Absolute photoluminescence quantum efficiency measurement of light-emitting thin films
Kanicki, Jerzy
Absolute photoluminescence quantum efficiency measurement of light-emitting thin films Aaron R detection system to accurately characterize the absolute photoluminescence quantum efficiency of commonly photoluminescence quantum efficiency might only be measured when an appropriate calibration of the spectral
Imaging and quantum efficiency measurement of chromium emitters in diamond
I. Aharonovich; S. Castelletto; B. C. Gibson; B. C. Johnson; S. Prawer
2010-08-17
We present direct imaging of the emission pattern of individual chromium-based single photon emitters in diamond and measure their quantum efficiency. By imaging the excited state transition dipole intensity distribution in the back focal plane of high numerical aperture objective, we determined that the emission dipole is oriented nearly orthogonal to the diamond-air interface. Employing ion implantation techniques, the emitters were engineered with various proximities from the diamond-air interface. By comparing the decay rates from the single chromium emitters at different depths in the diamond crystal, an average quantum efficiency of 28% was measured.
Quantum Chernoff bound as a measure of the efficiency of quantum cloning for mixed states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghiu, Iulia
2014-04-01
In this paper we investigate the efficiency of quantum cloning of N identical mixed qubits. We employ a recently introduced measure of distinguishability of quantum states called the quantum Chernoff bound. We evaluate the quantum Chernoff bound between the output clones generated by the cloning machine and the initial mixed qubit state. Our analysis is illustrated by performing numerical calculation of the quantum Chernoff bound for different scenarios that involves the number of initial qubits N and the number of output imperfect copies M.
Quantum efficiency and metastable lifetime measurements in solid state laser materials via
Mandelis, Andreas
-Hui Chen Ronald Bleiss* University of Toronto Department of Mechanical Engineering Photothermal; metastable lifetimes; radiometry; quantum efficiency. Optical Engineering 32(9), 2046--2053 (September 1993Quantum efficiency and metastable lifetime measurements in solid state laser materials via lock
Richmond, Geraldine L.
Time-resolved measurement of free carrier absorption, diffusivity, and internal quantum efficiency to IP: 128.223.23.186 On: Thu, 17 Oct 2013 22:08:28 #12;Time-resolved measurement of free carrier absorption, diffusivity, and internal quantum efficiency in silicon Jet Meitzner,1 Frederick G. Moore,2 Brock
Fliller, R.P., III; Edwards, H.; /Fermilab; Hartung, W.; /Michigan State U., NSCL
2005-05-01
Studies of photo-emission and field emission behavior in an RF gun have been carried out. Unexpected phenomena were observed. In situ changes in the cathode's quantum efficiency and dark current with time were seen during operation of the photo-injector. These changes were correlated with the magnetostatic field at the cathode. In addition, multipacting has been observed under certain conditions. Recent measurements indicate a correlation between multipacting and anomalous photo- and field emission behavior.
Quantum efficiency measurements in the swept charge device CCD236
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, P. H.; Gow, J. P. D.; Murray, N. J.; Tutt, J. H.; Soman, M. R.; Holland, A. D.
2014-04-01
The e2v technologies plc. CCD236 is a Swept Charge Device (SCD) designed as a large area (20 mm × 20 mm) soft X-ray detector for spectroscopy in the range 0.8 keV to 10 keV. It benefits from improvements in design over the previous generation, the e2v CCD54, such as: a 4 times increased detector area, a reduction in split X-ray events due to the 100 ?m × 100 ?m `pixel' size, and improvements to radiation hardness. The CCD236 will be used in India's Chandrayaan-2 Large Soft X-ray Spectrometer (CLASS) instrument and China's Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT). Measurements of the Quantum Efficiency (QE) have been obtained relative to a NIST calibrated photodiode over the energy range 0.2 keV to 1.9 keV, using the BESSY II X-ray synchrotron in Berlin. Two X-ray event counting methods are described and compared, and QE for soft X-ray interaction is reported. Uniformity of QE across the device is also investigated at energies between 0.52 keV and 1.5 keV in different areas of the detector. This work will enable the actual number of photons incident on the detectors to be calculated, thus ensuring that the CCD236 detectors provide valuable scientific data during use. By comparing the QE methods in this paper with the event processing techniques to be used with CLASS, an estimate of the instrument-specific QE for CLASS can be provided.
Efficient Quantum Tomography Needs Complementary and Symmetric Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petz, Dénes; Ruppert, László
2012-04-01
In this study the determinant of the average quadratic error matrix is used as the measure of state estimation efficiency. Minimizing this quantity gives us the optimal measurements in different scenarios. We present applications when von Neumann measurements or a single positive operator-valued measure are used, when there is no known information or a part of the parameters of the state is given. Under some restrictions the optimality is found for n-level systems. The optimal measurements have some complementary relation to each other and to the available data, moreover, symmetric informationally complete systems appear, containing a new, conditional version.
Characterization of Si nanostructures using internal quantum efficiency measurements
ZAIDI,SALEEM H.
2000-04-01
Hemispherical reflectance and internal quantum efficiency measurements have been employed to evaluate the response of Si nanostructured surfaces formed by using random and periodic reactive ion etching techniques. Random RIE-textured surfaces have demonstrated solar weighted reflectance of {approx} 3% over 300--1,200-nm spectral range even without the benefit of anti-reflection films. Random RIE-texturing has been found to be applicable over large areas ({approximately} 180 cm{sup 2}) of both single and multicrystalline Si surfaces. Due to the surface contamination and plasma-induced damage, RIE-textured surfaces did not initially provide increased short circuit current as expected from the enhanced absorption. Improved processing combined with wet-chemical damage removal etches resulted in significant improvement in the short circuit current with IQEs comparable to the random, wet-chemically textured surfaces. An interesting feature of the RIE-textured surfaces was their superior performance in the near IR spectral range. The response of RIE-textured periodic surfaces can be broadly classified into three distinct regimes. One-dimensional grating structures with triangular profiles are characterized by exceptionally low, polarization-independent reflective behavior. The reflectance response of such surfaces is similar to a graded-index anti-reflection film. The IQE response from these surfaces is severely degraded in the UV-Visible spectral region due to plasma-induced surface damage. One-dimensional grating structures with rectangular profiles exhibit spectrally selective absorptive behavior with somewhat similar IQE response. The third type of grating structure combines broadband anti-reflection behavior with significant IQE enhancement in 800--1,200-nm spectral region. The hemispherical reflectance of these 2D grating structures is comparable to random RIE-textured surfaces. The IQE enhancement in the long wavelength spectral region can be attributed to increased coupling into obliquely propagating transmitted diffracted orders inside the Si substrate. Random RIE texturing techniques are expected to find widespread commercial applicability in low-cost, large-area multicrystalline Si solar cells. Grating-texturing techniques are expected to find applications in thin-film and space solar cells.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quimby, R. S.; Gahagan, K. T.; Aitken, B. G.; Newhouse, M. A.
1995-10-01
A measurement technique is described in which the radiative quantum efficiency of certain transitions in rare-earth-doped glasses can be determined based only on relative fluorescence measurements. We calibrate the emission from the level of interest by measuring emission into that level from a higher excited level. Application of the technique to Pr3+ -doped sulfide glasses yields quantum efficiencies for the 1G4 \\rightarrow 3H 5 transition as high as 60%, in good agreement with measurements using the integrating sphere technique. Calculated efficiency values based on the Judd-Ofelt technique are shown to be subject to inherent uncertainties.
Imaging and Quantum-Efficiency Measurement of Chromium Emitters in Diamond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castelletto, S.; Aharonovich, I.; Gibson, B. C.; Johnson, B. C.; Prawer, S.
2010-11-01
We present direct imaging of the emission pattern of individual chromium-based single photon emitters in diamond and measure their quantum efficiency. By imaging the excited state transition dipole intensity distribution in the back focal plane of high numerical aperture objective, we determined its 3D orientation. Employing ion implantation techniques, the emitters were placed at various distances from the diamond-air interface. By comparing the decay rates from the single chromium emitters at different depths in the diamond crystal, we measured an average quantum efficiency of 28%.
Measurement of the quantum efficiency of TMAE and TEA from threshold to 120 nm
Holroyd, R.A.; Preses, J.M.; Woody, C.L.; Johnson, R.A.
1986-01-01
Several existing and planned high energy physics experiments incorporate detectors which use either TMAE (tetrakis-dimethylaminoethylene) or TEA (triethylamine) as their photosensitive agent. Understanding the operation of these devices requires knowledge of the absolute photoionization quantum efficiencies and absorption lengths of TMAE and TEA. In an experiment performed at the National Synchrotron Light source at Brookhaven National Laboratory, we have measured these parameters from 120 nm to 280 nm. The quantum efficiencies were normalized to the known photoionization yields of benzene and cis-2-butene. The results of these measurements and details of the experiment are presented in this paper.
Matioli, Elison; Weisbuch, Claude
2011-01-01
A method is presented for the direct measurement of the internal quantum efficiency in light emitting diodes (LEDs), based on the ratio of the measured external quantum efficiency and the calculated light extraction efficiency. The external quantum efficiency is measured from a single facet of the device in a simple, well-defined geometry, for which the light extraction efficiency can be calculated with good accuracy. In the proposed method, all LED facets are coated with highly absorbing material which suppresses any light that is not directly emitted into a small aperture on the top facet of the LED. We present a full wave optical model for a multilayer LED structure, from which we derive and validate an approximate model to easily calculate the extraction efficiency through the top facet of the LED. Because a current spreading electrode, often metallic, is required for uniform injection, we show that its impact on the extraction efficiency can be simply modeled through a separate transmission function calculated from the complex index of refraction of the electrode material. The various assumptions made to justify the direct emission model through a single facet (absence of photon backscatter, no photon recycling, simplified device layer model) are discussed and evaluated. The model is applied to a specific GaNLED structure.
Measurement-based Formulation of Quantum Heat Engine and Optimal Efficiency with Finite-Size Effect
Hiroyasu Tajima; Masahito Hayashi
2015-06-07
There exist two formulations for quantum heat engine. One is semi-classical scenario, and the other is full quantum scenario. The former is formulated as a unitary evolution for the internal system (working body and heat baths), and is adopted by the community of statistical mechanics. The latter is formulated as a unitary for the work storage and the internal system. It is adopted by the community of quantum information. However, these formulations do not consider measurement process. In this paper, we formulate the quantum heat engine based on the quantum measurement theory, because the amount of extracted work should be observed in a practical situation. With using our formulation, we derive two trade-off relations that show the semi-classical scenario does not work when the amount of extracted work is observed, i.e., we can hardly know the amount of the extracted work when the time evolution of the internal system is close to unitary. Next, based on our formulation, we derive the optimal efficiency of quantum heat engines with the finite-size heat baths, without assuming the existence of quasi-static processes. Using the strong large deviation theory, we asymptotically expand the optimal efficiency up to the third order. The first term is shown to be Carnot efficiency, and the higher order terms are shown to be the finite-size effects of the heat baths. We can construct the optimal work extraction as an energy-preserving unitary evolution among the internal system and the work storage. During the optimal work extraction, the entropy gain of the work storage is so negligibly small as compared with the energy gain of the work storage.
Quantum noise and quantum measurement
Clerk, Aashish
rekindled interest in such fun- damental limits on measurement and amplification. One would like to have 3 Quantum limit on QND qubit detection 16 3.1 Measurement rate and dephasing rate 16 3.2 Efficiency ratio 18 3.3 Example: QPC detector 20 3.4 Significance of the quantum limit on QND qubit detection 23 3
Design of quantum efficiency measurement system for variable doping GaAs photocathode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Liang; Yang, Kai; Liu, HongLin; Chang, Benkang
2008-03-01
To achieve high quantum efficiency and good stability has been a main direction to develop GaAs photocathode recently. Through early research, we proved that variable doping structure is executable and practical, and has great potential. In order to optimize variable doping GaAs photocathode preparation techniques and study the variable doping theory deeply, a real-time quantum efficiency measurement system for GaAs Photocathode has been designed. The system uses FPGA (Field-programmable gate array) device, and high speed A/D converter to design a high signal noise ratio and high speed data acquisition card. ARM (Advanced RISC Machines) core processor s3c2410 and real-time embedded system are used to obtain and show measurement results. The measurement precision of photocurrent could reach 1nA, and measurement range of spectral response curve is within 400~1000nm. GaAs photocathode preparation process can be real-time monitored by using this system. This system could easily be added other functions to show the physic variation of photocathode during the preparation process more roundly in the future.
Quantum Noise and Quantum Measurement
Clerk, Aashish
Quantum Noise and Quantum Measurement Aashish Clerk McGill University · Use quantum noise to understand quantum measurement... !F(t) t (APS Tutorial on Quantum Measurement) (With thanks to S. Girvin, F. Marquardt, M. Devoret) #12;Quantum Measurement & Mesoscopic Physics · Quantum measurement relevant to many
Efficient distributed quantum computing
Beals, Robert
We provide algorithms for efficiently moving and addressing quantum memory in parallel. These imply that the standard circuit model can be simulated with a low overhead by a more realistic model of a distributed quantum ...
Efficient Quantum-State Estimation by Continuous Weak Measurement and Dynamical Control
Smith, Greg A.; Jessen, Poul S. [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Silberfarb, Andrew; Deutsch, Ivan H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States)
2006-11-03
We demonstrate a fast, robust, and nondestructive protocol for quantum-state estimation based on continuous weak measurement in the presence of a controlled dynamical evolution. Our experiment uses optically probed atomic spins as a test bed and successfully reconstructs a range of trial states with fidelities of {approx}90%. The procedure holds promise as a practical diagnostic tool for the study of complex quantum dynamics, the testing of quantum hardware, and as a starting point for new types of quantum feedback control.
Efficient Quantum State Estimation by Continuous Weak Measurement and Dynamical Control
Greg A. Smith; Andrew Silberfarb; Ivan H. Deutsch; Poul S. Jessen
2006-06-13
We demonstrate a fast, robust and non-destructive protocol for quantum state estimation based on continuous weak measurement in the presence of a controlled dynamical evolution. Our experiment uses optically probed atomic spins as a testbed, and successfully reconstructs a range of trial states with fidelities of ~90%. The procedure holds promise as a practical diagnostic tool for the study of complex quantum dynamics, the testing of quantum hardware, and as a starting point for new types of quantum feedback control.
Quantum efficiency characterization of back-illuminated CCDs Part2: reflectivity measurements
Fabricius, Maximilian H.; Bebek, Chris J.; Groom, Donald E.; Karcher, Armin; Roe, Natalie A.
2006-01-19
The usual quantum efficiency (QE) measurement heavily relies on a calibrated photodiode (PD) and the knowledge of the CCDs gain. Either can introduce significant systematic errors. But reflectivity can also be used to verify QE measurements. 1 - R > QE, where R is the reflectivity, and over a significant wavelength range, 1 - R = QE. An unconventional reflectometer has been developed to make this measurement. R is measured in two steps, using light from the lateral monochromator port via an optical fiber. The beam intensity is measured directly with aPD, then both the PD and CCD are moved so that the optical path length is unchanged and the light reflects once from the CCD; the PD current ratio gives R. Unlike traditional schemes this approach makes only one reflection from the CCD surface. Since the reflectivity of the LBNL CCDs might be as low as 2 percent this increases the signal to noise ratio dramatically. The goal is a 1 percent accuracy. We obtain good agreement between 1 - R and the direct QE results.
Quantum efficiency measurement of CsI photocathodes using synchrotron radiation at BSRF
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Yuguang; Liu, Hongbang; Zhang, Aiwu; Liu, Yingbiao; Hu, Tao; Zhou, Li; An, Zhenghua; Cai, Xiao; Fang, Jian; Ge, Yongshuai; Lü, Qiwen; Shi, Feng; Sun, Xilei; Sun, Lijun; Xue, Zheng; Yu, Boxiang; Zheng, Yangheng; Lü, Junguang
2012-02-01
A quantum efficiency(QE) measurement system has been established for CsI photocathodes in the wavelength range of 120-210 nm by using the synchrotron radiation light source at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (BSRF). An AXUV100G photodiode calibrated by Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) was used as the transfer detector standard to ensure the accuracy and reliability of the QE measurement. The dependencies of QE measurement on beam energy, vacuum pressure and bias voltage were studied in detail. The influence of photoionization in gas on the QE measurement was observed and is described. The surface morphological characteristics of both substrate and CsI film were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The QE results of differently prepared CsI photocathodes were compared, including: the printed circuit board (PCB) of FR-4 (Woven glass and epoxy)+Cu, FR-4+Cu/Ni/Au, and stainless steel substrates; a series of thickness from 60 to 600 nm; and the resistive and electron beam evaporation techniques.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meitzner, Jet; Moore, Frederick G.; Tillotson, Brock M.; Kevan, Stephen D.; Richmond, Geraldine L.
2013-08-01
We demonstrate an innovative pump-probe technique for the determination of free carrier absorption, diffusivity, and internal quantum efficiency in Si. The internal quantum efficiencies for excitation by 800 nm, 400 nm, and 267 nm light are found to be 1.00, 1.00, and 1.25, respectively. The free carrier absorption cross section at 1510 nm is determined to be ?FCA = 1.69 × 10-17 cm2 and an increased value is observed for high carrier concentrations. A model for free carrier diffusion and absorption is used to extract the relationship between ?FCA and carrier concentration.
The X-ray quantum efficiency measurement of high resistivity CCDs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murray, Neil J.; Holland, Andrew D.; Smith, David R.; Gow, Jason P.; Pool, Peter J.; Burt, David J.
2009-06-01
The CCD247 is the second generation of high-resistivity device to be manufactured in e2v technologies plc development programme. Intended for infrared astronomy, the latest devices are fabricated on high resistivity (˜8 k? cm) bulk silicon, allowing for a greater device thickness whilst maintaining full depletion when 'thinned' to a thickness of 150 ?m. In the case of the front illuminated variant, depletion of up to 300 ?m is achievable by applying a gate to substrate potential of up to 120 V, whilst retaining adequate spectral performance. The increased depletion depth of high-resistivity CCDs greatly improves the quantum efficiency (QE) for incident X-ray photons of energies above 5 keV, making such a device beneficial in future X-ray astronomy missions and other applications. Here we describe the experimental setup and present results of X-ray QE measurements taken in the energy range 2-20 keV for a front illuminated CCD247, showing QE in excess of 80% at 10 keV. Results for the first generation CCD217 and swept-charge device (1500 ? cm epitaxial silicon) are also presented.
Energy Efficiency Measurement Discussion
2000-01-01
Energy efficiency measurement, energy efficiency measures, policy issues, and energy intensity provides information on indices as a measure of relative changes and other approaches and measurement Issues.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maxson, Jared; Cultrera, Luca; Gulliford, Colwyn; Bazarov, Ivan
2015-06-01
We measure the tradeoff between the quantum efficiency and intrinsic emittance from a NaKSb photocathode at three increasing wavelengths (635, 650, and 690 nm) at or below the energy of the bandgap plus the electron affinity, h ??Eg+Ea . These measurements were performed using a high voltage dc gun for varied photocathode surface fields of 1.4 -4.4 MV/m. Measurements of intrinsic emittance are performed using two different methods and were found to agree. At the longest wavelength available, 690 nm, the intrinsic emittance was 0.26 ?m/mm-rms with a quantum efficiency of ˜10-4 . The suitability of NaKSb emitting at threshold for various low emittance applications is discussed.
Efficient universal blind quantum computation.
Giovannetti, Vittorio; Maccone, Lorenzo; Morimae, Tomoyuki; Rudolph, Terry G
2013-12-01
We give a cheat sensitive protocol for blind universal quantum computation that is efficient in terms of computational and communication resources: it allows one party to perform an arbitrary computation on a second party's quantum computer without revealing either which computation is performed, or its input and output. The first party's computational capabilities can be extremely limited: she must only be able to create and measure single-qubit superposition states. The second party is not required to use measurement-based quantum computation. The protocol requires the (optimal) exchange of O(Jlog2(N)) single-qubit states, where J is the computational depth and N is the number of qubits needed for the computation. PMID:24476238
Efficient Universal Blind Quantum Computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giovannetti, Vittorio; Maccone, Lorenzo; Morimae, Tomoyuki; Rudolph, Terry G.
2013-12-01
We give a cheat sensitive protocol for blind universal quantum computation that is efficient in terms of computational and communication resources: it allows one party to perform an arbitrary computation on a second party’s quantum computer without revealing either which computation is performed, or its input and output. The first party’s computational capabilities can be extremely limited: she must only be able to create and measure single-qubit superposition states. The second party is not required to use measurement-based quantum computation. The protocol requires the (optimal) exchange of O(Jlog?2(N)) single-qubit states, where J is the computational depth and N is the number of qubits needed for the computation.
Efficient quantum circuit implementation of quantum walks
Douglas, B. L.; Wang, J. B.
2009-05-15
Quantum walks, being the quantum analog of classical random walks, are expected to provide a fruitful source of quantum algorithms. A few such algorithms have already been developed, including the 'glued trees' algorithm, which provides an exponential speedup over classical methods, relative to a particular quantum oracle. Here, we discuss the possibility of a quantum walk algorithm yielding such an exponential speedup over possible classical algorithms, without the use of an oracle. We provide examples of some highly symmetric graphs on which efficient quantum circuits implementing quantum walks can be constructed and discuss potential applications to quantum search for marked vertices along these graphs.
Work Measurement as a Generalized Quantum Measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roncaglia, Augusto J.; Cerisola, Federico; Paz, Juan Pablo
2014-12-01
We present a new method to measure the work w performed on a driven quantum system and to sample its probability distribution P (w ). The method is based on a simple fact that remained unnoticed until now: Work on a quantum system can be measured by performing a generalized quantum measurement at a single time. Such measurement, which technically speaking is denoted as a positive operator valued measure reduces to an ordinary projective measurement on an enlarged system. This observation not only demystifies work measurement but also suggests a new quantum algorithm to efficiently sample the distribution P (w ). This can be used, in combination with fluctuation theorems, to estimate free energies of quantum states on a quantum computer.
Work measurement as a generalized quantum measurement
Augusto J. Roncaglia; Federico Cerisola; Juan Pablo Paz
2014-12-18
We present a new method to measure the work $w$ performed on a driven quantum system and to sample its probability distribution $P(w)$. The method is based on a simple fact that remained unnoticed until now: Work on a quantum system can be measured by performing a generalized quantum measurement at a single time. Such measurement, which technically speaking is denoted as a POVM (positive operator valued measure) reduces to an ordinary projective measurement on an enlarged system. This observation not only demystifies work measurement but also suggests a new quantum algorithm to efficiently sample the distribution $P(w)$. This can be used, in combination with fluctuation theorems, to estimate free energies of quantum states on a quantum computer.
Efficient Quantum Information Processing via Quantum Compressions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Y.; Luo, M. X.; Ma, S. Y.
2015-04-01
Our purpose is to improve the quantum transmission efficiency and reduce the resource cost by quantum compressions. The lossless quantum compression is accomplished using invertible quantum transformations and applied to the quantum teleportation and the simultaneous transmission over quantum butterfly networks. New schemes can greatly reduce the entanglement cost, and partially solve transmission conflictions over common links. Moreover, the local compression scheme is useful for approximate entanglement creations from pre-shared entanglements. This special task has not been addressed because of the quantum no-cloning theorem. Our scheme depends on the local quantum compression and the bipartite entanglement transfer. Simulations show the success probability is greatly dependent of the minimal entanglement coefficient. These results may be useful in general quantum network communication.
Efficient Communication Between Quantum Subnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Sheng; Wang, Jiang; Tang, Chaojing; Zhang, Quan
2011-10-01
The performance of quantum communication network might decline with a growing scale of the structure, e.g. the channel capacity is limited. Here, we propose an efficient scheme that can improve the throughput performance of a large-scale quantum network. We design a new subnet structure, then quantum state compression and Grover searching algorithms are used to implement quantum communication with high efficiency. Theoretical analysis shows that compared with that of the ordinary quantum networks, the performance can be improved a lot.
DISSERTATION QUANTUM EFFICIENCY AS A DEVICE-PHYSICS INTERPRETATION TOOL
Sites, James R.
DISSERTATION QUANTUM EFFICIENCY AS A DEVICE-PHYSICS INTERPRETATION TOOL FOR THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS;#12;ABSTRACT OF DISSERTATION QUANTUM EFFICIENCY AS A DEVICE-PHYSICS INTERPRETATION TOOL FOR THIN-FILM SOLAR. This dissertation will focus on the use of quantum-efficiency (QE) measurements to deduce the device physics of thin
Dynamic Efficiency Measurement
FINN R. FØRSUND
2010-01-01
A philosophical problem for studies of inefficiency of firms is how to rationalise the inefficiency. Since economists do not have any theory for inefficiency, explaining the results of efficiency analyses are notoriously more difficult than carrying out the estimations. The literature points to measures of inputs and management as not including quality dimensions as a reason for measured efficiency differences,
Photoreceiver efficiency measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lehr, C. G.
1975-01-01
The efficiency and other related parameters of Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's four laser receivers were measured at the observing stations by oscilloscope photography. If the efficiency is defined as the number of photoelectrons generated by the photomultiplier tube divided by the number of photons entering the aperture of the receiver, its measured value is about 1% for the laser wavelength of 694 nm. This value is consistent with the efficiency computed from the specified characteristics of the photoreceiver's optical components.
Property Testing of Quantum Measurements
Guoming Wang
2012-05-03
In this paper, we study the following question: given a black box performing some unknown quantum measurement on a multi-qudit system, how do we test whether this measurement has certain property or is far away from having this property. We call this task \\textit{property testing} of quantum measurement. We first introduce a metric for quantum measurements, and show that it possesses many nice features. Then we show that, with respect to this metric, the following classes of measurements can be efficiently tested: 1. the stabilizer measurements, which play a crucial role for quantum error correction; 2. the $k$-local measurements, i.e. measurements whose outcomes depend on a subsystem of at most $k$ qudits; 3. the permutation-invariant measurements, which include those measurements used in quantum data compression, state estimation and entanglement concentration. In fact, all of them can be tested with query complexity independent of the system's dimension. Furthermore, we also present an algorithm that can test any finite set of measurements. Finally, we consider the following natural question: given two black-box measurement devices, how do we estimate their distance? We give an efficient algorithm for this task, and its query complexity is also independent of the system's dimension. As a consequence, we can easily test whether two unknown measurements are identical or very different.
Efficient Toffoli Gate in Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reed, Matthew; Dicarlo, Leonardo; Sun, Luyan; Frunzio, Luigi; Schoelkopf, Robert
2011-03-01
The fidelity of quantum gates in circuit quantum electrodynamics is typically limited by qubit decoherence. As such, significant improvements can be realized by shortening gate duration. The three-qubit Toffoli gate, also called the controlled-controlled NOT, is an important operation in basic quantum error correction. We report a scheme for a Toffoli gate that exploits interactions with non-computational excited states of transmon qubits which can be executed faster than an equivalent construction using one- and two-qubit gates. The application of this gate to efficient measurement-free quantum error correction will be discussed. Research supported by NSF, NSA, and ARO.
Quantum efficiency characterization of back-illuminated CCDs Part 2: reflectivity measurements
. We have to rely on the calibration of the manufacturer. Surface contamination of the photodiode may% we decided to implement additional measurements to crosscheck the QE data. The infrared M.H.F. E of the device 86136-7-7. For > 900 nm silicon becomes transparent (bandgap). For > 600 nm absorption
Efficient multiparty quantum-secret-sharing schemes
Xiao Li; Deng Fuguo; Long Guilu; Pan Jianwei
2004-05-01
In this work, we generalize the quantum-secret-sharing scheme of Hillery, Buzek, and Berthiaume [Phys. Rev. A 59, 1829 (1999)] into arbitrary multiparties. Explicit expressions for the shared secret bit is given. It is shown that in the Hillery-Buzek-Berthiaume quantum-secret-sharing scheme the secret information is shared in the parity of binary strings formed by the measured outcomes of the participants. In addition, we have increased the efficiency of the quantum-secret-sharing scheme by generalizing two techniques from quantum key distribution. The favored-measuring-basis quantum-secret-sharing scheme is developed from the Lo-Chau-Ardehali technique [H. K. Lo, H. F. Chau, and M. Ardehali, e-print quant-ph/0011056] where all the participants choose their measuring-basis asymmetrically, and the measuring-basis-encrypted quantum-secret-sharing scheme is developed from the Hwang-Koh-Han technique [W. Y. Hwang, I. G. Koh, and Y. D. Han, Phys. Lett. A 244, 489 (1998)] where all participants choose their measuring basis according to a control key. Both schemes are asymptotically 100% in efficiency, hence nearly all the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states in a quantum-secret-sharing process are used to generate shared secret information.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyashenko, A.; Nguyen, T.; Snyder, A.; Wang, H.; Arisaka, K.
2014-11-01
We report on the measurements of the absolute Quantum Efficiency(QE) for Hamamatsu model R11410-10 PMTs specially designed for the use in low background liquid xenon detectors. QE was measured for five PMTs in a spectral range between 154.5 nm to 400 nm at low temperatures down to -110°C. It was shown that during the PMT cooldown from room temperature to -110°C (a typical PMT operation temperature in liquid xenon detectors), the absolute QE increases by a factor of 1.1–1.15 at 175 nm. The QE growth rate with respect to temperature is wavelength dependent peaking at about 165 nm corresponding to the fastest growth of about -0.07%QE/°C and at about 200 nm corresponding to slowest growth of below -0.01%QE/°C. A dedicated setup and methods for PMT Quantum Efficiency measurement at low temperatures are described in details.
Quantum computing via measurements only
Robert Raussendorf; Hans J. Briegel
2000-10-07
A quantum computer promises efficient processing of certain computational tasks that are intractable with classical computer technology. While basic principles of a quantum computer have been demonstrated in the laboratory, scalability of these systems to a large number of qubits, essential for practical applications such as the Shor algorithm, represents a formidable challenge. Most of the current experiments are designed to implement sequences of highly controlled interactions between selected particles (qubits), thereby following models of a quantum computer as a (sequential) network of quantum logic gates. Here we propose a different model of a scalable quantum computer. In our model, the entire resource for the quantum computation is provided initially in form of a specific entangled state (a so-called cluster state) of a large number of qubits. Information is then written onto the cluster, processed, and read out form the cluster by one-particle measurements only. The entangled state of the cluster thus serves as a universal substrate for any quantum computation. Cluster states can be created efficiently in any system with a quantum Ising-type interaction (at very low temperatures) between two-state particles in a lattice configuration.
Efficient Algorithms for Universal Quantum Simulation
Barry C. Sanders
2013-07-04
A universal quantum simulator would enable efficient simulation of quantum dynamics by implementing quantum-simulation algorithms on a quantum computer. Specifically the quantum simulator would efficiently generate qubit-string states that closely approximate physical states obtained from a broad class of dynamical evolutions. I provide an overview of theoretical research into universal quantum simulators and the strategies for minimizing computational space and time costs. Applications to simulating many-body quantum simulation and solving linear equations are discussed.
Temperature-dependent quantum efficiency of Ga(N,As,P) quantum wells
Rosemann, N. W., E-mail: Nils.Rosemann@Physik.Uni-Marburg.de; Metzger, B.; Volz, K.; Chatterjee, S. [Faculty of Physics and Material Sciences Center, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Renthof 5, D-35032 Marburg (Germany)] [Faculty of Physics and Material Sciences Center, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Renthof 5, D-35032 Marburg (Germany); Kunert, B. [NAsP III/V GmbH, Am Knechtacker 19, D-35041 Marburg (Germany)] [NAsP III/V GmbH, Am Knechtacker 19, D-35041 Marburg (Germany); Stolz, W. [Faculty of Physics and Material Sciences Center, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Renthof 5, D-35032 Marburg (Germany) [Faculty of Physics and Material Sciences Center, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Renthof 5, D-35032 Marburg (Germany); NAsP III/V GmbH, Am Knechtacker 19, D-35041 Marburg (Germany)
2013-12-16
The photoluminescence quantum efficiencies of a series of Ga(N,As,P)/GaP multiple quantum wells are analyzed. The external quantum efficiencies are derived from the absorbed and the emitted light intensities measured using an integrating sphere mounted inside a closed-cycle helium cryostat. By taking into account the device layer sequences as well as internal reflections and reabsorption, the internal quantum efficiencies yield values above 90% for all samples at cryogenic temperatures. The temperature-dependence of the quantum efficiencies as a function of active quantum well layer design reveal the internal interfaces as remaining growth challenge in these heterostructures.
Information gain in quantum continual measurements
Albert Barchielli; Giancarlo Lupieri
2006-12-01
Inspired by works on information transmission through quantum channels, we propose the use of a couple of mutual entropies to quantify the efficiency of continual measurement schemes in extracting information on the measured quantum system. Properties of these measures of information are studied and bounds on them are derived.
Dang, Xuan-Dung; Mikhailovsky, Alexander; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen
2010-01-01
Photoconductive atomic force microscopy is used to investigate nanoscale incident photon-to-current efficiency spectra of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells based on poly[2-methoxy-5-(3,7-dimethyloctyloxy)]-1,4-phenylenevinylene (MDMO-PPV) and [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 71} -butyric acid methyl ester (PC{sub 71} BM) . Nanoscale external quantum efficiency reveals the complex morphology of MDMO-PPV:PC{sub 71} BM films cast from toluene solution. Not only electron transfer from the photoexcited donor to the fullerene but also hole transfer process from photoexcited fullerene to the donor phase due to highest occupied molecular orbital offset is observed. The difference in performance between toluene and chlorobenzene-cast devices is explained by the variation in relative contributions from two charge transfer mechanisms.
Chiao, R Y; Speliotopoulos, A D
2003-01-01
A minimal coupling rule for the coupling of the electron spin to curved spacetime in general relativity suggests the possibility of a coupling between electromagnetic and gravitational radiation mediated by means of a quantum fluid. Thus quantum transducers between these two kinds of radiation fields might exist. We report here on the first attempt at a Hertz-type experiment, in which a high-$\\rm{T_c}$ superconductor (YBCO) was the sample material used as a possible quantum transducer to convert EM into GR microwaves, and a second piece of YBCO in a separate apparatus was used to back-convert GR into EM microwaves. An upper limit on the conversion efficiency of YBCO was measured to be $1.6\\times10^{-5}$ at liquid nitrogen temperature.
R. Y. Chiao; W. J. Fitelson; A. D. Speliotopoulos
2003-04-07
A minimal coupling rule for the coupling of the electron spin to curved spacetime in general relativity suggests the possibility of a coupling between electromagnetic and gravitational radiation mediated by means of a quantum fluid. Thus quantum transducers between these two kinds of radiation fields might exist. We report here on the first attempt at a Hertz-type experiment, in which a high-$\\rm{T_c}$ superconductor (YBCO) was the sample material used as a possible quantum transducer to convert EM into GR microwaves, and a second piece of YBCO in a separate apparatus was used to back-convert GR into EM microwaves. An upper limit on the conversion efficiency of YBCO was measured to be $1.6\\times10^{-5}$ at liquid nitrogen temperature.
Efficiency and formalism of quantum games
Chiu Fan Lee; Neil Johnson
2008-09-19
We pursue a general theory of quantum games. We show that quantum games are more efficient than classical games, and provide a saturated upper bound for this efficiency. We demonstrate that the set of finite classical games is a strict subset of the set of finite quantum games. We also deduce the quantum version of the Minimax Theorem and the Nash Equilibrium Theorem.
Consistent Quantum Measurements
Robert B. Griffiths
2015-07-27
In response to recent criticisms by Okon and Sudarsky, various aspects of the consistent histories (CH) resolution of the quantum measurement problem(s) are discussed using a simple Stern-Gerlach device, and compared with the alternative approaches to the measurement problem provided by spontaneous localization (GRW), Bohmian mechanics, many worlds, and standard (textbook) quantum mechanics. Among these CH is unique in solving the second measurement problem: inferring from the measurement outcome a property of the measured system at a time before the measurement took place, as is done routinely by experimental physicists. The main respect in which CH differs from other quantum interpretations is in allowing multiple stochastic descriptions of a given measurement situation, from which one (or more) can be selected on the basis of its utility. This requires abandoning a principle (termed unicity), central to classical physics, that at any instant of time there is only a single correct description of the world.
Quantum interferences reconstruction with low homodyne detection efficiency
Esposito, M; Titimbo, K; Zimmermann, K; Kourousias, G; Curri, A; Floreanini, R; Parmigiani, F; Fausti, D; Benatti, F
2015-01-01
Standard quantum state reconstruction techniques indicate that a detection efficiency of $0.5$ is an absolute threshold below which quantum interferences cannot be measured. However, alternative statistical techniques suggest that this threshold can be overcome at the price of increasing the statistics used for the reconstruction. In the following we present numerical experiments proving that quantum interferences can be measured even with a detection efficiency smaller than $0.5$. At the same time we provide a guideline for handling the tomographic reconstruction of quantum states based on homodyne data collected by low efficiency detectors.
Quantum limit in continuous quantum measurement
ChengGang Shao
2012-04-10
An inequality about quantum noise is presented with the imprecise measurement theory, which is used to analyse the quantum limit in continuous quantum measurement. Different from the linear-response approach based on the quantum relation between noise and susceptibilities of the detector, we provide an explicit functional relation between quantum noise and reduction operator, and show a rigorous result: The minimum noise added by the detector in quantum measurement is precisely equal to the zero-point noise. This conclusion generalizes the standard Haus-Caves quantum limit for a linear amplifier. We also discuss the statistic characters of the back-action force in quantum measurement and show on how to reach the quantum limit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stabo-Eeg, Frantz; Lindgren, Mikael; Nilsson, K. Peter R.; Inganäs, Olle; Hammarström, Per
2007-07-01
Amyloid diseases such as Alzheimer's and spongiform encephalopathies evolve from aggregation of proteins due to misfolding of the protein structure. Early disease handling require sophisticated but yet simple techniques to follow the complex properties of the aggregation process. Conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) have shown promising capabilities acting as optical biological sensors, since they can specifically bind to polypeptides both in solution and in solid phase. The structural changes in biomolecules can be monitored by changes of the optical spectra of the CPEs, both in absorption and emission modes. Notably, the studied CPEs possess multi-photon excitation capability, making them potential for in vivo imaging using laser scanning microscopy. Aggregation of proteins depends on concentration, temperature and pH. The optical effect on the molecular probe in various environments must also be investigated if applied in these environments. Here we present the results of quantum efficiency and two-photon absorption cross-section of three CPEs: POMT, POWT and PTAA in three different pH buffer systems. The extinction coefficient and quantum efficiency were measured. POMT was found to have the highest quantum efficiency being approximately 0.10 at pH 2.0. The two-photon absorption cross-section was measured for POMT and POWT and was found to be more than 18-25 times and 7-11 times that of Fluorescein, respectively. We also show how POMT fluorescence can be used to distinguish conformational differences between amyloid fibrils formed from reduced and non-reduced insulin in spectrally resolved images recorded with a laser scanning microscope using both one- and two-photon excitation.
Direct Measure of Quantum Correlation
Chang-shui Yu; Heng Fan
2013-07-04
The quantumness of the correlation known as quantum correlation is usually measured by quantum discord. So far various quantum discords can be roughly understood as indirect measure by some special discrepancy of two quantities. We present a direct measure of quantum correlation by revealing the difference between the structures of classically and quantum correlated states. Our measure explicitly includes the contributions of the inseparability and local non-orthogonality of the eigenvectors of a density. Besides its relatively easy computability, our measure can provide a unified understanding of quantum correlation of all the present versions.
Quantum discord with weak measurements
Singh, Uttam, E-mail: uttamsingh@hri.res.in; Pati, Arun Kumar, E-mail: akpati@hri.res.in
2014-04-15
Weak measurements cause small change to quantum states, thereby opening up the possibility of new ways of manipulating and controlling quantum systems. We ask, can weak measurements reveal more quantum correlation in a composite quantum state? We prove that the weak measurement induced quantum discord, called as the “super quantum discord”, is always larger than the quantum discord captured by the strong measurement. Moreover, we prove the monotonicity of the super quantum discord as a function of the measurement strength and in the limit of strong projective measurement the super quantum discord becomes the normal quantum discord. We find that unlike the normal discord, for pure entangled states, the super quantum discord can exceed the quantum entanglement. Our results provide new insights on the nature of quantum correlation and suggest that the notion of quantum correlation is not only observer dependent but also depends on how weakly one perturbs the composite system. We illustrate the key results for pure as well as mixed entangled states. -- Highlights: •Introduced the role of weak measurements in quantifying quantum correlation. •We have introduced the notion of the super quantum discord (SQD). •For pure entangled state, we show that the SQD exceeds the entanglement entropy. •This shows that quantum correlation depends not only on observer but also on measurement strength.
Efficiency and formalism of quantum games
Lee, C.F.; Johnson, Neil F.
2003-02-01
We show that quantum games are more efficient than classical games and provide a saturated upper bound for this efficiency. We also demonstrate that the set of finite classical games is a strict subset of the set of finite quantum games. Our analysis is based on a rigorous formulation of quantum games, from which quantum versions of the minimax theorem and the Nash equilibrium theorem can be deduced.
Duality quantum computer and the efficient quantum simulations
Shi-Jie Wei; Gui-Lu Long
2015-07-12
In this paper, we firstly briefly review the duality quantum computer. Distinctly, the generalized quantum gates, the basic evolution operators in a duality quantum computer are no longer unitary, and they can be expressed in terms of linear combinations of unitary operators. All linear bounded operators can be realized in a duality quantum computer, and unitary operators are just the extreme points of the set of generalized quantum gates. A d-slits duality quantum computer can be realized in an ordinary quantum computer with an additional qudit using the duality quantum computing mode. Duality quantum computer provides flexibility and clear physical picture in designing quantum algorithms, serving as a useful bridge between quantum and classical algorithms. In this review, we will show that duality quantum computer can simulate quantum systems more efficiently than ordinary quantum computers by providing descriptions of the recent efficient quantum simulation algorithms of Childs et al [Quantum Information & Computation, 12(11-12): 901-924 (2012)] for the fast simulation of quantum systems with a sparse Hamiltonian, and the quantum simulation algorithm by Berry et al [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 090502 (2015)], which provides exponential improvement in precision for simulating systems with a sparse Hamiltonian.
Quantum state and quantum entanglement protection using quantum measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Shuchao; Li, Ying; Wang, Xiangbin; Kwek, Leong Chuan; Yu, Zongwen; Zou, Wenjie
2015-03-01
The time evolution of some quantum states can be slowed down or even stopped under frequent measurements. This is the usual quantum Zeno effect. Here we report an operator quantum Zeno effect, in which the evolution of some physical observables is slowed down through measurements even though thequantum state changes randomly with time. Based on the operator quantum Zeno effect, we show how we can protect quantum information from decoherence with two-qubit measurements, realizable with noisy two-qubit interactions. Besides, we report the quantum entanglement protection using weak measurement and measurement reversal scheme. Exposed in the nonzero temperature environment, a quantum system can both lose and gain excitations by interacting with the environment. In this work, we show how to optimally protect quantum states and quantum entanglement in such a situation based on measurement reversal from weak measurement. In particular, we present explicit formulas of protection. We find that this scheme can circumvent the entanglement sudden death in certain conditions.
Universal Quantum Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brody, Dorje C.; Hughston, Lane P.
2015-06-01
We introduce a family of operations in quantum mechanics that one can regard as “universal quantum measurements” (UQMs). These measurements are applicable to all finite dimensional quantum systems and entail the specification of only a minimal amount of structure. The first class of UQM that we consider involves the specification of the initial state of the system—no further structure is brought into play. We call operations of this type “tomographic measurements”, since given the statistics of the outcomes one can deduce the original state of the system. Next, we construct a disentangling operation, the outcome of which, when the procedure is applied to a general mixed state of an entangled composite system, is a disentangled product of pure constituent states. This operation exists whenever the dimension of the Hilbert space is not a prime, and can be used to model the decay of a composite system. As another example, we show how one can make a measurement of the direction along which the spin of a particle of spin s is oriented (s = 1/2, 1,...). The required additional structure in this case involves the embedding of CP1 as a rational curve of degree 2s in CP2s.
Universal Quantum Measurements
Dorje C. Brody; Lane P. Hughston
2015-05-08
We introduce a family of operations in quantum mechanics that one can regard as "universal quantum measurements" (UQMs). These measurements are applicable to all finite-dimensional quantum systems and entail the specification of only a minimal amount of structure. The first class of UQM that we consider involves the specification of the initial state of the system---no further structure is brought into play. We call operations of this type "tomographic measurements", since given the statistics of the outcomes one can deduce the original state of the system. Next, we construct a disentangling operation, the outcome of which, when the procedure is applied to a general mixed state of an entangled composite system, is a disentangled product of pure constituent states. This operation exists whenever the dimension of the Hilbert space is not a prime, and can be used to model the decay of a composite system. As another example, we show how one can make a measurement of the direction along which the spin of a particle of spin s is oriented (s = 1/2, 1, ...). The required additional structure in this case involves the embedding of CP(1) as a rational curve of degree 2s in CP(2s).
Nondisturbing quantum measurements
Heinosaari, Teiko; Wolf, Michael M. [Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)
2010-09-15
We consider pairs of discrete quantum observables (POVMs) and analyze the relation between the notions of nondisturbance, joint measurability, and commutativity. We specify conditions under which these properties coincide or differ - depending, for instance, on the interplay between the number of outcomes and the Hilbert space dimension or on algebraic properties of the effect operators. We also show that (non-)disturbance is, in general, not a symmetric relation and that it can be decided and quantified by means of a semidefinite program.
Quantum entanglement helps in improving economic efficiency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Jiangfeng; Ju, Chenyong; Li, Hui
2005-02-01
We propose an economic regulation approach based on quantum game theory for the government to reduce the abuses of oligopolistic competition. Theoretical analysis shows that this approach can help government improve the economic efficiency of the oligopolistic market, and help prevent monopoly due to incorrect information. These advantages are completely attributed to the quantum entanglement, a unique quantum mechanical character.
Efficient quantum computing insensitive to phase errors
B. Georgeot; D. L. Shepelyansky
2001-05-29
We show that certain computational algorithms can be simulated on a quantum computer with exponential efficiency and be insensitive to phase errors. Our explicit algorithm simulates accurately the classical chaotic dynamics for exponentially many orbits even when the quantum fidelity drops to zero. Such phase-insensitive algorithms open new possibilities for computation on realistic quantum computers.
Silicon sensor quantum efficiency, reflectance, and calibration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lesser, Michael
2014-07-01
Quantum Efficiency (QE) is one of the most important parameters when either evaluating or using an imaging sensor for scientific applications. For back illuminated CCD and CMOS imagers, QE is determined by temperature, antireflection (AR) coatings, backside charging mechanisms, and silicon thickness. The accurate and precise measurement of QE requires careful consideration of illumination, temperature, calibration standards, optics, electronic equipment and components, and scattered light. QE is also closely related to the reflectance from the sensor surface. We present in this paper a study of the QE and reflectance from a variety of sensors used for astronomical imaging. Particular attention is given to precise calibration, temperature effects, models vs. measurements, and measurement techniques. We discuss all these issues and how they relate to the measurement and actual performance of sensors with different areas, thicknesses, and AR coatings.
Parameter estimation from measurements along quantum trajectories
Pierre Six; Philippe Campagne-Ibarcq; Landry Bretheau; Benjamin Huard; Pierre Rouchon
2015-03-20
The dynamics of many open quantum systems are described by stochastic master equations. In the discrete-time case, we recall the structure of the derived quantum filter governing the evolution of the density operator conditioned to the measurement outcomes. We then describe the structure of the corresponding particle quantum filters for estimating constant parameter and we prove their stability. In the continuous-time (diffusive) case, we propose a new formulation of these particle quantum filters. The interest of this new formulation is first to prove stability, and also to provide an efficient algorithm preserving, for any discretization step-size, positivity of the quantum states and parameter classical probabilities. This algorithm is tested on experimental data to estimate the detection efficiency for a superconducting qubit whose fluorescence field is measured using a heterodyne detector.
