Measurement and Fundamental Processes in Quantum Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaeger, Gregg
2015-07-01
In the standard mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics, measurement is an additional, exceptional fundamental process rather than an often complex, but ordinary process which happens also to serve a particular epistemic function: during a measurement of one of its properties which is not already determined by a preceding measurement, a measured system, even if closed, is taken to change its state discontinuously rather than continuously as is usual. Many, including Bell, have been concerned about the fundamental role thus given to measurement in the foundation of the theory. Others, including the early Bohr and Schwinger, have suggested that quantum mechanics naturally incorporates the unavoidable uncontrollable disturbance of physical state that accompanies any local measurement without the need for an exceptional fundamental process or a special measurement theory. Disturbance is unanalyzable for Bohr, but for Schwinger it is due to physical interactions' being borne by fundamental particles having discrete properties and behavior which is beyond physical control. Here, Schwinger's approach is distinguished from more well known treatments of measurement, with the conclusion that, unlike most, it does not suffer under Bell's critique of quantum measurement. Finally, Schwinger's critique of measurement theory is explicated as a call for a deeper investigation of measurement processes that requires the use of a theory of quantum fields.
Statistical mechanical studies on the information processing with quantum fluctuation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Otsubo, Yosuke; Inoue, Jun-Ichi; Nagata, Kenji; Okada, Masato
2014-03-01
Quantum fluctuation induces the tunneling between states in a system and then can be used in combinatorial optimization problems. Such an algorithm is called quantum adiabatic computing. In this work, we investigate the quality of an information processing based on Bayes inference with the quantum fluctuation through the statistical mechanical approach. We then focus on the error correcting codes and CDMA multiuser demodulation which are described by conventional solvable spin glass models and can be analyzed by replica method in the thermodynamic limit. Introducing the quantum fluctuation into the decoding process of each problem, which is called quantum maximizer of the posteriori probability (QMPM) estimate, we analyze the decoding quality and then compare the results with those by the conventional MPM estimate which corresponds to finite temperature decoding From our limited results, the MPM based on the quantum fluctuation seems to achieve the same decoding quality as the thermal MPM does. We clarify the relationship between the optimal amplitude of transverse field and temperature for the mixture of quantum and classical MPMs. This work is supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 12J06501, 25330283, 25120009.
Quantum processes as a mechanism in olfaction for smell recognition?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brookes, Jennifer
2011-03-01
The physics of smell is not well understood. The biological processes that occur following a signalling event are well understood (Buck 1991). However, the reasons how and why a signalling event occurs when a particular smell molecule and receptor combination is made, remains un-established. Luca Turin proposes a signalling mechanism which determines smell molecules by quantum mechanics (Turin 1996). Investigation of this mechanism shows it to be physically robust (Brookes,et al, 2007), and consequences of the theory provides quantitative measurements of smell and interesting potential experiments that may determine whether the recognition of smell is a quantum event. Brookes, J.C, Hartoutsiou, F, Horsfield, A.P and Stoneham, A.M. (2007). Physical Review Letters 98, no. 3 038101 Buck, L. (1991) Cell, 65, no.1 (4): 175-187. Turin, L. (1996) Chemical Sences 21, no 6. 773-791 With many thanks to the Wellcome Trust.
Elementary Quantum Mechanics in a High-Energy Process
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Denville, A.; And Others
1978-01-01
Compares two approaches to strong absorption in elementary quantum mechanics; the black sphere and a model based on the continuum theory of nuclear reactions. Examines the application to proton-antiproton interactions at low momenta and concludes that the second model is the appropriate and simplest to use. (Author/GA)
Quantum Mechanics and Perceptive Processes: A Reply to Elio Conte
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghirardi, GianCarlo
2015-07-01
Recently, Elio Conte has commented a paper by the present author devoted to analyze the possibility of checking experimentally whether the perceptual process can lead to the collapse of the wavefunction. Here we answer to the comments by Conte and we show that he has missed to grasp the crucial elements of our proposal. Morever, we discuss some ideas put forward by Conte concerning the occurrence of quantum superpositions of different states of consciousness and we show that they are rather vague and not cogent.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, Xiancheng; Hu, Hao; Hu, Xiangqian; Cohen, Aron J.; Yang, Weitao
2008-03-01
Electron transfer (ET) reactions are one of the most important processes in chemistry and biology. Because of the quantum nature of the processes and the complicated roles of the solvent, theoretical study of ET processes is challenging. To simulate ET processes at the electronic level, we have developed an efficient density functional theory (DFT) quantum mechanical (QM)/molecular mechanical (MM) approach that uses the fractional number of electrons as the order parameter to calculate the redox free energy of ET reactions in solution. We applied this method to study the ET reactions of the aqueous metal complexes Fe(H2O)62+/3+ and Ru(H2O)62+/3+. The calculated oxidation potentials, 5.82 eV for Fe(II/III) and 5.14 eV for Ru(II/III), agree well with the experimental data, 5.50 and 4.96 eV, for iron and ruthenium, respectively. Furthermore, we have constructed the diabatic free energy surfaces from histogram analysis based on the molecular dynamics trajectories. The resulting reorganization energy and the diabatic activation energy also show good agreement with experimental data. Our calculations show that using the fractional number of electrons (FNE) as the order parameter in the thermodynamic integration process leads to efficient sampling and validate the ab initio QM/MM approach in the calculation of redox free energies.
Reply to ``Comment on `Why quantum mechanics cannot be formulated as a Markov process' ''
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gillespie, Daniel T.
1997-10-01
It is argued that the stochastic model of a quantum-mechanical two-state oscillator discussed in the preceding Comment by Hardy et al. [Phys. Rev. A 56, 3301 (1997)] does not constitute a valid classical stochastic process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamdouni, Yamen
2010-12-01
The elements of the quantum mechanical Markovian diffusion matrix leading to a Gibbs equilibrium state for a set of N coupled quantum harmonic oscillators are derived within Lindblad's axiomatic approach. Consequences of the fundamental constraints on the quantum friction coefficients are discussed. We derive the equations of motion for the expectation values and variances, and we solve them analytically. We apply our results to the description of the charge and mass asymmetry coordinates in heavy-ion collisions, and we investigate the effect of dissipation on tunneling in sub-barrier processes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schieve, William C.; Horwitz, Lawrence P.
2009-04-01
1. Foundations of quantum statistical mechanics; 2. Elementary examples; 3. Quantum statistical master equation; 4. Quantum kinetic equations; 5. Quantum irreversibility; 6. Entropy and dissipation: the microscopic theory; 7. Global equilibrium: thermostatics and the microcanonical ensemble; 8. Bose-Einstein ideal gas condensation; 9. Scaling, renormalization and the Ising model; 10. Relativistic covariant statistical mechanics of many particles; 11. Quantum optics and damping; 12. Entanglements; 13. Quantum measurement and irreversibility; 14. Quantum Langevin equation: quantum Brownian motion; 15. Linear response: fluctuation and dissipation theorems; 16. Time dependent quantum Green's functions; 17. Decay scattering; 18. Quantum statistical mechanics, extended; 19. Quantum transport with tunneling and reservoir ballistic transport; 20. Black hole thermodynamics; Appendix; Index.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murdin, P.
2000-11-01
A development of quantum theory that was initiated in the 1920s by Werner Heisenberg (1901-76) and Erwin Schrödinger (1887-1961). The theory drew on a proposal made in 1925 Prince Louis de Broglie (1892-1987), that particles have wavelike properties (the wave-particle duality) and that an electron, for example, could in some respects be regarded as a wave with a wavelength that depended on its mo...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gardner, David E.
This thesis describes qualitative research conducted to understand the problems students have when learning quantum mechanics. It differs from previous studies on educational issues associated with quantum mechanics in that I have examined the difficulties from the students' perspective. Three questions guided this research: What are the experiences of students learning quantum mechanics? What conceptual difficulties do students have with quantum mechanics? and, How do students approach learning quantum mechanics? From these questions, two themes emerged. First, students do not consider the quantum mechanical concepts of wave-particle duality or the uncertainty principle to be important sources of difficulties for them. Second, many of the difficulties students encounter are not related to conceptual understanding of specific topics, but stem from a mindset that is incongruent with the nature and structure of quantum mechanics. The implications for teaching are that the nature and structure of quantum mechanics should be emphasized and be an explicit part of instruction.
Diagrammatic quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kauffman, Louis H.; Lomonaco, Samuel J.
2015-05-01
This paper explores how diagrams of quantum processes can be used for modeling and for quantum epistemology. The paper is a continuation of the discussion where we began this formulation. Here we give examples of quantum networks that represent unitary transformations by dint of coherence conditions that constitute a new form of non-locality. Local quantum devices interconnected in space can form a global quantum system when appropriate coherence conditions are maintained.
Relativity and Quantum Mechanics
Braendas, Erkki J.
2007-12-26
The old dilemma of quantum mechanics versus the theory of relativity is reconsidered via a first principles relativistically invariant theory. By analytic extension of quantum mechanics into the complex plane one may (i) include dynamical features such as time- and length-scales and (ii) examine the possibility and flexibility of so-called general Jordan block formations. The present viewpoint asks for a new perspective on the age-old problem of quantum mechanics versus the theory of relativity. To bring these ideas together, we will establish the relation with the Klein-Gordon-Dirac relativistic theory and confirm some dynamical features of both the special and the general relativity theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kapustin, Anton
2013-06-01
We formulate physically motivated axioms for a physical theory which for systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom uniquely lead to quantum mechanics as the only nontrivial consistent theory. Complex numbers and the existence of the Planck constant common to all systems arise naturally in this approach. The axioms are divided into two groups covering kinematics and basic measurement theory, respectively. We show that even if the second group of axioms is dropped, there are no deformations of quantum mechanics which preserve the kinematic axioms. Thus, any theory going beyond quantum mechanics must represent a radical departure from the usual a priori assumptions about the laws of nature.
