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1

Quantum mechanical hamiltonian models of turing machines

Quantum mechanical Hamiltonian models, which represent an aribtrary but finite number of steps of any Turing machine computation, are constructed here on a finite lattice of spin-1\\/2 systems. Different regions of the lattice correspond to different components of the Turing machine (plus recording system). Successive states of any machine computation are represented in the model by spin configuration states. Both

Paul Benioff

1982-01-01

2

Quantum mechanical Hamiltonian models of discrete processes

Here the results of other work on quantum mechanical Hamiltonian models of Turing machines are extended to include any discrete process T on a countably infinite set A. The models are constructed here by use of scattering phase shifts from successive scatterers to turn on successive step interactions. Also a locality requirement is imposed. The construction is done by first associating with each process T a model quantum system M with associated Hilbert space H/sub M/ and step operator U/sub T/. Since U/sub T/ is not unitary in general, M, H/sub M/, and U/sub T/ are extended into a (continuous time) Hamiltonian model on a larger space which satisfies the locality requirement. The construction is compared with the minimal unitary dilation of U/sub T/. It is seen that the model constructed here is larger than the minimal one. However, the minimal one does not satisfy the locality requirement.

Benioff, P.

1981-03-01

3

Quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics dual Hamiltonian free energy perturbation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dual Hamiltonian free energy perturbation (DH-FEP) method is designed for accurate and efficient evaluation of the free energy profile of chemical reactions in quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations. In contrast to existing QM/MM FEP variants, the QM region is not kept frozen during sampling, but all degrees of freedom except for the reaction coordinate are sampled. In the DH-FEP scheme, the sampling is done by semiempirical QM/MM molecular dynamics (MD), while the perturbation energy differences are evaluated from high-level QM/MM single-point calculations at regular intervals, skipping a pre-defined number of MD sampling steps. After validating our method using an analytic model potential with an exactly known solution, we report a QM/MM DH-FEP study of the enzymatic reaction catalyzed by chorismate mutase. We suggest guidelines for QM/MM DH-FEP calculations and default values for the required computational parameters. In the case of chorismate mutase, we apply the DH-FEP approach in combination with a single one-dimensional reaction coordinate and with a two-dimensional collective coordinate (two individual distances), with superior results for the latter choice.

Polyak, Iakov; Benighaus, Tobias; Boulanger, Eliot; Thiel, Walter

2013-08-01

4

Supersymmetric descendants of self-adjointly extended quantum mechanical Hamiltonians

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the descendants of self-adjointly extended Hamiltonians in supersymmetric quantum mechanics on a half-line, on an interval, and on a punctured line or interval. While there is a 4-parameter family of self-adjointly extended Hamiltonians on a punctured line, only a 3-parameter sub-family has supersymmetric descendants that are themselves self-adjoint. We also address the self-adjointness of an operator related to the supercharge, and point out that only a sub-class of its most general self-adjoint extensions is physical. Besides a general characterization of self-adjoint extensions and their supersymmetric descendants, we explicitly consider concrete examples, including a particle in a box with general boundary conditions, with and without an additional point interaction. We also discuss bulk-boundary resonances and their manifestation in the supersymmetric descendant.

Al-Hashimi, M. H.; Salman, M.; Shalaby, A.; Wiese, U.-J.

2013-10-01

5

Effective Potential and Effective Hamiltonian in Quantum Statistical Mechanics.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An overview on the theoretic formalism and up to date applications in quantum condensed matter physics of the effective potential and effective hamiltonian methods is given. The main steps of their unified derivation by the so-called pure-quantum self-con...

A. Cuccoli R. Giachetti V. Tognetti R. Vaia P. Verrucchi

1995-01-01

6

Supersymmetric descendants of self-adjointly extended quantum mechanical Hamiltonians

We consider the descendants of self-adjointly extended Hamiltonians in supersymmetric quantum mechanics on a half-line, on an interval, and on a punctured line or interval. While there is a 4-parameter family of self-adjointly extended Hamiltonians on a punctured line, only a 3-parameter sub-family has supersymmetric descendants that are themselves self-adjoint. We also address the self-adjointness of an operator related to the supercharge, and point out that only a sub-class of its most general self-adjoint extensions is physical. Besides a general characterization of self-adjoint extensions and their supersymmetric descendants, we explicitly consider concrete examples, including a particle in a box with general boundary conditions, with and without an additional point interaction. We also discuss bulk-boundary resonances and their manifestation in the supersymmetric descendant. -- Highlights: •Self-adjoint extension theory and contact interactions. •Application of self-adjoint extensions to supersymmetry. •Contact interactions in finite volume with Robin boundary condition.

Al-Hashimi, M.H., E-mail: hashimi@itp.unibe.ch [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern University, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Salman, M., E-mail: msalman@qu.edu.qa [Department of Mathematics, Statistics, and Physics, Qatar University, Al Tarfa, Doha 2713 (Qatar); Shalaby, A., E-mail: amshalab@qu.edu.qa [Department of Mathematics, Statistics, and Physics, Qatar University, Al Tarfa, Doha 2713 (Qatar); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University (Egypt); Wiese, U.-J., E-mail: wiese@itp.unibe.ch [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern University, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA (United States)

2013-10-15

7

We show that there exist spurious states for the sector two tensor Hamiltonian in multidimensional supersymmetric quantum mechanics. For one-dimensional supersymmetric quantum mechanics on an infinite domain, the sector one and two Hamiltonians have identical spectra with the exception of the ground state of the sector one. For tensorial multidimensional supersymmetric quantum mechanics, there exist normalizable spurious states for the sector two Hamiltonian with energy equal to the ground state energy of the sector one. These spurious states are annihilated by the adjoint charge operator, and hence, they do not correspond to physical states for the original Hamiltonian. The Hermitian property of the sector two Hamiltonian implies the orthogonality between spurious and physical states. In addition, we develop a method for construction of a specific form of the spurious states for any quantum system and also generate several spurious states for a two-dimensional anharmonic oscillator system and for the hydrogen atom. PMID:23531015

Chou, Chia-Chun; Kouri, Donald J

2013-04-25

8

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a regularized and renormalized electrostatic coupling Hamiltonian for hybrid quantum-mechanical (QM)-molecular-mechanical (MM) calculations. To remedy the nonphysical QM/MM Coulomb interaction at short distances arising from a point electrostatic potential (ESP) charge of the MM atom and also to accommodate the effect of polarized MM atom in the coupling Hamiltonian, we propose a partial-wave expansion of the ESP charge and describe the effect of a s-wave expansion, extended over the covalent radius rc, of the MM atom. The resulting potential describes that, at short distances, large scale cancellation of Coulomb interaction arises intrinsically from the localized expansion of the MM point charge and the potential self-consistently reduces to 1/rc at zero distance providing a renormalization to the Coulomb energy near interatomic separations. Employing this renormalized Hamiltonian, we developed an interface between the Car-Parrinello molecular-dynamics program and the classical molecular-dynamics simulation program Groningen machine for chemical simulations. With this hybrid code we performed QM/MM calculations on water dimer, imidazole carbon monoxide (CO) complex, and imidazole-heme-CO complex with CO interacting with another imidazole. The QM/MM results are in excellent agreement with experimental data for the geometry of these complexes and other computational data found in literature.

Biswas, P. K.; Gogonea, V.

2005-10-01

9

The linearity of quantum mechanics from the perspective of Hamiltonian cellular automata

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the action principle and resulting Hamiltonian equations of motion for a class of integer-valued cellular automata introduced recently [1]. Employing sampling theory, these deterministic finite-difference equations are mapped reversibly on continuum equations describing a set of bandwidth limited harmonic oscillators. They represent the Schrödinger equation. However, modifications reflecting the bandwidth limit are incorporated, i.e., the presence of a time (or length) scale. When this discreteness scale is taken to zero, the usual results are obtained. Thus, the linearity of quantum mechanics can be traced to the postulated action principle of such cellular automata and its conservation laws to discrete ones. The cellular automaton conservation laws are in one-to-one correspondence with those of the related quantum mechanical model, while admissible symmetries are not.

Elze, Hans-Thomas

2014-04-01

10

Quantum Mechanical Path Integrals with Wiener Measures for all Polynomial Hamiltonians

We construct arbitrary matrix elements of the quantum evolution operator for a wide class of self-adjoint canonical Hamiltonians, including those which are polynomial in the Heisenberg operators, as the limit of well defined path integrals involving Wiener measure on phase space, as the diffusion constant diverges. A related construction achieves a similar result for an arbitrary spin Hamiltonian.

John R. Klauder; Ingrid Daubechies

1984-01-01

11

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An overview on the theoretic formalism and up-to-date applications in quantum condensed matter physics of the effective potential and effective hamiltonian methods is given. The main steps of their unified derivation by the pure-quantum self-consistent ha...

A. Cuccoli V. Tognetti R. Vaia P. Verrucchi

1996-01-01

12

von neumann equations with time-dependent hamiltonians and supersymmetric quantum mechanics

Starting with a time-independent Hamiltonian h and an appropriately chosen solution of the von Neumann equation irho;(t)=[h,rho(t)] we construct its binary-Darboux partner h(1)(t) and an exact scattering solution of irho;(1)(t)=[h(1)(t),rho(1)(t)], where h(1)(t) is time dependent and not isospectral to h. The method is analogous to supersymmetric quantum mechanics but is based on a different version of a Darboux transformation. We illustrate the technique by the example where h corresponds to a one-dimensional harmonic oscillator. The resulting h(1)(t) represents a scattering of a solitonlike pulse on a three-level system. PMID:11088105

Czachor; Doebner; Syty; Wasylka

2000-04-01

13

Salpeter equation and probability current in the relativistic Hamiltonian quantum mechanics

The probability current for a quantum spinless relativistic particle is introduced based on the Hamiltonian dynamics approach utilizing the Salpeter equation as an alternative for the Klein-Gordon equation. The correctness of the presented formalism is illustrated by examples of exact solutions to the Salpeter equation including the new ones introduced in this work.

Kowalski, K.; Rembielinski, J. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Lodz, ul. Pomorska 149/153, PL-90-236 Lodz (Poland)

2011-07-15

14

Supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSY-QM) is shown to provide a novel approach to the construction of the initial states for the imaginary time propagation method to determine the first and second excited state energies and wave functions for a two-dimensional system. In addition, we show that all calculations are carried out in sector one and none are performed with the tensor sector two Hamiltonian. Through our tensorial approach to multidimensional supersymmetric quantum mechanics, we utilize the correspondence between the eigenstates of the sector one and two Hamiltonians to construct appropriate initial sector one states from sector two states for the imaginary time propagation method. The imaginary time version of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation is integrated to obtain the first and second excited state energies and wave functions using the split operator method for a two-dimensional anharmonic oscillator system and a two-dimensional double well potential. The computational results indicate that we can obtain the first two excited state energies and wave functions even when a quantum system does not exhibit any symmetry. Moreover, instead of dealing with the increasing computational complexity resulting from computations in the tensor sector two Hamiltonian, this study presents a new supersymmetric approach to calculations of accurate excited state energies and wave functions by directly using the scalar sector one Hamiltonian. PMID:23531036

Chou, Chia-Chun; Kouri, Donald J

2013-04-25

15

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An eight-dimensional quantum mechanical Hamiltonian has been proposed based on Palma and Clary's model in which the non-reacting CZ3 group keeps a C3v symmetry in the X + YCZ3 <--> XY + CZ3 reaction J. Palma and D. C. Clary [J. Chem. Phys. 112, 1859 (2000)]. By transforming the original Cartesian coordinate system (x, s) into a scaled polar coordinate system (q, ?), the vibrational Hamiltonian of CZ3 group is expressed in a simple form with a clear physical picture. This Hamiltonian is used to investigate the H + CH4 --> H2 + CH3 reaction on the Jordan-Gilbert potential energy surface. The total reaction probabilities are calculated for the initial ground state, and umbrella, bending, symmetric, and asymmetric stretching excited states of CH4 with total angular momentum J = 0. The integral cross sections for the reaction are also studied for these initial vibrational states with a centrifugal-sudden approximation. The total integral cross sections for the asymmetric stretching vibrational excited state are in good agreement with the experimental observations. The results also showed the difference of dynamical behavior between reactions from symmetric and asymmetric stretching excited states. The thermal rate constants are calculated for the temperature range T = 250-2000 K and compared with the experimental and other theoretical results.

Liu, Rui; Xiong, Hongwei; Yang, Minghui

2012-11-01

16

Quantum Hamiltonian learning using imperfect quantum resources

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identifying an accurate model for the dynamics of a quantum system is a vexing problem that underlies a range of problems in experimental physics and quantum information theory. Recently, a method called quantum Hamiltonian learning has been proposed by the present authors that uses quantum simulation as a resource for modeling an unknown quantum system. This approach can, under certain circumstances, allow such models to be efficiently identified. A major caveat of that work is the assumption of that all elements of the protocol are noise free. Here we show that quantum Hamiltonian learning can tolerate substantial amounts of depolarizing noise and show numerical evidence that it can tolerate noise drawn from other realistic models. We further provide evidence that the learning algorithm will find a model that is maximally close to the true model in cases where the hypothetical model lacks terms present in the true model. Finally, we also provide numerical evidence that the algorithm works for noncommuting models. This work illustrates that quantum Hamiltonian learning can be performed using realistic resources and suggests that even imperfect quantum resources may be valuable for characterizing quantum systems.

Wiebe, Nathan; Granade, Christopher; Ferrie, Christopher; Cory, David

2014-04-01

17

We extend the application of the techniques developed within the framework of the pseudo-Hermitian quantum mechanics to study a unitary quantum system described by an imaginary PT-symmetric potential v(x) having a continuous real spectrum. For this potential that has recently been used, in the context of optical potentials, for modeling the propagation of electromagnetic waves traveling in a waveguide half and half filled with gain and absorbing media, we give a perturbative construction of the physical Hilbert space, observables, localized states, and the equivalent Hermitian Hamiltonian. Ignoring terms of order three or higher in the non-Hermiticity parameter {zeta}, we show that the equivalent Hermitian Hamiltonian has the form p{sup 2}/2m+({zeta}{sup 2}/2){sigma}{sub n=0}{sup {infinity}}{l_brace}{alpha}{sub n}(x),p{sup 2n}{r_brace} with {alpha}{sub n}(x) vanishing outside an interval that is three times larger than the support of v(x), i.e., in 2/3 of the physical interaction region the potential v(x) vanishes identically. We provide a physical interpretation for this unusual behavior and comment on the classical limit of the system.

Mostafazadeh, Ali [Department of Mathematics, Koc University, 34450 Sariyer, Istanbul (Turkey)

2005-10-01

18

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum Hamiltonians that are fine-tuned to their so-called Rokhsar-Kivelson (RK) points, first presented in the context of quantum dimer models, are defined by their representations in preferred bases in which their ground state wave functions are intimately related to the partition functions of combinatorial problems of classical statistical physics. We show that all the known examples of quantum Hamiltonians, when fine-tuned to their RK points, belong to a larger class of real, symmetric, and irreducible matrices that admit what we dub a Stochastic Matrix Form (SMF) decomposition. Matrices that are SMF decomposable are shown to be in one-to-one correspondence with stochastic classical systems described by a Master equation of the matrix type, hence their name. It then follows that the equilibrium partition function of the stochastic classical system partly controls the zero-temperature quantum phase diagram, while the relaxation rates of the stochastic classical system coincide with the excitation spectrum of the quantum problem. Given a generic quantum Hamiltonian construed as an abstract operator defined on some Hilbert space, we prove that there exists a continuous manifold of bases in which the representation of the quantum Hamiltonian is SMF decomposable, i.e., there is a (continuous) manifold of distinct stochastic classical systems related to the same quantum problem. Finally, we illustrate with three examples of Hamiltonians fine-tuned to their RK points, the triangular quantum dimer model, the quantum eight-vertex model, and the quantum three-coloring model on the honeycomb lattice, how they can be understood within our framework, and how this allows for immediate generalizations, e.g., by adding non-trivial interactions to these models.

Castelnovo, Claudio; Chamon, Claudio; Mudry, Christopher; Pujol, Pierre

2005-08-01

19

LETTER TO THE EDITOR: On the quantum mechanics of complex Hamiltonian systems in one dimension

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solutions of an analogous Schrödinger wave equation for the one-dimensional non-Hermitian Hamiltonian H(x, p) in the complex phase plane characterized by x = x1 + i p2, p = p1 + ix2, are investigated. The quasi-exact solutions thus obtained reveal a lot about the nature of the complex eigenvalue spectrum of the potential concerned. The examples of harmonic, harmonic plus inverse harmonic and Mörse potentials are discussed.

Kaushal, R. S.

2001-12-01

20

Five-dimensional Hamiltonian-Jacobi approach to relativistic quantum mechanics

A novel theory is outlined for describing the dynamics of relativistic electrons and positrons. By introducing the Lorentz-invariant universal time as a fifth independent variable, the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism of classical mechanics is extended from three to four spatial dimensions. This approach allows one to incorporate gravitation and spin interactions in the extended five-dimensional Lagrangian in a covariant form. The universal time has the function of a hidden Bell parameter. By employing the method of variation with respect to the four coordinates of the particle and the components of the electromagnetic field, the path equation and the electromagnetic field produced by the charge and the spin of the moving particle are derived. In addition the covariant equations for the dynamics of the components of the spin tensor are obtained. These equations can be transformed to the familiar BMT equation in the case of homogeneous electromagnetic fields. The quantization of the five-dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi equation yields a five-dimensional spinor wave equation, which degenerates to the Dirac equation in the stationary case if we neglect gravitation. The quantity which corresponds to the probability density of standard quantum mechanics is the four-dimensional mass density which has a real physical meaning. By means of the Green method the wave equation is transformed into an integral equation enabling a covariant relativistic path integral formulation. Using this approach a very accurate approximation for the four-dimensional propagator is derived. The proposed formalism makes Dirac's hole theory obsolete and can readily be extended to many particles.

Rose, Harald

2003-12-11

21

Nonconservative Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics

Traditional Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics cannot be used with nonconservative forces such as friction. A method is proposed that uses a Lagrangian containing derivatives of fractional order. A direct calculation gives an Euler-Lagrange equation of motion for nonconservative forces. Conjugate momenta are defined and Hamilton's equations are derived using generalized classical mechanics with fractional and higher-order derivatives. The method is

Fred Riewe

1996-01-01

22

Quantum Dynamics with AN Ensemble of Hamiltonians

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review recent progress in the nonequilibrium dynamics of thermally isolated many-body quantum systems, evolving with an ensemble of Hamiltonians as opposed to deterministic evolution with a single time-dependent Hamiltonian. Such questions arise in (i) quantum dynamics of disordered systems, where different realizations of disorder give rise to an ensemble of real-time quantum evolutions, (ii) quantum evolution with noisy Hamiltonians (temporal disorder), which leads to stochastic Schrödinger equations, and, (iii) in the broader context of quantum optimal control, where one needs to analyze an ensemble of permissible protocols in order to find one that optimizes a given figure of merit. The theme of ensemble quantum evolution appears in several emerging new directions in noneqilibrium quantum dynamics of thermally isolated many-body systems, which include many-body localization, noise-driven systems, and shortcuts to adiabaticity.

Rahmani, Armin

2013-10-01

23

Quantum Hamiltonian Physics with Supercomputers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vision of solving the nuclear many-body problem in a Hamiltonian framework with fundamental interactions tied to QCD via Chiral Perturbation Theory is gaining support. The goals are to preserve the predictive power of the underlying theory, to test fundamental symmetries with the nucleus as laboratory and to develop new understandings of the full range of complex quantum phenomena. Advances in theoretical frameworks (renormalization and many-body methods) as well as in computational resources (new algorithms and leadership-class parallel computers) signal a new generation of theory and simulations that will yield profound insights into the origins of nuclear shell structure, collective phenomena and complex reaction dynamics. Fundamental discovery opportunities also exist in such areas as physics beyond the Standard Model of Elementary Particles, the transition between hadronic and quark-gluon dominated dynamics in nuclei and signals that characterize dark matter. I will review some recent achievements and present ambitious consensus plans along with their challenges for a coming decade of research that will build new links between theory, simulations and experiment. Opportunities for graduate students to embark upon careers in the fast developing field of supercomputer simulations is also discussed.

Vary, James P.

2014-06-01

24

Dissipative Forces and Quantum Mechanics

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows how to include the dissipative forces of classical mechanics in quantum mechanics by the use of non-Hermetian Hamiltonians. The Ehrenfest theorem for such Hamiltonians is derived, and simple examples which show the classical correspondences are given. (MLH)

Eck, John S.; Thompson, W. J.

1977-01-01

25

Relativistic non-Hamiltonian mechanics

Relativistic particle subjected to a general four-force is considered as a nonholonomic system. The nonholonomic constraint in four-dimensional space-time represents the relativistic invariance by the equation for four-velocity u{sub {mu}u}{sup {mu}} + c{sup 2} = 0, where c is the speed of light in vacuum. In the general case, four-forces are non-potential, and the relativistic particle is a non-Hamiltonian system in four-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean space-time. We consider non-Hamiltonian and dissipative systems in relativistic mechanics. Covariant forms of the principle of stationary action and the Hamilton's principle for relativistic mechanics of non-Hamiltonian systems are discussed. The equivalence of these principles is considered for relativistic particles subjected to potential and non-potential forces. We note that the equations of motion which follow from the Hamilton's principle are not equivalent to the equations which follow from the variational principle of stationary action. The Hamilton's principle and the principle of stationary action are not compatible in the case of systems with nonholonomic constraint and the potential forces. The principle of stationary action for relativistic particle subjected to non-potential forces can be used if the Helmholtz conditions are satisfied. The Hamilton's principle and the principle of stationary action are equivalent only for a special class of relativistic non-Hamiltonian systems.

Tarasov, Vasily E., E-mail: tarasov@theory.sinp.msu.r [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

2010-10-15

26

Hamiltonian Learning and Certification Using Quantum Resources

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years quantum simulation has made great strides, culminating in experiments that existing supercomputers cannot easily simulate. Although this raises the possibility that special purpose analog quantum simulators may be able to perform computational tasks that existing computers cannot, it also introduces a major challenge: certifying that the quantum simulator is in fact simulating the correct quantum dynamics. We provide an algorithm that, under relatively weak assumptions, can be used to efficiently infer the Hamiltonian of a large but untrusted quantum simulator using a trusted quantum simulator. We illustrate the power of this approach by showing numerically that it can inexpensively learn the Hamiltonians for large frustrated Ising models, demonstrating that quantum resources can make certifying analog quantum simulators tractable.

Wiebe, Nathan; Granade, Christopher; Ferrie, Christopher; Cory, D. G.

2014-05-01

27

Hamiltonian learning and certification using quantum resources.

In recent years quantum simulation has made great strides, culminating in experiments that existing supercomputers cannot easily simulate. Although this raises the possibility that special purpose analog quantum simulators may be able to perform computational tasks that existing computers cannot, it also introduces a major challenge: certifying that the quantum simulator is in fact simulating the correct quantum dynamics. We provide an algorithm that, under relatively weak assumptions, can be used to efficiently infer the Hamiltonian of a large but untrusted quantum simulator using a trusted quantum simulator. We illustrate the power of this approach by showing numerically that it can inexpensively learn the Hamiltonians for large frustrated Ising models, demonstrating that quantum resources can make certifying analog quantum simulators tractable. PMID:24877920

Wiebe, Nathan; Granade, Christopher; Ferrie, Christopher; Cory, D G

2014-05-16

28

Spherically symmetric quantum geometry: Hamiltonian constraint

Variables adapted to the quantum dynamics of spherically symmetric models are introduced, which further simplify the spherically symmetric volume operator and allow an explicit computation of all matrix elements of the Euclidean and Lorentzian Hamiltonian constraints. The construction fits completely into the general scheme available in loop quantum gravity for the quantization of the full theory as well as symmetric

Martin Bojowald; Rafal Swiderski

2006-01-01

29

Realizable Hamiltonians for universal adiabatic quantum computers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been established that local lattice spin Hamiltonians can be used for universal adiabatic quantum computation. However, the two-local model Hamiltonians used in these proofs are general and hence do not limit the types of interactions required between spins. To address this concern, the present paper provides two simple model Hamiltonians that are of practical interest to experimentalists working toward the realization of a universal adiabatic quantum computer. The model Hamiltonians presented are the simplest known quantum-Merlin-Arthur-complete (QMA-complete) two-local Hamiltonians. The two-local Ising model with one-local transverse field which has been realized using an array of technologies, is perhaps the simplest quantum spin model but is unlikely to be universal for adiabatic quantum computation. We demonstrate that this model can be rendered universal and QMA-complete by adding a tunable two-local transverse ?x?x coupling. We also show the universality and QMA-completeness of spin models with only one-local ?z and ?x fields and two-local ?z?x interactions.

Biamonte, Jacob D.; Love, Peter J.

2008-07-01

30

Topological properties of quantum periodic Hamiltonians

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider periodic quantum Hamiltonians on the torus phase space (Harper-like Hamiltonians). We calculate the topological Chern index which characterizes each spectral band in the generic case. This calculation is made by a semiclassical approach with the use of quasi-modes. As a result, the Chern index is equal to the homotopy of the path of these quasi-modes on phase space as the Floquet parameter icons/Journals/Common/theta" ALT="theta" ALIGN="TOP"/> of the band is varied. It is quite interesting that the Chern indices, defined as topological quantum numbers, can be expressed from simple properties of the classical trajectories.

Faure, Frédéric

2000-01-01

31

Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We give a general construction for supersymmetric Hamiltonians in quantum mechanics. We find that N-extended supersymmetry imposes very strong constraints, and for N > 4 the Hamiltonian is integrable. We give a variety of examples, for one-particle and fo...

M. de Crombrugghe V. Rittenberg

1982-01-01

32

Indirect quantum tomography of quadratic Hamiltonians

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of many-body problems can be formulated using Hamiltonians that are quadratic in the creation and annihilation operators. Here, we show how such quadratic Hamiltonians can be efficiently estimated indirectly, employing very few resources. We found that almost all the properties of the Hamiltonian are determined by its surface and that these properties can be measured even if the system can only be initialized to a mixed state. Therefore, our method can be applied to various physical models, with important examples including coupled nano-mechanical oscillators, hopping fermions in optical lattices and transverse Ising chains.

Burgarth, Daniel; Maruyama, Koji; Nori, Franco

2011-01-01

33

Quantum Error Correction Code in the Hamiltonian Formulation

The Hamiltonian model of quantum error correction code in the literature is often constructed with the help of its stabilizer formalism. But there have been many known examples of nonadditive codes which are beyond the standard quantum error correction theory using the stabilizer formalism. In this paper, we suggest the other type of Hamiltonian formalism for quantum error correction code

Yong Zhang

2008-01-01

34

Hamiltonian mechanics of stochastic acceleration.

We show how to find the physical Langevin equation describing the trajectories of particles undergoing collisionless stochastic acceleration. These stochastic differential equations retain not only one-, but two-particle statistics, and inherit the Hamiltonian nature of the underlying microscopic equations. This opens the door to using stochastic variational integrators to perform simulations of stochastic interactions such as Fermi acceleration. We illustrate the theory by applying it to two example problems. PMID:24266476

Burby, J W; Zhmoginov, A I; Qin, H

2013-11-01

35

Loop quantum gravity without the Hamiltonian constraint

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that under certain technical assumptions, including the existence of a constant mean curvature (CMC) slice and strict positivity of the scalar field, general relativity conformally coupled to a scalar field can be quantized on a partially reduced phase space, meaning reduced only with respect to the Hamiltonian constraint and a proper gauge fixing. More precisely, we introduce, in close analogy to shape dynamics, the generator of a local conformal transformation acting on both, the metric and the scalar field, which coincides with the CMC gauge condition. A new metric, which is invariant under this transformation, is constructed and used to define connection variables which can be quantized by standard loop quantum gravity methods. Since this connection is invariant under the local conformal transformation, the generator of which is shown to be a good gauge fixing for the Hamiltonian constraint, the Dirac bracket associated with implementing these constraints coincides with the Poisson bracket for the connection. Thus, the well developed kinematical quantization techniques for loop quantum gravity are available, while the Hamiltonian constraint has been solved (more precisely, gauge fixed) classically. The physical interpretation of this system is that of general relativity on a fixed spatial CMC slice, the associated ‘time’ of which is given by the CMC. While it is hard to address dynamical problems in this framework (due to the complicated ‘time’ function), it seems, due to good accessibility properties of the CMC gauge, to be well suited for problems such as the computation of black hole entropy, where actual physical states can be counted and the dynamics is only of indirect importance. The corresponding calculation yields the surprising result that the usual prescription of fixing the Barbero-Immirzi parameter ? to a constant value in order to obtain the well-known formula S = a(?)A/(4G) does not work for the black holes under consideration, while a recently proposed prescription involving an analytic continuation of ? to the case of a self-dual space-time connection yields the correct result. Also, the interpretation of the geometric operators gets an interesting twist, which exemplifies the deep relationship between observables and the choice of a time function and has consequences for loop quantum cosmology.

Bodendorfer, N.; Stottmeister, A.; Thurn, A.

2013-04-01

36

Entanglement concentration with quantum nondemolition Hamiltonians

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We devise and examine two procrustean entanglement concentration schemes using quantum nondemolition (QND) interaction Hamiltonians in the continuous variable regime, applicable for light, for atomic ensembles or in a hybrid setting. We thus expand the standard entanglement distillation toolbox for use of a much more general, versatile, and experimentally feasible interaction class. The first protocol uses Gaussian ancillary modes and a non-Gaussian postmeasurement, the second a non-Gaussian ancillary mode and a Gaussian postmeasurement. We explicitly calculate the density matrix elements of the non-Gaussian mixed states resulting from these protocols using an elegant Wigner-function-based method in a numerically efficient manner. We then quantify the entanglement increase calculating the logarithmic negativity of the output state and discuss and compare the performance of the protocols.

Tatham, Richard; Korolkova, Natalia

2014-01-01

37

Time and a physical Hamiltonian for quantum gravity.

We present a nonperturbative quantization of general relativity coupled to dust and other matter fields. The dust provides a natural time variable, leading to a physical Hamiltonian with spatial diffeomorphism symmetry. The surprising feature is that the Hamiltonian is not a square root. This property, together with the kinematical structure of loop quantum gravity, provides a complete theory of quantum gravity, and puts applications to cosmology, quantum gravitational collapse, and Hawking radiation within technical reach. PMID:22540782

Husain, Viqar; Paw?owski, Tomasz

2012-04-01

38

PT-symmetric quantum mechanics

This paper proposes to broaden the canonical formulation of quantum mechanics. Ordinarily, one imposes the condition H†=H on the Hamiltonian, where † represents the mathematical operation of complex conjugation and matrix transposition. This conventional Hermiticity condition is sufficient to ensure that the Hamiltonian H has a real spectrum. However, replacing this mathematical condition by the weaker and more physical requirement

Carl M. Bender; Stefan Boettcher; Peter N. Meisinger

1999-01-01

39

Hamiltonian mechanics and planar fishlike locomotion

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A free deformable body interacting with a system of point vortices in the plane constitutes a Hamiltonian system. A free Joukowski foil with variable camber shedding point vortices in an ideal fluid according to a periodically applied Kutta condition provides a model for fishlike locomotion which bridges the gap between inviscid analytical models that sacrifice realism for tractability and viscous computational models inaccessible to tools from nonlinear control theory. We frame such a model in the context of Hamiltonian mechanics and describe its relevance both to the study of hydrodynamic interactions within schools of fish and to the realization of model-based control laws for biomimetic autonomous robotic vehicles.

Kelly, Scott; Xiong, Hailong; Burgoyne, Will

2007-11-01

40

Faster than Hermitian quantum mechanics.

Given an initial quantum state |psi(I)> and a final quantum state |psi(F)>, there exist Hamiltonians H under which |psi(I)> evolves into |psi(F)>. Consider the following quantum brachistochrone problem: subject to the constraint that the difference between the largest and smallest eigenvalues of H is held fixed, which H achieves this transformation in the least time tau? For Hermitian Hamiltonians tau has a nonzero lower bound. However, among non-Hermitian PT-symmetric Hamiltonians satisfying the same energy constraint, tau can be made arbitrarily small without violating the time-energy uncertainty principle. This is because for such Hamiltonians the path from |psi(I)> to |psi(F)> can be made short. The mechanism described here is similar to that in general relativity in which the distance between two space-time points can be made small if they are connected by a wormhole. This result may have applications in quantum computing. PMID:17358747

Bender, Carl M; Brody, Dorje C; Jones, Hugh F; Meister, Bernhard K

2007-01-26

41

Hamiltonian quantum simulation with bounded-strength controls

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose dynamical control schemes for Hamiltonian simulation in many-body quantum systems that avoid instantaneous control operations and rely solely on realistic bounded-strength control Hamiltonians. Each simulation protocol consists of periodic repetitions of a basic control block, constructed as a modification of an ‘Eulerian decoupling cycle,’ that would otherwise implement a trivial (zero) target Hamiltonian. For an open quantum system coupled to an uncontrollable environment, our approach may be employed to engineer an effective evolution that simulates a target Hamiltonian on the system while suppressing unwanted decoherence to the leading order, thereby allowing for dynamically corrected simulation. We present illustrative applications to both closed- and open-system simulation settings, with emphasis on simulation of non-local (two-body) Hamiltonians using only local (one-body) controls. In particular, we provide simulation schemes applicable to Heisenberg-coupled spin chains exposed to general linear decoherence, and show how to simulate Kitaev's honeycomb lattice Hamiltonian starting from Ising-coupled qubits, as potentially relevant to the dynamical generation of a topologically protected quantum memory. Additional implications for quantum information processing are discussed.

Bookatz, Adam D.; Wocjan, Pawel; Viola, Lorenza

2014-04-01

42

Noncommutative quantum mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A general noncommutative quantum mechanical system in a central potential V=V(r) in two dimensions is considered. The spectrum is bounded from below and, for large values of the anticommutative parameter ?, we find an explicit expression for the eigenvalues. In fact, any quantum mechanical system with these characteristics is equivalent to a commutative one in such a way that the interaction V(r) is replaced by V=V(HHO,Lz), where HHO is the Hamiltonian of the two-dimensional harmonic oscillator and Lz is the z component of the angular momentum. For other finite values of ? the model can be solved by using perturbation theory.

Gamboa, J.; Loewe, M.; Rojas, J. C.

2001-09-01

43

Effective Hamiltonian for the hybrid double quantum dot qubit

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum dot hybrid qubits formed from three electrons in double quantum dots represent a promising compromise between high speed and simple fabrication for solid state implementations of single-qubit and two-qubits quantum logic ports. We derive the Schrieffer-Wolff effective Hamiltonian that describes in a simple and intuitive way the qubit by combining a Hubbard-like model with a projector operator method. As a result, the Hubbard-like Hamiltonian is transformed in an equivalent expression in terms of the exchange coupling interactions between pairs of electrons. The effective Hamiltonian is exploited to derive the dynamical behavior of the system and its eigenstates on the Bloch sphere to generate qubits operation for quantum logic ports. A realistic implementation in silicon and the coupling of the qubit with a detector are discussed.

Ferraro, E.; De Michielis, M.; Mazzeo, G.; Fanciulli, M.; Prati, E.

2014-05-01

44

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains a number of descriptions of quantum mechanical phenomena, using 3D animations to illustrate the physics. The goal is to introduce basic concepts and phenomena using simulations rather than complex mathematics. The time-dependence of quantum systems is a focus of this material.

Michielsen, Kristel; De Raedt, Hans

2004-03-04

45

Quantum models related to fouled Hamiltonians of the harmonic oscillator

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a pair of canonoid (fouled) Hamiltonians of the harmonic oscillator which provide, at the classical level, the same equation of motion as the conventional Hamiltonian. These Hamiltonians, say K1 and K2, result to be explicitly time dependent and can be expressed as a formal rotation of two cubic polynomial functions, H1 and H2, of the canonical variables (q,p). We investigate the role of these fouled Hamiltonians at the quantum level. Adopting a canonical quantization procedure, we construct some quantum models and analyze the related eigenvalue equations. One of these models is described by a Hamiltonian admitting infinite self-adjoint extensions, each of them has a discrete spectrum on the real line. A self-adjoint extension is fixed by choosing the spectral parameter ? of the associated eigenvalue equation equal to zero. The spectral problem is discussed in the context of three different representations. For V=0, the eigenvalue equation is exactly solved in all these representations, in which square-integrable solutions are explicitly found. A set of constants of motion corresponding to these quantum models is also obtained. Furthermore, the algebraic structure underlying the quantum models is explored. This turns out to be a nonlinear (quadratic) algebra, which could be applied for the determination of approximate solutions to the eigenvalue equations.

Tempesta, P.; Alfinito, E.; Leo, R. A.; Soliani, G.

2002-07-01

46

Efficient extraction of quantum Hamiltonians from optimal laboratory data

Optimal identification (OI) is a recently developed procedure for extracting information about quantum Hamiltonians from experimental data. It employs techniques from coherent learning control to drive the quantum system such that dynamical measurements provide maximal information about its Hamiltonian. OI is an optimal procedure as initially presented; however, the data inversion component is computationally expensive. Here, we demonstrate that highly efficient global, nonlinear, map-facilitated inversion procedures can be combined with the OI concept to make it more suitable for laboratory implementation. A simulation of map-facilitated OI illustrates how the input-output maps can greatly accelerate the data inversion process.

Geremia, J.M.; Rabitz, Herschel A. [Physics and Control and Dynamic Systems, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

2004-08-01

47

Simulation of electronic structure Hamiltonians using quantum computers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last century, a large number of physical and mathematical developments paired with rapidly advancing technology have allowed the field of quantum chemistry to advance dramatically. However, the lack of computationally efficient methods for the exact simulation of quantum systems on classical computers presents a limitation of current computational approaches. We report, in detail, how a set of pre-computed molecular integrals can be used to explicitly create a quantum circuit, i.e. a sequence of elementary quantum operations, that, when run on a quantum computer, to obtain the energy of a molecular system with fixed nuclear geometry using the quantum phase estimation algorithm. We extend several known results related to this idea and discuss the adiabatic state preparation procedure for preparing the input states used in the algorithm. With current and near future quantum devices in mind, we provide a complete example using the hydrogen molecule, of how a chemical Hamiltonian can be simulated using a quantum computer.

Whitfield, James; Biamonte, Jacob; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan

2011-03-01

48

Remarks on non-Hamiltonian statistical mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A previous brief summary of some basic relations in non-Hamiltonian statistical mechanics (Ramshaw J. D., Phys. Lett. A, 116 (1986) 110) is generalized to allow for an arbitrary time-dependent metric in phase space, thereby permitting a comparison with the formulation of Tuckerman et al. (TEA) (Europhys. Lett., 45 (1999) 149). It is shown that a) the generalized Liouville equation (GLE) in the earlier work is rigorously valid in general, and moreover is completely equivalent to the GLE of TEA; and b) the time-dependent metric factor ?g in the volume form used by TEA is itself a solution of the GLE, and consequently becomes singular and unacceptable for systems with attractors in steady state.

Ramshaw, J. D.

2002-08-01

49

The detectability lemma and its applications to quantum Hamiltonian complexity

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum Hamiltonian complexity, an emerging area at the intersection of condensed matter physics and quantum complexity theory, studies the properties of local Hamiltonians and their ground states. In this paper we focus on a seemingly specialized technical tool, the detectability lemma (DL), introduced in the context of the quantum PCP challenge (Aharonov et al 2009 arXiv:0811.3412), which is a major open question in quantum Hamiltonian complexity. We show that a reformulated version of the lemma is a versatile tool that can be used in place of the celebrated Lieb-Robinson (LR) bound to prove several important results in quantum Hamiltonian complexity. The resulting proofs are much simpler, more combinatorial and provide a plausible path toward tackling some fundamental open questions in Hamiltonian complexity. We provide an alternative simpler proof of the DL that removes a key restriction in the original statement (Aharonov et al 2009 arXiv:0811.3412), making it more suitable for the broader context of quantum Hamiltonian complexity. Specifically, we first use the DL to provide a one-page proof of Hastings' result that the correlations in the ground states of gapped Hamiltonians decay exponentially with distance (Hastings 2004 Phys. Rev. B 69 104431). We then apply the DL to derive a simpler and more intuitive proof of Hastings' seminal one-dimensional (1D) area law (Hastings 2007 J. Stat. Mech. (2007) P8024) (both these proofs are restricted to frustration-free systems). Proving the area law for two and higher dimensions is one of the most important open questions in the field of Hamiltonian complexity, and the combinatorial nature of the DL-based proof holds out hope for a possible generalization. Indeed, soon after the first publication of the methods presented here, they were applied to derive exponential improvements to Hastings' result (Arad et al 2011, Aharonov et al 2011) in the case of frustration-free 1D systems. Finally, we also provide a more general explanation of how the DL can be used to replace the LR bound.

Aharonov, Dorit; Arad, Itai; Vazirani, Umesh; Landau, Zeph

2011-11-01

50

Supersymmetry in quantum mechanics

An elementary introduction is given to the subject of supersymmetry in quantum mechanics which can be understood and appreciated by any one who has taken a first course in quantum mechanics. We demonstrate with explicit examples that given a solvable problem in quantum mechanics with n bound states, one can construct n new exactly solvable Hamiltonians having n - 1, n - 2,..., 0 bound states. The relationship between the eigenvalues, eigenfunctions and scattering matrix of the supersymmetric partner potentials is derived and a class of reflectionless potentials are explicitly constructed. We extend the operator method of solving the one-dimensional harmonic oscillator problem to a class of potentials called shape-invariant potentials. It is worth emphasizing that this class includes almost all the solvable problems that are found in the standard text books on quantum mechanics. Further, we show that given any potential with at least one bound state, one can very easily construct one continuous parameter family of potentials having same eigenvalues and s-matrix. The supersymmetry inspired WKB approximation (SWKB) is also discussed and it is shown that unlike the usual WKB, the lowest order SWKB approximation is exact for the shape-invariant potentials and further, this approximation is not only exact for large quantum numbers but by construction, it is also exact for the ground state. Finally, we also construct new exactly solvable periodic potentials by using the machinery of supersymmetric quantum mechanics.

Khare, Avinash [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005, Orissa (India)

2004-12-23

51

Investigation of Commuting Hamiltonian in Quantum Markov Network

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphical Models have various applications in science and engineering which include physics, bioinformatics, telecommunication and etc. Usage of graphical models needs complex computations in order to evaluation of marginal functions, so there are some powerful methods including mean field approximation, belief propagation algorithm and etc. Quantum graphical models have been recently developed in context of quantum information and computation, and quantum statistical physics, which is possible by generalization of classical probability theory to quantum theory. The main goal of this paper is preparing a primary generalization of Markov network, as a type of graphical models, to quantum case and applying in quantum statistical physics. We have investigated the Markov network and the role of commuting Hamiltonian terms in conditional independence with simple examples of quantum statistical physics.

Jouneghani, Farzad Ghafari; Babazadeh, Mohammad; Bayramzadeh, Rogayeh; Movla, Hossein

2014-03-01

52

Newton algorithm for Hamiltonian characterization in quantum control

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a Newton algorithm to characterize the Hamiltonian of a quantum system interacting with a given laser field. The algorithm is based on the assumption that the evolution operator of the system is perfectly known at a fixed time. The computational scheme uses the Crank–Nicholson approximation to explicitly determine the derivatives of the propagator with respect to the Hamiltonians of the system. In order to globalize this algorithm, we use a continuation method that improves its convergence properties. This technique is applied to a two-level quantum system and to a molecular one with a double-well potential. The numerical tests show that accurate estimates of the unknown parameters are obtained in some cases. We discuss the numerical limits of the algorithm in terms of the basin of convergence and the non-uniqueness of the solution.

Ndong, M.; Salomon, J.; Sugny, D.

2014-07-01

53

Quantum integrals of motion for variable quadratic Hamiltonians

We construct integrals of motion for several models of the quantum damped oscillators in a framework of a general approach to the time-dependent Schroedinger equation with variable quadratic Hamiltonians. An extension of the Lewis-Riesenfeld dynamical invariant is given. The time-evolution of the expectation values of the energy-related positive operators is determined for the oscillators under consideration. A proof of uniqueness of the corresponding Cauchy initial value problem is discussed as an application.

