of a planar magnetron enhanced with an electromagnet and a hollow-cathode structure, are studied experimentally and numerically. At lower pressures the breakdown voltage shows a dependence on the applied magnetic field, and the voltage necessary to achieve the self-sustained discharge regime can be significantly reduced. At higher pressures, the dependence is less sensitive to the magnetic field magnitude and shows a tendency of increased breakdown voltage at the stronger magnetic fields. A model of the magnetron discharge breakdown is developed with the background gas pressure and the magnetic field used as parameters. The model describes the motion of electrons, which gain energy by passing the electric field across the magnetic field and undergo collisions with neutrals, thus generating new bulk electrons. The electrons are in turn accelerated in the electric field and effectively ionize a sufficient amount of neutrals to enable the discharge self-sustainment regime. The model is based on the assumption about the combined classical and near-wall mechanisms of electron conductivity across the magnetic field, and is consistent with the experimental results. The obtained results represent a significant advance toward energy-efficient multipurpose magnetron discharges.
Quantum effects improve the energy efficiency of feedback control.
Horowitz, Jordan M; Jacobs, Kurt
2014-04-01
The laws of thermodynamics apply equally well to quantum systems as to classical systems, and because of this, quantum effects do not change the fundamental thermodynamic efficiency of isothermal refrigerators or engines. We show that, despite this fact, quantum mechanics permits measurement-based feedback control protocols that are more thermodynamically efficient than their classical counterparts. As part of our analysis, we perform a detailed accounting of the thermodynamics of unitary feedback control and elucidate the sources of inefficiency in measurement-based and coherent feedback. PMID:24827219
Characterization of quantum efficiency and robustness of cesium-based photocathodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montgomery, Eric J.
High quantum efficiency, robust photocathodes produce picosecond-pulsed, high-current electron beams for photoinjection applications like free electron lasers. In photoinjectors, a pulsed drive laser incident on the photocathode causes photoemission of short, dense bunches of electrons, which are then accelerated into a relativistic, high quality beam. Future free electron lasers demand reliable photocathodes with long-lived quantum efficiency at suitable drive laser wavelengths to maintain high current density. But faced with contamination, heating, and ion back-bombardment, the highest efficiency photocathodes find their delicate cesium-based coatings inexorably lost. In answer, the work herein presents careful, focused studies on cesium-based photocathodes, particularly motivated by the cesium dispenser photocathode. This is a novel device comprised of an efficiently photoemissive, cesium-based coating deposited onto a porous sintered tungsten substrate, beneath which is a reservoir of elemental cesium. Under controlled heating cesium diffuses from the reservoir through the porous substrate and across the surface to replace cesium lost to harsh conditions---recently shown to significantly extend the lifetime of cesium-coated metal cathodes. This work first reports experiments on coated metals to validate and refine an advanced theory of photoemission already finding application in beam simulation codes. Second, it describes a new theory of photoemission from much higher quantum efficiency cesium-based semiconductors and verifies its predictions with independent experiment. Third, it investigates causes of cesium loss from both coated metal and semiconductor photocathodes and reports remarkable rejuvenation of full quantum efficiency for contaminated cesium-coated surfaces, affirming the dispenser prescription of cesium resupply. And fourth, it details continued advances in cesium dispenser design with much-improved operating characteristics: lower temperature
Anders, Andre
2003-10-29
Cathodic arc plasma deposition has become the technology of choice for hard, wear and corrosion resistant coatings for a variety of applications. The history, basic physics of cathodic arc operation, the infamous macroparticle problem and common filter solutions, and emerging high-tech applications are briefly reviewed. Cathodic arc plasmas standout due to their high degree of ionization, with important consequences for film nucleation, growth, and efficient utilization of substrate bias. Industrial processes often use cathodic arc plasma in reactive mode. In contrast, the science of arcs has focused on the case of vacuum arcs. Future research directions include closing the knowledge gap for reactive mode, large area coating, linear sources and filters, metal plasma immersion process, with application in high-tech and biomedical fields.
Efficient Luminescence from Perovskite Quantum Dot Solids.
Kim, Younghoon; Yassitepe, Emre; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Comin, Riccardo; Walters, Grant; Gong, Xiwen; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Nogueira, Ana F; Sargent, Edward H
2015-11-18
Nanocrystals of CsPbX3 perovskites are promising materials for light-emitting optoelectronics because of their colloidal stability, optically tunable bandgap, bright photoluminescence, and excellent photoluminescence quantum yield. Despite their promise, nanocrystal-only films of CsPbX3 perovskites have not yet been fabricated; instead, highly insulating polymers have been relied upon to compensate for nanocrystals' unstable surfaces. We develop solution chemistry that enables single-step casting of perovskite nanocrystal films and overcomes problems in both perovskite quantum dot purification and film fabrication. Centrifugally cast films retain bright photoluminescence and achieve dense and homogeneous morphologies. The new materials offer a platform for optoelectronic applications of perovskite quantum dot solids. PMID:26529572
Popescu-Rohrlich correlations imply efficient instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Broadbent, Anne
2016-08-01
In instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation, two parties cooperate in order to perform a quantum computation on their joint inputs, while being restricted to a single round of simultaneous communication. Previous results showed that instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation is possible, at the cost of an exponential amount of prior shared entanglement (in the size of the input). Here, we show that a linear amount of entanglement suffices, (in the size of the computation), as long as the parties share nonlocal correlations as given by the Popescu-Rohrlich box. This means that communication is not required for efficient instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation. Exploiting the well-known relation to position-based cryptography, our result also implies the impossibility of secure position-based cryptography against adversaries with nonsignaling correlations. Furthermore, our construction establishes a quantum analog of the classical communication complexity collapse under nonsignaling correlations.
Efficient arbitrated quantum signature and its proof of security
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Qin; Li, Chengqing; Long, Dongyang; Chan, Wai Hong; Wang, Changji
2013-07-01
In this paper, an efficient arbitrated quantum signature scheme is proposed by combining quantum cryptographic techniques and some ideas in classical cryptography. In the presented scheme, the signatory and the receiver can share a long-term secret key with the arbitrator by utilizing the key together with a random number. While in previous quantum signature schemes, the key shared between the signatory and the arbitrator or between the receiver and the arbitrator could be used only once, and thus each time when a signatory needs to sign, the signatory and the receiver have to obtain a new key shared with the arbitrator through a quantum key distribution protocol. Detailed theoretical analysis shows that the proposed scheme is efficient and provably secure.
The quantum efficiency of dispenser photocathodes: Comparison of theory to experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jensen, Kevin L.; Feldman, Donald W.; O'Shea, Patrick G.
2004-11-01
The quantum efficiency (QE) characteristics of commercially available dispenser cathodes were measured, giving QEs of (for Scandate) 6.5×10-5, 2.0×10-4, and 8.0×10-4, and (for M-type) 3.0×10-4, 1.4×10-3, and 2.6×10-3, for wavelengths of 532, 355, and 266nm, respectively, corresponding to harmonics of an Nd:YAG laser. A time-dependent photoemission model was developed to analyze the data, as well as dispenser and metal photocathode data in the literature, and quantitatively good agreement is found, demonstrating the utility of the code as a predictive estimator of performance.
Balogun, Muhammad-Sadeeq; Luo, Yang; Lyu, Feiyi; Wang, Fuxin; Yang, Hao; Li, Haibo; Liang, Chaolun; Huang, Miao; Huang, Yongchao; Tong, Yexiang
2016-04-20
The use of electrode materials in their powdery form requires binders and conductive additives for the fabrication of the cells, which leads to unsatisfactory energy storage performance. Recently, a new strategy to design flexible, binder-, and additive-free three-dimensional electrodes with nanoscale surface engineering has been exploited in boosting the storage performance of electrode materials. In this paper, we design a new type of free-standing carbon quantum dot coated VO2 interwoven nanowires through a simple fabrication process and demonstrate its potential to be used as cathode material for lithium and sodium ion batteries. The versatile carbon quantum dots that are vastly flexible for surface engineering serve the function of protecting the nanowire surface and play an important role in the diffusion of electrons. Also, the three-dimensional carbon cloth coated with VO2 interwoven nanowires assisted in the diffusion of ions through the inner and the outer surface. With this unique architecture, the carbon quantum dot nanosurface engineered VO2 electrode exhibited capacities of 420 and 328 mAh g(-1) at current density rate of 0.3 C for lithium and sodium storage, respectively. This work serves as a milestone for the potential replacement of lithium ion batteries and next generation postbatteries. PMID:27028048
2014-01-01
Background In the recent study, optimum operational conditions of cathode compartment of microbial fuel cell were determined by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) with a central composite design to maximize power density and COD removal. Methods The interactive effects of parameters such as, pH, buffer concentration and ionic strength on power density and COD removal were evaluated in two-chamber microbial batch-mode fuel cell. Results Power density and COD removal for optimal conditions (pH of 6.75, buffer concentration of 0.177 M and ionic strength of cathode chamber of 4.69 mM) improve by 17 and 5%, respectively, in comparison with normal conditions (pH of 7, buffer concentration of 0.1 M and ionic strength of 2.5 mM). Conclusions In conclusion, results verify that response surface methodology could successfully determine cathode chamber optimum operational conditions. PMID:24423039
Gan, Lizhen; Ye, Lingting; Tao, Shanwen; Xie, Kui
2016-01-28
Ionic conduction in perovskite oxide is commonly tailored by element doping in lattices to create charge carriers, while few studies have been focused on ionic conduction enhancement through tailoring microstructures. In this work, remarkable enhancement of ionic conduction in titanate has been achieved via in situ growing active nickel nanoparticles on an oxide surface by controlling the oxide material nonstoichiometry. The combined use of XRD, SEM, XPS and EDS indicates that the exsolution/dissolution of the nickel nanoparticles is completely reversible in redox cycles. With the synergetic effect of enhanced ionic conduction of titanate and the presence of catalytic active Ni nanocatalysts, significant improvement of electrocatalytic performances of the titanate cathode is demonstrated. A current density of 0.3 A cm(-2) with a Faradic efficiency of 90% has been achieved for direct carbon dioxide electrolysis in a 2 mm-thick YSZ-supported solid oxide electrolyzer with the modified titanate cathode at 2 V and 1073 K. PMID:26743799
Quantum Efficiency Enhancement in CsI/Metal Photocathodes
Kong, Lingmei; Joly, Alan G.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Hess, Wayne P.
2015-02-01
High quantum efficiency enhancement is found for hybrid metal-insulator photocathodes consisting of thin films of CsI deposited on Cu(100), Ag(100), Au(111) and Au films irradiated by 266 nm laser pulses. Low work functions (near or below 2 eV) are observed following ultraviolet laser activation. Work functions are reduced by roughly 3 eV from that of clean metal surfaces. We discuss various mechanisms of quantum efficiency enhancement for alkali halide/metal photocathode systems and conclude that the large change in work function, due to Cs accumulation of Cs metal at the metal-alkali halide interface, is the dominant mechanism for quantum efficiency enhancement
Holmium fibre laser with record quantum efficiency
Kurkov, Andrei S; Sholokhov, E M; Tsvetkov, V B; Marakulin, A V; Minashina, L A; Medvedkov, O I; Kosolapov, A F
2011-06-30
We report holmium-doped fibre lasers with a Ho{sup 3+} concentration of 1.6 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} and lasing wavelengths of 2.02, 2.05, 2.07 and 2.1 {mu}m at a pump wavelength of 1.15 {mu}m. The slope efficiency of the lasers has been measured. The maximum efficiency, 0.455, has been obtained at a lasing wavelength of 2.05 {mu}m. The laser efficiency is influenced by both the optical loss in the wing of a vibrational absorption band of silica and active-ion clustering. (lasers)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niu, X. Y.; Huang, X. L.; Shang, Y. F.; Wang, X. Y.
2015-04-01
Superposition principle plays a crucial role in quantum mechanics, thus its effects on thermodynamics is an interesting topic. Here, the effects of superpositions of quantum states on isoenergetic cycle are studied. We find superposition can improve the heat engine efficiency and release the positive work condition in general case. In the finite time process, we find the efficiency at maximum power output in superposition case is lower than the nonsuperposition case. This efficiency depends on one index of the energy spectrum of the working substance. This result does not mean the superposition discourages the heat engine performance. For fixed efficiency or fixed power, the superposition improves the power or efficiency respectively. These results show how quantum mechanical properties affect the thermodynamical cycle.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Cheng; Zhang, Yijun; Qian, Yunsheng; Xu, Yuan; Liu, Xinxin; Jiao, Gangcheng
2016-06-01
A transmission-mode AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs photocathode with the combination of composition-graded AlxGa1-xAs window layer and exponential-doping GaAs emission layer is developed to maximize the cathode performance. The theoretical quantum efficiency model with this complex structure containing twofold built-in electric fields is deduced by solving the one dimensional continuity equations combined with the three-step model. By comparison of spectral characteristics of photocathodes with different composition and doping structures, and through analysis of cathode structure parameters, it is found that the twofold built-in electric fields can effectively improve photoemission performance of AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs photocathode, which is related to Al proportion variation range and thicknesses of window layer and emission layer. The quantum efficiency model would provide theoretical guidance for better design of transmission-mode graded bandgap photocathodes.
Efficient passivated phthalocyanine-quantum dot solar cells.
Blas-Ferrando, Vicente M; Ortiz, Javier; González-Pedro, Victoria; Sánchez, Rafael S; Mora-Seró, Iván; Fernández-Lázaro, Fernando; Sastre-Santos, Ángela
2015-01-31
The power conversion efficiency of CdSe and CdS quantum dot sensitized solar cells is enhanced by passivation with asymmetrically substituted phthalocyanines. The introduction of the phthalocyanine dye increases the efficiency up to 45% for CdSe and 104% for CdS. The main mechanism causing this improvement is the quantum dot passivation. This study highlights the possibilities of a new generation of dyes designed to be directly linked to QDs instead of the TiO2 electrodes. PMID:25519050
Verification of Absolute Calibration of Quantum Efficiency for LSST CCDs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coles, Rebecca; Chiang, James; Cinabro, David; Gilbertson, Woodrow; Haupt, justine; Kotov, Ivan; Neal, Homer; Nomerotski, Andrei; O'Connor, Paul; Stubbs, Christopher; Takacs, Peter
2016-01-01
We describe a system to measure the Quantum Efficiency in the wavelength range of 300nm to 1100nm of 40x40 mm n-channel CCD sensors for the construction of the 3.2 gigapixel LSST focal plane. The technique uses a series of instruments to create a very uniform flux of photons of controllable intensity in the wavelength range of interest across the face of the sensor. This allows the absolute Quantum Efficiency to be measured with an accuracy in the 1% range. This system will be part of a production facility at Brookhaven National Lab for the basic components of the LSST camera.
Pure sources and efficient detectors for optical quantum information processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zielnicki, Kevin
Over the last sixty years, classical information theory has revolutionized the understanding of the nature of information, and how it can be quantified and manipulated. Quantum information processing extends these lessons to quantum systems, where the properties of intrinsic uncertainty and entanglement fundamentally defy classical explanation. This growing field has many potential applications, including computing, cryptography, communication, and metrology. As inherently mobile quantum particles, photons are likely to play an important role in any mature large-scale quantum information processing system. However, the available methods for producing and detecting complex multi-photon states place practical limits on the feasibility of sophisticated optical quantum information processing experiments. In a typical quantum information protocol, a source first produces an interesting or useful quantum state (or set of states), perhaps involving superposition or entanglement. Then, some manipulations are performed on this state, perhaps involving quantum logic gates which further manipulate or entangle the intial state. Finally, the state must be detected, obtaining some desired measurement result, e.g., for secure communication or computationally efficient factoring. The work presented here concerns the first and last stages of this process as they relate to photons: sources and detectors. Our work on sources is based on the need for optimized non-classical states of light delivered at high rates, particularly of single photons in a pure quantum state. We seek to better understand the properties of spontaneous parameteric downconversion (SPDC) sources of photon pairs, and in doing so, produce such an optimized source. We report an SPDC source which produces pure heralded single photons with little or no spectral filtering, allowing a significant rate enhancement. Our work on detectors is based on the need to reliably measure single-photon states. We have focused on
An efficient quantum search engine on unsorted database
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Songfeng; Zhang, Yingyu; Liu, Fang
2013-10-01
We consider the problem of finding one or more desired items out of an unsorted database. Patel has shown that if the database permits quantum queries, then mere digitization is sufficient for efficient search for one desired item. The algorithm, called factorized quantum search algorithm, presented by him can locate the desired item in an unsorted database using O() queries to factorized oracles. But the algorithm requires that all the attribute values must be distinct from each other. In this paper, we discuss how to make a database satisfy the requirements, and present a quantum search engine based on the algorithm. Our goal is achieved by introducing auxiliary files for the attribute values that are not distinct, and converting every complex query request into a sequence of calls to factorized quantum search algorithm. The query complexity of our algorithm is O() for most cases.
Sertore, Daniele Michelato, Paolo; Monaco, Laura; Manini, Paolo; Siviero, Fabrizio
2014-05-15
High quantum efficiency photocathodes are routinely used as laser triggered emitters in the advanced high brightness electron sources based on radio frequency guns. The sensitivity of “semiconductor” type photocathodes to vacuum levels and gas composition requires special care during preparation and handling. This paper will discuss the results obtained using a novel pumping approach based on coupling a 20 l s{sup −1} sputter ion getter pump with a CapaciTorr® D100 non evaporable getter (NEG) pump. A pressure of 8⋅10{sup −8} Pa was achieved using only a sputter ion pump after a 6 day bake-out. With the addition of a NEG pump, a pressure of 2⋅10{sup −9} Pa was achieved after a 2 day bake-out. These pressure values were maintained without power due to the ability of the NEG to pump gases by chemical reaction. Long term monitoring of cathodes quantum efficiencies was also carried out at different photon wavelengths for more than two years, showing no degradation of the photoemissive film properties.
Origins of low energy-transfer efficiency between patterned GaN quantum well and CdSe quantum dots
Xu, Xingsheng
2015-03-02
For hybrid light emitting devices (LEDs) consisting of GaN quantum wells and colloidal quantum dots, it is necessary to explore the physical mechanisms causing decreases in the quantum efficiencies and the energy transfer efficiency between a GaN quantum well and CdSe quantum dots. This study investigated the electro-luminescence for a hybrid LED consisting of colloidal quantum dots and a GaN quantum well patterned with photonic crystals. It was found that both the quantum efficiency of colloidal quantum dots on a GaN quantum well and the energy transfer efficiency between the patterned GaN quantum well and the colloidal quantum dots decreased with increases in the driving voltage or the driving time. Under high driving voltages, the decreases in the quantum efficiency of the colloidal quantum dots and the energy transfer efficiency can be attributed to Auger recombination, while those decreases under long driving time are due to photo-bleaching and Auger recombination.
High-quantum efficiency, long-lived luminescing refractory oxides
Chen, Y.; Gonzalez, R.; Summers, G.P.
A crystal having a high-quantum efficiency and a long period of luminescence is formed of MgO or CaO and possessing a concentration ratio of H/sup -/ ions to F centers in the range of about 0.05 to about 10.
High-quantum efficiency, long-lived luminescing refractory oxides
Chen, Yok; Gonzalez, Roberto; Summers, Geoffrey P.
1984-01-01
A crystal having a high-quantum efficiency and a long period of luminescence is formed of an oxide selected from the group consisting of magnesium oxide and calcium oxide and possessing a concentration ratio of H.sup.- ions to F centers in the range of about 0.05 to about 10.