Entangled states in quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruža, Jānis
2010-01-01
In some circles of quantum physicists, a view is maintained that the nonseparability of quantum systems-i.e., the entanglement-is a characteristic feature of quantum mechanics. According to this view, the entanglement plays a crucial role in the solution of quantum measurement problem, the origin of the “classicality” from the quantum physics, the explanation of the EPR paradox by a nonlocal character of the quantum world. Besides, the entanglement is regarded as a cornerstone of such modern disciplines as quantum computation, quantum cryptography, quantum information, etc. At the same time, entangled states are well known and widely used in various physics areas. In particular, this notion is widely used in nuclear, atomic, molecular, solid state physics, in scattering and decay theories as well as in other disciplines, where one has to deal with many-body quantum systems. One of the methods, how to construct the basis states of a composite many-body quantum system, is the so-called genealogical decomposition method. Genealogical decomposition allows one to construct recurrently by particle number the basis states of a composite quantum system from the basis states of its forming subsystems. These coupled states have a structure typical for entangled states. If a composite system is stable, the internal structure of its forming basis states does not manifest itself in measurements. However, if a composite system is unstable and decays onto its forming subsystems, then the measurables are the quantum numbers, associated with these subsystems. In such a case, the entangled state has a dynamical origin, determined by the Hamiltonian of the corresponding decay process. Possible correlations between the quantum numbers of resulting subsystems are determined by the symmetries-conservation laws of corresponding dynamical variables, and not by the quantum entanglement feature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, Robert
2011-03-01
I do not agree with mind-body dualism. Today the consensus view is that thought and mind is a combination of processes like memory, generalization, comparison, deduction, organization, induction, classification, feature detection, analogy, etc. performed by computational machinery. (R. Jones, Trans. of the Kansas Acad. Sci., vol. 109, # 3/4, 2006 and www.robert-w-jones.com, philosopher, theory of thought) But I believe that quantum mechanics is a more plausible dualist theory of reality. The quantum mechanical wave function is nonphysical, it exists in a 3N space (for an N body system) not in (x,y,z,t) 4-space, and does not possess physical properties. But real physical things like energy (which do exist in our 4-space world) influence the wave function and the wave function, in its turn, influences real physical things, like where a particle can be found in 4-space. The coupling between the spirit-like wave function and things found in the real (4-space) world (like energy) is via mathematical equations like the Schrodinger equation and Born normalization.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Błaszak, Maciej; Domański, Ziemowit
2012-02-01
This paper develops an alternative formulation of quantum mechanics known as the phase space quantum mechanics or deformation quantization. It is shown that the quantization naturally arises as an appropriate deformation of the classical Hamiltonian mechanics. More precisely, the deformation of the point-wise product of observables to an appropriate noncommutative ⋆-product and the deformation of the Poisson bracket to an appropriate Lie bracket are the key elements in introducing the quantization of classical Hamiltonian systems. The formalism of the phase space quantum mechanics is presented in a very systematic way for the case of any smooth Hamiltonian function and for a very wide class of deformations. The considered class of deformations and the corresponding ⋆-products contains as a special case all deformations which can be found in the literature devoted to the subject of the phase space quantum mechanics. Fundamental properties of ⋆-products of observables, associated with the considered deformations are presented as well. Moreover, a space of states containing all admissible states is introduced, where the admissible states are appropriate pseudo-probability distributions defined on the phase space. It is proved that the space of states is endowed with a structure of a Hilbert algebra with respect to the ⋆-multiplication. The most important result of the paper shows that developed formalism is more fundamental than the axiomatic ordinary quantum mechanics which appears in the presented approach as the intrinsic element of the general formalism. The equivalence of two formulations of quantum mechanics is proved by observing that the Wigner-Moyal transform has all properties of the tensor product. This observation allows writing many previous results found in the literature in a transparent way, from which the equivalence of the two formulations of quantum mechanics follows naturally. In addition, examples of a free particle and a simple harmonic
Process, System, Causality, and Quantum Mechanics: A Psychoanalysis of Animal Faith
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Etter, Tom; Noyes, H. Pierre
We shall argue in this paper that a central piece of modern physics does not really belong to physics at all but to elementary probability theory. Given a joint probability distribution J on a set of random variables containing x and y, define a link between x and y to be the condition x=y on J. Define the {\\it state} D of a link x=y as the joint probability distribution matrix on x and y without the link. The two core laws of quantum mechanics are the Born probability rule, and the unitary dynamical law whose best known form is the Schrodinger's equation. Von Neumann formulated these two laws in the language of Hilbert space as prob(P) = trace(PD) and D'T = TD respectively, where P is a projection, D and D' are (von Neumann) density matrices, and T is a unitary transformation. We'll see that if we regard link states as density matrices, the algebraic forms of these two core laws occur as completely general theorems about links. When we extend probability theory by allowing cases to count negatively, we find that the Hilbert space framework of quantum mechanics proper emerges from the assumption that all D's are symmetrical in rows and columns. On the other hand, Markovian systems emerge when we assume that one of every linked variable pair has a uniform probability distribution. By representing quantum and Markovian structure in this way, we see clearly both how they differ, and also how they can coexist in natural harmony with each other, as they must in quantum measurement, which we'll examine in some detail. Looking beyond quantum mechanics, we see how both structures have their special places in a much larger continuum of formal systems that we have yet to look for in nature.
Quantum Mechanics From the Cradle?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martin, John L.
1974-01-01
States that the major problem in learning quantum mechanics is often the student's ignorance of classical mechanics and that one conceptual hurdle in quantum mechanics is its statistical nature, in contrast to the determinism of classical mechanics. (MLH)
Spring, William Joseph
2009-04-13
We consider quantum analogues of n-parameter stochastic processes, associated integrals and martingale properties extending classical results obtained in [1, 2, 3], and quantum results in [4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10].
Fundamentals of Quantum Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, C. L.
2005-06-01
Quantum mechanics has evolved from a subject of study in pure physics to one with a wide range of applications in many diverse fields. The basic concepts of quantum mechanics are explained in this book in a concise and easy-to-read manner emphasising applications in solid state electronics and modern optics. Following a logical sequence, the book is focused on the key ideas and is conceptually and mathematically self-contained. The fundamental principles of quantum mechanics are illustrated by showing their application to systems such as the hydrogen atom, multi-electron ions and atoms, the formation of simple organic molecules and crystalline solids of practical importance. It leads on from these basic concepts to discuss some of the most important applications in modern semiconductor electronics and optics. Containing many homework problems and worked examples, the book is suitable for senior-level undergraduate and graduate level students in electrical engineering, materials science and applied physics. Clear exposition of quantum mechanics written in a concise and accessible style Precise physical interpretation of the mathematical foundations of quantum mechanics Illustrates the important concepts and results by reference to real-world examples in electronics and optoelectronics Contains homeworks and worked examples, with solutions available for instructors
Quantum Mechanical Observers and Time Reparametrization Symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konishi, Eiji
2012-07-01
We propose that the degree of freedom of measurement by quantum mechanical observers originates in the Goldstone mode of the spontaneously broken time reparametrization symmetry. Based on the classification of quantum states by their nonunitary temporal behavior as seen in the measurement processes, we describe the concepts of the quantum mechanical observers via the time reparametrization symmetry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishimura, Hirokazu
1996-06-01
Machida and Namiki developed a many-Hilbert-spaces formalism for dealing with the interaction between a quantum object and a measuring apparatus. Their mathematically rugged formalism was polished first by Araki from an operator-algebraic standpoint and then by Ozawa for Boolean quantum mechanics, which approaches a quantum system with a compatible family of continuous superselection rules from a notable and perspicacious viewpoint. On the other hand, Foulis and Randall set up a formal theory for the empirical foundation of all sciences, at the hub of which lies the notion of a manual of operations. They deem an operation as the set of possible outcomes and put down a manual of operations at a family of partially overlapping operations. Their notion of a manual of operations was incorporated into a category-theoretic standpoint into that of a manual of Boolean locales by Nishimura, who looked upon an operation as the complete Boolean algebra of observable events. Considering a family of Hilbert spaces not over a single Boolean locale but over a manual of Boolean locales as a whole, Ozawa's Boolean quantum mechanics is elevated into empirical quantum mechanics, which is, roughly speaking, the study of quantum systems with incompatible families of continuous superselection rules. To this end, we are obliged to develop empirical Hilbert space theory. In particular, empirical versions of the square root lemma for bounded positive operators, the spectral theorem for (possibly unbounded) self-adjoint operators, and Stone's theorem for one-parameter unitary groups are established.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blencowe, Miles
The emergence of the macroscopic classical world from the microscopic quantum world is commonly understood to be a consequence of the fact that any given quantum system is open, unavoidably interacting with unobserved environmental degrees of freedom that will cause initial quantum superposition states of the system to decohere, resulting in classical mixtures of either-or alternatives. A fundamental question concerns how large a macroscopic object can be placed in a manifest quantum state, such as a center of mass quantum superposition state, under conditions where the effects of the interacting environmental degrees of freedom are reduced (i.e. in ultrahigh vacuum and at ultralow temperatures). Recent experiments have in fact demonstrated manifest quantum behavior in nano-to-micron-scale mechanical systems. Gravity has been invoked in various ways as playing a possible fundamental role in enforcing classicality of matter systems beyond a certain scale. Adopting the viewpoint that the standard perturbative quantization of general relativity provides an effective description of quantum gravity that is valid at ordinary energies, we show that it is possible to describe quantitatively how gravity as an environment can induce the decoherence of matter superposition states. The justification for such an approach follows from the fact that we are considering laboratory scale systems, where the matter is localized to regions of small curvature. As with other low energy effects, such as the quantum gravity correction to the Newtonian potential between two ordinary masses, it should be possible to quantitatively evaluate gravitationally induced decoherence rates by employing standard perturbative quantum gravity as an effective field theory; whatever the final form the eventual correct quantum theory of gravity takes, it must converge in its predictions with the effective field theory description at low energies. Research supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF
Grassmann matrix quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anninos, Dionysios; Denef, Frederik; Monten, Ruben
2016-04-01
We explore quantum mechanical theories whose fundamental degrees of freedom are rectangular matrices with Grassmann valued matrix elements. We study particular models where the low energy sector can be described in terms of a bosonic Hermitian matrix quantum mechanics. We describe the classical curved phase space that emerges in the low energy sector. The phase space lives on a compact Kähler manifold parameterized by a complex matrix, of the type discovered some time ago by Berezin. The emergence of a semiclassical bosonic matrix quantum mechanics at low energies requires that the original Grassmann matrices be in the long rectangular limit. We discuss possible holographic interpretations of such matrix models which, by construction, are endowed with a finite dimensional Hilbert space.
Noncommutative quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gamboa, J.; Loewe, M.; Rojas, J. C.
2001-09-01
A general noncommutative quantum mechanical system in a central potential V=V(r) in two dimensions is considered. The spectrum is bounded from below and, for large values of the anticommutative parameter θ, we find an explicit expression for the eigenvalues. In fact, any quantum mechanical system with these characteristics is equivalent to a commutative one in such a way that the interaction V(r) is replaced by V=V(HHO,Lz), where HHO is the Hamiltonian of the two-dimensional harmonic oscillator and Lz is the z component of the angular momentum. For other finite values of θ the model can be solved by using perturbation theory.
Eigenforms, Discrete Processes and Quantum Processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kauffman, Louis H.
2012-05-01
This essay is a discussion of the concept of eigenform, due to Heinz von Foerster, and its relationship with discrete physics and quantum mechanics. We interpret the square root of minus one as a simple oscillatory process - a clock, and as an eigenform. By taking a generalization of this identification of i as a clock and eigenform, we show how quantum mechanics emerges from discrete physics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ellerman, David
2014-03-01
In models of QM over finite fields (e.g., Schumacher's ``modal quantum theory'' MQT), one finite field stands out, Z2, since Z2 vectors represent sets. QM (finite-dimensional) mathematics can be transported to sets resulting in quantum mechanics over sets or QM/sets. This gives a full probability calculus (unlike MQT with only zero-one modalities) that leads to a fulsome theory of QM/sets including ``logical'' models of the double-slit experiment, Bell's Theorem, QIT, and QC. In QC over Z2 (where gates are non-singular matrices as in MQT), a simple quantum algorithm (one gate plus one function evaluation) solves the Parity SAT problem (finding the parity of the sum of all values of an n-ary Boolean function). Classically, the Parity SAT problem requires 2n function evaluations in contrast to the one function evaluation required in the quantum algorithm. This is quantum speedup but with all the calculations over Z2 just like classical computing. This shows definitively that the source of quantum speedup is not in the greater power of computing over the complex numbers, and confirms the idea that the source is in superposition.
Epigenetics: Biology's Quantum Mechanics.
Jorgensen, Richard A
2011-01-01
The perspective presented here is that modern genetics is at a similar stage of development as were early formulations of quantum mechanics theory in the 1920s and that in 2010 we are at the dawn of a new revolution in genetics that promises to enrich and deepen our understanding of the gene and the genome. The interrelationships and interdependence of two views of the gene - the molecular biological view and the epigenetic view - are explored, and it is argued that the classical molecular biological view is incomplete without incorporation of the epigenetic perspective and that in a sense the molecular biological view has been evolving to include the epigenetic view. Intriguingly, this evolution of the molecular view toward the broader and more inclusive epigenetic view of the gene has an intriguing, if not precise, parallel in the evolution of concepts of atomic physics from Newtonian mechanics to quantum mechanics that are interesting to consider. PMID:22639577
Hybrid quantum information processing
Furusawa, Akira
2014-12-04
I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.
Applications of rigged Hilbert spaces in quantum mechanics and signal processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Celeghini, E.; Gadella, M.; del Olmo, M. A.