Cordero-Soto, Ricardo, E-mail: ricardojavier81@gmail.co [Mathematical, Computational and Modeling Sciences Center, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1804 (United States); Suazo, Erwin, E-mail: erwin.suazo@upr.ed [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaquez, call box 9000, PR 00681-9000 (Puerto Rico); Suslov, Sergei K., E-mail: sks@asu.ed [School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences and Mathematical, Computational and Modeling Sciences Center, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1804 (United States)

2010-09-15

54

Generation of quantum logic operations from physical Hamiltonians

We provide a systematic analysis of the physical generation of single- and two-qubit quantum operations from Hamiltonians available in various quantum systems for scalable quantum information processing. We show that generation of single-qubit operations can be transformed into a steering problem on the Bloch sphere, which represents all R{sub z}-equivalence classes of single-qubit operations, whereas the two-qubit problem can be generally transformed into a steering problem in a tetrahedron representing all the local-equivalence classes of two-qubit operations (the Weyl chamber). We use this approach to investigate several physical examples for the generation of two-qubit operations. The steering approach provides useful guidance for the realization of various quantum computation schemes.

Zhang Jun [Department of Chemistry and Pitzer Center for Theoretical Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Whaley, K. Birgitta [Department of Chemistry and Pitzer Center for Theoretical Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2005-05-15

55

Topological color codes and two-body quantum lattice Hamiltonians

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topological color codes are among the stabilizer codes with remarkable properties from the quantum information perspective. In this paper, we construct a lattice, the so-called ruby lattice, with coordination number 4 governed by a two-body Hamiltonian. In a particular regime of coupling constants, in a strong coupling limit, degenerate perturbation theory implies that the low-energy spectrum of the model can be described by a many-body effective Hamiltonian, which encodes the color code as its ground state subspace. Ground state subspace corresponds to a vortex-free sector. The gauge symmetry Z2×Z2 of the color code could already be realized by identifying three distinct plaquette operators on the ruby lattice. All plaquette operators commute with each other and with the Hamiltonian being integrals of motion. Plaquettes are extended to closed strings or string-net structures. Non-contractible closed strings winding the space commute with Hamiltonian but not always with each other. This gives rise to exact topological degeneracy of the model. A connection to 2-colexes can be established via the coloring of the strings. We discuss it at the non-perturbative level. The particular structure of the two-body Hamiltonian provides a fruitful interpretation in terms of mapping onto bosons coupled to effective spins. We show that high-energy excitations of the model have fermionic statistics. They form three families of high-energy excitations each of one color. Furthermore, we show that they belong to a particular family of topological charges. The emergence of invisible charges is related to the string-net structure of the model. The emerging fermions are coupled to nontrivial gauge fields. We show that for particular 2-colexes, the fermions can see the background fluxes in the ground state. Also, we use the Jordan-Wigner transformation in order to test the integrability of the model via introducing Majorana fermions. The four-valent structure of the lattice prevents the fermionized Hamiltonian from being reduced to a quadratic form owing to interacting gauge fields. We also propose another construction for the two-body Hamiltonian based on the connection between color codes and cluster states. The corresponding two-body Hamiltonian encodes a cluster state defined on a bipartite lattice as its low-energy spectrum, and subsequent selective measurements give rise to the color code model. We discuss this latter approach along with the construction based on the ruby lattice.

Kargarian, M.; Bombin, H.; Martin-Delgado, M. A.

2010-02-01

56

Hamiltonian reduction and supersymmetric mechanics with Dirac monopole

We apply the technique of Hamiltonian reduction for the construction of three-dimensional N=4 supersymmetric mechanics specified by the presence of a Dirac monopole. For this purpose we take the conventional N=4 supersymmetric mechanics on the four-dimensional conformally-flat spaces and perform its Hamiltonian reduction to three-dimensional system. We formulate the final system in the canonical coordinates, and present, in these terms, the explicit expressions of the Hamiltonian and supercharges. We show that, besides a magnetic monopole field, the resulting system is specified by the presence of a spin-orbit coupling term. A comparision with previous work is also carried out.

Bellucci, Stefano [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, P.O. Box 13, I-00044 (Italy); Nersessian, Armen [Yerevan State University, Alex Manoogian St., 1, Yerevan, 375025 (Armenia); Artsakh State University, Stepanakert and Yerevan Physics Institute, Yerevan (Armenia); Yeranyan, Armen [Yerevan State University, Alex Manoogian St., 1, Yerevan, 375025 (Armenia)

2006-09-15

57

Hamiltonian reduction and supersymmetric mechanics with Dirac monopole

We apply the technique of Hamiltonian reduction for the construction of three-dimensional N=4 supersymmetric mechanics specified by the presence of a Dirac monopole. For this purpose we take the conventional N=4 supersymmetric mechanics on the four-dimensional conformally-flat spaces and perform its Hamiltonian reduction to three-dimensional system. We formulate the final system in the canonical coordinates, and present, in these terms,

Stefano Bellucci; Armen Nersessian; Armen Yeranyan

2006-01-01

58

Faster than Hermitian Quantum Mechanics

Given an initial quantum state vertical bar {psi}{sub I}> and a final quantum state vertical bar {psi}{sub F}>, there exist Hamiltonians H under which vertical bar {psi}{sub I}> evolves into vertical bar {psi}{sub F}>. Consider the following quantum brachistochrone problem: subject to the constraint that the difference between the largest and smallest eigenvalues of H is held fixed, which H achieves this transformation in the least time {tau}? For Hermitian Hamiltonians {tau} has a nonzero lower bound. However, among non-Hermitian PT-symmetric Hamiltonians satisfying the same energy constraint, {tau} can be made arbitrarily small without violating the time-energy uncertainty principle. This is because for such Hamiltonians the path from vertical bar {psi}{sub I}> to vertical bar {psi}{sub F}> can be made short. The mechanism described here is similar to that in general relativity in which the distance between two space-time points can be made small if they are connected by a wormhole. This result may have applications in quantum computing.

Bender, Carl M. [Physics Department, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States); Department of Mathematics, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Brody, Dorje C. [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Jones, Hugh F. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Meister, Bernhard K. [Department of Physics, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872 (China)

2007-01-26

59

The Hamiltonian Mechanics of Stochastic Acceleration

We show how to nd the physical Langevin equation describing the trajectories of particles un- dergoing collisionless stochastic acceleration. These stochastic di erential equations retain not only one-, but two-particle statistics, and inherit the Hamiltonian nature of the underlying microscopic equations. This opens the door to using stochastic variational integrators to perform simulations of stochastic interactions such as Fermi acceleration. We illustrate the theory by applying it to two example problems.

Burby, J. W.

2013-07-17

60

Emergent mechanics, quantum and un-quantum

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is great interest in quantum mechanics as an "emergent" phenomenon. The program holds that nonobvious patterns and laws can emerge from complicated physical systems operating by more fundamental rules. We find a new approach where quantum mechanics itself should be viewed as an information management tool not derived from physics nor depending on physics. The main accomplishment of quantum-style theory comes in expanding the notion of probability. We construct a map from macroscopic information as data" to quantum probability. The map allows a hidden variable description for quantum states, and efficient use of the helpful tools of quantum mechanics in unlimited circumstances. Quantum dynamics via the time-dependent Shroedinger equation or operator methods actually represents a restricted class of classical Hamiltonian or Lagrangian dynamics, albeit with different numbers of degrees of freedom. We show that under wide circumstances such dynamics emerges from structureless dynamical systems. The uses of the quantum information management tools are illustrated by numerical experiments and practical applications

Ralston, John P.

2013-10-01

61

-symmetric quantum mechanics (PTQM) has become a hot area of research and investigation. Since its beginnings in 1998, there have been over 1000 published papers and more than 15 international conferences entirely devoted to this research topic. Originally, PTQM was studied at a highly mathematical level and the techniques of complex variables, asymptotics, differential equations and perturbation theory were used to understand the subtleties associated with the analytic continuation of eigenvalue problems. However, as experiments on -symmetric physical systems have been performed, a simple and beautiful physical picture has emerged, and a -symmetric system can be understood as one that has a balanced loss and gain. Furthermore, the phase transition can now be understood intuitively without resorting to sophisticated mathe- matics. Research on PTQM is following two different paths: at a fundamental level, physicists are attempting to understand the underlying mathematical structure of these theories with the long-range objective of applying the techniques of PTQM to understanding some of the outstanding problems in physics today, such as the nature of the Higgs particle, the properties of dark matter, the matter–antimatter asymmetry in the universe, neutrino oscillations and the cosmological constant; at an applied level, new kinds of -synthetic materials are being developed, and the phase transition is being observed in many physical contexts, such as lasers, optical wave guides, microwave cavities, superconducting wires and electronic circuits. The purpose of this Theme Issue is to acquaint the reader with the latest developments in PTQM. The articles in this volume are written in the style of mini-reviews and address diverse areas of the emerging and exciting new area of -symmetric quantum mechanics.

Bender, Carl M; DeKieviet, Maarten; Klevansky, S. P.

2013-01-01

62

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a method for Hamiltonian engineering that requires no local control but only relies on collective qubit rotations and field gradients. The technique achieves a spatial modulation of the coupling strengths via a dynamical construction of a weighting function combined with a Bragg grating. As an example, we demonstrate how to generate the ideal Hamiltonian for perfect quantum information transport between two separated nodes of a large spin network. We engineer a spin chain with optimal couplings starting from a large spin network, such as one naturally occurring in crystals, while decoupling all unwanted interactions. For realistic experimental parameters, our method can be used to drive almost perfect quantum information transport at room temperature. The Hamiltonian engineering method can be made more robust under decoherence and coupling disorder by a novel apodization scheme. Thus, the method is quite general and can be used to engineer the Hamiltonian of many complex spin lattices with different topologies and interactions.

Ajoy, Ashok; Cappellaro, Paola

2013-05-01

63

Gapless modes of fractional quantum Hall edges: a Hamiltonian study

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the collective modes of the fractional quantum Hall edge states using the Hamiltonian formalism [1]. In this theory, the composite fermions are fully interacting; the collective modes are obtained within a conserving approximation which respects the constraints [2]. We present the gapless edge-mode dispersions at 1/3 and 2/5 filling fractions of unreconstructed and reconstructed edges. The dispersions are found to be nonlinear due to the variation of the effective magnetic field on the composite fermions. The implications of our study to the tunneling experiments into the edge of a fractional quantum Hall system [3] are discussed*. 1. R. Shankar and G. Murthy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4437 (1997). 2. G. Murthy, Phys. Rev. B 64, 195310 (2001). 3. A.M.Chang et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 143 (2000). * Work supported by the NSF, Grant number DMR 031176.

Nguyen, Hoang; Joglekar, Yogesh; Murthy, Ganpathy

2004-03-01

64

Bosonized Quantum Hamiltonian of the Two-Dimensional Derivative-Coupling Model

Using the operator formulation we discuss the bosonization of the two-dimensional derivative-coupling model. The fully bosonized quantum Hamiltonian is obtained by computing the composite operators as the leading terms in the Wilson short distance expansion for the operator products at the same point. In addition, the quantum Hamiltonian contains topological terms which give trivial contributions to the equations of motion.

L. V. Belvedere; A. F. Rodrigues

2008-01-01

65

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum recurrence and dynamic localization are investigated in a class of ac-driven tight-binding Hamiltonians, the Krawtchouk quantum chain, which in the undriven case provides a paradigmatic Hamiltonian model that realizes perfect quantum state transfer and mirror inversion. The equivalence between the ac-driven single-particle Krawtchouk Hamiltonian Hˆ(t) and the non-interacting ac-driven bosonic junction Hamiltonian enables to determine in a closed form the quasi energy spectrum of Hˆ(t) and the conditions for exact wave packet reconstruction (dynamic localization). In particular, we show that quantum recurrence, which is predicted by the general quantum recurrence theorem, is exact for the Krawtchouk quantum chain in a dense range of the driving amplitude. Exact quantum recurrence provides perfect wave packet reconstruction at a frequency which is fractional than the driving frequency, a phenomenon that can be referred to as fractional dynamic localization.

Longhi, Stefano

2014-06-01

66

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Part I. Second Quantization: 1. Elementary quantum mechanics; 2. Identical particles; 3. Second quantization; Part II. Examples: 4. Magnetism; 5. Superconductivity; 6. Superfluidity; Part III. Fields and Radiation: 7. Classical fields; 8. Quantization of fields; 9. Radiation and matter; 10. Coherent states; Part IV. Dissipative Quantum Mechanics: 11. Dissipative quantum mechanics; 12. Transitions and dissipation; Part V. Relativistic Quantum Mechanics: 13. Relativistic quantum mechanics; Index.

Nazarov, Yuli V.; Danon, Jeroen

2013-01-01

67

Quantum-Merlin-Arthur-complete problems for stoquastic Hamiltonians and Markov matrices

We show that finding the lowest eigenvalue of a 3-local symmetric stochastic matrix is Quantum-Merlin-Arthur-complete (QMA-complete). We also show that finding the highest energy of a stoquastic Hamiltonian is QMA-complete and that adiabatic quantum computation using certain excited states of a stoquastic Hamiltonian is universal. We also show that adiabatic evolution in the ground state of a stochastic frustration-free Hamiltonian is universal. Our results give a QMA-complete problem arising in the classical setting of Markov chains and adiabatically universal Hamiltonians that arise in many physical systems.

Jordan, Stephen P.; Gosset, David; Love, Peter J. [Institute for Quantum Information, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 6-304, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Department of Physics, Haverford College, 370 Lancaster Avenue, Haverford, Pennsylvania 19041, USA, and Institute for Quantum Information, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

2010-03-15

68

Quantum-Merlin-Arthur-complete problems for stoquastic Hamiltonians and Markov matrices

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that finding the lowest eigenvalue of a 3-local symmetric stochastic matrix is Quantum-Merlin-Arthur-complete (QMA-complete). We also show that finding the highest energy of a stoquastic Hamiltonian is QMA-complete and that adiabatic quantum computation using certain excited states of a stoquastic Hamiltonian is universal. We also show that adiabatic evolution in the ground state of a stochastic frustration-free Hamiltonian is universal. Our results give a QMA-complete problem arising in the classical setting of Markov chains and adiabatically universal Hamiltonians that arise in many physical systems.

Jordan, Stephen P.; Gosset, David; Love, Peter J.

2010-03-01

69

Mechanical analogues of spin Hamiltonians and dynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bloch et al. mapped the precession of the spin-half in a magnetic field of variable magnitude and direction to the rotations of a rigid sphere rolling on a curved surface utilizing SU(2)–SO(3) isomorphism. This formalism is extended to study the behaviour of spin–orbit interactions and the mechanical analogy for Rashba–Dresselhauss spin–orbit interaction in two dimensions is presented by making its spin states isomorphic to the rotations of a rigid sphere rolling on a ring. The change in phase of spin is represented by the angle of rotation of sphere after a complete revolution. In order to develop the mechanical analogy for the spin filter, we find that perfect spin filtration of down spin makes the sphere to rotate at some unique angles and the perfect spin filtration of up spin causes the rotations with certain discrete frequencies.

Kaur, Harjeet; Jain, Sudhir R.; Malik, Sham S.

2014-01-01

70

Pseudo Hermitian formulation of the quantum Black-Scholes Hamiltonian

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the non-Hermitian Black-Scholes Hamiltonian and its various generalizations are ?-pseudo Hermitian. The metric operator ? is explicitly constructed for this class of Hamiltonians. It is also shown that the effective Black-Scholes Hamiltonian and its partner form a pseudo supersymmetric system.

Jana, T. K.; Roy, P.

2012-04-01

71

Many-body quantum mechanics as a symplectic dynamical system

An approach is formulated to the problem of obtaining approximate solutions to many-body quantum mechanics. The starting point is the representation of quantum mechanics as Hamiltonian mechanics on a symplectic manifold (phase space). It is shown that Dirac's variation of an action integral provides a natural mechanism for constraining the dynamics to symplectic submanifolds and gives rise to a hierarchy

D. J. Rowe; A. Ryman; G. Rosensteel

1980-01-01

72

Kowalevski top in quantum mechanics

The quantum mechanical Kowalevski top is studied by the direct diagonalization of the Hamiltonian. The spectra show different behaviors depending on the region divided by the bifurcation sets of the classical invariant tori. Some of these spectra are nearly degenerate due to the multiplicity of the invariant tori. The Kowalevski top has several symmetries and symmetry quantum numbers can be assigned to the eigenstates. We have also carried out the semiclassical quantization of the Kowalevski top by the EBK formulation. It is found that the semiclassical spectra are close to the exact values, thus the eigenstates can be also labeled by the integer quantum numbers. The symmetries of the system are shown to have close relations with the semiclassical quantum numbers and the near-degeneracy of the spectra. -- Highlights: •Quantum spectra of the Kowalevski top are calculated. •Semiclassical quantization is carried out by the EBK formulation. •Quantum states are labeled by the semiclassical integer quantum numbers. •Multiplicity of the classical torus makes the spectra nearly degenerate. •Symmetries, quantum numbers and near-degenerate spectra are closely related.

Matsuyama, A., E-mail: spamatu@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp

2013-09-15

73

Probabilistic Approach to Teaching the Principles of Quantum Mechanics

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approaches the representation of quantum mechanics through Hilbert space postulates. Demonstrates that if the representation is to be accurate, an evolution operator of the form of a Hamiltonian must be used. (CP)

Santos, Emilio

1976-01-01

74

Relativistic quantum mechanics of supersymmetric particles

The quantum mechanics of an electron in an external field is developed by Hamiltonian path integral methods. The electron is described classically by an action which is invariant under gauge sypersymmetry transformations as well as worldline reparametrizations. The simpler case of a spinless particle is first reviewed and it is pointed out that a strictly canonical approach does not exist.

Marc Henneaux; Claudio Teitelboim

1982-01-01

75

Finite Size Scaling in Quantum Mechanics

The finite size scaling ansatz is combined with the variational method to extract information about critical behavior of quantum Hamiltonians. This approach is based on taking the number of elements in a complete basis set as the size of the system. As in statistical mechanics, the finite size scaling can then be used directly in the Schrodinger equation. This approach

Pablo Serra; Juan Pablo Neirotti; Sabre Kais

1998-01-01

76

Quantum mechanics on noncommutative spacetime

We consider electrodynamics on a noncommutative spacetime using the enveloping algebra approach and perform a nonrelativistic expansion of the effective action. We obtain the Hamiltonian for quantum mechanics formulated on a canonical noncommutative spacetime. An interesting new feature of quantum mechanics formulated on a noncommutative spacetime is an intrinsic electric dipole moment. We note, however, that noncommutative intrinsic dipole moments are not observable in present experiments searching for an electric dipole moment of leptons or nuclei such as the neutron since they are spin independent. These experiments are sensitive to the energy difference between two states and the noncommutative effect thus cancels out. Bounds on the noncommutative scale found in the literature relying on such intrinsic electric dipole moments are thus incorrect.

Calmet, Xavier; Selvaggi, Michele [Service de Physique Theorique, CP225 Boulevard du Triomphe B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

2006-08-01

77

Introduction to Quantum Mechanics

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This text is intended for junior/senior Quantum Mechanics courses. It covers the fundamentals of quantum theory in a concise manner, covering topics from the basic formalism through perturbation theory, the adiabatic approximation, and scattering.

Griffiths, David J.

2005-04-16

78

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravity and quantum mechanics tend to stay out of each other's way, but this might change as we devise new experiments to test the applicability of quantum theory to macroscopic systems and larger length scales.

Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni

2014-04-01

79

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site contains resources for a comprehensive quantum mechanics course designed for graduate and advanced undergraduate students at Cal Tech. The course has been revised to include quantum information science, and prepares students for a course in quantum computation. Lecture notes, a syllabus, homework problems with solutions, and exam solutions are available.

Mabuchi, Hideo

2011-01-21

80

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site contains resources for a comprehensive quantum mechanics course designed for graduate and advanced undergraduate students at Cal Tech. The course has been revised to include quantum information science, and prepares students for a course in quantum computation. Lecture notes, a syllabus, homework problems with solutions, and exam solutions are available.

Mabuchi, Hideo

2005-12-05

81

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The action of the quantum mechanical volume operator, introduced in connection with a symmetric representation of the three-body problem and recently recognized to play a fundamental role in discretized quantum gravity models, can be given as a second-order difference equation which, by a complex phase change, we turn into a discrete Schrödinger-like equation. The introduction of discrete potential-like functions reveals the surprising crucial role here of hidden symmetries, first discovered by Regge for the quantum mechanical 6j symbols; insight is provided into the underlying geometric features. The spectrum and wavefunctions of the volume operator are discussed from the viewpoint of the Hamiltonian evolution of an elementary ‘quantum of space’, and a transparent asymptotic picture of the semiclassical and classical regimes emerges. The definition of coordinates adapted to the Regge symmetry is exploited for the construction of a novel set of discrete orthogonal polynomials, characterizing the oscillatory components of torsion-like modes.

Aquilanti, Vincenzo; Marinelli, Dimitri; Marzuoli, Annalisa

2013-05-01

82

Statistical mechanics based on fractional classical and quantum mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this work is to study some problems in statistical mechanics based on the fractional classical and quantum mechanics. At first stage we have presented the thermodynamical properties of the classical ideal gas and the system of N classical oscillators. In both cases, the Hamiltonian contains fractional exponents of the phase space (position and momentum). At the second stage, in the context of the fractional quantum mechanics, we have calculated the thermodynamical properties for the black body radiation, studied the Bose-Einstein statistics with the related problem of the condensation and the Fermi-Dirac statistics.

Korichi, Z.; Meftah, M. T.

2014-03-01

83

Hamiltonians of quantum systems with positions and momenta in GF(pl)

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quantum system with positions and momenta in GF(pl) is considered. Such a system can be constructed from l smaller systems, in which the positions and momenta take values in Zp, if the Hamiltonian of this l-partite system is compatible with GF(pl). The concept of compatibility of a Hamiltonian with GF(pl) allows the quantum formalism in the l-partite system to be expressed in terms of Galois arithmetic. Transformations of the basis in GF(pl) produce unitary transformations of the quantum states, which form a representation of GL(l,Zp). They are used to define which subset of the general set of Hamiltonians in the l-partite system is compatible with GF(pl).

Vourdas, A.

2010-05-01

84

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Constructing appropriate unitary matrix operators for new quantum algorithms and finding the minimum cost gate sequences for the implementation of these unitary operators is of fundamental importance in the field of quantum information and quantum computation. Evolution of quantum circuits faces two major challenges: complex and huge search space and the high costs of simulating quantum circuits on classical computers. Here, we use the group leaders optimization algorithm to decompose a given unitary matrix into a proper-minimum cost quantum gate sequence. We test the method on the known decompositions of Toffoli gate, the amplification step of the Grover search algorithm, the quantum Fourier transform, and the sender part of the quantum teleportation. Using this procedure, we present the circuit designs for the simulation of the unitary propagators of the Hamiltonians for the hydrogen and the water molecules. The approach is general and can be applied to generate the sequence of quantum gates for larger molecular systems.

Daskin, Anmer; Kais, Sabre

2011-04-01

85

Constructing appropriate unitary matrix operators for new quantum algorithms and finding the minimum cost gate sequences for the implementation of these unitary operators is of fundamental importance in the field of quantum information and quantum computation. Evolution of quantum circuits faces two major challenges: complex and huge search space and the high costs of simulating quantum circuits on classical computers. Here, we use the group leaders optimization algorithm to decompose a given unitary matrix into a proper-minimum cost quantum gate sequence. We test the method on the known decompositions of Toffoli gate, the amplification step of the Grover search algorithm, the quantum Fourier transform, and the sender part of the quantum teleportation. Using this procedure, we present the circuit designs for the simulation of the unitary propagators of the Hamiltonians for the hydrogen and the water molecules. The approach is general and can be applied to generate the sequence of quantum gates for larger molecular systems. PMID:21495747

Daskin, Anmer; Kais, Sabre

2011-04-14

86

Towards polymer quantum mechanics for fermionic systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer quantum mechanics is based on models that mimic the loop quantization of gravity. It coincides with the results of the standard quantum mechanical treatment for such models when a certain length scale parameter is considered to be small. In this work we present some steps in the construction of the polymer representation of a Fermi oscillator, the fermonic counterpart of the harmonic oscillator. It is suggested that the non regular character of the bosonic polymer representation has as a counterpart the non superanalytic character of the fermonic polymer case. We propose a candidate Hamiltonian operator and investigate and contrast its energy spectrum with the standard one.

García-Chung, Angel A.; Morales-Técotl, Hugo A.; Reyes, Juan D.

2013-07-01

87

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ongoing quantization of the four fundamental forces of nature represents one of the most fruitful grounds for cross-pollination between physics and mathematics. While remaining vastly open, substantial progress has been made in the last decades: the expression of all basic physical theories in terms of geometry, specifically as gauge theories. This is accomplished by the recognition of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic fields as Yang-Mills (gauge) fields, and by the re-writing of general relativity in terms of gauge connection variables. The method of canonical quantization offers several advantages in treating gauge theories: the gauge fields themselves are the basic variables, while gauge constraints promote to quantum operators whose commutation relations reflect the classical Poisson brackets. In this thesis I construct a zero-energy ground state for canonically quantized Yang-Mills theory, for a particular ("nonlinear normal") factor ordering of the Hamiltonian operator. The inspiration for this project is to find an alternative to the Chern-Simons and Kodama states. These are closely related ground state solutions for (respectively) quantum Yang-Mills theory and quantum gravity with a positive cosmological constant. Objections to the Chem-Simons and Kodama states come from, among other arguments, their apparent lack of well-defined decay "at infinity." The ground state I have constructed, as the exponentiation of a strictly non-positive functional, manifestly enjoys good decay properties. In addition, I have constructed a similar ground state for scalar ?4 theory. The construction of these ground states represents a generalization to quantum field theories of work done by my thesis advisor V. Moncrief, in collaboration with M. Ryan, for quantum mechanical situations. Gauge, rotation, and translation invariance are directly verifiable for the nonlinear normal ordered Yang-Mills ground state; invariance under boosts remains as a question for future work. The analogous state for the abelian case (free Maxwell theory) enjoys full Poincare invariance.

Maitra, Rachel Lash

88

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We formulate physically motivated axioms for a physical theory which for systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom uniquely lead to quantum mechanics as the only nontrivial consistent theory. Complex numbers and the existence of the Planck constant common to all systems arise naturally in this approach. The axioms are divided into two groups covering kinematics and basic measurement theory, respectively. We show that even if the second group of axioms is dropped, there are no deformations of quantum mechanics which preserve the kinematic axioms. Thus, any theory going beyond quantum mechanics must represent a radical departure from the usual a priori assumptions about the laws of nature.

Kapustin, Anton

2013-06-01

89

Hamiltonian of photons in a single-mode optical fiber for quantum communications protocols

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A phenomenological Hamiltonian of photons in a single-mode stochastic inhomogeneous optical fiber (OF) is derived. Quantization of radiation is performed in the basis of an ideal OF with proper calibration that ensures transversality of the electric-field-displacement vector. Stochastic parameters of the Hamiltonian are determined by using the reciprocal tensor of the dielectric permittivity averaged over the OF segment volume. The Hamiltonian is parametrized by three phenomenological parameters and preserves the number of photons. It is assumed that the segment of the OF is divided into random subsegments with optical parameters defined by the Wiener process with respect to the longitudinal coordinate. The temporal dynamics of the single-photon density matrix is analyzed in the basis of states with orthogonal polarizations. The relative quantum beat error rate in the sifted quantum key distributed according to the BB84 protocol with polarization coding of information averaged over the scatter of the OF parameters is calculated.

Miroshnichenko, G. P.

2012-05-01

90

Time-resolved quantum process tomography using Hamiltonian-encoding and observable-decoding

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hamiltonian encoding observable decoding (HE-OD) technique is experimentally demonstrated for process tomography of laser-induced dynamics in atomic Rb vapor. With the assistance of a laser pulse truncation method, a time dependent reconstruction of the quantum evolution is achieved. HE-OD can perform full as well as partial process tomography with appropriate measurements to characterize the system. The latter feature makes HE-OD tomography suitable for analyzing quantum processes in complex systems.

Rey-de-Castro, Roberto; Cabrera, Renan; Bondar, Denys I.; Rabitz, Herschel

2013-02-01

91

Homogeneous binary trees as ground states of quantum critical Hamiltonians

Many-body states whose wave functions admit a representation in terms of a uniform binary-tree tensor decomposition are shown to obey power-law two-body correlation functions. Any such state can be associated with the ground state of a translationally invariant Hamiltonian which, depending on the dimension of the systems sites, involves at most couplings between third-neighboring sites. Under general conditions it is shown that they describe unfrustrated systems which admit an exponentially large degeneracy of the ground state.

Silvi, P. [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Giovannetti, V. [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto di Nanoscienze-CNR, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Montangero, S. [Institut fuer Quanteninformationsverarbeitung, Universitaet Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Rizzi, M.; Cirac, J. I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Fazio, R. [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto di Nanoscienze-CNR, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Center for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 119077 (Singapore)

2010-06-15

92

Supersymmetric quantum mechanics.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We summarize recent developments of supersymmetric quantum mechanics. We start from the susy oscillator, mention the factorization schemes and discuss the order of levels of Schroedinger operators as an example. We mention soliton equation and the inverse...

H. Grosse

1989-01-01

93

The Teaching of Quantum Mechanics

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website has tips and techniques for teaching quantum mechanics. It presents and outlines central ideas in quantum mechanics and includes descriptions of textbooks and software that can be helpful in quantum classes.

Styer, Dan

2003-10-10

94

Hamiltonian cosmological perturbation theory with loop quantum gravity corrections

Cosmological perturbation equations are derived systematically in a canonical scheme based on Ashtekar variables. A comparison with the covariant derivation and various subtleties in the calculation and choice of gauges are pointed out. Nevertheless, the treatment is more systematic when correction terms of canonical quantum gravity are to be included. This is done throughout the paper for one example of characteristic modifications expected from loop quantum gravity.

Bojowald, Martin; Kagan, Mikhail; Singh, Parampreet; Hernandez, Hector H.; Skirzewski, Aureliano [Institute for Gravitational Physics and Geometry, Pennsylvania State University, 104 Davey Lab, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany)

2006-12-15

95

Twisted spin Sutherland models from quantum Hamiltonian reduction

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent general results on Hamiltonian reductions under polar group actions are applied to study some reductions of the free particle governed by the Laplace-Beltrami operator of a compact, connected, simple Lie group. The reduced systems associated with arbitrary finite-dimensional irreducible representations of the group by using the symmetry induced by twisted conjugations are described in detail. These systems generically yield integrable Sutherland-type many-body models with spin, which are called twisted spin Sutherland models if the underlying twisted conjugations are built on non-trivial Dynkin diagram automorphisms. The spectra of these models can be calculated, in principle, by solving certain Clebsch-Gordan problems, and the result is presented for the models associated with the symmetric tensorial powers of the defining representation of SU(N).

Fehér, L.; Pusztai, B. G.

2008-05-01

96

Quantum mechanics for space applications

This paper is an introduction to the following articles in the scope of quantum mechanics for space study initiated by ESA and lead by ONERA. The context of quantum mechanics for space is summarised, and the fields under development are briefly introduced. Technological applications of quantum mechanics in space are explored and some tests of quantum mechanics are outlined. We

A. Bresson; Y. Bidel; P. Bouyer; B. Leone; E. Murphy; P. Silvestrin

2006-01-01

97

Symmetry of quantum phase space in a degenerate Hamiltonian system

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of the global ``quantum phase space'' is analyzed for the harmonic oscillator perturbed by a monochromatic wave in the limit when the perturbation amplitude is small. Usually, the phenomenon of quantum resonance was studied in nondegenerate [G. M. Zaslavsky, Chaos in Dynamic Systems (Harwood Academic, Chur, 1985)] and degenerate [Demikhovskii, Kamenev, and Luna-Acosta, Phys. Rev. E 52, 3351 (1995)] classically chaotic systems only in the particular regions of the classical phase space, such as the center of the resonance or near the separatrix. The system under consideration is degenerate, and even an infinitely small perturbation generates in the classical phase space an infinite number of the resonant cells which are arranged in the pattern with the axial symmetry of the order 2? (where ? is the resonance number). We show analytically that the Husimi functions of all Floquet states (the quantum phase space) have the same symmetry as the classical phase space. This correspondence is demonstrated numerically for the Husimi functions of the Floquet states corresponding to the motion near the elliptic stable points (centers of the classical resonance cells). The derived results are valid in the resonance approximation when the perturbation amplitude is small enough, and the stochastic layers in the classical phase space are exponentially thin. The developed approach can be used for studying a global symmetry of more complicated quantum systems with chaotic behavior.

Berman, G. P.; Demikhovskii, V. Ya.; Kamenev, D. I.

2000-09-01

98

Hamiltonian cosmological perturbation theory with loop quantum gravity corrections

Cosmological perturbation equations are derived systematically in a canonical scheme based on Ashtekar variables. A comparison with the covariant derivation and various subtleties in the calculation and choice of gauges are pointed out. Nevertheless, the treatment is more systematic when correction terms of canonical quantum gravity are to be included. This is done throughout the paper for one example of

Martin Bojowald; Mikhail Kagan; Parampreet Singh; Hector H. Hernández; Aureliano Skirzewski

2006-01-01

99

Symmetry of quantum phase space in a degenerate Hamiltonian system.

The structure of the global "quantum phase space" is analyzed for the harmonic oscillator perturbed by a monochromatic wave in the limit when the perturbation amplitude is small. Usually, the phenomenon of quantum resonance was studied in nondegenerate [G. M. Zaslavsky, Chaos in Dynamic Systems (Harwood Academic, Chur, 1985)] and degenerate [Demikhovskii, Kamenev, and Luna-Acosta, Phys. Rev. E 52, 3351 (1995)] classically chaotic systems only in the particular regions of the classical phase space, such as the center of the resonance or near the separatrix. The system under consideration is degenerate, and even an infinitely small perturbation generates in the classical phase space an infinite number of the resonant cells which are arranged in the pattern with the axial symmetry of the order 2&mgr; (where &mgr; is the resonance number). We show analytically that the Husimi functions of all Floquet states (the quantum phase space) have the same symmetry as the classical phase space. This correspondence is demonstrated numerically for the Husimi functions of the Floquet states corresponding to the motion near the elliptic stable points (centers of the classical resonance cells). The derived results are valid in the resonance approximation when the perturbation amplitude is small enough, and the stochastic layers in the classical phase space are exponentially thin. The developed approach can be used for studying a global symmetry of more complicated quantum systems with chaotic behavior. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics. PMID:12779416

Berman, G. P.; Demikhovskii, V. Ya.; Kamenev, D. I.

2000-09-01

100

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Kansas State University Visual Quantum Mechanics project is developing instructional materials about quantum physics for high school and college students. Instructional units and/or courses are being created for high school and college non-science students, pre-medical and biology students, and science and engineering majors. Each set of the teaching-learning materials integrates interactive visualizations with inexpensive materials and written documents in an activity-based environment.

Group, Kansas S.; Zollman, Dean A.

2003-10-10

101

Quantum Superspace, q-EXTENDED Supersymmetry and Parasupersymmetric Quantum Mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe q-deformation of the extended supersymmetry and construct q-extended supersymmetric Hamiltonian. For this purpose we formulate q-superspace formalism and construct q-supertransformation group. On this basis q-extended supersymmetric Lagrangian is built. The canonical quantization of this system is considered. The connection with multi-dimensional matrix representations of the parasupersymmetric quantum mechanics is discussed and q-extended supersymmetric harmonic oscillator is considered as a simplest example of the described constructions. We show that extended supersymmetric Hamiltonians obey not only extended SUSY but also the whole family of symmetries (q-extended supersymmetry) which is parametrized by continuous parameter q on the unit circle.

Ilinski, K. N.; Uzdin, V. M.

102

Quantum mechanics of Proca fields

We construct the most general physically admissible positive-definite inner product on the space of Proca fields. Up to a trivial scaling this defines a five-parameter family of Lorentz invariant inner products that we use to construct a genuine Hilbert space for the quantum mechanics of Proca fields. If we identify the generator of time translations with the Hamiltonian, we obtain a unitary quantum system that describes first-quantized Proca fields and does not involve the conventional restriction to the positive-frequency fields. We provide a rather comprehensive analysis of this system. In particular, we examine the conserved current density responsible for the conservation of the probabilities, explore the global gauge symmetry underlying the conservation of the probabilities, obtain a probability current density, construct position, momentum, helicity, spin, and angular momentum operators, and determine the localized Proca fields. We also compute the generalized parity (P), generalized time-reversal (T), and generalized charge or chirality (C) operators for this system and offer a physical interpretation for its PT-, C-, and CPT-symmetries.

Zamani, Farhad [Department of Physics, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan 45195-1159 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mostafazadeh, Ali [Department of Mathematics, Koc University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, Sariyer, Istanbul 34450 (Turkey)

2009-05-15

103

Quantum speed limits and optimal Hamiltonians for driven systems in mixed states

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inequalities of Mandelstam–Tamm (MT) and Margolus–Levitin (ML) type provide lower bounds on the time that it takes for a quantum system to evolve from one state into another. Knowledge of such bounds, called quantum speed limits, is of utmost importance in virtually all areas of physics, where determination of the minimum time required for a quantum process is of interest. Most MT and ML inequalities found in the literature have been derived from growth estimates for the Bures length, which is a statistical distance measure. In this paper we derive such inequalities by differential geometric methods, and we compare the quantum speed limits obtained with those involving the Bures length. We also characterize the Hamiltonians which optimize the evolution time for generic finite-level quantum systems.

Andersson, O.; Heydari, H.

2014-05-01

104

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visual Quantum Mechanics provides illustrations of quantum mechanics using computer-generated animations. Visualizations provide learning experiences for beginners and offer new insights to the advanced student or researcher. This project includes the development of multimedia software for teaching and scientific software for the solution of the Shrodinger equation and the visualization of these solutions in two and three dimensions. The materials presented here are related to two texts by the author. A German translation is also available. Quicktime is needed to view these movies.

Thaller, Bernd

2009-05-14

105

Quantum Simulation of Time-Dependent Hamiltonians and the Convenient Illusion of Hilbert Space

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the manifold of all quantum many-body states that can be generated by arbitrary time-dependent local Hamiltonians in a time that scales polynomially in the system size, and show that it occupies an exponentially small volume in Hilbert space. This implies that the overwhelming majority of states in Hilbert space are not physical as they can only be produced after an exponentially long time. We establish this fact by making use of a time-dependent generalization of the Suzuki-Trotter expansion, followed by a well-known counting argument. This also demonstrates that a computational model based on arbitrarily rapidly changing Hamiltonians is no more powerful than the standard quantum circuit model.

Poulin, David; Qarry, Angie; Somma, Rolando; Verstraete, Frank

2011-04-01

106

Quantum simulation of time-dependent Hamiltonians and the convenient illusion of Hilbert space

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the manifold of all quantum many-body states that can be generated by arbitrary time-dependent local Hamiltonians in a time that scales polynomially in the system size, and show that it occupies an exponentially small volume in Hilbert space. This implies that the overwhelming majority of states in Hilbert space are not physical as they can only be produced after an exponentially long time. We establish this fact by making use of a time-dependent generalization of the Suzuki-Trotter expansion, followed by a counting argument. This also demonstrates that a computational model based on arbitrarily rapidly changing Hamiltonians is no more powerful than the standard quantum circuit model.

Somma, Rolando; Poulin, David; Qarry, Angie; Verstraete, Frank

2011-03-01

107

Time Asymmetric Quantum Mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The meaning of time asymmetry in quantum physics is discussed. On the basis of a mathematical theorem, the Stone-von Neumann theorem, the solutions of the dynamical equations, the Schrödinger equation (1) for states or the Heisenberg equation (6a) for observables are given by a unitary group. Dirac kets require the concept of a RHS (rigged Hilbert space) of Schwartz functions; for this kind of RHS a mathematical theorem also leads to time symmetric group evolution. Scattering theory suggests to distinguish mathematically between states (defined by a preparation apparatus) and observables (defined by a registration apparatus (detector)). If one requires that scattering resonances of width ? and exponentially decaying states of lifetime ?=h/? should be the same physical entities (for which there is sufficient evidence) one is led to a pair of RHS's of Hardy functions and connected with it, to a semigroup time evolution t0?tquantum mechanical beginning of time, just like the big bang time for the universe, when it was a quantum system. The decay of quasi-stable particles is used to illustrate this quantum mechanical time asymmetry. From the analysis of these processes, we show that the properties of rigged Hilbert spaces of Hardy functions are suitable for a formulation of time asymmetry in quantum mechanics.

Bohm, Arno R.; Gadella, Manuel; Kielanowski, Piotr

2011-09-01

108

Biorthogonal quantum mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hermiticity condition in quantum mechanics required for the characterization of (a) physical observables and (b) generators of unitary motions can be relaxed into a wider class of operators whose eigenvalues are real and whose eigenstates are complete. In this case, the orthogonality of eigenstates is replaced by the notion of biorthogonality that defines the relation between the Hilbert space of states and its dual space. The resulting quantum theory, which might appropriately be called ‘biorthogonal quantum mechanics’, is developed here in some detail in the case for which the Hilbert-space dimensionality is finite. Specifically, characterizations of probability assignment rules, observable properties, pure and mixed states, spin particles, measurements, combined systems and entanglements, perturbations, and dynamical aspects of the theory are developed. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on infinite-dimensional systems.

Brody, Dorje C.

2014-01-01

109

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The axiomatic way of teaching quantum mechanics (QM) is analyzed in the light of its effectiveness in making students ready to understand and use QM. A more intuitive method of teaching QM is proposed. An outline of how a course implementing that method could be structured is presented.

Deumens, Erik

110

Ab initio no core calculations of light nuclei and preludes to Hamiltonian quantum field theory

Recent advances in ab initio quantum many-body methods and growth in computer power now enable highly precise calculations of nuclear structure. The precision has attained a level sufficient to make clear statements on the nature of 3-body forces in nuclear physics. Total binding energies, spin-dependent structure effects, and electroweak properties of light nuclei play major roles in pinpointing properties of the underlying strong interaction. Eventually, we anticipate a theory bridge with immense predictive power from QCD through nuclear forces to nuclear structure and nuclear reactions. Light front Hamiltonian quantum field theory offers an attractive pathway and we outline key elements.

Vary, J. P.; Maris, P.; Honkanen, H.; Li, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, 50011 (United States); Shirokov, A. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, 50011 (United States); Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Brodsky, S. J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Menlo Park, California (United States); Harindranath, A. [Theory Group, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata, 700064 (India); Teramond, G. F. de [Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose (Costa Rica)

2009-12-17

111

Ab initio no core calculations of light nuclei and preludes to Hamiltonian quantum field theory

Recent advances in ab initio quantum many-body methods and growth in computer power now enable highly precise calculations of nuclear structure. The precision has attained a level sufficient to make clear statements on the nature of 3-body forces in nuclear physics. Total binding energies, spin-dependent structure effects, and electroweak properties of light nuclei play major roles in pinpointing properties of the underlying strong interaction. Eventually,we anticipate a theory bridge with immense predictive power from QCD through nuclear forces to nuclear structure and nuclear reactions. Light front Hamiltonian quantum field theory offers an attractive pathway and we outline key elements.

Vary, J.P.; Maris, P.; /Iowa State U.; Shirokov, A.M.; /Iowa State U. /SINP, Moscow; Honkanen, H.; li, J.; /Iowa State U.; Brodsky, S.J.; /SLAC; Harindranath, A.; /Saha Inst.; Teramond, G.F.de; /Costa Rica U.

2009-08-03

112

Comparison of the Dicke model and the Hamiltonian for n quantum dots

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CQED has been an active field of research for the last three decades, describing the intimacy of the interaction of radiation and matter in small volumes ?3, and have demonstrated that modifies not only the nature of this interaction, but also atomic characteristic that often were thought intrinsic, such as spontaneous emission or the very quantum nature of the interaction. These conditions have acquired quite an importance for the current activity on Quantum computation and Information. However, most of that activity has been developed in the conceptual and experimental framework of atomic systems. There is evidence that such features also occurs in Quantum Dots. We compare the Dicke and Jaynes Cummings dynamics of atoms described by the Hamiltonian of Quantum Dots, and develop the SU(2) perturbative approach in the regimen where the excitation number (atoms + photons) is larger than the number of atoms L. We exhibit the dynamical detuning produced by the Forster interaction.