Quantum discord with weak measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Uttam; Pati, Arun Kumar
2014-04-01
Weak measurements cause small change to quantum states, thereby opening up the possibility of new ways of manipulating and controlling quantum systems. We ask, can weak measurements reveal more quantum correlation in a composite quantum state? We prove that the weak measurement induced quantum discord, called as the “super quantum discord”, is always larger than the quantum discord captured by the strong measurement. Moreover, we prove the monotonicity of the super quantum discord as a function of the measurement strength and in the limit of strong projective measurement the super quantum discord becomes the normal quantum discord. We find that unlike the normal discord, for pure entangled states, the super quantum discord can exceed the quantum entanglement. Our results provide new insights on the nature of quantum correlation and suggest that the notion of quantum correlation is not only observer dependent but also depends on how weakly one perturbs the composite system. We illustrate the key results for pure as well as mixed entangled states.
Direct determination of quantum efficiency of semiconducting films
Faughnan, Brian W. (Princeton, NJ); Hanak, Joseph J. (Lawrenceville, NJ)
1986-01-01
Photovoltaic quantum efficiency of semiconductor samples is determined directly, without requiring that a built-in photovoltage be generated by the sample. Electrodes are attached to the sample so as to form at least one Schottky barrier therewith. When illuminated, the generated photocurrent carriers are collected by an external bias voltage impressed across the electrodes. The generated photocurrent is measured, and photovoltaic quantum efficiency is calculated therefrom.
Work measurement in a quantum heat engine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bariani, Francesco; Zhang, Keye; Dong, Ying; Meystre, Pierre
2015-05-01
We consider an optomechanical quantum heat engine operating on an Otto cycle for photon-phonon polaritons, the working substance of the engine. We discuss both the average value and quantum fluctuations of its work output, concentrating in particular on the effects of quantum non-adiabaticity due to the finite duration of the cycle. We also determine the quantum back-action of both absorptive and dispersive continuous measurements of the work, and quantify their impact on the Curzon-Ahlborn engine efficiency at maximum power and its fluctuations. We ackowledge financial support from National Basic Research Program of China, NSF, ARO and the DARPA QuaSAR programs
Counterfactual quantum key distribution with high efficiency
Sun Ying [State Key Laboratory of Networking and SwitchingTechnology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Beijing Electronic Science and Technology Institute, Beijing 100070 (China); Wen Qiaoyan [State Key Laboratory of Networking and SwitchingTechnology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)
2010-11-15
In a counterfactual quantum key distribution scheme, a secret key can be generated merely by transmitting the split vacuum pulses of single particles. We improve the efficiency of the first quantum key distribution scheme based on the counterfactual phenomenon. This scheme not only achieves the same security level as the original one but also has higher efficiency. We also analyze how to achieve the optimal efficiency under various conditions.
Simulation of n-qubit quantum systems. V. Quantum measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radtke, T.; Fritzsche, S.
2010-02-01
The FEYNMAN program has been developed during the last years to support case studies on the dynamics and entanglement of n-qubit quantum registers. Apart from basic transformations and (gate) operations, it currently supports a good number of separability criteria and entanglement measures, quantum channels as well as the parametrizations of various frequently applied objects in quantum information theory, such as (pure and mixed) quantum states, hermitian and unitary matrices or classical probability distributions. With the present update of the FEYNMAN program, we provide a simple access to (the simulation of) quantum measurements. This includes not only the widely-applied projective measurements upon the eigenspaces of some given operator but also single-qubit measurements in various pre- and user-defined bases as well as the support for two-qubit Bell measurements. In addition, we help perform generalized and POVM measurements. Knowing the importance of measurements for many quantum information protocols, e.g., one-way computing, we hope that this update makes the FEYNMAN code an attractive and versatile tool for both, research and education. New version program summaryProgram title: FEYNMAN Catalogue identifier: ADWE_v5_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWE_v5_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 27 210 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 960 471 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Maple 12 Computer: Any computer with Maple software installed Operating system: Any system that supports Maple; the program has been tested under Microsoft Windows XP and Linux Classification: 4.15 Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADWE_v4_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Commun. 179 (2008) 647 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: During the last decade, the field of quantum information science has largely contributed to our understanding of quantum mechanics, and has provided also new and efficient protocols that are used on quantum entanglement. To further analyze the amount and transfer of entanglement in n-qubit quantum protocols, symbolic and numerical simulations need to be handled efficiently. Solution method: Using the computer algebra system Maple, we developed a set of procedures in order to support the definition, manipulation and analysis of n-qubit quantum registers. These procedures also help to deal with (unitary) logic gates and (nonunitary) quantum operations and measurements that act upon the quantum registers. All commands are organized in a hierarchical order and can be used interactively in order to simulate and analyze the evolution of n-qubit quantum systems, both in ideal and noisy quantum circuits. Reasons for new version: Until the present, the FEYNMAN program supported the basic data structures and operations of n-qubit quantum registers [1], a good number of separability and entanglement measures [2], quantum operations (noisy channels) [3] as well as the parametrizations of various frequently applied objects, such as (pure and mixed) quantum states, hermitian and unitary matrices or classical probability distributions [4]. With the current extension, we here add all necessary features to simulate quantum measurements, including the projective measurements in various single-qubit and the two-qubit Bell basis, and POVM measurements. Together with the previously implemented functionality, this greatly enhances the possibilities of analyzing quantum information protocols in which measurements play a central role, e.g., one-way computation. Running time: Most commands require ?10 seconds of processor time on a Pentium 4 processor with ?2 GHz RAM or newer, if they work with quantum registers with five or less qubits. Moreover, about 5-20 MB of working memory is typically n
Photosensor with enhanced quantum efficiency
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Janesick, James R. (Inventor); Elliott, Stythe T. (Inventor)
1989-01-01
A method to significantly increase the quantum efficiency (QE) of a CCD (or similar photosensor) applied in the UV, far UV and low energy x-ray regions of the spectrum. The increase in QE is accomplished by overthinning the backside of a CCD substrate beyond the epitaxial interface and UV flooding the sensor prior to use. The UV light photoemits electrons to the thinned surface and charges the backside negatively. This in turn forms an accumulation layer of holes near the Si-SiO.sub.2 interface creating an electric field gradient in the silicon which directs the photogenerated signal to the frontside where they are collected in pixel locations and later transferred. An oxide film, in which the backside charge resides, must have quality equivalent to a well aged native oxide which typically takes several years to form under ambient conditions. To reduce the amount of time in growing an oxide of sufficient quality, a process has been developed to grow an oxide by using deionized steam at 95.degree. C. which takes less than one hour to grow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gopal, Arun; Samant, Sanjiv S.
2007-03-01
In portal imaging, the role of electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) to implement complex radiation therapy protocols is crucial, and regular quality assurance (QA) of EPID image quality is necessary to ensure treatment efficacy. The modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) are universal metrics that can completely describe radiographic image quality. These metrics are independent of measurement geometry and the user, and allow intra and inter detector performance evaluation. Though NPS and DQE calculations are straightforward, conventional MTF measurements using slit/edge phantoms are difficult and time consuming. Therefore, such measurements are not feasible within routine clinical QA. Currently, EPID performance is monitored using image quality indices obtained from commercial QA phantoms. Such methods may be qualitative or sensitive to imaging conditions, and hence not appropriate for rigorous QA. In this work, a simple and quick method for EPID QA is presented based on a line-pair bar-pattern for fast MTF measurement, coupled with standard NPS and DQE measurements, all of which can be carried out within two minutes. The method to determine MTF from line-pair modulations was developed based on theoretical analyses and Monte Carlo simulations to identify accurate and reliable measurement conditions. The bar-pattern based QA method was tested with two clinical EPIDs and found to be in excellent agreement with slit/edge measurements. It was also implemented for weekly QA checks, and compared with established commercial QA methods. This bar-pattern based QA was more sensitive to potential decrease of EPID image quality.
Robust and efficient in situ quantum control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferrie, Christopher; Moussa, Osama
2015-05-01
Precision control of quantum systems is the driving force for both quantum technology and the probing of physics at the quantum and nanoscale levels. We propose an implementation-independent method for in situ quantum control that leverages recent advances in the direct estimation of quantum gate fidelity. Our algorithm takes account of the stochasticity of the problem, is suitable for closed-loop control, and requires only a constant number of fidelity-estimating experiments per iteration independent of the dimension of the control space. It is efficient and robust to both statistical and technical noise.
Efficient Search Engine Measurements
Ziv Bar-Yossef; Maxim Gurevich
2011-01-01
We address the problem of externally measuring aggregate functions over documents indexed by search engines, like corpus size, index freshness, and density of duplicates in the corpus. State of the art estimators for such quantities [Bar-Yossef and Gurevich 2008b; Broder et al. 2006] are biased due to inaccurate approximation of the so called “document degrees”. In addition, the estimators in
Efficient search engine measurements
Ziv Bar-yossef; Maxim Gurevich
2007-01-01
We address the problem of measuring global quality met- rics of search engines, like corpus size, index freshness, and density of duplicates in the corpus. The recently proposed estimators for such metrics (2, 6) suffer from significant bias and\\/or poor performance, due to inaccurate approximation of the so called \\
Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution.
Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Curty, Marcos; Qi, Bing
2012-03-30
How to remove detector side channel attacks has been a notoriously hard problem in quantum cryptography. Here, we propose a simple solution to this problem--measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD). It not only removes all detector side channels, but also doubles the secure distance with conventional lasers. Our proposal can be implemented with standard optical components with low detection efficiency and highly lossy channels. In contrast to the previous solution of full device independent QKD, the realization of our idea does not require detectors of near unity detection efficiency in combination with a qubit amplifier (based on teleportation) or a quantum nondemolition measurement of the number of photons in a pulse. Furthermore, its key generation rate is many orders of magnitude higher than that based on full device independent QKD. The results show that long-distance quantum cryptography over say 200 km will remain secure even with seriously flawed detectors. PMID:22540686
Coherent measurements in quantum metrology
K. Micadei; D. A. Rowlands; F. A. Pollock; L. C. Céleri; R. M. Serra; K. Modi
2015-02-19
It is well known that a quantum correlated probe can yield better precision in estimating an unknown parameter than classically possible. However, how such a quantum probe should be measured remains somewhat elusive. We examine the role of measurements in quantum metrology by considering two types of readout strategies: coherent, where all probes are measured simultaneously in an entangled basis; and adaptive, where probes are measured sequentially, with each measurement one way conditioned on the prior outcomes. Here we firstly show that for classically correlated probes the two readout strategies yield the same precision. Secondly, we construct an example of a noisy multipartite quantum system where coherent readout yields considerably better precision than adaptive readout. This highlights a fundamental difference between classical and quantum parameter estimation. From the practical point of view, our findings are relevant for the optimal design of precision-measurement quantum devices.
The Logic of Quantum Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanni, Leonardo; Laura, Roberto
2013-07-01
We apply our previously developed formalism of contexts of histories, suitable to deal with quantum properties at different times, to the measurement process. We explore the logical implications which are allowed by the quantum theory, about the realization of properties of the microscopic measured system, before and after the measurement process with a given pointer value.
Measuring Quantum Coherence with Entanglement
Streltsov, Alexander; Dhar, Himadri Shekhar; Bera, Manabendra Nath; Adesso, Gerardo
2015-01-01
We show that all quantum states displaying coherence in some reference basis are useful resources for the creation of entanglement via incoherent operations. We then define a general class of measures of coherence for a quantum system in terms of the maximum bipartite entanglement that can be created via incoherent operations applied to the system and an incoherent ancilla. The resulting measures are proven to be valid coherence monotones satisfying all the requirements dictated by the resource theory of quantum coherence. Our work provides a clear quantitative and operational connection between coherence and entanglement, two fundamental manifestations of quantum theory and key enablers for quantum technologies.
National Residential Efficiency Measures Database
The National Residential Efficiency Measures Database is a publicly available, centralized resource of residential building retrofit measures and costs for the U.S. building industry. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy, NREL developed this tool to help users determine the most cost-effective retrofit measures for improving energy efficiency of existing homes. Software developers who require residential retrofit performance and cost data for applications that evaluate residential efficiency measures are the primary audience for this database. In addition, home performance contractors and manufacturers of residential materials and equipment may find this information useful. The database offers the following types of retrofit measures: 1) Appliances, 2) Domestic Hot Water, 3) Enclosure, 4) Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), 5) Lighting, 6) Miscellaneous.
Efficiency vs. multi-photon contribution test for quantum dots.
Predojevi?, Ana; Ježek, Miroslav; Huber, Tobias; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Kauten, Thomas; Solomon, Glenn S; Filip, Radim; Weihs, Gregor
2014-02-24
The development of linear quantum computing within integrated circuits demands high quality semiconductor single photon sources. In particular, for a reliable single photon source it is not sufficient to have a low multi-photon component, but also to possess high efficiency. We investigate the photon statistics of the emission from a single quantum dot with a method that is able to sensitively detect the trade-off between the efficiency and the multi-photon contribution. Our measurements show, that the light emitted from the quantum dot when it is resonantly excited possess a very low multi-photon content. Additionally, we demonstrated, for the first time, the non-Gaussian nature of the quantum state emitted from a single quantum dot. PMID:24663797
Time-Energy Costs of Quantum Measurements
Chi-Hang Fred Fung; H. F. Chau
2014-05-08
Time and energy of quantum processes are a tradeoff against each other. We propose to ascribe to any given quantum process a time-energy cost to quantify how much computation it performs. Here, we analyze the time-energy costs for general quantum measurements, along a similar line as our previous work for quantum channels, and prove exact and lower bound formulae for the costs. We use these formulae to evaluate the efficiencies of actual measurement implementations. We find that one implementation for a Bell measurement is optimal in time-energy. We also analyze the time-energy cost for unambiguous state discrimination and find evidence that only a finite time-energy cost is needed to distinguish any number of states.
Efficient teleportation between remote single-atom quantum memories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ritter, Stephan; Nölleke, Christian; Neuzner, Andreas; Reiserer, Andreas; Hahn, Carolin; Rempe, Gerhard
2013-05-01
Teleportation is a prerequisite for the transfer of quantum information over large distances when the losses inherent in any quantum channel preclude a direct transfer. We demonstrate teleportation between two single-atom quantum memories in distant laboratories. By implementing a time-resolved photonic Bell-state measurement (BSM), which is based on two-photon quantum inference, we achieve a teleportation fidelity of 88 % , largely determined by our entanglement fidelity. The problem of limited photon collection efficiency in free space is overcome by trapping each atom in an optical cavity. Compared to previous experiments with remote single material qubits, our approach boosts the overall efficiency by almost five orders of magnitude. This results in success probabilities not predominantly limited by the photon generation and collection efficiency but by the transmission and detection losses inherent in the photonic BSM.
Efficient Decomposition of Quantum Gates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vartiainen, Juha J.; Möttönen, Mikko; Salomaa, Martti M.
2004-04-01
Optimal implementation of quantum gates is crucial for designing a quantum computer. We consider the matrix representation of an arbitrary multiqubit gate. By ordering the basis vectors using the Gray code, we construct the quantum circuit which is optimal in the sense of fully controlled single-qubit gates and yet is equivalent with the multiqubit gate. In the second step of the optimization, superfluous control bits are eliminated, which eventually results in a smaller total number of the elementary gates. In our scheme the number of controlled NOT gates is O(4n) which coincides with the theoretical lower bound.
Informational power of quantum measurements
Dall'Arno, Michele; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Sacchi, Massimiliano F.
2011-06-15
We introduce the informational power of a quantum measurement as the maximum amount of classical information that the measurement can extract from any ensemble of quantum states. We prove the additivity by showing that the informational power corresponds to the classical capacity of a quantum-classical channel. We restate the problem of evaluating the informational power as the maximization of the accessible information of a suitable ensemble. We provide a numerical algorithm to find an optimal ensemble and quantify the informational power.
The Learnability of Unknown Quantum Measurements
Hao-Chung Cheng; Min-Hsiu Hsieh; Ping-Cheng Yeh
2015-01-03
Quantum machine learning has received significant attention in recent years, and promising progress has been made in the development of quantum algorithms to speed up traditional machine learning tasks. In this work, however, we focus on investigating the information-theoretic upper bounds of sample complexity - how many training samples are sufficient to predict the future behaviour of an unknown target function. This kind of problem is, arguably, one of the most fundamental problems in statistical learning theory and the bounds for practical settings can be completely characterised by a simple measure of complexity. Our main result in the paper is that, for learning an unknown quantum measurement, the upper bound, given by the fat-shattering dimension, is linearly proportional to the dimension of the underlying Hilbert space. Learning an unknown quantum state becomes a dual problem to ours, and as a byproduct, we can recover Aaronson's famous result [Proc. R. Soc. A 463:3089-3144 (2007)] solely using a classical machine learning technique. In addition, other famous complexity measures like covering numbers and Rademacher complexities are derived explicitly. We are able to connect measures of sample complexity with various areas in quantum information science, e.g. quantum state/measurement tomography, quantum state discrimination and quantum random access codes, which may be of independent interest. Lastly, with the assistance of general Bloch-sphere representation, we show that learning quantum measurements/states can be mathematically formulated as a neural network. Consequently, classical ML algorithms can be applied to efficiently accomplish the two quantum learning tasks.
Are luminescent quantum dots efficient energy acceptors?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clapp, Aaron R.; Medintz, Igor L.; Fisher, Brent R.; Mattoussi, Hedi
2005-04-01
Steady state and time-resolved fluorescence measurements were used to investigate the ability of luminescent quantum dots (QDs) to function as efficient energy acceptors in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) binding assays with organic dye donors. Fluorescent dyes, AlexaFluor 488 or Cy3, were used with various QD acceptors in QD-dye-labeled-protein conjugates. Data derived from both sets of experiments showed no apparent FRET from dye to QD. The collected data were discussed within the framework of a competition between a fast radiative decay rate of the donor excitation and a slower FRET decay rate. This is due to the long exciton lifetime of the acceptor compared to that of the dye, combined with substantial QD direct excitation.
Quantum efficiency of binary-outcome detectors of solid-state qubits
Alexander N. Korotkov
2008-06-23
We discuss definitions of the quantum efficiency for binary-outcome qubit detectors with imperfect fidelity, focusing on the subclass of quantum non-demolition detectors. Quantum efficiency is analyzed for several models of detectors, including indirect projective measurement, linear detector in binary-outcome regime, detector of the superconducting phase qubit, and detector based on tunneling into continuum.
Circuit analysis of quantum measurement
Yuji Kurotani; Masahito Ueda
2006-09-08
We develop a circuit theory that enables us to analyze quantum measurements on a two-level system and on a continuous-variable system on an equal footing. As a measurement scheme applicable to both systems, we discuss a swapping state measurement which exchanges quantum states between the system and the measuring apparatus before the apparatus meter is read out. This swapping state measurement has an advantage in gravitational-wave detection over contractive state measurement in that the postmeasurement state of the system can be set to a prescribed one, regardless of the outcome of the measurement.
Exact quantum Bayesian rule for qubit measurements in circuit QED
Wei Feng; Pengfei Liang; Lupei Qin; Xin-Qi Li
2015-07-28
Developing efficient and reliable schemes for practical quantum measurements is of essential importance to quantum information science and quantum metrology. In this work, for the increasingly important superconducting circuit-QED setup, we present a rigorous approach starting with the quantum trajectory equation (QTE) to establish an {\\it exact} quantum Bayesian rule. For the "realistic" back-action (no qubit state information gain), we obtain important correction factors for arbitrary setup parameters. For the "spooky" information gain back-action, we establish new prior distribution knowledge for the Bayesian inference, which differ from the standard Gaussian distribution and ensure to give strictly the same results as that by numerically integrating the QTE. Compared to the QTE approach, while keeping the same accuracy, the obtained quantum Bayesian rule has much higher efficiency to compute the stochastic change of the measured state. The generic method of this work opens also a new way to construct exact quantum Bayesian rules for quantum measurement in other systems.
Observable measure of quantum coherence in finite dimensional systems
Davide Girolami
2014-10-22
Quantum coherence is the key resource for quantum technology, with applications in quantum optics, information processing, metrology and cryptography. Yet, there is no universally efficient method for quantifying coherence either in theoretical or in experimental practice. I introduce a framework for measuring quantum coherence in finite dimensional systems. I define a theoretical measure which satisfies the reliability criteria established in the context of quantum resource theories. Then, I present an experimental scheme implementable with current technology which evaluates the quantum coherence of an unknown state of a d-dimensional system by performing two programmable measurements on an ancillary qubit, in place of the $O(d^2)$ direct measurements required by full state reconstruction. The result yields a benchmark for monitoring quantum effects in complex systems, e.g. certifying non-classicality in quantum communication and simulation protocols and probing the quantum behaviour of biological complexes.
Observable Measure of Quantum Coherence in Finite Dimensional Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Girolami, Davide
2014-10-01
Quantum coherence is the key resource for quantum technology, with applications in quantum optics, information processing, metrology, and cryptography. Yet, there is no universally efficient method for quantifying coherence either in theoretical or in experimental practice. I introduce a framework for measuring quantum coherence in finite dimensional systems. I define a theoretical measure which satisfies the reliability criteria established in the context of quantum resource theories. Then, I present an experimental scheme implementable with current technology which evaluates the quantum coherence of an unknown state of a d-dimensional system by performing two programmable measurements on an ancillary qubit, in place of the O(d2) direct measurements required by full state reconstruction. The result yields a benchmark for monitoring quantum effects in complex systems, e.g., certifying nonclassicality in quantum protocols and probing the quantum behavior of biological complexes.
Quantum Mechanics (QM) Measurement Package
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Belloni, Mario
This set of tutorial worksheets, based on the OSP Quantum Mechanics Simulations, help students explore the effects of position, momentum, and energy measurements on quantum state wavepackets. The probabilistic change in the wavefunction upon measurements and the time propagation of the states are illustrated. Similar worksheets are available for measurements of single and superpositions of energy eigenstates. The worksheets can be run online or downloaded as a pdf (attached).
Complete measurements of quantum observables
Juha-Pekka Pellonpää
2012-06-12
We define a complete measurement of a quantum observable (POVM) as a measurement of the maximally refined version of the POVM. Complete measurements give information from the multiplicities of the measurement outcomes and can be viewed as state preparation procedures. We show that any POVM can be measured completely by using sequential measurements or maximally refinable instruments. Moreover, the ancillary space of a complete measurement can be chosen to be minimal.
BOOK REVIEW Quantum Measurement and Control Quantum Measurement and Control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiefer, Claus
2010-12-01
In the last two decades there has been an enormous progress in the experimental investigation of single quantum systems. This progress covers fields such as quantum optics, quantum computation, quantum cryptography, and quantum metrology, which are sometimes summarized as `quantum technologies'. A key issue there is entanglement, which can be considered as the characteristic feature of quantum theory. As disparate as these various fields maybe, they all have to deal with a quantum mechanical treatment of the measurement process and, in particular, the control process. Quantum control is, according to the authors, `control for which the design requires knowledge of quantum mechanics'. Quantum control situations in which measurements occur at important steps are called feedback (or feedforward) control of quantum systems and play a central role here. This book presents a comprehensive and accessible treatment of the theoretical tools that are needed to cope with these situations. It also provides the reader with the necessary background information about the experimental developments. The authors are both experts in this field to which they have made significant contributions. After an introduction to quantum measurement theory and a chapter on quantum parameter estimation, the central topic of open quantum systems is treated at some length. This chapter includes a derivation of master equations, the discussion of the Lindblad form, and decoherence - the irreversible emergence of classical properties through interaction with the environment. A separate chapter is devoted to the description of open systems by the method of quantum trajectories. Two chapters then deal with the central topic of quantum feedback control, while the last chapter gives a concise introduction to one of the central applications - quantum information. All sections contain a bunch of exercises which serve as a useful tool in learning the material. Especially helpful are also various separate boxes presenting important background material on topics such as the block representation or the feedback gain-bandwidth relation. The two appendices on quantum mechanics and phase-space and on stochastic differential equations serve the same purpose. As the authors emphasize, the book is aimed at physicists as well as control engineers who are already familiar with quantum mechanics. It takes an operational approach and presents all the material that is needed to follow research on quantum technologies. On the other hand, conceptual issues such as the relevance of the measurement process for the interpretation of quantum theory are neglected. Readers interested in them may wish to consult instead a textbook such as Decoherence and the Quantum-to-Classical Transition by Maximilian Schlosshauer. Although the present book does not contain applications to gravity, part of its content might become relevant for the physics of gravitational-wave detection and quantum gravity phenomenology. In this respect it should be of interest also for the readers of this journal.
Hierarchy of efficiently computable and faithful lower bounds to quantum discord
Marco Piani
2015-01-27
Quantum discord expresses a fundamental non-classicality of correlations more general than quantum entanglement. We combine the no-local-broadcasting theorem, semidefinite-programming characterizations of quantum fidelity and quantum separability, and a recent breakthrough result of Fawzi and Renner about quantum Markov chains to provide a hierarchy of computationally efficient lower bounds to quantum discord. Such a hierarchy converges to the surprisal of measurement recoverability introduced by Seshadreesan and Wilde, and provides a faithful lower bound to quantum discord already at the lowest non-trivial level. Furthermore, the latter constitutes by itself a valid discord-like measure of the quantumness of correlations.
Efficient quantum dialogue using single photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Yi-Ping; Lin, Ching-Ying; Hwang, Tzonelih
2014-08-01
This work proposes a quantum dialogue (QD) based on single photons, which not only allows two communicants to exchange their secret messages simultaneously via a one-step quantum transmission but also can confirm the message integrity. Moreover, the proposed QD protocol is free from information leakage. Compared with the previous QDs, the proposed QD protocol is more efficient. It is also secure against several well-known attacks.
Methods for measuring turbine efficiency
OKelly
1992-01-01
This article describes the most common methods used for measuring hydro turbine efficiency. These methods are the acoustic flowmeter method, the Gibson (pressure-time) method, pressure drop across a flow restriction, propeller-driven flowmeters, the volumetric method, Winter-Kennedy taps, and the thermodynamic method. A new computerized variation of the Gibson method is also described.
The quantum measurement of time
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shepard, Scott R.
1994-01-01
Traditionally, in non-relativistic Quantum Mechanics, time is considered to be a parameter, rather than an observable quantity like space. In relativistic Quantum Field Theory, space and time are treated equally by reducing space to also be a parameter. Herein, after a brief review of other measurements, we describe a third possibility, which is to treat time as a directly observable quantity.
Efficient Quantum Computing of Complex Dynamics
Giuliano Benenti; Giulio Casati; Simone Montangero; Dima L. Shepelyansky
2001-07-06
We propose a quantum algorithm which uses the number of qubits in an optimal way and efficiently simulates a physical model with rich and complex dynamics described by the quantum sawtooth map. The numerical study of the effect of static imperfections in the quantum computer hardware shows that the main elements of the phase space structures are accurately reproduced up to a time scale which is polynomial in the number of qubits. The errors generated by these imperfections are more dangerous than the errors of random noise in gate operations.
Limits in high efficiency quantum frequency conversion
Nicolás Quesada; J. E. Sipe
2015-08-13
Frequency conversion is an enabling process in many quantum information protocols. In this letter we study fundamental limits to high efficiency frequency conversion imposed by time ordering corrections. Using the Magnus expansion, we argue that these corrections, which are usually considered detrimental, can be used to increase the efficiency of conversion under certain circumstances. The corrections induce a nonlinear behaviour in the probability of upconversion as a function of the pump intensity, significantly modifying the sinusoidal Rabi oscillations that are otherwise expected. Finally, by using a simple scaling argument, we explain why cascaded frequency conversion devices attenuate time ordering corrections, allowing the construction of near ideal quantum pulse gates.
Efficient Measurement of Superconducting Resonators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sendelbach, Steven; Stoutimore, Micah; Strong, Josh; Naaman, Ofer; Campbell, Brooks; Martinis, John
2014-03-01
S-parameter measurements of high-Q superconducting resonators at single-photon drive powers often require significant averaging with associated long acquisition time. We have developed a procedure for optimizing the frequency sweep-plan of the measurement, and found that an appropriate choice of frequencies has a significant impact on its efficiency. An optimized sweep-plan design offers up to a factor of two reduction in the variance of extracted parameters, in comparison to a linear sweep-plan having the same total acquisition time. We experimentally compare the performance of the optimized and linear sweeps in measurements of high-Q aluminum CPW resonators.
Quantum Weak Measurements and Cosmology
Paul Davies
2013-09-03
The indeterminism of quantum mechanics generally permits the independent specification of both an initial and a final condition on the state. Quantum pre-and-post-selection of states opens up a new, experimentally testable, sector of quantum mechanics, when combined with statistical averages of identical weak measurements. In this paper I apply the theory of weak quantum measurements combined with pre-and-post-selection to cosmology. Here, pre-selection means specifying the wave function of the universe or, in a popular semi-classical approximation, the initial quantum state of a subset of quantum fields propagating in a classical back-ground spacetime. The novel feature is post-selection: the additional specification of a condition on the quantum state in the far future. I discuss "natural" final conditions, and show how they may lead to potentially large and observable effects at the present cosmological epoch. I also discuss how pre-and-post-selected quantum contrast to the expectation value of the stress-energy-momentum tensor, resolving a vigorous debate from the 1970's. The paper thus provides a framework for computing large-scale cosmological effects arising from this new sector of quantum mechanics. A simple experimental test is proposed.
Simultaneous Quantum State Measurement using Array Detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dawes, Andrew; Beck, Mark
2001-05-01
The quantum state of a light field is of interest because it yields all the possible statistical information about the field. Quantum state measurement is conducted through the process known as quantum state tomography (QST). Our experiment has extended QST by performing balanced homodyne detection with a charge-couple device (CCD) array detector. Array detection allows us to perform simultaneous state determination of multiple spatial modes in a beam, something that is not possible with single detectors. Furthermore, the local oscillator and signal beams need not be mode matched when performing homodyne detection with array detectors. This allows for an improvement in effective detection efficiency over that obtained with single detectors and a plane wave local oscillator. Here we demonstrate a forty-fold increase in effective detection efficiency for a particular signal mode.
Metal Film Increases CCD Quantum Efficiency
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Janesick, James R.
1989-01-01
Thin layer of platinum or other high-work-function metal applied to back side of rear-illuminated charge-coupled device (CCD) achieves quantum efficiency (QE)-pinned state, an ideal condition allowing sensor to achieve 100-percent internal charge-collection efficiency within its photosensitive volume. Metal layer, called flash gate, easily applied by tungsten vacuum deposition during last step of sensor fabrication.
Cloning of a quantum measurement
Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Sedlak, Michal
2011-10-15
We analyze quantum algorithms for cloning of a quantum measurement. Our aim is to mimic two uses of a device performing an unknown von Neumann measurement with a single use of the device. When the unknown device has to be used before the bipartite state to be measured is available we talk about 1{yields}2 learning of the measurement, otherwise the task is called 1{yields}2 cloning of a measurement. We perform the optimization for both learning and cloning for arbitrary dimension d of the Hilbert space. For 1{yields}2 cloning we also propose a simple quantum network that achieves the optimal fidelity. The optimal fidelity for 1{yields}2 learning just slightly outperforms the estimate and prepare strategy in which one first estimates the unknown measurement and depending on the result suitably prepares the duplicate.
Delocalized quantum states enhance photocell efficiency.
Zhang, Yiteng; Oh, Sangchul; Alharbi, Fahhad H; Engel, Gregory S; Kais, Sabre
2015-02-28
The high quantum efficiency of photosynthetic complexes has inspired researchers to explore new routes to utilize this process for photovoltaic devices. Quantum coherence has been demonstrated to play a crucial role in this process. Herein, we propose a three-dipole system as a model of a new photocell type which exploits the coherence among its three dipoles. We have proved that the efficiency of such a photocell is greatly enhanced by quantum coherence. We have also predicted that the photocurrents can be enhanced by about 49.5% in such a coherent coupled dipole system compared with the uncoupled dipoles. These results suggest a promising novel design aspect of photosynthesis-mimicking photovoltaic devices. PMID:25622523
Delocalized Quantum States Enhance Photocell Efficiency
Yiteng Zhang; Sangchul Oh; Fahhad H. Alharbi; Greg Engel; Sabre Kais
2014-10-31
The high quantum efficiency of photosynthetic complexes has inspired researchers to explore new routes to utilize this process for photovoltaic devices. Quantum coherence has been demonstrated to play a crucial role within this process. Herein, we propose a three-dipole system as a model of a new photocell type which exploits the coherence among its three dipoles. We have proved that the efficiency of such a photocell is greatly enhanced by quantum coherence. We have also predicted that the photocurrents can be enhanced by about 49.5 % in such a coherent coupled dipole system compared with the uncoupled dipoles. These results suggest a promising novel design aspect of photosynthesis-mimicking photovoltaic devices.
Space-Efficient Simulation of Quantum Computers
Michael P. Frank; Uwe H. Meyer-Baese; Irinel Chiorescu; Liviu Oniciuc; Robert A. van Engelen
2009-10-08
Traditional algorithms for simulating quantum computers on classical ones require an exponentially large amount of memory, and so typically cannot simulate general quantum circuits with more than about 30 or so qubits on a typical PC-scale platform with only a few gigabytes of main memory. However, more memory-efficient simulations are possible, requiring only polynomial or even linear space in the size of the quantum circuit being simulated. In this paper, we describe one such technique, which was recently implemented at FSU in the form of a C++ program called SEQCSim, which we releasing publicly. We also discuss the potential benefits of this simulation in quantum computing research and education, and outline some possible directions for further progress.
Measuring Quantum Coherence with Entanglement.
Streltsov, Alexander; Singh, Uttam; Dhar, Himadri Shekhar; Bera, Manabendra Nath; Adesso, Gerardo
2015-07-10
Quantum coherence is an essential ingredient in quantum information processing and plays a central role in emergent fields such as nanoscale thermodynamics and quantum biology. However, our understanding and quantitative characterization of coherence as an operational resource are still very limited. Here we show that any degree of coherence with respect to some reference basis can be converted to entanglement via incoherent operations. This finding allows us to define a novel general class of measures of coherence for a quantum system of arbitrary dimension, in terms of the maximum bipartite entanglement that can be generated via incoherent operations applied to the system and an incoherent ancilla. The resulting measures are proven to be valid coherence monotones satisfying all the requirements dictated by the resource theory of quantum coherence. We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by proving that the fidelity-based geometric measure of coherence is a full convex coherence monotone, and deriving a closed formula for it on arbitrary single-qubit states. Our work provides a clear quantitative and operational connection between coherence and entanglement, two landmark manifestations of quantum theory and both key enablers for quantum technologies. PMID:26207452
Measuring Quantum Coherence with Entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Streltsov, Alexander; Singh, Uttam; Dhar, Himadri Shekhar; Bera, Manabendra Nath; Adesso, Gerardo
2015-07-01
Quantum coherence is an essential ingredient in quantum information processing and plays a central role in emergent fields such as nanoscale thermodynamics and quantum biology. However, our understanding and quantitative characterization of coherence as an operational resource are still very limited. Here we show that any degree of coherence with respect to some reference basis can be converted to entanglement via incoherent operations. This finding allows us to define a novel general class of measures of coherence for a quantum system of arbitrary dimension, in terms of the maximum bipartite entanglement that can be generated via incoherent operations applied to the system and an incoherent ancilla. The resulting measures are proven to be valid coherence monotones satisfying all the requirements dictated by the resource theory of quantum coherence. We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by proving that the fidelity-based geometric measure of coherence is a full convex coherence monotone, and deriving a closed formula for it on arbitrary single-qubit states. Our work provides a clear quantitative and operational connection between coherence and entanglement, two landmark manifestations of quantum theory and both key enablers for quantum technologies.
Measuring Quantum Coherence with Entanglement
Alexander Streltsov; Uttam Singh; Himadri Shekhar Dhar; Manabendra Nath Bera; Gerardo Adesso
2015-06-18
Quantum coherence is an essential ingredient in quantum information processing and plays a central role in emergent fields such as nanoscale thermodynamics and quantum biology. However, our understanding and quantitative characterization of coherence as an operational resource are still very limited. Here we show that any degree of coherence with respect to some reference basis can be converted to entanglement via incoherent operations. This finding allows us to define a novel general class of measures of coherence for a quantum system of arbitrary dimension, in terms of the maximum bipartite entanglement that can be generated via incoherent operations applied to the system and an incoherent ancilla. The resulting measures are proven to be valid coherence monotones satisfying all the requirements dictated by the resource theory of quantum coherence. We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by proving that the fidelity-based geometric measure of coherence is a full convex coherence monotone, and deriving a closed formula for it on arbitrary single-qubit states. Our work provides a clear quantitative and operational connection between coherence and entanglement, two landmark manifestations of quantum theory and both key enablers for quantum technologies.
Coherence-enhanced efficiency of feedback-driven quantum engines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandner, Kay; Bauer, Michael; Schmid, Michael T.; Seifert, Udo
2015-06-01
A genuine feature of projective quantum measurements is that they inevitably alter the mean energy of the observed system if the measured quantity does not commute with the Hamiltonian. Compared to the classical case, Jacobs proved that this additional energetic cost leads to a stronger bound on the work extractable after a single measurement from a system initially in thermal equilibrium (2009 Phys. Rev. A 80 012322). Here, we extend this bound to a large class of feedback-driven quantum engines operating periodically and in finite time. The bound thus implies a natural definition for the efficiency of information to work conversion in such devices. For a simple model consisting of a laser-driven two-level system, we maximize the efficiency with respect to the observable whose measurement is used to control the feedback operations. We find that the optimal observable typically does not commute with the Hamiltonian and hence would not be available in a classical two level system. This result reveals that periodic feedback engines operating in the quantum realm can exploit quantum coherences to enhance efficiency.
Quantum Behavior of Measurement Apparatus
Taoufik Amri
2010-05-31
We precise for the first time the quantum behavior of a measurement apparatus in the framework of the usual interpretation of quantum physics. We show how such a behavior can also be studied by the retrodiction of pre-measurement states corresponding to its responses. We translate in terms of these states some interesting properties of the behavior of an apparatus, such as the projectivity, the fidelity, the non-Gaussian character, or the non-classicality of measurements performed by this one. We also propose an experimental procedure allowing the tomography of these pre-measurement states for optical detectors. We illustrate the relevance of these new notions for measurements, by evaluating them for two detectors widely used in quantum optics: the avalanche photodiode and the homodyne detection.
QAM Adaptive Measurements Feedback Quantum Receiver Performance
Tian Chen; Ke Li; Yuan Zuo; Bing Zhu
2015-04-11
We theoretically study the quantum receivers with adaptive measurements feedback for discriminating quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) coherent states in terms of average symbol error rate. For rectangular 16-QAM signal set, with different stages of adaptive measurements, the effects of realistic imperfection parameters including the sub-unity quantum efficiency and the dark counts of on-off detectors, as well as the transmittance of beam splitters and the mode mismatch factor between the signal and local oscillating fields on the symbol error rate are separately investigated through Monte Carlo simulations. Using photon-number-resolving detectors (PNRD) instead of on-off detectors, all the effects on the symbol error rate due to the above four imperfections can be suppressed in a certain degree. The finite resolution and PNR capability of PNRDs are also considered. We find that for currently available technology, the receiver shows a reasonable gain from the standard quantum limit (SQL) with moderate stages.
High efficiency photodetection below the quantum noise limit
Bullard, Elizabeth Caryn
2005-01-01
Two low-noise, high quantum efficiency, high bandwidth photodetectors have constructed to form a balanced homodyne detector to detect squeezed light. The detectors have quantum efficiencies of 85% and 90%, a bandwidth of ...
On quantum subsystem measurement
Fedor Herbut
2013-02-09
It is assumed that an arbitrary composite bipartite pure state in which the two subsystems are entangled is given, and it is investigated how the entanglement transmits the influence of measurement on only one of the subsystems to the state of the opposite subsystem. It is shown that any exact subsystem measurement has the same influence as ideal measurement on the opposite subsystem. In particular, the distant effect of subsystem measurement of a twin observable, i. e., so-called 'distant measurement', is always ideal measurement on the distant subsystem no matter how intricate the direct exact measurement on the opposite subsystem is.
Quantum algorithm for universal implementation of projective measurement of energy
Shojun Nakayama; Akihito Soeda; Mio Murao
2015-04-14
A projective measurement of energy (PME) on a quantum system is a quantum measurement, determined by the Hamiltonian of the system. PME protocols exist when the Hamiltonian is given in advance. Unknown Hamiltonians can be identified by quantum tomography, but the time cost to achieve a given accuracy increases exponentially with the size of the quantum system. In this letter, we improve the time cost by adapting quantum phase estimation, an algorithm designed for computational problems, to measurements on physical systems. We present a PME protocol without quantum tomography for Hamiltonians whose dimension and energy scale are given but otherwise unknown. Our protocol implements a PME to arbitrary accuracy without any dimension dependence on its time cost. We also show that another computational quantum algorithm may be used for efficient estimation of the energy scale. These algorithms show that computational quantum algorithms have applications beyond their original context with suitable modifications.
Enhanced quantum efficiency bialkali photo multiplier tubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mirzoyan, Razmick; Goebel, Florian; Hose, Juergen; Hsu, Ching Cheng; Ninkovi?, Jelena; Paneque, David; Rudert, Agnes; Teshima, Masahiro
2007-03-01
Currently, the classical PMTs with semitransparent bialkali photo cathode show peak quantum efficiency (QE) of ˜25-27%. Although the above-mentioned peak QE was achieved already ˜40 years ago, nevertheless one cannot report any significant increase since then. A couple of years ago we started a development program with the main PMT manufacturers Photonis, Electron Tubes and Hamamatsu, aiming to boost-up the peak QE of the (1-2)? size bialkali PMTs. Today we want to report that our efforts were successful: all of the three above-mentioned companies succeeded to boost the peak QE of bialkali PMTs to the level of 30-35%. In this report, we want to show the QE measurements of different tubes and discuss the future prospects. For example, it shall be possible to use the diffuse-scattering matt lacquer coating technique in order to enhance further the QE. In our previous experience application of that coating provided ˜15% increase in QE for 1-1.5? hemispherical tubes.
Efficiency Measurement of VANDLE Modules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peters, William; Matei, C.; Cizewski, J. A.; O'Malley, P. D.; Spassova, I.; Bardayan, D.; Blackmon, J. C.; Brune, C.; Massey, T.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Madurga, M.; Sarazin, F.; Raiola, F.
2010-02-01
The Versatile Array of Neutron Detectors at Low Energy (VANDLE) is a new array of plastic scintillator bars being developed at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The modular design enables optimization of different configurations for particular experiments, such as (d,n) and beta-delayed neutron-decay experiments, with rare ion beams. Two prototype modules were moved to the Edwards Accelerator Laboratory at Ohio University to measure their efficiency using a calibrated ^27Al(d,n) reaction as a neutron source. Results show that one bar with a cross section of 3x3 cm^2 is over 25% efficient to neutrons around 1 MeV with sensitivity down to 100 keV neutrons. Other design features such as wrapping and coupling will be presented, as well as results from resolution tests. )
Fluorescence Quantum Efficiencies of Some Benzoic Acid Derivatives
I. M. Khasawneh; J. D. Winefordner
1986-01-01
The fluorescence quantum efficiencies of benzoic acid, toluic acid isomers, and anisic acid isomers in 10% glacial acetic acid-chloroform solvent are reported. The values of fluorescence quantum efficiencies of benzoic acid derivatives are compared with the quantum efficiency of the parent molecule (benzoic acid). The molar extinction coefficient of each compound in the above solvent at wavelength of maximum absorbance
On extending the quantum measure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dowker, Fay; Johnston, Steven; Surya, Sumati
2010-12-01
We point out that a quantum system with a strongly positive quantum measure or decoherence functional gives rise to a vector-valued measure whose domain is the algebra of events or physical questions. This gives an immediate handle on the question of the extension of the decoherence functional to the sigma algebra generated by this algebra of events. It is on the latter that the physical transition amplitudes directly give the decoherence functional. Since the full sigma algebra contains physically interesting questions, like the return question, extending the decoherence functional to these more general questions is important. We show that the decoherence functional, and hence the quantum measure, extends if and only if the associated vector measure does. We give two examples of quantum systems whose decoherence functionals do not extend: one is a unitary system with finitely many states, and the other is a quantum sequential growth model for causal sets. These examples fail to extend in the formal mathematical sense and we speculate on whether the conditions for extension are unphysically strong.
Computable measure of quantum correlation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akhtarshenas, S. Javad; Mohammadi, Hamidreza; Karimi, Saman; Azmi, Zahra
2015-01-01
A general state of an system is a classical-quantum state if and only if its associated -correlation matrix (a matrix constructed from the coherence vector of the party , the correlation matrix of the state, and a function of the local coherence vector of the subsystem ), has rank no larger than . Using the general Schatten -norms, we quantify quantum correlation by measuring any violation of this condition. The required minimization can be carried out for the general -norms and any function of the local coherence vector of the unmeasured subsystem, leading to a class of computable quantities which can be used to capture the quantumness of correlations due to the subsystem . We introduce two special members of these quantifiers: The first one coincides with the tight lower bound on the geometric measure of discord, so that such lower bound fully captures the quantum correlation of a bipartite system. Accordingly, a vanishing tight lower bound on the geometric discord is a necessary and sufficient condition for a state to be zero-discord. The second quantifier has the property that it is invariant under a local and reversible operation performed on the unmeasured subsystem, so that it can be regarded as a computable well-defined measure of the quantum correlations. The approach presented in this paper provides a way to circumvent the problem with the geometric discord. We provide some examples to exemplify this measure.
Mandelis, A.; Munidasa, M.; Othonos, A. )
1993-06-01
A new, simple, and self-consistent frequency-scanned photothermal radiometric (PTR) detection scheme was applied to the measurement of the metastable state de-excitation parameters of a ruby laser rod. From the extreme of the photothermal phase and the amplitude slope versus the excitation laser beam modulation frequency curves, the authors have calculated the radiative quantum efficiency and lifetime in this material, without recourse to the conventional second measurement to eliminate effects of photothermal saturation. This technique simplifies significantly the experimental methodology, guarantees uniqueness of the measured quantities, and increases the measurement range of lifetimes as compared to other photothermal saturation. This technique simplifies significantly the experimental methodology, guarantees uniqueness of the measured quantities, and increases the measurement range of lifetimes as compared to other photothermal-based methods. Therefore, it may prove valuable as a fast industrial quality control, as well as for fundamental studies of laser materials.
Pure sources and efficient detectors for optical quantum information processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zielnicki, Kevin
Over the last sixty years, classical information theory has revolutionized the understanding of the nature of information, and how it can be quantified and manipulated. Quantum information processing extends these lessons to quantum systems, where the properties of intrinsic uncertainty and entanglement fundamentally defy classical explanation. This growing field has many potential applications, including computing, cryptography, communication, and metrology. As inherently mobile quantum particles, photons are likely to play an important role in any mature large-scale quantum information processing system. However, the available methods for producing and detecting complex multi-photon states place practical limits on the feasibility of sophisticated optical quantum information processing experiments. In a typical quantum information protocol, a source first produces an interesting or useful quantum state (or set of states), perhaps involving superposition or entanglement. Then, some manipulations are performed on this state, perhaps involving quantum logic gates which further manipulate or entangle the intial state. Finally, the state must be detected, obtaining some desired measurement result, e.g., for secure communication or computationally efficient factoring. The work presented here concerns the first and last stages of this process as they relate to photons: sources and detectors. Our work on sources is based on the need for optimized non-classical states of light delivered at high rates, particularly of single photons in a pure quantum state. We seek to better understand the properties of spontaneous parameteric downconversion (SPDC) sources of photon pairs, and in doing so, produce such an optimized source. We report an SPDC source which produces pure heralded single photons with little or no spectral filtering, allowing a significant rate enhancement. Our work on detectors is based on the need to reliably measure single-photon states. We have focused on optimizing the detection efficiency of visible light photon counters (VLPCs), a single-photon detection technology that is also capable of resolving photon number states. We report a record-breaking quantum efficiency of 91 +/- 3% observed with our detection system. Both sources and detectors are independently interesting physical systems worthy of study, but together they promise to enable entire new classes and applications of information based on quantum mechanics.
