Experimentally efficient methods for estimating the performance of quantum measurements
Magesan, Easwar
Efficient methods for characterizing the performance of quantum measurements are important in the experimental quantum sciences. Ideally, one requires both a physically relevant distinguishability measure between measurement ...
Efficient Measurement of Multiparticle Entanglement with Embedding Quantum Simulator
Ming-Cheng Chen; Dian Wu; Zu-En Su; Xin-Dong Cai; Xi-Lin Wang; Tao Yang; Li Li; Nai-Le Liu; Chao-Yang Lu; Jan-Wei Pan
2015-07-12
We reports direct and scalable measurement of multiparticle entanglement concurrence and three-tangle with embedding photonic quantum simulators. In this embedding framework [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240502 (2013)], $N$-qubit entanglement monotone, which associates with non-Hermitian operators, can be efficiently measured with only 2 (for even $N$) and 6 (for odd $N$) local measurement settings. Our experiment uses a multiphoton quantum simulator to mimic the dynamical entanglement evolution and track its concurrence and three-tangle.
Absolute detector quantum-efficiency measurements using correlated photons
Migdall, Alan
metrologia Absolute detector quantum-efficiency measurements using correlated photons A. L. Migdall correlated photons for radiometric purposes has been set up at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). We use pairs of correlated photons to produce spatial maps of the absolute efficiency
Imaging and quantum efficiency measurement of chromium emitters in diamond
I. Aharonovich; S. Castelletto; B. C. Gibson; B. C. Johnson; S. Prawer
2010-08-17
We present direct imaging of the emission pattern of individual chromium-based single photon emitters in diamond and measure their quantum efficiency. By imaging the excited state transition dipole intensity distribution in the back focal plane of high numerical aperture objective, we determined that the emission dipole is oriented nearly orthogonal to the diamond-air interface. Employing ion implantation techniques, the emitters were engineered with various proximities from the diamond-air interface. By comparing the decay rates from the single chromium emitters at different depths in the diamond crystal, an average quantum efficiency of 28% was measured.
Efficient measurement of quantum dynamics via compressive sensing
A. Shabani; R. L. Kosut; M. Mohseni; H. Rabitz; M. A. Broome; M. P. Almeida; A. Fedrizzi; A. G. White
2010-11-09
The resources required to characterise the dynamics of engineered quantum systems-such as quantum computers and quantum sensors-grow exponentially with system size. Here we adapt techniques from compressive sensing to exponentially reduce the experimental configurations required for quantum process tomography. Our method is applicable to dynamical processes that are known to be nearly-sparse in a certain basis and it can be implemented using only single-body preparations and measurements. We perform efficient, high-fidelity estimation of process matrices on an experiment attempting to implement a photonic two-qubit logic-gate. The data base is obtained under various decoherence strengths. We find that our technique is both accurate and noise robust, thus removing a key roadblock to the development and scaling of quantum technologies.
Quantum efficiency measurements in the swept charge device CCD236
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, P. H.; Gow, J. P. D.; Murray, N. J.; Tutt, J. H.; Soman, M. R.; Holland, A. D.
2014-04-01
The e2v technologies plc. CCD236 is a Swept Charge Device (SCD) designed as a large area (20 mm × 20 mm) soft X-ray detector for spectroscopy in the range 0.8 keV to 10 keV. It benefits from improvements in design over the previous generation, the e2v CCD54, such as: a 4 times increased detector area, a reduction in split X-ray events due to the 100 ?m × 100 ?m `pixel' size, and improvements to radiation hardness. The CCD236 will be used in India's Chandrayaan-2 Large Soft X-ray Spectrometer (CLASS) instrument and China's Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT). Measurements of the Quantum Efficiency (QE) have been obtained relative to a NIST calibrated photodiode over the energy range 0.2 keV to 1.9 keV, using the BESSY II X-ray synchrotron in Berlin. Two X-ray event counting methods are described and compared, and QE for soft X-ray interaction is reported. Uniformity of QE across the device is also investigated at energies between 0.52 keV and 1.5 keV in different areas of the detector. This work will enable the actual number of photons incident on the detectors to be calculated, thus ensuring that the CCD236 detectors provide valuable scientific data during use. By comparing the QE methods in this paper with the event processing techniques to be used with CLASS, an estimate of the instrument-specific QE for CLASS can be provided.
Characterization of Si nanostructures using internal quantum efficiency measurements
ZAIDI,SALEEM H.
2000-04-01
Hemispherical reflectance and internal quantum efficiency measurements have been employed to evaluate the response of Si nanostructured surfaces formed by using random and periodic reactive ion etching techniques. Random RIE-textured surfaces have demonstrated solar weighted reflectance of {approx} 3% over 300--1,200-nm spectral range even without the benefit of anti-reflection films. Random RIE-texturing has been found to be applicable over large areas ({approximately} 180 cm{sup 2}) of both single and multicrystalline Si surfaces. Due to the surface contamination and plasma-induced damage, RIE-textured surfaces did not initially provide increased short circuit current as expected from the enhanced absorption. Improved processing combined with wet-chemical damage removal etches resulted in significant improvement in the short circuit current with IQEs comparable to the random, wet-chemically textured surfaces. An interesting feature of the RIE-textured surfaces was their superior performance in the near IR spectral range. The response of RIE-textured periodic surfaces can be broadly classified into three distinct regimes. One-dimensional grating structures with triangular profiles are characterized by exceptionally low, polarization-independent reflective behavior. The reflectance response of such surfaces is similar to a graded-index anti-reflection film. The IQE response from these surfaces is severely degraded in the UV-Visible spectral region due to plasma-induced surface damage. One-dimensional grating structures with rectangular profiles exhibit spectrally selective absorptive behavior with somewhat similar IQE response. The third type of grating structure combines broadband anti-reflection behavior with significant IQE enhancement in 800--1,200-nm spectral region. The hemispherical reflectance of these 2D grating structures is comparable to random RIE-textured surfaces. The IQE enhancement in the long wavelength spectral region can be attributed to increased coupling into obliquely propagating transmitted diffracted orders inside the Si substrate. Random RIE texturing techniques are expected to find widespread commercial applicability in low-cost, large-area multicrystalline Si solar cells. Grating-texturing techniques are expected to find applications in thin-film and space solar cells.
Quantum efficiency and metastable lifetime measurements in solid state laser materials via
Mandelis, Andreas
) was utilized early in the study of nonradiative processes in luminescent systems ex- hibiting metastable to measure the absolute nonradiative quantum efficiency flNR This, in turn, can be readily used to determine for the com- bined measurement of metastable lifetime and nonradiative energy con- version efficiency in laser
Schmidt, Tobias D. Reichardt, Lukas J.; Wehrmeister, Sebastian; Scholz, Bert J.; Mayr, Christian; Brütting, Wolfgang; Rausch, Andreas F.; Wehlus, Thomas; Reusch, Thilo C. G.; Ciarnáin, Rossá Mac; Danz, Norbert
2014-07-28
Emitter orientation will play a major role in future applications of organic light-emitting diodes due to its strong impact on the efficiency of the devices. Up to now, determining the orientation of transition dipole moments required elaborate angular-dependent measurements of the light emission pattern. In this paper, we present a simplified and straightforward method to extract the emitter orientation from external quantum efficiency measurements. We demonstrate the validity of the method on three different dye-doped emitting systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Seung-Woo; Park, Kimin; Ralph, Timothy C.; Jeong, Hyunseok
2015-11-01
We present a detailed analysis of the Bell measurement scheme proposed in Lee et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 113603 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.113603] based on a logical qubit using Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger entanglement of photons. The success probability of the proposed Bell measurement can be made arbitrarily high using only linear optics as the number of photons in a logical qubit increases. We compare our scheme with all the other proposals, using single-photon qubits, coherent-state qubits, or hybrid qubits, suggested to enhance the efficiency of the Bell measurement. As a remarkable advantage, our scheme requires only photon on-off measurements, while photon number resolving detectors are necessary for all the other proposals. We find that the scheme based on coherent-state qubits shows the best performance with respect to the attained success probability in terms of the average number of photons used in the process, while our scheme outperforms the schemes using single-photon qubits. We finally show that efficient quantum communication and fault-tolerant quantum computation can be realized using our approach.
Design of quantum efficiency measurement system for variable doping GaAs photocathode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Liang; Yang, Kai; Liu, HongLin; Chang, Benkang
2008-03-01
To achieve high quantum efficiency and good stability has been a main direction to develop GaAs photocathode recently. Through early research, we proved that variable doping structure is executable and practical, and has great potential. In order to optimize variable doping GaAs photocathode preparation techniques and study the variable doping theory deeply, a real-time quantum efficiency measurement system for GaAs Photocathode has been designed. The system uses FPGA (Field-programmable gate array) device, and high speed A/D converter to design a high signal noise ratio and high speed data acquisition card. ARM (Advanced RISC Machines) core processor s3c2410 and real-time embedded system are used to obtain and show measurement results. The measurement precision of photocurrent could reach 1nA, and measurement range of spectral response curve is within 400~1000nm. GaAs photocathode preparation process can be real-time monitored by using this system. This system could easily be added other functions to show the physic variation of photocathode during the preparation process more roundly in the future.
Measuring the X-ray quantum efficiency of a hybrid CMOS detector with 55Fe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bongiorno, S. D.; Falcone, A. D.; Prieskorn, Z.; Griffith, C.; Burrows, D. N.
2015-06-01
Charge coupled devices (CCDs) are currently the workhorse focal plane arrays operating aboard many orbiting astrophysics X-ray telescopes, e.g. Chandra, XMM-Newton, Swift, and Suzaku. In order to meet the count rate, power, and mission duration requirements defined by next-generation X-ray telescopes, future detectors will need to be read out faster, consume less power, and be more resistant to radiation and micrometeoroid damage than current-generation devices. The hybrid CMOS detector (HCD), a type of active pixel sensor, is currently being developed to meet these requirements. With a design architecture that involves bump bonding two semiconductor substrates together at the pixel level, these devices exhibit both the high read speed and low power consumption of CMOS readout circuitry and the high quantum efficiency (QE) of a deeply depleted silicon absorber. These devices are expected to exhibit the same excellent, high-energy quantum efficiency (QE) as deep-depletion CCDs (QE > 0.9 at 6 keV), while at the same time exhibiting superior readout flexibility, power consumption, and radiation hardness than CCDs. In this work we present a QE model for a Teledyne Imaging Sensors HyViSI HCD, which predicts QE=96% at 55Fe source energies (5.89 and 6.49 keV). We then present a QE measurement of the modeled device at the same energies, which shows QE=97±5% and is in good agreement with the model.
Efficient Quantum-State Estimation by Continuous Weak Measurement and Dynamical Control
Smith, Greg A.; Jessen, Poul S.; Silberfarb, Andrew; Deutsch, Ivan H.
2006-11-03
We demonstrate a fast, robust, and nondestructive protocol for quantum-state estimation based on continuous weak measurement in the presence of a controlled dynamical evolution. Our experiment uses optically probed atomic spins as a test bed and successfully reconstructs a range of trial states with fidelities of {approx}90%. The procedure holds promise as a practical diagnostic tool for the study of complex quantum dynamics, the testing of quantum hardware, and as a starting point for new types of quantum feedback control.
Efficient distributed quantum computing
Beals, Robert
We provide algorithms for efficiently moving and addressing quantum memory in parallel. These imply that the standard circuit model can be simulated with a low overhead by a more realistic model of a distributed quantum ...
Quantum efficiency characterization of LBNL CCD's Part 1: the Quantum Efficiency Machine
Quantum efficiency characterization of LBNL CCD's Part 1: the Quantum Efficiency Machine Donald E into characterization at LBNL. The quantum-efficiency (QE) workbench (The Quantum Efficiency Machine) described here Machine during measurements, making use of light from the axial port of the monochromator via an optical
Efficient Quantum Filtering for Quantum Feedback Control
Pierre Rouchon; Jason F. Ralph
2015-01-06
We discuss an efficient numerical scheme for the recursive filtering of diffusive quantum stochastic master equations. We show that the resultant quantum trajectory is robust and may be used for feedback based on inefficient measurements. The proposed numerical scheme is amenable to approximation, which can be used to further reduce the computational burden associated with calculating quantum trajectories and may allow real-time quantum filtering. We provide a two-qubit example where feedback control of entanglement may be within the scope of current experimental systems.
Salvagnini, Elena; Bosmans, Hilde; Marshall, Nicholas W.; Struelens, Lara
2013-10-15
Purpose: The aim of this paper was to illustrate the value of the new metric effective detective quantum efficiency (eDQE) in relation to more established measures in the optimization process of two digital mammography systems. The following metrics were included for comparison against eDQE: detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of the detector, signal difference to noise ratio (SdNR), and detectability index (d?) calculated using a standard nonprewhitened observer with eye filter.Methods: The two systems investigated were the Siemens MAMMOMAT Inspiration and the Hologic Selenia Dimensions. The presampling modulation transfer function (MTF) required for the eDQE was measured using two geometries: a geometry containing scattered radiation and a low scatter geometry. The eDQE, SdNR, and d? were measured for poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thicknesses of 20, 40, 60, and 70 mm, with and without the antiscatter grid and for a selection of clinically relevant target/filter (T/F) combinations. Figures of merit (FOMs) were then formed from SdNR and d? using the mean glandular dose as the factor to express detriment. Detector DQE was measured at energies covering the range of typical clinically used spectra.Results: The MTF measured in the presence of scattered radiation showed a large drop at low spatial frequency compared to the low scatter method and led to a corresponding reduction in eDQE. The eDQE for the Siemens system at 1 mm{sup ?1} ranged between 0.15 and 0.27, depending on T/F and grid setting. For the Hologic system, eDQE at 1 mm{sup ?1} varied from 0.15 to 0.32, again depending on T/F and grid setting. The eDQE results for both systems showed that the grid increased the system efficiency for PMMA thicknesses of 40 mm and above but showed only small sensitivity to T/F setting. While results of the SdNR and d? based FOMs confirmed the eDQE grid position results, they were also more specific in terms of T/F selection. For the Siemens system at 20 mm PMMA, the FOMs indicated Mo/Mo (grid out) as optimal while W/Rh (grid in) was the optimal configuration at 40, 60, and 70 mm PMMA. For the Hologic, the FOMs pointed to W/Rh (grid in) at 20 and 40 mm of PMMA while W/Ag (grid in) gave the highest FOM at 60 and 70 mm PMMA. Finally, DQE at 1 mm{sup ?1} averaged for the four beam qualities studied was 0.44 ± 0.02 and 0.55 ± 0.03 for the Siemens and Hologic detectors, respectively, indicating only a small influence of energy on detector DQE.Conclusions: Both the DQE and eDQE data showed only a small sensitivity to T/F setting for these two systems. The eDQE showed clear preferences in terms of scatter reduction, being highest for the grid-in geometry for PMMA thicknesses of 40 mm and above. The SdNR and d? based figures of merit, which contain additional weighting for contrast and dose, pointed to specific T/F settings for both systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacquot, Blake C.; Monacos, Steve P.; Hoenk, Michael E.; Greer, Frank; Jones, Todd J.; Nikzad, Shouleh
2011-04-01
In this paper we present our system design and methodology for making absolute quantum efficiency (QE) measurements through the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and verify the system with delta-doped silicon CCDs. Delta-doped detectors provide an excellent platform to validate measurements through the VUV due to their enhanced UV response. The requirements for measuring QE through the VUV are more strenuous than measurements in the near UV and necessitate, among other things, the use of a vacuum monochromator, good dewar chamber vacuum to prevent on-chip condensation, and more stringent handling requirements.
Raja, Sufi O
2016-01-01
Quantum measurement principle is employed to detect water quality and presence of nano-colloids. The setup uses spatially low coherent light source, for which the outcome of measurement is dependent on the presence of a reflecting surface and a linear polarizer. The introduction of a reflecting surface induces enhanced side scattering. The enhancement has specific patterns for pure water, ions and nanoparticles and can be employed to detect refractive index of liquids at high sensitivity. The differential enhancement can be used as an optical magnetometer that sensitively senses magnetic moments of colloidal magnetic nanoparticles at concentration untenable by other measurement techniques.
Work measurement as a generalized quantum measurement
Augusto J. Roncaglia; Federico Cerisola; Juan Pablo Paz
2014-12-18
We present a new method to measure the work $w$ performed on a driven quantum system and to sample its probability distribution $P(w)$. The method is based on a simple fact that remained unnoticed until now: Work on a quantum system can be measured by performing a generalized quantum measurement at a single time. Such measurement, which technically speaking is denoted as a POVM (positive operator valued measure) reduces to an ordinary projective measurement on an enlarged system. This observation not only demystifies work measurement but also suggests a new quantum algorithm to efficiently sample the distribution $P(w)$. This can be used, in combination with fluctuation theorems, to estimate free energies of quantum states on a quantum computer.
Efficient quantum circuit implementation of quantum walks
Douglas, B. L.; Wang, J. B.
2009-05-15
Quantum walks, being the quantum analog of classical random walks, are expected to provide a fruitful source of quantum algorithms. A few such algorithms have already been developed, including the 'glued trees' algorithm, which provides an exponential speedup over classical methods, relative to a particular quantum oracle. Here, we discuss the possibility of a quantum walk algorithm yielding such an exponential speedup over possible classical algorithms, without the use of an oracle. We provide examples of some highly symmetric graphs on which efficient quantum circuits implementing quantum walks can be constructed and discuss potential applications to quantum search for marked vertices along these graphs.
Efficient universal blind quantum computation.
Giovannetti, Vittorio; Maccone, Lorenzo; Morimae, Tomoyuki; Rudolph, Terry G
2013-12-01
We give a cheat sensitive protocol for blind universal quantum computation that is efficient in terms of computational and communication resources: it allows one party to perform an arbitrary computation on a second party's quantum computer without revealing either which computation is performed, or its input and output. The first party's computational capabilities can be extremely limited: she must only be able to create and measure single-qubit superposition states. The second party is not required to use measurement-based quantum computation. The protocol requires the (optimal) exchange of O(Jlog2(N)) single-qubit states, where J is the computational depth and N is the number of qubits needed for the computation. PMID:24476238
Efficient Quantum Walk on a Quantum Processor
Xiaogang Qiang; Thomas Loke; Ashley Montanaro; Kanin Aungskunsiri; Xiaoqi Zhou; Jeremy L. O'Brien; Jingbo Wang; Jonathan C. F. Matthews
2015-10-29
The random walk formalism is used across a wide range of applications, from modelling share prices to predicting population genetics. Likewise quantum walks have shown much potential as a frame- work for developing new quantum algorithms. In this paper, we present explicit efficient quantum circuits for implementing continuous-time quantum walks on the circulant class of graphs. These circuits allow us to sample from the output probability distributions of quantum walks on circulant graphs efficiently. We also show that solving the same sampling problem for arbitrary circulant quantum circuits is intractable for a classical computer, assuming conjectures from computational complexity theory. This is a new link between continuous-time quantum walks and computational complexity theory and it indicates a family of tasks which could ultimately demonstrate quantum supremacy over classical computers. As a proof of principle we have experimentally implemented the proposed quantum circuit on an example circulant graph using a two-qubit photonics quantum processor.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marshall, N. W.
2009-05-01
This paper presents detective quantum efficiency (DQE) data measured for a range of x-ray beam qualities for two full-field digital mammography (FFDM) systems: a caesium iodide (CsI) detector-based unit and a system designed around an amorphous selenium (a-Se) x-ray detector. Four beam qualities were studied for each system, covering mean energies from 17.8 keV to 23.4 keV for the CsI system and 17.8 keV to 24.7 keV for the a-Se unit. These were set using 2, 4, 6 and 7 cm polymethylmethacralate (PMMA) and typical tube voltage and target/filter combinations selected by the automatic exposure control (AEC) program used clinically on these systems. Normalized noise power spectra (NNPS) were calculated from flood images acquired at these beam qualities for a target detector air kerma of 100 µGy. Modulation transfer function (MTF) data were acquired at 28 kV and Mo/Mo target/filter setting. The DQE was then calculated from the MTF and NNPS results. For comparison, the quantum detective efficiency (QDE) and energy absorption efficiency (EAE) were calculated from tabulated narrow beam spectral data. With regard to detector response, some energy dependence was noted for pixel value plotted against air kerma at the detector. This amounted to a change in the gradient of the detector response of approximately 15% and 30% per keV for the CsI- and a-Se-based systems, respectively. For the DQE results, a reduction in DQE(0) of 22% was found for the CsI-based unit as beam quality changed from 25 kV Mo/Mo and 2 cm PMMA to 32 kV Rh/Rh and 7 cm PMMA. For the a-Se system, a change in beam quality from 25 kV Mo/Mo and 2 cm PMMA to 34 kV Mo/Rh and 7 cm PMMA led to a reduction in DQE(0) of 8%. Comparing measured data with simple calculations, a reduction in x-ray quantum detection efficiency of 27% was expected for the CsI-based system, while a reduction of 11% was predicted for the a-Se system.
Marshall, N W
2009-05-01
This paper presents detective quantum efficiency (DQE) data measured for a range of x-ray beam qualities for two full-field digital mammography (FFDM) systems: a caesium iodide (CsI) detector-based unit and a system designed around an amorphous selenium (a-Se) x-ray detector. Four beam qualities were studied for each system, covering mean energies from 17.8 keV to 23.4 keV for the CsI system and 17.8 keV to 24.7 keV for the a-Se unit. These were set using 2, 4, 6 and 7 cm polymethylmethacralate (PMMA) and typical tube voltage and target/filter combinations selected by the automatic exposure control (AEC) program used clinically on these systems. Normalized noise power spectra (NNPS) were calculated from flood images acquired at these beam qualities for a target detector air kerma of 100 microGy. Modulation transfer function (MTF) data were acquired at 28 kV and Mo/Mo target/filter setting. The DQE was then calculated from the MTF and NNPS results. For comparison, the quantum detective efficiency (QDE) and energy absorption efficiency (EAE) were calculated from tabulated narrow beam spectral data. With regard to detector response, some energy dependence was noted for pixel value plotted against air kerma at the detector. This amounted to a change in the gradient of the detector response of approximately 15% and 30% per keV for the CsI- and a-Se-based systems, respectively. For the DQE results, a reduction in DQE(0) of 22% was found for the CsI-based unit as beam quality changed from 25 kV Mo/Mo and 2 cm PMMA to 32 kV Rh/Rh and 7 cm PMMA. For the a-Se system, a change in beam quality from 25 kV Mo/Mo and 2 cm PMMA to 34 kV Mo/Rh and 7 cm PMMA led to a reduction in DQE(0) of 8%. Comparing measured data with simple calculations, a reduction in x-ray quantum detection efficiency of 27% was expected for the CsI-based system, while a reduction of 11% was predicted for the a-Se system. PMID:19384004
Efficient Quantum Information Processing via Quantum Compressions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Y.; Luo, M. X.; Ma, S. Y.
2015-04-01
Our purpose is to improve the quantum transmission efficiency and reduce the resource cost by quantum compressions. The lossless quantum compression is accomplished using invertible quantum transformations and applied to the quantum teleportation and the simultaneous transmission over quantum butterfly networks. New schemes can greatly reduce the entanglement cost, and partially solve transmission conflictions over common links. Moreover, the local compression scheme is useful for approximate entanglement creations from pre-shared entanglements. This special task has not been addressed because of the quantum no-cloning theorem. Our scheme depends on the local quantum compression and the bipartite entanglement transfer. Simulations show the success probability is greatly dependent of the minimal entanglement coefficient. These results may be useful in general quantum network communication.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cunningham, I. A.; Lazarev, S.; Sattarivand, M.; Jankovic, N. D.
2007-03-01
The scientific community has generally adopted use of the modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) as primary measures of performance of radiographic detectors. However, measurement of these parameters is generally restricted to experts in laboratory environments due to the required x-ray physics knowledge, specialized instrumentation and computational analyses. We have developed a prototype instrument that automates both the physical measurement and subsequent image analysis to determine the MTF, noise power spectrum (NPS) and DQE of radiographic and mammographic systems. The instrument is placed in the x-ray path directly in front of the detector. A series of images are acquired, saved in "raw" DICOM format and then used to determine the MTF (using the slanted-edge method) and NPS. The number of incident quanta is calculated from measurements of the incident exposure including corrections for air temperature and pressure and ionization chamber spectral response. The primary sources of error are backscatter from the detector and scatter generated within the instrument. These have been minimized to achieve an incident exposure measurement within 2% of a calibrated electrometer and chamber in free space. The MTF and DQE of a commercial CsI-based flat-panel detector were measured over a range of incident exposures from 20 uR to 20 mR per image. Results agreed with both our own laboratory measurements and previously published measurements performed elsewhere with a similar detector within 2% for the MTF and 5% for the DQE. A complete DQE analysis of a clinical digital flat-panel detector is completed in 30 minutes and requires no system modifications.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Emery, Keith; Osterwald, Carl
1989-01-01
Procedures for measuring the air mass zero (AM0) current versus voltage characteristics and calculating the efficiency are discussed. The various factors influencing the determination of the efficiency include the I-V measurement system, reference cell calibration, standard reporting conditions, area measurement, light source characteristics, temperature measurement and control, and the measurement procedures. Each of these sources contributes to the precision index and bias limit which is combined to obtain the total uncertainty in the efficiency. These factors are discussed as well as how to minimize differences in the reported AM0 efficiency of a given PV cell between various laboratories.
Photoreceiver efficiency measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lehr, C. G.
1975-01-01
The efficiency and other related parameters of Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's four laser receivers were measured at the observing stations by oscilloscope photography. If the efficiency is defined as the number of photoelectrons generated by the photomultiplier tube divided by the number of photons entering the aperture of the receiver, its measured value is about 1% for the laser wavelength of 694 nm. This value is consistent with the efficiency computed from the specified characteristics of the photoreceiver's optical components.
Efficient Toffoli Gate in Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reed, Matthew; Dicarlo, Leonardo; Sun, Luyan; Frunzio, Luigi; Schoelkopf, Robert
2011-03-01
The fidelity of quantum gates in circuit quantum electrodynamics is typically limited by qubit decoherence. As such, significant improvements can be realized by shortening gate duration. The three-qubit Toffoli gate, also called the controlled-controlled NOT, is an important operation in basic quantum error correction. We report a scheme for a Toffoli gate that exploits interactions with non-computational excited states of transmon qubits which can be executed faster than an equivalent construction using one- and two-qubit gates. The application of this gate to efficient measurement-free quantum error correction will be discussed. Research supported by NSF, NSA, and ARO.
Simple method for measuring acid generation quantum efficiency at 193 nm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szmanda, Charles R.; Kavanagh, Robert J.; Bohland, John F.; Cameron, James F.; Trefonas, Peter, III; Blacksmith, Robert F.
1999-06-01
Traditional methods of measuring the Dill C Parameter involve monitoring the absorbance of a resist as a function of exposure. In chemically amplified resist, absorbance changes with exposure are small and frequently have little correlation to the amount of photoacid generated.
Efficient multiparty quantum-secret-sharing schemes
Xiao Li; Deng Fuguo; Long Guilu; Pan Jianwei
2004-05-01
In this work, we generalize the quantum-secret-sharing scheme of Hillery, Buzek, and Berthiaume [Phys. Rev. A 59, 1829 (1999)] into arbitrary multiparties. Explicit expressions for the shared secret bit is given. It is shown that in the Hillery-Buzek-Berthiaume quantum-secret-sharing scheme the secret information is shared in the parity of binary strings formed by the measured outcomes of the participants. In addition, we have increased the efficiency of the quantum-secret-sharing scheme by generalizing two techniques from quantum key distribution. The favored-measuring-basis quantum-secret-sharing scheme is developed from the Lo-Chau-Ardehali technique [H. K. Lo, H. F. Chau, and M. Ardehali, e-print quant-ph/0011056] where all the participants choose their measuring-basis asymmetrically, and the measuring-basis-encrypted quantum-secret-sharing scheme is developed from the Hwang-Koh-Han technique [W. Y. Hwang, I. G. Koh, and Y. D. Han, Phys. Lett. A 244, 489 (1998)] where all participants choose their measuring basis according to a control key. Both schemes are asymptotically 100% in efficiency, hence nearly all the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states in a quantum-secret-sharing process are used to generate shared secret information.
Lyashenko, Alexey; Snyder, Adam; Wang, Hanguo; Arisaka, Katsushi
2014-01-01
We report on the measurements of the absolute Quantum Efficiency(QE) for Hamamatsu model R11410-10 PMTs specially designed for the use in low background liquid xenon detectors. QE was measured for five PMTs in a spectral range between 154.5 nm to 400 nm at low temperatures down to -110$^0$C. It was shown that during the PMT cooldown from room temperature to -110 $^0$C (a typical PMT operation temperature in liquid xenon detectors), the absolute QE increases by a factor of 1.1 - 1.15 at 175 nm. The QE growth rate with respect to temperature is wavelength dependent peaking at about 165 nm corresponding to the fastest growth of about -0.07 %QE/$^{0}C$ and at about 200 nm corresponding to slowest growth of below -0.01 %QE/$^{0}C$. A dedicated setup and methods for PMT Quantum Efficiency measurement at low temperatures are described in details.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyashenko, A.; Nguyen, T.; Snyder, A.; Wang, H.; Arisaka, K.
2014-11-01
We report on the measurements of the absolute Quantum Efficiency(QE) for Hamamatsu model R11410-10 PMTs specially designed for the use in low background liquid xenon detectors. QE was measured for five PMTs in a spectral range between 154.5 nm to 400 nm at low temperatures down to -110°C. It was shown that during the PMT cooldown from room temperature to -110°C (a typical PMT operation temperature in liquid xenon detectors), the absolute QE increases by a factor of 1.1-1.15 at 175 nm. The QE growth rate with respect to temperature is wavelength dependent peaking at about 165 nm corresponding to the fastest growth of about -0.07%QE/°C and at about 200 nm corresponding to slowest growth of below -0.01%QE/°C. A dedicated setup and methods for PMT Quantum Efficiency measurement at low temperatures are described in details.
Efficient quantum dialogue without information leakage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, Ai-Han; Tang, Zhi-Hui; Chen, Dong
2015-02-01
A two-step quantum dialogue scheme is put forward with a class of three-qubit W state and quantum dense coding. Each W state can carry three bits of secret information and the measurement result is encrypted without information leakage. Furthermore, we utilize the entangle properties of W state and decoy photon checking technique to realize three-time channel detection, which can improve the efficiency and security of the scheme.
Quantum computing via measurements only
Robert Raussendorf; Hans J. Briegel
2000-10-07
A quantum computer promises efficient processing of certain computational tasks that are intractable with classical computer technology. While basic principles of a quantum computer have been demonstrated in the laboratory, scalability of these systems to a large number of qubits, essential for practical applications such as the Shor algorithm, represents a formidable challenge. Most of the current experiments are designed to implement sequences of highly controlled interactions between selected particles (qubits), thereby following models of a quantum computer as a (sequential) network of quantum logic gates. Here we propose a different model of a scalable quantum computer. In our model, the entire resource for the quantum computation is provided initially in form of a specific entangled state (a so-called cluster state) of a large number of qubits. Information is then written onto the cluster, processed, and read out form the cluster by one-particle measurements only. The entangled state of the cluster thus serves as a universal substrate for any quantum computation. Cluster states can be created efficiently in any system with a quantum Ising-type interaction (at very low temperatures) between two-state particles in a lattice configuration.
Designing Efficient Programmable Quantum Circuits
Anmer Daskin; Ananth Grama; Giorgos Kollias; Sabre Kais
2012-07-22
Constructing general programmable circuits to be able to run any given unitary operator efficiently on a quantum processor is of fundamental importance. We present a new quantum circuit design technique resulting two general programmable circuit schemes. The circuit schemes can be used to simulate any given operator by setting the angle values in the circuit. This provides a fixed circuit design whose angles are determined from the elements of the given matrix, which can be non-unitary, in an efficient way. We also give both classical and quantum complexity analysis for these circuits and show that the circuits require a few classical computations, and the quantum complexities of them are almost the same as non-general circuits.
Entropy reduction of quantum measurements
M. E. Shirokov
2010-12-09
It is observed that the entropy reduction (the information gain in the initial terminology) of an efficient (ideal or pure) quantum measurement coincides with the generalized quantum mutual information of a q-c channel mapping an a priori state to the corresponding posteriori probability distribution of the outcomes of the measurement. This observation makes it possible to define the entropy reduction for arbitrary a priori states (not only for states with finite von Neumann entropy) and to study its analytical properties by using general properties of the quantum mutual information. By using this approach one can show that the entropy reduction of an efficient quantum measurement is a nonnegative lower semicontinuous concave function on the set of all a priori states having continuous restrictions to subsets on which the von Neumann entropy is continuous. Monotonicity and subadditivity of the entropy reduction are also easily proved by this method. A simple continuity condition for the entropy reduction and for the mean posteriori entropy considered as functions of a pair (a priori state, measurement) is obtained. A characterization of an irreducible measurement (in the Ozawa sense) which is not efficient is considered in the Appendix.
Information gain in quantum continual measurements
Albert Barchielli; Giancarlo Lupieri
2006-12-01
Inspired by works on information transmission through quantum channels, we propose the use of a couple of mutual entropies to quantify the efficiency of continual measurement schemes in extracting information on the measured quantum system. Properties of these measures of information are studied and bounds on them are derived.
Quantum mechanics without measurements
Robert B. Griffiths
2006-12-08
Many of the conceptual problems students have in understanding quantum mechanics arise from the way probabilities are introduced in standard (textbook) quantum theory through the use of measurements. Introducing consistent microscopic probabilities in quantum theory requires setting up appropriate sample spaces taking proper account of quantum incompatibility. When this is done the Schrodinger equation can be used to calculate probabilities independent of whether a system is or is not being measured, and the results usually ascribed to wave function collapse are obtained in a less misleading way through conditional probabilities. Toy models that include measurement apparatus as part of the total quantum system make this approach accessible to students. Some comments are made about teaching this material.
Temperature-dependent quantum efficiency of Ga(N,As,P) quantum wells
Rosemann, N. W. Metzger, B.; Volz, K.; Chatterjee, S.; Kunert, B.; NAsP III/V GmbH, Am Knechtacker 19, D-35041 Marburg
2013-12-16
The photoluminescence quantum efficiencies of a series of Ga(N,As,P)/GaP multiple quantum wells are analyzed. The external quantum efficiencies are derived from the absorbed and the emitted light intensities measured using an integrating sphere mounted inside a closed-cycle helium cryostat. By taking into account the device layer sequences as well as internal reflections and reabsorption, the internal quantum efficiencies yield values above 90% for all samples at cryogenic temperatures. The temperature-dependence of the quantum efficiencies as a function of active quantum well layer design reveal the internal interfaces as remaining growth challenge in these heterostructures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dang, Xuan-Dung; Mikhailovsky, Alexander; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen
2010-09-01
Photoconductive atomic force microscopy is used to investigate nanoscale incident photon-to-current efficiency spectra of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells based on poly[2-methoxy-5-(3,7-dimethyloctyloxy)]-1,4-phenylenevinylene (MDMO-PPV) and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM). Nanoscale external quantum efficiency reveals the complex morphology of MDMO-PPV:PC71BM films cast from toluene solution. Not only electron transfer from the photoexcited donor to the fullerene but also hole transfer process from photoexcited fullerene to the donor phase due to highest occupied molecular orbital offset is observed. The difference in performance between toluene and chlorobenzene-cast devices is explained by the variation in relative contributions from two charge transfer mechanisms.
R. Y. Chiao; W. J. Fitelson; A. D. Speliotopoulos
2003-04-07
A minimal coupling rule for the coupling of the electron spin to curved spacetime in general relativity suggests the possibility of a coupling between electromagnetic and gravitational radiation mediated by means of a quantum fluid. Thus quantum transducers between these two kinds of radiation fields might exist. We report here on the first attempt at a Hertz-type experiment, in which a high-$\\rm{T_c}$ superconductor (YBCO) was the sample material used as a possible quantum transducer to convert EM into GR microwaves, and a second piece of YBCO in a separate apparatus was used to back-convert GR into EM microwaves. An upper limit on the conversion efficiency of YBCO was measured to be $1.6\\times10^{-5}$ at liquid nitrogen temperature.
Efficiencies of Quantum Optical Detectors
Daniel Hogg; Dominic W. Berry; A. I. Lvovsky
2014-12-15
We propose a definition for the efficiency that can be universally applied to all classes of quantum optical detectors. This definition is based on the maximum amount of optical loss that a physically plausible device can experience while still replicating the properties of a given detector. We prove that detector efficiency cannot be increased using linear optical processing. That is, given a set of detectors, as well as arbitrary linear optical elements and ancillary light sources, it is impossible to construct detection devices that would exhibit higher efficiencies than the initial set.
Efficiency and formalism of quantum games
Chiu Fan Lee; Neil Johnson
2008-09-19
We pursue a general theory of quantum games. We show that quantum games are more efficient than classical games, and provide a saturated upper bound for this efficiency. We demonstrate that the set of finite classical games is a strict subset of the set of finite quantum games. We also deduce the quantum version of the Minimax Theorem and the Nash Equilibrium Theorem.
Efficient quantum circuits for arbitrary sparse unitaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jordan, Stephen P.; Wocjan, Pawel
2009-12-01
Arbitrary exponentially large unitaries cannot be implemented efficiently by quantum circuits. However, we show that quantum circuits can efficiently implement any unitary provided it has at most polynomially many nonzero entries in any row or column, and these entries are efficiently computable. One can formulate a model of computation based on the composition of sparse unitaries which includes the quantum Turing machine model, the quantum circuit model, anyonic models, permutational quantum computation, and discrete time quantum walks as special cases. Thus, we obtain a simple unified proof that these models are all contained in BQP. Furthermore, our general method for implementing sparse unitaries simplifies several existing quantum algorithms.
Direct measure of quantum correlation
Yu, Chang-shui; Zhao, Haiqing
2011-12-15
The quantumness of the correlation known as quantum correlation is usually measured by quantum discord. So far various quantum discords can be roughly understood as indirect measure by some special discrepancy of two quantities. We present a direct measure of quantum correlation by revealing the difference between the structures of classically and quantum correlated states. Our measure explicitly includes the contributions of the inseparability and local nonorthogonality of the eigenvectors of a density matrix. Besides its relatively easy computability, our measure can provide a unified understanding of quantum correlation of all the present versions.
Qin Wang; Xiang-Bin Wang
2013-10-15
We study the decoy-state measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution using heralded single-photon sources. This has the advantage that the observed error rate in X basis is in higher order and not so large. We calculate the key rate and transmission distance for two cases: one using only triggered events, and the other using both triggered and non-triggered events. We compare the key rates of various protocols and find that our new scheme using triggered and non-triggered events can give higher key rate and longer secure distance. Moreover, we also show the different behavior of our scheme when using different heralded single-photon sources, i.e., in poisson or thermal distribution. We demonstrate that the former can generate a relatively higher secure key rate than the latter, and can thus work more efficiently in practical quantum key distributions.
Quantum discord with weak measurements
Singh, Uttam Pati, Arun Kumar
2014-04-15
Weak measurements cause small change to quantum states, thereby opening up the possibility of new ways of manipulating and controlling quantum systems. We ask, can weak measurements reveal more quantum correlation in a composite quantum state? We prove that the weak measurement induced quantum discord, called as the “super quantum discord”, is always larger than the quantum discord captured by the strong measurement. Moreover, we prove the monotonicity of the super quantum discord as a function of the measurement strength and in the limit of strong projective measurement the super quantum discord becomes the normal quantum discord. We find that unlike the normal discord, for pure entangled states, the super quantum discord can exceed the quantum entanglement. Our results provide new insights on the nature of quantum correlation and suggest that the notion of quantum correlation is not only observer dependent but also depends on how weakly one perturbs the composite system. We illustrate the key results for pure as well as mixed entangled states. -- Highlights: •Introduced the role of weak measurements in quantifying quantum correlation. •We have introduced the notion of the super quantum discord (SQD). •For pure entangled state, we show that the SQD exceeds the entanglement entropy. •This shows that quantum correlation depends not only on observer but also on measurement strength.
Efficiency and formalism of quantum games
Lee, C.F.; Johnson, Neil F.
2003-02-01
We show that quantum games are more efficient than classical games and provide a saturated upper bound for this efficiency. We also demonstrate that the set of finite classical games is a strict subset of the set of finite quantum games. Our analysis is based on a rigorous formulation of quantum games, from which quantum versions of the minimax theorem and the Nash equilibrium theorem can be deduced.
Duality quantum computer and the efficient quantum simulations
Shi-Jie Wei; Gui-Lu Long
2015-07-12
In this paper, we firstly briefly review the duality quantum computer. Distinctly, the generalized quantum gates, the basic evolution operators in a duality quantum computer are no longer unitary, and they can be expressed in terms of linear combinations of unitary operators. All linear bounded operators can be realized in a duality quantum computer, and unitary operators are just the extreme points of the set of generalized quantum gates. A d-slits duality quantum computer can be realized in an ordinary quantum computer with an additional qudit using the duality quantum computing mode. Duality quantum computer provides flexibility and clear physical picture in designing quantum algorithms, serving as a useful bridge between quantum and classical algorithms. In this review, we will show that duality quantum computer can simulate quantum systems more efficiently than ordinary quantum computers by providing descriptions of the recent efficient quantum simulation algorithms of Childs et al [Quantum Information & Computation, 12(11-12): 901-924 (2012)] for the fast simulation of quantum systems with a sparse Hamiltonian, and the quantum simulation algorithm by Berry et al [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 090502 (2015)], which provides exponential improvement in precision for simulating systems with a sparse Hamiltonian.
Nondisturbing quantum measurements
Heinosaari, Teiko; Wolf, Michael M.
2010-09-15
We consider pairs of discrete quantum observables (POVMs) and analyze the relation between the notions of nondisturbance, joint measurability, and commutativity. We specify conditions under which these properties coincide or differ - depending, for instance, on the interplay between the number of outcomes and the Hilbert space dimension or on algebraic properties of the effect operators. We also show that (non-)disturbance is, in general, not a symmetric relation and that it can be decided and quantified by means of a semidefinite program.
Efficient quantum computing insensitive to phase errors
B. Georgeot; D. L. Shepelyansky
2001-05-29
We show that certain computational algorithms can be simulated on a quantum computer with exponential efficiency and be insensitive to phase errors. Our explicit algorithm simulates accurately the classical chaotic dynamics for exponentially many orbits even when the quantum fidelity drops to zero. Such phase-insensitive algorithms open new possibilities for computation on realistic quantum computers.
Quantum entanglement helps in improving economic efficiency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Jiangfeng; Ju, Chenyong; Li, Hui
2005-02-01
We propose an economic regulation approach based on quantum game theory for the government to reduce the abuses of oligopolistic competition. Theoretical analysis shows that this approach can help government improve the economic efficiency of the oligopolistic market, and help prevent monopoly due to incorrect information. These advantages are completely attributed to the quantum entanglement, a unique quantum mechanical character.
, and their quantum efficiency (QE) as well as response function have to be measured to a high accuracy. In the case of AXAF the specified accuracy goal of the calibration is approximately 1%. All silicon based sensors have, rather than on the absolute measurement of the input flux. The present work describes a calibration
Simulation of n-qubit quantum systems. V. Quantum measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radtke, T.; Fritzsche, S.
2010-02-01
The FEYNMAN program has been developed during the last years to support case studies on the dynamics and entanglement of n-qubit quantum registers. Apart from basic transformations and (gate) operations, it currently supports a good number of separability criteria and entanglement measures, quantum channels as well as the parametrizations of various frequently applied objects in quantum information theory, such as (pure and mixed) quantum states, hermitian and unitary matrices or classical probability distributions. With the present update of the FEYNMAN program, we provide a simple access to (the simulation of) quantum measurements. This includes not only the widely-applied projective measurements upon the eigenspaces of some given operator but also single-qubit measurements in various pre- and user-defined bases as well as the support for two-qubit Bell measurements. In addition, we help perform generalized and POVM measurements. Knowing the importance of measurements for many quantum information protocols, e.g., one-way computing, we hope that this update makes the FEYNMAN code an attractive and versatile tool for both, research and education. New version program summaryProgram title: FEYNMAN Catalogue identifier: ADWE_v5_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWE_v5_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 27 210 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 960 471 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Maple 12 Computer: Any computer with Maple software installed Operating system: Any system that supports Maple; the program has been tested under Microsoft Windows XP and Linux Classification: 4.15 Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADWE_v4_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Commun. 179 (2008) 647 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: During the last decade, the field of quantum information science has largely contributed to our understanding of quantum mechanics, and has provided also new and efficient protocols that are used on quantum entanglement. To further analyze the amount and transfer of entanglement in n-qubit quantum protocols, symbolic and numerical simulations need to be handled efficiently. Solution method: Using the computer algebra system Maple, we developed a set of procedures in order to support the definition, manipulation and analysis of n-qubit quantum registers. These procedures also help to deal with (unitary) logic gates and (nonunitary) quantum operations and measurements that act upon the quantum registers. All commands are organized in a hierarchical order and can be used interactively in order to simulate and analyze the evolution of n-qubit quantum systems, both in ideal and noisy quantum circuits. Reasons for new version: Until the present, the FEYNMAN program supported the basic data structures and operations of n-qubit quantum registers [1], a good number of separability and entanglement measures [2], quantum operations (noisy channels) [3] as well as the parametrizations of various frequently applied objects, such as (pure and mixed) quantum states, hermitian and unitary matrices or classical probability distributions [4]. With the current extension, we here add all necessary features to simulate quantum measurements, including the projective measurements in various single-qubit and the two-qubit Bell basis, and POVM measurements. Together with the previously implemented functionality, this greatly enhances the possibilities of analyzing quantum information protocols in which measurements play a central role, e.g., one-way computation. Running time: Most commands require ?10 seconds of processor time on a Pentium 4 processor with ?2 GHz RAM or newer, if they work with quantum registers with five or less qubits. Moreover, about 5-20 MB of working memory is typically n
Quantum effects improve the energy efficiency of feedback control.
Horowitz, Jordan M; Jacobs, Kurt
2014-04-01
The laws of thermodynamics apply equally well to quantum systems as to classical systems, and because of this, quantum effects do not change the fundamental thermodynamic efficiency of isothermal refrigerators or engines. We show that, despite this fact, quantum mechanics permits measurement-based feedback control protocols that are more thermodynamically efficient than their classical counterparts. As part of our analysis, we perform a detailed accounting of the thermodynamics of unitary feedback control and elucidate the sources of inefficiency in measurement-based and coherent feedback. PMID:24827219
Quantum effects improve the energy efficiency of feedback control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horowitz, Jordan M.; Jacobs, Kurt
2014-04-01
The laws of thermodynamics apply equally well to quantum systems as to classical systems, and because of this, quantum effects do not change the fundamental thermodynamic efficiency of isothermal refrigerators or engines. We show that, despite this fact, quantum mechanics permits measurement-based feedback control protocols that are more thermodynamically efficient than their classical counterparts. As part of our analysis, we perform a detailed accounting of the thermodynamics of unitary feedback control and elucidate the sources of inefficiency in measurement-based and coherent feedback.
Direct determination of quantum efficiency of semiconducting films
Faughnan, Brian W. (Princeton, NJ); Hanak, Joseph J. (Lawrenceville, NJ)
1986-01-01
Photovoltaic quantum efficiency of semiconductor samples is determined directly, without requiring that a built-in photovoltage be generated by the sample. Electrodes are attached to the sample so as to form at least one Schottky barrier therewith. When illuminated, the generated photocurrent carriers are collected by an external bias voltage impressed across the electrodes. The generated photocurrent is measured, and photovoltaic quantum efficiency is calculated therefrom.