2016-07-01
Simultaneous use of discrete and continuous bases in quantum systems is not possible in the context of Hilbert spaces, but only in the more general structure of rigged Hilbert spaces (RHS). In addition, the relevant operators in RHS (but not in Hilbert space) are a realization of elements of a Lie enveloping algebra and support representations of semigroups. We explicitly construct here basis dependent RHS of the line and half-line and relate them to the universal enveloping algebras of the Weyl-Heisenberg algebra and su(1, 1), respectively. The complete sub-structure of both RHS and of the operators acting on them is obtained from their algebraic structures or from the related fractional Fourier transforms. This allows us to describe both quantum and signal processing states and their dynamics. Two relevant improvements are introduced: (i) new kinds of filters related to restrictions to subspaces and/or the elimination of high frequency fluctuations and (ii) an operatorial structure that, starting from fix objects, describes their time evolution.
Supersymmetry in quantum mechanics
Lahiri, A. ); Roy, P.K. ); Bagghi, B. )
1990-04-20
A pedagogical review on supersymmetry in quantum mechanics is presented which provides a comprehensive coverage of the subject. First, the key ingredients of the quantization of the systems with anticommuting variables are discussed. The supersymmetric Hamiltonian in quantum mechanics is then constructed by emphasizing the role of partner potentials and the superpotentials. The authors also make explicit the mathematical formulation of the Hamiltonian by considering in detail the N = 1 and N = 2 supersymmetric (quantum) mechanics. Supersymmetry is then discussed in the context of one-dimensional problems and the importance of the factorization method is highlighted. They treat in detail the technique of constructing a hierarchy of Hamiltonians employing the so-called 'shape-invariance' of potentials. To make transparent the relationship between supersymmetry and solvable potentials, they also solve several examples. They then go over the formulation of supersymmetry in radial problems, paying a special attention to the Coulomb and isotropic oscillator potentials. They show that the ladder operator technique may be suitable modified in higher dimensions for generating isospectral Hamiltonians. Next, the criteria for the breaking of supersymmetry is considered and their range of applicability is examined by suitably modifying he definition of Witten's index. Finally, the authors perform some numerical calculations for a class of potentials to show how a modified WKB approximation works in supersymmetric cases.
Feynman's simple quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, Edwin F.
1997-03-01
This sample class presents an alternative to the conventional introduction to quantum mechanics and describes its current use in a credit course. This alternative introduction rests on theory presented in professional and popular writings by Richard Feynman. Feynman showed that Nature gives a simple command to the electron: "Explore all paths." All of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, among other fundamental results, comes from this command. With a desktop computer the student points and clicks to tell a modeled electron which paths to follow. The computer then shows the results, which embody the elemental strangeness and paradoxical behaviors of the world of the very small. Feynman's approach requires few equations and provides a largely non-mathematical introduction to the wave function of conventional quantum mechanics. Draft software and materials already used for two semesters in an e-mail computer conference credit university course show that Feynman's approach works well with a variety of students. The sample class explores computer and written material and describes the next steps in its development.
Quantum Information Processing with Trapped Ions
Barrett, M.D.; Schaetz, T.; Chiaverini, J.; Leibfried, D.; Britton, J.; Itano, W.M.; Jost, J.D.; Langer, C.; Ozeri, R.; Wineland, D.J.; Knill, E.
2005-05-05
We summarize two experiments on the creation and manipulation of multi-particle entangled states of trapped atomic ions - quantum dense coding and quantum teleportation. The techniques used in these experiments constitute an important step toward performing large-scale quantum information processing. The techniques also have application in other areas of physics, providing improvement in quantum-limited measurement and fundamental tests of quantum mechanical principles, for example.
Experimental Quantum Randomness Processing Using Superconducting Qubits.
Yuan, Xiao; Liu, Ke; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Weiting; Ma, Yuwei; Zhang, Fang; Yan, Zhaopeng; Vijay, R; Sun, Luyan; Ma, Xiongfeng
2016-07-01
Coherently manipulating multipartite quantum correlations leads to remarkable advantages in quantum information processing. A fundamental question is whether such quantum advantages persist only by exploiting multipartite correlations, such as entanglement. Recently, Dale, Jennings, and Rudolph negated the question by showing that a randomness processing, quantum Bernoulli factory, using quantum coherence, is strictly more powerful than the one with classical mechanics. In this Letter, focusing on the same scenario, we propose a theoretical protocol that is classically impossible but can be implemented solely using quantum coherence without entanglement. We demonstrate the protocol by exploiting the high-fidelity quantum state preparation and measurement with a superconducting qubit in the circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture and a nearly quantum-limited parametric amplifier. Our experiment shows the advantage of using quantum coherence of a single qubit for information processing even when multipartite correlation is not present. PMID:27419550
Experimental Quantum Randomness Processing Using Superconducting Qubits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Xiao; Liu, Ke; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Weiting; Ma, Yuwei; Zhang, Fang; Yan, Zhaopeng; Vijay, R.; Sun, Luyan; Ma, Xiongfeng
2016-07-01
Coherently manipulating multipartite quantum correlations leads to remarkable advantages in quantum information processing. A fundamental question is whether such quantum advantages persist only by exploiting multipartite correlations, such as entanglement. Recently, Dale, Jennings, and Rudolph negated the question by showing that a randomness processing, quantum Bernoulli factory, using quantum coherence, is strictly more powerful than the one with classical mechanics. In this Letter, focusing on the same scenario, we propose a theoretical protocol that is classically impossible but can be implemented solely using quantum coherence without entanglement. We demonstrate the protocol by exploiting the high-fidelity quantum state preparation and measurement with a superconducting qubit in the circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture and a nearly quantum-limited parametric amplifier. Our experiment shows the advantage of using quantum coherence of a single qubit for information processing even when multipartite correlation is not present.
Emergent mechanics, quantum and un-quantum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ralston, John P.
2013-10-01
There is great interest in quantum mechanics as an "emergent" phenomenon. The program holds that nonobvious patterns and laws can emerge from complicated physical systems operating by more fundamental rules. We find a new approach where quantum mechanics itself should be viewed as an information management tool not derived from physics nor depending on physics. The main accomplishment of quantum-style theory comes in expanding the notion of probability. We construct a map from macroscopic information as data" to quantum probability. The map allows a hidden variable description for quantum states, and efficient use of the helpful tools of quantum mechanics in unlimited circumstances. Quantum dynamics via the time-dependent Shroedinger equation or operator methods actually represents a restricted class of classical Hamiltonian or Lagrangian dynamics, albeit with different numbers of degrees of freedom. We show that under wide circumstances such dynamics emerges from structureless dynamical systems. The uses of the quantum information management tools are illustrated by numerical experiments and practical applications
Mavroudakis, Evangelos; Cuccato, Danilo; Moscatelli, Davide
2014-03-13
The present computational study focuses on the investigation of bimolecular hydrogen abstractions that can occur during free radical polymerization (FRP) processes. In particular, several hydrogen abstractions from four monomers (butyl acrylate, BA; styrene, ST; butyl methacrylate, BMA; vinyl acetate, VA) and three different backbone chains (poly-BA, poly-BA-co-VA, and poly-BA-co-ST) have been studied. The aim is to provide an overview of the kinetics for all possible intermolecular hydrogen abstraction reactions from all chemical species present in a bulk FRP as well as to support the understanding of the influence of chemical environment on hydrogen abstractions. All simulations were performed using density functional theory (DFT) with quantum tunneling factors estimated using the Eckart model. This study provides proof that the presence of an electron donating group in the chemical environment of the abstracted hydrogen atoms can lead to lower activation energies and higher rate coefficients for abstraction whereas the presence of an electron withdrawing group leads to opposite effects. PMID:24555565
Advanced Concepts in Quantum Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Esposito, Giampiero; Marmo, Giuseppe; Miele, Gennaro; Sudarshan, George
2014-11-01
Preface; 1. Introduction: the need for a quantum theory; 2. Experimental foundations of quantum theory; 3. Waves and particles; 4. Schrödinger picture, Heisenberg picture and probabilistic aspects; 5. Integrating the equations of motion; 6. Elementary applications: 1-dimensional problems; 7. Elementary applications: multidimensional problems; 8. Coherent states and related formalism; 9. Introduction to spin; 10. Symmetries in quantum mechanics; 11. Approximation methods; 12. Modern pictures of quantum mechanics; 13. Formulations of quantum mechanics and their physical implications; 14. Exam problems; Glossary of geometric concepts; References; Index.
Polymer quantum mechanics and its continuum limit
Corichi, Alejandro; Vukasinac, Tatjana; Zapata, Jose A.
2007-08-15
A rather nonstandard quantum representation of the canonical commutation relations of quantum mechanics systems, known as the polymer representation, has gained some attention in recent years, due to its possible relation with Planck scale physics. In particular, this approach has been followed in a symmetric sector of loop quantum gravity known as loop quantum cosmology. Here we explore different aspects of the relation between the ordinary Schroedinger theory and the polymer description. The paper has two parts. In the first one, we derive the polymer quantum mechanics starting from the ordinary Schroedinger theory and show that the polymer description arises as an appropriate limit. In the second part we consider the continuum limit of this theory, namely, the reverse process in which one starts from the discrete theory and tries to recover back the ordinary Schroedinger quantum mechanics. We consider several examples of interest, including the harmonic oscillator, the free particle, and a simple cosmological model.
Bender, Carl M; DeKieviet, Maarten; Klevansky, S P
2013-04-28
PT-symmetric quantum mechanics (PTQM) has become a hot area of research and investigation. Since its beginnings in 1998, there have been over 1000 published papers and more than 15 international conferences entirely devoted to this research topic. Originally, PTQM was studied at a highly mathematical level and the techniques of complex variables, asymptotics, differential equations and perturbation theory were used to understand the subtleties associated with the analytic continuation of eigenvalue problems. However, as experiments on PT-symmetric physical systems have been performed, a simple and beautiful physical picture has emerged, and a PT-symmetric system can be understood as one that has a balanced loss and gain. Furthermore, the PT phase transition can now be understood intuitively without resorting to sophisticated mathematics. Research on PTQM is following two different paths: at a fundamental level, physicists are attempting to understand the underlying mathematical structure of these theories with the long-range objective of applying the techniques of PTQM to understanding some of the outstanding problems in physics today, such as the nature of the Higgs particle, the properties of dark matter, the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe, neutrino oscillations and the cosmological constant; at an applied level, new kinds of PT-synthetic materials are being developed, and the PT phase transition is being observed in many physical contexts, such as lasers, optical wave guides, microwave cavities, superconducting wires and electronic circuits. The purpose of this Theme Issue is to acquaint the reader with the latest developments in PTQM. The articles in this volume are written in the style of mini-reviews and address diverse areas of the emerging and exciting new area of PT-symmetric quantum mechanics. PMID:23509390
Decoherence in quantum mechanics and quantum cosmology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hartle, James B.
1992-01-01
A sketch of the quantum mechanics for closed systems adequate for cosmology is presented. This framework is an extension and clarification of that of Everett and builds on several aspects of the post-Everett development. It especially builds on the work of Zeh, Zurek, Joos and Zeh, and others on the interactions of quantum systems with the larger universe and on the ideas of Griffiths, Omnes, and others on the requirements for consistent probabilities of histories.