Sanchez-Mondragon, Jose Javier; Alejo-Molina, Adalberto; Sanchez-Sanchez, Sergio; Torres-Cisneros, Miguel

2005-04-01

113

Geometrizing Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new approach to describe quantum mechanics as a manifestation of non-Euclidean geometry. In particular, we construct a new geometrical space that we shall call Qwist. A Qwist space has a extra scalar degree of freedom that ultimately will be identified with quantum effects. The geometrical properties of Qwist allow us to formulate a geometrical version of the uncertainty principle. This relativistic uncertainty relation unifies the position-momentum and time-energy uncertainty principles in a unique relation that recover both of them in the non-relativistic limit.

Falciano, F. T.; Novello, M.; Salim, J. M.

2010-12-01

114

Holographic duals to poisson sigma models and noncommutative quantum mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poisson sigma models are a very rich class of two-dimensional theories that includes, in particular, all two-dimensional dilaton gravities. By using the Hamiltonian reduction method, we show that a Poisson sigma model (with a sufficiently well-behaving Poisson tensor) on a finite cylinder is equivalent to a noncommutative quantum mechanics for the boundary data.

Vassilevich, D. V.

2013-05-01

115

Scattering in PT-symmetric quantum mechanics

A general formalism is worked out for the description of one-dimensional scattering in non-hermitian quantum mechanics and constraints on transmission and reflection coefficients are derived in the cases of P, T or PT invariance of the Hamiltonian. Applications to some solvable PT-symmetric potentials are shown in detail. Our main original results concern the association of reflectionless potentials with asymptotic exact PT symmetry and the peculiarities of separable kernels of non-local potentials in connection with Hermiticity, T invariance and PT invariance.

Cannata, Francesco [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bologna and Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Via Irnerio 46, I 40126 Bologna (Italy)]. E-mail: Francesco.Cannata@bo.infn.it; Dedonder, Jean-Pierre [GMPIB Universite Paris 7 - Denis-Diderot, 2 Place Jussieu, F-75251, Paris Cedex 05 (France)]. E-mail: dedonder@paris7.jussieu.fr; Ventura, Alberto [Ente Nuove Tecnologie, Energia e Ambiente, Bologna and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bologna (Italy)]. E-mail: Alberto.Ventura@bologna.enea.it

2007-02-15

116

From the unitary operator used for implementing two-state discrete-time quantum walk on one-, two- and three- dimensional lattice we obtain a two-component Dirac-like Hamiltonian. In particular, using different pairs of Pauli basis as position translation states we obtain three different form of Hamiltonians for evolution on one-dimensional lattice. We extend this to two- and three-dimensional lattices using different Pauli basis states as position translation states for each dimension and show that the external coin operation, which is necessary for one-dimensional walk is not a necessary requirement for a walk on higher dimensions but can serve as an additional resource to control the dynamics. The two-component Hamiltonian we present here for quantum walk on different lattices can serve as a general framework to simulate, control, and study the dynamics of quantum systems governed by Dirac-like Hamiltonian.

Chandrashekar, C. M.

2013-01-01

117

Feynman's simple quantum mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This sample class presents an alternative to the conventional introduction to quantum mechanics and describes its current use in a credit course. This alternative introduction rests on theory presented in professional and popular writings by Richard Feynman. Feynman showed that Nature gives a simple command to the electron: ``Explore all paths.'' All of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, among other fundamental results, comes from this command. With a desktop computer the student points and clicks to tell a modeled electron which paths to follow. The computer then shows the results, which embody the elemental strangeness and paradoxical behaviors of the world of the very small. Feynman's approach requires few equations and provides a largely non-mathematical introduction to the wave function of conventional quantum mechanics. Draft software and materials already used for two semesters in an e-mail computer conference credit university course show that Feynman's approach works well with a variety of students. The sample class explores computer and written material and describes the next steps in its development.

Taylor, Edwin F.

1997-03-01

118

Topological Characterization of Fractional Quantum Hall Ground States from Microscopic Hamiltonians

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show how to numerically calculate several quantities that characterize topological order starting from a microscopic fractional quantum Hall Hamiltonian. To find the set of degenerate ground states, we employ the infinite density matrix renormalization group method based on the matrix-product state representation of fractional quantum Hall states on an infinite cylinder. To study localized quasiparticles of a chosen topological charge, we use pairs of degenerate ground states as boundary conditions for the infinite density matrix renormalization group. We then show that the wave function obtained on the infinite cylinder geometry can be adapted to a torus of arbitrary modular parameter, which allows us to explicitly calculate the non-Abelian Berry connection associated with the modular T transformation. As a result, the quantum dimensions, topological spins, quasiparticle charges, chiral central charge, and Hall viscosity of the phase can be obtained using data contained entirely in the entanglement spectrum of an infinite cylinder.

Zaletel, Michael P.; Mong, Roger S. K.; Pollmann, Frank

2013-06-01

119

Logical foundation of quantum mechanics

The subject of this article is the reconstruction of quantum mechanics on the basis of a formal language of quantum mechanical propositions. During recent years, research in the foundations of the language of science has given rise to adialogic semantics that is adequate in the case of a formal language for quantum physics. The system ofsequential logic which is comprised

E. W. Stachow; Theoretische Physik

1980-01-01

120

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the problem of the basis of an open quantum system, under a quantum chaotic environment, which is preferred in view of its stationary reduced density matrix (RDM), that is, the basis in which the stationary RDM is diagonal. It is shown that, under an initial condition composed of sufficiently many energy eigenstates of the total system, such a basis is given by the eigenbasis of a renormalized self-Hamiltonian of the system, in the limit of large Hilbert space of the environment. Here, the renormalized self-Hamiltonian is given by the unperturbed self-Hamiltonian plus a certain average of the interaction Hamiltonian over the environmental degrees of freedom. Numerical simulations performed in two models, both with the kicked rotor as the environment, give results consistent with the above analytical predictions.

He, Lewei; Wang, Wen-ge

2014-02-01

121

The quantum dynamics of one-dimensional bosonic Josephson junctions with attractive and repulsive interparticle interactions is studied by using the Bose-Hubbard model and by numerically exact computations of the full many-body Hamiltonian. A symmetry present in the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian dictates an equivalence between the evolution in time of the survival probability and the fragmentation of attractive and repulsive Josephson junctions with attractive and repulsive interactions of equal magnitude. The full many-body Hamiltonian does not possess this symmetry and, consequently, the dynamics of the attractive and repulsive junctions are different.

Sakmann, Kaspar; Streltsov, Alexej I.; Alon, Ofir E.; Cederbaum, Lorenz S. [Theoretische Chemie, Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

2010-07-15

122

The method recently proposed by Miller, Schwartz, and Tromp for determining Boltzmann rate constants ''directly'': by the path integral evaluation of a reactive flux correlation function: is developed within the framework of the reaction path Hamiltonian model for a general polyatomic reaction. The expression for the correlation function, the time integral of which is the rate constant, is reduced to a single path integral over only one degree of freedom (the reaction coordinate). Effects of tunneling, ''frictional'' effects on the reaction coordinate due to coupling to other degrees of freedom, and the effects of recrossing the transition state dividing surface are all correctly accounted for in the approach. Numerical tests of the formulas for the 3D version of the H+H/sub 2/ reaction (on the Porter--Karplus potential surface) gives excellent agreement with the (known) accurate results for this system.

Yamashita, K.; Miller, W.H.

1985-06-15

123

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lowest energy excitations of spin 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnets on percolation clusters (about the Neel ordered state) were believed to be "quantum rotor states" scaling with cluster size as 1/N, until Wang and Sandvik [Wang et al, Phys. Rev. B 81, 054417 (2010)] discovered a class of states in the diluted square lattice that had even lower energies and had a different finite size scaling of the gap exponent. They conjectured these anomalous states were due to local even/odd sublattice imbalances, leading to emergent local moments called "dangling spins" that interact over large distances, mediated through intervening spins. We have pursued this question on the z=3 Bethe lattice at the percolation threshold. Exact diagonalization shows, forevery cluster, a split-off group of low-energy states having the same quantum numbers as can be made using the dangling spins. We identify these with the Wang-Sandvik anomalous states and model their energies using an effective pair Hamiltonian coupling the "dangling spins." The couplings are a function of separation and geometry; the parameters are solved by fitting to a database of different clusters.The separation dependence of these interactions can be related to the gap scaling with N. We will also compare the effective Hamiltonian predictions to the intersite susceptibility matrix of each cluster.

Ghosh, Shivam; Changlani, Hitesh; Pujari, Sumiran; Henley, C. L.

2011-03-01

124

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop the method analyzing particle number non-conserving phenomena with non-equilibrium quantum field-theory. In this study, we consider a CP violating model with interaction Hamiltonian that breaks particle number conservation. To derive the quantum Boltzmann equation for the particle number, we solve Schwinger-Dyson equation, which are obtained from two particle irreducible closed-time-path (2PI CTP) effective action. In this calculation, we show the contribution from interaction Hamiltonian to the time evolution of expectation value of particle number.

Hotta, Ryuuichi; Morozumi, Takuya; Takata, Hiroyuki

2012-07-01

125

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A human being viewing a defocused television tube with sweep voltages turned off will see point scintillations at sufficiently low intensities. We show that quantum mechanics predicts these scintillations. Furthermore, by assuming a response of the human nervous system of a type not inconsistent with experiment, measurement theory is used to show that these scintillations will be distributed in proportion to the magnitude squared of the electron wave function incident upon the television tube screen. This nervous system response is to break up the wave incident upon a spot on the retina into a number of similar waves transmitted by different nerves to the brain. The number of these waves is proportional to the incident energy density. Since the theory itself predicts the proper probability distribution, it is unnecessary to introduce a postulate for it.

Broyles, A. A.

1984-06-01

126

PT-symmetric quantum mechanics (PTQM) has become a hot area of research and investigation. Since its beginnings in 1998, there have been over 1000 published papers and more than 15 international conferences entirely devoted to this research topic. Originally, PTQM was studied at a highly mathematical level and the techniques of complex variables, asymptotics, differential equations and perturbation theory were used to understand the subtleties associated with the analytic continuation of eigenvalue problems. However, as experiments on PT-symmetric physical systems have been performed, a simple and beautiful physical picture has emerged, and a PT-symmetric system can be understood as one that has a balanced loss and gain. Furthermore, the PT phase transition can now be understood intuitively without resorting to sophisticated mathematics. Research on PTQM is following two different paths: at a fundamental level, physicists are attempting to understand the underlying mathematical structure of these theories with the long-range objective of applying the techniques of PTQM to understanding some of the outstanding problems in physics today, such as the nature of the Higgs particle, the properties of dark matter, the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe, neutrino oscillations and the cosmological constant; at an applied level, new kinds of PT-synthetic materials are being developed, and the PT phase transition is being observed in many physical contexts, such as lasers, optical wave guides, microwave cavities, superconducting wires and electronic circuits. The purpose of this Theme Issue is to acquaint the reader with the latest developments in PTQM. The articles in this volume are written in the style of mini-reviews and address diverse areas of the emerging and exciting new area of PT-symmetric quantum mechanics. PMID:23509390

Bender, Carl M; DeKieviet, Maarten; Klevansky, S P

2013-04-28

127

Quantum mechanics without measurements

Many of the conceptual problems students have in understanding quantum\\u000amechanics arise from the way probabilities are introduced in standard\\u000a(textbook) quantum theory through the use of measurements. Introducing\\u000aconsistent microscopic probabilities in quantum theory requires setting up\\u000aappropriate sample spaces taking proper account of quantum incompatibility.\\u000aWhen this is done the Schrodinger equation can be used to calculate\\u000aprobabilities

Robert B. Griffiths

2006-01-01

128

Modern Approach to Quantum Mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inspired by Richard Feynman and J.J. Sakurai, A Modern Approach to Quantum Mechanics lets professors expose their undergraduates to the excitement and insight of Feynman's approach to quantum mechanics while simultaneously giving them a textbook that is well-ordered, logical, and pedagogically sound. This book covers all the topics that are typically presented in a standard upper-level course in quantum mechanics, but its teaching approach is new: Rather than organizing his book according to the historical development of the field and jumping into a mathematical discussion of wave mechanics, Townsend begins his book with the quantum mechanics of spin. Thus, the first five chapters of the book succeed in laying out the fundamentals of quantum mechanics with little or no wave mechanics, so the physics is not obscured by mathematics. Starting with spin systems gives students something new and interesting while providing elegant but straightforward examples of the essential structure of quantum mechanics. When wave mechanics is introduced later, students perceive it correctly as only one aspect of quantum mechanics and not the core of the subject. Praised for its pedagogical brilliance, clear writing, and careful explanations, this book is destined to become a landmark text.

Townsend, John S.

129

Ab-Initio Hamiltonian Approach to Light Nuclei And to Quantum Field Theory

Nuclear structure physics is on the threshold of confronting several long-standing problems such as the origin of shell structure from basic nucleon-nucleon and three-nucleon interactions. At the same time those interactions are being developed with increasing contact to QCD, the underlying theory of the strong interactions, using effective field theory. The motivation is clear - QCD offers the promise of great predictive power spanning phenomena on multiple scales from quarks and gluons to nuclear structure. However, new tools that involve non-perturbative methods are required to build bridges from one scale to the next. We present an overview of recent theoretical and computational progress with a Hamiltonian approach to build these bridges and provide illustrative results for the nuclear structure of light nuclei and quantum field theory.

Vary, J.P.; /Iowa State U.; Honkanen, H.; /Iowa State U.; Li, Jun; /Iowa State U.; Maris, P.; /Iowa State U.; Shirokov, A.M.; /SINP, Moscow; Brodsky, S.J.; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Harindranath, A.; /Saha Inst.; de Teramond, G.F.; /Costa Rica U.; Ng, E.G.; /LBL, Berkeley; Yang, C.; /LBL, Berkeley; Sosonkina, M.; /Ames Lab

2012-06-22

130

Surveying Students' Understanding of Quantum Mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of research-based multiple-choice tests about quantum mechanics is important for assessing students' difficulties and for evaluating curricula and pedagogies that strive to reduce the difficulties. We explore the difficulties that the undergraduate and graduate students have with non-relativistic quantum mechanics of one particle in one spatial dimension. We developed a research-based conceptual multiple-choice survey that targets these issues to obtain information about the common difficulties and administered it to more than a hundred students from seven different institutions. The issues targeted in the survey include the set of possible wavefunctions, bound and scattering states, quantum measurement, expectation values, the role of the Hamiltonian, time-dependence of wavefunction and time-dependence of expectation value. We find that the advanced undergraduate and graduate students have many common difficulties with these concepts and that research-based tutorials and peer-instruction tools can significantly reduce these difficulties. The survey can be administered to assess the effectiveness of various instructional strategies.

Singh, Chandralekha; Zhu, Guangtian

2011-03-01

131

Surveying Students' Understanding of Quantum Mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of research-based multiple-choice tests about quantum mechanics is important for assessing students' difficulties and for evaluating curricula and pedagogies that strive to reduce the difficulties. We explore the difficulties that the undergraduate and graduate students have with non-relativistic quantum mechanics of one particle in one spatial dimension. We developed a research-based conceptual multiple-choice survey that targets these issues to obtain information about the common difficulties and administered it to more than a hundred students from seven different institutions. The issues targeted in the survey include the set of possible wavefunctions, bound and scattering states, quantum measurement, expectation values, the role of the Hamiltonian, time-dependence of wavefunction and time-dependence of expectation value. We find that the advanced undergraduate and graduate students have many common difficulties with these concepts and that research-based tutorials and peer-instruction tools can significantly reduce these difficulties. The survey can be administered to assess the effectiveness of various intructional strategies.

Singh, Chandralekha; Zhu, Guangtian

2010-10-01

132

Noncommutative Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Cosmology

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a phase-space noncommutative version of quantum mechanics and apply this extension to Quantum Cosmology. We motivate this type of noncommutative algebra through the gravitational quantum well (GQW) where the noncommutativity between momenta is shown to be relevant. We also discuss some qualitative features of the GQW such as the Berry phase. In the context of quantum cosmology we consider a Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model and obtain the Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) equation for the noncommutative system through the ADM formalism and a suitable Seiberg-Witten (SW) map. The WDW equation is explicitly dependent on the noncommutative parameters, ? and ?. We obtain numerical solutions of the noncommutative WDW equation for different values of the noncommutative parameters. We conclude that the noncommutativity in the momenta sector leads to a damped wave function implying that this type of noncommmutativity can be relevant for a selection of possible initial states for the universe.

Bastos, Catarina; Bertolami, Orfeu; Dias, Nuno Costa; Prata, João Nuno

133

Classical and Quantum Mechanical Waves

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site consists of lecture notes in classical and quantum mechanical waves. The notes include the basics of classical waves including connections to mechanical oscillators, wave packets, and acoustic and electromagnetic waves. The final section outlines the key concepts of the quantum mechanical wave equation including probability and current, free and bound states, time dependent perturbation theory, and radiation. Visual Python and Maple animations are included for download.

Riley, Lewis

2006-07-22

134

Twist deformation of rotationally invariant quantum mechanics

Noncommutative quantum mechanics in 3D is investigated in the framework of an abelian Drinfeld twist which deforms a given Hopf algebra structure. Composite operators (of coordinates and momenta) entering the Hamiltonian have to be reinterpreted as primitive elements of a dynamical Lie algebra which could be either finite (for the harmonic oscillator) or infinite (in the general case). The deformed brackets of the deformed angular momenta close the so(3) algebra. On the other hand, undeformed rotationally invariant operators can become, under deformation, anomalous (the anomaly vanishes when the deformation parameter goes to zero). The deformed operators, Taylor-expanded in the deformation parameter, can be selected to minimize the anomaly. We present the deformations (and their anomalies) of undeformed rotationally invariant operators corresponding to the harmonic oscillator (quadratic potential), the anharmonic oscillator (quartic potential), and the Coulomb potential.

Chakraborty, B. [S.N. Bose National Center for Basic Sciences, JD Block, Sector III, Salt-Lake, Kolkata-700098 (India); Kuznetsova, Z. [UFABC, Rua Catequese 242, Bairro Jardim, cep 09090-400, Santo Andre (Brazil); Toppan, F. [CBPF, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, cep 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

2010-11-15

135

Quantum Mechanics: Ontology Without Individuals

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the present paper is to consider the traditional interpretive problems of quantum mechanics from the viewpoint of a modal ontology of properties. In particular, we will try to delineate a quantum ontology that (i) is modal, because describes the structure of the realm of possibility, and (ii) lacks the ontological category of individual. The final goal is to supply an adequate account of quantum non-individuality on the basis of this ontology.

da Costa, Newton; Lombardi, Olimpia

2014-03-01

136

Measurement Theory in Quantum Mechanics.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is assumed that consciousness, memory and liberty (within the limits of the quantum mechanics indeterminism) are fundamental properties of elementary particles. Then, using this assumption it is shown how measurements and observers may be introduced in...

G. Klein

1980-01-01

137

An extended phase-space SUSY quantum mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper, we will concern ourselves with the extended phase-space quantum mechanics of particles which have both bosonic and fermionic degrees of freedom, i.e., the quantum field theory in (0 + 1) dimensions in q-(position) and p-(momentum) spaces, exhibiting supersymmetry. We present (N = 2) realization of extended supersymmetry algebra and discuss the vacuum energy and topology of super-potentials. Shape invariance of exactly solvable extended SUSY potentials allows us to obtain analytic expressions for the entire energy spectrum of an extended Hamiltonian with, for example, Scarf potential without ever referring to an underlying differential equation.

Ter-Kazarian, G.

2009-02-01

138

Adiabatic approximation in PT-symmetric quantum mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a quantitative sufficient condition for adiabatic approximation in PT-symmetric quantum mechanics, which yields that a state of the PT-symmetric quantum system at any time will remain approximately in the m-th eigenstate up to a multiplicative phase factor whenever it is initially in the m-th eigenstate of the Hamiltonian. In addition, we estimate the approximation errors by the distance and the fidelity between the exact solution and the adiabatic approximate solution to the time evolution equation, respectively.

Guo, ZhiHua; Cao, HuaiXin; Lu, Ling

2014-05-01

139

Effective S=1/2 Hamiltonians and the Quantum Spin Ice Ground State of Yb2Ti2O7

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New neutron scattering instrumentation offers unprecedented opportunities for mapping out the full dispersion and dynamic susceptibility of magnetic materials. In turn, these measurements can be exploited to determine their microscopic spin Hamiltonians in great detail. We've used these techniques to examine the exotic quantum spin ice ground state of Yb2Ti2O7, a pyrochlore magnet, which can be thought of in terms of spins decorating a network of corner-sharing tetrahedra. In this environment, Yb^3+displays a ground state crystal field doublet which is very well separated from its excited states, resulting in an effective S=1/2 description for the Yb moments. It's positive Curie-Weiss constant of ˜ 0.5 K indicates net ferromagnetic interactions and it displays a g-tensor with XY anisotropy. However strong spin orbit effects give rise to an anisotropic exchange Hamiltonian, which can be understood in quantitative detail by modeling time-of-flight neutron scattering in a high field polarized state with spin wave theory using anisotropic exchange. The resulting Hamiltonian shows strong coupling between local z-components of spin, as in spin ice, but also substantial terms that encourage quantum fluctuations. Armed with the microscopic spin Hamiltonian, the mean field phase diagram and a range of physical properties can be calculated and compared with experiment. We see that any possible ordering is strongly suppressed relative to mean field theory by the presence of geometrical frustration, quantum fluctuations, or both; and the low temperature bulk properties are well accounted for by the effective S=1/2 Hamiltonian we determine. [4pt] [1] K.A. Ross, L. Savary, B.D. Gaulin and L. Balents, Phys. Rev X, 1, 021022, 2011.

Gaulin, Bruce D.

2013-03-01

140

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site outlines a set of undergraduate physics labs that investigate quantum interference and entanglement with photons. The labs are designed for simplicity and low cost. A description of the lab set up, background information, the lab manual, and several articles on both the curriculum development and research performed in the lab are provided.

Galvez, Enrique; Holbrow, Charles

2005-04-16

141

Quantum Mechanics: Fundamentals

This review is of three books, all published by Springer, all on quantum theory at a level above introductory, but very different in content, style and intended audience.That of Gottfried and Yan is of exceptional interest, historical and otherwise. It is a second edition of Gottfried's well-known book published by Benjamin in 1966. This was written as a text for

A Whitaker

2004-01-01

142

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the quantum theory of measurement and von Neumann's catastrophe of infinite regression." Examines three ways of escapint the von Neumann catastrophe, and suggests that the solution to the dilemma of inteterminism is a universe in which all possible outcomes of an experiment actually occur. Bibliography. (LC)

DeWitt, Bryce S.

1970-01-01

143

Quantum Mechanics Resource Packet

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains a collection of computational resources for use in a quantum physics class. Maple files are provided to introduce students to scientific computation. This collection includes suggested problems for use with the CUPS software. Topics covered include energy levels and wave functions for various potential wells and a 1-D lattice.

Moloney, Mike; Mitra-Kirtley, Sudipa; Joenathan, Charles; Western, Arthur; Mcinerney, Michael

2005-07-25

144

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pseudoanalytic function theory is considered to study a two-dimensional supersymmetric quantum mechanics system. Hamiltonian components of the superHamiltonian are factorized in terms of one Vekua and one Bers derivative operators. We show that imaginary and real solutions of a Vekua equation and its Bers derivative are ground state solutions for the superHamiltonian. The two-dimensional Darboux and pseudo-Darboux transformations correspond to Bers derivatives in the complex plane. Results on the completeness of the ground states are obtained. Finally, the superpotential is studied in the separable case in terms of transmutation operators. We show how Hamiltonian components of the superHamiltonian are related to the Laplacian operator using these transmutation operators.

Bilodeau, Alex; Tremblay, Sébastien

2013-10-01

145

An Introduction to Quantum Mechanics

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Ohio State website provides an introduction to the principles of quantum mechanics as a supplement to the "discussion of hydrogen and many-electron orbitals commonly found in general chemistry text books." Users can find informative text and graphics explaining Classical Mechanics, uncertainty, Pauli Principle, stationary states, and much more. Through the tutorial, students can explore how physical objects can be perceived as both particles and waves. With the Macromedia Shockwave plug-in, visitors can hear discussions of the quantum mechanics topics covered.

Hanlin, Heath; Kitagawa, Midori; Lilas, Zil; Mcdonald, Neal; Singer, Sherwin J. (Sherwin Jeffrey), 1954-; Timasheva, Anna

2007-06-12

146

Pseudospin symmetry in supersymmetric quantum mechanics: Schrödinger equations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of pseudospin symmetry (PSS) and its breaking mechanism are explored by combining supersymmetry (SUSY) quantum mechanics, perturbation theory, and the similarity renormalization group (SRG) method. The Schrödinger equation is taken as an example, corresponding to the lowest-order approximation in transforming a Dirac equation into a diagonal form by using the SRG. It is shown that while the spin-symmetry-conserving term appears in the single-particle Hamiltonian H, the PSS-conserving term appears naturally in its SUSY partner Hamiltonian H˜. The eigenstates of Hamiltonians H and H˜ are exactly one-to-one identical except for the so-called intruder states. In such a way, the origin of PSS deeply hidden in H can be traced in its SUSY partner Hamiltonian H˜. The perturbative nature of PSS in the present potential without a spin-orbit term is demonstrated by the perturbation calculations, and the PSS-breaking term can be regarded as a very small perturbation on the exact PSS limits. A general tendency that the pseudospin-orbit splittings become smaller with increasing single-particle energies can also be interpreted in an explicit way.

Liang, Haozhao; Shen, Shihang; Zhao, Pengwei; Meng, Jie

2013-01-01

147

Time-averaged quantum dynamics and the validity of the effective Hamiltonian model

We develop a technique for finding the dynamical evolution in time of an averaged density matrix. The result is an equation of evolution that includes an effective Hamiltonian, as well as decoherence terms in Lindblad form. Applying the general equation to harmonic Hamiltonians, we confirm a previous formula for the effective Hamiltonian together with a additional decoherence term which should, in general, be included and whose vanishing provides the criteria for validity of the effective Hamiltonian approach. Finally, we apply the theory to examples of the ac Stark shift and three-level Raman transitions, recovering a decoherence effect in the latter.

Gamel, Omar; James, Daniel F. V. [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A7 (Canada)

2010-11-15

148

Quantum mechanical force field for water with explicit electronic polarization.

A quantum mechanical force field (QMFF) for water is described. Unlike traditional approaches that use quantum mechanical results and experimental data to parameterize empirical potential energy functions, the present QMFF uses a quantum mechanical framework to represent intramolecular and intermolecular interactions in an entire condensed-phase system. In particular, the internal energy terms used in molecular mechanics are replaced by a quantum mechanical formalism that naturally includes electronic polarization due to intermolecular interactions and its effects on the force constants of the intramolecular force field. As a quantum mechanical force field, both intermolecular interactions and the Hamiltonian describing the individual molecular fragments can be parameterized to strive for accuracy and computational efficiency. In this work, we introduce a polarizable molecular orbital model Hamiltonian for water and for oxygen- and hydrogen-containing compounds, whereas the electrostatic potential responsible for intermolecular interactions in the liquid and in solution is modeled by a three-point charge representation that realistically reproduces the total molecular dipole moment and the local hybridization contributions. The present QMFF for water, which is called the XP3P (explicit polarization with three-point-charge potential) model, is suitable for modeling both gas-phase clusters and liquid water. The paper demonstrates the performance of the XP3P model for water and proton clusters and the properties of the pure liquid from about 900 × 10(6) self-consistent-field calculations on a periodic system consisting of 267 water molecules. The unusual dipole derivative behavior of water, which is incorrectly modeled in molecular mechanics, is naturally reproduced as a result of an electronic structural treatment of chemical bonding by XP3P. We anticipate that the XP3P model will be useful for studying proton transport in solution and solid phases as well as across biological ion channels through membranes. PMID:23927266

Han, Jaebeom; Mazack, Michael J M; Zhang, Peng; Truhlar, Donald G; Gao, Jiali

2013-08-01

149

Quantum mechanical force field for water with explicit electronic polarization

A quantum mechanical force field (QMFF) for water is described. Unlike traditional approaches that use quantum mechanical results and experimental data to parameterize empirical potential energy functions, the present QMFF uses a quantum mechanical framework to represent intramolecular and intermolecular interactions in an entire condensed-phase system. In particular, the internal energy terms used in molecular mechanics are replaced by a quantum mechanical formalism that naturally includes electronic polarization due to intermolecular interactions and its effects on the force constants of the intramolecular force field. As a quantum mechanical force field, both intermolecular interactions and the Hamiltonian describing the individual molecular fragments can be parameterized to strive for accuracy and computational efficiency. In this work, we introduce a polarizable molecular orbital model Hamiltonian for water and for oxygen- and hydrogen-containing compounds, whereas the electrostatic potential responsible for intermolecular interactions in the liquid and in solution is modeled by a three-point charge representation that realistically reproduces the total molecular dipole moment and the local hybridization contributions. The present QMFF for water, which is called the XP3P (explicit polarization with three-point-charge potential) model, is suitable for modeling both gas-phase clusters and liquid water. The paper demonstrates the performance of the XP3P model for water and proton clusters and the properties of the pure liquid from about 900 × 10{sup 6} self-consistent-field calculations on a periodic system consisting of 267 water molecules. The unusual dipole derivative behavior of water, which is incorrectly modeled in molecular mechanics, is naturally reproduced as a result of an electronic structural treatment of chemical bonding by XP3P. We anticipate that the XP3P model will be useful for studying proton transport in solution and solid phases as well as across biological ion channels through membranes.

Han, Jaebeom; Mazack, Michael J. M.; Zhang, Peng; Truhlar, Donald G.; Gao, Jiali [Department of Chemistry and Supercomputing Institute, University of Minnesota, 207 Pleasant Street, SE, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455-0431 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry and Supercomputing Institute, University of Minnesota, 207 Pleasant Street, SE, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455-0431 (United States)

2013-08-07

150

Quantum Mechanical Earth: Where Orbitals Become Orbits

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Macroscopic objects, although quantum mechanical by nature, conform to Newtonian mechanics under normal observation. According to the quantum mechanical correspondence principle, quantum behavior is indistinguishable from classical behavior in the limit of very large quantum numbers. The purpose of this paper is to provide an example of the…

Keeports, David

2012-01-01

151

Surveying students' understanding of quantum mechanics in one spatial dimension

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We explore the difficulties that advanced undergraduate and graduate students have with non-relativistic quantum mechanics of a single particle in one spatial dimension. To investigate these difficulties we developed a conceptual survey and administered it to more than 200 students at 10 institutions. The issues targeted in the survey include the set of possible wavefunctions, bound and scattering states, quantum measurement, expectation values, the role of the Hamiltonian, and the time-dependence of the wavefunction and expectation values. We find that undergraduate and graduate students have many common difficulties with these concepts and that research-based tutorials and peer-instruction tools can significantly reduce these difficulties. The findings also suggest that graduate quantum mechanics courses may not be effective at helping students to develop a better conceptual understanding of these topics, partly because such courses mainly focus on quantitative assessments.

Zhu, Guangtian; Singh, Chandralekha

2012-04-30

152

Self-Referential Quantum Mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nonlinear quantum mechanics based upon the nonlinear logarithmic Schrodinger equation, is developed which has the property of self-reference, that is, the nonlinear term is dependent upon the square of the wavefunction. The self-referential system is examined in terms of its mathematical properties, the definition of the wavefunction, and the nonlinear system in the feedback between equation and solution. Theta operators are introduced which make possible new operations in the quantum phase. Two interpretations are presented utilizing the nonlinear quantum system: the idealistic interpretation based upon consciousness focused upon the measurement problem, and the statistical interpretation focused upon stochastic quantum fluctuations. Experimental properties are examined, beginning with a proposed analog of the Bohm-Aharonov experiment. Interference due to difference in path length for a split electron beam is effected in a region of spacetime where electromagnetic field and the vector potential are enclosed within but screened to be zero at the paths. If the wavefunction's geometrical phase contribution along the paths is different, then there should be interference induced purely by the wave-function alone. A positive result would be due to a purely wavefunction dependent effect. The spin phase of the wavefunction is postulated to be the source of the zitterbewegung of the electron. Reduction of the wavefunction in measurement is examined for self -referential quantum systems arising from consciousness and then arising from a stochastic quantum spacetime model. These results are applied to the mind-brain as a quantum processor producing a behavioral double slit experiment (ideation experiments) and nonlocal transferred potentials in an EPR-style experiment. Looking at the universe as a whole as a quantum self-referential system, leads to a modified zitterbewegung Wheeler-DeWitt equation; and, the transition from quantum-to-classical on a cosmological scale for the measurement problem is accomplished for an expanding-only deSitter quantum spacetime.

Mitchell, Mark Kenneth

1993-01-01

153

This work focuses on the dynamics of a system of quantum multi harmonic oscillators whose Hamiltonian is conic in positions and momenta with time variant coefficients. While it is simple, this system is useful for modeling the dynamics of a number of systems in contemporary sciences where the equations governing spatial or temporal changes are described by sets of ODEs. The dynamical causal models used readily in neuroscience can be indirectly described by these systems. In this work, we want to show that it is possible to describe these systems using quantum wave function type entities and expectations if the dynamic of the system is related to a set of ODEs.

Demiralp, Metin [Istanbul Technical University, Informatics Institute, Group for Science and Methods of Computing, Maslak, 34469, Istanbul (Turkey)

2010-09-30

154

Davidson potential and SUSYQM in the Bohr Hamiltonian

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bohr Hamiltonian is modified through the Shape Invariance principle of SUper-SYmmetric Quantum Mechanics for the Davidson potential. The modification is equivalent to a conformal transformation of Bohr's metric, generating a different ?-dependence of the moments of inertia.

Georgoudis, P. E.

2013-06-01

155

Symmetry and degeneracy in quantum mechanics. Self-duality in finite spin systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The symmetry of self-duality (Savit 1980 Rev. Mod. Phys. 52 453) of some models of statistical mechanics and quantum field theory is discussed for finite spin blocks of the Ising chain in a transverse magnetic field. The existence of this symmetry in a specific type of these blocks, and not in others, is manifest by the degeneracy of their energy levels. This illustrates the fact that in quantum mechanics, more symmetry in the Hamiltonian induces more degeneracy in the energy spectrum.

Osácar, C.; Pacheco, A. F.

2009-07-01

156

In this paper, control of open quantum systems with emphasis on the control of surface photochemical reactions is presented. A quantum system in a condensed phase undergoes strong dissipative processes. From a theoretical viewpoint, it is important to model such processes in a rigorous way. In this work, the description of open quantum systems is realized within the surrogate Hamiltonian approach [R. Baer and R. Kosloff, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 8862 (1997)]. An efficient and accurate method to find control fields is optimal control theory (OCT) [W. Zhu, J. Botina, and H. Rabitz, J. Chem. Phys. 108, 1953 (1998); Y. Ohtsuki, G. Turinici, and H. Rabitz, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 5509 (2004)]. To gain control of open quantum systems, the surrogate Hamiltonian approach and OCT, with time-dependent targets, are combined. Three open quantum systems are investigated by the combined method, a harmonic oscillator immersed in an ohmic bath, CO adsorbed on a platinum surface, and NO adsorbed on a nickel oxide surface. Throughout this paper, atomic units, i.e., ({Dirac_h}/2{pi})=m{sub e}=e=a{sub 0}= 1, have been used unless otherwise stated.

Asplund, Erik; Kluener, Thorsten [Institut fuer Reine und Angewandte Chemie, Carl von Ossietzky Universitaet Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany)

2012-03-28

157

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relatively short history of the study of quantum gravity has found a plethora of problems, arguably the most perplexing of these is the one that has become known as the problem of time and it arises when we study theories of gravity in spatially closed manifolds, because for these the naive Hamiltonian is forced to vanish as a constraint. This treatise deals with the problem of finding a Hamiltonian that correctly describes the evolution of the physical variables of the theory and which can be used to canonically quantize whatever is found to be the correct theory of gravity. We will refer to the procedure described here as reduction and the resulting Hamiltonian will be called the reduced Hamiltonian. The reduction of a gauge theory consists of eliminating all spurious degrees of freedom by gauge fixing on the initial value surface, using the remaining physical variables to construct a set of canonical variables, and finally constructing a Hamiltonian that describes the appropriate time evolution of these, the reduced canonical variables. It must be pointed that this construction is not original to this work, in fact it dates to the end of the last century. What is original is its application to gravity. We begin by describing the procedure for a general model. Next we apply this method to a harmonic oscillator and to scalar QED in temporal gauge. After these simple examples we will be ready for the more exciting problem of finding the Hamiltonian for the theory of general relativity in the manifold T^3times R. We conclude by setting up the functional formalism where we discover that there is a simple relation connecting the matrix elements and expectation values of functionals of the reduced operators with those of the original unreduced theory.

Rubio, Jose Antonio

1994-01-01

158

Quantum Mechanics and Physical Reality

IN a recent article by A. Einstein, B. Podolsky and N. Rosen, which appeared in the Physical Review of May 15, and was reviewed in NATURE of June 22, the question of the completeness of quantum mechanical description has been discussed on the basis of a ``criterion of physical reality'', which the authors formulate as follows : ``If, without in

N. Bohr

1935-01-01

159

A quantum mechanical twin paradox

When a quantummechanical wavepacket undergoes a series of Galilean boosts, the Schrödinger theory predicts the occurrence of a geometrical phase effect that is an example of Berry's phase (Sagnac's phase). In the present paper the conceptual consequences of this phenomenon are considered, in particular for the status of Galilean invariance in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, and for the relation between that

Dennis Dieks

1990-01-01

160

A quantum mechanical twin paradox

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a quantummechanical wavepacket undergoes a series of Galilean boosts, the Schrödinger theory predicts the occurrence of a geometrical phase effect that is an example of Berry's phase (Sagnac's phase). In the present paper the conceptual consequences of this phenomenon are considered, in particular for the status of Galilean invariance in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, and for the relation between that theory and classical physics.

Dieks, Dennis

1990-08-01

161

Fun with Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One reason for studying supersymmetric quantum mechanics is that there are a class of superpotentials W(x) which behave at large x as x/sup alpha / for which we know from general arguments whether SUSY is broken or unbroken. Thus one can use these superpo...

B. Freedman F. Cooper

1984-01-01

162

Hamiltonian theory of gaps, masses, and polarization in quantum Hall states

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In two short papers I had described an extension, to all length scales, of the Hamiltonian theory of composite fermions (CF) that Murthy and I developed for the infrared, and applied it to compute finite-temperature quantities for quantum Hall fractions. I furnish details of the extended theory and apply it to Jain fractions ?=p/(2ps+1). The explicit operator description in terms of the CF allows one to answer quantitative and qualitative issues, some of which cannot even be posed otherwise. I compute activation gaps for several potentials, exhibit their particle-hole symmetry, the profiles of charge density in states with a quasiparticle or hole (all in closed form), and compare to results from trial wave functions and exact diagonalization. The Hartree-Fock approximation is used, since much of the nonperturbative physics is built-in at tree level. I compare the gaps to experiment, and comment on the rough equality of normalized masses near half- and quarter-filling. I compute the critical fields at which the Hall system will jump from one quantized value of polarization to another, and the polarization and relaxation rates for half-filling as a function of temperature and propose a Korringa-like law. After providing some plausibility arguments, I explore the possibility of describing several magnetic phenomena in dirty systems with an effective potential, by extracting a free parameter describing the potential from one data point and then using it to predict all the others from that sample. This works to the accuracy typical of this theory (10-20 %). I explain why the CF behaves like a free particle in some magnetic experiments when it is not, what exactly the CF is made of, what one means by its dipole moment, and how the comparison of theory to experiment must be modified to fit the peculiarities of the quantized Hall problem.

Shankar, R.

2001-02-01

163

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper deals with three independent subjects. I. We show how for classical canonical transformation we can pass, with the help of Wigner distribution functions, from their representation U in the configurational Hilbert space to a kernel K in phase space. The latter is a much more transparent way of looking at representations of canonical transformations, as the classical limit is reached when ?-->0 and successive quantum corrections are related with powers of ?2n, n=1,2,... . II. We discuss the coherent states solution for a charged particle in a constant magnetic field and show that it is the appropriate one for getting the classical limit of the problem, i.e., motion in a circle around any point in the plane perpendicular to the field and with the square of the radius proportional to the energy of the particle. III. We show that it is possible to have just one equation involving n ?'s and ? matrices to get relativistic wave equations that can have spins with values up to n/2. We then decompose the ?'s and ?'s into direct products of ordinary spin matrices and a new type of them that we call sign spin. The problem reduces then to that of the generators of a SU(4) group, entirely similar to the one in the spin-isospin theory of nuclear physics. For a free particle of arbitrary spin the symmetry group is actually the unitary symplectic subgroup of SU(4), i.e., Sp(4). As the latter is isomorphic to O(5), we can characterize our states by the canonical chain O(5)?O(4)?O(3)?O(2), and from it obtain the spin and mass content of our relativistic equation.

Moshinsky, Marcos

1999-03-01

164

About fractional supersymmetric quantum mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fractional Euler-Lagrange equations are investigated in the presence of Grassmann variables. The fractional Hamiltonian and the path integral of the fractional supersymmetric classical model are constructed.

Baleanu, Dumitru; Muslih, Sami I.

2005-09-01

165

Entropy production and equilibration in Yang-Mills quantum mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Husimi distribution provides for a coarse-grained representation of the phase-space distribution of a quantum system, which may be used to track the growth of entropy of the system. We present a general and systematic method of solving the Husimi equation of motion for an isolated quantum system, and we construct a coarse-grained Hamiltonian whose expectation value is exactly conserved. As an application, we numerically solve the Husimi equation of motion for two-dimensional Yang-Mills quantum mechanics (the x-y model) and calculate the time evolution of the coarse-grained entropy of a highly excited state. We show that the coarse-grained entropy saturates to a value that coincides with the microcanonical entropy corresponding to the energy of the system.

Tsai, Hung-Ming; Müller, Berndt

2012-01-01

166

Entropy production and equilibration in Yang-Mills quantum mechanics.

The Husimi distribution provides for a coarse-grained representation of the phase-space distribution of a quantum system, which may be used to track the growth of entropy of the system. We present a general and systematic method of solving the Husimi equation of motion for an isolated quantum system, and we construct a coarse-grained Hamiltonian whose expectation value is exactly conserved. As an application, we numerically solve the Husimi equation of motion for two-dimensional Yang-Mills quantum mechanics (the x-y model) and calculate the time evolution of the coarse-grained entropy of a highly excited state. We show that the coarse-grained entropy saturates to a value that coincides with the microcanonical entropy corresponding to the energy of the system. PMID:22400515

Tsai, Hung-Ming; Müller, Berndt

2012-01-01

167

De Donder-Weyl theory and a hypercomplex extension of quantum mechanics to field theory

A quantization of field theory based on the De Donder-Weyl (DW) covariant Hamiltonian formulation is discussed. A hypercomplex extension of quantum mechanics, in which the space-time Clifford algebra replaces that of the complex numbers, appears as a result of quantization of Poisson brackets on differential forms which were put forward for the DW theory earlier. The proposed covariant hypercomplex Schrödinger

Igor V. Kanatchikov

1999-01-01

168

Relativistic quantum mechanics of supersymmetric particles

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quantum mechanics of an electron in an external field is developed by Hamiltonian path integral methods. The electron is described classically by an action which is invariant under gauge supersymmetry transformations as well as worldline reparametrizations. The simpler case of a spinless particle is first reviewed and it is pointed out that a strictly canonical approach does not exist. This follows formally from the gauge invariance properties of the action and physically it corresponds to the fact that particles can travel backwards as well as forward in coordinate time. However, appropriate application of path integral techniques yields directly the proper time representation of the Feynman propagator. Next we extend the formalism to systems described by anticommuting variables. This problem presents some difficulty when the dimension of the phase space is odd, because the holomorphic representation does not exist. It is shown, however, that the usual connection between the evolution operator and the path integral still holds provided one indludes in the action the boundary term that makes the classical variational principle well defined. The path integral for the relativistic spinning particle is then evaluated and it is shown to lead directly to a representation for the Feynman propagator in terms of two proper times, one commuting, the other anticommuting, which appear in a symmetric manner. This representation is used to derive scattering amplitudes in an external field. In this step the anticommuting proper time is integrated away and the analysis is carried in terms of one (commuting) proper time only, just as in the spinless case. Finally, some properties of the quantum mechanics of the ghost particles that appear in the path integral for constrained systems are developed in an appendix.