High-efficiency tomographic reconstruction of quantum states by quantum nondemolition measurements
Huang, J. S.; Wei, L. F.; Oh, C. H.
2011-03-15
We propose a high-efficiency scheme to tomographically reconstruct an unknown quantum state by using a series of quantum nondemolition (QND) measurements. The proposed QND measurements of the qubits are implemented by probing the stationary transmissions through a driven dispersively coupled resonator. It is shown that only one kind of QND measurement is sufficient to determine all the diagonal elements of the density matrix of the detected quantum state. The remaining nondiagonal elements can be similarly determined by transferring them to the diagonal locations after a series of unitary operations. Compared with the tomographic reconstructions based on the usual destructive projective measurements (wherein one such measurement can determine only one diagonal element of the density matrix), the present reconstructive approach exhibits significantly high efficiency. Specifically, our generic proposal is demonstrated by the experimental circuit quantum electrodynamics systems with a few Josephson charge qubits.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Guolong; Zhu, Youlong; Lu, Lu; Xu, Kongliang; Wang, Heming; Jin, Yinghua; Jason Ren, Zhiyong; Liu, Zhenning; Zhang, Wei
2016-05-01
Developing efficient, readily available, and sustainable electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in neutral medium is of great importance to practical applications of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Herein, a porous nitrogen-doped carbon material with encapsulated Fe-based nanoparticles (Fe-Nx/C) has been developed and utilized as an efficient ORR catalyst in MFCs. The material was obtained through pyrolysis of a highly porous organic polymer containing iron(II) porphyrins. The characterizations of morphology, crystalline structure and elemental composition reveal that Fe-Nx/C consists of well-dispersed Fe-based nanoparticles coated by N-doped graphitic carbon layer. ORR catalytic performance of Fe-Nx/C has been evaluated through cyclic voltammetry and rotating ring-disk electrode measurements, and its application as a cathode electrocatalyst in an air-cathode single-chamber MFC has been investigated. Fe-Nx/C exhibits comparable or better performance in MFCs than 20% Pt/C, displaying higher cell voltage (601 mV vs. 591 mV), maximum power density (1227 mW m-2 vs. 1031 mW m-2) and Coulombic efficiency (50% vs. 31%). These findings indicate that Fe-Nx/C is more tolerant and durable than Pt/C in a system with bacteria metabolism and thus holds great potential for practical MFC applications.
Coherence-enhanced efficiency of feedback-driven quantum engines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandner, Kay; Bauer, Michael; Schmid, Michael T.; Seifert, Udo
2015-06-01
A genuine feature of projective quantum measurements is that they inevitably alter the mean energy of the observed system if the measured quantity does not commute with the Hamiltonian. Compared to the classical case, Jacobs proved that this additional energetic cost leads to a stronger bound on the work extractable after a single measurement from a system initially in thermal equilibrium (2009 Phys. Rev. A 80 012322). Here, we extend this bound to a large class of feedback-driven quantum engines operating periodically and in finite time. The bound thus implies a natural definition for the efficiency of information to work conversion in such devices. For a simple model consisting of a laser-driven two-level system, we maximize the efficiency with respect to the observable whose measurement is used to control the feedback operations. We find that the optimal observable typically does not commute with the Hamiltonian and hence would not be available in a classical two level system. This result reveals that periodic feedback engines operating in the quantum realm can exploit quantum coherences to enhance efficiency.
Intermediate Band Solar Cell with Extreme Broadband Spectrum Quantum Efficiency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Datas, A.; López, E.; Ramiro, I.; Antolín, E.; Martí, A.; Luque, A.; Tamaki, R.; Shoji, Y.; Sogabe, T.; Okada, Y.
2015-04-01
We report, for the first time, about an intermediate band solar cell implemented with InAs/AlGaAs quantum dots whose photoresponse expands from 250 to ˜6000 nm . To our knowledge, this is the broadest quantum efficiency reported to date for a solar cell and demonstrates that the intermediate band solar cell is capable of producing photocurrent when illuminated with photons whose energy equals the energy of the lowest band gap. We show experimental evidences indicating that this result is in agreement with the theory of the intermediate band solar cell, according to which the generation recombination between the intermediate band and the valence band makes this photocurrent detectable.
Efficient computations of quantum canonical Gibbs state in phase space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bondar, Denys I.; Campos, Andre G.; Cabrera, Renan; Rabitz, Herschel A.
2016-06-01
The Gibbs canonical state, as a maximum entropy density matrix, represents a quantum system in equilibrium with a thermostat. This state plays an essential role in thermodynamics and serves as the initial condition for nonequilibrium dynamical simulations. We solve a long standing problem for computing the Gibbs state Wigner function with nearly machine accuracy by solving the Bloch equation directly in the phase space. Furthermore, the algorithms are provided yielding high quality Wigner distributions for pure stationary states as well as for Thomas-Fermi and Bose-Einstein distributions. The developed numerical methods furnish a long-sought efficient computation framework for nonequilibrium quantum simulations directly in the Wigner representation.
Not Available
2011-12-01
A new device that produces and collects multiple electrons per photon could yield inexpensive, high-efficiency photovoltaics. A new device developed through research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) reduces conventional losses in photovoltaic (PV) solar cells, potentially increasing the power conversion efficiency-but not the cost-of the solar cells. Solar cells convert optical energy from the sun into usable electricity; however, almost 50% of the incident energy is lost as heat with present-day technologies. High-efficiency, multi-junction cells reduce this heat loss, but their cost is significantly higher. NREL's new device uses excess energy in solar photons to create extra charges rather than heat. This was achieved using 5-nanometer-diameter quantum dots of lead selenide (PbSe) tightly packed into a film. The researchers chemically treated the film, and then fabricated a device that yielded an external quantum efficiency (number of electrons produced per incident photon) exceeding 100%, a value beyond that of all current solar cells for any incident photon. Quantum dots are known to efficiently generate multiple excitons (a bound electron-hole pair) per absorbed high-energy photon, and this device definitively demonstrates the collection of multiple electrons per photon in a PV cell. The internal quantum efficiency corrects for photons that are not absorbed in the photoactive layer and shows that the PbSe film generates 30% to 40% more electrons in the high-energy spectral region than is possible with a conventional solar cell. While the unoptimized overall power conversion efficiency is still low (less than 5%), the results have important implications for PV because such high quantum efficiency can lead to more electrical current produced than possible using present technologies. Furthermore, this fabrication is also amenable to inexpensive, high-throughput roll-to-roll manufacturing.
Analysis of the efficiency of intermediate band solar cells based on quantum dot supercrystals
Heshmati, S; Golmohammadi, S; Abedi, K; Taleb, H
2014-03-28
We have studied the influence of the quantum-dot (QD) width and the quantum-dot conduction band (QD-CB) offset on the efficiency of quantum-dot intermediate band solar cells (QD-IBSCs). Simulation results demonstrate that with increasing QD-CB offset and decreasing QD width, the maximum efficiency is achieved. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)
High-efficiency ferroelectric-film solar cells with an n-type Cu₂O cathode buffer layer.
Cao, Dawei; Wang, Chunyan; Zheng, Fengang; Dong, Wen; Fang, Liang; Shen, Mingrong
2012-06-13
Because of the existence of interface Schottky barriers and depolarization electric field, ferroelectric films sandwiched between top and bottom electrodes are strongly expected to be used as a new kind of solar cells. However, the photocurrent with a typical order of μA/cm(2) is too low to be practical. Here we demonstrate that the insertion of an n-type cuprous oxide (Cu(2)O) layer between the Pb(Zr,Ti)O(3) (PZT) film and the cathode Pt contact in a ITO/PZT/Pt cell leads to the short-circuit photocurrent increasing 120-fold to 4.80 mA/cm(2) and power conversion efficiency increasing of 72-fold to 0.57% under AM1.5G (100 mW/cm(2)) illumination. Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and dark J-V characteristic show an ohmic contact on Pt/Cu(2)O, an n(+)-n heterojunction on Cu(2)O/PZT and a Schottky barrier on PZT/ITO, which provide a favorable energy level alignment for efficient electron-extraction on the cathode. Our work opens up a promising new method that has the potential for fulfilling cost-effective ferroelectric-film photovoltaic. PMID:22582756
Biexciton Dissociation Efficiency at Quantum Dot-Oxide Interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonn, Mischa; Wang, Hai; Canovas, Enrique
Harvesting multiexcitons populating semiconductor quantum dots (generated by carrier multiplication, CM) has been proposed as a path towards higher efficiencies in photovoltaic devices. Although CM efficiency has been widely interrogated in colloidal QD solutions, less focus has been placed on the physics regarding biexciton collection at electrodes. We investigate interfacial biexciton transfer dynamics from PbS quantum dots directly nucleated onto mesoporous SnO2 films as a function of impinging photon flux and photon energy. A priori, this system seems very well-suited for achieving efficient biexciton dissociation, as the ultrafast QD-to-oxide transfer rate for 800nm excitation is substantially faster than Auger relaxation. Remarkably, the biexciton dissociation efficiency is below the detection efficiency, i.e. essentially zero. This seemingly counterintuitive result can be understood by noting that efficient hot electron transfer at the QD-oxide interface can compete with CM within the QDs. Hot electron transfer is observed to occur on sub-100 fs timescales, nulling the CM efficiency. Implications of these results for solar energy conversion are discussed.
A scalable quantum architecture using efficient non-local gates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brennen, Gavin
2003-03-01
Many protocols for quantum information processing use a control sequence or circuit of interactions between qubits and control fields wherein arbitrary qubits can be made to interact with one another. The primary problem with many ``physically scalable" architectures is that the qubits are restricted to nearest neighbor interactions and quantum wires between distant qubits do not exist. Because of errors, nearest neighbor interactions often present difficulty with scalability. We describe a protocol that efficiently performs non-local gates between elements of separated static logical qubits using a bus of dynamic qubits as a refreshable entanglement resource. Imperfect resource preparation due to error propagation from noisy gates and measurement errors can purified within the bus channel. Because of the inherent parallelism of entanglement swapping, communication latency within the quantum computer can be significantly reduced.
Roberts, F Sloan; Anderson, Scott L
2013-12-01
The design and operating conditions of a hollow cathode discharge lamp for the generation of vacuum ultraviolet radiation, suitable for ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) application, are described in detail. The design is easily constructed, and modular, allowing it to be adapted to different experimental requirements. A thin isolation valve is built into one of the differential pumping stages, isolating the discharge section from the UHV section, both for vacuum safety and to allow lamp maintenance without venting the UHV chamber. The lamp has been used both for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of surfaces and as a "soft" photoionization source for gas-phase mass spectrometry. PMID:24387477
Sloan Roberts, F.; Anderson, Scott L.
2013-12-15
The design and operating conditions of a hollow cathode discharge lamp for the generation of vacuum ultraviolet radiation, suitable for ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) application, are described in detail. The design is easily constructed, and modular, allowing it to be adapted to different experimental requirements. A thin isolation valve is built into one of the differential pumping stages, isolating the discharge section from the UHV section, both for vacuum safety and to allow lamp maintenance without venting the UHV chamber. The lamp has been used both for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of surfaces and as a “soft” photoionization source for gas-phase mass spectrometry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Praveena, M.; Mukherjee, Arnab; Venkatapathi, Murugesan; Basu, J. K.
2015-12-01
We present experimental and theoretical results on monolayer colloidal cadmium selenide quantum dot films embedded with tiny gold nanoparticles. By varying the density of the embedded gold nanoparticles, we were able to engineer a plasmon-mediated crossover from emission quenching to enhancement regime at interparticle distances for which only quenching of emission is expected. This crossover and a nonmonotonic variation of photoluminescence intensity and decay rate, in experiments, is explained in terms of a model for plasmon-mediated collective emission of quantum emitters which points to the emergence of a new regime in plasmon-exciton interactions. The presented methodology to achieve enhancement in optical quantum efficiency for optimal doping of gold nanoparticles in such ultrathin high-density quantum dot films can be beneficial for new-generation displays and photodetectors.
Rate-loss analysis of an efficient quantum repeater architecture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guha, Saikat; Krovi, Hari; Fuchs, Christopher A.; Dutton, Zachary; Slater, Joshua A.; Simon, Christoph; Tittel, Wolfgang
2015-08-01
We analyze an entanglement-based quantum key distribution (QKD) architecture that uses a linear chain of quantum repeaters employing photon-pair sources, spectral-multiplexing, linear-optic Bell-state measurements, multimode quantum memories, and classical-only error correction. Assuming perfect sources, we find an exact expression for the secret-key rate, and an analytical description of how errors propagate through the repeater chain, as a function of various loss-and-noise parameters of the devices. We show via an explicit analytical calculation, which separately addresses the effects of the principle nonidealities, that this scheme achieves a secret-key rate that surpasses the Takeoka-Guha-Wilde bound—a recently found fundamental limit to the rate-vs-loss scaling achievable by any QKD protocol over a direct optical link—thereby providing one of the first rigorous proofs of the efficacy of a repeater protocol. We explicitly calculate the end-to-end shared noisy quantum state generated by the repeater chain, which could be useful for analyzing the performance of other non-QKD quantum protocols that require establishing long-distance entanglement. We evaluate that shared state's fidelity and the achievable entanglement-distillation rate, as a function of the number of repeater nodes, total range, and various loss-and-noise parameters of the system. We extend our theoretical analysis to encompass sources with nonzero two-pair-emission probability, using an efficient exact numerical evaluation of the quantum state propagation and measurements. We expect our results to spur formal rate-loss analysis of other repeater protocols and also to provide useful abstractions to seed analyses of quantum networks of complex topologies.
Efficient tools for quantum metrology with uncorrelated noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kołodyński, Jan; Demkowicz-Dobrzański, Rafał
2013-07-01
Quantum metrology offers enhanced performance in experiments on topics such as gravitational wave-detection, magnetometry or atomic clock frequency calibration. The enhancement, however, requires a delicate tuning of relevant quantum features, such as entanglement or squeezing. For any practical application, the inevitable impact of decoherence needs to be taken into account in order to correctly quantify the ultimate attainable gain in precision. We compare the applicability and the effectiveness of various methods of calculating the ultimate precision bounds resulting from the presence of decoherence. This allows us to place a number of seemingly unrelated concepts into a common framework and arrive at an explicit hierarchy of quantum metrological methods in terms of the tightness of the bounds they provide. In particular, we show a way to extend the techniques originally proposed in Demkowicz-Dobrzański et al (2012 Nature Commun. 3 1063), so that they can be efficiently applied not only in the asymptotic but also in the finite number of particles regime. As a result, we obtain a simple and direct method, yielding bounds that interpolate between the quantum enhanced scaling characteristic for a small number of particles and the asymptotic regime, where quantum enhancement amounts to a constant factor improvement. Methods are applied to numerous models, including noisy phase and frequency estimation, as well as the estimation of the decoherence strength itself.
Enhanced quantum efficiency from hybrid cesium halide/copper photocathodes
Kong, Lingmei; Joly, Alan G.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Gong, Yu; Hess, Wayne P.
2014-04-28
The quantum efficiency (QE) of Cu is found to increase dramatically when coated by a CsI film and then irradiated by a UV laser. Over three orders of magnitude quantum efficiency enhancement at 266 nm is observed in CsI/Cu(100), indicating potential application in future photocathode devices. Upon laser irradiation, a large work function reduction to a value less than 2 eV is also observed, significantly greater than for similarly treated CsBr/Cu(100). The initial QE enhancement, prior to laser irradiation, is attributed to interface interaction and the intrinsic properties of the Cs halide film. Further QE enhancement following activation is attributed to formation of inter-band states and Cs metal accumulation at the interface induced by laser irradiation.
Resonant infrared detector with substantially unit quantum efficiency
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farhoomand, Jam (Inventor); Mcmurray, Robert E., Jr. (Inventor)
1994-01-01
A resonant infrared detector includes an infrared-active layer which has first and second parallel faces and which absorbs radiation of a given wavelength. The detector also includes a first tuned reflective layer, disposed opposite the first face of the infrared-active layer, which reflects a specific portion of the radiation incident thereon and allows a specific portion of the incident radiation at the given wavelength to reach the infrared-active layer. A second reflective layer, disposed opposite the second face of the infrared-active layer, reflects back into the infrared-active layer substantially all of the radiation at the given wavelength which passes through the infrared-active layer. The reflective layers have the effect of increasing the quantum efficiency of the infrared detector relative to the quantum efficiency of the infrared-active layer alone.
Investigation of the quantum efficiency of optical heterodyne detectors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Batchman, T. E.
1984-01-01
The frequency response and quantum efficiency of optical photodetectors for heterodyne receivers is investigated. The measurements utilized two spectral lines from the output of two lasers as input to the photodetectors. These lines are easily measurable in power and frequency and hence serve as known inputs. By measuring the output current of the photodetector the quantum efficiency is determined as a function of frequency separation between the two input signals. An investigation of the theoretical basis and accuracy of this type of measurement relative to similar measurements utilizing risetime is undertaken. A theoretical study of the heterodyne process in photodetectors based on semiconductor physics is included so that higher bandwidth detectors may be designed. All measurements are made on commercially available detectors and manufacturers' specifications for normal photodetector operation are compared to the measured heterodyne characteristics.
Enhanced quantum efficiency from hybrid cesium halide/copper photocathodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kong, Lingmei; Joly, Alan G.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Gong, Yu; Hess, Wayne P.
2014-04-01
The quantum efficiency (QE) of Cu is found to increase dramatically when coated by a CsI film and then irradiated by a UV laser. Over three orders of magnitude quantum efficiency enhancement at 266 nm is observed in CsI/Cu(100), indicating potential application in future photocathode devices. Upon laser irradiation, a large work function reduction to a value less than 2 eV is also observed, significantly greater than for similarly treated CsBr/Cu(100). The initial QE enhancement, prior to laser irradiation, is attributed to interface interaction and the intrinsic properties of the Cs halide film. Further QE enhancement following activation is attributed to formation of inter-band states and Cs metal accumulation at the interface induced by laser irradiation.
Enhanced Quantum Efficiency From Hybrid Cesium Halide/Copper Photocathode
Kong, Lingmei; Joly, Alan G.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Gong, Yu; Hess, Wayne P.
2014-04-28
The quantum efficiency of Cu is found to increase dramatically when coated by a CsI film and then irradiated by a UV laser. Over three orders of magnitude quantum efficiency enhancement at 266 nm is observed in CsI/Cu(100), indicating potential application in future photocathode devices. Upon laser irradiation, a large work function reduction to a value less than 2 eV is also observed, significantly greater than for similarly treated CsBr/Cu(100). The initial QE enhancement, prior to laser irradiation, is attributed to interface interaction, surface cleanliness and the intrinsic properties of the Cs halide film. Further QE enhancement following activation is attributed to formation of inter-band states and Cs metal accumulation at the interface induced by laser irradiation.
Internal quantum efficiency analysis of solar cell by genetic algorithm
Xiong, Kanglin; Yang, Hui; Lu, Shulong; Zhou, Taofei; Wang, Rongxin; Qiu, Kai; Dong, Jianrong; Jiang, Desheng
2010-11-15
To investigate factors limiting the performance of a GaAs solar cell, genetic algorithm is employed to fit the experimentally measured internal quantum efficiency (IQE) in the full spectra range. The device parameters such as diffusion lengths and surface recombination velocities are extracted. Electron beam induced current (EBIC) is performed in the base region of the cell with obtained diffusion length agreeing with the fit result. The advantage of genetic algorithm is illustrated. (author)
Fully efficient time-parallelized quantum optimal control algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riahi, M. K.; Salomon, J.; Glaser, S. J.; Sugny, D.