Lisi, A D; Illuminati, F; Vitali, D; Lisi, Antonio Di; Siena, Silvio De; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Vitali, David
2004-01-01
We introduce an efficient and robust scheme to generate maximally entangled states of two atomic ensembles. The scheme is based on quantum non-demolition measurements of total atomic populations and on quantum feedback conditioned by the measurements outputs. The high efficiency of the scheme is tested and confirmed numerically for photo-detection with ideal efficiency as well as in the presence of losses.
Problems of Quantum Measurement
Joseph F. Johnson
2007-10-02
We derive the probabilities of measurement results from Schroedinger's equation plus a definition of macroscopic as a particular kind of thermodynamic limit. Bohr's insight that a measurement apparatus must be classical in nature and classically describable is made precise in a mathematical sense analogous to the procedures of classical statistical mechanics and the study of Hamiltonian heat baths.
Measuring quantumness: from theory to observability in interferometric setups
Leonardo Ferro; Paolo Facchi; Rosario Fazio; Fabrizio Illuminati; Giuseppe Marmo; Vlatko Vedral; Saverio Pascazio
2015-01-13
We investigate the notion of quantumness based on the non-commutativity of the algebra of observables and introduce a measure of quantumness based on the mutual incompatibility of quantum states. Since it relies on the full algebra of observables, our measure for composed systems is partition independent and witnesses the global quantum nature of a state. We show that such quantity can be experimentally measured with an interferometric setup and that, when an arbitrary bipartition is introduced, it detects the one-way quantum correlations restricted to one of the two subsystems. We finally show that, by combining only two projective measurements and carrying out the interference procedure, our measure becomes an efficient universal witness of quantum discord and non-classical correlations.
Thermodynamics of projective quantum measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erez, Noam
2012-11-01
Quantum measurement of a system can change its mean energy as well as entropy. A selective measurement (classical or quantum) can be used as a ‘Maxwell's demon’ to power a single-temperature heat engine by decreasing the entropy. Quantum mechanically, so can a non-selective measurement, despite increasing the entropy of a thermal state. The maximal amount of work extractable following the measurement is given by the change in free energy: W(non-)selmax = ?Emeas - TBath?S(non-)selmeas. This follows from the ‘generalized 2nd law for nonequilibrium initial state’ (Hasegawa et al 2010 Phys. Lett. A 374 1001-4), an elementary reduction of which to the standard law is given here. It is shown that Wselmax - Wnon-selmax is equal to the work required for resetting the memory of the measuring device and that no such resetting is needed in the non-selective case. Consequently, a single-bath engine powered by either kind of measurement works at a net loss of TBath?Snon-selmeas per cycle. By replacing the measurement by a reversible ‘pre-measurement’ and allowing a work source to couple to the system and memory, the cycle can be rendered completely reversible.
Maximum Confidence Quantum Measurements
Sarah Croke; Erika Andersson; Stephen M. Barnett; Claire R. Gilson; John Jeffers
2006-04-05
We consider the problem of discriminating between states of a specified set with maximum confidence. For a set of linearly independent states unambiguous discrimination is possible if we allow for the possibility of an inconclusive result. For linearly dependent sets an analogous measurement is one which allows us to be as confident as possible that when a given state is identified on the basis of the measurement result, it is indeed the correct state.
Parallel state transfer and efficient quantum routing on quantum networks.
Chudzicki, Christopher; Strauch, Frederick W
2010-12-31
We study the routing of quantum information in parallel on multidimensional networks of tunable qubits and oscillators. These theoretical models are inspired by recent experiments in superconducting circuits. We show that perfect parallel state transfer is possible for certain networks of harmonic oscillator modes. We extend this to the distribution of entanglement between every pair of nodes in the network, finding that the routing efficiency of hypercube networks is optimal and robust in the presence of dissipation and finite bandwidth. PMID:21231634
Rate-loss analysis of an efficient quantum repeater architecture
Saikat Guha; Hari Krovi; Christopher A. Fuchs; Zachary Dutton; Joshua A. Slater; Christoph Simon; Wolfgang Tittel
2015-03-24
We analyze an entanglement-based quantum key distribution (QKD) architecture that uses a linear chain of quantum repeaters employing photon-pair sources, spectral-multiplexing, linear-optic Bell-state measurements, multi-mode quantum memories and classical-only error correction. Assuming perfect sources, we find an exact expression for the secret-key rate, and an analytical description of how errors propagate through the repeater chain, as a function of various loss and noise parameters of the devices. We show via an explicit analytical calculation, which separately addresses the effects of the principle non-idealities, that this scheme achieves a secret key rate that surpasses the TGW bound---a recently-found fundamental limit to the rate-vs.-loss scaling achievable by any QKD protocol over a direct optical link---thereby providing one of the first rigorous proofs of the efficacy of a repeater protocol. We extend our theoretical analysis to encompass sources with non-zero two-pair-emission probability, using an efficient exact numerical evaluation of the quantum state propagation and measurements. We expect our results to be useful for analyzing other non-QKD quantum protocols that require establishing long-distance entanglement, and to provide useful abstractions to seed analyses of quantum networks of more complex topologies.
Planned Efficiency Measurements of STIRAP
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zakharov, Vladislav; McKenna, Casey; Yuan, Deqian; Gasparik, Jessica; Metcalf, Harold
2015-05-01
Our measurements of the absolute efficiency of using STIRAP to populate Rydberg states of He have been limited by the Doppler detuning associated with the divergence of the atomic beam that crosses perpendicular to our laser beams. The limitation is exacerbated when both laser beams co-propagate, compounding these Doppler shifts. We plan to have them counter-propagate and thereby ameliorate this effect. He 23S atoms in a LN2 temperature thermal beam are coupled to the 33P state by ? = 389 nm light (blue), and that state is coupled to Rydberg states by ~ 800 nm (red) light. The anti-parallel laser beams are arranged so that the atoms encounter the red light first (counter-intuitive order for STIRAP) partially overlapping with the blue. We have observed interference among the atomic transitions by varying the light polarization, and are planning further studies concerning these internal atomic interferometry phenomena. Supported by ONR and Dept. of Education GAANN.
Photo-acoustic spectroscopy and quantum efficiency of Yb3+ doped alumino silicate glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuhn, Stefan; Tiegel, Mirko; Herrmann, Andreas; Rüssel, Christian; Engel, Sebastian; Wenisch, Christoph; Gräf, Stephan; Müller, Frank A.; Körner, Jörg; Seifert, Reinhard; Yue, Fangxin; Klöpfel, Diethardt; Hein, Joachim; Kaluza, Malte C.
2015-09-01
In this contribution, we analyze the effect of several preparation methods of Yb3+ doped alumino silicate glasses on their quantum efficiency by using photo-acoustic measurements in comparison to standard measurement methods including the determination via the fluorescence lifetime and an integrating sphere setup. The preparation methods focused on decreasing the OH concentration by means of fluorine-substitution and/or applying dry melting atmospheres, which led to an increase in the measured fluorescence lifetime. However, it was found that the influence of these methods on radiative properties such as the measured fluorescence lifetime alone does not per se give exact information about the actual quantum efficiency of the sample. The determination of the quantum efficiency by means of fluorescence lifetime shows inaccuracies when refractive index changing elements such as fluorine are incorporated into the glass. Since fluorine not only eliminates OH from the glass but also increases the "intrinsic" radiative fluorescence lifetime, which is needed to calculate the quantum efficiency, it is difficult to separate lifetime quenching from purely radiative effects. The approach used in this contribution offers a possibility to disentangle radiative from non-radiative properties which is not possible by using fluorescence lifetime measurements alone and allows an accurate determination of the quantum efficiency of a given sample. The comparative determination by an integrating sphere setup leads to the well-known problem of reabsorption which embodies itself in the measurement of too low quantum efficiencies, especially for samples with small quantum efficiencies.
High Speed Travelling Wave Single-Photon Detectors With Near-Unity Quantum Efficiency
Pernice, W; Minaeva, O; Li, M; Goltsman, G N; Sergienko, A V; Tang, H X
2011-01-01
Ultrafast, high quantum efficiency single photon detectors are among the most sought-after elements in modern quantum optics and quantum communication. Close-to-unity photon detection efficiency is essential for scalable measurement-based quantum computation, quantum key distribution, and loophole-free Bell experiments. However, imperfect modal matching and finite photon absorption rates have usually limited the maximum attainable detection efficiency of single photon detectors. Here we demonstrate a superconducting nanowire detector atop nanophotonic waveguides and achieve single photon detection efficiency up to 94% at telecom wavelengths. Our detectors are fully embedded in a scalable, low loss silicon photonic circuit and provide ultrashort timing jitter of 18ps at multi-GHz detection rates. Exploiting this high temporal resolution we demonstrate ballistic photon transport in silicon ring resonators. The direct implementation of such a detector with high quantum efficiency, high detection speed and low ji...
Efficiently implementable codes for quantum key expansion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Zhicheng; Devetak, Igor
2007-01-01
The Shor-Preskill proof of the security of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum key distribution protocol relies on the theoretical existence of good classical error-correcting codes with the “dual-containing” property. A practical implementation of the BB84 protocol thus requires explicit and efficiently decodable constructions of such codes, which are not known. On the other hand, modern coding theory abounds with non-dual-containing codes with excellent performance and efficient decoding algorithms. We show that the dual-containing constraint can be lifted at a small price: instead of a key distribution protocol, an efficiently implementable key expansion protocol is obtained, capable of increasing the size of a preshared key by a constant factor.
Quantum discord and other measures of quantum correlation
Modi, Kavan; Cable, Hugo; Paterek, Tomasz; Vedral, Vlatko
2011-01-01
One of the best signatures of nonclassicality in a quantum system is the existence of correlations that have no classical counterpart. Different methods for quantifying the quantum and classical parts of the correlations are amongst the most actively-studied topics of quantum information theory in the past decade. Entanglement is the most prominent of these correlations, but in many cases unentangled states exhibit nonclassical behavior. Thus distinguishing quantum correlation other than entanglement provides a better division between the quantum and classical worlds, especially when considering mixed states. Here we review different notions of classical and quantum correlations quantified by quantum discord and other related measures. In the first half we review the mathematical properties of the measures of quantum correlation, relate them to each other, and discuss the classical-quantum division that is common among them. In the second half, we show that the measures quantum correlation identify and quanti...
On the quantum measurement problem
Caslav Brukner
2015-07-19
In this paper, I attempt a personal account of my understanding of the measurement problem in quantum mechanics, which has been largely in the tradition of the Copenhagen interpretation. I assume that (i) the quantum state is a representation of knowledge of a (real or hypothetical) observer relative to her experimental capabilities; (ii) measurements have definite outcomes in the sense that only one outcome occurs; (iii) quantum theory is universal and the irreversibility of the measurement process is only "for all practical purposes". These assumptions are analyzed within quantum theory and their consistency is tested in Deutsch's version of the Wigner's friend gedanken experiment, where the friend reveals to Wigner whether she observes a definite outcome without revealing which outcome she observes. The view that holds the coexistence of the "facts of the world" common both for Wigner and his friend runs into the problem of the hidden variable program. The solution lies in understanding that "facts" can only exist relative to the observer.
Correspondence between quantum and classical information: Generalized quantum measurements
Grishanin, Boris A.; Zadkov, Victor N.
2006-04-15
The concept of generalized quantum measurement is introduced as a transformation that sets a one-to-one correspondence between the initial states of the measured object system and final states of the object-meter system with the help of a classical informational index, unambiguously linked to a classically compatible set of quantum states. It is shown that the generalized quantum measurement concept covers all key types of quantum measurement--standard projective, entangling, fuzzy, and generalized measurements with a partial or complete destruction of initial information associated with the object. A special class of soft quantum measurements as a basic model for the fuzzy measurements widespread in physics is introduced and its information properties are studied in detail. Also, a special class of partially destructive measurements mapping all states of the Hilbert space of a finite-dimensional quantum system onto the basis states of an infinite-dimensional quantum system is considered.
Efficient error estimation in quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Mo; Treeviriyanupab, Patcharapong; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Han, Zheng-Fu
2015-01-01
In a quantum key distribution (QKD) system, the error rate needs to be estimated for determining the joint probability distribution between legitimate parties, and for improving the performance of key reconciliation. We propose an efficient error estimation scheme for QKD, which is called parity comparison method (PCM). In the proposed method, the parity of a group of sifted keys is practically analysed to estimate the quantum bit error rate instead of using the traditional key sampling. From the simulation results, the proposed method evidently improves the accuracy and decreases revealed information in most realistic application situations. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos.2011CBA00200 and 2011CB921200) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos.61101137, 61201239, and 61205118).
Quantum Estimation via Sequential Measurements
Daniel Burgarth; Vittorio Giovannetti; Airi N. Kato; Kazuya Yuasa
2015-07-28
The problem of estimating a parameter of a quantum system through a series of measurements performed sequentially on a quantum probe is analyzed in the general setting where the underlying statistics is explicitly non-i.i.d. We present a generalization of the central limit theorem in the present context, which under fairly general assumptions shows that as the number $N$ of measurement data increases the probability distribution of functionals of the data (e.g., the average of the data) through which the target parameter is estimated becomes asymptotically normal and independent of the initial state of the probe. At variance with the previous study [M. Gu\\c{t}\\u{a}, Phys. Rev. A 83, 062324 (2011)] we take a diagrammatic approach, which allows one to compute not only the leading orders in $N$ of the moments of the average of the data but also those of the correlations among subsequent measurement outcomes. In particular our analysis points out that the latter, which are not available in usual i.i.d. data, can be exploited in order to improve the accuracy of the parameter estimation. An explicit application of our scheme is discussed by studying how the temperature of a thermal reservoir can be estimated via sequential measurements on a quantum probe in contact with the reservoir.
Efficient quantum optical state engineering and applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCusker, Kevin T.
Over a century after the modern prediction of the existence of individual particles of light by Albert Einstein, a reliable source of this simple quantum state of one photon does not exist. While common light sources such as a light bulb, LED, or laser can produce a pulse of light with an average of one photon, there is (currently) no way of knowing the number of photons in that pulse without first absorbing (and thereby destroying) them. Spontaneous parametric down-conversion, a process in which one high-energy photon splits into two lower-energy photons, allows us to prepare a single-photon state by detecting one of the photons, which then heralds the existence of its twin. This process has been the workhorse of quantum optics, allowing demonstrations of a myriad of quantum processes and protocols, such as entanglement, cryptography, superdense coding, teleportation, and simple quantum computing demonstrations. All of these processes would benefit from better engineering of the underlying down-conversion process, but despite significant effort (both theoretical and experimental), optimization of this process is ongoing. The focus of this work is to optimize certain aspects of a down-conversion source, and then use this tool in novel experiments not otherwise feasible. Specifically, the goal is to optimize the heralding efficiency of the down-conversion photons, i.e., the probability that if one photon is detected, the other photon is also detected. This source is then applied to two experiments (a single-photon source, and a quantum cryptography implementation), and the detailed theory of an additional application (a source of Fock states and path-entangled states, called N00N states) is discussed, along with some other possible applications.
On uniqueness of quantum measurement theory
Mikhail G. Ivanov
2015-08-24
The paper discuss the structure of quantum mechanics and uniqueness of its postulates. The Born rule for quantum probabilities is fixed by requirement of nonexistence of quantum telepathy. Von Neumann projection postulate describes the transformation of quantum state under the condition of no-interaction measurement. Projection postulate could be considered as transition to conditional probability under the condition of a certain result of quantum measurement.
Quantum correlation cost of the weak measurement
Jun Zhang; Shao-xiong Wu; Chang-shui Yu
2014-09-14
Quantum correlation cost (QCC) characterizing how much quantum correlation is used in a weak-measurement process is presented based on the trace norm. It is shown that the QCC is related to the trace-norm-based quantum discord (TQD) by only a factor that is determined by the strength of the weak measurement, so it only catches partial quantumness of a quantum system compared with the TQD. We also find that the residual quantumness can be `extracted' not only by the further von Neumann measurement, but also by a sequence of infinitesimal weak measurements. As an example, we demonstrate our outcomes by the Bell-diagonal state.
An easy measure of quantum correlation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Hui; Wu, Zhao-Qin; Hu, Li-Yun; Xu, Xue-Xiang; Huang, Jie-Hui
2015-08-01
To measure the quantum correlation of a bipartite state, a test matrix is constructed through the commutations among the blocks of its density matrix, which turns out to be a zero matrix for a classical state with zero quantum correlation, and a nonzero one for a quantum state with positive quantum correlation. The Frobenius norm of the test matrix is used to measure the quantum correlation, which satisfies the basic requirements for a good measure and coincides with Wootters concurrence for two-qubit pure states. Since no optimization is involved in the definition, this measure of quantum correlation is easy to compute and even can be calculated manually.
Measuring Academic Efficiency at the School Level.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marzano, Robert J.; Hutchins, C. L.
In this paper, academic efficiency is operationally defined and a methodology for measuring it at the school level is described. Academic efficiency is defined as the extent to which a school utilizes its time for the academic development of all its students. The measure of academic efficiency must include three elements: time, students, and…
Efficient Polar Coding of Quantum Information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Renes, Joseph M.; Dupuis, Frédéric; Renner, Renato
2012-08-01
Polar coding, introduced 2008 by Ar?kan, is the first (very) efficiently encodable and decodable coding scheme whose information transmission rate provably achieves the Shannon bound for classical discrete memoryless channels in the asymptotic limit of large block sizes. Here, we study the use of polar codes for the transmission of quantum information. Focusing on the case of qubit Pauli channels and qubit erasure channels, we use classical polar codes to construct a coding scheme that asymptotically achieves a net transmission rate equal to the coherent information using efficient encoding and decoding operations and code construction. Our codes generally require preshared entanglement between sender and receiver, but for channels with a sufficiently low noise level we demonstrate that the rate of preshared entanglement required is zero.
Quantum chaos induced by measurements
P. Facchi; S. Pascazio; A. Scardicchio
1999-06-16
We study the dynamics of a "kicked" quantum system undergoing repeated measurements of momentum. A diffusive behavior is obtained for a large class of Hamiltonians, even when the dynamics of the classical counterpart is not chaotic. These results can be interpreted in classical terms by making use of a "randomized" classical map. We compute the transition probability for the action variable and consider the semiclassical limit.
Classical randomness in quantum measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mauro D'Ariano, Giacomo; Lo Presti, Paoloplacido; Perinotti, Paolo
2005-07-01
Similarly to quantum states, also quantum measurements can be 'mixed', corresponding to a random choice within an ensemble of measuring apparatuses. Such mixing is equivalent to a sort of hidden variable, which produces a noise of purely classical nature. It is then natural to ask which apparatuses are indecomposable, i.e. do not correspond to any random choice of apparatuses. This problem is interesting not only for foundations, but also for applications, since most optimization strategies give optimal apparatuses that are indecomposable. Mathematically the problem is posed describing each measuring apparatus by a positive operator-valued measure (POVM), which gives the statistics of the outcomes for any input state. The POVMs form a convex set, and in this language the indecomposable apparatuses are represented by extremal points—the analogous of 'pure states' in the convex set of states. Differently from the case of states, however, indecomposable POVMs are not necessarily rank-one, e.g. von Neumann measurements. In this paper we give a complete classification of indecomposable apparatuses (for discrete spectrum), by providing different necessary and sufficient conditions for extremality of POVMs, along with a simple general algorithm for the decomposition of a POVM into extremals. As an interesting application, 'informationally complete' measurements are analysed in this respect. The convex set of POVMs is fully characterized by determining its border in terms of simple algebraic properties of the corresponding POVMs.
Evolution equation for geometric quantum correlation measures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Ming-Liang; Fan, Heng
2015-05-01
A simple relation is established for the evolution equation of quantum-information-processing protocols such as quantum teleportation, remote state preparation, Bell-inequality violation, and particularly the dynamics of geometric quantum correlation measures. This relation shows that when the system traverses the local quantum channel, various figures of merit of the quantum correlations for different protocols demonstrate a factorization decay behavior for dynamics. We identified the family of quantum states for different kinds of quantum channels under the action of which the relation holds. This relation simplifies the assessment of many quantum tasks.
Efficient Teleportation Between Remote Single-Atom Quantum Memories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nölleke, Christian; Neuzner, Andreas; Reiserer, Andreas; Hahn, Carolin; Rempe, Gerhard; Ritter, Stephan
2013-04-01
We demonstrate teleportation of quantum bits between two single atoms in distant laboratories. Using a time-resolved photonic Bell-state measurement, we achieve a teleportation fidelity of (88.0±1.5)%, largely determined by our entanglement fidelity. The low photon collection efficiency in free space is overcome by trapping each atom in an optical cavity. The resulting success probability of 0.1% is almost 5 orders of magnitude larger than in previous experiments with remote material qubits. It is mainly limited by photon propagation and detection losses and can be enhanced with a cavity-based deterministic Bell-state measurement.
Efficient teleportation between remote single-atom quantum memories.
Nölleke, Christian; Neuzner, Andreas; Reiserer, Andreas; Hahn, Carolin; Rempe, Gerhard; Ritter, Stephan
2013-04-01
We demonstrate teleportation of quantum bits between two single atoms in distant laboratories. Using a time-resolved photonic Bell-state measurement, we achieve a teleportation fidelity of (88.0 ± 1.5)%, largely determined by our entanglement fidelity. The low photon collection efficiency in free space is overcome by trapping each atom in an optical cavity. The resulting success probability of 0.1% is almost 5 orders of magnitude larger than in previous experiments with remote material qubits. It is mainly limited by photon propagation and detection losses and can be enhanced with a cavity-based deterministic Bell-state measurement. PMID:25166964
Quantum Measurements of Scattered Particles
Marco Merkli; Mark Penney
2015-03-20
We investigate the process of quantum measurements on scattered probes. Before scattering, the probes are independent, but they become entangled afterwards, due to the interaction with the scatterer. The collection of measurement results (the history) is a stochastic process of dependent random variables. We link the asymptotic properties of this process to spectral characteristics of the dynamics. We show that the process has decaying time correlations and that a zero-one law holds. We deduce that if the incoming probes are not sharply localized with respect to the spectrum of the measurement operator, then the process does not converge. Nevertheless, the scattering modifies the measurement outcome frequencies, which are shown to be the average of the measurement projection operator, evolved for one interaction period, in an asymptotic state. We illustrate the results on a truncated Jaynes-Cummings model.
Quantum nonlocality with arbitrary limited detection efficiency
Gilles Pütz; Nicolas Gisin
2015-07-17
The demonstration and use of nonlocality, as defined by Bell's theorem, rely strongly on dealing with non-detection events due to losses and detector inefficiencies. Otherwise, the so-called detection loophole could be exploited. The only way to avoid this is to have detection efficiencies that are above a certain threshold. We introduce the intermediate assumption of limited detection efficiency, e.g. in each run of the experiment the overall detection efficiency is lower bounded by $\\eta_{min} > 0$. Hence, in an adversarial scenario, the adversaries have arbitrary large but not full control over the inefficiencies. We analyze the set of possible correlations that fulfil Limited Detection Locality (LDL) and show that they necessarily satisfy some linear Bell-like inequalities. We prove that quantum theory predicts violation of one of these inequalities for all $\\eta_{min} > 0$. Hence, nonlocality can be demonstrated with arbitrarily small limited detection efficiencies. Finally we propose a generalized scheme that uses this characterization to deal with detection inefficiencies, which interpolates between the two usual schemes, postselection and outcome assignment.
Rate-loss analysis of an efficient quantum repeater architecture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guha, Saikat; Krovi, Hari; Fuchs, Christopher A.; Dutton, Zachary; Slater, Joshua A.; Simon, Christoph; Tittel, Wolfgang
2015-08-01
We analyze an entanglement-based quantum key distribution (QKD) architecture that uses a linear chain of quantum repeaters employing photon-pair sources, spectral-multiplexing, linear-optic Bell-state measurements, multimode quantum memories, and classical-only error correction. Assuming perfect sources, we find an exact expression for the secret-key rate, and an analytical description of how errors propagate through the repeater chain, as a function of various loss-and-noise parameters of the devices. We show via an explicit analytical calculation, which separately addresses the effects of the principle nonidealities, that this scheme achieves a secret-key rate that surpasses the Takeoka-Guha-Wilde bound—a recently found fundamental limit to the rate-vs-loss scaling achievable by any QKD protocol over a direct optical link—thereby providing one of the first rigorous proofs of the efficacy of a repeater protocol. We explicitly calculate the end-to-end shared noisy quantum state generated by the repeater chain, which could be useful for analyzing the performance of other non-QKD quantum protocols that require establishing long-distance entanglement. We evaluate that shared state's fidelity and the achievable entanglement-distillation rate, as a function of the number of repeater nodes, total range, and various loss-and-noise parameters of the system. We extend our theoretical analysis to encompass sources with nonzero two-pair-emission probability, using an efficient exact numerical evaluation of the quantum state propagation and measurements. We expect our results to spur formal rate-loss analysis of other repeater protocols and also to provide useful abstractions to seed analyses of quantum networks of complex topologies.
Pulsed homodyne Gaussian quantum tomography with low detection efficiency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Esposito, M.; Benatti, F.; Floreanini, R.; Olivares, S.; Randi, F.; Titimbo, K.; Pividori, M.; Novelli, F.; Cilento, F.; Parmigiani, F.; Fausti, D.
2014-04-01
Pulsed homodyne quantum tomography usually requires a high detection efficiency, limiting its applicability in quantum optics. Here, it is shown that the presence of low detection efficiency (<50%) does not prevent the tomographic reconstruction of quantum states of light, specifically, of Gaussian states. This result is obtained by applying the so-called ‘minimax’ adaptive reconstruction of the Wigner function to pulsed homodyne detection. In particular, we prove, by both numerical and real experiments, that an effective discrimination of different Gaussian quantum states can be achieved. Our finding paves the way to a more extensive use of quantum tomographic methods, even in physical situations in which high detection efficiency is unattainable.
Direct scheme for measuring the geometric quantum discord
Jin, Jia-sen; Yu, Chang-shui; Song, He-shan
2011-01-01
We propose a scheme to directly measure the exact value of geometric quantum discord of an arbitrary two-qubit state. We only need to perform the projective measurement in the all anti-symmetric subspace and our scheme is parametrically efficient in contrast to the widely adopted quantum state tomography scheme in the sense of less parameter estimations and projectors. Moreover, the present scheme can be easily realized with the current experimental techniques.
Direct scheme for measuring the geometric quantum discord
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Jia-sen; Zhang, Feng-yang; Yu, Chang-shui; Song, He-shan
2012-03-01
We propose a scheme to directly measure the exact value of the geometric quantum discord of an arbitrary two-qubit state. We need only to perform the projective measurement in all the anti-symmetric subspace and our scheme is parametrically efficient in contrast to the widely adopted quantum state tomography scheme in the sense of less parameter estimations and projectors. Moreover, the present scheme can be easily realized with the current experimental techniques.
Barycentric measure of quantum entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganczarek, Wojciech; Ku?, Marek; ?yczkowski, Karol
2012-03-01
Majorana representation of quantum states by a constellation of n “stars” (points on the sphere) can be used to describe any pure state of a simple system of dimension n+1 or a permutation symmetric pure state of a composite system consisting of n qubits. We analyze the variance of the distribution of the stars, which can serve as a measure of the degree of noncoherence for simple systems or an entanglement measure for composed systems. Dynamics of the Majorana points induced by a unitary dynamics of a pure state is investigated.
Machine Learning for Precise Quantum Measurement
Alexander Hentschel; Barry C. Sanders
2010-02-25
Adaptive feedback schemes are promising for quantum-enhanced measurements yet are complicated to design. Machine learning can autonomously generate algorithms in a classical setting. Here we adapt machine learning for quantum information and use our framework to generate autonomous adaptive feedback schemes for quantum measurement. In particular our approach replaces guesswork in quantum measurement by a logical, fully-automatic, programmable routine. We show that our method yields schemes that outperform the best known adaptive scheme for interferometric phase estimation.
Radiated microwave power transmission system efficiency measurements
R. M. Dickinson; W. C. Brown
1975-01-01
The measured and calculated results from determining the operating efficiencies of a laboratory version of a system for transporting electric power from one point to another via a wireless free space radiated microwave beam are reported. The system's overall end-to-end efficiency as well as intermediated conversion efficiencies were measured. The maximum achieved end-to-end dc-to-ac system efficiency was 54.18% with a
How much a Quantum Measurement is Informative?
Michele Dall'Arno; Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano; Massimiliano F. Sacchi
2015-02-20
The informational power of a quantum measurement is the maximum amount of classical information that the measurement can extract from any ensemble of quantum states. We discuss its main properties. Informational power is an additive quantity, being equivalent to the classical capacity of a quantum-classical channel. The informational power of a quantum measurement is the maximum of the accessible information of a quantum ensemble that depends on the measurement. We present some examples where the symmetry of the measurement allows to analytically derive its informational power.
Goan, Hsi-Sheng
the PC barrier as a classical stochastic point process a quantum-jump model . Then we show explicitly in the dot closer to the PC. We find that in both quantum-jump and quantum- diffusive cases, the conditionalContinuous quantum measurement of two coupled quantum dots using a point contact: A quantum
Experimental quantum measurement with a few photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rozema, Lee Arthur
This thesis presents the results of a series of four photonic experiments on the topic of quantum measurement. The first two experiments relate to quantum metrology, and the use of quantum states to increase the precision of measurements beyond what is possible with classical systems; first to detect and characterize decoherence, and then in the context of quantum imaging. The third experiment studies a fundamental question in quantum mechanics: "How much must a quantum system be disturbed by a measurement?". We use weak measurement to confirm a recent theoretical result, showing that if a particle's state is already sufficiently uncertain we can perform a measurement with very little disturbance -- contrary to common explanations of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The fourth experiment falls in the category of quantum computation. In quantum mechanics having multiple copies of an identical system allows us to extract more information than we can extract from a single copy (since quantum mechanics allows each system to be measured only once before collapsing). We present and experimentally implement a quantum algorithm to compress all of the "extractable information" present in an ensemble of identical copies of quantum bits into exponentially fewer quantum bits. The research presented here samples from a variety of topics in quantum information, showing in several contexts how fascinating quantum effects can be exploited to gain a "quantum enhancement". To enable these experiments two sources of entangled photons were built, and "hybrid" quantum systems (encoding information in multiple degrees of freedom of a photon) were used to implement quantum circuits. This thesis will present the details of one of these sources (a novel and practical source of entangled N00N states), which was used in a four-photon quantum metrology experiment. The other, more standard, source of polarization-entangled photon pairs will only briefly be reviewed to leave room for the discussion of hybrid quantum logic.
Effects of detector efficiency mismatch on security of quantum cryptosystems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Makarov, Vadim; Anisimov, Andrey; Skaar, Johannes
2006-08-01
We suggest a type of attack on quantum cryptosystems that exploits variations in detector efficiency as a function of a control parameter accessible to an eavesdropper. With gated single-photon detectors, this control parameter can be the timing of the incoming pulse. When the eavesdropper sends short pulses using the appropriate timing so that the two gated detectors in Bob’s setup have different efficiencies, the security of quantum key distribution can be compromised. Specifically, we show for the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol that if the efficiency mismatch between 0 and 1 detectors for some value of the control parameter gets large enough (roughly 15:1 or larger), Eve can construct a successful faked-states attack causing a quantum bit error rate lower than 11%. We also derive a general security bound as a function of the detector sensitivity mismatch for the BB84 protocol. Experimental data for two different detectors are presented, and protection measures against this attack are discussed.
Effects of detector efficiency mismatch on security of quantum cryptosystems
Makarov, Vadim; Anisimov, Andrey; Skaar, Johannes
2006-08-15
We suggest a type of attack on quantum cryptosystems that exploits variations in detector efficiency as a function of a control parameter accessible to an eavesdropper. With gated single-photon detectors, this control parameter can be the timing of the incoming pulse. When the eavesdropper sends short pulses using the appropriate timing so that the two gated detectors in Bob's setup have different efficiencies, the security of quantum key distribution can be compromised. Specifically, we show for the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol that if the efficiency mismatch between 0 and 1 detectors for some value of the control parameter gets large enough (roughly 15:1 or larger), Eve can construct a successful faked-states attack causing a quantum bit error rate lower than 11%. We also derive a general security bound as a function of the detector sensitivity mismatch for the BB84 protocol. Experimental data for two different detectors are presented, and protection measures against this attack are discussed.
Efficient entanglement purification via quantum communication bus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Meng-Zheng; Ye, Liu
2014-06-01
A scheme is proposed to implement entanglement purification for two remote less entangled photons using robust continuous variable coherent modes, called as quantum communication bus (qubus), rather than consuming expensive ancilla single-photon sources. The qubus beams in the coherent states provide for the natural communication in the purification protocol, instead of the classical communication between the distant photons. Weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities, qubus beams and quantum non-demolition (QND) photon-number-resolving measurement are utilized for implementing deterministic entanglement purification. The core element to realize the QND measurement is Kerr nonlinearity. The necessary QND measurement in the present scheme is not an extra, very difficult, addition to the present protocol, but is taken care of by a phase measurement. The entanglement purification protocol (EPP) can obtain a maximally entangled pair with only one step, instead of improving the fidelity of less entangled pairs by performing continuous indefinite iterative purification procedure. The total success probability and fidelity of the present purification scheme can approach unit in principle. In addition, we investigate photon loss of the qubus beams during the transmission and decoherence effects in the entanglement purification caused by such a photon loss.
Effective Gain Measurement in Quantum Cascade Lasers
Petta, Jason
Effective Gain Measurement in Quantum Cascade Lasers A new method to measure gain in Quantum Cascade Lasers Bryan Haslam*, Zhijun Liu, Scott Howard, Claire Gmachl Department of Electrical Engineering, PRISM, *BYU Supported by NSF, PRISM #12;Outline Lasers The Basics Quantum Cascade Lasers Gain and Loss
Work measurement in an optomechanical quantum heat engine
Ying Dong; Keye Zhang; Francesco Bariani; Pierre Meystre
2015-04-11
We analyze theoretically the measurement of the mean output work and its fluctuations in a recently proposed optomechanical quantum heat engine [K. Zhang {\\it et al.} Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf112}, 150602 (2014)]. After showing that this work can be evaluated by a continuous measurements of the intracavity photon number we discuss both dispersive and absorptive measurement schemes and analyze their back-action effects on the efficiency of the engine. Both measurements are found to reduce the efficiency of the engine, but their back-action is both qualitatively and quantitatively different. For dispersive measurements the efficiency decreases as a result of the mixing of photonic and phononic excitations, while for absorptive measurements, its reduction results from photon losses due to the interaction with the quantum probe.
Quantum Measurement and the Real World
Steinberg, Aephraim M.
2012-04-18
While quantum measurement remains the central philosophical conundrum of quantum mechanics, it has recently grown into a respectable (read: experimental!) discipline as well. New perspectives on measurement have grown out of new technological possibilities, but also out of attempts to design systems for quantum information processing. I will present several examples of how our current ideas on quantum measurement go far beyond the usual textbook treatments, using examples from our entangled-photon and ultracold-atoms laboratories in Toronto. Topics will be drawn from weak measurement, 'interaction-free' measurement, Hardy's Paradox, measurement-induced quantum logic, and techniques for controlling and characterizing the coherence of quantum systems. The moral of the story will be that there are many different kinds of measurement strategies, with their own advantages and disadvantages; and that some things we have been taught not to even think about can actually be measured in a certain sense.
High Efficiency Colloidal Quantum Dot Phosphors
Kahen, Keith
2013-12-31
The project showed that non-Cd containing, InP-based nanocrystals (semiconductor materials with dimensions of ~6 nm) have high potential for enabling next-generation, nanocrystal-based, on chip phosphors for solid state lighting. Typical nanocrystals fall short of the requirements for on chip phosphors due to their loss of quantum efficiency under the operating conditions of LEDs, such as, high temperature (up to 150 °C) and high optical flux (up to 200 W/cm2). The InP-based nanocrystals invented during this project maintain high quantum efficiency (>80%) in polymer-based films under these operating conditions for emission wavelengths ranging from ~530 to 620 nm. These nanocrystals also show other desirable attributes, such as, lack of blinking (a common problem with nanocrystals which limits their performance) and no increase in the emission spectral width from room to 150 °C (emitters with narrower spectral widths enable higher efficiency LEDs). Prior to these nanocrystals, no nanocrystal system (regardless of nanocrystal type) showed this collection of properties; in fact, other nanocrystal systems are typically limited to showing only one desirable trait (such as high temperature stability) but being deficient in other properties (such as high flux stability). The project showed that one can reproducibly obtain these properties by generating a novel compositional structure inside of the nanomaterials; in addition, the project formulated an initial theoretical framework linking the compositional structure to the list of high performance optical properties. Over the course of the project, the synthetic methodology for producing the novel composition was evolved to enable the synthesis of these nanomaterials at a cost approximately equal to that required for forming typical conventional nanocrystals. Given the above results, the last major remaining step prior to scale up of the nanomaterials is to limit the oxidation of these materials during the tens of thousands of hours of LED operation. Once the LED phosphor lifetime specifications are met, these nanocrystals will enable white LEDs for solid state lighting to simultaneously have increased efficiency and improved light quality, in addition to enabling the creation of custom light spectrums. These improvements to white LEDs will help accelerate the adoption of SSL, leading to large savings in US and worldwide energy costs.
Spectral measurements of photosynthetic efficiency
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The photosynthetic efficiency of plants was examined for plants in two very different canopies, a USDA cornfield having an instrumented flux tower in Beltsville, MD, USA and a coniferous forest in British Columbia, Canada, included in the tower network of the Canadian Carbon Program. Basic field st...
Quantum theory of measurements as quantum decision theory
V. I. Yukalov; D. Sornette
2015-03-30
Theory of quantum measurements is often classified as decision theory. An event in decision theory corresponds to the measurement of an observable. This analogy looks clear for operationally testable simple events. However, the situation is essentially more complicated in the case of composite events. The most difficult point is the relation between decisions under uncertainty and measurements under uncertainty. We suggest a unified language for describing the processes of quantum decision making and quantum measurements. The notion of quantum measurements under uncertainty is introduced. We show that the correct mathematical foundation for the theory of measurements under uncertainty, as well as for quantum decision theory dealing with uncertain events, requires the use of positive operator-valued measure that is a generalization of projection-valued measure. The latter is appropriate for operationally testable events, while the former is necessary for characterizing operationally uncertain events. In both decision making and quantum measurements, one has to distinguish composite non-entangled events from composite entangled events. Quantum probability can be essentially different from classical probability only for entangled events. The necessary condition for the appearance of an interference term in the quantum probability is the occurrence of entangled prospects and the existence of an entangled strategic state of a decision maker or of an entangled statistical state of a measuring device.
Extreme ultraviolet quantum detection efficiency of rubidium bromide opaque photocathodes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Siegmund, Oswald H. W.; Gaines, Geoffrey A.
1990-01-01
Measurements are presented of the quantum detection efficiency (QDE) of three samples of RbBr photocathode layers over the 44-150-A wavelength range. The QDE of RbBr-coated microchannel plate (MCP) was measured using a back-to-back Z-stack MCP configuration in a detector with a wedge and strip position-sensitive anode, of the type described by Siegmund et al. (1984). To assess the stability of RbBr layer, the RbBr photocathode was exposed to air at about 30 percent humidity for 20 hr. It was found that the QDE values for the aged cathode were within the QDE measurement errors of the original values. A simple QDE model was developed, and it was found that its predictions are in accord with the QDE measurements.
Quantum measurement and its role in thermodynamics
Philipp Kammerlander; Janet Anders
2015-02-09
A central goal of the research effort in quantum thermodynamics is the extension of standard thermodynamics to include small-scale and quantum effects. Here we lay out consequences of seeing measurement, one of the central pillars of quantum theory, not merely as a mathematical projection but as a thermodynamic process. We uncover that measurement, a component of any experimental realisation, is accompanied by work and heat contributions and that these are distinct in classical and quantum thermodynamics. Implications are far-reaching, giving a thermodynamic interpretation to quantum coherence, extending the link between thermodynamics and information theory, and providing key input for the construction of a future quantum thermodynamic framework. Repercussions for existing quantum thermodynamic relations that omitted the role of measurement are discussed, including quantum work fluctuation relations and single-shot approaches.
Deterministic and efficient quantum cryptography based on Bell's theorem
Chen Zengbing; Pan Jianwei; Zhang Qiang; Bao Xiaohui; Schmiedmayer, Joerg
2006-05-15
We propose a double-entanglement-based quantum cryptography protocol that is both efficient and deterministic. The proposal uses photon pairs with entanglement both in polarization and in time degrees of freedom; each measurement in which both of the two communicating parties register a photon can establish one and only one perfect correlation, and thus deterministically create a key bit. Eavesdropping can be detected by violation of local realism. A variation of the protocol shows a higher security, similar to the six-state protocol, under individual attacks. Our scheme allows a robust implementation under the current technology.
Surface and bulk contribution to Cu(111) quantum efficiency
Pedersoli, Emanuele; Greaves, Corin Michael Ricardo; Wan, Weishi; Coleman-Smith, Christopher; Padmore, Howard A.; Pagliara, Stefania; Cartella, Andrea; Lamarca, Fabrizio; Ferrini, Gabriele; Galimberti, Gianluca; Montagnese, Matteo; dal Conte, Stefano; Parmigiani, Fulvio
2008-11-04
The quantum efficiency (QE) of Cu(111) is measured for different impinging light angles with photon energies just above the work function. We observe that the vectorial photoelectric effect, an enhancement of the QE due to illumination with light with an electric vector perpendicular to the sample surface, is stronger in the more surface sensitive regime. This can be explained by a contribution to photoemission due to the variation in the electromagnetic potential at the surface. The contributions of bulk and surface electrons can then be determined.
Quantum Measurement and Observable Universe
Daegene Song
2015-07-22
In this paper, we discuss that an observable-based single-system Copenhagen and entanglement-based two-system von Neumann measurement protocols in quantum theory can be made equivalent by considering the second part of the two-system scheme to be a Dirac-type negative sea filling up the first system. Based on this equivalence, and by considering the universe as a computational process, the choice of the apparatus state in the two-system protocol can be identified with the choice of the observable in the single-system scheme as negative sea filling up the observable universe. In particular, the measuring party's state is considered to be evolving backwards in time to the big bang as a nondeterministic computational process, which chooses the acceptable path as a time-reversal process of irreversible computation. The suggested model proposes that the prepared microstate of the universe, or reality, corresponds to the observer's choice, therefore, subjective reality. Thus, this effectively provides a specific description of the subjective universe model previously proposed, which is based on the symmetry breakdown between the Schrodinger and the Heisenberg pictures of quantum theory.
An Efficient User-Side Nulling Calibration for Quantum Annealing Computers
Randall R. Correll
2015-04-02
(Withdrawn) This work describes an efficient user-side method of calibrating and correcting quantum annealing computers. For quantum annealing computers based on the Ising model, the method measures the residual bias of the h and J coefficients. Once measured, these biases can then be nulled in subsequent runs for any problem of interest. This method also returns a temperature for each qubit based on the measured versus the expected qubit distributions computed from a Boltzmann distribution model.
Classification and Measurement of Multipartite Quantum Entanglements
Seyed Arash Sheikholeslam; Thomas Aaron Gulliver
2012-05-10
This paper presents a new measure of entanglement which can be employed for multipartite entangled systems. The classification of multipartite entangled systems based on this measure is considered. Two approaches to applying this measure to mixed quantum states are discussed.
Efficient quantum repeater based on deterministic Rydberg gates
Zhao Bo; Mueller, Markus; Hammerer, Klemens; Zoller, Peter [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)
2010-05-15
We propose an efficient quantum repeater architecture with mesoscopic atomic ensembles, where the Rydberg blockade is employed for deterministic local entanglement generation, entanglement swapping, and entanglement purification. Compared to a conventional atomic-ensemble-based quantum repeater, the entanglement distribution rate is improved by up to two orders of magnitude with the help of the deterministic Rydberg gate. This quantum repeater scheme is robust and fast, and thus opens up a way for practical long-distance quantum communication.
Memory Efficient Quantum Circuit Simulator Based on Linked List Architecture
Wissam Abdel Samad; Roy Ghandour; Mohamad Nabil Hajj Chehade
2005-11-08
In this paper, we will introduce the quantum circuit simulator we developed in C++ environment. We devise a novel method for efficient memory handling using linked list structures that enables us to simulate a quantum circuit of up to 20 qubits in a reasonable time. Our package can simulate the activity of any quantum circuit constructed by the user; it will also be used to understand the robustness of certain quantum algorithms such as Simons and Shors.
Radiated microwave power transmission system efficiency measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dickinson, R. M.; Brown, W. C.
1975-01-01
The measured and calculated results from determining the operating efficiencies of a laboratory version of a system for transporting electric power from one point to another via a wireless free space radiated microwave beam are reported. The system's overall end-to-end efficiency as well as intermediated conversion efficiencies were measured. The maximum achieved end-to-end dc-to-ac system efficiency was 54.18% with a probable error of + or - 0.94%. The dc-to-RF conversion efficiency was measured to be 68.87% + or - 1.0% and the RF-to-dc conversion efficiency was 78.67 + or - 1.1%. Under these conditions a dc power of 495.62 + or - 3.57 W was received with a free space transmitter antenna receiver antenna separation of 170.2 cm (67 in).
Global information balance in quantum measurements
Francesco Buscemi; Masahito Hayashi; Michal Horodecki
2008-05-09
We perform an information-theoretical analysis of quantum measurement processes and obtain the global information balance in quantum measurements, in the form of a closed chain equation for quantum mutual entropies. Our balance provides a tight and general entropic information-disturbance trade-off, and explains the physical mechanism underlying it. Finally, the single-outcome case, that is, the case of measurements with post-selection, is briefly discussed.
Protective Measurements: Probing Single Quantum Systems
Tabish Qureshi; N. D. Hari Dass
2015-05-07
Making measurements on single quantum systems is considered difficult, almost impossible if the state is a-priori unknown. Protective measurements suggest a possibility to measure single quantum systems and gain some new information in the process. Protective measurement is described, both in the original and generalized form. The degree to which the system and the apparatus remain entangled in a protective measurement, is assessed. A possible experimental test of protective measurements is discussed.
Efficient quantum key distribution scheme with pre-announcing the basis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Jingliang; Zhu, Changhua; Xiao, Heling
2014-03-01
We devise a new quantum key distribution scheme that is more efficient than the BB84 protocol. By pre-announcing the basis, Alice and Bob are more likely to use the same basis to prepare and measure the qubits, thus achieving a higher efficiency. The error analysis is revised and its security against any eavesdropping is proven briefly. Furthermore we show that, compared with the LCA scheme, our modification can be applied in more quantum channels.
Quantum efficiency and excited-state relaxation dynamics in neodymium-doped phosphate laser glasses
J. A. Caird; A. J. Ramponi; P. R. Staver
1991-01-01
Radiometrically calibrated spectroscopic techniques employing an integrating-sphere detection system have been used to determine the fluorescence quantum efficiencies for two commercially available Nd{sup 3+}-doped phosphate laser glasses, LG-750 and LG-760. Quantum efficiencies and fluorescence lifetimes were measured for samples with various neodymium concentrations. It is shown that the effects of concentration quenching are accurately described when both resonant nonradiative excitation
Action principle for continuous quantum measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chantasri, A.; Dressel, J.; Jordan, A. N.
2013-10-01
We present a stochastic path integral formalism for continuous quantum measurement that enables the analysis of rare events using action methods. By doubling the quantum state space to a canonical phase space, we can write the joint probability density function of measurement outcomes and quantum state trajectories as a phase space path integral. Extremizing this action produces the most likely paths with boundary conditions defined by preselected and postselected states as solutions to a set of ordinary differential equations. As an application, we analyze continuous qubit measurement in detail and examine the structure of a quantum jump in the Zeno measurement regime.
Rényi generalizations of quantum information measures
Berta, Mario; Wilde, Mark M
2015-01-01
Quantum information measures such as the entropy and the mutual information find applications in physics, e.g., as correlation measures. Generalizing such measures based on the R\\'enyi entropies is expected to enhance their scope in applications. We prescribe R\\'enyi generalizations for any quantum information measure which consists of a linear combination of von Neumann entropies with coefficients chosen from the set {-1,0,1}. As examples, we describe R\\'enyi generalizations of the conditional quantum mutual information, some quantum multipartite information measures, and the topological entanglement entropy. Among these, we discuss the various properties of the R\\'enyi conditional quantum mutual information and sketch some potential applications. We conjecture that the proposed R\\'enyi conditional quantum mutual informations are monotone increasing in the R\\'enyi parameter, and we have proofs of this conjecture for some special cases.