Principles of Quantum Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Landé, Alfred
2013-10-01
ödinger's equation for non-conservative systems; 46. Pertubation theory; 47. Orthogonality, normalization and Hermitian conjugacy; 48. General matrix elements; Part IV. The Principle of Correspondence: 49. Contact transformations in classical mechanics; 50. Point transformations; 51. Contact transformations in quantum mechanics; 52. Constants of motion and angular co-ordinates; 53. Periodic orbits; 54. De Broglie and Schrödinger function; correspondence to classical mechanics; 55. Packets of probability; 56. Correspondence to hydrodynamics; 57. Motion and scattering of wave packets; 58. Formal correspondence between classical and quantum mechanics; Part V. Mathematical Appendix: Principle of Invariance: 59. The general theorem of transformation; 60. Operator calculus; 61. Exchange relations; three criteria for conjugacy; 62. First method of canonical transformation; 63. Second method of canonical transformation; 64. Proof of the transformation theorem; 65. Invariance of the matrix elements against unitary transformations; 66. Matrix mechanics; Index of literature; Index of names and subjects.
Dissipative Forces and Quantum Mechanics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eck, John S.; Thompson, W. J.
1977-01-01
Shows how to include the dissipative forces of classical mechanics in quantum mechanics by the use of non-Hermetian Hamiltonians. The Ehrenfest theorem for such Hamiltonians is derived, and simple examples which show the classical correspondences are given. (MLH)
PREFACE: Quantum information processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Briggs, Andrew; Ferry, David; Stoneham, Marshall
2006-05-01
Microelectronics and the classical information technologies transformed the physics of semiconductors. Photonics has given optical materials a new direction. Quantum information technologies, we believe, will have immense impact on condensed matter physics. The novel systems of quantum information processing need to be designed and made. Their behaviours must be manipulated in ways that are intrinsically quantal and generally nanoscale. Both in this special issue and in previous issues (see e.g., Spiller T P and Munro W J 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 V1-10) we see the emergence of new ideas that link the fundamentals of science to the pragmatism of market-led industry. We hope these papers will be followed by many others on quantum information processing in the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter.
Optimization of a relativistic quantum mechanical engine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peña, Francisco J.; Ferré, Michel; Orellana, P. A.; Rojas, René G.; Vargas, P.
2016-08-01
We present an optimal analysis for a quantum mechanical engine working between two energy baths within the framework of relativistic quantum mechanics, adopting a first-order correction. This quantum mechanical engine, with the direct energy leakage between the energy baths, consists of two adiabatic and two isoenergetic processes and uses a three-level system of two noninteracting fermions as its working substance. Assuming that the potential wall moves at a finite speed, we derive the expression of power output and, in particular, reproduce the expression for the efficiency at maximum power.
Communication: Quantum mechanics without wavefunctions
Schiff, Jeremy; Poirier, Bill
2012-01-21
We present a self-contained formulation of spin-free non-relativistic quantum mechanics that makes no use of wavefunctions or complex amplitudes of any kind. Quantum states are represented as ensembles of real-valued quantum trajectories, obtained by extremizing an action and satisfying energy conservation. The theory applies for arbitrary configuration spaces and system dimensionalities. Various beneficial ramifications--theoretical, computational, and interpretational--are discussed.
Quantum thermodynamics of general quantum processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Binder, Felix; Vinjanampathy, Sai; Modi, Kavan; Goold, John
2015-03-01
Accurately describing work extraction from a quantum system is a central objective for the extension of thermodynamics to individual quantum systems. The concepts of work and heat are surprisingly subtle when generalizations are made to arbitrary quantum states. We formulate an operational thermodynamics suitable for application to an open quantum system undergoing quantum evolution under a general quantum process by which we mean a completely positive and trace-preserving map. We derive an operational first law of thermodynamics for such processes and show consistency with the second law. We show that heat, from the first law, is positive when the input state of the map majorizes the output state. Moreover, the change in entropy is also positive for the same majorization condition. This makes a strong connection between the two operational laws of thermodynamics.
Quantum thermodynamics of general quantum processes.
Binder, Felix; Vinjanampathy, Sai; Modi, Kavan; Goold, John
2015-03-01
Accurately describing work extraction from a quantum system is a central objective for the extension of thermodynamics to individual quantum systems. The concepts of work and heat are surprisingly subtle when generalizations are made to arbitrary quantum states. We formulate an operational thermodynamics suitable for application to an open quantum system undergoing quantum evolution under a general quantum process by which we mean a completely positive and trace-preserving map. We derive an operational first law of thermodynamics for such processes and show consistency with the second law. We show that heat, from the first law, is positive when the input state of the map majorizes the output state. Moreover, the change in entropy is also positive for the same majorization condition. This makes a strong connection between the two operational laws of thermodynamics. PMID:25871066
Phase space quantum mechanics - Direct
Nasiri, S.; Sobouti, Y.; Taati, F.
2006-09-15
Conventional approach to quantum mechanics in phase space (q,p), is to take the operator based quantum mechanics of Schroedinger, or an equivalent, and assign a c-number function in phase space to it. We propose to begin with a higher level of abstraction, in which the independence and the symmetric role of q and p is maintained throughout, and at once arrive at phase space state functions. Upon reduction to the q- or p-space the proposed formalism gives the conventional quantum mechanics, however, with a definite rule for ordering of factors of noncommuting observables. Further conceptual and practical merits of the formalism are demonstrated throughout the text.
BOOK REVIEWS: Quantum Mechanics: Fundamentals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whitaker, A.
2004-02-01
chapter of his book to these matters, titled ‘The Measurement Process and the Statistical Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics’. Gottfried considered the von Neumann or Dirac ‘collapse of state-vector’ (or ‘reduction postulate’ or ‘projection postulate’) was unsatisfactory, as he argued that it led inevitably to the requirement to include ‘consciousness’ in the theory. He replaced this by a more mathematically and conceptually sophisticated treatment in which, following measurement, the density matrix of the correlated measured and measuring systems, rho, is replaced by hat rho, in which the interference terms from rho have been removed. rho represents a pure state, and hat rho a mixture, but Gottfried argued that they are ‘indistinguishable’, and that we may make our replacement, ‘safe in the knowledge that the error will never be found’. Now our combined state is represented as a mixture, it is intuitive, Gottfried argued, to interpret it in a probabilistic way, |cm|2 being the probability of obtaining the mth measurement result. Bell liked Gottfried’s treatment little more than the cruder ‘collapse’ idea of von Neumann, and when, shortly before Bell’s death, his polemical article ‘Against measurement’ was published in the August 1990 issue of Physics World (pages 33-40), his targets included, not only Landau and Lifshitz’s classic Quantum Mechanics, pilloried for its advocacy of old-fashioned collapse, and a paper by van Kampen in Physica, but also Gottfried’s approach. Bell regarded his replacement of rho by hat rho as a ‘butchering’ of the density matrix, and considered, in any case, that even the butchered density matrix should represent co-existence of different terms, not a set of probabilities. Gottfried has replied to Bell ( Physics World, October 1991, pages 34-40; Nature 405, 533-36 (2000)). He has also become a major commentator on Bell’s work, for example editing the section on quantum foundations in the World
Quantum mechanics from classical statistics
Wetterich, C.
2010-04-15
Quantum mechanics can emerge from classical statistics. A typical quantum system describes an isolated subsystem of a classical statistical ensemble with infinitely many classical states. The state of this subsystem can be characterized by only a few probabilistic observables. Their expectation values define a density matrix if they obey a 'purity constraint'. Then all the usual laws of quantum mechanics follow, including Heisenberg's uncertainty relation, entanglement and a violation of Bell's inequalities. No concepts beyond classical statistics are needed for quantum physics - the differences are only apparent and result from the particularities of those classical statistical systems which admit a quantum mechanical description. Born's rule for quantum mechanical probabilities follows from the probability concept for a classical statistical ensemble. In particular, we show how the non-commuting properties of quantum operators are associated to the use of conditional probabilities within the classical system, and how a unitary time evolution reflects the isolation of the subsystem. As an illustration, we discuss a classical statistical implementation of a quantum computer.
Quantum Mechanics in Insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aeppli, G.
2009-08-01
Atomic physics is undergoing a large revival because of the possibility of trapping and cooling ions and atoms both for individual quantum control as well as collective quantum states, such as Bose-Einstein condensates. The present lectures start from the `atomic' physics of isolated atoms in semiconductors and insulators and proceed to coupling them together to yield magnets undergoing quantum phase transitions as well as displaying novel quantum states with no classical analogs. The lectures are based on: G.-Y. Xu et al., Science 317, 1049-1052 (2007); G. Aeppli, P. Warburton, C. Renner, BT Technology Journal, 24, 163-169 (2006); H. M. Ronnow et al., Science 308, 392-395 (2005) and N. Q. Vinh et al., PNAS 105, 10649-10653 (2008).
Quantum Mechanics in Insulators
Aeppli, G.
2009-08-20
Atomic physics is undergoing a large revival because of the possibility of trapping and cooling ions and atoms both for individual quantum control as well as collective quantum states, such as Bose-Einstein condensates. The present lectures start from the 'atomic' physics of isolated atoms in semiconductors and insulators and proceed to coupling them together to yield magnets undergoing quantum phase transitions as well as displaying novel quantum states with no classical analogs. The lectures are based on: G.-Y. Xu et al., Science 317, 1049-1052 (2007); G. Aeppli, P. Warburton, C. Renner, BT Technology Journal, 24, 163-169 (2006); H. M. Ronnow et al., Science 308, 392-395 (2005) and N. Q. Vinh et al., PNAS 105, 10649-10653 (2008).
Quantum mechanics from invariance principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moldoveanu, Florin
2015-07-01
Quantum mechanics is an extremely successful theory of nature and yet it lacks an intuitive axiomatization. In contrast, the special theory of relativity is well understood and is rooted into natural or experimentally justified postulates. Here we introduce an axiomatization approach to quantum mechanics which is very similar to special theory of relativity derivation. The core idea is that a composed system obeys the same laws of nature as its components. This leads to a Jordan-Lie algebraic formulation of quantum mechanics. The starting assumptions are minimal: the laws of nature are invariant under time evolution, the laws of nature are invariant under tensor composition, the laws of nature are relational, together with the ability to define a physical state (positivity). Quantum mechanics is singled out by a fifth experimentally justified postulate: nature violates Bell's inequalities.
Quantum mechanical light harvesting mechanisms in photosynthesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scholes, Gregory
2012-02-01
More than 10 million billion photons of light strike a leaf each second. Incredibly, almost every red-coloured photon is captured by chlorophyll pigments and initiates steps to plant growth. Last year we reported that marine algae use quantum mechanics in order to optimize photosynthesis [1], a process essential to its survival. These and other insights from the natural world promise to revolutionize our ability to harness the power of the sun. In a recent review [2] we described the principles learned from studies of various natural antenna complexes and suggested how to utilize that knowledge to shape future technologies. We forecast the need to develop ways to direct and regulate excitation energy flow using molecular organizations that facilitate feedback and control--not easy given that the energy is only stored for a billionth of a second. In this presentation I will describe new results that explain the observation and meaning of quantum-coherent energy transfer. [4pt] [1] Elisabetta Collini, Cathy Y. Wong, Krystyna E. Wilk, Paul M. G. Curmi, Paul Brumer, and Gregory D. Scholes, ``Coherently wired light-harvesting in photosynthetic marine algae at ambient temperature'' Nature 463, 644-648 (2010).[0pt] [2] Gregory D. Scholes, Graham R. Fleming, Alexandra Olaya-Castro and Rienk van Grondelle, ``Lessons from nature about solar light harvesting'' Nature Chem. 3, 763-774 (2011).
Emergent quantum mechanics without wavefunctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mesa Pascasio, J.; Fussy, S.; Schwabl, H.; Grössing, G.
2016-03-01
We present our model of an Emergent Quantum Mechanics which can be characterized by “realism without pre-determination”. This is illustrated by our analytic description and corresponding computer simulations of Bohmian-like “surreal” trajectories, which are obtained classically, i.e. without the use of any quantum mechanical tool such as wavefunctions. However, these trajectories do not necessarily represent ontological paths of particles but rather mappings of the probability density flux in a hydrodynamical sense. Modelling emergent quantum mechanics in a high-low intesity double slit scenario gives rise to the “quantum sweeper effect” with a characteristic intensity pattern. This phenomenon should be experimentally testable via weak measurement techniques.