Quantum information and precision measurement
Andrew M. Childs; John Preskill; Joseph Renes
1999-04-30
We describe some applications of quantum information theory to the analysis of quantum limits on measurement sensitivity. A measurement of a weak force acting on a quantum system is a determination of a classical parameter appearing in the master equation that governs the evolution of the system; limitations on measurement accuracy arise because it is not possible to distinguish perfectly among the different possible values of this parameter. Tools developed in the study of quantum information and computation can be exploited to improve the precision of physics experiments; examples include superdense coding, fast database search, and the quantum Fourier transform.
Counterfactual quantum key distribution with high efficiency
Sun Ying; Wen Qiaoyan
2010-11-15
In a counterfactual quantum key distribution scheme, a secret key can be generated merely by transmitting the split vacuum pulses of single particles. We improve the efficiency of the first quantum key distribution scheme based on the counterfactual phenomenon. This scheme not only achieves the same security level as the original one but also has higher efficiency. We also analyze how to achieve the optimal efficiency under various conditions.
Coherent measurements in quantum metrology
K. Micadei; D. A. Rowlands; F. A. Pollock; L. C. Céleri; R. M. Serra; K. Modi
2015-02-19
It is well known that a quantum correlated probe can yield better precision in estimating an unknown parameter than classically possible. However, how such a quantum probe should be measured remains somewhat elusive. We examine the role of measurements in quantum metrology by considering two types of readout strategies: coherent, where all probes are measured simultaneously in an entangled basis; and adaptive, where probes are measured sequentially, with each measurement one way conditioned on the prior outcomes. Here we firstly show that for classically correlated probes the two readout strategies yield the same precision. Secondly, we construct an example of a noisy multipartite quantum system where coherent readout yields considerably better precision than adaptive readout. This highlights a fundamental difference between classical and quantum parameter estimation. From the practical point of view, our findings are relevant for the optimal design of precision-measurement quantum devices.
Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution.
Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Curty, Marcos; Qi, Bing
2012-03-30
How to remove detector side channel attacks has been a notoriously hard problem in quantum cryptography. Here, we propose a simple solution to this problem--measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD). It not only removes all detector side channels, but also doubles the secure distance with conventional lasers. Our proposal can be implemented with standard optical components with low detection efficiency and highly lossy channels. In contrast to the previous solution of full device independent QKD, the realization of our idea does not require detectors of near unity detection efficiency in combination with a qubit amplifier (based on teleportation) or a quantum nondemolition measurement of the number of photons in a pulse. Furthermore, its key generation rate is many orders of magnitude higher than that based on full device independent QKD. The results show that long-distance quantum cryptography over say 200 km will remain secure even with seriously flawed detectors. PMID:22540686
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gopal, Arun; Samant, Sanjiv S.
2007-03-01
In portal imaging, the role of electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) to implement complex radiation therapy protocols is crucial, and regular quality assurance (QA) of EPID image quality is necessary to ensure treatment efficacy. The modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) are universal metrics that can completely describe radiographic image quality. These metrics are independent of measurement geometry and the user, and allow intra and inter detector performance evaluation. Though NPS and DQE calculations are straightforward, conventional MTF measurements using slit/edge phantoms are difficult and time consuming. Therefore, such measurements are not feasible within routine clinical QA. Currently, EPID performance is monitored using image quality indices obtained from commercial QA phantoms. Such methods may be qualitative or sensitive to imaging conditions, and hence not appropriate for rigorous QA. In this work, a simple and quick method for EPID QA is presented based on a line-pair bar-pattern for fast MTF measurement, coupled with standard NPS and DQE measurements, all of which can be carried out within two minutes. The method to determine MTF from line-pair modulations was developed based on theoretical analyses and Monte Carlo simulations to identify accurate and reliable measurement conditions. The bar-pattern based QA method was tested with two clinical EPIDs and found to be in excellent agreement with slit/edge measurements. It was also implemented for weekly QA checks, and compared with established commercial QA methods. This bar-pattern based QA was more sensitive to potential decrease of EPID image quality.
Topics in Quantum Measurement and Quantum Noise
K. Jacobs
1998-10-06
In this thesis we consider primarily the dynamics of quantum systems subjected to continuous observation. In the Schr\\"{o}dinger picture the evolution of a continuously monitored quantum system, referred to as a `quantum trajectory', may be described by a stochastic equation for the state vector. We present a method of deriving explicit evolution operators for linear quantum trajectories, and apply this to a number of physical examples of varying mathematical complexity. In the Heisenberg picture evolution resulting from continuous observation may be described by quantum Langevin equations. We use this method to examine the noise spectrum that results from a continuous observation of the position of a moving mirror, and examine the possibility of detecting the noise resulting from the quantum back-action of the measurement. In addition to the work on continuous measurement theory, we also consider the problem of reconstructing the state of a quantum system from a set of measurements. We present a scheme for determining the state of a single cavity mode from the photon statistics measured both before and after an interaction with one or two two-level atoms.
Photosensor with enhanced quantum efficiency
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Janesick, James R. (Inventor); Elliott, Stythe T. (Inventor)
1989-01-01
A method to significantly increase the quantum efficiency (QE) of a CCD (or similar photosensor) applied in the UV, far UV and low energy x-ray regions of the spectrum. The increase in QE is accomplished by overthinning the backside of a CCD substrate beyond the epitaxial interface and UV flooding the sensor prior to use. The UV light photoemits electrons to the thinned surface and charges the backside negatively. This in turn forms an accumulation layer of holes near the Si-SiO.sub.2 interface creating an electric field gradient in the silicon which directs the photogenerated signal to the frontside where they are collected in pixel locations and later transferred. An oxide film, in which the backside charge resides, must have quality equivalent to a well aged native oxide which typically takes several years to form under ambient conditions. To reduce the amount of time in growing an oxide of sufficient quality, a process has been developed to grow an oxide by using deionized steam at 95.degree. C. which takes less than one hour to grow.
Purification of noisy quantum measurements
Dall'Arno, Michele; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Sacchi, Massimiliano F.
2010-10-15
We consider the problem of improving noisy quantum measurements by suitable preprocessing strategies making many noisy detectors equivalent to a single ideal detector. For observables pertaining to finite-dimensional systems (e.g., qubits or spins) we consider preprocessing strategies that are reminiscent of quantum error correction procedures and allow one to perfectly measure an observable on a single quantum system for increasing number of inefficient detectors. For measurements of observables with an unbounded spectrum (e.g., photon number and homodyne and heterodyne detection), the purification of noisy quantum measurements can be achieved by preamplification as suggested by Yuen [Opt. Lett. 12, 789 (1987)].
Informational power of quantum measurements
Dall'Arno, Michele; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Sacchi, Massimiliano F.
2011-06-15
We introduce the informational power of a quantum measurement as the maximum amount of classical information that the measurement can extract from any ensemble of quantum states. We prove the additivity by showing that the informational power corresponds to the classical capacity of a quantum-classical channel. We restate the problem of evaluating the informational power as the maximization of the accessible information of a suitable ensemble. We provide a numerical algorithm to find an optimal ensemble and quantify the informational power.
Quantum metrology. Optically measuring force near the standard quantum limit.
Schreppler, Sydney; Spethmann, Nicolas; Brahms, Nathan; Botter, Thierry; Barrios, Maryrose; Stamper-Kurn, Dan M
2014-06-27
The Heisenberg uncertainty principle sets a lower bound on the noise in a force measurement based on continuously detecting a mechanical oscillator's position. This bound, the standard quantum limit, can be reached when the oscillator subjected to the force is unperturbed by its environment and when measurement imprecision from photon shot noise is balanced against disturbance from measurement back-action. We applied an external force to the center-of-mass motion of an ultracold atom cloud in a high-finesse optical cavity and measured the resulting motion optically. When the driving force is resonant with the cloud's oscillation frequency, we achieve a sensitivity that is a factor of 4 above the standard quantum limit and consistent with theoretical predictions given the atoms' residual thermal disturbance and the photodetection quantum efficiency. PMID:24970079
The Learnability of Unknown Quantum Measurements
Hao-Chung Cheng; Min-Hsiu Hsieh; Ping-Cheng Yeh
2015-01-03
Quantum machine learning has received significant attention in recent years, and promising progress has been made in the development of quantum algorithms to speed up traditional machine learning tasks. In this work, however, we focus on investigating the information-theoretic upper bounds of sample complexity - how many training samples are sufficient to predict the future behaviour of an unknown target function. This kind of problem is, arguably, one of the most fundamental problems in statistical learning theory and the bounds for practical settings can be completely characterised by a simple measure of complexity. Our main result in the paper is that, for learning an unknown quantum measurement, the upper bound, given by the fat-shattering dimension, is linearly proportional to the dimension of the underlying Hilbert space. Learning an unknown quantum state becomes a dual problem to ours, and as a byproduct, we can recover Aaronson's famous result [Proc. R. Soc. A 463:3089-3144 (2007)] solely using a classical machine learning technique. In addition, other famous complexity measures like covering numbers and Rademacher complexities are derived explicitly. We are able to connect measures of sample complexity with various areas in quantum information science, e.g. quantum state/measurement tomography, quantum state discrimination and quantum random access codes, which may be of independent interest. Lastly, with the assistance of general Bloch-sphere representation, we show that learning quantum measurements/states can be mathematically formulated as a neural network. Consequently, classical ML algorithms can be applied to efficiently accomplish the two quantum learning tasks.
Quantum measurement with chaotic apparatus
M. J. Everitt; W. J. Munro; T. P. Spiller
2010-05-30
We study a dissipative quantum mechanical model of the projective measurement of a qubit. We demonstrate how a correspondence limit, damped quantum oscillator can realise chaotic-like or periodic trajectories that emerge in sympathy with the projection of the qubit state, providing a model of the measurement process.
National Residential Efficiency Measures Database
The National Residential Efficiency Measures Database is a publicly available, centralized resource of residential building retrofit measures and costs for the U.S. building industry. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy, NREL developed this tool to help users determine the most cost-effective retrofit measures for improving energy efficiency of existing homes. Software developers who require residential retrofit performance and cost data for applications that evaluate residential efficiency measures are the primary audience for this database. In addition, home performance contractors and manufacturers of residential materials and equipment may find this information useful. The database offers the following types of retrofit measures: 1) Appliances, 2) Domestic Hot Water, 3) Enclosure, 4) Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), 5) Lighting, 6) Miscellaneous.
Quantum measurements of coupled systems
Fedichkin, L.; Dykman, M. I.; Shapiro, M.
2009-07-15
We propose an approach to measuring coupled systems, which gives a parametrically smaller error than the conventional fast projective measurements. The measurement error is due to the excitations being not entirely localized on individual systems even where the excitation energies are different. Our approach combines spectral selectivity of the detector with temporal resolution and uses the ideas of the quantum diffusion theory. The results bear on quantum computing with perpetually coupled qubits.
Observable measure of quantum coherence in finite dimensional systems.
Girolami, Davide
2014-10-24
Quantum coherence is the key resource for quantum technology, with applications in quantum optics, information processing, metrology, and cryptography. Yet, there is no universally efficient method for quantifying coherence either in theoretical or in experimental practice. I introduce a framework for measuring quantum coherence in finite dimensional systems. I define a theoretical measure which satisfies the reliability criteria established in the context of quantum resource theories. Then, I present an experimental scheme implementable with current technology which evaluates the quantum coherence of an unknown state of a d-dimensional system by performing two programmable measurements on an ancillary qubit, in place of the O(d2) direct measurements required by full state reconstruction. The result yields a benchmark for monitoring quantum effects in complex systems, e.g., certifying nonclassicality in quantum protocols and probing the quantum behavior of biological complexes. PMID:25379903
BOOK REVIEW Quantum Measurement and Control Quantum Measurement and Control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiefer, Claus
2010-12-01
In the last two decades there has been an enormous progress in the experimental investigation of single quantum systems. This progress covers fields such as quantum optics, quantum computation, quantum cryptography, and quantum metrology, which are sometimes summarized as `quantum technologies'. A key issue there is entanglement, which can be considered as the characteristic feature of quantum theory. As disparate as these various fields maybe, they all have to deal with a quantum mechanical treatment of the measurement process and, in particular, the control process. Quantum control is, according to the authors, `control for which the design requires knowledge of quantum mechanics'. Quantum control situations in which measurements occur at important steps are called feedback (or feedforward) control of quantum systems and play a central role here. This book presents a comprehensive and accessible treatment of the theoretical tools that are needed to cope with these situations. It also provides the reader with the necessary background information about the experimental developments. The authors are both experts in this field to which they have made significant contributions. After an introduction to quantum measurement theory and a chapter on quantum parameter estimation, the central topic of open quantum systems is treated at some length. This chapter includes a derivation of master equations, the discussion of the Lindblad form, and decoherence - the irreversible emergence of classical properties through interaction with the environment. A separate chapter is devoted to the description of open systems by the method of quantum trajectories. Two chapters then deal with the central topic of quantum feedback control, while the last chapter gives a concise introduction to one of the central applications - quantum information. All sections contain a bunch of exercises which serve as a useful tool in learning the material. Especially helpful are also various separate boxes presenting important background material on topics such as the block representation or the feedback gain-bandwidth relation. The two appendices on quantum mechanics and phase-space and on stochastic differential equations serve the same purpose. As the authors emphasize, the book is aimed at physicists as well as control engineers who are already familiar with quantum mechanics. It takes an operational approach and presents all the material that is needed to follow research on quantum technologies. On the other hand, conceptual issues such as the relevance of the measurement process for the interpretation of quantum theory are neglected. Readers interested in them may wish to consult instead a textbook such as Decoherence and the Quantum-to-Classical Transition by Maximilian Schlosshauer. Although the present book does not contain applications to gravity, part of its content might become relevant for the physics of gravitational-wave detection and quantum gravity phenomenology. In this respect it should be of interest also for the readers of this journal.
Investigation of the quantum efficiency of optical heterodyne detectors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Batchman, T. E.
1984-01-01
The frequency response and quantum efficiency of optical photodetectors for heterodyne receivers is investigated. The measurements utilized two spectral lines from the output of two lasers as input to the photodetectors. These lines are easily measurable in power and frequency and hence serve as known inputs. By measuring the output current of the photodetector the quantum efficiency is determined as a function of frequency separation between the two input signals. An investigation of the theoretical basis and accuracy of this type of measurement relative to similar measurements utilizing risetime is undertaken. A theoretical study of the heterodyne process in photodetectors based on semiconductor physics is included so that higher bandwidth detectors may be designed. All measurements are made on commercially available detectors and manufacturers' specifications for normal photodetector operation are compared to the measured heterodyne characteristics.
Efficient quantum key distribution secure against no-signalling eavesdroppers
Antonio Acin; Serge Massar; Stefano Pironio
2006-08-03
By carrying out measurements on entangled states, two parties can generate a secret key which is secure not only against an eavesdropper bound by the laws of quantum mechanics, but also against a hypothetical "post-quantum" eavesdroppers limited by the no-signalling principle only. We introduce a family of quantum key distribution protocols of this type, which are more efficient than previous ones, both in terms of key rate and noise resistance. Interestingly, the best protocols involve large number of measurements. We show that in the absence of noise, these protocols can yield one secret bit per entanglement bit, implying that the key rates in the no-signalling post-quantum scenario are comparable to the key rates in usual quantum key distribution.
The quantum measurement of time
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shepard, Scott R.
1994-01-01
Traditionally, in non-relativistic Quantum Mechanics, time is considered to be a parameter, rather than an observable quantity like space. In relativistic Quantum Field Theory, space and time are treated equally by reducing space to also be a parameter. Herein, after a brief review of other measurements, we describe a third possibility, which is to treat time as a directly observable quantity.
Highly power-efficient quantum cascade lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Peter Q.; Hoffman, Anthony J.; Escarra, Matthew D.; Franz, Kale J.; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Dikmelik, Yamac; Wang, Xiaojun; Fan, Jen-Yu; Gmachl, Claire F.
2010-02-01
Quantum cascade lasers are promising mid-infrared semiconductor light sources for molecular detection in applications such as environmental sensing or medical diagnostics. For such applications, researchers have been striving to improve device performance. Recently, improvements in wall plug efficiency have been pursued with a view to realizing compact, portable, power-efficient and high-power quantum cascade laser systems. However, advances have largely been incremental, and the basic quantum design has remained unchanged for many years, with the wall plug efficiency yet to reach above 35%. A crucial factor in quantum cascade laser performance is the efficient transport of electrons into the laser active regions. We recently theoretically described this transport process as limited by the interface-roughness-induced detuning of resonant tunnelling. Here, we report that an `ultrastrong coupling' design strategy overcomes this limiting factor and leads to the experimental realization of quantum cascade lasers with 40-50% wall plug efficiency when operated in pulsed mode at temperatures of 160 K or lower.
Quantum Weak Measurements and Cosmology
Paul Davies
2013-09-03
The indeterminism of quantum mechanics generally permits the independent specification of both an initial and a final condition on the state. Quantum pre-and-post-selection of states opens up a new, experimentally testable, sector of quantum mechanics, when combined with statistical averages of identical weak measurements. In this paper I apply the theory of weak quantum measurements combined with pre-and-post-selection to cosmology. Here, pre-selection means specifying the wave function of the universe or, in a popular semi-classical approximation, the initial quantum state of a subset of quantum fields propagating in a classical back-ground spacetime. The novel feature is post-selection: the additional specification of a condition on the quantum state in the far future. I discuss "natural" final conditions, and show how they may lead to potentially large and observable effects at the present cosmological epoch. I also discuss how pre-and-post-selected quantum contrast to the expectation value of the stress-energy-momentum tensor, resolving a vigorous debate from the 1970's. The paper thus provides a framework for computing large-scale cosmological effects arising from this new sector of quantum mechanics. A simple experimental test is proposed.
Hierarchy of efficiently computable and faithful lower bounds to quantum discord
Marco Piani
2015-01-27
Quantum discord expresses a fundamental non-classicality of correlations more general than quantum entanglement. We combine the no-local-broadcasting theorem, semidefinite-programming characterizations of quantum fidelity and quantum separability, and a recent breakthrough result of Fawzi and Renner about quantum Markov chains to provide a hierarchy of computationally efficient lower bounds to quantum discord. Such a hierarchy converges to the surprisal of measurement recoverability introduced by Seshadreesan and Wilde, and provides a faithful lower bound to quantum discord already at the lowest non-trivial level. Furthermore, the latter constitutes by itself a valid discord-like measure of the quantumness of correlations.
Quantum Theory and Spacelike Measurements
Bernd A. Berg
1998-01-04
Experimentally observed violations of Bell inequalities rule out local realistic theories. Consequently, the quantum state vector becomes a strong candidate for providing an objective picture of reality. However, such an ontological view of quantum theory faces difficulties when spacelike measurements on entangled states have to be described, because time ordering of spacelike events can change under Lorentz-Poincar\\'e transformations. In the present paper it is shown that a necessary condition for consistency is to require state vector reduction on the backward light-cone. A fresh approach to the quantum measurement problem appears feasible within such a framework.
Cloning of a quantum measurement
Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Sedlak, Michal
2011-10-15
We analyze quantum algorithms for cloning of a quantum measurement. Our aim is to mimic two uses of a device performing an unknown von Neumann measurement with a single use of the device. When the unknown device has to be used before the bipartite state to be measured is available we talk about 1{yields}2 learning of the measurement, otherwise the task is called 1{yields}2 cloning of a measurement. We perform the optimization for both learning and cloning for arbitrary dimension d of the Hilbert space. For 1{yields}2 cloning we also propose a simple quantum network that achieves the optimal fidelity. The optimal fidelity for 1{yields}2 learning just slightly outperforms the estimate and prepare strategy in which one first estimates the unknown measurement and depending on the result suitably prepares the duplicate.
Efficient Quantum Computing of Complex Dynamics
Giuliano Benenti; Giulio Casati; Simone Montangero; Dima L. Shepelyansky
2001-07-06
We propose a quantum algorithm which uses the number of qubits in an optimal way and efficiently simulates a physical model with rich and complex dynamics described by the quantum sawtooth map. The numerical study of the effect of static imperfections in the quantum computer hardware shows that the main elements of the phase space structures are accurately reproduced up to a time scale which is polynomial in the number of qubits. The errors generated by these imperfections are more dangerous than the errors of random noise in gate operations.
Thermoelectric efficiency of critical quantum junctions
Mihail Mintchev; Luca Santoni; Paul Sorba
2013-10-30
We derive the efficiency at maximal power of a scale-invariant (critical) quantum junction in exact form. Both Fermi and Bose statistics are considered. We show that time-reversal invariance is spontaneously broken. For fermions we implement a new mechanism for efficiency enhancement above the Curzon-Ahlborn bound, based on a shift of the particle energy in each heat reservoir, proportional to its temperature. In this setting fermionic junctions can even reach at maximal power the Carnot efficiency. The bosonic junctions at maximal power turn out to be less efficient then the fermionic ones.
Limits in high efficiency quantum frequency conversion
Nicolás Quesada; J. E. Sipe
2015-08-13
Frequency conversion is an enabling process in many quantum information protocols. In this letter we study fundamental limits to high efficiency frequency conversion imposed by time ordering corrections. Using the Magnus expansion, we argue that these corrections, which are usually considered detrimental, can be used to increase the efficiency of conversion under certain circumstances. The corrections induce a nonlinear behaviour in the probability of upconversion as a function of the pump intensity, significantly modifying the sinusoidal Rabi oscillations that are otherwise expected. Finally, by using a simple scaling argument, we explain why cascaded frequency conversion devices attenuate time ordering corrections, allowing the construction of near ideal quantum pulse gates.
Internal quantum efficiency enhancement of GaInN/GaN quantum-well structures using Ag nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iida, Daisuke; Fadil, Ahmed; Chen, Yuntian; Ou, Yiyu; Kopylov, Oleksii; Iwaya, Motoaki; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Kamiyama, Satoshi; Akasaki, Isamu; Ou, Haiyan
2015-09-01
We report internal quantum efficiency enhancement of thin p-GaN green quantum-well structure using self-assembled Ag nanoparticles. Temperature dependent photoluminescence measurements are conducted to determine the internal quantum efficiency. The impact of excitation power density on the enhancement factor is investigated. We obtain an internal quantum efficiency enhancement by a factor of 2.3 at 756 W/cm2, and a factor of 8.1 at 1 W/cm2. A Purcell enhancement up to a factor of 26 is estimated by fitting the experimental results to a theoretical model for the efficiency enhancement factor.
Measuring Quantum Coherence with Entanglement.
Streltsov, Alexander; Singh, Uttam; Dhar, Himadri Shekhar; Bera, Manabendra Nath; Adesso, Gerardo
2015-07-10
Quantum coherence is an essential ingredient in quantum information processing and plays a central role in emergent fields such as nanoscale thermodynamics and quantum biology. However, our understanding and quantitative characterization of coherence as an operational resource are still very limited. Here we show that any degree of coherence with respect to some reference basis can be converted to entanglement via incoherent operations. This finding allows us to define a novel general class of measures of coherence for a quantum system of arbitrary dimension, in terms of the maximum bipartite entanglement that can be generated via incoherent operations applied to the system and an incoherent ancilla. The resulting measures are proven to be valid coherence monotones satisfying all the requirements dictated by the resource theory of quantum coherence. We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by proving that the fidelity-based geometric measure of coherence is a full convex coherence monotone, and deriving a closed formula for it on arbitrary single-qubit states. Our work provides a clear quantitative and operational connection between coherence and entanglement, two landmark manifestations of quantum theory and both key enablers for quantum technologies. PMID:26207452
Measuring Quantum Coherence with Entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Streltsov, Alexander; Singh, Uttam; Dhar, Himadri Shekhar; Bera, Manabendra Nath; Adesso, Gerardo
2015-07-01
Quantum coherence is an essential ingredient in quantum information processing and plays a central role in emergent fields such as nanoscale thermodynamics and quantum biology. However, our understanding and quantitative characterization of coherence as an operational resource are still very limited. Here we show that any degree of coherence with respect to some reference basis can be converted to entanglement via incoherent operations. This finding allows us to define a novel general class of measures of coherence for a quantum system of arbitrary dimension, in terms of the maximum bipartite entanglement that can be generated via incoherent operations applied to the system and an incoherent ancilla. The resulting measures are proven to be valid coherence monotones satisfying all the requirements dictated by the resource theory of quantum coherence. We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by proving that the fidelity-based geometric measure of coherence is a full convex coherence monotone, and deriving a closed formula for it on arbitrary single-qubit states. Our work provides a clear quantitative and operational connection between coherence and entanglement, two landmark manifestations of quantum theory and both key enablers for quantum technologies.
Efficient optical quantum state engineering
Kevin T. McCusker; Paul G. Kwiat
2009-07-10
We discuss a novel method of efficiently producing multi-photon states using repeated spontaneous parametric downconversion. Specifically, by attempting downconversion several times, we can pseudo-deterministically add photons to a mode, producing various several-photon states. We discuss both expected performance and experimental limitations.
Quantum algorithm for universal implementation of projective measurement of energy
Shojun Nakayama; Akihito Soeda; Mio Murao
2015-04-14
A projective measurement of energy (PME) on a quantum system is a quantum measurement, determined by the Hamiltonian of the system. PME protocols exist when the Hamiltonian is given in advance. Unknown Hamiltonians can be identified by quantum tomography, but the time cost to achieve a given accuracy increases exponentially with the size of the quantum system. In this letter, we improve the time cost by adapting quantum phase estimation, an algorithm designed for computational problems, to measurements on physical systems. We present a PME protocol without quantum tomography for Hamiltonians whose dimension and energy scale are given but otherwise unknown. Our protocol implements a PME to arbitrary accuracy without any dimension dependence on its time cost. We also show that another computational quantum algorithm may be used for efficient estimation of the energy scale. These algorithms show that computational quantum algorithms have applications beyond their original context with suitable modifications.
Space-Efficient Simulation of Quantum Computers
Michael P. Frank; Uwe H. Meyer-Baese; Irinel Chiorescu; Liviu Oniciuc; Robert A. van Engelen
2009-10-08
Traditional algorithms for simulating quantum computers on classical ones require an exponentially large amount of memory, and so typically cannot simulate general quantum circuits with more than about 30 or so qubits on a typical PC-scale platform with only a few gigabytes of main memory. However, more memory-efficient simulations are possible, requiring only polynomial or even linear space in the size of the quantum circuit being simulated. In this paper, we describe one such technique, which was recently implemented at FSU in the form of a C++ program called SEQCSim, which we releasing publicly. We also discuss the potential benefits of this simulation in quantum computing research and education, and outline some possible directions for further progress.
Coherence-enhanced efficiency of feedback-driven quantum engines
Kay Brandner; Michael Bauer; Michael T. Schmid; Udo Seifert
2015-03-16
A genuine feature of projective quantum measurements is that they inevitably alter the mean energy of the observed system if the measured quantity does not commute with the Hamiltonian. Compared to the classical case, Jacobs proved that this additional energetic cost leads to a stronger bound on the work extractable after a single measurement from a system initially in thermal equilibrium [Phys. Rev. A 80, 012322 (2009)]. Here, we extend this bound to a large class of feedback-driven quantum engines operating periodically and in finite time. The bound thus implies a natural definition for the efficiency of information to work conversion in such devices. For a simple model consisting of a laser-driven two-level system, we maximize the efficiency with respect to the observable whose measurement is used to control the feedback operations. We find that the optimal observable typically does not commute with the Hamiltonian and hence would not be available in a classical two level system. This result reveals that periodic feedback engines operating in the quantum realm can exploit quantum coherences to enhance efficiency.
Quantum Otto cycle efficiency on coupled qudits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanchenko, E. A.
2015-09-01
Properties of the coupled particles with spin 3/2 (quartits) in a constant magnetic field, as a working substance in the quantum Otto cycle of the heat engine, are considered. It is shown that this system as a converter of heat energy in work (i) shows the efficiency 1 at the negative absolute temperatures of heat baths, (ii) at the temperatures of the opposite sign the efficiency approaches 1, (iii) at the positive temperatures of heat baths antiferromagnetic interaction raises efficiency threefold in comparison with uncoupled particles.
Decomposition of any quantum measurement into extremals
G. Sentís; B. Gendra; S. D. Bartlett; A. C. Doherty
2013-09-02
We design an efficient and constructive algorithm to decompose any generalized quantum measurement into a convex combination of extremal measurements. We show that if one allows for a classical post-processing step only extremal rank-1 POVMs are needed. For a measurement with $N$ elements on a $d$-dimensional space, our algorithm will decompose it into at most $(N-1)d+1$ extremals, whereas the best previously known upper bound scaled as $d^2$. Since the decomposition is not unique, we show how to tailor our algorithm to provide particular types of decompositions that exhibit some desired property.
High efficiency photodetection below the quantum noise limit
Bullard, Elizabeth Caryn
2005-01-01
Two low-noise, high quantum efficiency, high bandwidth photodetectors have constructed to form a balanced homodyne detector to detect squeezed light. The detectors have quantum efficiencies of 85% and 90%, a bandwidth of ...
Measuring quantumness: from theory to observability in interferometric setups
Leonardo Ferro; Paolo Facchi; Rosario Fazio; Fabrizio Illuminati; Giuseppe Marmo; Vlatko Vedral; Saverio Pascazio
2015-01-13
We investigate the notion of quantumness based on the non-commutativity of the algebra of observables and introduce a measure of quantumness based on the mutual incompatibility of quantum states. Since it relies on the full algebra of observables, our measure for composed systems is partition independent and witnesses the global quantum nature of a state. We show that such quantity can be experimentally measured with an interferometric setup and that, when an arbitrary bipartition is introduced, it detects the one-way quantum correlations restricted to one of the two subsystems. We finally show that, by combining only two projective measurements and carrying out the interference procedure, our measure becomes an efficient universal witness of quantum discord and non-classical correlations.
Pure sources and efficient detectors for optical quantum information processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zielnicki, Kevin
Over the last sixty years, classical information theory has revolutionized the understanding of the nature of information, and how it can be quantified and manipulated. Quantum information processing extends these lessons to quantum systems, where the properties of intrinsic uncertainty and entanglement fundamentally defy classical explanation. This growing field has many potential applications, including computing, cryptography, communication, and metrology. As inherently mobile quantum particles, photons are likely to play an important role in any mature large-scale quantum information processing system. However, the available methods for producing and detecting complex multi-photon states place practical limits on the feasibility of sophisticated optical quantum information processing experiments. In a typical quantum information protocol, a source first produces an interesting or useful quantum state (or set of states), perhaps involving superposition or entanglement. Then, some manipulations are performed on this state, perhaps involving quantum logic gates which further manipulate or entangle the intial state. Finally, the state must be detected, obtaining some desired measurement result, e.g., for secure communication or computationally efficient factoring. The work presented here concerns the first and last stages of this process as they relate to photons: sources and detectors. Our work on sources is based on the need for optimized non-classical states of light delivered at high rates, particularly of single photons in a pure quantum state. We seek to better understand the properties of spontaneous parameteric downconversion (SPDC) sources of photon pairs, and in doing so, produce such an optimized source. We report an SPDC source which produces pure heralded single photons with little or no spectral filtering, allowing a significant rate enhancement. Our work on detectors is based on the need to reliably measure single-photon states. We have focused on optimizing the detection efficiency of visible light photon counters (VLPCs), a single-photon detection technology that is also capable of resolving photon number states. We report a record-breaking quantum efficiency of 91 +/- 3% observed with our detection system. Both sources and detectors are independently interesting physical systems worthy of study, but together they promise to enable entire new classes and applications of information based on quantum mechanics.
Effective Gain Measurement in Quantum Cascade Lasers
Petta, Jason
Effective Gain Measurement in Quantum Cascade Lasers A new method to measure gain in Quantum, PRISM, *BYU Supported by NSF, PRISM #12;Outline Lasers The Basics Quantum Cascade Lasers Gain and Loss unchanged http://www.ux1.eiu.edu/~cfadd/1160/Ch29Atm/Laser.html #12;Quantum Cascade Laser Laser Bar Sample
Commuting quantum circuits: efficient classical simulations versus hardness results
Xiaotong Ni; Maarten Van den Nest
2012-04-20
The study of quantum circuits composed of commuting gates is particularly useful to understand the delicate boundary between quantum and classical computation. Indeed, while being a restricted class, commuting circuits exhibit genuine quantum effects such as entanglement. In this paper we show that the computational power of commuting circuits exhibits a surprisingly rich structure. First we show that every 2-local commuting circuit acting on d-level systems and followed by single-qudit measurements can be efficiently simulated classically with high accuracy. In contrast, we prove that such strong simulations are hard for 3-local circuits. Using sampling methods we further show that all commuting circuits composed of exponentiated Pauli operators e^{i\\theta P} can be simulated efficiently classically when followed by single-qubit measurements. Finally, we show that commuting circuits can efficiently simulate certain non-commutative processes, related in particular to constant-depth quantum circuits. This gives evidence that the power of commuting circuits goes beyond classical computation.
Efficient extraction of quantum Hamiltonians from optimal laboratory data
Geremia, J.M.; Rabitz, Herschel A.
2004-08-01
Optimal identification (OI) is a recently developed procedure for extracting information about quantum Hamiltonians from experimental data. It employs techniques from coherent learning control to drive the quantum system such that dynamical measurements provide maximal information about its Hamiltonian. OI is an optimal procedure as initially presented; however, the data inversion component is computationally expensive. Here, we demonstrate that highly efficient global, nonlinear, map-facilitated inversion procedures can be combined with the OI concept to make it more suitable for laboratory implementation. A simulation of map-facilitated OI illustrates how the input-output maps can greatly accelerate the data inversion process.
Internal quantum efficiency analysis of solar cell by genetic algorithm
Xiong, Kanglin; Yang, Hui; Lu, Shulong; Zhou, Taofei; Wang, Rongxin; Qiu, Kai; Dong, Jianrong; Jiang, Desheng
2010-11-15
To investigate factors limiting the performance of a GaAs solar cell, genetic algorithm is employed to fit the experimentally measured internal quantum efficiency (IQE) in the full spectra range. The device parameters such as diffusion lengths and surface recombination velocities are extracted. Electron beam induced current (EBIC) is performed in the base region of the cell with obtained diffusion length agreeing with the fit result. The advantage of genetic algorithm is illustrated. (author)
Photo-acoustic spectroscopy and quantum efficiency of Yb3+ doped alumino silicate glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuhn, Stefan; Tiegel, Mirko; Herrmann, Andreas; Rüssel, Christian; Engel, Sebastian; Wenisch, Christoph; Gräf, Stephan; Müller, Frank A.; Körner, Jörg; Seifert, Reinhard; Yue, Fangxin; Klöpfel, Diethardt; Hein, Joachim; Kaluza, Malte C.
2015-09-01
In this contribution, we analyze the effect of several preparation methods of Yb3+ doped alumino silicate glasses on their quantum efficiency by using photo-acoustic measurements in comparison to standard measurement methods including the determination via the fluorescence lifetime and an integrating sphere setup. The preparation methods focused on decreasing the OH concentration by means of fluorine-substitution and/or applying dry melting atmospheres, which led to an increase in the measured fluorescence lifetime. However, it was found that the influence of these methods on radiative properties such as the measured fluorescence lifetime alone does not per se give exact information about the actual quantum efficiency of the sample. The determination of the quantum efficiency by means of fluorescence lifetime shows inaccuracies when refractive index changing elements such as fluorine are incorporated into the glass. Since fluorine not only eliminates OH from the glass but also increases the "intrinsic" radiative fluorescence lifetime, which is needed to calculate the quantum efficiency, it is difficult to separate lifetime quenching from purely radiative effects. The approach used in this contribution offers a possibility to disentangle radiative from non-radiative properties which is not possible by using fluorescence lifetime measurements alone and allows an accurate determination of the quantum efficiency of a given sample. The comparative determination by an integrating sphere setup leads to the well-known problem of reabsorption which embodies itself in the measurement of too low quantum efficiencies, especially for samples with small quantum efficiencies.
Planned Efficiency Measurements of STIRAP
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zakharov, Vladislav; McKenna, Casey; Yuan, Deqian; Gasparik, Jessica; Metcalf, Harold
2015-05-01
Our measurements of the absolute efficiency of using STIRAP to populate Rydberg states of He have been limited by the Doppler detuning associated with the divergence of the atomic beam that crosses perpendicular to our laser beams. The limitation is exacerbated when both laser beams co-propagate, compounding these Doppler shifts. We plan to have them counter-propagate and thereby ameliorate this effect. He 23S atoms in a LN2 temperature thermal beam are coupled to the 33P state by ? = 389 nm light (blue), and that state is coupled to Rydberg states by ~ 800 nm (red) light. The anti-parallel laser beams are arranged so that the atoms encounter the red light first (counter-intuitive order for STIRAP) partially overlapping with the blue. We have observed interference among the atomic transitions by varying the light polarization, and are planning further studies concerning these internal atomic interferometry phenomena. Supported by ONR and Dept. of Education GAANN.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wheeldon, Jeffrey F.; Walker, Alex; Valdivia, Christopher E.; Chow, Simon; Theriault, Olivier; Beal, Richard; Yandt, M.; Masson, Denis; Riel, Bruno; McMeekin, David; Puetz, Norbert; Wallace, Steven G.; Aimez, Vincent; Arès, Richard; Hall, Trevor J.; Fafard, Simon; Hinzer, Karin
2011-12-01
Quantum dot (QD) enhanced GaInP/InGaAs/Ge solar cells are presented and characterized under flash and continuous solar simulators. InAs QD within the middle sub-cell increase the carrier generation due to absorption in the range 900-940 nm. These QD-enhanced solar cells routinely achieve production efficiencies of ˜40%, and this set of research samples obtain a peak efficiency of >38% under flash solar simulators. Continuous solar simulator testing is performed to test the QD-enhanced solar cells under thermal loads similar to concentrated photovoltaic systems, in which cells demonstrate excellent reliability. Numerical simulations of the QD-enhanced solar cells are performed using an effective medium to model the additional absorption due to the QD layers. Temperature dependence of the QD-enhanced solar cells are modeled, in which temperature-dependent bandgap narrowing changes the dark current and the semiconductor absorption profiles. Comparison between the experimental results and numerical model show good agreement under flash testing. Further work is needed to improve the match between simulation and experiment under continuous solar simulators.
Quantum estimation via sequential measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burgarth, Daniel; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Kato, Airi N.; Yuasa, Kazuya
2015-11-01
The problem of estimating a parameter of a quantum system through a series of measurements performed sequentially on a quantum probe is analyzed in the general setting where the underlying statistics is explicitly non-i.i.d. We present a generalization of the central limit theorem in the present context, which under fairly general assumptions shows that as the number N of measurement data increases the probability distribution of functionals of the data (e.g., the average of the data) through which the target parameter is estimated becomes asymptotically normal and independent of the initial state of the probe. At variance with the previous studies (Gu?? M 2011 Phys. Rev. A 83 062324; van Horssen M and Gu?? M 2015 J. Math. Phys. 56 022109) we take a diagrammatic approach, which allows one to compute not only the leading orders in N of the moments of the average of the data but also those of the correlations among subsequent measurement outcomes. In particular our analysis points out that the latter, which are not available in usual i.i.d. data, can be exploited in order to improve the accuracy of the parameter estimation. An explicit application of our scheme is discussed by studying how the temperature of a thermal reservoir can be estimated via sequential measurements on a quantum probe in contact with the reservoir.
On uniqueness of quantum measurement theory
Mikhail G. Ivanov
2015-08-24
The paper discuss the structure of quantum mechanics and uniqueness of its postulates. The Born rule for quantum probabilities is fixed by requirement of nonexistence of quantum telepathy. Von Neumann projection postulate describes the transformation of quantum state under the condition of no-interaction measurement. Projection postulate could be considered as transition to conditional probability under the condition of a certain result of quantum measurement.
An easy measure of quantum correlation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Hui; Wu, Zhao-Qin; Hu, Li-Yun; Xu, Xue-Xiang; Huang, Jie-Hui
2015-11-01
To measure the quantum correlation of a bipartite state, a test matrix is constructed through the commutations among the blocks of its density matrix, which turns out to be a zero matrix for a classical state with zero quantum correlation, and a nonzero one for a quantum state with positive quantum correlation. The Frobenius norm of the test matrix is used to measure the quantum correlation, which satisfies the basic requirements for a good measure and coincides with Wootters concurrence for two-qubit pure states. Since no optimization is involved in the definition, this measure of quantum correlation is easy to compute and even can be calculated manually.
Quantum correlation cost of the weak measurement
Zhang, Jun; Wu, Shao-xiong; Yu, Chang-shui
2014-12-15
Quantum correlation cost (QCC) characterizing how much quantum correlation is used in a weak-measurement process is presented based on the trace norm. It is shown that the QCC is related to the trace-norm-based quantum discord (TQD) by only a factor that is determined by the strength of the weak measurement, so it only catches partial quantumness of a quantum system compared with the TQD. We also find that the residual quantumness can be ‘extracted’ not only by the further von Neumann measurement, but also by a sequence of infinitesimal weak measurements. As an example, we demonstrate our outcomes by the Bell-diagonal state.
Quantum interferometric measurements of temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jarzyna, Marcin; Zwierz, Marcin
2015-09-01
We provide a detailed description of the quantum interferometric thermometer, which is a device that estimates the temperature of a sample from the measurements of the optical phase. We rigorously analyze the operation of such a device by studying the interaction of the optical probe system prepared in a single-mode Gaussian state with a heated sample modeled as a dissipative thermal reservoir. We find that this approach to thermometry is capable of measuring the temperature of a sample in the nanokelvin regime. Furthermore, we compare the fundamental precision of quantum interferometric thermometers with the theoretical precision offered by the classical idealized pyrometers, which infer the temperature from a measurement of the total thermal radiation emitted by the sample. We find that the interferometric thermometer provides a superior performance in temperature sensing even when compared with this idealized pyrometer. We predict that interferometric thermometers will prove useful for ultraprecise temperature sensing and stabilization of quantum optical experiments based on the nonlinear crystals and atomic vapors.
Evolution equation for geometric quantum correlation measures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Ming-Liang; Fan, Heng
2015-05-01
A simple relation is established for the evolution equation of quantum-information-processing protocols such as quantum teleportation, remote state preparation, Bell-inequality violation, and particularly the dynamics of geometric quantum correlation measures. This relation shows that when the system traverses the local quantum channel, various figures of merit of the quantum correlations for different protocols demonstrate a factorization decay behavior for dynamics. We identified the family of quantum states for different kinds of quantum channels under the action of which the relation holds. This relation simplifies the assessment of many quantum tasks.
Quantum Measurements of Scattered Particles
Marco Merkli; Mark Penney
2015-03-20
We investigate the process of quantum measurements on scattered probes. Before scattering, the probes are independent, but they become entangled afterwards, due to the interaction with the scatterer. The collection of measurement results (the history) is a stochastic process of dependent random variables. We link the asymptotic properties of this process to spectral characteristics of the dynamics. We show that the process has decaying time correlations and that a zero-one law holds. We deduce that if the incoming probes are not sharply localized with respect to the spectrum of the measurement operator, then the process does not converge. Nevertheless, the scattering modifies the measurement outcome frequencies, which are shown to be the average of the measurement projection operator, evolved for one interaction period, in an asymptotic state. We illustrate the results on a truncated Jaynes-Cummings model.
A straightforward introduction to continuous quantum measurement
Steck, Daniel A.
to its applications in metrology [12 16], quantum information [17 19], quantum comput- ing [20 22A straightforward introduction to continuous quantum measurement KURT JACOBS*{{ and DANIEL A. STECKx {Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts at Boston, Boston, MA 02124, USA {Quantum
Machine Learning for Precise Quantum Measurement
Alexander Hentschel; Barry C. Sanders
2010-02-25
Adaptive feedback schemes are promising for quantum-enhanced measurements yet are complicated to design. Machine learning can autonomously generate algorithms in a classical setting. Here we adapt machine learning for quantum information and use our framework to generate autonomous adaptive feedback schemes for quantum measurement. In particular our approach replaces guesswork in quantum measurement by a logical, fully-automatic, programmable routine. We show that our method yields schemes that outperform the best known adaptive scheme for interferometric phase estimation.
Machine Learning for Precise Quantum Measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hentschel, Alexander; Sanders, Barry C.
2010-02-01
Adaptive feedback schemes are promising for quantum-enhanced measurements yet are complicated to design. Machine learning can autonomously generate algorithms in a classical setting. Here we adapt machine learning for quantum information and use our framework to generate autonomous adaptive feedback schemes for quantum measurement. In particular, our approach replaces guesswork in quantum measurement by a logical, fully automatic, programable routine. We show that our method yields schemes that outperform the best known adaptive scheme for interferometric phase estimation.
How much a quantum measurement is informative?
Dall'Arno, Michele; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Sacchi, Massimiliano F.
2014-12-04
The informational power of a quantum measurement is the maximum amount of classical information that the measurement can extract from any ensemble of quantum states. We discuss its main properties. Informational power is an additive quantity, being equivalent to the classical capacity of a quantum-classical channel. The informational power of a quantum measurement is the maximum of the accessible information of a quantum ensemble that depends on the measurement. We present some examples where the symmetry of the measurement allows to analytically derive its informational power.
Efficient quantum optical state engineering and applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCusker, Kevin T.
Over a century after the modern prediction of the existence of individual particles of light by Albert Einstein, a reliable source of this simple quantum state of one photon does not exist. While common light sources such as a light bulb, LED, or laser can produce a pulse of light with an average of one photon, there is (currently) no way of knowing the number of photons in that pulse without first absorbing (and thereby destroying) them. Spontaneous parametric down-conversion, a process in which one high-energy photon splits into two lower-energy photons, allows us to prepare a single-photon state by detecting one of the photons, which then heralds the existence of its twin. This process has been the workhorse of quantum optics, allowing demonstrations of a myriad of quantum processes and protocols, such as entanglement, cryptography, superdense coding, teleportation, and simple quantum computing demonstrations. All of these processes would benefit from better engineering of the underlying down-conversion process, but despite significant effort (both theoretical and experimental), optimization of this process is ongoing. The focus of this work is to optimize certain aspects of a down-conversion source, and then use this tool in novel experiments not otherwise feasible. Specifically, the goal is to optimize the heralding efficiency of the down-conversion photons, i.e., the probability that if one photon is detected, the other photon is also detected. This source is then applied to two experiments (a single-photon source, and a quantum cryptography implementation), and the detailed theory of an additional application (a source of Fock states and path-entangled states, called N00N states) is discussed, along with some other possible applications.
Orthogonal measurement-assisted quantum control
Raj Chakrabarti; Rebing Wu; Herschel Rabitz
2007-08-24
Existing algorithms for the optimal control of quantum observables are based on locally optimal steps in the space of control fields, or as in the case of genetic algorithms, operate on the basis of heuristics that do not explicitly take into account details pertaining to the geometry of the search space. We present globally efficient algorithms for quantum observable control that follow direct or close-to-direct paths in the domain of unitary dynamical propagators, based on partial reconstruction of these propagators at successive points along the search trajectory through orthogonal observable measurements. These algorithms can be implemented experimentally and offer an alternative to the adaptive learning control approach to optimal control experiments (OCE). Their performance is compared to that of local gradient-based control optimization.
Efficiency of structured adiabatic quantum computation
Juan Jose Garcia-Ripoll; Mari Carmen Bañuls
2008-12-09
We show enough evidence that a structured version of Adiabatic Quantum Computation (AQC) is efficient for most satisfiability problems. More precisely, when the success probability is fixed beforehand, the computational resources grow subexponentially in the number of qubits. Our study focuses on random satisfiability and exact cover problems, developing a multi-step algorithm that solves clauses one by one. Relating the computational cost to classical properties of the problem, we collect significant statistics with up to N=140 qubits, around the phase transitions, which is where the hardest problems appear.