Language Diversity of Measured Quantum Processes
Karoline Wiesner; James P. Crutchfield
2006-11-19
The behavior of a quantum system depends on how it is measured. How much of what is observed comes from the structure of the quantum system itself and how much from the observer's choice of measurement? We explore these questions by analyzing the \\emph{language diversity} of quantum finite-state generators. One result is a new way to distinguish quantum devices from their classical (stochastic) counterparts. While the diversity of languages generated by these two computational classes is the same in the case of periodic processes, quantum systems generally generate a wider range of languages than classical systems.
Absolute determination of photoluminescence quantum efficiency using an integrating sphere setup
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leyre, S.; Coutino-Gonzalez, E.; Joos, J. J.; Ryckaert, J.; Meuret, Y.; Poelman, D.; Smet, P. F.; Durinck, G.; Hofkens, J.; Deconinck, G.; Hanselaer, P.
2014-12-01
An integrating sphere-based setup to obtain a quick and reliable determination of the internal quantum efficiency of strongly scattering luminescent materials is presented. In literature, two distinct but similar measurement procedures are frequently mentioned: a "two measurement" and a "three measurement" approach. Both methods are evaluated by applying the rigorous integrating sphere theory. It was found that both measurement procedures are valid. Additionally, the two methods are compared with respect to the uncertainty budget of the obtained values of the quantum efficiency. An inter-laboratory validation using the two distinct procedures was performed. The conclusions from the theoretical study were confirmed by the experimental data.
Quantum measurements and Landauer's principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shevchenko, V.
2015-05-01
Information processing systems must obey laws of physics. One of particular examples of this general statement is known as Landauer's principle - irreversible operations (such as erasure) performed by any computing device at finite temperature have to dissipate some amount of heat bound from below. Together with other results of this kind, Landauer's principle represents a fundamental limit any modern or future computer must obey. We discuss interpretation of the physics behind the Landauer's principle using a model of Unruh-DeWitt detector. Of particular interest is the validity of this limit in quantum domain. We systematically study finite time effects. It is shown, in particular, that in high temperature limit finiteness of measurement time leads to renormalization of the detector's temperature.
Fully depleted, thick, monolithic CMOS pixels with high quantum efficiency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clarke, A.; Stefanov, K.; Johnston, N.; Holland, A.
2015-04-01
The Centre for Electronic Imaging (CEI) has an active programme of evaluating and designing Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors with high quantum efficiency, for applications in near-infrared and X-ray photon detection. This paper describes the performance characterisation of CMOS devices made on a high resistivity 50 ? m thick p-type substrate with a particular focus on determining the depletion depth and the quantum efficiency. The test devices contain 8 × 8 pixel arrays using CCD-style charge collection, which are manufactured in a low voltage CMOS process by ESPROS Photonics Corporation (EPC). Measurements include determining under which operating conditions the devices become fully depleted. By projecting a spot using a microscope optic and a LED and biasing the devices over a range of voltages, the depletion depth will change, causing the amount of charge collected in the projected spot to change. We determine if the device is fully depleted by measuring the signal collected from the projected spot. The analysis of spot size and shape is still under development.
Efficient quantum transmission in multiple-source networks.
Luo, Ming-Xing; Xu, Gang; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Yang, Yi-Xian; Wang, Xiaojun
2014-01-01
A difficult problem in quantum network communications is how to efficiently transmit quantum information over large-scale networks with common channels. We propose a solution by developing a quantum encoding approach. Different quantum states are encoded into a coherent superposition state using quantum linear optics. The transmission congestion in the common channel may be avoided by transmitting the superposition state. For further decoding and continued transmission, special phase transformations are applied to incoming quantum states using phase shifters such that decoders can distinguish outgoing quantum states. These phase shifters may be precisely controlled using classical chaos synchronization via additional classical channels. Based on this design and the reduction of multiple-source network under the assumption of restricted maximum-flow, the optimal scheme is proposed for specially quantized multiple-source network. In comparison with previous schemes, our scheme can greatly increase the transmission efficiency. PMID:24691590
Efficient Quantum Transmission in Multiple-Source Networks
Luo, Ming-Xing; Xu, Gang; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Yang, Yi-Xian; Wang, Xiaojun
2014-01-01
A difficult problem in quantum network communications is how to efficiently transmit quantum information over large-scale networks with common channels. We propose a solution by developing a quantum encoding approach. Different quantum states are encoded into a coherent superposition state using quantum linear optics. The transmission congestion in the common channel may be avoided by transmitting the superposition state. For further decoding and continued transmission, special phase transformations are applied to incoming quantum states using phase shifters such that decoders can distinguish outgoing quantum states. These phase shifters may be precisely controlled using classical chaos synchronization via additional classical channels. Based on this design and the reduction of multiple-source network under the assumption of restricted maximum-flow, the optimal scheme is proposed for specially quantized multiple-source network. In comparison with previous schemes, our scheme can greatly increase the transmission efficiency. PMID:24691590
Measuring managerial efficiency in electric utilities
Hilt
1985-01-01
This dissertation presents an approach to measuring managerial efficiency in electric utilities. The measure presented can be used to compare the effectiveness with which the management of an individual electric utility use their resources relative to a set of electric utilities that represent the best practices in the industry. The development of this measure is a significant improvement over previous
On Non Efficiency of Quantum Computer
Robert Alicki
2000-06-19
The previously proposed Heisenberg-type relation $ E_c t_c >> \\hbar {\\cal C}$ for the energy used by a quantum computer, the total computation time and the logical ("classical") complexity of the problem is verified for the following examples of quantum computations: preparation of the input state, two Hamiltonian versions of the Grover's algorithm, a model of "quantum telephone directory", a quantum-optical device factorizing numbers and the Shor's algorithm.
Biological measurement beyond the quantum limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, Michael A.; Janousek, Jiri; Daria, Vincent; Knittel, Joachim; Hage, Boris; Bachor, Hans-A.; Bowen, Warwick P.
2013-03-01
Dynamic biological measurements require low light levels to avoid damaging the specimen. With this constraint on optical power, quantum noise fundamentally limits the measurement sensitivity. This limit can only be surpassed by extracting more information per photon by using quantum correlations. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that the quantum shot noise limit can be overcome for measurements of living systems. Quantum-correlated light with amplitude noise squeezed 75% below the vacuum level is used to perform microrheology experiments within Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells. Naturally occurring lipid granules are tracked in real time as they diffuse through the cytoplasm, and the quantum noise limit is surpassed by 42%. The laser-based microparticle tracking technique used is compatible with non-classical light and is immune to low-frequency noise, leading the way to achieving a broad range of quantum-enhanced measurements in biology.
Universal measurement apparatus controlled by quantum software.
Fiurásek, Jaromír; Dusek, Miloslav; Filip, Radim
2002-11-01
We propose a quantum device that can approximate any projective measurement on a qubit-a quantum "multimeter." The desired measurement basis is selected by the quantum state of a "program register." Two different kinds of programs are considered and in both cases the device is optimized with respect to maximal average fidelity (assuming uniform distribution of measurement bases). Quantum multimeters exhibiting the covariance property are introduced and an optimal covariant multimeter with a single-qubit program register is found. Possible experimental realization of the simplest proposed device is presented. PMID:12443102
Universal Measurement Apparatus Controlled by Quantum Software
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiurášek, Jaromír; Dušek, Miloslav; Filip, Radim
2002-10-01
We propose a quantum device that can approximate any projective measurement on a qubit-a quantum ``multimeter.'' The desired measurement basis is selected by the quantum state of a ``program register.'' Two different kinds of programs are considered and in both cases the device is optimized with respect to maximal average fidelity (assuming uniform distribution of measurement bases). Quantum multimeters exhibiting the covariance property are introduced and an optimal covariant multimeter with a single-qubit program register is found. Possible experimental realization of the simplest proposed device is presented.
Hiroki Takesue; Shellee D. Dyer; Martin J. Stevens; Varun Verma; Richard P. Mirin; Sae Woo Nam
2015-10-02
Quantum teleportation is an essential quantum operation by which we can transfer an unknown quantum state to a remote location with the help of quantum entanglement and classical communication. Since the first experimental demonstrations using photonic qubits and continuous variables, the distance of photonic quantum teleportation over free space channels has continued to increase and has reached >100 km. On the other hand, quantum teleportation over optical fiber has been challenging, mainly because the multi-fold photon detection that inevitably accompanies quantum teleportation experiments has been very inefficient due to the relatively low detection efficiencies of typical telecom-band single photon detectors. Here, we report efficient quantum teleportation over optical fiber using four high-detection efficiency superconducting nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors (SNSPD) based on MoSi. These SNSPDs make it possible to perform highly-efficient multi-fold photon measurements, allowing us to confirm that the quantum states of input photons were successfully teleported over 100 km of fiber.
Efficient infrared imaging upconversion via quantum coherence Robert W. Boyda)
Boyd, Robert W.
Efficient infrared imaging upconversion via quantum coherence Robert W. Boyda) Institute of Optics with essentially 100% efficiency while maintaining diffraction-limited imaging of the infrared field. © 2000 in the efficiency of the process of infrared upconversion. In one particular example which we analyze in detail, we
Quantum Reality and Measurement: A Quantum Logical Approach
Masanao Ozawa
2010-05-03
The recently established universal uncertainty principle revealed that two nowhere commuting observables can be measured simultaneously in some state, whereas they have no joint probability distribution in any state. Thus, one measuring apparatus can simultaneously measure two observables that have no simultaneous reality. In order to reconcile this discrepancy, an approach based on quantum logic is proposed to establish the relation between quantum reality and measurement. We provide a language speaking of values of observables independent of measurement based on quantum logic and we construct in this language the state-dependent notions of joint determinateness, value identity, and simultaneous measurability. This naturally provides a contextual interpretation, in which we can safely claim such a statement that one measuring apparatus measures one observable in one context and simultaneously it measures another nowhere commuting observable in another incompatible context.
Practical attacks on decoy-state quantum-key-distribution systems with detector efficiency mismatch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fei, Yangyang; Gao, Ming; Wang, Weilong; Li, Chaobo; Ma, Zhi
2015-05-01
To the active-basis-choice decoy-state quantum-key-distribution systems with detector efficiency mismatch, we present a modified attack strategy, which is based on the faked states attack, with quantum nondemolition measurement ability to restress the threat of detector efficiency mismatch. Considering that perfect quantum nondemolition measurement ability doesn't exist in real life, we also propose a practical attack strategy using photon number resolving detectors. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation results show that, without changing the channel, our attack strategies are serious threats to decoy-state quantum-key-distribution systems. The eavesdropper may get some information about the secret key without causing any alarms. Besides, the lower bound of detector efficiency mismatch to run our modified faked states attack successfully with perfect quantum nondemolition measurement ability is also given out, which provides the producers of quantum-key-distribution systems with a reference and can be treated as the approximate secure bound of detector efficiency mismatch in decoy-state quantum-key-distribution systems.
Quantum Zeno Effect in the Measurement Problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Namiki, Mikio; Pasaczio, Saverio
1996-01-01
Critically analyzing the so-called quantum Zeno effect in the measurement problem, we show that observation of this effect does not necessarily mean experimental evidence for the naive notion of wave-function collapse by measurement (the simple projection rule). We also examine what kind of limitation the uncertainty relation and others impose on the observation of the quantum Zeno effect.
The Role of Measurement in Quantum Games
Ahmad Nawaz; A. H. Toor
2006-03-02
The game of Prisoner Dilemma is analyzed to study the role of measurement basis in quantum games. Four different types of payoffs for quantum games are identified on the basis of different combinations of initial state and measurement basis. A relation among these different payoffs is established.
Measure of decoherence in quantum error correction for solid-state quantum computing
Alexey A. Melnikov; Leonid E. Fedichkin
2012-10-24
We considered the interaction of semiconductor quantum register with noisy environment leading to various types of qubit errors. We analysed both phase and amplitude decays during the process of electron-phonon interaction. The performance of quantum error correction codes (QECC) which will be inevitably used in full scale quantum information processors was studied in realistic conditions in semiconductor nanostructures. As a hardware basis for quantum bit we chose the quantum spatial states of single electron in semiconductor coupled double quantum dot system. The modified 5- and 9-qubit quantum error correction (QEC) algorithms by Shor and DiVincenzo without error syndrome extraction were applied to quantum register. 5-qubit error correction procedures were implemented for Si charge double dot qubits in the presence of acoustic phonon environment. Chi-matrix, Choi-Jamiolkowski state and measure of decoherence techniques were used to quantify qubit fault-tolerance. Our results showed that the introduction of above quantum error correction techniques at small phonon noise levels provided quadratic improvement of output error rates. The efficiency of 5-qubits quantum error correction algorithm in semiconductor quantum information processors was demonstrated.
Quantum variance: a measure of quantum coherence and quantum correlations for many-body systems
Irénée Frérot; Tommaso Roscilde
2015-09-22
Quantum coherence is a fundamental common trait of quantum phenomena, from the interference of matter waves to quantum degeneracy of identical particles. Despite its importance, estimating and measuring quantum coherence in generic, mixed many-body quantum states remains a formidable challenge, with fundamental implications in areas as broad as quantum condensed matter, quantum information, quantum metrology, and quantum biology. Here we provide a quantitative definition of the variance of quantum coherent fluctuations (the \\emph{quantum variance}) of any observable on generic quantum states. The quantum variance generalizes the concept of thermal de Broglie wavelength (for the position of a free quantum particle) to the space of eigenvalues of any observable, quantifying the degree of coherent delocalization in that space. The quantum variance is generically measurable and computable as the difference between the static fluctuations and the static susceptibility of the observable, despite its simplicity, it is found to provide a tight lower bound to most widely accepted estimators of "quantumness" of observables (both as a feature as well as a resource), such as the Wigner-Yanase skew information and the quantum Fisher information. When considering bipartite fluctuations in an extended quantum system, the quantum variance expresses genuine quantum correlations (of discord type) among the two parts. In the case of many-body systems it is found to obey an area law at finite temperature, extending therefore area laws of entanglement and quantum fluctuations of pure states to the mixed-state context. Hence the quantum variance paves the way to the measurement of macroscopic quantum coherence and quantum correlations in most complex quantum systems.
Distinguishability measures between ensembles of quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oreshkov, Ognyan; Calsamiglia, John
2009-03-01
A quantum ensemble {(px,?x)} is a set of quantum states each occurring randomly with a given probability. Quantum ensembles are necessary to describe situations with incomplete a priori information, such as the output of a stochastic quantum channel (generalized measurement), and play a central role in quantum communication. In this paper, we propose measures of distance and fidelity between two quantum ensembles. We consider two approaches: the first one is based on the ability to mimic one ensemble given the other one as a resource and is closely related to the Monge-Kantorovich optimal transportation problem, while the second one uses the idea of extended-Hilbert-space (EHS) representations which introduce auxiliary pointer (or flag) states. Both types of measures enjoy a number of desirable properties. The Kantorovich measures, albeit monotonic under deterministic quantum operations, are not monotonic under generalized measurements. In contrast, the EHS measures are. This property can be regarded as a generalization of the monotonicity under deterministic maps of the trace distance and the fidelity between states. The EHS measures are equivalent to convex optimization problems and are bounded by the Kantorovich measures which are equivalent to linear programs. We present operational interpretations for both types of measures. We also show that the EHS fidelity between ensembles provides an interpretation of the fidelity between mixed states as the fidelity between all pure-state ensembles whose averages are equal to the mixed states being compared. We finally use the measures to define distance and fidelity for stochastic quantum channels and positive operator-valued measures. These quantities may be useful in the context of tomography of stochastic quantum channels and quantum detectors.
Quantum Measurement and Observable Universe
Song, Daegene
2015-01-01
In this paper, we discuss that an observable-based single-system Copenhagen and entanglement-based two-system von Neumann measurement protocols in quantum theory can be made equivalent by considering the second part of the two-system scheme to be a Dirac-type negative sea filling up the first system. Based on this equivalence, and by considering the universe as a computational process, the choice of the apparatus state in the two-system protocol can be identified with the choice of the observable in the single-system scheme as negative sea filling up the observable universe. In particular, the measuring party's state is considered to be evolving backwards in time to the big bang as a nondeterministic computational process, which chooses the acceptable path as a time-reversal process of irreversible computation. The suggested model proposes that the prepared microstate of the universe, or reality, corresponds to the observer's choice, therefore, subjective reality. Thus, this effectively provides a specific de...
Improved quantum state transfer via quantum partially collapsing measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Man, Zhong-Xiao; Ba An, Nguyen; Xia, Yun-Jie
2014-10-01
In this work, we present a general scheme to improve quantum state transfer (QST) by taking advantage of quantum partially collapsing measurements. The scheme consists of a weak measurement performed at the initial time on the qubit encoding the state of concern and a subsequent quantum reversal measurement at a desired time on the destined qubit. We determine the strength qr of the post quantum reversal measurement as a function of the strength p of the prior weak measurement and the evolution time t so that near-perfect QST can be achieved by choosing p close enough to 1, with a finite success probability, regardless of the evolution time and the distance over which the QST takes place. The merit of our scheme is twofold: it not only improves QST, but also suppresses the energy dissipation, if any.
Difference posets, effects, and quantum measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dvure?enskij, Anatolij; Pulmannová, Sylvia
1994-04-01
Difference posets as generalizations of quantum logics, orthoalgebras, and effects are studied. Observables and measures generalizing normalized POV-measures and generalized measures on sets of effects are introduced. Characterization of orthomodularity of subsets of a difference poset in terms of triangle closedness and regularity of these subsets enables us to characterize observables with a Boolean range. Boolean powers of difference posets are investigated; they have similar properties to that of tensor products, and their connection with quantum measurements is studied.
Performance Measure for Optimal Quantum Control
Alexandre Coutinho Lisboa; Jose Roberto Castilho Piqueira
2015-04-15
The problem concerning the minimum time for an initial state to evolve up to a target state plays an important role in the Classic Optimal Control theory. In the quantum context, as quantum states are so sensitive to environmental influences, the problem is more complex, but its formulation and solution are decisive to implement quantum information processing systems. As is well known, the decoherence phenomenon is unavoidable and the time-energy uncertainty relation must be used to study quantum dynamics. Here, the time-energy uncertainty relations are revisited, being fundamental to propose performance measures based on minimum time evolution. A minimum time performance measure is definedfor quantum control problems. Then, some practical examples are considered and the minimum time performance measure is applied providing results that are supposed to be useful for researchers to pursue strategies to optimize the control of the states of a quantum system.
Biological measurement beyond the quantum limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, Michael; Janousek, Jiri; Daria, Vincent; Knittel, Joachim; Hage, Boris; Bachor, Hans; Bowen, Warwick
2013-05-01
Biology is an important frontier for quantum metrology, with quantum enhanced sensitivity allowing optical intensities to be lowered, and a consequent reduction in specimen damage and photochemical intrusion upon biological processes. Here we demonstrate the first biological measurement with precision surpassing the quantum noise limit. Naturally occurring lipid granules within living yeast cells were tracked in real time with sensitivity surpassing the quantum noise limit by 42% as they diffuse through the cytoplasm and interact with embedded polymer networks. This allowed dynamic mechanical properties of the cytoplasm to be determined with a 64% higher measurement rate than possible classically. To enable this, a new microscopy system was developed which is compatible with squeezed light, and which utilized a novel optical lock-in technique to allow quantum enhancement down to 10 Hz. This method is widely applicable, extending the reach of quantum enhanced measurement to many dynamic biological processes.
Thermodynamics of weakly measured quantum systems
Jose Joaquin Alonso; Eric Lutz; Alessandro Romito
2015-08-03
We consider continuously monitored quantum systems and introduce definitions of work and heat along individual quantum trajectories that are valid for coherent superpositions of energy eigenstates. We use these quantities to extend the first and second laws of stochastic thermodynamics to the quantum domain. We illustrate our results with the case of a weakly measured driven two-level system and show how to distinguish between quantum work and heat contributions. We finally employ quantum feedback control to suppress detector backaction and determine the work statistics.
Chapter 20: Data Center IT Efficiency Measures
Huang, R.; Masanet, E.
2015-01-01
Data centers use about 2% of the electricity in the United States; a typical data center has 100 to 200 times the energy use intensity of a commercial building. Data centers present tremendous opportunities--energy use can be reduced as much as 80% between inefficient and efficient data centers. Data center efficiency measures generally fall into the following categories: power infrastructure (e.g., more efficient uninterruptible power supplies, power distribution units); cooling (e.g., free cooling, variable-speed drives, temperature and humidity set points); airflow management (e.g., hot aisle/cold aisle, containment, grommets); and information technology efficiency (e.g., server virtualization, efficient servers, efficient data storage).
Efficiency of quantum energy teleportation within spin-1/2 particle pairs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frey, Michael R.
2015-03-01
A protocol for quantum energy teleportation (QET) is known for a so-called minimal spin-1/2 particle pair model. We extend this protocol to explicitly admit quantum weak measurements at its first stage. The extended protocol is applied beyond the minimal model to spin-1/2 particle pairs whose Hamiltonians are of a general class characterized by orthogonal pairs of entangled eigenstates. The energy transfer efficiency of the extended QET protocol is derived for this setting, and we show that weaker measurement yields greater efficiency. In the minimal particle pair model, for example, the efficiency can be doubled by this means. We also show that the QET protocol's transfer efficiency never exceeds 100 %, supporting the understanding that quantum energy teleportation is, indeed, an energy transfer protocol, rather than a protocol for remotely catalyzing local extraction of system energy already present.
The Quantum Efficiency and Thermal Emittance of Metal Photocathodes
Dowell, David H.; Schmerge, John F.; /SLAC
2009-03-04
Modern electron beams have demonstrated the brilliance needed to drive free electron lasers at x-ray wavelengths, with the principle improvements occurring since the invention of the photocathode gun. The state-of-the-art normalized emittance electron beams are now becoming limited by the thermal emittance of the cathode. In both DC and RF photocathode guns, details of the cathode emission physics strongly influence the quantum efficiency and the thermal emittance. Therefore improving cathode performance is essential to increasing the brightness of beams. It is especially important to understand the fundamentals of cathode quantum efficiency and thermal emittance. This paper investigates the relationship between the quantum efficiency and the thermal emittance of metal cathodes using the Fermi-Dirac model for the electron distribution. We derive the thermal emittance and its relationship to the quantum efficiency, and compare our results to those of others.
Photoactivated biological processes as quantum measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Imamoglu, A.; Whaley, K. B.
2015-02-01
We outline a framework for describing photoactivated biological reactions as generalized quantum measurements of external fields, for which the biological system takes on the role of a quantum meter. By using general arguments regarding the Hamiltonian that describes the measurement interaction, we identify the cases where it is essential for a complex chemical or biological system to exhibit nonequilibrium quantum coherent dynamics in order to achieve the requisite functionality. We illustrate the analysis by considering measurement of the solar radiation field in photosynthesis and measurement of the earth's magnetic field in avian magnetoreception.
Efficient Algorithm for Optimizing Adaptive Quantum Metrology Processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hentschel, Alexander; Sanders, Barry C.
2011-12-01
Quantum-enhanced metrology infers an unknown quantity with accuracy beyond the standard quantum limit (SQL). Feedback-based metrological techniques are promising for beating the SQL but devising the feedback procedures is difficult and inefficient. Here we introduce an efficient self-learning swarm-intelligence algorithm for devising feedback-based quantum metrological procedures. Our algorithm can be trained with simulated or real-world trials and accommodates experimental imperfections, losses, and decoherence.
An Efficient Algorithm for Optimizing Adaptive Quantum Metrology Processes
Alexander Hentschel; Barry C. Sanders
2011-04-19
Quantum-enhanced metrology infers an unknown quantity with accuracy beyond the standard quantum limit (SQL). Feedback-based metrological techniques are promising for beating the SQL but devising the feedback procedures is difficult and inefficient. Here we introduce an efficient self-learning swarm-intelligence algorithm for devising feedback-based quantum metrological procedures. Our algorithm can be trained with simulated or real-world trials and accommodates experimental imperfections, losses, and decoherence.
Determination of the Quantum Efficiency of a Light Detector
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kraftmakher, Yaakov
2008-01-01
The "quantum efficiency" (QE) is an important property of a light detector. This quantity can be determined in the undergraduate physics laboratory. The experimentally determined QE of a silicon photodiode appeared to be in reasonable agreement with expected values. The experiment confirms the quantum properties of light and seems to be a useful…
Wide-Band, High-Quantum-Efficiency Photodetector
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jackson, Deborah; Wilson, Daniel; Stern, Jeffrey
2007-01-01
A design has been proposed for a photodetector that would exhibit a high quantum efficiency (as much as 90 percent) over a wide wavelength band, which would typically be centered at a wavelength of 1.55 m. This and similar photodetectors would afford a capability for detecting single photons - a capability that is needed for research in quantum optics as well as for the practical development of secure optical communication systems for distribution of quantum cryptographic keys. The proposed photodetector would be of the hot-electron, phonon-cooled, thin-film superconductor type. The superconducting film in this device would be a meandering strip of niobium nitride. In the proposed photodetector, the quantum efficiency would be increased through incorporation of optiA design has been proposed for a photodetector that would exhibit a high quantum efficiency (as much as 90 percent) over a wide wavelength band, which would typically be centered at a wavelength of 1.55 m. This and similar photodetectors would afford a capability for detecting single photons - a capability that is needed for research in quantum optics as well as for the practical development of secure optical communication systems for distribution of quantum cryptographic keys. The proposed photodetector would be of the hot-electron, phonon-cooled, thin-film superconductor type. The superconducting film in this device would be a meandering strip of niobium nitride. In the proposed photodetector, the quantum efficiency would be increased through incorporation of opti-
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Mark D.; Ruostekoski, Janne
2014-08-01
We formulate computationally efficient classical stochastic measurement trajectories for a multimode quantum system under continuous observation. Specifically, we consider the nonlinear dynamics of an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate contained within an optical cavity subject to continuous monitoring of the light leaking out of the cavity. The classical trajectories encode within a classical phase-space representation a continuous quantum measurement process conditioned on a given detection record. We derive a Fokker-Planck equation for the quasiprobability distribution of the combined condensate-cavity system. We unravel the dynamics into stochastic classical trajectories that are conditioned on the quantum measurement process of the continuously monitored system. Since the dynamics of a continuously measured observable in a many-atom system can be closely approximated by classical dynamics, the method provides a numerically efficient and accurate approach to calculate the measurement record of a large multimode quantum system. Numerical simulations of the continuously monitored dynamics of a large atom cloud reveal considerably fluctuating phase profiles between different measurement trajectories, while ensemble averages exhibit local spatially varying phase decoherence. Individual measurement trajectories lead to spatial pattern formation and optomechanical motion that solely result from the measurement backaction. The backaction of the continuous quantum measurement process, conditioned on the detection record of the photons, spontaneously breaks the symmetry of the spatial profile of the condensate and can be tailored to selectively excite collective modes.
Optimal entanglement generation for efficient hybrid quantum repeaters
Naoya Sota; Koji Azuma; Ryo Namiki; Sahin Kaya Ozdemir; Takashi Yamamoto; Masato Koashi; Nobuyuki Imoto
2008-11-19
We propose a realistic protocol to generate entanglement between quantum memories at neighboring nodes in hybrid quantum repeaters. Generated entanglement includes only one type of error, which enables efficient entanglement distillation. In contrast to the known protocols with such a property, our protocol with ideal detectors achieves the theoretical limit of the success probability and the fidelity to a Bell state, promising higher efficiencies in the repeaters. We also show that the advantage of our protocol remains even with realistic threshold detectors.
Optimal entanglement generation for efficient hybrid quantum repeaters
Azuma, Koji; Sota, Naoya; Yamamoto, Takashi; Koashi, Masato; Imoto, Nobuyuki; Namiki, Ryo; Oezdemir, Sahin Kaya
2009-12-15
We propose a realistic protocol to generate entanglement between quantum memories at neighboring nodes in hybrid quantum repeaters. Generated entanglement includes only one type of error, which enables efficient entanglement distillation. In contrast to the known protocols with such a property, our protocol with ideal detectors achieves the theoretical limit of the success probability and the fidelity to a Bell state, promising higher efficiencies in the repeaters. We also show that the advantage of our protocol remains even with realistic threshold detectors.
Quantum Efficient Detectors for Use in Absolute Calibration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Faust, Jessica; Eastwood, Michael; Pavri, Betina; Raney, James
1998-01-01
The trap or quantum efficient detector has a quantum efficiency of greater than 0.98 for the region from 450 to 900 nm. The region of flattest response is from 600 to 900 nm. The QED consists of three windowless Hamamatsu silicon detectors. The QED was mounted below AVIRIS to monitor the Spectralon panel for changes in radiance during radiometric calibration. The next step is to permanently mount the detector to AVIRIS and monitor the overall radiance of scenes along with calibration.
Determination of nonradiative recombination in high quantum efficiency GaAs/InGaP heterostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Chia-Yeh; Wang, Chengao; Hasselbeck, Michael P.; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor; Malloy, Kevin J.
2010-02-01
We characterize high quantum efficiency double GaAs/InGaP heterostructures used in semiconductor laser cooling. To identify potential samples for laser cooling, measuring the nonradiative recombination rate coefficient is necessary. We describe a technique called power dependent photoluminescence measurement, which when combined with timeresolved photoluminescence lifetime determines the nonradiative recombination coefficient.
Quantum Information Theory of Entanglement and Measurement
Nicolas J. Cerf; Chris Adami
1997-01-21
We present a quantum information theory that allows for a consistent description of entanglement. It parallels classical (Shannon) information theory but is based entirely on density matrices (rather than probability distributions) for the description of quantum ensembles. We find that quantum conditional entropies can be negative for entangled systems, which leads to a violation of well-known bounds in Shannon information theory. Such a unified information-theoretic description of classical correlation and quantum entanglement clarifies the link between them: the latter can be viewed as ``super-correlation'' which can induce classical correlation when considering a tripartite or larger system. Furthermore, negative entropy and the associated clarification of entanglement paves the way to a natural information-theoretic description of the measurement process. This model, while unitary and causal, implies the well-known probabilistic results of conventional quantum mechanics. It also results in a simple interpretation of the Kholevo theorem limiting the accessible information in a quantum measurement.
Quantum throughput: Quantifying quantum-communication devices with homodyne measurements
Killoran, N.; Haeseler, H.; Luetkenhaus, N.
2010-11-15
Quantum communication relies on optical implementations of channels, memories, and repeaters. In the absence of perfect devices, a minimum requirement on real-world devices is that they preserve quantum correlations, meaning that they have some throughput of a quantum-mechanical nature. Previous work has verified throughput in optical devices while using minimal resources. We extend this approach to the quantitative regime. Our method is illustrated in a setting where the input consists of two coherent states while the output is measured by two homodyne measurement settings.
Quantum measurements of atoms using cavity QED
Dada, Adetunmise C.; Andersson, Erika; Jones, Martin L.; Kendon, Vivien M.; Everitt, Mark S.
2011-04-15
Generalized quantum measurements are an important extension of projective or von Neumann measurements in that they can be used to describe any measurement that can be implemented on a quantum system. We describe how to realize two nonstandard quantum measurements using cavity QED. The first measurement optimally and unambiguously distinguishes between two nonorthogonal quantum states. The second example is a measurement that demonstrates superadditive quantum coding gain. The experimental tools used are single-atom unitary operations effected by Ramsey pulses and two-atom Tavis-Cummings interactions. We show how the superadditive quantum coding gain is affected by errors in the field-ionization detection of atoms and that even with rather high levels of experimental imperfections, a reasonable amount of superadditivity can still be seen. To date, these types of measurements have been realized only on photons. It would be of great interest to have realizations using other physical systems. This is for fundamental reasons but also since quantum coding gain in general increases with code word length, and a realization using atoms could be more easily scaled than existing realizations using photons.
Quantum theory realises all joint measurability graphs
Chris Heunen; Tobias Fritz; Manuel L. Reyes
2014-03-18
Joint measurability of sharp quantum observables is determined pairwise, and so can be captured in a graph. We prove the converse: any graph, whose vertices represent sharp observables, and whose edges represent joint measurability, is realised by quantum theory. This leads us to show that it is not always possible to use Neumark dilation to turn unsharp observables into sharp ones with the same joint measurability relations, highlighting a caveat in the church of the larger Hilbert space".
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Ping
The thesis comprises two major themes of quantum statistical dynamics. One is the development of quantum dissipation theory (QDT). It covers the establishment of some basic relations of quantum statistical dynamics, the construction of several nonequivalent complete second-order formulations, and the development of exact QDT. Another is related to the applications of quantum statistical dynamics to a variety of research fields. In particular, unconventional but novel theories of the electron transfer in Debye solvents, quantum transport, and quantum measurement are developed on the basis of QDT formulations. The thesis is organized as follows. In Chapter 1, we present some background knowledge in relation to the aforementioned two themes of this thesis. The key quantity in QDT is the reduced density operator rho(t) ? trBrho T(t); i.e., the partial trace of the total system and bath composite rhoT(t) over the bath degrees of freedom. QDT governs the evolution of reduced density operator, where the effects of bath are treated in a quantum statistical manner. In principle, the reduced density operator contains all dynamics information of interest. However, the conventional quantum transport theory is formulated in terms of nonequilibrium Green's function. The newly emerging field of quantum measurement in relation to quantum information and quantum computing does exploit a sort of QDT formalism. Besides the background of the relevant theoretical development, some representative experiments on molecular nanojunctions are also briefly discussed. In chapter 2, we outline some basic (including new) relations that highlight several important issues on QDT. The content includes the background of nonequilibrium quantum statistical mechanics, the general description of the total composite Hamiltonian with stochastic system-bath interaction, a novel parameterization scheme for bath correlation functions, a newly developed exact theory of driven Brownian oscillator (DBO) systems, and its closely related solvation mode transformation of system-bath coupling Hamiltonian in general. The exact QDT of DBO systems is also used to clarify the validity of conventional QDT formulations that involve Markovian approximation. In Chapter 3, we develop three nonequivalent but all complete second-order QDT (CS-QDT) formulations. Two of them are of the conventional prescriptions in terms of time-local dissipation and memory kernel, respectively. The third one is called the correlated driving-dissipation equations of motion (CODDE). This novel CS-QDT combines the merits of the former two for its advantages in both the application and numerical implementation aspects. Also highlighted is the importance of correlated driving-dissipation effects on the dynamics of the reduced system. In Chapter 4, we construct an exact QDT formalism via the calculus on path integrals. The new theory aims at the efficient evaluation of non-Markovian dissipation beyond the weak system-bath interaction regime in the presence of time-dependent external field. By adopting exponential-like expansions for bath correlation function, hierarchical equations of motion formalism and continued fraction Liouville-space Green's function formalism are established. The latter will soon be used together with the Dyson equation technique for an efficient evaluation of non-perturbative reduced density matrix dynamics. The interplay between system-bath interaction strength, non-Markovian property, and the required level of hierarchy is also studied with the aid of simple spin-boson systems, together with the three proposed schemes to truncate the infinite hierarchy. In Chapter 5, we develop a nonperturbative theory of electron transfer (ET) in Debye solvents. The resulting exact and analytical rate expression is constructed on the basis of the aforementioned continued fraction Liouville-space Green's function formalism, together with the Dyson equation technique. Not only does it recover the celebrated Marcus' inversion and Kramers' turnover behaviors, the new theory also shows some disti
Gate-efficient discrete simulations of continuous-time quantum query algorithms
Dominic W. Berry; Richard Cleve; Sevag Gharibian
2013-04-05
We show how to efficiently simulate continuous-time quantum query algorithms that run in time T in a manner that preserves the query complexity (within a polylogarithmic factor) while also incurring a small overhead cost in the total number of gates between queries. By small overhead, we mean T within a factor that is polylogarithmic in terms of T and a cost measure that reflects the cost of computing the driving Hamiltonian. This permits any continuous-time quantum algorithm based on an efficiently computable driving Hamiltonian to be converted into a gate-efficient algorithm with similar running time.
Kim, T.; Liu, B.; Smith, R.; Athanasiou, M.; Gong, Y.; Wang, T.
2014-04-21
A “coherent” nanocavity structure has been designed on two-dimensional well-ordered InGaN/GaN nanodisk arrays with an emission wavelength in the green spectral region, leading to a massive enhancement in resonance mode in the green spectra region. By means of a cost-effective nanosphere lithography technique, we have fabricated such a structure on an InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well epiwafer and have observed the “coherent” nanocavity effect, which leads to an enhanced spontaneous emission (SE) rate. The enhanced SE rate has been confirmed by time resolved photoluminescence measurements. Due to the coherent nanocavity effect, we have achieved a massive improvement in internal quantum efficiency with a factor of 88, compared with the as-grown sample, which could be significant to bridge the “green gap” in solid-state lighting.
Chen, Shaoqiang; Zhu, Lin; Yoshita, Masahiro; Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Kim, Changsu; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Imaizumi, Mitsuru; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko
2015-01-01
World-wide studies on multi-junction (tandem) solar cells have led to record-breaking improvements in conversion efficiencies year after year. To obtain detailed and proper feedback for solar-cell design and fabrication, it is necessary to establish standard methods for diagnosing subcells in fabricated tandem devices. Here, we propose a potential standard method to quantify the detailed subcell properties of multi-junction solar cells based on absolute measurements of electroluminescence (EL) external quantum efficiency in addition to the conventional solar-cell external-quantum-efficiency measurements. We demonstrate that the absolute-EL-quantum-efficiency measurements provide I–V relations of individual subcells without the need for referencing measured I–V data, which is in stark contrast to previous works. Moreover, our measurements quantify the absolute rates of junction loss, non-radiative loss, radiative loss, and luminescence coupling in the subcells, which constitute the “balance sheets” of tandem solar cells. PMID:25592484
Lectures on dynamical models for quantum measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nieuwenhuizen, Theo M.; Perarnau-Llobet, Marti; Balian, Roger
2014-06-01
In textbooks, ideal quantum measurements are described in terms of the tested system only by the collapse postulate and Born's rule. This level of description offers a rather flexible position for the interpretation of quantum mechanics. Here we analyse an ideal measurement as a process of interaction between the tested system S and an apparatus A, so as to derive the properties postulated in textbooks. We thus consider within standard quantum mechanics the measurement of a quantum spin component ?z by an apparatus A, being a magnet coupled to a bath. We first consider the evolution of the density operator of S + A describing a large set of runs of the measurement process. The approach describes the disappearance of the off-diagonal terms ("truncation") of the density matrix as a physical effect due to A, while the registration of the outcome has classical features due to the large size of the pointer variable, the magnetization. A quantum ambiguity implies that the density matrix at the final time can be decomposed on many bases, not only the one of the measurement. This quantum oddity prevents to connect individual outcomes to measurements, a difficulty known as the "measurement problem". It is shown that it is circumvented by the apparatus as well, since the evolution in a small time interval erases all decompositions, except the one on the measurement basis. Once one can derive the outcome of individual events from quantum theory, the so-called collapse of the wavefunction or the reduction of the state appears as the result of a selection of runs among the original large set. Hence nothing more than standard quantum mechanics is needed to explain features of measurements. The employed statistical formulation is advocated for the teaching of quantum theory.
Lectures on Dynamical Models for Quantum Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nieuwenhuizen, Theo M.; Perarnau-Llobet, Martí Balian, Roger
2015-10-01
In textbooks, ideal quantum measurements are described in terms of the tested system only by the collapse postulate and Born's rule. This level of description offers a rather flexible position for the interpretation of quantum mechanics. Here we analyse an ideal measurement as a process of interaction between the tested system S and an apparatus A, so as to derive the properties postulated in textbooks. We thus consider within standard quantum mechanics the measurement of a quantum spin component ?z by an apparatus A, being a magnet coupled to a bath. We first consider the evolution of the density operator of S+A describing a large set of runs of the measurement process. The approach describes the disappearance of the off-diagonal terms ("truncation") of the density matrix as a physical effect due to A, while the registration of the outcome has classical features due to the large size of the pointer variable, the magnetisation. A quantum ambiguity implies that the density matrix at the final time can be decomposed on many bases, not only the one of the measurement. This quantum oddity prevents to connect individual outcomes to measurements, a difficulty known as the "measurement problem". It is shown that it is circumvented by the apparatus as well, since the evolution in a small time interval erases all decompositions, except the one on the measurement basis. Once one can derive the outcome of individual events from quantum theory, the so-called "collapse of the wave function" or the "reduction of the state" appears as the result of a selection of runs among the original large set. Hence nothing more than standard quantum mechanics is needed to explain features of measurements. The employed statistical formulation is advocated for the teaching of quantum theory.
WEAK MEASUREMENT IN QUANTUM MECHANICS ABRAHAM NEBEN
Rosner, Jonathan L.
WEAK MEASUREMENT IN QUANTUM MECHANICS ABRAHAM NEBEN PHYS 342 Final Project March 10, 2011 Contents of Postselection 4 4. Impossible Spin Measurements 5 5. Hardy's Paradox 5 6. Controversy over Weak Measurement 8 7 of a Measurement of a Component of the Spin of a Spin-1/2 Particle Can Turn Out to be 100." [1] The topic
Quantum nondemolition measurements of harmonic oscillators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thorne, K. S.; Caves, C. M.; Zimmermann, M.; Sandberg, V. D.; Drever, R. W. P.
1978-01-01
Measuring systems to determine the real component of the complex amplitude of a harmonic oscillator are described. This amplitude is constant in the absence of driving forces, and the uncertainty principle accounts for the fact that only the real component can be measured precisely and continuously ('quantum nondemolition measurement'). Application of the measuring systems to the detection of gravitational waves is considered.
Time-energy measure for quantum processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Chau, H. F.
2013-07-01
Quantum mechanics sets limits on how fast quantum processes can run given some system energy through time-energy uncertainty relations, and they imply that time and energy are tradeoffs against each other. Thus, we propose to measure the time energy as a single unit for quantum channels. We consider a time-energy measure for quantum channels and compute lower and upper bounds of it using the channel Kraus operators. For a special class of channels (which includes the depolarizing channel), we can obtain the exact value of the time-energy measure. One consequence of our result is that erasing quantum information requires (n+1)/n times more time-energy resource than erasing classical information, where n is the system dimension.
An efficient finite element method applied to quantum billiard systems
Woo-Sik Son; Sunghwan Rim; Chil-Min Kim
2009-02-25
An efficient finite element method (FEM) for calculating eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of quantum billiard systems is presented. We consider the FEM based on triangular $C_1$ continuity quartic interpolation. Various shapes of quantum billiards including an integrable unit circle are treated. The numerical results show that the applied method provides accurate set of eigenvalues exceeding a thousand levels for any shape of quantum billiards on a personal computer. Comparison with the results from the FEM based on well-known $C_0$ continuity quadratic interpolation proves the efficiency of the method.
A quantum measure of the multiverse
Vilenkin, Alexander, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)
2014-05-01
It has been recently suggested that probabilities of different events in the multiverse are given by the frequencies at which these events are encountered along the worldline of a geodesic observer (the ''watcher''). Here I discuss an extension of this probability measure to quantum theory. The proposed extension is gauge-invariant, as is the classical version of this measure. Observations of the watcher are described by a reduced density matrix, and the frequencies of events can be found using the decoherent histories formalism of Quantum Mechanics (adapted to open systems). The quantum watcher measure makes predictions in agreement with the standard Born rule of QM.
A quantum measure of the multiverse
Vilenkin, Alexander
2013-01-01
It has been recently suggested that probabilities of different events in the multiverse are given by the frequencies at which these events are encountered along the worldline of a geodesic observer (the "watcher"). Here I discuss an extension of this probability measure to quantum theory. The proposed extension is gauge-invariant, as is the classical version of this measure. Observations of the watcher are described by a reduced density matrix, and the frequencies of events can be found using the decoherent histories formalism of Quantum Mechanics (adapted to open systems). The quantum watcher measure makes predictions in agreement with the standard Born rule of QM.
A quantum measure of the multiverse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vilenkin, Alexander
2014-05-01
It has been recently suggested that probabilities of different events in the multiverse are given by the frequencies at which these events are encountered along the worldline of a geodesic observer (the ``watcher''). Here I discuss an extension of this probability measure to quantum theory. The proposed extension is gauge-invariant, as is the classical version of this measure. Observations of the watcher are described by a reduced density matrix, and the frequencies of events can be found using the decoherent histories formalism of Quantum Mechanics (adapted to open systems). The quantum watcher measure makes predictions in agreement with the standard Born rule of QM.
Efficiency of open quantum walk implementation of dissipative quantum computing algorithms
I. Sinayskiy; F. Petruccione
2014-01-26
An open quantum walk formalism for dissipative quantum computing is presented. The approach is illustrated with the examples of the Toffoli gate and the Quantum Fourier Transform for 3 and 4 qubits. It is shown that the algorithms based on the open quantum walk formalism are more efficient than the canonical dissipative quantum computing approach. In particular, the open quantum walks can be designed to converge faster to the desired steady state and to increase the probability of detection of the outcome of the computation.
An efficient quantum filter for multiphoton states
Yuan Liang Lim; Almut Beige
2004-11-11
We propose a scheme for implementing a multipartite quantum filter that uses entangled photons as a resource. It is shown that the success probability for the 2-photon parity filter can be as high as 1/2, which is the highest that has so far been predicted without the help of universal two-qubit quantum gates. Furthermore, the required number of ancilla photons is the least of all current parity filter proposals. Remarkably, the quantum filter operates with probability 1/2 even in the N-photon case, irregardless of the number of photons in the input state.
Maxwell's Demon, Szilard's Engine and Quantum Measurements
Zurek, W H
2003-01-01
We propose and analyze a quantum version of Szilard's ``one-molecule engine.'' In particular, we recover, in the quantum context, Szilard's conclusion concerning the free energy ``cost'' of measurements: $\\Delta F \\geq k_B T\\ln2$ per bit of information.
Maxwell's Demon, Szilard's Engine and Quantum Measurements
Wojciech Hubert Zurek
2003-01-15
We propose and analyze a quantum version of Szilard's ``one-molecule engine.'' In particular, we recover, in the quantum context, Szilard's conclusion concerning the free energy ``cost'' of measurements: $\\Delta F \\geq k_B T\\ln2$ per bit of information.
Maxwell's demon, Szilard's engine and quantum measurements
Zurek, W.H.
1984-01-01
We propose and analyze a quantum version of Szilard's one-molecule engine. In particular, we recover, in the quantum context, Szilard's conclusion concerning the free energy cost of measurements: ..delta..F greater than or equal to k/sub B/T1n2 per bit of information.
Quantum State Measurement Using Coherent Transients
Monmayrant, Antoine; Chatel, Beatrice; Girard, Bertrand [Laboratoire Collisions, Agregats, Reactivite (UMR 5589 CNRS-UPS), IRSAMC, Universite Paul Sabatier Toulouse 3, 31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France)
2006-03-17
We present the principle and experimental demonstration of time resolved quantum state holography. The quantum state of an excited state interacting with an ultrashort chirped laser pulse is measured during this interaction. This has been obtained by manipulating coherent transients created by the interaction of femtosecond shaped pulses and rubidium atoms.
Are quantum measurements on macroscopic bodies feasible?
Roberto Onofrio
2010-03-29
The possibility to test quantum measurement theories is discussed in the more phenomenological framework of the quantum nondemolition theory. A simple test of the hypothesis of the state vector collapse is proposed by looking for deviations from the Boltzmann distribution of the energy associated to only one complex amplitude of a macroscopic harmonic oscillator.