Henneaux, Marc; Teitelboim, Claudio

1982-10-01

169

Relativistic quantum mechanics of supersymmetric particles

The quantum mechanics of an electron in an external field is developed by Hamiltonian path integral methods. The electron is described classically by an action which is invariant under gauge sypersymmetry transformations as well as worldline reparametrizations. The simpler case of a spinless particle is first reviewed and it is pointed out that a strictly canonical approach does not exist. This follows formally from the gauge invariance properties of the action and physically it corresponds to the fact that particles can travel backwards as well as forward in coordinate time. However, appropriate application of path integral techniques yields directly the proper time representation of the Feynman propagator. Next we extend the formalism to systems described by anticommuting variables. This problem presents some difficulty when the dimension of the phase space is odd, because the holomorphic representation does not exist. It is shown, however, that the usual connection between the evolution operator and the path integral still holds provided one includes in the action the bounary term that makes the classical variational principle well defined. The path integral for the relativistic spinning particle is then evaluated and it is shown to lead directly to a representation for the Feynman propagator in terms of two proper times, one commuting, the other anticommuting, which appear in a symmetric manner. This representation is used to derive scattering amplitudes in an external field. In this step the anticommuting proper time is integrated away and the analysis is carried in terms of one (commuting) proper time only, just as in the spinless case. Finally, some properties of the quantum mechanics of the ghost particles that appear in the path integral for constrained systems are developed in an appendix.

Henneaux, M.; Teitelboim, C.

1982-10-01

170

Lyapounov variable: Entropy and measurement in quantum mechanics

We discuss the question of the dynamical meaning of the second law of thermodynamics in the framework of quantum mechanics. Previous discussion of the problem in the framework of classical dynamics has shown that the second law can be given a dynamical meaning in terms of the existence of so-called Lyapounov variables—i.e., dynamical variables varying monotonically in time without becoming contradictory. It has been found that such variables can exist in an extended framework of classical dynamics, provided that the dynamical motion is suitably unstable. In this paper we begin to extend these results to quantum mechanics. It is found that no dynamical variable with the characteristic properties of nonequilibrium entropy can be defined in the standard formulation of quantum mechanics. However, if the Hamiltonian has certain well-defined spectral properties, such variables can be defined but only as a nonfactorizable superoperator. Necessary nonfactorizability of such entropy operators M has the consequence that they cannot preserve the class of pure states. Physically, this means that the distinguishability between pure states and corresponding mixtures must be lost in the case of a quantal system for which the algebra of observables can be extended to include a new dynamical variable representing nonequilibrium entropy. We discuss how this result leads to a solution of the quantum measurement problem. It is also found that the question of existence of entropy of superoperators M is closely linked to the problem of defining an operator of time in quantum mechanics.

Misra, B.; Prigogine, I.; Courbage, M.

1979-01-01

171

Quantum mechanics and the psyche

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we apply the last developments of the theory of measurement in quantum mechanics to the phenomenon of consciousness and especially to the awareness of unconscious components. Various models of measurement in quantum mechanics can be distinguished by the fact that there is, or there is not, a collapse of the wave function. The passive aspect of consciousness seems to agree better with models in which there is no collapse of the wave function, whereas in the active aspect of consciousness—i.e., that which goes together with an act or a choice—there seems to be a collapse of the wave function. As an example of the second possibility we study in detail the photon delayed-choice experiment and its consequences for subjective or psychological time. We apply this as an attempt to explain synchronicity phenomena. As a model of application of the awareness of unconscious components we study the mourning process. We apply also the quantum paradigm to the phenomenon of correlation at a distance between minds, as well as to group correlations that appear during group therapies or group training. Quantum entanglement leads to the formation of group unconscious or collective unconscious. Finally we propose to test the existence of such correlations during sessions of group training.

Galli Carminati, G.; Martin, F.

2008-07-01

172

On the complexity of classical and quantum algorithms for numerical problems in quantum mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our understanding of complex quantum mechanical processes is limited by our inability to solve the equations that govern them except for simple cases. Numerical simulation of quantum systems appears to be our best option to understand, design and improve quantum systems. It turns out, however, that computational problems in quantum mechanics are notoriously difficult to treat numerically. The computational time that is required often scales exponentially with the size of the problem. One of the most radical approaches for treating quantum problems was proposed by Feytiman in 1982 [46]: he suggested that quantum mechanics itself showed a promising way to simulate quantum physics. This idea, the so called quantum computer, showed its potential convincingly in one important regime with the development of Shor's integer factorization algorithm which improves exponentially on the best known classical algorithm. In this thesis we explore six different computational problems from quantum mechanics, study their computational complexity and try to find ways to remedy them. In the first problem we investigate the reasons behind the improved performance of Shor's and similar algorithms. We show that the key quantum part in Shor's algorithm, the quantum phase estimation algorithm, achieves its good performance through the use of power queries and we give lower bounds for all phase estimation algorithms that use power queries that match the known upper bounds. Our research indicates that problems that allow the use of power queries will achieve similar exponential improvements over classical algorithms. We then apply our lower bound technique for power queries to the Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problem and show matching lower bounds to the upper bounds of Papageorgiou and Wozniakowski [85]. It seems to be very difficult, though, to find nontrivial instances of the Sturm-Lionville problem for which power queries can be simulated efficiently. A quantum computer differs from a classical computer that uses randomness, because it allows "negative probabilities" that can cancel each other (destructive interference). Ideally we would like to transfer classical randomized algorithms to the quantum computer and get speed improvements. One of the simplest classical randomized algorithm is the random walk and we study the behavior of the continuous-time quantum random walk. We analyze this random walk in one dimension and give analytical formulas for its behavior that demonstrate its interference properties. Is interference or cancellation really the most important advantage that a quantum computer has over a classical computer? To answer that question we study the class StociMA of "stochastic quantum" algorithms that only use classical gates, but are given a quantum "witness", i.e. an arbitrary quantum state that can guide the algorithm in computing the correct answer, but should not be able to "fool" it. We show that there exists a complete problem for this class, which we call the stoquastic local Hamiltonian problem. In this problem we try to compute the lowest eigenvalue of a Hamiltonian with interactions that span only a fixed number of particles and all contribute negatively. With the help of this problem we prove that MA ? StocIMA ? SBP ? QMA. This shows that interference is one of the most important parts of quantum computation. The simulation of the evolution of a general quantum system in time requires a computational time that is exponential in the dimension of the system. But maybe the problem that we ask for is too general and we can simulate special systems in polynomial time. In particular it would be interesting to study quantum systems of "limited energy", i.e. for which the state at starting time consists mainly out of components with small energy. We model this in the theory of weighted reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces with two different sets of weights: product weights and finite-order weights. We will show that the information cost of computing the evolution for start

Bessen, Arvid J.

173

Supersymmetric quantum mechanics with reflections

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a realization of supersymmetric quantum mechanics where supercharges are differential-difference operators with reflections. A supersymmetric system with an extended Scarf I potential is presented and analyzed. Its eigenfunctions are given in terms of little -1 Jacobi polynomials which obey an eigenvalue equation of Dunkl type and arise as a q ? -1 limit of the little q-Jacobi polynomials. Intertwining operators connecting the wavefunctions of extended Scarf I potentials with different parameters are presented.

Post, Sarah; Vinet, Luc; Zhedanov, Alexei

2011-10-01

174

Modern Undergraduate Quantum Mechanics Experiments

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The site describes a collection of simplified quantum mechanics experiments developed at Whitman College by Professor Mark Beck. It links to a complete laboratory manual with the following experiments: (1) Spontaneous Parametric Downconversion, (2) Proof of the Existence of Photons, (3) Single Photon Interference, (4) Testing Local Realism Ã la Hardy. The manual also presents documentation for LabView interfaces to the experimental setups. Equipment lists, apparatus pictures, and a collection of links to additional resources is included.

Beck, Mark

2004-07-10

175

Complementarity in Categorical Quantum Mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We relate notions of complementarity in three layers of quantum mechanics: (i) von Neumann algebras, (ii) Hilbert spaces, and (iii) orthomodular lattices. Taking a more general categorical perspective of which the above are instances, we consider dagger monoidal kernel categories for (ii), so that (i) become (sub)endohomsets and (iii) become subobject lattices. By developing a `point-free' definition of copyability we link (i) commutative von Neumann subalgebras, (ii) classical structures, and (iii) Boolean subalgebras.

Heunen, Chris

2012-07-01

176

Helping Students Learn Quantum Mechanics for Quantum Computing

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum information science and technology is a rapidly growing interdisciplinary field drawing researchers from science and engineering fields. Traditional instruction in quantum mechanics is insufficient to prepare students for research in quantum computing because there is a lack of emphasis in the current curriculum on quantum formalism and dynamics. We are investigating the difficulties students have with quantum mechanics and are developing and evaluating quantum interactive learning tutorials (QuILTs) to reduce the difficulties. Our investigation includes interviews with individual students and the development and administration of free-response and multiple-choice tests. We discuss the implications of our research and development project on helping students learn quantum mechanics relevant for quantum computing.

Singh, Chandralekha

2007-01-01

177

BOOK REVIEWS: Quantum Mechanics: Fundamentals

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review is of three books, all published by Springer, all on quantum theory at a level above introductory, but very different in content, style and intended audience. That of Gottfried and Yan is of exceptional interest, historical and otherwise. It is a second edition of Gottfried’s well-known book published by Benjamin in 1966. This was written as a text for a graduate quantum mechanics course, and has become one of the most used and respected accounts of quantum theory, at a level mathematically respectable but not rigorous. Quantum mechanics was already solidly established by 1966, but this second edition gives an indication of progress made and changes in perspective over the last thirty-five years, and also recognises the very substantial increase in knowledge of quantum theory obtained at the undergraduate level. Topics absent from the first edition but included in the second include the Feynman path integral, seen in 1966 as an imaginative but not very useful formulation of quantum theory. Feynman methods were given only a cursory mention by Gottfried. Their practical importance has now been fully recognised, and a substantial account of them is provided in the new book. Other new topics include semiclassical quantum mechanics, motion in a magnetic field, the S matrix and inelastic collisions, radiation and scattering of light, identical particle systems and the Dirac equation. A topic that was all but totally neglected in 1966, but which has flourished increasingly since, is that of the foundations of quantum theory. John Bell’s work of the mid-1960s has led to genuine theoretical and experimental achievement, which has facilitated the development of quantum optics and quantum information theory. Gottfried’s 1966 book played a modest part in this development. When Bell became increasingly irritated with the standard theoretical approach to quantum measurement, Viki Weisskopf repeatedly directed him to Gottfried’s book. Gottfried had devoted a chapter of his book to these matters, titled ‘The Measurement Process and the Statistical Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics’. Gottfried considered the von Neumann or Dirac ‘collapse of state-vector’ (or ‘reduction postulate’ or ‘projection postulate’) was unsatisfactory, as he argued that it led inevitably to the requirement to include ‘consciousness’ in the theory. He replaced this by a more mathematically and conceptually sophisticated treatment in which, following measurement, the density matrix of the correlated measured and measuring systems, rho, is replaced by hat rho, in which the interference terms from rho have been removed. rho represents a pure state, and hat rho a mixture, but Gottfried argued that they are ‘indistinguishable’, and that we may make our replacement, ‘safe in the knowledge that the error will never be found’. Now our combined state is represented as a mixture, it is intuitive, Gottfried argued, to interpret it in a probabilistic way, |cm|2 being the probability of obtaining the mth measurement result. Bell liked Gottfried’s treatment little more than the cruder ‘collapse’ idea of von Neumann, and when, shortly before Bell’s death, his polemical article ‘Against measurement’ was published in the August 1990 issue of Physics World (pages 33-40), his targets included, not only Landau and Lifshitz’s classic Quantum Mechanics, pilloried for its advocacy of old-fashioned collapse, and a paper by van Kampen in Physica, but also Gottfried’s approach. Bell regarded his replacement of rho by hat rho as a ‘butchering’ of the density matrix, and considered, in any case, that even the butchered density matrix should represent co-existence of different terms, not a set of probabilities. Gottfried has replied to Bell ( Physics World, October 1991, pages 34-40; Nature 405, 533-36 (2000)). He has also become a major commentator on Bell’s work, for example editing the section on quantum foundations in the World Scientific edition of Bell’s collected works. Thus it is exceedingly interesting to disco

Whitaker, A.

2004-02-01

178

Teaching Quantum Mechanics on an Introductory Level.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a new research-based course on quantum mechanics in which the conceptual issues of quantum mechanics are taught at an introductory level. Involves students in the discovery of how quantum phenomena deviate from classical everyday experiences. (Contains 31 references.) (Author/YDS)

Muller, Rainer; Wiesner, Hartmut

2002-01-01

179

Epistemic restrictions in Hilbert space quantum mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A resolution of the quantum measurement problem(s) using the consistent histories interpretation yields in a rather natural way a restriction on what an observer can know about a quantum system, one that is also consistent with some results in quantum information theory. This analysis provides a quantum mechanical understanding of some recent work that shows that certain kinds of quantum behavior are exhibited by a fully classical model if by hypothesis an observer's knowledge of its state is appropriately limited.

Griffiths, Robert B.

2013-10-01

180

Non-holonomic Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics: an intrinsic approach

A geometrical approach to Lagrangian and Hamiltonian non-holonomic dynamics is proposed. The construction relies on a revisitation of the Poincaré-Cartan 1-form, leading to the introduction of the concepts of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian pairs and to the implementation of a non-holonomic Legendre map. The relationship with the standard 'extrinsic' approach is outlined. A unified 'canonical framework', joining both Lagrangian and Hamiltonian

Enrico Massa; Stefano Vignolo; Danilo Bruno

2002-01-01

181

Complete Hamiltonian description of wave-like features in classical and quantum physics

The analysis of the Helmholtz equation is shown to lead to an exact Hamiltonian system of equations describing in terms of ray trajectories a very wide family of wave-like phenomena (including diffraction and interference) going much beyond the limits of the ordinary geometrical optics approximation, which is contained as a simple limiting case. Due to the fact that the time

A. Orefice; R. Giovanelli; D. Ditto

2007-01-01

182

Propagators in polymer quantum mechanics

Polymer Quantum Mechanics is based on some of the techniques used in the loop quantization of gravity that are adapted to describe systems possessing a finite number of degrees of freedom. It has been used in two ways: on one hand it has been used to represent some aspects of the loop quantization in a simpler context, and, on the other, it has been applied to each of the infinite mechanical modes of other systems. Indeed, this polymer approach was recently implemented for the free scalar field propagator. In this work we compute the polymer propagators of the free particle and a particle in a box; amusingly, just as in the non polymeric case, the one of the particle in a box may be computed also from that of the free particle using the method of images. We verify the propagators hereby obtained satisfy standard properties such as: consistency with initial conditions, composition and Green’s function character. Furthermore they are also shown to reduce to the usual Schrödinger propagators in the limit of small parameter ?{sub 0}, the length scale introduced in the polymer dynamics and which plays a role analog of that of Planck length in Quantum Gravity. -- Highlights: •Formulas for propagators of free and particle in a box in polymer quantum mechanics. •Initial conditions, composition and Green’s function character is checked. •Propagators reduce to corresponding Schrödinger ones in an appropriately defined limit. •Results show overall consistency of the polymer framework. •For the particle in a box results are also verified using formula from method of images.

Flores-González, Ernesto, E-mail: eflores@xanum.uam.mx; Morales-Técotl, Hugo A., E-mail: hugo@xanum.uam.mx; Reyes, Juan D., E-mail: jdrp75@gmail.com

2013-09-15

183

Snyder noncommutativity and pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonians from a Jordanian twist

Nonrelativistic quantum mechanics and conformal quantum mechanics are deformed through a Jordanian twist. The deformed space coordinates satisfy the Snyder noncommutativity. The resulting deformed Hamiltonians are pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonians of the type discussed by Mostafazadeh. The quantization scheme makes use of the so-called 'unfolded formalism' discussed in previous works. A Hopf algebra structure, compatible with the physical interpretation of the coproduct, is introduced for the universal enveloping algebra of a suitably chosen dynamical Lie algebra (the Hamiltonian is contained among its generators). The multi-particle sector, uniquely determined by the deformed two-particle Hamiltonian, is composed of bosonic particles.

Castro, P. G. [DM/ICE/UFJF, Campus Universitario, cep 36036-330, Juiz de Fora (Brazil); Kullock, R.; Toppan, F. [TEO/CBPF, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, cep 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

2011-06-15

184

Quantum mechanical light harvesting mechanisms in photosynthesis

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 10 million billion photons of light strike a leaf each second. Incredibly, almost every red-coloured photon is captured by chlorophyll pigments and initiates steps to plant growth. Last year we reported that marine algae use quantum mechanics in order to optimize photosynthesis [1], a process essential to its survival. These and other insights from the natural world promise to revolutionize our ability to harness the power of the sun. In a recent review [2] we described the principles learned from studies of various natural antenna complexes and suggested how to utilize that knowledge to shape future technologies. We forecast the need to develop ways to direct and regulate excitation energy flow using molecular organizations that facilitate feedback and control--not easy given that the energy is only stored for a billionth of a second. In this presentation I will describe new results that explain the observation and meaning of quantum-coherent energy transfer. [4pt] [1] Elisabetta Collini, Cathy Y. Wong, Krystyna E. Wilk, Paul M. G. Curmi, Paul Brumer, and Gregory D. Scholes, ``Coherently wired light-harvesting in photosynthetic marine algae at ambient temperature'' Nature 463, 644-648 (2010).[0pt] [2] Gregory D. Scholes, Graham R. Fleming, Alexandra Olaya-Castro and Rienk van Grondelle, ``Lessons from nature about solar light harvesting'' Nature Chem. 3, 763-774 (2011).

Scholes, Gregory

2012-02-01

185

A semiclassical correction for quantum mechanical energy levels

We propose a semiclassical method for correcting molecular energy levels obtained from a quantum mechanical variational calculation. A variational calculation gives the energy level (i.e., eigenvalue) as the expectation value of the molecular Hamiltonian <{phi}|H|{phi}>, where |{phi}> is the trial wave function. The true (i.e., exact) eigenvalue E can thus be expressed as this variational result plus a correction, i.e., E=<{phi}|H|{phi}>+{Delta}E, the correction being due to the lack of exactness of the trial wave function. A formally exact expression for {Delta}E is usually given (via Loewdin partitioning methodology) in terms of the Greens function of the Hamiltonian projected onto the orthogonal complement of |{phi}>. Formal treatment of this expression (using Brillouin-Wigner perturbation theory to infinite order) leads to an expression for {Delta}E that involves matrix elements of the Greens function for the unprojected, i.e., full molecular Hamiltonian, which can then be approximated semiclassically. (Specifically, the Greens function is expressed as the Fourier transform of the quantum mechanical time evolution operator, e{sup -}iHt/({h_bar}/2{pi}), which in turn is approximated by using an initial value representation of semiclassical theory.) Calculations for several test problems (a one dimensional quartic potential, and vibrational energy levels of H{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}CO) clearly support our proposition that the error in the total eigenvalue E arises solely due to the semiclassical error in approximating {Delta}E, which is usually a small fraction of the total energy E itself.

Kaledin, Alexey L. [Department of Chemistry and Cherry L. Emerson Center for Scientific Computation, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); McCurdy, C. William [Department of Applied Science and Department of Chemistry, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA and Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Miller, William H. [Department of Chemistry and Kenneth S. Pitzer Center for Theoretical Chemistry, University of California, California (United States) and Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2010-08-07

186

Quantum Mechanical Approximations in Quantum Field Theory.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some cooperative, coherent effects in quantum field theory, such as spontaneous symmetry violation, bound states, and entrapment of various excitations, can be exposed only by approximation procedures which do not rely on analyticity or regularity in the ...

R. Jackiw

1975-01-01

187

Unified theory of exactly and quasiexactly solvable ''discrete'' quantum mechanics. I. Formalism

We present a simple recipe to construct exactly and quasiexactly solvable Hamiltonians in one-dimensional ''discrete'' quantum mechanics, in which the Schroedinger equation is a difference equation. It reproduces all the known ones whose eigenfunctions consist of the Askey scheme of hypergeometric orthogonal polynomials of a continuous or a discrete variable. The recipe also predicts several new ones. An essential role is played by the sinusoidal coordinate, which generates the closure relation and the Askey-Wilson algebra together with the Hamiltonian. The relationship between the closure relation and the Askey-Wilson algebra is clarified.

Odake, Satoru [Department of Physics, Shinshu University, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan); Sasaki, Ryu [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

2010-08-15

188

Particle in a box in PT-symmetric quantum mechanics and an electromagnetic analog

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In PT-symmetric quantum mechanics a fundamental principle of quantum mechanics, that the Hamiltonian must be Hermitian, is replaced by another set of requirements, including notably symmetry under PT, where P denotes parity and T denotes time reversal. Here we study the role of boundary conditions in PT-symmetric quantum mechanics by constructing a simple model that is the PT-symmetric analog of a particle in a box. The model has the usual particle-in-a-box Hamiltonian but boundary conditions that respect PT symmetry rather than Hermiticity. We find that for a broad class of PT-symmetric boundary conditions the model respects the condition of unbroken PT symmetry, namely, that the Hamiltonian and the symmetry operator PT have simultaneous eigenfunctions, implying that the energy eigenvalues are real. We also find that the Hamiltonian is self-adjoint under the PT-symmetric inner product. Thus we obtain a simple soluble model that fulfills all the requirements of PT-symmetric quantum mechanics. In the second part of this paper we formulate a variational principle for PT-symmetric quantum mechanics that is the analog of the textbook Rayleigh-Ritz principle. Finally we consider electromagnetic analogs of the PT-symmetric particle in a box. We show that the isolated particle in a box may be realized as a Fabry-Perot cavity between an absorbing medium and its conjugate gain medium. Coupling the cavity to an external continuum of incoming and outgoing states turns the energy levels of the box into sharp resonances. Remarkably we find that the resonances have a Breit-Wigner line shape in transmission and a Fano line shape in reflection; by contrast, in the corresponding Hermitian case the line shapes always have a Breit-Wigner form in both transmission and reflection.

Dasarathy, Anirudh; Isaacson, Joshua P.; Jones-Smith, Katherine; Tabachnik, Jason; Mathur, Harsh

2013-06-01

189

Can quantum mechanics help distributed computing?

We present a brief survey of results where quantum information processing is useful to solve distributed computation tasks. We describe problems that are impossible to solve using classical resources but that become feasible with the help of quantum mechanics. We also give examples where the use of quantum information significantly reduces the need for communication. The main focus of the

Anne Broadbent; Alain Tapp

2008-01-01

190

Are All Probabilities Fundamentally Quantum Mechanical?

The subjective and the objective aspects of probabilities are incorporated in a simple duality axiom inspired by observer participation in quantum theory. Transcending the classical notion of probabilities, it is proposed and demonstrated that all probabilities may be fundamentally quantum mechanical in the sense that they may all be derived from the corresponding amplitudes. The classical coin-toss and the quantum

Rajat Kumar Pradhan

2011-01-01

191

Within the context of supersymmetric quantum mechanics and its related hierarchies of integrable quantum Hamiltonians and potentials, a general programme is outlined and applied to its first two simplest illustrations. Going beyond the usual restriction of shape invariance for intertwined potentials, it is suggested to require a similar relation for Hamiltonians in the hierarchy separated by an arbitrary number of levels, N. By requiring further that these two Hamiltonians be in fact identical up to an overall shift in energy, a periodic structure is installed in the hierarchy which should allow for its resolution. Specific classes of orthogonal polynomials characteristic of such periodic hierarchies are thereby generated, while the methods of supersymmetric quantum mechanics then lead to generalised Rodrigues formulae and recursion relations for such polynomials. The approach also offers the practical prospect of quantum modelling through the engineering of quantum potentials from experimental energy spectra. In this paper, these ideas are presented and solved explicitly for the cases N= 1 and N= 2. The latter case is related to the generalised Laguerre polynomials, for which indeed new results are thereby obtained. In the context of dressing chains and deformed polynomial Heisenberg algebras, some partial results for N? 3 also exist in the literature, which should be relevant to a complete study of the N? 3 general periodic hierarchies.

Balondo Iyela, Daddy [International Chair in Mathematical Physics and Applications (ICMPA–UNESCO Chair), University of Abomey–Calavi, 072 B. P. 50 Cotonou, Republic of Benin (Benin) [International Chair in Mathematical Physics and Applications (ICMPA–UNESCO Chair), University of Abomey–Calavi, 072 B. P. 50 Cotonou, Republic of Benin (Benin); Centre for Cosmology, Particle Physics and Phenomenology (CP3), Institut de Recherche en Mathématique et Physique (IRMP), Université catholique de Louvain U.C.L., 2, Chemin du Cyclotron, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Département de Physique, Université de Kinshasa (UNIKIN), B.P. 190 Kinshasa XI, Democratic Republic of Congo (Congo, The Democratic Republic of the); Govaerts, Jan [International Chair in Mathematical Physics and Applications (ICMPA–UNESCO Chair), University of Abomey–Calavi, 072 B. P. 50 Cotonou, Republic of Benin (Benin) [International Chair in Mathematical Physics and Applications (ICMPA–UNESCO Chair), University of Abomey–Calavi, 072 B. P. 50 Cotonou, Republic of Benin (Benin); Centre for Cosmology, Particle Physics and Phenomenology (CP3), Institut de Recherche en Mathématique et Physique (IRMP), Université catholique de Louvain U.C.L., 2, Chemin du Cyclotron, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Hounkonnou, M. Norbert [International Chair in Mathematical Physics and Applications (ICMPA–UNESCO Chair), University of Abomey–Calavi, 072 B. P. 50 Cotonou, Republic of Benin (Benin)] [International Chair in Mathematical Physics and Applications (ICMPA–UNESCO Chair), University of Abomey–Calavi, 072 B. P. 50 Cotonou, Republic of Benin (Benin)

2013-09-15

192

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the context of supersymmetric quantum mechanics and its related hierarchies of integrable quantum Hamiltonians and potentials, a general programme is outlined and applied to its first two simplest illustrations. Going beyond the usual restriction of shape invariance for intertwined potentials, it is suggested to require a similar relation for Hamiltonians in the hierarchy separated by an arbitrary number of levels, N. By requiring further that these two Hamiltonians be in fact identical up to an overall shift in energy, a periodic structure is installed in the hierarchy which should allow for its resolution. Specific classes of orthogonal polynomials characteristic of such periodic hierarchies are thereby generated, while the methods of supersymmetric quantum mechanics then lead to generalised Rodrigues formulae and recursion relations for such polynomials. The approach also offers the practical prospect of quantum modelling through the engineering of quantum potentials from experimental energy spectra. In this paper, these ideas are presented and solved explicitly for the cases N = 1 and N = 2. The latter case is related to the generalised Laguerre polynomials, for which indeed new results are thereby obtained. In the context of dressing chains and deformed polynomial Heisenberg algebras, some partial results for N >= 3 also exist in the literature, which should be relevant to a complete study of the N >= 3 general periodic hierarchies.

Balondo Iyela, Daddy; Govaerts, Jan; Hounkonnou, M. Norbert

2013-09-01

193

Causality and Probability in Quantum Mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper critically examines the view of quantum mechanics that emerged shortly after the introduction of quantum mechanics and that has been widespread ever since. Although N. Bohr, P. A. M. Dirac, and W. Heisenberg advanced this view earlier, it is best exemplified by J. von Neumann's argument in Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics (1932) that the transformation of ``a [quantum] state ... under the action of an energy operator ... is purely causal,'' while, ``on the other hand, the state ... which may measure a [given] quantity ... undergoes in a measurement a non-casual change.'' Accordingly, while the paper discusses all four of these arguments, it will especially focus on that of von Neumann. The paper also offers an alternative, noncausal, view of the quantum-mechanical situation and considers the differences between the ensemble and the Bayesian approaches to quantum mechanics from this perspective.

Plotnitsky, Arkady

2009-03-01

194

Suppressing Chaos of Warship Power System Based on the Quantum Mechanics Theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chaos control of marine power system is investigated by adding the Gaussian white noise to the system. The top Lyapunov exponent is computed to detect whether the classical system chaos or not, also the phase portraits are plotted to further verify the obtained results. The classical control of chaos and its quantum counterpart of the marine power system are investigated. The Hamiltonian of the controlled system is given to analyze the quantum counterpart of the classical system, which is based on the quantum mechanics theory.

Cong, Xinrong; Li, Longsuo

2014-03-01

195

Hamiltonian flows, short-time propagators and the quantum Zeno effect

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent paper we have examined the short-time propagator for the Schrödinger equation of a point source. An accurate expression modulo ?t2 for the propagator showed that it was independent of the quantum potential implying that the quantum motion is classical for very short times. In this paper we apply these results to the experiment of Itano, Heinzen, Bollinger and Wineland which demonstrates the quantum Zeno effect in beryllium. We show that the transition is inhibited because the applied continuous wave radiation suppresses the quantum potential necessary for the transition to occur. This shows there is no need to appeal to wave function collapse.

de Gosson, Maurice A.; Hiley, Basil J.

2014-04-01

196

Quantum mechanics: A new chapter?

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the conceptual problems in quantum mechanics on a fundamental level. It is shown that the proposed model of extended electrons and a clear understanding of rotations in three dimensional space solve a large part of these problems, in particular the problems related to the ontological status and physical meaning of wavefunctions. It also solves the problem of non-locality. The experimental results obtained in Yves Couder's group and theoretical results by Gerdard Grössing indicate that the wave-like distribution of trajectories of electrons in interference experiments are most likely due to the quantized interactions leading to a discrete set of transferred momenta. A separate experimental confirmation of this interpretation for double-slit interferometry of photons has been given by the group of Steinberg.

Hofer, Werner A.

2012-12-01

197

Kindergarten Quantum Mechanics: Lecture Notes

These lecture notes survey some joint work with Samson Abramsky as it was presented by me at several conferences in the summer of 2005. It concerns 'doing quantum mechanics using only pictures of lines, squares, triangles and diamonds'. This picture calculus can be seen as a very substantial extension of Dirac's notation, and has a purely algebraic counterpart in terms of so-called Strongly Compact Closed Categories (introduced by Abramsky and I which subsumes my Logic of Entanglement. For a survey on the 'what', the 'why' and the 'hows' I refer to a previous set of lecture notes. In a last section we provide some pointers to the body of technical literature on the subject.

Coecke, Bob [Oxford University Computing Laboratory, Wolfson Building, Parks rd, OX1 3QD Oxford (United Kingdom)

2006-01-04

198

Kindergarten Quantum Mechanics: Lecture Notes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

These lecture notes survey some joint work with Samson Abramsky as it was presented by me at several conferences in the summer of 2005. It concerns `doing quantum mechanics using only pictures of lines, squares, triangles and diamonds'. This picture calculus can be seen as a very substantial extension of Dirac's notation, and has a purely algebraic counterpart in terms of so-called Strongly Compact Closed Categories (introduced by Abramsky and I in [3, 4]) which subsumes my Logic of Entanglement [11]. For a survey on the `what', the `why' and the `hows' I refer to a previous set of lecture notes [12, 13]. In a last section we provide some pointers to the body of technical literature on the subject.

Coecke, Bob

2006-01-01

199

I have made an ample study of one dimensional quantum oscillators, ranging from logarithmic to exponential potentials. I have found that the eigenvalues of the hamiltonian of the oscillator with the limiting (approachissimo) harmonic potential (~ p(x)2) maps the zeros of the Riemann function height up in the Riemann line. This is the potential created by the field of J(x)

N. Garcia

2006-01-01

200

I have made an ample study of one dimensional quantum oscillators, ranging from logarithmic to exponential potentials. I have found that the eigenvalues of the hamiltonian of the oscillator with the limiting (approachissimo) harmonic potential ( ) ( ) log( ) ( x J x x x VR ? ~ ?(x) 2) maps the zeros of the Riemann function height

N. García

201

Noncommutative quantum mechanics: Uniqueness of the functional description

The generalized Weyl transform of index {alpha} is used to implement the time-slice definition of the phase space path integral yielding the Feynman kernel in the case of noncommutative quantum mechanics. As expected, this representation for the Feynman kernel is not unique but labeled by the real parameter {alpha}. We succeed in proving that the {alpha}-dependent contributions disappear at the limit where the time slice goes to zero. This proof of consistency turns out to be intricate because the Hamiltonian involves products of noncommuting operators originating from the noncommutativity. The antisymmetry of the matrix parametrizing the noncommutativity plays a key role in the cancellation mechanism of the {alpha}-dependent terms.

Bemfica, F. S.; Girotti, H. O. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Caixa Postal 15051, 91501-970-Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

2008-12-15

202

Thermodynamic integration from classical to quantum mechanics.

We present a new method for calculating quantum mechanical corrections to classical free energies, based on thermodynamic integration from classical to quantum mechanics. In contrast to previous methods, our method is numerically stable even in the presence of strong quantum delocalization. We first illustrate the method and its relationship to a well-established method with an analysis of a one-dimensional harmonic oscillator. We then show that our method can be used to calculate the quantum mechanical contributions to the free energies of ice and water for a flexible water model, a problem for which the established method is unstable. PMID:22168684

Habershon, Scott; Manolopoulos, David E

2011-12-14

203

Gauge-invariant hydrogen-atom Hamiltonian

For quantum mechanics of a charged particle in a classical external electromagnetic field, there is an apparent puzzle that the matrix element of the canonical momentum and Hamiltonian operators is gauge dependent. A resolution to this puzzle was recently provided by us [X.-S. Chen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 232002 (2008)]. Based on the separation of the electromagnetic potential into pure-gauge and gauge-invariant parts, we have proposed a new set of momentum and Hamiltonian operators which satisfy both the requirement of gauge invariance and the relevant commutation relations. In this paper we report a check for the case of the hydrogen-atom problem: Starting from the Hamiltonian of the coupled electron, proton, and electromagnetic field, under the infinite proton mass approximation, we derive the gauge-invariant hydrogen-atom Hamiltonian and verify explicitly that this Hamiltonian is different from the Dirac Hamiltonian, which is the time translation generator of the system. The gauge-invariant Hamiltonian is the energy operator, whose eigenvalue is the energy of the hydrogen atom. It is generally time dependent. In this case, one can solve the energy eigenvalue equation at any specific instant of time. It is shown that the energy eigenvalues are gauge independent, and by suitably choosing the phase factor of the time-dependent eigenfunction, one can ensure that the time-dependent eigenfunction satisfies the Dirac equation.

Sun Weimin; Wang Fan [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, CPNPC, Nanjing 210093 (China); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China); Chen Xiangsong [Department of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Department of Physics, Nanjing University, CPNPC, Nanjing 210093 (China); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China); Lue Xiaofu [Department of Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

2010-07-15

204

The Quantum Mechanical Many-Body Problem.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A wide variety of quantum mechanical many-body problems were investigated. The two significant accomplishments of this research are as follows: The development of DCF (dynamical characteristic function) method for treating the statistical mechanics of qua...

A. E. Glassgold

1969-01-01

205

On a realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics

The best mathematical arguments against a realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics - that gives definite but partially unknown values to all observables - are analysed and shown to be based on reasoning that is not compelling. This opens the door for an interpretation that, while respecting the indeterministic nature of quantum mechanics, allows to speak of definite values for all

Arnold Neumaier

1999-01-01

206

Quantum Mechanics and physical calculations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We suggest to realize the computer simulation and calculation by the algebraic structure built on the basis of the logic inherent to processes in physical systems (called physical computing). We suggest a principle for the construction of quantum algorithms of neuroinformatics of quantum neural networks. The role of academician Sahakyan is emphasized in the development of quantum physics in Armenia.

Karayan, H. S.

2014-03-01

207

Polymer quantum mechanics and its continuum limit

A rather nonstandard quantum representation of the canonical commutation relations of quantum mechanics systems, known as the polymer representation, has gained some attention in recent years, due to its possible relation with Planck scale physics. In particular, this approach has been followed in a symmetric sector of loop quantum gravity known as loop quantum cosmology. Here we explore different aspects of the relation between the ordinary Schroedinger theory and the polymer description. The paper has two parts. In the first one, we derive the polymer quantum mechanics starting from the ordinary Schroedinger theory and show that the polymer description arises as an appropriate limit. In the second part we consider the continuum limit of this theory, namely, the reverse process in which one starts from the discrete theory and tries to recover back the ordinary Schroedinger quantum mechanics. We consider several examples of interest, including the harmonic oscillator, the free particle, and a simple cosmological model.

Corichi, Alejandro [Instituto de Matematicas, Unidad Morelia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM-Campus Morelia, A. Postal 61-3, Morelia, Michoacan 58090 (Mexico); Departamento de Gravitacion y Teoria de Campos, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A. Postal 70-543, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Institute for Gravitational Physics and Geometry, Physics Department, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Vukasinac, Tatjana [Facultad de Ingenieria Civil, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacan 58000 (Mexico); Zapata, Jose A. [Instituto de Matematicas, Unidad Morelia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM-Campus Morelia, A. Postal 61-3, Morelia, Michoacan 58090 (Mexico)

2007-08-15

208

Quantum mechanics of open systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In quantum mechanics, there is a set of problems where the system of interest interacts with another system, usually called "environment". This interaction leads to the exchange of energy and information and makes the dynamics of the system of interest essentially non-unitary. Such problems often appeared in condensed matter physics and attracted much attention after recent advances in nanotechnology. As broadly posed as they are, these problems require a variety of different approaches. This thesis is an attempt to examine several of these approaches in applications to different condensed matter problems. The first problem concerns the so-called "Master equation" approach which is very popular in quantum optics. I show that analytic properties of environmental correlators lead to strong restrictions on the applicability of the approach to the strong-coupling regime of interest in condensed matter physics. In the second problem, I use path integrals to treat the localization of particles on attractive short-range potentials when the environment produces an effective viscous friction force. I find that friction changes drastically the localization properties and leads to much stronger localization in comparison to the non-dissipative case. This has implications for the motion of heavy particles in fermionic liquids and, as will be argued below, is also relevant to the problem of high-temperature superconductivity. Finally, the third problem deals with the interplay of geometric phases and energy dissipation which occurs in the motion of vortices in superconductors. It is shown that this interplay leads to interesting predictions for vortex tunneling in high-temperature superconductors which have been partially confirmed by experiments.

Melikidze, Akakii

209

On Wigner functions and a damped star product in dissipative phase-space quantum mechanics

Dito and Turrubiates recently introduced an interesting model of the dissipative quantum mechanics of a damped harmonic oscillator in phase space. Its key ingredient is a non-Hermitian deformation of the Moyal star product with the damping constant as deformation parameter. We compare the Dito-Turrubiates scheme with phase-space quantum mechanics (or deformation quantization) based on other star products, and extend it to incorporate Wigner functions. The deformed (or damped) star product is related to a complex Hamiltonian, and so necessitates a modified equation of motion involving complex conjugation. We find that with this change the Wigner function satisfies the classical equation of motion. This seems appropriate since non-dissipative systems with quadratic Hamiltonians share this property.

Belchev, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, 4401 University Drive West, Lethbridge, Alta., T1K 3M4 (Canada)], E-mail: borislav.belchev@uleth.ca; Walton, M.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, 4401 University Drive West, Lethbridge, Alta., T1K 3M4 (Canada)], E-mail: walton@uleth.ca

2009-03-15

210

General-covariant quantum mechanics in Riemannian space-time III. The Dirac particle

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A general covariant analog of standard nonrelativistic quantum mechanics with relativistic corrections is constructed for the Dirac particle in a normal geodesic frame in general Riemannian space-time. Not only the Pauli equation with a Hermitian Hamiltonian and the pre-Hilbert structure of the space of its solutions, but also matrix elements of the Hermitian operators of momentum, (curvilinear) spatial coordinates, and spin of the particle, are deduced, as a general-covariant asymptotic approximation in c-2 (c is the velocity of light), to their naturally determined general-relativistic pre-images. It is shown that the Pauli equation Hamiltonian, generated by the Dirac equation, is unitary-equivalent to the energy operator generated by the metric energymomentum tensor of the spinor field. Commutation and other properties of the observables associated with variation in the geometrical background of quantum mechanics are briefly discussed.

Tagirov, E. A.

1996-01-01

211

General-covariant Quantum Mechanics of Dirac particle in curved space-times

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A general covariant analog of the standard non-relativistic Quantum Mechanics with relativistic corrections in normal geodesic frames in the general Riemannian space-time is constructed for the Dirac particle. Not only the Pauli equation with hermitian Hamiltonian and the pre-Hilbert structure of space of its solutions but also the matrix elements of hermitian operators of momentum, (curvilinear) spatial coordinates and spin of the particle are deduced as general-covariant asymptotic approximation in c(sup -2), c being the velocity of light, to their naturally determined general-relativistic pre images. It is shown that the Hamiltonian in the Pauli equation originated by the Dirac equation is unitary equivalent to the operator of energy, originated by the metric energy-momentum tensor of the spinor field. Commutation and other properties of the observables connected with the considered change of geometrical background of Quantum Mechanics are briefly discussed.

Tagirov, E. A.

1994-08-01

212

Nonlinear quantum mechanics: Results and open questions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About 15 years ago, we (Heinz-Dietrich Doebner and I) proposed a special type of nonlinear modification of the usual Schrödinger time-evolution equation in quantum mechanics. Our equation was motivated by certain unitary representations of the group of diffeomorphisms of physical space, in the framework of either nonrelativistic local current algebra or quantum Borel kinematics. Subsequently, we developed this and related approaches to nonlinearity in quantum mechanics considerably further, to incorporate theories of measurement, groups of nonlinear gauge transformations, symmetry and invariance properties, unification of a large family of nonlinear perturbations, and possible physical contexts for quantum nonlinearity. Some of our results and highlights of some open questions are summarized.

Goldin, G. A.

2008-05-01

213

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A semiclassical approach is developed for nonequilibrium quantum transport in molecular junctions. Following the early work of Miller and White [J. Chem. Phys. 84, 5059 (1986)], the many-electron Hamiltonian in second quantization is mapped onto a classical model that preserves the fermionic character of electrons. The resulting classical electronic Hamiltonian allows for real-time molecular dynamics simulations of the many-body problem from an uncorrelated initial state to the steady state. Comparisons with exact results generated for the resonant level model reveal that a semiclassical treatment of transport provides a quantitative description of the dynamics at all relevant timescales for a wide range of bias and gate potentials, and for different temperatures. The approach opens a door to treating nontrivial quantum transport problems that remain far from the reach of fully quantum methodologies.

Swenson, David W. H.; Levy, Tal; Cohen, Guy; Rabani, Eran; Miller, William H.

2011-04-01

214

Irreversible quantum mechanics in the neutral K-system

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutral kaon system is used to test the quantum theory of resonance scattering and decay phenomena. The two dimensional Lee-Oehme-Yang theory with complex Hamiltonian is obtained by truncating the complex basis vector expansion of the exact theory in rigged Hilbert space. This can be done for K 1 and K 2 as well as for K S and K L , depending upon whether one chooses the (self-adjoint, semibounded) Hamiltonian as commuting or noncommuting with CP. As an unexpected curiosity, one can show that the exact theory (without truncation) predicts long-time 2? decays of the neutral kaon system even if the Hamiltonian conserves CP.

Bohm, Arno

1997-11-01

215

Action principle for cellular automata and the linearity of quantum mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce an action principle for a class of integer-valued cellular automata and obtain Hamiltonian equations of motion. Employing sampling theory, these discrete deterministic equations are invertibly mapped on continuum equations for a set of bandwidth-limited harmonic oscillators, which encode the Schrödinger equation. Thus, the linearity of quantum mechanics is related to the action principle of such cellular automata and its conservation laws to discrete ones.