Quantum mechanics in complex systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoehn, Ross Douglas
This document should be considered in its separation; there are three distinct topics contained within and three distinct chapters within the body of works. In a similar fashion, this abstract should be considered in three parts. Firstly, we explored the existence of multiply-charged atomic ions by having developed a new set of dimensional scaling equations as well as a series of relativistic augmentations to the standard dimensional scaling procedure and to the self-consistent field calculations. Secondly, we propose a novel method of predicting drug efficacy in hopes to facilitate the discovery of new small molecule therapeutics by modeling the agonist-protein system as being similar to the process of Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy. Finally, we facilitate the instruction in basic quantum mechanical topics through the use of quantum games; this method of approach allows for the generation of exercises with the intent of conveying the fundamental concepts within a first year quantum mechanics classroom. Furthermore, no to be mentioned within the body of the text, yet presented in appendix form, certain works modeling the proliferation of cells types within the confines of man-made lattices for the purpose of facilitating artificial vascular transplants. In Chapter 2, we present a theoretical framework which describes multiply-charged atomic ions, their stability within super-intense laser fields, also lay corrections to the systems due to relativistic effects. Dimensional scaling calculations with relativistic corrections for systems: H, H-, H 2-, He, He-, He2-, He3- within super-intense laser fields were completed. Also completed were three-dimensional self consistent field calculations to verify the dimensionally scaled quantities. With the aforementioned methods the system's ability to stably bind 'additional' electrons through the development of multiple isolated regions of high potential energy leading to nodes of high electron density is shown
Conformal quantum mechanics and holographic quench
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Järvelä, Jarkko; Keränen, Ville; Keski-Vakkuri, Esko
2016-02-01
Recently, there has been much interest in holographic computations of two-point nonequilibrium Green functions from anti-de Sitter- (AdS-)Vaidya backgrounds. In the strongly coupled quantum field theory on the boundary, the dual interpretation of the background is an equilibration process called a holographic quench. The two-dimensional AdS-Vaidya spacetime is a special case, dual to conformal quantum mechanics. We study how the quench is incorporated into a Hamiltonian H +θ (t )Δ H and into correlation functions. With the help of recent work on correlation functions in conformal quantum mechanics, we first rederive the known two-point functions, and then compute nonequilibrium three- and four-point functions. We also compute the three-point function Witten diagram in the two-dimensional AdS-Vaidya background, and find agreement with the conformal quantum mechanics result.
Quantum Mechanics and Narratability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Myrvold, Wayne C.
2016-05-01
As has been noted by several authors, in a relativistic context, there is an interesting difference between classical and quantum state evolution. For a classical system, a state history of a quantum system given along one foliation uniquely determines, without any consideration of the system's dynamics, a state history along any other foliation. This is not true for quantum state evolution; there are cases in which a state history along one foliation is compatible with multiple distinct state histories along some other, a phenomenon that David Albert has dubbed "non-narratability." In this article, we address the question of whether non-narratability is restricted to the sorts of special states that so far have been used to illustrate it. The results of the investigation suggest that there has been a misplaced emphasis on underdetermination of state histories; though this is generic for the special cases that have up until now been considered, involving bipartite systems in pure entangled states, it fails generically in cases in which more component systems are taken into account, and for bipartite systems that have some entanglement with their environment. For such cases, if we impose relativistic causality constraints on the evolution, then, except for very special states, a state history along one foliation uniquely determines a state history along any other. But this in itself is a marked difference between classical and quantum state evolution, because, in a classical setting, no considerations of dynamics at all are needed to go from a state history along one foliation to a state history along another.
Quantum Mechanics and Narratability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Myrvold, Wayne C.
2016-07-01
As has been noted by several authors, in a relativistic context, there is an interesting difference between classical and quantum state evolution. For a classical system, a state history of a quantum system given along one foliation uniquely determines, without any consideration of the system's dynamics, a state history along any other foliation. This is not true for quantum state evolution; there are cases in which a state history along one foliation is compatible with multiple distinct state histories along some other, a phenomenon that David Albert has dubbed "non-narratability." In this article, we address the question of whether non-narratability is restricted to the sorts of special states that so far have been used to illustrate it. The results of the investigation suggest that there has been a misplaced emphasis on underdetermination of state histories; though this is generic for the special cases that have up until now been considered, involving bipartite systems in pure entangled states, it fails generically in cases in which more component systems are taken into account, and for bipartite systems that have some entanglement with their environment. For such cases, if we impose relativistic causality constraints on the evolution, then, except for very special states, a state history along one foliation uniquely determines a state history along any other. But this in itself is a marked difference between classical and quantum state evolution, because, in a classical setting, no considerations of dynamics at all are needed to go from a state history along one foliation to a state history along another.
Kowalevski top in quantum mechanics
Matsuyama, A.
2013-09-15
The quantum mechanical Kowalevski top is studied by the direct diagonalization of the Hamiltonian. The spectra show different behaviors depending on the region divided by the bifurcation sets of the classical invariant tori. Some of these spectra are nearly degenerate due to the multiplicity of the invariant tori. The Kowalevski top has several symmetries and symmetry quantum numbers can be assigned to the eigenstates. We have also carried out the semiclassical quantization of the Kowalevski top by the EBK formulation. It is found that the semiclassical spectra are close to the exact values, thus the eigenstates can be also labeled by the integer quantum numbers. The symmetries of the system are shown to have close relations with the semiclassical quantum numbers and the near-degeneracy of the spectra. -- Highlights: •Quantum spectra of the Kowalevski top are calculated. •Semiclassical quantization is carried out by the EBK formulation. •Quantum states are labeled by the semiclassical integer quantum numbers. •Multiplicity of the classical torus makes the spectra nearly degenerate. •Symmetries, quantum numbers and near-degenerate spectra are closely related.
PT quantum mechanics - Recent results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bender, Carl M.
2012-09-01
Most quantum physicists believe that a quantum-mechanical Hamiltonian must be Dirac Hermitian (invariant under matrix transposition and complex conjugation) to be sure that the energy eigenvalues are real and that time evolution is unitary. However, the non-Dirac-hermitian Hamiltonian H = p2+ix3 has a real positive discrete spectrum and generates unitary time evolution and defines a fully consistent and physical quantum theory. Evidently, Dirac Hermiticity is too restrictive. While H = p2+ix3 is not Dirac Hermitian, it is PT symmetric (invariant under combined space reflection P and time reversal T). Another PT-symmetric Hamiltonian whose energy levels are real, positive and discrete is H = p2-x4, which contains an upside-down potential. The quantum mechanics defined by a PT-symmetric Hamiltonian is a complex generalization of ordinary quantum mechanics. When quantum mechanics and quantum field theory are extended into the complex domain, new kinds of theories having strange and remarkable properties emerge. In the past two years some of these properties have been verified in laboratory experiments. Here, we first discuss PT-symmetric Hamiltonians at a simple intuitive level and explain why the energy levels of such Hamiltonians may be real, positive, and discrete. Second, we describe a recent experiment in which the PT phase transition was observed. Third, we briefly mention that PT-symmetric theories can be useful at a fundamental level. While the double-scaling limit of an O(N)-symmetric gφ4 quantum field theory appears to be inconsistent because the critical value of g is negative, this limit is in fact not inconsistent because the critical theory is PT symmetric.
Energy conservation in quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prentis, Jeffrey J.; Fedak, William A.
2004-05-01
In the classical mechanics of conservative systems, the position and momentum evolve deterministically such that the sum of the kinetic energy and potential energy remains constant in time. This canonical trademark of energy conservation is absent in the standard presentations of quantum mechanics based on the Schrödinger picture. We present a purely canonical proof of energy conservation that focuses exclusively on the time-dependent position x(t) and momentum p(t) operators. This treatment of energy conservation serves as an introduction to the Heisenberg picture and illuminates the classical-quantum connection. We derive a quantum-mechanical work-energy theorem and show explicitly how the time dependence of x and p and the noncommutivity of x and p conspire to bring about a perfect temporal balance between the evolving kinetic and potential parts of the total energy operator.
Quantum Mechanical Earth: Where Orbitals Become Orbits
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Keeports, David
2012-01-01
Macroscopic objects, although quantum mechanical by nature, conform to Newtonian mechanics under normal observation. According to the quantum mechanical correspondence principle, quantum behavior is indistinguishable from classical behavior in the limit of very large quantum numbers. The purpose of this paper is to provide an example of the…
BOOK REVIEW: Relativistic Quantum Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antoine, J.-P.
2004-01-01
The aim of relativistic quantum mechanics is to describe the finer details of the structure of atoms and molecules, where relativistic effects become nonnegligible. It is a sort of intermediate realm, between the familiar nonrelativistic quantum mechanics and fully relativistic quantum field theory, and thus it lacks the simplicity and elegance of both. Yet it is a necessary tool, mostly for quantum chemists. Pilkuhn's book offers to this audience an up-to-date survey of these methods, which is quite welcome since most previous textbooks are at least ten years old. The point of view of the author is to start immediately in the relativistic domain, following the lead of Maxwell's equations rather than classical mechanics, and thus to treat the nonrelativistic version as an approximation. Thus Chapter 1 takes off from Maxwell's equations (in the noncovariant Coulomb gauge) and gradually derives the basic aspects of Quantum Mechanics in a rather pedestrian way (states and observables, Hilbert space, operators, quantum measurement, scattering,. Chapter 2 starts with the Lorentz transformations, then continues with the Pauli spin equation and the Dirac equation and some of their applications (notably the hydrogen atom). Chapter 3 is entitled `Quantum fields and particles', but falls short of treating quantum field theory properly: only creation/annihilation operators are considered, for a particle in a box. The emphasis is on two-electron states (the Pauli principle, the Foldy--Wouthuysen elimination of small components of Dirac spinors, Breit projection operators. Chapter 4 is devoted to scattering theory and the description of relativistic bound states. Chapter 5, finally, covers hyperfine interactions and radiative corrections. As we said above, relativistic quantum mechanics is by nature limited in scope and rather inelegant and Pilkuhn's book is no exception. The notation is often heavy (mostly noncovariant) and the mathematical level rather low. The central topic
Faster than Hermitian quantum mechanics.