Measurement and the Disunity of Quantum Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Hasok
I present philosophical reflections arising from a study of laboratory measurement methods in quantum physics. More specifically, I investigate three major methods of measuring kinetic energy, from the period during which quantum physics was developed and came to be widely accepted: magnetic deflection, electrostatic retardation, and material retardation. The historical material serves as a provocative focus at which many broader philosophical topics come together: the empirical testing of theories, the universal validity of physical laws, the interaction between theoretical and experimental traditions, incommensurability, meaning and definition, realism and instrumentalism, the process of scientific change, and the unity of science. I begin the discussion by noting that the measurement methods in question were based on classical theory. Chapter 1 asks how the classical reasoning in measurements can be interpreted in quantum-mechanical terms, and concludes that only a "surface interpretation" is possible, since the classical methods involve many assumptions that conflict with quantum mechanics. Chapter 2 attempts to give a quantitative assessment of the inaccuracies that might result from using the "incorrect" classical theory in the design of measurement methods. Chapter 3 asks how we can know whether a measurement method is reliable, and investigates how different methods of measuring the same quantity can ground each other; this mutual grounding is also seen as a process of concept-formation. Chapter 4 argues that the customary quantum theories of measurement do not describe actual measurements well, and originate from an overly literal interpretation of the operator formalism of quantum mechanics. Chapter 5 examines how the classically reasoned measurement methods were incorporated into quantum physics; that history suggests a model of scientific development which can introduce fundamental changes while preserving much continuity with the old tradition. Chapter 6 develops a philosophical framework which allows a synthetic view of the concrete results presented in the earlier chapters: my work is an attempt to establish "conceptual coherence," creating and clarifying noncontradictory connections among the various conceptual activities that make up quantum physics.
Measure Guideline: High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces
Brand, L.; Rose, W.
2012-10-01
This Measure Guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces. Topics covered include when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure, how to identify and address risks, and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.
Measure Guideline: High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces
L. Brand and W. Rose
2012-10-01
This measure guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces, including: when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure; how to identify and address risks; and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.
Efficient storage at telecom wavelength for optical quantum memory
Vallette, Bruno
Efficient storage at telecom wavelength for optical quantum memory Julian Dajczgewand Jean-Louis Le;Motivation: Memory + telecom wavelength Don't lose information = Efficiency Retrieve information = On.3 T Inhomogeneous linewidth ~ 600 MHz Transition at telecom wavelength (1.5 mm) inhomog homog 106 #12;Experimental
Quantum Mechanics in Terms of Symmetric Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fuchs, Christopher
2006-03-01
In the neo-Bayesian view of quantum mechanics that Appleby, Caves, Pitowsky, Schack, the author, and others are developing, quantum states are taken to be compendia of partial beliefs about potential measurement outcomes, rather than objective properties of quantum systems. Different observers may validly have different quantum states for a single system, and the ultimate origin of each individual state assignment is taken to be unanalyzable within physical theory---its origin, instead, comes from prior probability assignments at stages of physical investigation or laboratory practice previous to quantum theory. The objective content of quantum mechanics thus resides somewhere else than in the quantum state, and various ideas for where that ``somewhere else'' is are presently under debate. What is overwhelmingly agreed upon in this effort is only the opening statement. Still, quantum states are not Bayesian probability assignments themselves, and different representations of the theory (in terms of state vectors or Wigner functions or C*-algebras, etc.) can take one further from or closer to a Bayesian point of view. It is thus worthwhile thinking about which representation might be the most propitious for the point of view and might quell some of the remaining debate. In this talk, I will present several results regarding a representation of quantum mechanics in terms of symmetric bases of positive-semidefinite operators. I also argue why this is probably the most natural representation for a Bayesian-style quantum mechanics.
On the measurability of quantum correlation functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Lima Bernardo, Bertúlio; Azevedo, Sérgio; Rosas, Alexandre
2015-05-01
The concept of correlation function is widely used in classical statistical mechanics to characterize how two or more variables depend on each other. In quantum mechanics, on the other hand, there are observables that cannot be measured at the same time; the so-called incompatible observables. This prospect imposes a limitation on the definition of a quantum analog for the correlation function in terms of a sequence of measurements. Here, based on the notion of sequential weak measurements, we circumvent this limitation by introducing a framework to measure general quantum correlation functions, in principle, independently of the state of the system and the operators involved. To illustrate, we propose an experimental configuration to obtain explicitly the quantum correlation function between two Pauli operators, in which the input state is an arbitrary mixed qubit state encoded on the polarization of photons.
Macroscopic realism and quantum measurement: measurers as a natural kind
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaeger, Gregg
2014-12-01
The notion of macroscopic realism has been used in attempts to achieve consistency between physics and everyday experience and to locate some boundary between the realms of classical mechanics and quantum meachanics. Its ostensibly underlying conceptual components, realism and macroscopicity, have most often appeared in the foundations of physics in relation to quantum measurement: reality became a prominent topic of discussion in quantum physics after the notion of element of reality was defined and used by Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen in that context, and macroscopicity is often explicitly assumed to be an essential property of any measuring apparatus. However, macroscopicity turns out to be a rather vaguer and less consistently understood notion than typically assumed by physicists who have not explicitly explored the notion themselves. For this reason, it behooves those investigating the foundations of quantum mechanics from a realist perspective to look for alternative notions for grounding quantum measurement. Here, the merits of treating the measuring instrument as a ‘natural kind’ as a means of avoiding anthropocentrism in the foundations of quantum measurement are pointed out as a means of advancing quantum measurement theory.
Quantum efficiency coefficient for photogeneration of carriers in SbSI nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nowak, M.; Bober, ?.; Borkowski, B.; K?pi?ska, M.; Szperlich, P.; Stró?, D.; Soza?ska, M.
2013-10-01
This paper presents investigations of the quantum efficiency coefficient for the photogeneration of carriers in aligned antimony sulfoiodide (SbSI) nanowires. Therefore the spectral dependences (between 488 and 700 nm) of photoconductivity current (IPC) were measured for temperatures from 263 to 323 K and for different light intensities. The least squares method was applied to fit the experimental IPC data with appropriate theoretical dependence. From this fitting, diffusion length and surface recombination velocity of carriers as well as spectral dependences of quantum efficiency coefficients for different temperatures and different light intensities were obtained. A comparison of the values of absorption coefficient obtained from the measurements of optical diffusive reflectance and from evaluation of the quantum efficiency coefficient is presented.
Statistics of Measurements of Automobile Fuel Efficiency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartlett, Albert A.
2003-11-01
In these days, with the growing need to worry about petroleum and the efficiency of our automobiles, there should be an increased interest, especially among physics students, in the miles per gallon (MPG) of cars. There should also be interest in the accuracy of single and multiple measurements of the MPG of a car. These topics are covered here in this report of a series of measurements that span 16 years.
PRODUCTIVITY BENEFITS OF INDUSTRIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY MEASURES
A journal article by: Ernst Worrell1, John A. Laitner, Michael Ruth, and Hodayah Finman Abstract: We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published dat...
Efficiently Calculating Evolutionary Tree Measures Using SAT
Mitchell, David G.
Efficiently Calculating Evolutionary Tree Measures Using SAT Maria Luisa Bonet1 and Katherine St. Comparing evolutionary trees is a necessary step in tree re- construction algorithms, locating recombination as trees, due to evolutionary processes such as hybridization, horizontal gene transfer and recombination
Effects of image processing on the detective quantum efficiency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Hye-Suk; Kim, Hee-Joung; Cho, Hyo-Min; Lee, Chang-Lae; Lee, Seung-Wan; Choi, Yu-Na
2010-04-01
Digital radiography has gained popularity in many areas of clinical practice. This transition brings interest in advancing the methodologies for image quality characterization. However, as the methodologies for such characterizations have not been standardized, the results of these studies cannot be directly compared. The primary objective of this study was to standardize methodologies for image quality characterization. The secondary objective was to evaluate affected factors to Modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) according to image processing algorithm. Image performance parameters such as MTF, NPS, and DQE were evaluated using the international electro-technical commission (IEC 62220-1)-defined RQA5 radiographic techniques. Computed radiography (CR) images of hand posterior-anterior (PA) for measuring signal to noise ratio (SNR), slit image for measuring MTF, white image for measuring NPS were obtained and various Multi-Scale Image Contrast Amplification (MUSICA) parameters were applied to each of acquired images. In results, all of modified images were considerably influence on evaluating SNR, MTF, NPS, and DQE. Modified images by the post-processing had higher DQE than the MUSICA=0 image. This suggests that MUSICA values, as a post-processing, have an affect on the image when it is evaluating for image quality. In conclusion, the control parameters of image processing could be accounted for evaluating characterization of image quality in same way. The results of this study could be guided as a baseline to evaluate imaging systems and their imaging characteristics by measuring MTF, NPS, and DQE.
On the theory of quantum measurement
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haus, Hermann A.; Kaertner, Franz X.
1994-01-01
Many so called paradoxes of quantum mechanics are clarified when the measurement equipment is treated as a quantized system. Every measurement involves nonlinear processes. Self consistent formulations of nonlinear quantum optics are relatively simple. Hence optical measurements, such as the quantum nondemolition (QND) measurement of photon number, are particularly well suited for such a treatment. It shows that the so called 'collapse of the wave function' is not needed for the interpretation of the measurement process. Coherence of the density matrix of the signal is progressively reduced with increasing accuracy of the photon number determination. If the QND measurement is incorporated into the double slit experiment, the contrast ratio of the fringes is found to decrease with increasing information on the photon number in one of the two paths.
Classical field approach to quantum weak measurements.
Dressel, Justin; Bliokh, Konstantin Y; Nori, Franco
2014-03-21
By generalizing the quantum weak measurement protocol to the case of quantum fields, we show that weak measurements probe an effective classical background field that describes the average field configuration in the spacetime region between pre- and postselection boundary conditions. The classical field is itself a weak value of the corresponding quantum field operator and satisfies equations of motion that extremize an effective action. Weak measurements perturb this effective action, producing measurable changes to the classical field dynamics. As such, weakly measured effects always correspond to an effective classical field. This general result explains why these effects appear to be robust for pre- and postselected ensembles, and why they can also be measured using classical field techniques that are not weak for individual excitations of the field. PMID:24702338
Quantum measurement with entangled-photon states Alexander Sergienko
Sergienko, Alexander
Quantum measurement with entangled-photon states Alexander Sergienko Alexander Sergienko, entanglement manipulation and processing, ultra-precise optical measurement in science and technology (quantum extremely strong energy, time, polarization, and momentum quantum correlations. This entanglement involving
Groverian entanglement measure of pure quantum states with arbitrary partitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimoni, Yishai; Biham, Ofer
2007-02-01
The Groverian entanglement measure of pure quantum states of n qubits is generalized to the case in which the qubits are divided into any p?n parties. The entanglement between these parties is evaluated numerically using an efficient parametrization. To demonstrate this measure we apply it to symmetric states such as the Greenberg-Horne-Zeiliner state and the W state. Interestingly, this measure is equivalent to an entanglement measure introduced earlier [H. Barnum and N. Linden, J. Phys. A 34, 6787 (2001)], using different considerations.
Norm-based measurement of quantum correlation
Wu Yuchun; Guo Guangcan [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China, 230026 Hefei (China)
2011-06-15
In this paper we derived a necessary and sufficient condition for classical correlated states and proposed a norm-based measurement Q of quantum correlation. Using the max norm of operators, we gave the expression of the quantum correlation measurement Q and investigated the dynamics of Q in Markovian and non-Markovian cases, respectively. Q decays exponentially and vanishes only asymptotically in the Markovian case and causes periodical death and rebirth in the non-Markovian case. In the pure state, the quantum correlation Q is always larger than the entanglement, which was different from other known measurements. In addition, we showed that locally broadcastable and broadcastable are equivalent and reproved the density of quantum correlated states.
Experimental measurement-device-independent verification of quantum steering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kocsis, Sacha; Hall, Michael J. W.; Bennet, Adam J.; Saunders, Dylan J.; Pryde, Geoff J.
2015-01-01
Bell non-locality between distant quantum systems—that is, joint correlations which violate a Bell inequality—can be verified without trusting the measurement devices used, nor those performing the measurements. This leads to unconditionally secure protocols for quantum information tasks such as cryptographic key distribution. However, complete verification of Bell non-locality requires high detection efficiencies, and is not robust to typical transmission losses over long distances. In contrast, quantum or Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen steering, a weaker form of quantum correlation, can be verified for arbitrarily low detection efficiencies and high losses. The cost is that current steering-verification protocols require complete trust in one of the measurement devices and its operator, allowing only one-sided secure key distribution. Here we present measurement-device-independent steering protocols that remove this need for trust, even when Bell non-locality is not present. We experimentally demonstrate this principle for singlet states and states that do not violate a Bell inequality.
Efficient Construction of Photonic Quantum Computational Clusters
Gerald Gilbert; Michael Hamrick; Yaakov S. Weinstein
2005-12-14
We demonstrate a method of creating photonic two-dimensional cluster states that is considerably more efficient than previously proposed approaches. Our method uses only local unitaries and type-I fusion operations. The increased efficiency of our method compared to previously proposed constructions is obtained by identifying and exploiting local equivalence properties inherent in cluster states.
Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures
Worrell, Ernst; Laitner, John A.; Michael, Ruth; Finman, Hodayah
2004-08-30
We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published databases, followed by an analysis of the representation of productivity benefits in energy modeling. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The case-study review suggests that energy efficiency investments can provide a significant boost to overall productivity within industry. If this relationship holds, the description of energy-efficient technologies as opportunities for larger productivity improvements has significant implications for conventional economic assessments. The paper explores the implications this change in perspective on the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the US. This examination shows that including productivity benefits explicitly in the modeling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research in this important area.
Measurement of heat and moisture exchanger efficiency.
Chandler, M
2013-09-01
Deciding between a passive heat and moisture exchanger or active humidification depends upon the level of humidification that either will deliver. Published international standards dictate that active humidifiers should deliver a minimum humidity of 33 mg.l(-1); however, no such requirement exists, for heat and moisture exchangers. Anaesthetists instead have to rely on information provided by manufacturers, which may not allow comparison of different devices and their clinical effectiveness. I suggest that measurement of humidification efficiency, being the percentage moisture returned and determined by measuring the temperature of the respired gases, should be mandated, and report a modification of the standard method that will allow this to be easily measured. In this study, different types of heat and moisture exchangers for adults, children and patients with a tracheostomy were tested. Adult and paediatric models lost between 6.5 mg.l(-1) and 8.5 mg.l(-1) moisture (corresponding to an efficiency of around 80%); however, the models designed for patients with a tracheostomy lost between 16 mg.l(-1) and 18 mg.l(-1) (60% efficiency). I propose that all heat and moisture exchangers should be tested in this manner and percentage efficiency reported to allow an informed choice between different types and models. PMID:24047355
Security proof of quantum key distribution with detection efficiency mismatch
Chi-Hang Fred Fung; Kiyoshi Tamaki; Bing Qi; Hoi-Kwong Lo; Xiongfeng Ma
2008-10-15
In theory, quantum key distribution (QKD) offers unconditional security based on the laws of physics. However, as demonstrated in recent quantum hacking theory and experimental papers, detection efficiency loophole can be fatal to the security of practical QKD systems. Here, we describe the physical origin of detection efficiency mismatch in various domains including spatial, spectral, and time domains and in various experimental set-ups. More importantly, we prove the unconditional security of QKD even with detection efficiency mismatch. We explicitly show how the key generation rate is characterized by the maximal detection efficiency ratio between the two detectors. Furthermore, we prove that by randomly switching the bit assignments of the detectors, the effect of detection efficiency mismatch can be completely eliminated.
High-efficiency alignment-free quantum cryptography based on quantum interference
Qi Guo; Liu-Yong Cheng; Hong-Fu Wang; Shou Zhang
2014-11-04
We propose an alternative quantum cryptography protocol using the quantum interference effect. The efficiency of creating sifted key can reach 100\\% in principle, which is higher than previous protocols. Especially, compared with the typical quantum key distribution, the present scheme does not require the authorized parties to check their bases. Because the potential eavesdropper can only access part of the quantum system, the proposed scheme has natural practical security advantages. The scheme can be implemented with current technologies and opens promising possibilities for quantum cryptography.
Enhancing entanglement trapping by weak measurement and quantum measurement reversal
Ying-Jie Zhang; Wei Han; Heng Fan; Yun-Jie Xia
2015-01-13
In this paper, we propose a scheme to enhance trapping of entanglement of two qubits in the environment of a photonic band gap material. Our entanglement trapping promotion scheme makes use of combined weak measurements and quantum measurement reversals. The optimal promotion of entanglement trapping can be acquired with a reasonable finite success probability by adjusting measurement strengths.
Search Via quantum walks with intermediate measurements
Efrain Buksman; André L. Fonseca de Oliveira; Jesús GarcÍa López de Lacalle
2015-07-08
A modification of Tulsi's quantum search algorithm with intermediate measurements of the control is presented. In order to analyze the effect of measurements in quantum searches, a different choice of the angular parameter is used. The study is performed for several values of time lapses between measurements, finding close relationships between probabilities and correlations (Mutual Information and Cumulative Correlation Measure). The order of this modified algorithm is estimated, showing that for some time lapses the performance is improved, and became of order $O(N)$ (classical brute force search) when the measurement is taken in every step. The results indicate a possible way to analyze improvements to other quantum algorithms using one, or more, control qubits.
Quantum efficiency and fission rate in tetracene
Wu, Tony Chang-Chi
2013-01-01
Using singlet fission in a photovoltaic cell, the theoretical energy conversion efficiency limit is larger than the Shockley-Queisser limit due to two excitons produced with one incident photon. In a singlet fission material, ...
Efficient Raman generation in a waveguide: A route to ultrafast quantum random number generation
England, D. G.; Bustard, P. J.; Moffatt, D. J.; Nunn, J.; Lausten, R.; Sussman, B. J.
2014-02-03
The inherent uncertainty in quantum mechanics offers a source of true randomness which can be used to produce unbreakable cryptographic keys. We discuss the development of a high-speed random number generator based on the quantum phase fluctuations in spontaneously initiated stimulated Raman scattering (SISRS). We utilize the tight confinement and long interaction length available in a Potassium Titanyl Phosphate waveguide to generate highly efficient SISRS using nanojoule pulse energies, reducing the high pump power requirements of the previous approaches. We measure the random phase of the Stokes output using a simple interferometric setup to yield quantum random numbers at 145 Mbps.
Resource efficient gadgets for compiling adiabatic quantum optimization problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babbush, Ryan; O'Gorman, Bryan; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2013-11-01
We develop a resource efficient method by which the ground-state of an arbitrary k-local, optimization Hamiltonian can be encoded as the ground-state of a (k-1)-local optimization Hamiltonian. This result is important because adiabatic quantum algorithms are often most easily formulated using many-body interactions but experimentally available interactions are generally 2-body. In this context, the efficiency of a reduction gadget is measured by the number of ancilla qubits required as well as the amount of control precision needed to implement the resulting Hamiltonian. First, we optimize methods of applying these gadgets to obtain 2-local Hamiltonians using the least possible number of ancilla qubits. Next, we show a novel reduction gadget which minimizes control precision and a heuristic which uses this gadget to compile 3-local problems with a significant reduction in control precision. Finally, we present numerics which indicate a substantial decrease in the resources required to implement randomly generated, 3-body optimization Hamiltonians when compared to other methods in the literature.
Absolute quantum cutting efficiency of Tb{sup 3+}-Yb{sup 3+} co-doped glass
Duan, Qianqian; Qin, Feng; Zhang, Zhiguo; Zhao, Hua; Cao, Wenwu
2013-12-07
The absolute quantum cutting efficiency of Tb{sup 3+}-Yb{sup 3+} co-doped glass was quantitatively measured by an integrating sphere detection system, which is independent of the excitation power. As the Yb{sup 3+} concentration increases, the near infrared quantum efficiency exhibited an exponential growth with an upper limit of 13.5%, but the visible light efficiency was reduced rapidly. As a result, the total quantum efficiency monotonically decreases rather than increases as theory predicted. In fact, the absolute quantum efficiency was far less than the theoretical value due to the low radiative efficiency of Tb{sup 3+} (<61%) and significant cross-relaxation nonradiative loss between Yb{sup 3+} ions.
Quantum Dots Promise to Significantly Boost Solar Cell Efficiencies (Fact Sheet)
Not Available
2013-08-01
In the search for a third generation of solar-cell technologies, a leading candidate is the use of 'quantum dots' -- tiny spheres of semiconductor material measuring only about 2-10 billionths of a meter in diameter. Quantum dots have the potential to dramatically increase the efficiency of converting sunlight into energy -- perhaps even doubling it in some devices -- because of their ability to generate more than one bound electron-hole pair, or exciton, per incoming photon. NREL has produced quantum dots using colloidal suspensions; then, using molecular self-assembly, they have been fabricated into the first-ever quantum-dot solar cells. While these devices operate with only 4.4% efficiency, they demonstrate the capability for low-cost manufacturing.
Kwiat, Paul
the detection efficiency of visible light photon counters (VLPCs), a single-photon detection technology, cryp- tography, communication, and metrology. As inherently mobile quantum particles, photons, the state must be detected, obtaining some desired measurement result, e.g., for secure communication
High-efficiency quantum-nondemolition single-photon-number-resolving detector
Munro, W.J.; Nemoto, Kae; Beausoleil, R.G.; Spiller, T.P.
2005-03-01
We discuss an approach to the problem of creating a photon-number-resolving detector using the giant Kerr nonlinearities available in electromagnetically induced transparency. Our scheme can implement a photon-number quantum-nondemolition measurement with high efficiency ({approx}99%) using fewer than 1600 atoms embedded in a dielectric waveguide.
Not Available
2011-08-01
Fact sheet on the FlashQE system, a 2011 R&D 100 Award winner. A solid-state optical system by NREL and Tau Science measures solar cell quantum efficiency in less than a second, enabling a suite of new capabilities for solar cell manufacturers.
Dynamical localization, measurements and quantum computing
M. Terraneo; D. L. Shepelyansky
2003-09-26
We study numerically the effects of measurements on dynamical localization in the kicked rotator model simulated on a quantum computer. Contrary to the previous studies, which showed that measurements induce a diffusive probability spreading, our results demonstrate that localization can be preserved for repeated single-qubit measurements. We detect a transition from a localized to a delocalized phase, depending on the system parameters and on the choice of the measured qubit.
Detecting arbitrary quantum errors via stabilizer measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steffen, Matthias
2015-03-01
Fault tolerant quantum computing requires error correction, which relies on the ability to extract information about the error that occurred rather than the states of the data qubits themselves. Stabilizer codes are an attractive solution to this problem in which the parity of the data qubits is measured with the aid of additional ancilla qubits, resulting in the ``stabilization'' of a specific quantum state. Here, we perform syndrome (or error) extraction and arbitrary error detection by using a 2x2 lattice of superconducting qubits and simultaneous quantum non-demolition stabilizer measurements. In this experiment one of the Bell states is stabilized, and any arbitrary single-qubit bit or phase error can be detected without destroying the stabilized Bell state. This lattice is a representative of a primitive tile for the surface code which is a promising approach towards quantum error correction.
Quantum Algorithm for Universal Implementation of the Projective Measurement of Energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakayama, Shojun; Soeda, Akihito; Murao, Mio
2015-05-01
A projective measurement of energy (PME) on a quantum system is a quantum measurement determined by the Hamiltonian of the system. PME protocols exist when the Hamiltonian is given in advance. Unknown Hamiltonians can be identified by quantum tomography, but the time cost to achieve a given accuracy increases exponentially with the size of the quantum system. In this Letter, we improve the time cost by adapting quantum phase estimation, an algorithm designed for computational problems, to measurements on physical systems. We present a PME protocol without quantum tomography for Hamiltonians whose dimension and energy scale are given but which are otherwise unknown. Our protocol implements a PME to arbitrary accuracy without any dimension dependence on its time cost. We also show that another computational quantum algorithm may be used for efficient estimation of the energy scale. These algorithms show that computational quantum algorithms, with suitable modifications, have applications beyond their original context.
Transitions in the computational power of thermal states for measurement-based quantum computation
Barrett, Sean D. [Optics Section, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Bartlett, Stephen D.; Jennings, David [School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Doherty, Andrew C. [School of Physical Sciences, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Rudolph, Terry [Optics Section, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom)
2009-12-15
We show that the usefulness of the thermal state of a specific spin-lattice model for measurement-based quantum computing exhibits a transition between two distinct 'phases' - one in which every state is a universal resource for quantum computation, and another in which any local measurement sequence can be simulated efficiently on a classical computer. Remarkably, this transition in computational power does not coincide with any phase transition, classical, or quantum in the underlying spin-lattice model.
Coherence and measurement in quantum thermodynamics
Philipp Kammerlander; Janet Anders
2015-09-18
Thermodynamics is a highly successful macroscopic theory widely used across the natural sciences and for the construction of everyday devices, from car engines and fridges to power plants and solar cells. With thermodynamics predating quantum theory, research now aims to uncover the thermodynamic laws that govern finite size systems which may in addition host quantum effects. Here we identify information processing tasks, the so-called "projections", that can only be formulated within the framework of quantum mechanics. We show that the physical realisation of such projections can come with a non-trivial thermodynamic work only for quantum states with coherences. This contrasts with information erasure, first investigated by Landauer, for which a thermodynamic work cost applies for classical and quantum erasure alike. Implications are far-reaching, adding a thermodynamic dimension to measurements performed in quantum thermodynamics experiments, and providing key input for the construction of a future quantum thermodynamic framework. Repercussions are discussed for quantum work fluctuation relations and thermodynamic single-shot approaches.
An Evolutionary Formalism for Weak Quantum Measurements
Apoorva Patel; Parveen Kumar
2015-06-23
Unitary evolution and projective measurement are fundamental axioms of quantum mechanics. Even though projective measurement yields one of the eigenstates of the measured operator as the outcome, there is no theory that predicts which eigenstate will be observed in which experimental run. There exists only an ensemble description, which predicts probabilities of various outcomes over many experimental runs. We propose a dynamical evolution equation for the projective collapse of the quantum state in individual experimental runs, which is consistent with the well-established framework of quantum mechanics. In case of gradual weak measurements, its predictions for ensemble evolution are different from those of the Born rule. It is an open question whether or not suitably designed experiments can observe this alternate evolution.
The probe readout and quantum limited measurements
Salini Jose; Noufal Jaseem; Anil Shaji
2012-12-19
Assuming that the parameter dependent evolution, as well as the measurements that are done for readout, of a quantum system that acts as the probe in a quantum limited measurement scheme are both fixed, we find the optimal initial states of the probe that will saturate the quantum Cramer-Rao bound. When the probe system is itself made of identical, elementary, two-level subsystems or qubits, we connect the optimal state of the N qubit probe to that of the one qubit probe. This is done for two different classes of dynamics for the probe qubits, one of which is entangling while the other is not. We study the limitations placed on the optimal initial state of the probe and the achievable measurement uncertainty by restrictions on the readout procedure that is applied on the probe qubits at the end of the measurement protocol.
Parametric description of the quantum measurement process
Pietro Liuzzo-Scorpo; Alessandro Cuccoli; Paola Verrucchi
2015-05-12
We present a description of the measurement process based on the parametric representation with environmental coherent states. This representation is specifically tailored for studying quantum systems whose environment needs being considered through the quantum-to-classical cross-over. Focusing upon projective measures, and exploiting the connection between large-$N$ quantum theories and the classical limit of related ones, we manage to push our description beyond the pre-measurement step. This allows us to show that the outcome production follows from a global-symmetry breaking, entailing the observed system's state reduction, and that the statistical nature of the process is brought about, together with the Born's rule, by the macroscopic character of the measuring apparatus.
Quantum Measurement and the Paulian Idea
Christopher Fuchs; Ruediger Schack
2014-12-16
In the quantum Bayesian (or QBist) conception of quantum theory, "quantum measurement" is understood not as a comparison of something pre-existent with a standard, but instead indicative of the creation of something new in the universe: Namely, the fresh experience any agent receives upon taking an action on the world. We explore the implications of this for any would-be ontology underlying QBism. The concept that presently stands out as a candidate "material for our universe's composition" is "experience" itself, or what John Wheeler called "observer-participancy".
A Highly Efficient Hybrid GaAs Solar Cell Based on Colloidal-Quantum-Dot-Sensitization
Han, Hau-Vei; Lin, Chien-Chung; Tsai, Yu-Lin; Chen, Hsin-Chu; Chen, Kuo-Ju; Yeh, Yun-Ling; Lin, Wen-Yi; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Yu, Peichen
2014-01-01
This paper presents a hybrid design, featuring a traditional GaAs-based solar cell combined with various colloidal quantum dots. This hybrid design effectively boosts photon harvesting at long wavelengths while enhancing the collection of photogenerated carriers in the ultraviolet region. The merits of using highly efficient semiconductor solar cells and colloidal quantum dots were seamlessly combined to increase overall power conversion efficiency. Several photovoltaic parameters, including short-circuit current density, open circuit voltage, and external quantum efficiency, were measured and analyzed to investigate the performance of this hybrid device. Offering antireflective features at long wavelengths and luminescent downshifting for high-energy photons, the quantum dots effectively enhanced overall power conversion efficiency by as high as 24.65% compared with traditional GaAs-based devices. The evolution of weighted reflectance as a function of the dilution factor of QDs was investigated. Further analysis of the quantum efficiency response showed that the luminescent downshifting effect can be as much as 6.6% of the entire enhancement of photogenerated current. PMID:25034623
Direct measurement of the quantum wavefunction by strong measurements
Giuseppe Vallone; Daniele Dequal
2015-04-24
Weak measurements are supposed to be essential for the so called direct measurement of the quantum wavefunction [Nature (London) 474, 188 (2011)]. Here we show that direct measurement of the wavefunction can be obtained by using measurements of arbitrary strength. In particular, in the case of strong (i.e. projective) measurements, we compared the precision and the accuracy of the two methods, by showing that strong measurements outperform weak measurements in both. We also give the exact expression of the reconstructed wavefunction obtained by the weak measurement approach, allowing to define the range of applicability of such method.
Direct Measurement of the Quantum Wavefunction
Jeff S. Lundeen; Brandon Sutherland; Aabid Patel; Corey Stewart; Charles Bamber
2011-12-15
Central to quantum theory, the wavefunction is the complex distribution used to completely describe a quantum system. Despite its fundamental role, it is typically introduced as an abstract element of the theory with no explicit definition. Rather, physicists come to a working understanding of the wavefunction through its use to calculate measurement outcome probabilities via the Born Rule. Presently, scientists determine the wavefunction through tomographic methods, which estimate the wavefunction that is most consistent with a diverse collection of measurements. The indirectness of these methods compounds the problem of defining the wavefunction. Here we show that the wavefunction can be measured directly by the sequential measurement of two complementary variables of the system. The crux of our method is that the first measurement is performed in a gentle way (i.e. weak measurement) so as not to invalidate the second. The result is that the real and imaginary components of the wavefunction appear directly on our measurement apparatus. We give an experimental example by directly measuring the transverse spatial wavefunction of a single photon, a task not previously realized by any method. We show that the concept is universal, being applicable both to other degrees of freedom of the photon (e.g. polarization, frequency, etc.) and to other quantum systems (e.g. electron spin-z quantum state, SQUIDs, trapped ions, etc.). Consequently, this method gives the wavefunction a straightforward and general definition in terms of a specific set of experimental operations. We expect it to expand the range of quantum systems scientists are able to characterize and initiate new avenues to understand fundamental quantum theory.
Optimum quantum dot size for highly efficient fluorescence bioimaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martínez Maestro, Laura; Jacinto, Carlos; Rocha, Uéslen; Carmen Iglesias-de la Cruz, M.; Sanz-Rodriguez, Francisco; Juarranz, Angeles; García Solé, José; Jaque, Daniel
2012-01-01
Semiconductor quantum dots of few nanometers have demonstrated a great potential for bioimaging. The size determines the emitted color, but it is also expected to play an important role in the image brightness. In this work, the size dependence of the fluorescence quantum yield of the highly thermal sensitive CdTe quantum dots has been systematically investigated by thermal lens spectroscopy. It has been found that an optimum quantum yield is reached for 3.8-nm quantum dots. The presence of this optimum size has been corroborated in both one-photon excited fluorescence experiments and two-photon fluorescence microscopy of dot-incubated cancer cells. Combination of quantum yield and fluorescence decay time measurements supports that the existence of this optimum size emerges from the interplay between the frequency-dependent radiative emission rate and the size-dependent coupling strength between bulk excitons and surface trapping states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niu, X. Y.; Huang, X. L.; Shang, Y. F.; Wang, X. Y.
2015-04-01
Superposition principle plays a crucial role in quantum mechanics, thus its effects on thermodynamics is an interesting topic. Here, the effects of superpositions of quantum states on isoenergetic cycle are studied. We find superposition can improve the heat engine efficiency and release the positive work condition in general case. In the finite time process, we find the efficiency at maximum power output in superposition case is lower than the nonsuperposition case. This efficiency depends on one index of the energy spectrum of the working substance. This result does not mean the superposition discourages the heat engine performance. For fixed efficiency or fixed power, the superposition improves the power or efficiency respectively. These results show how quantum mechanical properties affect the thermodynamical cycle.
Entanglement measures in quantum and classical chaos
Arul Lakshminarayan; Jayendra N. Bandyopadhyay; M. S. Santhanam; V. B. Sheorey
2005-09-05
Entanglement is a Hilbert-space based measure of nonseparability of states that leads to unique quantum possibilities such as teleportation. It has been at the center of intense activity in the area of quantum information theory and computation. In this paper we discuss the implications of quantum chaos on entanglement, showing how chaos can lead to large entanglement that is universal and describable using random matrix theory. We also indicate how this measure can be used in the Hilbert space formulation of classical mechanics. This leads us to consider purely Hilbert-space based measures of classical chaos, rather than the usual phase-space based ones such as the Lyapunov exponents, and can possibly lead to understanding of partial differential equations and nonintegrable classical field theories.
Wigner Measures in Noncommutative Quantum Mechanics
C. Bastos; N. C. Dias; J. N. Prata
2009-07-25
We study the properties of quasi-distributions or Wigner measures in the context of noncommutative quantum mechanics. In particular, we obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for a phase-space function to be a noncommutative Wigner measure, for a Gaussian to be a noncommutative Wigner measure, and derive certain properties of the marginal distributions which are not shared by ordinary Wigner measures. Moreover, we derive the Robertson-Schr\\"odinger uncertainty principle. Finally, we show explicitly how the set of noncommutative Wigner measures relates to the sets of Liouville and (commutative) Wigner measures.
Computable measure of the quantum correlation
S. Javad Akhtarshenas; Hamidreza Mohammadi; Saman Karimi; Zahra Azmi
2014-08-13
A general state of an $m\\otimes n$ system is a classical-quantum state if and only if its associated $A$-correlation matrix (a matrix constructed from the coherence vector of the party $A$, the correlation matrix of the state, and a function of the local coherence vector of the subsystem $B$), has rank no larger than $m-1$. Using the general Schatten $p$-norms, we quantify quantum correlation by measuring any violation of this condition. The required minimization can be carried out for the general $p$-norms and any function of the local coherence vector of the unmeasured subsystem, leading to a class of computable quantities which can be used to capture the quantumness of correlations due to the subsystem $A$. We introduce two special members of these quantifiers; The first one coincides with the tight lower bound on the geometric measure of discord, so that such lower bound fully captures the quantum correlation of a bipartite system. Accordingly, a vanishing tight lower bound on the geometric discord is a necessary and sufficient condition for a state to be zero-discord. The second quantifier has the property that it is invariant under a local and reversible operation performed on the unmeasured subsystem, so that it can be regarded as a computable well-defined measure of the quantum correlations. The approach presented in this paper provides a way to circumvent the problem with the geometric discord. We provide some examples to exemplify this measure.
Quantumness in a decoherent quantum walk using measurement-induced disturbance
Srikanth, R. [Poornaprajna Institute of Scientific Research, Devanahalli, Bangalore 562 110 (India); Raman Research Institute, Sadashiva Nagar, Bangalore (India); Banerjee, Subhashish [Chennai Mathematical Institute, Siruseri, Chennai (India); Chandrashekar, C. M. [Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Center for Quantum Sciences, Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai 600113 (India)
2010-06-15
The classicalization of a decoherent discrete-time quantum walk on a line or an n-cycle can be demonstrated in various ways that do not necessarily provide a geometry-independent description. For example, the position probability distribution becomes increasingly Gaussian, with a concomitant fall in the standard deviation, in the former case, but not in the latter. As another example, each step of the quantum walk on a line may be subjected to an arbitrary phase gate, without affecting the position probability distribution, no matter whether the walk is noiseless or noisy. This symmetry, which is absent in the case of noiseless cyclic walk, but is restored in the presence of sufficient noise, serves as an indicator of classicalization, but only in the cyclic case. Here we show that the degree of quantum correlations between the coin and position degrees of freedom, quantified by a measure based on the disturbance induced by local measurements [Luo, Phys. Rev. A 77, 022301 (2008)], provides a suitable measure of classicalization across both type of walks. Applying this measure to compare the two walks, we find that cyclic quantum walks tend to classicalize faster than quantum walks on a line because of more efficient phase randomization due to the self-interference of the two counter-rotating waves. We model noise as acting on the coin, and given by the squeezed generalized amplitude damping (SGAD) channel, which generalizes the generalized amplitude damping channel.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tex, David M.; Kamiya, Itaru; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko
2013-06-01
The mechanisms of upconverted photocurrent in InAs quantum structures embedded in AlxGa1-xAs were studied with simultaneous measurements of photoluminescence and photocurrent spectra. Efficient upconversion was verified in samples with and without quantum dots. The dominant upconversion process from low temperatures to room temperature was found to occur through an Auger process in disklike InAs quantum structures. The results suggest the importance of shallow energy levels, which enable upconversion and efficient carrier extraction through multiparticle interactions. The disklike structure was concluded to be a suitable intermediate-band structure in terms of the energy conversion efficiency.
T. S. Mahesh; Abhishek Shukla; Swathi S. Hegde; C. S. Sudheer Kumar; Hemant Katiyar; Sharad Joshi; K. R. Koteswara Rao
2015-09-15
Quantum ensembles form easily accessible architectures for studying various phenomena in quantum physics, quantum information science, and spectroscopy. Here we review some recent protocols for measurements in quantum ensembles by utilizing ancillary systems. We also illustrate these protocols experimentally via nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. In particular, we shall review noninvasive measurements, extracting expectation values of various operators, characterizations of quantum states, and quantum processes, and finally quantum noise engineering.
High-quantum efficiency, long-lived luminescing refractory oxides
Chen, Yok (Oak Ridge, TN); Gonzalez, Roberto (Knoxville, TN); Summers, Geoffrey P. (Stillwater, OK)
1984-01-01
A crystal having a high-quantum efficiency and a long period of luminescence is formed of an oxide selected from the group consisting of magnesium oxide and calcium oxide and possessing a concentration ratio of H.sup.- ions to F centers in the range of about 0.05 to about 10.
Large efficiency at telecom wavelength for optical quantum memories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dajczgewand, Julián; Le Gouët, Jean-Louis; Louchet-Chauvet, Anne; Chanelière, Thierry
2014-05-01
We implement the ROSE protocol in an erbium doped solid, compatible with the telecom range. The ROSE scheme is an adaptation of the standard 2-pulse photon echo to make it suitable for a quantum memory. We observe an efficiency of 40% in a forward direction by using specific orientations of the light polarizations, magnetic field and crystal axes.
Erbium-implanted silica colloids with 80% luminescence quantum efficiency
Polman, Albert
impurities. Spinning a layer of polymethylmethacrylate over the silica spheres results in an opticallyErbium-implanted silica colloids with 80% luminescence quantum efficiency L. H. Slooff, M. J. A. de, 1098 SJ Amsterdam, The Netherlands Received 6 March 2000; accepted for publication 24 April 2000 Silica
An efficient quantum algorithm for the Moebius function
Peter J. Love
2014-12-11
We give an efficient quantum algorithm for the Moebius function $\\mu(n)$ from the natural numbers to $\\{-1,0,1\\}$. The cost of the algorithm is asymptotically quadratic in $\\log n$ and does not require the computation of the prime factorization of $n$ as an intermediate step.
Quantum memory for light: large efficiency at telecom wavelength
Julián Dajczgewand; Jean-Louis Le Gouët; Anne Louchet-Chauvet; Thierry Chanelière
2013-12-03
We implement the ROSE protocol in an erbium doped solid, compatible with the telecom range. The ROSE scheme is an adaptation of the standard 2-pulse photon echo to make it suitable for a quantum memory. We observe an efficiency of 40% in a forward direction by using specific orientations of the light polarizations, magnetic field and crystal axes.
Optimum and efficient sampling for variational quantum Monte Carlo
Trail, John Robert; 10.1063/1.3488651
2010-01-01
Quantum mechanics for many-body systems may be reduced to the evaluation of integrals in 3N dimensions using Monte-Carlo, providing the Quantum Monte Carlo ab initio methods. Here we limit ourselves to expectation values for trial wavefunctions, that is to Variational quantum Monte Carlo. Almost all previous implementations employ samples distributed as the physical probability density of the trial wavefunction, and assume the Central Limit Theorem to be valid. In this paper we provide an analysis of random error in estimation and optimisation that leads naturally to new sampling strategies with improved computational and statistical properties. A rigorous lower limit to the random error is derived, and an efficient sampling strategy presented that significantly increases computational efficiency. In addition the infinite variance heavy tailed random errors of optimum parameters in conventional methods are replaced with a Normal random error, strengthening the theoretical basis of optimisation. The method is ...
UV quantum efficiencies of organic fluors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lally, C. H.; Davies, G. J.; Jones, W. G.; Smith, N. J. T.
1996-10-01
The need for, and benefits of using, wavelength shifters with certain dark matter scintillator detectors is discussed. The dependence of conversion efficiency on thickness and incident wavelength is extensively investigated for evaporated coatings of p-terphenyl and tetraphenyl butadiene, and for plastic waveshifters based upon p-terphenyl. For the latter the effect of varying the p-terphenyl concentration is studied and some factors which must be considered when developing them for use in the UV are also discussed.
Measurement-induced quantum entanglement recovery
Xu Xiaoye; Xu Jinshi; Li Chuanfeng; Guo Guangcan [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230026 (China)
2010-08-15
By using photon pairs created in parametric down-conversion, we report on an experiment, which demonstrates that measurement can recover the quantum entanglement of a two-qubit system in a pure dephasing environment. The concurrence of the final state with and without measurement is compared and is analyzed. Furthermore, we verify that recovered states can still violate the Bell inequality, that is, to say, such recovered states exhibit nonlocality. In the context of quantum entanglement, sudden death and rebirth provide clear evidence, which verifies that entanglement dynamics of the system is sensitive not only to its environment, but also to its initial state.
Measurement-induced quantum entanglement recovery
Xiao-Ye,; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can; 10.1103/PhysRevA.82.022324
2010-01-01
By using photon pairs created in parametric down conversion, we report on an experiment, which demonstrates that measurement can recover the quantum entanglement of two qubit system in a pure dephasing environment. The concurrence of the final state with and without measurement are compared and analyzed. Furthermore, we verify that recovered states can still violate Bell's inequality, that is, to say, such recovered states exhibit nonlocality. In the context of quantum entanglement, sudden death and rebirth provide clear evidence, which verifies that entanglement dynamics of the system is sensitive not only to its environment, but also on its initial state.
Overcoming efficiency constraints on blind quantum computation
Carlos A. Pérez-Delgado; Joseph F. Fitzsimons
2014-11-18
Blind quantum computation allows a user to delegate a computation to an untrusted server while keeping the computation hidden. A number of recent works have sought to establish bounds on the communication requirements necessary to implement blind computation, and a bound based on the no-programming theorem of Nielsen and Chuang has emerged as a natural limiting factor. Here we show that this constraints only hold in limited scenarios and show how to overcome it using a method based on iterated gate-teleportations. We present our results as a family of protocols, with varying degrees of computational-ability requirements on the client. Certain protocols in this family exponentially outperform previously known schemes in terms of total communication. The approach presented here can be adapted to other distributed computing protocols to reduce communication requirements.
Optimal minimum-cost quantum measurements for imperfect detection
Erika Andersson
2012-01-01
Knowledge of optimal quantum measurements is important for a wide range of situations, including quantum communication and quantum metrology. Quantum measurements are usually optimised with an ideal experimental realisation in mind. Real devices and detectors are, however, imperfect. This has to be taken into account when optimising quantum measurements. In this paper, we derive the optimal minimum-cost and minimum-error measurements for a general model of imperfect detection.
Efficient Multi-Dimensional Simulation of Quantum Confinement Effects in Advanced MOS Devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biegel, Bryan A.; Ancona, Mario G.; Rafferty, Conor S.; Yu, Zhiping
2000-01-01
We investigate the density-gradient (DG) transport model for efficient multi-dimensional simulation of quantum confinement effects in advanced MOS devices. The formulation of the DG model is described as a quantum correction ot the classical drift-diffusion model. Quantum confinement effects are shown to be significant in sub-100nm MOSFETs. In thin-oxide MOS capacitors, quantum effects may reduce gate capacitance by 25% or more. As a result, the inclusion of quantum effects may reduce gate capacitance by 25% or more. As a result, the inclusion of quantum effects in simulations dramatically improves the match between C-V simulations and measurements for oxide thickness down to 2 nm. Significant quantum corrections also occur in the I-V characteristics of short-channel (30 to 100 nm) n-MOSFETs, with current drive reduced by up to 70%. This effect is shown to result from reduced inversion charge due to quantum confinement of electrons in the channel. Also, subthreshold slope is degraded by 15 to 20 mV/decade with the inclusion of quantum effects via the density-gradient model, and short channel effects (in particular, drain-induced barrier lowering) are noticeably increased.
A strategy for calibrating the actual quantum efficiency of quantum cutting in YVO4:Bi3+(Nd3+), Yb3+
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Sai; Xu, Wen; Zhu, Yongsheng; Dong, Biao; Bai, Xue; Xu, Lin; Song, Hongwei
2013-02-01
Recently, much attention has been paid to the quantum cutting (QC) through the energy transfer (ET) between Yb3+ and other RE ions and the theoretical quantum efficiency (QE) of QC was reported as high as 140%-195%. However, the practical measurement was rather rare. In this paper, we studied the ET and QC properties of YVO4: Bi3+ (5%)/Nd3+ (1%), Yb3+ (0%-20%) synthesized by the solvothermal method. And more, a strategy for calibrating the actual QE of QC was established. Through measurement, the highest QE of QC was determined to be 12.3% for YVO4: Bi3+,Yb3+, and 25.8% for YVO4: Nd3+,Yb3+, which was much lower than the prediction by luminescent dynamics. This work helps us to forecast the feasibility of potential application in enhancing the efficiency of Si-based solar cell via the Bi3+/RE3+ codoped with Yb3+ phosphors.
Quantum de finetti theorems under local measurements with applications
Brandao, Fernando G.S.L.
Quantum de Finetti theorems are a useful tool in the study of correlations in quantum multipartite states. In this paper we prove two new quantum de Finetti theorems, both showing that under tests formed by local measurements ...
Mapping coherence in measurement via full quantum tomography of a hybrid optical detector
Zhang, Lijian; Datta, Animesh; Puentes, Graciana; Lundeen, Jeff S; Jin, Xian-Min; Smith, Brian J; Plenio, Martin B; Walmsley, Ian A
2012-01-01
Quantum states and measurements exhibit wave-like --- continuous, or particle-like --- discrete, character. Hybrid discrete-continuous photonic systems are key to investigating fundamental quantum phenomena, generating superpositions of macroscopic states, and form essential resources for quantum-enhanced applications, e.g. entanglement distillation and quantum computation, as well as highly efficient optical telecommunications. Realizing the full potential of these hybrid systems requires quantum-optical measurements sensitive to complementary observables such as field quadrature amplitude and photon number. However, a thorough understanding of the practical performance of an optical detector interpolating between these two regions is absent. Here, we report the implementation of full quantum detector tomography, enabling the characterization of the simultaneous wave and photon-number sensitivities of quantum-optical detectors. This yields the largest parametrization to-date in quantum tomography experiments...