2016-04-01
We present a time-parallelization method that enables one to accelerate the computation of quantum optimal control algorithms. We show that this approach is approximately fully efficient when based on a gradient method as optimization solver: the computational time is approximately divided by the number of available processors. The control of spin systems, molecular orientation, and Bose-Einstein condensates are used as illustrative examples to highlight the wide range of applications of this numerical scheme.
Simulations of multipacting in the cathode stalk and FPC of 112 MHz superconducting electron gun
Xin T.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Belomestnykh, S.; Chang, X.; Rao, T.; Skaritka, J.; Wu, Q.; Wang, E.; Liang, X.
2012-05-20
A 112 MHz superconducting quarter-wave resonator electron gun will be used as the injector of the Coherent Electron Cooling (CEC) proof-of-principle experiment at BNL. Furthermore, this electron gun can be used for testing of the performance of various high quantum efficiency photocathodes. In a previous paper, we presented the design of the cathode stalks and a Fundamental Power Coupler (FPC). In this paper we present updated designs of the cathode stalk and FPC. Multipacting in the cathode stalk and FPC was simulated using three different codes. All simulation results show no serious multipacting in the cathode stalk and FPC.
Internal quantum efficiency enhancement of GaInN/GaN quantum-well structures using Ag nanoparticles
Iida, Daisuke; Fadil, Ahmed Ou, Yiyu; Kopylov, Oleksii; Ou, Haiyan; Chen, Yuntian; Iwaya, Motoaki; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Kamiyama, Satoshi; Akasaki, Isamu
2015-09-15
We report internal quantum efficiency enhancement of thin p-GaN green quantum-well structure using self-assembled Ag nanoparticles. Temperature dependent photoluminescence measurements are conducted to determine the internal quantum efficiency. The impact of excitation power density on the enhancement factor is investigated. We obtain an internal quantum efficiency enhancement by a factor of 2.3 at 756 W/cm{sup 2}, and a factor of 8.1 at 1 W/cm{sup 2}. A Purcell enhancement up to a factor of 26 is estimated by fitting the experimental results to a theoretical model for the efficiency enhancement factor.
Lead Telluride Quantum Dot Solar Cells Displaying External Quantum Efficiencies Exceeding 120%.
Böhm, Marcus L; Jellicoe, Tom C; Tabachnyk, Maxim; Davis, Nathaniel J L K; Wisnivesky-Rocca-Rivarola, Florencia; Ducati, Caterina; Ehrler, Bruno; Bakulin, Artem A; Greenham, Neil C
2015-12-01
Multiple exciton generation (MEG) in semiconducting quantum dots is a process that produces multiple charge-carrier pairs from a single excitation. MEG is a possible route to bypass the Shockley-Queisser limit in single-junction solar cells but it remains challenging to harvest charge-carrier pairs generated by MEG in working photovoltaic devices. Initial yields of additional carrier pairs may be reduced due to ultrafast intraband relaxation processes that compete with MEG at early times. Quantum dots of materials that display reduced carrier cooling rates (e.g., PbTe) are therefore promising candidates to increase the impact of MEG in photovoltaic devices. Here we demonstrate PbTe quantum dot-based solar cells, which produce extractable charge carrier pairs with an external quantum efficiency above 120%, and we estimate an internal quantum efficiency exceeding 150%. Resolving the charge carrier kinetics on the ultrafast time scale with pump-probe transient absorption and pump-push-photocurrent measurements, we identify a delayed cooling effect above the threshold energy for MEG. PMID:26488847
Lead Telluride Quantum Dot Solar Cells Displaying External Quantum Efficiencies Exceeding 120%
2015-01-01
Multiple exciton generation (MEG) in semiconducting quantum dots is a process that produces multiple charge-carrier pairs from a single excitation. MEG is a possible route to bypass the Shockley-Queisser limit in single-junction solar cells but it remains challenging to harvest charge-carrier pairs generated by MEG in working photovoltaic devices. Initial yields of additional carrier pairs may be reduced due to ultrafast intraband relaxation processes that compete with MEG at early times. Quantum dots of materials that display reduced carrier cooling rates (e.g., PbTe) are therefore promising candidates to increase the impact of MEG in photovoltaic devices. Here we demonstrate PbTe quantum dot-based solar cells, which produce extractable charge carrier pairs with an external quantum efficiency above 120%, and we estimate an internal quantum efficiency exceeding 150%. Resolving the charge carrier kinetics on the ultrafast time scale with pump–probe transient absorption and pump–push–photocurrent measurements, we identify a delayed cooling effect above the threshold energy for MEG. PMID:26488847
Colloidal CdTe/HgTe quantum dots with high photoluminescence quantum efficiency at room temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kershaw, Stephen V.; Burt, Mike; Harrison, Mike; Rogach, Andrey; Weller, Horst; Eychmüller, Alex
1999-09-01
We have used an aqueous colloidal growth technique to form hybrid CdTe/HgTe quantum dots with a broad, strong fluorescence in the infrared (800-1200 nm). The quantum efficiency is high, around 44%, when pumped in the visible (488 nm), and the excited state lifetime is around 130 ns, making the material interesting as an optical amplifier medium. Using a pump-probe experiment, we have demonstrated weak optical amplification in a dilute aqueous suspension of CdTe/HgTe dots in the short wavelength wing of the emission spectrum at 808 nm.
Efficient quantum trajectory representation of wavefunctions evolving in imaginary time
Garashchuk, Sophya; Mazzuca, James; Vazhappilly, Tijo
2011-07-21
The Boltzmann evolution of a wavefunction can be recast as imaginary-time dynamics of the quantum trajectory ensemble. The quantum effects arise from the momentum-dependent quantum potential - computed approximately to be practical in high-dimensional systems - influencing the trajectories in addition to the external classical potential [S. Garashchuk, J. Chem. Phys. 132, 014112 (2010)]. For a nodeless wavefunction represented as {psi}(x, t) = exp ( -S(x, t)/({Dirac_h}/2{pi})) with the trajectory momenta defined by {nabla}S(x, t), analysis of the Lagrangian and Eulerian evolution shows that for bound potentials the former is more accurate while the latter is more practical because the Lagrangian quantum trajectories diverge with time. Introduction of stationary and time-dependent components into the wavefunction representation generates new Lagrangian-type dynamics where the trajectory spreading is controlled improving efficiency of the trajectory description. As an illustration, different types of dynamics are used to compute zero-point energy of a strongly anharmonic well and low-lying eigenstates of a high-dimensional coupled harmonic system.
Efficient quantum trajectory representation of wavefunctions evolving in imaginary time.
Garashchuk, Sophya; Mazzuca, James; Vazhappilly, Tijo
2011-07-21
The Boltzmann evolution of a wavefunction can be recast as imaginary-time dynamics of the quantum trajectory ensemble. The quantum effects arise from the momentum-dependent quantum potential--computed approximately to be practical in high-dimensional systems--influencing the trajectories in addition to the external classical potential [S. Garashchuk, J. Chem. Phys. 132, 014112 (2010)]. For a nodeless wavefunction represented as ψ(x, t) = exp(-S(x, t)/ħ) with the trajectory momenta defined by ∇S(x, t), analysis of the Lagrangian and Eulerian evolution shows that for bound potentials the former is more accurate while the latter is more practical because the Lagrangian quantum trajectories diverge with time. Introduction of stationary and time-dependent components into the wavefunction representation generates new Lagrangian-type dynamics where the trajectory spreading is controlled improving efficiency of the trajectory description. As an illustration, different types of dynamics are used to compute zero-point energy of a strongly anharmonic well and low-lying eigenstates of a high-dimensional coupled harmonic system. PMID:21786984
Liu, Xien; Park, Minjoon; Kim, Min Gyu; Gupta, Shiva; Wu, Gang; Cho, Jaephil
2015-08-10
The lack of high-efficient, low-cost, and durable bifunctional electrocatalysts that act simultaneously for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is currently one of the major obstacles to commercializing the electrical rechargeability of zinc-air batteries. A nanocomposite CoO-NiO-NiCo bifunctional electrocatalyst supported by nitrogen-doped multiwall carbon nanotubes (NCNT/CoO-NiO-NiCo) exhibits excellent activity and stability for the ORR/OER in alkaline media. More importantly, real air cathodes made from the bifunctional NCNT/CoO-NiO-NiCo catalysts further demonstrated superior performance to state-of-the-art Pt/C or Pt/C+IrO2 catalysts in primary and rechargeable zinc-air batteries. PMID:26118973
Okada, Takashi Yonezawa, Susumu
2013-08-15
Highlights: • We recovered Pb from cathode ray tube funnel glass using reduction melting process. • We modified the melting process to achieve Pb recovery with low energy consumption. • Pb in the funnel glass is efficiently recovered at 1000 °C by adding Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. • Pb remaining in the glass after reduction melting is extracted with 1 M HCl. • 98% of Pb in the funnel glass was recovered by reduction melting and HCl leaching. - Abstract: Lead can be recovered from funnel glass of waste cathode ray tubes via reduction melting. While low-temperature melting is necessary for reduced energy consumption, previously proposed methods required high melting temperatures (1400 °C) for the reduction melting. In this study, the reduction melting of the funnel glass was performed at 900–1000 °C using a lab-scale reactor with varying concentrations of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} at different melting temperatures and melting times. The optimum Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} dosage and melting temperature for efficient lead recovery was 0.5 g per 1 g of the funnel glass and 1000 °C respectively. By the reduction melting with the mentioned conditions, 92% of the lead in the funnel glass was recovered in 60 min. However, further lead recovery was difficult because the rate of the lead recovery decreased as with the recovery of increasing quantity of the lead from the glass. Thus, the lead remaining in the glass after the reduction melting was extracted with 1 M HCl, and the lead recovery improved to 98%.
Noise performance of high-efficiency germanium quantum dot photodetectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siontas, Stylianos; Liu, Pei; Zaslavsky, Alexander; Pacifici, Domenico
2016-08-01
We report on the noise analysis of high performance germanium quantum dot (Ge QD) photodetectors with responsivity up to ˜2 A/W and internal quantum efficiency up to ˜400%, over the 400-1100 nm wavelength range and at a reverse bias of -10 V. Photolithography was performed to define variable active-area devices that show suppressed dark current, leading to a higher signal-to-noise ratio, up to 105, and specific detectivity D * ≃ 6 × 10 12 cm Hz 1 / 2 W-1. These figures of merit suggest Ge QDs as a promising alternative material for high-performance photodetectors working in the visible to near-infrared spectral range.
Intermediate band solar cell with extreme broadband spectrum quantum efficiency.
Datas, A; López, E; Ramiro, I; Antolín, E; Martí, A; Luque, A; Tamaki, R; Shoji, Y; Sogabe, T; Okada, Y
2015-04-17
We report, for the first time, about an intermediate band solar cell implemented with InAs/AlGaAs quantum dots whose photoresponse expands from 250 to ∼6000 nm. To our knowledge, this is the broadest quantum efficiency reported to date for a solar cell and demonstrates that the intermediate band solar cell is capable of producing photocurrent when illuminated with photons whose energy equals the energy of the lowest band gap. We show experimental evidence indicating that this result is in agreement with the theory of the intermediate band solar cell, according to which the generation recombination between the intermediate band and the valence band makes this photocurrent detectable. PMID:25933339
Efficient Biologically Inspired Photocell Enhanced by Delocalized Quantum States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Creatore, C.; Parker, M. A.; Emmott, S.; Chin, A. W.
2013-12-01
Artificially implementing the biological light reactions responsible for the remarkably efficient photon-to-charge conversion in photosynthetic complexes represents a new direction for the future development of photovoltaic devices. Here, we develop such a paradigm and present a model photocell based on the nanoscale architecture and molecular elements of photosynthetic reaction centers. Quantum interference of photon absorption and emission induced by the dipole-dipole interaction between molecular excited states guarantees an enhanced light-to-current conversion and power generation for a wide range of electronic, thermal, and optical parameters for optimized dipolar geometries. This result opens a promising new route for designing artificial light-harvesting devices inspired by biological photosynthesis and quantum technologies.
Quantum Coherence in Photosynthesis for Efficient Solar Energy Conversion
Romero, Elisabet; Augulis, Ramunas; Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I.; Ferretti, Marco; Thieme, Jos; Zigmantas, Donatas; van Grondelle, Rienk
2014-01-01
The crucial step in the conversion of solar to chemical energy in Photosynthesis takes place in the reaction center where the absorbed excitation energy is converted into a stable charge separated state by ultrafast electron transfer events. However, the fundamental mechanism responsible for the near unity quantum efficiency of this process is unknown. Here we elucidate the role of coherence in determining the efficiency of charge separation in the plant photosystem II reaction centre (PSII RC) by comprehensively combining experiment (two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy) and theory (Redfield theory). We reveal the presence of electronic coherence between excitons as well as between exciton and charge transfer states which we argue to be maintained by vibrational modes. Furthermore, we present evidence for the strong correlation between the degree of electronic coherence and efficient and ultrafast charge separation. We propose that this coherent mechanism will inspire the development of new energy technologies. PMID:26870153
Quantum Dot Solar Cells: High Efficiency through Multiple Exciton Generation
Hanna, M. C.; Ellingson, R. J.; Beard, M.; Yu, P.; Micic, O. I.; Nozik, A. J.; c.
2005-01-01
Impact ionization is a process in which absorbed photons in semiconductors that are at least twice the bandgap can produce multiple electron-hole pairs. For single-bandgap photovoltaic devices, this effect produces greatly enhanced theoretical thermodynamic conversion efficiencies that range from 45-85%, depending upon solar concentration, the cell temperature, and the number of electron-hole pairs produced per photon. For quantum dots (QDs), electron-hole pairs exist as excitons. We have observed astoundingly efficient multiple exciton generation (MEG) in QDs of PbSe (bulk Eg = 0.28 eV), ranging in diameter from 3.9 to 5.7nm (Eg = 0.73, 0.82, and 0.91 eV, respectively). The effective masses of electron and holes are about equal in PbSe, and the onset for efficient MEG occurs at about three times the QD HOMO-LUMO transition (its ''bandgap''). The quantum yield rises quickly after the onset and reaches 300% at 4 x Eg (3.64 eV) for the smallest QD; this means that every QD in the sample produces three electron-hole pairs/photon.
Highly efficient metallic optical incouplers for quantum well infrared photodetectors
Liu, Long; Chen, Yu; Huang, Zhong; Du, Wei; Zhan, Peng; Wang, Zhenlin
2016-01-01
Herein, we propose a highly efficient metallic optical incoupler for a quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) operating in the spectrum range of 14~16 μm, which consists of an array of metal micropatches and a periodically corrugated metallic back plate sandwiching a semiconductor active layer. By exploiting the excitations of microcavity modes and hybrid spoof surface plasmons (SSPs) modes, this optical incoupler can convert infrared radiation efficiently into the quantum wells (QWs) layer of semiconductor region with large electrical field component (Ez) normal to the plane of QWs. Our further numerical simulations for optimization indicate that by tuning microcavity mode to overlap with hybrid SSPs mode in spectrum, a coupled mode is formed, which leads to 33-fold enhanced light absorption for QWs centered at wavelength of 14.5 μm compared with isotropic absorption of QWs without any metallic microstructures, as well as a large value of coupling efficiency (η) of |Ez|2 ~ 6. This coupled mode shows a slight dispersion over ~40° and weak polarization dependence, which is quite beneficial to the high performance infrared photodetectors. PMID:27456691
Highly efficient metallic optical incouplers for quantum well infrared photodetectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Long; Chen, Yu; Huang, Zhong; Du, Wei; Zhan, Peng; Wang, Zhenlin
2016-07-01
Herein, we propose a highly efficient metallic optical incoupler for a quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) operating in the spectrum range of 14~16 μm, which consists of an array of metal micropatches and a periodically corrugated metallic back plate sandwiching a semiconductor active layer. By exploiting the excitations of microcavity modes and hybrid spoof surface plasmons (SSPs) modes, this optical incoupler can convert infrared radiation efficiently into the quantum wells (QWs) layer of semiconductor region with large electrical field component (Ez) normal to the plane of QWs. Our further numerical simulations for optimization indicate that by tuning microcavity mode to overlap with hybrid SSPs mode in spectrum, a coupled mode is formed, which leads to 33-fold enhanced light absorption for QWs centered at wavelength of 14.5 μm compared with isotropic absorption of QWs without any metallic microstructures, as well as a large value of coupling efficiency (η) of |Ez|2 ~ 6. This coupled mode shows a slight dispersion over ~40° and weak polarization dependence, which is quite beneficial to the high performance infrared photodetectors.
Highly efficient metallic optical incouplers for quantum well infrared photodetectors.
Liu, Long; Chen, Yu; Huang, Zhong; Du, Wei; Zhan, Peng; Wang, Zhenlin
2016-01-01
Herein, we propose a highly efficient metallic optical incoupler for a quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) operating in the spectrum range of 14~16 μm, which consists of an array of metal micropatches and a periodically corrugated metallic back plate sandwiching a semiconductor active layer. By exploiting the excitations of microcavity modes and hybrid spoof surface plasmons (SSPs) modes, this optical incoupler can convert infrared radiation efficiently into the quantum wells (QWs) layer of semiconductor region with large electrical field component (Ez) normal to the plane of QWs. Our further numerical simulations for optimization indicate that by tuning microcavity mode to overlap with hybrid SSPs mode in spectrum, a coupled mode is formed, which leads to 33-fold enhanced light absorption for QWs centered at wavelength of 14.5 μm compared with isotropic absorption of QWs without any metallic microstructures, as well as a large value of coupling efficiency (η) of |Ez|(2) ~ 6. This coupled mode shows a slight dispersion over ~40° and weak polarization dependence, which is quite beneficial to the high performance infrared photodetectors. PMID:27456691
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kozlovskii, Vladimir I.; Popov, Yurii M.
2003-01-01
The main factors determining the lasing threshold and efficiency of a laser cathode-ray tube at room temperature are considered. Recent achievements obtained by using laser screens made of the II — VI compound single crystals are discussed. It is shown that multilayer heterostructures allow the reduction in the lasing threshold by several times.
Deterministic and efficient quantum cryptography based on Bell's theorem
Chen Zengbing; Pan Jianwei; Zhang Qiang; Bao Xiaohui; Schmiedmayer, Joerg
2006-05-15
We propose a double-entanglement-based quantum cryptography protocol that is both efficient and deterministic. The proposal uses photon pairs with entanglement both in polarization and in time degrees of freedom; each measurement in which both of the two communicating parties register a photon can establish one and only one perfect correlation, and thus deterministically create a key bit. Eavesdropping can be detected by violation of local realism. A variation of the protocol shows a higher security, similar to the six-state protocol, under individual attacks. Our scheme allows a robust implementation under the current technology.
Efficient Quantum Compression for Ensembles of Identically Prepared Mixed States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yuxiang; Chiribella, Giulio; Ebler, Daniel
2016-02-01
We present one-shot compression protocols that optimally encode ensembles of N identically prepared mixed states into O (log N ) qubits. In contrast to the case of pure-state ensembles, we find that the number of encoding qubits drops down discontinuously as soon as a nonzero error is tolerated and the spectrum of the states is known with sufficient precision. For qubit ensembles, this feature leads to a 25% saving of memory space. Our compression protocols can be implemented efficiently on a quantum computer.