Experimental quantum measurement with a few photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rozema, Lee Arthur
This thesis presents the results of a series of four photonic experiments on the topic of quantum measurement. The first two experiments relate to quantum metrology, and the use of quantum states to increase the precision of measurements beyond what is possible with classical systems; first to detect and characterize decoherence, and then in the context of quantum imaging. The third experiment studies a fundamental question in quantum mechanics: "How much must a quantum system be disturbed by a measurement?". We use weak measurement to confirm a recent theoretical result, showing that if a particle's state is already sufficiently uncertain we can perform a measurement with very little disturbance -- contrary to common explanations of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The fourth experiment falls in the category of quantum computation. In quantum mechanics having multiple copies of an identical system allows us to extract more information than we can extract from a single copy (since quantum mechanics allows each system to be measured only once before collapsing). We present and experimentally implement a quantum algorithm to compress all of the "extractable information" present in an ensemble of identical copies of quantum bits into exponentially fewer quantum bits. The research presented here samples from a variety of topics in quantum information, showing in several contexts how fascinating quantum effects can be exploited to gain a "quantum enhancement". To enable these experiments two sources of entangled photons were built, and "hybrid" quantum systems (encoding information in multiple degrees of freedom of a photon) were used to implement quantum circuits. This thesis will present the details of one of these sources (a novel and practical source of entangled N00N states), which was used in a four-photon quantum metrology experiment. The other, more standard, source of polarization-entangled photon pairs will only briefly be reviewed to leave room for the discussion of hybrid quantum logic.
Measuring Entanglement in a Photonic Embedding Quantum Simulator
Juan C. Loredo; Marcelo P. Almeida; Roberto Di Candia; Julen S. Pedernales; Jorge Casanova; Enrique Solano; Andrew G. White
2015-06-16
Measuring entanglement is a demanding task that usually requires full tomography of a quantum system, involving a number of observables that grows exponentially with the number of parties. Recently, it was suggested that adding a single ancillary qubit would allow for the efficient measurement of concurrence, and indeed any entanglement monotone associated to antilinear operations. Here, we report on the experimental implementation of such a device---an embedding quantum simulator---in photonics, encoding the entangling dynamics of a bipartite system into a tripartite one. We show that bipartite concurrence can be efficiently extracted from the measurement of merely two observables, instead of fifteen, without full tomographic information.
Improving Students' Understanding of Quantum Measurement
Zhu Guangtian; Singh, Chandralekha
2010-10-24
We describe the difficulties advanced undergraduate and graduate students have with quantum measurement. To reduce these difficulties, we have developed research-based learning tools such as the Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT) and peer instruction tools. A preliminary evaluation shows that these learning tools are effective in improving students' understanding of concepts related to quantum measurement.
Efficient teleportation between remote single-atom quantum memories.
Nölleke, Christian; Neuzner, Andreas; Reiserer, Andreas; Hahn, Carolin; Rempe, Gerhard; Ritter, Stephan
2013-04-01
We demonstrate teleportation of quantum bits between two single atoms in distant laboratories. Using a time-resolved photonic Bell-state measurement, we achieve a teleportation fidelity of (88.0 ± 1.5)%, largely determined by our entanglement fidelity. The low photon collection efficiency in free space is overcome by trapping each atom in an optical cavity. The resulting success probability of 0.1% is almost 5 orders of magnitude larger than in previous experiments with remote material qubits. It is mainly limited by photon propagation and detection losses and can be enhanced with a cavity-based deterministic Bell-state measurement. PMID:25166964
Rate-loss analysis of an efficient quantum repeater architecture
Saikat Guha; Hari Krovi; Christopher A. Fuchs; Zachary Dutton; Joshua A. Slater; Christoph Simon; Wolfgang Tittel
2015-09-14
We analyze an entanglement-based quantum key distribution (QKD) architecture that uses a linear chain of quantum repeaters employing photon-pair sources, spectral-multiplexing, linear-optic Bell-state measurements, multi-mode quantum memories and classical-only error correction. Assuming perfect sources, we find an exact expression for the secret-key rate, and an analytical description of how errors propagate through the repeater chain, as a function of various loss and noise parameters of the devices. We show via an explicit analytical calculation, which separately addresses the effects of the principle non-idealities, that this scheme achieves a secret key rate that surpasses the TGW bound---a recently-found fundamental limit to the rate-vs.-loss scaling achievable by any QKD protocol over a direct optical link---thereby providing one of the first rigorous proofs of the efficacy of a repeater protocol. We explicitly calculate the end-to-end shared noisy quantum state generated by the repeater chain, which could be useful for analyzing the performance of other non-QKD quantum protocols that require establishing long-distance entanglement. We evaluate that shared state's fidelity and the achievable entanglement distillation rate, as a function of the number of repeater nodes, total range, and various loss and noise parameters of the system. We extend our theoretical analysis to encompass sources with non-zero two-pair-emission probability, using an efficient exact numerical evaluation of the quantum state propagation and measurements. We expect our results to spur formal rate-loss analysis of other repeater protocols, and also to provide useful abstractions to seed analyses of quantum networks of complex topologies.
Rate-loss analysis of an efficient quantum repeater architecture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guha, Saikat; Krovi, Hari; Fuchs, Christopher A.; Dutton, Zachary; Slater, Joshua A.; Simon, Christoph; Tittel, Wolfgang
2015-08-01
We analyze an entanglement-based quantum key distribution (QKD) architecture that uses a linear chain of quantum repeaters employing photon-pair sources, spectral-multiplexing, linear-optic Bell-state measurements, multimode quantum memories, and classical-only error correction. Assuming perfect sources, we find an exact expression for the secret-key rate, and an analytical description of how errors propagate through the repeater chain, as a function of various loss-and-noise parameters of the devices. We show via an explicit analytical calculation, which separately addresses the effects of the principle nonidealities, that this scheme achieves a secret-key rate that surpasses the Takeoka-Guha-Wilde bound—a recently found fundamental limit to the rate-vs-loss scaling achievable by any QKD protocol over a direct optical link—thereby providing one of the first rigorous proofs of the efficacy of a repeater protocol. We explicitly calculate the end-to-end shared noisy quantum state generated by the repeater chain, which could be useful for analyzing the performance of other non-QKD quantum protocols that require establishing long-distance entanglement. We evaluate that shared state's fidelity and the achievable entanglement-distillation rate, as a function of the number of repeater nodes, total range, and various loss-and-noise parameters of the system. We extend our theoretical analysis to encompass sources with nonzero two-pair-emission probability, using an efficient exact numerical evaluation of the quantum state propagation and measurements. We expect our results to spur formal rate-loss analysis of other repeater protocols and also to provide useful abstractions to seed analyses of quantum networks of complex topologies.
Continuous quantum measurement of a light-matter system
Zhao, R.; Jenkins, S. D.; Campbell, C. J.; Kennedy, T. A. B.; Kuzmich, A.; Matsukevich, D. N.; Chaneliere, T.
2010-03-15
Continuous measurements on correlated quantum systems, in addition to providing information on the state vector of the system in question, induce evolution in the unmeasured degrees of freedom conditioned on the measurement outcome. However, experimentally accessing these nontrivial regimes requires high-efficiency measurements over time scales much longer than the temporal resolution of the measurement apparatus. We report the observation of such a continuous conditioned evolution in the state of a light-collective atomic excitation system undergoing photoelectric measurement.
Quantum Measurement and the Real World
Steinberg, Aephraim M.
2012-04-18
While quantum measurement remains the central philosophical conundrum of quantum mechanics, it has recently grown into a respectable (read: experimental!) discipline as well. New perspectives on measurement have grown out of new technological possibilities, but also out of attempts to design systems for quantum information processing. I will present several examples of how our current ideas on quantum measurement go far beyond the usual textbook treatments, using examples from our entangled-photon and ultracold-atoms laboratories in Toronto. Topics will be drawn from weak measurement, 'interaction-free' measurement, Hardy's Paradox, measurement-induced quantum logic, and techniques for controlling and characterizing the coherence of quantum systems. The moral of the story will be that there are many different kinds of measurement strategies, with their own advantages and disadvantages; and that some things we have been taught not to even think about can actually be measured in a certain sense.
Quantum Measurement and Initial Conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stoica, Ovidiu Cristinel
2015-10-01
Quantum measurement finds the observed system in a collapsed state, rather than in the state predicted by the Schrödinger equation. Yet there is a relatively spread opinion that the wavefunction collapse can be explained by unitary evolution (for instance in the decoherence approach, if we take into account the environment). In this article it is proven a mathematical result which severely restricts the initial conditions for which measurements have definite outcomes, if pure unitary evolution is assumed. This no-go theorem remains true even if we take the environment into account. The result does not forbid a unitary description of the measurement process, it only shows that such a description is possible only for very restricted initial conditions. The existence of such restrictions of the initial conditions can be understood in the four-dimensional block universe perspective, as a requirement of global self-consistency of the solutions of the Schrödinger equation.
Quantum union bounds for sequential projective measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Jingliang
2015-11-01
We present two quantum union bounds for sequential projective measurements. These bounds estimate the disturbance accumulation and probability of outcomes when the measurements are performed sequentially. These results are based on a trigonometric representation of quantum states and should have wide application in quantum information theory for information-processing tasks such as communication and state discrimination, and perhaps even in the analysis of quantum algorithms.
Measurement theory for closed quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wouters, Michiel
2015-07-01
We introduce the concept of a “classical observable” as an operator with vanishingly small quantum fluctuations on a set of density matrices. Their study provides a natural starting point to analyse the quantum measurement problem. In particular, it allows to identify Schrödinger cats and the associated projection operators intrinsically, without the need to invoke an environment. We discuss how our new approach relates to the open system analysis of quantum measurements and to thermalization studies in closed quantum systems.
Maximum confidence measurements via probabilistic quantum cloning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Wen-Hai; Yu, Long-Bao; Cao, Zhuo-Liang; Ye, Liu
2013-03-01
Probabilistic quantum cloning (PQC) cannot copy a set of linearly dependent quantum states. In this paper, we show that if incorrect copies are allowed to be produced, linearly dependent quantum states may also be cloned by the PQC. By exploiting this kind of PQC to clone a special set of three linearly dependent quantum states, we derive the upper bound of the maximum confidence measure of a set. An explicit transformation of the maximum confidence measure is presented.
Work measurement in an optomechanical quantum heat engine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Ying; Zhang, Keye; Bariani, Francesco; Meystre, Pierre
2015-09-01
We analyze theoretically measurement schemes of the mean output work and its fluctuations in a recently proposed optomechanical quantum heat engine [Zhang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 150602 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.150602]. After showing that this work can be operationally determined by continuous measurements of the intracavity photon number, we discuss both dispersive and absorptive measurement schemes and analyze their back-action effects on the efficiency of the engine. Both measurements are found to reduce the efficiency of the engine, but their back-action is both qualitatively and quantitatively different. For dispersive measurements the efficiency decreases as a result of the mixing of photonic and phononic excitations, while for absorptive measurements, its reduction arises from photon losses due to the interaction with the quantum probe.
Quantum theory of measurements as quantum decision theory
V. I. Yukalov; D. Sornette
2015-03-30
Theory of quantum measurements is often classified as decision theory. An event in decision theory corresponds to the measurement of an observable. This analogy looks clear for operationally testable simple events. However, the situation is essentially more complicated in the case of composite events. The most difficult point is the relation between decisions under uncertainty and measurements under uncertainty. We suggest a unified language for describing the processes of quantum decision making and quantum measurements. The notion of quantum measurements under uncertainty is introduced. We show that the correct mathematical foundation for the theory of measurements under uncertainty, as well as for quantum decision theory dealing with uncertain events, requires the use of positive operator-valued measure that is a generalization of projection-valued measure. The latter is appropriate for operationally testable events, while the former is necessary for characterizing operationally uncertain events. In both decision making and quantum measurements, one has to distinguish composite non-entangled events from composite entangled events. Quantum probability can be essentially different from classical probability only for entangled events. The necessary condition for the appearance of an interference term in the quantum probability is the occurrence of entangled prospects and the existence of an entangled strategic state of a decision maker or of an entangled statistical state of a measuring device.
Quantum Measurement and Observable Universe
Daegene Song
2015-07-22
In this paper, we discuss that an observable-based single-system Copenhagen and entanglement-based two-system von Neumann measurement protocols in quantum theory can be made equivalent by considering the second part of the two-system scheme to be a Dirac-type negative sea filling up the first system. Based on this equivalence, and by considering the universe as a computational process, the choice of the apparatus state in the two-system protocol can be identified with the choice of the observable in the single-system scheme as negative sea filling up the observable universe. In particular, the measuring party's state is considered to be evolving backwards in time to the big bang as a nondeterministic computational process, which chooses the acceptable path as a time-reversal process of irreversible computation. The suggested model proposes that the prepared microstate of the universe, or reality, corresponds to the observer's choice, therefore, subjective reality. Thus, this effectively provides a specific description of the subjective universe model previously proposed, which is based on the symmetry breakdown between the Schrodinger and the Heisenberg pictures of quantum theory.
Quantum entanglement from random measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tran, Minh Cong; Daki?, Borivoje; Arnault, François; Laskowski, Wies?aw; Paterek, Tomasz
2015-11-01
We show that the expectation value of squared correlations measured along random local directions is an identifier of quantum entanglement in pure states, which can be directly experimentally assessed if two copies of the state are available. Entanglement can therefore be detected by parties who do not share a common reference frame and whose local reference frames, such as polarizers or Stern-Gerlach magnets, remain unknown. Furthermore, we also show that in every experimental run, access to only one qubit from the macroscopic reference is sufficient to identify entanglement, violate a Bell inequality, and, in fact, observe all phenomena observable with macroscopic references. Finally, we provide a state-independent entanglement witness solely in terms of random correlations and emphasize how data gathered for a single random measurement setting per party reliably detects entanglement. This is only possible due to utilized randomness and should find practical applications in experimental confirmation of multiphoton entanglement or space experiments.
Cryptographic Distinguishability Measures for Quantum Mechanical States
Christopher A. Fuchs; Jeroen van de Graaf
1998-04-03
This paper, mostly expository in nature, surveys four measures of distinguishability for quantum-mechanical states. This is done from the point of view of the cryptographer with a particular eye on applications in quantum cryptography. Each of the measures considered is rooted in an analogous classical measure of distinguishability for probability distributions: namely, the probability of an identification error, the Kolmogorov distance, the Bhattacharyya coefficient, and the Shannon distinguishability (as defined through mutual information). These measures have a long history of use in statistical pattern recognition and classical cryptography. We obtain several inequalities that relate the quantum distinguishability measures to each other, one of which may be crucial for proving the security of quantum cryptographic key distribution. In another vein, these measures and their connecting inequalities are used to define a single notion of cryptographic exponential indistinguishability for two families of quantum states. This is a tool that may prove useful in the analysis of various quantum cryptographic protocols.
Classification and Measurement of Multipartite Quantum Entanglements
Seyed Arash Sheikholeslam; Thomas Aaron Gulliver
2012-05-10
This paper presents a new measure of entanglement which can be employed for multipartite entangled systems. The classification of multipartite entangled systems based on this measure is considered. Two approaches to applying this measure to mixed quantum states are discussed.
High Efficiency Colloidal Quantum Dot Phosphors
Kahen, Keith
2013-12-31
The project showed that non-Cd containing, InP-based nanocrystals (semiconductor materials with dimensions of ~6 nm) have high potential for enabling next-generation, nanocrystal-based, on chip phosphors for solid state lighting. Typical nanocrystals fall short of the requirements for on chip phosphors due to their loss of quantum efficiency under the operating conditions of LEDs, such as, high temperature (up to 150 °C) and high optical flux (up to 200 W/cm2). The InP-based nanocrystals invented during this project maintain high quantum efficiency (>80%) in polymer-based films under these operating conditions for emission wavelengths ranging from ~530 to 620 nm. These nanocrystals also show other desirable attributes, such as, lack of blinking (a common problem with nanocrystals which limits their performance) and no increase in the emission spectral width from room to 150 °C (emitters with narrower spectral widths enable higher efficiency LEDs). Prior to these nanocrystals, no nanocrystal system (regardless of nanocrystal type) showed this collection of properties; in fact, other nanocrystal systems are typically limited to showing only one desirable trait (such as high temperature stability) but being deficient in other properties (such as high flux stability). The project showed that one can reproducibly obtain these properties by generating a novel compositional structure inside of the nanomaterials; in addition, the project formulated an initial theoretical framework linking the compositional structure to the list of high performance optical properties. Over the course of the project, the synthetic methodology for producing the novel composition was evolved to enable the synthesis of these nanomaterials at a cost approximately equal to that required for forming typical conventional nanocrystals. Given the above results, the last major remaining step prior to scale up of the nanomaterials is to limit the oxidation of these materials during the tens of thousands of hours of LED operation. Once the LED phosphor lifetime specifications are met, these nanocrystals will enable white LEDs for solid state lighting to simultaneously have increased efficiency and improved light quality, in addition to enabling the creation of custom light spectrums. These improvements to white LEDs will help accelerate the adoption of SSL, leading to large savings in US and worldwide energy costs.
Information criteria for efficient quantum state estimation
Yin, J. O. S.; Enk, S. J. van
2011-06-15
Recently several more efficient versions of quantum state tomography have been proposed, with the purpose of making tomography feasible even for many-qubit states. The number of state parameters to be estimated is reduced by tentatively introducing certain simplifying assumptions on the form of the quantum state, and subsequently using the data to rigorously verify these assumptions. The simplifying assumptions considered so far were (i) the state can be well approximated to be of low rank, or (ii) the state can be well approximated as a matrix product state, or (iii) only the permutationally invariant part of the density matrix is determined. We add one more method in that same spirit: We allow in principle any model for the state, using any (small) number of parameters (which can, e.g., be chosen to have a clear physical meaning), and the data are used to verify the model. The proof that this method is valid cannot be as strict as in the above-mentioned cases, but is based on well-established statistical methods that go under the name of ''information criteria.'' We exploit here, in particular, the Akaike information criterion. We illustrate the method by simulating experiments on (noisy) Dicke states.
Lead Telluride Quantum Dot Solar Cells Displaying External Quantum Efficiencies Exceeding 120.
Böhm, Marcus L; Jellicoe, Tom C; Tabachnyk, Maxim; Davis, Nathaniel J L K; Wisnivesky-Rocca-Rivarola, Florencia; Ducati, Caterina; Ehrler, Bruno; Bakulin, Artem A; Greenham, Neil C
2015-12-01
Multiple exciton generation (MEG) in semiconducting quantum dots is a process that produces multiple charge-carrier pairs from a single excitation. MEG is a possible route to bypass the Shockley-Queisser limit in single-junction solar cells but it remains challenging to harvest charge-carrier pairs generated by MEG in working photovoltaic devices. Initial yields of additional carrier pairs may be reduced due to ultrafast intraband relaxation processes that compete with MEG at early times. Quantum dots of materials that display reduced carrier cooling rates (e.g., PbTe) are therefore promising candidates to increase the impact of MEG in photovoltaic devices. Here we demonstrate PbTe quantum dot-based solar cells, which produce extractable charge carrier pairs with an external quantum efficiency above 120%, and we estimate an internal quantum efficiency exceeding 150%. Resolving the charge carrier kinetics on the ultrafast time scale with pump-probe transient absorption and pump-push-photocurrent measurements, we identify a delayed cooling effect above the threshold energy for MEG. PMID:26488847
Lead Telluride Quantum Dot Solar Cells Displaying External Quantum Efficiencies Exceeding 120%
2015-01-01
Multiple exciton generation (MEG) in semiconducting quantum dots is a process that produces multiple charge-carrier pairs from a single excitation. MEG is a possible route to bypass the Shockley-Queisser limit in single-junction solar cells but it remains challenging to harvest charge-carrier pairs generated by MEG in working photovoltaic devices. Initial yields of additional carrier pairs may be reduced due to ultrafast intraband relaxation processes that compete with MEG at early times. Quantum dots of materials that display reduced carrier cooling rates (e.g., PbTe) are therefore promising candidates to increase the impact of MEG in photovoltaic devices. Here we demonstrate PbTe quantum dot-based solar cells, which produce extractable charge carrier pairs with an external quantum efficiency above 120%, and we estimate an internal quantum efficiency exceeding 150%. Resolving the charge carrier kinetics on the ultrafast time scale with pump–probe transient absorption and pump–push–photocurrent measurements, we identify a delayed cooling effect above the threshold energy for MEG. PMID:26488847
Nanometer Distance Measurements between Multicolor Quantum Dots
Michalet, Xavier
Nanometer Distance Measurements between Multicolor Quantum Dots Josh Antelman, Connie Wilking nanometer accuracy in individual distance measurement by suppression of quantum dot blinking and thoroughly the supramolecular architecture of cells.5-7 On the other hand, true nanometer-resolution distance measurements
Finite Quantum Measure Spaces Denise Schmitz
Morrow, James A.
that the event will occur. Naturally, as probability is such a central notion to the study of quantum mechanics objects or quantum events. There are many situations in which it would be useful to have an interpretationFinite Quantum Measure Spaces Denise Schmitz 4 June 2012 Contents 1 Introduction 2 2 Preliminaries
Extreme ultraviolet quantum detection efficiency of rubidium bromide opaque photocathodes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Siegmund, Oswald H. W.; Gaines, Geoffrey A.
1990-01-01
Measurements are presented of the quantum detection efficiency (QDE) of three samples of RbBr photocathode layers over the 44-150-A wavelength range. The QDE of RbBr-coated microchannel plate (MCP) was measured using a back-to-back Z-stack MCP configuration in a detector with a wedge and strip position-sensitive anode, of the type described by Siegmund et al. (1984). To assess the stability of RbBr layer, the RbBr photocathode was exposed to air at about 30 percent humidity for 20 hr. It was found that the QDE values for the aged cathode were within the QDE measurement errors of the original values. A simple QDE model was developed, and it was found that its predictions are in accord with the QDE measurements.
Electromagnetic Shielding Efficiency Measurement of Composite Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D?ínovský, J.; Kejík, Z.
2009-01-01
This paper deals with the theoretical and practical aspects of the shielding efficiency measurements of construction composite materials. This contribution describes an alternative test method of these measurements by using the measurement circular flange. The measured results and parameters of coaxial test flange are also discussed. The measurement circular flange is described by measured scattering parameters in the frequency range from 9 kHz up to 1 GHz. The accuracy of the used shielding efficiency measurement method was checked by brass calibration ring. The suitability of the coaxial test setup was also checked by measurements on the EMC test chamber. This data was compared with the measured data on the real EMC chamber. The whole measurement of shielding efficiency was controlled by the program which runs on a personal computer. This program was created in the VEE Pro environment produced by © Agilent Technology.
DISSERTATION QUANTUM EFFICIENCY AS A DEVICE-PHYSICS INTERPRETATION TOOL
Sites, James R.
DISSERTATION QUANTUM EFFICIENCY AS A DEVICE-PHYSICS INTERPRETATION TOOL FOR THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS;#12;ABSTRACT OF DISSERTATION QUANTUM EFFICIENCY AS A DEVICE-PHYSICS INTERPRETATION TOOL FOR THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS Thin-film solar cells made from CdTe and CuIn1-xGaxSe2 p-type absorbers are promis- ing candidates
Deterministic and Efficient Quantum Cryptography Based on Bell's Theorem
Zeng-Bing Chen; Qiang Zhang; Xiao-Hui Bao; J. Schmiedmayer; Jian-Wei Pan
2006-05-05
We propose a novel double-entanglement-based quantum cryptography protocol that is both efficient and deterministic. The proposal uses photon pairs with entanglement both in polarization and in time degrees of freedom; each measurement in which both of the two communicating parties register a photon can establish one and only one perfect correlation and thus deterministically create a key bit. Eavesdropping can be detected by violation of local realism. A variation of the protocol shows a higher security, similarly to the six-state protocol, under individual attacks. Our scheme allows a robust implementation under current technology.
Surface and bulk contribution to Cu(111) quantum efficiency
Pedersoli, Emanuele; Greaves, Corin Michael Ricardo; Wan, Weishi; Coleman-Smith, Christopher; Padmore, Howard A.; Pagliara, Stefania; Cartella, Andrea; Lamarca, Fabrizio; Ferrini, Gabriele; Galimberti, Gianluca; Montagnese, Matteo; dal Conte, Stefano; Parmigiani, Fulvio
2008-11-04
The quantum efficiency (QE) of Cu(111) is measured for different impinging light angles with photon energies just above the work function. We observe that the vectorial photoelectric effect, an enhancement of the QE due to illumination with light with an electric vector perpendicular to the sample surface, is stronger in the more surface sensitive regime. This can be explained by a contribution to photoemission due to the variation in the electromagnetic potential at the surface. The contributions of bulk and surface electrons can then be determined.
Deterministic and efficient quantum cryptography based on Bell's theorem
Chen Zengbing; Pan Jianwei; Zhang Qiang; Bao Xiaohui; Schmiedmayer, Joerg
2006-05-15
We propose a double-entanglement-based quantum cryptography protocol that is both efficient and deterministic. The proposal uses photon pairs with entanglement both in polarization and in time degrees of freedom; each measurement in which both of the two communicating parties register a photon can establish one and only one perfect correlation, and thus deterministically create a key bit. Eavesdropping can be detected by violation of local realism. A variation of the protocol shows a higher security, similar to the six-state protocol, under individual attacks. Our scheme allows a robust implementation under the current technology.
Rényi generalizations of quantum information measures
Berta, Mario; Wilde, Mark M
2015-01-01
Quantum information measures such as the entropy and the mutual information find applications in physics, e.g., as correlation measures. Generalizing such measures based on the R\\'enyi entropies is expected to enhance their scope in applications. We prescribe R\\'enyi generalizations for any quantum information measure which consists of a linear combination of von Neumann entropies with coefficients chosen from the set {-1,0,1}. As examples, we describe R\\'enyi generalizations of the conditional quantum mutual information, some quantum multipartite information measures, and the topological entanglement entropy. Among these, we discuss the various properties of the R\\'enyi conditional quantum mutual information and sketch some potential applications. We conjecture that the proposed R\\'enyi conditional quantum mutual informations are monotone increasing in the R\\'enyi parameter, and we have proofs of this conjecture for some special cases.
Rényi generalizations of quantum information measures
Mario Berta; Kaushik P. Seshadreesan; Mark M. Wilde
2015-02-27
Quantum information measures such as the entropy and the mutual information find applications in physics, e.g., as correlation measures. Generalizing such measures based on the R\\'enyi entropies is expected to enhance their scope in applications. We prescribe R\\'enyi generalizations for any quantum information measure which consists of a linear combination of von Neumann entropies with coefficients chosen from the set {-1,0,1}. As examples, we describe R\\'enyi generalizations of the conditional quantum mutual information, some quantum multipartite information measures, and the topological entanglement entropy. Among these, we discuss the various properties of the R\\'enyi conditional quantum mutual information and sketch some potential applications. We conjecture that the proposed R\\'enyi conditional quantum mutual informations are monotone increasing in the R\\'enyi parameter, and we have proofs of this conjecture for some special cases.
Language Diversity of Measured Quantum Processes
Karoline Wiesner; James P. Crutchfield
2006-11-19
The behavior of a quantum system depends on how it is measured. How much of what is observed comes from the structure of the quantum system itself and how much from the observer's choice of measurement? We explore these questions by analyzing the \\emph{language diversity} of quantum finite-state generators. One result is a new way to distinguish quantum devices from their classical (stochastic) counterparts. While the diversity of languages generated by these two computational classes is the same in the case of periodic processes, quantum systems generally generate a wider range of languages than classical systems.
Infinite Correlation in Measured Quantum Processes
Karoline Wiesner; James P. Crutchfield
2006-11-14
We show that quantum dynamical systems can exhibit infinite correlations in their behavior when repeatedly measured. We model quantum processes using quantum finite-state generators and take the stochastic language they generate as a representation of their behavior. We analyze two spin-1 quantum systems that differ only in how they are observed. The corresponding language generated has short-range correlation in one case and infinite correlation in the other.
Irreversibility and Measurement in Quantum Mechanics
D. M. Snyder
2000-02-28
Irreversibility is often considered to characterize measurements in quantum mechanics. Fundamental problems with this characterization are addressed. First, whether a measurement is made in quantum mechanics is an arbitrary decision on the part of the experimenter concerning how the experimental circumstances are structured. Second, how is irreversibility that occurs in making a measurement explained in terms of a neurophysiological mechanism where a macroscopic measuring instrument is not required in principle to make the measurement, as in macroscopic quantum tunneling? Third, how does irreversibility characterize a negative observation where there is no physical interaction in the measurement process?
Efficient quantum key distribution scheme with pre-announcing the basis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Jingliang; Zhu, Changhua; Xiao, Heling
2014-03-01
We devise a new quantum key distribution scheme that is more efficient than the BB84 protocol. By pre-announcing the basis, Alice and Bob are more likely to use the same basis to prepare and measure the qubits, thus achieving a higher efficiency. The error analysis is revised and its security against any eavesdropping is proven briefly. Furthermore we show that, compared with the LCA scheme, our modification can be applied in more quantum channels.
Biological measurement beyond the quantum limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, Michael A.; Janousek, Jiri; Daria, Vincent; Knittel, Joachim; Hage, Boris; Bachor, Hans-A.; Bowen, Warwick P.
2013-03-01
Dynamic biological measurements require low light levels to avoid damaging the specimen. With this constraint on optical power, quantum noise fundamentally limits the measurement sensitivity. This limit can only be surpassed by extracting more information per photon by using quantum correlations. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that the quantum shot noise limit can be overcome for measurements of living systems. Quantum-correlated light with amplitude noise squeezed 75% below the vacuum level is used to perform microrheology experiments within Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells. Naturally occurring lipid granules are tracked in real time as they diffuse through the cytoplasm, and the quantum noise limit is surpassed by 42%. The laser-based microparticle tracking technique used is compatible with non-classical light and is immune to low-frequency noise, leading the way to achieving a broad range of quantum-enhanced measurements in biology.
Radiated microwave power transmission system efficiency measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dickinson, R. M.; Brown, W. C.
1975-01-01
The measured and calculated results from determining the operating efficiencies of a laboratory version of a system for transporting electric power from one point to another via a wireless free space radiated microwave beam are reported. The system's overall end-to-end efficiency as well as intermediated conversion efficiencies were measured. The maximum achieved end-to-end dc-to-ac system efficiency was 54.18% with a probable error of + or - 0.94%. The dc-to-RF conversion efficiency was measured to be 68.87% + or - 1.0% and the RF-to-dc conversion efficiency was 78.67 + or - 1.1%. Under these conditions a dc power of 495.62 + or - 3.57 W was received with a free space transmitter antenna receiver antenna separation of 170.2 cm (67 in).
Collection efficiency measurements for solar cell research
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hampton, H. L.; Olsen, L. C.
1976-01-01
A system was established for measuring absolute, spectral collection efficiency that is well suited to solar cell research and development. Determination of spectral collection efficiency involves measurements of the incident photon intensity, the device reflection coefficient, and the cell short circuit current. A monochromatic photon flux is obtained with a high intensity Bausch and Lomb monochromator, and an Epply thermopile detector is used to measure incident intensity. Normal incidence reflectivity measurements are achieved with a prism type beam splitter. The experimental approach is discussed, measurements of the reflectivity of evaporated silver films are considered. Collection efficiency measurements of silicon solar cells are presented, and collection efficiency studies of Cu20 solar cells are discussed.
Invariant measures on multimode quantum Gaussian states
Lupo, C.; Mancini, S.; De Pasquale, A.; Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Pascazio, S.
2012-12-15
We derive the invariant measure on the manifold of multimode quantum Gaussian states, induced by the Haar measure on the group of Gaussian unitary transformations. To this end, by introducing a bipartition of the system in two disjoint subsystems, we use a parameterization highlighting the role of nonlocal degrees of freedom-the symplectic eigenvalues-which characterize quantum entanglement across the given bipartition. A finite measure is then obtained by imposing a physically motivated energy constraint. By averaging over the local degrees of freedom we finally derive the invariant distribution of the symplectic eigenvalues in some cases of particular interest for applications in quantum optics and quantum information.
Universal measurement apparatus controlled by quantum software.
Fiurásek, Jaromír; Dusek, Miloslav; Filip, Radim
2002-11-01
We propose a quantum device that can approximate any projective measurement on a qubit-a quantum "multimeter." The desired measurement basis is selected by the quantum state of a "program register." Two different kinds of programs are considered and in both cases the device is optimized with respect to maximal average fidelity (assuming uniform distribution of measurement bases). Quantum multimeters exhibiting the covariance property are introduced and an optimal covariant multimeter with a single-qubit program register is found. Possible experimental realization of the simplest proposed device is presented. PMID:12443102
Universal Measurement Apparatus Controlled by Quantum Software
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiurášek, Jaromír; Dušek, Miloslav; Filip, Radim
2002-10-01
We propose a quantum device that can approximate any projective measurement on a qubit-a quantum ``multimeter.'' The desired measurement basis is selected by the quantum state of a ``program register.'' Two different kinds of programs are considered and in both cases the device is optimized with respect to maximal average fidelity (assuming uniform distribution of measurement bases). Quantum multimeters exhibiting the covariance property are introduced and an optimal covariant multimeter with a single-qubit program register is found. Possible experimental realization of the simplest proposed device is presented.
Quantum measurement with entangled-photon states Alexander Sergienko
Sergienko, Alexander
metrology), quantum information processing, quantum cryptography and communication. He is a Fellow of OSA of optical measurement - quantum optical metrology. Entangled photonsQuantum measurement with entangled-photon states Alexander Sergienko Alexander Sergienko
Sites, James R.
19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference Pre-Print 4AV.1.45 QUANTUM EFFICIENCY OF Cd@lamar.colostate.edu ABSTRACT: When the quantum efficiency of a CdS/CdTe solar cell is measured under forward voltage, photoconductivity, and secondary barriers on the apparent quantum efficiency (AQE) of CdTe solar cells. Earlier
Absolute determination of photoluminescence quantum efficiency using an integrating sphere setup
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leyre, S.; Coutino-Gonzalez, E.; Joos, J. J.; Ryckaert, J.; Meuret, Y.; Poelman, D.; Smet, P. F.; Durinck, G.; Hofkens, J.; Deconinck, G.; Hanselaer, P.
2014-12-01
An integrating sphere-based setup to obtain a quick and reliable determination of the internal quantum efficiency of strongly scattering luminescent materials is presented. In literature, two distinct but similar measurement procedures are frequently mentioned: a "two measurement" and a "three measurement" approach. Both methods are evaluated by applying the rigorous integrating sphere theory. It was found that both measurement procedures are valid. Additionally, the two methods are compared with respect to the uncertainty budget of the obtained values of the quantum efficiency. An inter-laboratory validation using the two distinct procedures was performed. The conclusions from the theoretical study were confirmed by the experimental data.
Absolute determination of photoluminescence quantum efficiency using an integrating sphere setup
Leyre, S.; Coutino-Gonzalez, E.; Hofkens, J.; Joos, J. J.; Poelman, D.; Smet, P. F.; Ryckaert, J.; Meuret, Y.; Durinck, G.; Hanselaer, P.
2014-12-15
An integrating sphere-based setup to obtain a quick and reliable determination of the internal quantum efficiency of strongly scattering luminescent materials is presented. In literature, two distinct but similar measurement procedures are frequently mentioned: a “two measurement” and a “three measurement” approach. Both methods are evaluated by applying the rigorous integrating sphere theory. It was found that both measurement procedures are valid. Additionally, the two methods are compared with respect to the uncertainty budget of the obtained values of the quantum efficiency. An inter-laboratory validation using the two distinct procedures was performed. The conclusions from the theoretical study were confirmed by the experimental data.
The Role of Measurement in Quantum Games
Ahmad Nawaz; A. H. Toor
2006-03-02
The game of Prisoner Dilemma is analyzed to study the role of measurement basis in quantum games. Four different types of payoffs for quantum games are identified on the basis of different combinations of initial state and measurement basis. A relation among these different payoffs is established.
Quantum Zeno Effect in the Measurement Problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Namiki, Mikio; Pasaczio, Saverio
1996-01-01
Critically analyzing the so-called quantum Zeno effect in the measurement problem, we show that observation of this effect does not necessarily mean experimental evidence for the naive notion of wave-function collapse by measurement (the simple projection rule). We also examine what kind of limitation the uncertainty relation and others impose on the observation of the quantum Zeno effect.
Efficient Quantum Dot-Quantum Dot and Quantum Dot-Dye Energy Transfer in Biotemplated Assemblies
Achermann, Marc; Jeong, Sohee; Balet, Laurent; Montano, Gabriel A.; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.
2011-01-01
CdSe semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots are assembled into nanowire-like arrays employing microtubule fibers as nanoscale molecular “scaffolds.” Spectrally and time-resolved energy-transfer analysis is used to assess the assembly of the nanoparticles into the hybrid inorganic-biomolecular structure. Specifically, we demonstrate that a comprehensive study of energy transfer between quantum-dot pairs on the biotemplate, and, alternatively, between quantum dots and molecular dyes embedded in the microtubule scaffold, comprises a powerful spectroscopic tool for evaluating the assembly process. In addition to revealing the extent to which assembly has occurred, the approach allows determination of particle-to-particle (and particle-to-dye) distances within the bio-mediated array. Significantly, the characterization is realized in situ, without need for further sample workup or risk of disturbing the solution-phase constructs. Furthermore, we find that the assemblies prepared in this way exhibit efficient quantum dot-quantum dot and quantum dot-dye energy transfer that affords faster energy-transfer rates compared to densely packed quantum dot arrays on planar substrates and small-molecule-mediated quantum dot/dye couples, respectively. PMID:21314178
Efficient quantum dot-quantum dot and quantum dot-dye energy transfer in biotemplated assemblies.
Achermann, Marc; Jeong, Sohee; Balet, Laurent; Montano, Gabriel A; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A
2011-03-22
CdSe semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots are assembled into nanowire-like arrays employing microtubule fibers as nanoscale molecular "scaffolds." Spectrally and time-resolved energy-transfer analysis is used to assess the assembly of the nanoparticles into the hybrid inorganic biomolecular structure. Specifically, we demonstrate that a comprehensive study of energy transfer between quantum dot pairs on the biotemplate and, alternatively, between quantum dots and molecular dyes embedded in the microtubule scaffold comprises a powerful spectroscopic tool for evaluating the assembly process. In addition to revealing the extent to which assembly has occurred, the approach allows determination of particle-to-particle (and particle-to-dye) distances within the biomediated array. Significantly, the characterization is realized in situ, without need for further sample workup or risk of disturbing the solution-phase constructs. Furthermore, we find that the assemblies prepared in this way exhibit efficient quantum dot-quantum dot and quantum dot-dye energy transfer that affords faster energy-transfer rates compared to densely packed quantum dot arrays on planar substrates and to small-molecule-mediated quantum dot-dye couples, respectively. PMID:21314178
Quantum Measurement and Observable Universe
Song, Daegene
2015-01-01
In this paper, we discuss that an observable-based single-system Copenhagen and entanglement-based two-system von Neumann measurement protocols in quantum theory can be made equivalent by considering the second part of the two-system scheme to be a Dirac-type negative sea filling up the first system. Based on this equivalence, and by considering the universe as a computational process, the choice of the apparatus state in the two-system protocol can be identified with the choice of the observable in the single-system scheme as negative sea filling up the observable universe. In particular, the measuring party's state is considered to be evolving backwards in time to the big bang as a nondeterministic computational process, which chooses the acceptable path as a time-reversal process of irreversible computation. The suggested model proposes that the prepared microstate of the universe, or reality, corresponds to the observer's choice, therefore, subjective reality. Thus, this effectively provides a specific de...
Efficient Quantum Transmission in Multiple-Source Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Ming-Xing; Xu, Gang; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Yang, Yi-Xian; Wang, Xiaojun
2014-04-01
A difficult problem in quantum network communications is how to efficiently transmit quantum information over large-scale networks with common channels. We propose a solution by developing a quantum encoding approach. Different quantum states are encoded into a coherent superposition state using quantum linear optics. The transmission congestion in the common channel may be avoided by transmitting the superposition state. For further decoding and continued transmission, special phase transformations are applied to incoming quantum states using phase shifters such that decoders can distinguish outgoing quantum states. These phase shifters may be precisely controlled using classical chaos synchronization via additional classical channels. Based on this design and the reduction of multiple-source network under the assumption of restricted maximum-flow, the optimal scheme is proposed for specially quantized multiple-source network. In comparison with previous schemes, our scheme can greatly increase the transmission efficiency.
Efficient Quantum Transmission in Multiple-Source Networks
Luo, Ming-Xing; Xu, Gang; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Yang, Yi-Xian; Wang, Xiaojun
2014-01-01
A difficult problem in quantum network communications is how to efficiently transmit quantum information over large-scale networks with common channels. We propose a solution by developing a quantum encoding approach. Different quantum states are encoded into a coherent superposition state using quantum linear optics. The transmission congestion in the common channel may be avoided by transmitting the superposition state. For further decoding and continued transmission, special phase transformations are applied to incoming quantum states using phase shifters such that decoders can distinguish outgoing quantum states. These phase shifters may be precisely controlled using classical chaos synchronization via additional classical channels. Based on this design and the reduction of multiple-source network under the assumption of restricted maximum-flow, the optimal scheme is proposed for specially quantized multiple-source network. In comparison with previous schemes, our scheme can greatly increase the transmission efficiency. PMID:24691590
Improved quantum state transfer via quantum partially collapsing measurements
Man, Zhong-Xiao; Ba An, Nguyen; Xia, Yun-Jie
2014-10-15
In this work, we present a general scheme to improve quantum state transfer (QST) by taking advantage of quantum partially collapsing measurements. The scheme consists of a weak measurement performed at the initial time on the qubit encoding the state of concern and a subsequent quantum reversal measurement at a desired time on the destined qubit. We determine the strength q{sub r} of the post quantum reversal measurement as a function of the strength p of the prior weak measurement and the evolution time t so that near-perfect QST can be achieved by choosing p close enough to 1, with a finite success probability, regardless of the evolution time and the distance over which the QST takes place. The merit of our scheme is twofold: it not only improves QST, but also suppresses the energy dissipation, if any. - Highlights: • A scheme using weak/reversal measurements is devised to improve quantum state transfer. • It can suppress dissipation allowing optimal quantum state transfer in open system. • Explicit condition for achieving near-perfect quantum state transfer is established. • Applications to spin chain and cavity array are considered in detail.
Fully depleted, thick, monolithic CMOS pixels with high quantum efficiency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clarke, A.; Stefanov, K.; Johnston, N.; Holland, A.
2015-04-01
The Centre for Electronic Imaging (CEI) has an active programme of evaluating and designing Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors with high quantum efficiency, for applications in near-infrared and X-ray photon detection. This paper describes the performance characterisation of CMOS devices made on a high resistivity 50 ? m thick p-type substrate with a particular focus on determining the depletion depth and the quantum efficiency. The test devices contain 8 × 8 pixel arrays using CCD-style charge collection, which are manufactured in a low voltage CMOS process by ESPROS Photonics Corporation (EPC). Measurements include determining under which operating conditions the devices become fully depleted. By projecting a spot using a microscope optic and a LED and biasing the devices over a range of voltages, the depletion depth will change, causing the amount of charge collected in the projected spot to change. We determine if the device is fully depleted by measuring the signal collected from the projected spot. The analysis of spot size and shape is still under development.
Thermodynamics of weakly measured quantum systems
Jose Joaquin Alonso; Eric Lutz; Alessandro Romito
2015-08-03
We consider continuously monitored quantum systems and introduce definitions of work and heat along individual quantum trajectories that are valid for coherent superpositions of energy eigenstates. We use these quantities to extend the first and second laws of stochastic thermodynamics to the quantum domain. We illustrate our results with the case of a weakly measured driven two-level system and show how to distinguish between quantum work and heat contributions. We finally employ quantum feedback control to suppress detector backaction and determine the work statistics.
Performance Measure for Optimal Quantum Control
Alexandre Coutinho Lisboa; Jose Roberto Castilho Piqueira
2015-08-30
The problem concerning the minimum time for an initial state to evolve up to a target state plays an important role in the Classic Optimal Control theory. In the quantum context, as quantum states are so sensitive to environmental influences, the problem is more complex, but its formulation and solution are decisive to implement quantum information processing systems. As is well known, the decoherence phenomenon is unavoidable and the time-energy uncertainty relation must be used to study quantum dynamics. Here, the time-energy uncertainty relations are revisited, being fundamental to propose performance measures based on minimum time evolution. A minimum time performance measure is definedfor quantum control problems. Then, some practical examples are considered and the minimum time performance measure is applied providing results that are supposed to be useful for researchers to pursue strategies to optimize the control of the states of a quantum system.
Joint quantum measurements with minimum uncertainty
Martin Ringbauer; Devon N. Biggerstaff; Matthew A. Broome; Alessandro Fedrizzi; Cyril Branciard; Andrew G. White
2013-08-28
Quantum physics constrains the accuracy of joint measurements of incompatible observables. Here we test tight measurement-uncertainty relations using single photons. We implement two independent, idealized uncertainty-estimation methods, the 3-state method and the weak-measurement method, and adapt them to realistic experimental conditions. Exceptional quantum state fidelities of up to 0.99998(6) allow us to verge upon the fundamental limits of measurement uncertainty.
Quantum nondemolition measurements. [by gravitational wave antennas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Braginskii, V. B.; Vorontsov, Iu. I.; Thorne, K. S.
1980-01-01
The article describes new electronic techniques required for quantum nondemolition measurements and the theory underlying them. Consideration is given to resonant-bar gravitational-wave antennas. Position measurements are discussed along with energy measurements and back-action-evading measurements. Thermal noise in oscillators and amplifiers is outlined. Prospects for stroboscopic measurements are emphasized.
Hiroki Takesue; Shellee D. Dyer; Martin J. Stevens; Varun Verma; Richard P. Mirin; Sae Woo Nam
2015-10-02
Quantum teleportation is an essential quantum operation by which we can transfer an unknown quantum state to a remote location with the help of quantum entanglement and classical communication. Since the first experimental demonstrations using photonic qubits and continuous variables, the distance of photonic quantum teleportation over free space channels has continued to increase and has reached >100 km. On the other hand, quantum teleportation over optical fiber has been challenging, mainly because the multi-fold photon detection that inevitably accompanies quantum teleportation experiments has been very inefficient due to the relatively low detection efficiencies of typical telecom-band single photon detectors. Here, we report efficient quantum teleportation over optical fiber using four high-detection efficiency superconducting nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors (SNSPD) based on MoSi. These SNSPDs make it possible to perform highly-efficient multi-fold photon measurements, allowing us to confirm that the quantum states of input photons were successfully teleported over 100 km of fiber.
Quantum Fisher information as the measure of Gaussian quantum correlation: Role in quantum metrology
Manabendra N. Bera
2014-06-19
We have introduced a measure of Gaussian quantum correlations based on quantum Fisher information. For bipartite Gaussian states the minimum quantum Fisher information due to local unitary evolution on one of the parties reliably quantifies quantum correlation. In quantum metrology the proposed measure becomes the tool to investigate the role of quantum orrelation in setting metrological precision. In particular, a deeper insights can be gained on how quantum correlations are instrumental to enhance metrological precision. Our analysis demonstrates that not only entanglement but also quantum correlation plays an important role to enhance metrological precision. Clearly unraveling the underlaying mechanism we show that quantum correlations, even in the absence of entanglement, can be exploited as the resource to beat standard quantum limit and attain Heisenberg limit in quantum metrology.