Generalized entropic measures of quantum correlations
Rossignoli, R.; Canosa, N.; Ciliberti, L. [Departamento de Fisica-IFLP, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)
2010-11-15
We propose a general measure of nonclassical correlations for bipartite systems based on generalized entropic functions and majorization properties. Defined as the minimum information loss due to a local measurement, in the case of pure states it reduces to the generalized entanglement entropy, i.e., the generalized entropy of the reduced state. However, in the case of mixed states it can be nonzero in separable states, vanishing just for states diagonal in a general product basis, like the quantum discord. Simple quadratic measures of quantum correlations arise as a particular case of the present formalism. The minimum information loss due to a joint local measurement is also discussed. The evaluation of these measures in simple relevant cases is as well provided, together with comparison with the corresponding entanglement monotones.
Direct measurement of general quantum states using weak measurement
Jeff S. Lundeen; Charles Bamber
2011-12-22
Recent work [J.S. Lundeen et al. Nature, 474, 188 (2011)] directly measured the wavefunction by weakly measuring a variable followed by a normal (i.e. `strong') measurement of the complementary variable. We generalize this method to mixed states by considering the weak measurement of various products of these observables, thereby providing the density matrix an operational definition in terms of a procedure for its direct measurement. The method only requires measurements in two bases and can be performed `in situ', determining the quantum state without destroying it.
Algebraic and algorithmic frameworks for optimized quantum measurements
Amine Laghaout; Ulrik L. Andersen
2015-07-08
Von Neumann projections are the main operations by which information can be extracted from the quantum to the classical realm. They are however static processes that do not adapt to the states they measure. Advances in the field of adaptive measurement have shown that this limitation can be overcome by "wrapping" the von Neumann projectors in a higher-dimensional circuit which exploits the interplay between measurement outcomes and measurement settings. Unfortunately, the design of adaptive measurement has often been ad hoc and setup-specific. We shall here develop a unified framework for designing optimized measurements. Our approach is two-fold: The first is algebraic and formulates the problem of measurement as a simple matrix diagonalization problem. The second is algorithmic and models the optimal interaction between measurement outcomes and measurement settings as a cascaded network of conditional probabilities. Finally, we demonstrate that several figures of merit, such as Bell factors, can be improved by optimized measurements. This leads us to the promising observation that measurement detectors which---taken individually---have a low quantum efficiency can be be arranged into circuits where, collectively, the limitations of inefficiency are compensated for.
An overview on Single Apparatus Quantum Measurements
Bahar Mehmani; Theo M. Nieuwenhuizen
2010-07-21
Given the state of a quantum system, one can calculate the expectation value of any observable of the system. However, the inverse problem of determining the state by performing different measurements is not a trivial task. In various experimental setups it is reasonably straightforward to reconstruct the state of a quantum system employing linear tomographic technique. In this way the elements of the density matrix can be linearly related to a set of measured quantities. But since different observables of a quantum system are not commuting with each other, one often has to perform series of successive measurements of observables which cannot be done simultaneously. Simultaneous measurement of observables cost less time and energy and is more beneficial. In this paper we review the strategy of quantum state tomography with simultaneous measurement of commuting observables. This can be done by introducing an assistant system of which the state is known. We show that the interaction between the assistant and the system of interest within different frame works allows the reconstruction of the state of the system. Specifically, we consider a two-level system and reconstruct its initial state by introducing an assistant which can be either another two-level system or a single cavity mode of the electromagnetic field.
High Quantum Efficiency OLED Lighting Systems
Shiang, Joseph
2011-09-30
The overall goal of the program was to apply improvements in light outcoupling technology to a practical large area plastic luminaire, and thus enable the product vision of an extremely thin form factor high efficiency large area light source. The target substrate was plastic and the baseline device was operating at 35 LPW at the start of the program. The target LPW of the program was a >2x improvement in the LPW efficacy and the overall amount of light to be delivered was relatively high 900 lumens. Despite the extremely difficult challenges associated with scaling up a wet solution process on plastic substrates, the program was able to make substantial progress. A small molecule wet solution process was successfully implemented on plastic substrates with almost no loss in efficiency in transitioning from the laboratory scale glass to large area plastic substrates. By transitioning to a small molecule based process, the LPW entitlement increased from 35 LPW to 60 LPW. A further 10% improvement in outcoupling efficiency was demonstrated via the use of a highly reflecting cathode, which reduced absorptive loss in the OLED device. The calculated potential improvement in some cases is even larger, ~30%, and thus there is considerable room for optimism in improving the net light coupling efficacy, provided absorptive loss mechanisms are eliminated. Further improvements are possible if scattering schemes such as the silver nanowire based hard coat structure are fully developed. The wet coating processes were successfully scaled to large area plastic substrate and resulted in the construction of a 900 lumens luminaire device.
Intensive temperature and quantum correlations for refined quantum measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferraro, Alessandro; García-Saez, Artur; Acín, Antonio
2012-04-01
We consider the concept of temperature in a setting beyond the standard thermodynamics prescriptions. Namely, rather than restricting to standard coarse-grained measurements, we consider observers able to master any possible quantum measurement —a scenario that might be relevant at nanoscopic scales. In this setting, we focus on quantum systems of coupled harmonic oscillators and study the question of whether the temperature is an intensive quantity, in the sense that a block of a thermal state can be approximated by an effective thermal state at the same temperature as the whole system. Using the quantum fidelity as figure of merit, we identify instances in which this approximation is not valid, as the block state and the reference thermal state are distinguishable for refined measurements. Actually, there are situations in which this distinguishability even increases with the block size. However, we also show that the two states do become less distinguishable with the block size for coarse-grained measurements —thus recovering the standard picture. We then go further and construct an effective thermal state which provides a good approximation of the block state for any observables and sizes. Finally, we point out the role that entanglement plays in this scenario by showing that, in general, the thermodynamic paradigm of local intensive temperature applies whenever entanglement is not present in the system.
Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes
Gilchrist, James F.
Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes Keywords: III-Nitride InGaN QWs Light-emitting diodes Efficiency-droop a b s t r a c t Current injection efficiency and its impact on efficiency-droop in InGaN single quantum well (QW) based light-emitting diodes
Measurements in the Levy quantum walk
Romanelli, A.
2007-11-15
We study the quantum walk subjected to measurements with a Levy waiting-time distribution. We find that the system has a sub-ballistic behavior instead of a diffusive one. We obtain an analytical expression for the exponent of the power law of the variance as a function of the characteristic parameter of the Levy distribution.
Quantum correlations and least disturbing local measurements
Rossignoli, R.; Canosa, N.; Ciliberti, L. [Departamento de Fisica-IFLP, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 67, La Plata (1900) (Argentina)
2011-11-15
We examine the evaluation of the minimum information loss due to an unread local measurement in mixed states of bipartite systems, for a general entropic form. Such a quantity provides a measure of quantum correlations, reducing for pure states to the generalized entanglement entropy, while in the case of mixed states it vanishes just for classically correlated states with respect to the measured system, as the quantum discord. General stationary conditions are provided, together with their explicit form for general two-qubit states. Closed expressions for the minimum information loss as measured by quadratic and cubic entropies are also derived for general states of two-qubit systems. As an application, we analyze the case of states with maximally mixed marginals, where a general evaluation is provided, as well as X states and the mixture of two aligned states.
Important detector parameters: 1. Quantum efficiency
Peletier, Reynier
Sun Foucault +Fizeau 1870 invention of dry gelatine emulsions this enabled astronomical applications photons) electron current through resistor voltage device to measure photon flux electronically revolution in astronomical detection problem: currents are very small (e.g. 10-17 A) S/N dominated by thermal
Efficient simulation of quantum evolution using dynamical coarse-graining
M. Khasin; R. Kosloff
2008-04-08
A novel scheme to simulate the evolution of a restricted set of observables of a quantum system is proposed. The set comprises the spectrum-generating algebra of the Hamiltonian. The idea is to consider a certain open-system evolution, which can be interpreted as a process of weak measurement of the distinguished observables performed on the evolving system of interest. Given that the observables are "classical" and the Hamiltonian is moderately nonlinear, the open system dynamics displays a large time-scales separation between the dephasing of the observables and the decoherence of the evolving state in the basis of the generalized coherent states (GCS), associated with the spectrum-generating algebra. The time scale separation allows the unitary dynamics of the observables to be efficiently simulated by the open-system dynamics on the intermediate time-scale.The simulation employs unraveling of the corresponding master equations into pure state evolutions, governed by the stochastic nonlinear Schroedinger equantion (sNLSE). It is proved that GCS are globally stable solutions of the sNLSE, if the Hamilonian is linear in the algebra elements.
Analysis of the efficiency of intermediate band solar cells based on quantum dot supercrystals
Heshmati, S [Department of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Buin Branch (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Golmohammadi, S [Nanophotonics Group, School of Engineering-Emerging Technologies, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 5166614761 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abedi, K; Taleb, H [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C. 1983963113, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2014-03-28
We have studied the influence of the quantum-dot (QD) width and the quantum-dot conduction band (QD-CB) offset on the efficiency of quantum-dot intermediate band solar cells (QD-IBSCs). Simulation results demonstrate that with increasing QD-CB offset and decreasing QD width, the maximum efficiency is achieved. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)
A Correction of Quantum Measurement Formulation Based on Fuzzy Logic
Niloofar Abbasvandi; M. J. Soleimani; A. P. Othman
2013-11-25
The Von Neumann quantum measurement theory and Zurek reformulation are based on an assumption that the quantum system, apparatus and environment obey the quantum mechanics rules. According to the Zurek theory the observers typically interact with their surrounding environments. In this article, we give a more realistic image of the quantum measurement theory; we have proposed a correction to Zurek quantum measurement theory based on the fuzzy logic and fuzzy set theory.
Informationally complete quantum measurements & entanglement bounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flammia, Steven Thomas
2007-12-01
We define a class of measurements which we call pure-state informationally complete (PSI-complete) POVMs. These are measurements which can be used to reconstruct the pure state of a d-dimensional quantum system, but not necessarily a mixed state. We show that 2d measurement outcomes is necessary and sufficient for PSI-completeness. This demonstrates that the measurement complexity (as measured by the number of measurement outcomes) can achieve quadratic improvements when the system is confidently believed to be in a pure state. Next, we consider symmetric informationally complete POVMs (SIC-POVMs). SIC-POVMs are relevant for mixed state quantum tomography, but are not well understood. We prove a theorem related to the conjectured existence of SIC-POVMs showing the uniqueness (up to certain symmetries) of SIC-POVMs of a particular group-covariant type when the dimension of the Hilbert space is a prime number. In the second part of the dissertation, we consider a computational model that has access to only one pure qubit, along with n qubits in the totally mixed state. This model is thought to be capable of performing sonic computational tasks exponentially faster than any known classical algorithm. We show that circuits of this type generally lead to entangled states, but where the entanglement (as measured by the negativity) is bounded by a constant, independent of n, for all bipartite divisions. This suggests that the global nature of entanglement is a more important resource than the magnitude of the entanglement. We then consider multiply constrained bounds on entanglement measures based on convex constraint functions. We outline the general procedure, and then explicitly implement the program for the case of 4 x N quantum systems by bounding the entanglement of formation, the concurrence, and the tangle. Finally, we develop generalized bounds for quantum single-parameter estimation problems for which the coupling to the parameter is described by intrinsic multi-system interactions. For a Hamiltonian with k-system parameter-sensitive terms, the quantum limit scales as 1/N k where N is the number of systems. These quantum limits remain valid when the Hamiltonian is augmented by any parameter-independent interaction among the systems and when adaptive measurements via parameter-independent coupling to ancillas are allowed.
Intermediate band solar cell with extreme broadband spectrum quantum efficiency.
Datas, A; López, E; Ramiro, I; Antolín, E; Martí, A; Luque, A; Tamaki, R; Shoji, Y; Sogabe, T; Okada, Y
2015-04-17
We report, for the first time, about an intermediate band solar cell implemented with InAs/AlGaAs quantum dots whose photoresponse expands from 250 to ?6000??nm. To our knowledge, this is the broadest quantum efficiency reported to date for a solar cell and demonstrates that the intermediate band solar cell is capable of producing photocurrent when illuminated with photons whose energy equals the energy of the lowest band gap. We show experimental evidence indicating that this result is in agreement with the theory of the intermediate band solar cell, according to which the generation recombination between the intermediate band and the valence band makes this photocurrent detectable. PMID:25933339
Origins of low energy-transfer efficiency between patterned GaN quantum well and CdSe quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Xingsheng
2015-03-01
For hybrid light emitting devices (LEDs) consisting of GaN quantum wells and colloidal quantum dots, it is necessary to explore the physical mechanisms causing decreases in the quantum efficiencies and the energy transfer efficiency between a GaN quantum well and CdSe quantum dots. This study investigated the electro-luminescence for a hybrid LED consisting of colloidal quantum dots and a GaN quantum well patterned with photonic crystals. It was found that both the quantum efficiency of colloidal quantum dots on a GaN quantum well and the energy transfer efficiency between the patterned GaN quantum well and the colloidal quantum dots decreased with increases in the driving voltage or the driving time. Under high driving voltages, the decreases in the quantum efficiency of the colloidal quantum dots and the energy transfer efficiency can be attributed to Auger recombination, while those decreases under long driving time are due to photo-bleaching and Auger recombination.
High-efficiency "green" quantum dot solar cells.
Pan, Zhenxiao; Mora-Seró, Iván; Shen, Qing; Zhang, Hua; Li, Yan; Zhao, Ke; Wang, Jin; Zhong, Xinhua; Bisquert, Juan
2014-06-25
Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are extremely interesting materials for the development of photovoltaic devices, but currently the present the drawback is that the most efficient devices have been prepared with toxic heavy metals of Cd or Pb. Solar cells based on "green" QDs--totally free of Cd or Pb--present a modest efficiency of 2.52%. Herein we achieve effective surface passivation of the ternary CuInS2 (CIS) QDs that provides high photovoltaic quality core/shell CIS/ZnS (CIS-Z) QDs, leading to the development of high-efficiency green QD solar cells that surpass the performance of those based on the toxic cadmium and lead chalcogenides QDs. Using wide absorption range QDs, CIS-Z-based quantum dot sensitized solar cell (QDSC) configuration with high QD loading and with the benefit of the recombination reduction with type-I core/shell structure, we boost the power conversion efficiency of Cd- and Pb-free QDSC to a record of 7.04% (with certified efficiency of 6.66%) under AM 1.5G one sun irradiation. This efficiency is the best performance to date for QDSCs and also demonstrates that it is possible to obtain comparable or even better photovoltaic performance from green CIS QDs to the toxic cadmium and lead chalcogenides QDs. PMID:24877600
Efficient Multi-Dimensional Simulation of Quantum Confinement Effects in Advanced MOS Devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biegel, Bryan A.; Rafferty, Conor S.; Ancona, Mario G.; Yu, Zhi-Ping
2000-01-01
We investigate the density-gradient (DG) transport model for efficient multi-dimensional simulation of quantum confinement effects in advanced MOS devices. The formulation of the DG model is described as a quantum correction to the classical drift-diffusion model. Quantum confinement effects are shown to be significant in sub-100nm MOSFETs. In thin-oxide MOS capacitors, quantum effects may reduce gate capacitance by 25% or more. As a result, the inclusion or quantum effects in simulations dramatically improves the match between C-V simulations and measurements for oxide thickness down to 2 nm. Significant quantum corrections also occur in the I-V characteristics of short-channel (30 to 100 nm) n-MOSFETs, with current drive reduced by up to 70%. This effect is shown to result from reduced inversion charge due to quantum confinement of electrons in the channel. Also, subthreshold slope is degraded by 15 to 20 mV/decade with the inclusion of quantum effects via the density-gradient model, and short channel effects (in particular, drain-induced barrier lowering) are noticeably increased.
Uniqueness of Measures in Loop Quantum Cosmology
Maximilian Hanusch
2015-02-26
In a paper of Ashtekar and Campiglia, residual diffeomorphisms have been used to single out the standard representation of the reduced holonomy-flux algebra in homogeneous loop quantum cosmology (LQC). We show that, in the homogeneous isotropic case, unitarity of the translations w.r.t. the extended $\\mathbb{R}$-action (exponentiated reduced fluxes in the standard approach) singles out the Bohr measure on both the standard quantum configuration space $\\mathbb{R}_\\mathrm{Bohr}$ as well as on the Fleischhack one. Thus, it leads to the standard kinematical Hilbert space of LQC in both situations.
Quantum Hamiltonian identification from measurement time traces
Jun Zhang; Mohan Sarovar
2014-08-26
Precise identification of parameters governing quantum processes is a critical task for quantum information and communication technologies. In this work we consider a setting where system evolution is determined by a parameterized Hamiltonian, and the task is to estimate these parameters from temporal records of a restricted set of system observables (time traces). Based on the notion of system realization from linear systems theory we develop a constructive algorithm that provides estimates of the unknown parameters directly from these time traces. We illustrate the algorithm and its robustness to measurement noise by applying it to a one-dimensional spin chain model with variable couplings.
Quantum Hamiltonian identification from measurement time traces.
Zhang, Jun; Sarovar, Mohan
2014-08-22
Precise identification of parameters governing quantum processes is a critical task for quantum information and communication technologies. In this Letter, we consider a setting where system evolution is determined by a parametrized Hamiltonian, and the task is to estimate these parameters from temporal records of a restricted set of system observables (time traces). Based on the notion of system realization from linear systems theory, we develop a constructive algorithm that provides estimates of the unknown parameters directly from these time traces. We illustrate the algorithm and its robustness to measurement noise by applying it to a one-dimensional spin chain model with variable couplings. PMID:25192077
Contextual Values of Observables in Quantum Measurements
J. Dressel; S. Agarwal; A. N. Jordan
2010-06-15
We introduce contextual values as a generalization of the eigenvalues of an observable that takes into account both the system observable and a general measurement procedure. This technique leads to a natural definition of a general conditioned average that converges uniquely to the quantum weak value in the minimal disturbance limit. As such, we address the controversy in the literature regarding the theoretical consistency of the quantum weak value by providing a more general theoretical framework and giving several examples of how that framework relates to existing experimental and theoretical results.
Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution over 200 km
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Yan-Lin; Yin, Hua-Lei; Chen, Si-Jing; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Jiang, Xiao; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Jian; You, Li-Xing; Guan, Jian-Yu; Yang, Dong-Xu; Wang, Zhen; Liang, Hao; Zhang, Zhen; Zhou, Nan; Ma, Xiongfeng; Chen, Teng-Yun; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2014-11-01
Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDIQKD) protocol is immune to all attacks on detection and guarantees the information-theoretical security even with imperfect single-photon detectors. Recently, several proof-of-principle demonstrations of MDIQKD have been achieved. Those experiments, although novel, are implemented through limited distance with a key rate less than 0.1 bit /s . Here, by developing a 75 MHz clock rate fully automatic and highly stable system and superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with detection efficiencies of more than 40%, we extend the secure transmission distance of MDIQKD to 200 km and achieve a secure key rate 3 orders of magnitude higher. These results pave the way towards a quantum network with measurement-device-independent security.
Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km.
Tang, Yan-Lin; Yin, Hua-Lei; Chen, Si-Jing; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Jiang, Xiao; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Jian; You, Li-Xing; Guan, Jian-Yu; Yang, Dong-Xu; Wang, Zhen; Liang, Hao; Zhang, Zhen; Zhou, Nan; Ma, Xiongfeng; Chen, Teng-Yun; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2014-11-01
Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDIQKD) protocol is immune to all attacks on detection and guarantees the information-theoretical security even with imperfect single-photon detectors. Recently, several proof-of-principle demonstrations of MDIQKD have been achieved. Those experiments, although novel, are implemented through limited distance with a key rate less than 0.1??bit/s. Here, by developing a 75 MHz clock rate fully automatic and highly stable system and superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with detection efficiencies of more than 40%, we extend the secure transmission distance of MDIQKD to 200 km and achieve a secure key rate 3 orders of magnitude higher. These results pave the way towards a quantum network with measurement-device-independent security. PMID:25415890
Quantum Bayesian methods and subsequent measurements
Neri, Filippo [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)
2005-12-15
The use of Bayes theorem in quantum mechanics is discussed. It is shown that the quantum Bayes theorem follows from the ordinary quantum measurement theory, when applied to density operators that represent our a priori knowledge of a system. The examples studied involve measurements on multiple copies of the same (unknown) state. The theorem is used to determine the unknown state by successive measurements on several of the copies of the state. An idealized information-theoretic description of propagating CW laser beams is treated in detail. It is shown how photon detections on part of the beams can be used to determine the phase of the rest of the beams. Also discussed, are the limitations on the accuracy of the phase determination that follow from the fact that it is accomplished by the detection of a finite number of photons. Explicit expressions are derived for the conditional probabilities of detecting photons at different locations, given the numbers of photons detected in the past. The quantitative predictions could be used, in principle, to test proposed quantum states of propagating laser beams.
High-fidelity measurement and quantum feedback control in circuit QED
Sarovar, Mohan; Milburn, G. J.; Goan, H.-S.; Spiller, T. P.
2005-12-15
Circuit QED is a promising solid-state quantum computing architecture. It also has excellent potential as a platform for quantum control--especially quantum feedback control--experiments. However, the current scheme for measurement in circuit QED is low efficiency and has low signal-to-noise ratio for single-shot measurements. The low quality of this measurement makes the implementation of feedback difficult, and here we propose two schemes for measurement in circuit QED architectures that can significantly improve signal-to-noise ratio and potentially achieve quantum-limited measurement. Such measurements would enable the implementation of quantum feedback protocols and we illustrate this with a simple entanglement-stabilization scheme.
Optimal control of a quantum measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Egger, D. J.; Wilhelm, F. K.
2014-11-01
Pulses to steer the time evolution of quantum systems can be designed with optimal control theory. In most cases it is the coherent processes that can be controlled and one optimizes the time evolution toward a target unitary process, sometimes also in the presence of noncontrollable incoherent processes. Here we show how to extend the gradient ascent pulse engineering (GRAPE) algorithm in the case where the incoherent processes are controllable and the target time evolution is a nonunitary quantum channel. We perform a gradient search on a fidelity measure based on Choi matrices. We illustrate our algorithm by optimizing a phase qubit measurement pulse. We show how this technique can lead to a large measurement contrast close to 99 % . We also show, within the validity of our model, that this algorithm can produce short 1.4 -ns pulses with 98.2 % contrast.
Measurement understood through the quantum potential approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bohm, D.; Hiley, B. J.
1984-03-01
We review briefly the quantum potential approach to quantum theory, and show that it yields a completely consistent account of the measurement process, including especially what has been called the “collapse of the wave function.” This is done with the aid of a new concept of active information, which enables us to describe the evolution of a physical system as a unique actuality, in principle independent of any observer (so that we can, for example, provide a simple and coherent answer to the Schrödinger cat paradox). Finally, we extend this approach to relativistic quantum field theories, and show that it leads to results that are consistent with all the known experimental implications of the theory of relativity, despite the nonlocality which this approach entails.
Not Available
2011-12-01
A new device that produces and collects multiple electrons per photon could yield inexpensive, high-efficiency photovoltaics. A new device developed through research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) reduces conventional losses in photovoltaic (PV) solar cells, potentially increasing the power conversion efficiency-but not the cost-of the solar cells. Solar cells convert optical energy from the sun into usable electricity; however, almost 50% of the incident energy is lost as heat with present-day technologies. High-efficiency, multi-junction cells reduce this heat loss, but their cost is significantly higher. NREL's new device uses excess energy in solar photons to create extra charges rather than heat. This was achieved using 5-nanometer-diameter quantum dots of lead selenide (PbSe) tightly packed into a film. The researchers chemically treated the film, and then fabricated a device that yielded an external quantum efficiency (number of electrons produced per incident photon) exceeding 100%, a value beyond that of all current solar cells for any incident photon. Quantum dots are known to efficiently generate multiple excitons (a bound electron-hole pair) per absorbed high-energy photon, and this device definitively demonstrates the collection of multiple electrons per photon in a PV cell. The internal quantum efficiency corrects for photons that are not absorbed in the photoactive layer and shows that the PbSe film generates 30% to 40% more electrons in the high-energy spectral region than is possible with a conventional solar cell. While the unoptimized overall power conversion efficiency is still low (less than 5%), the results have important implications for PV because such high quantum efficiency can lead to more electrical current produced than possible using present technologies. Furthermore, this fabrication is also amenable to inexpensive, high-throughput roll-to-roll manufacturing.
Weak Measurement and Feedback in Superconducting Quantum Circuits
K. W. Murch; R. Vijay; I. Siddiqi
2015-07-28
We describe the implementation of weak quantum measurements in superconducting qubits, focusing specifically on transmon type devices in the circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture. To access this regime, the readout cavity is probed with on average a single microwave photon. Such low-level signals are detected using near quantum-noise-limited superconducting parametric amplifiers. Weak measurements yield partial information about the quantum state, and correspondingly do not completely project the qubit into an eigenstate. As such, we use the measurement record to either sequentially reconstruct the quantum state at a given time, yielding a quantum trajectory, or to close a direct quantum feedback loop, stabilizing Rabi oscillations indefinitely.
MASTER EQUATION APPROACH AND QUANTUM TRAJECTORIES OF A QUANTUM MEASUREMENT PROCESS
Goan, Hsi-Sheng
of the occupancy of the quantum dots. The QT or stochastic quantum-jump ME of the density matrix operator )(tcMASTER EQUATION APPROACH AND QUANTUM TRAJECTORIES OF A QUANTUM MEASUREMENT PROCESS Hsi-Sheng Goan Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, University of New South Wales Sydney, NSW 2052 Australia Phone
Quantum state tomography with fully symmetric measurements and product measurements
Zhu Huangjun [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, Singapore 117597 (Singapore); Englert, Berthold-Georg [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)
2011-08-15
We introduce random-matrix theory to study the tomographic efficiency of a wide class of measurements constructed out of weighted 2-designs, including symmetric informationally complete (SIC) probability operator measurements (POMs). In particular, we derive analytic formulas for the mean Hilbert-Schmidt distance and the mean trace distance between the estimator and the true state, which clearly show the difference between the scaling behaviors of the two error measures with the dimension of the Hilbert space. We then prove that the product SIC POMs, the multipartite analog of the SIC POMs, are optimal among all product measurements in the same sense as the SIC POMs are optimal among all joint measurements. We further show that, for bipartite systems, there is only a marginal efficiency advantage of the joint SIC POMs over the product SIC POMs. In marked contrast, for multipartite systems, the efficiency advantage of the joint SIC POMs increases exponentially with the number of parties.
Efficiency of quantum controlled non-Markovian thermalization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukherjee, V.; Giovannetti, V.; Fazio, R.; Huelga, S. F.; Calarco, T.; Montangero, S.
2015-06-01
We study optimal control strategies to optimize the relaxation rate towards the fixed point of a quantum system in the presence of a non-Markovian (NM) dissipative bath. Contrary to naive expectations that suggest that memory effects might be exploited to improve optimal control effectiveness, NM effects influence the optimal strategy in a non trivial way: we present a necessary condition to be satisfied so that the effectiveness of optimal control is enhanced by NM subject to suitable unitary controls. For illustration, we specialize our findings for the case of the dynamics of single qubit amplitude damping channels. The optimal control strategy presented here can be used to implement optimal cooling processes in quantum technologies and may have implications in quantum thermodynamics when assessing the efficiency of thermal micro-machines.
Quantum Theory as Efficient Representation of Probabilistic Information
Johann Summhammer
2007-01-25
Quantum experiments yield random data. We show that the most efficient way to store this empirical information by a finite number of bits is by means of the vector of square roots of observed relative frequencies. This vector has the unique property that its dispersion becomes invariant of the underlying probabilities, and therefore invariant of the physical parameters. This also extends to the complex square roots, and it remains true under a unitary transformation. This reveals quantum theory as a theory for making predictions which are as accurate as the input information, without any statistical loss. Our analysis also suggests that from the point of view of information a slightly more accurate theory than quantum theory should be possible.
Efficiency measurements performed on the MUSE VPHG
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Renault, Edgard; Loupias, Magali; Adjali, Louisa; Arns, James A.; Bacon, Roland M.; Boudon, Didier; Caillier, Patrick; Coadour, Paul; Dekker, Hans; Dubois, Jean-Pierre; Kosmalski, Johan; Pinard, Laurent; Remillieux, Alban
2010-07-01
Volume Phase Holographic Gratings (VPHG) are key elements for the second generation instrument MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) developed for the VLT (Very Large Telescope) for ESO (European Southern Observatory). MUSE operates in the visible wavelength range (465-930nm) and is composed of 24 spectrographs including one VPHG each. This article briefly describes the design of the grating manufactured by Kaiser Optical Systems, to reach the MUSE spectral resolution and efficiency. On the other hand the set up developed in CRAL (Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon) to test the VPHG final performance is deeply discussed. This set up uses a broadband source coupled to a monochromator, and a compensation arm to remove the source intensity fluctuations. The source is amplitude modulated by a chopper, and a lock-in amplifier extracts the modulated signal from the photodiodes. The measurement arm scans the 0, 1st and 2nd diffraction orders of the grating and allows tests of different areas over its whole surface of 120mm*60mm. The accuracy reached is below one percent in efficiency, allows us to validate the performance and its uniformity over the surface of the gratings.
Resonant infrared detector with substantially unit quantum efficiency
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farhoomand, Jam (inventor); Mcmurray, Robert E., Jr. (inventor)
1994-01-01
A resonant infrared detector includes an infrared-active layer which has first and second parallel faces and which absorbs radiation of a given wavelength. The detector also includes a first tuned reflective layer, disposed opposite the first face of the infrared-active layer, which reflects a specific portion of the radiation incident thereon and allows a specific portion of the incident radiation at the given wavelength to reach the infrared-active layer. A second reflective layer, disposed opposite the second face of the infrared-active layer, reflects back into the infrared-active layer substantially all of the radiation at the given wavelength which passes through the infrared-active layer. The reflective layers have the effect of increasing the quantum efficiency of the infrared detector relative to the quantum efficiency of the infrared-active layer alone.
Quantum Correlations and the Measurement Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bub, Jeffrey
2014-10-01
The transition from classical to quantum mechanics rests on the recognition that the structure of information is not what we thought it was: there are operational, i.e., phenomenal, probabilistic correlations that lie outside the polytope of local correlations. Such correlations cannot be simulated with classical resources, which generate classical correlations represented by the points in a simplex, where the vertices of the simplex represent joint deterministic states that are the common causes of the correlations. The `no go' hidden variable theorems tell us that we can't shoe-horn phenomenal correlations outside the local polytope into a classical simplex by supposing that something has been left out of the story. The replacement of the classical simplex by the quantum convex set as the structure representing probabilistic correlations is the analogue for quantum mechanics of the replacement of Newton's Euclidean space and time by Minkowski spacetime in special relativity. The nonclassical features of quantum mechanics, including the irreducible information loss on measurement, are generic features of correlations that lie outside the classical simplex. This paper is an elaboration of these ideas, which have their source in work by Pitowsky (J. Math. Phys. 27:1556, 1986; Math. Program. 50:395, 1991; Phys. Rev. A 77:062109, 2008), Garg and Mermin (Found. Phys. 14:1-39, 1984), Barrett (Phys. Rev. A 75:032304, 2007; Phys. Rev. A 7:022101, 2005) and others, e.g., Brunner et al. (arXiv:1303.2849, 2013), but the literature goes back to Boole (An Investigation of the Laws of Thought, Dover, New York, 1951). The final section looks at the measurement problem of quantum mechanics in this context. A large part of the problem is removed by seeing that the inconsistency in reconciling the entangled state at the end of a quantum measurement process with the definiteness of the macroscopic pointer reading and the definiteness of the correlated value of the measured micro-observable depends on a stipulation that is not required by the structure of the quantum possibility space. Replacing this stipulation by an alternative consistent stipulation is the first step to resolving the problem.
Kahl, Oliver; Ferrari, Simone; Kovalyuk, Vadim; Goltsman, Gregory N; Korneev, Alexander; Pernice, Wolfram H P
2015-01-01
Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) provide high efficiency for detecting individual photons while keeping dark counts and timing jitter minimal. Besides superior detection performance over a broad optical bandwidth, compatibility with an integrated optical platform is a crucial requirement for applications in emerging quantum photonic technologies. Here we present SNSPDs embedded in nanophotonic integrated circuits which achieve internal quantum efficiencies close to unity at 1550 nm wavelength. This allows for the SNSPDs to be operated at bias currents far below the critical current where unwanted dark count events reach milli-Hz levels while on-chip detection efficiencies above 70% are maintained. The measured dark count rates correspond to noise-equivalent powers in the 10(-19) W/Hz(-1/2) range and the timing jitter is as low as 35 ps. Our detectors are fully scalable and interface directly with waveguide-based optical platforms. PMID:26061283
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kahl, Oliver; Ferrari, Simone; Kovalyuk, Vadim; Goltsman, Gregory N.; Korneev, Alexander; Pernice, Wolfram H. P.
2015-06-01
Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) provide high efficiency for detecting individual photons while keeping dark counts and timing jitter minimal. Besides superior detection performance over a broad optical bandwidth, compatibility with an integrated optical platform is a crucial requirement for applications in emerging quantum photonic technologies. Here we present SNSPDs embedded in nanophotonic integrated circuits which achieve internal quantum efficiencies close to unity at 1550?nm wavelength. This allows for the SNSPDs to be operated at bias currents far below the critical current where unwanted dark count events reach milli-Hz levels while on-chip detection efficiencies above 70% are maintained. The measured dark count rates correspond to noise-equivalent powers in the 10?19?W/Hz?1/2 range and the timing jitter is as low as 35?ps. Our detectors are fully scalable and interface directly with waveguide-based optical platforms.
Kahl, Oliver; Ferrari, Simone; Kovalyuk, Vadim; Goltsman, Gregory N.; Korneev, Alexander; Pernice, Wolfram H. P.
2015-01-01
Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) provide high efficiency for detecting individual photons while keeping dark counts and timing jitter minimal. Besides superior detection performance over a broad optical bandwidth, compatibility with an integrated optical platform is a crucial requirement for applications in emerging quantum photonic technologies. Here we present SNSPDs embedded in nanophotonic integrated circuits which achieve internal quantum efficiencies close to unity at 1550?nm wavelength. This allows for the SNSPDs to be operated at bias currents far below the critical current where unwanted dark count events reach milli-Hz levels while on-chip detection efficiencies above 70% are maintained. The measured dark count rates correspond to noise-equivalent powers in the 10?19?W/Hz?1/2 range and the timing jitter is as low as 35?ps. Our detectors are fully scalable and interface directly with waveguide-based optical platforms. PMID:26061283
Large efficiency at telecom wavelength for optical quantum memories.
Dajczgewand, Julián; Le Gouët, Jean-Louis; Louchet-Chauvet, Anne; Chanelière, Thierry
2014-05-01
We implement the ROSE protocol in an erbium-doped solid, compatible with the telecom range. The ROSE scheme is an adaptation of the standard two-pulse photon echo to make it suitable for a quantum memory. We observe a retrieval efficiency of 40% for a weak laser pulse in the forward direction by using specific orientations of the light polarizations, magnetic field, and crystal axes. PMID:24784084
On the Efficiency of Quantum Algorithms for Hamiltonian Simulation
Anargyros Papageorgiou; Chi Zhang
2010-10-11
We study the efficiency of algorithms simulating a system evolving with Hamiltonian $H=\\sum_{j=1}^m H_j$. We consider high order splitting methods that play a key role in quantum Hamiltonian simulation. We obtain upper bounds on the number of exponentials required to approximate $e^{-iHt}$ with error $\\e$. Moreover, we derive the order of the splitting method that optimizes the cost of the resulting algorithm. We show significant speedups relative to previously known results.
Efficient method for the calculation of dissipative quantum transport in quantum cascade lasers.
Greck, Peter; Birner, Stefan; Huber, Bernhard; Vogl, Peter
2015-03-01
We present a novel and very efficient method for calculating quantum transport in quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). It follows the nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) framework but sidesteps the calculation of lesser self-energies by replacing them by a quasi-equilibrium expression. This method generalizes the phenomenological Büttiker probe model by taking into account individual scattering mechanisms. It is orders of magnitude more efficient than a fully self-consistent NEGF calculation for realistic devices. We apply this method to a new THz QCL design which works up to 250 K - according to our calculations. PMID:25836876
Dynamics of incompatibility of quantum measurements in open systems
Carole Addis; Teiko Heinosaari; Jukka Kiukas; Elsi-Mari Laine; Sabrina Maniscalco
2015-08-19
The non-classical nature of quantum states, often illustrated using entanglement measures or quantum discord, constitutes a resource for quantum information protocols. However, the non-classicality of a quantum system cannot be encapsulated as a property of the state alone, as the set of available measurements used to extract information on the system is typically restricted. In this work we study how the non-classicality of quantum measurements, quantified via their incompatibility, is influenced by quantum noise and, further, how a non-Markovian environment may help us in maintaining the measurement resources.
Quantum fluctuation theorems and power measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prasanna Venkatesh, B.; Watanabe, Gentaro; Talkner, Peter
2015-07-01
Work in the paradigm of the quantum fluctuation theorems of Crooks and Jarzynski is determined by projective measurements of energy at the beginning and end of the force protocol. In analogy to classical systems, we consider an alternative definition of work given by the integral of the supplied power determined by integrating up the results of repeated measurements of the instantaneous power during the force protocol. We observe that such a definition of work, in spite of taking account of the process dependence, has different possible values and statistics from the work determined by the conventional two energy measurement approach (TEMA). In the limit of many projective measurements of power, the system’s dynamics is frozen in the power measurement basis due to the quantum Zeno effect leading to statistics only trivially dependent on the force protocol. In general the Jarzynski relation is not satisfied except for the case when the instantaneous power operator commutes with the total Hamiltonian at all times. We also consider properties of the joint statistics of power-based definition of work and TEMA work in protocols where both values are determined. This allows us to quantify their correlations. Relaxing the projective measurement condition, weak continuous measurements of power are considered within the stochastic master equation formalism. Even in this scenario the power-based work statistics is in general not able to reproduce qualitative features of the TEMA work statistics.
Measurement-Based Quantum Computation Robert B. Griffiths
Griffiths, Robert B.
qitd463 Measurement-Based Quantum Computation Robert B. Griffiths Version of 22 April 2014 Contents deprivations of measurement-based schemes for quantum computation," Phys. Rev. A 71 (2005) 032318; ar (The original paper) S. C. Benjamin, B. W. Lovett, J. M. Smith "Prospects for measurement-based quantum
1-qubit versus 2-qubit measurement based quantum computing
Danos, Vincent - Laboratoire Preuves, Programmes et Systèmes, Université Paris 7
1-qubit versus 2-qubit measurement based quantum computing Vincent Danos Universit´e Paris 7 & CNRS and universal quantum computing model based on 2-qubit measurements (TQC), which embeds trivially in a model, then measurement, then local corrections. 1 Introduction The basic quantum computing toolkit consists of unitary
Thomas Chung; Stephen D. Bartlett; Andrew C. Doherty
2009-04-17
In measurement-based quantum computation (MBQC), local adaptive measurements are performed on the quantum state of a lattice of qubits. Quantum gates are associated with a particular measurement sequence, and one way of viewing MBQC is that such a measurement sequence prepares a resource state suitable for `gate teleportation'. We demonstrate how to quantify the performance of quantum gates in MBQC by using correlation functions on the pre-measurement resource state.
Optical and quantum efficiency analysis of (Ag,Cu)(In,Ga)Se2 absorber layers
Boyle, Jonathan; Hanket, Gregory; Shafarman, William
2009-06-09
(Ag,Cu)(In,Ga)Se2 thin films have been deposited by elemental co-evaporation over a wide range of compositions and their optical properties characterized by transmission and reflection measurements and by relative shift analysis of quantum efficiency device measurements. The optical bandgaps were determined by performing linear fits of (?h?)2 vs. h?, and the quantum efficiency bandgaps were determined by relative shift analysis of device curves with fixed Ga/(In+Ga) composition, but varying Ag/(Cu+Ag) composition. The determined experimental optical bandgap ranges of the Ga/(In+Ga) = 0.31, 0.52, and 0.82 groups, with Ag/(Cu+Ag) ranging from 0 to 1, were 1.19-1.45 eV, 1.32-1.56 eV, and 1.52-1.76 eV, respectively. The optical bowing parameter of the different Ga/(In+Ga) groups was also determined.
An efficient quantum algorithm for the hidden subgroup problem in nil-2 groups
Fondements et Applications, Université Paris 7
An efficient quantum algorithm for the hidden subgroup problem in nil-2 groups G´abor Ivanyos Luc, and we prove that it can also be found efficiently. Key words: Quantum computing, efficient algorithm of an algorithm, a query counts as a single computational step. To be efficient, an algorithm has
Quantum Bayesian approach to circuit QED measurement
Alexander N. Korotkov
2011-11-17
We present a simple formalism describing evolution of a qubit in the process of its measurement in a circuit QED setup. When a phase-sensitive amplifier is used, the evolution depends on only one output quadrature, and the formalism is the same as for a broadband setup. When a phase-preserving amplifier is used, the qubit evolution depends on two output quadratures. In both cases a perfect monitoring of the qubit state and therefore a perfect quantum feedback is possible.
Quantum efficiency harmonic analysis of exciton annihilation in organic light emitting diodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Price, J. S.; Giebink, N. C.
2015-06-01
Various exciton annihilation processes are known to impact the efficiency roll-off of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs); however, isolating and quantifying their contribution in the presence of other factors such as changing charge balance continue to be a challenge for routine device characterization. Here, we analyze OLED electroluminescence resulting from a sinusoidal dither superimposed on the device bias and show that nonlinearity between recombination current and light output arising from annihilation mixes the quantum efficiency measured at different dither harmonics in a manner that depends uniquely on the type and magnitude of the annihilation process. We derive a series of analytical relations involving the DC and first harmonic external quantum efficiency that enable annihilation rates to be quantified through linear regression independent of changing charge balance and evaluate them for prototypical fluorescent and phosphorescent OLEDs based on the emitters 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran and platinum octaethylporphyrin, respectively. We go on to show that, in most cases, it is sufficient to calculate the needed quantum efficiency harmonics directly from derivatives of the DC light versus current curve, thus enabling this analysis to be conducted solely from standard light-current-voltage measurement data.
On quantum interferometric measurements of temperature
Marcin Jarzyna; Marcin Zwierz
2015-09-14
We provide a detailed description of the quantum interferometric thermometer, which is a device that estimates the temperature of a sample from the measurements of the optical phase. For the first time, we rigorously analyze the operation of such a device by studying the interaction of the optical probe system prepared in a single-mode Gaussian state with a heated sample modeled as a dissipative thermal reservoir. We find that this approach to thermometry is capable of measuring the temperature of a sample in the nanokelvin regime. Furthermore, we compare the fundamental precision of quantum interferometric thermometers with the theoretical precision offered by the classical idealized pyrometers, which infer the temperature from a measurement of the total thermal radiation emitted by the sample. We find that the interferometric thermometer provides a superior performance in temperature sensing even when compared with this idealized pyrometer. We predict that interferometric thermometers will prove useful for ultraprecise temperature sensing and stabilization of quantum optical experiments based on the nonlinear crystals and atomic vapors.
Evidence procedure for efficient quantum-state tomography
Rau, Jochen [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, DE-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
2010-07-15
I show that in tomographic experiments, the measurement of a small set of observables suffices to confirm or incrementally amend prior expectations with a high degree of confidence. To this end, I adapt the evidence procedure, an estimation technique used in classical image reconstruction, for use in quantum-state tomography.
Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures
Worrell, Ernst
2011-01-01
The case-study review suggests that energy efficiencyenergy efficiency upgrades, we identified a total of 77 case studiescase studies that explicitly assessed productivity impacts of an energy efficiency
Characterization of Quantum Entangled States and Information Measures
Josep Batle-Vallespir
2006-03-14
The present Thesis covers the subject of the characterization of entangled states by recourse to entropic measures, as well as the description of entanglement related to several issues in quantum mechanics, such as the speed of a quantum evolution or the connections existing between quantum entanglement and quantum phase transitions.
Quantum measurement and estimation Zdenek Hradil, Jaroslav Rehacek
Hradil, Zdenek
Quantum measurement and estimation Zdenek Hradil, Jaroslav Reh´acek Department of Optics, Palack-mail: hradil@risc.upol.cz Abstract: Information about quantum systems is inferred from a sequence in quantum theory. The feasibility is shown on valuable examples including quantum phase or entangled spin
Quantum Measurement of Phonon Shot Noise A. A. Clerk,1
Harris, Jack
expected of a quantum oscillator. Detecting this quantization directly by, e.g., observing quantum jumps of the requirements for achieving a practical quantum nondemolition (QND) measurement of individual quantum jumps. This drive will result in a large average number of quanta in the resonator, "n ) 1. Our focus
The quantum walk search algorithm: Factors affecting efficiency
Neil B. Lovett; Matthew Everitt; Robert M. Heath; Viv Kendon
2011-10-21
We numerically study the quantum walk search algorithm of Shenvi, Kempe and Whaley [PRA \\textbf{67} 052307] and the factors which affect its efficiency in finding an individual state from an unsorted set. Previous work has focused purely on the effects of the dimensionality of the dataset to be searched. Here, we consider the effects of interpolating between dimensions, connectivity of the dataset, and the possibility of disorder in the underlying substrate: all these factors affect the efficiency of the search algorithm. We show that, as well as the strong dependence on the spatial dimension of the structure to be searched, there are also secondary dependencies on the connectivity and symmetry of the lattice, with greater connectivity providing a more efficient algorithm. In addition, we also show that the algorithm can tolerate a non-trivial level of disorder in the underlying substrate.
Experimental Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yang; Chen, Teng-Yun; Wang, Liu-Jun; Liang, Hao; Shentu, Guo-Liang; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Yin, Hua-Lei; Liu, Nai-Le; Li, Li; Ma, Xiongfeng; Pelc, Jason S.; Fejer, M. M.; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2013-09-01
Quantum key distribution is proven to offer unconditional security in communication between two remote users with ideal source and detection. Unfortunately, ideal devices never exist in practice and device imperfections have become the targets of various attacks. By developing up-conversion single-photon detectors with high efficiency and low noise, we faithfully demonstrate the measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol, which is immune to all hacking strategies on detection. Meanwhile, we employ the decoy-state method to defend attacks on a nonideal source. By assuming a trusted source scenario, our practical system, which generates more than a 25 kbit secure key over a 50 km fiber link, serves as a stepping stone in the quest for unconditionally secure communications with realistic devices.
Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution
Yang Liu; Teng-Yun Chen; Liu-Jun Wang; Hao Liang; Guo-Liang Shentu; Jian Wang; Ke Cui; Hua-Lei Yin; Nai-Le Liu; Li Li; Xiongfeng Ma; Jason S. Pelc; M. M. Fejer; Qiang Zhang; Jian-Wei Pan
2012-09-27
Throughout history, every advance in encryption has been defeated by advances in hacking with severe consequences. Quantum cryptography holds the promise to end this battle by offering unconditional security when ideal single-photon sources and detectors are employed. Unfortunately, ideal devices never exist in practice and device imperfections have become the targets of various attacks. By developing up-conversion single-photon detectors with high efficiency and low noise, we build up a measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) system, which is immune to all hacking strategies on detection. Meanwhile, we employ the decoy-state method to defeat attacks on non-ideal source. By closing the loopholes in both source and detection, our practical system, which generates more than 25 kbit secure key over a 50-km fiber link, provides an ultimate solution for communication security.
Evaluation of the Timing Properties of a High Quantum Efficiency Photomultiplier Tube
Peng, Qiyu; Choong, Woon-Seng; Moses, W. William
2014-01-01
We measured the timing resolution of 189 R9800–100 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), which are a SBA (Super Bialkali, high quantum efficiency) variant of the R9800 high-performance PMT manufactured by Hamamatsu Photonics, and correlated their timing resolutions with various measures of PMT performance, namely Cathode Luminous Sensitivity (CLS), Anode Luminous Sensitivity (ALS), Gain times Collection Efficiency (GCE), Cathode Blue Sensitivity Index (CBSI), Anode Blue Sensitivity Index (ABSI) and dark current. The correlation results show: (1) strong correlations between timing resolution and ALS, ABSI, and GCE; (2) moderate correlations between timing resolution and CBSI; and (3) weak or no correlations between timing resolution and dark current and CLS. The results disclosed that all three measures that include data collected from the anode (ALS, ABSI, and GCE) affect the timing resolution more than either of the two measures that only include photocathode data (CBSI and CLS). We conclude that: (1) the photocathode Quantum Efficiency (QE) and the product of the Gain and the Collection Efficiency (GCE) are the two dominant factors that affect the timing resolution, (2) the GCE variation affects the timing resolution more than the QE variation in the R9800 PMT, and (3) the performance depends on photocathode position. PMID:24526798
Evaluation of the Timing Properties of a High Quantum Efficiency Photomultiplier Tube.