Elze, Hans-Thomas

2014-01-01

216

Solvable simulation of a double-well problem in PT-symmetric quantum mechanics

Within the framework of Script PScript T-symmetric quantum mechanics of bound states (which works with parity-pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonians H = Script PHdaggerScript P and real spectra) we mimic some effects of the double-well structure of potentials by a pair of delta functions with mutually complex conjugate strengths. The model is solvable by the standard matching technique and exhibits several interesting features.

Miloslav Znojil

2003-01-01

217

Emergence of classical theories from quantum mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three problems stand in the way of deriving classical theories from quantum mechanics: those of realist interpretation, of classical properties and of quantum measurement. Recently, we have identified some tacit assumptions that lie at the roots of these problems. Thus, a realist interpretation is hindered by the assumption that the only properties of quantum systems are values of observables. If one simply postulates the properties to be objective that are uniquely defined by preparation then all difficulties disappear. As for classical properties, the wrong assumption is that there are arbitrarily sharp classical trajectories. It turns out that fuzzy classical trajectories can be obtained from quantum mechanics by taking the limit of high entropy. Finally, standard quantum mechanics implies that any registration on a quantum system is disturbed by all quantum systems of the same kind existing somewhere in the universe. If one works out systematically how quantum mechanics must be corrected so that there is no such disturbance, one finds a new interpretation of von Neumann's "first kind of dynamics", and so a new way to a solution of the quantum measurement problem. The present paper gives a very short review of this work.

Hájí?ek, P.

2012-05-01

218

Quantum mechanics from Newton's second law and the canonical commutation relation [X, P] = i

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the fact that it has been known since the time of Heisenberg that quantum operators obey a quantum version of Newton's laws, students are often told that derivations of quantum mechanics must necessarily follow from the Hamiltonian or Lagrangian formulations of mechanics. Here, we first derive the existing Heisenberg equations of motion from Newton's laws and the uncertainty principle using only the equations F=\\frac{dP}{dt}, P=m\\frac{dV}{dt}, and [X, P] = i. Then, a new expression for the propagator is derived that makes a connection between time evolution in quantum mechanics and the motion of a classical particle under Newton's laws. The propagator is solved for three cases where an exact solution is possible: (1) the free particle; (2) the harmonic oscillator; and (3) a constant force, or linear potential in the standard interpretation. We then show that for a general for a general force F(X), by Taylor expanding X(t) in time, we can use this methodology to reproduce the Feynman path integral formula for the propagator. Such a picture may be useful for students as they make the transition from classical to quantum mechanics and help solidify the equivalence of the Hamiltonian, Lagrangian, and Newtonian pictures of physics in their minds.

Palenik, Mark C.

2014-07-01

219

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum computing in terms of geometric phases, i.e. Berry or Aharonov-Anandan phases, is fault-tolerant to a certain degree. We examine its implementation based on Zeeman coupling with a rotating field and isotropic Heisenberg interaction, which describe NMR and can also be realized in quantum dots and cold atoms. Using a novel physical representation of the qubit basis states, we construct ?/8 and Hadamard gates based on Berry and Aharonov-Anandan phases. For two interacting qubits in a rotating field, we find that it is always impossible to construct a two-qubit gate based on Berry phases, or based on Aharonov-Anandan phases when the gyromagnetic ratios of the two qubits are equal. In implementing a universal set of quantum gates, one may combine geometric ?/8 and Hadamard gates and dynamical \\sqrtSWAP gate.

Shi, Yu

2008-09-01

220

Exact Parent Hamiltonian for the Quantum Hall States in a Lattice

We study lattice models of charged particles in uniform magnetic fields. We show how longer range hopping can be engineered to produce a massively degenerate manifold of single-particle ground states with wave functions identical to those making up the lowest Landau level of continuum electrons in a magnetic field. We find that in the presence of local interactions, and at the appropriate filling factors, Laughlin's fractional quantum Hall wave function is an exact many-body ground state of our lattice model. The hopping matrix elements in our model fall off as a Gaussian, and when the flux per plaquette is small compared to the fundamental flux quantum one only needs to include nearest and next-nearest neighbor hoppings. We suggest how to realize this model using atoms in optical lattices, and describe observable consequences of the resulting fractional quantum Hall physics.

Kapit, Eliot; Mueller, Erich [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York (United States)

2010-11-19

221

We suggest a new difference scheme for dealing with contact nonlinear Hamiltonians. The scheme has two parts. First, the system is transformed to the interaction picture of quantum mechanics using the time-independent Hamiltonian H0. This reduces the problem to a system of ordinary differential equations in time. Subsequently, the system is integrated in time for a time step ?t and

Marijan Kostrun; Juha Javanainen

2001-01-01

222

Spectral geometry of power-law potentials in quantum mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is supposed that a single particle moves in openR3 in an attractive central power-law potential V(q)(r)=sgn(q)rq, q>-2, and obeys nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. This paper is concerned with the question: How do the discrete eigenvalues Enl(q) of the Hamiltonian H=-?+V(q) depend on the power parameter q\\? Pure power-law potentials have the elementary property that, for p

Hall, Richard L.

1989-06-01

223

Quantum mechanical model for J/? suppression in the LHC era

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the interplay of screening, absorption and regeneration effects, on the quantum mechanical evolution of quarkonia states, within a time-dependent harmonic oscillator (THO) model with complex oscillator strength. We compare the results with data for RAA/RAA(CNM) from CERN and RHIC experiments. In the absence of a measurement of cold nuclear matter (CNM) effects at LHC we estimate their role and interpret the recent data from the ALICE experiment. We also discuss the temperature dependence of the real and imaginary parts of the oscillator frequency which stand for screening and absorption/regeneration, respectively. We point out that a structure in the J/? suppression pattern for In-In collisions at SPS is possibly related to the recently found X(3872) state in the charmonium spectrum. Theoretical support for this hypothesis comes from the cluster expansion of the plasma Hamiltonian for heavy quarkonia in a strongly correlated medium.

Peña, C.; Blaschke, D.

2014-07-01

224

Geometric phase in PT-symmetric quantum mechanics

Unitary evolution in PT-symmetric quantum mechanics (QM) with a time-dependent metric is found to yield an interesting class of adiabatic processes. As an explicit example, a Berry-like phase associated with a PT-symmetric two-level system is derived and is interpreted as the flux of a fictitious monopole with a tunable charge plus a singular string component with nontrivial phase contributions. To gain more insight, the Hermitian analog of our non-Hermitian problem is also analyzed, which results in an intriguing class of geometric-phase problems in conventional QM as well, where the Hamiltonian includes a perturbative term that is proportional to the rate of change in adiabatic parameters.

Gong Jiangbin [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Centre for Computational Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore (NUS), Singapore 117542 (Singapore); NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, Singapore 117597 (Singapore); Wang Qinghai [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

2010-07-15

225

Quantum mechanics on Laakso spaces

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We first review the spectrum of the Laplacian operator on a general Laakso space before considering modified Hamiltonians for the infinite square well, parabola, and Coulomb potentials. Additionally, we compute the spectrum for the Laplacian and its multiplicities when certain regions of a Laakso space are compressed or stretched and calculate the Casimir force experienced by two uncharged conducting plates by imposing physically relevant boundary conditions and then analytically regularizing the resulting zeta function. Lastly, we derive a general formula for the spectral zeta function and its derivative for Laakso spaces with strict self-similar structure before listing explicit spectral values for some special cases

Kauffman, Christopher J.; Kesler, Robert M.; Parshall, Amanda G.; Stamey, Evelyn A.; Steinhurst, Benjamin A.

2012-04-01

226

Quantum mechanics, CPT violation, and neutral kaons

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutral kaon system offers a unique possibility to perform fundamental tests of the basic principles of quantum mechanics and of CPT symmetry. The most recent limits obtained by the KLOE experiment at the DA?NE e+e- collider on several kinds of possible decoherence and CPT violation mechanisms, which in some cases might be justified in a quantum gravity framework, are reviewed. No deviation from the expectations of quantum mechanics and CPT symmetry is observed, while the precision of the measurements, in some cases, reaches the interesting Planck scale region. Finally, prospects for this kind of experimental studies at KLOE-2 are presented.

Domenico, Antonio Di

2012-03-01

227

Time-dependent {P} {T}-symmetric quantum mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The parity-time-reversal ( {P} {T})-symmetric quantum mechanics (QM) (PTQM) has developed into a noteworthy area of research. However, to date, most known studies of PTQM focused on the spectral properties of non-Hermitian Hamiltonian operators. In this work, we propose an axiom in PTQM in order to study general time-dependent problems in PTQM, e.g., those with a time-dependent {P} {T}-symmetric Hamiltonian and with a time-dependent metric. We illuminate our proposal by examining a proper mapping from a time-dependent Schrödinger-like equation of motion for PTQM to the familiar time-dependent Schrödinger equation in conventional QM. The rich structure of the proper mapping hints that time-dependent PTQM can be a fruitful extension of conventional QM. Under our proposed framework, we further study in detail the Berry-phase generation in a class of {P} {T}-symmetric two-level systems. It is found that a closed path in the parameter space of PTQM is often associated with an open path in a properly mapped problem in conventional QM. In one interesting case, we further interpret the Berry phase as the flux of a continuously tunable fictitious magnetic monopole, thus highlighting the difference between PTQM and conventional QM despite the existence of a proper mapping between them.

Gong, Jiangbin; Wang, Qing-hai

2013-12-01

228

ADDENDUM: Chaos in Bohmian quantum mechanics

In our recently published paper 'Chaos in Bohmian quantum mechanics' we criticized a paper by Parmenter and Valentine (1995 Phys. Lett. A 201 1), because the authors made an incorrect calculation of the Lyapunov exponent in the case of Bohmian orbits in a quantum system of two uncoupled harmonic oscillators. After our paper was published, we became aware of an

C. Efthymiopoulos; G. Contopoulos

2006-01-01

229

Improving Student Understanding of Quantum Mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are investigating the difficulties that students have in learning upper-level quantum mechanics and designing quantum interactive learning tutorials (QuILTs). Our investigation includes interviews with individual students and the development and administration of free-response and multiple-choice tests. The preliminary results from the QuILTs are promising. Coauthors: Mario Belloni and Wolfgang Christian, Davidson College.

Singh, Chandralekha

2006-04-01

230

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work describes the development and validation of many-body force fields and semiempirical Hamiltonians as part of a multi-scale modeling effort by the York Group targeted at biological applications. Basic science effort is spent towards the testing of existing polarizable force field functional forms in the areas of charge transfer and the coupling of polarization with many-body exchange. A new semiempirical model (MNDO/d+CPE) is developed by a novel combination of the modified neglect of diatomic overlap with extension to d-orbitals (MNDO/d) semiempirical Hamiltonian with a set of charge-dependent, atom-centered, density response dipole functions. It is shown that existing semiempirical Hamiltonians severely under-predict the polarizability of atoms and molecules whereas the MNDO/d+CPE model reduces the errors across a wide range of charge states (2- to 2+) by an order of magnitude. Another semiempirical Hamiltonian (PM3 BP) is created through a reparametrization of the PM3 Hamiltonian to model hydrogen bonded nucleic acid base pairs. A large database of molecules (on-line at http://theory.chem.umn.edu/QCRNA) for the purpose of parametrizing future models is described. Semiempirical methods lack treatment for long-range London dispersion forces. Therefore, basic science work is performed on van der Waals systems with a large emphasis on rare gas dimers. The accurate calculation of dispersion interactions from ab initio is very computationally intensive. Therefore, a new multicoefficient correlation method is developed to decrease the computational effort required to obtain a large collection of van der Waals interaction energy reference data.

Giese, Timothy John

231

Student difficulties in learning quantum mechanics

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Reports on a preliminary project that uses a phenomenographic approach to explore the ways in which a small number of fundamental ideas are conceptualized by students who are judged to have mastered quantum mechanics material.

Johnston, Ian D.; Crawford, K.; Fletcher, P. R.

2006-06-19

232

Student Difficulties in Learning Quantum Mechanics.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a preliminary project that uses a phenomenographic approach to explore the ways in which a small number of fundamental ideas are conceptualized by students who are judged to have mastered quantum mechanics material. (DDR)

Johnston, I. D.; Crawford, K.; Fletcher, P. R.

1998-01-01

233

Quantum mechanical stabilization of Minkowski signature wormholes

When one attempts to construct classical wormholes in Minkowski signature Lorentzian spacetimes violations of both the weak energy hypothesis and averaged weak energy hypothesis are encountered. Since the weak energy hypothesis is experimentally known to be violated quantum mechanically, this suggests that a quantum mechanical analysis of Minkowski signature wormholes is in order. In this note I perform a minisuperspace analysis of a simple class of Minkowski signature wormholes. By solving the Wheeler-de Witt equation for pure Einstein gravity on this minisuperspace the quantum mechanical wave function of the wormhole is obtained in closed form. The wormhole is shown to be quantum mechanically stabilized with an average radius of order the Planck length. 8 refs.

Visser, M.

1989-05-19

234

SSQM (Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics) and Nonlinear Equations.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The method for obtaining the superpartner potential in the supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SSQM) is discussed in connection with the nonlinear equations and the reflectionless potentials. The correspondence between a new class of the soliton solutions t...

J. Hruby V. G. Makhan'kov

1987-01-01

235

Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics and New Potentials.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using the supersymmetric quantum mechanics the following potential are generalized. The particle in the box, Poeschl-Teller and Rosen-Morse. The new potentials are evaluated and their eigenfunctions and spectra are indicated. (Atomindex citation 20:038198...

E. Drigo Filho

1988-01-01

236

Supersymmetric quantum mechanics for string-bits.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors develop possible versions of supersymmetric single particle quantum mechanics, with application to superstring-bit models in view. The authors focus principally on space dimensions d = 1,2,4,8, the transverse dimensionalities of superstring in...

C. B. Thorn

1997-01-01

237

Functional integral in supersymmetric quantum mechanics.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The solution of the square root of the Schroedinger equation for the supersymmetric quantum mechanics is expressed in the form of series. The formula may be considered as a functional integral of the chronological exponent of the super-pseudodifferential ...

D. V. Ktitarev

1990-01-01

238

Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics of the Relativistic Particle.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An alternative formulation for the superparticle in a scalar potential is presented. This method is based on a combination between the ground state wave function representation and supersymmetric quantum mechanics. For the free relativistic particle case,...

J. Gamboa J. Zanelli

1986-01-01

239

Fundamental Quantum Mechanics--A Graphic Presentation

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a presentation of basic quantum mechanics for nonscience majors that relies on a computer-generated graphic display to circumvent the usual mathematical difficulties. It allows a detailed treatment of free-particle motion in a wave picture. (MLH)

Wise, M. N.; Kelley, T. G.

1977-01-01

240

Symmetry and symmetry breaking in quantum mechanics.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the world of infinitely small, the world of atoms, nuclei and particles, the quantum mechanics enforces its laws. The discovery of Quanta, this unbelievable castration of the Possible in grains of matter and radiation, in discrete energy levels compels...

P. Chomaz

1998-01-01

241

Using Optical Transforms To Teach Quantum Mechanics

Wave-particle duality, the superposition principle, the uncertainty principle, and single-particle interference are the most fundamental quantum mechanical concepts. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that these quantum mechanical principles are illuminated by a study of diffraction patterns created with laser light and a variety of two-dimensional masks. The principles of X-ray crystallography are generally taught using the Bragg

Frank Rioux; Brian J. Johnson

242

Noncommutative quantum mechanics from noncommutative quantum field theory.

We derive noncommutative multiparticle quantum mechanics from noncommutative quantum field theory in the nonrelativistic limit. Particles of opposite charges are found to have opposite noncommutativity. As a result, there is no noncommutative correction to the hydrogen atom spectrum at the tree level. We also comment on the obstacles to take noncommutative phenomenology seriously and propose a way to construct noncommutative SU(5) grand unified theory. PMID:11955188

Ho, Pei-Ming; Kao, Hsien-Chung

2002-04-15

243

Macroscopic quantum mechanics in a classical spacetime.

We apply the many-particle Schrödinger-Newton equation, which describes the coevolution of a many-particle quantum wave function and a classical space-time geometry, to macroscopic mechanical objects. By averaging over motions of the objects' internal degrees of freedom, we obtain an effective Schrödinger-Newton equation for their centers of mass, which can be monitored and manipulated at quantum levels by state-of-the-art optomechanics experiments. For a single macroscopic object moving quantum mechanically within a harmonic potential well, its quantum uncertainty is found to evolve at a frequency different from its classical eigenfrequency-with a difference that depends on the internal structure of the object-and can be observable using current technology. For several objects, the Schrödinger-Newton equation predicts semiclassical motions just like Newtonian physics, yet quantum uncertainty cannot be transferred from one object to another. PMID:23679686

Yang, Huan; Miao, Haixing; Lee, Da-Shin; Helou, Bassam; Chen, Yanbei

2013-04-26

244

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we present a problem related to the local Hamiltonian problem (identifying whether the ground-state energy falls within one of two ranges) which is restricted to being translationally invariant. We prove that for Hamiltonians with a fixed local dimension and O(log(N)) -body local terms, or local dimension N and two-body terms, there are instances where finding the ground-state energy is quantum-Merlin-Arthur-complete and simulating the dynamics is BQP-complete (BQP denotes “bounded error, quantum polynomial time”). We discuss the implications for the computational complexity of finding ground states of these systems and hence for any classical approximation techniques that one could apply including density-matrix renormalization group, matrix product states, and multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz. One important example is a one-dimensional lattice of bosons with nearest-neighbor hopping at constant filling fraction—i.e., a generalization of the Bose-Hubbard model.

Kay, Alastair

2007-09-01

245

A quantum theory of two-photon correlated-spontaneous-emission lasers (CEL's) is developed, starting from the exact atom-field interaction Hamiltonian for cascade three-level atoms interacting with a single-mode radiation field. We consider the situation where the active atoms are prepared initially in a coherent superposition of three atomic levels and derive a master equation for the field-density operator by using a quantum theory for coherently pumped lasers. The master equation is transformed into a Fokker-Planck equation for the antinormal-ordering {ital Q} function. The drift coefficients of the Fokker-Planck equation enable us to study the steady-state operation of the two-photon CEL's analytically. We have studied both resonant two-photon CEL for which there is no threshold, and off-resonant two-photon CEL for which there exists a threshold. In both cases the initial atomic coherences provide phase locking, and squeezing in the phase quadrature of the field is found. The off-resonant two-photon CEL can build up from a vacuum when its linear gain is larger than the cavity loss (even without population inversion). Maximum squeezing is found in the no-population-inversion region with the laser intensities far below saturation in both cases, which are more than 90% for the resonant two-photon CEL and nearly 50% for the off-resonant one. Approximate steady-state {ital Q} functions are obtained for the resonant two-photon CEL and, in certain circumstances, for the off-resonant one.

Lu, N.; Zhu, S. (Center for Advanced Studies and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (US))

1989-11-15

246

Comment on ``Adiabatic quantum computation with a one-dimensional projector Hamiltonian''

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The partial adiabatic search algorithm was introduced in Tulsi's paper [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.80.052328 80, 052328 (2009)] as a modification of the usual adiabatic algorithm for a quantum search with the idea that most of the interesting computation only happens over a very short range of the adiabatic path. By focusing on that restricted range, one can potentially gain an advantage by reducing the control requirements on the system, enabling a uniform rate of evolution. In this Comment, we point out an oversight in Tulsi's paper [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.80.052328 80, 052328 (2009)] that invalidates its proof. However, the argument can be corrected, and the calculations in Tulsi's paper [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.80.052328 80, 052328 (2009)] are then sufficient to show that the scheme still works. Nevertheless, subsequent works [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.82.034304 82, 034304 (2010), Chin. Phys. BCPBHAJ1674-105610.1088/1674-1056/20/4/040309 20, 040309 (2011), Chin. Phys. BCPBHAJ1674-105610.1088/1674-1056/21/1/010306 21, 010306 (2012), AASRI Procedia 1, 5862 (2012), and Quantum Inf. Process.10.1007/s11128-013-0557-1 12, 2689 (2013)] cannot all be recovered in the same way.

Kay, Alastair

2013-10-01

247

Two approaches to the description of spin dynamics of electron-nuclear system in quantum dots are compared: the quantum-mechanical one is based on direct diagonalization of the model Hamiltonian and semiclassical one is based on coupled equations for precession of mean electron spin and mean spin of nuclear spin fluctuations. The comparison was done for a model problem describing periodic excitation of electron-nuclear system by optical excitation. The computation results show that scattering of parameters related to fluctuation of the nuclear spin system leads to appearance of an ordered state in the system caused by periodic excitation and to the effect of electron-spin mode locking in an external magnetic field. It is concluded that both models can qualitatively describe the mode-locking effect, however give significantly different quantitative results. This may indicate the limited applicability of the precession model for describing the spin dynamics in quantum dots in the presence of optical pumping.

Petrov, M. Yu., E-mail: m.petrov@spbu.ru; Yakovlev, S. V. [Saint Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)

2012-08-15

248

This work describes the development and validation of many-body force fields and semiempirical Hamiltonians as part of a multi-scale modeling effort by the York Group targeted at biological applications. Basic science effort is spent towards the testing of existing polarizable force field functional forms in the areas of charge transfer and the coupling of polarization with many-body exchange. A new

Timothy John Giese

2005-01-01

249

Coulomb problem in non-commutative quantum mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to find out how it would be possible for space non-commutativity (NC) to alter the quantum mechanics (QM) solution of the Coulomb problem. The NC parameter ? is to be regarded as a measure of the non-commutativity - setting ? = 0 which means a return to the standard quantum mechanics. As the very first step a rotationally invariant NC space R?3, an analog of the Coulomb problem configuration space (R3 with the origin excluded) is introduced. R?3 is generated by NC coordinates realized as operators acting in an auxiliary (Fock) space . The properly weighted Hilbert-Schmidt operators in form ?, a NC analog of the Hilbert space of the wave functions. We will refer to them as ``wave functions'' also in the NC case. The definition of a NC analog of the hamiltonian as a hermitian operator in ? is one of the key parts of this paper. The resulting problem is exactly solvable. The full solution is provided, including formulas for the bound states for E < 0 and low-energy scattering for E > 0 (both containing NC corrections analytic in ?) and also formulas for high-energy scattering and unexpected bound states at ultra-high energy (both containing NC corrections singular in ?). All the NC contributions to the known QM solutions either vanish or disappear in the limit ? --> 0.

Gáliková, Veronika; Prešnajder, Peter

2013-05-01

250

Exploring the Hamiltonian inversion landscape.

The identification of quantum system Hamiltonians through the use of experimental data remains an important research goal. Seeking a Hamiltonian that is consistent with experimental measurements constitutes an excursion over a Hamiltonian inversion landscape, which is the quality of reproducing the data as a function of the Hamiltonian parameters. Recent theoretical work showed that with sufficient experimental data there should be local convexity about the true Hamiltonian on the landscape. The present paper builds on this result and performs simulations to test whether such convexity is observed. A gradient-based Hamiltonian search algorithm is incorporated into an inversion routine as a means to explore the local inversion landscape. The simulations consider idealized noise-free as well as noise-ridden experimental data. The results suggest that a sizable convex domain exists about the true Hamiltonian, even with a modest amount of experimental data and in the presence of a reasonable level of noise. PMID:24956139

Donovan, Ashley; Rabitz, Herschel

2014-08-01

251

Quantum Transport in Crystals: Effective Mass Theorem and K·P Hamiltonians

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the effective mass approximation and the k·p multi-band models, describing quantum evolution of electrons in a crystal lattice, are discussed. Electrons are assumed to move in both a periodic potential and a macroscopic one. The typical period {?} of the periodic potential is assumed to be very small, while the macroscopic potential acts on a much bigger length scale. Such homogenization asymptotic is investigated by using the envelope-function decomposition of the electron wave function. If the external potential is smooth enough, the k·p and effective mass models, well known in solid-state physics, are proved to be close (in the strong sense) to the exact dynamics. Moreover, the position density of the electrons is proved to converge weakly to its effective mass approximation.

Barletti, Luigi; Ben Abdallah, Naoufel

2011-11-01

252

Measurement-based quantum computer in the gapped ground state of a two-body Hamiltonian.

We propose a scheme for a ground-code measurement-based quantum computer, which enjoys two major advantages. First, every logical qubit is encoded in the gapped degenerate ground subspace of a spin-1 chain with nearest-neighbor two-body interactions, so that it equips built-in robustness against noise. Second, computation is processed by single-spin measurements along multiple chains dynamically coupled on demand, so as to keep teleporting only logical information into a gap-protected ground state of the residual chains after the interactions with spins to be measured are turned off. We describe implementations using trapped atoms or polar molecules in an optical lattice, where the gap is expected to be as large as 0.2 or 4.8 kHz, respectively. PMID:18764096

Brennen, Gavin K; Miyake, Akimasa

2008-07-01

253

Quantum spin Hall effect in a three-orbital tight-binding Hamiltonian.

We consider the quantum spin hall (QSH) state in a three-orbital model, with a certain spin loop current order which is induced by spin-dependent interactions. This type of order is motivated by the loop current model, which was proposed long ago to describe the pseudogap phase of cuprates. It is shown that this model has nontrivial Chern parity by directly counting the zeros of the Pfaffian of the time reversal operator. By connecting to the second Chern number, we explicitly show the property of singularities of the wave-functions, and also their dependance on the gauge choices. Also it is shown that the Berry phase of the QSH state can be mapped to a non-Abelian instanton. PMID:24979371

He, Yan; Hou, Changtao

2014-07-23

254

BOOK REVIEWS: Quantum Mechanics: Fundamentals

This review is of three books, all published by Springer, all on quantum theory at a level above introductory, but very different in content, style and intended audience. That of Gottfried and Yan is of exceptional interest, historical and otherwise. It is a second edition of Gottfried's well-known book published by Benjamin in 1966. This was written as a text

Kurt Gottfri; Tung-Mow Yan

2004-01-01

255

Supercovariant systems of q-oscillators and q-supersymmetric hamiltonians

We construct the q-superoscillator algebra of n bosonic and m fermionic q-oscillators covariant under the coactions of the quantum supergroup SUq(n)-invariant form bilinear in q-superoscillator variables describes the q-deformation of the hamiltonian for the supersymmetric oscillator in quantum mechanics. It is shown that such a hamiltonian is also invariant under the action of the Uq(U(nm)) superalgebra, generated by the bilinears

Masud Chaichian; P P Kulish; J. Lukierski

1991-01-01

256

Quantum Mechanics, Spacetime Locality, and Gravity

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum mechanics introduces the concept of probability at the fundamental level, yielding the measurement problem. On the other hand, recent progress in cosmology has led to the "multiverse" picture, in which our observed universe is only one of the many, bringing an apparent arbitrariness in defining probabilities, called the measure problem. In this paper, we discuss how these two problems are related with each other, developing a picture for quantum measurement and cosmological histories in the quantum mechanical universe. In order to describe the cosmological dynamics correctly within the full quantum mechanical context, we need to identify the structure of the Hilbert space for a system with gravity. We argue that in order to keep spacetime locality, the Hilbert space for dynamical spacetime must be defined only in restricted spacetime regions: in and on the (stretched) apparent horizon as viewed from a fixed reference frame. This requirement arises from eliminating all the redundancies and overcountings in a general relativistic, global spacetime description of nature. It is responsible for horizon complementarity as well as the "observer dependence" of horizons/spacetime—these phenomena arise to represent changes of the reference frame in the relevant Hilbert space. This can be viewed as an extension of the Poincaré transformation in the quantum gravitational context. Given an initial condition, the evolution of the multiverse state obeys the laws of quantum mechanics—it evolves deterministically and unitarily. The beginning of the multiverse, however, is still an open issue.

Nomura, Yasunori

2013-08-01

257

We use quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics simulations to study the cleavage of the ribonucleic acid (RNA) backbone catalyzed by ribonuclease H. This protein is a prototypical member of a large family of enzymes that use two-metal catalysis to process nucleic acids. By combining Hamiltonian replica exchange with a finite-temperature string method, we calculate the free energy surface underlying the RNA-cleavage reaction and characterize its mechanism. We find that the reaction proceeds in two steps. In a first step, catalyzed primarily by magnesium ion A and its ligands, a water molecule attacks the scissile phosphate. Consistent with thiol-substitution experiments, a water proton is transferred to the downstream phosphate group. The transient phosphorane formed as a result of this nucleophilic attack decays by breaking the bond between the phosphate and the ribose oxygen. In the resulting intermediate, the dissociated but unprotonated leaving group forms an alkoxide coordinated to magnesium ion B. In a second step, the reaction is completed by protonation of the leaving group, with a neutral Asp132 as a likely proton donor. The overall reaction barrier of ?15 kcal mol(-1), encountered in the first step, together with the cost of protonating Asp132, is consistent with the slow measured rate of ?1-100/min. The two-step mechanism is also consistent with the bell-shaped pH dependence of the reaction rate. The nonmonotonic relative motion of the magnesium ions along the reaction pathway agrees with X-ray crystal structures. Proton-transfer reactions and changes in the metal ion coordination emerge as central factors in the RNA-cleavage reaction. PMID:21539371

Rosta, Edina; Nowotny, Marcin; Yang, Wei; Hummer, Gerhard

2011-06-15

258

Stochastic surrogate Hamiltonian

The surrogate Hamiltonian is a general scheme to simulate the many body quantum dynamics composed of a primary system coupled to a bath. The method has been based on a representative bath Hamiltonian composed of two-level systems that is able to mimic the true system-bath dynamics up to a prespecified time. The original surrogate Hamiltonian method is limited to short time dynamics since the size of the Hilbert space required to obtain convergence grows exponentially with time. By randomly swapping bath modes with a secondary thermal reservoir, the method can simulate quantum dynamics of the primary system from short times to thermal equilibrium. By averaging a small number of realizations converged values of the system observables are obtained avoiding the exponential increase in resources. The method is demonstrated for the equilibration of a molecular oscillator with a thermal bath.

Katz, Gil; Kosloff, Ronnie [Fritz Haber Research Center for Molecular Dynamics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Gelman, David [Department of Biophysics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, New York 10461 (United States); Ratner, Mark A. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3113 (United States)

2008-07-21

259

Can quantum mechanics and supersymmetric quantum mechanics be the multidimensional Ermakov theories?

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For both the Schrödinger equation in quantum mechanics and the Riccati-type equation satisfied by the superpotential in supersymmetric quantum mechanics, we explicitly show that there exists an Ermakov-type functional invariant with respect to the space variable. An energy-like interpretation is suggested for this invariant.

Kaushal, R. S.; Parashar, D.

1996-02-01

260

Optimal guidance law in quantum mechanics

Following de Broglie’s idea of a pilot wave, this paper treats quantum mechanics as a problem of stochastic optimal guidance law design. The guidance scenario considered in the quantum world is that an electron is the flight vehicle to be guided and its accompanying pilot wave is the guidance law to be designed so as to guide the electron to a random target driven by the Wiener process, while minimizing a cost-to-go function. After solving the stochastic optimal guidance problem by differential dynamic programming, we point out that the optimal pilot wave guiding the particle’s motion is just the wavefunction ?(t,x), a solution to the Schrödinger equation; meanwhile, the closed-loop guidance system forms a complex state–space dynamics for ?(t,x), from which quantum operators emerge naturally. Quantum trajectories under the action of the optimal guidance law are solved and their statistical distribution is shown to coincide with the prediction of the probability density function ?{sup ?}?. -- Highlights: •Treating quantum mechanics as a pursuit-evasion game. •Reveal an interesting analogy between guided flight motion and guided quantum motion. •Solve optimal quantum guidance problem by dynamic programming. •Gives a formal proof of de Broglie–Bohm’s idea of a pilot wave. •The optimal pilot wave is shown to be a wavefunction solved from Schrödinger equation.

Yang, Ciann-Dong, E-mail: cdyang@mail.ncku.edu.tw; Cheng, Lieh-Lieh, E-mail: leo8101@hotmail.com

2013-11-15

261

Hamiltonians and Wave Equations for Particles of Spin 0 and Spin 1/2 with Nonzero Mass.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The formal mathematical structure of the truly Hamiltonian formulations of nonrelativistic and relativistic quantum mechanics is critically examined for both spin zero and spin one-half particles with nonzero mass. It is shown that the relativistic quantu...

V. Arunasalam

1969-01-01

262

We present a case demonstrating the connection between supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSYQM), reflectionless scattering, and soliton solutions of integrable partial differential equations. We show that the members of a class of reflectionless Hamiltonians, namely, Akulin's Hamiltonians, are connected via supersymmetric chains to a potential-free Hamiltonian, explaining their reflectionless nature. While the reflectionless property in question has been mentioned in the literature for over two decades, the enabling algebraic mechanism was previously unknown. Our results indicate that the multisoliton solutions of the sine-Gordon and nonlinear Schroedinger equations can be systematically generated via the supersymmetric chains connecting Akulin's Hamiltonians. Our findings also explain a well-known but little-understood effect in laser physics: when a two-level atom, initially in the ground state, is subjected to a laser pulse of the form V(t)=(n({h_bar}/2{pi})/{tau})/cosh(t/{tau}), with n being an integer and {tau} being the pulse duration, it remains in the ground state after the pulse has been applied, for any choice of the laser detuning.

Koller, Andrew; Olshanii, Maxim [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, Massachusetts 02125 (United States)

2011-12-15

263

We present a case demonstrating the connection between supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSYQM), reflectionless scattering, and soliton solutions of integrable partial differential equations. We show that the members of a class of reflectionless Hamiltonians, namely, Akulin's Hamiltonians, are connected via supersymmetric chains to a potential-free Hamiltonian, explaining their reflectionless nature. While the reflectionless property in question has been mentioned in the literature for over two decades, the enabling algebraic mechanism was previously unknown. Our results indicate that the multisoliton solutions of the sine-Gordon and nonlinear Schrödinger equations can be systematically generated via the supersymmetric chains connecting Akulin's Hamiltonians. Our findings also explain a well-known but little-understood effect in laser physics: when a two-level atom, initially in the ground state, is subjected to a laser pulse of the form V(t) = (nh/?)/cosh(t/?), with n being an integer and ? being the pulse duration, it remains in the ground state after the pulse has been applied, for any choice of the laser detuning. PMID:22304205

Koller, Andrew; Olshanii, Maxim

2011-12-01

264

Emergent quantum mechanics of finances

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is an attempt at understanding the quantum-like dynamics of financial markets in terms of non-differentiable price–time continuum having fractal properties. The main steps of this development are the statistical scaling, the non-differentiability hypothesis, and the equations of motion entailed by this hypothesis. From perspective of the proposed theory the dynamics of S&P500 index are analyzed.

Nastasiuk, Vadim A.

2014-06-01

265

Nambu quantum mechanics on discrete 3-tori

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a quantization of linear, volume preserving, maps on the discrete and finite 3-torus \\mathbb{T}_N^3 represented by elements of the group SL(3,\\mathbb{Z}_N) . These flows can be considered as special motions of the Nambu dynamics (linear Nambu flows) in the three-dimensional toroidal phase space and are characterized by invariant vectors a of \\mathbb{T}_N^3 . We quantize all such flows, which are necessarily restricted on a planar two-dimensional phase space, embedded in the 3-torus, transverse to the vector a. The corresponding maps belong to the little group of \\bm{a} \\in SL(3,\\mathbb{Z}_N) , which is an SL(2,\\mathbb{Z}_N) subgroup. The associated linear Nambu maps are generated by a pair of linear and quadratic Hamiltonians (Clebsch-Monge potentials of the flow) and the corresponding quantum maps realize the metaplectic representation of SL(3,\\mathbb{Z}_N) on the discrete group of three-dimensional magnetic translations, i.e. the non-commutative 3-torus with a deformation parameter the Nth root of unity. Other potential applications of our construction are related to the quantization of deterministic chaos in turbulent maps as well as to quantum tomography of three-dimensional objects.

Axenides, M.; Floratos, E. G.; Nicolis, S.

2009-07-01

266

From classical to quantum mechanics: ``How to translate physical ideas into mathematical language''

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following previous works by E. Prugove?ki [Physica A 91A, 202 (1978) and Stochastic Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Space-time (Reidel, Dordrecht, 1986)] on common features of classical and quantum mechanics, we develop a unified mathematical framework for classical and quantum mechanics (based on L2-spaces over classical phase space), in order to investigate to what extent quantum mechanics can be obtained as a simple modification of classical mechanics (on both logical and analytical levels). To obtain this unified framework, we split quantum theory in two parts: (i) general quantum axiomatics (a system is described by a state in a Hilbert space, observables are self-adjoints operators, and so on) and (ii) quantum mechanics proper that specifies the Hilbert space as L2(Rn); the Heisenberg rule [pi,qj]=-i??ij with p=-i??, the free Hamiltonian H=-?2?/2m and so on. We show that general quantum axiomatics (up to a supplementary ``axiom of classicity'') can be used as a nonstandard mathematical ground to formulate physical ideas and equations of ordinary classical statistical mechanics. So, the question of a ``true quantization'' with ``?'' must be seen as an independent physical problem not directly related with quantum formalism. At this stage, we show that this nonstandard formulation of classical mechanics exhibits a new kind of operation that has no classical counterpart: this operation is related to the ``quantization process,'' and we show why quantization physically depends on group theory (the Galilei group). This analytical procedure of quantization replaces the ``correspondence principle'' (or canonical quantization) and allows us to map classical mechanics into quantum mechanics, giving all operators of quantum dynamics and the Schrödinger equation. The great advantage of this point of view is that quantization is based on concrete physical arguments and not derived from some ``pure algebraic rule'' (we exhibit also some limit of the correspondence principle). Moreover spins for particles are naturally generated, including an approximation of their interaction with magnetic fields. We also recover by this approach the semi-classical formalism developed by E. Prugove?ki [Stochastic Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Space-time (Reidel, Dordrecht, 1986)].

Bergeron, H.

2001-09-01

267

Superstrings and the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is put forward that modern elementary particle physics cannot be completely unified with the laws of gravity and general relativity without addressing the question of the ontological interpretation of quantum mechanics itself. The position of superstring theory in this general question is emphasized: superstrings may well form exactly the right mathematical system that can explain how quantum mechanics can be linked to a deterministic picture of our world. Deterministic interpretations of quantum mechanics are usually categorically rejected, because of Bell's powerful observations, and indeed these apply here also, but we do emphasize that the models we arrive at are super-deterministic, which is exactly the case where Bell expressed his doubts. Strong correlations at space-like separations could explain the apparent contradictions.

't Hooft, Gerard

2014-03-01

268

Superstrings and the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is put forward that modern elementary particle physics cannot be completely unified with the laws of gravity and general relativity without addressing the question of the ontological interpretation of quantum mechanics itself. The position of superstring theory in this general question is emphasized: superstrings may well form exactly the right mathematical system that can explain how quantum mechanics can be linked to a deterministic picture of our world. Deterministic interpretations of quantum mechanics are usually categorically rejected, because of Bell's powerful observations, and indeed these apply here also, but we do emphasize that the models we arrive at are super-deterministic, which is exactly the case where Bell expressed his doubts. Strong correlations at space-like separations could explain the apparent contradictions.

't Hooft, Gerard

2014-05-01

269

Space and time from quantum mechanics

Classical mechanics historically preceded quantum mechanics and thus far has not been displaced from primary status; the path to construction of quantum theory has remained rooted in classical ideas about objective reality within space and time. Use of a less correct theory as underpinning for a more correct theory not only is unaesthetic but has spawned the perplexing and never-resolved puzzle of measurement. A growing number of physicist-philosophers torture themselves these days over collapse of the quantum-mechanical state vector when measurement is performed. Additionally, pointlike structure of the spacetime manifold underlying local classical fields has endowed quantum theory with mathematical dilemmas. It has been proposed by Gell-Mann and Hartle that objectively-realistic ideas such as measurement may lack a priori status, the predominantly classical present universe having evolved as a relic of the big bang. Other authors have suggested that spacetime itself need not be a priori but may stem from quantum mechanics. Haag has written recently that spacetime without (quantum) events is probably a meaningless concept. Henry Stapp and I have for several years been exploring a simple quantum system devoid of classical underpinning, even spacetime, but admitting within the Hilbert space a special Lie-group-related category of vector known as coherent state. Groups unitarily representable in our Hilbert space include the Poincare group, which relates to 3 + 1 spacetime. Coherent states generally are labeled by parameters associated with unitary group representations, and it has long been recognized that when such parameters become large a classical objective interpretation may result. Stapp and I have been attempting to understand space and time via large coherent-state parameters. Six years ago I presented to this gathering a preliminary report on our enterprise; in this paper I provide an update.

Chew, G.F.

1992-09-16

270

Two basic Uncertainty Relations in Quantum Mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present article, we discuss two types of uncertainty relations in Quantum Mechanics-multiplicative and additive inequalities for two canonical observables. The multiplicative uncertainty relation was discovered by Heisenberg. Few years later (1930) Erwin Schrödinger has generalized and made it more precise than the original. The additive uncertainty relation is based on the three independent statistical moments in Quantum Mechanics-Cov(q,p), Var(q) and Var(p). We discuss the existing symmetry of both types of relations and applicability of the additive form for the estimation of the total error.

Angelow, Andrey

2011-04-01

271

Exactly solvable PT-symmetric Hamiltonian having no Hermitian counterpart

In a recent paper Bender and Mannheim showed that the unequal-frequency fourth-order derivative Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator model has a realization in which the energy eigenvalues are real and bounded below, the Hilbert-space inner product is positive definite, and time evolution is unitary. Central to that analysis was the recognition that the Hamiltonian H{sub PU} of the model is PT symmetric. This Hamiltonian was mapped to a conventional Dirac-Hermitian Hamiltonian via a similarity transformation whose form was found exactly. The present paper explores the equal-frequency limit of the same model. It is shown that in this limit the similarity transform that was used for the unequal-frequency case becomes singular and that H{sub PU} becomes a Jordan-block operator, which is nondiagonalizable and has fewer energy eigenstates than eigenvalues. Such a Hamiltonian has no Hermitian counterpart. Thus, the equal-frequency PT theory emerges as a distinct realization of quantum mechanics. The quantum mechanics associated with this Jordan-block Hamiltonian can be treated exactly. It is shown that the Hilbert space is complete with a set of nonstationary solutions to the Schroedinger equation replacing the missing stationary ones. These nonstationary states are needed to establish that the Jordan-block Hamiltonian of the equal-frequency Pais-Uhlenbeck model generates unitary time evolution.

Bender, Carl M. [Physics Department, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States); Mannheim, Philip D. [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States)

2008-07-15

272

Relating the Quantum Mechanics of Discrete Systems to Standard Canonical Quantum Mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Standard canonical quantum mechanics makes much use of operators whose spectra cover the set of real numbers, such as the coordinates of space, or the values of the momenta. Discrete quantum mechanics uses only strictly discrete operators. We show how one can transform systems with pairs of integer-valued, commuting operators and , to systems with real-valued canonical coordinates and their associated momentum operators . The discrete system could be entirely deterministic while the corresponding ( p, q) system could still be typically quantum mechanical.

't Hooft, Gerard

2014-04-01

273

Quantum mechanics clearly violates the weak equivalence principle (WEP). This implies that quantum mechanics also violates the strong equivalence principle (SEP), as shown in this paper. Therefore a theory of quantum gravity may not be possible unless it is not based upon the equivalence principle, or if quantum mechanics can change its mass dependence. Neither of these possibilities seem likely

Mario Rabinowitz

2006-01-01

274

Can quantum mechanics fool the cosmic censor?

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We revisit the mechanism for violating the weak cosmic-censorship conjecture (WCCC) by overspinning a nearly-extreme charged black hole. The mechanism consists of an incoming massless neutral scalar particle, with low energy and large angular momentum, tunneling into the hole. We investigate the effect of the large angular momentum of the incoming particle on the background geometry and address recent claims that such a backreaction would invalidate the mechanism. We show that the large angular momentum of the incident particle does not constitute an obvious impediment to the success of the overspinning quantum mechanism, although the induced backreaction turns out to be essential to restoring the validity of the WCCC in the classical regime. These results seem to endorse the view that the “cosmic censor” may be oblivious to processes involving quantum effects.

Matsas, G. E. A.; Richartz, M.; Saa, A.; da Silva, A. R. R.; Vanzella, D. A. T.