Efficient infrared imaging upconversion via quantum coherence Robert W. Boyda)
Boyd, Robert W.
Efficient infrared imaging upconversion via quantum coherence Robert W. Boyda) Institute of Optics with essentially 100% efficiency while maintaining diffraction-limited imaging of the infrared field. © 2000 in the efficiency of the process of infrared upconversion. In one particular example which we analyze in detail, we
Photoactivated biological processes as quantum measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Imamoglu, A.; Whaley, K. B.
2015-02-01
We outline a framework for describing photoactivated biological reactions as generalized quantum measurements of external fields, for which the biological system takes on the role of a quantum meter. By using general arguments regarding the Hamiltonian that describes the measurement interaction, we identify the cases where it is essential for a complex chemical or biological system to exhibit nonequilibrium quantum coherent dynamics in order to achieve the requisite functionality. We illustrate the analysis by considering measurement of the solar radiation field in photosynthesis and measurement of the earth's magnetic field in avian magnetoreception.
Practical Attacks on Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution Systems with Detector Efficiency Mismatch
Fei Yangyang; Gao Ming; Wang Weilong; Li Chaobo; Ma Zhi
2015-07-23
To the active basis choice decoy state quantum key distribution systems with detector efficiency mismatch, we present a modified attack strategy, which is based on faked states attack, with quantum nondemolition measurement ability to restress the threat of detector efficiency mismatch. Considering that perfect quantum nondemolition measurement ability dose not exist in real life, we also propose a practical attack strategy using photon number resolving detectors. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation results show that, without changing the channel, our attack strategies are serious threats to decoy state quantum key distribution systems. The eavesdropper may get some information ab out the secret key without causing any alarms. Besides, the lower bound of detector efficiency mismatch to run our modified faked states attack successfully with perfect quantum nondemolition measurement ability is also given out, which provides the producers of quantum key distribution systems with a reference and can be treated as the approximate secure bound of detector efficiency mismatch in decoy state quantum key distribution systems.
Practical attacks on decoy-state quantum-key-distribution systems with detector efficiency mismatch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fei, Yangyang; Gao, Ming; Wang, Weilong; Li, Chaobo; Ma, Zhi
2015-05-01
To the active-basis-choice decoy-state quantum-key-distribution systems with detector efficiency mismatch, we present a modified attack strategy, which is based on the faked states attack, with quantum nondemolition measurement ability to restress the threat of detector efficiency mismatch. Considering that perfect quantum nondemolition measurement ability doesn't exist in real life, we also propose a practical attack strategy using photon number resolving detectors. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation results show that, without changing the channel, our attack strategies are serious threats to decoy-state quantum-key-distribution systems. The eavesdropper may get some information about the secret key without causing any alarms. Besides, the lower bound of detector efficiency mismatch to run our modified faked states attack successfully with perfect quantum nondemolition measurement ability is also given out, which provides the producers of quantum-key-distribution systems with a reference and can be treated as the approximate secure bound of detector efficiency mismatch in decoy-state quantum-key-distribution systems.
Efficiently Calculating Evolutionary Tree Measures Using SAT
Mitchell, David G.
Efficiently Calculating Evolutionary Tree Measures Using SAT Maria Luisa Bonet1 and Katherine StSPR) distance. Both have recently been shown to be NP-hard, and efficient algorithms are needed to com- pute Phylogenies, or evolutionary histories, play a central role in biology. While tradi- tionally represented
Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with quantum memories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abruzzo, Silvestre; Kampermann, Hermann; Bruß, Dagmar
2014-01-01
We generalize measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution [Lo, Curty, and Qi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 130503 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.130503] to the scenario where the Bell-state measurement station contains also heralded quantum memories. We find analytical formulas, in terms of device imperfections, for all quantities entering in the secret key rates, i.e., the quantum bit error rate and the repeater rate. We assume either single-photon sources or weak coherent pulse sources plus decoy states. We show that it is possible to significantly outperform the original proposal, even in presence of decoherence of the quantum memory. Our protocol may represent the first natural step for implementing a two-segment quantum repeater.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Mark D.; Ruostekoski, Janne
2014-08-01
We formulate computationally efficient classical stochastic measurement trajectories for a multimode quantum system under continuous observation. Specifically, we consider the nonlinear dynamics of an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate contained within an optical cavity subject to continuous monitoring of the light leaking out of the cavity. The classical trajectories encode within a classical phase-space representation a continuous quantum measurement process conditioned on a given detection record. We derive a Fokker-Planck equation for the quasiprobability distribution of the combined condensate-cavity system. We unravel the dynamics into stochastic classical trajectories that are conditioned on the quantum measurement process of the continuously monitored system. Since the dynamics of a continuously measured observable in a many-atom system can be closely approximated by classical dynamics, the method provides a numerically efficient and accurate approach to calculate the measurement record of a large multimode quantum system. Numerical simulations of the continuously monitored dynamics of a large atom cloud reveal considerably fluctuating phase profiles between different measurement trajectories, while ensemble averages exhibit local spatially varying phase decoherence. Individual measurement trajectories lead to spatial pattern formation and optomechanical motion that solely result from the measurement backaction. The backaction of the continuous quantum measurement process, conditioned on the detection record of the photons, spontaneously breaks the symmetry of the spatial profile of the condensate and can be tailored to selectively excite collective modes.
Acausal measurement-based quantum computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morimae, Tomoyuki
2014-07-01
In measurement-based quantum computing, there is a natural "causal cone" among qubits of the resource state, since the measurement angle on a qubit has to depend on previous measurement results in order to correct the effect of by-product operators. If we respect the no-signaling principle, by-product operators cannot be avoided. Here we study the possibility of acausal measurement-based quantum computing by using the process matrix framework [Oreshkov, Costa, and Brukner, Nat. Commun. 3, 1092 (2012), 10.1038/ncomms2076]. We construct a resource process matrix for acausal measurement-based quantum computing restricting local operations to projective measurements. The resource process matrix is an analog of the resource state of the standard causal measurement-based quantum computing. We find that if we restrict local operations to projective measurements the resource process matrix is (up to a normalization factor and trivial ancilla qubits) equivalent to the decorated graph state created from the graph state of the corresponding causal measurement-based quantum computing. We also show that it is possible to consider a causal game whose causal inequality is violated by acausal measurement-based quantum computing.
Quantum Information Theory of Entanglement and Measurement
Nicolas J. Cerf; Chris Adami
1997-01-21
We present a quantum information theory that allows for a consistent description of entanglement. It parallels classical (Shannon) information theory but is based entirely on density matrices (rather than probability distributions) for the description of quantum ensembles. We find that quantum conditional entropies can be negative for entangled systems, which leads to a violation of well-known bounds in Shannon information theory. Such a unified information-theoretic description of classical correlation and quantum entanglement clarifies the link between them: the latter can be viewed as ``super-correlation'' which can induce classical correlation when considering a tripartite or larger system. Furthermore, negative entropy and the associated clarification of entanglement paves the way to a natural information-theoretic description of the measurement process. This model, while unitary and causal, implies the well-known probabilistic results of conventional quantum mechanics. It also results in a simple interpretation of the Kholevo theorem limiting the accessible information in a quantum measurement.
Quantum throughput: Quantifying quantum-communication devices with homodyne measurements
Killoran, N.; Haeseler, H.; Luetkenhaus, N.
2010-11-15
Quantum communication relies on optical implementations of channels, memories, and repeaters. In the absence of perfect devices, a minimum requirement on real-world devices is that they preserve quantum correlations, meaning that they have some throughput of a quantum-mechanical nature. Previous work has verified throughput in optical devices while using minimal resources. We extend this approach to the quantitative regime. Our method is illustrated in a setting where the input consists of two coherent states while the output is measured by two homodyne measurement settings.
Quantum measurements of atoms using cavity QED
Dada, Adetunmise C.; Andersson, Erika; Jones, Martin L.; Kendon, Vivien M.; Everitt, Mark S.
2011-04-15
Generalized quantum measurements are an important extension of projective or von Neumann measurements in that they can be used to describe any measurement that can be implemented on a quantum system. We describe how to realize two nonstandard quantum measurements using cavity QED. The first measurement optimally and unambiguously distinguishes between two nonorthogonal quantum states. The second example is a measurement that demonstrates superadditive quantum coding gain. The experimental tools used are single-atom unitary operations effected by Ramsey pulses and two-atom Tavis-Cummings interactions. We show how the superadditive quantum coding gain is affected by errors in the field-ionization detection of atoms and that even with rather high levels of experimental imperfections, a reasonable amount of superadditivity can still be seen. To date, these types of measurements have been realized only on photons. It would be of great interest to have realizations using other physical systems. This is for fundamental reasons but also since quantum coding gain in general increases with code word length, and a realization using atoms could be more easily scaled than existing realizations using photons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Ping
The thesis comprises two major themes of quantum statistical dynamics. One is the development of quantum dissipation theory (QDT). It covers the establishment of some basic relations of quantum statistical dynamics, the construction of several nonequivalent complete second-order formulations, and the development of exact QDT. Another is related to the applications of quantum statistical dynamics to a variety of research fields. In particular, unconventional but novel theories of the electron transfer in Debye solvents, quantum transport, and quantum measurement are developed on the basis of QDT formulations. The thesis is organized as follows. In Chapter 1, we present some background knowledge in relation to the aforementioned two themes of this thesis. The key quantity in QDT is the reduced density operator rho(t) ? trBrho T(t); i.e., the partial trace of the total system and bath composite rhoT(t) over the bath degrees of freedom. QDT governs the evolution of reduced density operator, where the effects of bath are treated in a quantum statistical manner. In principle, the reduced density operator contains all dynamics information of interest. However, the conventional quantum transport theory is formulated in terms of nonequilibrium Green's function. The newly emerging field of quantum measurement in relation to quantum information and quantum computing does exploit a sort of QDT formalism. Besides the background of the relevant theoretical development, some representative experiments on molecular nanojunctions are also briefly discussed. In chapter 2, we outline some basic (including new) relations that highlight several important issues on QDT. The content includes the background of nonequilibrium quantum statistical mechanics, the general description of the total composite Hamiltonian with stochastic system-bath interaction, a novel parameterization scheme for bath correlation functions, a newly developed exact theory of driven Brownian oscillator (DBO) systems, and its closely related solvation mode transformation of system-bath coupling Hamiltonian in general. The exact QDT of DBO systems is also used to clarify the validity of conventional QDT formulations that involve Markovian approximation. In Chapter 3, we develop three nonequivalent but all complete second-order QDT (CS-QDT) formulations. Two of them are of the conventional prescriptions in terms of time-local dissipation and memory kernel, respectively. The third one is called the correlated driving-dissipation equations of motion (CODDE). This novel CS-QDT combines the merits of the former two for its advantages in both the application and numerical implementation aspects. Also highlighted is the importance of correlated driving-dissipation effects on the dynamics of the reduced system. In Chapter 4, we construct an exact QDT formalism via the calculus on path integrals. The new theory aims at the efficient evaluation of non-Markovian dissipation beyond the weak system-bath interaction regime in the presence of time-dependent external field. By adopting exponential-like expansions for bath correlation function, hierarchical equations of motion formalism and continued fraction Liouville-space Green's function formalism are established. The latter will soon be used together with the Dyson equation technique for an efficient evaluation of non-perturbative reduced density matrix dynamics. The interplay between system-bath interaction strength, non-Markovian property, and the required level of hierarchy is also studied with the aid of simple spin-boson systems, together with the three proposed schemes to truncate the infinite hierarchy. In Chapter 5, we develop a nonperturbative theory of electron transfer (ET) in Debye solvents. The resulting exact and analytical rate expression is constructed on the basis of the aforementioned continued fraction Liouville-space Green's function formalism, together with the Dyson equation technique. Not only does it recover the celebrated Marcus' inversion and Kramers' turnover behaviors, the new theory also shows some disti
Lectures on Dynamical Models for Quantum Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nieuwenhuizen, Theo M.; Perarnau-Llobet, Martí Balian, Roger
2015-10-01
In textbooks, ideal quantum measurements are described in terms of the tested system only by the collapse postulate and Born's rule. This level of description offers a rather flexible position for the interpretation of quantum mechanics. Here we analyse an ideal measurement as a process of interaction between the tested system S and an apparatus A, so as to derive the properties postulated in textbooks. We thus consider within standard quantum mechanics the measurement of a quantum spin component ?z by an apparatus A, being a magnet coupled to a bath. We first consider the evolution of the density operator of S+A describing a large set of runs of the measurement process. The approach describes the disappearance of the off-diagonal terms ("truncation") of the density matrix as a physical effect due to A, while the registration of the outcome has classical features due to the large size of the pointer variable, the magnetisation. A quantum ambiguity implies that the density matrix at the final time can be decomposed on many bases, not only the one of the measurement. This quantum oddity prevents to connect individual outcomes to measurements, a difficulty known as the "measurement problem". It is shown that it is circumvented by the apparatus as well, since the evolution in a small time interval erases all decompositions, except the one on the measurement basis. Once one can derive the outcome of individual events from quantum theory, the so-called "collapse of the wave function" or the "reduction of the state" appears as the result of a selection of runs among the original large set. Hence nothing more than standard quantum mechanics is needed to explain features of measurements. The employed statistical formulation is advocated for the teaching of quantum theory.
Lectures on dynamical models for quantum measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nieuwenhuizen, Theo M.; Perarnau-Llobet, Marti; Balian, Roger
2014-06-01
In textbooks, ideal quantum measurements are described in terms of the tested system only by the collapse postulate and Born's rule. This level of description offers a rather flexible position for the interpretation of quantum mechanics. Here we analyse an ideal measurement as a process of interaction between the tested system S and an apparatus A, so as to derive the properties postulated in textbooks. We thus consider within standard quantum mechanics the measurement of a quantum spin component ?z by an apparatus A, being a magnet coupled to a bath. We first consider the evolution of the density operator of S + A describing a large set of runs of the measurement process. The approach describes the disappearance of the off-diagonal terms ("truncation") of the density matrix as a physical effect due to A, while the registration of the outcome has classical features due to the large size of the pointer variable, the magnetization. A quantum ambiguity implies that the density matrix at the final time can be decomposed on many bases, not only the one of the measurement. This quantum oddity prevents to connect individual outcomes to measurements, a difficulty known as the "measurement problem". It is shown that it is circumvented by the apparatus as well, since the evolution in a small time interval erases all decompositions, except the one on the measurement basis. Once one can derive the outcome of individual events from quantum theory, the so-called collapse of the wavefunction or the reduction of the state appears as the result of a selection of runs among the original large set. Hence nothing more than standard quantum mechanics is needed to explain features of measurements. The employed statistical formulation is advocated for the teaching of quantum theory.
Efficient Quantum Algorithm for NPC and EXPTIME Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iriyama, S.; Ohya, M.
2011-03-01
We have studied a quantum algorithm for several years, and developed some applications for difficult problems, NPC problems and NP intermidiate problems. In order to discuss the computational complexity of quantum algorithm, we defined a generalized quantum Turing machine using a density operator on a Hilbert space and quantum channels on it. Since the properity of quantum channel, this mathematical model can describe not only unitary process of quantum algorithm but also measurement process and non-linear dynamical process. Then we can calculate the computational complexity of quantum algorithm more regorously. In this paper, we review our results, and discuss why quantum algorithms are more effective than classical ones. Moreover, we propose a quantum algorotihm for EXPTIME problem.
Chapter 20: Data Center IT Efficiency Measures
Huang, R.; Masanet, E.
2015-01-01
Data centers use about 2% of the electricity in the United States; a typical data center has 100 to 200 times the energy use intensity of a commercial building. Data centers present tremendous opportunities--energy use can be reduced as much as 80% between inefficient and efficient data centers. Data center efficiency measures generally fall into the following categories: power infrastructure (e.g., more efficient uninterruptible power supplies, power distribution units); cooling (e.g., free cooling, variable-speed drives, temperature and humidity set points); airflow management (e.g., hot aisle/cold aisle, containment, grommets); and information technology efficiency (e.g., server virtualization, efficient servers, efficient data storage).
Thermoelectric corrections to quantum voltage measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergfield, Justin P.; Stafford, Charles A.
2014-12-01
A generalization of Büttiker's voltage probe concept for nonzero temperatures is an open third terminal of a quantum thermoelectric circuit. An explicit analytic expression for the thermoelectric correction to an ideal quantum voltage measurement in linear response is derived and interpreted in terms of local Peltier cooling/heating within the nonequilibrium system. The thermoelectric correction is found to be large (up to ±24 % of the peak voltage) in a prototypical ballistic quantum conductor (graphene nanoribbon). The effects of measurement nonideality are also investigated. Our findings have important implications for precision local electrical measurements.
A quantum measure of the multiverse
Vilenkin, Alexander
2013-01-01
It has been recently suggested that probabilities of different events in the multiverse are given by the frequencies at which these events are encountered along the worldline of a geodesic observer (the "watcher"). Here I discuss an extension of this probability measure to quantum theory. The proposed extension is gauge-invariant, as is the classical version of this measure. Observations of the watcher are described by a reduced density matrix, and the frequencies of events can be found using the decoherent histories formalism of Quantum Mechanics (adapted to open systems). The quantum watcher measure makes predictions in agreement with the standard Born rule of QM.
A quantum measure of the multiverse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vilenkin, Alexander
2014-05-01
It has been recently suggested that probabilities of different events in the multiverse are given by the frequencies at which these events are encountered along the worldline of a geodesic observer (the ``watcher''). Here I discuss an extension of this probability measure to quantum theory. The proposed extension is gauge-invariant, as is the classical version of this measure. Observations of the watcher are described by a reduced density matrix, and the frequencies of events can be found using the decoherent histories formalism of Quantum Mechanics (adapted to open systems). The quantum watcher measure makes predictions in agreement with the standard Born rule of QM.
A quantum measure of the multiverse
Alexander Vilenkin
2013-12-11
It has been recently suggested that probabilities of different events in the multiverse are given by the frequencies at which these events are encountered along the worldline of a geodesic observer (the "watcher"). Here I discuss an extension of this probability measure to quantum theory. The proposed extension is gauge-invariant, as is the classical version of this measure. Observations of the watcher are described by a reduced density matrix, and the frequencies of events can be found using the decoherent histories formalism of Quantum Mechanics (adapted to open systems). The quantum watcher measure makes predictions in agreement with the standard Born rule of QM.
A quantum measure of the multiverse
Vilenkin, Alexander
2014-05-01
It has been recently suggested that probabilities of different events in the multiverse are given by the frequencies at which these events are encountered along the worldline of a geodesic observer (the ''watcher''). Here I discuss an extension of this probability measure to quantum theory. The proposed extension is gauge-invariant, as is the classical version of this measure. Observations of the watcher are described by a reduced density matrix, and the frequencies of events can be found using the decoherent histories formalism of Quantum Mechanics (adapted to open systems). The quantum watcher measure makes predictions in agreement with the standard Born rule of QM.
Control of quantum dynamics by optimized measurements
Feng Shuang; Mianlai Zhou; Alexander Pechen; Rebing Wu; Ofer M. Shir; Herschel Rabitz
2009-02-16
Quantum measurements are considered for optimal control of quantum dynamics with instantaneous and continuous observations utilized to manipulate population transfer. With an optimal set of measurements, the highest yield in a two-level system can be obtained. The analytical solution is given for the problem of population transfer by measurement-assisted coherent control in a three-level system with a dynamical symmetry. The anti-Zeno effect is recovered in the controlled processes. The demonstrations in the paper show that suitable observations can be powerful tools in the manipulation of quantum dynamics.
Quantum state estimation using weak measurements
Debmalya Das; Arvind
2015-05-22
We explore the possibility of using "weak measurements" without "weak value" for quantum state estimation. Since for weak measurements the disturbance caused during each measurement is small, we can rescue the state, unlike for the case of projective measurements. We use this property of weak measurements and design schemes for quantum state estimation for qubits and for Gaussian states. We show, via numerical simulations, that under certain circumstances, our method can outperform the estimation by projective measurements both for qubits and for Gaussian states. It turns out that ensemble size plays an important role and the scheme based on recycling works better for small ensembles.
The Quantum Efficiency and Thermal Emittance of Metal Photocathodes
Dowell, David H.; Schmerge, John F.; /SLAC
2009-03-04
Modern electron beams have demonstrated the brilliance needed to drive free electron lasers at x-ray wavelengths, with the principle improvements occurring since the invention of the photocathode gun. The state-of-the-art normalized emittance electron beams are now becoming limited by the thermal emittance of the cathode. In both DC and RF photocathode guns, details of the cathode emission physics strongly influence the quantum efficiency and the thermal emittance. Therefore improving cathode performance is essential to increasing the brightness of beams. It is especially important to understand the fundamentals of cathode quantum efficiency and thermal emittance. This paper investigates the relationship between the quantum efficiency and the thermal emittance of metal cathodes using the Fermi-Dirac model for the electron distribution. We derive the thermal emittance and its relationship to the quantum efficiency, and compare our results to those of others.
An Efficient Algorithm for Optimizing Adaptive Quantum Metrology Processes
Alexander Hentschel; Barry C. Sanders
2011-04-19
Quantum-enhanced metrology infers an unknown quantity with accuracy beyond the standard quantum limit (SQL). Feedback-based metrological techniques are promising for beating the SQL but devising the feedback procedures is difficult and inefficient. Here we introduce an efficient self-learning swarm-intelligence algorithm for devising feedback-based quantum metrological procedures. Our algorithm can be trained with simulated or real-world trials and accommodates experimental imperfections, losses, and decoherence.
Efficient algorithm for optimizing adaptive quantum metrology processes.
Hentschel, Alexander; Sanders, Barry C
2011-12-01
Quantum-enhanced metrology infers an unknown quantity with accuracy beyond the standard quantum limit (SQL). Feedback-based metrological techniques are promising for beating the SQL but devising the feedback procedures is difficult and inefficient. Here we introduce an efficient self-learning swarm-intelligence algorithm for devising feedback-based quantum metrological procedures. Our algorithm can be trained with simulated or real-world trials and accommodates experimental imperfections, losses, and decoherence. PMID:22182087
Quantum Kaniadakis entropy under projective measurement.
Ourabah, Kamel; Hamici-Bendimerad, Amel Hiba; Tribeche, Mouloud
2015-09-01
It is well known that the von Neumann entropy of a quantum state does not decrease with a projective measurement. This property holds for Tsallis and Rényi entropies as well. We show that the recently introduced quantum version of the Kaniadakis entropy preserves this property. PMID:26465433
Maxwell's demon, Szilard's engine and quantum measurements
Zurek, W.H.
1984-01-01
We propose and analyze a quantum version of Szilard's one-molecule engine. In particular, we recover, in the quantum context, Szilard's conclusion concerning the free energy cost of measurements: ..delta..F greater than or equal to k/sub B/T1n2 per bit of information.
Convex probability domain of generalized quantum measurements
Asher Peres; Daniel Terno
1998-06-07
Generalized quantum measurements with N distinct outcomes are used for determining the density matrix, of order d, of an ensemble of quantum systems. The resulting probabilities are represented by a point in an N-dimensional space. It is shown that this point lies in a convex domain having at most d^2-1 dimensions.
Quantum Kaniadakis entropy under projective measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ourabah, Kamel; Hamici-Bendimerad, Amel Hiba; Tribeche, Mouloud
2015-09-01
It is well known that the von Neumann entropy of a quantum state does not decrease with a projective measurement. This property holds for Tsallis and Rényi entropies as well. We show that the recently introduced quantum version of the Kaniadakis entropy preserves this property.
Maxwell's Demon, Szilard's Engine and Quantum Measurements
Wojciech Hubert Zurek
2003-01-15
We propose and analyze a quantum version of Szilard's ``one-molecule engine.'' In particular, we recover, in the quantum context, Szilard's conclusion concerning the free energy ``cost'' of measurements: $\\Delta F \\geq k_B T\\ln2$ per bit of information.
Wide-Band, High-Quantum-Efficiency Photodetector
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jackson, Deborah; Wilson, Daniel; Stern, Jeffrey
2007-01-01
A design has been proposed for a photodetector that would exhibit a high quantum efficiency (as much as 90 percent) over a wide wavelength band, which would typically be centered at a wavelength of 1.55 m. This and similar photodetectors would afford a capability for detecting single photons - a capability that is needed for research in quantum optics as well as for the practical development of secure optical communication systems for distribution of quantum cryptographic keys. The proposed photodetector would be of the hot-electron, phonon-cooled, thin-film superconductor type. The superconducting film in this device would be a meandering strip of niobium nitride. In the proposed photodetector, the quantum efficiency would be increased through incorporation of optiA design has been proposed for a photodetector that would exhibit a high quantum efficiency (as much as 90 percent) over a wide wavelength band, which would typically be centered at a wavelength of 1.55 m. This and similar photodetectors would afford a capability for detecting single photons - a capability that is needed for research in quantum optics as well as for the practical development of secure optical communication systems for distribution of quantum cryptographic keys. The proposed photodetector would be of the hot-electron, phonon-cooled, thin-film superconductor type. The superconducting film in this device would be a meandering strip of niobium nitride. In the proposed photodetector, the quantum efficiency would be increased through incorporation of opti-
Determination of the Quantum Efficiency of a Light Detector
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kraftmakher, Yaakov
2008-01-01
The "quantum efficiency" (QE) is an important property of a light detector. This quantity can be determined in the undergraduate physics laboratory. The experimentally determined QE of a silicon photodiode appeared to be in reasonable agreement with expected values. The experiment confirms the quantum properties of light and seems to be a useful…
Optimal entanglement generation for efficient hybrid quantum repeaters
Azuma, Koji; Sota, Naoya; Yamamoto, Takashi; Koashi, Masato; Imoto, Nobuyuki; Namiki, Ryo; Oezdemir, Sahin Kaya
2009-12-15
We propose a realistic protocol to generate entanglement between quantum memories at neighboring nodes in hybrid quantum repeaters. Generated entanglement includes only one type of error, which enables efficient entanglement distillation. In contrast to the known protocols with such a property, our protocol with ideal detectors achieves the theoretical limit of the success probability and the fidelity to a Bell state, promising higher efficiencies in the repeaters. We also show that the advantage of our protocol remains even with realistic threshold detectors.
Kim, T.; Liu, B.; Smith, R.; Athanasiou, M.; Gong, Y.; Wang, T.
2014-04-21
A “coherent” nanocavity structure has been designed on two-dimensional well-ordered InGaN/GaN nanodisk arrays with an emission wavelength in the green spectral region, leading to a massive enhancement in resonance mode in the green spectra region. By means of a cost-effective nanosphere lithography technique, we have fabricated such a structure on an InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well epiwafer and have observed the “coherent” nanocavity effect, which leads to an enhanced spontaneous emission (SE) rate. The enhanced SE rate has been confirmed by time resolved photoluminescence measurements. Due to the coherent nanocavity effect, we have achieved a massive improvement in internal quantum efficiency with a factor of 88, compared with the as-grown sample, which could be significant to bridge the “green gap” in solid-state lighting.
Chen, Shaoqiang; Zhu, Lin; Yoshita, Masahiro; Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Kim, Changsu; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Imaizumi, Mitsuru; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko
2015-01-01
World-wide studies on multi-junction (tandem) solar cells have led to record-breaking improvements in conversion efficiencies year after year. To obtain detailed and proper feedback for solar-cell design and fabrication, it is necessary to establish standard methods for diagnosing subcells in fabricated tandem devices. Here, we propose a potential standard method to quantify the detailed subcell properties of multi-junction solar cells based on absolute measurements of electroluminescence (EL) external quantum efficiency in addition to the conventional solar-cell external-quantum-efficiency measurements. We demonstrate that the absolute-EL-quantum-efficiency measurements provide I–V relations of individual subcells without the need for referencing measured I–V data, which is in stark contrast to previous works. Moreover, our measurements quantify the absolute rates of junction loss, non-radiative loss, radiative loss, and luminescence coupling in the subcells, which constitute the “balance sheets” of tandem solar cells. PMID:25592484
Chen, Shaoqiang; Zhu, Lin; Yoshita, Masahiro; Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Kim, Changsu; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Imaizumi, Mitsuru; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko
2015-01-01
World-wide studies on multi-junction (tandem) solar cells have led to record-breaking improvements in conversion efficiencies year after year. To obtain detailed and proper feedback for solar-cell design and fabrication, it is necessary to establish standard methods for diagnosing subcells in fabricated tandem devices. Here, we propose a potential standard method to quantify the detailed subcell properties of multi-junction solar cells based on absolute measurements of electroluminescence (EL) external quantum efficiency in addition to the conventional solar-cell external-quantum-efficiency measurements. We demonstrate that the absolute-EL-quantum-efficiency measurements provide I-V relations of individual subcells without the need for referencing measured I-V data, which is in stark contrast to previous works. Moreover, our measurements quantify the absolute rates of junction loss, non-radiative loss, radiative loss, and luminescence coupling in the subcells, which constitute the "balance sheets" of tandem solar cells. PMID:25592484
On the measurability of quantum correlation functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Lima Bernardo, Bertúlio; Azevedo, Sérgio; Rosas, Alexandre
2015-05-01
The concept of correlation function is widely used in classical statistical mechanics to characterize how two or more variables depend on each other. In quantum mechanics, on the other hand, there are observables that cannot be measured at the same time; the so-called incompatible observables. This prospect imposes a limitation on the definition of a quantum analog for the correlation function in terms of a sequence of measurements. Here, based on the notion of sequential weak measurements, we circumvent this limitation by introducing a framework to measure general quantum correlation functions, in principle, independently of the state of the system and the operators involved. To illustrate, we propose an experimental configuration to obtain explicitly the quantum correlation function between two Pauli operators, in which the input state is an arbitrary mixed qubit state encoded on the polarization of photons.
Efficiency of open quantum walk implementation of dissipative quantum computing algorithms
I. Sinayskiy; F. Petruccione
2014-01-26
An open quantum walk formalism for dissipative quantum computing is presented. The approach is illustrated with the examples of the Toffoli gate and the Quantum Fourier Transform for 3 and 4 qubits. It is shown that the algorithms based on the open quantum walk formalism are more efficient than the canonical dissipative quantum computing approach. In particular, the open quantum walks can be designed to converge faster to the desired steady state and to increase the probability of detection of the outcome of the computation.
High-efficiency quantum state transfer and quantum memory using a mechanical oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sete, Eyob A.; Eleuch, H.
2015-03-01
We analyze an optomechanical system that can be used to efficiently transfer a quantum state between an optical cavity and a distant mechanical oscillator coupled to a second optical cavity. We show that for a moderate mechanical Q factor it is possible to achieve a transfer efficiency of 99.4 % by using adjustable cavity damping rates and destructive interference. We also show that the quantum mechanical oscillator can be used as a quantum memory device with an efficiency of 96 % employing a pulsed optomechanical coupling. Although the mechanical dissipation slightly decreases the efficiency, its effect can be significantly reduced by designing a high-Q mechanical oscillator.
High-efficiency quantum state transfer and quantum memory using a mechanical oscillator
Eyob A. Sete; H. Eleuch
2015-03-30
We analyze an optomechanical system that can be used to efficiently transfer a quantum state between an optical cavity and a distant mechanical oscillator coupled to a second optical cavity. We show that for a moderate mechanical Q-factor it is possible to achieve a transfer efficiency of $99.4\\%$ by using adjustable cavity damping rates and destructive interference. We also show that the quantum mechanical oscillator can be used as a quantum memory device with an efficiency of $96\\%$ employing a pulsed optomechanical coupling. Although the mechanical dissipation slightly decreases the efficiency, its effect can be significantly reduced by designing a high-Q mechanical oscillator.
An efficient finite element method applied to quantum billiard systems
Woo-Sik Son; Sunghwan Rim; Chil-Min Kim
2009-02-25
An efficient finite element method (FEM) for calculating eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of quantum billiard systems is presented. We consider the FEM based on triangular $C_1$ continuity quartic interpolation. Various shapes of quantum billiards including an integrable unit circle are treated. The numerical results show that the applied method provides accurate set of eigenvalues exceeding a thousand levels for any shape of quantum billiards on a personal computer. Comparison with the results from the FEM based on well-known $C_0$ continuity quadratic interpolation proves the efficiency of the method.
Efficient quantum algorithm for numerical gradient estimation
Jordan, S P
2004-01-01
Given a blackbox for f, a smooth real scalar function of d real variables, one wants to estimate the gradient of f at a given point with n bits of precision. On a classical computer this requires a minimum of d+1 blackbox queries, whereas on a quantum computer it requires only two queries regardless of d. The number of bits of precision to which f must be evaluated differs between the quantum and classical cases. In the limit of large n the quantum algorithm requires twice as many bits.
Efficient implementation of Quantum circuits with limited qubit interactions
Stephen Brierley
2015-07-15
The quantum circuit model allows gates between any pair of qubits yet physical instantiations allow only limited interactions. We address this problem by providing an interaction graph together with an efficient method for compiling quantum circuits so that gates are applied only locally. The graph requires each qubit to interact with 4 other qubits and yet the time-overhead for implementing any n-qubit quantum circuit is 6 log n. Building a network of quantum computing nodes according to this graph enables the network to emulate a single monolithic device with minimal overhead.
On the theory of quantum measurement
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haus, Hermann A.; Kaertner, Franz X.
1994-01-01
Many so called paradoxes of quantum mechanics are clarified when the measurement equipment is treated as a quantized system. Every measurement involves nonlinear processes. Self consistent formulations of nonlinear quantum optics are relatively simple. Hence optical measurements, such as the quantum nondemolition (QND) measurement of photon number, are particularly well suited for such a treatment. It shows that the so called 'collapse of the wave function' is not needed for the interpretation of the measurement process. Coherence of the density matrix of the signal is progressively reduced with increasing accuracy of the photon number determination. If the QND measurement is incorporated into the double slit experiment, the contrast ratio of the fringes is found to decrease with increasing information on the photon number in one of the two paths.
Classical field approach to quantum weak measurements.
Dressel, Justin; Bliokh, Konstantin Y; Nori, Franco
2014-03-21
By generalizing the quantum weak measurement protocol to the case of quantum fields, we show that weak measurements probe an effective classical background field that describes the average field configuration in the spacetime region between pre- and postselection boundary conditions. The classical field is itself a weak value of the corresponding quantum field operator and satisfies equations of motion that extremize an effective action. Weak measurements perturb this effective action, producing measurable changes to the classical field dynamics. As such, weakly measured effects always correspond to an effective classical field. This general result explains why these effects appear to be robust for pre- and postselected ensembles, and why they can also be measured using classical field techniques that are not weak for individual excitations of the field. PMID:24702338
Measure Guideline. High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces
Brand, L.; Rose, W.
2012-10-01
This measure guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces, including: when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure; how to identify and address risks; and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.
Measure Guideline: High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces
Brand, L.; Rose, W.
2012-10-01
This Measure Guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces. Topics covered include when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure, how to identify and address risks, and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.
Measurement and Fundamental Processes in Quantum Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaeger, Gregg
2015-07-01
In the standard mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics, measurement is an additional, exceptional fundamental process rather than an often complex, but ordinary process which happens also to serve a particular epistemic function: during a measurement of one of its properties which is not already determined by a preceding measurement, a measured system, even if closed, is taken to change its state discontinuously rather than continuously as is usual. Many, including Bell, have been concerned about the fundamental role thus given to measurement in the foundation of the theory. Others, including the early Bohr and Schwinger, have suggested that quantum mechanics naturally incorporates the unavoidable uncontrollable disturbance of physical state that accompanies any local measurement without the need for an exceptional fundamental process or a special measurement theory. Disturbance is unanalyzable for Bohr, but for Schwinger it is due to physical interactions' being borne by fundamental particles having discrete properties and behavior which is beyond physical control. Here, Schwinger's approach is distinguished from more well known treatments of measurement, with the conclusion that, unlike most, it does not suffer under Bell's critique of quantum measurement. Finally, Schwinger's critique of measurement theory is explicated as a call for a deeper investigation of measurement processes that requires the use of a theory of quantum fields.
Norm-based measurement of quantum correlation
Wu Yuchun; Guo Guangcan
2011-06-15
In this paper we derived a necessary and sufficient condition for classical correlated states and proposed a norm-based measurement Q of quantum correlation. Using the max norm of operators, we gave the expression of the quantum correlation measurement Q and investigated the dynamics of Q in Markovian and non-Markovian cases, respectively. Q decays exponentially and vanishes only asymptotically in the Markovian case and causes periodical death and rebirth in the non-Markovian case. In the pure state, the quantum correlation Q is always larger than the entanglement, which was different from other known measurements. In addition, we showed that locally broadcastable and broadcastable are equivalent and reproved the density of quantum correlated states.
Decoherence suppression by quantum measurement reversal
Korotkov, Alexander N.; Keane, Kyle
2010-04-15
We show that qubit decoherence due to zero-temperature energy relaxation can be almost completely suppressed by using the quantum uncollapsing (measurement reversal) procedure. To protect a qubit state, a partial quantum measurement moves it toward the ground state, where it is kept during the storage period, while the second partial measurement restores the initial state. This procedure preferentially selects the cases without energy decay events. Stronger decoherence suppression requires smaller selection probability; a desired point in this trade-off can be chosen by varying the measurement strength. The experiment can be realized in a straightforward way using the superconducting phase qubit.
Experimental measurement-device-independent verification of quantum steering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kocsis, Sacha; Hall, Michael J. W.; Bennet, Adam J.; Saunders, Dylan J.; Pryde, Geoff J.
2015-01-01
Bell non-locality between distant quantum systems—that is, joint correlations which violate a Bell inequality—can be verified without trusting the measurement devices used, nor those performing the measurements. This leads to unconditionally secure protocols for quantum information tasks such as cryptographic key distribution. However, complete verification of Bell non-locality requires high detection efficiencies, and is not robust to typical transmission losses over long distances. In contrast, quantum or Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering, a weaker form of quantum correlation, can be verified for arbitrarily low detection efficiencies and high losses. The cost is that current steering-verification protocols require complete trust in one of the measurement devices and its operator, allowing only one-sided secure key distribution. Here we present measurement-device-independent steering protocols that remove this need for trust, even when Bell non-locality is not present. We experimentally demonstrate this principle for singlet states and states that do not violate a Bell inequality.
Statistics of Measurements of Automobile Fuel Efficiency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartlett, Albert A.
2003-11-01
In these days, with the growing need to worry about petroleum and the efficiency of our automobiles, there should be an increased interest, especially among physics students, in the miles per gallon (MPG) of cars. There should also be interest in the accuracy of single and multiple measurements of the MPG of a car. These topics are covered here in this report of a series of measurements that span 16 years.
Continuous quantum measurement and the quantum to classical transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Habib, Salman; Jacobs, Kurt
2003-04-01
While ultimately they are described by quantum mechanics, macroscopic mechanical systems are nevertheless observed to follow the trajectories predicted by classical mechanics. Hence, in the regime defining macroscopic physics, the trajectories of the correct classical motion must emerge from quantum mechanics, a process referred to as the quantum to classical transition. Extending previous work [Bhattacharya, Habib, and Jacobs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4852 (2000)], here we elucidate this transition in some detail, showing that once the measurement processes that affect all macroscopic systems are taken into account, quantum mechanics indeed predicts the emergence of classical motion. We derive inequalities that describe the parameter regime in which classical motion is obtained, and provide numerical examples. We also demonstrate two further important properties of the classical limit: first, that multiple observers all agree on the motion of an object, and second, that classical statistical inference may be used to correctly track the classical motion.
Continuous Quantum Measurement and the Quantum to Classical Transition
Tanmoy Bhattacharya; Salman Habib; Kurt Jacobs
2002-11-08
While ultimately they are described by quantum mechanics, macroscopic mechanical systems are nevertheless observed to follow the trajectories predicted by classical mechanics. Hence, in the regime defining macroscopic physics, the trajectories of the correct classical motion must emerge from quantum mechanics, a process referred to as the quantum to classical transition. Extending previous work [Bhattacharya, Habib, and Jacobs, Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 85}, 4852 (2000)], here we elucidate this transition in some detail, showing that once the measurement processes which affect all macroscopic systems are taken into account, quantum mechanics indeed predicts the emergence of classical motion. We derive inequalities that describe the parameter regime in which classical motion is obtained, and provide numerical examples. We also demonstrate two further important properties of the classical limit. First, that multiple observers all agree on the motion of an object, and second, that classical statistical inference may be used to correctly track the classical motion.
Continuous Quantum Measurement and the Quantum to Classical Transition
Bhattacharya, T; Jacobs, K; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Habib, Salman; Jacobs, Kurt
2003-01-01
While ultimately they are described by quantum mechanics, macroscopic mechanical systems are nevertheless observed to follow the trajectories predicted by classical mechanics. Hence, in the regime defining macroscopic physics, the trajectories of the correct classical motion must emerge from quantum mechanics, a process referred to as the quantum to classical transition. Extending previous work [Bhattacharya, Habib, and Jacobs, Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 85}, 4852 (2000)], here we elucidate this transition in some detail, showing that once the measurement processes which affect all macroscopic systems are taken into account, quantum mechanics indeed predicts the emergence of classical motion. We derive inequalities that describe the parameter regime in which classical motion is obtained, and provide numerical examples. We also demonstrate two further important properties of the classical limit. First, that multiple observers all agree on the motion of an object, and second, that classical statistical inference may...
Effects of image processing on the detective quantum efficiency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Hye-Suk; Kim, Hee-Joung; Cho, Hyo-Min; Lee, Chang-Lae; Lee, Seung-Wan; Choi, Yu-Na
2010-04-01
Digital radiography has gained popularity in many areas of clinical practice. This transition brings interest in advancing the methodologies for image quality characterization. However, as the methodologies for such characterizations have not been standardized, the results of these studies cannot be directly compared. The primary objective of this study was to standardize methodologies for image quality characterization. The secondary objective was to evaluate affected factors to Modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) according to image processing algorithm. Image performance parameters such as MTF, NPS, and DQE were evaluated using the international electro-technical commission (IEC 62220-1)-defined RQA5 radiographic techniques. Computed radiography (CR) images of hand posterior-anterior (PA) for measuring signal to noise ratio (SNR), slit image for measuring MTF, white image for measuring NPS were obtained and various Multi-Scale Image Contrast Amplification (MUSICA) parameters were applied to each of acquired images. In results, all of modified images were considerably influence on evaluating SNR, MTF, NPS, and DQE. Modified images by the post-processing had higher DQE than the MUSICA=0 image. This suggests that MUSICA values, as a post-processing, have an affect on the image when it is evaluating for image quality. In conclusion, the control parameters of image processing could be accounted for evaluating characterization of image quality in same way. The results of this study could be guided as a baseline to evaluate imaging systems and their imaging characteristics by measuring MTF, NPS, and DQE.
Quantum measurements with preselection and postselection
Zhu Xuanmin; Zhang Yuxiang; Pang Shengshi; Qiao Chang; Wu Shengjun; Liu Quanhui
2011-11-15
We study quantum measurement with preselection and postselection, and derive the precise expressions of the measurement results without any restriction on the coupling strength between the system and the measuring device. For a qubit system, we derive the maximum pointer shifts by choosing appropriate initial and finial states. A significant amplification effect is obtained when the interaction between the system and the measuring device is very weak, and typical ideal quantum measurement results are obtained when the interaction is strong. The improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the enhancement of the measurement sensitivity (MS) by weak measurements are studied. Without considering the probability decrease due to postselection, the SNR and the MS can be both significantly improved by weak measurements; however, neither SNR nor MS can be effectively improved when the probability decrease is considered.
Efficient Luminescence from Perovskite Quantum Dot Solids.
Kim, Younghoon; Yassitepe, Emre; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Comin, Riccardo; Walters, Grant; Gong, Xiwen; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Nogueira, Ana F; Sargent, Edward H
2015-11-18
Nanocrystals of CsPbX3 perovskites are promising materials for light-emitting optoelectronics because of their colloidal stability, optically tunable bandgap, bright photoluminescence, and excellent photoluminescence quantum yield. Despite their promise, nanocrystal-only films of CsPbX3 perovskites have not yet been fabricated; instead, highly insulating polymers have been relied upon to compensate for nanocrystals' unstable surfaces. We develop solution chemistry that enables single-step casting of perovskite nanocrystal films and overcomes problems in both perovskite quantum dot purification and film fabrication. Centrifugally cast films retain bright photoluminescence and achieve dense and homogeneous morphologies. The new materials offer a platform for optoelectronic applications of perovskite quantum dot solids. PMID:26529572
Dynamical localization, measurements and quantum computing
M. Terraneo; D. L. Shepelyansky
2003-09-26
We study numerically the effects of measurements on dynamical localization in the kicked rotator model simulated on a quantum computer. Contrary to the previous studies, which showed that measurements induce a diffusive probability spreading, our results demonstrate that localization can be preserved for repeated single-qubit measurements. We detect a transition from a localized to a delocalized phase, depending on the system parameters and on the choice of the measured qubit.
Efficient self-consistent quantum transport simulator for quantum devices
Gao, X. Mamaluy, D.; Nielsen, E.; Young, R. W.; Lilly, M. P.; Bishop, N. C.; Carroll, M. S.; Muller, R. P.; Shirkhorshidian, A.
2014-04-07
We present a self-consistent one-dimensional (1D) quantum transport simulator based on the Contact Block Reduction (CBR) method, aiming for very fast and robust transport simulation of 1D quantum devices. Applying the general CBR approach to 1D open systems results in a set of very simple equations that are derived and given in detail for the first time. The charge self-consistency of the coupled CBR-Poisson equations is achieved by using the predictor-corrector iteration scheme with the optional Anderson acceleration. In addition, we introduce a new way to convert an equilibrium electrostatic barrier potential calculated from an external simulator to an effective doping profile, which is then used by the CBR-Poisson code for transport simulation of the barrier under non-zero biases. The code has been applied to simulate the quantum transport in a double barrier structure and across a tunnel barrier in a silicon double quantum dot. Extremely fast self-consistent 1D simulations of the differential conductance across a tunnel barrier in the quantum dot show better qualitative agreement with experiment than non-self-consistent simulations.
Decoherence and measurement in open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Privman, Vladimir; Mozyrsky, Dima V.
2000-07-01
We review results of a recently developed model of a microscopic quantum system interacting with the macroscopic world components which are modeled by collections of bosonic modes. The interaction is via a general operator (Lambda) of the system, coupled to the creation and annihilation operators of the environment modes. We assume that in the process of a nearly instantaneous quantum measurement, the function of the environment involves two distinct parts: the pointer and the bath. Interaction of the system with the bath leads to decoherence such that the system and the pointer both evolve into a statistical mixture state described by the density matrix such that the system is in one of the eigenstates of (Lambda) with the correct quantum mechanical probability, whereas the expectation values of pointer operators retain amplified information on that eigenstate. We argue that this process represents the initial step of a quantum measurement.
Coherence and measurement in quantum thermodynamics
Philipp Kammerlander; Janet Anders
2015-09-18
Thermodynamics is a highly successful macroscopic theory widely used across the natural sciences and for the construction of everyday devices, from car engines and fridges to power plants and solar cells. With thermodynamics predating quantum theory, research now aims to uncover the thermodynamic laws that govern finite size systems which may in addition host quantum effects. Here we identify information processing tasks, the so-called "projections", that can only be formulated within the framework of quantum mechanics. We show that the physical realisation of such projections can come with a non-trivial thermodynamic work only for quantum states with coherences. This contrasts with information erasure, first investigated by Landauer, for which a thermodynamic work cost applies for classical and quantum erasure alike. Implications are far-reaching, adding a thermodynamic dimension to measurements performed in quantum thermodynamics experiments, and providing key input for the construction of a future quantum thermodynamic framework. Repercussions are discussed for quantum work fluctuation relations and thermodynamic single-shot approaches.