Peng, Qiyu; Choong, Woon-Seng; Moses, W William
2013-10-01
We measured the timing resolution of 189 R9800-100 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), which are a SBA (Super Bialkali, high quantum efficiency) variant of the R9800 high-performance PMT manufactured by Hamamatsu Photonics, and correlated their timing resolutions with various measures of PMT performance, namely Cathode Luminous Sensitivity (CLS), Anode Luminous Sensitivity (ALS), Gain times Collection Efficiency (GCE), Cathode Blue Sensitivity Index (CBSI), Anode Blue Sensitivity Index (ABSI) and dark current. The correlation results show: (1) strong correlations between timing resolution and ALS, ABSI, and GCE; (2) moderate correlations between timing resolution and CBSI; and (3) weak or no correlations between timing resolution and dark current and CLS. The results disclosed that all three measures that include data collected from the anode (ALS, ABSI, and GCE) affect the timing resolution more than either of the two measures that only include photocathode data (CBSI and CLS). We conclude that: (1) the photocathode Quantum Efficiency (QE) and the product of the Gain and the Collection Efficiency (GCE) are the two dominant factors that affect the timing resolution, (2) the GCE variation affects the timing resolution more than the QE variation in the R9800 PMT, and (3) the performance depends on photocathode position. PMID:24526798
Channel capacities versus entanglement measures in multiparty quantum states
Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211 019 (India)
2010-01-15
For quantum states of two subsystems, highly entangled states have a higher capacity of transmitting classical as well as quantum information, and vice versa. We show that this is no more the case in general: Quantum capacities of multiaccess channels, motivated by communication in quantum networks, do not have any relation with genuine multiparty entanglement measures. Importantly, the statement is demonstrated for arbitrary multipartite entanglement measures. Along with revealing the structural richness of multiaccess channels, this gives us a tool to classify multiparty quantum states from the perspective of its usefulness in quantum networks, which cannot be visualized by any genuine multiparty entanglement measure.
Optimum and efficient sampling for variational quantum Monte Carlo.
Trail, J R; Maezono, Ryo
2010-11-01
Quantum mechanics for many-body systems may be reduced to the evaluation of integrals in 3N dimensions using Monte Carlo, providing the Quantum Monte Carlo ab initio methods. Here we limit ourselves to expectation values for trial wave functions, that is to variational quantum Monte Carlo. Almost all previous implementations employ samples distributed as the physical probability density of the trial wave function, and assume the central limit theorem to be valid. In this paper we provide an analysis of random error in estimation and optimization that leads naturally to new sampling strategies with improved computational and statistical properties. A rigorous lower limit to the random error is derived, and an efficient sampling strategy presented that significantly increases computational efficiency. In addition the infinite variance heavy tailed random errors of optimum parameters in conventional methods are replaced with a Normal random error, strengthening the theoretical basis of optimization. The method is applied to a number of first row systems and compared with previously published results. PMID:21054019
Characterization of quantum efficiency and robustness of cesium-based photocathodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montgomery, Eric J.
High quantum efficiency, robust photocathodes produce picosecond-pulsed, high-current electron beams for photoinjection applications like free electron lasers. In photoinjectors, a pulsed drive laser incident on the photocathode causes photoemission of short, dense bunches of electrons, which are then accelerated into a relativistic, high quality beam. Future free electron lasers demand reliable photocathodes with long-lived quantum efficiency at suitable drive laser wavelengths to maintain high current density. But faced with contamination, heating, and ion back-bombardment, the highest efficiency photocathodes find their delicate cesium-based coatings inexorably lost. In answer, the work herein presents careful, focused studies on cesium-based photocathodes, particularly motivated by the cesium dispenser photocathode. This is a novel device comprised of an efficiently photoemissive, cesium-based coating deposited onto a porous sintered tungsten substrate, beneath which is a reservoir of elemental cesium. Under controlled heating cesium diffuses from the reservoir through the porous substrate and across the surface to replace cesium lost to harsh conditions---recently shown to significantly extend the lifetime of cesium-coated metal cathodes. This work first reports experiments on coated metals to validate and refine an advanced theory of photoemission already finding application in beam simulation codes. Second, it describes a new theory of photoemission from much higher quantum efficiency cesium-based semiconductors and verifies its predictions with independent experiment. Third, it investigates causes of cesium loss from both coated metal and semiconductor photocathodes and reports remarkable rejuvenation of full quantum efficiency for contaminated cesium-coated surfaces, affirming the dispenser prescription of cesium resupply. And fourth, it details continued advances in cesium dispenser design with much-improved operating characteristics: lower temperature and cleaner operation. Motivated by dispenser integration with semiconductor coatings, initial fabrication of those coatings are reported on dispenser-type substrates with measurement of quantum efficiency and analysis of thermal stability. Detailed investigations are performed on dispenser substrate preparation by ion beam cleaning and on dispenser pore structure by electron microscopy and focused ion beam milling. The dissertation concludes by discussing implications of all results for the demonstration and optimization of the future high quantum efficiency cesium dispenser photocathode.
Measuring efficiency among US federal hospitals.
Harrison, Jeffrey P; Meyer, Sean
2014-01-01
This study evaluates the efficiency of federal hospitals, specifically those hospitals administered by the US Department of Veterans Affairs and the US Department of Defense. Hospital executives, health care policymakers, taxpayers, and federal hospital beneficiaries benefit from studies that improve hospital efficiency. This study uses data envelopment analysis to evaluate a panel of 165 federal hospitals in 2007 and 157 of the same hospitals again in 2011. Results indicate that overall efficiency in federal hospitals improved from 81% in 2007 to 86% in 2011. The number of federal hospitals operating on the efficiency frontier decreased slightly from 25 in 2007 to 21 in 2011. The higher efficiency score clearly documents that federal hospitals are becoming more efficient in the management of resources. From a policy perspective, this study highlights the economic importance of encouraging increased efficiency throughout the health care industry. This research examines benchmarking strategies to improve the efficiency of hospital services to federal beneficiaries. Through the use of strategies such as integrated information systems, consolidation of services, transaction-cost economics, and focusing on preventative health care, these organizations have been able to provide quality service while maintaining fiscal responsibility. In addition, the research documented the characteristics of those federal hospitals that were found to be on the Efficiency Frontier. These hospitals serve as benchmarks for less efficient federal hospitals as they develop strategies for improvement. PMID:24776830
Extreme ultraviolet quantum efficiency of opaque alkali halide photocathodes on microchannel plates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Siegmund, O. H. W.; Everman, E.; Vallerga, J. V.; Lampton, M.
1988-01-01
Comprehensive measurements are presented for the quantum detection efficiency (QDE) of the microchannel plate materials CsI, KBr, KCl, and MgF2, over the 44-1800 A wavelength range. QDEs in excess of 40 percent are achieved by several materials in specific wavelength regions of the EUV. Structure is noted in the wavelength dependence of the QDE that is directly related to the valence-band/conduction-band gap energy and the onset of atomic-like resonant transitions. A simple photocathode model allows interpretation of these features, together with the QDE efficiency variation, as a function of illumination angle.
Quantum teleportation via maximum-confidence quantum measurements
L. Neves; M. A. Solís-Prosser; A. Delgado; O. Jiménez
2012-07-09
We investigate the problem of teleporting unknown qudit states via pure quantum channels with nonmaximal Schmidt rank. This process is mapped to the problem of discriminating among nonorthogonal symmetric states which are linearly dependent and equally likely. It is shown that by applying an optimized maximum-confidence (MC) measurement for accomplishing this task, one reaches the maximum possible teleportation fidelity after a conclusive event in the discrimination process, which in turn occurs with the maximum success probability. In this case, such fidelity depends only on the Schmidt rank of the channel and it is larger than the optimal one achieved, deterministically, by the standard teleportation protocol. Furthermore, we show that there are quantum channels for which it is possible to apply a k-stage sequential MC measurement in the discrimination process such that a conclusive event at any stage leads to a teleportation fidelity above the aforementioned optimal one and, consequently, increases the overall success probability of teleportation with a fidelity above this limit.
Efficient quantum trajectory representation of wavefunctions evolving in imaginary time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garashchuk, Sophya; Mazzuca, James; Vazhappilly, Tijo
2011-07-01
The Boltzmann evolution of a wavefunction can be recast as imaginary-time dynamics of the quantum trajectory ensemble. The quantum effects arise from the momentum-dependent quantum potential - computed approximately to be practical in high-dimensional systems - influencing the trajectories in addition to the external classical potential [S. Garashchuk, J. Chem. Phys. 132, 014112 (2010)]. For a nodeless wavefunction represented as ?(x, t) = exp ( - S(x, t)/?) with the trajectory momenta defined by ?S(x, t), analysis of the Lagrangian and Eulerian evolution shows that for bound potentials the former is more accurate while the latter is more practical because the Lagrangian quantum trajectories diverge with time. Introduction of stationary and time-dependent components into the wavefunction representation generates new Lagrangian-type dynamics where the trajectory spreading is controlled improving efficiency of the trajectory description. As an illustration, different types of dynamics are used to compute zero-point energy of a strongly anharmonic well and low-lying eigenstates of a high-dimensional coupled harmonic system.
Efficient quantum trajectory representation of wavefunctions evolving in imaginary time
Garashchuk, Sophya; Mazzuca, James; Vazhappilly, Tijo [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States)
2011-07-21
The Boltzmann evolution of a wavefunction can be recast as imaginary-time dynamics of the quantum trajectory ensemble. The quantum effects arise from the momentum-dependent quantum potential - computed approximately to be practical in high-dimensional systems - influencing the trajectories in addition to the external classical potential [S. Garashchuk, J. Chem. Phys. 132, 014112 (2010)]. For a nodeless wavefunction represented as {psi}(x, t) = exp ( -S(x, t)/({Dirac_h}/2{pi})) with the trajectory momenta defined by {nabla}S(x, t), analysis of the Lagrangian and Eulerian evolution shows that for bound potentials the former is more accurate while the latter is more practical because the Lagrangian quantum trajectories diverge with time. Introduction of stationary and time-dependent components into the wavefunction representation generates new Lagrangian-type dynamics where the trajectory spreading is controlled improving efficiency of the trajectory description. As an illustration, different types of dynamics are used to compute zero-point energy of a strongly anharmonic well and low-lying eigenstates of a high-dimensional coupled harmonic system.
Topics in quantum information--continuous quantum measurements and quantum walks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varbanov, Martin
The topics presented in this thesis have continuous quantum measurements and quantum walks at their core. The first topic being discussed centers around simulating a generalize measurement with a finite number of outcomes using a continuous measurement process with a continuous measurement history. We provide conditions under which it is possible to prove that such a process exists and that at long times it simulates faithfully the generalized measurement. We give the stochastic equations governing the feedback between the measurement history and the instantaneous weak measurements. The second topic examines a definition of "hitting time" for continuous-time quantum walks. A crucial component for such a definition is the use of weak measurements. Several methods using alternative but equivalent definitions of weak, continuous measurements are employed to derive a formula for the hitting time. The behavior of the thus defined hitting time is studied subsequently, in general and for specific graphs. The last topic explores continuous-time quantum walks on graphs with infinite tails. The equations for propagating and bound states are derived and the S-matrix is defined. Their properties, such as orthogonality of the propagating and bound states, unitarity of the S-matrix, are discussed. Formulas for the S-matrix under operations of cutting, adding or connecting tails are derived.
Energy and Efficiency of Adiabatic Quantum Search Algorithms
Saurya Das; Randy Kobes; Gabor Kunstatter
2003-02-26
We present the results of a detailed analysis of a general, unstructured adiabatic quantum search of a data base of $N$ items. In particular we examine the effects on the computation time of adding energy to the system. We find that by increasing the lowest eigenvalue of the time dependent Hamiltonian {\\it temporarily} to a maximum of $\\propto \\sqrt{N}$, it is possible to do the calculation in constant time. This leads us to derive the general theorem which provides the adiabatic analogue of the $\\sqrt{N}$ bound of conventional quantum searches. The result suggests that the action associated with the oracle term in the time dependent Hamiltonian is a direct measure of the resources required by the adiabatic quantum search.
Analysis of the efficiency of intermediate band solar cells based on quantum dot supercrystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heshmati, S.; Golmohammadi, S.; Abedi, K.; Taleb, H.
2014-03-01
We have studied the influence of the quantum-dot (QD) width and the quantum-dot conduction band (QD-CB) offset on the efficiency of quantum-dot intermediate band solar cells (QD-IBSCs). Simulation results demonstrate that with increasing QD-CB offset and decreasing QD width, the maximum efficiency is achieved.
Multi-party quantum key agreement with bell states and bell measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Run-Hua; Zhong, Hong
2013-02-01
Quantum key agreement protocol is a key establishment technique whereby a classical shared secret key is derived by two or more specified parties equally and fairly based on quantum mechanics principles. In this paper, we presented two novel quantum key agreement protocols for two parties and more parties based on entanglement swapping. The proposed protocols utilize Bell states as the quantum resources, and further perform Bell measurements as the main operations. In addition, they don't require the help of a trusted center or third party, but could ensure fairness, security and efficiency.
Measurement-Based and Universal Blind Quantum Computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph; Kashefi, Elham
Measurement-based quantum computation (MBQC) is a novel approach to quantum computation where the notion of measurement is the main driving force of computation. This is in contrast with the more traditional circuit model which is based on unitary operation. We review here the mathematical model underlying MBQC and the first quantum cryptographic protocol designed using the unique features of MBQC.
Efficient biologically inspired photocell enhanced by delocalized quantum states.
Creatore, C; Parker, M A; Emmott, S; Chin, A W
2013-12-20
Artificially implementing the biological light reactions responsible for the remarkably efficient photon-to-charge conversion in photosynthetic complexes represents a new direction for the future development of photovoltaic devices. Here, we develop such a paradigm and present a model photocell based on the nanoscale architecture and molecular elements of photosynthetic reaction centers. Quantum interference of photon absorption and emission induced by the dipole-dipole interaction between molecular excited states guarantees an enhanced light-to-current conversion and power generation for a wide range of electronic, thermal, and optical parameters for optimized dipolar geometries. This result opens a promising new route for designing artificial light-harvesting devices inspired by biological photosynthesis and quantum technologies. PMID:24483744
Efficient Biologically Inspired Photocell Enhanced by Delocalized Quantum States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Creatore, C.; Parker, M. A.; Emmott, S.; Chin, A. W.
2013-12-01
Artificially implementing the biological light reactions responsible for the remarkably efficient photon-to-charge conversion in photosynthetic complexes represents a new direction for the future development of photovoltaic devices. Here, we develop such a paradigm and present a model photocell based on the nanoscale architecture and molecular elements of photosynthetic reaction centers. Quantum interference of photon absorption and emission induced by the dipole-dipole interaction between molecular excited states guarantees an enhanced light-to-current conversion and power generation for a wide range of electronic, thermal, and optical parameters for optimized dipolar geometries. This result opens a promising new route for designing artificial light-harvesting devices inspired by biological photosynthesis and quantum technologies.
Optimal efficiency of a noisy quantum heat engine.
Stefanatos, Dionisis
2014-07-01
In this article we use optimal control to maximize the efficiency of a quantum heat engine executing the Otto cycle in the presence of external noise. We optimize the engine performance for both amplitude and phase noise. In the case of phase damping we additionally show that the ideal performance of a noiseless engine can be retrieved in the adiabatic (long time) limit. The results obtained here are useful in the quest for absolute zero, the design of quantum refrigerators that can cool a physical system to the lowest possible temperature. They can also be applied to the optimal control of a collection of classical harmonic oscillators sharing the same time-dependent frequency and subjected to similar noise mechanisms. Finally, our methodology can be used for the optimization of other interesting thermodynamic processes. PMID:25122263
Quantum Dot Solar Cells: High Efficiency through Multiple Exciton Generation
Hanna, M. C.; Ellingson, R. J.; Beard, M.; Yu, P.; Micic, O. I.; Nozik, A. J.; c.
2005-01-01
Impact ionization is a process in which absorbed photons in semiconductors that are at least twice the bandgap can produce multiple electron-hole pairs. For single-bandgap photovoltaic devices, this effect produces greatly enhanced theoretical thermodynamic conversion efficiencies that range from 45-85%, depending upon solar concentration, the cell temperature, and the number of electron-hole pairs produced per photon. For quantum dots (QDs), electron-hole pairs exist as excitons. We have observed astoundingly efficient multiple exciton generation (MEG) in QDs of PbSe (bulk Eg = 0.28 eV), ranging in diameter from 3.9 to 5.7nm (Eg = 0.73, 0.82, and 0.91 eV, respectively). The effective masses of electron and holes are about equal in PbSe, and the onset for efficient MEG occurs at about three times the QD HOMO-LUMO transition (its ''bandgap''). The quantum yield rises quickly after the onset and reaches 300% at 4 x Eg (3.64 eV) for the smallest QD; this means that every QD in the sample produces three electron-hole pairs/photon.
Subsystem measurement in unitary quantum measurement theory with redundant entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herbut, Fedor
2014-10-01
Measurement of a degenerate (or non-degenerate) discrete observable is investigated in the framework of quantum measurement theory short of collapse, i.e. premeasurement theory, based on a unitary evolution operator that includes the measurement interaction between object and measuring instrument. A pointer observable with eigen-projectors of, in general, many (or even infinitely) dimensional ranges is introduced as a new approach. It leads to redundant entanglement in the final state. As the first main result, the basic dynamical relation of the approach is derived. It is shown to be equivalent to the calibration condition, which is known to define general exact measurement. The latter is given a practical form. Complete measurement (premeasurement with objectification or collapse), which is in some sense implied by the premeasurement theory, performed on a subsystem of a bipartite object in a pure state is studied with particular attention to its effect on the opposite, interactionally unaffected subsystem. The change of state of the latter is derived for exact complete subsystem measurement, and it is shown that the change is the same as for the simplest, i.e. ideal measurement (this is the second main result). It is applied to the case of twin observables and thus distant measurement obtains a new, more satisfactory, foundation (the third main result). Distant measurement is a basic concept in the EPR phenomenon. The well-known importance of the latter implies importance of the former.
Jeppe Johansen; Søren Stobbe; Ivan S. Nikolaev; Toke Lund-Hansen; Philip T. Kristensen; Jørn M. Hvam; Willem L. Vos; Peter Lodahl
2008-01-01
The radiative and nonradiative decay rates of InAs quantum dots are measured by controlling the local density of optical states near an interface. From time-resolved measurements, we extract the oscillator strength and the quantum efficiency and their dependence on emission energy. From our results and a theoretical model, we determine the striking dependence of the overlap of the electron and
Intrinsic randomness as a measure of quantum coherence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Xiao; Zhou, Hongyi; Cao, Zhu; Ma, Xiongfeng
2015-08-01
Based on the theory of quantum mechanics, intrinsic randomness in measurement distinguishes quantum effects from classical ones. From the perspective of states, this quantum feature can be summarized as coherence or superposition in a specific (classical) computational basis. Recently, by regarding coherence as a physical resource, Baumgratz et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 140401 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.140401] presented a comprehensive framework for coherence measures. Here, we propose a quantum coherence measure essentially using the intrinsic randomness of measurement. The proposed coherence measure provides an answer to the open question in completing the resource theory of coherence. Meanwhile, we show that the coherence distillation process can be treated as quantum extraction, which can be regarded as an equivalent process of classical random number extraction. From this viewpoint, the proposed coherence measure also clarifies the operational aspect of quantum coherence. Finally, our results indicate a strong similarity between two types of quantumness—coherence and entanglement.
Tracking photon jumps with repeated quantum non-demolition parity measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, L.; Petrenko, A.; Leghtas, Z.; Vlastakis, B.; Kirchmair, G.; Sliwa, K. M.; Narla, A.; Hatridge, M.; Shankar, S.; Blumoff, J.; Frunzio, L.; Mirrahimi, M.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.
2014-07-01
Quantum error correction is required for a practical quantum computer because of the fragile nature of quantum information. In quantum error correction, information is redundantly stored in a large quantum state space and one or more observables must be monitored to reveal the occurrence of an error, without disturbing the information encoded in an unknown quantum state. Such observables, typically multi-quantum-bit parities, must correspond to a special symmetry property inherent in the encoding scheme. Measurements of these observables, or error syndromes, must also be performed in a quantum non-demolition way (projecting without further perturbing the state) and more quickly than errors occur. Previously, quantum non-demolition measurements of quantum jumps between states of well-defined energy have been performed in systems such as trapped ions, electrons, cavity quantum electrodynamics, nitrogen-vacancy centres and superconducting quantum bits. So far, however, no fast and repeated monitoring of an error syndrome has been achieved. Here we track the quantum jumps of a possible error syndrome, namely the photon number parity of a microwave cavity, by mapping this property onto an ancilla quantum bit, whose only role is to facilitate quantum state manipulation and measurement. This quantity is just the error syndrome required in a recently proposed scheme for a hardware-efficient protected quantum memory using Schrödinger cat states (quantum superpositions of different coherent states of light) in a harmonic oscillator. We demonstrate the projective nature of this measurement onto a region of state space with well-defined parity by observing the collapse of a coherent state onto even or odd cat states. The measurement is fast compared with the cavity lifetime, has a high single-shot fidelity and has a 99.8 per cent probability per single measurement of leaving the parity unchanged. In combination with the deterministic encoding of quantum information in cat states realized earlier, the quantum non-demolition parity tracking that we demonstrate represents an important step towards implementing an active system that extends the lifetime of a quantum bit.
Tracking photon jumps with repeated quantum non-demolition parity measurements.
Sun, L; Petrenko, A; Leghtas, Z; Vlastakis, B; Kirchmair, G; Sliwa, K M; Narla, A; Hatridge, M; Shankar, S; Blumoff, J; Frunzio, L; Mirrahimi, M; Devoret, M H; Schoelkopf, R J
2014-07-24
Quantum error correction is required for a practical quantum computer because of the fragile nature of quantum information. In quantum error correction, information is redundantly stored in a large quantum state space and one or more observables must be monitored to reveal the occurrence of an error, without disturbing the information encoded in an unknown quantum state. Such observables, typically multi-quantum-bit parities, must correspond to a special symmetry property inherent in the encoding scheme. Measurements of these observables, or error syndromes, must also be performed in a quantum non-demolition way (projecting without further perturbing the state) and more quickly than errors occur. Previously, quantum non-demolition measurements of quantum jumps between states of well-defined energy have been performed in systems such as trapped ions, electrons, cavity quantum electrodynamics, nitrogen-vacancy centres and superconducting quantum bits. So far, however, no fast and repeated monitoring of an error syndrome has been achieved. Here we track the quantum jumps of a possible error syndrome, namely the photon number parity of a microwave cavity, by mapping this property onto an ancilla quantum bit, whose only role is to facilitate quantum state manipulation and measurement. This quantity is just the error syndrome required in a recently proposed scheme for a hardware-efficient protected quantum memory using Schrödinger cat states (quantum superpositions of different coherent states of light) in a harmonic oscillator. We demonstrate the projective nature of this measurement onto a region of state space with well-defined parity by observing the collapse of a coherent state onto even or odd cat states. The measurement is fast compared with the cavity lifetime, has a high single-shot fidelity and has a 99.8 per cent probability per single measurement of leaving the parity unchanged. In combination with the deterministic encoding of quantum information in cat states realized earlier, the quantum non-demolition parity tracking that we demonstrate represents an important step towards implementing an active system that extends the lifetime of a quantum bit. PMID:25043007
Measurement-device-independent quantum communication with an untrusted source
Xu, Feihu
Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) can provide enhanced security compared to traditional QKD, and it constitutes an important framework for a quantum network with an untrusted network server. ...
Quantum-controlled measurement device for quantum-state discrimination Miloslav Dusek1,2
Dusek, Miloslav
Quantum-controlled measurement device for quantum-state discrimination Miloslav Dusek1 Republic 2 Research Center for Quantum Information, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Du´bravska´ cesta 9, 842 28 Received 22 January 2002; published 20 August 2002 We propose a ``programmable'' quantum device
Measuring charge carrier diffusion in coupled colloidal quantum dot solids.
Zhitomirsky, David; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H
2013-06-25
Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are attractive materials for inexpensive, room-temperature-, and solution-processed optoelectronic devices. A high carrier diffusion length is desirable for many CQD device applications. In this work we develop two new experimental methods to investigate charge carrier diffusion in coupled CQD solids under charge-neutral, i.e., undepleted, conditions. The methods take advantage of the quantum-size-effect tunability of our materials, utilizing a smaller-bandgap population of quantum dots as a reporter system. We develop analytical models of diffusion in 1D and 3D structures that allow direct extraction of diffusion length from convenient parametric plots and purely optical measurements. We measure several CQD solids fabricated using a number of distinct methods and having significantly different doping and surface ligand treatments. We find that CQD materials recently reported to achieve a certified power conversion efficiency of 7% with hybrid organic-inorganic passivation have a diffusion length of 80 ± 10 nm. The model further allows us to extract the lifetime, trap density, mobility, and diffusion coefficient independently in each material system. This work will facilitate further progress in extending the diffusion length, ultimately leading to high-quality CQD solid semiconducting materials and improved CQD optoelectronic devices, including CQD solar cells. PMID:23701285
Gacevic, Z.; Kehagias, Th.; Koukoula, T.; Komninou, Ph.
2011-05-15
We present a study of the optical properties of GaN/AlN and InGaN/GaN quantum dot (QD) superlattices grown via plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy, as compared to their quantum well (QW) counterparts. The three-dimensional/two-dimensional nature of the structures has been verified using atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The QD superlattices present higher internal quantum efficiency as compared to the respective QWs as a result of the three-dimensional carrier localization in the islands. In the QW samples, photoluminescence (PL) measurements point out a certain degree of carrier localization due to structural defects or thickness fluctuations, which is more pronounced in InGaN/GaN QWs due to alloy inhomogeneity. In the case of the QD stacks, carrier localization on potential fluctuations with a spatial extension smaller than the QD size is observed only for the InGaN QD-sample with the highest In content (peak emission around 2.76 eV). These results confirm the efficiency of the QD three-dimensional confinement in circumventing the potential fluctuations related to structural defects or alloy inhomogeneity. PL excitation measurements demonstrate efficient carrier transfer from the wetting layer to the QDs in the GaN/AlN system, even for low QD densities ({approx}10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}). In the case of InGaN/GaN QDs, transport losses in the GaN barriers cannot be discarded, but an upper limit to these losses of 15% is deduced from PL measurements as a function of the excitation wavelength.
Measurement-only topological quantum computation via anyonic interferometry
Bonderson, Parsa Freedman, Michael Nayak, Chetan
2009-04-15
We describe measurement-only topological quantum computation using both projective and interferometrical measurement of topological charge. We demonstrate how anyonic teleportation can be achieved using 'forced measurement' protocols for both types of measurement. Using this, it is shown how topological charge measurements can be used to generate the braiding transformations used in topological quantum computation, and hence that the physical transportation of computational anyons is unnecessary. We give a detailed discussion of the anyonics for implementation of topological quantum computation (particularly, using the measurement-only approach) in fractional quantum Hall systems.
Exactly decohering quantum measurement without environment
Eric A. Galapon
2015-06-17
Current quantum orthodoxy claims that the statistical collapse of the wave-function arises from the interaction of the measuring instrument with its environment through the phenomenon known as environment induced decoherence. Here it is shown that there exists a measurement scheme that is exactly decohering without the aid of an environment. The scheme relies on the assumption that the meter is decomposable into probe and pointer, with the probe taken to be inaccessible for observation. Under the assumption that the probe and the pointer initial states are momentum limited, it is shown that coherences die out within a finite interval of time and the pointer states are exactly orthogonal. These lead to the fundamental realization that dispersion of correlation does not require an external infinite number of degrees of freedom. An internal one degree of freedom is already sufficient to delocalize the correlations and leave its subparts in a classical mixed state, so that decoherence may occur even for isolated measuring instruments.
Verification for measurement-only blind quantum computing
Tomoyuki Morimae
2014-06-19
Blind quantum computing is a new secure quantum computing protocol where a client who does not have any sophisticated quantum technlogy can delegate her quantum computing to a server without leaking any privacy. It is known that a client who has only a measurement device can perform blind quantum computing [T. Morimae and K. Fujii, Phys. Rev. A {\\bf87}, 050301(R) (2013)]. It has been an open problem whether the protocol can enjoy the verification, i.e., the ability of client to check the correctness of the computing. In this paper, we propose a protocol of verification for the measurement-only blind quantum computing.
Photocurrent extraction efficiency in colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kemp, K. W.; Wong, C. T. O.; Hoogland, S. H.; Sargent, E. H.
2013-11-01
The efficiency of photocurrent extraction was studied directly inside operating Colloidal Quantum Dot (CQD) photovoltaic devices. A model was derived from first principles for a thin film p-n junction with a linearly spatially dependent electric field. Using this model, we were able to clarify the origins of recent improvement in CQD solar cell performance. From current-voltage diode characteristics under 1 sun conditions, we extracted transport lengths ranging from 39 nm to 86 nm for these materials. Characterization of the intensity dependence of photocurrent extraction revealed that the dominant loss mechanism limiting the transport length is trap-mediated recombination.
Photocurrent extraction efficiency in colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics
Kemp, K. W.; Wong, C. T. O.; Hoogland, S. H.; Sargent, E. H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King's College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King's College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada)
2013-11-18
The efficiency of photocurrent extraction was studied directly inside operating Colloidal Quantum Dot (CQD) photovoltaic devices. A model was derived from first principles for a thin film p-n junction with a linearly spatially dependent electric field. Using this model, we were able to clarify the origins of recent improvement in CQD solar cell performance. From current-voltage diode characteristics under 1 sun conditions, we extracted transport lengths ranging from 39 nm to 86 nm for these materials. Characterization of the intensity dependence of photocurrent extraction revealed that the dominant loss mechanism limiting the transport length is trap-mediated recombination.
Quantum Stochastics:. the New Approach to the Description of Quantum Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loubenets, Elena
2001-12-01
We propose a new general approach to the description of an arbitrary generalized direct quantum measurement with outcomes in a measurable space. This approach is based on the introduction of the physically important mathematical notion of a family of quantum stochastic evolution operators, describing in a Hilbert space the conditional evolution of a quantum system under a direct measurement. In the frame of the proposed approach, which we call quantum stochastic, all possible schemes of measurements upon a quantum system can be considered. The quantum stochastic approach (QSA) gives not only the complete statistical description of any quantum measurement (a POV measure and a family of posterior states) but it gives also the complete stochastic description of the random behaviour of a quantum sytem in a Hilbert space in the sense of specifying the probabilistic transition law governing the change from the initial state of a quantum system to a final one under a single measurement. When a quantum system is isolated the family of quantum stochastic evolution operators consists of only one element which is a unitary operator. In the case of continuous in time measurements the QSA allows to define, in the most general case, the notion of the family of posterior pure state trajectories (quantum trajectories) in the Hilbert space of a quantum system and to give their probabilistic treatment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryu, Han-Youl; Ryu, Guen-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Ho; Kim, Hyun-Joong
2013-07-01
We present a convenient and reliable method for the determination of the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) in GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on the carrier rate equation model. By using the peak point of the efficiency curve as the parameter of the rate equation analysis, we show the IQE of LEDs is unambiguously determined without any information on the recombination coefficients or LED structures. The theoretical analysis model was used to determine the IQE of LED samples. When the theoretical IQE model is applied to the measured external quantum efficiency (EQE) of a blue and a green LED, good agreements between the measured data and the theoretical-fit curves are found. From the measured EQE and the evaluated IQE values, the light extraction efficiency of the LED samples is obtained.
Connection between measurement disturbance relation and multipartite quantum correlation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jun-Li; Du, Kun; Qiao, Cong-Feng
2015-01-01
It is found that the measurement disturbance relation (MDR) determines the strength of quantum correlation and hence is one of the essential facets of the nature of quantum nonlocality. In reverse, the exact form of MDR may be ascertained through measuring the correlation function. To this aim, an optical experimental scheme is proposed. Moreover, by virtue of the correlation function, we find that the quantum entanglement, the quantum nonlocality, and the uncertainty principle can be explicitly correlated.
Classical and nonclassical randomness in quantum measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farenick, Douglas; Plosker, Sarah; Smith, Jerrod
2011-12-01
The space POVM_H(X) of positive operator-valued probability measures on the Borel sets of a compact (or even locally compact) Hausdorff space X with values in B(H), the algebra of linear operators acting on a d-dimensional Hilbert space H, is studied from the perspectives of classical and nonclassical convexity through a transform ? that associates any positive operator-valued measure ? with a certain completely positive linear map ?(?) of the homogeneous C*-algebra C(X)? B(H) into B(H). This association is achieved by using an operator-valued integral in which nonclassical random variables (that is, operator-valued functions) are integrated with respect to positive operator-valued measures and which has the feature that the integral of a random quantum effect is itself a quantum effect. A left inverse ? for ? yields an integral representation, along the lines of the classical Riesz representation theorem for linear functionals on C(X), of certain (but not all) unital completely positive linear maps ? :C(X)? B(H)rArr B(H). The extremal and C*-extremal points of POVM_H(X) are determined.
Ranabir Das; T. S. Mahesh; Anil Kumar
2002-12-19
A new method of quantum state tomography for quantum information processing is described. The method based on two-dimensional Fourier transform technique involves detection of all the off-diagonal elements of the density matrix in a two-dimensional experiment. All the diagonal elements are detected in another one-dimensional experiment. The method is efficient and applicable to a wide range of spin systems. The proposed method is explained using a 2 qubit system and demonstrated by tomographing arbitrary complex density matrices of 2 and 4 qubit systems using simulations.
Zhang, Pengzhan; Chen, Kunji Zhang, Pei; Fang, Zhonghui; Li, Wei; Xu, Jun; Huang, Xinfan; Dong, Hengping
2014-07-07
We reported the study on the photoluminescence internal quantum efficiency (PL IQE) and external quantum efficiency (PL EQE) from the amorphous silicon oxynitride (a-SiNO) films, which were fabricated by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition followed by in situ plasma oxidation. We employed the direct measurement of absolute quantum efficiency within a calibrated integration sphere to obtain the PL EQE. Then, we calculated the PL IQE by combing the measured EQE and optical parameters of light extraction factor, reflectivity, and transmittance of the a-SiNO thin films. We also derived the PL QE through investigating the characteristic of the temperature dependent PL. These results show that the PL IQE as high as 60% has been achieved at peak wavelength of about 470 nm, which is much higher than that of Si nanocrystal embedded thin films.
A Gaussian measure of quantum phase noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schleich, Wolfgang P.; Dowling, Jonathan P.
1992-01-01
We study the width of the semiclassical phase distribution of a quantum state in its dependence on the average number of photons (m) in this state. As a measure of phase noise, we choose the width, delta phi, of the best Gaussian approximation to the dominant peak of this probability curve. For a coherent state, this width decreases with the square root of (m), whereas for a truncated phase state it decreases linearly with increasing (m). For an optimal phase state, delta phi decreases exponentially but so does the area caught underneath the peak: all the probability is stored in the broad wings of the distribution.
Mapping coherence in measurement via full quantum tomography of a hybrid optical detector
Lijian Zhang; Hendrik Coldenstrodt-Ronge; Animesh Datta; Graciana Puentes; Jeff S. Lundeen; Xian-Min Jin; Brian J. Smith; Martin B. Plenio; Ian A. Walmsley
2012-04-09
Quantum states and measurements exhibit wave-like --- continuous, or particle-like --- discrete, character. Hybrid discrete-continuous photonic systems are key to investigating fundamental quantum phenomena, generating superpositions of macroscopic states, and form essential resources for quantum-enhanced applications, e.g. entanglement distillation and quantum computation, as well as highly efficient optical telecommunications. Realizing the full potential of these hybrid systems requires quantum-optical measurements sensitive to complementary observables such as field quadrature amplitude and photon number. However, a thorough understanding of the practical performance of an optical detector interpolating between these two regions is absent. Here, we report the implementation of full quantum detector tomography, enabling the characterization of the simultaneous wave and photon-number sensitivities of quantum-optical detectors. This yields the largest parametrization to-date in quantum tomography experiments, requiring the development of novel theoretical tools. Our results reveal the role of coherence in quantum measurements and demonstrate the tunability of hybrid quantum-optical detectors.
Efficient Quantum Memory Using a Weakly Absorbing Sample
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sabooni, Mahmood; Li, Qian; Kröll, Stefan; Rippe, Lars
2013-03-01
A light-storage experiment with a total (storage and retrieval) efficiency ?=56% is carried out by enclosing a sample, with a single-pass absorption of 10%, in an impedance-matched cavity. The experiment is carried out using the atomic frequency comb (AFC) technique in a praseodymium-doped crystal (0.05%Pr3+?Y2SiO5) and the cavity is created by depositing reflection coatings directly onto the crystal surfaces. The AFC technique has previously by far demonstrated the highest multimode capacity of all quantum memory concepts tested experimentally. We claim that the present work shows that it is realistic to create efficient, on-demand, long storage time AFC memories.
Dynamical decoupling efficiency versus quantum non-Markovianity
Carole Addis; Francesco Ciccarello; Michele Cascio; G. Massimo Palma; Sabrina Maniscalco
2015-02-09
We investigate the relationship between non-Markovianity and the effectiveness of a dynamical decoupling protocol for qubits undergoing pure dephasing. We consider an exact model in which dephasing arises due to a bosonic environment with a spectral density of the Ohmic class. This is parametrised by an Ohmicity parameter by changing which we can model both Markovian and non-Markovian environments. Interestingly, we find that engineering a non-Markovian environment is detrimental to the efficiency of the dynamical decoupling scheme, leading to a worse coherence preservation. We show that each dynamical decoupling pulse reverses the flow of quantum information and, on this basis, we investigate the connection between dynamical decoupling efficiency and the reservoir spectral density. Finally, in the spirit of reservoir engineering, we investigate the optimum system-reservoir parameters for achieving maximum stationary coherences.
An efficient quantum algorithm for the hidden subgroup problem in nil-2 groups
Fondements et Applications, Université Paris 7
An efficient quantum algorithm for the hidden subgroup problem in nil-2 groups G´abor Ivanyos Luc of nilpotency class at most 2, can be solved efficiently by a quantum procedure. The algorithm presented here counts as a single computational step. To be efficient, an algorithm has to be polylogarithmic
Nanostructured materials show significant enhancement in the thermoelectric figure of merit (zT) due to quantum confinement effects. Improving the efficiency of thermoelectric devices allows of thermoelectric materials. These systems must possess the capability of accurately measuring the thermal
Relativistic Quantum Metrology: Exploiting relativity to improve quantum measurement technologies
Ahmadi, Mehdi; Bruschi, David Edward; Sabín, Carlos; Adesso, Gerardo; Fuentes, Ivette
2014-01-01
We present a framework for relativistic quantum metrology that is useful for both Earth-based and space-based technologies. Quantum metrology has been so far successfully applied to design precision instruments such as clocks and sensors which outperform classical devices by exploiting quantum properties. There are advanced plans to implement these and other quantum technologies in space, for instance Space-QUEST and Space Optical Clock projects intend to implement quantum communications and quantum clocks at regimes where relativity starts to kick in. However, typical setups do not take into account the effects of relativity on quantum properties. To include and exploit these effects, we introduce techniques for the application of metrology to quantum field theory. Quantum field theory properly incorporates quantum theory and relativity, in particular, at regimes where space-based experiments take place. This framework allows for high precision estimation of parameters that appear in quantum field theory including proper times and accelerations. Indeed, the techniques can be applied to develop a novel generation of relativistic quantum technologies for gravimeters, clocks and sensors. As an example, we present a high precision device which in principle improves the state-of-the-art in quantum accelerometers by exploiting relativistic effects. PMID:24851858
Logical Interpretation of a Reversible Measurement in Quantum Computing
Giulia Battilotti; Paola Zizzi
2005-02-08
We give the logical description of a new kind of quantum measurement that is a reversible operation performed by an hypothetical insider observer, or, which is the same, a quantum measurement made in a quantum space background, like the fuzzy sphere. The result is that the non-contradiction and the excluded middle principles are both invalidated, leading to a paraconsistent, symmetric logic. Our conjecture is that, in this setting, one can develop the adequate logic of quantum computing. The role of standard quantum logic is then confined to describe the projective measurement scheme.
Quantum Efficiency and Topography of Heated and Plasma-Cleaned Copper Photocathode Surfaces
Palmer, Dennis T.; /Titan PSD; Kirby, R.E.; King, F.K.; /SLAC
2005-08-04
We present measurements of photoemission quantum efficiency (QE) for copper photocathodes heated and cleaned by low energy argon and hydrogen ion plasma. The QE and surface roughness parameters were measured before and after processing and surface chemical composition was tracked in-situ with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Thermal annealing at 230 C was sufficient to improve the QE by 3-4 orders of magnitude, depending on the initial QE. Exposure to residual gas slowly reduced the QE but it was easily restored by argon ion cleaning for a few minutes. XPS showed that the annealing or ion bombardment removed surface water and hydrocarbons.
A Systematic Review of Health Care Efficiency Measures
Hussey, Peter S; de Vries, Han; Romley, John; Wang, Margaret C; Chen, Susan S; Shekelle, Paul G; McGlynn, Elizabeth A
2009-01-01
Objective To review and characterize existing health care efficiency measures in order to facilitate a common understanding about the adequacy of these methods. Data Sources Review of the MedLine and EconLit databases for articles published from 1990 to 2008, as well as search of the “gray” literature for additional measures developed by private organizations. Study Design We performed a systematic review for existing efficiency measures. We classified the efficiency measures by perspective, outputs, inputs, methods used, and reporting of scientific soundness. Principal Findings We identified 265 measures in the peer-reviewed literature and eight measures in the gray literature, with little overlap between the two sets of measures. Almost all of the measures did not explicitly consider the quality of care. Thus, if quality varies substantially across groups, which is likely in some cases, the measures reflect only the costs of care, not efficiency. Evidence on the measures' scientific soundness was mostly lacking: evidence on reliability or validity was reported for six measures (2.3 percent) and sensitivity analyses were reported for 67 measures (25.3 percent). Conclusions Efficiency measures have been subjected to few rigorous evaluations of reliability and validity, and methods of accounting for quality of care in efficiency measurement are not well developed at this time. Use of these measures without greater understanding of these issues is likely to engender resistance from providers and could lead to unintended consequences. PMID:19187184
A New Ontological View of the Quantum Measurement Problem
Xiaolei Zhang
2005-06-13
A new ontological view of the quantum measurement processes is given, which has bearings on many broader issues in the foundations of quantum mechanics as well. In this scenario a quantum measurement is a non-equilibrium phase transition in a ``resonant cavity'' formed by the entire physical universe including all of its material and energy content. A quantum measurement involves the energy and matter exchange among not only the system being measured and the measuring apparatus but also the global environment of the universe resonant cavity, which together constrain the nature of the phase transition. Strict realism, including strict energy and angular momentum conservation, is recovered in this view of the quantum measurement process beyond the limit set by the uncertainty relations, which are themselves derived from the exact commutation relations for quantum conjugate variables. Both the amplitude and the phase of the quantum mechanical wavefunction acquire substantial meanings in the new ontology, and the probabilistic element is removed from the foundations of quantum mechanics, its apparent presence in the quantum measurement being solely a result of the sensitive dependence on initial/boundary conditions of the phase transitions of a many degree-of-freedom system which is effectively the whole universe. Vacuum fluctuations are viewed as the ``left over'' fluctuations after forming the whole numbers of nonequilibrium resonant modes in the universe cavity. This new view on the quantum processes helps to clarify many puzzles in the foundations of quantum mechanics.
Continuous Quantum Measurement with Independent Detector Cross Correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jordan, Andrew N.; Büttiker, Markus
2005-11-01
We investigate the advantages of using two independent, linear detectors for continuous quantum measurement. For single-shot measurement, the detection process may be quantum limited if the detectors are twins. For weak continuous measurement, cross correlations allow a violation of the Korotkov-Averin bound for the detector’s signal-to-noise ratio. The joint weak measurement of noncommuting observables is also investigated, and we find the cross correlation changes sign as a function of frequency, reflecting a crossover from incoherent relaxation to coherent, out of phase oscillations. Our results are applied to a double quantum-dot charge qubit, simultaneously measured by two quantum point contacts.
Broadband quantum efficiency enhancement in high index nanowire resonators.
Yang, Yiming; Peng, Xingyue; Hyatt, Steven; Yu, Dong
2015-05-13
Light trapping in subwavelength semiconductor nanowires (NWs) offers a promising approach to simultaneously reducing material consumption and enhancing photovoltaic performance. Nevertheless, the absorption efficiency of a NW, defined by the ratio of optical absorption cross section to the NW diameter, lingers around 1 in existing NW photonic devices, and the absorption enhancement suffers from a narrow spectral width. Here, we show that the absorption efficiency can be significantly improved in NWs with higher refractive indices, by an experimental observation of up to 350% apparent external quantum efficiency in lead sulfide NW resonators, a 3-fold increase compared to Si NWs. Furthermore, broadband absorption enhancement is achieved in single tapered NWs, where light of various wavelengths is absorbed at segments with different diameters. Overall, the single NW Schottky junction solar cells benefit from optical resonance, near bandgap open circuit voltage, and long minority carrier diffusion length, demonstrating power conversion efficiency comparable to Si and III-V single NW coaxial p-n junction cells but with much simpler fabrication processes. PMID:25919358
Quantum Coherence in (Brain) Microtubules and Efficient Energy and Information Transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mavromatos, Nick E.
2011-12-01
Prompted by recent experimental results in marine algae, indicating quantum entanglement at ambient temperature, with correlations between essential biological units separated by distances as long as 20 Angstroms and decoherence times, due to environmental influences, of order 400 fs, I review here a related topic proposed several years ago in connection with the possible rôle of quantum mechanics and/or field theory on dissipation-free energy transfer in (brain) microtubules (MT). The basic assumption was to view the cell MT as quantum electrodynamical cavities, providing sufficient isolation in vivo to enable the formation of electric-dipole quantum coherent solitonic states across the tubulin dimer walls. Crucial to this, were argued to be the electromagnetic interactions of the dipole moments of the tubulin dimers with the dipole quanta in the ordered water interiors of the MT, that play the rôle of quantum coherent cavity modes. Quantum entanglement between tubulin dimers was argued to be possible, provided there exists sufficient isolation from other environmental cell effects. Thus, decoherence times as long as 10-7 -10-6 s could characterise the MT systems. The model was based on certain ferroelectric aspects of MT. In the talk I revisit these decoherence time scales in light of the algae measurements and argue that, even if the environmental decoherence implies short time scales of order of a few hundreds of fs, this is a sufficient time for some kind of quantum computation to take place in (brain) MT, so that within these time scales the cell "quantum calculates" the optimal "path" along which energy and signal (information) are transported most efficiently along the MT.
Radix-independent, efficient arrays for multi-level n-qudit quantum and reversible computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohammadi, Majid
2015-08-01
Multiple-valued quantum logic allows the designers to reduce the number of cells while obtaining more functionality in the quantum circuits. Large r-valued reversible or quantum gates ( r stands for radix and is more than 2) cannot be directly realized in the current quantum technology. Therefore, we are interested in designing the large reversible and quantum controlled gates using the arrays of one-quantum digit (qudit) or two-qudit gates. In our previous work, we proposed quantum arrays to implement the r-valued quantum circuits. In this paper, we propose novel efficient structures and arrays, for r-valued quantum logic gates. The quantum costs of the developed quantum arrays are independent of the radix of calculations in the quantum circuit.