2009-05-01

275

Student Difficulties with Quantum Mechanics Formalism

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We discuss student difficulties in distinguishing between the physical space and Hilbert space and difficulties related to the Time-independent Schroedinger equation and measurements in quantum mechanics. These difficulties were identified by administering written surveys and by conducting individual interviews with students.

Singh, Chandralekha

2007-06-26

276

Spacetime Probabilities in Nonrelativistic Quantum Mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the existence of spacetime probabilities in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, that is, quantum mechanical probabilities for a set of alternatives which are associated, not with a surface of constant time, but with spacetime domains with nonzero spatial and temporal width in Newtonian spacetime. We use the criterion that quantum mechanical probabilities can be defined for a set of alternatives if and only if the interference between any two different alternatives vanishes. Although generalized quantum mechanics was formulated on the basis of this criterion, the actual existence of spacetime probabilities has not been known. In this paper we consider a rectangular spacetime domain Omega and introduce a set of spacetime alternatives \\{Yes, No\\}: ``Yes'' is to find a particle in Omega and ``No'' is the complement to ``Yes''. We show that, if the initial amplitude of the particle belongs to a specific class, then the criterion of vanishing interference is met by ``Yes'' and ``No'' and spacetime probabilities can be therefore defined for the set \\{Yes, No\\}. Owing to the property of the initial amplitude belonging to the class, the resultant probabilities are associated with a clear measurement theoretical meaning.

Yamada, N.; Takagi, S.

1992-01-01

277

Understanding Kinetic Energy paradox in Quantum Mechanics

A concept of Kinetic Energy in Quantum Mechanics is analyzed. Kinetic Energy is not zero in many cases where there are no motion and flux. This paradox can be understood, using expansion of the wave function in Fourier integral, that is on the basis of virtual plane waves.

Yuri Kornyushin

2008-01-01

278

Kinetic and electrostatic energies in quantum mechanics

A concept of kinetic energy in quantum mechanics is analyzed. Kinetic energy is a non-zero positive value in many cases of bound states, when a wave function is a real-valued one and there are no visible motion and flux. This can be understood, using expansion of the wave function into Fourier integral, that is, on the basis of virtual plane

Yuri Kornyushin

2008-01-01

279

Application of nonstandard analysis to quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics is formulated using a nonstandard Hilbert space. The concept of an eigen vector of a linear operator, which applies to standard as well as nonstandard Hilbert spaces, is replaced by the more general concept of an ultra eigen vector, which applies to nonstandard Hilbert spaces alone. Ultra eigen vectors corresponding to all spectral points of internal self?adjoint operators

M. O. Farrukh

1975-01-01

280

Inverse scattering with supersymmetric quantum mechanics

The application of supersymmetric quantum mechanics to the inverse scattering problem is reviewed. The main difference with standard treatments of the inverse problem lies in the simple and natural extension to potentials with singularities at the origin and with a Coulomb behaviour at infinity. The most general form of potentials which are phase-equivalent to a given potential is discussed. The

Daniel Baye; Jean-Marc Sparenberg

2004-01-01

281

Solution for quantum mechanical problem in physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Schrödinger equation is the fundamental equation of physics for describing quantum mechanical behavior. In this Paper the solution is obtained by Variational Homotopy perturbation method which is coupling of Variational iteration method and Homotopy Perturbation Method. The solution describes how the wave function of a physical system evolves over time.

Daga, Amruta; Pradhan, V. H.

2013-06-01

282

Intramolecular Hamiltonian logic gates

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An intramolecular computing model is presented that is based on the quantum time evolution of a single molecule driven by the preparation of a non-stationary single-electron state. In our scheme, the input bits are encoded into the coupling constants of the Hamiltonian that governs the molecular quantum dynamics. The results of the computation are obtained by carrying out a quantum measurement on the molecule. We design reliable AND, XOR, and HALF-ADDER logic gates. This opens new avenues for the design of more complex logic circuits at a single-molecular scale.

Fiurášek, J.; Cerf, N. J.; Duchemin, I.; Joachim, C.

2004-09-01

283

Riemann hypothesis and quantum mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In their 1995 paper, Jean-Benoît Bost and Alain Connes (BC) constructed a quantum dynamical system whose partition function is the Riemann zeta function ?(?), where ? is an inverse temperature. We formulate Riemann hypothesis (RH) as a property of the low-temperature Kubo-Martin-Schwinger (KMS) states of this theory. More precisely, the expectation value of the BC phase operator can be written as \\phi _{\\beta }(q)=N_{q-1}^{\\beta -1} \\psi _{\\beta -1}(N_q), where Nq = ?qk = 1pk is the primorial number of order q and ?b is a generalized Dedekind ? function depending on one real parameter b as \\psi _b (q)=q \\prod _{p \\in {P,}p \\vert q}\\frac{1-1/p^b}{1-1/p}. Fix a large inverse temperature ? > 2. The RH is then shown to be equivalent to the inequality N_q |\\phi _\\beta (N_q)|\\zeta (\\beta -1) \\gt e^\\gamma log log N_q, for q large enough. Under RH, extra formulas for high-temperature KMS states (1.5 < ? < 2) are derived. 'Number theory is not pure Mathematics. It is the Physics of the world of Numbers.' Alf van der Poorten

Planat, Michel; Solé, Patrick; Omar, Sami

2011-04-01

284

Consistent interpretations of quantum mechanics

Within the last decade, significant progress has been made towards a consistent and complete reformulation of the Copenhagen interpretation (an interpretation consisting in a formulation of the experimental aspects of physics in terms of the basic formalism; it is consistent if free from internal contradiction and complete if it provides precise predictions for all experiments). The main steps involved decoherence (the transition from linear superpositions of macroscopic states to a mixing), Griffiths histories describing the evolution of quantum properties, a convenient logical structure for dealing with histories, and also some progress in semiclassical physics, which was made possible by new methods. The main outcome is a theory of phenomena, viz., the classically meaningful properties of a macroscopic system. It shows in particular how and when determinism is valid. This theory can be used to give a deductive form to measurement theory, which now covers some cases that were initially devised as counterexamples against the Copenhagen interpretation. These theories are described, together with their applications to some key experiments and some of their consequences concerning epistemology.

Omnes, R. (Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies, Universite de Paris XI, Batiment 211, 91405 Orsay CEDEX (France))

1992-04-01

285

A probabilistic approach to quantum mechanics based on tomograms

It is usually believed that a picture of Quantum Mechanics in terms of true probabilities cannot be given due to the uncertainty relations. Here we discuss a tomographic approach to quantum states that leads to a probability representation of quantum states. This can be regarded as a classical-like formulation of quantum mechanics which avoids the counterintuitive concepts of wave function

Michele Caponigro; Stefano Mancini; V. I. Man'ko

2006-01-01

286

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computational characterization of flexible and polar carbohydrates poses a challenge to current methodologies. We explore a reparametrized semi-empirical quantum mechanical approach within the framework of the PM3 model. Based on fitting to 1,2-ethanediol structures and energies, the modified PM3 Hamiltonian, denoted PM3CARB-1, exhibits improved performance in a number of respects. In particular, 1C 4 ring conformers of glucopyranose are now correctly predicted to be higher in energy than 4C 1 structures. Hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical molecular dynamics simulations of a model disaccharide, using this PM3CARB-1 model, do not exhibit transitions from 4C 1 to 1C 4 structures.

McNamara, Jonathan P.; Muslim, Abdul-Mueed; Abdel-Aal, Hoda; Wang, Hong; Mohr, Matthias; Hillier, Ian H.; Bryce, Richard A.

2004-08-01

287

Quantum mechanical coherence, resonance, and mind

Norbert Wiener and J.B.S. Haldane suggested during the early thirties that the profound changes in our conception of matter entailed by quantum theory opens the way for our thoughts, and other experiential or mind-like qualities, to play a role in nature that is causally interactive and effective, rather than purely epiphenomenal, as required by classical mechanics. The mathematical basis of this suggestion is described here, and it is then shown how, by giving mind this efficacious role in natural process, the classical character of our perceptions of the quantum universe can be seen to be a consequence of evolutionary pressures for the survival of the species.

Stapp, H.P.

1995-03-26

288

The emergent Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a new and conceptually simple interpretation of quantum mechanics based on reduced density matrices of sub-systems from which the standard Copenhagen interpretation emerges as an effective description of macroscopically large systems. This interpretation describes a world in which definite measurement results are obtained with probabilities that reproduce the Born rule. Wave function collapse is seen to be a useful but fundamentally unnecessary piece of prudent book keeping which is only valid for macro-systems. The new interpretation lies in a class of modal interpretations in that it applies to quantum systems that interact with a much larger environment. However, we show that it does not suffer from the problems that have plagued similar modal interpretations like macroscopic superpositions and rapid flipping between macroscopically distinct states. We describe how the interpretation fits neatly together with fully quantum formulations of statistical mechanics and that a measurement process can be viewed as a process of ergodicity breaking analogous to a phase transition. The key feature of the new interpretation is that joint probabilities for the ergodic subsets of states of disjoint macro-systems only arise as emergent quantities. Finally we give an account of the EPR–Bohm thought experiment and show that the interpretation implies the violation of the Bell inequality characteristic of quantum mechanics but in a way that is rather novel. The final conclusion is that the Copenhagen interpretation gives a completely satisfactory phenomenology of macro-systems interacting with micro-systems.

Hollowood, Timothy J.

2014-05-01

289

Emerging interpretations of quantum mechanics and recent progress in quantum measurement

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of this paper is to provide a brief discussion on the quantum measurement process, by reviewing select examples highlighting recent progress towards its understanding. The areas explored include an outline of the measurement problem, the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics, quantum to classical transition, types of measurement (including weak and projective measurements) and newly emerging interpretations of quantum mechanics (decoherence theory, objective reality, quantum Darwinism and quantum Bayesianism).

Clarke, M. L.

2014-01-01

290

Script PScript T Symmetric Hamiltonian Model and Exactly Solvable Potentials

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Searching for non-Hermitian, Script PScript T-symmetric Hamiltonians [1] with real spectra has been acquiring much interest for fourteen years. In this article, we have introduced a Script PScript T symmetric non-Hermitian Hamiltonian model which is given as where ? and ? are real constants, and are first order differential operators. Because the Hamiltonian Script H is pseudo-Hermitian, we have obtained the Hermitian equivalent of Script H which is in Sturm- Liouville form leads to exactly solvable potential models which are effective screened and hyperbolic Rosen-Morse II potentials. Using convenient sinilarity transformations, we have obtained a physical Hamiltonian h for each case. Then, the Schrödinger equation is solved exactly using Shape Invariance method of Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics [2].

Ye?ilta?, Özlem

2013-02-01

291

1/n expansion in quantum mechanics

The classical approximation (/ell/ = n - 1 /yields/ /infinity/) for the energy /var epsilon/(/sup 0/) and the semiclassical expansion in problems of quantum mechanics are discussed. A recursive method is proposed for calculating the quantum corrections of arbitrary order to /var epsilon/ (/sup 0/), this being valid for both bound and quasistationary states. The generalization of the method to states with an arbitrary number of nodes and the possibility of a more general choice of the parameter of the semiclassical expansion are considered. The method is illustrated by the example of the Yukawa and funnel potentials and for the Stark effect in the hydrogen atom. These examples demonstrate the rapid convergence of the 1/n expansion even for small quantum numbers.

Vainberg, V.M.; Mur, V.D.; Popov, V.S.; Sergeev, A.V.; Shcheblykin, A.V.

1988-09-01

292

Natural star-products on symplectic manifolds and related quantum mechanical operators

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper is considered a problem of defining natural star-products on symplectic manifolds, admissible for quantization of classical Hamiltonian systems. First, a construction of a star-product on a cotangent bundle to an Euclidean configuration space is given with the use of a sequence of pair-wise commuting vector fields. The connection with a covariant representation of such a star-product is also presented. Then, an extension of the construction to symplectic manifolds over flat and non-flat pseudo-Riemannian configuration spaces is discussed. Finally, a coordinate free construction of related quantum mechanical operators from Hilbert space over respective configuration space is presented.

B?aszak, Maciej; Doma?ski, Ziemowit

2014-05-01

293

Two-Dimensional Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics: Two Fixed Centers of Force

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of building supersymmetry in the quantum mechanics of two Coulombian centers of force is analyzed. It is shown that there are essentially two ways of proceeding. The spectral problems of the SUSY (scalar) Hamiltonians are quite similar and become tantamount to solving entangled families of Razavy and Whittaker-Hill equations in the first approach. When the two centers have the same strength, the Whittaker-Hill equations reduce to Mathieu equations. In the second approach, the spectral problems are much more difficult to solve but one can still find the zero-energy ground states.

González León, M. A.; Mateos Guilarte, J.; de La Torre Mayado, M.

2007-12-01

294

Glimpses of the quantal algebra in early papers on quantum mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A closer reading of early papers on quantum mechanics reveals that the quantal algebra lies hidden beneath the surface. We will show from the standpoint of the quantal algebra that, in essence, Heisenberg came across the symmetric product of the quantal algebra in his remarkable 1925 paper, Born and Jordan limited a general Hamiltonian function to a linear form of the terms containing the symmetric product of the quantal algebra, and Dirac found that the most general operation d/dv is the Leibnitz identity of the quantal algebra.

Lipovaca, Samir

2013-03-01

295

Neutrino oscillations: Quantum mechanics vs. quantum field theory

A consistent description of neutrino oscillations requires either the quantum-mechanical (QM) wave packet approach or a quantum field theoretic (QFT) treatment. We compare these two approaches to neutrino oscillations and discuss the correspondence between them. In particular, we derive expressions for the QM neutrino wave packets from QFT and relate the free parameters of the QM framework, in particular the effective momentum uncertainty of the neutrino state, to the more fundamental parameters of the QFT approach. We include in our discussion the possibilities that some of the neutrino's interaction partners are not detected, that the neutrino is produced in the decay of an unstable parent particle, and that the overlap of the wave packets of the particles involved in the neutrino production (or detection) process is not maximal. Finally, we demonstrate how the properly normalized oscillation probabilities can be obtained in the QFT framework without an ad hoc normalization procedure employed in the QM approach.

Akhmedov, Evgeny Kh.; Kopp, Joachim

2010-01-01

296

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for inclusion of strain into the tight-binding Hamiltonian is presented. This approach bridges from bulk strain to the atomistic language of bond lengths and angles, and features a diagonal parameters shift in a form suitable for atomistic calculation of million atom nanosystems with a small number of empirical parameters. I illustrate this method by calculating electronic and optical properties of self-assembled InAs/(InP,GaAs) lens-shaped quantum dots. A very different structure of confined quantum dots states is shown, depending on the matrix material and inclusion of strain effects. Results are compared with the well-established empirical pseudopotential method, and reasonable agreement is found.

Zieli?ski, M.

2012-09-01

297

Fast method for quantum mechanical molecular dynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the processing power available for scientific computing grows, first-principles Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations are becoming increasingly popular for the study of a wide range of problems in materials science, chemistry, and biology. Nevertheless, the computational cost of Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics still remains prohibitively large for many potential applications. Here we show how to avoid a major computational bottleneck: the self-consistent-field optimization prior to force calculations. The optimization-free quantum mechanical molecular dynamics method gives trajectories that are almost indistinguishable from an “exact” microcanonical Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulation even when low-prefactor linear scaling sparse matrix algebra is used. Our findings show that the computational gap between classical and quantum mechanical molecular dynamics simulations can be significantly reduced.

Niklasson, Anders M. N.; Cawkwell, Marc J.

2012-11-01

298

Applications of computational quantum mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This original research dissertation is composed of a new numerical technique based on Chebyshev polynomials that is applied on scattering problems, a phenomenological kinetics study for CO oxidation on RuO2 surface, and an experimental study on methanol coupling with doped metal oxide catalysts. Minimum Error Method (MEM), a least-squares minimization method, provides an efficient and accurate alternative to solve systems of ordinary differential equations. Existing methods usually utilize matrix methods which are computationally costful. MEM, which is based on the Chebyshev polynomials as a basis set, uses the recursion relationships and fast Chebyshev transforms which scale as O(N). For large basis set calculations this provides an enormous computational efficiency in the calculations. Chebyshev polynomials are also able to represent non-periodic problems very accurately. We applied MEM on elastic and inelastic scattering problems: it is more efficient and accurate than traditionally used Kohn variational principle, and it also provides the wave function in the interaction region. Phenomenological kinetics (PK) is widely used in industry to predict the optimum conditions for a chemical reaction. PK neglects the fluctuations, assumes no lateral interactions, and considers an ideal mix of reactants. The rate equations are tested by fitting the rate constants to the results of the experiments. Unfortunately, there are numerous examples where a fitted mechanism was later shown to be erroneous. We have undertaken a thorough comparison between the phenomenological equations and the results of kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations performed on the same system. The PK equations are qualitatively consistent with the KMC results but are quantitatively erroneous as a result of interplays between the adsorption and desorption events. The experimental study on methanol coupling with doped metal oxide catalysts demonstrates the doped metal oxides as a new class of catalysts with novel properties. Doping a metal oxide may alter its intrinsic properties drastically. A catalytically non-active material can be activated by doping. In this study, we showed that pure zirconia (ZrO2) has almost no activity in methanol coupling reaction, whereas when it is doped with aluminum, the doped catalyst produces dimethyl ether (DME), which is valuable as an alternative future energy source.

Temel, Burcin

299

Quantum Mechanical Virial Theorem in Systems with Translational and Rotational Symmetry

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generalized virial theorem for quantum mechanical nonrelativistic and relativistic systems with translational and rotational symmetry is derived in the form of the commutator between the generator of dilations G and the Hamiltonian H. If the conditions of translational and rotational symmetry together with the additional conditions of the theorem are satisfied, the matrix elements of the commutator [ G, H] are equal to zero on the subspace of the Hilbert space. Normalized simultaneous eigenvectors of the particular set of commuting operators which contains H, J 2, J z and additional operators form an orthonormal basis in this subspace. It is expected that the theorem is relevant for a large number of quantum mechanical N-particle systems with translational and rotational symmetry.

Kui?, Domagoj

2013-04-01

300

Collocation method for fractional quantum mechanics

We show that it is possible to obtain numerical solutions to quantum mechanical problems involving a fractional Laplacian, using a collocation approach based on little sinc functions, which discretizes the Schroedinger equation on a uniform grid. The different boundary conditions are naturally implemented using sets of functions with the appropriate behavior. Good convergence properties are observed. A comparison with results based on a Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin analysis is performed.

Amore, Paolo; Hofmann, Christoph P.; Saenz, Ricardo A. [Facultad de Ciencias, CUICBAS, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Fernandez, Francisco M. [INIFTA (Conicet, UNLP), Division Quimica Teorica, Diagonal 113 y 64 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

2010-12-15

301

Grounding quantum probability in psychological mechanism.

Pothos & Busemeyer (P&B) provide a compelling case that quantum probability (QP) theory is a better match to human judgment than is classical probability (CP) theory. However, any theory (QP, CP, or other) phrased solely at the computational level runs the risk of being underconstrained. One suggestion is to ground QP accounts in mechanism, to leverage a wide range of process-level data. PMID:23673043

Love, Bradley C

2013-06-01

302

Diffeomorphism groups and nonlinear quantum mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This talk is dedicated to my friend and collaborator, Prof. Dr. Heinz-Dietrich Doebner, on the occasion of his 80th birthday. I shall review some highlights of the approach we have taken in deriving and interpreting an interesting class of nonlinear time-evolution equations for quantum-mechanical wave functions, with few equations; more detail may be found in the references. Then I shall comment on the corresponding hydrodynamical description.

Goldin, Gerald A.

2012-02-01

303

Hunting for Snarks in Quantum Mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long-standing debate over the interpretation of quantum mechanics has centered on the meaning of Schroedinger's wave function ? for an electron. Broadly speaking, there are two major opposing schools. On the one side, the Copenhagen school (led by Bohr, Heisenberg and Pauli) holds that ? provides a complete description of a single electron state; hence the probability interpretation of ??* expresses an irreducible uncertainty in electron behavior that is intrinsic in nature. On the other side, the realist school (led by Einstein, de Broglie, Bohm and Jaynes) holds that ? represents a statistical ensemble of possible electron states; hence it is an incomplete description of a single electron state. I contend that the debaters have overlooked crucial facts about the electron revealed by Dirac theory. In particular, analysis of electron zitterbewegung (first noticed by Schroedinger) opens a window to particle substructure in quantum mechanics that explains the physical significance of the complex phase factor in ?. This led to a testable model for particle substructure with surprising support by recent experimental evidence. If the explanation is upheld by further research, it will resolve the debate in favor of the realist school. I give details. The perils of research on the foundations of quantum mechanics have been foreseen by Lewis Carroll in The Hunting of the Snark!

Hestenes, David

2009-12-01

304

Relativistic non-Hermitian quantum mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop relativistic wave equations in the framework of the new non-Hermitian PT quantum mechanics. The familiar Hermitian Dirac equation emerges as an exact result of imposing the Dirac algebra, the criteria of PT-symmetric quantum mechanics, and relativistic invariance. However, relaxing the constraint that, in particular, the mass matrix be Hermitian also allows for models that have no counterpart in conventional quantum mechanics. For example it is well known that a quartet of Weyl spinors coupled by a Hermitian mass matrix reduces to two independent Dirac fermions; here, we show that the same quartet of Weyl spinors, when coupled by a non-Hermitian but PT-symmetric mass matrix, describes a single relativistic particle that can have massless dispersion relation even though the mass matrix is nonzero. The PT-generalized Dirac equation is also Lorentz invariant, unitary in time, and CPT respecting, even though as a noninteracting theory it violates P and T individually. The relativistic wave equations are reformulated as canonical fermionic field theories to facilitate the study of interactions and are shown to maintain many of the canonical structures from Hermitian field theory, but with new and interesting possibilities permitted by the non-Hermiticity parameter m2.

Jones-Smith, Katherine; Mathur, Harsh

2014-06-01

305

Hunting for Snarks in Quantum Mechanics

A long-standing debate over the interpretation of quantum mechanics has centered on the meaning of Schroedinger's wave function {psi} for an electron. Broadly speaking, there are two major opposing schools. On the one side, the Copenhagen school(led by Bohr, Heisenberg and Pauli) holds that {psi} provides a complete description of a single electron state; hence the probability interpretation of {psi}{psi}* expresses an irreducible uncertainty in electron behavior that is intrinsic in nature. On the other side, the realist school(led by Einstein, de Broglie, Bohm and Jaynes) holds that {psi} represents a statistical ensemble of possible electron states; hence it is an incomplete description of a single electron state. I contend that the debaters have overlooked crucial facts about the electron revealed by Dirac theory. In particular, analysis of electron zitterbewegung(first noticed by Schroedinger) opens a window to particle substructure in quantum mechanics that explains the physical significance of the complex phase factor in {psi}. This led to a testable model for particle substructure with surprising support by recent experimental evidence. If the explanation is upheld by further research, it will resolve the debate in favor of the realist school. I give details. The perils of research on the foundations of quantum mechanics have been foreseen by Lewis Carroll in The Hunting of the Snark{exclamation_point}.

Hestenes, David [Physics Department, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

2009-12-08

306

Suppression of the quantum-mechanical collapse by repulsive interactions in a quantum gas

The quantum-mechanical collapse (alias fall onto the center of particles attracted by potential -r{sup -2}) is a well-known issue in quantum theory. It is closely related to the quantum anomaly, i.e., breaking of the scaling invariance of the respective Hamiltonian by quantization. We demonstrate that the mean-field repulsive nonlinearity prevents the collapse and thus puts forward a solution to the quantum-anomaly problem that differs from that previously developed in the framework of the linear quantum-field theory. This solution may be realized in the 3D or 2D gas of dipolar bosons attracted by a central charge and in the 2D gas of magnetic dipoles attracted by a current filament. In the 3D setting, the dipole-dipole interactions are also taken into regard, in the mean-field approximation, resulting in a redefinition of the scattering length which accounts for the contact repulsion between the bosons. In lieu of the collapse, the cubic nonlinearity creates a 3D ground state (GS), which does not exist in the respective linear Schroedinger equation. The addition of the harmonic trap gives rise to a tristability, in the case when the Schroedinger equation still does not lead to the collapse. In the 2D setting, the cubic nonlinearity is not strong enough to prevent the collapse; however, the quintic term does it, creating the GS, as well as its counterparts carrying the angular momentum (vorticity). Counterintuitively, such self-trapped 2D modes exist even in the case of a weakly repulsive potential r{sup -2}. The 2D vortical modes avoid the phase singularity at the pivot (r=0) by having the amplitude diverging at r{yields}0 instead of the usual situation with the amplitude of the vortical mode vanishing at r{yields}0 (the norm of the mode converges despite of the singularity of the amplitude at r{yields}0). In the presence of the harmonic trap, the 2D quintic model with a weakly repulsive central potential r{sup -2} gives rise to three confined modes, the middle one being unstable, spontaneously developing into a breather. In both the 3D and 2D cases, the GS wave functions are found in a numerical form and in the form of an analytical approximation, which is asymptotically exact in the limit of the large norm.

Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu [Department of Applied Science for Electronics and Materials, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Malomed, Boris A. [Department of Physical Electronics, School of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

2011-01-15

307

Reversible logic and quantum computers

This article is concerned with the construction of a quantum-mechanical Hamiltonian describing a computer. This Hamiltonian generates a dynamical evolution which mimics a sequence of elementary logical steps. This can be achieved if each logical step is locally reversible (global reversibility is insufficient). Computational errors due to noise can be corrected by means of redundancy. In particular, reversible error-correcting codes

Asher Peres

1985-01-01

308

From Cbits to Qbits: Teaching computer scientists quantum mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A strategy is suggested for teaching mathematically literate students, with no background in physics, just enough quantum mechanics for them to understand and develop algorithms in quantum computation and quantum information theory. Although the article as a whole addresses teachers of physics well versed in quantum mechanics, the central pedagogical development is addressed directly to computer scientists and mathematicians, with only occasional asides to their teacher. Physicists uninterested in quantum pedagogy may be amused (or irritated) by some of the views of standard quantum mechanics that arise naturally from this unorthodox perspective.

Mermin, N. David

2003-01-01

309

Quantum mechanics with coordinate dependent noncommutativity

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noncommutative quantum mechanics can be considered as a first step in the construction of quantum field theory on noncommutative spaces of generic form, when the commutator between coordinates is a function of these coordinates. In this paper we discuss the mathematical framework of such a theory. The noncommutativity is treated as an external antisymmetric field satisfying the Jacobi identity. First, we propose a symplectic realization of a given Poisson manifold and construct the Darboux coordinates on the obtained symplectic manifold. Then we define the star product on a Poisson manifold and obtain the expression for the trace functional. The above ingredients are used to formulate a nonrelativistic quantum mechanics on noncommutative spaces of general form. All considered constructions are obtained as a formal series in the parameter of noncommutativity. In particular, the complete algebra of commutation relations between coordinates and conjugated momenta is a deformation of the standard Heisenberg algebra. As examples we consider a free particle and an isotropic harmonic oscillator on the rotational invariant noncommutative space.

Kupriyanov, V. G.

2013-11-01

310

Quantum mechanics with coordinate dependent noncommutativity

Noncommutative quantum mechanics can be considered as a first step in the construction of quantum field theory on noncommutative spaces of generic form, when the commutator between coordinates is a function of these coordinates. In this paper we discuss the mathematical framework of such a theory. The noncommutativity is treated as an external antisymmetric field satisfying the Jacobi identity. First, we propose a symplectic realization of a given Poisson manifold and construct the Darboux coordinates on the obtained symplectic manifold. Then we define the star product on a Poisson manifold and obtain the expression for the trace functional. The above ingredients are used to formulate a nonrelativistic quantum mechanics on noncommutative spaces of general form. All considered constructions are obtained as a formal series in the parameter of noncommutativity. In particular, the complete algebra of commutation relations between coordinates and conjugated momenta is a deformation of the standard Heisenberg algebra. As examples we consider a free particle and an isotropic harmonic oscillator on the rotational invariant noncommutative space.

Kupriyanov, V. G. [CMCC, Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil)] [CMCC, Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil)

2013-11-15

311

Topological quantum mechanics in 2 + 1 dimensions

The authors show that the classical and quantum covariant dynamics of spinning particles in flat space in 2 + 1 dimensions are derived from a pure Wess-Zumino term written on the space of adjoint orbits of the ISO(2,1) group. Similarly, the dynamics of spinning particles in 2 + 1 de Sitter (anti-de Sitter) space are derived from a Wess-Zumino term on the space of adjoint orbits of SO(3,1)(SO(2,2)). It is shown that a quantum mechanical description of spin is possible in 2 + 1 dimensions without introducing explicit spin degrees of freedom, but at the expense of having a noncommutative space-time geometry.

Skagerstam, B.S. (Inst. of Theoretical Physics, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, S-412 96 Goteborg (SE)); Stern, A. (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (US))

1990-04-20

312

Quantum Mechanics à la Langevin and Supersymmetry

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study quantum mechanics in the stochastic formulation, using the functional integral approach. The noise term enters the classical action as a local contribution of anticommuting fields. The partition function is not invariant under ${\\mathcal N}=1$ SUSY, but can be obtained from a, manifestly, supersymmetric expression, upon fixing a local fermionic symmetry, called $\\kappa-$symmetry. The kinetic term for the fermions is a total derivative and can contribute only on the boundaries. We define combinations that scale appropriately, as the lattice spacing is taken to zero and the lattice size to infinity and provide evidence, by numerical simulations, that the correlation functions of the auxiliary field do satisfy Wick's theorem. We show, in particular, that simulations can be carried out using a purely bosonic action. The physical import is that the classical trajectory, $\\phi(\\tau)$, becomes a (chiral) superfield, $(\\phi(\\tau),\\psi_{\\alpha}(\\tau),F(\\tau))$, when quantum fluctuations are taken into account.

Nicolis, S.

313

A New Geometrical Framework for Time-Dependent Hamiltonian Mechanics y

In a recent paper [1, 2], a new mathematical setting for the formulation of Classical Mechanics, automatically embodying the gauge invariance of the theory under arbitrary transformations L ! L +,_{dt of the Lagrangian has been proposed. The construction relies on the introduction of a principal fiber bundle ? : P ! Vn+1 over the configuration space-time Vn+1, with structural}

Enrico Massa; Stefano Vignolo

314

The Yukawa potential in semirelativistic formulation via supersymmetry quantum mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply an approximation to the centrifugal term and solve the two-body spinless-Salpeter equation (SSE) with the Yukawa potential via the supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSYQM) for arbitrary quantum numbers. Useful figures and tables are also included.

Hassanabadi, S.; Ghominejad, M.; Zarrinkamar, S.; Hassanabadi, H.

2013-06-01

315

Quantum fluctuations of the light field used for continuous position detection produce stochastic back-action forces and ultimately limit the sensitivity. To overcome this limit, the back-action forces can be avoided by giving up complete knowledge of the motion, and these types of measurements are called "back-action evading" or "quantum nondemolition" detection. We present continuous two-tone back-action evading measurements with a superconducting electromechanical device, realizing three long-standing goals: detection of back-action forces due to the quantum noise of a microwave field, reduction of this quantum back-action noise by 8.5 ± 0.4 decibels (dB), and measurement imprecision of a single quadrature of motion 2.4 ± 0.7 dB below the mechanical zero-point fluctuations. Measurements of this type will find utility in ultrasensitive measurements of weak forces and nonclassical states of motion. PMID:24831528

Suh, J; Weinstein, A J; Lei, C U; Wollman, E E; Steinke, S K; Meystre, P; Clerk, A A; Schwab, K C

2014-06-13

316

Crypto-Unitary Forms of Quantum Evolution Operators

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The description of quantum evolution using unitary operator {u}(t)=exp(-i{h}t) requires that the underlying self-adjoint quantum Hamiltonian {h} remains time-independent. In a way extending the so called {PT}-symmetric quantum mechanics to the models with manifestly time-dependent "charge" {C}(t) we propose and describe an extension of such an exponential-operator approach to evolution to the manifestly time-dependent self-adjoint quantum Hamiltonians {h}(t).

Znojil, Miloslav

2013-06-01

317

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SUSY quantum mechanics can be applied to solve Schrodinger equation for high dimensional system that can be reduced into one dimensional system and represented in lowering and raising operators. Lowering and raising operators can be obtained using relationship between original Hamiltonian equation and the (super) potential equation. In this paper SUSY quantum mechanics is used as a method to obtain the wave function and the energy level of the Modified Poschl Teller potential. The graph of wave function equation and probability density is simulated by using Delphi 7.0 programming language. Finally, the expectation value of quantum mechanics operator could be calculated analytically using integral form or probability density graph resulted by the programming.

Angraini, Lily Maysari; Suparmi; Variani, Viska Inda

2010-12-01

318

Testing Quantum Mechanics on New Ground

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Wave-particle duality; 2. Cavity quantum electrodynamics; 3. Quantum nondemolition measurements; 4. Topological phases; 5. Macroscopic quantum coherence; 6. The quantum Zeno paradox; 7. Testing collapse; 8. Macroscopic quantum jumps; 9. Nonlocality; 10. Tunneling times; References; Indexes.

Ghose, Partha

2006-11-01

319

Improved lattice actions for supersymmetric quantum mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the Euclidean version of supersymmetric quantum mechanics on the lattice by means of a numerical path integral. We consider two different lattice derivatives and improve the actions containing them with respect to supersymmetry by systematically adding interaction terms with nonzero extent. To quantize this improvement, we measure boson and fermion masses and Ward identities for the naive as well as the improved models. The masses are degenerate in all models, but the magnitude of the Ward identities decreases significantly for both derivative operators using the improved actions. This is a clear sign that the breaking of supersymmetry due to lattice artifacts is reduced.

Schierenberg, Sebastian; Bruckmann, Falk

2014-01-01

320

The metaphysics of quantum mechanics: Modal interpretations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation begins with the argument that a preferred way of doing metaphysics is through philosophy of physics. An understanding of quantum physics is vital to answering questions such as: What counts as an individual object in physical ontology? Is the universe fundamentally indeterministic? Are indiscernibles identical? This study explores how the various modal interpretations of quantum mechanics answer these sorts of questions; modal accounts are one of the two classes of interpretations along with so-called collapse accounts. This study suggests a new alternative within the class of modal views that yields a more plausible ontology, one in which the Principle of the Identity of Indisceribles is necessarily true. Next, it shows that modal interpretations can consistently deny that the universe must be fundamentally indeterministic so long as they accept certain other metaphysical commitments: either a perfect initial distribution of states in the universe or some form of primitive dispositional properties. Finally, the study sketches out a future research project for modal interpretations based on developing quantified quantum logic.

Gluck, Stuart Murray

2004-11-01

321

Linearized coherent states for Hamiltonian systems with two equidistant ladder spectra

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple way to construct exactly solvable Hamiltonians whose spectra contain two equidistant ladders, one finite and another infinite, appears when applying supersymmetric quantum mechanics to the harmonic oscillator. Some of those supersymmetric partners have third order differential ladder operators, although the order of the transformation is higher than one. In this work the linearized coherent states for these specific Hamiltonians are studied. To each SUSY partner Hamiltonian corresponds two families of linearized coherent states: one inside the subspace associated with the isospectral part of the spectrum and another one in the finite subspace generated by the states inserted through the SUSY technique.

Bermudez, D.; Contreras-Astorga, A.; Fernández C, D. J.

2014-05-01

322

Comment on ``Arrival time in quantum mechanics'' and ``Time of arrival in quantum mechanics''

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contrary to claims contained in papers by Grot, Rovelli, and Tate [Phys. Rev. A 54, 4676 1996)] and Delgado and Muga [Phys. Rev. A 56, 3425 (1997)], the ``time operator,'' which I have constructed [Rep. Math. Phys. 6, 361 (1974)] in an axiomatic way, is a self-adjoint operator existing in a usual Hilbert space of (nonrelativistic or relativistic) quantum mechanics.

Kijowski, Jerzy

1999-01-01

323

Electronic structure methods based on density functional theory are used to construct a reaction path Hamiltonian for CH4 dissociation on the Ni(100) and Ni(111) surfaces. Both quantum and quasi-classical trajectory approaches are used to compute dissociative sticking probabilities, including all molecular degrees of freedom and the effects of lattice motion. Both approaches show a large enhancement in sticking when the incident molecule is vibrationally excited, and both can reproduce the mode specificity observed in experiments. However, the quasi-classical calculations significantly overestimate the ground state dissociative sticking at all energies, and the magnitude of the enhancement in sticking with vibrational excitation is much smaller than that computed using the quantum approach or observed in the experiments. The origin of this behavior is an unphysical flow of zero point energy from the nine normal vibrational modes into the reaction coordinate, giving large values for reaction at energies below the activation energy. Perturbative assumptions made in the quantum studies are shown to be accurate at all energies studied. PMID:24320338

Mastromatteo, Michael; Jackson, Bret

2013-11-21

324

Electronic structure methods based on density functional theory are used to construct a reaction path Hamiltonian for CH{sub 4} dissociation on the Ni(100) and Ni(111) surfaces. Both quantum and quasi-classical trajectory approaches are used to compute dissociative sticking probabilities, including all molecular degrees of freedom and the effects of lattice motion. Both approaches show a large enhancement in sticking when the incident molecule is vibrationally excited, and both can reproduce the mode specificity observed in experiments. However, the quasi-classical calculations significantly overestimate the ground state dissociative sticking at all energies, and the magnitude of the enhancement in sticking with vibrational excitation is much smaller than that computed using the quantum approach or observed in the experiments. The origin of this behavior is an unphysical flow of zero point energy from the nine normal vibrational modes into the reaction coordinate, giving large values for reaction at energies below the activation energy. Perturbative assumptions made in the quantum studies are shown to be accurate at all energies studied.

Mastromatteo, Michael; Jackson, Bret, E-mail: jackson@chem.umass.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States)

2013-11-21

325

Inflation from Quantum Geometry

Quantum geometry predicts that a universe evolves through an inflationary phase at small volume before exiting gracefully into a standard Friedmann phase. This does not require the introduction of additional matter fields with ad hoc potentials; rather, it occurs because of a quantum gravity modification of the kinetic part of ordinary matter Hamiltonians. An application of the same mechanism can

Martin Bojowald

2002-01-01

326

Noncommutative quantum mechanics as a gauge theory

The classical counterpart of noncommutative quantum mechanics is a constrained system containing only second-class constraints. The embedding procedure formulated by Batalin, Fradkin and Tyutin (BFT) enables one to transform this system into an Abelian gauge theory exhibiting only first class constraints. The appropriateness of the BFT embedding, as implemented in this work, is verified by showing that there exists a one to one mapping linking the second-class model with the gauge invariant sector of the gauge theory. As is known, the functional quantization of a gauge theory calls for the elimination of its gauge freedom. Then, we have at our disposal an infinite set of alternative descriptions for noncommutative quantum mechanics, one for each gauge. We study the relevant features of this infinite set of correspondences. The functional quantization of the gauge theory is explicitly performed for two gauges and the results compared with that corresponding to the second-class system. Within the operator framework the gauge theory is quantized by using Dirac's method.

Bemfica, F. S.; Girotti, H. O. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Caixa Postal 15051, 91501-970 - Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

2009-06-15

327

The formal path integral and quantum mechanics

Given an arbitrary Lagrangian function on R{sup d} and a choice of classical path, one can try to define Feynman's path integral supported near the classical path as a formal power series parameterized by 'Feynman diagrams', although these diagrams may diverge. We compute this expansion and show that it is (formally, if there are ultraviolet divergences) invariant under volume-preserving changes of coordinates. We prove that if the ultraviolet divergences cancel at each order, then our formal path integral satisfies a 'Fubini theorem' expressing the standard composition law for the time evolution operator in quantum mechanics. Moreover, we show that when the Lagrangian is inhomogeneous quadratic in velocity such that its homogeneous-quadratic part is given by a matrix with constant determinant, then the divergences cancel at each order. Thus, by 'cutting and pasting' and choosing volume-compatible local coordinates, our construction defines a Feynman-diagrammatic 'formal path integral' for the nonrelativistic quantum mechanics of a charged particle moving in a Riemannian manifold with an external electromagnetic field.

Johnson-Freyd, Theo [Department of Mathematics, University of California - Berkeley, 970 Evans Hall, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2010-11-15

328

BOOK REVIEW: Mind, Matter and Quantum Mechanics (2nd edition)

Quantum mechanics is usually defined in terms of some loosely connected axioms and rules. Such a foundation is far from the beauty of, e.g., the `principles' underlying classical mechanics. Motivated, in addition, by notorious interpretation problems, there have been numerous attempts to modify or `complete' quantum mechanics. A first attempt was based on so-called hidden variables; its proponents essentially tried

H. P. Stapp

2004-01-01

329

Mind, Matter and Quantum Mechanics (2nd edition)

Quantum mechanics is usually defined in terms of some loosely connected axioms and rules. Such a foundation is far from the beauty of, e.g., the `principles' underlying classical mechanics. Motivated, in addition, by notorious interpretation problems, there have been numerous attempts to modify or `complete' quantum mechanics. A first attempt was based on so-called hidden variables; its proponents essentially tried

G Mahler

2004-01-01

330

Factorization of supersymmetric Hamiltonians in curvilinear coordinates

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planar supersymmetric quantum mechanical systems with separable spectral problem in curvilinear coordinates are analyzed in full generality. We explicitly construct the supersymmetric extension of the Euler/Pauli Hamiltonian describing the motion of a light particle in the field of two heavy fixed Coulombian centers. We shall also show how the SUSY Kepler/Coulomb problem arises in two different limits of this problem: either, the two centers collapse in one center - a problem separable in polar coordinates -, or, one of the two centers flies to infinity - to meet the Coulomb problem separable in parabolic coordinates.

González León, M. A.; Mateos Guilarte, J.; de la Torre Mayado, M.

2012-02-01

331

Probability in the formalism of quantum mechanics on phase space

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The methods of Born and Einstein are used to obtain the probability density in the formalism of quantum mechanics on phase space. The resulting probability leads to a contextual measurement scheme. The Wigner representation, the Husimi representation and the mass shell representation are discussed from the point of view of quantum mechanics on phase space. We also give ramifications for paradoxes in standard quantum mechanics.

Schroeck, Franklin E., Jr.

2012-02-01

332

A new algorithm for calculating the Hamiltonian matrix elements with all-electron explicitly correlated Gaussian functions for quantum-mechanical calculations of atoms with two p electrons or a single d electron have been derived and implemented. The Hamiltonian used in the approach was obtained by rigorously separating the center-of-mass motion and it explicitly depends on the finite mass of the nucleus. The approach was employed to perform test calculations on the isotopes of the carbon atom in their ground electronic states and to determine the finite-nuclear-mass corrections for these states.

Sharkey, Keeper L.; Pavanello, Michele [Department of Chemistry, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Bubin, Sergiy [Quantum Chemistry Research Institute, Kyodai Katsura Venture Plaza 106, Goryo Oohara 1-36, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8245 (Japan); Department of Chemistry, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Adamowicz, Ludwik [Department of Chemistry, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)

2009-12-15

333

A theoretical study of the molecular mechanism of the thymidylate synthase-catalyzed reaction has been carried out using hybrid quantum mechanics\\/molecular mechanics methods. We have examined all of the stationary points (reactants, intermediates, transition structures, and products) on the multidimensional potential energy surfaces for the multistep enzymatic process. The characterization of these relevant structures facilitates the gaining of insight into the

Natalia Kanaan; Sergio Martí; Vicent Moliner; Amnon Kohen

2007-01-01

334

Relationship between quantum-mechanical systems with and without monopoles

It is shown that the inclusion of the monopole field in the three- and five-dimensional spherically symmetric quantum-mechanical systems, with the addition of the special centrifugal term, leads to the lift of the range of the total and azimuth quantum numbers only. Meanwhile the functional dependence of the energy spectra on quantum numbers does not undergo any changes. We also

Levon Mardoyan; Armen Nersessian; Armen Yeranyan

2007-01-01

335

Induced representations of quantum kinematical algebras and quantum mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unitary representations of kinematical symmetry groups of quantum systems are fundamental in quantum theory. In this paper we propose their generalization to quantum kinematical groups. Using the method, proposed by us in a recent paper (Arratia O and del Olmo M A 2001 Preprint math.QA/0110275) to induce representations of quantum bicrossproduct algebras, we construct the representations of the family of standard quantum inhomogeneous algebras U?(iso?(2)). This family contains the quantum Euclidean, Galilei and Poincaré algebras, all of them in (1+1) dimensions. As byproducts we obtain the actions of these quantum algebras on regular co-spaces that are an algebraic generalization of the homogeneous spaces and q-Casimir equations which play the role of q-Schrödinger equations.