An Evolutionary Formalism for Weak Quantum Measurements
Apoorva Patel; Parveen Kumar
2015-06-23
Unitary evolution and projective measurement are fundamental axioms of quantum mechanics. Even though projective measurement yields one of the eigenstates of the measured operator as the outcome, there is no theory that predicts which eigenstate will be observed in which experimental run. There exists only an ensemble description, which predicts probabilities of various outcomes over many experimental runs. We propose a dynamical evolution equation for the projective collapse of the quantum state in individual experimental runs, which is consistent with the well-established framework of quantum mechanics. In case of gradual weak measurements, its predictions for ensemble evolution are different from those of the Born rule. It is an open question whether or not suitably designed experiments can observe this alternate evolution.
Efficient measurements, purification, and bounds on the mutual information
Kurt Jacobs
2003-08-07
When a measurement is made on a quantum system in which classical information is encoded, the measurement reduces the observers average Shannon entropy for the encoding ensemble. This reduction, being the {\\em mutual information}, is always non-negative. For efficient measurements the state is also purified; that is, on average, the observers von Neumann entropy for the state of the system is also reduced by a non-negative amount. Here we point out that by re-writing a bound derived by Hall [Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 55}, 100 (1997)], which is dual to the Holevo bound, one finds that for efficient measurements, the mutual information is bounded by the reduction in the von Neumann entropy. We also show that this result, which provides a physical interpretation for Hall's bound, may be derived directly from the Schumacher-Westmoreland-Wootters theorem [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 76}, 3452 (1996)]. We discuss these bounds, and their relationship to another bound, valid for efficient measurements on pure state ensembles, which involves the subentropy.
Uniqueness of measures in loop quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanusch, Maximilian
2015-09-01
In Ashtekar and Campiglia [Classical Quantum Gravity 29, 242001 (2012)], residual diffeomorphisms have been used to single out the standard representation of the reduced holonomy-flux algebra in homogeneous loop quantum cosmology (LQC). We show that, in the homogeneous isotropic case, unitarity of the translations with respect to the extended ?-action (exponentiated reduced fluxes in the standard approach) singles out the Bohr measure on both the standard quantum configuration space ?Bohr as well as on the Fleischhack one (???Bohr). Thus, in both situations, the same condition singles out the standard kinematical Hilbert space of LQC.
Quantum algorithm for universal implementation of the projective measurement of energy.
Nakayama, Shojun; Soeda, Akihito; Murao, Mio
2015-05-15
A projective measurement of energy (PME) on a quantum system is a quantum measurement determined by the Hamiltonian of the system. PME protocols exist when the Hamiltonian is given in advance. Unknown Hamiltonians can be identified by quantum tomography, but the time cost to achieve a given accuracy increases exponentially with the size of the quantum system. In this Letter, we improve the time cost by adapting quantum phase estimation, an algorithm designed for computational problems, to measurements on physical systems. We present a PME protocol without quantum tomography for Hamiltonians whose dimension and energy scale are given but which are otherwise unknown. Our protocol implements a PME to arbitrary accuracy without any dimension dependence on its time cost. We also show that another computational quantum algorithm may be used for efficient estimation of the energy scale. These algorithms show that computational quantum algorithms, with suitable modifications, have applications beyond their original context. PMID:26024155
Quantum Algorithm for Universal Implementation of the Projective Measurement of Energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakayama, Shojun; Soeda, Akihito; Murao, Mio
2015-05-01
A projective measurement of energy (PME) on a quantum system is a quantum measurement determined by the Hamiltonian of the system. PME protocols exist when the Hamiltonian is given in advance. Unknown Hamiltonians can be identified by quantum tomography, but the time cost to achieve a given accuracy increases exponentially with the size of the quantum system. In this Letter, we improve the time cost by adapting quantum phase estimation, an algorithm designed for computational problems, to measurements on physical systems. We present a PME protocol without quantum tomography for Hamiltonians whose dimension and energy scale are given but which are otherwise unknown. Our protocol implements a PME to arbitrary accuracy without any dimension dependence on its time cost. We also show that another computational quantum algorithm may be used for efficient estimation of the energy scale. These algorithms show that computational quantum algorithms, with suitable modifications, have applications beyond their original context.
Direct measurement of the quantum wavefunction by strong measurements
Giuseppe Vallone; Daniele Dequal
2015-04-24
Weak measurements are supposed to be essential for the so called direct measurement of the quantum wavefunction [Nature (London) 474, 188 (2011)]. Here we show that direct measurement of the wavefunction can be obtained by using measurements of arbitrary strength. In particular, in the case of strong (i.e. projective) measurements, we compared the precision and the accuracy of the two methods, by showing that strong measurements outperform weak measurements in both. We also give the exact expression of the reconstructed wavefunction obtained by the weak measurement approach, allowing to define the range of applicability of such method.
Operational meaning of quantum measures of recovery
Tom Cooney; Christoph Hirche; Ciara Morgan; Jonathan P. Olson; Kaushik P. Seshadreesan; Mark M. Wilde
2015-12-16
Several information measures have recently been defined which capture the notion of "recoverability" of a tripartite quantum state. In particular, the fidelity of recovery quantifies how well one can recover a system $A$ of a tripartite state, defined on systems $ABC$, by acting on system $C$ alone. The relative entropy of recovery is an associated measure in which the fidelity is replaced by relative entropy. The fact that state recoverability plays a key role in applications such as quantum key distribution and error correction suggests that we should try to understand the property of recoverability in more detail. In this paper, we provide concrete operational interpretations of the aforementioned recovery measures in terms of a computational decision problem and a hypothesis testing scenario, each of which is connected to the notion of recovery. Specifically, we show that the fidelity of recovery is equal to the maximum probability with which a computationally unbounded quantum prover can convince a computationally bounded quantum verifier that a given quantum state is recoverable. This places the associated decision problem in QIP and establishes it as hard for QSZK (a class of problems believed to be difficult to solve even for a quantum computer). We also prove that the regularized relative entropy of recovery is equal to the optimal Type II error exponent when trying to distinguish many copies of a tripartite state from a recovered version of this state, such that the Type I error is constrained to be no larger than a specified constant.
Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures
Worrell, Ernst; Laitner, John A.; Michael, Ruth; Finman, Hodayah
2004-08-30
We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published databases, followed by an analysis of the representation of productivity benefits in energy modeling. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The case-study review suggests that energy efficiency investments can provide a significant boost to overall productivity within industry. If this relationship holds, the description of energy-efficient technologies as opportunities for larger productivity improvements has significant implications for conventional economic assessments. The paper explores the implications this change in perspective on the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the US. This examination shows that including productivity benefits explicitly in the modeling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research in this important area.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walecki, Wojtek J.; Szondy, Fanny
2008-08-01
We report a new system for measurement of the spatially resolved quantum efficiency (QE) of the semiconductor solarcells. In our method solar-cell is illuminated by modified liquid crystal display projector scanner. System allows to measure photo-current, and optical properties of the illuminated surface. The same system can be also used to measure surface topography of the wafer, its bow, and warp, and calculate lateral stress in the structure if structure cross-section is known.
Quantum Efficiency Enhancement in CsI/Metal Photocathodes
Kong, Lingmei; Joly, Alan G.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Hess, Wayne P.
2015-02-01
High quantum efficiency enhancement is found for hybrid metal-insulator photocathodes consisting of thin films of CsI deposited on Cu(100), Ag(100), Au(111) and Au films irradiated by 266 nm laser pulses. Low work functions (near or below 2 eV) are observed following ultraviolet laser activation. Work functions are reduced by roughly 3 eV from that of clean metal surfaces. We discuss various mechanisms of quantum efficiency enhancement for alkali halide/metal photocathode systems and conclude that the large change in work function, due to Cs accumulation of Cs metal at the metal-alkali halide interface, is the dominant mechanism for quantum efficiency enhancement
Efficient Raman generation in a waveguide: A route to ultrafast quantum random number generation
England, D. G.; Bustard, P. J.; Moffatt, D. J.; Nunn, J.; Lausten, R.; Sussman, B. J.
2014-02-03
The inherent uncertainty in quantum mechanics offers a source of true randomness which can be used to produce unbreakable cryptographic keys. We discuss the development of a high-speed random number generator based on the quantum phase fluctuations in spontaneously initiated stimulated Raman scattering (SISRS). We utilize the tight confinement and long interaction length available in a Potassium Titanyl Phosphate waveguide to generate highly efficient SISRS using nanojoule pulse energies, reducing the high pump power requirements of the previous approaches. We measure the random phase of the Stokes output using a simple interferometric setup to yield quantum random numbers at 145 Mbps.
Quantum Dots Promise to Significantly Boost Solar Cell Efficiencies (Fact Sheet)
Not Available
2013-08-01
In the search for a third generation of solar-cell technologies, a leading candidate is the use of 'quantum dots' -- tiny spheres of semiconductor material measuring only about 2-10 billionths of a meter in diameter. Quantum dots have the potential to dramatically increase the efficiency of converting sunlight into energy -- perhaps even doubling it in some devices -- because of their ability to generate more than one bound electron-hole pair, or exciton, per incoming photon. NREL has produced quantum dots using colloidal suspensions; then, using molecular self-assembly, they have been fabricated into the first-ever quantum-dot solar cells. While these devices operate with only 4.4% efficiency, they demonstrate the capability for low-cost manufacturing.
Quantum efficiency and fission rate in tetracene
Wu, Tony Chang-Chi
2013-01-01
Using singlet fission in a photovoltaic cell, the theoretical energy conversion efficiency limit is larger than the Shockley-Queisser limit due to two excitons produced with one incident photon. In a singlet fission material, ...
Not Available
2011-08-01
Fact sheet on the FlashQE system, a 2011 R&D 100 Award winner. A solid-state optical system by NREL and Tau Science measures solar cell quantum efficiency in less than a second, enabling a suite of new capabilities for solar cell manufacturers.
Absolute quantum cutting efficiency of Tb{sup 3+}-Yb{sup 3+} co-doped glass
Duan, Qianqian; Qin, Feng; Zhang, Zhiguo; Zhao, Hua; Cao, Wenwu
2013-12-07
The absolute quantum cutting efficiency of Tb{sup 3+}-Yb{sup 3+} co-doped glass was quantitatively measured by an integrating sphere detection system, which is independent of the excitation power. As the Yb{sup 3+} concentration increases, the near infrared quantum efficiency exhibited an exponential growth with an upper limit of 13.5%, but the visible light efficiency was reduced rapidly. As a result, the total quantum efficiency monotonically decreases rather than increases as theory predicted. In fact, the absolute quantum efficiency was far less than the theoretical value due to the low radiative efficiency of Tb{sup 3+} (<61%) and significant cross-relaxation nonradiative loss between Yb{sup 3+} ions.
Wigner Measures in Noncommutative Quantum Mechanics
C. Bastos; N. C. Dias; J. N. Prata
2009-07-25
We study the properties of quasi-distributions or Wigner measures in the context of noncommutative quantum mechanics. In particular, we obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for a phase-space function to be a noncommutative Wigner measure, for a Gaussian to be a noncommutative Wigner measure, and derive certain properties of the marginal distributions which are not shared by ordinary Wigner measures. Moreover, we derive the Robertson-Schr\\"odinger uncertainty principle. Finally, we show explicitly how the set of noncommutative Wigner measures relates to the sets of Liouville and (commutative) Wigner measures.
Quantumness in a decoherent quantum walk using measurement-induced disturbance
Srikanth, R.; Banerjee, Subhashish; Chandrashekar, C. M.
2010-06-15
The classicalization of a decoherent discrete-time quantum walk on a line or an n-cycle can be demonstrated in various ways that do not necessarily provide a geometry-independent description. For example, the position probability distribution becomes increasingly Gaussian, with a concomitant fall in the standard deviation, in the former case, but not in the latter. As another example, each step of the quantum walk on a line may be subjected to an arbitrary phase gate, without affecting the position probability distribution, no matter whether the walk is noiseless or noisy. This symmetry, which is absent in the case of noiseless cyclic walk, but is restored in the presence of sufficient noise, serves as an indicator of classicalization, but only in the cyclic case. Here we show that the degree of quantum correlations between the coin and position degrees of freedom, quantified by a measure based on the disturbance induced by local measurements [Luo, Phys. Rev. A 77, 022301 (2008)], provides a suitable measure of classicalization across both type of walks. Applying this measure to compare the two walks, we find that cyclic quantum walks tend to classicalize faster than quantum walks on a line because of more efficient phase randomization due to the self-interference of the two counter-rotating waves. We model noise as acting on the coin, and given by the squeezed generalized amplitude damping (SGAD) channel, which generalizes the generalized amplitude damping channel.
A Highly Efficient Hybrid GaAs Solar Cell Based on Colloidal-Quantum-Dot-Sensitization
Han, Hau-Vei; Lin, Chien-Chung; Tsai, Yu-Lin; Chen, Hsin-Chu; Chen, Kuo-Ju; Yeh, Yun-Ling; Lin, Wen-Yi; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Yu, Peichen
2014-01-01
This paper presents a hybrid design, featuring a traditional GaAs-based solar cell combined with various colloidal quantum dots. This hybrid design effectively boosts photon harvesting at long wavelengths while enhancing the collection of photogenerated carriers in the ultraviolet region. The merits of using highly efficient semiconductor solar cells and colloidal quantum dots were seamlessly combined to increase overall power conversion efficiency. Several photovoltaic parameters, including short-circuit current density, open circuit voltage, and external quantum efficiency, were measured and analyzed to investigate the performance of this hybrid device. Offering antireflective features at long wavelengths and luminescent downshifting for high-energy photons, the quantum dots effectively enhanced overall power conversion efficiency by as high as 24.65% compared with traditional GaAs-based devices. The evolution of weighted reflectance as a function of the dilution factor of QDs was investigated. Further analysis of the quantum efficiency response showed that the luminescent downshifting effect can be as much as 6.6% of the entire enhancement of photogenerated current. PMID:25034623
A highly efficient hybrid GaAs solar cell based on colloidal-quantum-dot-sensitization.
Han, Hau-Vei; Lin, Chien-Chung; Tsai, Yu-Lin; Chen, Hsin-Chu; Chen, Kuo-Ju; Yeh, Yun-Ling; Lin, Wen-Yi; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Yu, Peichen
2014-01-01
This paper presents a hybrid design, featuring a traditional GaAs-based solar cell combined with various colloidal quantum dots. This hybrid design effectively boosts photon harvesting at long wavelengths while enhancing the collection of photogenerated carriers in the ultraviolet region. The merits of using highly efficient semiconductor solar cells and colloidal quantum dots were seamlessly combined to increase overall power conversion efficiency. Several photovoltaic parameters, including short-circuit current density, open circuit voltage, and external quantum efficiency, were measured and analyzed to investigate the performance of this hybrid device. Offering antireflective features at long wavelengths and luminescent downshifting for high-energy photons, the quantum dots effectively enhanced overall power conversion efficiency by as high as 24.65% compared with traditional GaAs-based devices. The evolution of weighted reflectance as a function of the dilution factor of QDs was investigated. Further analysis of the quantum efficiency response showed that the luminescent downshifting effect can be as much as 6.6% of the entire enhancement of photogenerated current. PMID:25034623
T. S. Mahesh; Abhishek Shukla; Swathi S. Hegde; C. S. Sudheer Kumar; Hemant Katiyar; Sharad Joshi; K. R. Koteswara Rao
2015-09-15
Quantum ensembles form easily accessible architectures for studying various phenomena in quantum physics, quantum information science, and spectroscopy. Here we review some recent protocols for measurements in quantum ensembles by utilizing ancillary systems. We also illustrate these protocols experimentally via nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. In particular, we shall review noninvasive measurements, extracting expectation values of various operators, characterizations of quantum states, and quantum processes, and finally quantum noise engineering.
Quantum measurement of broadband nonclassical light fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grünwald, P.; Vasylyev, D.; Häggblad, J.; Vogel, W.
2015-01-01
Based on the measurement of quantum correlation functions, the quantum statistical properties of spectral measurements are studied for broadband radiation fields. The spectral filtering of light before its detection is compared with the direct detection followed by the spectral analysis of the recorded photocurrents. As an example, the squeezing spectra of the atomic resonance fluorescence are studied for both types of filtering procedures. The conditions for which the detection of the nonclassical signatures of the radiation is possible are analyzed. For the considered example, photocurrent filtering appears to be the superior option to detect nonclassicality due to the vacuum-noise effects in the optical filtering.
Measurement-induced quantum entanglement recovery
Xu Xiaoye; Xu Jinshi; Li Chuanfeng; Guo Guangcan
2010-08-15
By using photon pairs created in parametric down-conversion, we report on an experiment, which demonstrates that measurement can recover the quantum entanglement of a two-qubit system in a pure dephasing environment. The concurrence of the final state with and without measurement is compared and is analyzed. Furthermore, we verify that recovered states can still violate the Bell inequality, that is, to say, such recovered states exhibit nonlocality. In the context of quantum entanglement, sudden death and rebirth provide clear evidence, which verifies that entanglement dynamics of the system is sensitive not only to its environment, but also to its initial state.
Quantum measurement of a mesoscopic spin ensemble
Giedke, G.; Taylor, J. M.; Lukin, M. D.; D'Alessandro, D.; Imamoglu, A.
2006-09-15
We describe a method for precise estimation of the polarization of a mesoscopic spin ensemble by using its coupling to a single two-level system. Our approach requires a minimal number of measurements on the two-level system for a given measurement precision. We consider the application of this method to the case of nuclear-spin ensemble defined by a single electron-charged quantum dot: we show that decreasing the electron spin dephasing due to nuclei and increasing the fidelity of nuclear-spin-based quantum memory could be within the reach of present day experiments.
High quantum efficiency of band-edge emission from ZnO nanowires.
Gargas, Daniel J; Gao, Hanwei; Wang, Hungta; Yang, Peidong
2011-09-14
External quantum efficiency (EQE) of photoluminescence as high as 20% from isolated ZnO nanowires were measured at room temperature. The EQE was found to be highly dependent on photoexcitation density, which underscores the importance of uniform optical excitation during the EQE measurement. An integrating sphere coupled to a microscopic imaging system was used in this work, which enabled the EQE measurement on isolated ZnO nanowires. The EQE values obtained here are significantly higher than those reported for ZnO materials in forms of bulk, thin films or powders. Additional insight on the radiative extraction factor of one-dimensional nanostructures was gained by measuring the internal quantum efficiency of individual nanowires. Such quantitative EQE measurements provide a sensitive, noninvasive method to characterize the optical properties of low-dimensional nanostructures and allow tuning of synthesis parameters for optimization of nanoscale materials. PMID:21859081
"High Quantum Efficiency of Band-Edge Emission from ZnO Nanowires"
GARGAS, DANIEL; GAO, HANWEI; WANG, HUNGTA; PEIDONG, YANG
2010-12-01
External quantum efficiency (EQE) of photoluminescence as high as 20 percent from isolated ZnO nanowires were measured at room temperature. The EQE was found to be highly dependent on photoexcitation density, which underscores the importance of uniform optical excitation during the EQE measurement. An integrating sphere coupled to a microscopic imaging system was used in this work, which enabled the EQE measurement on isolated ZnO nanowires. The EQE values obtained here are significantly higher than those reported for ZnO materials in forms of bulk, thin films or powders. Additional insight on the radiative extraction factor of one-dimensional nanostructures was gained by measuring the internal quantum efficiency of individual nanowires. Such quantitative EQE measurements provide a sensitive, noninvasive method to characterize the optical properties of low-dimensional nanostructures and allow tuning of synthesis parameters for optimization of nanoscale materials.
Optimal minimum-cost quantum measurements for imperfect detection
Erika Andersson
2012-01-01
Knowledge of optimal quantum measurements is important for a wide range of situations, including quantum communication and quantum metrology. Quantum measurements are usually optimised with an ideal experimental realisation in mind. Real devices and detectors are, however, imperfect. This has to be taken into account when optimising quantum measurements. In this paper, we derive the optimal minimum-cost and minimum-error measurements for a general model of imperfect detection.
Quantum enhanced precision in a collective measurement
H. M. Bharath; Saikat Ghosh
2015-11-26
We explore the role of $\\textit{collective measurements}$ on precision in estimation of a single parameter. Collective measurements are represented by observables which commute with all permutations of the probe particles. We show that with this constraint, quantum bits(qubits) outperform classical bits(non-superposable bits) in optimizing precision. Specifically, we prove that while precision in a collective measurement is loosely bounded by $O\\left(\\frac{1}{N}\\right)$ for $N$ classical bits, using qubits it is tightly bounded by $O\\left(\\frac{1}{N^2}\\right)$. This bound is consistent with quantum metrology protocols with the collective measurement requiring an entangled probe state to saturate. Finally, we construct a canonical measurement protocol that saturates this bound.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niu, X. Y.; Huang, X. L.; Shang, Y. F.; Wang, X. Y.
2015-04-01
Superposition principle plays a crucial role in quantum mechanics, thus its effects on thermodynamics is an interesting topic. Here, the effects of superpositions of quantum states on isoenergetic cycle are studied. We find superposition can improve the heat engine efficiency and release the positive work condition in general case. In the finite time process, we find the efficiency at maximum power output in superposition case is lower than the nonsuperposition case. This efficiency depends on one index of the energy spectrum of the working substance. This result does not mean the superposition discourages the heat engine performance. For fixed efficiency or fixed power, the superposition improves the power or efficiency respectively. These results show how quantum mechanical properties affect the thermodynamical cycle.
Algebraic and algorithmic frameworks for optimized quantum measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laghaout, Amine; Andersen, Ulrik L.
2015-10-01
von Neumann projections are the main operations by which information can be extracted from the quantum to the classical realm. They are, however, static processes that do not adapt to the states they measure. Advances in the field of adaptive measurement have shown that this limitation can be overcome by "wrapping" the von Neumann projectors in a higher-dimensional circuit which exploits the interplay between measurement outcomes and measurement settings. Unfortunately, the design of adaptive measurement has often been ad hoc and setup specific. We shall here develop a unified framework for designing optimized measurements. Our approach is twofold: The first is algebraic and formulates the problem of measurement as a simple matrix diagonalization problem. The second is algorithmic and models the optimal interaction between measurement outcomes and measurement settings as a cascaded network of conditional probabilities. Finally, we demonstrate that several figures of merit, such as Bell factors, can be improved by optimized measurements. This leads us to the promising observation that measurement detectors which—taken individually—have a low quantum efficiency can be arranged into circuits where, collectively, the limitations of inefficiency are compensated for.
Algebraic and algorithmic frameworks for optimized quantum measurements
Amine Laghaout; Ulrik L. Andersen
2015-07-08
Von Neumann projections are the main operations by which information can be extracted from the quantum to the classical realm. They are however static processes that do not adapt to the states they measure. Advances in the field of adaptive measurement have shown that this limitation can be overcome by "wrapping" the von Neumann projectors in a higher-dimensional circuit which exploits the interplay between measurement outcomes and measurement settings. Unfortunately, the design of adaptive measurement has often been ad hoc and setup-specific. We shall here develop a unified framework for designing optimized measurements. Our approach is two-fold: The first is algebraic and formulates the problem of measurement as a simple matrix diagonalization problem. The second is algorithmic and models the optimal interaction between measurement outcomes and measurement settings as a cascaded network of conditional probabilities. Finally, we demonstrate that several figures of merit, such as Bell factors, can be improved by optimized measurements. This leads us to the promising observation that measurement detectors which---taken individually---have a low quantum efficiency can be be arranged into circuits where, collectively, the limitations of inefficiency are compensated for.
A Straightforward Introduction to Continuous Quantum Measurement
Kurt Jacobs; Daniel A. Steck
2006-11-06
We present a pedagogical treatment of the formalism of continuous quantum measurement. Our aim is to show the reader how the equations describing such measurements are derived and manipulated in a direct manner. We also give elementary background material for those new to measurement theory, and describe further various aspects of continuous measurements that should be helpful to those wanting to use such measurements in applications. Specifically, we use the simple and direct approach of generalized measurements to derive the stochastic master equation describing the continuous measurements of observables, give a tutorial on stochastic calculus, treat multiple observers and inefficient detection, examine a general form of the measurement master equation, and show how the master equation leads to information gain and disturbance. To conclude, we give a detailed treatment of imaging the resonance fluorescence from a single atom as a concrete example of how a continuous position measurement arises in a physical system.
Efficient and economic five-party quantum state sharing of an arbitrary m-qubit state
Yu-Bo Sheng; Fu-Guo Deng; Hong-Yu Zhou
2010-05-01
We present an efficient and economic scheme for five-party quantum state sharing of an arbitrary m-qubit state with $2m$ three-particle Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states and three-particle GHZ-state measurements. It is more convenient than other schemes as it only resorts to three-particle GHZ states and three-particle joint measurement, not five-particle entanglements and five-particle joint measurements. Moreover, this symmetric scheme is in principle secure even though the number of the dishonest agents is more than one. Its total efficiency approaches the maximal value.
Efficient Multi-Dimensional Simulation of Quantum Confinement Effects in Advanced MOS Devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biegel, Bryan A.; Ancona, Mario G.; Rafferty, Conor S.; Yu, Zhiping
2000-01-01
We investigate the density-gradient (DG) transport model for efficient multi-dimensional simulation of quantum confinement effects in advanced MOS devices. The formulation of the DG model is described as a quantum correction ot the classical drift-diffusion model. Quantum confinement effects are shown to be significant in sub-100nm MOSFETs. In thin-oxide MOS capacitors, quantum effects may reduce gate capacitance by 25% or more. As a result, the inclusion of quantum effects may reduce gate capacitance by 25% or more. As a result, the inclusion of quantum effects in simulations dramatically improves the match between C-V simulations and measurements for oxide thickness down to 2 nm. Significant quantum corrections also occur in the I-V characteristics of short-channel (30 to 100 nm) n-MOSFETs, with current drive reduced by up to 70%. This effect is shown to result from reduced inversion charge due to quantum confinement of electrons in the channel. Also, subthreshold slope is degraded by 15 to 20 mV/decade with the inclusion of quantum effects via the density-gradient model, and short channel effects (in particular, drain-induced barrier lowering) are noticeably increased.
The Measure in Euclidean Quantum Gravity
Arundhati Dasgupta
2011-06-08
In this article a description is given of the measure in Euclidean path-integral in quantum gravity, and recent results using the Faddeev-Popov method of gauge fixing. The results suggest that the effective action is finite and positive.
Theoretical efficient high capacity Quantum Key Distribution Scheme
Gui Lu Long; Xiao Shu Liu
2001-12-26
A theoretical quantum key distribution scheme using EPR pairs is presented. This scheme is efficient in that it uses all EPR pairs in distributing the key except those chosen for checking eavesdroppers. The high capacity is achieved because each EPR pair carries 2 bits of key code.
Quantum memory for light: large efficiency at telecom wavelength
Julián Dajczgewand; Jean-Louis Le Gouët; Anne Louchet-Chauvet; Thierry Chanelière
2013-12-03
We implement the ROSE protocol in an erbium doped solid, compatible with the telecom range. The ROSE scheme is an adaptation of the standard 2-pulse photon echo to make it suitable for a quantum memory. We observe an efficiency of 40% in a forward direction by using specific orientations of the light polarizations, magnetic field and crystal axes.
High-quantum efficiency, long-lived luminescing refractory oxides
Chen, Yok (Oak Ridge, TN); Gonzalez, Roberto (Knoxville, TN); Summers, Geoffrey P. (Stillwater, OK)
1984-01-01
A crystal having a high-quantum efficiency and a long period of luminescence is formed of an oxide selected from the group consisting of magnesium oxide and calcium oxide and possessing a concentration ratio of H.sup.- ions to F centers in the range of about 0.05 to about 10.
Erbium-implanted silica colloids with 80% luminescence quantum efficiency
Polman, Albert
, and tetraethoxysilane, were implanted with 350 keV Er ions, to peak concentrations of 0.21.1 at. % and put onto study the optical doping of colloidal silica particles with Er using ion implantation. The influenceErbium-implanted silica colloids with 80% luminescence quantum efficiency L. H. Slooff, M. J. A. de
WORKING QUANTUM EFFICIENCY OF CDTE SOLAR CELL Zimeng Cheng
WORKING QUANTUM EFFICIENCY OF CDTE SOLAR CELL Zimeng Cheng 1 , Kwok Lo 2 , Jingong Pan 1 , Dongguo Chen 1 , Tao Zhou 2 , Qi Wang 3 , George E. Georgiou 1 , Ken K. Chin 1 1 Apollo CdTe Solar Energy Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO 80401 USA ABSTRACT For p-CdTe/n-CdS solar cell
An efficient quantum algorithm for the Moebius function
Peter J. Love
2014-12-11
We give an efficient quantum algorithm for the Moebius function $\\mu(n)$ from the natural numbers to $\\{-1,0,1\\}$. The cost of the algorithm is asymptotically quadratic in $\\log n$ and does not require the computation of the prime factorization of $n$ as an intermediate step.
Cosmological Inflation and the Quantum Measurement Problem
Jerome Martin; Vincent Vennin; Patrick Peter
2012-07-16
According to cosmological inflation, the inhomogeneities in our universe are of quantum mechanical origin. This scenario is phenomenologically very appealing as it solves the puzzles of the standard hot big bang model and naturally explains why the spectrum of cosmological perturbations is almost scale invariant. It is also an ideal playground to discuss deep questions among which is the quantum measurement problem in a cosmological context. Although the large squeezing of the quantum state of the perturbations and the phenomenon of decoherence explain many aspects of the quantum to classical transition, it remains to understand how a specific outcome can be produced in the early universe, in the absence of any observer. The Continuous Spontaneous Localization (CSL) approach to quantum mechanics attempts to solve the quantum measurement question in a general context. In this framework, the wavefunction collapse is caused by adding new non linear and stochastic terms to the Schroedinger equation. In this paper, we apply this theory to inflation, which amounts to solving the CSL parametric oscillator case. We choose the wavefunction collapse to occur on an eigenstate of the Mukhanov-Sasaki variable and discuss the corresponding modified Schroedinger equation. Then, we compute the power spectrum of the perturbations and show that it acquires a universal shape with two branches, one which remains scale invariant and one with nS=4, a spectral index in obvious contradiction with the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropy observations. The requirement that the non-scale invariant part be outside the observational window puts stringent constraints on the parameter controlling the deviations from ordinary quantum mechanics... (Abridged).
Efficient 41Ca measurements for biomedical applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vockenhuber, C.; Schulze-König, T.; Synal, H.-A.; Aeberli, I.; Zimmermann, M. B.
2015-10-01
We present the performance of 41Ca measurements using low-energy Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at the 500 kV facility TANDY at ETH Zurich. We optimized the measurement procedure for biomedical applications where reliability and high sample throughput is required. The main challenge for AMS measurements of 41Ca is the interfering stable isobar 41K. We use a simplified sample preparation procedure to produce calcium fluoride (CaF2) and extract calcium tri-fluoride ions (CaF3-) ions to suppress the stable isobar 41K. Although 41K is not completely suppressed we reach 41Ca/40Ca background level in the 10-12 range which is adequate for biomedical studies. With helium as a stripper gas we can use charge state 2+ at high transmission (?50%). The new measurement procedure with the approximately 10 × improved efficiency and the higher accuracy due to 41K correction allowed us to measure more than 600 samples for a large biomedical study within only a few weeks of measurement time.
Fabrication of multi-layered absorption structure for high quantum efficiency photon detectors
Fujii, Go; Fukuda, Daiji; Numata, Takayuki; Yoshizawa, Akio; Tsuchida, Hidemi; Fujino, Hidetoshi; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Itatani, Taro; Zama, Tatsuya; Inoue, Shuichiro
2009-12-16
We report on some efforts to improve a quantum efficiency of titanium-based optical superconducting transition edge sensors using the multi-layered absorption structure for maximizing photon absorption in the Ti layer. Using complex refractive index values of each film measured by a Spectroscopic Ellipsometry, we designed and optimized by a simulation code. An absorption measurement of fabricated structure was in good agreement with the design and was higher than 99% at optimized wavelength of 1550 nm.
Experimentally feasible measures of distance between quantum operations
Zbigniew Pucha?a; Jaros?aw Adam Miszczak; Piotr Gawron; Bart?omiej Gardas
2009-11-03
We present two measures of distance between quantum processes based on the superfidelity, introduced recently to provide an upper bound for quantum fidelity. We show that the introduced measures partially fulfill the requirements for distance measure between quantum processes. We also argue that they can be especially useful as diagnostic measures to get preliminary knowledge about imperfections in an experimental setup. In particular we provide quantum circuit which can be used to measure the superfidelity between quantum processes. As the behavior of the superfidelity between quantum processes is crucial for the properties of the introduced measures, we study its behavior for several families of quantum channels. We calculate superfidelity between arbitrary one-qubit channels using affine parametrization and superfidelity between generalized Pauli channels in arbitrary dimensions. Statistical behavior of the proposed quantities for the ensembles of quantum operations in low dimensions indicates that the proposed measures can be indeed used to distinguish quantum processes.
High Quantum Efficiency OLED Lighting Systems
Shiang, Joseph
2011-09-30
The overall goal of the program was to apply improvements in light outcoupling technology to a practical large area plastic luminaire, and thus enable the product vision of an extremely thin form factor high efficiency large area light source. The target substrate was plastic and the baseline device was operating at 35 LPW at the start of the program. The target LPW of the program was a >2x improvement in the LPW efficacy and the overall amount of light to be delivered was relatively high 900 lumens. Despite the extremely difficult challenges associated with scaling up a wet solution process on plastic substrates, the program was able to make substantial progress. A small molecule wet solution process was successfully implemented on plastic substrates with almost no loss in efficiency in transitioning from the laboratory scale glass to large area plastic substrates. By transitioning to a small molecule based process, the LPW entitlement increased from 35 LPW to 60 LPW. A further 10% improvement in outcoupling efficiency was demonstrated via the use of a highly reflecting cathode, which reduced absorptive loss in the OLED device. The calculated potential improvement in some cases is even larger, ~30%, and thus there is considerable room for optimism in improving the net light coupling efficacy, provided absorptive loss mechanisms are eliminated. Further improvements are possible if scattering schemes such as the silver nanowire based hard coat structure are fully developed. The wet coating processes were successfully scaled to large area plastic substrate and resulted in the construction of a 900 lumens luminaire device.
Optimal control of a quantum measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Egger, D. J.; Wilhelm, F. K.
2014-11-01
Pulses to steer the time evolution of quantum systems can be designed with optimal control theory. In most cases it is the coherent processes that can be controlled and one optimizes the time evolution toward a target unitary process, sometimes also in the presence of noncontrollable incoherent processes. Here we show how to extend the gradient ascent pulse engineering (GRAPE) algorithm in the case where the incoherent processes are controllable and the target time evolution is a nonunitary quantum channel. We perform a gradient search on a fidelity measure based on Choi matrices. We illustrate our algorithm by optimizing a phase qubit measurement pulse. We show how this technique can lead to a large measurement contrast close to 99 % . We also show, within the validity of our model, that this algorithm can produce short 1.4 -ns pulses with 98.2 % contrast.
An efficient quantum secure direct communication scheme with authentication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yu-Guang; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Zhu, Fu-Chen
2007-07-01
In this paper an efficient quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) scheme with authentication is presented, which is based on quantum entanglement and polarized single photons. The present protocol uses Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs and polarized single photons in batches. A particle of the EPR pairs is retained in the sender's station, and the other is transmitted forth and back between the sender and the receiver, similar to the ``ping-pong'' QSDC protocol. According to the shared information beforehand, these two kinds of quantum states are mixed and then transmitted via a quantum channel. The EPR pairs are used to transmit secret messages and the polarized single photons used for authentication and eavesdropping check. Consequently, because of the dual contributions of the polarized single photons, no classical information is needed. The intrinsic efficiency and total efficiency are both 1 in this scheme as almost all of the instances are useful and each EPR pair can be used to carry two bits of information.
Analysis of the efficiency of intermediate band solar cells based on quantum dot supercrystals
Heshmati, S; Golmohammadi, S; Abedi, K; Taleb, H
2014-03-28
We have studied the influence of the quantum-dot (QD) width and the quantum-dot conduction band (QD-CB) offset on the efficiency of quantum-dot intermediate band solar cells (QD-IBSCs). Simulation results demonstrate that with increasing QD-CB offset and decreasing QD width, the maximum efficiency is achieved. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)
Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes
Gilchrist, James F.
Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes Keywords: III-Nitride InGaN QWs Light-emitting diodes Efficiency-droop a b s t r a c t Current injection efficiency and its impact on efficiency-droop in InGaN single quantum well (QW) based light-emitting diodes
Electro-optic Control of Quantum Measurements Benjamin Caird Buchler
Electro-optic Control of Quantum Measurements Benjamin Caird Buchler A thesis submitted the standard quantum measurement limits are modelled and tested experimentally. These techniques are electro- optic control and the us
Origins of low energy-transfer efficiency between patterned GaN quantum well and CdSe quantum dots
Xu, Xingsheng
2015-03-02
For hybrid light emitting devices (LEDs) consisting of GaN quantum wells and colloidal quantum dots, it is necessary to explore the physical mechanisms causing decreases in the quantum efficiencies and the energy transfer efficiency between a GaN quantum well and CdSe quantum dots. This study investigated the electro-luminescence for a hybrid LED consisting of colloidal quantum dots and a GaN quantum well patterned with photonic crystals. It was found that both the quantum efficiency of colloidal quantum dots on a GaN quantum well and the energy transfer efficiency between the patterned GaN quantum well and the colloidal quantum dots decreased with increases in the driving voltage or the driving time. Under high driving voltages, the decreases in the quantum efficiency of the colloidal quantum dots and the energy transfer efficiency can be attributed to Auger recombination, while those decreases under long driving time are due to photo-bleaching and Auger recombination.
Quantum Metrology via Repeated Quantum Nondemolition Measurements in "Photon Box"
Yu-Ran Zhang; Jie-Dong Yue; Heng Fan
2015-04-12
In quantum metrology schemes, one generally needs to prepare $m$ copies of $N$ entangled particles, such as entangled photon states, and then they are detected in a destructive process to estimate an unknown parameter. Here, we present a novel experimental scheme for estimating this parameter by using repeated indirect quantum nondemolition measurements in the setup called "photon box". This interaction-based scheme is able to achieve the phase sensitivity scaling as $1/N$ with a Fock state of $N$ photons. Moreover, we only need to prepare one initial $N$-photon state and it can be used repetitively for $m$ trials of measurements. This new scheme is shown to sustain the quantum advantage for a much longer time than the damping time of Fock state and be more robust than the common strategy with exotic entangled states. To overcome the $2\\pi/N$ periodic error in the estimation of the true parameter, we can employ a cascaded strategy by adding a real-time feedback interferometric layout.
Quantum state tomography with fully symmetric measurements and product measurements
Zhu Huangjun; Englert, Berthold-Georg
2011-08-15
We introduce random-matrix theory to study the tomographic efficiency of a wide class of measurements constructed out of weighted 2-designs, including symmetric informationally complete (SIC) probability operator measurements (POMs). In particular, we derive analytic formulas for the mean Hilbert-Schmidt distance and the mean trace distance between the estimator and the true state, which clearly show the difference between the scaling behaviors of the two error measures with the dimension of the Hilbert space. We then prove that the product SIC POMs, the multipartite analog of the SIC POMs, are optimal among all product measurements in the same sense as the SIC POMs are optimal among all joint measurements. We further show that, for bipartite systems, there is only a marginal efficiency advantage of the joint SIC POMs over the product SIC POMs. In marked contrast, for multipartite systems, the efficiency advantage of the joint SIC POMs increases exponentially with the number of parties.
Generating efficient quantum circuits for preparing maximally multipartite entangled states
Przemys?aw Sadowski
2013-03-15
In this work we provide a method for generating quantum circuits preparing maximally multipartite entangled states using genetic programming. The presented method is faster that known realisations thanks to the applied fitness function and several modifications to the genetic programming schema. Moreover, we enrich the described method by the unique possibility to define an arbitrary structure of a system. We use the developed method to find new quantum circuits, which are simpler from known results. We also analyse the efficiency of generating entanglement in the spin chain system and in the system of complete connections.
Efficient decoherence-free entanglement distribution over lossy quantum channels
Rikizo Ikuta; Yohei Ono; Toshiyuki Tashima; Takashi Yamamoto; Masato Koashi; Nobuyuki Imoto
2011-06-09
We propose and demonstrate a scheme for boosting up the efficiency of entanglement distribution based on a decoherence-free subspace (DFS) over lossy quantum channels. By using backward propagation of a coherent light, our scheme achieves an entanglement-sharing rate that is proportional to the transmittance T of the quantum channel in spite of encoding qubits in multipartite systems for the DFS. We experimentally show that highly entangled states, which can violate the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality, are distributed at a rate proportional to T.
Efficient decoherence-free entanglement distribution over lossy quantum channels
Ikuta, Rikizo; Tashima, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Takashi; Koashi, Masato; Imoto, Nobuyuki
2010-01-01
We propose and demonstrate a scheme for boosting up the efficiency of entanglement distribution based on a decoherence-free subspace (DFS) over lossy quantum channels. By using backward propagation of a coherent light, our scheme achieves an entanglement-sharing rate that is proportional to the transmittance T of the quantum channel in spite of encoding qubits in multipartite systems for the DFS. We experimentally show that highly entangled states, which can violate the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality, are distributed at a rate proportional to T.
Efficient numerical schemes for electronic states in coupled quantum dots.
Hwang, Tsung-Min; Wang, Wei-Hua; Wang, Weichung
2008-07-01
Electronic states in coupled quantum dots are studied numerically and qualitatively in this article. A second-order finite volume scheme based on uniform meshes is first developed to solve the three-dimensional Schrödinger equation. The scheme is used to solve the eigenvalue problem with more than 12 million unknowns. Using these efficient numerical tools, we study quantum structure induced interactions, with emphases on the effects of dot size and space layer thickness. The numerical experiments have predicted the phenomena that envelope functions become delocalized over two QDs and the energy levels show anticrossing behavior. PMID:19051927
Intermediate Band Solar Cell with Extreme Broadband Spectrum Quantum Efficiency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Datas, A.; López, E.; Ramiro, I.; Antolín, E.; Martí, A.; Luque, A.; Tamaki, R.; Shoji, Y.; Sogabe, T.; Okada, Y.
2015-04-01
We report, for the first time, about an intermediate band solar cell implemented with InAs/AlGaAs quantum dots whose photoresponse expands from 250 to ˜6000 nm . To our knowledge, this is the broadest quantum efficiency reported to date for a solar cell and demonstrates that the intermediate band solar cell is capable of producing photocurrent when illuminated with photons whose energy equals the energy of the lowest band gap. We show experimental evidences indicating that this result is in agreement with the theory of the intermediate band solar cell, according to which the generation recombination between the intermediate band and the valence band makes this photocurrent detectable.
Efficient multi-party quantum key agreement by cluster states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Zhiwei; Yu, Jianping; Wang, Ping
2015-10-01
A quantum key agreement (QKA) protocol by utilizing a four-photon cluster state is proposed in this paper. The proposed QKA protocol extends the two-party QKA protocol with four-qubit cluster state (Shen et al. in Quantum Inf Process 13:2313-2324, 2014) into a multi-party case. The block transmission technique and decoy photons method are used in the presented protocol. Meanwhile, the qubit efficiency of the presented protocol is also improved by using the dense coding method. Security analysis shows that the proposed protocol is secure against both participant and outside attacks.
Efficient Multi-Dimensional Simulation of Quantum Confinement Effects in Advanced MOS Devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biegel, Bryan A.; Rafferty, Conor S.; Ancona, Mario G.; Yu, Zhi-Ping
2000-01-01
We investigate the density-gradient (DG) transport model for efficient multi-dimensional simulation of quantum confinement effects in advanced MOS devices. The formulation of the DG model is described as a quantum correction to the classical drift-diffusion model. Quantum confinement effects are shown to be significant in sub-100nm MOSFETs. In thin-oxide MOS capacitors, quantum effects may reduce gate capacitance by 25% or more. As a result, the inclusion or quantum effects in simulations dramatically improves the match between C-V simulations and measurements for oxide thickness down to 2 nm. Significant quantum corrections also occur in the I-V characteristics of short-channel (30 to 100 nm) n-MOSFETs, with current drive reduced by up to 70%. This effect is shown to result from reduced inversion charge due to quantum confinement of electrons in the channel. Also, subthreshold slope is degraded by 15 to 20 mV/decade with the inclusion of quantum effects via the density-gradient model, and short channel effects (in particular, drain-induced barrier lowering) are noticeably increased.
Long wavelength characterization of internal quantum efficiency in LT--GaAs MSM photodiodes
Morse, J.D.; Mariella, R.P. Jr.
1991-12-01
Metal-Semiconductor-Metal (MSM) photodiodes fabricated from low temperature all grown GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy have been characterized for wavelengths extending out to 1.5{mu}m. External quantum efficiencies on the order of 0.5 % have been measured for subbandgap wavelengths, which translates to internal quantum efficiencies of 2--4 % for the interdigitated electrode structure with 1{mu}m finger spacing and width. Although the effective lifetime of the LT-GaAs has been determined to be
High-efficiency "green" quantum dot solar cells.
Pan, Zhenxiao; Mora-Seró, Iván; Shen, Qing; Zhang, Hua; Li, Yan; Zhao, Ke; Wang, Jin; Zhong, Xinhua; Bisquert, Juan
2014-06-25
Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are extremely interesting materials for the development of photovoltaic devices, but currently the present the drawback is that the most efficient devices have been prepared with toxic heavy metals of Cd or Pb. Solar cells based on "green" QDs--totally free of Cd or Pb--present a modest efficiency of 2.52%. Herein we achieve effective surface passivation of the ternary CuInS2 (CIS) QDs that provides high photovoltaic quality core/shell CIS/ZnS (CIS-Z) QDs, leading to the development of high-efficiency green QD solar cells that surpass the performance of those based on the toxic cadmium and lead chalcogenides QDs. Using wide absorption range QDs, CIS-Z-based quantum dot sensitized solar cell (QDSC) configuration with high QD loading and with the benefit of the recombination reduction with type-I core/shell structure, we boost the power conversion efficiency of Cd- and Pb-free QDSC to a record of 7.04% (with certified efficiency of 6.66%) under AM 1.5G one sun irradiation. This efficiency is the best performance to date for QDSCs and also demonstrates that it is possible to obtain comparable or even better photovoltaic performance from green CIS QDs to the toxic cadmium and lead chalcogenides QDs. PMID:24877600
Quantum-circuit design for efficient simulations of many-body quantum dynamics
Sadegh Raeisi; Nathan Wiebe; Barry C. Sanders
2012-10-10
We construct an efficient autonomous quantum-circuit design algorithm for creating efficient quantum circuits to simulate Hamiltonian many-body quantum dynamics for arbitrary input states. The resultant quantum circuits have optimal space complexity and employ a sequence of gates that is close to optimal with respect to time complexity. We also devise an algorithm that exploits commutativity to optimize the circuits for parallel execution. As examples, we show how our autonomous algorithm constructs circuits for simulating the dynamics of Kitaev's honeycomb model and the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer model of superconductivity. Furthermore we provide numerical evidence that the rigorously proven upper bounds for the simulation error here and in previous work may sometimes overestimate the error by orders of magnitude compared to the best achievable performance for some physics-inspired simulations.