Exactly decohering quantum measurement without environment
Galapon, Eric A
2015-01-01
Current quantum orthodoxy claims that the statistical collapse of the wave-function arises from the interaction of the measuring instrument with its environment through the phenomenon known as environment induced decoherence. Here it is shown that there exists a measurement scheme that is exactly decohering without the aid of an environment. The scheme relies on the assumption that the meter is decomposable into probe and pointer, with the probe taken to be inaccessible for observation. Under the assumption that the probe and the pointer initial states are momentum limited, it is shown that coherences die out within a finite interval of time and the pointer states are exactly orthogonal. These lead to the fundamental realization that dispersion of correlation does not require an external infinite number of degrees of freedom. An internal one degree of freedom is already sufficient to delocalize the correlations and leave its subparts in a classical mixed state, so that decoherence may occur even for isolated ...
Efficient circuit implementation of quantum walks on non-degree-regular graphs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loke, T.; Wang, J. B.
2012-10-01
This paper presents a set of highly efficient quantum circuits for discrete-time quantum walks on non-degree-regular graphs. In particular, we describe a general procedure for constructing highly efficient quantum circuits for quantum walks on star graphs of any degree and Cayley trees with an arbitrary number of layers, which are nonsparse in general. We also show how to modify these circuits to implement a full quantum-walk search algorithm on these graphs, without reference to a “black-box” oracle. This provides a practically implementable method to explore quantum-walk-based algorithms with the aim of eventual real-world applications.
CdSe Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cell with ~100% Internal Quantum Efficiency
Fuke, Nobuhiro; Hoch, Laura B.; Koposov, Alexey Y.; Manner, Virginia W.; Werder, Donald J.; Fukui, Atsushi; Koide, Naoki; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Sykora, Milan
2010-10-20
We have constructed and studied photoelectrochemical solar cells (PECs) consisting of a photoanode prepared by direct deposition of independently synthesized CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs) onto a nanocrystalline TiO_{2} film (NQD/TiO_{2}), aqueous Na_{2}S or Li_{2}S electrolyte, and a Pt counter electrode. We show that light harvesting efficiency (LHE) of the NQD/TiO_{2} photoanode is significantly enhanced when the NQD surface passivation is changed from tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) to 4-butylamine (BA). In the PEC the use of NQDs with a shorter passivating ligand, BA, leads to a significant enhancement in both the electron injection efficiency at the NQD/TiO_{2} interface and charge collection efficiency at the NQD/electrolyte interface, with the latter attributed mostly to a more efficient diffusion of the electrolyte through the pores of the photoanode. We show that by utilizing BA-capped NQDs and aqueous Li_{2}S as an electrolyte, it is possible to achieve ~100% internal quantum efficiency of photon-to-electron conversion, matching the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells.
Quantum Discord and Maxwell's Demons
Wojciech Hubert Zurek
2002-02-21
Quantum discord was proposed as an information theoretic measure of the ``quantumness'' of correlations. I show that discord determines the difference between the efficiency of quantum and classical Maxwell's demons in extracting work from collections of correlated quantum systems.
Measuring conveyance efficiencies to improve irrigation water management
Manuel Rijo; Luis Santos Pereira
1987-01-01
This paper presents a study of conveyance efficiencies of Canal de Salvaterra, in the Sorraia Irrigation Project, Portugal. The Canal and the Project are briefly described and the water measurement techniques and structures utilized are analysed. Results comprise the main aspects of the inflow-outflow balance with identification of water losses and conveyance efficiencies. Analysing the results showed that irrigation efficiencies
Functional integration measure in quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anselmi, Damiano
1992-06-01
We study a peculiar regularization of quantum gravity at one-loop order intended to exhibit the properties of the functional measure. It reminds one of the Pauli-Villars technique in the sense that massive fields are introduced as regulators (and the mass is intended to go to infinity). The Pauli-Villars regulators are spin-2, -1, -1/2, and -0 particles coupled to gravity in a covariant way (mass terms included). We show that, under these conditions, the measure required in order to remove the maximal ultraviolet divergences [i.e., the divergences proportional to ?(r)(0) if r is the space-time dimension] is a product of measures of Fujikawa. Both the action and the measure of the functional integral are Becchi-Rouet-Stora (BRS) invariant. We consider also the regularization in the background-field formalism. We show that the measure of Fujikawa must be naturally generalized in order to be invariant under reparametrizations of the background as well as BRS invariant.
Blind topological measurement-based quantum computation
Tomoyuki Morimae; Keisuke Fujii
2012-09-06
Blind quantum computation is a novel secure quantum-computing protocol that enables Alice, who does not have sufficient quantum technology at her disposal, to delegate her quantum computation to Bob, who has a fully fledged quantum computer, in such a way that Bob cannot learn anything about Alice's input, output and algorithm. A recent proof-of-principle experiment demonstrating blind quantum computation in an optical system has raised new challenges regarding the scalability of blind quantum computation in realistic noisy conditions. Here we show that fault-tolerant blind quantum computation is possible in a topologically protected manner using the Raussendorf-Harrington-Goyal scheme. The error threshold of our scheme is 0.0043, which is comparable to that (0.0075) of non-blind topological quantum computation. As the error per gate of the order 0.001 was already achieved in some experimental systems, our result implies that secure cloud quantum computation is within reach.
Enhancing robustness of multiparty quantum correlations using weak measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Uttam; Mishra, Utkarsh; Dhar, Himadri Shekhar
2014-11-01
Multipartite quantum correlations are important resources for the development of quantum information and computation protocols. However, the resourcefulness of multipartite quantum correlations in practical settings is limited by its fragility under decoherence due to environmental interactions. Though there exist protocols to protect bipartite entanglement under decoherence, the implementation of such protocols for multipartite quantum correlations has not been sufficiently explored. Here, we study the effect of local amplitude damping channel on the generalized Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state, and use a protocol of optimal reversal quantum weak measurement to protect the multipartite quantum correlations. We observe that the weak measurement reversal protocol enhances the robustness of multipartite quantum correlations. Further it increases the critical damping value that corresponds to entanglement sudden death. To emphasize the efficacy of the technique in protection of multipartite quantum correlation, we investigate two proximately related quantum communication tasks, namely, quantum teleportation in a one sender, many receivers setting and multiparty quantum information splitting, through a local amplitude damping channel. We observe an increase in the average fidelity of both the quantum communication tasks under the weak measurement reversal protocol. The method may prove beneficial, for combating external interactions, in other quantum information tasks using multipartite resources.
Towards Minimal Resources of Measurement-based Quantum Computation
Simon Perdrix
2007-04-02
We improve the upper bound on the minimal resources required for measurement-based quantum computation. Minimizing the resources required for this model is a key issue for experimental realization of a quantum computer based on projective measurements. This new upper bound allows also to reply in the negative to the open question about the existence of a trade-off between observable and ancillary qubits in measurement-based quantum computation.
Entanglement, Flow and Classical Simulatability in Measurement Based Quantum Computation
Damian Markham; Elham Kashefi
2013-11-14
The question of which and how a particular class of entangled resource states (known as graph states) can be used for measurement based quantum computation (MBQC) recently gave rise to the notion of Flow and its generalisation gFlow. That is a causal structure for measurements guaranteeing deterministic computation. Furthermore, gFlow has proven itself to be a powerful tool in studying the difference between the measurement-based and circuit models for quantum computing, as well as analysing cryptographic protocols. On the other hand, entanglement is known to play a crucial role in MBQC. In this paper we first show how gFlow can be used to directly give a bound on the classical simulation of an MBQC. Our method offers an interpretation of the gFlow as showing how information flows through a computation, giving rise to an information light cone. We then establish a link between entanglement and the existence of gFlow for a graph state. We show that the gFlow can be used to bound the entanglement width and what we call the \\emph{structural entanglement} of a graph state. In turn this gives another method relating the gFlow to bounds on how efficiently a computation can be simulated classically. These two methods of getting bounds on the difficulty of classical simulation are different and complementary and several known results follow. In particular known relations between the MBQC and the circuit model allow these results to be translated across models.
Noninvasive electron microscopy with interaction-free quantum measurements
Putnam, William P.; Yanik, Mehmet Fatih [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)
2009-10-15
We propose the use of interaction-free quantum measurements with electrons to eliminate sample damage in electron microscopy. This might allow noninvasive molecular-resolution imaging. We show the possibility of such measurements in the presence of experimentally measured quantum decoherence rates and using a scheme based on existing charged particle trapping techniques.
Measurement-Based Quantum Computation Robert B. Griffiths
Griffiths, Robert B.
qitd461 Measurement-Based Quantum Computation Robert B. Griffiths Version of 16 April 2010 Contents 7 References: A. M. Childs, D. W. Leung and M. A. Nielsen, "Unified deprivations of measurement for measurement-based quantum com- puting with solid state spins," Laser and Photonics Reviews 3 (2009) 556; ar
D'Ariano, G M; Lo Presti, P
2001-05-01
Quantum operations describe any state change allowed in quantum mechanics, including the evolution of an open system or the state change due to a measurement. We present a general method based on quantum tomography for measuring experimentally the matrix elements of an arbitrary quantum operation. As input the method needs only a single entangled state. The feasibility of the technique for the electromagnetic field is shown, and the experimental setup is illustrated based on homodyne tomography of a twin beam. PMID:11328133
KLM quantum computation as a measurement based computation
Sandu Popescu
2006-10-04
We show that the Knill Laflamme Milburn method of quantum computation with linear optics gates can be interpreted as a one-way, measurement based quantum computation of the type introduced by Briegel and Rausendorf. We also show that the permanent state of n n-dimensional systems is a universal state for quantum computation.
Entanglement as measure of electronelectron correlation in quantum chemistry calculations
Kais, Sabre
Entanglement as measure of electronelectron correlation in quantum chemistry calculations ZhenÕ to a correlation of quantum nature. He stated that for an entangled state Ôthe best possible knowledge of the whole] there has been a quest for generating entanglement between quantum particles [10,17]. Investigation
Quantum search by measurement Andrew M. Childs,* Enrico Deotto,
Landahl, Andrew J.
Quantum search by measurement Andrew M. Childs,* Enrico Deotto, Edward Farhi, and Jeffrey Goldstone¶ Institute for Quantum Information, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 Received 11 April 2002; published 23 September 2002 We propose a quantum algorithm for solving combinatorial
Dynamical wavefunction collapse models in quantum measure theory
Fay Dowker; Yousef Ghazi-Tabatabai
2008-01-01
The structure of collapse models is investigated in the framework of quantum measure theory, a histories-based approach to quantum mechanics. The underlying structure of coupled classical and quantum systems is elucidated in this approach which puts both systems on a spacetime footing. The nature of the coupling is exposed: the classical histories have no dynamics of their own but are
Wellington Alves de Brito; Rubens Viana Ramos
2007-06-08
The interferometry of single-photon pulses has been used to implement quantum technology systems, like quantum key distribution, interaction-free measurement and some other quantum communication protocols. In most of these implementations, Mach-Zehnder, Michelson and Fabry-Perot interferometers are the most used. In this work we present optical setups for interaction-free measurement, quantum key distribution and quantum secret sharing using the Sagnac interferometer. The proposed setups are described as well the quantum protocols using them are explained.
Measuring Charter School Efficiency: An Early Appraisal
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carpenter, Dick M., II; Noller, Scott L.
2010-01-01
In an era of increased accountability and challenging times for public finance, charter schools built on decentralization, grassroots accountability, and market forces may provide, in the spirit of "educational laboratories," lessons for increasing student achievement more efficiently through diverse and innovative management, organization,…
Quantum efficiency characterization of LBNL CCD's Part 1: the Quantum Efficiency Machine
it is conventional even to the parts list, there are important innovations. A xenon arc light source was chosen absolute error. Since the internal QE of the CCD's is nearly 100% over a wide spectral range, a measurement A plan view of the QE Machine is shown in Fig. 1, and a picture of it in Fig. 2. It consists of a Xe arc
Building America Top Innovations 2012: National Residential Efficiency Measures Database
2013-01-01
This Building America Top Innovations profile describes the DOE-sponsored National Residential Efficiency Measures Database, which contains performance characteristics and cost estimates for nearly 3,000 energy retrofit measures. To date, it is used in four prominent DOE software packages to help optimize energy-efficiency recommendations.
Measurement of Quantum Fluctuations in Geometry
Craig J. Hogan
2008-03-24
A particular form for the quantum indeterminacy of relative spacetime position of events is derived from the limits of measurement possible with Planck wavelength radiation. The indeterminacy predicts fluctuations from a classically defined geometry in the form of ``holographic noise'' whose spatial character, absolute normalization, and spectrum are predicted with no parameters. The noise has a distinctive transverse spatial shear signature, and a flat power spectral density given by the Planck time. An interferometer signal displays noise due to the uncertainty of relative positions of reflection events. The noise corresponds to an accumulation of phase offset with time that mimics a random walk of those optical elements that change the orientation of a wavefront. It only appears in measurements that compare transverse positions, and does not appear at all in purely radial position measurements. A lower bound on holographic noise follows from a covariant upper bound on gravitational entropy. The predicted holographic noise spectrum is estimated to be comparable to measured noise in the currently operating interferometer GEO600. Because of its transverse character, holographic noise is reduced relative to gravitational wave effects in other interferometer designs, such as LIGO, where beam power is much less in the beamsplitter than in the arms.
Quantum efficiency test set up performances for NIR detector characterization at ESTEC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crouzet, P.-E.; Duvet, L.; De Wit, F.; Beaufort, T.; Blommaert, S.; Butler, B.; Van Duinkerken, G.; ter Haar, J.; Heijnen, J.; van der Luijt, K.; Smit, H.; Viale, T.
2014-07-01
The Payload Technology Validation Section (Future mission preparation Office) at ESTEC is in charge of specific mission oriented validation activities, for science and robotic exploration missions, aiming at reducing development risks in the implementation phase. These activities take place during the early mission phases or during the implementation itself. In this framework, a test set up to characterize the quantum efficiency of near infrared detectors has been developed. The first detector to be tested will an HAWAII-2RG detector with a 2.5?m cut off, it will be used as commissioning device in preparation to the tests of prototypes European detectors developed under ESA funding. The capability to compare on the same setup detectors from different manufacturers will be a unique asset for the future mission preparation office. This publication presents the performances of the quantum efficiency test bench to prepare measurements on the HAWAII-2RG detector. A SOFRADIR Saturn detector has been used as a preliminary test vehicle for the bench. A test set up with a lamp, chopper, monochromator, pinhole and off axis mirrors allows to create a spot of 1mm diameter between 700nm and 2.5?m.The shape of the beam has been measured to match the rms voltage read by the Merlin Lock -in amplifier and the amplitude of the incoming signal. The reference detectors have been inter-calibrated with an uncertainty up to 3 %. For the measurement with HAWAII-2RG detector, the existing cryostat [1] has been modified to adapt cold black baffling, a cold filter wheel and a sapphire window. An statistic uncertainty of +/-2.6% on the quantum efficiency on the detector under test measurement is expected.
The amplification of weak measurements under quantum noise
Xuanmin Zhu; Yu-Xiang Zhang
2015-05-08
The influence of outside quantum noises on the amplification of weak measurements is investigated. Three typical quantum noises are discussed. The maximum values of the pointer's shifts decrease sharply with the strength of the depolarizing channel and phase damping. In order to obtain significant amplified signals, the preselection quantum systems must be kept away from the two quantum noises. Interestingly, the amplification effect is immune to the amplitude damping noise.
Quantum signatures of classical multifractal measures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schönwetter, Moritz; Altmann, Eduardo G.
2015-01-01
A clear signature of classical chaoticity in the quantum regime is the fractal Weyl law, which connects the density of eigenstates to the dimension D0 of the classical invariant set of open systems. Quantum systems of interest are often partially open (e.g., cavities in which trajectories are partially reflected or absorbed). In the corresponding classical systems D0 is trivial (equal to the phase-space dimension), and the fractality is manifested in the (multifractal) spectrum of Rényi dimensions Dq. In this paper we investigate the effect of such multifractality on the Weyl law. Our numerical simulations in area-preserving maps show for a wide range of configurations and system sizes M that (i) the Weyl law is governed by a dimension different from D0=2 , and (ii) the observed dimension oscillates as a function of M and other relevant parameters. We propose a classical model that considers an undersampled measure of the chaotic invariant set, explains our two observations, and predicts that the Weyl law is governed by a nontrivial dimension Dasymptotic
Quantum signatures of classical multifractal measures
Moritz Schönwetter; Eduardo G. Altmann
2015-01-14
A clear signature of classical chaoticity in the quantum regime is the fractal Weyl law, which connects the density of eigenstates to the dimension $D_0$ of the classical invariant set of open systems. Quantum systems of interest are often {\\it partially} open (e.g., cavities in which trajectories are partially reflected/absorbed). In the corresponding classical systems $D_0$ is trivial (equal to the phase-space dimension), and the fractality is manifested in the (multifractal) spectrum of R\\'enyi dimensions $D_q$. In this paper we investigate the effect of such multifractality on the Weyl law. Our numerical simulations in area-preserving maps show for a wide range of configurations and system sizes $M$ that (i) the Weyl law is governed by a dimension different from $D_0=2$ and (ii) the observed dimension oscillates as a function of $M$ and other relevant parameters. We propose a classical model which considers an undersampled measure of the chaotic invariant set, explains our two observations, and predicts that the Weyl law is governed by a non-trivial dimension $D_\\mathrm{asymptotic} classical limit $M\\rightarrow\\infty$.
Adaptive Measurements in the Optical Quantum Information Laboratory
H. M. Wiseman; D. W. Berry; S. D. Bartlett; B. L. Higgins; G. J. Pryde
2009-04-14
Adaptive techniques make practical many quantum measurements that would otherwise be beyond current laboratory capabilities. For example: they allow discrimination of nonorthogonal states with a probability of error equal to the Helstrom bound; they allow measurement of the phase of a quantum oscillator with accuracy approaching (or in some cases attaining) the Heisenberg limit; and they allow estimation of phase in interferometry with a variance scaling at the Heisenberg limit, using only single qubit measurement and control. Each of these examples has close links with quantum information, in particular experimental optical quantum information: the first is a basic quantum communication protocol; the second has potential application in linear optical quantum computing; the third uses an adaptive protocol inspired by the quantum phase estimation algorithm. We discuss each of these examples, and their implementation in the laboratory, but concentrate upon the last, which was published most recently [Higgins {\\em et al.}, Nature vol. 450, p. 393, 2007].
Takeoka, Masahiro; Fujiwara, Mikio; Mizuno, Jun; Sasaki, Masahide
2004-05-01
Quantum-information theory predicts that when the transmission resource is doubled in quantum channels, the amount of information transmitted can be increased more than twice by quantum-channel coding technique, whereas the increase is at most twice in classical information theory. This remarkable feature, the superadditive quantum-coding gain, can be implemented by appropriate choices of code words and corresponding quantum decoding which requires a collective quantum measurement. Recently, an experimental demonstration was reported [M. Fujiwara et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167906 (2003)]. The purpose of this paper is to describe our experiment in detail. Particularly, a design strategy of quantum-collective decoding in physical quantum circuits is emphasized. We also address the practical implication of the gain on communication performance by introducing the quantum-classical hybrid coding scheme. We show how the superadditive quantum-coding gain, even in a small code length, can boost the communication performance of conventional coding techniques.
Why error-prone quantum measurements have outcomes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Healey, Richard
1993-02-01
To solve the quantum measurement problem it is necessary to construct quantum mechanical models of measurement interactions to show why properly conducted measurements always yield definite outcomes. The main barrier to a solution has been the interpretive principle that a quantum system has a definite value for an observable only if it may be described by a quantum eigenstate of the corresponding operator. I have recently proposed a solution to the measurement problem based on alternative interpretive principles. The present paper defends this proposal against recent criticisms which seek to show that it fails to solve the problem unless quantum measurements meet highly idealized conditions which no actual measurement could hope to meet. Several models of error-prone measurements are shown to lead to definite outcomes, and a general defense of the appropriateness of these models is sketched.
Towards a Robust, Efficient Dispenser Photocathode: the Effect of Recesiation on Quantum Efficiency
Montgomery, Eric J.; Pan Zhigang; Leung, Jessica; Feldman, Donald W.; O'Shea, Patrick G.; Jensen, Kevin L.
2009-01-22
Future electron accelerators and Free Electron Lasers (FELs) require high brightness electron sources; photocathodes for such devices are challenged to maintain long life and high electron emission efficiency (high quantum efficiency, or QE). The UMD dispenser photocathode design addresses this tradeoff of robustness and QE. In such a dispenser, a cesium-based surface layer is deposited on a porous substrate. The surface layer can be replenished from a subsurface cesium reservoir under gentle heating, allowing cesium to diffuse controllably to the surface and providing demonstrably more robust photocathodes. In support of the premise that recesiation is able to restore contaminated photocathodes, we here report controlled contamination of cesium-based surface layers with subsequent recesiation and the resulting effect on QE. Contaminant gases investigated include examples known from the vacuum environment of typical electron guns.
Enhancing the quantum efficiency of InGaN yellow-green light-emitting diodes by growth interruption
Du, Chunhua; Ma, Ziguang; Zhou, Junming; Lu, Taiping; Jiang, Yang; Zuo, Peng; Jia, Haiqiang; Chen, Hong
2014-08-18
We studied the effect of multiple interruptions during the quantum well growth on emission-efficiency enhancement of InGaN-based yellow-green light emitting diodes on c-plane sapphire substrate. The output power and dominant wavelength at 20?mA are 0.24 mW and 556.3?nm. High resolution x-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, and electroluminescence measurements demonstrate that efficiency enhancement could be partially attributed to crystal quality improvement of the active region resulted from reduced In clusters and relevant defects on the surface of InGaN layer by introducing interruptions. The less tilted energy band in the quantum well is also caused by the decrease of In-content gradient along c-axis resulted from In segregation during the interruptions, which increases spatial overlap of electron-hole wavefunction and thus the internal quantum efficiency. The latter also leads to smaller blueshift of dominant wavelength with current increasing.
DeLucia, Evan H.
· CO2 assimilation · Sun/shade Introduction The quantum yield of photosynthesis () is a measure apparatus. The maximum quantum yield (max) is measured when photosynthesis is light-limited, a situa- tion re- sponse. In some cases quantum yield measurements can be influenced by changing levels
Efficient optimal minimum error discrimination of symmetric quantum states
Assalini, Antonio; Cariolaro, Gianfranco; Pierobon, Gianfranco [Department of Information Engineering (DEI), University of Padua, Via Gradenigo 6/B, 35131, Padova (Italy)
2010-01-15
This article deals with the quantum optimal discrimination among mixed quantum states enjoying geometrical uniform symmetry with respect to a reference density operator rho{sub 0}. It is well known that the minimal error probability is given by the positive operator-valued measure obtained as a solution of a convex optimization problem, namely a set of operators satisfying geometrical symmetry, with respect to a reference operator PI{sub 0} and maximizing Tr(rho{sub 0}PI{sub 0}). In this article, by resolving the dual problem, we show that the same result is obtained by minimizing the trace of a semidefinite positive operator X commuting with the symmetry operator and such that X>=rho{sub 0}. The new formulation gives a deeper insight into the optimization problem and allows to obtain closed-form analytical solutions, as shown by a simple but not trivial explanatory example. In addition to the theoretical interest, the result leads to semidefinite programming solutions of reduced complexity, allowing to extend the numerical performance evaluation to quantum communication systems modeled in Hilbert spaces of large dimension.
High accuracy radiation efficiency measurement techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kozakoff, D. J.; Schuchardt, J. M.
1981-01-01
The relatively large antenna subarrays (tens of meters) to be used in the Solar Power Satellite, and the desire to accurately quantify antenna performance, dictate the requirement for specialized measurement techniques. The error contributors associated with both far-field and near-field antenna measurement concepts were quantified. As a result, instrumentation configurations with measurement accuracy potential were identified. In every case, advances in the state of the art of associated electronics were found to be required. Relative cost trade-offs between a candidate far-field elevated antenna range and near-field facility were also performed.
Security bounds for efficient decoy-state quantum key distribution
Marco Lucamarini; James F. Dynes; Bernd Fröhlich; Zhiliang Yuan; Andrew J. Shields
2015-03-25
Information-theoretical security of quantum key distribution (QKD) has been convincingly proven in recent years and remarkable experiments have shown the potential of QKD for real world applications. Due to its unique capability of combining high key rate and security in a realistic finite-size scenario, the efficient version of the BB84 QKD protocol endowed with decoy states has been subject of intensive research. Its recent experimental implementation finally demonstrated a secure key rate beyond 1 Mbps over a 50 km optical fiber. However the achieved rate holds under the restrictive assumption that the eavesdropper performs collective attacks. Here, we review the protocol and generalize its security. We exploit a map by Ahrens to rigorously upper bound the Hypergeometric distribution resulting from a general eavesdropping. Despite the extended applicability of the new protocol, its key rate is only marginally smaller than its predecessor in all cases of practical interest.
Determination of quantum efficiency in fluorescing turbid media.
Coppel, Ludovic Gustafsson; Andersson, Mattias; Edström, Per
2011-06-10
A method is proposed to estimate the optical parameters in a fluorescing turbid medium with strong absorption for which traditional Kubelka-Munk theory is not applicable, using a model for the radiative properties of optically thick fluorescent turbid media of finite thickness proposed in 2009 [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A26, 1896 (2009)]. The method is successfully applied to uncoated papers with different thicknesses. It is found that the quantum efficiency of fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) is nearly independent of the fiber type, FWA type, FWA concentration, and filler additive concentration used in this study. The results enable an estimation of the model parameters as function of the FWA concentration and substrate composition. This is necessary in order to use the model for optimizing fluorescence in the paper and textile industries. PMID:21673784
Measurement of quantum fluctuations in geometry
Hogan, Craig J. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1580 (United States)
2008-05-15
A particular form for the quantum indeterminacy of relative spacetime position of events is derived from the context of a holographic geometry with a minimum length at the Planck scale. The indeterminacy predicts fluctuations from a classically defined geometry in the form of ''holographic noise'' whose spatial character, absolute normalization, and spectrum are predicted with no parameters. The noise has a distinctive transverse spatial shear signature and a flat power spectral density given by the Planck time. An interferometer signal displays noise due to the uncertainty of relative positions of reflection events. The noise corresponds to an accumulation of phase offset with time that mimics a random walk of those optical elements that change the orientation of a wavefront. It only appears in measurements that compare transverse positions and does not appear at all in purely radial position measurements. A lower bound on holographic noise follows from a covariant upper bound on gravitational entropy. The predicted holographic noise spectrum is estimated to be comparable to measured noise in the currently operating interferometric gravitational-wave detector GEO600. Because of its transverse character, holographic noise is reduced relative to gravitational wave effects in other interferometer designs, such as the LIGO observatories, where beam power is much less in the beam splitter than in the arms.
Probabilistic quantum control via indirect measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandilara, A.; Clark, J. W.
2005-01-01
The most basic scenario of quantum control involves the organized manipulation of pure dynamical states of the system by means of unitary transformations. Recently, Vilela Mendes and Man’ko have shown that the conditions for controllability on the state space become less restrictive if unitary control operations may be supplemented by projective measurement. The present work builds on this idea, introducing the additional element of indirect measurement to achieve a kind of remote control. The target system that is to be remotely controlled is first entangled with another identical system, called the control system. The control system is then subjected to unitary transformations plus projective measurement. As anticipated by Schrödinger, such control via entanglement is necessarily probabilistic in nature. On the other hand, under appropriate conditions the remote-control scenario offers the special advantages of robustness against decoherence and a greater repertoire of unitary transformations. Simulations carried out for a two-level system demonstrate that, with optimization of control parameters, a substantial gain in the population of reachable states can be realized.
The quantumness of correlations revealed in local measurements exceeds entanglement
Marco Piani; Gerardo Adesso
2012-01-16
We analyze a family of measures of general quantum correlations for composite systems, defined in terms of the bipartite entanglement necessarily created between systems and apparatuses during local measurements. For every entanglement monotone $E$, this operational correspondence provides a different measure $Q_E$ of quantum correlations. Examples of such measures are the relative entropy of quantumness, the quantum deficit, and the negativity of quantumness. In general, we prove that any so defined quantum correlation measure is always greater than (or equal to) the corresponding entanglement between the subsystems, $Q_E \\ge E$, for arbitrary states of composite quantum systems. We analyze qualitatively and quantitatively the flow of correlations in iterated measurements, showing that general quantum correlations and entanglement can never decrease along von Neumann chains, and that genuine multipartite entanglement in the initial state of the observed system always gives rise to genuine multipartite entanglement among all subsystems and all measurement apparatuses at any level in the chain. Our results provide a comprehensive framework to understand and quantify general quantum correlations in multipartite states.
Measure synchronization in quantum many-body systems
Haibo Qiu; Bruno Julia-Diaz; Miguel Angel Garcia-March; Artur Polls
2014-10-24
The concept of measure synchronization between two coupled quantum many-body systems is presented. In general terms we consider two quantum many-body systems whose dynamics gets coupled through the contact particle-particle interaction. This coupling is shown to produce measure synchronization, a generalization of synchrony to a large class of systems which takes place in absence of dissipation. We find that in quantum measure synchronization, the many-body quantum properties for the two subsystems, e.g. condensed fractions and particle fluctuations, behave in a coordinated way. To illustrate the concept we consider a simple case of two species of bosons occupying two distinct quantum states. Measure synchronization can be readily explored with state-of-the-art techniques in ultracold atomic gases and, if propertly controlled, be employed to share quantum correlations between different degrees of freedom.
Quantum Measurement, Complexity and Discrete Physics
Martin Leckey
2003-10-06
This paper presents a new modified quantum mechanics, Critical Complexity Quantum Mechanics, which includes a new account of wavefunction collapse. This modified quantum mechanics is shown to arise naturally from a fully discrete physics, where all physical quantities are discrete rather than continuous. I compare this theory with the spontaneous collapse theories of Ghirardi, Rimini, Weber and Pearle and discuss some implications of these theories and CCQM for a realist view of the quantum realm.
Introduction: From Efficient Quantum Computation to Nonextensive Statistical Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prosen, Tomaz
These few pages will attempt to make a short comprehensive overview of several contributions to this volume which concern rather diverse topics. I shall review the following works, essentially reversing the sequence indicated in my title: • First, by C. Tsallis on the relation of nonextensive statistics to the stability of quantum motion on the edge of quantum chaos. • Second, the contribution by P. Jizba on information theoretic foundations of generalized (nonextensive) statistics. • Third, the contribution by J. Rafelski on a possible generalization of Boltzmann kinetics, again, formulated in terms of nonextensive statistics. • Fourth, the contribution by D.L. Stein on the state-of-the-art open problems in spin glasses and on the notion of complexity there. • Fifth, the contribution by F.T. Arecchi on the quantum-like uncertainty relations and decoherence appearing in the description of perceptual tasks of the brain. • Sixth, the contribution by G. Casati on the measurement and information extraction in the simulation of complex dynamics by a quantum computer. Immediately, the following question arises: What do the topics of these talks have in common? Apart from the variety of questions they address, it is quite obvious that the common denominator of these contributions is an approach to describe and control "the complexity" by simple means. One of the very useful tools to handle such problems, also often used or at least referred to in several of the works presented here, is the concept of Tsallis entropy and nonextensive statistics.
Collier, J; Aldoohan, S; Gill, K
2014-06-01
Purpose: Reducing patient dose while maintaining (or even improving) image quality is one of the foremost goals in CT imaging. To this end, we consider the feasibility of optimizing CT scan protocols in conjunction with the application of different beam-hardening filtrations and assess this augmentation through noise-power spectrum (NPS) and detector quantum efficiency (DQE) analysis. Methods: American College of Radiology (ACR) and Catphan phantoms (The Phantom Laboratory) were scanned with a 64 slice CT scanner when additional filtration of thickness and composition (e.g., copper, nickel, tantalum, titanium, and tungsten) had been applied. A MATLAB-based code was employed to calculate the image of noise NPS. The Catphan Image Owl software suite was then used to compute the modulated transfer function (MTF) responses of the scanner. The DQE for each additional filter, including the inherent filtration, was then computed from these values. Finally, CT dose index (CTDIvol) values were obtained for each applied filtration through the use of a 100 mm pencil ionization chamber and CT dose phantom. Results: NPS, MTF, and DQE values were computed for each applied filtration and compared to the reference case of inherent beam-hardening filtration only. Results showed that the NPS values were reduced between 5 and 12% compared to inherent filtration case. Additionally, CTDIvol values were reduced between 15 and 27% depending on the composition of filtration applied. However, no noticeable changes in image contrast-to-noise ratios were noted. Conclusion: The reduction in the quanta noise section of the NPS profile found in this phantom-based study is encouraging. The reduction in both noise and dose through the application of beam-hardening filters is reflected in our phantom image quality. However, further investigation is needed to ascertain the applicability of this approach to reducing patient dose while maintaining diagnostically acceptable image qualities in a clinical setting.
Objectivity of Quantum Measurement in Many-Observer World
Sheng-Wen Li; C. Y. Cai; X. F. Liu; C. P. Sun
2015-08-06
The objectivity of quantum measurement is treated as an emergent phenomenon with $N$ observers who can agree to the same result of measurement, and meanwhile, they can identify their records with each other. In this many-observer world (MOW), an objective quantum measurement is dealt with as a multipartite [$(N+1)$-body] quantum correlation among the measured system and $N$ observers when its bipartite reductions are the same classical correlations. With this conceptual clarification, we find that, an objective quantum measurement is implemented if and only if the MOW is initially factorized in a pure state and then the total system can evolve into a generalized GHZ state with respect to the orthogonal basis preferred by each observer. Especially, such objective quantum measurement is recast in ideal classical correlation when the observer world is macroscopic for $N\\rightarrow\\infty$.
Revisiting a Limit on Efficient Quantum Computation Tarsem S. Purewal Jr.
Geller, Michael R.
Revisiting a Limit on Efficient Quantum Computation Tarsem S. Purewal Jr. Department of Computer and no knowledge of quan- tum mechanics. Keywords Computational Complexity, Quantum Computing 1. INTRODUCTION In the race to build a quantum computer, the question of whether or not such a machine will be more useful
Asymptotic Spectral Measures, Quantum Mechanics, and E-Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinez, Diane; Trout, Jody
We study the relationship between POV-measures in quantum theory and asymptotic morphisms in the operator algebra E-theory of Connes-Higson. This is done by introducing the theory of ``asymptotic'' PV-measures and their integral correspondence with positive asymptotic morphisms on locally compact spaces. Examples and applications involving various aspects of quantum physics, including quantum noise models, semiclassical limits, strong deformation quantizations, and pure half-spin particles, are also discussed.
Measurement-induced manipulation of the quantum-classical border
S. Maniscalco; J. Piilo; K. -A. Suominen
2007-04-24
We demonstrate the possibility of controlling the border between the quantum and the classical world by performing nonselective measurements on quantum systems. We consider a quantum harmonic oscillator initially prepared in a Schroedinger cat state and interacting with its environment. We show that the environment induced decoherence transforming the cat state into a statistical mixture can be strongly inhibited by means of appropriate sequences of measurements.
Giuseppe Castagnoli
2000-05-17
We introduce a local concept of speed-up applicable to intermediate stages of a quantum algorithm. We use it to analyse the complementary roles played by quantum parallel computation and quantum measurement in yielding the speed-up. A severe conflict between there being a speed-up and the many worlds interpretation is highlighted.
Tulsi Dass
2006-12-29
Supmech, an algebraic scheme of mechanics integrating noncommutative symplectic geometry and noncommutative probability, subsumes quantum and classical mechanics and permits consistent treatment of interaction of quantum and classical systems. Quantum measurements are treated in this framework; the von Neumann reduction rule (generally postulated) is derived and interpreted in physical terms.
Current injection efficiency of InGaAsN quantum-well lasers Nelson Tansua
Gilchrist, James F.
Current injection efficiency of InGaAsN quantum-well lasers Nelson Tansua Department of Electrical-threshold current injection efficiency of quantum well QW lasers is clarified. The analysis presented here lasers. The role of heavy-hole leakage in the InGaAsN QW lasers is shown to be significant in determining
An efficient quantum algorithm for the hidden subgroup problem in extraspecial groups
Fondements et Applications, Université Paris 7
An efficient quantum algorithm for the hidden subgroup problem in extraspecial groups G as one computational step. An algorithm is called efficient if its time complexity is polynomial correction. We give here a polynomial time quantum algorithm for finding hidden subgroups in extraspecial
Ensembles of quantum trajectories- a window into qubit measurement dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weber, Steven
2015-03-01
A central feature of quantum mechanics is that a measurement result is intrinsically probabilistic. Consequently, continuously monitoring a quantum system will randomly perturb its natural unitary evolution. An accurate measurement record documents this stochastic evolution and can be used to reconstruct the quantum trajectory of the system state in a single experimental iteration. We use weak measurements to track the individual quantum trajectories of a superconducting qubit that evolves under the competing influences of continuous weak measurement and Rabi drive. We analyze large ensembles of such trajectories to examine their characteristics and to determine their statistical properties. For example, by considering only the subset of trajectories that evolve between any chosen initial and final states, we can deduce the most probably path through quantum state space. Our investigation reveals the rich interplay between measurement dynamics, typically associated with wavefunction collapse, and unitary evolution. Our results provide insight into the dynamics of open quantum systems and may enable new methods of quantum state tomography, quantum state steering through measurement, and active quantum control.
Feihu Xu; Marcos Curty; Bing Qi; Li Qian; Hoi-Kwong Lo
2015-06-29
We demonstrate that, with a fair comparison, the secret key rate of discrete-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (DV-MDI-QKD) with high-efficiency single-photon detectors and good system alignment is typically rather high and thus highly suitable for not only long distance communication but also metropolitan networks. The previous reservation on the key rate and suitability of DV-MDI-QKD for metropolitan networks expressed by Pirandola et al. [Nature Photon. 9, 397 (2015)] was based on an unfair comparison with low-efficiency detectors and high quantum bit error rate, and is, in our opinion, unjustified.
Complementarity in variable strength quantum non-demolition measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barbieri, M.; Goggin, M. E.; Almeida, M. P.; Lanyon, B. P.; White, A. G.
2009-09-01
Using a linear optic quantum gate we perform a variable strength quantum non-demolition measurement, to elucidate the role of which-path knowledge in a complementarity experiment. Specifically, we demonstrate that the entanglement created by the measurement interaction prevents an exhaustive description in terms of complementary wave-like and particle-like behaviour of a single photon in an interferometer.
Irrational Dynamical Variables and the Measurement Problem in Quantum Mechanics
Christopher Engelhardt
2015-07-08
The quantum mechanical measurement process is considered. A hypothetical concept of irrational dynamical variables is proposed. A possible definition of measurement is discussed along with a mathematical method to calculate experimental result probabilities. The postulates of quantum mechanics are analyzed and modified. Thought experiments and implications are considered.
Detecting arbitrary quantum errors via stabilizer measurements on a sublattice of the surface code
A. D. Córcoles; Easwar Magesan; Srikanth J. Srinivasan; Andrew W. Cross; M. Steffen; Jay M. Gambetta; Jerry M. Chow
2014-10-23
To build a fault-tolerant quantum computer, it is necessary to implement a quantum error correcting code. Such codes rely on the ability to extract information about the quantum error syndrome while not destroying the quantum information encoded in the system. Stabilizer codes are attractive solutions to this problem, as they are analogous to classical linear codes, have simple and easily computed encoding networks, and allow efficient syndrome extraction. In these codes, syndrome extraction is performed via multi-qubit stabilizer measurements, which are bit and phase parity checks up to local operations. Previously, stabilizer codes have been realized in nuclei, trapped-ions, and superconducting qubits. However these implementations lack the ability to perform fault-tolerant syndrome extraction which continues to be a challenge for all physical quantum computing systems. Here we experimentally demonstrate a key step towards this problem by using a two-by-two lattice of superconducting qubits to perform syndrome extraction and arbitrary error detection via simultaneous quantum non-demolition stabilizer measurements. This lattice represents a primitive tile for the surface code, which is a promising stabilizer code for scalable quantum computing. Furthermore, we successfully show the preservation of an entangled state in the presence of an arbitrary applied error through high-fidelity syndrome measurement. Our results bolster the promise of employing lattices of superconducting qubits for larger-scale fault-tolerant quantum computing.
Measuring energy efficiency in economics: Shadow value approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khademvatani, Asgar
For decades, academic scholars and policy makers have commonly applied a simple average measure, energy intensity, for studying energy efficiency. In contrast, we introduce a distinctive marginal measure called energy shadow value (SV) for modeling energy efficiency drawn on economic theory. This thesis demonstrates energy SV advantages, conceptually and empirically, over the average measure recognizing marginal technical energy efficiency and unveiling allocative energy efficiency (energy SV to energy price). Using a dual profit function, the study illustrates how treating energy as quasi-fixed factor called quasi-fixed approach offers modeling advantages and is appropriate in developing an explicit model for energy efficiency. We address fallacies and misleading results using average measure and demonstrate energy SV advantage in inter- and intra-country energy efficiency comparison. Energy efficiency dynamics and determination of efficient allocation of energy use are shown through factors impacting energy SV: capital, technology, and environmental obligations. To validate the energy SV, we applied a dual restricted cost model using KLEM dataset for the 35 US sectors stretching from 1958 to 2000 and selected a sample of the four sectors. Following the empirical results, predicted wedges between energy price and the SV growth indicate a misallocation of energy use in stone, clay and glass (SCG) and communications (Com) sectors with more evidence in the SCG compared to the Com sector, showing overshoot in energy use relative to optimal paths and cost increases from sub-optimal energy use. The results show that energy productivity is a measure of technical efficiency and is void of information on the economic efficiency of energy use. Decomposing energy SV reveals that energy, capital and technology played key roles in energy SV increases helping to consider and analyze policy implications of energy efficiency improvement. Applying the marginal measure, we also contributed to energy efficiency convergence analysis employing the delta-convergence and unconditional & conditional beta-convergence concepts, investigating economic energy efficiency differences across the four US sectors using panel data models. The results show that, in terms of technical and allocative energy efficiency, the energy-intensive sectors, SCG and textile mill products, tend to catch the energy extensive sectors, the Com and furniture & fixtures, being conditional on sector-specific characteristics. Conditional convergence results indicate that technology, capital and energy are crucial factors in determining energy efficiency differences across the US sectors, implying that environmental or energy policies, and technological changes should be industry specific across the US sectors. The main finding is that the marginal value measure conveys information on both technical and allocative energy efficiency and accounts for all costs and benefits of energy consumption including environmental and externality costs.
Optimal randomness certification in the quantum steering and prepare-and-measure scenarios
Elsa Passaro; Daniel Cavalcanti; Paul Skrzypczyk; Antonio Acín
2015-04-30
Quantum mechanics predicts the existence of intrinsically random processes. Contrary to classical randomness, this lack of predictability can not be attributed to ignorance or lack of control. Here we propose a method to quantify the amount of randomness that can be extracted in two scenarios: (i) the quantum steering scenario, where two parties measure a bipartite system in an unknown state but one of them does not trust his measurement apparatus, and (ii) the prepare-and-measure scenario, where additionally the quantum state is known. We use our methods to compute the maximal amount of local randomness that can be certified by measuring systems subject to noise and losses and show that randomness can be certified from a single measurement if and only if the detectors used in the test have detection efficiency higher than 50%.
Efficient quantum key distribution based on pulse-position modulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yequn; Djordjevic, Ivan B.; Neifeld, Mark A.
2014-10-01
Pulse-position modulation (PPM) is a promising technique that can be used to improve the efficiency of quantum key distribution (QKD) based on a Poisson photon source. In this paper, we first investigate a simple entanglement-and- PPM-based QKD protocol and demonstrate the improvement in secret key rate. However, such a PPM-based QKD protocol that utilizes only frames with a single click is still inefficient because it ignores frames with two and more clicks. For this reason we propose to use such multi-click frames to further improve the efficiency of PPM-based QKD by employing a better sifting strategy. Specifically, we focus on using the frames with two clicks in addition to those with a single click. Finally, we analyze the secret key rate under various noise levels in the scenario of high channel loss, which has been faced by most QKD applications. With the analytical results, we show the advantage of the proposed PPM-based QKD.
Geometric measure of quantum discord over two-sided projective measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Jianwei
2012-01-01
The original definition of quantum discord of bipartite states was defined over one-sided projective measurements, it describes quantum correlations more extensively than entanglement. Dakic, Vedral, and Brukner [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 (2010) 190502] introduced a geometric measure of quantum discord, Luo and Fu [Phys. Rev. A 82 (2010) 034302] simplified the variation expression of this geometric measure. In this Letter we introduce a geometric measure of quantum discord over two-sided projective measurements. A simplified expression and a lower bound of this two-sided geometric measure are derived and explicit expressions are obtained for some special cases.
Classical simulation of measurement-based quantum computation on higher-genus surface-code states
Leonard Goff; Robert Raussendorf
2012-10-31
We consider the efficiency of classically simulating measurement-based quantum computation on surface-code states. We devise a method for calculating the elements of the probability distribution for the classical output of the quantum computation. The operational cost of this method is polynomial in the size of the surface-code state, but in the worst case scales as $2^{2g}$ in the genus $g$ of the surface embedding the code. However, there are states in the code space for which the simulation becomes efficient. In general, the simulation cost is exponential in the entanglement contained in a certain effective state, capturing the encoded state, the encoding and the local post-measurement states. The same efficiencies hold, with additional assumptions on the temporal order of measurements and on the tessellations of the code surfaces, for the harder task of sampling from the distribution of the computational output.
Classical simulation of measurement-based quantum computation on higher-genus surface code states
Goff, Leonard
2012-01-01
We consider the efficiency of classically simulating measurement-based quantum computation on surface code states. We devise a method for calculating the elements of the probability distribution for the classical output of the quantum computation. The operational cost of this method is polynomial in the size of the surface code state, but in the worst case scales as $2^{2g}$ in the genus $g$ of the surface embedding the code. However, there are states in the code space for which the simulation becomes efficient. In general, the simulation cost is exponential in the entanglement contained in a certain effective state, capturing the encoded state, the encoding and the local post-measurement states. The same efficiencies hold, with additional assumptions on the temporal order of measurements and on the tessellations of the code surfaces, for the harder task of sampling from the distribution of the computational output.
Michael A. Nielsen
2001-08-06
What resources are universal for quantum computation? In the standard model, a quantum computer consists of a sequence of unitary gates acting coherently on the qubits making up the computer. This paper shows that a very different model involving only projective measurements, quantum memory, and the ability to prepare the |0> state is also universal for quantum computation. In particular, no coherent unitary dynamics are involved in the computation.
Highly Efficient Long-Distance Quantum Communication: a Blueprint for Implementation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Linshu; Muralidharan, Sreraman; Kim, Jungsang; Lutkenhaus, Norbert; Lukin, Mikhail; Jiang, Liang
2015-03-01
Quantum repeaters provide a way for long distance quantum communication through optical fiber networks. Transmission losses and operation errors are two major challenges to the implementation of quantum repeaters. At each intermediate repeater station, transmission losses can be overcome using either heralded entanglement generation or quantum error correction, while operation errors can be corrected via entanglement purification or quantum error correction. Depending on the mechanisms used to correct loss and operation errors respectively, three generations of quantum repeaters have been proposed. We present a quantitative comparison of different quantum repeater schemes by evaluating the time- and qubit-resource consumed simultaneously. We can identify the most efficient scheme for given technological capabilities, which are characterized by fiber coupling efficiency, local gate fidelity, and local gate speed. Our work provides a roadmap for high-speed quantum networks across continental distances. Linshu and Sreraman contributed equally to this work.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Jiadong; Wang, Lai; Yang, Di; Hao, Zhibiao; Luo, Yi; Sun, Changzheng; Han, Yanjun; Xiong, Bing; Wang, Jian; Li, Hongtao
2015-09-01
The InGaN quantum dot (QD) is promising for use in green light-emitting diodes and laser diodes owing to its small strain and weak quantum-confined Stark effect. However, its small carrier capture cross section still sets a limit to its internal quantum efficiency (IQE). Tunneling-enhanced carrier transfer in a coupled InGaN/GaN quantum well (QW) and quantum dot structure has been studied on the basis of temperature-dependent and time-resolved photoluminescence. It is found that carriers can tunnel from a shallow QW to deep QDs at room temperature. Compared with the conventional single-QD layer, the IQE of the QDs can be enhanced more than two times to about 45%.