Bender, Carl M; Brody, Dorje C; Jones, Hugh F; Meister, Bernhard K
2007-01-26
Given an initial quantum state |psi(I)> and a final quantum state |psi(F)>, there exist Hamiltonians H under which |psi(I)> evolves into |psi(F)>. Consider the following quantum brachistochrone problem: subject to the constraint that the difference between the largest and smallest eigenvalues of H is held fixed, which H achieves this transformation in the least time tau? For Hermitian Hamiltonians tau has a nonzero lower bound. However, among non-Hermitian PT-symmetric Hamiltonians satisfying the same energy constraint, tau can be made arbitrarily small without violating the time-energy uncertainty principle. This is because for such Hamiltonians the path from |psi(I)> to |psi(F)> can be made short. The mechanism described here is similar to that in general relativity in which the distance between two space-time points can be made small if they are connected by a wormhole. This result may have applications in quantum computing. PMID:17358747
Quantum mechanics in complex systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoehn, Ross Douglas
This document should be considered in its separation; there are three distinct topics contained within and three distinct chapters within the body of works. In a similar fashion, this abstract should be considered in three parts. Firstly, we explored the existence of multiply-charged atomic ions by having developed a new set of dimensional scaling equations as well as a series of relativistic augmentations to the standard dimensional scaling procedure and to the self-consistent field calculations. Secondly, we propose a novel method of predicting drug efficacy in hopes to facilitate the discovery of new small molecule therapeutics by modeling the agonist-protein system as being similar to the process of Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy. Finally, we facilitate the instruction in basic quantum mechanical topics through the use of quantum games; this method of approach allows for the generation of exercises with the intent of conveying the fundamental concepts within a first year quantum mechanics classroom. Furthermore, no to be mentioned within the body of the text, yet presented in appendix form, certain works modeling the proliferation of cells types within the confines of man-made lattices for the purpose of facilitating artificial vascular transplants. In Chapter 2, we present a theoretical framework which describes multiply-charged atomic ions, their stability within super-intense laser fields, also lay corrections to the systems due to relativistic effects. Dimensional scaling calculations with relativistic corrections for systems: H, H-, H 2-, He, He-, He2-, He3- within super-intense laser fields were completed. Also completed were three-dimensional self consistent field calculations to verify the dimensionally scaled quantities. With the aforementioned methods the system's ability to stably bind 'additional' electrons through the development of multiple isolated regions of high potential energy leading to nodes of high electron density is shown
Optimal guidance law in quantum mechanics
Yang, Ciann-Dong Cheng, Lieh-Lieh
2013-11-15
Following de Broglie’s idea of a pilot wave, this paper treats quantum mechanics as a problem of stochastic optimal guidance law design. The guidance scenario considered in the quantum world is that an electron is the flight vehicle to be guided and its accompanying pilot wave is the guidance law to be designed so as to guide the electron to a random target driven by the Wiener process, while minimizing a cost-to-go function. After solving the stochastic optimal guidance problem by differential dynamic programming, we point out that the optimal pilot wave guiding the particle’s motion is just the wavefunction Ψ(t,x), a solution to the Schrödinger equation; meanwhile, the closed-loop guidance system forms a complex state–space dynamics for Ψ(t,x), from which quantum operators emerge naturally. Quantum trajectories under the action of the optimal guidance law are solved and their statistical distribution is shown to coincide with the prediction of the probability density function Ψ{sup ∗}Ψ. -- Highlights: •Treating quantum mechanics as a pursuit-evasion game. •Reveal an interesting analogy between guided flight motion and guided quantum motion. •Solve optimal quantum guidance problem by dynamic programming. •Gives a formal proof of de Broglie–Bohm’s idea of a pilot wave. •The optimal pilot wave is shown to be a wavefunction solved from Schrödinger equation.
BOOK REVIEWS: Quantum Mechanics: Fundamentals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whitaker, A.
2004-02-01
chapter of his book to these matters, titled ‘The Measurement Process and the Statistical Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics’. Gottfried considered the von Neumann or Dirac ‘collapse of state-vector’ (or ‘reduction postulate’ or ‘projection postulate’) was unsatisfactory, as he argued that it led inevitably to the requirement to include ‘consciousness’ in the theory. He replaced this by a more mathematically and conceptually sophisticated treatment in which, following measurement, the density matrix of the correlated measured and measuring systems, rho, is replaced by hat rho, in which the interference terms from rho have been removed. rho represents a pure state, and hat rho a mixture, but Gottfried argued that they are ‘indistinguishable’, and that we may make our replacement, ‘safe in the knowledge that the error will never be found’. Now our combined state is represented as a mixture, it is intuitive, Gottfried argued, to interpret it in a probabilistic way, |cm|2 being the probability of obtaining the mth measurement result. Bell liked Gottfried’s treatment little more than the cruder ‘collapse’ idea of von Neumann, and when, shortly before Bell’s death, his polemical article ‘Against measurement’ was published in the August 1990 issue of Physics World (pages 33-40), his targets included, not only Landau and Lifshitz’s classic Quantum Mechanics, pilloried for its advocacy of old-fashioned collapse, and a paper by van Kampen in Physica, but also Gottfried’s approach. Bell regarded his replacement of rho by hat rho as a ‘butchering’ of the density matrix, and considered, in any case, that even the butchered density matrix should represent co-existence of different terms, not a set of probabilities. Gottfried has replied to Bell ( Physics World, October 1991, pages 34-40; Nature 405, 533-36 (2000)). He has also become a major commentator on Bell’s work, for example editing the section on quantum foundations in the World
Hermeneutics, Underdetermination and Quantum Mechanics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cushing, James T.
1995-01-01
States that the existence of an essential underdetermination in the interpretation of the formalism of quantum mechanics, in spite of the widespread belief that logic and empirical considerations alone demand an indeterministic world view in physics, legitimizes the analysis of hermeneutics in science education. (LZ)
Renormalization group in quantum mechanics
Polony, J.
1996-12-01
The running coupling constants are introduced in quantum mechanics and their evolution is described with the help of the renormalization group equation. The harmonic oscillator and the propagation on curved spaces are presented as examples. The Hamiltonian and the Lagrangian scaling relations are obtained. These evolution equations are used to construct low energy effective models. Copyright {copyright} 1996 Academic Press, Inc.
Effective equations for the quantum pendulum from momentous quantum mechanics
Hernandez, Hector H.; Chacon-Acosta, Guillermo
2012-08-24
In this work we study the quantum pendulum within the framework of momentous quantum mechanics. This description replaces the Schroedinger equation for the quantum evolution of the system with an infinite set of classical equations for expectation values of configuration variables, and quantum dispersions. We solve numerically the effective equations up to the second order, and describe its evolution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baer, Michael; Nakamura, Hiroki
1987-10-01
A three-dimensional quantum mechanical study of the (Ar+H2)+ system was carried out within the reactive infinite order sudden approximation. All three arrangement channels for exchange and charge transfer were treated simultaneously. Steric factors, opacity functions, angular distributions, and integral cross sections were calculated. Whenever possible, these were compared with both experimental and trajectory surface hopping (TSH) results. Whereas the fit with the TSH results was reasonable, the fit obtained with the experiment was less satisfactory. The reason for that can be attributed at least partially to the semiempirical DIM potential employed in the calculation.
Provable quantum advantage in randomness processing.
Dale, Howard; Jennings, David; Rudolph, Terry
2015-01-01
Quantum advantage is notoriously hard to find and even harder to prove. For example the class of functions computable with classical physics exactly coincides with the class computable quantum mechanically. It is strongly believed, but not proven, that quantum computing provides exponential speed-up for a range of problems, such as factoring. Here we address a computational scenario of randomness processing in which quantum theory provably yields, not only resource reduction over classical stochastic physics, but a strictly larger class of problems which can be solved. Beyond new foundational insights into the nature and malleability of randomness, and the distinction between quantum and classical information, these results also offer the potential of developing classically intractable simulations with currently accessible quantum technologies. PMID:26381816
Optical Hybrid Quantum Information Processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takeda, Shuntaro; Furusawa, Akira
Historically, two complementary approaches to optical quantum information processing have been pursued: qubits and continuous-variables, each exploiting either particle or wave nature of light. However, both approaches have pros and cons. In recent years, there has been a significant progress in combining both approaches with a view to realizing hybrid protocols that overcome the current limitations. In this chapter, we first review the development of the two approaches with a special focus on quantum teleportation and its applications. We then introduce our recent research progress in realizing quantum teleportation by a hybrid scheme, and mention its future applications to universal and fault-tolerant quantum information processing.
Quantum mechanics of black holes.
Witten, Edward
2012-08-01
The popular conception of black holes reflects the behavior of the massive black holes found by astronomers and described by classical general relativity. These objects swallow up whatever comes near and emit nothing. Physicists who have tried to understand the behavior of black holes from a quantum mechanical point of view, however, have arrived at quite a different picture. The difference is analogous to the difference between thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. The thermodynamic description is a good approximation for a macroscopic system, but statistical mechanics describes what one will see if one looks more closely. PMID:22859480
Trapped Atomic Ions and Quantum Information Processing
Wineland, D. J.; Leibfried, D.; Bergquist, J. C.; Blakestad, R. B.; Bollinger, J. J.; Britton, J.; Chiaverini, J.; Epstein, R. J.; Hume, D. B.; Itano, W. M.; Jost, J. D.; Koelemeij, J. C. J.; Langer, C.; Ozeri, R.; Reichle, R.; Rosenband, T.; Schaetz, T.; Schmidt, P. O.; Seidelin, S.; Shiga, N.
2006-11-07
The basic requirements for quantum computing and quantum simulation (single- and multi-qubit gates, long memory times, etc.) have been demonstrated in separate experiments on trapped ions. Construction of a large-scale information processor will require synthesis of these elements and implementation of high-fidelity operations on a very large number of qubits. This is still well in the future. NIST and other groups are addressing part of the scaling issue by trying to fabricate multi-zone arrays of traps that would allow highly-parallel and scalable processing. In the near term, some simple quantum processing protocols are being used to aid in quantum metrology, such as in atomic clocks. As the number of qubits increases, Schroedinger's cat paradox and the measurement problem in quantum mechanics become more apparent; with luck, trapped ion systems might be able to shed light on these fundamental issues.
Three-space from quantum mechanics
Chew, G.F.; Stapp, H.P.
1988-08-01
We formulate a discrete quantum-mechanical precursor to spacetime geometry. The objective is to provide the foundation for a quantum mechanics that is rooted exclusively in quantum-mechanical concepts, with all classical features, including the three-dimensional spatial continuum, emerging dynamically.
Geometrical Phases in Quantum Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christian, Joy Julius
In quantum mechanics, the path-dependent geometrical phase associated with a physical system, over and above the familiar dynamical phase, was initially discovered in the context of adiabatically changing environments. Subsequently, Aharonov and Anandan liberated this phase from the original formulation of Berry, which used Hamiltonians, dependent on curves in a classical parameter space, to represent the cyclic variations of the environments. Their purely quantum mechanical treatment, independent of Hamiltonians, instead used the non-trivial topological structure of the projective space of one-dimensional subspaces of an appropriate Hilbert space. The geometrical phase, in their treatment, results from a parallel transport of the time-dependent pure quantum states along a curve in this space, which is endowed with an abelian connection. Unlike Berry, they were able to achieve this without resort to an adiabatic approximation or to a time-independent eigenvalue equation. Prima facie, these two approaches are conceptually quite different. After a review of both approaches, an exposition bridging this apparent conceptual gap is given; by rigorously analyzing a model composite system, it is shown that, in an appropriate correspondence limit, the Berry phase can be recovered as a special case from the Aharonov-Anandan phase. Moreover, the model composite system is used to show that Berry's correction to the traditional Born-Oppenheimer energy spectra indeed brings the spectra closer to the exact results. Then, an experimental arrangement to measure geometrical phases associated with cyclic and non-cyclic variations of quantum states of an entangled composite system is proposed, utilizing the fundamental ideas of the recently opened field of two-particle interferometry. This arrangement not only resolves the controversy regarding the true nature of the phases associated with photon states, but also unequivocally predicts experimentally accessible geometrical phases in a
Hermeneutics, underdetermination and quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cushing, James T.
1995-04-01
There exists an essential underdetermination in the interpretation of the formalism of quantum mechanics and this extends even to the question of whether or not physical phenomena at the most fundamental level are irreducibly and ineliminably indeterministic or absolutely deterministic. This is true in spite of the widespread belief that logic and empirical considerations alone demand an indeterministic world view in physics. This lends support to Martin Eger's analysis of a role for hermeneutics in science education.
Quantum mechanics and heat conduction
Bajpai, S.D. ); Mishra, S. )
1991-08-01
One of the fundamental problems in quantum mechanics is to find a solution of Schroedinger equation for different forms of potentials. The object of this paper is to obtain a series solution of a particular one-dimensional, time-dependent Schroedinger equation involving Hermite polynomials. The authors also show a relationship of their particular one-dimensional, time-dependent Schroedinger equation with an equation of heat conduction.
Quantum Mechanics Beyond Hilbert Space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antoine, J.-P.