Modeling the quantum efficiency of controlled porosity dispenser photocathodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Z.; Jensen, K.; O'Shea, P.
2012-01-01
A theoretical model of diffusion, evaporation, and rejuvenation of cesium on the surface of a controlled porosity dispenser photocathode is developed. The model applies a novel hexagonal meshgrid for increased numerical accuracy. For activation temperatures within the range of 400 K-1000 K, simulation found differences of less than 5% between the quantum efficiency (QE) maximum and minimum over ideal homogenous surfaces. Simulations suggest more variation for real cases to include real surface non uniformity. Changes in the QE map across the surface suggest that the emittance can change depending on temperature. Extensions to the model as well as connections to experiment are discussed.
Efficient teleportation between remote single-atom quantum memories.
Nölleke, Christian; Neuzner, Andreas; Reiserer, Andreas; Hahn, Carolin; Rempe, Gerhard; Ritter, Stephan
2013-04-01
We demonstrate teleportation of quantum bits between two single atoms in distant laboratories. Using a time-resolved photonic Bell-state measurement, we achieve a teleportation fidelity of (88.0 ± 1.5)%, largely determined by our entanglement fidelity. The low photon collection efficiency in free space is overcome by trapping each atom in an optical cavity. The resulting success probability of 0.1% is almost 5 orders of magnitude larger than in previous experiments with remote material qubits. It is mainly limited by photon propagation and detection losses and can be enhanced with a cavity-based deterministic Bell-state measurement. PMID:25166964
Surface and bulk contribution to Cu(111) quantum efficiency
Pedersoli, Emanuele; Greaves, Corin Michael Ricardo; Wan, Weishi; Coleman-Smith, Christopher; Padmore, Howard A.; Pagliara, Stefania; Cartella, Andrea; Lamarca, Fabrizio; Ferrini, Gabriele; Galimberti, Gianluca; Montagnese, Matteo; dal Conte, Stefano; Parmigiani, Fulvio
2008-11-04
The quantum efficiency (QE) of Cu(111) is measured for different impinging light angles with photon energies just above the work function. We observe that the vectorial photoelectric effect, an enhancement of the QE due to illumination with light with an electric vector perpendicular to the sample surface, is stronger in the more surface sensitive regime. This can be explained by a contribution to photoemission due to the variation in the electromagnetic potential at the surface. The contributions of bulk and surface electrons can then be determined.
High quantum efficiency S-20 photocathodes in photon counting detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orlov, D. A.; DeFazio, J.; Duarte Pinto, S.; Glazenborg, R.; Kernen, E.
2016-04-01
Based on conventional S-20 processes, a new series of high quantum efficiency (QE) photocathodes has been developed that can be specifically tuned for use in the ultraviolet, blue or green regions of the spectrum. The QE values exceed 30% at maximum response, and the dark count rate is found to be as low as 30 Hz/cm2 at room temperature. This combination of properties along with a fast temporal response makes these photocathodes ideal for application in photon counting detectors, which is demonstrated with an MCP photomultiplier tube for single and multi-photoelectron detection.
CdSe Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cell with ~100% Internal Quantum Efficiency
Fuke, Nobuhiro; Hoch, Laura B.; Koposov, Alexey Y.; Manner, Virginia W.; Werder, Donald J.; Fukui, Atsushi; Koide, Naoki; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Sykora, Milan
2010-10-20
We have constructed and studied photoelectrochemical solar cells (PECs) consisting of a photoanode prepared by direct deposition of independently synthesized CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs) onto a nanocrystalline TiO_{2} film (NQD/TiO_{2}), aqueous Na_{2}S or Li_{2}S electrolyte, and a Pt counter electrode. We show that light harvesting efficiency (LHE) of the NQD/TiO_{2} photoanode is significantly enhanced when the NQD surface passivation is changed from tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) to 4-butylamine (BA). In the PEC the use of NQDs with a shorter passivating ligand, BA, leads to a significant enhancement in both the electron injection efficiency at the NQD/TiO_{2} interface and charge collection efficiency at the NQD/electrolyte interface, with the latter attributed mostly to a more efficient diffusion of the electrolyte through the pores of the photoanode. We show that by utilizing BA-capped NQDs and aqueous Li_{2}S as an electrolyte, it is possible to achieve ~100% internal quantum efficiency of photon-to-electron conversion, matching the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells.
Dynamical decoupling efficiency versus quantum non-Markovianity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Addis, Carole; Ciccarello, Francesco; Cascio, Michele; Massimo Palma, G.; Maniscalco, Sabrina
2015-12-01
We investigate the relationship between non-Markovianity and the effectiveness of a dynamical decoupling (DD) protocol for qubits undergoing pure dephasing. We consider an exact model in which dephasing arises due to a bosonic environment with a spectral density of the Ohmic class. This is parametrized by an Ohmicity parameter by changing which we can model both Markovian and non-Markovian environments. Interestingly, we find that engineering a non-Markovian environment is detrimental to the efficiency of the DD scheme, leading to a worse coherence preservation. We show that each DD pulse reverses the flow of quantum information and, on this basis, we investigate the connection between DD efficiency and the reservoir spectral density. Finally, in the spirit of reservoir engineering, we investigate the optimum system-reservoir parameters for achieving maximum stationary coherences.
Jefferson Lab IR demo FEL photocathode quantum efficiency scanner
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gubeli, J.; Evans, R.; Grippo, A.; Jordan, K.; Shinn, M.; Siggins, T.
2001-12-01
Jefferson Laboratory's Free Electron Laser (FEL) incorporates a cesiated gallium arsenide (GaAs) DC photocathode gun as its electron source. By using a set of scanning mirrors, the surface of the GaAs wafer is illuminated with a 543.5nm helium-neon laser. Measuring the current flow across the biased photocathode generates a quantum efficiency (QE) map of the 1-in. diameter wafer surface. The resulting QE map provides a very detailed picture of the efficiency of the wafer surface. By generating a QE map in a matter of minutes, the photocathode scanner has proven to be an exceptional tool in quickly determining sensitivity and availability of the photocathode for operation.
Li, Zhiqi; Li, Shujun; Zhang, Zhihui; Zhang, Xinyuan; Li, Jingfeng; Liu, Chunyu; Shen, Liang; Guo, Wenbin; Ruan, Shengping
2016-04-20
Enhanced performance of polymer solar cells (PSCs) based on the blend of poly[N-9''-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT):[6,6]-phenyl-C70-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) is demonstrated by titanium dioxide (TiO2) interface modification via CuInS2/ZnS quantum dots (CZdots). Devices with a TiO2/CZdots composite buffer layer exhibit both a high short-circuit current density (Jsc) and fill factor (FF), leading to a power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 7.01%. The charge transport recombination mechanisms are investigated by an impedance behavior model, which indicates that TiO2 interfacial modification results in not only increasing the electron extraction but also reducing impedance. This study provides an important and beneficial approach to develop high efficiency PSCs. PMID:27055908
Evaluation of new large area PMT with high quantum efficiency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lei, Xiang-Cui; Heng, Yue-Kun; Qian, Sen; Xia, Jing-Kai; Liu, Shu-Lin; Wu, Zhi; Yan, Bao-Jun; Xu, Mei-Hang; Wang, Zheng; Li, Xiao-Nan; Ruan, Xiang-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Zhuang; Yang, Yu-Zhen; Wang, Wen-Wen, Wang; Can, Fang; Feng-Jiao, Luo; Liang, Jing-Jing; Yang, Lu-Ping; Yang, Biao
2016-02-01
The neutrino detector of the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is designed to use 20 kilotons of liquid scintillator and approximately 16 000 20 inch photomultipliers (PMTs). One of the options is to use the 20 inch R12860 PMT with high quantum efficiency which has recently been developed by Hamamatsu Photonics. The performance of the newly developed PMT preproduction samples is evaluated. The results show that its quantum efficiency is 30% at 400 nm. Its Peak/Valley (P/V) ratio for the single photoelectron is 4.75 and the dark count rate is 27 kHz at the threshold of 3 mV while the gain is at 1 × 107. The transit time spread of a single photoelectron is 2.86 ns. Generally the performances of this new 20 inch PMT are improved over the old one of R3600. Supported by Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (X-DA10010200), Key Deployment Project of Chinese Academy of Sciences and CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP)
Fully depleted, thick, monolithic CMOS pixels with high quantum efficiency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clarke, A.; Stefanov, K.; Johnston, N.; Holland, A.
2015-04-01
The Centre for Electronic Imaging (CEI) has an active programme of evaluating and designing Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors with high quantum efficiency, for applications in near-infrared and X-ray photon detection. This paper describes the performance characterisation of CMOS devices made on a high resistivity 50 μ m thick p-type substrate with a particular focus on determining the depletion depth and the quantum efficiency. The test devices contain 8 × 8 pixel arrays using CCD-style charge collection, which are manufactured in a low voltage CMOS process by ESPROS Photonics Corporation (EPC). Measurements include determining under which operating conditions the devices become fully depleted. By projecting a spot using a microscope optic and a LED and biasing the devices over a range of voltages, the depletion depth will change, causing the amount of charge collected in the projected spot to change. We determine if the device is fully depleted by measuring the signal collected from the projected spot. The analysis of spot size and shape is still under development.
Efficient quantum modeling of inelastic interactions in nanodevices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Y.; Lannoo, M.; Cavassilas, N.; Luisier, M.; Bescond, M.
2016-05-01
This paper presents an efficient direct quantum method to model inelastic scattering in nanoelectronic structures including degenerate band extrema. It couples the Born series expansion of the nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) to an analytic continuation based on the Padé approximant technique. Using a two-band k .p Hamiltonian, we analyze the electron transport through a linear chain in the presence of both optical and acoustic phonons. Results are consistently compared with the usual, computationally expensive, self-consistent Born approximation (SCBA). We find that our approach provides a much better convergence for both types of phonons in the presence of strong multiband coupling. The calculation of the current to the fifth order in the interactions is sufficient to reproduce the influence of all considered phonon interactions. We also show that the method can be applied to the calculation of the density of carriers which depicts however a slower convergence rate than the current. The capability to efficiently calculate both current and carrier density represents a clear advantage in a context of increasing request for atomistic quantum simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Ruimin; Fan, Wugang; Guo, Xiangxin; Dong, Shaoming
2016-02-01
Carbonaceous air cathodes with rational architecture are vital for the nonaqueous Li-O2 batteries to achieve large energy density, high energy efficiency and long cycle life. In this work, we report the cathodes made of highly ordered and vertically aligned carbon nanotubes grown on permeable Ta foil substrates (VACNTs-Ta) via thermal chemical vapour deposition. The VACNTs-Ta, composed of uniform carbon nanotubes with approximately 240 μm in superficial height, has the super large surface area. Meanwhile, the oriented carbon nanotubes provide extremely outstanding passageways for Li ions and oxygen species. Electrochemistry tests of VACNTs-Ta air cathodes show enhancement in discharge capacity and cycle life compared to those made from short-range oriented and disordered carbon nanotubes. By further combining with the LiI redox mediator that is dissolved in the tetraethylene dimethyl glycol based electrolytes, the batteries exhibit more than 200 cycles at the current density of 200 mA g-1 with a cut-off discharge capacity of 1000 mAh g-1, and their energy efficiencies increase from 50% to 82%. The results here demonstrate the importance of cathode construction for high-energy-efficiency and long-life Li-O2 batteries.
UV photoemission from metal cathodes for picosecond power switches
Fischer, J.; Srinivasan-RAo, T.; Tsang, T.
1989-01-01
Results are reported of photoemission studies using laser pulses of 10 ps duration and 4.66 eV photon energy on metal cathodes. These included thin wires, flat surfaces and an yttrium cathode with a grainy surface. The measurements of current density and quantum efficiency under low and high surface fields indicate that field assisted efficiencies exceeding 0.1% and current densities exceeding 10/sup 5/ A/cm/sup 2/ are obtainable. The results are compared to the requirements of switch power applications. 24 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slooff, L. H.; Veenstra, S. C.; Kroon, J. M.; Moet, D. J. D.; Sweelssen, J.; Koetse, M. M.
2007-04-01
A power conversion efficiency of 4.2% (AM1.5, 1000W/m2) is measured for an organic solar cell based on an active layer of an alternating copolymer, containing a fluorene and a benzothiadiazole unit with two neighboring thiophene rings, and a fullerene derivative. Using optical modeling, the absorption profile in the active layer of the solar cell is calculated and used to calculate the maximum short circuit current. The calculated currents are compared with measured currents from current-voltage measurements for various film thicknesses. From this the internal quantum efficiency is estimated to be 75% at the maximum for the best device.
Highly efficient inverted organic solar cells using amino acid modified indium tin oxide as cathode
Li, Aiyuan; Nie, Riming; Deng, Xianyu; Wei, Huaixin; Li, Yanqing; Tang, Jianxin; Zheng, Shizhao; Wong, King-Young
2014-03-24
In this paper, we report that highly efficient inverted organic solar cells were achieved by modifying the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) using an amino acid, Serine (Ser). With the modification of the ITO surface, device efficiency was significantly enhanced from 0.63% to 4.17%, accompanied with an open circuit voltage (Voc) that was enhanced from 0.30 V to 0.55 V. Ultraviolet and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies indicate that the work function reduction induced by the amino acid modification resulting in the decreased barrier height at the ITO/organic interface played a crucial role in the enhanced performances.
Broadband quantum efficiency enhancement in high index nanowire resonators.
Yang, Yiming; Peng, Xingyue; Hyatt, Steven; Yu, Dong
2015-05-13
Light trapping in subwavelength semiconductor nanowires (NWs) offers a promising approach to simultaneously reducing material consumption and enhancing photovoltaic performance. Nevertheless, the absorption efficiency of a NW, defined by the ratio of optical absorption cross section to the NW diameter, lingers around 1 in existing NW photonic devices, and the absorption enhancement suffers from a narrow spectral width. Here, we show that the absorption efficiency can be significantly improved in NWs with higher refractive indices, by an experimental observation of up to 350% apparent external quantum efficiency in lead sulfide NW resonators, a 3-fold increase compared to Si NWs. Furthermore, broadband absorption enhancement is achieved in single tapered NWs, where light of various wavelengths is absorbed at segments with different diameters. Overall, the single NW Schottky junction solar cells benefit from optical resonance, near bandgap open circuit voltage, and long minority carrier diffusion length, demonstrating power conversion efficiency comparable to Si and III-V single NW coaxial p-n junction cells but with much simpler fabrication processes. PMID:25919358
Kim, T.; Liu, B.; Smith, R.; Athanasiou, M.; Gong, Y.; Wang, T.
2014-04-21
A “coherent” nanocavity structure has been designed on two-dimensional well-ordered InGaN/GaN nanodisk arrays with an emission wavelength in the green spectral region, leading to a massive enhancement in resonance mode in the green spectra region. By means of a cost-effective nanosphere lithography technique, we have fabricated such a structure on an InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well epiwafer and have observed the “coherent” nanocavity effect, which leads to an enhanced spontaneous emission (SE) rate. The enhanced SE rate has been confirmed by time resolved photoluminescence measurements. Due to the coherent nanocavity effect, we have achieved a massive improvement in internal quantum efficiency with a factor of 88, compared with the as-grown sample, which could be significant to bridge the “green gap” in solid-state lighting.
Pseudospectral Gaussian quantum dynamics: Efficient sampling of potential energy surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heaps, Charles W.; Mazziotti, David A.
2016-04-01
Trajectory-based Gaussian basis sets have been tremendously successful in describing high-dimensional quantum molecular dynamics. In this paper, we introduce a pseudospectral Gaussian-based method that achieves accurate quantum dynamics using efficient, real-space sampling of the time-dependent basis set. As in other Gaussian basis methods, we begin with a basis set expansion using time-dependent Gaussian basis functions guided by classical mechanics. Unlike other Gaussian methods but characteristic of the pseudospectral and collocation methods, the basis set is tested with N Dirac delta functions, where N is the number of basis functions, rather than using the basis function as test functions. As a result, the integration for matrix elements is reduced to function evaluation. Pseudospectral Gaussian dynamics only requires O ( N ) potential energy calculations, in contrast to O ( N 2 ) evaluations in a variational calculation. The classical trajectories allow small basis sets to sample high-dimensional potentials. Applications are made to diatomic oscillations in a Morse potential and a generalized version of the Henon-Heiles potential in two, four, and six dimensions. Comparisons are drawn to full analytical evaluation of potential energy integrals (variational) and the bra-ket averaged Taylor (BAT) expansion, an O ( N ) approximation used in Gaussian-based dynamics. In all cases, the pseudospectral Gaussian method is competitive with full variational calculations that require a global, analytical, and integrable potential energy surface. Additionally, the BAT breaks down when quantum mechanical coherence is particularly strong (i.e., barrier reflection in the Morse oscillator). The ability to obtain variational accuracy using only the potential energy at discrete points makes the pseudospectral Gaussian method a promising avenue for on-the-fly dynamics, where electronic structure calculations become computationally significant.
Pseudospectral Gaussian quantum dynamics: Efficient sampling of potential energy surfaces.
Heaps, Charles W; Mazziotti, David A
2016-04-28
Trajectory-based Gaussian basis sets have been tremendously successful in describing high-dimensional quantum molecular dynamics. In this paper, we introduce a pseudospectral Gaussian-based method that achieves accurate quantum dynamics using efficient, real-space sampling of the time-dependent basis set. As in other Gaussian basis methods, we begin with a basis set expansion using time-dependent Gaussian basis functions guided by classical mechanics. Unlike other Gaussian methods but characteristic of the pseudospectral and collocation methods, the basis set is tested with N Dirac delta functions, where N is the number of basis functions, rather than using the basis function as test functions. As a result, the integration for matrix elements is reduced to function evaluation. Pseudospectral Gaussian dynamics only requires O(N) potential energy calculations, in contrast to O(N(2)) evaluations in a variational calculation. The classical trajectories allow small basis sets to sample high-dimensional potentials. Applications are made to diatomic oscillations in a Morse potential and a generalized version of the Henon-Heiles potential in two, four, and six dimensions. Comparisons are drawn to full analytical evaluation of potential energy integrals (variational) and the bra-ket averaged Taylor (BAT) expansion, an O(N) approximation used in Gaussian-based dynamics. In all cases, the pseudospectral Gaussian method is competitive with full variational calculations that require a global, analytical, and integrable potential energy surface. Additionally, the BAT breaks down when quantum mechanical coherence is particularly strong (i.e., barrier reflection in the Morse oscillator). The ability to obtain variational accuracy using only the potential energy at discrete points makes the pseudospectral Gaussian method a promising avenue for on-the-fly dynamics, where electronic structure calculations become computationally significant. PMID:27131532
The engineering of quantum dots for efficient solar energy capture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pietryga, Jeffrey
Over the past decade, exciting advances have been made in the use of semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs) for capture of solar energy, including efficient and inexpensive solar cells based on simple, single-component lead chalcogenide QDs. Such devices take advantage of key advantages offered by QDs, including the ability to control bandgap with particle size, and to alter carrier concentrations using surface modification. Remaining essentially untapped, however, is the much larger potential offered by heterostructured QDs to exhibit new functionality that will enable truly unprecedented device performance. In this talk, I will present recent results from our efforts in application-inspired band-structure engineering of heterostructured QDs. Specifically, I will examine how the selective combination of semiconductor materials in a simple core/shell geometry can result in QDs with radically altered properties optimized for use in applications such as carrier-multiplication-enhanced solar cells, and highly efficient luminescent solar concentrators. I will use these examples to demonstrate the general ability of solution-synthesized nanomaterials to contribute to the overall goal of efficient solar energy capture and conversion in a variety of roles. This work was performed within the Center for Advanced Solar Photophysics, a DOE Energy Frontier Research Center.