Arratia, Oscar; del Olmo, Mariano A.

2002-10-01

336

Event Horizons, Quantum Mechanics, and the Semiclassical Stability of de Sitter Space.

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum effects in the presence of an event horizon are examined in two contexts: first-quantized particle mechanics and quantum field theory in curved space-time. First, the inertial motion of a fermion in Minkowski space is analyzed from the standpoint of a uniformly accelerated observer. The Dirac Hamiltonian of the freely falling particle is derived and used to determine the extent to which classical behavior in the accelerated frame is preserved quantum-mechanically. We find that any wave function with a finite inner product in the accelerated system will necessarily lead to a conserved probability. In addition, the semiclassical limit of the theory is discussed. Spatially homogeneous perturbations of a spatially flat de Sitter metric arising from the fluctuations of a free, massive, scalar quantum field about the Bunch-Davies vacuum state are considered next. The semiclassical Einstein equations are applied to this system and studied to linear order in the perturbations. Solutions consistent with the equation of motion of the scalar field propagating in the perturbed spacetime are obtained. By analyzing the late-time behavior of the metric perturbation, we show that these fluctuations do not render this system unstable. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.).

Isaacson, Jeffrey Alan

337

Non-commutative quantum mechanics in three dimensions and rotational symmetry

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We generalize the formulation of non-commutative quantum mechanics to three-dimensional non-commutative space. Particular attention is paid to the identification of the quantum Hilbert space in which the physical states of the system are to be represented. We then demonstrate how the Voros star product (like the Moyal) can be defined in this odd-dimensional space R^3 by identifying the appropriate basis in which the state has to be represented. Then, we discuss how to construct the representation of the rotation group on this space, the deformation of the Leibnitz rule accompanying this representation and the implied necessity of deforming the co-product to restore the rotation symmetry automorphism. This also implies the breaking of rotational invariance on the level of the Schrödinger action and equation, as well as the Hamiltonian, even for rotational-invariant potentials. For rotational-invariant potentials, the symmetry breaking results purely from the deformation in the sense that the commutator of the Hamiltonian and angular momentum is proportional to the deformation.

Sinha, Debabrata; Chakraborty, Biswajit; Scholtz, Frederik G.

2012-03-01

338

Hamiltonian engineering via invariants and dynamical algebra

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use the dynamical algebra of a quantum system and its dynamical invariants to inverse engineer feasible Hamiltonians for implementing shortcuts to adiabaticity. These are speeded up processes that end up with the same populations as slow, adiabatic ones. As application examples, we design families of shortcut Hamiltonians that drive two- and three-level systems between initial and final configurations, imposing physically motivated constraints on the terms (generators) allowed in the Hamiltonian.

Torrontegui, E.; Martínez-Garaot, S.; Muga, J. G.

2014-04-01

339

Quantum mechanics in non-inertial reference frames: Time-dependent rotations and loop prolongations

This is the fourth in a series of papers on developing a formulation of quantum mechanics in non-inertial reference frames. This formulation is grounded in a class of unitary cocycle representations of what we have called the Galilean line group, the generalization of the Galilei group to include transformations amongst non-inertial reference frames. These representations show that in quantum mechanics, just as the case in classical mechanics, the transformations to accelerating reference frames give rise to fictitious forces. In previous work, we have shown that there exist representations of the Galilean line group that uphold the non-relativistic equivalence principle as well as representations that violate the equivalence principle. In these previous studies, the focus was on linear accelerations. In this paper, we undertake an extension of the formulation to include rotational accelerations. We show that the incorporation of rotational accelerations requires a class of loop prolongations of the Galilean line group and their unitary cocycle representations. We recover the centrifugal and Coriolis force effects from these loop representations. Loops are more general than groups in that their multiplication law need not be associative. Hence, our broad theoretical claim is that a Galilean quantum theory that holds in arbitrary non-inertial reference frames requires going beyond groups and group representations, the well-established framework for implementing symmetry transformations in quantum mechanics. -- Highlights: •A formulation of Galilean quantum mechanics in non-inertial reference frames is presented. •The Galilei group is generalized to infinite dimensional Galilean line group. •Loop prolongations of Galilean line group contain central extensions of Galilei group. •Unitary representations of the loops are constructed. •These representations lead to terms in the Hamiltonian corresponding to fictitious forces, including centrifugal and Coriolis forces.

Klink, W.H., E-mail: william-klink@uiowa.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Wickramasekara, S., E-mail: wickrama@grinnell.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Department of Physics, Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA 50112 (United States)

2013-09-15

340

We perform a dynamical symmetry analysis (DSA) of the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) spectrum of an atom interacting with a bichromatic laser field. Within the framework of the conventional Hermitian quantum mechanics (QM), the HHG spectrum calculated using a single Floquet state, or any finite number of Floquet states, is invariant under the inversion of the relative phase of the two-frequency components, {phi}{yields}-{phi}. The asymmetry with respect to the phase inversion seen in the simulated HHG spectra is obtained in the conventional QM only when the Floquet spectrum is continuous and ionization is taken into consideration. However, when the Hamiltonian is complex scaled the description is different. Even a single eigenstate of the complex scaled Floquet operator is enough to describe the breaking of the {phi}{yields}-{phi} symmetry in the HHG spectra. We find that there is a direct correlation between the strength of the asymmetry with respect to the relative phase inversion and the magnitude of the ionization rate. For illustration purposes, the DSA is accompanied by the results obtained for a one-dimensional effective single-electron model Hamiltonian mimicking xenon atom interacting with strong laser field.

Fleischer, Avner; Averbukh, Vitali; Moiseyev, Nimrod [Department of Chemistry, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

2004-04-01

341

Quantum Mechanics with Basic Field Theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. Basic formalism; 2. Fundamental commutator and time evolution of state vectors and operators; 3. Dynamical equations; 4. Free particles; 5. Particles with spin 1/2; 6. Gauge invariance, angular momentum and spin; 7. Stern-Gerlach experiments; 8. Some exactly solvable bound state problems; 9. Harmonic oscillator; 10. Coherent states; 11. Two-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator; 12. Landau levels and quantum Hall effect; 13. Two-level problems; 14. Spin 1/2 systems in the presence of magnetic field; 15. Oscillation and regeneration in neutrino and neutral K-mesons as two-level systems; 16. Time-independent perturbation for bound states; 17. Time-dependent perturbation; 18. Interaction of charged particles and radiation in perturbation theory; 19. Scattering in one dimension; 20. Scattering in three dimensions - a formal theory; 21. Partial wave amplitudes and phase shifts; 22. Analytic structure of the S-matrix; 23. Poles of the Green's function and composite systems; 24. Approximation methods for bound states and scattering; 25. Lagrangian method and Feynman path integrals; 26. Rotations and angular momentum; 27. Symmetry in quantum mechanics and symmetry groups; 28. Addition of angular momenta; 29. Irreducible tensors and Wigner-Eckart theorem; 30. Entangled states; 31. Special theory of relativity: Klein Gordon and Maxwell's equation; 32. Klein Gordon and Maxwell's equation; 33. Dirac equation; 34. Dirac equation in the presence of spherically symmetric potentials; 35. Dirac equation in a relativistically invariant form; 36. Interaction of Dirac particle with electromagnetic field; 37. Multiparticle systems and second quantization; 38. Interactions of electrons and phonons in condensed matter; 39. Superconductivity; 40. Bose Einstein condensation and superfluidity; 41. Lagrangian formulation of classical fields; 42. Spontaneous symmetry breaking; 43. Basic quantum electrodynamics and Feynman diagrams; 44. Radiative corrections; 45. Anomalous magnetic moment and Lamb shift; Appendix; References; Index.

Desai, Bipin R.

2009-12-01

342

a Quantum Mechanical Semiconductor Device Simulator.

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semiconductor device simulators have generally been based on either classical or semi-classical approaches. In these approaches, the Poisson's equation is solved with either the current continuity equation or the Boltzmann transport equation. Methods based on quantum mechanics have been generally very computer intensive, and thus until recently not much favored. However, with the availability of faster and more powerful computers this picture is changing. As the physical dimensions of the semiconductor devices are reduced, the assumptions made in the classical and the semi-classical approaches become invalid and the simulation results become inaccurate. For such cases, quantum mechanical concepts must be introduced to provide accurate simulation results. This dissertation presents the proof of concept of a semiconductor device simulator based on the quantum mechanical principals. The simulation technique is based on the self consistent solution of the Poisson's and time independent Schrodinger wave equation for a 1-D finite differenced grid. The applicability of the technique to a 2-D finite differenced grid is also presented. The simulation is performed by first solving for the Fermi energy distribution inside the simulation domain. The initial estimates about the carrier concentrations are developed from the Fermi energy distribution. Based on the carrier concentrations, the potential distribution inside the device is updated using the Poisson's equation. The updated potential distribution is then used in the time independent Schrodinger's equation and the carrier wave vectors are thus determined. The carrier wave vectors, along with appropriate density of state function and distribution function are used to update the carrier concentrations. For the 1-D case, the density of state function is based on a single dimension of a three dimensional volume with the assumption that the density of states is the same for all the three dimensions. The distribution function used is the Fermi-Dirac distribution function. The new carrier concentrations thus computed are then substituted back into the Poisson's equation, and self consistency is obtained when minimum error criteria have been met. The device simulator has the capability of simulating heterojunctions semiconductor devices fabricated from elemental semiconductors such as Si and Ge, as well as binary and tertiary compound semiconductors.

Bhutta, Imran Ahmed

343

Tampering detection system using quantum-mechanical systems

The use of quantum-mechanically entangled photons for monitoring the integrity of a physical border or a communication link is described. The no-cloning principle of quantum information science is used as protection against an intruder's ability to spoof a sensor receiver using a `classical` intercept-resend attack. Correlated measurement outcomes from polarization-entangled photons are used to protect against quantum intercept-resend attacks, i.e., attacks using quantum teleportation.

Humble, Travis S. (Knoxville, TN); Bennink, Ryan S. (Knoxville, TN); Grice, Warren P. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2011-12-13

344

A Hamiltonian electrostatic coupling scheme for hybrid Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations

We present a fully Hamiltonian and computationally efficient scheme to include the electrostatic effects due to the classical environment in a Car-Parrinello mixed quantum Mechanics\\/molecular mechanics (QM\\/MM) method. The polarization due to the MM atoms close to the quantum system is described by a Coulombic potential modified at short range. We show that the functional form of this potential has

Alessandro Laio; Joost Vandevondele; Ursula Rothlisberger

2002-01-01

345

Moyal quantum mechanics: The semiclassical Heisenberg dynamics

The Moyal description of quantum mechanics, based on the Wigner--Weyl isomorphism between operators and symbols, provides a comprehensive phase space representation of dynamics. The Weyl symbol image of the Heisenberg picture evolution operator is regular in {h_bar} and so presents a preferred foundation for semiclassical analysis. Its semiclassical expansion ``coefficients,`` acting on symbols that represent observables, are simple, globally defined (phase space) differential operators constructed in terms of the classical flow. The first of two presented methods introduces a cluster-graph expansion for the symbol of an exponentiated operator, which extends Groenewold`s formula for the Weyl product of two symbols and has {h_bar} as its natural small parameter. This Poisson bracket based cluster expansion determines the Jacobi equations for the semiclassical expansion of ``quantum trajectories.`` Their Green function solutions construct the regular {h_bar}{down_arrow}0 asymptotic series for the Heisenberg--Weyl evolution map. The second method directly substitutes such a series into the Moyal equation of motion and determines the {h_bar} coefficients recursively. In contrast to the WKB approximation for propagators, the Heisenberg--Weyl description of evolution involves no essential singularity in {h_bar}, no Hamilton--Jacobi equation to solve for the action, and no multiple trajectories, caustics, or Maslov indices. {copyright} 1995 Academic Press, Inc.

Osborn, T.A.; Molzahn, F.H. [Department of Physics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2 (Canada)] [Department of Physics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2 (Canada)

1995-07-01

346

Quantum mechanics and the direction of time

In recent papers the authors have discussed the dynamical properties of large Poincare systems (LPS), that is, nonintegrable systems with a continuous spectrum (both classical and quantum). An interesting example of LPS is given by the Friedrichs model of field theory. As is well known, perturbation methods analytic in the coupling constant diverge because of resonant denominators. They show that this Poincare catastrophe can be eliminated by a natural time ordering of the dynamical states. They obtain then a dynamical theory which incorporates a privileged direction of time (and therefore the second law of thermodynamics). However, it is only in very simple situations that his time ordering can be performed in an extended Hilbert space. In general, they need to go to the Liouville space (superspace) and introduce a time ordering of dynamical states according to the number of particles involved in correlations. This leads then to a generalization of quantum mechanics in which the usual Heisenberg's eigenvalue problem is replaced by a complex eigenvalue problem in the Liouville space.

Hasegawa, H.; Petrosky, T. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States)); Prigogine, I. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States) International Solvay Inst. for Physics and Chemistry, Brussels (Belgium)); Tasaki, S. (International Solvay Inst. for Physics and Chemistry, Brussels (Belgium))

1991-03-01

347

Quantum mechanics without an equation of motion

We propose a formulation of quantum mechanics for a finite level system whose potential function is not realizable and/or analytic solution of the wave equation is not feasible. The system's wavefunction is written as an infinite sum in a complete set of square integrable functions. Interaction in the theory is introduced in function space by a real finite tridiagonal symmetric matrix. The expansion coefficients of the wavefunction satisfy a three-term recursion relation incorporating the parameters of the interaction. Information about the structure and dynamics of the system is contained in the scattering matrix, which is defined in the usual way. The bound state energy spectrum (system's structure) is finite. Apart from the 2M- 1 dimensionless parameters of the interaction matrix, whose rank is M, the theory has one additional scale parameter. In the development, we utilize the kinematic tools of the J-matrix method.

Alhaidari, A. D. [Saudi Center for Theoretical Physics, Jeddah 21438 (Saudi Arabia)

2011-06-15

348

Supersymmetric quantum mechanics and Painlevé equations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In these lecture notes we shall study first the supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSY QM), specially when applied to the harmonic and radial oscillators. In addition, we will define the polynomial Heisenberg algebras (PHA), and we will study the general systems ruled by them: for zero and first order we obtain the harmonic and radial oscillators, respectively; for second and third order the potential is determined by solutions to Painlevé IV (PIV) and Painlevé V (PV) equations. Taking advantage of this connection, later on we will find solutions to PIV and PV equations expressed in terms of confluent hypergeometric functions. Furthermore, we will classify them into several solution hierarchies, according to the specific special functions they are connected with.

Bermudez, David; Fernández C., David J.

2014-01-01

349

Nonlinear supersymmetric quantum mechanics: concepts and realizations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nonlinear supersymmetric (SUSY) approach to spectral problems in quantum mechanics (QM) is reviewed. Its building from the chains (ladders) of linear SUSY systems is outlined and different one-dimensional and two-dimensional realizations are described. It is elaborated how the nonlinear SUSY approach provides two new methods of SUSY separation of variables for various two-dimensional models. In the framework of these methods, a partial and/or complete solution of some two-dimensional models becomes possible. The full classification of ladder-reducible and irreducible chains of SUSY algebras in one-dimensional QM is given. The emergence of hidden symmetries and spectrum generating algebras is elucidated in the context of the nonlinear SUSY in one-dimensional stationary and non-stationary, as well as in two-dimensional QM.

Andrianov, A. A.; Ioffe, M. V.

2012-12-01

350

Twist deformations of the supersymmetric quantum mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mathcal{N} -extended Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics is deformed via an abelian twist which preserves the super-Hopf algebra structure of its Universal Enveloping Superalgebra. Two constructions are possible. For even mathcal{N} one can identify the 1 D mathcal{N} -extended superalgebra with the fermionic Heisenberg algebra. Alternatively, supersymmetry generators can be realized as operators belonging to the Universal Enveloping Superalgebra of one bosonic and several fermionic oscillators. The deformed system is described in terms of twisted operators satisfying twist-deformed (anti)commutators. The main differences between an abelian twist defined in terms of fermionic operators and an abelian twist defined in terms of bosonic operators are discussed.

Castro, Paulo G.; Chakraborty, Biswajit; Kuznetsova, Zhanna; Toppan, Francesco

2011-06-01

351

Quantum mechanical evolution towards thermal equilibrium.

The circumstances under which a system reaches thermal equilibrium, and how to derive this from basic dynamical laws, has been a major question from the very beginning of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. Despite considerable progress, it remains an open problem. Motivated by this issue, we address the more general question of equilibration. We prove, with virtually full generality, that reaching equilibrium is a universal property of quantum systems: almost any subsystem in interaction with a large enough bath will reach an equilibrium state and remain close to it for almost all times. We also prove several general results about other aspects of thermalization besides equilibration, for example, that the equilibrium state does not depend on the detailed microstate of the bath. PMID:19658469

Linden, Noah; Popescu, Sandu; Short, Anthony J; Winter, Andreas

2009-06-01

352

New methods for quantum mechanical reaction dynamics

Quantum mechanical methods are developed to describe the dynamics of bimolecular chemical reactions. We focus on developing approaches for directly calculating the desired quantity of interest. Methods for the calculation of single matrix elements of the scattering matrix (S-matrix) and initial state-selected reaction probabilities are presented. This is accomplished by the use of absorbing boundary conditions (ABC) to obtain a localized (L{sup 2}) representation of the outgoing wave scattering Green`s function. This approach enables the efficient calculation of only a single column of the S-matrix with a proportionate savings in effort over the calculation of the entire S-matrix. Applying this method to the calculation of the initial (or final) state-selected reaction probability, a more averaged quantity, requires even less effort than the state-to-state S-matrix elements. It is shown how the same representation of the Green`s function can be effectively applied to the calculation of negative ion photodetachment intensities. Photodetachment spectroscopy of the anion ABC{sup -} can be a very useful method for obtaining detailed information about the neutral ABC potential energy surface, particularly if the ABC{sup -} geometry is similar to the transition state of the neutral ABC. Total and arrangement-selected photodetachment spectra are calculated for the H{sub 3}O{sup -} system, providing information about the potential energy surface for the OH + H{sub 2} reaction when compared with experimental results. Finally, we present methods for the direct calculation of the thermal rate constant from the flux-position and flux-flux correlation functions. The spirit of transition state theory is invoked by concentrating on the short time dynamics in the area around the transition state that determine reactivity. These methods are made efficient by evaluating the required quantum mechanical trace in the basis of eigenstates of the Boltzmannized flux operator.

Thompson, W.H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1996-12-01

353

A scaled quantum mechanical force field for tetranitromethane and its intermediates

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quadratic force field of TNM has been calculated by AM1, PM3 and 3-21G Hamiltonians and then scaled according to Pulay's method. The computed vibrational frequencies fit the experiment within ±2 cm -1. On the other hand, the mechanism of thermolysis of TNM has been investigated by the mentioned methods and all possible reaction channels have been explored. Up to date, we have established that the first step in the thermal decomposition of TNM involves dissociation of a C-N bond. With this assumption, computed values for the activation energy agree satisfactorily with the experimental ones. Given that no experimental vibrational spectrum is available for transition states, the force field for the relevant activated complex has been quantum mechanically computed and then scaled by using scale factors obtained for TNM in its ground state, then numerical values for the preexponential factor have been computed.

Arenas, J. F.; Marcos, J. I.; Otero, J. C.; Soto, J.

1995-04-01

354

Discording power of Hamiltonian interactions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the creation of quantum correlations in a two-qubit system, initially prepared in a classical state, when only one qubit is locally coupled to a bath through a Hamiltonian interaction. We argue that a substantial part of the generated correlations is related to the presence of virtual excitations in the qubit-bath subsystem. The appearance of anti-resonances in the maximum amount of generated quantum correlations is analyzed as a function of the coupling constant.

Jara-Figueroa, C.; Klimov, A. B.; Roa, L.

2014-03-01

355

Quantum-Mechanical Amplification and Frequency Conversion with a Trilinear Hamiltonian.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A description of the parametric amplifier and frequency converter is presented without introducing the classical (i.e., parametric) approximation for the pumping field. Constants of the motion are found which reduce the solution of the Schrodinger equatio...

D. F. Walls R. Barakat

1969-01-01

356

Quantum-Mechanical Amplification and Frequency Conversion with a Trilinear Hamiltonian

A description of the parametric amplifier and frequency converter is presented without introducing the classical (i.e., parametric) approximation for the pumping field. Constants of the motion are found which reduce the solution of the Schrödinger equation to the diagonalization of a matrix. This diagonalization is accomplished numerically, and the eigenvalues and eigen-functions of a system with fixed energy are calculated.

Daniel F. Walls; Richard Barakat

1970-01-01

357

Interactive Quantum Mechanics Exercises for Just-in-Time Teaching

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a collection of online curricular material for a one-semester quantum mechanics course. It consists of interactive Java applets, Physlets, for interactive out-of-class exercises. These applets stress the visualization of quantum mechanical concepts for better student understanding. There are also illustrations suitable for both in-class and out-of-class use.

Belloni, Mario; Cain, Laurence; Christian, Wolfgang

2004-04-04

358

Rigorous solution to a quantum statistical mechanical laser model

A quantum mechanical laser model with relaxation and pumping mechanisms is solved rigorously. A basic equation for the density matrix is derived by the damping theory and is transformed into a corresponding c-number equation for a (quasi-) probability density. This is done with the aid of the quantum phase space method. The probability density is expanded in terms of orthogonal

Fumiaki Shibata; Chikako Uchiyama

1995-01-01

359

Inner-Shell Physics after Fifty Years of Quantum Mechanics.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A historical view is given of how the development of quantum mechanics has been affected by the information relating to inner shells, gathered by physicists since the early days of atomic physics, and of the impact of quantum mechanics on the physics of i...

E. Merzbacher

1976-01-01

360

On the End of a Quantum Mechanical Romance

Comparatively recent advances in quantum measurement theory suggest that the decades-old flirtation between quantum mechanics and the philosophy of mind is about to end. Various approaches to what I have elsewhere dubbed 'interactive decoherence' promise to remove the conscious observer from the phenomenon of state vector reduction. The mechanisms whereby decoherence occurs suggest, on the one hand, that consciousness per

Gregory R. Mulhauser

1995-01-01

361

The Quantum and Fluid Mechanics of Global Warming

Quantum physics and fluid mechanics are the foundation of any understanding of the Earth's climate. In this talk I invoke three well-known aspects of quantum mechanics to explore what will happen as the concentrations of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide continue to increase. Fluid dynamical models of the Earth's atmosphere, demonstrated here in live simulations, yield further insight into

Brad Marston

2008-01-01

362

Effect of violation of quantum mechanics on neutrino oscillation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of quantum mechanics violation due to quantum gravity on neutrino oscillation is investigated. It is found that the mechanism introduced by Ellis, Hagelin, Nanopoulos, and Srednicki through the modification of the Liouville equation can affect neutrino oscillation behavior and may be taken as a new solution of the solar neutrino problem.

Liu, Yong; Hu, Liangzhong; Ge, Mo-Lin

1997-11-01

363

Linear Logic for Generalized Quantum Mechanics

Quantum logic is static, describing automata having uncertain states but no state transitions and no Heisenberg uncertainty tradeo. We cast Girard's linear logic in the role of a dynamic quantum logic, regarded as an extension of quantum logic with time nonstandardly interpreted over a domain of linear automata and their dual linear schedules. In this extension the uncertainty tradeo emerges

Vaughan Pratt

1993-01-01

364

Lectures on Black Hole Quantum Mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lectures that follow were originally given in 1992, and written up only slightly later. Since then there have been dramatic developments in the quantum theory of black holes, especially in the context of string theory. None of these are reflected here. The concept of quantum hair, which is discussed at length in the lectures, is certainly of permanent interest, and I continue to believe that in some generalized form it will prove central to the whole question of how information is stored in black holes. The discussion of scattering and emission modes from various classes of black holes could be substantially simplified using modern techniques, and from currently popular perspectives the choice of examples might look eccentric. On the other hand fashions have changed rapidly in the field, and the big questions as stated and addressed here, especially as formulated for "real" black holes (nonextremal, in four-dimensional, asymptotically flat space-time, with supersymmetry broken), remain pertinent even as the tools to address them may evolve. The four lectures I gave at the school were based on two lengthy papers that have now been published, "Black Holes as Elementary Particles," Nuclear Physics B380, 447 (1992) and "Quantum Hair on Black Holes," Nuclear Physics B378, 175 (1992). The unifying theme of this work is to help make plausible the possibility that black holes, although they are certainly unusual and extreme states of matter, may be susceptible to a description using concepts that are not fundamentally different from those we use in describing other sorts of quantum-mechanical matter. In the first two lectures I discussed dilaton black holes. The fact that apparently innocuous changes in the "matter" action can drastically change the properties of a black hole is already very significant: it indicates that the physical properties of small black holes cannot be discussed reliably in the abstract, but must be considered with due regard to the rest of physics. (The macroscopic properties of large black holes, in particular those of astrophysical interest, are presumably well described by the familiar Einstein-Maxwell action which governs the massless fields. Heavy fields will at most provide Yukawa tails to the field surrounding the hole.) I will show how perturbations may be set up and analyzed completely, and why doing this is crucial for understanding the semiclassical physics of the hole including the Hawking radiation quantitatively. It will emerge that there is a class of dilaton black holes which behave as rather straightforward elementary particles. In the other two lectures I discussed the issue of hair on black holes, in particular the existence of hair associated with discrete gauge charges and its physical consequences. This hair is particularly interesting to analyze because it is invisible classically and to all order in ?. Its existence shows that black holes can have some "internal" quantum numbers in addition to their traditional classification by mass, charge, and angular momentum. The text that follows, follows the original papers closely.

Wilczek, Frank

365

Quantum mechanics of conformally and minimally coupled Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expansion method by a time-dependent basis of the eigenfunctions for the space-coordinate-dependent sub-Hamiltonian is one of the most natural frameworks for quantum systems, relativistic as well as nonrelativistic. The complete set of wave functions is found in the product integral formulation, whose constants of integration are fixed by Cauchy initial data. The wave functions for the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmology conformally and minimally coupled to a scalar field with a power-law potential or a polynomial potential are expanded in terms of the eigenfunctions of the scalar field sub-Hamiltonian part. The resultant gravitational field part which is an ``intrinsic'' timelike variable-dependent matrix-valued differential equation is solved again in the product integral formulation. There are classically allowed regions for the ``intrinsic'' timelike variable depending on the scalar field quantum numbers and these regions increase accordingly as the quantum numbers increase. For a fixed large three-geometry the wave functions corresponding to the low excited (small quantum number) states of the scalar field are exponentially damped or diverging and the wave functions corresponding to the high excited (large quantum number) states are still oscillatory but become eventually exponential as the three-geometry becomes larger. Furthermore, a proposal is advanced that the wave functions exponentially damped for a large three-geometry may be interpreted as ``tunneling out'' wave functions into, and the wave functions exponentially diverging as ``tunneling in'' from, different universes with the same or different topologies, the former being interpreted as the recently proposed Hawking-Page wormhole wave functions. It is observed that there are complex as well as Euclidean actions depending on the quantum numbers of the scalar field part outside the classically allowed region both of the gravitational and scalar fields, suggesting the usefulness of complex geometry and complex trajectories. From the most general wave functions for the FRW cosmology conformally coupled to scalar field, the boundary conditions for the wormhole wave functions are modified so that the modulus of wave functions, instead of the wave functions themselves, should be exponentially damped for a large three-geometry and be regular up to some negative power of the three-geometry as the three-geometry collapses. The wave functions for the FRW cosmology minimally coupled to an inhomogeneous scalar field are similarly found in the product integral formulation. The role of a large number of the inhomogeneous modes of the scalar field is not only to increase the classically allowed regions for the gravitational part but also to provide a mechanism of the decoherence of quantum interferences between the different sizes of the universe.

Kim, Sang Pyo

1992-10-01

366

Mechanics of quantum and Sharvin conductors

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previously, the authors reported direct evidence of channel saturation and conductance quantization in atomic-sized gold constrictions through mechanical perturbation studies, and also showed that peaks in conductance histograms are insufficient in evaluating their mechanical stability [Armstrong , Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.82.195416 82, 195416 (2010)]. In the present study, gold constrictions spanning the range from quantum to semiclassical (Sharvin) conductance regimes are mechanically probed with picolevel resolution in applied force and deformation, along with simultaneous measurements of conductance. While reconfiguration from one constriction size to another is known to occur by apparently random discrete atomic displacements, results reveal a remarkable simplicity—the magnitude of discrete atomic displacements is limited to a small set of values that correspond to elementary slip distances in gold rather than Au-Au interatomic distance. Combined with measurements of the spring constant of constrictions, results reveal two fundamental crossovers in deformation modes with increasing contact diameter—first, from homogeneous shear to defect-mediated deformation at a diameter that is in close agreement with previous predictions [Sørensen , Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.57.3283 57, 3283 (1998)]; and second, the discovery of another crossover marking surface- to volume-dominated deformation. A remarkable modulus enhancement is observed when the size of the constrictions approaches the Fermi wavelength of the electrons, and in the limit of a single-atom constriction it is at least two times that for bulk gold. Results provide atomistic insight into the stability of these constrictions and an evolutionary trace of deformation modes, beginning with a single-atom contact.

Armstrong, Jason N.; Hua, Susan Z.; Chopra, Harsh Deep

2011-06-01

367

On physical and mathematical causality in quantum mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper critically examines the view of quantum phenomena that has persisted since the introduction of quantum mechanics and that still remains prevalent in the foundational literature on quantum theory. According to this view, the independent behavior of quantum systems is causal, while the experimentally manifest lack of causality in observable quantum phenomena and, as a result, the probabilistic nature of our predictions concerning these phenomena are due to the disruption of this causal behavior by interfering with it through the measuring process. It appears that this view originates with P. A. M. Dirac and his work on the transformation theory (introduced by him and P. Jordan), which brought together W. Heisenberg's and E. Schrödinger's versions of quantum mechanics within a single scheme. Other founding figures of quantum theory, specifically N. Bohr, W. Heisenberg, and J. von Neumann, also advanced this view and helped to establish its prominence. The paper discusses these arguments and contends them to be insufficient to support the view that the independent behavior quantum systems is physically causal. It suggests that one can meaningfully speak of mathematical causality in quantum theory, and advocates an alternative, physically noncausal, interpretation of quantum mechanics.

Plotnitsky, Arkady

2010-01-01

368

New Formulation of Statistical Mechanics Using Thermal Pure Quantum States

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We formulate statistical mechanics based on a pure quantum state, which we call a "thermal pure quantum (TPQ) state". A single TPQ state gives not only equilibrium values of mechanical variables, such as magnetization and correlation functions, but also those of genuine thermodynamic variables and thermodynamic functions, such as entropy and free energy. Among many possible TPQ states, we discuss the canonical TPQ state, the TPQ state whose temperature is specified. In the TPQ formulation of statistical mechanics, thermal fluctuations are completely included in quantum-mechanical fluctuations. As a consequence, TPQ states have much larger quantum entanglement than the equilibrium density operators of the ensemble formulation. We also show that the TPQ formulation is very useful in practical computations, by applying the formulation to a frustrated two-dimensional quantum spin system.

Sugiura, Sho; Shimizu, Akira

2014-03-01

369

The wave function and minimum uncertainty function of the bound quadratic Hamiltonian system

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bound quadratic Hamiltonian system is analyzed explicitly on the basis of quantum mechanics. We have derived the invariant quantity with an auxiliary equation as the classical equation of motion. With the use of this invariant it can be determined whether or not the system is bound. In bound system we have evaluated the exact eigenfunction and minimum uncertainty function through unitary transformation.

Yeon, Kyu Hwang; Um, Chung IN; George, T. F.

1994-01-01

370

From the de Donder-Weyl Hamiltonian Formalism to Quantization of Gravity

An approach to quantization of fields and gravity based on the De Donder-Weyl covariant Hamiltonian formalism is outlined. It leads to a hypercomplex extension of quantum mechanics in which the algebra of complex numbers is replaced by the space-time Clifford algebra and all space-time variables enter on equal footing. A covariant hypercomplex analogue of the Schr\\\\\\

I. V. Kanatchikov

1998-01-01

371

We present here a new approach to generalize supersymmetric quantum mechanics to treat multiparticle and multidimensional systems. We do this by introducing a vector superpotential in an orthogonal hyperspace. In the case of N distinguishable particles in three dimensions this results in a vector superpotential with 3N orthogonal components. The original scalar Schrödinger operator can be factored using a 3N-component gradient operator and introducing vector "charge" operators: Q(1) and Q(1)(dagger). Using these operators, we can write the original (scalar) Hamiltonian as H(1) = Q(1)(dagger) x Q(1) + E(0)((1)), where E(0)((1)) is the ground-state energy. The second sector Hamiltonian is a tensor given by H(2) = Q(1)Q(1)(dagger) + E(0)((1)) and is isospectral with H(1). The vector ground state of sector 2, psi(0)((2)), canbe used with the charge operator Q(1)(dagger) to obtain the excited-state wave function of the first sector. In addition, we show that H(2) can also be factored in terms of a sector 2 vector superpotential with components W(2j) = -(partial partial differential ln psi(0j)((2)))/partial partial differentialx(j). Here psi(0j)((2)) is the jth component of psi(0)((2)). Then one obtains charge operators Q(2) and Q(2)(dagger) so that the second sector Hamiltonian can be written as H(2) = Q(2)(dagger)Q(2) + E(0)((2)). This allows us to define a third sector Hamiltonian which is a scalar, H(3) = Q(2) x Q(2)(dagger) + E(0)((2)). This prescription continues with the sector Hamiltonians alternating between scalar and tensor forms, both of which can be treated by the variational method to obtain approximate solutions to both scalar and tensor sectors. We demonstrate the approach with examples of a pair of separable 1D harmonic oscillators and the example of a nonseparable 2D anharmonic oscillator (or equivalently a pair of coupled 1D oscillators). We consider both degenerate and nondegenerate cases. We also present a generalization to arbitrary curvilinear coordinate systems in the Appendix. PMID:20701330

Kouri, Donald J; Maji, Kaushik; Markovich, Thomas; Bittner, Eric R

2010-08-19

372

We prove that the 1-d quantum harmonic oscillator is stable under spatially localized, time quasi-periodic perturbations on a set of Diophantine\\u000a frequencies of positive measure. This proves a conjecture raised by Enss-Veselic in their 1983 paper [EV] in the general quasi-periodic\\u000a setting. The motivation of the present paper also comes from construction of quasi-periodic solutions for the corresponding\\u000a nonlinear equation.

W.-M. Wang

2008-01-01

373

Quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics restrained electrostatic potential fitting.

We present a quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method to evaluate the partial charges of amino acid residues for use in MM potentials based on their protein environment. For each residue of interest, the nearby residues are included in the QM system while the rest of the protein is treated at the MM level of theory. After a short structural optimization, the partial charges of the central residue are fit to the electrostatic potential using the restrained electrostatic potential (RESP) method. The resulting charges and electrostatic potential account for the individual environment of the residue, although they lack the transferable nature of library partial charges. To evaluate the quality of the QM/MM RESP charges, thermodynamic integration is used to measure the pKa shift of the aspartic acid residues in three different proteins, turkey egg lysozyme, beta-cryptogein, and Thioredoxin. Compared to the AMBER ff99SB library values, the QM/MM RESP charges show better agreement between the calculated and experimental pK(a) values for almost all of the residues considered. PMID:24176005

Burger, Steven K; Schofield, Jeremy; Ayers, Paul W

2013-12-01

374

Computational power of symmetric Hamiltonians

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of symmetries, be they discrete or continuous, in a physical system typically leads to a reduction in the problem to be solved. Here we report that neither translational invariance nor rotational invariance reduce the computational complexity of simulating Hamiltonian dynamics; the problem is still bounded error, quantum polynomial time complete, and is believed to be hard on a classical computer. This is achieved by designing a system to implement a universal quantum interface, a device which enables control of an arbitrary computation through the control of a fixed number of spins, and using it as a building block to entirely remove the need for control, except in the system initialization. Finally, it is shown that cooling such Hamiltonians to their ground states in the presence of random magnetic fields solves a Quantum-Merlin-Arthur-complete problem.

Kay, Alastair

2008-07-01

375

We derive a planar sector of the large N nonsupersymmetric background of the quantum mechanical Hamiltonian of two Hermitian matrices coupled via a Yang-Mills interaction, in terms of the density of eigenvalues of one of the matrices. This background satisfies an implicit nonlinear integral equation, with a perturbative small coupling expansion and a solvable large coupling solution, which is obtained. The energy of system and the expectation value of several correlators are obtained in this strong coupling limit. They are free of infrared divergences.

Rodrigues, Joao P.; Zaidi, Alia [National Institute for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics and Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg Wits 2050 (South Africa)

2010-10-15

376

Resources Students Use to Understand Quantum Mechanical Operators

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Paradigms team at Oregon State University has developed a quantum mechanics curriculum aimed at middle division students that begins with a strong emphasis on using operators, matrices and Dirac notation to describe quantum systems. The curriculum begins with spin systems, and this content ordering relies on students being able to understand quantum mechanical operators, eigenstates and quantum measurement without prior instruction on wave functions. We have analyzed classroom and an interview video to identify resources students use when considering these quantum ideas. Identification of such resources will inform introductory curricula that are prerequisite to the quantum Paradigms and inform the development of Paradigms materials that will guide students to use these resources productively.

Gire, Elizabeth; Manogue, Corinne A.

2008-11-04

377

Quantum mechanical model for Maya Blue

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is about Maya Blue (MB), a pigment developed by Mesoamerican civilizations between the 5th and 16th centuries from an aluminosilicate mineral (palygorskite) and an organic dye (indigo). Two different supramolecular quantum-mechanical models afford explanations for the unusual stability of MB based on the oxidation of the indigo molecule during the heating process and its interaction with palygorskite. A model considering indigo derivatives attached to several aluminates shows the principal features of the experimental visible spectrum of MB within the TD-DFT methodology. Another model of an indigo oxidized species confined within an inorganic supramolecular cavity system, that involves about 170 atoms, was calculated after a large configuration interaction of single excited determinants within the NDOL approximation (Montero-Cabrera et al., J Chem Phys, 2007, 127, 145102). It allows a correct reproduction and interpretation of the corresponding spectrum. This second methodology provides the most satisfactory results, being able to manage very big molecular systems at a QM level. Structural explanation for the unusual stability of MB is also provided.

Fuentes, María E.; Peña, Brisa; Contreras, César; Montero, Ana L.; Chianelli, Russell; Alvarado, Manuel; Olivas, Ramón; Rodríguez, Luz M.; Camacho, Héctor; Montero-Cabrera, Luis A.

378

Quantum Mechanical Studies of DNA and LNA

Quantum mechanical (QM) methodology has been employed to study the structure activity relations of DNA and locked nucleic acid (LNA). The QM calculations provide the basis for construction of molecular structure and electrostatic surface potentials from molecular orbitals. The topologies of the electrostatic potentials were compared among model oligonucleotides, and it was observed that small structural modifications induce global changes in the molecular structure and surface potentials. Since ligand structure and electrostatic potential complementarity with a receptor is a determinant for the bonding pattern between molecules, minor chemical modifications may have profound changes in the interaction profiles of oligonucleotides, possibly leading to changes in pharmacological properties. The QM modeling data can be used to understand earlier observations of antisense oligonucleotide properties, that is, the observation that small structural changes in oligonucleotide composition may lead to dramatic shifts in phenotypes. These observations should be taken into account in future oligonucleotide drug discovery, and by focusing more on non RNA target interactions it should be possible to utilize the exhibited property diversity of oligonucleotides to produce improved antisense drugs.

Shim, Irene; Lindow, Morten; ?rum, Henrik

2014-01-01

379

The electromagnetic dipole radiation field through the Hamiltonian approach

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dipole radiation from an oscillating charge is treated using the Hamiltonian approach to electrodynamics where the concept of cavity modes plays a central role. We show that the calculation of the radiation field can be obtained in a closed form within this approach by emphasizing the role of coherence between the cavity modes, which is discarded in the calculation of the radiation power. We believe that this simple case can elucidate some basic questions students pose when introduced to quantum electrodynamics or perturbation theory in quantum mechanics.

Likar, A.; Razpet, N.

2009-11-01

380

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to construct a valid and reliable multiple-choice achievement test to assess students' understanding of core concepts of introductory quantum mechanics. Development of the Quantum Mechanics Visualization Instrument (QMVI) occurred across four successive semesters in 1999--2001. During this time 213 undergraduate and graduate students attending the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) at University Park and Arizona State University (ASU) participated in this development and validation study. Participating students were enrolled in four distinct groups of courses: Modern Physics, Undergraduate Quantum Mechanics, Graduate Quantum Mechanics, and Chemistry Quantum Mechanics. Expert panels of professors of physics experienced in teaching quantum mechanics courses and graduate students in physics and science education established the core content and assisted in the validating of successive versions of the 24-question QMVI. Instrument development was guided by procedures outlined in the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing (AERA-APA-NCME, 1999). Data gathered in this study provided information used in the development of successive versions of the QMVI. Data gathered in the final phase of administration of the QMVI also provided evidence that the intended score interpretation of the QMVI achievement test is valid and reliable. A moderate positive correlation coefficient of 0.49 was observed between the students' QMVI scores and their confidence levels. Analyses of variance indicated that students' scores in Graduate Quantum Mechanics and Undergraduate Quantum Mechanics courses were significantly higher than the mean scores of students in Modern Physics and Chemistry Quantum Mechanics courses (p < 0.05). That finding is consistent with the additional understanding and experience that should be anticipated in graduate students and junior-senior level students over sophomore physics majors and majors in another field. The moderate positive correlation coefficient of 0.42 observed between students' QMVI scores and their final course grades was also consistent with expectations in a valid instrument. In addition, the Cronbach-alpha reliability coefficient of the QMVI was found to be 0.82. Limited findings were drawn on students' understanding of introductory quantum mechanics concepts. Data suggested that the construct of quantum mechanics understanding is most likely multidimensional and the Main Topic defined as "Quantum Mechanics Postulates" may be an especially important factor for students in acquiring a successful understanding of quantum mechanics.

Cataloglu, Erdat

381

Testing Quantum Mechanics in High-Energy Physics

In this set of lectures we show that particle physics can also contribute to fundamental questions about quantum mechanics\\u000a (QM) and even shine new light in the fine workings of quantum physics and this at scales of energies which are not available\\u000a for usual quantum systems. In particular the massive meson–antimeson systems are specially suitable as they offer a unique

Beatrix C. Hiesmayr

382

Quantum mechanics model on a Kähler conifold

We propose an exactly solvable model of the quantum oscillator on the class of Kähler spaces (with conic singularities), connected with two-dimensional complex projective spaces. Its energy spectrum is nondegenerate in the orbital quantum number, when the space has nonconstant curvature. We reduce the model to a three-dimensional system interacting with the Dirac monopole. Owing to noncommutativity of the reduction

Stefano Bellucci; Armen Nersessian; Armen Yeranyan

2004-01-01

383

Magnetic monopoles and dipoles in quantum mechanics

The force on and the energy of a ''di-monopole'', which is the limiting case of a dipole made from two monopoles at zero separation and finite magnetic moment, interacting with an externally fixed magnetic field resulting from an electric current, is considered. A model involving only a monopole is used to illustrate the physical principles involved when magnetic sources move in a solenoidal field whose source is an electric current. The problems encountered in Hamiltonian theory are discussed. 5 refs., 3 figs. (LEW)

Lipkin, H.J.; Peshkin, M.

1986-01-01

384

Feshbach resonances: the branching of quantum mechanics into Hermitian and non-Hermitian formalisms.