Going Beyond Hilbert Space Why? The Different Formalisms What Does One Obtain? The Mathematical Formalism Rigged Hilbert Spaces Scales and Lattices of Hilbert Spaces Partial Inner Product Spaces Operators on PIP-Spaces Application in Quantum Mechanics: The Fock-Bargmann Representation - Revisited A RHS of Entire Functions A LHS of Entire Functions Around ℑ Application in Scattering Theory RHS: Resonances, Gamow Vectors, Arrow of Time LHS: Integral Equations vs. Complex Scaling Conclusion
Complementarity in Categorical Quantum Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heunen, Chris
2012-07-01
We relate notions of complementarity in three layers of quantum mechanics: (i) von Neumann algebras, (ii) Hilbert spaces, and (iii) orthomodular lattices. Taking a more general categorical perspective of which the above are instances, we consider dagger monoidal kernel categories for (ii), so that (i) become (sub)endohomsets and (iii) become subobject lattices. By developing a `point-free' definition of copyability we link (i) commutative von Neumann subalgebras, (ii) classical structures, and (iii) Boolean subalgebras.
Hybrid quantum information processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Furusawa, Akira
2013-03-01
There are two types of schemes for quantum information processing (QIP). One is based on qubits, and the other is based on continuous variables (CVs), where the computational basis for qubit QIP is { | 0 > , | 1 > } and that for CV QIP is { | x > } (- ∞ < x < ∞). A universal gate set for qubit QIP is {`bit flip'σx, `phase flip'σz, `Hadamard gate'H, ` π / 8 gate', `controlled NOT (CNOT) gate'}. Similarly, a universal gate set for CV QIP is {` x-displacement' D& circ; (x) , ` p-displacement' D& circ; (ip) , `Fourier gate' F& circ;, `cubic phase gate'e ikxcirc;3, `quantum non-demolition (QND) gate'}. There is one-to-one correspondence between them. CV version of `bit flip'σx is ` x-displacement' D& circ; (x) , which changes the value of the computational basis. Similarly, CV version of `phase flip'σz is ` p-displacement' D& circ; (ip) , where `phase flip'σz switches the ``value'' of `conjugate basis' of qubit { | + > , | - > } (| +/- > = (| 0 > +/- | 1 >) / √{ 2}) and ` p-displacement' D& circ; (ip) changes the value of CV conjugate basis { | p > }. `Hadamard' and `Fourier' gates transform computational bases to respective conjugate bases. CV version of ` π / 8 gate' is a `cubic phase gate'e ikxcirc;3, and CV version of CNOT gate is a QND gate. However, the origin of nonlinearity for QIP is totally different, here the very basic nonlinear operation is calculation of multiplication and of course it is the heart of information processing. The nonlinearity of qubit QIP comes from a CNOT gate, while that of CV QIP comes from a cubic phase gate. Since nonlinear operations are harder to realize compared to linear operations, the most difficult operation for qubit is a CNOT gate, while the counter part, a QND gate, is not so difficult. CNOT and QND gates are both entangling gates, it follows that creating entanglement is easier for CV QIP compared to qubit QIP. Here, creating entanglement is the heart of QIP. So, it is a big advantage of CV QIP. On
Quantum mechanical coherence, resonance, and mind
Stapp, H.P.
1995-03-26
Norbert Wiener and J.B.S. Haldane suggested during the early thirties that the profound changes in our conception of matter entailed by quantum theory opens the way for our thoughts, and other experiential or mind-like qualities, to play a role in nature that is causally interactive and effective, rather than purely epiphenomenal, as required by classical mechanics. The mathematical basis of this suggestion is described here, and it is then shown how, by giving mind this efficacious role in natural process, the classical character of our perceptions of the quantum universe can be seen to be a consequence of evolutionary pressures for the survival of the species.
Faster than Hermitian Quantum Mechanics
Bender, Carl M.; Brody, Dorje C.; Jones, Hugh F.; Meister, Bernhard K.
2007-01-26
Given an initial quantum state vertical bar {psi}{sub I}> and a final quantum state vertical bar {psi}{sub F}>, there exist Hamiltonians H under which vertical bar {psi}{sub I}> evolves into vertical bar {psi}{sub F}>. Consider the following quantum brachistochrone problem: subject to the constraint that the difference between the largest and smallest eigenvalues of H is held fixed, which H achieves this transformation in the least time {tau}? For Hermitian Hamiltonians {tau} has a nonzero lower bound. However, among non-Hermitian PT-symmetric Hamiltonians satisfying the same energy constraint, {tau} can be made arbitrarily small without violating the time-energy uncertainty principle. This is because for such Hamiltonians the path from vertical bar {psi}{sub I}> to vertical bar {psi}{sub F}> can be made short. The mechanism described here is similar to that in general relativity in which the distance between two space-time points can be made small if they are connected by a wormhole. This result may have applications in quantum computing.
The emergent Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hollowood, Timothy J.
2014-05-01
We introduce a new and conceptually simple interpretation of quantum mechanics based on reduced density matrices of sub-systems from which the standard Copenhagen interpretation emerges as an effective description of macroscopically large systems. This interpretation describes a world in which definite measurement results are obtained with probabilities that reproduce the Born rule. Wave function collapse is seen to be a useful but fundamentally unnecessary piece of prudent book keeping which is only valid for macro-systems. The new interpretation lies in a class of modal interpretations in that it applies to quantum systems that interact with a much larger environment. However, we show that it does not suffer from the problems that have plagued similar modal interpretations like macroscopic superpositions and rapid flipping between macroscopically distinct states. We describe how the interpretation fits neatly together with fully quantum formulations of statistical mechanics and that a measurement process can be viewed as a process of ergodicity breaking analogous to a phase transition. The key feature of the new interpretation is that joint probabilities for the ergodic subsets of states of disjoint macro-systems only arise as emergent quantities. Finally we give an account of the EPR-Bohm thought experiment and show that the interpretation implies the violation of the Bell inequality characteristic of quantum mechanics but in a way that is rather novel. The final conclusion is that the Copenhagen interpretation gives a completely satisfactory phenomenology of macro-systems interacting with micro-systems.
Facets of contextual realism in quantum mechanics
Pan, Alok Kumar; Home, Dipankar
2011-09-23
In recent times, there is an upsurge of interest in demonstrating the quantum contextuality. In this proceedings, we explore the two different forms of arguments that have been used for showing the contextual character of quantum mechanics. First line of study concerns the violations of the noncontextual realist models by quantum mechanics, where second line of study that is qualitatively distinct from the earlier one, demonstrates the contextuality within the formalism of quantum mechanics.
Treating time travel quantum mechanically
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allen, John-Mark A.
2014-10-01
The fact that closed timelike curves (CTCs) are permitted by general relativity raises the question as to how quantum systems behave when time travel to the past occurs. Research into answering this question by utilizing the quantum circuit formalism has given rise to two theories: Deutschian-CTCs (D-CTCs) and "postselected" CTCs (P-CTCs). In this paper the quantum circuit approach is thoroughly reviewed, and the strengths and shortcomings of D-CTCs and P-CTCs are presented in view of their nonlinearity and time-travel paradoxes. In particular, the "equivalent circuit model"—which aims to make equivalent predictions to D-CTCs, while avoiding some of the difficulties of the original theory—is shown to contain errors. The discussion of D-CTCs and P-CTCs is used to motivate an analysis of the features one might require of a theory of quantum time travel, following which two overlapping classes of alternate theories are identified. One such theory, the theory of "transition probability" CTCs (T-CTCs), is fully developed. The theory of T-CTCs is shown not to have certain undesirable features—such as time-travel paradoxes, the ability to distinguish nonorthogonal states with certainty, and the ability to clone or delete arbitrary pure states—that are present with D-CTCs and P-CTCs. The problems with nonlinear extensions to quantum mechanics are discussed in relation to the interpretation of these theories, and the physical motivations of all three theories are discussed and compared.
Garbaczewski, P.; Olkiewicz, R.
1996-08-01
In the paper with the above-noted title, D. T. Gillespie [Phys. Rev. A {bold 49}, 1607 (1994)] claims that the theory of Markov stochastic processes cannot provide an adequate mathematical framework for quantum mechanics. In conjunction with the specific quantum dynamics considered there, we give a general analysis of the associated dichotomic jump processes. If we assume that Gillespie{close_quote}s {open_quote}{open_quote}measurement probabilities{close_quote}{close_quote} {ital are} the transition probabilities of a stochastic process, then the process must have an invariant (time independent) probability measure. Alternatively, if we demand the probability measure of the process follow the quantally implemented (via the Born statistical postulate) evolution, then we arrive at the jump process which {ital can} be interpreted as a Markov process if restricted to a suitable duration time. However, there is no corresponding Markov process consistent with the {ital Z}{sub 2} event space assumption, if we require its existence for all times {ital t}{element_of}{bold R}{sub +}. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Teaching Quantum Mechanics on an Introductory Level.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Muller, Rainer; Wiesner, Hartmut
2002-01-01
Presents a new research-based course on quantum mechanics in which the conceptual issues of quantum mechanics are taught at an introductory level. Involves students in the discovery of how quantum phenomena deviate from classical everyday experiences. (Contains 31 references.) (Author/YDS)
Design and Validation of the Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McKagan, S. B.; Perkins, K. K.; Wieman, C. E.
2010-01-01
The Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey (QMCS) is a 12-question survey of students' conceptual understanding of quantum mechanics. It is intended to be used to measure the relative effectiveness of different instructional methods in modern physics courses. In this paper, we describe the design and validation of the survey, a process that included…
Quantum information processing : science & technology.
Horton, Rebecca; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Tarman, Thomas David
2010-09-01
Qubits demonstrated using GaAs double quantum dots (DQD). The qubit basis states are the (1) singlet and (2) triplet stationary states. Long spin decoherence times in silicon spurs translation of GaAs qubit in to silicon. In the near term the goals are: (1) Develop surface gate enhancement mode double quantum dots (MOS & strained-Si/SiGe) to demonstrate few electrons and spin read-out and to examine impurity doped quantum-dots as an alternative architecture; (2) Use mobility, C-V, ESR, quantum dot performance & modeling to feedback and improve upon processing, this includes development of atomic precision fabrication at SNL; (3) Examine integrated electronics approaches to RF-SET; (4) Use combinations of numerical packages for multi-scale simulation of quantum dot systems (NEMO3D, EMT, TCAD, SPICE); and (5) Continue micro-architecture evaluation for different device and transport architectures.
The interpretation of quantum mechanics through1935
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cushing, J. T.
2000-11-01
I first define what I mean by the term interpretation, then trace some of the major developments in attempts to fashion an interpretation of quantum mechanics from its early mathematical formulation (ca. 1925) up through the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paper, Bohr's response to it, and Schrödinger's insights on entanglement, in 1935. In the process, I question some of the conventional wisdom about how a unified interpretation emerged.
Quantum localization of classical mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batalin, Igor A.; Lavrov, Peter M.
2016-07-01
Quantum localization of classical mechanics within the BRST-BFV and BV (or field-antifield) quantization methods are studied. It is shown that a special choice of gauge fixing functions (or BRST-BFV charge) together with the unitary limit leads to Hamiltonian localization in the path integral of the BRST-BFV formalism. In turn, we find that a special choice of gauge fixing functions being proportional to extremals of an initial non-degenerate classical action together with a very special solution of the classical master equation result in Lagrangian localization in the partition function of the BV formalism.