Okada, Takashi; Yonezawa, Susumu
2013-08-01
Lead can be recovered from funnel glass of waste cathode ray tubes via reduction melting. While low-temperature melting is necessary for reduced energy consumption, previously proposed methods required high melting temperatures (1400 °C) for the reduction melting. In this study, the reduction melting of the funnel glass was performed at 900-1000 °C using a lab-scale reactor with varying concentrations of Na(2)CO(3) at different melting temperatures and melting times. The optimum Na(2)CO(3) dosage and melting temperature for efficient lead recovery was 0.5 g per 1g of the funnel glass and 1000 °C respectively. By the reduction melting with the mentioned conditions, 92% of the lead in the funnel glass was recovered in 60 min. However, further lead recovery was difficult because the rate of the lead recovery decreased as with the recovery of increasing quantity of the lead from the glass. Thus, the lead remaining in the glass after the reduction melting was extracted with 1M HCl, and the lead recovery improved to 98%. PMID:23711698
Determination of quantum efficiency in fluorescing turbid media.
Coppel, Ludovic Gustafsson; Andersson, Mattias; Edström, Per
2011-06-10
A method is proposed to estimate the optical parameters in a fluorescing turbid medium with strong absorption for which traditional Kubelka-Munk theory is not applicable, using a model for the radiative properties of optically thick fluorescent turbid media of finite thickness proposed in 2009 [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A26, 1896 (2009)]. The method is successfully applied to uncoated papers with different thicknesses. It is found that the quantum efficiency of fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) is nearly independent of the fiber type, FWA type, FWA concentration, and filler additive concentration used in this study. The results enable an estimation of the model parameters as function of the FWA concentration and substrate composition. This is necessary in order to use the model for optimizing fluorescence in the paper and textile industries. PMID:21673784
Efficient multiparty quantum key agreement protocol based on commutative encryption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Zhiwei; Huang, Jiwu; Wang, Ping
2016-05-01
A secure multiparty quantum key agreement protocol using single-qubit states is proposed. The agreement key is computed by performing exclusive-OR operation on all the participants' secret keys. Based on the commutative property of the commutative encryption, the exclusive-OR operation can be performed on the plaintext in the encrypted state without decrypting it. Thus, it not only protects the final shared key, but also reduces the complexity of the computation. The efficiency of the proposed protocol, compared with previous multiparty QKA protocols, is also improved. In the presented protocol, entanglement states, joint measurement and even the unitary operations are not needed, and only rotation operations and single-state measurement are required, which are easier to be realized with current technology.
Highly Efficient Long-Distance Quantum Communication: a Blueprint for Implementation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Linshu; Muralidharan, Sreraman; Kim, Jungsang; Lutkenhaus, Norbert; Lukin, Mikhail; Jiang, Liang
2015-03-01
Quantum repeaters provide a way for long distance quantum communication through optical fiber networks. Transmission losses and operation errors are two major challenges to the implementation of quantum repeaters. At each intermediate repeater station, transmission losses can be overcome using either heralded entanglement generation or quantum error correction, while operation errors can be corrected via entanglement purification or quantum error correction. Depending on the mechanisms used to correct loss and operation errors respectively, three generations of quantum repeaters have been proposed. We present a quantitative comparison of different quantum repeater schemes by evaluating the time- and qubit-resource consumed simultaneously. We can identify the most efficient scheme for given technological capabilities, which are characterized by fiber coupling efficiency, local gate fidelity, and local gate speed. Our work provides a roadmap for high-speed quantum networks across continental distances. Linshu and Sreraman contributed equally to this work.
Jacobson, Kyle S; Drew, David M; He, Zhen
2011-01-01
Microbial desalination cells (MDCs) hold great promise for drinking water production because of potential energy savings during the desalination process. In this study, we developed a continuously operated MDC--upflow microbial desalination cell (UMDC) for the purpose of salt removal. During the 4-month operation, the UMDC constantly removed salts and generated bio-electricity. At a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4 days (salt solution) and current production of ∼62 mA, the UMDC was able to remove more than 99% of NaCl from the salt solution that had an initial salt concentration of 30 g total dissolved solids (TDS)/L. In addition, the TDS removal rate was 7.50 g TDSL(-1)d(-1) (salt solution volume) or 5.25 g TDSL(-1)d(-1) (wastewater volume), and the desalinated water met the drinking water standard, in terms of TDS concentration. A high charge transfer efficiency of 98.6% or 81% was achieved at HRT 1 or 4d. The UMDC produced a maximum power density of 30.8 W/m(3). The phenomena of bipolar electrodialysis and proton transport in the UMDC were discussed. These results demonstrated the potential of the UMDC as either a sole desalination process or a pre-desalination reactor for downstream desalination processes. PMID:20584603
High-conjugation-efficiency aqueous CdSe quantum dots.
Au, Giang H T; Shih, Wan Y; Shih, Wei-Heng
2013-11-12
Quantum dots (QDs) are photoluminescent nanoparticles that can be directly or indirectly coupled with a receptor such as an antibody to specifically image a target biomolecule such as an antigen. Recent studies have shown that QDs can be directly made at room temperature and in an aqueous environment (AQDs) with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as the capping ligand without solvent and ligand exchange typically required by QDs made by the organic solvent routes (OQDs). In this study, we have synthesized CdSe AQDs and compared their conjugation efficiency and imaging efficacy with commercial carboxylated OQDs in HT29 colon cancer cells using a primary antibody-biotinylated secondary antibody-streptavidin (SA) sandwich. We showed that the best imaging condition for AQDs occurred when one AQD was bound with 3 ± 0.3 SA with a nominal SA/AQD ratio of 4 corresponding to an SA conjugation efficiency of 75 ± 7.5%. In comparison, for commercial CdSe-ZnS OQDs to achieve 2.7 ± 0.4 bound SAs per OQD for comparable imaging efficacy a nominal SA/OQD ratio of 80 was needed corresponding to an SA conjugation efficiency of 3.4 ± 0.5% for CdSe-ZnS OQDs. The more than 10 times better SA conjugation efficiency of the CdSe AQDs as compared to that of the CdSe-ZnS OQDs was attributed to more capping molecules on the AQD surface as a result of the direct aqueous synthesis. More capping molecules on the AQD surface also allowed the SA-AQD conjugate to be stable in cell culture medium for more than three days without losing their staining capability in a flowing cell culture medium. In contrast, SA-OQD conjugates aggregated in cell culture medium and in phosphate buffer saline solution over time. PMID:24151632
Greenbaum, E.
1985-01-01
Absolute energy and quantum conversion efficiencies based on incident radiation have been measured for five species of green algae. Experiments have been performed with broadband illumination and monochromatic illumination. Maximum efficiencies were obtained in the linear low-intensity portion of the light saturation curve. At these intensities, equivalent solar energy conversion efficiencies of 2-3% were obtained with Chlamydomonas reinhardtil 137C(+). Although this efficiency decreased to less than 0.01% at equivalent incident solar irradiances above 100 w/m)sup)2)), a knowledge of the structure of photosynthetic units and the turnover time of photosynthesis suggest a procedure to overcome this limitation. Using monochromatic illumination at 700 nm, quantum efficiencies were computed from measured energy conversion efficiencies. The maximum measured quantum efficiency for photobiological hydrogen production was 6.3% in the marine species Chlamydomonas D. This value is about 25% of the maximum theoretical value of the quantum efficiency of photobiological hydrogen production. 19 refs., 6 figs.
High power-efficiency terahertz quantum cascade laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Jun-Qi; Liu, Feng-Qi; Zhang, Jin-Chuan; Zhai, Shen-Qiang; Zhuo, Ning; Wang, Li-Jun; Liu, Shu-Man; Wang, Zhan-Guo
2016-08-01
We demonstrate continuous-wave (CW) high power-efficiency terahertz quantum cascade laser based on semi-insulating surface-plasmon waveguide with epitaxial-side down (Epi-down) mounting process. The performance of the device is analyzed in detail. The laser emits at a frequency of ∼ 3.27 THz and has a maximum CW operating temperature of ∼ 70 K. The peak output powers are 177 mW in pulsed mode and 149 mW in CW mode at 10 K for 130-μm-wide Epi-down mounted lasers. The record wall-plug efficiencies in direct measurement are 2.26% and 2.05% in pulsed and CW mode, respectively. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2014CB339803 and 2013CB632801), the Special-funded Program on National Key Scientific Instruments and Equipment Development, China (Grant No. 2011YQ13001802-04), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61376051).
Towards a Robust, Efficient Dispenser Photocathode: the Effect of Recesiation on Quantum Efficiency
Montgomery, Eric J.; Pan Zhigang; Leung, Jessica; Feldman, Donald W.; O'Shea, Patrick G.; Jensen, Kevin L.
2009-01-22
Future electron accelerators and Free Electron Lasers (FELs) require high brightness electron sources; photocathodes for such devices are challenged to maintain long life and high electron emission efficiency (high quantum efficiency, or QE). The UMD dispenser photocathode design addresses this tradeoff of robustness and QE. In such a dispenser, a cesium-based surface layer is deposited on a porous substrate. The surface layer can be replenished from a subsurface cesium reservoir under gentle heating, allowing cesium to diffuse controllably to the surface and providing demonstrably more robust photocathodes. In support of the premise that recesiation is able to restore contaminated photocathodes, we here report controlled contamination of cesium-based surface layers with subsequent recesiation and the resulting effect on QE. Contaminant gases investigated include examples known from the vacuum environment of typical electron guns.
Towards a Robust, Efficient Dispenser Photocathode: the Effect of Recesiation on Quantum Efficiency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montgomery, Eric J.; Pan, Zhigang; Leung, Jessica; Feldman, Donald W.; O'Shea, Patrick G.; Jensen, Kevin L.
2009-01-01
Future electron accelerators and Free Electron Lasers (FELs) require high brightness electron sources; photocathodes for such devices are challenged to maintain long life and high electron emission efficiency (high quantum efficiency, or QE). The UMD dispenser photocathode design addresses this tradeoff of robustness and QE. In such a dispenser, a cesium-based surface layer is deposited on a porous substrate. The surface layer can be replenished from a subsurface cesium reservoir under gentle heating, allowing cesium to diffuse controllably to the surface and providing demonstrably more robust photocathodes. In support of the premise that recesiation is able to restore contaminated photocathodes, we here report controlled contamination of cesium-based surface layers with subsequent recesiation and the resulting effect on QE. Contaminant gases investigated include examples known from the vacuum environment of typical electron guns.
Measurement and analysis of thermal photoemission from a dispenser cathode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jensen, Kevin L.; Feldman, Donald W.; Virgo, Matt; O'Shea, Patrick G.
2003-08-01
Photocathodes for free electron lasers (FELs) are required to produce nano-Coulomb pulses in picosecond time scales with demonstrable reliability, lifetime, and efficiency. Dispenser cathodes, traditionally a rugged and long-lived thermionic source, are under investigation to determine their utility as a photocathode and have shown promise. The present study describes theoretical models under development to analyze experimental data from dispenser cathodes and to create predictive time-dependent models to predict their performance as an FEL source. Here, a steady-state model of a dispenser cathode with partial coverage of a low work function coating and surface nonuniformity is developed. Quantitative agreement is found for experimental data, especially with regard to temperature, field, laser intensity, and quantum efficiency versus laser wavelength dependence. In particular, for long wavelength incident lasers of sufficient intensity, the majority of the absorbed energy heats the electron gas and background lattice, and photoemission from the heated electron distribution constitutes the emitted current.
Toward efficient fiber-based quantum interface (Conference Presentation)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soshenko, Vladimir; Vorobyov, Vadim V.; Bolshedvorsky, Stepan; Lebedev, Nikolay; Akimov, Alexey V.; Sorokin, Vadim; Smolyaninov, Andrey
2016-04-01
NV center in diamond is attracting a lot of attention in quantum information processing community [1]. Been spin system in clean and well-controlled environment of diamond it shows outstanding performance as quantum memory even at room temperature, spin control with single shot optical readout and possibility to build up quantum registers even on single NV center. Moreover, NV centers could be used as high-resolution sensitive elements of detectors of magnetic or electric field, temperature, tension, force or rotation. For all of these applications collection of the light emitted by NV center is crucial point. There were number of approaches suggested to address this issue, proposing use of surface plasmoms [2], manufacturing structures in diamond [3] etc. One of the key feature of any practically important interface is compatibility with the fiber technology. Several groups attacking this problem using various approaches. One of them is placing of nanodiamonds in the holes of photonic crystal fiber [4], another is utilization of AFM to pick and place nanodiamond on the tapered fiber[5]. We have developed a novel technique of placing a nanodiamond with single NV center on the tapered fiber by controlled transfer of a nanodiamond from one "donor" tapered fiber to the "target" clean tapered fiber. We verify our ability to transfer only single color centers by means of measurement of second order correlation function. With this technique, we were able to double collection efficiency of confocal microscope. The majority of the factors limiting the collection of photons via optical fiber are technical and may be removed allowing order of magnitude improved in collection. We also discuss number of extensions of this technique to all fiber excitation and integration with nanostructures. References: [1] Marcus W. Doherty, Neil B. Manson, Paul Delaney, Fedor Jelezko, Jörg Wrachtrup, Lloyd C.L. Hollenberg , " The nitrogen-vacancy colour centre in diamond," Physics Reports
Detective quantum efficiency of electron area detectors in electron microscopy
McMullan, G.; Chen, S.; Henderson, R.; Faruqi, A.R.
2009-01-01
Recent progress in detector design has created the need for a careful side-by-side comparison of the modulation transfer function (MTF) and resolution-dependent detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of existing electron detectors with those of detectors based on new technology. We present MTF and DQE measurements for four types of detector: Kodak SO-163 film, TVIPS 224 charge coupled device (CCD) detector, the Medipix2 hybrid pixel detector, and an experimental direct electron monolithic active pixel sensor (MAPS) detector. Film and CCD performance was measured at 120 and 300 keV, while results are presented for the Medipix2 at 120 keV and for the MAPS detector at 300 keV. In the case of film, the effects of electron backscattering from both the holder and the plastic support have been investigated. We also show that part of the response of the emulsion in film comes from light generated in the plastic support. Computer simulations of film and the MAPS detector have been carried out and show good agreement with experiment. The agreement enables us to conclude that the DQE of a backthinned direct electron MAPS detector is likely to be equal to, or better than, that of film at 300 keV. PMID:19497671
Effects of image processing on the detective quantum efficiency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Hye-Suk; Kim, Hee-Joung; Cho, Hyo-Min; Lee, Chang-Lae; Lee, Seung-Wan; Choi, Yu-Na
2010-04-01
Digital radiography has gained popularity in many areas of clinical practice. This transition brings interest in advancing the methodologies for image quality characterization. However, as the methodologies for such characterizations have not been standardized, the results of these studies cannot be directly compared. The primary objective of this study was to standardize methodologies for image quality characterization. The secondary objective was to evaluate affected factors to Modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) according to image processing algorithm. Image performance parameters such as MTF, NPS, and DQE were evaluated using the international electro-technical commission (IEC 62220-1)-defined RQA5 radiographic techniques. Computed radiography (CR) images of hand posterior-anterior (PA) for measuring signal to noise ratio (SNR), slit image for measuring MTF, white image for measuring NPS were obtained and various Multi-Scale Image Contrast Amplification (MUSICA) parameters were applied to each of acquired images. In results, all of modified images were considerably influence on evaluating SNR, MTF, NPS, and DQE. Modified images by the post-processing had higher DQE than the MUSICA=0 image. This suggests that MUSICA values, as a post-processing, have an affect on the image when it is evaluating for image quality. In conclusion, the control parameters of image processing could be accounted for evaluating characterization of image quality in same way. The results of this study could be guided as a baseline to evaluate imaging systems and their imaging characteristics by measuring MTF, NPS, and DQE.
Quantum Afterburner: Improving the Efficiency of an Ideal Heat Engine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scully, Marlan O.
2002-02-01
By using a laser and maser in tandem, it is possible to obtain laser action in the hot exhaust gases of a heat engine. Such a ``quantum afterburner'' involves the internal quantum states of the working molecules as well as the techniques of cavity quantum electrodynamics and is therefore in the domain of quantum thermodynamics. It is shown that Otto cycle engine performance can be improved beyond that of the ``ideal'' Otto heat engine. Furthermore, the present work demonstrates a new kind of lasing without initial inversion.
Quantum afterburner: improving the efficiency of an ideal heat engine.
Scully, Marlan O
2002-02-01
By using a laser and maser in tandem, it is possible to obtain laser action in the hot exhaust gases of a heat engine. Such a "quantum afterburner" involves the internal quantum states of the working molecules as well as the techniques of cavity quantum electrodynamics and is therefore in the domain of quantum thermodynamics. It is shown that Otto cycle engine performance can be improved beyond that of the "ideal" Otto heat engine. Furthermore, the present work demonstrates a new kind of lasing without initial inversion. PMID:11863710
Wang, Guang-Li; Shu, Jun-Xian; Dong, Yu-Ming; Wu, Xiu-Ming; Zhao, Wei-Wei; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan
2015-03-01
We present a novel photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensing platform by taking advantage of the phenomenon that hemin intercalated in G-quadruplex "switched-on" the cathode photocurrent of p-type PbS quantum dots (QDs). Photoinduced electron transfer between PbS QDs and G-quadruplex/hemin(III) complexes with the subsequent catalytic oxygen reduction by the reduced G-quadruplex/hemin(II) led to an obvious enhancement in the cathodic photocurrent of the PbS QDs. For the detection process, in the presence of hemin, the specific recognition of the targets with the sensing sequence would trigger the formation of a stable G-quadruplex/hemin complex, which will result in reduced charge recombination and hence amplified photocurrent intensity of the PbS QDs. By using different target sequences, the developed system made possible a novel, label-free "switch-on" PEC aptasensor toward versatile biomolecular targets such as DNA and thrombin. Especially, with ambient oxygen to regenerate G-quadruplex/hemin(II) to G-quadruplex/hemin(III), this substrate-free strategy not only promoted the photoelectric effect and thus the enhanced sensitivity of the system, but also avoided the addition of supplementary substrates of G-quadruplex/hemin such as H2O2 and organic substances. PMID:25649393
Qin, Xiaoli; Wang, Linchun; Xie, Qingji
2016-01-01
We report a protocol of CdS-labeled sandwich-type amperometric bioanalysis with high sensitivity, on the basis of simultaneous chemical-dissolution/cathodic-enrichment of the CdS quantum dot biolabel and anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) detection of Cd directly on the bioelectrode. We added a microliter droplet of 0.1 M aqueous HNO₃ to dissolve CdS on the bioelectrode and simultaneously achieved the potentiostatic cathodic preconcentration of Cd by starting the potentiostatic operation before HNO₃ addition, which can largely increase the ASV signal. Our protocol was used for immunoanalysis and aptamer-based bioanalysis of several proteins, giving limits of detection of 4.5 fg·mL(-1) for human immunoglobulin G, 3.0 fg·mL(-1) for human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), 4.9 fg·mL(-1) for human α-fetoprotein (AFP), and 0.9 fM for thrombin, which are better than many reported results. The simultaneous and sensitive analysis of CEA and AFP at two screen-printed carbon electrodes was also conducted by our protocol. PMID:27563894
Shukui Zhang, Stephen Benson, Carlos Hernandez-Garcia
2011-03-01
Significant temperature rise and gradient are observed from a GaAs photo-cathode wafer irradiated at various power levels with over 20W laser power at 532nm wavelength. The laser power absorption and dissipated thermal distribution are measured. The result shows a clear indication that proper removal of laser induced heat from the cathode needs to be considered seriously when designing a high average current or low quantum efficiency photo-cathode electron gun. The measurement method presented here provides a useful way to obtain information about both temperature and thermal profiles, it also applies to cathode heating study with other heating devices such as electrical heaters.