As has been shown long time ago by Feshbach, the exact energy spectrum of the full problem can be obtained by solving two different self-energy problems. In spite of the fact that the two effective Hamiltonians are derived in very similar ways in one case, the exact energy spectrum of the full problem can be either real or complex (depending on the boundary conditions), whereas the exact energy spectrum associated with the second effective Hamiltonian has to be complex (excluding bound states in the continuum). The focus of this paper is on the fact that in both cases the complex eigenvalues result from the same requirement of an out-going boundary condition. The branching of quantum mechanics to standard (Hermitian) formalism and non-Hermitian formalism is associated with the decision to express the exact energy spectrum with one of the two possible self-consistent like problems where the use of the Green operator imposes an outgoing boundary condition on the solutions of the time-independent Schrodinger equation. Our analysis is made for the case where an ABC molecule has sufficient energy to dissociate to A + BC but not to A + B + C and not to AB + C or to AC + B. PMID:19298083

Moiseyev, Nimrod

2009-07-01

385

OSP Quantum Mechanics: Single Measurments of Spin States Worksheet

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of tutorial worksheets, based on the OSP Quantum Mechanics Simulations, help students explore the measurement of quantum spins. The tutorial starts with an introduction of the physics of spins, and then presents the results of a single measurement on pure, mixed, and superposition states.

Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang

2010-01-11

386

Possibility of a Geometric Constraint in the Schrödinger Quantum Mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the framework of some straightforward mathematical terms it is argued that there exists a space-invariant in the Schrödinger quantum mechanics (SQM). As an alternative to the geometric features of localized nature dictated by the prescribed boundary conditions in a potential problem in SQM, this spatial invariant is expected to account for some global geometric features of the quantum system.

Kaushal, R. S.

387

Optical coupling mechanisms in quantum well infrared photodetectors

Light coupling systems such as gratings are required because Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors do not respond to normal incident light due to the quantum mechanical selection rules associated with intersubband transitions. The resolution of the photolithography and accuracy of the etching become key issues in producing smaller grating feature sizes especially in shorter wavelengths. An enhancement factor of three due

Sumith Bandara; Sarath Gunapala; John Liu; Winn Hong; Jin Park

388

One of the simplest non-Hermitian Hamiltonians, first proposed by Schwartz in 1960, that may possess a spectral singularity is analysed from the point of view of the non-Hermitian generalization of quantum mechanics. It is shown that the ? operator, being a second-order differential operator, has supersymmetric structure. Asymptotic behaviour of the eigenfunctions of a Hermitian Hamiltonian equivalent to the given non-Hermitian one is found. As a result, the corresponding scattering matrix and cross section are given explicitly. It is demonstrated that the possible presence of a spectral singularity in the spectrum of the non-Hermitian Hamiltonian may be detected as a resonance in the scattering cross section of its Hermitian counterpart. Nevertheless, just at the singular point, the equivalent Hermitian Hamiltonian becomes undetermined. PMID:23509374

Samsonov, Boris F

2013-04-28

389

Accurate Energy Spectrum for the Quantum Yang-Mills Mechanics with Nonlinear Color Oscillations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yang-Mills theory as the foundation for quantum chromodynamics is a non-Abelian gauge theory with self-interactions between vector particles. Here, we study the Yang-Mills Hamiltonian with nonlinear color oscillations in the absence of external sources corresponding to the group SU(2). In the quantum domain, we diagonalize the Hamiltonian using the optimized trigonometric basis expansion method and find accurate energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions for one and two degrees of freedom. We also compare our results with the semiclassical solutions.

Pedram, Pouria

2014-06-01

390

A Simplified Quantum Mechanical Model of Diatomic Molecules

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces a simple one-dimensional model of a diatomic molecule that can explain all the essential features of a real two particle quantum mechanical system and gives quantitative results in fair agreement with those of a hydrogen molecule. (GA)

Nielsen, Lars Drud

1978-01-01

391

Born series and unitarity in noncommutative quantum mechanics

This paper is dedicated to present model independent results for noncommutative quantum mechanics. We determine sufficient conditions for the convergence of the Born series and, in the sequel, unitarity is proved in full generality.

Bemfica, F. S.; Girotti, H. O. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Caixa Postal 15051, 91501-970 - Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

2008-01-15

392

Quantum Mechanical Balance Equation Approach to Semiconductor Device Simulation.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research project was focused on the development of a quantum mechanical balance equation based device simulator that can model advanced, compound, submicron devices, under all transport conditions (AC, DC, and transient response). This report documen...

L. L. Cui

1997-01-01

393

Quantum tic-tac-toe: A teaching metaphor for superposition in quantum mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum tic-tac-toe was developed as a metaphor for the counterintuitive nature of superposition exhibited by quantum systems. It offers a way of introducing quantum physics without advanced mathematics, provides a conceptual foundation for understanding the meaning of quantum mechanics, and is fun to play. A single superposition rule is added to the child's game of classical tic-tac-toe. Each move consists of a pair of marks subscripted by the number of the move (``spooky'' marks) that must be placed in different squares. When a measurement occurs, one spooky mark becomes real and the other disappears. Quantum tic-tac-toe illustrates a number of quantum principles including states, superposition, collapse, nonlocality, entanglement, the correspondence principle, interference, and decoherence. The game can be played on paper or on a white board. A Web-based version provides a refereed playing board to facilitate the mechanics of play, making it ideal for classrooms with a computer projector.

Goff, Allan

2006-11-01

394

Level Comparison Theorems and Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sign of the Laplacian of the spherical symmetric potential determines the order of energy levels with the same principal Coulomb quantum number. This recently derived theorem has been generalized, extended and applied to various situations in particle...

B. Baumgartner H. Grosse A. Martin

1986-01-01

395

Relativistic models of nonlinear quantum mechanics

I present and discuss a class of nonlinear quantum-theory models, based on simple relativistic field theories, in which the parameters depend on the state of the system via expectation values of local functions of the fields.

T. W. B. Kibble

1978-01-01

396

Quantum Mechanics in Biology: Photoexcitations in DNA

\\u000a We consider here the theoretical and quantum chemical description of the photoexcitated states in DNA duplexes. We discuss\\u000a the motivation and limitations of an exciton model and use this as the starting point for more detailed excited state quantum\\u000a chemical evaluations. In particular, we focus upon the role of interbase proton transfer between Watson\\/Crick pairs in localizing\\u000a an excitation and

Eric R. Bittner; Arkadiusz Czader

2009-01-01

397

Mechanism Of The Quantum Speed-up

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bob chooses a function and gives to Alice the black box that computes it. Alice, without knowing Bob's choice, should find a character of the function (e. g. its period) by computing its value for different arguments. There is naturally correlation between Bob's choice and the solution found by Alice. We show that, in quantum algorithms, this correlation becomes quantum. This highlights an overlooked measurement problem: sharing between two completely or partly redundant measurements the determination of completely or partly correlated measurement outcomes. All is like Alice, by reading the solution at the end of the algorithm, contributed to the initial choice of Bob, with half of it in quantum superposition for all the possible ways of taking this half. This contribution, back evolved to before running the algorithm, where Bob's choice is located, becomes Alice knowing in advance half of the choice. The quantum algorithm is the quantum superposition of all the possible ways of taking half of Bob's choice and, given the advanced knowledge of it, classically computing the missing half. The quantum speed-up comes from comparing two classical algorithms, with and without advanced knowledge of half of Bob's choice.

Castagnoli, Giuseppe

2011-11-01

398

Combined quantum and molecular mechanics (QM/MM).

We describe the current state of the art of mixed quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methodology, with a particular focus on modeling of enzymatic reactions. Over the past decade, the effectiveness of these methods has increased dramatically, based on improved quantum chemical methods, advances in the description of the QM/MM interface, and reductions in the cost/performance of computing hardware. Two examples of pharmaceutically relevant applications, cytochrome P450 and class C ?-lactamase, are presented.: PMID:24981493

Friesner, Richard A

2004-12-01

399

Testing quantum mechanics in the neutral kaon system

The neutral kaon system is a sensitive probe of quantum mechanics. We revive a parametrization of non-quantum-mechanical effects that is motivated by considerations of the nature of space-time foam, and show how it can be constrained by new measurements of KL-->2pi and KL,S semileptonic decays at LEAR or a phi factory. Permanent address: Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics,

Jonathan Richard Ellis; Nikolaos E Mavromatos; Dimitri V Nanopoulos

1992-01-01

400

Probability in the Many-Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is argued that, although in the Many-Worlds Interpretation of quantum mechanics there is no "probability" for an outcome of a quantum experiment in the usual sense, we can understand why we have an illusion of probability. The explanation involves: (a) A "sleeping pill" gedanken experiment which makes correspondence between an illegitimate question: "What is the probability of an outcome of a quantum measurement?" with a legitimate question: "What is the probability that `I' am in the world corresponding to that outcome?"; (b) A gedanken experiment which splits the world into several worlds which are identical according to some symmetry condition; and (c) Relativistic causality, which together with (b) explain the Born rule of standard quantum mechanics. The Quantum Sleeping Beauty controversy and "caring measure" replacing probability measure are discussed.

Vaidman, Lev

401

Quantum manifestation of classical chaos has been one of the extensively studied subjects for more than a decade. Yet clear understanding of its nature still remains to be an open question partly due to the lack of a canonical definition of quantum chaos. The classical definition seems to be unsuitable in quantum mechanics partly because of the Heisenberg quantum uncertainty. In this regard, quantum chaos is somewhat misleading and needs to be clarified at the very fundamental level of physics. Since it is well known that quantum mechanics is more fundamental than classical mechanics, the quantum description of classically chaotic nature should be attainable in the limit of large quantum numbers. The focus of my research, therefore, lies on the correspondence principle for classically chaotic systems. The chaotic damped driven pendulum is mainly studied numerically using the split operator method that solves the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. For classically dissipative chaotic systems in which (multi)fractal strange attractors often emerge, several quantum dissipative mechanisms are also considered. For instance, Hoover`s and Kubo-Fox-Keizer`s approaches are studied with some computational analyses. But the notion of complex energy with non-Hermiticity is extensively applied. Moreover, the Wigner and Husimi distribution functions are examined with an equivalent classical distribution in phase-space, and dynamical properties of the wave packet in configuration and momentum spaces are also explored. The results indicate that quantum dynamics embraces classical dynamics although the classicalquantum correspondence fails to be observed in the classically chaotic regime. Even in the semi-classical limits, classically chaotic phenomena would eventually be suppressed by the quantum uncertainty.

Lee, Sang-Bong

1993-09-01

402

Sensible Quantum Mechanics:. are Probabilities Only in the Mind?

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum mechanics may be formulated as Sensible Quantum Mechanics (SQM) so that it contains nothing probabilistic except conscious perceptions. Sets of these perceptions can be deterministically realized with measures given by expectation values of positive-operator-valued awareness operators. Ratios of the measures for these sets of perceptions can be interpreted as frequency-type probabilities for many actually existing sets. These probabilities generally cannot be given by the ordinary quantum “probabilities” for a single set of alternatives. Probabilism, or ascribing probabilities to unconscious aspects of the world, may be seen to be an aesthemamorphic myth.

Page, Don N.

403

The Use of Quantum Mechanics in the Treatment of Waveguides

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we give a quantum description of guided waves. A Klein-Gordon type equation is derived for wave propagation in an ideal uniform waveguide, and the appropriate quantum-mechanical interpretation is given. Making use of such methods, we give an analysis of guided waves, of inhomogeneously filled waveguides, of waveguide discontinuities, and generally of passive microwave circuits. A spinorial formalism is employed to derive the equivalent Dirac-type equation. The general applicability of the quantum-mechanical concepts to waveguides is also discussed.

Marinescu, N.

404

Hyperfine molecular Hubbard Hamiltonian

An ultracold gas of heteronuclear alkali-metal dimer molecules with hyperfine structure loaded into a one-dimensional optical lattice is investigated. The hyperfine molecular Hubbard Hamiltonian (HMHH), an effective low-energy lattice Hamiltonian, is derived from first principles. The large permanent electric dipole moment of these molecules gives rise to long-range dipole-dipole forces in a dc electric field and allows for transitions between rotational states in an ac microwave field. Additionally, a strong magnetic field can be used to control the hyperfine degrees of freedom independently of the rotational degrees of freedom. By tuning the angle between the dc electric and magnetic fields and the strength of the ac field, it is possible to control the number of internal states involved in the dynamics as well as the degree of correlation between the spatial and internal degrees of freedom. The HMHH's unique features have direct experimental consequences such as quantum dephasing, tunable complexity, and the dependence of the phase diagram on the molecular state.

Wall, M. L.; Carr, L. D. [Department of Physics, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

2010-07-15

405

Accurate effective Hamiltonians via unitary flow in Floquet space.

We present a systematic construction of effective Hamiltonians of periodically driven quantum systems. Because of an equivalence between the time dependence of a Hamiltonian and an interaction in its Floquet operator, flow equations, that permit us to decouple interacting quantum systems, allow us to identify time-independent Hamiltonians for driven systems. With this approach, we explain the experimentally observed deviation of expected suppression of tunneling in ultracold atoms. PMID:24206499

Verdeny, Albert; Mielke, Andreas; Mintert, Florian

2013-10-25

406

BOOK REVIEW: Mind, Matter and Quantum Mechanics (2nd edition)

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum mechanics is usually defined in terms of some loosely connected axioms and rules. Such a foundation is far from the beauty of, e.g., the `principles' underlying classical mechanics. Motivated, in addition, by notorious interpretation problems, there have been numerous attempts to modify or `complete' quantum mechanics. A first attempt was based on so-called hidden variables; its proponents essentially tried to expel the non-classical nature of quantum mechanics. More recent proposals intend to complete quantum mechanics not within mechanics proper but on a `higher (synthetic) level'; by means of a combination with gravitation theory (R Penrose), with quantum information theory (C M Caves, C A Fuchs) or with psychology and brain science (H P Stapp). I think it is fair to say that in each case the combination is with a subject that, per se, suffers from a very limited understanding that is even more severe than that of quantum mechanics. This was acceptable, though, if it could convincingly be argued that scientific progress desperately needs to join forces. Quantum mechanics of a closed system was a beautiful and well understood theory with its respective state being presented as a point on a deterministic trajectory in Liouville space---not unlike the motion of a classical N-particle system in its 6N-dimensional phase-space. Unfortunately, we need an inside and an outside view, we need an external reference frame, we need an observer. This unavoidable partition is the origin of most of the troubles we have with quantum mechanics. A pragmatic solution is introduced in the form of so-called measurement postulates: one of the various incompatible properties of the system under consideration is supposed to be realized (i.e. to become a fact, to be defined without fundamental dispersion) based on `instantaneous' projections within some externally selected measurement basis. As a result, the theory becomes essentially statistical rather than deterministic; furthermore there is an asymmetry between the observed and the observing. This is the point where consciousness may come in. Complemented by an introduction and several appendices, Henry Stapp's book consists essentially of three parts: theory, implications, and new developments. The theory part gives a very readable account of the Copenhagen interpretation, some aspects of a psychophysical theory, and, eventually, hints towards a quantum foundation of the brain--mind connection. The next part, `implications', summarizes some previous attempts to bridge the gap between the working rules of quantum mechanics and their possible consequences for our understanding of this world (Pauli, Everett, Bohm, Heisenberg). The last section, `new developments', dwells on some ideas about the conscious brain and its possible foundation on quantum mechanics. The book is an interesting and, in part, fascinating contribution to a field that continues to be a companion to `practical' quantum mechanics since its very beginning. It is doubtful whether such types of `quantum ontologies' will ever become (empirically) testable; right now one can hardly expect more than to be offered some consistent `grand picture', which the reader may find more or less acceptable or even rewarding. Many practicing quantum physicists, though, will remain unimpressed. The shift from synthetic ontology to analytic ontology is the foundation of the present work. This means that fundamental wholes are being partitioned into their ontologically subordinate components by means of `events'. The actual event, in turn, is an abrupt change in the Heisenberg state describing the quantum universe. The new state then defines the tendencies associated with the next actual event. To avoid infinite regression in terms of going from one state of tendencies to the next, consciousness is there to give these events a special `feel', to provide a status of `intrinsic actuality'. The brain of an alert human observer is similar in an important way to a quantum detection device: it can amplify small signals to large macroscopic ef

Mahler, G.

2004-07-01

407

Quantum mechanical states as attractors for Nelson processes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we reconsider, in the light of the Nelson stochastic mechanics, the idea originally proposed by Bohm and Vigier that arbitrary solutions of the evolution equation for the probability densities always relax in time toward the quantum mechanical density ¦?¦2 derived from the Schrödinger equation. The analysis of a few general propositions and of some physical examples show that the choice of the L1 metrics and of the Nelson stochastic flux is correct for a particular class of quantum states, but cannot be adopted in general. This indicates that the question if the quantum mechanical densities attract other solution of the classical Fokker-Planck equations associated to the Schrödinger equation is physically meaningful, even if a classical probabilistic model good for every quantum stale is still not available. A few suggestion in this direction are finally discussed.

Petroni, Nicola Cufaro; Guerra, Francesco

1995-02-01

408

Stability of Frustration-Free Hamiltonians

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We prove stability of the spectral gap for gapped, frustration-free Hamiltonians under general, quasi-local perturbations. We present a necessary and sufficient condition for stability, which we call Local Topological Quantum Order and show that this condition implies an area law for the entanglement entropy of the groundstate subspace. This result extends previous work by Bravyi et al. on the stability of topological quantum order for Hamiltonians composed of commuting projections with a common zero-energy subspace. We conclude with a list of open problems relevant to spectral gaps and topological quantum order.

Michalakis, Spyridon; Zwolak, Justyna P.

2013-09-01

409

Kink mass quantum shifts from SUSY quantum mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a new version of the DHN (Dashen-Hasslacher-Neveu) formula, which is used to compute the one-loop order kink mass correction in (1+1)-dimensional scalar field theory models, is constructed. The new expression is written in terms of the spectral data coming from the supersymmetric partner operator of the second-order small kink fluctuation operator and allows us to compute the kink mass quantum shift in new models for which this calculation was out of reach by means of the old formula.

Izquierdo, Alberto Alonso; Guilarte, Juan Mateos; Plyushchay, Mikhail S.

2013-04-01

410

Multiple-event probability in general-relativistic quantum mechanics

We discuss the definition of quantum probability in the context of 'timeless' general-relativistic quantum mechanics. In particular, we study the probability of sequences of events, or multievent probability. In conventional quantum mechanics this can be obtained by means of the 'wave function collapse' algorithm. We first point out certain difficulties of some natural definitions of multievent probability, including the conditional probability widely considered in the literature. We then observe that multievent probability can be reduced to single-event probability, by taking into account the quantum nature of the measuring apparatus. In fact, by exploiting the von-Neumann freedom of moving the quantum/classical boundary, one can always trade a sequence of noncommuting quantum measurements at different times, with an ensemble of simultaneous commuting measurements on the joint system+apparatus system. This observation permits a formulation of quantum theory based only on single-event probability, where the results of the wave function collapse algorithm can nevertheless be recovered. The discussion also bears on the nature of the quantum collapse.

Hellmann, Frank [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, D-80799 Munich (Germany); Centre de Physique Theorique de Luminy, Universite de la Mediterranee, F-13288 Marseille (France); Mondragon, Mauricio; Perez, Alejandro; Rovelli, Carlo [Centre de Physique Theorique de Luminy, Universite de la Mediterranee, F-13288 Marseille (France)

2007-04-15

411

'Mysticism' in quantum mechanics: the forgotten controversy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper argues that a European controversy over a 'mystical' hypothesis, one assigning the mind a role to play at the material level of reality, shaped much of the debate over the interpretation of the quantum equations. It traces back the controversy to the past two decades, beginning in the late 1920s—birth of quantum theory—and concluding with Erwin Schrödinger's lectures published as 'Mind and Matter'. Becoming aware of the issues at stake can help us understand the historical, philosophical and cultural background from which today's physics emerged.

Marin, Juan Miguel

2009-07-01

412

The solutions of the time-independent Schroedinger equation for non-Hermitian (NH) Hamiltonians have been extensively studied and calculated in many different fields of physics by using L{sup 2} methods that originally have been developed for the calculations of bound states. The existing non-Hermitian formalism breaks down when dealing with wave packets (WPs). An open question is how time-dependent expectation values can be calculated when the Hamiltonian is NH? Using the F-product formalism that was recently proposed by Moiseyev and Lein [J. Phys. Chem. 107, 7181 (2003)] we calculate the time-dependent expectation values of different observable quantities for a simple well-known study test case model Hamiltonian. We carry out a comparison between these results and those obtained from conventional (i.e., Hermitian) quantum mechanics (QM) calculations. The remarkable agreement between these results emphasizes the fact that in NH QM, unlike standard QM, there is no need to split the entire space into two regions, i.e., the interaction region and its surrounding. Our results open a door for a type of WP propagation calculations within the NH QM formalism that until now were impossible. In particular our work is relevant to the many different fields in physics and chemistry where complex absorbing potentials are introduced in order to reduce the propagation calculations to a restricted region in space where the artificial reflections from the edge of the numerical grid or box are avoided.

Gilary, Ido; Fleischer, Avner; Moiseyev, Nimrod [Department of Chemistry and Minerva Center for Nonlinear Physics of Complex Systems, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

2005-07-15

413

Quantum and classical dissipation of charged particles

A Hamiltonian approach is presented to study the two dimensional motion of damped electric charges in time dependent electromagnetic fields. The classical and the corresponding quantum mechanical problems are solved for particular cases using canonical transformations applied to Hamiltonians for a particle with variable mass. Green’s function is constructed and, from it, the motion of a Gaussian wave packet is studied in detail. -- Highlights: •Hamiltonian of a damped charged particle in time dependent electromagnetic fields. •Exact Green’s function of a charged particle in time dependent electromagnetic fields. •Time evolution of a Gaussian wave packet of a damped charged particle. •Classical and quantum dynamics of a damped electric charge.

Ibarra-Sierra, V.G. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 México D.F. (Mexico)] [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 México D.F. (Mexico); Anzaldo-Meneses, A.; Cardoso, J.L.; Hernández-Saldaña, H. [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico)] [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico); Kunold, A., E-mail: akb@correo.azc.uam.mx [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico); Roa-Neri, J.A.E. [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico)] [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico)

2013-08-15

414

Quantum walks, quantum gates, and quantum computers

The physics of quantum walks on graphs is formulated in Hamiltonian language, both for simple quantum walks and for composite walks, where extra discrete degrees of freedom live at each node of the graph. It is shown how to map between quantum walk Hamiltonians and Hamiltonians for qubit systems and quantum circuits; this is done for both single-excitation and multiexcitation encodings. Specific examples of spin chains, as well as static and dynamic systems of qubits, are mapped to quantum walks, and walks on hyperlattices and hypercubes are mapped to various gate systems. We also show how to map a quantum circuit performing the quantum Fourier transform, the key element of Shor's algorithm, to a quantum walk system doing the same. The results herein are an essential preliminary to a Hamiltonian formulation of quantum walks in which coupling to a dynamic quantum environment is included.

Hines, Andrew P. [Pacific Institute of Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Pacific Institute for the Mathematical Sciences, 1933 West Mall, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z2 (Canada); Stamp, P. C. E. [Pacific Institute of Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

2007-06-15

415

Evading Quantum Mechanics: Engineering a Classical Subsystem within a Quantum Environment

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum mechanics is potentially advantageous for certain information-processing tasks, but its probabilistic nature and requirement of measurement backaction often limit the precision of conventional classical information-processing devices, such as sensors and atomic clocks. Here we show that, by engineering the dynamics of coupled quantum systems, it is possible to construct a subsystem that evades the measurement backaction of quantum mechanics, at all times of interest, and obeys any classical dynamics, linear or nonlinear, that we choose. We call such a system a quantum-mechanics-free subsystem (QMFS). All of the observables of a QMFS are quantum-nondemolition (QND) observables; moreover, they are dynamical QND observables, thus demolishing the widely held belief that QND observables are constants of motion. QMFSs point to a new strategy for designing classical information-processing devices in regimes where quantum noise is detrimental, unifying previous approaches that employ QND observables, backaction evasion, and quantum noise cancellation. Potential applications include gravitational-wave detection, optomechanical-force sensing, atomic magnetometry, and classical computing. Demonstrations of dynamical QMFSs include the generation of broadband squeezed light for use in interferometric gravitational-wave detection, experiments using entangled atomic-spin ensembles, and implementations of the quantum Toffoli gate.

Tsang, Mankei; Caves, Carlton M.

2012-07-01

416

Quantum mechanics with spontaneous localization and the quantum theory of measurement

Summary Quantum mechanics with spontaneous localization (QMSL) is a recently proposed stochastic modification of theN-body Schrödinger equation consistent both with microphysics and macrophysics. QMSL is applied here to the measurement problem.\\u000a It is shown that the replacement of standard quantum mechanics by QMSL has the only effect of producing an actual reduction\\u000a of the wave function.

F. Benatti; G. C. Ghirardi; A. Rimini; T. Weber

1987-01-01

417

The Transactional Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. Introduction: quantum peculiarities; 2. The map vs the territory; 3. The original TI: fundamentals; 4. The new possibilist TI: fundamentals; 5. Challenges, replies, and applications; 6. PTI and relativity; 7. The metaphysics of possibility; 8. PTI and 'spacetime'; 9. Epilogue: more than meets the eye; Appendixes; References; Index.

Kastner, Ruth E.

2012-10-01

418

THE QUANTUM MECHANICAL FOUNDATIONS OF PHILOSOPHY

Many of the most familiar features of our everyday environment, and some of our basic notions about it, stem from Relativistic Quantum Field Theory (RQFT). We argue in particular that the origin of common names, verbs, adjectives such as full and empty, the concepts of identity, similar- ity, Plato's Universals, natural numbers, and existence versus non-existence can be traced to

Cihan Saclõoglu

419

Quantum mechanics problems in observer's mathematics

This work considers the ontology, guiding equation, Schrodinger's equation, relation to the Born Rule, the conditional wave function of a subsystem in a setting of arithmetic, algebra and topology provided by Observer's Mathematics (see www.mathrelativity.com). Observer's Mathematics creates new arithmetic, algebra, geometry, topology, analysis and logic which do not contain the concept of continuum, but locally coincide with the standard fields. Certain results and communications pertaining to solutions of these problems are provided. In particular, we prove the following theorems: Theorem I (Two-slit interference). Let {Psi}{sub 1} be a wave from slit 1, {Psi}{sub 2} - from slit 2, and {Psi} = {Psi}{sub 1}+{Psi}{sub 2}. Then the probability of {Psi} being a wave equals to 0.5. Theorem II (k-bodies solution). For W{sub n} from m-observer point of view with m>log{sub 10}((2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 2n}-1){sup 2k}+1), the probability of standard expression of Hamiltonian variation is less than 1 and depends on n,m,k.

Khots, Boris; Khots, Dmitriy [Compressor Controls Corp, Des Moines, Iowa (United States); iMath Consulting LLC, Omaha, Nebraska (United States)

2012-11-06

420

Quantum mechanics on profinite groups and partial order

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inverse limits and profinite groups are used in a quantum mechanical context. Two cases are considered: a quantum system with positions in the profinite group { {Z}}_p and momenta in the group { {Q}}_p/{ {Z}}_p, and a quantum system with positions in the profinite group {\\widehat{ {Z}}} and momenta in the group { {Q}}/{ {Z}}. The corresponding Schwatz-Bruhat spaces of wavefunctions and the Heisenberg-Weyl groups are discussed. The sets of subsystems of these systems are studied from the point of view of partial order theory. It is shown that they are directed-complete partial orders. It is also shown that they are topological spaces with T0-topologies, and this is used to define continuity of various physical quantities. The physical meaning of profinite groups, non-Archimedean metrics, partial orders and T0-topologies, in a quantum mechanical context, is discussed.

Vourdas, A.

2013-02-01

421

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last five years have witnessed an amazing development in the field of nano- and micromechanics. What was widely considered fantasy ten years ago is about to become an experimental reality: the quantum regime of mechanical systems is within reach of current experiments. Two factors (among many) have contributed significantly to this situation. As part of the widespread effort into nanoscience and nanofabrication, it is now possible to produce high-quality nanomechanical and micromechanical resonators, spanning length scales of millimetres to nanometres, and frequencies from kilohertz to gigahertz. Researchers coupled these mechanical elements to high-sensitivity actuation and readout systems such as single-electron transistors, quantum dots, atomic point contacts, SQUID loops, high-finesse optical or microwave-cavities etc. Some of these ultra-sensitive readout schemes are in principle capable of detection at the quantum limit and a large part of the experimental effort is at present devoted to achieving this. On the other hand, the fact that the groups working in the field come from various different physics backgrounds—the authors of this editorial are a representative sample—has been a constant source of inspiration for helpful theoretical and experimental tools that have been adapted from other fields to the mechanical realm. To name just one example: ideas from quantum optics have led to the recent demonstration (both in theory and experiment) that coupling a mechanical resonator to a high-finesse optical cavity can be fully analogous to the well-known sideband-resolved laser cooling of ions and hence is capable in principle of cooling a mechanical mode into its quantum ground state. There is no doubt that such interdisciplinarity has been a crucial element for the development of the field. It is interesting to note that a very similar sociological phenomenon occurred earlier in the quantum information community, an area which is deeply enriched by the diverse backgrounds and approaches of the researchers. As diverse as the approaches are the manifold of goals and perspectives for operating mechanical systems close to or within the quantum regime. Already now, nanomechanical sensors achieve single-molecule mass detection and magnetic resonance force detection from single-electron spins although they are operated far from quantum. Quantum-limited mechanical devices promise a new technology with hitherto unachieved performance for high-resolution sensing. This is also of high relevance for macroscopic mechanical resonators used in gravitational wave detectors. Furthermore, the increasing capability to couple mechanical modes to individual quantum systems raises the interesting question of whether mechanics can serve as a quantum bus in hybrid implementations of quantum information processing. Finally, the possibility of generating quantum superposition states that involve displacements of a massive macroscopic object (such as the center of mass of a mechanical beam) provides a completely new parameter regime for testing quantum theory over the amazing range from nanomechanical objects of several picograms up to gram-scale mirrors used in gravitational wave interferometers. We are looking forward to these fascinating developments! This Focus Issue is intended to highlight the present status of the field and to provide both introduction and motivation for students and researchers who want to get familiar with this exciting area or even want to join it. It also complements the conference activities of our community during the last year, where a series of dedicated invited sessions at several international conferences (APS March Meeting 2008, CLEO/QELS 2008, OSA Frontiers in Optics 2008, PQE 2008/2009 etc) culminated in the first Gordon Conference on 'Mechanical Systems at the Quantum Limit'. Given the fast development of the field it was not surprising to see that during the collection of the following contributions new progress was reported almost on a monthly basis and new groups entered the field. We intend to

Aspelmeyer, Markus; Schwab, Keith

2008-09-01

422

Comment on 'Nonlocality, Counterfactuals and Quantum Mechanics'

A recent proof [H. P. Stapp, Am. J. Phys. 65, 300 (1997)], formulated in the symbolic language of modal logic, claims to show that contemporary quantum theory, viewed as a set of rules that allow us to calculate statistical predictions among certain kinds of observations, cannot be imbedded in any rational framework that conforms to the principles that (1) the experimenters' choices of which experiments they will perform can be considered to be free choices, (2) outcomes of measurements are unique, and (3) the free choices just mentioned have no backward-in-time effects of any kind. This claim is similar to Bell's theorem, but much stronger, because no reality assumption alien to quantum philosophy is used. The paper being commented on [W. Unruh, Phys. Rev. A 59, 126 (1999)] argues that some such reality assumption has been ''smuggled'' in. That argument is examined here and shown, I believe, to be defective.

Stapp, H.P.

1999-04-14

423

Some thoughts about consciousness: from a quantum mechanics perspective.

The article explores some of the basic findings of quantum physics and information theory and their possible usefulness in offering new vistas for understanding psychoanalysis and the patient-analyst interchange. Technical terms are explained and placed in context, and examples of applying quantum models to clinical experience are offered. Given the complexity of the findings of quantum mechanics and information theory, the article aims only to introduce some of the major concepts from these disciplines. Within this framework the article also briefly addresses the question of mind as well as the problematic of reducing the experience of consciousness to neurological brain functioning. PMID:23865992

Gargiulo, Gerald J

2013-08-01

424

ysteries, Puzzles, and Paradoxes in Quantum Mechanics. Proceedings

These proceedings represent papers presented at the Mysteries, Puzzles, and Paradoxes in Quantum Mechanics Workshop held in Italy, in August 1998. The Workshop was devoted to recent experimental and theoretical advances such as new interference, effects, the quantum eraser, non{minus}disturbing and Schroedinger{minus}cat{minus}like states, experiments, EPR correlations, teleportation, superluminal effects, quantum information and computing, locality and causality, decoherence and measurement theory. Tachyonic information transfer was also discussed. There were 45 papers presented at the conference,out of which 2 have been abstracted for the Energy,Science and Technology database.(AIP)

Rodolfo, B. [Department of Physics, University of Milan, (Italy)

1999-02-01

425

Maximum-power quantum-mechanical Carnot engine

In their work [J. Phys. AJPHAC50305-447010.1088\\/0305-4470\\/33\\/24\\/302 33, 4427 (2000)], Bender, Brody, and Meister have shown by employing a two-state model of a particle confined in the one-dimensional infinite potential well that it is possible to construct a quantum-mechanical analog of the Carnot engine through changes of both the width of the well and the quantum state in a specific manner.

Sumiyoshi Abe

2011-01-01

426

On the relation between classical and quantum statistical mechanics

Classical and quantum statistical mechanics are compared in the high temperature limit ?=1\\/kT?0. While this limit is rather trivial for spin systems, we obtain some rigorous results which suggest (and sometimes prove) different asymptotics for continuous systems, depending on the behaviour of the two-body potential for small distances: the difference between suitable classical and quantum variables vanishes as ?2 for

W. Wreszinski; G. Scharf

1987-01-01

427

Quantum Mechanics Emerges from Information Theory Applied to Causal Horizons

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is suggested that quantum mechanics is not fundamental but emerges from classical information theory applied to causal horizons. The path integral quantization and quantum randomness can be derived by considering information loss of fields or particles crossing Rindler horizons for accelerating observers. This implies that information is one of the fundamental roots of all physical phenomena. The connection between this theory and Verlinde's entropic gravity theory is also investigated.

Lee, Jae-Weon

2011-04-01

428

Quantum mechanics from an equivalence principle

The authors show that requiring diffeomorphic equivalence for one-dimensional stationary states implies that the reduced action S{sub 0} satisfies the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the Planck constant playing the role of a covariantizing parameter. The construction shows the existence of a fundamental initial condition which is strictly related to the Moebius symmetry of the Legendre transform and to its involutive character. The universal nature of the initial condition implies the Schroedinger equation in any dimension.

Faraggi, A.E. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Inst. for Fundamental Theory; Matone, M. [Univ. of Padova (Italy)

1997-05-15

429

Drug-Target Binding Investigated by Quantum Mechanical/Molecular Mechanical (QM/MM) Methods

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many important drugs, also used in the clinics, exert their function by binding covalently to their targets. Understanding their action requires quantum mechanical simulations. Here, after briefly reviewing few basic concepts of thermodynamics and kinetics of drug-target binding, we summarize principles and applications of Car-Parrinello quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulations. From this discussion, this approach emerges as a computational methodology particularly well suited to investigate covalent binding in systems of pharmacological relevance.

Rothlisberger, U.; Carloni, P.

430

Investigations of fundamental phenomena in quantum mechanics with neutrons

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron interferometer and polarimeter are used for the experimental investigations of quantum mechanical phenomena. Interferometry exhibits clear evidence of quantum-contextuality and polarimetry demonstrates conflicts of a contextual model of quantum mechanics á la Leggett. In these experiments, entanglements are achieved between degrees of freedom in a single-particle: spin, path and energy degrees of freedom are manipulated coherently and entangled. Both experiments manifest the fact that quantum contextuality is valid for phenomena with matter waves with high precision. In addition, another experiment is described which deals with error-disturbance uncertainty relation: we have experimentally tested error-disturbance uncertainty relations, one is derived by Heisenberg and the other by Ozawa. Experimental results confirm the fact that the Heisenberg's uncertainty relation is often violated and that the new relation by Ozawa is always larger than the limit. At last, as an example of a counterfactual phenomenon of quantum mechanics, observation of so-called quantum Cheshire Cat is carried out by using neutron interferometer. Experimental results suggest that pre- and post-selected neutrons travel through one of the arms of the interferometer while their magnetic moment is located in the other arm.

Hasegawa, Yuji

2014-04-01

431

PREFACE: Progress in supersymmetric quantum mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theory of integrable systems is grounded in the very beginning of theoretical physics: Kepler's system is an integrable system. This field of dynamical systems, where one looks for exact solutions of the equations of motion, has attracted most of the great figures in mathematical physics: Euler, Lagrange, Jacobi, etc. Liouville was the first to formulate the precise mathematical conditions ensuring solvability `by quadrature' of the dynamical equations, and his theorem still lies at the heart of the recent developments. The modern era started about thirty years ago with the systematic formulation of soliton solutions to nonlinear wave equations. Since then, impressive developments arose both for the classical and the quantum theory. Subtle mathematical techniques were devised for the resolution of these theories, relying on algebra (group theory), analysis and algebraic geometry (Riemann theory of surfaces). We therefore clearly see that the theory of integrable systems lies ab initio at a crossing of physics and mathematics, and that the developments of these last thirty years have strengthened this dual character, which makes it into an archetypal domain of mathematical physics. As regards the classical theory, beyond the direct connections to the various domains of classical soliton physics (hydrodynamics, condensed matter physics, laser optics, particle physics, plasma, biology or information coding), one has witnessed in these recent years more unexpected (and for some of them not yet well understood) connections to a priori farther fields of theoretical physics: string theory (through matrix models), topological field theories (two dimensional Yang--Mills, three dimensional Chern--Simons--Witten), or supersymmetric field theories (for instance the correspondence discovered by Seiberg and Witten between classical integrable models and quantum potentials). Quantum integrable theories provide examples of exactly (non perturbatively) solvable physical models. They thus allow one to obtain descriptions of non trivial phenomena such as second order phase transition in condensed systems (spin lattices) and exact solution of relativistic quantum field theories (Sine--Gordon...). On the other hand, they supply an excellent example of fruitful interface between physics and mathematics: the theory of quantum groups (and the germane theory of special functions) is a perfect illustration of this rôle and perspectives of such new developments appear very promising. The purpose of the first RAQIS meeting was to bring together researchers from the various fields of mathematics and physics connected to the theory of quantum integrable systems. This conference was held in the framework of the European TMR network EUCLID `Integrable models and applications: from strings to condensed matter', contract number HPRN-CT-2002-00325. The RAQIS03 meeting took place at the Laboratoire d'Annecy-le-vieux de Physique Théorique (LAPTH, France) from 25 March to 28 March, 2003. The organising committee consisted of Daniel Arnaudon, Jean Avan, Luc Frappat, Éric Ragoucy and Paul Sorba. Financial support was provided by Université de Savoie and CNRS-DRI (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Direction des Relations Internationales). In particular various scientific contacts with several Japanese participants were initiated thanks to the CNRS PICS contract number 911. This special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General is dedicated to the subject of the RAQIS03 meeting in Annecy-le-vieux. Most of the contributors to this issue took part in the meeting, but this volume does not aim to be a proceedings in the usual sense of the word: contributions do not necessarily coincide with the reports presented at the meeting, nor are the contributors restricted exclusively to those people that were present. The intention of the special issue is to benefit from the occasion offered by the RAQIS03 meeting to highlight the important new areas in quantum integrability, by collecting together in one single volume a selection of article

Aref'eva, I.; Fernández, D. J.; Hussin, V.; Negro, J.; Nieto, L. M.; Samsonov, B. F.

2004-10-01

432

Fermion Coherence Hamiltonians

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have established that the most general form of Hamiltonian that preserves fermionic coherent states stable in time, is that of the nonstationary free fermionic oscillator. This is to be compared with the earlier result of boson coherence Hamiltonian, which is of the more general form of the nonstationary forced bosonic oscillator. If however one admits Grassmann variables as Hamiltonian parameters then the coherence Hamiltonian takes again the form of (Grassmannian fermionic) forced oscillator.

Cherbal, O.; Drir, M.; Maamache, M.; Trifonov, D. A.

2010-06-01

433

Nonadiabatic optomechanical Hamiltonian of a moving dielectric membrane in a cavity

We formulate a nonrelativistic Hamiltonian in order to describe the interaction between a moving dielectric membrane and radiation pressure. Such a Hamiltonian is derived without making use of the single-mode adiabatic approximation, and linear approximation and hence, it enables us to incorporate multimode effects in cavity optomechanics. By performing a second quantization, we show how a set of generalized Fock states can be constructed to represent quantum states of the membrane and cavity field. In addition, we discuss examples showing how photon scattering among different cavity modes would modify the interaction strengths and the mechanical frequency of the membrane.

Cheung, H. K.; Law, C. K. [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin (Hong Kong)

2011-08-15

434

A deformation quantization theory for noncommutative quantum mechanics

We show that the deformation quantization of noncommutative quantum mechanics previously considered by Dias and Prata ['Weyl-Wigner formulation of noncommutative quantum mechanics', J. Math. Phys. 49, 072101 (2008)] and Bastos, Dias, and Prata ['Wigner measures in non-commutative quantum mechanics', e-print arXiv:math-ph/0907.4438v1; Commun. Math. Phys. (to appear)] can be expressed as a Weyl calculus on a double phase space. We study the properties of the star-product thus defined and prove a spectral theorem for the star-genvalue equation using an extension of the methods recently initiated by de Gosson and Luef ['A new approach to the *-genvalue equation', Lett. Math. Phys. 85, 173-183 (2008)].

Costa Dias, Nuno; Prata, Joao Nuno [Departamento de Matematica, Universidade Lusofona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, Av. Campo Grande, 376, 1749-024 Lisboa (Portugal) and Grupo de Fisica Matematica, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Gosson, Maurice de [NuHAG Fakultaet fuer Mathematik, Universitaet Wien, Wien 1090 (Austria); Luef, Franz [NuHAG Fakultaet fuer Mathematik, Universitaet Wien, Wien 1090 (Austria); Department of Mathematics, UC Berkeley, 847 Evans Hall, Berkeley, California 94720-3840 (United States)

2010-07-15

435

Weyl-Wigner formulation of noncommutative quantum mechanics

We address the phase-space formulation of a noncommutative extension of quantum mechanics in arbitrary dimension, displaying both spatial and momentum noncommutativities. By resorting to a covariant generalization of the Weyl-Wigner transform and to the Darboux map, we construct an isomorphism between the operator and the phase-space representations of the extended Heisenberg algebra. This map provides a systematic approach to derive the entire structure of noncommutative quantum mechanics in phase space. We construct the extended star product and Moyal bracket and propose a general definition of noncommutative states. We study the dynamical and eigenvalue equations of the theory and prove that the entire formalism is independent of the particular choice of the Darboux map. Our approach unifies and generalizes all the previous proposals for the phase-space formulation of noncommutative quantum mechanics. For concreteness we rederive these proposals by restricting our formalism to some two-dimensional spaces.

Bastos, Catarina; Bertolami, Orfeu [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Dias, Nuno Costa; Prata, Joao Nuno [Departamento de Matematica, Universidade Lusofona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, Av. Campo Grande, 376, 1749-024 Lisboa (Portugal)

2008-07-15

436

Quantum-mechanical transport equation for atomic systems.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A quantum-mechanical transport equation (QMTE) is derived which should be applicable to a wide range of problems involving the interaction of radiation with atoms or molecules which are also subject to collisions with perturber atoms. The equation follows the time evolution of the macroscopic atomic density matrix elements of atoms located at classical position R and moving with classical velocity v. It is quantum mechanical in the sense that all collision kernels or rates which appear have been obtained from a quantum-mechanical theory and, as such, properly take into account the energy-level variations and velocity changes of the active (emitting or absorbing) atom produced in collisions with perturber atoms. The present formulation is better suited to problems involving high-intensity external fields, such as those encountered in laser physics.

Berman, P. R.

1972-01-01

437

Quantum mechanical and information theoretic view on classical glass transitions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the mapping of the Fokker-Planck description of classical stochastic dynamics onto a quantum Hamiltonian, we argue that a dynamical glass transition in the former must have a precise definition in terms of a