Enhancing robustness of multiparty quantum correlations using weak measurement
Singh, Uttam; Mishra, Utkarsh; Dhar, Himadri Shekhar
2014-11-15
Multipartite quantum correlations are important resources for the development of quantum information and computation protocols. However, the resourcefulness of multipartite quantum correlations in practical settings is limited by its fragility under decoherence due to environmental interactions. Though there exist protocols to protect bipartite entanglement under decoherence, the implementation of such protocols for multipartite quantum correlations has not been sufficiently explored. Here, we study the effect of local amplitude damping channel on the generalized Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger state, and use a protocol of optimal reversal quantum weak measurement to protect the multipartite quantum correlations. We observe that the weak measurement reversal protocol enhances the robustness of multipartite quantum correlations. Further it increases the critical damping value that corresponds to entanglement sudden death. To emphasize the efficacy of the technique in protection of multipartite quantum correlation, we investigate two proximately related quantum communication tasks, namely, quantum teleportation in a one sender, many receivers setting and multiparty quantum information splitting, through a local amplitude damping channel. We observe an increase in the average fidelity of both the quantum communication tasks under the weak measurement reversal protocol. The method may prove beneficial, for combating external interactions, in other quantum information tasks using multipartite resources. - Highlights: • Extension of weak measurement reversal scheme to protect multiparty quantum correlations. • Protection of multiparty quantum correlation under local amplitude damping noise. • Enhanced fidelity of quantum teleportation in one sender and many receivers setting. • Enhanced fidelity of quantum information splitting protocol.
Fluorescence quantum efficiency of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots embedded in biofluids: pH dependence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pilla, Viviane; Alves, Leandro P.; de Santana, Juliana F.; da Silva, Leandro G.; Ruggiero, Reinaldo; Munin, Egberto
2012-11-01
The radiative quantum efficiency (?) of CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) embedded in synthetic oral fluid was measured using a thermal lens (TL) technique. TL transient measurements were performed using the mode-mismatched dual-beam (excitation and probe) configuration. Thermal optical characterization of CdSe/ZnS QDs was performed for two different core sizes (3.9 and 5.1 nm) incorporated into synthetic saliva with different potential of hydrogen (pH 4-8) values. The thermal diffusivity (D) and average emission wavelength (??em?) results are approximately independent of the pH of the solutions evaluated. The fractions of absorbed energy converted into heat (?) and ? are dependent on both the fluid pH and core size of the CdSe/ZnS core-shell QDs. The dependence on pH was also evidenced by fluorescence measurements, which corroborate the results obtained by the thermal lens technique.
Dynamics of incompatibility of quantum measurements in open systems
Carole Addis; Teiko Heinosaari; Jukka Kiukas; Elsi-Mari Laine; Sabrina Maniscalco
2015-08-19
The non-classical nature of quantum states, often illustrated using entanglement measures or quantum discord, constitutes a resource for quantum information protocols. However, the non-classicality of a quantum system cannot be encapsulated as a property of the state alone, as the set of available measurements used to extract information on the system is typically restricted. In this work we study how the non-classicality of quantum measurements, quantified via their incompatibility, is influenced by quantum noise and, further, how a non-Markovian environment may help us in maintaining the measurement resources.
1-qubit versus 2-qubit measurement based quantum computing
Danos, Vincent - Laboratoire Preuves, Programmes et Systèmes, Université Paris 7
1-qubit versus 2-qubit measurement based quantum computing Vincent Danos Universit´e Paris 7 & CNRS and universal quantum computing model based on 2-qubit measurements (TQC), which embeds trivially in a model, then measurement, then local corrections. 1 Introduction The basic quantum computing toolkit consists of unitary
Measuring polynomial invariants of multiparty quantum states
Leifer, M.S.; Linden, N.; Winter, A.
2004-05-01
We present networks for directly estimating the polynomial invariants of multiparty quantum states under local transformations. The structure of these networks is closely related to the structure of the invariants themselves and this lends a physical interpretation to these otherwise abstract mathematical quantities. Specifically, our networks estimate the invariants under local unitary (LU) transformations and under stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC). Our networks can estimate the LU invariants for multiparty states, where each party can have a Hilbert space of arbitrary dimension and the SLOCC invariants for multiqubit states. We analyze the statistical efficiency of our networks compared to methods based on estimating the state coefficients and calculating the invariants.
Not Available
2011-12-01
A new device that produces and collects multiple electrons per photon could yield inexpensive, high-efficiency photovoltaics. A new device developed through research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) reduces conventional losses in photovoltaic (PV) solar cells, potentially increasing the power conversion efficiency-but not the cost-of the solar cells. Solar cells convert optical energy from the sun into usable electricity; however, almost 50% of the incident energy is lost as heat with present-day technologies. High-efficiency, multi-junction cells reduce this heat loss, but their cost is significantly higher. NREL's new device uses excess energy in solar photons to create extra charges rather than heat. This was achieved using 5-nanometer-diameter quantum dots of lead selenide (PbSe) tightly packed into a film. The researchers chemically treated the film, and then fabricated a device that yielded an external quantum efficiency (number of electrons produced per incident photon) exceeding 100%, a value beyond that of all current solar cells for any incident photon. Quantum dots are known to efficiently generate multiple excitons (a bound electron-hole pair) per absorbed high-energy photon, and this device definitively demonstrates the collection of multiple electrons per photon in a PV cell. The internal quantum efficiency corrects for photons that are not absorbed in the photoactive layer and shows that the PbSe film generates 30% to 40% more electrons in the high-energy spectral region than is possible with a conventional solar cell. While the unoptimized overall power conversion efficiency is still low (less than 5%), the results have important implications for PV because such high quantum efficiency can lead to more electrical current produced than possible using present technologies. Furthermore, this fabrication is also amenable to inexpensive, high-throughput roll-to-roll manufacturing.
Measurement-device-independent quantum cryptography
Feihu Xu; Marcos Curty; Bing Qi; Hoi-Kwong Lo
2015-01-07
In theory, quantum key distribution (QKD) provides information-theoretic security based on the laws of physics. Owing to the imperfections of real-life implementations, however, there is a big gap between the theory and practice of QKD, which has been recently exploited by several quantum hacking activities. To fill this gap, a novel approach, called measurement-device-independent QKD (mdiQKD), has been proposed. It can remove all side-channels from the measurement unit, arguably the most vulnerable part in QKD systems, thus offering a clear avenue towards secure QKD realisations. Here, we review the latest developments in the framework of mdiQKD, together with its assumptions, strengths and weaknesses.
Quantum Theory as Efficient Representation of Probabilistic Information
Johann Summhammer
2007-01-25
Quantum experiments yield random data. We show that the most efficient way to store this empirical information by a finite number of bits is by means of the vector of square roots of observed relative frequencies. This vector has the unique property that its dispersion becomes invariant of the underlying probabilities, and therefore invariant of the physical parameters. This also extends to the complex square roots, and it remains true under a unitary transformation. This reveals quantum theory as a theory for making predictions which are as accurate as the input information, without any statistical loss. Our analysis also suggests that from the point of view of information a slightly more accurate theory than quantum theory should be possible.
On quantum interferometric measurements of temperature
Marcin Jarzyna; Marcin Zwierz
2015-09-14
We provide a detailed description of the quantum interferometric thermometer, which is a device that estimates the temperature of a sample from the measurements of the optical phase. For the first time, we rigorously analyze the operation of such a device by studying the interaction of the optical probe system prepared in a single-mode Gaussian state with a heated sample modeled as a dissipative thermal reservoir. We find that this approach to thermometry is capable of measuring the temperature of a sample in the nanokelvin regime. Furthermore, we compare the fundamental precision of quantum interferometric thermometers with the theoretical precision offered by the classical idealized pyrometers, which infer the temperature from a measurement of the total thermal radiation emitted by the sample. We find that the interferometric thermometer provides a superior performance in temperature sensing even when compared with this idealized pyrometer. We predict that interferometric thermometers will prove useful for ultraprecise temperature sensing and stabilization of quantum optical experiments based on the nonlinear crystals and atomic vapors.
Resonant infrared detector with substantially unit quantum efficiency
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farhoomand, Jam (inventor); Mcmurray, Robert E., Jr. (inventor)
1994-01-01
A resonant infrared detector includes an infrared-active layer which has first and second parallel faces and which absorbs radiation of a given wavelength. The detector also includes a first tuned reflective layer, disposed opposite the first face of the infrared-active layer, which reflects a specific portion of the radiation incident thereon and allows a specific portion of the incident radiation at the given wavelength to reach the infrared-active layer. A second reflective layer, disposed opposite the second face of the infrared-active layer, reflects back into the infrared-active layer substantially all of the radiation at the given wavelength which passes through the infrared-active layer. The reflective layers have the effect of increasing the quantum efficiency of the infrared detector relative to the quantum efficiency of the infrared-active layer alone.
Enhanced Quantum Efficiency From Hybrid Cesium Halide/Copper Photocathode
Kong, Lingmei; Joly, Alan G.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Gong, Yu; Hess, Wayne P.
2014-04-28
The quantum efficiency of Cu is found to increase dramatically when coated by a CsI film and then irradiated by a UV laser. Over three orders of magnitude quantum efficiency enhancement at 266 nm is observed in CsI/Cu(100), indicating potential application in future photocathode devices. Upon laser irradiation, a large work function reduction to a value less than 2 eV is also observed, significantly greater than for similarly treated CsBr/Cu(100). The initial QE enhancement, prior to laser irradiation, is attributed to interface interaction, surface cleanliness and the intrinsic properties of the Cs halide film. Further QE enhancement following activation is attributed to formation of inter-band states and Cs metal accumulation at the interface induced by laser irradiation.
Enhanced quantum efficiency from hybrid cesium halide/copper photocathodes
Kong, Lingmei; Joly, Alan G.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Gong, Yu; Hess, Wayne P.
2014-04-28
The quantum efficiency (QE) of Cu is found to increase dramatically when coated by a CsI film and then irradiated by a UV laser. Over three orders of magnitude quantum efficiency enhancement at 266?nm is observed in CsI/Cu(100), indicating potential application in future photocathode devices. Upon laser irradiation, a large work function reduction to a value less than 2?eV is also observed, significantly greater than for similarly treated CsBr/Cu(100). The initial QE enhancement, prior to laser irradiation, is attributed to interface interaction and the intrinsic properties of the Cs halide film. Further QE enhancement following activation is attributed to formation of inter-band states and Cs metal accumulation at the interface induced by laser irradiation.
Inherent randomness as a measure of quantum coherence
Xiao Yuan; Hongyi Zhou; Zhu Cao; Xiongfeng Ma
2015-05-15
Based on the theory of quantum mechanics, intrinsic randomness in measurement distinguishes quantum effects from classical ones. From the perspective of states, this quantum feature can be summarized as coherence or superposition in a specific (classical) computational basis. Recently, by regarding coherence as a physical resource, Baumgratz et al.~present a comprehensive framework for coherence measures. Here, we propose a quantum coherence measure essentially using the intrinsic randomness of measurement. The proposed coherence measure provides an answer to the open question in completing the resource theory of coherence. Meanwhile, we show that the coherence distillation process can be treated as quantum extraction, which can replace the extraction process in quantum random number generators. From this viewpoint, the proposed coherence measure also clarifies the operational aspect of quantum coherence. Finally, our results indicate a strong similarity between two types of quantumness --- coherence and entanglement.
Efficient method for the calculation of dissipative quantum transport in quantum cascade lasers.
Greck, Peter; Birner, Stefan; Huber, Bernhard; Vogl, Peter
2015-03-01
We present a novel and very efficient method for calculating quantum transport in quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). It follows the nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) framework but sidesteps the calculation of lesser self-energies by replacing them by a quasi-equilibrium expression. This method generalizes the phenomenological Büttiker probe model by taking into account individual scattering mechanisms. It is orders of magnitude more efficient than a fully self-consistent NEGF calculation for realistic devices. We apply this method to a new THz QCL design which works up to 250 K - according to our calculations. PMID:25836876
e measure of all things: quantum mechanics and the soul
Halvorson, Hans
e measure of all things: quantum mechanics and the soul Hans Halvorson Introduction e twentieth and our place in the universe). e introduction of quantum mechanics may be the greatest scienti c around quantum mechanics. For example, some claim that quantum mechanics proves that the universe
Characterization of Quantum Entangled States and Information Measures
Josep Batle-Vallespir
2006-03-14
The present Thesis covers the subject of the characterization of entangled states by recourse to entropic measures, as well as the description of entanglement related to several issues in quantum mechanics, such as the speed of a quantum evolution or the connections existing between quantum entanglement and quantum phase transitions.
Thermoelectric efficiency of three-terminal quantum thermal machines
Francesco Mazza; Riccardo Bosisio; Giuliano Benenti; Vittorio Giovannetti; Rosario Fazio; Fabio Taddei
2014-08-28
The efficiency of a thermal engine working in linear response regime in a multi-terminals configuration is discussed. For the generic three-terminal case, we provide a general definition of local and non-local transport coefficients: electrical and thermal conductances, and thermoelectric powers. Within the Onsager formalism, we derive analytical expressions for the efficiency at maximum power, which can be written in terms of generalized figures of merit. Also, using two examples, we investigate numerically how a third terminal could improve the performance of a quantum system, and under which conditions non-local thermoelectric effects can be observed.
Measurement theory in local quantum physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okamura, Kazuya; Ozawa, Masanao
2016-01-01
In this paper, we aim to establish foundations of measurement theory in local quantum physics. For this purpose, we discuss a representation theory of completely positive (CP) instruments on arbitrary von Neumann algebras. We introduce a condition called the normal extension property (NEP) and establish a one-to-one correspondence between CP instruments with the NEP and statistical equivalence classes of measuring processes. We show that every CP instrument on an atomic von Neumann algebra has the NEP, extending the well-known result for type I factors. Moreover, we show that every CP instrument on an injective von Neumann algebra is approximated by CP instruments with the NEP. The concept of posterior states is also discussed to show that the NEP is equivalent to the existence of a strongly measurable family of posterior states for every normal state. Two examples of CP instruments without the NEP are obtained from this result. It is thus concluded that in local quantum physics not every CP instrument represents a measuring process, but in most of physically relevant cases every CP instrument can be realized by a measuring process within arbitrary error limits, as every approximately finite dimensional von Neumann algebra on a separable Hilbert space is injective. To conclude the paper, the concept of local measurement in algebraic quantum field theory is examined in our framework. In the setting of the Doplicher-Haag-Roberts and Doplicher-Roberts theory describing local excitations, we show that an instrument on a local algebra can be extended to a local instrument on the global algebra if and only if it is a CP instrument with the NEP, provided that the split property holds for the net of local algebras.
Kahl, Oliver; Ferrari, Simone; Kovalyuk, Vadim; Goltsman, Gregory N.; Korneev, Alexander; Pernice, Wolfram H. P.
2015-01-01
Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) provide high efficiency for detecting individual photons while keeping dark counts and timing jitter minimal. Besides superior detection performance over a broad optical bandwidth, compatibility with an integrated optical platform is a crucial requirement for applications in emerging quantum photonic technologies. Here we present SNSPDs embedded in nanophotonic integrated circuits which achieve internal quantum efficiencies close to unity at 1550?nm wavelength. This allows for the SNSPDs to be operated at bias currents far below the critical current where unwanted dark count events reach milli-Hz levels while on-chip detection efficiencies above 70% are maintained. The measured dark count rates correspond to noise-equivalent powers in the 10?19?W/Hz?1/2 range and the timing jitter is as low as 35?ps. Our detectors are fully scalable and interface directly with waveguide-based optical platforms. PMID:26061283
Kahl, Oliver; Ferrari, Simone; Kovalyuk, Vadim; Goltsman, Gregory N; Korneev, Alexander; Pernice, Wolfram H P
2015-01-01
Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) provide high efficiency for detecting individual photons while keeping dark counts and timing jitter minimal. Besides superior detection performance over a broad optical bandwidth, compatibility with an integrated optical platform is a crucial requirement for applications in emerging quantum photonic technologies. Here we present SNSPDs embedded in nanophotonic integrated circuits which achieve internal quantum efficiencies close to unity at 1550 nm wavelength. This allows for the SNSPDs to be operated at bias currents far below the critical current where unwanted dark count events reach milli-Hz levels while on-chip detection efficiencies above 70% are maintained. The measured dark count rates correspond to noise-equivalent powers in the 10(-19) W/Hz(-1/2) range and the timing jitter is as low as 35 ps. Our detectors are fully scalable and interface directly with waveguide-based optical platforms. PMID:26061283
Covariant quantum measurements may not be optimal
Asher Peres; Petra F. Scudo
2001-10-21
Quantum particles, such as spins, can be used for communicating spatial directions to observers who share no common coordinate frame. We show that if the emitter's signals are the orbit of a group, then the optimal detection method may not be a covariant measurement (contrary to widespread belief). It may be advantageous for the receiver to use a different group and an indirect estimation method: first, an ordinary measurement supplies redundant numerical parameters; the latter are then used for a nonlinear optimal identification of the signal.
Quantum state tomography by continuous measurement and compressed sensing
A. Smith; C. A. Riofrío; B. E. Anderson; H. Sosa-Martinez; I. H. Deutsch; P. S. Jessen
2013-03-14
The need to perform quantum state tomography on ever larger systems has spurred a search for methods that yield good estimates from incomplete data. We study the performance of compressed sensing (CS) and least squares (LS) estimators in a fast protocol based on continuous measurement on an ensemble of cesium atomic spins. Both efficiently reconstruct nearly pure states in the 16-dimensional ground manifold, reaching average fidelities FCS = 0.92 and FLS = 0.88 using similar amounts of incomplete data. Surprisingly, the main advantage of CS in our protocol is an increased robustness to experimental imperfections.
Statistical theory of ideal quantum measurement processes
Armen E. Allahverdyan; Roger Balian; Theo M. Nieuwenhuizen
2015-02-24
A minimalist theory of ideal quantum measurements is presented. The tested system S and the apparatus A are treated as a compound, isolated system, and the process is identified with the establishment of a generalised thermodynamic equilibrium. The results can be found on the level of thermodynamics, with a qualitative account of the relaxation mechanisms, but they can also be derived through detailed dynamic calculations based on standard quantum statistical mechanics. A quantum formalism without interpretation is used, where density operators encode knowledge about properties of a statistical ensemble, and also of its subensembles. The analysis of the measurement involves three steps. The first one deals with the dynamics of the density matrix of S+A associated with a large set of runs; it involves both the disappearance of the off-diagonal blocks (by decoherence or dephasing)and the establishment of correlations between S and the pointer of A in the diagonal blocks. The desired form for this density matrix at the end of the process is thus obtained, under some specified conditions to be fulfilled by the Hamiltonian. However, due to a quantum ambiguity, this is not sufficient to account for the occurrence of a well defined outcome for each individual run of the ensemble. Therefore, in a second step, a stronger result is established, concerning all possible subensembles of runs. Their associated density operators are shown to relax towards the required structure owing to a specific mechanism that acts near the end of the process. In the third step, the equations thus formally obtained are interpreted by means of postulates which relate macrophysics to microphysics and pertain more to A than to S. The properties currently attributed to ideal measurements are thereby recovered most economically, and the status of Born's rule is re-evaluated.
Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution
Yang Liu; Teng-Yun Chen; Liu-Jun Wang; Hao Liang; Guo-Liang Shentu; Jian Wang; Ke Cui; Hua-Lei Yin; Nai-Le Liu; Li Li; Xiongfeng Ma; Jason S. Pelc; M. M. Fejer; Qiang Zhang; Jian-Wei Pan
2012-09-27
Throughout history, every advance in encryption has been defeated by advances in hacking with severe consequences. Quantum cryptography holds the promise to end this battle by offering unconditional security when ideal single-photon sources and detectors are employed. Unfortunately, ideal devices never exist in practice and device imperfections have become the targets of various attacks. By developing up-conversion single-photon detectors with high efficiency and low noise, we build up a measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) system, which is immune to all hacking strategies on detection. Meanwhile, we employ the decoy-state method to defeat attacks on non-ideal source. By closing the loopholes in both source and detection, our practical system, which generates more than 25 kbit secure key over a 50-km fiber link, provides an ultimate solution for communication security.
Experimental Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yang; Chen, Teng-Yun; Wang, Liu-Jun; Liang, Hao; Shentu, Guo-Liang; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Yin, Hua-Lei; Liu, Nai-Le; Li, Li; Ma, Xiongfeng; Pelc, Jason S.; Fejer, M. M.; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2013-09-01
Quantum key distribution is proven to offer unconditional security in communication between two remote users with ideal source and detection. Unfortunately, ideal devices never exist in practice and device imperfections have become the targets of various attacks. By developing up-conversion single-photon detectors with high efficiency and low noise, we faithfully demonstrate the measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol, which is immune to all hacking strategies on detection. Meanwhile, we employ the decoy-state method to defend attacks on a nonideal source. By assuming a trusted source scenario, our practical system, which generates more than a 25 kbit secure key over a 50 km fiber link, serves as a stepping stone in the quest for unconditionally secure communications with realistic devices.
Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution.
Liu, Yang; Chen, Teng-Yun; Wang, Liu-Jun; Liang, Hao; Shentu, Guo-Liang; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Yin, Hua-Lei; Liu, Nai-Le; Li, Li; Ma, Xiongfeng; Pelc, Jason S; Fejer, M M; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2013-09-27
Quantum key distribution is proven to offer unconditional security in communication between two remote users with ideal source and detection. Unfortunately, ideal devices never exist in practice and device imperfections have become the targets of various attacks. By developing up-conversion single-photon detectors with high efficiency and low noise, we faithfully demonstrate the measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol, which is immune to all hacking strategies on detection. Meanwhile, we employ the decoy-state method to defend attacks on a nonideal source. By assuming a trusted source scenario, our practical system, which generates more than a 25 kbit secure key over a 50 km fiber link, serves as a stepping stone in the quest for unconditionally secure communications with realistic devices. PMID:24116758
Efficient tools for quantum metrology with uncorrelated noise
Jan Kolodynski; Rafal Demkowicz-Dobrzanski
2013-07-08
Quantum metrology offers an enhanced performance in experiments such as gravitational wave-detection, magnetometry or atomic clocks frequency calibration. The enhancement, however, requires a delicate tuning of relevant quantum features such as entanglement or squeezing. For any practical application the inevitable impact of decoherence needs to be taken into account in order to correctly quantify the ultimate attainable gain in precision. We compare the applicability and the effectiveness of various methods of calculating the ultimate precision bounds resulting from the presence of decoherence. This allows us to put a number of seemingly unrelated concepts into a common framework and arrive at an explicit hierarchy of quantum metrological methods in terms of the tightness of the bounds they provide. In particular, we show a way to extend the techniques originally proposed in Demkowicz-Dobrzanski et al 2012 Nat. Commun. 3 1063, so that they can be efficiently applied not only in the asymptotic but also in the finite-number of particles regime. As a result, we obtain a simple and direct method, yielding bounds that interpolate between the quantum enhanced scaling characteristic for small number of particles and the asymptotic regime, where quantum enhancement amounts to a constant factor improvement. Methods are applied to numerous models including noisy phase and frequency estimation, as well as the estimation of the decoherence strength itself.
Optical and quantum efficiency analysis of (Ag,Cu)(In,Ga)Se2 absorber layers
Boyle, Jonathan; Hanket, Gregory; Shafarman, William
2009-06-09
(Ag,Cu)(In,Ga)Se2 thin films have been deposited by elemental co-evaporation over a wide range of compositions and their optical properties characterized by transmission and reflection measurements and by relative shift analysis of quantum efficiency device measurements. The optical bandgaps were determined by performing linear fits of (?h?)2 vs. h?, and the quantum efficiency bandgaps were determined by relative shift analysis of device curves with fixed Ga/(In+Ga) composition, but varying Ag/(Cu+Ag) composition. The determined experimental optical bandgap ranges of the Ga/(In+Ga) = 0.31, 0.52, and 0.82 groups, with Ag/(Cu+Ag) ranging from 0 to 1, were 1.19-1.45 eV, 1.32-1.56 eV, and 1.52-1.76 eV, respectively. The optical bowing parameter of the different Ga/(In+Ga) groups was also determined.
Detection of VUV light at high quantum efficiency with large area avalanche photodiodes (LAAPDs)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chandrasekharan, R.; Messina, M.; Rubbia, A.
2006-11-01
Large Area Avalanche Photodiodes (LAAPDs) were used for a series of systematic measurements of the scintillation light in Ar, Kr, and Xe gas. Absolute quantum efficiencies are derived. Values for Xe and Kr are consistent with those given by the manufacturer. For the first time we show that argon scintillation (128 nm) can be detected at a quantum efficiency above 40%. Low-pressure argon gas is shown to emit significant amounts of non-UV radiation. The average energy expenditure for the creation of non-UV photons in argon gas at this pressure is measured to be below 378 eV. Further, the principle of light collection by means of flexible Al+MgF2 reflectors has been shown to work for argon scintillation light.
A highly efficient (>6%) Cd1xMnxSe quantum dot sensitized solar cell
Cao, Guozhong
of the quantum efficiency of the solar cells. The power conversion efficiency of the solar cell is increased to 6A highly efficient (>6%) Cd1ÀxMnxSe quantum dot sensitized solar cell Jianjun Tian,*a Lili Lv,12,13 Improving the power conversion efficiency (h) of QDSCs has always been an overarching concern for all
Quantum efficiency harmonic analysis of exciton annihilation in organic light emitting diodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Price, J. S.; Giebink, N. C.
2015-06-01
Various exciton annihilation processes are known to impact the efficiency roll-off of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs); however, isolating and quantifying their contribution in the presence of other factors such as changing charge balance continue to be a challenge for routine device characterization. Here, we analyze OLED electroluminescence resulting from a sinusoidal dither superimposed on the device bias and show that nonlinearity between recombination current and light output arising from annihilation mixes the quantum efficiency measured at different dither harmonics in a manner that depends uniquely on the type and magnitude of the annihilation process. We derive a series of analytical relations involving the DC and first harmonic external quantum efficiency that enable annihilation rates to be quantified through linear regression independent of changing charge balance and evaluate them for prototypical fluorescent and phosphorescent OLEDs based on the emitters 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran and platinum octaethylporphyrin, respectively. We go on to show that, in most cases, it is sufficient to calculate the needed quantum efficiency harmonics directly from derivatives of the DC light versus current curve, thus enabling this analysis to be conducted solely from standard light-current-voltage measurement data.
Dynamic Distance Measures on Spaces of Isospectral Mixed Quantum States
Ole Andersson; Hoshang Heydari
2013-06-11
Distance measures are indispensable tools in quantum information processing and quantum computing. This since they can be used to quantify to what extent information is preserved, or altered, by quantum processes. In this paper we propose a new distance measure for mixed quantum states, that we call the dynamic distance measure, and show that it is a proper distance measure. The dynamic distance measure is defined in terms of a measurable quantity, which make it very suitable for applications. In a final section we compare the dynamical distance measure with the well-known Bures distance.
Performances of the new high quantum efficiency PMTs in DAMA/LIBRA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernabei, R.; Belli, P.; Bussolotti, A.; Cappella, F.; Caracciolo, V.; Casalboni, M.; Cerulli, R.; Dai, C. J.; d'Angelo, A.; Di Marco, A.; He, H. L.; Incicchitti, A.; Kuang, H. H.; Laubenstein, M.; Ma, X. H.; Mattei, A.; Montecchia, F.; Palazzesi, C.; Prosposito, P.; Sheng, X. D.; Wang, R. G.; Ye, Z. P.
2012-03-01
New dedicated high quantum efficiency (Q.E.) photomultipliers (PMTs) have been produced by HAMAMATSU company, tested, selected and installed in the DAMA/LIBRA set-up at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) of the I.N.F.N.. In this paper the results obtained in the measurements of various features of these high Q.E. PMTs are reported, and some performances of DAMA/LIBRA in this new configuration are shown.
On the Unpredictability of Individual Quantum Measurement Outcomes
Svozil, Karl
On the Unpredictability of Individual Quantum Measurement Outcomes Alastair A. Abbott1,2 , Cristian)predictability of individual phys- ical events. We use this model to provide, for the first time, a rigorous proof of the unpredictability of a class of individual quantum measure- ment outcomes, a well-known quantum attribute postulated
Quantum measurement and estimation Zdenek Hradil, Jaroslav Rehacek
Hradil, Zdenek
quantum state is most likely in view of the measured data?" [2]. For this purpose the likelihoodQuantum measurement and estimation Zdenek Hradil, Jaroslav RehÂ´acek Department of Optics, Palack-mail: hradil@risc.upol.cz Abstract: Information about quantum systems is inferred from a sequence
QPL 2005 Preliminary Version Distributed measurement-based quantum
Selinger, Peter
measurement-based quantum computa- tions, adopting an agent-based view, such that computations are describedQPL 2005 Preliminary Version Distributed measurement-based quantum computation Vincent Danos 1 locally where possible. Because the network quantum state is in general entangled, we need to model
DeLucia, Evan H.
Abstract Photosynthetic efficiency is often quantified as the light-limited, maximum quantum yield in eco- physiological studies. Four published comparative stud- ies report that photosynthetic efficiency photosynthetic efficiencies. To in- vestigate the validity of these differing interpretations, we compiled
Quantum coherence in photosynthesis for efficient solar-energy conversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romero, Elisabet; Augulis, Ramunas; Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I.; Ferretti, Marco; Thieme, Jos; Zigmantas, Donatas; van Grondelle, Rienk
2014-09-01
The crucial step in the conversion of solar to chemical energy in photosynthesis takes place in the reaction centre, where the absorbed excitation energy is converted into a stable charge-separated state by ultrafast electron transfer events. However, the fundamental mechanism responsible for the near-unity quantum efficiency of this process is unknown. Here we elucidate the role of coherence in determining the efficiency of charge separation in the plant photosystem II reaction centre by comprehensively combining experiment (two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy) and theory (Redfield theory). We reveal the presence of electronic coherence between excitons as well as between exciton and charge-transfer states that we argue to be maintained by vibrational modes. Furthermore, we present evidence for the strong correlation between the degree of electronic coherence and efficient and ultrafast charge separation. We propose that this coherent mechanism will inspire the development of new energy technologies.
Evaluation of the Timing Properties of a High Quantum Efficiency Photomultiplier Tube.
Peng, Qiyu; Choong, Woon-Seng; Moses, W William
2013-10-01
We measured the timing resolution of 189 R9800-100 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), which are a SBA (Super Bialkali, high quantum efficiency) variant of the R9800 high-performance PMT manufactured by Hamamatsu Photonics, and correlated their timing resolutions with various measures of PMT performance, namely Cathode Luminous Sensitivity (CLS), Anode Luminous Sensitivity (ALS), Gain times Collection Efficiency (GCE), Cathode Blue Sensitivity Index (CBSI), Anode Blue Sensitivity Index (ABSI) and dark current. The correlation results show: (1) strong correlations between timing resolution and ALS, ABSI, and GCE; (2) moderate correlations between timing resolution and CBSI; and (3) weak or no correlations between timing resolution and dark current and CLS. The results disclosed that all three measures that include data collected from the anode (ALS, ABSI, and GCE) affect the timing resolution more than either of the two measures that only include photocathode data (CBSI and CLS). We conclude that: (1) the photocathode Quantum Efficiency (QE) and the product of the Gain and the Collection Efficiency (GCE) are the two dominant factors that affect the timing resolution, (2) the GCE variation affects the timing resolution more than the QE variation in the R9800 PMT, and (3) the performance depends on photocathode position. PMID:24526798
Intrinsic randomness as a measure of quantum coherence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Xiao; Zhou, Hongyi; Cao, Zhu; Ma, Xiongfeng
2015-08-01
Based on the theory of quantum mechanics, intrinsic randomness in measurement distinguishes quantum effects from classical ones. From the perspective of states, this quantum feature can be summarized as coherence or superposition in a specific (classical) computational basis. Recently, by regarding coherence as a physical resource, Baumgratz et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 140401 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.140401] presented a comprehensive framework for coherence measures. Here, we propose a quantum coherence measure essentially using the intrinsic randomness of measurement. The proposed coherence measure provides an answer to the open question in completing the resource theory of coherence. Meanwhile, we show that the coherence distillation process can be treated as quantum extraction, which can be regarded as an equivalent process of classical random number extraction. From this viewpoint, the proposed coherence measure also clarifies the operational aspect of quantum coherence. Finally, our results indicate a strong similarity between two types of quantumness—coherence and entanglement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Zhi; Yao, Chunmei; Zou, Jian
2013-10-01
Using the weak measurement (WM) and quantum measurement reversal (QMR) approach, robust state transfer and entanglement distribution can be realized in the spin-(1)/(2) Heisenberg chain. We find that the ultrahigh fidelity and long distance of quantum state transfer with certain success probability can be obtained using proper WM and QMR, i.e., the average fidelity of a general pure state from 80% to almost 100%, which is almost size independent. We also find that the distance and quality of entanglement distribution for the Bell state and the general Werner mixed state can be obviously improved by the WM and QMR approach.
Tracking photon jumps with repeated quantum non-demolition parity measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, L.; Petrenko, A.; Leghtas, Z.; Vlastakis, B.; Kirchmair, G.; Sliwa, K. M.; Narla, A.; Hatridge, M.; Shankar, S.; Blumoff, J.; Frunzio, L.; Mirrahimi, M.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.
2014-07-01
Quantum error correction is required for a practical quantum computer because of the fragile nature of quantum information. In quantum error correction, information is redundantly stored in a large quantum state space and one or more observables must be monitored to reveal the occurrence of an error, without disturbing the information encoded in an unknown quantum state. Such observables, typically multi-quantum-bit parities, must correspond to a special symmetry property inherent in the encoding scheme. Measurements of these observables, or error syndromes, must also be performed in a quantum non-demolition way (projecting without further perturbing the state) and more quickly than errors occur. Previously, quantum non-demolition measurements of quantum jumps between states of well-defined energy have been performed in systems such as trapped ions, electrons, cavity quantum electrodynamics, nitrogen-vacancy centres and superconducting quantum bits. So far, however, no fast and repeated monitoring of an error syndrome has been achieved. Here we track the quantum jumps of a possible error syndrome, namely the photon number parity of a microwave cavity, by mapping this property onto an ancilla quantum bit, whose only role is to facilitate quantum state manipulation and measurement. This quantity is just the error syndrome required in a recently proposed scheme for a hardware-efficient protected quantum memory using Schrödinger cat states (quantum superpositions of different coherent states of light) in a harmonic oscillator. We demonstrate the projective nature of this measurement onto a region of state space with well-defined parity by observing the collapse of a coherent state onto even or odd cat states. The measurement is fast compared with the cavity lifetime, has a high single-shot fidelity and has a 99.8 per cent probability per single measurement of leaving the parity unchanged. In combination with the deterministic encoding of quantum information in cat states realized earlier, the quantum non-demolition parity tracking that we demonstrate represents an important step towards implementing an active system that extends the lifetime of a quantum bit.
Exactly decohering quantum measurement without environment
Eric A. Galapon
2015-06-17
Current quantum orthodoxy claims that the statistical collapse of the wave-function arises from the interaction of the measuring instrument with its environment through the phenomenon known as environment induced decoherence. Here it is shown that there exists a measurement scheme that is exactly decohering without the aid of an environment. The scheme relies on the assumption that the meter is decomposable into probe and pointer, with the probe taken to be inaccessible for observation. Under the assumption that the probe and the pointer initial states are momentum limited, it is shown that coherences die out within a finite interval of time and the pointer states are exactly orthogonal. These lead to the fundamental realization that dispersion of correlation does not require an external infinite number of degrees of freedom. An internal one degree of freedom is already sufficient to delocalize the correlations and leave its subparts in a classical mixed state, so that decoherence may occur even for isolated measuring instruments.
Verification for measurement-only blind quantum computing
Tomoyuki Morimae
2014-06-19
Blind quantum computing is a new secure quantum computing protocol where a client who does not have any sophisticated quantum technlogy can delegate her quantum computing to a server without leaking any privacy. It is known that a client who has only a measurement device can perform blind quantum computing [T. Morimae and K. Fujii, Phys. Rev. A {\\bf87}, 050301(R) (2013)]. It has been an open problem whether the protocol can enjoy the verification, i.e., the ability of client to check the correctness of the computing. In this paper, we propose a protocol of verification for the measurement-only blind quantum computing.
Extreme ultraviolet quantum efficiency of opaque alkali halide photocathodes on microchannel plates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Siegmund, O. H. W.; Everman, E.; Vallerga, J. V.; Lampton, M.
1988-01-01
Comprehensive measurements are presented for the quantum detection efficiency (QDE) of the microchannel plate materials CsI, KBr, KCl, and MgF2, over the 44-1800 A wavelength range. QDEs in excess of 40 percent are achieved by several materials in specific wavelength regions of the EUV. Structure is noted in the wavelength dependence of the QDE that is directly related to the valence-band/conduction-band gap energy and the onset of atomic-like resonant transitions. A simple photocathode model allows interpretation of these features, together with the QDE efficiency variation, as a function of illumination angle.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... Destruction Efficiency Measurement and Monitoring Procedures for Magnet Wire Coating Operations A Appendix A... Capture Efficiency and Destruction Efficiency Measurement and Monitoring Procedures for Magnet Wire... efficiency measurement and monitoring are intended principally for newer magnet wire coating machines...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... Destruction Efficiency Measurement and Monitoring Procedures for Magnet Wire Coating Operations A Appendix A... Capture Efficiency and Destruction Efficiency Measurement and Monitoring Procedures for Magnet Wire... efficiency measurement and monitoring are intended principally for newer magnet wire coating machines...
Constraining the Correlation Distance in Quantum Measurements
Jean Schneider
2010-01-13
Standard Quantum Physics states that the outcome of measurements for some distant entangled subsystems are instantaneously statistically correlated, whatever their mutual distance. This correlation presents itself as if there were a correlation at a distance with infinite speed. It is expressed by the Bell Theorem. It has been experimentally verified over distances up to 18 km with a time resolution of a few picosecond, which can be translated into an apparent effective correlation speed larger than 10^7 c. The purpose of the present White Paper is to discuss the scientific interest and the feasibility to extend the correlation distance up to the Earth-Moon distance, i.e. 2 10^4 times larger than in present experiments. We are thus led to propose to install on the Moon a polarimter and a high performance photon detector with a high temporal resolution. Such an exploratory experiment would provide new tests of Quantum Physics and could perhaps discriminate between standard Quantum Physics and for instance the Bohmian theory.
Optimization strategies in measurement based quantum computation
Giulia Ferrini; Jonathan Roslund; Francesco Arzani; Yin Cai; Claude Fabre; Nicolas Treps
2014-07-20
This work introduces optimization strategies to continuous variable measurement based quantum computation (MBQC) at different levels. We provide a recipe for mitigating the effects of finite squeezing, which affect the production of cluster states and the result of a traditional MBQC. These strategies are readily implementable by several experimental groups. Furthermore, a more general scheme for MBQC is introduced that does not necessarily rely on the use of ancillary cluster states to achieve its aim, but rather on the detection of a resource state in a suitable mode basis followed by digital post-processing. A recipe is provided to optimize the adjustable parameters that are employed within this framework.
A Gaussian measure of quantum phase noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schleich, Wolfgang P.; Dowling, Jonathan P.
1992-01-01
We study the width of the semiclassical phase distribution of a quantum state in its dependence on the average number of photons (m) in this state. As a measure of phase noise, we choose the width, delta phi, of the best Gaussian approximation to the dominant peak of this probability curve. For a coherent state, this width decreases with the square root of (m), whereas for a truncated phase state it decreases linearly with increasing (m). For an optimal phase state, delta phi decreases exponentially but so does the area caught underneath the peak: all the probability is stored in the broad wings of the distribution.
Efficient Biologically Inspired Photocell Enhanced by Delocalized Quantum States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Creatore, C.; Parker, M. A.; Emmott, S.; Chin, A. W.
2013-12-01
Artificially implementing the biological light reactions responsible for the remarkably efficient photon-to-charge conversion in photosynthetic complexes represents a new direction for the future development of photovoltaic devices. Here, we develop such a paradigm and present a model photocell based on the nanoscale architecture and molecular elements of photosynthetic reaction centers. Quantum interference of photon absorption and emission induced by the dipole-dipole interaction between molecular excited states guarantees an enhanced light-to-current conversion and power generation for a wide range of electronic, thermal, and optical parameters for optimized dipolar geometries. This result opens a promising new route for designing artificial light-harvesting devices inspired by biological photosynthesis and quantum technologies.
Relativistic Quantum Metrology: Exploiting relativity to improve quantum measurement technologies
Mehdi Ahmadi; David Edward Bruschi; Carlos Sabín; Gerardo Adesso; Ivette Fuentes
2014-04-29
We present a framework for relativistic quantum metrology that is useful for both Earth-based and space-based technologies. Quantum metrology has been so far successfully applied to design precision instruments such as clocks and sensors which outperform classical devices by exploiting quantum properties. There are advanced plans to implement these and other quantum technologies in space, for instance Space-QUEST and Space Optical Clock projects intend to implement quantum communications and quantum clocks at regimes where relativity starts to kick in. However, typical setups do not take into account the effects of relativity on quantum properties. To include and exploit these effects, we introduce techniques for the application of metrology to quantum field theory. Quantum field theory properly incorporates quantum theory and relativity, in particular, at regimes where space-based experiments take place. This framework allows for high precision estimation of parameters that appear in quantum field theory including proper times and accelerations. Indeed, the techniques can be applied to develop a novel generation of relativistic quantum technologies for gravimeters, clocks and sensors. As an example, we present a high precision device which in principle improves the state-of-the-art in quantum accelerometers by exploiting relativistic effects.
Relativistic quantum metrology: exploiting relativity to improve quantum measurement technologies.
Ahmadi, Mehdi; Bruschi, David Edward; Sabín, Carlos; Adesso, Gerardo; Fuentes, Ivette
2014-01-01
We present a framework for relativistic quantum metrology that is useful for both Earth-based and space-based technologies. Quantum metrology has been so far successfully applied to design precision instruments such as clocks and sensors which outperform classical devices by exploiting quantum properties. There are advanced plans to implement these and other quantum technologies in space, for instance Space-QUEST and Space Optical Clock projects intend to implement quantum communications and quantum clocks at regimes where relativity starts to kick in. However, typical setups do not take into account the effects of relativity on quantum properties. To include and exploit these effects, we introduce techniques for the application of metrology to quantum field theory. Quantum field theory properly incorporates quantum theory and relativity, in particular, at regimes where space-based experiments take place. This framework allows for high precision estimation of parameters that appear in quantum field theory including proper times and accelerations. Indeed, the techniques can be applied to develop a novel generation of relativistic quantum technologies for gravimeters, clocks and sensors. As an example, we present a high precision device which in principle improves the state-of-the-art in quantum accelerometers by exploiting relativistic effects. PMID:24851858
Relativistic Quantum Metrology: Exploiting relativity to improve quantum measurement technologies
Ahmadi, Mehdi; Bruschi, David Edward; Sabín, Carlos; Adesso, Gerardo; Fuentes, Ivette
2014-01-01
We present a framework for relativistic quantum metrology that is useful for both Earth-based and space-based technologies. Quantum metrology has been so far successfully applied to design precision instruments such as clocks and sensors which outperform classical devices by exploiting quantum properties. There are advanced plans to implement these and other quantum technologies in space, for instance Space-QUEST and Space Optical Clock projects intend to implement quantum communications and quantum clocks at regimes where relativity starts to kick in. However, typical setups do not take into account the effects of relativity on quantum properties. To include and exploit these effects, we introduce techniques for the application of metrology to quantum field theory. Quantum field theory properly incorporates quantum theory and relativity, in particular, at regimes where space-based experiments take place. This framework allows for high precision estimation of parameters that appear in quantum field theory including proper times and accelerations. Indeed, the techniques can be applied to develop a novel generation of relativistic quantum technologies for gravimeters, clocks and sensors. As an example, we present a high precision device which in principle improves the state-of-the-art in quantum accelerometers by exploiting relativistic effects. PMID:24851858
Logical Interpretation of a Reversible Measurement in Quantum Computing
Giulia Battilotti; Paola Zizzi
2005-02-08
We give the logical description of a new kind of quantum measurement that is a reversible operation performed by an hypothetical insider observer, or, which is the same, a quantum measurement made in a quantum space background, like the fuzzy sphere. The result is that the non-contradiction and the excluded middle principles are both invalidated, leading to a paraconsistent, symmetric logic. Our conjecture is that, in this setting, one can develop the adequate logic of quantum computing. The role of standard quantum logic is then confined to describe the projective measurement scheme.
Gacevic, Z.; Kehagias, Th.; Koukoula, T.; Komninou, Ph.
2011-05-15
We present a study of the optical properties of GaN/AlN and InGaN/GaN quantum dot (QD) superlattices grown via plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy, as compared to their quantum well (QW) counterparts. The three-dimensional/two-dimensional nature of the structures has been verified using atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The QD superlattices present higher internal quantum efficiency as compared to the respective QWs as a result of the three-dimensional carrier localization in the islands. In the QW samples, photoluminescence (PL) measurements point out a certain degree of carrier localization due to structural defects or thickness fluctuations, which is more pronounced in InGaN/GaN QWs due to alloy inhomogeneity. In the case of the QD stacks, carrier localization on potential fluctuations with a spatial extension smaller than the QD size is observed only for the InGaN QD-sample with the highest In content (peak emission around 2.76 eV). These results confirm the efficiency of the QD three-dimensional confinement in circumventing the potential fluctuations related to structural defects or alloy inhomogeneity. PL excitation measurements demonstrate efficient carrier transfer from the wetting layer to the QDs in the GaN/AlN system, even for low QD densities ({approx}10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}). In the case of InGaN/GaN QDs, transport losses in the GaN barriers cannot be discarded, but an upper limit to these losses of 15% is deduced from PL measurements as a function of the excitation wavelength.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bloom, Ilam; Nemirovsky, Yael
1991-04-01
The quantum efficiency and crosstalk of backside illuminated indium antimonide photodiodes in hybrid focal plane arrays are calculated. An improved structure with crosswise ohmic contacts at the backside of the thinned InSb substrate is described. The simulations predict a significant reduction in the crosstalk while retaining high quantum efficiency. High quality InSb PV detector arrays and test devices were fabricated. The process includes lithography on both sides, etch thinning technique and highly controlled passivation on each side for optimum performance. The measurements show good agreement with calculations and indicate that there is no degradation due to fabrication. This study demonstrates the feasability of an improved hybrid staring FPA combining backside illuminated 2D PV detectors in thinned InSb coupled to a silicon processor.
Photocurrent extraction efficiency in colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics
Kemp, K. W.; Wong, C. T. O.; Hoogland, S. H.; Sargent, E. H.
2013-11-18
The efficiency of photocurrent extraction was studied directly inside operating Colloidal Quantum Dot (CQD) photovoltaic devices. A model was derived from first principles for a thin film p-n junction with a linearly spatially dependent electric field. Using this model, we were able to clarify the origins of recent improvement in CQD solar cell performance. From current-voltage diode characteristics under 1 sun conditions, we extracted transport lengths ranging from 39 nm to 86 nm for these materials. Characterization of the intensity dependence of photocurrent extraction revealed that the dominant loss mechanism limiting the transport length is trap-mediated recombination.
Measuring entanglement entropy in a quantum many-body system.