Photo-acoustic spectroscopy and quantum efficiency of Yb{sup 3+} doped alumino silicate glasses
Kuhn, Stefan Tiegel, Mirko; Herrmann, Andreas; Rüssel, Christian; Engel, Sebastian; Wenisch, Christoph; Gräf, Stephan; Müller, Frank A.; Körner, Jörg; Seifert, Reinhard; Yue, Fangxin; Klöpfel, Diethardt; Hein, Joachim; Kaluza, Malte C.
2015-09-14
In this contribution, we analyze the effect of several preparation methods of Yb{sup 3+} doped alumino silicate glasses on their quantum efficiency by using photo-acoustic measurements in comparison to standard measurement methods including the determination via the fluorescence lifetime and an integrating sphere setup. The preparation methods focused on decreasing the OH concentration by means of fluorine-substitution and/or applying dry melting atmospheres, which led to an increase in the measured fluorescence lifetime. However, it was found that the influence of these methods on radiative properties such as the measured fluorescence lifetime alone does not per se give exact information about the actual quantum efficiency of the sample. The determination of the quantum efficiency by means of fluorescence lifetime shows inaccuracies when refractive index changing elements such as fluorine are incorporated into the glass. Since fluorine not only eliminates OH from the glass but also increases the “intrinsic” radiative fluorescence lifetime, which is needed to calculate the quantum efficiency, it is difficult to separate lifetime quenching from purely radiative effects. The approach used in this contribution offers a possibility to disentangle radiative from non-radiative properties which is not possible by using fluorescence lifetime measurements alone and allows an accurate determination of the quantum efficiency of a given sample. The comparative determination by an integrating sphere setup leads to the well-known problem of reabsorption which embodies itself in the measurement of too low quantum efficiencies, especially for samples with small quantum efficiencies.
Introduction: From Efficient Quantum Computation to Nonextensive Statistical Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prosen, Tomaz
These few pages will attempt to make a short comprehensive overview of several contributions to this volume which concern rather diverse topics. I shall review the following works, essentially reversing the sequence indicated in my title: First, by C. Tsallis on the relation of nonextensive statistics to the stability of quantum motion "on the edge of quantum chaos".
Enhancement of Quantum Efficiency of Organic Light Emitting Devices by Doping Magnetic Nanoparticles
Sun, Chengjun; Wu, Yue; Xu, Zhihua; Hu, Bin; Bai, Jianmin; Wang, Jian-Ping; Shen, Jian
2007-01-01
Magnetic nanoparticles of CoFe are used as dopants to enhance the quantum efficiency of electroluminance in a single layer organic light emitting device (OLED). The enhancement of quantum efficiency increases with both increasing density of CoFe nanoparticles and external magnetic field. For a given OLED with 0.1 wt % doping, the enhancement of the quantum efficiency reaches {approx}27% and {approx}32% without and with a magnetic field, respectively. The origin of these improvements could be attributed to the simultaneous increases of the portion of excitons among total charge carriers and the fraction of singlets among the total excitons
Cho, Yong-Hee Shim, Mun-Bo; Hwang, Sangheum; Kim, Sungjin; Kim, Jun-Youn; Kim, Jaekyun; Park, Young-Soo; Park, Seoung-Hwan
2013-12-23
It is known that due to the formation of in-plane local energy barrier, V-defects can screen the carriers which non-radiatively recombine in threading dislocations (TDs) and hence, enhance the internal quantum efficiency in GaN based light-emitting diodes. By a theoretical modeling capable of describing the inhomogeneous carrier distribution near the V-defect in GaN based quantum wells, we show that the efficient suppression of non-radiative (NR) recombination via TD requires the local energy barrier height of V-defect larger than ∼80 meV. The NR process in TD combined with V-defect influences the quantum efficiency mainly in the low injection current density regime suitably described by the linear dependence of carrier density. We provide a simple phenomenological expression for the NR recombination rate based on the model result.
Quantum Fisher information as efficient entanglement witness in many-body systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hauke, Philipp
2016-05-01
Large-scale entanglement in quantum many-body systems is typically difficult to quantify experimentally. Here, we discuss scenarios where many-body entanglement becomes accessible via the quantum Fisher information (QFI), a known witness for genuinely multipartite entanglement as a resource for quantum-enhanced metrology. First, we introduce a direct relation of the QFI in thermal states with linear response functions, which makes the QFI measurable with standard methods in optical-lattice and solid-state experiments. Using this relationship, we show that close to continuous quantum phase transitions the QFI, and thus multipartite entanglement, is strongly divergent. Second, we demonstrate that the QFI can witness many-body localized phases, showing a characteristic growth of entanglement at long times after a quantum quench. These results demonstrate that the quantum Fisher information represents a useful and efficiently measurable witness for entanglement in quantum many-body settings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, R. S.; Wang, W. C.; Lu, M. L.; Chen, Y. F.; Lin, H. C.; Chen, K. H.; Chen, L. C.
2013-07-01
The quantum efficiency and carrier lifetime that decide the photoconduction (PC) efficiencies in the metal oxide semiconductor nanowires (NWs) have been investigated. The experimental result surprisingly shows that the SnO2, TiO2, WO3, and ZnO NWs reveal extraordinary quantum efficiencies in common, which are over one to three orders of magnitude lower than the theoretical expectation. The surface depletion region (SDR)-controlled photoconductivity is proposed to explain the anomalous quantum efficiency and its power dependence. The inherent difference between the metal oxide nanostructures such as carrier lifetime, carrier concentration, and dielectric constant leading to the distinct PC performance and behavior are also discussed.The quantum efficiency and carrier lifetime that decide the photoconduction (PC) efficiencies in the metal oxide semiconductor nanowires (NWs) have been investigated. The experimental result surprisingly shows that the SnO2, TiO2, WO3, and ZnO NWs reveal extraordinary quantum efficiencies in common, which are over one to three orders of magnitude lower than the theoretical expectation. The surface depletion region (SDR)-controlled photoconductivity is proposed to explain the anomalous quantum efficiency and its power dependence. The inherent difference between the metal oxide nanostructures such as carrier lifetime, carrier concentration, and dielectric constant leading to the distinct PC performance and behavior are also discussed. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01635h
Optimal efficiency of quantum transport in a disordered trimer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giusteri, Giulio G.; Celardo, G. Luca; Borgonovi, Fausto
2016-03-01
Disordered quantum networks, such as those describing light-harvesting complexes, are often characterized by the presence of peripheral ringlike structures, where the excitation is initialized, and inner structures and reaction centers (RCs), where the excitation is trapped and transferred. The peripheral rings often display distinguished coherent features: Their eigenstates can be separated, with respect to the transfer of excitation, into two classes of superradiant and subradiant states. Both are important to optimize transfer efficiency. In the absence of disorder, superradiant states have an enhanced coupling strength to the RC, while the subradiant ones are basically decoupled from it. Static on-site disorder induces a coupling between subradiant and superradiant states, thus creating an indirect coupling to the RC. The problem of finding the optimal transfer conditions, as a function of both the RC energy and the disorder strength, is very complex even in the simplest network, namely, a three-level system. In this paper we analyze such trimeric structure, choosing as the initial condition an excitation on a subradiant state, rather than the more common choice of an excitation localized on a single site. We show that, while the optimal disorder is of the order of the superradiant coupling, the optimal detuning between the initial state and the RC energy strongly depends on system parameters: When the superradiant coupling is much larger than the energy gap between the superradiant and the subradiant levels, optimal transfer occurs if the RC energy is at resonance with the subradiant initial state, whereas we find an optimal RC energy at resonance with a virtual dressed state when the superradiant coupling is smaller than or comparable to the gap. The presence of dynamical noise, which induces dephasing and decoherence, affects the resonance structure of energy transfer producing an additional incoherent resonance peak, which corresponds to the RC energy being
Liao, Sih-Hao; Jhuo, Hong-Jyun; Yeh, Po-Nan; Cheng, Yu-Shan; Li, Yi-Lun; Lee, Yu-Hsuan; Sharma, Sunil; Chen, Show-An
2014-01-01
We present high efficiency and stable inverted PSCs (i-PSC) by employing sol-gel processed simultaneously doped ZnO by Indium and fullerene derivative (BisNPC60-OH) (denoted as InZnO-BisC60) film as cathode interlayer and PTB7-Th:PC71BM as the active layer (where PTB7-Th is a low bandgap polymer we proposed previously). This dual-doped ZnO, InZnO-BisC60, film shows dual and opposite gradient dopant concentration profiles, being rich in fullerene derivative at the cathode surface in contact with active layer and rich in In at the cathode surface in contact with the ITO surface. Such doping in ZnO not only gives improved surface conductivity by a factor of 270 (from 0.015 to 4.06 S cm−1) but also provides enhanced electron mobility by a factor of 132 (from 8.25*10−5 to 1.09*10−2 cm2 V−1 s−1). The resulting i-PSC exhibits the improved PCE 10.31% relative to that with ZnO without doping 8.25%. This PCE 10.31% is the best result among the reported values so far for single junction PSC. PMID:25351472
Liao, Sih-Hao; Jhuo, Hong-Jyun; Yeh, Po-Nan; Cheng, Yu-Shan; Li, Yi-Lun; Lee, Yu-Hsuan; Sharma, Sunil; Chen, Show-An
2014-01-01
We present high efficiency and stable inverted PSCs (i-PSC) by employing sol-gel processed simultaneously doped ZnO by Indium and fullerene derivative (BisNPC60-OH) (denoted as InZnO-BisC60) film as cathode interlayer and PTB7-Th:PC71BM as the active layer (where PTB7-Th is a low bandgap polymer we proposed previously). This dual-doped ZnO, InZnO-BisC60, film shows dual and opposite gradient dopant concentration profiles, being rich in fullerene derivative at the cathode surface in contact with active layer and rich in In at the cathode surface in contact with the ITO surface. Such doping in ZnO not only gives improved surface conductivity by a factor of 270 (from 0.015 to 4.06 S cm(-1)) but also provides enhanced electron mobility by a factor of 132 (from 8.25*10(-5) to 1.09*10(-2) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)). The resulting i-PSC exhibits the improved PCE 10.31% relative to that with ZnO without doping 8.25%. This PCE 10.31% is the best result among the reported values so far for single junction PSC. PMID:25351472
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, Sih-Hao; Jhuo, Hong-Jyun; Yeh, Po-Nan; Cheng, Yu-Shan; Li, Yi-Lun; Lee, Yu-Hsuan; Sharma, Sunil; Chen, Show-An
2014-10-01
We present high efficiency and stable inverted PSCs (i-PSC) by employing sol-gel processed simultaneously doped ZnO by Indium and fullerene derivative (BisNPC60-OH) (denoted as InZnO-BisC60) film as cathode interlayer and PTB7-Th:PC71BM as the active layer (where PTB7-Th is a low bandgap polymer we proposed previously). This dual-doped ZnO, InZnO-BisC60, film shows dual and opposite gradient dopant concentration profiles, being rich in fullerene derivative at the cathode surface in contact with active layer and rich in In at the cathode surface in contact with the ITO surface. Such doping in ZnO not only gives improved surface conductivity by a factor of 270 (from 0.015 to 4.06 S cm-1) but also provides enhanced electron mobility by a factor of 132 (from 8.25*10-5 to 1.09*10-2 cm2 V-1 s-1). The resulting i-PSC exhibits the improved PCE 10.31% relative to that with ZnO without doping 8.25%. This PCE 10.31% is the best result among the reported values so far for single junction PSC.
Enhancement of Radiative Efficiency with Staggered InGaN Quantum Well Light Emitting Diodes
Tansu, Nelson; Dierolf, Volkmar; Huang, Gensheng; Penn, Samson; Zhao, Hongping; Liu, Guangyu; Li, Xiaohang; Poplawsky, Jonathan
2011-07-14
The technology on the large overlap InGaN QWs developed in this program is currently implemented in commercial technology in enhancing the internal quantum efficiency in major LED industry in US and Asia. The scientific finding from this work supported by the DOE enabled the implementation of this step-like staggered quantum well in the commercial LEDs.
The role of surface passivation for efficient and photostable PbS quantum dot solar cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Yiming; Stavrinadis, Alexandros; Lasanta, Tania; So, David; Konstantatos, Gerasimos
2016-04-01
For any emerging photovoltaic technology to become commercially relevant, both its power conversion efficiency and photostability are key parameters to be fulfilled. Colloidal quantum dot solar cells are a solution-processed, low-cost technology that has reached an efficiency of about 9% by judiciously controlling the surface of the quantum dots to enable surface passivation and tune energy levels. However, the role of the quantum dot surface on the stability of these solar cells has remained elusive. Here we report on highly efficient and photostable quantum dot solar cells with efficiencies of 9.6% (and independently certificated values of 8.7%). As a result of optimized surface passivation and the suppression of hydroxyl ligands—which are found to be detrimental for both efficiency and photostability—the efficiency remains within 80% of its initial value after 1,000 h of continuous illumination at AM1.5G. Our findings provide insights into the role of the quantum dot surface in both the stability and efficiency of quantum dot solar cells.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Xiong, Fugin
2003-01-01
One half of Professor Xiong's effort will investigate robust timing synchronization schemes for dynamically varying characteristics of aviation communication channels. The other half of his time will focus on efficient modulation and coding study for the emerging quantum communications.
Song, Wook; Lee, Inho; Lee, Jun Yeob
2015-08-01
High quantum efficiency in blue and white fluorescence organic light-emitting diodes is achieved by developing a novel device architecture with fluorescent emitters doped in a thermally activated delayed fluorescent emitter as a host material. PMID:26078193
Photo-emission studies from Zn cathodes under plasma phase
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belloni, F.; Caretto, G.; Lorusso, A.; Nassisi, V.; Perrone, A.; Siciliano, M. V.
2005-10-01
In this paper, we report investigations of the electron emission from pure Zn cathodes irradiated by UV laser pulses of 23 ns (full-width at half-maximum) at a wavelength of 248 nm (5 eV). The metal cathodes were tested in a vacuum photodiode chamber at 10(-5) Pa. They were irradiated at normal incidence and the anode-cathode distance was set at 3 mm. The maximum applied accelerating voltage was 18 kV, limited by the electrical breakdown of the photodiode gap. Under the above experimental conditions, a maximum applied electric field of 6 MV/m resulted. In the saturation regime, the measured quantum efficiency value increased with the accelerating voltage due to the plasma formation. The highest output current was achieved with 14 mJ laser energy, 18 kV accelerating voltage and its value was 12 A, corresponding to a global quantum efficiency (GQE) approximately of 1 x 10(-4). The temporal quantum efficiency was 1.0 x 10(-4) at the laser pulse onset time and 1.4 x 10(-4) at the pulse tail. We calculated the target temperature at the maximum laser energy. Its value allowed us to obtain output pulses of the same laser temporal profile. Tests performed with a lower laser photon energy (4.02 eV) demonstrated a GQE of two orders of magnitude lower.
Ghorai, Uttam Kumar; Das, Swati; Saha, Subhajit; Mazumder, Nilesh; Sen, Dipayan; Chattopadhyay, Kalyan Kumar
2014-06-28
In the current report, chemically synthesized copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) nanotubes are shown to exhibit unprecedentedly well cold cathode emission characteristics with turn-on field (3.2 V μ m(-1)) and stable emission during long intervals (200 min). Simulation of electric field distribution via finite element method around an isolated nanotube emitter in a manner parallel to the experimental setup (inter-electrode distance = 180 μm) exhibits good corroboration of theoretical premises with experimental findings. Obtained results strongly indicate CuPc nanotubes to be potential candidate as cold cathode emitter for electron emission based applications such as field emission displays and vacuum nano-electronic devices. PMID:24816492
Blackwood, D J; Lim, C S; Teo, S L M
2010-10-01
Aluminum and zinc based sacrificial anodes are routinely used to provide corrosion protection to metals (typically steel) exposed to seawater, for example in steel pipelines and storage tanks. However, the high fouling rates experienced in South East Asia means that both the anodes and the metals to be protected rapidly become coated with macrofoulers, which could potentially prevent the anodes from being effective. The present study, involving exposure tests of up to 18 months, indicates that both aluminum and zinc sacrificial anodes remain effective even after being completely coated with biofouling. Furthermore, it was easier to remove the biofouling on the cathodically protected samples than on their unprotected counterparts, possibly due to the higher local pH produced by cathodic protection at the metal and seawater interface. PMID:20818571
Efficient quantum key distribution scheme with pre-announcing the basis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Jingliang; Zhu, Changhua; Xiao, Heling
2014-03-01
We devise a new quantum key distribution scheme that is more efficient than the BB84 protocol. By pre-announcing the basis, Alice and Bob are more likely to use the same basis to prepare and measure the qubits, thus achieving a higher efficiency. The error analysis is revised and its security against any eavesdropping is proven briefly. Furthermore we show that, compared with the LCA scheme, our modification can be applied in more quantum channels.
Stable, high quantum efficiency silicon photodiodes for vacuum-UV applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Korde, Raj; Canfield, L. Randall; Wallis, Brad
1988-01-01
Silicon photodiodes have been developed by defect-free phosphorus diffusion having practically no carrier recombination at the SiSiO2 interface or in the front diffused region. The quantum efficiency of these photodiodes was found to be around 120 percent at 100 nm. Unlike the previously tested silicon photodiodes, the developed photodiodes exhibit extremely stable quantum efficiency over extended periods of time. The possibility of using these photodiodes as vacuum ultraviolet detector standards is being currently investigated.
6.5% efficient perovskite quantum-dot-sensitized solar cell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Im, Jeong-Hyeok; Lee, Chang-Ryul; Lee, Jin-Wook; Park, Sang-Won; Park, Nam-Gyu
2011-10-01
Highly efficient quantum-dot-sensitized solar cell is fabricated using ca. 2-3 nm sized perovskite (CH3NH3)PbI3 nanocrystal. Spin-coating of the equimolar mixture of CH3NH3I and PbI2 in γ-butyrolactone solution (perovskite precursor solution) leads to (CH3NH3)PbI3 quantum dots (QDs) on nanocrystalline TiO2 surface. By electrochemical junction with iodide/iodine based redox electrolyte, perovskite QD-sensitized 3.6 μm-thick TiO2 film shows maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 78.6% at 530 nm and solar-to-electrical conversion efficiency of 6.54% at AM 1.5G 1 sun intensity (100 mW cm-2), which is by far the highest efficiency among the reported inorganic quantum dot sensitizers.Highly efficient quantum-dot-sensitized solar cell is fabricated using ca. 2-3 nm sized perovskite (CH3NH3)PbI3 nanocrystal. Spin-coating of the equimolar mixture of CH3NH3I and PbI2 in γ-butyrolactone solution (perovskite precursor solution) leads to (CH3NH3)PbI3 quantum dots (QDs) on nanocrystalline TiO2 surface. By electrochemical junction with iodide/iodine based redox electrolyte, perovskite QD-sensitized 3.6 μm-thick TiO2 film shows maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 78.6% at 530 nm and solar-to-electrical conversion efficiency of 6.54% at AM 1.5G 1 sun intensity (100 mW cm-2), which is by far the highest efficiency among the reported inorganic quantum dot sensitizers. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10867k
How to squeeze high quantum efficiency and high time resolution out of a SPAD
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lacaita, A.; Zappa, F.; Cova, Sergio; Ripamonti, Giancarlo; Spinelli, A.
1993-01-01
We address the issue whether Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) can be suitably designed to achieve a trade-off between quantum efficiency and time resolution performance. We briefly recall the physical mechanisms setting the time resolution of avalanche photodiodes operated in single-photon counting, and we give some criteria for the design of SPADs with a quantum efficiency better than l0 percent at 1064 nm together with a time resolution below 50 ps rms.
Cabalu, J.S.; Thomidis, C.; Moustakas, T.D.; Riyopoulos, S.; Zhou Lin; Smith, David J.
2006-03-15
GaN/Al{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}N multiple quantum wells (MQWs) were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on randomly textured and atomically smooth (0001) GaN templates. Smooth and textured GaN templates were deposited on (0001) sapphire substrates by varying the III/V ratio and the substrate temperature during growth by the hydride vapor-phase epitaxy method. We find that the MQWs replicate the texture of the GaN template, which was found to have a Gaussian distribution. The peak photoluminescence intensity from the textured MQWs is always higher than from the smooth MQWs and for GaN (7 nm)/Al{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}N (8 nm) MQWs, it is 700 times higher than that from similarly produced MQWs on smooth GaN templates. This result is attributed partly to the enhancement in light extraction efficiency and partly to the enhancement in internal quantum efficiency. The origin of the increase in internal quantum efficiency is partly due to the reduction of the quantum-confined Stark effect, since the polarization vector intersects the quantum well (QW) planes at angles smaller than 90 deg. , and partly due to the charge redistribution in the QWs caused by the polarization component parallel to the planes of the QWs.
Room-temperature efficient light detection by amorphous Ge quantum wells
2013-01-01
In this work, ultrathin amorphous Ge films (2 to 30 nm in thickness) embedded in SiO2 layers were grown by magnetron sputtering and employed as proficient light sensitizer in photodetector devices. A noteworthy modification of the visible photon absorption is evidenced due to quantum confinement effects which cause both a blueshift (from 0.8 to 1.8 eV) in the bandgap and an enhancement (up to three times) in the optical oscillator strength of confined carriers. The reported quantum confinement effects have been exploited to enhance light detection by Ge quantum wells, as demonstrated by photodetectors with an internal quantum efficiency of 70%. PMID:23496870
Characterization of Si nanostructures using internal quantum efficiency measurements
ZAIDI,SALEEM H.
2000-04-01
Hemispherical reflectance and internal quantum efficiency measurements have been employed to evaluate the response of Si nanostructured surfaces formed by using random and periodic reactive ion etching techniques. Random RIE-textured surfaces have demonstrated solar weighted reflectance of {approx} 3% over 300--1,200-nm spectral range even without the benefit of anti-reflection films. Random RIE-texturing has been found to be applicable over large areas ({approximately} 180 cm{sup 2}) of both single and multicrystalline Si surfaces. Due to the surface contamination and plasma-induced damage, RIE-textured surfaces did not initially provide increased short circuit current as expected from the enhanced absorption. Improved processing combined with wet-chemical damage removal etches resulted in significant improvement in the short circuit current with IQEs comparable to the random, wet-chemically textured surfaces. An interesting feature of the RIE-textured surfaces was their superior performance in the near IR spectral range. The response of RIE-textured periodic surfaces can be broadly classified into three distinct regimes. One-dimensional grating structures with triangular profiles are characterized by exceptionally low, polarization-independent reflective behavior. The reflectance response of such surfaces is similar to a graded-index anti-reflection film. The IQE response from these surfaces is severely degraded in the UV-Visible spectral region due to plasma-induced surface damage. One-dimensional grating structures with rectangular profiles exhibit spectrally selective absorptive behavior with somewhat similar IQE response. The third type of grating structure combines broadband anti-reflection behavior with significant IQE enhancement in 800--1,200-nm spectral region. The hemispherical reflectance of these 2D grating structures is comparable to random RIE-textured surfaces. The IQE enhancement in the long wavelength spectral region can be attributed to
Functionally Graded Cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
YongMan Choi; Meilin Liu
2006-09-30
novel combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) technique. (5) Application of advanced quantum chemical calculations to interpret measured spectroscopic information, as well as to guide design of high efficient cathode materials.
Efficiency at Maximum Power Output of a Quantum-Mechanical Brayton Cycle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Yuan; He, Ji-Zhou; Gao, Yong; Wang, Jian-Hui
2014-03-01
The performance in finite time of a quantum-mechanical Brayton engine cycle is discussed, without introduction of temperature. The engine model consists of two quantum isoenergetic and two quantum isobaric processes, and works with a single particle in a harmonic trap. Directly employing the finite-time thermodynamics, the efficiency at maximum power output is determined. Extending the harmonic trap to a power-law trap, we find that the efficiency at maximum power is independent of any parameter involved in the model, but depends on the confinement of the trapping potential.
Efficient Three-Party Quantum Dialogue Protocol Based on the Continuous Variable GHZ States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Zhen-Bo; Gong, Li-Hua; Zhu, Qi-Biao; Cheng, Shan; Zhou, Nan-Run
2016-07-01
Based on the continuous variable GHZ entangled states, an efficient three-party quantum dialogue protocol is devised, where each legitimate communication party could simultaneously deduce the secret information of the other two parties with perfect efficiency. The security is guaranteed by the correlation of the continuous variable GHZ entangled states and the randomly selected decoy states. Furthermore, the three-party quantum dialogue protocol is directly generalized to an N-party quantum dialogue protocol by using the n-tuple continuous variable GHZ entangled states.
Efficient Three-Party Quantum Dialogue Protocol Based on the Continuous Variable GHZ States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Zhen-Bo; Gong, Li-Hua; Zhu, Qi-Biao; Cheng, Shan; Zhou, Nan-Run
2016-02-01
Based on the continuous variable GHZ entangled states, an efficient three-party quantum dialogue protocol is devised, where each legitimate communication party could simultaneously deduce the secret information of the other two parties with perfect efficiency. The security is guaranteed by the correlation of the continuous variable GHZ entangled states and the randomly selected decoy states. Furthermore, the three-party quantum dialogue protocol is directly generalized to an N-party quantum dialogue protocol by using the n-tuple continuous variable GHZ entangled states.
Quantum efficiency of a channel electron multiplier in the far ultraviolet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paresce, F.
1975-01-01
Variation of the quantum efficiency of a channel electron multiplier (CEM) in the wavelength range from 1200 to 2536 A is studied. Emphasis is on measurement of CEM sensitivity longward of 1500 A. Results indicate an overall rapid decrease in quantum efficiency with increasing wavelength, with little evidence for a possible change in slope in the range from 2000 to 2500 A. The lowest efficiency measured is 4.5 + or -2.5 times 10 to the minus ninth count/photon at 2536 A. These efficiencies should ensure that unwanted radiation longward of 1500 A can be effectively removed from the bandpass of the instrument.
Dissipation-enabled efficient excitation transfer from a single photon to a single quantum emitter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trautmann, N.; Alber, G.
2016-05-01
We propose a scheme for triggering a dissipation-dominated highly efficient excitation transfer from a single-photon wave packet to a single quantum emitter. This single-photon-induced optical pumping turns dominant dissipative processes, such as spontaneous photon emission by the emitter or cavity decay, into valuable tools for quantum information processing and quantum communication. It works for an arbitrarily shaped single-photon wave packet with sufficiently small bandwidth provided a matching condition is satisfied which balances the dissipative rates involved. Our scheme does not require additional laser pulses or quantum feedback and does not rely on high finesse optical resonators. In particular, it can be used to enhance significantly the coupling of a single photon to a single quantum emitter implanted in a one-dimensional waveguide or even in a free space scenario. We demonstrate the usefulness of our scheme for building a deterministic quantum memory and a deterministic frequency converter between photonic qubits of different wavelengths.
Practical attacks on decoy-state quantum-key-distribution systems with detector efficiency mismatch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fei, Yangyang; Gao, Ming; Wang, Weilong; Li, Chaobo; Ma, Zhi
2015-05-01
To the active-basis-choice decoy-state quantum-key-distribution systems with detector efficiency mismatch, we present a modified attack strategy, which is based on the faked states attack, with quantum nondemolition measurement ability to restress the threat of detector efficiency mismatch. Considering that perfect quantum nondemolition measurement ability doesn't exist in real life, we also propose a practical attack strategy using photon number resolving detectors. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation results show that, without changing the channel, our attack strategies are serious threats to decoy-state quantum-key-distribution systems. The eavesdropper may get some information about the secret key without causing any alarms. Besides, the lower bound of detector efficiency mismatch to run our modified faked states attack successfully with perfect quantum nondemolition measurement ability is also given out, which provides the producers of quantum-key-distribution systems with a reference and can be treated as the approximate secure bound of detector efficiency mismatch in decoy-state quantum-key-distribution systems.
Jia, Xiaorui; Zhang, Lianping; Luo, Qun; Lu, Hui; Li, Xueyuan; Xie, Zhongzhi; Yang, Yongzhen; Li, Yan-Qing; Liu, Xuguang; Ma, Chang-Qi
2016-07-20
We have demonstrated in this article that both power conversion efficiency (PCE) and performance stability of inverted planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells can be improved by using a ZnO:PFN nanocomposite (PFN: poly[(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamion)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctyl)-fluorene]) as the cathode buffer layer (CBL). This nanocomposite could form a compact and defect-less CBL film on the perovskite/PC61BM surface (PC61BM: phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester). In addition, the high conductivity of the nanocomposite layer makes it works well at a layer thickness of 150 nm. Both advantages of the composite layer are helpful in reducing interface charge recombination and improving device performance. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the best ZnO:PFN CBL based device was measured to be 12.76%, which is higher than that of device without CBL (9.00%), or device with ZnO (7.93%) or PFN (11.30%) as the cathode buffer layer. In addition, the long-term stability is improved by using ZnO:PFN composite cathode buffer layer when compare to that of the reference cells. Almost no degradation of open circuit voltage (VOC) and fill factor (FF) was found for the device having ZnO:PFN, suggesting that ZnO:PFN is able to stabilize the interface property and consequently improve the solar cell performance stability. PMID:27349330
Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser With Efficient Coupling and Beam Profile
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Kawamura, Jonathan H.; Lin, Robert H.; Williams, Benjamin
2012-01-01
Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are unipolar semiconductor lasers, where the wavelength of emitted radiation is determined by the engineering of quantum states within the conduction band in coupled multiple-quantum-well heterostructures to have the desired energy separation. The recent development of terahertz QCLs has provided a new generation of solid-state sources for radiation in the terahertz frequency range. Terahertz QCLs have been demonstrated from 0.84 to 5.0 THz both in pulsed mode and continuous wave mode (CW mode). The approach employs a resonant-phonon depopulation concept. The metal-metal (MM) waveguide fabrication is performed using Cu-Cu thermo-compression bonding to bond the GaAs/AlGaAs epitaxial layer to a GaAs receptor wafer.
Efficient hybrid-symbolic methods for quantum mechanical calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scott, T. C.; Zhang, Wenxing
2015-06-01
We present hybrid symbolic-numerical tools to generate optimized numerical code for rapid prototyping and fast numerical computation starting from a computer algebra system (CAS) and tailored to any given quantum mechanical problem. Although a major focus concerns the quantum chemistry methods of H. Nakatsuji which has yielded successful and very accurate eigensolutions for small atoms and molecules, the tools are general and may be applied to any basis set calculation with a variational principle applied to its linear and non-linear parameters.
Ma, Ming; Dai, Ying; Zou, Jin-long; Wang, Lei; Pan, Kai; Fu, Hong-gang
2014-08-27
Waste cornstalks and pomelo skins are used as carbon resources for preparing nanocomposites of iron oxide and partly graphitized carbon (Fe3O4/PGC-CS and Fe3O4/PGC-PS). The results showed that Fe3O4 with a face-centered cubic structure is uniformly dispersed on the skeleton of Fe3O4/GC, and the highest SBET values of Fe3O4/PGC-CS (476.5 m(2) g(-1)) and Fe3O4/PGC-PS (547.7 m(2) g(-1)) are obtained at 1000 °C. The electrical conductivity and density of catalytic active sites are correspondingly improved by the introduction of Fe species. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) with a mixed composite (Fe3O4/PGC-CS:Fe3O4/PGC-PS = 1:1) cathode (three-dimensional structures) generate the highest power density of 1502 ± 30 mW m(-2), which is 26.01% higher than that of Pt/C (1192 ± 33 mW m(-2)) and only declines by 7.12% after 18 cycles. The Fe3O4/PGC-CS cathode has the highest Coulombic efficiency (24.3 ± 0.7%). The Fe3O4/PGC composites exhibit high oxygen reduction reactivity, low charge transfer resistances, and long-term stability and can be used as a low-cost and high-efficiency catalyst for MFCs. PMID:25084054
Daniel, Claus Mohanty, Debasish Li, Jianlin Wood, David L.
2014-06-16
The electrochemical potential of cathode materials defines the positive side of the terminal voltage of a battery. Traditionally, cathode materials are the energy-limiting or voltage-limiting electrode. One of the first electrochemical batteries, the voltaic pile invented by Alessandro Volta in 1800 (Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 90, 403-431) had a copper-zinc galvanic element with a terminal voltage of 0.76 V. Since then, the research community has increased capacity and voltage for primary (nonrechargeable) batteries and round-trip efficiency for secondary (rechargeable) batteries. Successful secondary batteries have been the lead-acid with a lead oxide cathode and a terminal voltage of 2.1 V and later the NiCd with a nickel(III) oxide-hydroxide cathode and a 1.2 V terminal voltage. The relatively low voltage of those aqueous systems and the low round-trip efficiency due to activation energies in the conversion reactions limited their use. In 1976, Wittingham (J. Electrochem. Soc., 123, 315) and Besenhard (J. Power Sources 1(3), 267) finally enabled highly reversible redox reactions by intercalation of lithium ions instead of by chemical conversion. In 1980, Goodenough and Mizushima (Mater. Res. Bull. 15, 783-789) demonstrated a high-energy and high-power LiCoO{sub 2} cathode, allowing for an increase of terminal voltage far beyond 3 V. Over the past four decades, the international research community has further developed cathode materials of many varieties. Current state-of-the-art cathodes demonstrate voltages beyond any known electrolyte stability window, bringing electrolyte research once again to the forefront of battery research.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daniel, Claus; Mohanty, Debasish; Li, Jianlin; Wood, David L.
2014-06-01
The electrochemical potential of cathode materials defines the positive side of the terminal voltage of a battery. Traditionally, cathode materials are the energy-limiting or voltage-limiting electrode. One of the first electrochemical batteries, the voltaic pile invented by Alessandro Volta in 1800 (Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 90, 403-431) had a copper-zinc galvanic element with a terminal voltage of 0.76 V. Since then, the research community has increased capacity and voltage for primary (nonrechargeable) batteries and round-trip efficiency for secondary (rechargeable) batteries. Successful secondary batteries have been the lead-acid with a lead oxide cathode and a terminal voltage of 2.1 V and later the NiCd with a nickel(III) oxide-hydroxide cathode and a 1.2 V terminal voltage. The relatively low voltage of those aqueous systems and the low round-trip efficiency due to activation energies in the conversion reactions limited their use. In 1976, Wittingham (J. Electrochem. Soc., 123, 315) and Besenhard (J. Power Sources 1(3), 267) finally enabled highly reversible redox reactions by intercalation of lithium ions instead of by chemical conversion. In 1980, Goodenough and Mizushima (Mater. Res. Bull. 15, 783-789) demonstrated a high-energy and high-power LiCoO2 cathode, allowing for an increase of terminal voltage far beyond 3 V. Over the past four decades, the international research community has further developed cathode materials of many varieties. Current state-of-the-art cathodes demonstrate voltages beyond any known electrolyte stability window, bringing electrolyte research once again to the forefront of battery research.
Pal, Bhola N; Ghosh, Yagnaseni; Brovelli, Sergio; Laocharoensuk, Rawiwan; Klimov, Victor I; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A; Htoon, Han
2012-01-11
We use a simple device architecture based on a poly(3,4-ethylendioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)-coated indium tin oxide anode and a LiF/Al cathode to assess the effects of shell thickness on the properties of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) comprising CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs) as the emitting layer. Specifically, we are interested in determining whether LEDs based on thick-shell nanocrystals, so-called "giant" NQDs, afford enhanced performance compared to their counterparts incorporating thin-shell systems. We observe significant improvements in device performance as a function of increasing shell thickness. While the turn-on voltage remains approximately constant for all shell thicknesses (from 4 to 16 CdS monolayers), external quantum efficiency and maximum luminance are found to be about one order of magnitude higher for thicker shell nanocrystals (≥13 CdS monolayers) compared to thinner shell structures (<9 CdS monolayers). The thickest-shell nanocrystals (16 monolayers of CdS) afforded an external quantum efficiency and luminance of 0.17% and 2000 Cd/m(2), respectively, with a remarkably low turn-on voltage of ~3.0 V. PMID:22148981
Efficient Integration of Quantum Mechanical Wave Equations by Unitary Transforms
Bauke, Heiko; Keitel, Christoph H.
2009-08-13
The integration of time dependent quantum mechanical wave equations is a fundamental problem in computational physics and computational chemistry. The energy and momentum spectrum of a wave function imposes fundamental limits on the performance of numerical algorithms for this problem. We demonstrate how unitary transforms can help to surmount these limitations.
Towards communication-efficient quantum oblivious key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panduranga Rao, M. V.; Jakobi, M.
2013-01-01
Symmetrically private information retrieval, a fundamental problem in the field of secure multiparty computation, is defined as follows: A database D of N bits held by Bob is queried by a user Alice who is interested in the bit Db in such a way that (1) Alice learns Db and only Db and (2) Bob does not learn anything about Alice's choice b. While solutions to this problem in the classical domain rely largely on unproven computational complexity theoretic assumptions, it is also known that perfect solutions that guarantee both database and user privacy are impossible in the quantum domain. Jakobi [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.83.022301 83, 022301 (2011)] proposed a protocol for oblivious transfer using well-known quantum key device (QKD) techniques to establish an oblivious key to solve this problem. Their solution provided a good degree of database and user privacy (using physical principles like the impossibility of perfectly distinguishing nonorthogonal quantum states and the impossibility of superluminal communication) while being loss-resistant and implementable with commercial QKD devices (due to the use of the Scarani-Acin-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 protocol). However, their quantum oblivious key distribution (QOKD) protocol requires a communication complexity of O(NlogN). Since modern databases can be extremely large, it is important to reduce this communication as much as possible. In this paper, we first suggest a modification of their protocol wherein the number of qubits that need to be exchanged is reduced to O(N). A subsequent generalization reduces the quantum communication complexity even further in such a way that only a few hundred qubits are needed to be transferred even for very large databases.