Islam, Rajibul; Ma, Ruichao; Preiss, Philipp M; Tai, M Eric; Lukin, Alexander; Rispoli, Matthew; Greiner, Markus
2015-12-01
Entanglement is one of the most intriguing features of quantum mechanics. It describes non-local correlations between quantum objects, and is at the heart of quantum information sciences. Entanglement is now being studied in diverse fields ranging from condensed matter to quantum gravity. However, measuring entanglement remains a challenge. This is especially so in systems of interacting delocalized particles, for which a direct experimental measurement of spatial entanglement has been elusive. Here, we measure entanglement in such a system of itinerant particles using quantum interference of many-body twins. Making use of our single-site-resolved control of ultracold bosonic atoms in optical lattices, we prepare two identical copies of a many-body state and interfere them. This enables us to directly measure quantum purity, Rényi entanglement entropy, and mutual information. These experiments pave the way for using entanglement to characterize quantum phases and dynamics of strongly correlated many-body systems. PMID:26632587
Blind topological measurement-based quantum computation
Tomoyuki Morimae; Keisuke Fujii
2012-09-06
Blind quantum computation is a novel secure quantum-computing protocol that enables Alice, who does not have sufficient quantum technology at her disposal, to delegate her quantum computation to Bob, who has a fully fledged quantum computer, in such a way that Bob cannot learn anything about Alice's input, output and algorithm. A recent proof-of-principle experiment demonstrating blind quantum computation in an optical system has raised new challenges regarding the scalability of blind quantum computation in realistic noisy conditions. Here we show that fault-tolerant blind quantum computation is possible in a topologically protected manner using the Raussendorf-Harrington-Goyal scheme. The error threshold of our scheme is 0.0043, which is comparable to that (0.0075) of non-blind topological quantum computation. As the error per gate of the order 0.001 was already achieved in some experimental systems, our result implies that secure cloud quantum computation is within reach.
Nanostructured materials show significant enhancement in the thermoelectric figure of merit (zT) due to quantum confinement effects. Improving the efficiency of thermoelectric devices allows of thermoelectric materials. These systems must possess the capability of accurately measuring the thermal
Effective fault-tolerant quantum computation with slow measurements
David P. DiVincenzo; Panos Aliferis
2006-08-03
How important is fast measurement for fault-tolerant quantum computation? Using a combination of existing and new ideas, we argue that measurement times as long as even 1,000 gate times or more have a very minimal effect on the quantum accuracy threshold. This shows that slow measurement, which appears to be unavoidable in many implementations of quantum computing, poses no essential obstacle to scalability.
Towards Minimal Resources of Measurement-based Quantum Computation
Simon Perdrix
2007-04-02
We improve the upper bound on the minimal resources required for measurement-based quantum computation. Minimizing the resources required for this model is a key issue for experimental realization of a quantum computer based on projective measurements. This new upper bound allows also to reply in the negative to the open question about the existence of a trade-off between observable and ancillary qubits in measurement-based quantum computation.
Linear quantum trajectories: Applications to continuous projection measurements
K. Jacobs; P. L. Knight
2007-05-22
We present a method for obtaining evolution operators for linear quantum trajectories. We apply this to a number of physical examples of varying mathematical complexity, in which the quantum trajectories describe the continuous projection measurement of physical observables. Using this method we calculate the average conditional uncertainty for the measured observables, being a central quantity of interest in these measurement processes.
Entanglement as measure of electronelectron correlation in quantum chemistry calculations
Kais, Sabre
Entanglement as measure of electronelectron correlation in quantum chemistry calculations ZhenÕ to a correlation of quantum nature. He stated that for an entangled state Ôthe best possible knowledge of the whole] there has been a quest for generating entanglement between quantum particles [10,17]. Investigation
Impossible Measurements on Quantum Fields* RAFAEL D. SORKIN
Sorkin, Rafael Dolnick
, and reinforcing the view that a sum-over-histories framework is the most promising one for quantum gravity. 1;eld theory, it can also be viewed as a promising development for quantum gravity. It means that someImpossible Measurements on Quantum Fields* RAFAEL D. SORKIN Department of Physics, Syracuse
KLM quantum computation as a measurement based computation
Sandu Popescu
2006-10-04
We show that the Knill Laflamme Milburn method of quantum computation with linear optics gates can be interpreted as a one-way, measurement based quantum computation of the type introduced by Briegel and Rausendorf. We also show that the permanent state of n n-dimensional systems is a universal state for quantum computation.
D'Ariano, G M; Lo Presti, P
2001-05-01
Quantum operations describe any state change allowed in quantum mechanics, including the evolution of an open system or the state change due to a measurement. We present a general method based on quantum tomography for measuring experimentally the matrix elements of an arbitrary quantum operation. As input the method needs only a single entangled state. The feasibility of the technique for the electromagnetic field is shown, and the experimental setup is illustrated based on homodyne tomography of a twin beam. PMID:11328133
Wellington Alves de Brito; Rubens Viana Ramos
2007-06-08
The interferometry of single-photon pulses has been used to implement quantum technology systems, like quantum key distribution, interaction-free measurement and some other quantum communication protocols. In most of these implementations, Mach-Zehnder, Michelson and Fabry-Perot interferometers are the most used. In this work we present optical setups for interaction-free measurement, quantum key distribution and quantum secret sharing using the Sagnac interferometer. The proposed setups are described as well the quantum protocols using them are explained.
Tests of multimode quantum non-locality with homodyne measurements
Antonio Acín; Nicolas J. Cerf; Alessandro Ferraro; Julien Niset
2008-09-02
We investigate the violation of local realism in Bell tests involving homodyne measurements performed on multimode continuous-variable states. By binning the measurement outcomes in an appropriate way, we prove that the Mermin-Klyshko inequality can be violated by an amount that grows exponentially with the number of modes. Furthermore, the maximum violation allowed by quantum mechanics can be attained for any number of modes, albeit requiring a quantum state that is rather unrealistic. Interestingly, this exponential increase of the violation holds true even for simpler states, such as multipartite GHZ states. The resulting benefit of using more modes is shown to be significant in practical multipartite Bell tests by analyzing the increase of the robustness to noise with the number of modes. In view of the high efficiency achievable with homodyne detection, our results thus open a possible way to feasible loophole-free Bell tests that are robust to experimental imperfections. We provide an explicit example of a three-mode state (a superposition of coherent states) which results in a significantly high violation of the Mermin-Klyshko inequality (around 10%) with homodyne measurements.
Quantum Efficiency and Topography of Heated and Plasma-Cleaned Copper Photocathode Surfaces
Palmer, Dennis T.; Kirby, R.E.; King, F.K.; /SLAC
2005-08-04
We present measurements of photoemission quantum efficiency (QE) for copper photocathodes heated and cleaned by low energy argon and hydrogen ion plasma. The QE and surface roughness parameters were measured before and after processing and surface chemical composition was tracked in-situ with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Thermal annealing at 230 C was sufficient to improve the QE by 3-4 orders of magnitude, depending on the initial QE. Exposure to residual gas slowly reduced the QE but it was easily restored by argon ion cleaning for a few minutes. XPS showed that the annealing or ion bombardment removed surface water and hydrocarbons.
MEASUREMENT OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND CAPTURE EFFICIENCY
This report reviews the feasibility considerations regarding each of several potential alternate approaches for determining capture efficiency and experimental testing of one approach, the liquid/gas-phase material balance. Two phases of experimental testing were conducted: labor...
Recovering classical dynamics from coupled quantum systems through continuous measurement
Shohini Ghose; Paul M. Alsing; Ivan H. Deutsch; Tanmoy Bhattacharya; Salman Habib; Kurt Jacobs
2003-06-10
We study the role of continuous measurement in the quantum to classical transition for a system with coupled internal (spin) and external (motional) degrees of freedom. Even when the measured motional degree of freedom can be treated classically, entanglement between spin and motion causes strong measurement backaction on the quantum spin subsystem so that classical trajectories are not recovered in this mixed quantum-classical regime. The measurement can extract localized quantum trajectories that behave classically only when the internal action also becomes large relative to h-bar.
Recovering classical dynamics from coupled quantum systems through continuous measurement
Ghose, Shohini; Alsing, Paul; Deutsch, Ivan; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Habib, Salman; Jacobs, Kurt
2003-05-01
We study the role of continuous measurement in the quantum to classical transition for a system with coupled internal (spin) and external (motional) degrees of freedom. Even when the measured motional degree of freedom can be treated classically, entanglement between spin and motion causes strong measurement back action on the quantum spin subsystem so that classical trajectories are not recovered in this mixed quantum-classical regime. The measurement can extract localized quantum trajectories that behave classically only when the internal action also becomes large relative to ({Dirac_h}/2{pi})
Recovering classical dynamics from coupled quantum systems through continuous measurement
Ghose, S; Deutsch, I H; Bhattacharya, T; Habib, S; Jacobs, K; Ghose, Shohini; Alsing, Paul M.; Deutsch, Ivan H.; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Habib, Salman; Jacobs, Kurt
2003-01-01
We study the role of continuous measurement in the quantum to classical transition for a system with coupled internal (spin) and external (motional) degrees of freedom. Even when the measured motional degree of freedom can be treated classically, entanglement between spin and motion causes strong measurement backaction on the quantum spin subsystem so that classical trajectories are not recovered in this mixed quantum-classical regime. The measurement can extract localized quantum trajectories that behave classically only when the internal action also becomes large relative to h-bar.
Classical interventions in quantum systems. I. The measuring process
Asher Peres
2000-02-07
The measuring process is an external intervention in the dynamics of a quantum system. It involves a unitary interaction of that system with a measuring apparatus, a further interaction of both with an unknown environment causing decoherence, and then the deletion of a subsystem. This description of the measuring process is a substantial generalization of current models in quantum measurement theory. In particular, no ancilla is needed. The final result is represented by a completely positive map of the quantum state $\\rho$ (possibly with a change of the dimensions of $\\rho$). A continuous limit of the above process leads to Lindblad's equation for the quantum dynamical semigroup.
Radix-independent, efficient arrays for multi-level n-qudit quantum and reversible computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohammadi, Majid
2015-08-01
Multiple-valued quantum logic allows the designers to reduce the number of cells while obtaining more functionality in the quantum circuits. Large r-valued reversible or quantum gates ( r stands for radix and is more than 2) cannot be directly realized in the current quantum technology. Therefore, we are interested in designing the large reversible and quantum controlled gates using the arrays of one-quantum digit (qudit) or two-qudit gates. In our previous work, we proposed quantum arrays to implement the r-valued quantum circuits. In this paper, we propose novel efficient structures and arrays, for r-valued quantum logic gates. The quantum costs of the developed quantum arrays are independent of the radix of calculations in the quantum circuit.
Computable Measure of Total Quantum Correlation of Multipartite Systems
Javad Behdani; Seyed Javad Akhtarshenas; Mohsen Sarbishaei
2015-09-29
Quantum discord as a measure of the quantum correlations cannot be easily computed for most of density operators. In this paper, we present a measure of the total quantum correlations that is operationally simple and can be computed effectively for an arbitrary mixed state of a multipartite system. The measure is based on the coherence vector of the party whose quantumness is investigated as well as the correlation matrix of this part with the remainder of the system. Being able to detect the quantumness of multipartite systems, such as detecting the quantum critical points in spin chains, alongside with the computability characteristic of the measure, make it a useful indicator to be exploited in the cases which are out of the scope of the other known measures.
Broadband quantum efficiency enhancement in high index nanowire resonators.
Yang, Yiming; Peng, Xingyue; Hyatt, Steven; Yu, Dong
2015-05-13
Light trapping in subwavelength semiconductor nanowires (NWs) offers a promising approach to simultaneously reducing material consumption and enhancing photovoltaic performance. Nevertheless, the absorption efficiency of a NW, defined by the ratio of optical absorption cross section to the NW diameter, lingers around 1 in existing NW photonic devices, and the absorption enhancement suffers from a narrow spectral width. Here, we show that the absorption efficiency can be significantly improved in NWs with higher refractive indices, by an experimental observation of up to 350% apparent external quantum efficiency in lead sulfide NW resonators, a 3-fold increase compared to Si NWs. Furthermore, broadband absorption enhancement is achieved in single tapered NWs, where light of various wavelengths is absorbed at segments with different diameters. Overall, the single NW Schottky junction solar cells benefit from optical resonance, near bandgap open circuit voltage, and long minority carrier diffusion length, demonstrating power conversion efficiency comparable to Si and III-V single NW coaxial p-n junction cells but with much simpler fabrication processes. PMID:25919358
Hybrid architecture for encoded measurement-based quantum computation
M. Zwerger; H. J. Briegel; W. Dür
2013-08-21
We present a hybrid scheme for quantum computation that combines the modular structure of elementary building blocks used in the circuit model with the advantages of a measurement-based approach to quantum computation. We show how to construct optimal resource states of minimal size to implement elementary building blocks for encoded quantum computation in a measurement-based way, including states for error correction and encoded gates. The performance of the scheme is determined by the quality of the resource states, where within this error model we find a threshold of the order of 10% local noise per particle for fault-tolerant quantum computation and quantum communication.
The amplification of weak measurements under quantum noise
Xuanmin Zhu; Yu-Xiang Zhang
2015-05-08
The influence of outside quantum noises on the amplification of weak measurements is investigated. Three typical quantum noises are discussed. The maximum values of the pointer's shifts decrease sharply with the strength of the depolarizing channel and phase damping. In order to obtain significant amplified signals, the preselection quantum systems must be kept away from the two quantum noises. Interestingly, the amplification effect is immune to the amplitude damping noise.
Quantum signatures of classical multifractal measures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schönwetter, Moritz; Altmann, Eduardo G.
2015-01-01
A clear signature of classical chaoticity in the quantum regime is the fractal Weyl law, which connects the density of eigenstates to the dimension D0 of the classical invariant set of open systems. Quantum systems of interest are often partially open (e.g., cavities in which trajectories are partially reflected or absorbed). In the corresponding classical systems D0 is trivial (equal to the phase-space dimension), and the fractality is manifested in the (multifractal) spectrum of Rényi dimensions Dq. In this paper we investigate the effect of such multifractality on the Weyl law. Our numerical simulations in area-preserving maps show for a wide range of configurations and system sizes M that (i) the Weyl law is governed by a dimension different from D0=2 , and (ii) the observed dimension oscillates as a function of M and other relevant parameters. We propose a classical model that considers an undersampled measure of the chaotic invariant set, explains our two observations, and predicts that the Weyl law is governed by a nontrivial dimension Dasymptotic
Quantum signatures of classical multifractal measures
Moritz Schönwetter; Eduardo G. Altmann
2015-01-14
A clear signature of classical chaoticity in the quantum regime is the fractal Weyl law, which connects the density of eigenstates to the dimension $D_0$ of the classical invariant set of open systems. Quantum systems of interest are often {\\it partially} open (e.g., cavities in which trajectories are partially reflected/absorbed). In the corresponding classical systems $D_0$ is trivial (equal to the phase-space dimension), and the fractality is manifested in the (multifractal) spectrum of R\\'enyi dimensions $D_q$. In this paper we investigate the effect of such multifractality on the Weyl law. Our numerical simulations in area-preserving maps show for a wide range of configurations and system sizes $M$ that (i) the Weyl law is governed by a dimension different from $D_0=2$ and (ii) the observed dimension oscillates as a function of $M$ and other relevant parameters. We propose a classical model which considers an undersampled measure of the chaotic invariant set, explains our two observations, and predicts that the Weyl law is governed by a non-trivial dimension $D_\\mathrm{asymptotic} < D_0$ in the semi-classical limit $M\\rightarrow\\infty$.
Efficient circuit implementation of quantum walks on non-degree-regular graphs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loke, T.; Wang, J. B.
2012-10-01
This paper presents a set of highly efficient quantum circuits for discrete-time quantum walks on non-degree-regular graphs. In particular, we describe a general procedure for constructing highly efficient quantum circuits for quantum walks on star graphs of any degree and Cayley trees with an arbitrary number of layers, which are nonsparse in general. We also show how to modify these circuits to implement a full quantum-walk search algorithm on these graphs, without reference to a “black-box” oracle. This provides a practically implementable method to explore quantum-walk-based algorithms with the aim of eventual real-world applications.
Takeoka, Masahiro; Fujiwara, Mikio; Mizuno, Jun; Sasaki, Masahide
2004-05-01
Quantum-information theory predicts that when the transmission resource is doubled in quantum channels, the amount of information transmitted can be increased more than twice by quantum-channel coding technique, whereas the increase is at most twice in classical information theory. This remarkable feature, the superadditive quantum-coding gain, can be implemented by appropriate choices of code words and corresponding quantum decoding which requires a collective quantum measurement. Recently, an experimental demonstration was reported [M. Fujiwara et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167906 (2003)]. The purpose of this paper is to describe our experiment in detail. Particularly, a design strategy of quantum-collective decoding in physical quantum circuits is emphasized. We also address the practical implication of the gain on communication performance by introducing the quantum-classical hybrid coding scheme. We show how the superadditive quantum-coding gain, even in a small code length, can boost the communication performance of conventional coding techniques.
Evalutaion of Energy Efficiency Measures for K-12
Hyojin, K; Haberl, J. S.; Baltazar, J.C.; Mukhopadhyay, J.; Do, S.; Kim, K.; Lewis, C.; Yazdani, B.
2011-01-01
18 EE/RE Measures Energy Efficiency/Renewable Energy (EE/RE) Measures for K-12 Schools CATEE 2011 Nov. 7 ? 9, 2011 Renewable Energy Efficiency Measures 16) Solar PV - Converts sunlight into electricity - Simple sustainable energy technology....8 Renewable Measures 16 Solar PV $21.14 $1,679,333 40 36 33 17 Solar DHW $0.14 $11,507 11 9.1 8.2 18 Ground Source Heat Pump $1.51 $120,000 80 25 12 Energy Efficiency/Renewable Energy (EE/RE) Measures for K-12 Schools CATEE 2011 Nov. 7 ? 9, 2011...
Measurement of quantum fluctuations in geometry
Hogan, Craig J.
2008-05-15
A particular form for the quantum indeterminacy of relative spacetime position of events is derived from the context of a holographic geometry with a minimum length at the Planck scale. The indeterminacy predicts fluctuations from a classically defined geometry in the form of ''holographic noise'' whose spatial character, absolute normalization, and spectrum are predicted with no parameters. The noise has a distinctive transverse spatial shear signature and a flat power spectral density given by the Planck time. An interferometer signal displays noise due to the uncertainty of relative positions of reflection events. The noise corresponds to an accumulation of phase offset with time that mimics a random walk of those optical elements that change the orientation of a wavefront. It only appears in measurements that compare transverse positions and does not appear at all in purely radial position measurements. A lower bound on holographic noise follows from a covariant upper bound on gravitational entropy. The predicted holographic noise spectrum is estimated to be comparable to measured noise in the currently operating interferometric gravitational-wave detector GEO600. Because of its transverse character, holographic noise is reduced relative to gravitational wave effects in other interferometer designs, such as the LIGO observatories, where beam power is much less in the beam splitter than in the arms.
The quantumness of correlations revealed in local measurements exceeds entanglement
Marco Piani; Gerardo Adesso
2012-01-16
We analyze a family of measures of general quantum correlations for composite systems, defined in terms of the bipartite entanglement necessarily created between systems and apparatuses during local measurements. For every entanglement monotone $E$, this operational correspondence provides a different measure $Q_E$ of quantum correlations. Examples of such measures are the relative entropy of quantumness, the quantum deficit, and the negativity of quantumness. In general, we prove that any so defined quantum correlation measure is always greater than (or equal to) the corresponding entanglement between the subsystems, $Q_E \\ge E$, for arbitrary states of composite quantum systems. We analyze qualitatively and quantitatively the flow of correlations in iterated measurements, showing that general quantum correlations and entanglement can never decrease along von Neumann chains, and that genuine multipartite entanglement in the initial state of the observed system always gives rise to genuine multipartite entanglement among all subsystems and all measurement apparatuses at any level in the chain. Our results provide a comprehensive framework to understand and quantify general quantum correlations in multipartite states.
Measure synchronization in quantum many-body systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiu, Haibo; Juliá-Díaz, Bruno; Garcia-March, Miguel Angel; Polls, Artur
2014-09-01
The concept of measure synchronization between two coupled quantum many-body systems is presented. In general terms we consider two quantum many-body systems whose dynamics gets coupled through the contact particle-particle interaction. This coupling is shown to produce measure synchronization, a generalization of synchrony to a large class of systems which takes place in absence of dissipation. We find that in quantum measure synchronization, the many-body quantum properties for the two subsystems, e.g., condensed fractions and particle fluctuations, behave in a coordinated way. To illustrate the concept we consider a simple case of two species of bosons occupying two distinct quantum states. Measure synchronization can be readily explored with state-of-the-art techniques in ultracold atomic gases and, if properly controlled, be employed to build targeted quantum correlations in a sympathetic way.
Measuring Charter School Efficiency: An Early Appraisal
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carpenter, Dick M., II; Noller, Scott L.
2010-01-01
In an era of increased accountability and challenging times for public finance, charter schools built on decentralization, grassroots accountability, and market forces may provide, in the spirit of "educational laboratories," lessons for increasing student achievement more efficiently through diverse and innovative management, organization,…
Objectivity of Quantum Measurement in Many-Observer World
Sheng-Wen Li; C. Y. Cai; X. F. Liu; C. P. Sun
2015-08-06
The objectivity of quantum measurement is treated as an emergent phenomenon with $N$ observers who can agree to the same result of measurement, and meanwhile, they can identify their records with each other. In this many-observer world (MOW), an objective quantum measurement is dealt with as a multipartite [$(N+1)$-body] quantum correlation among the measured system and $N$ observers when its bipartite reductions are the same classical correlations. With this conceptual clarification, we find that, an objective quantum measurement is implemented if and only if the MOW is initially factorized in a pure state and then the total system can evolve into a generalized GHZ state with respect to the orthogonal basis preferred by each observer. Especially, such objective quantum measurement is recast in ideal classical correlation when the observer world is macroscopic for $N\\rightarrow\\infty$.
Quantum efficiency test set up performances for NIR detector characterization at ESTEC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crouzet, P.-E.; Duvet, L.; De Wit, F.; Beaufort, T.; Blommaert, S.; Butler, B.; Van Duinkerken, G.; ter Haar, J.; Heijnen, J.; van der Luijt, K.; Smit, H.; Viale, T.
2014-07-01
The Payload Technology Validation Section (Future mission preparation Office) at ESTEC is in charge of specific mission oriented validation activities, for science and robotic exploration missions, aiming at reducing development risks in the implementation phase. These activities take place during the early mission phases or during the implementation itself. In this framework, a test set up to characterize the quantum efficiency of near infrared detectors has been developed. The first detector to be tested will an HAWAII-2RG detector with a 2.5?m cut off, it will be used as commissioning device in preparation to the tests of prototypes European detectors developed under ESA funding. The capability to compare on the same setup detectors from different manufacturers will be a unique asset for the future mission preparation office. This publication presents the performances of the quantum efficiency test bench to prepare measurements on the HAWAII-2RG detector. A SOFRADIR Saturn detector has been used as a preliminary test vehicle for the bench. A test set up with a lamp, chopper, monochromator, pinhole and off axis mirrors allows to create a spot of 1mm diameter between 700nm and 2.5?m.The shape of the beam has been measured to match the rms voltage read by the Merlin Lock -in amplifier and the amplitude of the incoming signal. The reference detectors have been inter-calibrated with an uncertainty up to 3 %. For the measurement with HAWAII-2RG detector, the existing cryostat [1] has been modified to adapt cold black baffling, a cold filter wheel and a sapphire window. An statistic uncertainty of +/-2.6% on the quantum efficiency on the detector under test measurement is expected.
On the Nature of Measurement in Quantum Mechanics
D. M. Snyder
2000-02-28
A number of issues related to measurement show that self-consistency is lacking in quantum mechanics as this theory has been generally understood. Each issue is presented as a point in this paper. Each point can be resolved by incorporating a cognitive component in quantum mechanics. Measurement in quantum mechanics involves the meaning of the physical circumstances of the experiment. This meaning is in part independent of what traditionally are considered purely physical considerations.
Building America Top Innovations 2012: National Residential Efficiency Measures Database
none,
2013-01-01
This Building America Top Innovations profile describes the DOE-sponsored National Residential Efficiency Measures Database, which contains performance characteristics and cost estimates for nearly 3,000 energy retrofit measures. To date, it is used in four prominent DOE software packages to help optimize energy-efficiency recommendations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... Destruction Efficiency Measurement and Monitoring Procedures for Magnet Wire Coating Operations A Appendix A... Efficiency and Destruction Efficiency Measurement and Monitoring Procedures for Magnet Wire Coating... measurement and monitoring are intended principally for newer magnet wire coating machines where the...
Efficient light emitting devices utilizing CdSe(ZnS) quantum dots in organic host matrices
Coe-Sullivan, Seth (Seth Alexander)
2002-01-01
We demonstrate efficient electroluminescence from thin film structures containing core-shell CdSe(ZnS) quantum dots dispersed in molecular organic host materials. In the most efficient devices, excitons are created on the ...
Title of Dissertation: CHARACTERIZATION OF QUANTUM EFFICIENCY AND ROBUSTNESS OF CESIUM-BASED
Anlage, Steven
ABSTRACT Title of Dissertation: CHARACTERIZATION OF QUANTUM EFFICIENCY AND ROBUSTNESS OF CESIUM efficiency photocathodes find their delicate cesium-based coatings inexorably lost. In answer, the work herein presents careful, focused studies on cesium-based photocathodes, particularly motivated
Tulsi Dass
2006-12-29
Supmech, an algebraic scheme of mechanics integrating noncommutative symplectic geometry and noncommutative probability, subsumes quantum and classical mechanics and permits consistent treatment of interaction of quantum and classical systems. Quantum measurements are treated in this framework; the von Neumann reduction rule (generally postulated) is derived and interpreted in physical terms.
Ji, Wenyu; Zeng, Qinghui; Jing, Pengtao; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Qu, Songnan; Li, Di; Wang, Jia; Shan, Chong-Xin
2015-12-14
Time-resolved photoluminescence and electroluminescence measurements were used to explore the emission characteristics of excitons in quantum dot light-emitting diodes (QD-LEDs). It is found that the lifetime of excitons in the QDs can be varied by adjusting the distance between the excitons and metal Al mirror, which is due to the effect of local density of optical states (LDOS) on the exciton decay rate. QD-LEDs with different hole transport layer (HTL) thickness, i.e., different distance between QDs and Al reflective anode, have been fabricated and it is found that the HTL thickness affects the device efficiency performance greatly, and the optimal HTL thickness for the red QD-LED (emission peak is at 621 nm) is 80 nm. These results shed light on the factors affecting the efficiency and efficiency roll-off in QD-LEDs, thus may provide a clue for high performance QD-LEDs. PMID:26699030
Enhancing the quantum efficiency of InGaN yellow-green light-emitting diodes by growth interruption
Du, Chunhua; Ma, Ziguang; Zhou, Junming; Lu, Taiping; Jiang, Yang; Zuo, Peng; Jia, Haiqiang; Chen, Hong
2014-08-18
We studied the effect of multiple interruptions during the quantum well growth on emission-efficiency enhancement of InGaN-based yellow-green light emitting diodes on c-plane sapphire substrate. The output power and dominant wavelength at 20?mA are 0.24 mW and 556.3?nm. High resolution x-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, and electroluminescence measurements demonstrate that efficiency enhancement could be partially attributed to crystal quality improvement of the active region resulted from reduced In clusters and relevant defects on the surface of InGaN layer by introducing interruptions. The less tilted energy band in the quantum well is also caused by the decrease of In-content gradient along c-axis resulted from In segregation during the interruptions, which increases spatial overlap of electron-hole wavefunction and thus the internal quantum efficiency. The latter also leads to smaller blueshift of dominant wavelength with current increasing.
Quantum Nondemolition Measurement Enables Macroscopic Leggett-Garg Tests
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Budroni, C.; Vitagliano, G.; Colangelo, G.; Sewell, R. J.; Gühne, O.; Tóth, G.; Mitchell, M. W.
2015-11-01
We show how a test of macroscopic realism based on Leggett-Garg inequalities (LGIs) can be performed in a macroscopic system. Using a continuous-variable approach, we consider quantum nondemolition (QND) measurements applied to atomic ensembles undergoing magnetically driven coherent oscillation. We identify measurement schemes requiring only Gaussian states as inputs and giving a significant LGI violation with realistic experimental parameters and imperfections. The predicted violation is shown to be due to true quantum effects rather than to a classical invasivity of the measurement. Using QND measurements to tighten the "clumsiness loophole" forces the stubborn macrorealist to recreate quantum backaction in his or her account of measurement.
Quantum Nondemolition Measurement Enables Macroscopic Leggett-Garg Tests.
Budroni, C; Vitagliano, G; Colangelo, G; Sewell, R J; Gühne, O; Tóth, G; Mitchell, M W
2015-11-13
We show how a test of macroscopic realism based on Leggett-Garg inequalities (LGIs) can be performed in a macroscopic system. Using a continuous-variable approach, we consider quantum nondemolition (QND) measurements applied to atomic ensembles undergoing magnetically driven coherent oscillation. We identify measurement schemes requiring only Gaussian states as inputs and giving a significant LGI violation with realistic experimental parameters and imperfections. The predicted violation is shown to be due to true quantum effects rather than to a classical invasivity of the measurement. Using QND measurements to tighten the "clumsiness loophole" forces the stubborn macrorealist to recreate quantum backaction in his or her account of measurement. PMID:26613423
Continuous Quantum Measurement and the Emergence of Classical Chaos
Tanmoy Bhattacharya; Salman Habib; Kurt Jacobs
2000-07-13
We formulate the conditions under which the dynamics of a continuously measured quantum system becomes indistinguishable from that of the corresponding classical system. In particular, we demonstrate that even in a classically chaotic system the quantum state vector conditioned by the measurement remains localized and, under these conditions, follows a trajectory characterized by the classical Lyapunov exponent.
Continuous quantum measurement and the emergence of classical chaos
Bhattacharya; Habib; Jacobs
2000-12-01
We formulate the conditions under which the dynamics of a continuously measured quantum system becomes indistinguishable from that of the corresponding classical system. In particular, we demonstrate that even in a classically chaotic system the quantum state vector conditioned by the measurement remains localized and, under these conditions, follows a trajectory characterized by the classical Lyapunov exponent. PMID:11102134
Continuous Quantum Measurement and the Emergence of Classical Chaos
Bhattacharya, T; Jacobs, K; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Habib, Salman; Jacobs, Kurt
2000-01-01
We formulate the conditions under which the dynamics of a continuously measured quantum system becomes indistinguishable from that of the corresponding classical system. In particular, we demonstrate that even in a classically chaotic system the quantum state vector conditioned by the measurement remains localized and, under these conditions, follows a trajectory characterized by the classical Lyapunov exponent.
Irrational Dynamical Variables and the Measurement Problem in Quantum Mechanics
Christopher Engelhardt
2015-07-08
The quantum mechanical measurement process is considered. A hypothetical concept of irrational dynamical variables is proposed. A possible definition of measurement is discussed along with a mathematical method to calculate experimental result probabilities. The postulates of quantum mechanics are analyzed and modified. Thought experiments and implications are considered.
Towards a Robust, Efficient Dispenser Photocathode: the Effect of Recesiation on Quantum Efficiency
Montgomery, Eric J.; Pan Zhigang; Leung, Jessica; Feldman, Donald W.; O'Shea, Patrick G.; Jensen, Kevin L.
2009-01-22
Future electron accelerators and Free Electron Lasers (FELs) require high brightness electron sources; photocathodes for such devices are challenged to maintain long life and high electron emission efficiency (high quantum efficiency, or QE). The UMD dispenser photocathode design addresses this tradeoff of robustness and QE. In such a dispenser, a cesium-based surface layer is deposited on a porous substrate. The surface layer can be replenished from a subsurface cesium reservoir under gentle heating, allowing cesium to diffuse controllably to the surface and providing demonstrably more robust photocathodes. In support of the premise that recesiation is able to restore contaminated photocathodes, we here report controlled contamination of cesium-based surface layers with subsequent recesiation and the resulting effect on QE. Contaminant gases investigated include examples known from the vacuum environment of typical electron guns.
Feihu Xu; Marcos Curty; Bing Qi; Li Qian; Hoi-Kwong Lo
2015-06-29
We demonstrate that, with a fair comparison, the secret key rate of discrete-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (DV-MDI-QKD) with high-efficiency single-photon detectors and good system alignment is typically rather high and thus highly suitable for not only long distance communication but also metropolitan networks. The previous reservation on the key rate and suitability of DV-MDI-QKD for metropolitan networks expressed by Pirandola et al. [Nature Photon. 9, 397 (2015)] was based on an unfair comparison with low-efficiency detectors and high quantum bit error rate, and is, in our opinion, unjustified.
Collier, J; Aldoohan, S; Gill, K
2014-06-01
Purpose: Reducing patient dose while maintaining (or even improving) image quality is one of the foremost goals in CT imaging. To this end, we consider the feasibility of optimizing CT scan protocols in conjunction with the application of different beam-hardening filtrations and assess this augmentation through noise-power spectrum (NPS) and detector quantum efficiency (DQE) analysis. Methods: American College of Radiology (ACR) and Catphan phantoms (The Phantom Laboratory) were scanned with a 64 slice CT scanner when additional filtration of thickness and composition (e.g., copper, nickel, tantalum, titanium, and tungsten) had been applied. A MATLAB-based code was employed to calculate the image of noise NPS. The Catphan Image Owl software suite was then used to compute the modulated transfer function (MTF) responses of the scanner. The DQE for each additional filter, including the inherent filtration, was then computed from these values. Finally, CT dose index (CTDIvol) values were obtained for each applied filtration through the use of a 100 mm pencil ionization chamber and CT dose phantom. Results: NPS, MTF, and DQE values were computed for each applied filtration and compared to the reference case of inherent beam-hardening filtration only. Results showed that the NPS values were reduced between 5 and 12% compared to inherent filtration case. Additionally, CTDIvol values were reduced between 15 and 27% depending on the composition of filtration applied. However, no noticeable changes in image contrast-to-noise ratios were noted. Conclusion: The reduction in the quanta noise section of the NPS profile found in this phantom-based study is encouraging. The reduction in both noise and dose through the application of beam-hardening filters is reflected in our phantom image quality. However, further investigation is needed to ascertain the applicability of this approach to reducing patient dose while maintaining diagnostically acceptable image qualities in a clinical setting.
Enhancing teleportation of quantum Fisher information by partial measurements
Xing Xiao; Yao Yao; Wo-Jun Zhong; Yan-Ling Li; Ying-Mao Xie
2015-11-05
The purport of quantum teleportation is to completely transfer information from one party to another distant partner. However, from the perspective of parameter estimation, it is the information carried by a particular parameter, not the information of total quantum state that needs to be teleported. Due to the inevitable noise in environment, we propose two schemes to enhance quantum Fisher information (QFI) teleportation under amplitude damping noise with the technique of partial measurements. We find that post partial measurement can greatly enhance the teleported QFI, while the combination of prior partial measurement and post partial measurement reversal could completely eliminate the effect of decoherence. We show that, somewhat consequentially, enhancing QFI teleportation is more economic than that of improving fidelity teleportation. Our work extends the ability of partial measurements as a quantum technique to battle decoherence in quantum information processing.
Optimal randomness certification in the quantum steering and prepare-and-measure scenarios
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Passaro, Elsa; Cavalcanti, Daniel; Skrzypczyk, Paul; Acín, Antonio
2015-11-01
Quantum mechanics predicts the existence of intrinsically random processes. Contrary to classical randomness, this lack of predictability can not be attributed to ignorance or lack of control. Here we find the optimal method to quantify the amount of local or global randomness that can be extracted in two scenarios: (i) the quantum steering scenario, where two parties measure a bipartite system in an unknown state but one of them does not trust his measurement apparatus, and (ii) the prepare-and-measure scenario, where additionally the quantum state is known. We use our methods to compute the maximal amount of local and global randomness that can be certified by measuring systems subject to noise and losses and show that local randomness can be certified from a single measurement if and only if the detectors used in the test have detection efficiency higher than 50%.
Distance measures to compare real and ideal quantum processes
Alexei Gilchrist; Nathan K. Langford; Michael A. Nielsen
2009-01-27
With growing success in experimental implementations it is critical to identify a "gold standard" for quantum information processing, a single measure of distance that can be used to compare and contrast different experiments. We enumerate a set of criteria such a distance measure must satisfy to be both experimentally and theoretically meaningful. We then assess a wide range of possible measures against these criteria, before making a recommendation as to the best measures to use in characterizing quantum information processing.
Measuring capital market efficiency: Global and local correlations structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kristoufek, Ladislav; Vosvrda, Miloslav
2013-01-01
We introduce a new measure for capital market efficiency. The measure takes into consideration the correlation structure of the returns (long-term and short-term memory) and local herding behavior (fractal dimension). The efficiency measure is taken as a distance from an ideal efficient market situation. The proposed methodology is applied to a portfolio of 41 stock indices. We find that the Japanese NIKKEI is the most efficient market. From a geographical point of view, the more efficient markets are dominated by the European stock indices and the less efficient markets cover mainly Latin America, Asia and Oceania. The inefficiency is mainly driven by a local herding, i.e. a low fractal dimension.
Cerf, Nicolas
Secure coherent-state quantum key distribution protocols with efficient reconciliation G. Van of a realistic quantum key distribution protocol using coherent states and homo- dyne detection with a formalRevA.71.052304 PACS number s : 03.67.Dd, 89.70. c I. INTRODUCTION The quantum key distribution QKD , also
Efficient many-party controlled teleportation of multiqubit quantum information via entanglement
Chu, Shih-I
Efficient many-party controlled teleportation of multiqubit quantum information via entanglement essentially through entangling quantum information during teleportation, in such a way that the required 2004) We present a way to teleport multiqubit quantum information from a sender to a distant receiver
Revisiting a Limit on Efficient Quantum Computation Tarsem S. Purewal Jr.
Geller, Michael R.
Revisiting a Limit on Efficient Quantum Computation Tarsem S. Purewal Jr. Department of Computer and no knowledge of quan- tum mechanics. Keywords Computational Complexity, Quantum Computing 1. INTRODUCTION In the race to build a quantum computer, the question of whether or not such a machine will be more useful
On the existence of quantum representations for two dichotomic measurements
Fritz, Tobias
2010-05-15
Under which conditions do outcome probabilities of measurements possess a quantum-mechanical model? This kind of problem is solved here for the case of two dichotomic von Neumann measurements which can be applied repeatedly to a quantum system with trivial dynamics. The solution uses methods from the theory of operator algebras and the theory of moment problems. The ensuing conditions reveal surprisingly simple relations between certain quantum-mechanical probabilities. It also shown that generally, none of these relations holds in general probabilistic models. This result might facilitate further experimental discrimination between quantum mechanics and other general probabilistic theories.
Super efficient absorption filter for quantum memory using atomic ensembles in a vapor
Shahriar, Selim
Super efficient absorption filter for quantum memory using atomic ensembles in a vapor Alexander demonstrate how a natural rubidium vapor cell can efficiently filter out a pump beam that produces an Raman is critical to the realization of a single photon quantum memory based on vapor cells. Ã? 2004 Elsevier B
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Jiadong; Wang, Lai; Yang, Di; Hao, Zhibiao; Luo, Yi; Sun, Changzheng; Han, Yanjun; Xiong, Bing; Wang, Jian; Li, Hongtao
2015-09-01
The InGaN quantum dot (QD) is promising for use in green light-emitting diodes and laser diodes owing to its small strain and weak quantum-confined Stark effect. However, its small carrier capture cross section still sets a limit to its internal quantum efficiency (IQE). Tunneling-enhanced carrier transfer in a coupled InGaN/GaN quantum well (QW) and quantum dot structure has been studied on the basis of temperature-dependent and time-resolved photoluminescence. It is found that carriers can tunnel from a shallow QW to deep QDs at room temperature. Compared with the conventional single-QD layer, the IQE of the QDs can be enhanced more than two times to about 45%.
Geometric measure of quantum discord over two-sided projective measurements
Jianwei Xu
2011-06-01
The original definition of quantum discord of bipartite states was defined over one-sided projective measurements, it describes quantum correlation more extensively than entanglement. Dakic, Vedral, and Brukner [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 (2010) 190502] introduced a geometric measure for this quantum discord, and Luo, Fu [Phys. Rev. A 82 (2010) 034302] simplified the variation expression of it. In this paper we introduce a geometric measure for the quantum discord over two-sided projective measurements. A simplified expression and a lower bound of this geometric measure are derived and explicit expressions are obtained for some special cases.
Stochastic action principle approach to continuous quantum measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jordan, Andrew
2015-03-01
New features in fundamental quantum physics appear in generalized (or weakened) measurements that are no longer simple projections. A sequence of weak measurements can also be made effectively continuous, producing monitored state evolution in the form of a quantum stochastic process. Previous theoretical investigations of this topic have mainly focused on using Langevin-type Stochastic Schrodinger equations to generate and study the quantum trajectories. Here, we reformulate the theory of continuous quantum measurement as a stochastic path integral, describing all possible quantum trajectories moving between initial and final quantum states. In order to do this, an auxiliary set of variables is introduced to impose the intrinsic state disturbance, doubling the state space of the system. The stochastic action encodes both the Hamiltonian and measurement dynamics. This formulation is well suited to finding the most-likely quantum path between chosen boundary conditions on the quantum states separated in time via a principle of least action. This action principle leads to a set of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations for the most likely path, structurally similar to Hamilton's equations. I will present predictions for the single and multiple qubit cases. Comparison to recent experiments with superconducting transmon qubits will be discussed. This formalism sheds new light on the conditional dynamics of monitored open quantum systems.
Efficient Spray-Coated Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moreno-Bautista, Gabriel
Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) offer the promise of low-cost, high-performance solar cells due to their ability to be synthesized and deposited from solution, which makes it possible for this material to be adapted to production-scale manufacturing protocols such as roll-to-roll (R2R) processing. Here we describe the design and implementation of a spray-coating process for the fabrication of CQD solar cells. We find that spray-coated films are morphologically superior to films that were fabricated using the conventional spin-coating method. Spray coating is found to be effective at removing an electronic trap caused by an organic impurity, enhancing the diffusion length of the CQD film and leading to an average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.5%, which is higher than the average PCE of spin-coated cells (5.2%). We also show that the spray process can be adapted to R2R methodologies and can be used to fabricate efficient solar cells with unconventional form factors, such as surfaces with multiple dimensions of curvature.
Quantum state tomography with non-instantaneous measurements, imperfections and decoherence
Pierre Six; Philippe Campagne-Ibarcq; Igor Dotsenko; Alain Sarlette; Benjamin Huard; Pierre Rouchon
2015-11-27
Tomography of a quantum state is usually based on positive operator-valued measure (POVM) and on their experimental statistics. Among the available reconstructions, the maximum-likelihood (MaxLike) technique is an efficient one. We propose an extension of this technique when the measurement process cannot be simply described by an instantaneous POVM. Instead, the tomography relies on a set of quantum trajectories and their measurement records. This model includes the fact that, in practice, each measurement could be corrupted by imperfections and decoherence, and could also be associated with the record of continuous-time signals over a finite amount of time. The goal is then to retrieve the quantum state that was present at the start of this measurement process. The proposed extension relies on an explicit expression of the likelihood function via the effective matrices appearing in quantum smoothing and solutions of the adjoint quantum filter. It allows to retrieve the initial quantum state as in standard MaxLike tomography, but where the traditional POVM operators are replaced by more general ones that depend on the measurement record of each trajectory. It also provides, aside the MaxLike estimate of the quantum state, confidence intervals for any observable. Such confidence intervals are derived, as the MaxLike estimate, from an asymptotic expansion of multi-dimensional Laplace integrals appearing in Bayesian Mean estimation. A validation is performed on two sets of experimental data: photon(s) trapped in a microwave cavity subject to quantum non-demolition measurements relying on Rydberg atoms; heterodyne fluorescence measurements of a superconducting qubit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fedynyshyn, Theodore H.; Sinta, Roger F.; Mowers, William A.; Cabral, Alberto
2003-06-01
The Dill ABC parameters for optical resists are typically determined by measuring the change in the intensity of transmitted light at the wavelength of interest as a function of incident energy. The effectiveness of the experiment rests with the fact that the resist optical properties change with exposure and that the optical properties are directly related to the concentration of PAG compound. These conditions are not typically satisfied in CA resists and thus C is unobtainable by this method. FT-IR spectroscopy can directly measure changes in the photoactive species by isolating and measuring absorbance peaks unique to the photoactive species. We employed the ProABC software, specially modified to allow FT-IR absorbance input, to extract ABS parameters through a best fit of the lithography model to experimental data. The quantum efficiency of PAG decomposition at 157-, 193-, and 248-nm was determined for four diazomethane type PAGs in four different polymer matrices. It was found that both the Dill C parameter and the quantum efficiency for all PAGs increased as wavelength decreased, but that the magnitude of the increase was strongly dependent on the polymer matrix.
Quantum efficiency of double activated Tb{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}
Nazarov, Mihail Young Noh, Do; Sohn, Jongrak; Yoon, Chulsoo
2007-09-15
The quantum efficiency and luminescence properties of double activated terbium aluminum garnet samples were investigated in the present study. A mathematical procedure and PL measurement system are developed for express analysis of quantum efficiency of luminescent materials. The energy-level diagram was proposed to explain the luminescence mechanism. Application of TAG:Ce,Eu with improved CIE and CRI in LED device is demonstrated. - Graphical abstract: Emission spectra of the blue LED including TAG:Ce, Eu.
Quantum Imaging beyond the Diffraction Limit by Optical Centroid Measurements
Mankei Tsang
2009-06-22
I propose a quantum imaging method that can beat the Rayleigh-Abbe diffraction limit and achieve de Broglie resolution without requiring a multiphoton absorber as the detector. Using the same non-classical states of light as those for quantum lithography, the proposed method requires only intensity measurements, followed by image post-processing, to produce the same complex image patterns as those in quantum lithography. The method is expected to be experimentally realizable using current technology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pathak, Anirban
2015-06-01
Recently, Hassanpour and Houshmand have proposed a protocol of controlled deterministic secure quantum communication (Hassanpour and Houshmand, Quantum Inf Process 14:739-753, 2015). The authors compared the efficiency of their protocol with that of two other existing protocols and claimed that their protocol is efficient. Here, we have shown that the efficiency of Hassanpour Houshmand (HH) protocol is not high, and there exist several approaches through which more efficient protocols for the same task can be designed. To establish this point, we have proposed an efficient protocol of controlled deterministic secure quantum communication which is based on permutation of particles technique and is considerably efficient compared to HH protocol. We have also generalized this protocol into its bidirectional counterpart. Interestingly, bipartite entanglement (Bell state) is sufficient for the realization of the proposed protocols, but HH protocol and other existing protocols require at least tripartite entanglement. Further, we have shown that it is possible to construct a large number of efficient protocols of unidirectional and bidirectional controlled deterministic secure quantum communication by using various alternative approaches and different quantum states. These alternative protocols can be realized by modifying the existing protocols of quantum secure direct communication and deterministic secure quantum communication. We have also shown that it is possible to design completely orthogonal-state-based protocols for unidirectional and bidirectional controlled deterministic secure quantum communication.
Second law of thermodynamics and quantum feedback control: Maxwell's demon with weak measurements
Jacobs, Kurt
2009-07-15
Recently Sagawa and Ueda [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 080403 (2008)] derived a bound on the work that can be extracted from a quantum system with the use of feedback control. For many quantum measurements their bound was not tight. We show that a tight version of this bound follows straightforwardly from recent work on Maxwell's demon by Alicki et al. [Open Syst. Inf. Dyn. 11, 205 (2004)], for both discrete and continuous feedback control. Our analysis also shows that bare, efficient measurements always do non-negative work on a system in equilibrium, but do not add heat.