An efficient quantum light–matter interface with sub-second lifetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Sheng-Jun; Wang, Xu-Jie; Bao, Xiao-Hui; Pan, Jian-Wei
2016-06-01
Quantum repeaters hold promise for scalable long-distance quantum communication. The basic building block is a quantum light–matter interface that generates non-classical correlations between light and a quantum memory. Significant progress has been made in improving the performance of this interface, but further development of quantum repeater is hindered by the difficulty of integrating the key capabilities into a single system. Here we report a high-performance interface with an efficiency and lifetime that fulfil the requirement of a quantum repeater. By confining cold atoms with a three-dimensional optical lattice and enhancing the atom–photon coupling with a ring cavity, we observe an initial retrieval efficiency of 76 ± 5% together with a 1/e lifetime of 0.22 ± 0.01 s, which supports a sub-Hz entanglement distribution of up to 1,000 km through the Duan-Lukin-Cirac-Zoller (DLCZ) protocol. Together with an efficient telecom interface and moderate multiplexing, our result may enable a quantum repeater system that beats direct transmission in the near future.
Wierer, Jonathan J.; Tansu, Nelson; Fischer, Arthur J.; Tsao, Jeffrey Y.
2016-05-23
III-nitride light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes (LDs) are ultimately limited in performance due to parasitic Auger recombination. For LEDs, the consequences are poor efficiencies at high current densities; for LDs, the consequences are high thresholds and limited efficiencies. Here, we present arguments for III-nitride quantum dots (QDs) as active regions for both LEDs and LDs, to circumvent Auger recombination and achieve efficiencies at higher current densities that are not possible with quantum wells. QD-based LDs achieve gain and thresholds at lower carrier densities before Auger recombination becomes appreciable. QD-based LEDs achieve higher efficiencies at higher currents because of highermore » spontaneous emission rates and reduced Auger recombination. The technical challenge is to control the size distribution and volume of the QDs to realize these benefits. If constructed properly, III-nitride light-emitting devices with QD active regions have the potential to outperform quantum well light-emitting devices, and enable an era of ultra-efficient solidstate lighting.« less
Efficient quantum state transfer in an engineered chain of quantum bits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sandberg, Martin; Knill, Emanuel; Kapit, Eliot; Vissers, Michael R.; Pappas, David P.
2016-03-01
We present a method of performing quantum state transfer in a chain of superconducting quantum bits. Our protocol is based on engineering the energy levels of the qubits in the chain and tuning them all simultaneously with an external flux bias. The system is designed to allow sequential adiabatic state transfers, resulting in on-demand quantum state transfer from one end of the chain to the other. Numerical simulations of the master equation using realistic parameters for capacitive nearest-neighbor coupling, energy relaxation, and dephasing show that fast, high-fidelity state transfer should be feasible using this method.
Efficient Multi-Dimensional Simulation of Quantum Confinement Effects in Advanced MOS Devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biegel, Bryan A.; Ancona, Mario G.; Rafferty, Conor S.; Yu, Zhiping
2000-01-01
We investigate the density-gradient (DG) transport model for efficient multi-dimensional simulation of quantum confinement effects in advanced MOS devices. The formulation of the DG model is described as a quantum correction ot the classical drift-diffusion model. Quantum confinement effects are shown to be significant in sub-100nm MOSFETs. In thin-oxide MOS capacitors, quantum effects may reduce gate capacitance by 25% or more. As a result, the inclusion of quantum effects may reduce gate capacitance by 25% or more. As a result, the inclusion of quantum effects in simulations dramatically improves the match between C-V simulations and measurements for oxide thickness down to 2 nm. Significant quantum corrections also occur in the I-V characteristics of short-channel (30 to 100 nm) n-MOSFETs, with current drive reduced by up to 70%. This effect is shown to result from reduced inversion charge due to quantum confinement of electrons in the channel. Also, subthreshold slope is degraded by 15 to 20 mV/decade with the inclusion of quantum effects via the density-gradient model, and short channel effects (in particular, drain-induced barrier lowering) are noticeably increased.
Zhang, Qisheng; Tsang, Daniel; Kuwabara, Hirokazu; Hatae, Yasuhiro; Li, Bo; Takahashi, Takehiro; Lee, Sae Youn; Yasuda, Takuma; Adachi, Chihaya
2015-03-25
The design of efficient and concentration-insensitive metal-free thermally activateddelayed fluorescence (TADF) materials is reported. Blue and green organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) containing a hole-transport layer, an undoped TADF emissive layer, and an electron-transport layer achieve maximum external quantum efficiencies of 19%, which is comparable to the best doped OLEDs. PMID:25678335
High heralding-efficiency of near-IR fiber coupled photon pairs for quantum technologies
Dixon, P. Ben; Murphy, Ryan; Rosenberg, Danna; Grein, Matthew E.; Stelmakh, Veronika; Bennink, Ryan S; Wong, Franco N. C.
2015-01-01
We report on the development and use of a high heralding-efficiency, single-mode-fiber coupled telecom-band source of entangled photons for quantum technology applications. The source development efforts consisted of theoretical and experimental efforts and we demonstrated a correlated-mode coupling efficiency of 97% 2%, the highest efficiency yet achieved for this type of system. We then incorporated these beneficial source development techniques in a Sagnac configured telecom-band entangled photon source that generates photon pairs entangled in both time/energy and polarization degrees of freedom. We made use of these highly desirable entangled states to investigate several promising quantum technologies.
High heralding-efficiency of near-IR fiber coupled photon pairs for quantum technologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dixon, P. Ben; Murphy, Ryan; Rosenberg, Danna; Grein, Matthew E.; Stelmakh, Veronika; Bennink, Ryan S.; Wong, Franco N. C.
2015-05-01
We report on the development and use of a high heralding-efficiency, single-mode-fiber coupled telecom-band source of entangled photons for quantum technology applications. The source development efforts consisted of theoretical and experimental efforts and we demonstrated a correlated-mode coupling efficiency of 97% ± 2%, the highest efficiency yet achieved for this type of system. We then incorporated these beneficial source development techniques in a Sagnac configured telecom-band entangled photon source that generates photon pairs entangled in both time/energy and polarization degrees of freedom. We made use of these highly desirable entangled states to investigate several promising quantum technologies.
Efficient mode conversion in an optical nanoantenna mediated by quantum emitters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Straubel, J.; Filter, R.; Rockstuhl, C.; Słowik, K.
2016-05-01
Converting signals between different electromagnetic modes is an asset for future information technologies. In general, slightly asymmetric optical nanoantennas enable the coupling between bright and dark modes sustained by an optical nanoantenna. However, the conversion efficiency might be very low. Here, we show that the additional incorporation of a quantum emitter allows to tremendously enhance this efficiency. The enhanced local density of states cycles the quantum emitter between its upper and lower level at an extremely hight rate; hence converting the energy very efficient. The process is robust with respect to possible experimental tolerances and adds a new ingredient to be exploited while studying and applying coupling phenomena in optical nanosystems.
Davis, Nathaniel J L K; Böhm, Marcus L; Tabachnyk, Maxim; Wisnivesky-Rocca-Rivarola, Florencia; Jellicoe, Tom C; Ducati, Caterina; Ehrler, Bruno; Greenham, Neil C
2015-01-01
Multiple-exciton generation-a process in which multiple charge-carrier pairs are generated from a single optical excitation-is a promising way to improve the photocurrent in photovoltaic devices and offers the potential to break the Shockley-Queisser limit. One-dimensional nanostructures, for example nanorods, have been shown spectroscopically to display increased multiple exciton generation efficiencies compared with their zero-dimensional analogues. Here we present solar cells fabricated from PbSe nanorods of three different bandgaps. All three devices showed external quantum efficiencies exceeding 100% and we report a maximum external quantum efficiency of 122% for cells consisting of the smallest bandgap nanorods. We estimate internal quantum efficiencies to exceed 150% at relatively low energies compared with other multiple exciton generation systems, and this demonstrates the potential for substantial improvements in device performance due to multiple exciton generation. PMID:26411283
Davis, Nathaniel J. L. K.; Böhm, Marcus L.; Tabachnyk, Maxim; Wisnivesky-Rocca-Rivarola, Florencia; Jellicoe, Tom C.; Ducati, Caterina; Ehrler, Bruno; Greenham, Neil C.
2015-01-01
Multiple-exciton generation—a process in which multiple charge-carrier pairs are generated from a single optical excitation—is a promising way to improve the photocurrent in photovoltaic devices and offers the potential to break the Shockley–Queisser limit. One-dimensional nanostructures, for example nanorods, have been shown spectroscopically to display increased multiple exciton generation efficiencies compared with their zero-dimensional analogues. Here we present solar cells fabricated from PbSe nanorods of three different bandgaps. All three devices showed external quantum efficiencies exceeding 100% and we report a maximum external quantum efficiency of 122% for cells consisting of the smallest bandgap nanorods. We estimate internal quantum efficiencies to exceed 150% at relatively low energies compared with other multiple exciton generation systems, and this demonstrates the potential for substantial improvements in device performance due to multiple exciton generation. PMID:26411283
Chen, R S; Wang, W C; Lu, M L; Chen, Y F; Lin, H C; Chen, K H; Chen, L C
2013-08-01
The quantum efficiency and carrier lifetime that decide the photoconduction (PC) efficiencies in the metal oxide semiconductor nanowires (NWs) have been investigated. The experimental result surprisingly shows that the SnO2, TiO2, WO3, and ZnO NWs reveal extraordinary quantum efficiencies in common, which are over one to three orders of magnitude lower than the theoretical expectation. The surface depletion region (SDR)-controlled photoconductivity is proposed to explain the anomalous quantum efficiency and its power dependence. The inherent difference between the metal oxide nanostructures such as carrier lifetime, carrier concentration, and dielectric constant leading to the distinct PC performance and behavior are also discussed. PMID:23779084
Efficiencies of two-level weak dissipation quantum Carnot engines at the maximum power output
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Juncheng; Wang, Junyi; Wang, Yuan; Chen, Jincan
2013-04-01
A weak-dissipation cycle model of two-level quantum Carnot engines is proposed by adopting a generic energy spectrum and the superposition effect of quantum systems. Expressions for the power output and efficiency of the cycle are derived. The optimal relation between the power output and the efficiency is obtained and the optimally operating region of the cycle is determined. Moreover, analytical expression for the efficiency of the cycle at the maximum power output is deduced and the lower and upper bounds of the efficiency at the maximum power output are given. The results obtained are general and can be directly used to discuss the optimal performance characteristics of several types of two-level quantum Carnot engines.
Efficiency of quantum energy teleportation within spin-1/2 particle pairs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frey, Michael R.
2016-03-01
A protocol for quantum energy teleportation (QET) is known for a so-called minimal spin-1/2 particle pair model. We extend this protocol to explicitly admit quantum weak measurements at its first stage. The extended protocol is applied beyond the minimal model to spin-1/2 particle pairs whose Hamiltonians are of a general class characterized by orthogonal pairs of entangled eigenstates. The energy transfer efficiency of the extended QET protocol is derived for this setting, and we show that weaker measurement yields greater efficiency. In the minimal particle pair model, for example, the efficiency can be doubled by this means. We also show that the QET protocol's transfer efficiency never exceeds 100 %, supporting the understanding that quantum energy teleportation is, indeed, an energy transfer protocol, rather than a protocol for remotely catalyzing local extraction of system energy already present.
Efficient optimal minimum error discrimination of symmetric quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Assalini, Antonio; Cariolaro, Gianfranco; Pierobon, Gianfranco
2010-01-01
This article deals with the quantum optimal discrimination among mixed quantum states enjoying geometrical uniform symmetry with respect to a reference density operator ρ0. It is well known that the minimal error probability is given by the positive operator-valued measure obtained as a solution of a convex optimization problem, namely a set of operators satisfying geometrical symmetry, with respect to a reference operator Π0 and maximizing Tr(ρ0Π0). In this article, by resolving the dual problem, we show that the same result is obtained by minimizing the trace of a semidefinite positive operator X commuting with the symmetry operator and such that X⩾ρ0. The new formulation gives a deeper insight into the optimization problem and allows to obtain closed-form analytical solutions, as shown by a simple but not trivial explanatory example. In addition to the theoretical interest, the result leads to semidefinite programming solutions of reduced complexity, allowing to extend the numerical performance evaluation to quantum communication systems modeled in Hilbert spaces of large dimension.
Quantum Dots Promise to Significantly Boost Solar Cell Efficiencies (Fact Sheet)
Not Available
2013-08-01
In the search for a third generation of solar-cell technologies, a leading candidate is the use of 'quantum dots' -- tiny spheres of semiconductor material measuring only about 2-10 billionths of a meter in diameter. Quantum dots have the potential to dramatically increase the efficiency of converting sunlight into energy -- perhaps even doubling it in some devices -- because of their ability to generate more than one bound electron-hole pair, or exciton, per incoming photon. NREL has produced quantum dots using colloidal suspensions; then, using molecular self-assembly, they have been fabricated into the first-ever quantum-dot solar cells. While these devices operate with only 4.4% efficiency, they demonstrate the capability for low-cost manufacturing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whitney, Robert S.
2015-03-01
We investigate the nonlinear scattering theory for quantum systems with strong Seebeck and Peltier effects, and consider their use as heat engines and refrigerators with finite power outputs. This paper gives detailed derivations of the results summarized in a previous paper [R. S. Whitney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 130601 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.130601]. It shows how to use the scattering theory to find (i) the quantum thermoelectric with maximum possible power output, and (ii) the quantum thermoelectric with maximum efficiency at given power output. The latter corresponds to a minimal entropy production at that power output. These quantities are of quantum origin since they depend on system size over electronic wavelength, and so have no analog in classical thermodynamics. The maximal efficiency coincides with Carnot efficiency at zero power output, but decreases with increasing power output. This gives a fundamental lower bound on entropy production, which means that reversibility (in the thermodynamic sense) is impossible for finite power output. The suppression of efficiency by (nonlinear) phonon and photon effects is addressed in detail; when these effects are strong, maximum efficiency coincides with maximum power. Finally, we show in particular limits (typically without magnetic fields) that relaxation within the quantum system does not allow the system to exceed the bounds derived for relaxation-free systems, however, a general proof of this remains elusive.
A Highly Efficient Hybrid GaAs Solar Cell Based on Colloidal-Quantum-Dot-Sensitization
Han, Hau-Vei; Lin, Chien-Chung; Tsai, Yu-Lin; Chen, Hsin-Chu; Chen, Kuo-Ju; Yeh, Yun-Ling; Lin, Wen-Yi; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Yu, Peichen
2014-01-01
This paper presents a hybrid design, featuring a traditional GaAs-based solar cell combined with various colloidal quantum dots. This hybrid design effectively boosts photon harvesting at long wavelengths while enhancing the collection of photogenerated carriers in the ultraviolet region. The merits of using highly efficient semiconductor solar cells and colloidal quantum dots were seamlessly combined to increase overall power conversion efficiency. Several photovoltaic parameters, including short-circuit current density, open circuit voltage, and external quantum efficiency, were measured and analyzed to investigate the performance of this hybrid device. Offering antireflective features at long wavelengths and luminescent downshifting for high-energy photons, the quantum dots effectively enhanced overall power conversion efficiency by as high as 24.65% compared with traditional GaAs-based devices. The evolution of weighted reflectance as a function of the dilution factor of QDs was investigated. Further analysis of the quantum efficiency response showed that the luminescent downshifting effect can be as much as 6.6% of the entire enhancement of photogenerated current. PMID:25034623
Yu, Lu; Li, Qiuxiang; Shi, Zhenzhen; Liu, Hao; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Fuzhi; Zhang, Bing; Dai, Songyuan; Lin, Jun; Tan, Zhan'ao
2016-01-13
The insertion of an appropriate interfacial buffer layer between the photoactive layer and the contact electrodes makes a great impact on the performance of polymer solar cells (PSCs). Ideal interfacial buffer layers could minimize the interfacial traps and the interfacial barriers caused by the incompatibility between the photoactive layer and the electrodes. In this work, we utilized solution-processed hafnium(IV) acetylacetonate (Hf(acac)4) as an effective cathode buffer layer (CBL) in PSCs to optimize the energy level alignment between the photoactive layer and the cathode contact, with the short-circuit current density (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (Voc), and fill factor (FF) all simultaneously improved with Hf(acac)4 CBL, leading to enhanced power conversion efficiencies (PCEs). Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) and scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) were performed to confirm that the interfacial dipoles were formed with the same orientation direction as the built-in potential between the photoactive layer and Hf(acac)4 CBL, benefiting the exciton separation and electron transport/extraction. In addition, the optical characteristics and surface morphology of the Hf(acac)4 CBL were also investigated. PMID:26684416
Panomsuwan, Gasidit; Saito, Nagahiro; Ishizaki, Takahiro
2016-03-23
Metal-free nitrogen-doped carbon materials are currently considered at the forefront of potential alternative cathode catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cell technology. Despite numerous efforts in this area over the past decade, rational design and development of a new catalyst system based on nitrogen-doped carbon materials via an innovative approach still present intriguing challenges in ORR catalysis research. Herein, a new kind of nitrogen-doped carbon nanoparticle-carbon nanofiber (NCNP-CNF) composite with highly efficient and stable ORR catalytic activity has been developed via a new approach assisted by a solution plasma process. The integration of NCNPs and CNFs by the solution plasma process can lead to a unique morphological feature and modify physicochemical properties. The NCNP-CNF composite exhibits a significantly enhanced ORR activity through a dominant four-electron pathway in an alkaline solution. The enhancement in ORR activity of NCNP-CNF composite can be attributed to the synergistic effects of good electron transport from highly graphitized CNFs as well as abundance of exposed catalytic sites and meso/macroporosity from NCNPs. More importantly, NCNP-CNF composite reveals excellent long-term durability and high tolerance to methanol crossover compared with those of a commercial 20 wt % supported on Vulcan XC-72. We expect that NCNP-CNF composite prepared by this synthetic approach can be a promising metal-free cathode catalyst candidate for ORR in fuel cells and metal-air batteries. PMID:26908214
Photoemission experiments of a large area scandate dispenser cathode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Huang; Liu, Xing-guang; Chen, Yi; Chen, De-biao; Jiang, Xiao-guo; Yang, An-min; Xia, Lian-sheng; Zhang, Kai-zhi; Shi, Jin-shui; Zhang, Lin-wen
2010-09-01
A 100-mm-diameter scandate dispenser cathode was tested as a photocathode with a 10 ns Nd:YAG laser (266 nm) on an injector test stand for linear induction accelerators. This thermionic dispenser cathode worked at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 930 °C (below or near the thermionic emission threshold) while the vacuum was better than 4×10 -7 Torr. The laser pulse was synchronized with a 120 ns diode voltage pulse stably and they were in single pulse mode. Emission currents were measured by a Faraday cup. The maximum peak current collected at the anode was about 100 A. The maximum quantum efficiency measured at low laser power was 2.4×10 -4. Poisoning effect due to residual gas was obvious and uninterrupted heating was needed to keep cathode's emission capability. The cathode was exposed to air one time between experiments and recovered after being reconditioned. Photoemission uniformity of the cathode was also explored by changing the laser spot's position.