Interference-Based Measure to Quantify Macroscopic Quantum Superpositions
Lee, Chang-Woo
2011-01-01
We propose an interference-based measure to quantify macroscopic quantum superpositions and investigate its detailed properties. Our measure simultaneously quantifies two different kinds of essential information for a given quantum state in a harmonious manner: the degree of quantum coherence and the effective size of the physical system that involves the superposition. It enjoys remarkably good analytical and algebraic properties. It turns out to be the most general and inclusive measure ever proposed that it can be applied to any types of multipartite states and mixed states represented in phase space.
Quantum probabilities of composite events in quantum measurements with multimode states
V. I. Yukalov; D. Sornette
2013-08-26
The problem of defining quantum probabilities of composite events is considered. This problem is of high importance for the theory of quantum measurements and for quantum decision theory that is a part of measurement theory. We show that the Luders probability of consecutive measurements is a transition probability between two quantum states and that this probability cannot be treated as a quantum extension of the classical conditional probability. The Wigner distribution is shown to be a weighted transition probability that cannot be accepted as a quantum extension of the classical joint probability. We suggest the definition of quantum joint probabilities by introducing composite events in multichannel measurements. The notion of measurements under uncertainty is defined. We demonstrate that the necessary condition for the mode interference is the entanglement of the composite prospect together with the entanglement of the composite statistical state. As an illustration, we consider an example of a quantum game. A special attention is payed to the application of the approach to systems with multimode states, such as atoms, molecules, quantum dots, or trapped Bose-condensed atoms with several coherent modes.
Evaluation of Energy Efficiency Measures in Hot and Humid Climates
Zhao, Y.; Erwine, B.; Leonard, P.; Pease, B.; Dole, A.; Lee, A.
2010-01-01
of Energy Efficiency Measures in Hot and Humid Climates Ying Zhao Barbara Erwine Patrick Leonard Andrew Lee Brad Pease Ajeeta Dole Associate Consultant Senior Consultant Consultant Consultant Senior Consultant Associate Consultant Paladino...
Process Efficiency Measurements in the Laser Engineered Net Shaping Process
DuPont, John N.
Process Efficiency Measurements in the Laser Engineered Net Shaping Process R.R. UNOCIC and J.N. DuPONT, Columbus, OH 43210. J.N. DuPONT, Associate Professor, is with the Materials Science and Engineering
Determining which quantum measurement performs better for state estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Šehá?ek, Jaroslav; Teo, Yong Siah; Hradil, Zden?k
2015-07-01
We introduce an operational and statistically meaningful measure, the quantum tomographic transfer function, that possesses important physical invariance properties for judging whether a given informationally complete quantum measurement performs better tomographically in quantum-state estimation relative to other informationally complete measurements. This function is independent of the unknown true state of the quantum source and is directly related to the average optimal tomographic accuracy of an unbiased state estimator for the measurement in the limit of many sampling events. For the experimentally appealing minimally complete measurements, the transfer function is an extremely simple formula. We also give an explicit expression for this transfer function in terms of an ordered expansion that is readily computable and illustrate its usage with numerical simulations and its consistency with some known results.
Measuring energy efficiency in the United States` economy: A beginning
1995-10-01
Energy efficiency is a vital component of the Nation`s energy strategy. One of the Department of Energy`s missions are to promote energy efficiency to help the Nation manage its energy resources. The ability to define and measure energy efficiency is essential to this objective. In the absence of consistent defensible measures, energy efficiency is a vague, subjective concept that engenders directionless speculation and confusion rather than insightful analysis. The task of defining and measuring energy efficiency and creating statistical measures as descriptors is a daunting one. This publication is not a final product, but is EIA`s first attempt to define and measure energy efficiency in a systematic and robust manner for each of the sectors and the United States economy as a whole. In this process, EIA has relied on discussions, customer reviews, in-house reviews, and seminars that have focused on energy efficiency in each of the sectors. EIA solicits the continued participation of its customers in further refining this work.
Photon-efficient quantum cryptography with pulse-position modulation
Tian Zhong; Feihu Xu; Zheshen Zhang; Hongchao Zhou; Alessandro Restelli; Joshua C. Bienfang; Ligong Wang; Gregory W. Wornell; Jeffrey H. Shapiro; Franco N. C. Wong
2015-10-21
The binary (one-bit-per-photon) encoding that most existing quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols employ puts a fundamental limit on their achievable key rates, especially under high channel loss conditions associated with long-distance fiber-optic or satellite-to-ground links. Inspired by the pulse-position-modulation (PPM) approach to photon-starved classical communications, we design and demonstrate the first PPM-QKD, whose security against collective attacks is established through continuous-variable entanglement measurements that also enable a novel decoy-state protocol performed conveniently in post processing. We achieve a throughput of 8.0 Mbit/s (2.5 Mbit/s for loss equivalent to 25 km of fiber) and secret-key capacity up to 4.0 bits per detected photon, thus demonstrating the significant enhancement afforded by high-dimensional encoding. These results point to a new avenue for realizing high-throughput satellite-based or long-haul fiber-optic quantum communications beyond their photon-reception-rate limits.
Efficient synthesis of probabilistic quantum circuits with fallback
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bocharov, Alex; Roetteler, Martin; Svore, Krysta M.
2015-05-01
Repeat-until-success (RUS) circuits can approximate a given single-qubit unitary with an expected number of T gates of about 1/3 of what is required by optimal, deterministic, ancilla-free decompositions over the Clifford + T gate set. In this work, we introduce a more general and conceptually simpler circuit decomposition method that allows for synthesis into protocols that probabilistically implement quantum circuits over several universal gate sets including, but not restricted to, the Clifford + T gate set. The protocol, which we call probabilistic quantum circuits with fallback (PQF), implements a walk on a discrete Markov chain in which the target unitary is an absorbing state and in which transitions are induced by multiqubit unitaries followed by measurements. In contrast to RUS protocols, the presented PQF protocols are guaranteed to terminate after a finite number of steps. Specifically, we apply our method to the Clifford + T , Clifford + V , and Clifford + ? /12 gate sets to achieve decompositions with expected gate counts of logb(1 /? ) +O {ln[ln(1 /? ) ] } , where b is a quantity related to the expansion property of the underlying universal gate set.
Improving Students' Understanding of Quantum Measurement. I. Investigation of Difficulties
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zhu, Guangtian; Singh, Chandralekha
2012-01-01
We describe the difficulties that advanced undergraduate and graduate students have with quantum measurement within the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics. We explore the possible origins of these difficulties by analyzing student responses to questions from both surveys and interviews. Results from this research are applied to develop…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Mengyao; Zhen, Honglou; Jing, Youliang; Wang, Han; Li, Liang; Li, Ning
2015-10-01
Near infrared light emitting diodes (LEDs) play an important role in infrared photodetectors; however, external quantum efficiency of GaAs LEDs is greatly confined as a result of critical angle and Fresnel diffraction. In this study, polystyrene spheres are used to fabricate photonic crystal. A ring-shaped ohmic contact was introduced to the device, and the current-voltage curves and light emitting efficiency were measured to characterize the property of device. The LED device with surface nano-structure exhibited better external quantum efficiency (EQE) and improved light extraction efficiency (LEE) in near infrared light emitting area compared to non-structure device.
Quantum Measurement Bounds beyond the Uncertainty Relations
Lloyd, Seth
In quantum mechanics, the Heisenberg uncertainty relations and the Cramér-Rao inequalities typically limit the precision in the estimation of a parameter through the standard deviation of a conjugate observable. Here we ...
Long-distance measurement-device-independent multiparty quantum communication.
Fu, Yao; Yin, Hua-Lei; Chen, Teng-Yun; Chen, Zeng-Bing
2015-03-01
The Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entanglement, originally introduced to uncover the extreme violation of local realism against quantum mechanics, is an important resource for multiparty quantum communication tasks. But the low intensity and fragility of the GHZ entanglement source in current conditions have made the practical applications of these multiparty tasks an experimental challenge. Here we propose a feasible scheme for practically distributing the postselected GHZ entanglement over a distance of more than 100 km for experimentally accessible parameter regimes. Combining the decoy-state and measurement-device-independent protocols for quantum key distribution, we anticipate that our proposal suggests an important avenue for practical multiparty quantum communication. PMID:25793788
Continuous-variable measurement-device-independent multipartite quantum communication
Yadong Wu; Jian Zhou; Xinbao Gong; Ying Guo; Zhi-Ming Zhang; Guangqiang He
2015-12-12
This paper investigates a continuous-variable measurement-device-independent multi-party quantum communication protocol involving two different communication tasks. Utilizing distributed Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state, this protocol can implement both quantum cryptographic conference and quantum secret sharing. To analyze the security of the protocol, we consider two kinds of attacks. One is entangling cloner attack, which is a practical individual attack. The other is coherent attack, which is the optimal attack Eve can implement. Finally, we show the optimal coherent attacks to the tripartite quantum cryptography for symmetric configuration.
An efficient quantum light-matter interface with sub-second lifetime
Sheng-Jun Yang; Xu-Jie Wang; Xiao-Hui Bao; Jian-Wei Pan
2015-11-02
Quantum repeater holds the promise for scalable long-distance quantum communication. Towards a first quantum repeater based on memory-photon entanglement, significant progresses have made in improving performances of the building blocks. Further development is hindered by the difficulty of integrating key capabilities such as long storage time and high memory efficiency into a single system. Here we report an efficient light-matter interface with sub-second lifetime by confining laser-cooled atoms with 3D optical lattice and enhancing the atom-photon coupling with a ring cavity. An initial retrieval efficiency of 76(5)% together with an 1/e lifetime of 0.22(1) s have been achieved simultaneously, which already support sub-Hz entanglement distribution up to 1000 km through quantum repeater. Together with an efficient telecom interface and moderate multiplexing, our result may enable a first quantum repeater system that beats direct transmission in the near future.
An efficient quantum light-matter interface with sub-second lifetime
Yang, Sheng-Jun; Bao, Xiao-Hui; Pan, Jian-Wei
2015-01-01
Quantum repeater holds the promise for scalable long-distance quantum communication. Towards a first quantum repeater based on memory-photon entanglement, significant progresses have made in improving performances of the building blocks. Further development is hindered by the difficulty of integrating key capabilities such as long storage time and high memory efficiency into a single system. Here we report an efficient light-matter interface with sub-second lifetime by confining laser-cooled atoms with 3D optical lattice and enhancing the atom-photon coupling with a ring cavity. An initial retrieval efficiency of 76(5)% together with an 1/e lifetime of 0.22(1) s have been achieved simultaneously, which already support sub-Hz entanglement distribution up to 1000 km through quantum repeater. Together with an efficient telecom interface and moderate multiplexing, our result may enable a first quantum repeater system that beats direct transmission in the near future.
Ziman, Mario; Buzek, Vladimir
2005-08-15
We study possible realizations of generalized quantum measurements on measurement-assisted programmable quantum processors. We focus our attention on the realization of von Neumann measurements and informationally complete positive-operator-valued measures. Nielsen and Chuang [Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 321 (1997)] have shown that two unitary transformations implementable by the same programmable processor require mutually orthogonal states. We show that two different von Neumann measurements can be encoded into nonorthogonal program states. Nevertheless, given the dimension of a Hilbert space of the program register the number of implementable von Neumann measurements is still limited. As an example of a programmable processor we use the so-called quantum-information distributor.
Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large
Gilchrist, James F.
Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large. K. Okamoto and Y. Kawakami, "High-efficiency InGaN/GaN light emitters based on nanophotonics tansu@lehigh.edu Abstract: Optimization of internal quantum efficiency (IQE) for InGaN quantum wells
A model of the measurement process in quantum theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diel, H. H.
2015-07-01
The so-called measurement problem of quantum theory (QT) is still lacking a satisfactory, or at least widely agreed upon, solution. A number of theories, known as interpretations of quantum theory, have been proposed and found differing acceptance among physicists. Most of the proposed theories try to explain what happens during a QT measurement using a modification of the declarative equations that define the possible results of a measurement of QT observables or by making assumptions outside the scope of falsifiable physics. This paper proposes a solution to the QT measurement problem in terms of a model of the process for the evolution of two QT systems that interact in a way that represents a measurement. The model assumes that the interactions between the measured QT object and the measurement apparatus are ’’normal” interactions which adhere to the laws of quantum field theory.
Measurement-Based Teleportation Along Quantum Spin Chains
J. P. Barjaktarevic; J. Links; G. J. Milburn; Ross H. McKenzie
2005-03-09
We consider teleportation of an arbitrary spin-1/2 target quantum state along the ground state of a quantum spin chain. We present a decomposition of the Hilbert space of the many body quantum state into 4 vector spaces. Within each of these subspaces, it is possible to take any superposition of states, and use projective measurements to perform unit fidelity teleportation. Any such superposition is necessarily a spin liquid state. We also show that all total spin-0 quantum states belong in the same space, so that it is possible to perform unit fidelity teleportation over any one-dimensional spin-0 many body quantum state. We generalise to $n$-Bell states, and present some general bounds on fidelity of teleportation given a general state of a quantum spin chain.
The completeness of quantum theory for predicting measurement outcomes
Roger Colbeck; Renato Renner
2013-07-11
The predictions that quantum theory makes about the outcomes of measurements are generally probabilistic. This has raised the question whether quantum theory can be considered complete, or whether there could exist alternative theories that provide improved predictions. Here we review recent work that considers arbitrary alternative theories, constrained only by the requirement that they are compatible with a notion of "free choice" (defined with respect to a natural causal order). It is shown that quantum theory is "maximally informative", i.e., there is no other compatible theory that gives improved predictions. Furthermore, any alternative maximally informative theory is necessarily equivalent to quantum theory. This means that the state a system has in such a theory is in one-to-one correspondence with its quantum-mechanical state (the wave function). In this sense, quantum theory is complete.
Measurement Back-Action in Stacked Graphene Quantum Dots.
Bischoff, D; Eich, M; Zilberberg, O; Rössler, C; Ihn, T; Ensslin, K
2015-09-01
We present an electronic transport experiment in graphene where both classical and quantum mechanical charge detector back-action on a quantum dot are investigated. The device consists of two stacked graphene quantum dots separated by a thin layer of boron nitride. This device is fabricated by van der Waals stacking and is equipped with separate source and drain contacts to both dots. By applying a finite bias to one quantum dot, a current is induced in the other unbiased dot. We present an explanation of the observed measurement-induced current based on strong capacitive coupling and energy dependent tunneling barriers, breaking the spatial symmetry in the unbiased system. This is a special feature of graphene-based quantum devices. The experimental observation of transport in classically forbidden regimes is understood by considering higher-order quantum mechanical back-action mechanisms. PMID:26280388
Controlling and measuring quantum transport of heat in trapped-ion crystals.
Bermudez, A; Bruderer, M; Plenio, M B
2013-07-26
Measuring heat flow through nanoscale devices poses formidable practical difficulties as there is no "ampere meter" for heat. We propose to overcome this problem in a chain of trapped ions, where laser cooling the chain edges to different temperatures induces a heat current of local vibrations (vibrons). We show how to efficiently control and measure this current, including fluctuations, by coupling vibrons to internal ion states. This demonstrates that ion crystals provide an ideal platform for studying quantum transport, e.g., through thermal analogues of quantum wires and quantum dots. Notably, ion crystals may give access to measurements of the elusive bosonic fluctuations in heat currents and the onset of Fourier's law. Our results are strongly supported by numerical simulations for a realistic implementation with specific ions and system parameters. PMID:23931344
Controlling and measuring quantum transport of heat in trapped-ion crystals
A. Bermudez; M. Bruderer; M. B. Plenio
2013-07-23
Measuring heat flow through nanoscale systems poses formidable practical difficulties as there is no `ampere meter' for heat. We propose to overcome this problem by realizing heat transport through a chain of trapped ions. Laser cooling the chain edges to different temperatures induces a current of local vibrations (vibrons). We show how to efficiently control and measure this current, including fluctuations, by coupling vibrons to internal ion states. This demonstrates that ion crystals provide a suitable platform for studying quantum transport, e.g., through thermal analogues of quantum wires and quantum dots. Notably, ion crystals may give access to measurements of the elusive large fluctuations of bosonic currents and the onset of Fourier's law. These results are supported by numerical simulations for a realistic implementation with specific ions and system parameters.
Gain measurements of scattering-assisted terahertz quantum cascade lasers
Hu, Qing
Using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, the gain of scattering-assisted terahertz quantum cascade lasers is measured. By examining the intersubband gain and absorption over a wide range of bias voltages, we experimentally ...
Demonstration of Quantum Nonlocality in the Presence of Measurement Dependence.
Aktas, Djeylan; Tanzilli, Sébastien; Martin, Anthony; Pütz, Gilles; Thew, Rob; Gisin, Nicolas
2015-06-01
Quantum nonlocality stands as a resource for device independent quantum information processing (DIQIP), such as, for instance, device independent quantum key distribution. We investigate, experimentally, the assumption of limited measurement dependence, i.e., that the measurement settings used in Bell inequality tests or DIQIP are partially influenced by the source of entangled particle and/or by an adversary. Using a recently derived Bell-like inequality [G. Pütz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 190402 (2014)] and a 99% fidelity source of partially entangled polarization photonic qubits, we obtain a clear violation of the inequality, excluding a much larger range of measurement dependent local models than would be possible with an adapted Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality. It is therefore shown that the measurement independence assumption can be widely relaxed while still demonstrating quantum nonlocality. PMID:26196606
Quantum and classical descriptions of a measuring apparatus
Ori Hay; Asher Peres
1997-12-19
A measuring apparatus is described by quantum mechanics while it interacts with the quantum system under observation, and then it must be given a classical description so that the result of the measurement appears as objective reality. Alternatively, the apparatus may always be treated by quantum mechanics, and be measured by a second apparatus which has such a dual description. This article examines whether these two different descriptions are mutually consistent. It is shown that if the dynamical variable used in the first apparatus is represented by an operator of the Weyl-Wigner type (for example, if it is a linear coordinate), then the conversion from quantum to classical terminology does not affect the final result. However, if the first apparatus encodes the measurement in a different type of operator (e.g., the phase operator), the two methods of calculation may give different results.
Quantum capacitance measurements of single-layer molybdenum disulfide
Kononov, Alina
2014-01-01
Through this thesis, heterostructures composed of a thin layer of hexagonal boron nitride atop a monolayer of molybdenum disulfide were fabricated with the goal of measuring quantum capacitance and probing the transition ...
Noninvasive electron microscopy with interaction-free quantum measurements
Putnam, William P.
We propose the use of interaction-free quantum measurements with electrons to eliminate sample damage in electron microscopy. This might allow noninvasive molecular-resolution imaging. We show the possibility of such ...
Process tomography via sequential measurements on a single quantum system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bassa, Humairah; Goyal, Sandeep K.; Choudhary, Sujit K.; Uys, Hermann; Diósi, Lajos; Konrad, Thomas
2015-09-01
We utilize a discrete (sequential) measurement protocol to investigate quantum process tomography of a single two-level quantum system, with an unknown initial state, undergoing Rabi oscillations. The ignorance of the dynamical parameters is encoded into a continuous-variable classical system which is coupled to the two-level quantum system via a generalized Hamiltonian. This combined estimate of the quantum state and dynamical parameters is updated by using the information obtained from sequential measurements on the quantum system and, after a sufficient waiting period, faithful state monitoring and parameter determination is obtained. Numerical evidence is used to demonstrate the convergence of the state estimate to the true state of the hybrid system.
Dirichlet series as interfering probability amplitudes for quantum measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feiler, C.; Schleich, W. P.
2015-06-01
We show that all Dirichlet series, linear combinations of them and their analytical continuations represent probability amplitudes for measurements on time-dependent quantum systems. In particular, we connect an arbitrary Dirichlet series to the time evolution of an appropriately prepared quantum state in a non-linear oscillator with logarithmic energy spectrum. However, the realization of a superposition of two Dirichlet sums and its analytical continuation requires two quantum systems which are entangled, and a joint measurement. We illustrate our approach of implementing arbitrary Dirichlet series in quantum systems using the example of the Riemann zeta function and relate its non-trivial zeros to the interference of two quantum states reminiscent of a Schrödinger cat.
On the measurement of time for the quantum harmonic oscillator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shepard, Scott R.
1992-01-01
A generalization of previous treatments of quantum phase is presented. Restrictions on the class of realizable phase statistics are thereby removed; thus, permitting 'phase wavefunction collapse' (and other advantages). This is accomplished by exciting the auxiliary mode of the measurement apparatus in a time-reversed fashion. The mathematical properties of this auxiliary mode are studied in the hope that they will lead to an identification of a physical apparatus which can realize the quantum phase measurement.
Creation of macroscopic quantum superposition states by a measurement
I. E. Mazets; G. Kurizki; M. K. Oberthaler; J. Schmiedmayer
2008-09-15
We propose a novel protocol for the creation of macroscopic quantum superposition (MQS) states based on a measurement of a non-monotonous function of a quantum collective variable. The main advantage of this protocol is that it does not require switching on and off nonlinear interactions in the system. We predict this protocol to allow the creation of multiatom MQS by measuring the number of atoms coherently outcoupled from a two-component (spinor) Bose-Einstein condensate.
Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with
Gilchrist, James F.
Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes@lehigh.edu Abstract: Improvement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) using microstructures on the light extraction efficiency of III-Nitride LEDs was studied. Depending on the size
Quantum-classical transition induced by electrical measurement.
Mozyrsky, D; Martin, I
2002-07-01
A model of an electrical tunnel junction coupled to a mechanical system (oscillator) is studied to simulate the dephasing effect of measurement on a quantum system. The problem is solved at zero temperature under conditions of strong nonequilibrium in the measurement apparatus. For linear coupling between the oscillator and tunneling electrons, it is found that the oscillator dynamics becomes damped, with the effective temperature determined by the voltage drop across the junction. It is demonstrated that both the quantum heating and the quantum damping of the oscillator manifest themselves in the current-voltage characteristic of the tunnel junction. PMID:12097073
Blind quantum computation protocol in which Alice only makes measurements
Tomoyuki Morimae; Keisuke Fujii
2013-05-14
Blind quantum computation is a new secure quantum computing protocol which enables Alice who does not have sufficient quantum technology to delegate her quantum computation to Bob who has a fully-fledged quantum computer in such a way that Bob cannot learn anything about Alice's input, output, and algorithm. In previous protocols, Alice needs to have a device which generates quantum states, such as single-photon states. Here we propose another type of blind computing protocol where Alice does only measurements, such as the polarization measurements with a threshold detector. In several experimental setups, such as optical systems, the measurement of a state is much easier than the generation of a single-qubit state. Therefore our protocols ease Alice's burden. Furthermore, the security of our protocol is based on the no-signaling principle, which is more fundamental than quantum physics. Finally, our protocols are device independent in the sense that Alice does not need to trust her measurement device in order to guarantee the security.
Physics 1, 34 (2008) Undoing a quantum measurement
Bruder, Christoph
2008-01-01
Physics 1, 34 (2008) Viewpoint Undoing a quantum measurement Christoph Bruder and Daniel Loss that the effect of such a measurement can be "undone" and the initial state can be recovered. Immediately after that can be considered as an effective two- level system [see Fig. 1]. The qubit can be measured
Fast automotive diesel exhaust measurement using quantum cascade lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herbst, J.; Brunner, R.; Lambrecht, A.
2013-12-01
Step by step, US and European legislations enforce the further reduction of atmospheric pollution caused by automotive exhaust emissions. This is pushing automotive development worldwide. Fuel efficient diesel engines with SCRtechnology can impede NO2-emission by reduction with NH3 down to the ppm range. To meet the very low emission limits of the Euro6 resp. US NLEV (National Low Emission Vehicle) regulations, automotive manufacturers have to optimize continuously all phases of engine operation and corresponding catalytic converters. Especially nonstationary operation holds a high potential for optimizing gasoline consumption and further reducing of pollutant emissions. Test equipment has to cope with demanding sensitivity and speed requirements. In the past Fraunhofer IPM has developed a fast emission analyzer called DEGAS (Dynamic Exhaust Gas Analyzer System), based on cryogenically cooled lead salt lasers. These systems have been used at Volkswagen AG`s test benches for a decade. Recently, IPM has developed DEGAS-Next which is based on cw quantum cascade lasers and thermoelectrically cooled detectors. The system is capable to measure three gas components (i.e. NO, NO2, NH3) in two channels with a time resolution of 20 ms and 1 ppm detection limits. We shall present test data and a comparison with fast FTIR measurements.
Characterization of measurements in quantum communication. Ph.D. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chan, V. W. S.
1975-01-01
A characterization of quantum measurements by operator valued measures is presented. The generalized measurements include simultaneous approximate measurement of noncommuting observables. This characterization is suitable for solving problems in quantum communication. Two realizations of such measurements are discussed. The first is by adjoining an apparatus to the system under observation and performing a measurement corresponding to a self-adjoint operator in the tensor-product Hilbert space of the system and apparatus spaces. The second realization is by performing, on the system alone, sequential measurements that correspond to self-adjoint operators, basing the choice of each measurement on the outcomes of previous measurements. Simultaneous generalized measurements are found to be equivalent to a single finer grain generalized measurement, and hence it is sufficient to consider the set of single measurements. An alternative characterization of generalized measurement is proposed. It is shown to be equivalent to the characterization by operator-values measures, but it is potentially more suitable for the treatment of estimation problems. Finally, a study of the interaction between the information-carrying system and a measurement apparatus provides clues for the physical realizations of abstractly characterized quantum measurements.
A Framework for Comparative Assessments of Energy Efficiency Policy Measures
Blum, Helcio; Atkinson, Barbara; Lekov, Alex
2011-05-24
When policy makers propose new policies, there is a need to assess the costs and benefits of the proposed policy measures, to compare them to existing and alternative policies, and to rank them according to their effectiveness. In the case of equipment energy efficiency regulations, comparing the effects of a range of alternative policy measures requires evaluating their effects on consumers’ budgets, on national energy consumption and economics, and on the environment. Such an approach should be able to represent in a single framework the particularities of each policy measure and provide comparable results. This report presents an integrated methodological framework to assess prospectively the energy, economic, and environmental impacts of energy efficiency policy measures. The framework builds on the premise that the comparative assessment of energy efficiency policy measures should (a) rely on a common set of primary data and parameters, (b) follow a single functional approach to estimate the energy, economic, and emissions savings resulting from each assessed measure, and (c) present results through a set of comparable indicators. This framework elaborates on models that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has used in support of its rulemakings on mandatory energy efficiency standards. In addition to a rigorous analysis of the impacts of mandatory standards, DOE compares the projected results of alternative policy measures to those projected to be achieved by the standards. The framework extends such an approach to provide a broad, generic methodology, with no geographic or sectoral limitations, that is useful for evaluating any type of equipment energy efficiency market intervention. The report concludes with a demonstration of how to use the framework to compare the impacts estimated for twelve policy measures focusing on increasing the energy efficiency of gas furnaces in the United States.
Cemine, Vernon Julius; Blanca, Carlo Mar; Saloma, Caesar
2006-09-20
We map the external quantum efficiency (QE) distribution of a silicon photodiode (PD) sample via a thermographic imaging technique based on optical-feedback laser confocal microscopy. An image pair consisting of the confocal reflectance image and the 2D photocurrent map is simultaneously acquired to delineate the following regions of interest on the sample: the substrate, the n-type region, the pn overlay, and the bonding pad. The 2D QE distribution is derived from the photocurrent map to quantify the optical performance of these sites. The thermal integrity of the sample is then evaluated by deriving the rate of change of QE with temperature T at each point on the silicon PD. These gradient maps function not only as stringent measures of local thermal QE activity but they also expose probable defect locations on the sample at high spatial resolution - a capability that is not feasible with existing bulk measurement techniques.
Quantum trajectories under frequent measurements in non-Markovian environment
Luting Xu; Xin-Qi Li
2015-08-16
The quantum trajectory (QT) theory, which is broadly utilized nowadays in quantum measurement and control studies, essentially corresponds to unraveling of the Lindblad master equation. However, the QT theory of this type is not compatible with quantum Zeno effect. In this work we propose a scheme for the quantum trajectories conditioned on frequent measurements in non-Markovian environment. The non-Markovian environment is characterized by a finite bandwidth ($\\Lambda$), which we show has a perfect "scaling" property with the measurement frequency ($1/\\tau$). As a result, the incompatibility between the QT theory and the Zeno effect can be naturally eliminated. The new QT theory tells us that the scaling variable $x=\\Lambda \\tau$ is an important parameter that should be taken into account. The present study sheds also new light on the confusing concept of continuous null-result informational evolution.
Five Measurement Bases Determine Pure Quantum States on Any Dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goyeneche, D.; Cañas, G.; Etcheverry, S.; Gómez, E. S.; Xavier, G. B.; Lima, G.; Delgado, A.
2015-08-01
A long-standing problem in quantum mechanics is the minimum number of observables required for the characterization of unknown pure quantum states. The solution to this problem is especially important for the developing field of high-dimensional quantum information processing. In this work we demonstrate that any pure d -dimensional state is unambiguously reconstructed by measuring five observables, that is, via projective measurements onto the states of five orthonormal bases. Thus, in our method the total number of different measurement outcomes (5 d ) scales linearly with d . The state reconstruction is robust against experimental errors and requires simple postprocessing, regardless of d . We experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of our scheme through the reconstruction of eight-dimensional quantum states, encoded in the momentum of single photons.
Operationally Invariant Measure of the Distance between Quantum States by Complementary Measurements
Jinhyoung Lee; M. S. Kim; Caslav Brukner
2003-09-26
We propose an operational measure of distance of two quantum states, which conversely tells us their closeness. This is defined as a sum of differences in partial knowledge over a complete set of mutually complementary measurements for the two states. It is shown that the measure is operationally invariant and it is equivalent to the Hilbert-Schmidt distance. The operational measure of distance provides a remarkable interpretation of the information distance between quantum states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Hong; Lu, Lu-Cong; Deng, Fu-Guo
2015-03-01
We present an efficient scheme for creating electronic quantum cluster entangled states associated with distant diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers coupled to microtoroidal resonators using parity-check and controlled-phase gates. These two gates are constructed by exploiting the input-output processes of single photons as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics. Our schemes provides an efficient route to solid-state one-way quantum computation as diamond NV centers exhibit the ultralong coherent time and fast electron-spin manipulation. The time scale of the quantum cluster entangled states is a parity-check gate and a controlled-phase gate. Moreover, the prior entanglement is not required, and a higher fidelity and a higher efficiency of the quantum cluster states can be achieved, compared with other protocols.
Quantum Measurement Theory in Gravitational-Wave Detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Danilishin, Stefan L.; Khalili, Farid Ya.
2012-04-01
The fast progress in improving the sensitivity of the gravitational-wave detectors, we all have witnessed in the recent years, has propelled the scientific community to the point at which quantum behavior of such immense measurement devices as kilometer-long interferometers starts to matter. The time when their sensitivity will be mainly limited by the quantum noise of light is around the corner, and finding ways to reduce it will become a necessity. Therefore, the primary goal we pursued in this review was to familiarize a broad spectrum of readers with the theory of quantum measurements in the very form it finds application in the area of gravitational-wave detection. We focus on how quantum noise arises in gravitational-wave interferometers and what limitations it imposes on the achievable sensitivity. We start from the very basic concepts and gradually advance to the general linear quantum measurement theory and its application to the calculation of quantum noise in the contemporary and planned interferometric detectors of gravitational radiation of the first and second generation. Special attention is paid to the concept of the Standard Quantum Limit and the methods of its surmounting.
Quantum Measurement Theory in Gravitational-Wave Detectors
Stefan L. Danilishin; Farid Ya. Khalili
2012-05-09
The fast progress in improving the sensitivity of the gravitational-wave (GW) detectors, we all have witnessed in the recent years, has propelled the scientific community to the point, when quantum behaviour of such immense measurement devices as kilometer-long interferometers starts to matter. The time, when their sensitivity will be mainly limited by the quantum noise of light is round the corner, and finding the ways to reduce it will become a necessity. Therefore, the primary goal we pursued in this review was to familiarize a broad spectrum of readers with the theory of quantum measurements in the very form it finds application in the area of gravitational-wave detection. We focus on how quantum noise arises in gravitational-wave interferometers and what limitations it imposes on the achievable sensitivity. We start from the very basic concepts and gradually advance to the general linear quantum measurement theory and its application to the calculation of quantum noise in the contemporary and planned interferometric detectors of gravitational radiation of the first and second generation. Special attention is paid to the concept of Standard Quantum Limit and the methods of its surmounting.
An Efficient Exact Quantum Algorithm for the Integer Square-free Decomposition Problem
Li, Jun; Peng, Xinhua; Du, Jiangfeng; Suter, Dieter
2012-01-01
Quantum computers are known to be qualitatively more powerful than classical computers, but so far only a small number of different algorithms have been discovered that actually use this potential. It would therefore be highly desirable to develop other types of quantum algorithms that widen the range of possible applications. Here we propose an efficient and exact quantum algorithm for finding the square-free part of a large integer - a problem for which no efficient classical algorithm exists. The algorithm relies on properties of Gauss sums and uses the quantum Fourier transform. We give an explicit quantum network for the algorithm. Our algorithm introduces new concepts and methods that have not been used in quantum information processing so far and may be applicable to a wider class of problems. PMID:22355772
A new approach to measurement in quantum tomography
Artur Czerwi?ski
2015-04-02
In this article we propose a new approach to quantum measurement in reference to the stroboscopic tomography. Generally, in the stroboscopic approach it is assumed that the information about the quantum system is encoded in the mean values of certain Hermitian operators $Q_1, ..., Q_r$ and each of them can be measured more than once. The main goal of the stroboscopic tomography is to determine when one can reconstruct the initial density matrix $\\rho(0)$ on the basis of the measurement results $\\langle Q_i \\rangle_{t_j}$. In this paper we propose to treat every complex matrix as a measurable operator. This generalized approach to quantum measurement may bring some improvement into the models of stroboscopic tomography.
Efficiency of energy transfer in a light-harvesting system under quantum coherence
Alexandra Olaya-Castro; Chiu Fan Lee; Francesca Fassioli Olsen; Neil F. Johnson
2008-04-16
We investigate the role of quantum coherence in the efficiency of excitation transfer in a ring-hub arrangement of interacting two-level systems, mimicking a light-harvesting antenna connected to a reaction center as it is found in natural photosynthetic systems. By using a quantum jump approach, we demonstrate that in the presence of quantum coherent energy transfer and energetic disorder, the efficiency of excitation transfer from the antenna to the reaction center depends intimately on the quantum superposition properties of the initial state. In particular, we find that efficiency is sensitive to symmetric and asymmetric superposition of states in the basis of localized excitations, indicating that initial state properties can be used as a efficiency control parameter at low temperatures.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Xiong, Fugin
2003-01-01
One half of Professor Xiong's effort will investigate robust timing synchronization schemes for dynamically varying characteristics of aviation communication channels. The other half of his time will focus on efficient modulation and coding study for the emerging quantum communications.
Geometric lower bound for a quantum coherence measure
Diego Paiva Pires; Lucas C. Céleri; Diogo O. Soares-Pinto
2015-04-23
Nowadays, geometric tools are being used to treat a huge class of problems of quantum information science. By understanding the interplay between the geometry of the state space and information-theoretic quantities, it is possible to obtain less trivial and more robust physical constraints on quantum systems. In this sense, here we establish a geometric lower bound for the Wigner-Yanase skew information (WYSI), a well-known information theoretic quantity recently recognized as a proper quantum coherence measure. Starting from a mixed state evolving under unitary dynamics, while WYSI is a constant of motion, the lower bound indicates the rate of change of quantum statistical distinguishability between initial and final states. Our result shows that, since WYSI fits in the class of Petz metrics, this lower bound is the change rate of its respective geodesic distance on quantum state space. The geometric approach is advantageous because raises several physical interpretations of this inequality under the same theoretical umbrella.
A Dynamical Theory of Quantum Measurement and Spontaneous Localization
V. P. Belavkin
2005-12-21
We develop a rigorous treatment of discontinuous stochastic unitary evolution for a system of quantum particles that interacts singularly with quantum "bubbles" at random instants of time. This model of a "cloud chamber" allows to watch and follow with a quantum particle along the trajectory in the cloud chamber by sequential unsharp localization of spontaneous scatterings of the bubbles. Thus, the continuous reduction and spontaneous localization theory is obtained as the result of quantum filtering theory, i.e., a theory describing the conditioning of the a priori quantum state by the measurement data. We show that in the case of indistinguishable particles the a posteriori dynamics is mixing, giving rise to an irreversible Boltzmann-type reduction equation. The latter coincides with the nonstochastic Schroedinger equation only in the mean field approximation, whereas the central limit yields Gaussian mixing fluctuations described by stochastic reduction equations of diffusive type.
Acousto-Optics as an Efficient Method for Physical Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulakov, Sergei V.; Balysheva, Olga L.; Zhdanov, Arcenii Yu.; Kludzin, Victor V.; Shakin, Oleg V.
In addition to acousto-optic information processing and manufacturing of such devices, the interaction between optical and acoustic waves are an efficient method for physical measurements. The paper analyses the potential of the acousto-optic method for measurement and investigation of crystal properties. It also presents some examples of this method applied to such measurements and investigations. The acousto-optic implementation of the pulse-phase method is used for acoustic velocity measurements. Velocities in an arbitrary directions can be measured using the Shaefer-Bergman method (the visualization of the angular distribution of the inverse phase velocities) together with the pulse-phase method. The matrices of crystal elastic coefficients can be evaluated using the Shaefer-Bergman patterns, using the minimum number of tested samples. The Schlieren (shadow) image method can give information both on the characteristics of acoustic and optical fields. The acousto-optic interaction is Efficient Method for determination of elastic material nonlinearity parameters.
Review paper: Toward highly efficient quantum-dot-and dye-sensitized solar cells
Park, Byungwoo
Review paper: Toward highly efficient quantum-dot- and dye-sensitized solar cells Hongsik Choi September 2012 Accepted 17 January 2013 Available online 14 February 2013 Keywords: Sensitized solar cell Interface control Light harvesting Tandem solar cell a b s t r a c t Dye- and quantum-dot-sensitized solar
Enhancement of Radiative Efficiency with Staggered InGaN Quantum Well Light Emitting Diodes
Tansu, Nelson; Dierolf, Volkmar; Huang, Gensheng; Penn, Samson; Zhao, Hongping; Liu, Guangyu; Li, Xiaohang; Poplawsky, Jonathan
2011-07-14
The technology on the large overlap InGaN QWs developed in this program is currently implemented in commercial technology in enhancing the internal quantum efficiency in major LED industry in US and Asia. The scientific finding from this work supported by the DOE enabled the implementation of this step-like staggered quantum well in the commercial LEDs.
Implementation and Rejection of Industrial Steam System Energy Efficiency Measures
Therkelesen, Peter; McKane, Aimee
2013-05-01
Steam systems consume approximately one third of energy applied at U.S. industrial facilities. To reduce energy consumption, steam system energy assessments have been conducted on a wide range of industry types over the course of five years through the Energy Savings Assessment (ESA) program administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE). ESA energy assessments result in energy efficiency measure recommendations that are given potential energy and energy cost savings and potential implementation cost values. Saving and cost metrics that measure the impact recommended measures will have at facilities, described as percentages of facility baseline energy and energy cost, are developed from ESA data and used in analyses. Developed savings and cost metrics are examined along with implementation and rejection rates of recommended steam system energy efficiency measures. Based on analyses, implementation of steam system energy efficiency measures is driven primarily by cost metrics: payback period and measure implementation cost as a percentage of facility baseline energy cost (implementation cost percentage). Stated reasons for rejecting recommended measures are primarily based upon economic concerns. Additionally, implementation rates of measures are not only functions of savings and cost metrics, but time as well.
Repeatable measurements in quantum theory: Their role and feasibility
Busch, P.; Grabowski, M.; Lahti, P.J.
1995-09-01
Recent advantages in experimental quantum physics call for a careful reconsideration of the measurements process in quantum mechanics. In this paper we describe the structure of the ideal measurements and their status among the repeatable measurements. Then we provide an exhaustive account of the interrelations between repeatability and the apparently weaker notions of value reproducible or first-kind measurements. We demonstrate the close link between repeatable measurements and discrete observables and show how the ensuing measurement limitations for continuous observables can be lifted in a way that is in full accordance with actual experimental practice. We present examples of almost repeatable measurements of continuous observables and some realistic models of weakly disturbing measurements.
How to squeeze high quantum efficiency and high time resolution out of a SPAD
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lacaita, A.; Zappa, F.; Cova, Sergio; Ripamonti, Giancarlo; Spinelli, A.
1993-01-01
We address the issue whether Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) can be suitably designed to achieve a trade-off between quantum efficiency and time resolution performance. We briefly recall the physical mechanisms setting the time resolution of avalanche photodiodes operated in single-photon counting, and we give some criteria for the design of SPADs with a quantum efficiency better than l0 percent at 1064 nm together with a time resolution below 50 ps rms.
Infrared measurements of a scramjet exhaust. [to determine combustion efficiency
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reed, R. A.; Slack, M. W.
1980-01-01
Diagnostic 2 - 5 mm infrared spectra of a hydrogen burning scramjet exhaust were measured with an interferometer spectrometer. Exhaust gas temperatures and water vapor partial pressures were determined from the observed intensity and spectral profile of the H2O 2.7 mm infrared emission band. Overall engine combustion efficiencies were derived by combining these measurements with the known engine operating conditions. Efficiencies fall (70 - 50 percent) as fuel equivalence ratios rise (0.4 - 1.0). Data analysis techniques and sensitivity studies are also presented.
Measurement-based quantum computation--a quantum-mechanical toy model for spacetime?
R. Raussendorf; P. Sarvepalli; T. -C. Wei; P. Haghnegahdar
2011-08-29
We propose measurement-based quantum computation (MBQC) as a quantum mechanical toy model for spacetime. Within this framework, we discuss the constraints on possible temporal orders enforced by certain symmetries present in every MBQC. We provide a classification for all MBQC temporal relations compatible with a given initial quantum state and measurement setting, in terms of a matroid. Further, we find a symmetry transformation related to local complementation that leaves the temporal relations invariant. After light cones and closed time-like curves have previously been found to have MBQC counterparts, we identify event horizons as a third piece of the phenomenology of General Relativity that has an analogue in MBQC.
Measurement-based Formulation of Quantum Heat Engine
Masahito Hayashi; Hiroyasu Tajima
2015-09-29
There exist two formulations for quantum heat engine. One is semi-classical scenario, and the other is full quantum scenario. The former is formulated as a unitary evolution for the internal system, and is adopted by the community of statistical mechanics. In the latter, the whole process is formulated as unitary. It was adopted by the community of quantum information. However, their formulation does not consider measurement process. In particular, the former formulation does not work when the amount of extracted work is observed. In this paper, we formulate the quantum heat engine as the measurement process because the amount of extracted work should be observed in a practical situation. Then, we clarify the contradiction of the former formulation by using a novel trade-off relation. The trade-off relation clarifies the impossibility of proper work extraction by an internal unitary process.
Real-World Quantum Sensors: Evaluating Resources for Precision Measurement
Thomas-Peter, Nicholas; Smith, Brian J.; Datta, Animesh; Zhang Lijian; Walmsley, Ian A.; Dorner, Uwe
2011-09-09
Quantum phenomena present in many experiments signify nonclassical behavior, but do not always imply superior performance. Quantifying the enhancement achieved from quantum behavior needs careful analysis of the resources involved. We analyze the case of parameter estimation using an optical interferometer, where increased precision can in principle be achieved using quantum probe states. Common performance measures are examined and some are shown to overestimate the improvement. For the simplest experimental case we compare the different measures and exhibit this overestimation explicitly. We give the preferred analysis of these experiments and calculate benchmark values for experimental parameters necessary to realize a precision enhancement. Our analysis shows that unambiguous real-world enhancements in optical quantum metrology with fixed photon number are yet to be attained.
A spatio-temporal detective quantum efficiency and its application to fluoroscopic systems
Friedman, S. N.; Cunningham, I. A.
2010-11-15
Purpose: Fluoroscopic x-ray imaging systems are used extensively in spatio-temporal detection tasks and require a spatio-temporal description of system performance. No accepted metric exists that describes spatio-temporal fluoroscopic performance. The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) is a metric widely used in radiography to quantify system performance and as a surrogate measure of patient ''dose efficiency.'' It has been applied previously to fluoroscopic systems with the introduction of a temporal correction factor. However, the use of a temporally-corrected DQE does not provide system temporal information and it is only valid under specific conditions, many of which are not likely to be satisfied by suboptimal systems. The authors propose a spatio-temporal DQE that describes performance in both space and time and is applicable to all spatio-temporal quantum-based imaging systems. Methods: The authors define a spatio-temporal DQE (two spatial-frequency axes and one temporal-frequency axis) in terms of a small-signal spatio-temporal modulation transfer function (MTF) and spatio-temporal noise power spectrum (NPS). Measurements were made on an x-ray image intensifier-based bench-top system using continuous fluoroscopy with an RQA-5 beam at 3.9 {mu}R/frame and hardened 50 kVp beam (0.8 mm Cu filtration added) at 1.9 {mu}R/frame. Results: A zero-frequency DQE value of 0.64 was measured under both conditions. Nonideal performance was noted at both larger spatial and temporal frequencies; DQE values decreased by {approx}50% at the cutoff temporal frequency of 15 Hz. Conclusions: The spatio-temporal DQE enables measurements of decreased temporal system performance at larger temporal frequencies analogous to previous measurements of decreased (spatial) performance. This marks the first time that system performance and dose efficiency in both space and time have been measured on a fluoroscopic system using DQE and is the first step toward the generalized use of DQE on clinical fluoroscopic systems.
Engineering Quantum States, Nonlinear Measurements, and Anomalous Diffusion by Imaging
Kurt Jacobs; Daniel Steck
2010-08-24
We show that well-separated quantum superposition states, measurements of strongly nonlinear observables, and quantum dynamics driven by anomalous diffusion can all be achieved for single atoms or molecules by imaging spontaneous photons that they emit via resonance florescence. To generate anomalous diffusion we introduce continuous measurements driven by L\\'evy processes, and prove a number of results regarding their properties. In particular we present strong evidence that the only stable L\\'evy density that can realize a strictly continuous measurement is the Gaussian.
Measures of quantum state purity and classical degree of polarization
Gamel, Omar
2013-01-01
There is a well-known mathematical similarity between two-dimensional classical polarization optics and two-level quantum systems, where the Poincare and Bloch spheres are identical mathematical structures. This analogy implies that the classical degree of polarization and quantum purity are in fact the same quantity. We make extensive use of this analogy to analyze various measures of polarization for higher dimensions proposed in the literature, in particular the N = 3 case, illustrating interesting relationships that emerge as well as the advantages of each measure. We also propose a different class of measures of entanglement based on the purity of subsystems.
Efficient amplification of photonic qubits by optimal quantum cloning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartkiewicz, Karol; ?ernoch, Antonín; Lemr, Karel; Soubusta, Jan; Stobi?ska, Magdalena
2014-06-01
We demonstrate that a phase-independent quantum amplifier of a polarization qubit is a complementary amplifier of the heralded qubit amplifier [N. Gisin, S. Pironio, and N. Sangouard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 070501 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.070501]. It employs the multifunctional cloner in the 1?2 copying regime, capable of providing approximate copies of qubits given by various probability distributions, and is optimized for distributions with axial symmetry. Direct applications of the proposed solution are possible in quantum technologies, doubling the range where quantum information is coherently broadcast. It also outperforms natural nonlinear amplifiers that use stimulated emission in bulk nonlinear materials. We consider the amplifier to be an important tool for amplifying quantum information sent via quantum channels with phase-independent damping.