Are quantum-mechanical-like models possible, or necessary, outside quantum physics?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plotnitsky, Arkady
2014-12-01
This article examines some experimental conditions that invite and possibly require recourse to quantum-mechanical-like mathematical models (QMLMs), models based on the key mathematical features of quantum mechanics, in scientific fields outside physics, such as biology, cognitive psychology, or economics. In particular, I consider whether the following two correlative features of quantum phenomena that were decisive for establishing the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics play similarly important roles in QMLMs elsewhere. The first is the individuality and discreteness of quantum phenomena, and the second is the irreducibly probabilistic nature of our predictions concerning them, coupled to the particular character of the probabilities involved, as different from the character of probabilities found in classical physics. I also argue that these features could be interpreted in terms of a particular form of epistemology that suspends and even precludes a causal and, in the first place, realist description of quantum objects and processes. This epistemology limits the descriptive capacity of quantum theory to the description, classical in nature, of the observed quantum phenomena manifested in measuring instruments. Quantum mechanics itself only provides descriptions, probabilistic in nature, concerning numerical data pertaining to such phenomena, without offering a physical description of quantum objects and processes. While QMLMs share their use of the quantum-mechanical or analogous mathematical formalism, they may differ by the roles, if any, the two features in question play in them and by different ways of interpreting the phenomena they considered and this formalism itself. This article will address those differences as well.
Neutrino oscillations: Quantum mechanics vs. quantum field theory
Akhmedov, Evgeny Kh.; Kopp, Joachim
2010-01-01
A consistent description of neutrino oscillations requires either the quantum-mechanical (QM) wave packet approach or a quantum field theoretic (QFT) treatment. We compare these two approaches to neutrino oscillations and discuss the correspondence between them. In particular, we derive expressions for the QM neutrino wave packets from QFT and relate the free parameters of the QM framework, in particular the effective momentum uncertainty of the neutrino state, to the more fundamental parameters of the QFT approach. We include in our discussion the possibilities that some of the neutrino's interaction partners are not detected, that the neutrino is produced in the decay of an unstable parent particle, and that the overlap of the wave packets of the particles involved in the neutrino production (or detection) process is not maximal. Finally, we demonstrate how the properly normalized oscillation probabilities can be obtained in the QFT framework without an ad hoc normalization procedure employed in the QM approach.
Mechanism for quantum speedup in open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Hai-Bin; Yang, W. L.; An, Jun-Hong; Xu, Zhen-Yu
2016-02-01
The quantum speed limit (QSL) time for open system characterizes the most efficient response of the system to the environmental influences. Previous results showed that the non-Markovianity governs the quantum speedup. Via studying the dynamics of a dissipative two-level system, we reveal that the non-Markovian effect is only the dynamical way of the quantum speedup, while the formation of the system-environment bound states is the essential reason for the quantum speedup. Our attribution of the quantum speedup to the energy-spectrum character can supply another vital path for experiments when the quantum speedup shows up without any dynamical calculations. The potential experimental observation of our quantum speedup mechanism in the circuit QED system is discussed. Our results may be of both theoretical and experimental interest in exploring the ultimate QSL in realistic environments, and may open new perspectives for devising active quantum speedup devices.
Quantum squeezing of a mechanical resonator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lei, Chan U.; Weinstein, Aaron; Suh, Junho; Wollman, Emma; Schwab, Keith
Generating nonclassical states of a macroscopic object has been a subject of considerable interest. It offers a route toward fundamental test of quantum mechanics in an unexplored regime. However, a macroscopic quantum state is very susceptible to decoherence due to the environment. One way to generate robust quantum states is quantum reservoir engineering. In this work, we utilize the reservoir engineering scheme developed by Kronwald et al. to generate a steady quantum squeezed state of a micron-scale mechanical oscillator in an electromechanical system. Together with the backaction evading measurement technique, we demonstrate a quantum nondemolition measurement of the mechanical quadratures to characterize the quantum squeezed state. By measuring the quadrature variances of the mechanical motion, more than 3dB squeezing below the zero-point level has been achieved.
Efficient Quantum Information Processing via Quantum Compressions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Y.; Luo, M. X.; Ma, S. Y.
2016-01-01
Our purpose is to improve the quantum transmission efficiency and reduce the resource cost by quantum compressions. The lossless quantum compression is accomplished using invertible quantum transformations and applied to the quantum teleportation and the simultaneous transmission over quantum butterfly networks. New schemes can greatly reduce the entanglement cost, and partially solve transmission conflictions over common links. Moreover, the local compression scheme is useful for approximate entanglement creations from pre-shared entanglements. This special task has not been addressed because of the quantum no-cloning theorem. Our scheme depends on the local quantum compression and the bipartite entanglement transfer. Simulations show the success probability is greatly dependent of the minimal entanglement coefficient. These results may be useful in general quantum network communication.
Heisenberg and the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Camilleri, Kristian
2009-02-01
Preface; 1. Introduction; Part I. The Emergence of Quantum Mechanics: 2. Quantum mechanics and the principle of observability; 3. The problem of interpretation; Part II. The Heisenberg-Bohr Dialogue: 4. The wave-particle duality; 5. Indeterminacy and the limits of classical concepts: the turning point in Heisenberg's thought; 6. Heisenberg and Bohr: divergent viewpoints of complementarity; Part III. Heisenberg's Epistemology and Ontology of Quantum Mechanics: 7. The transformation of Kantian philosophy; 8. The linguistic turn in Heisenberg's thought; Conclusion; References; Index.
Heisenberg and the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Camilleri, Kristian
2011-09-01
Preface; 1. Introduction; Part I. The Emergence of Quantum Mechanics: 2. Quantum mechanics and the principle of observability; 3. The problem of interpretation; Part II. The Heisenberg-Bohr Dialogue: 4. The wave-particle duality; 5. Indeterminacy and the limits of classical concepts: the turning point in Heisenberg's thought; 6. Heisenberg and Bohr: divergent viewpoints of complementarity; Part III. Heisenberg's Epistemology and Ontology of Quantum Mechanics: 7. The transformation of Kantian philosophy; 8. The linguistic turn in Heisenberg's thought; Conclusion; References; Index.
Speakable and Unspeakable in Quantum Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bell, J. S.; Aspect, Introduction by Alain
2004-06-01
List of papers on quantum philosophy by J. S. Bell; Preface; Acknowledgements; Introduction by Alain Aspect; 1. On the problem of hidden variables in quantum mechanics; 2. On the Einstein-Rosen-Podolsky paradox; 3. The moral aspects of quantum mechanics; 4. Introduction to the hidden-variable question; 5. Subject and object; 6. On wave packet reduction in the Coleman-Hepp model; 7. The theory of local beables; 8. Locality in quantum mechanics: reply to critics; 9. How to teach special relativity; 10. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen experiments; 11. The measurement theory of Everett and de Broglie's pilot wave; 12. Free variables and local causality; 13. Atomic-cascade photons and quantum-mechanical nonlocality; 14. de Broglie-Bohm delayed choice double-slit experiments and density matrix; 15. Quantum mechanics for cosmologists; 16. Bertlmann's socks and the nature of reality; 17. On the impossible pilot wave; 18. Speakable and unspeakable in quantum mechanics; 19. Beables for quantum field theory; 20. Six possible worlds of quantum mechanics; 21. EPR correlations and EPR distributions; 22. Are there quantum jumps?; 23. Against 'measurement'; 24. La Nouvelle cuisine.
On the Space-Time and State-Space Geometries of Random Processes in Geometric Quantum Mechanics
Rapoport, Diego L.
2007-02-21
We present the space-time and Hilbert-state space quantum geometries and their associated Brownian motions. We discuss the problem of the reduction of the wave function associated to these geometries and their Brownian motions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oss, Stefano; Rosi, Tommaso
2015-04-01
We have developed an app for iOS-based smart-phones/tablets that allows a 3-D, complex phase-based colorful visualization of hydrogen atom wave functions. Several important features of the quantum behavior of atomic orbitals can easily be made evident, thus making this app a useful companion in introductory modern physics classes. There are many reasons why quantum mechanical systems and phenomena are difficult both to teach and deeply understand. They are described by equations that are generally hard to visualize, and they often oppose the so-called "common sense" based on the human perception of the world, which is built on mental images such as locality and causality. Moreover students cannot have direct experience of those systems and solutions, and generally do not even have the possibility to refer to pictures, videos, or experiments to fill this gap. Teachers often encounter quite serious troubles in finding out a sensible way to speak about the wonders of quantum physics at the high school level, where complex formalisms are not accessible at all. One should however consider that this is quite a common issue in physics and, more generally, in science education. There are plenty of natural phenomena whose models (not only at microscopic and atomic levels) are of difficult, if not impossible, visualization. Just think of certain kinds of waves, fields of forces, velocities, energy, angular momentum, and so on. One should also notice that physical reality is not the same as the images we make of it. Pictures (formal, abstract ones, as well as artists' views) are a convenient bridge between these two aspects.
Quantum mechanics without potential function
Alhaidari, A. D.; Ismail, M. E. H.
2015-07-15
In the standard formulation of quantum mechanics, one starts by proposing a potential function that models the physical system. The potential is then inserted into the Schrödinger equation, which is solved for the wavefunction, bound states energy spectrum, and/or scattering phase shift. In this work, however, we propose an alternative formulation in which the potential function does not appear. The aim is to obtain a set of analytically realizable systems, which is larger than in the standard formulation and may or may not be associated with any given or previously known potential functions. We start with the wavefunction, which is written as a bounded infinite sum of elements of a complete basis with polynomial coefficients that are orthogonal on an appropriate domain in the energy space. Using the asymptotic properties of these polynomials, we obtain the scattering phase shift, bound states, and resonances. This formulation enables one to handle not only the well-known quantum systems but also previously untreated ones. Illustrative examples are given for two- and three-parameter systems.
A Local Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopez, Carlos
2016-04-01
A local interpretation of quantum mechanics is presented. Its main ingredients are: first, a label attached to one of the "virtual" paths in the path integral formalism, determining the output for measurement of position or momentum; second, a mathematical model for spin states, equivalent to the path integral formalism for point particles in space time, with the corresponding label. The mathematical machinery of orthodox quantum mechanics is maintained, in particular amplitudes of probability and Born's rule; therefore, Bell's type inequalities theorems do not apply. It is shown that statistical correlations for pairs of particles with entangled spins have a description completely equivalent to the two slit experiment, that is, interference (wave like behaviour) instead of non locality gives account of the process. The interpretation is grounded in the experimental evidence of a point like character of electrons, and in the hypothetical existence of a wave like, the de Broglie, companion system. A correspondence between the extended Hilbert spaces of hidden physical states and the orthodox quantum mechanical Hilbert space shows the mathematical equivalence of both theories. Paradoxical behaviour with respect to the action reaction principle is analysed, and an experimental set up, modified two slit experiment, proposed to look for the companion system.
Practicality of quantum information processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lau, Hoi-Kwan
Quantum Information Processing (QIP) is expected to bring revolutionary enhancement to various technological areas. However, today's QIP applications are far from being practical. The problem involves both hardware issues, i.e., quantum devices are imperfect, and software issues, i.e., the functionality of some QIP applications is not fully understood. Aiming to improve the practicality of QIP, in my PhD research I have studied various topics in quantum cryptography and ion trap quantum computation. In quantum cryptography, I first studied the security of position-based quantum cryptography (PBQC). I discovered a wrong assumption in the previous literature that the cheaters are not allowed to share entangled resources. I proposed entanglement attacks that could cheat all known PBQC protocols. I also studied the practicality of continuous-variable (CV) quantum secret sharing (QSS). While the security of CV QSS was considered by the literature only in the limit of infinite squeezing, I found that finitely squeezed CV resources could also provide finite secret sharing rate. Our work relaxes the stringent resources requirement of implementing QSS. In ion trap quantum computation, I studied the phase error of quantum information induced by dc Stark effect during ion transportation. I found an optimized ion trajectory for which the phase error is the minimum. I also defined a threshold speed, above which ion transportation would induce significant error. In addition, I proposed a new application for ion trap systems as universal bosonic simulators (UBS). I introduced two architectures, and discussed their respective strength and weakness. I illustrated the implementations of bosonic state initialization, transformation, and measurement by applying radiation fields or by varying the trap potential. When comparing with conducting optical experiments, the ion trap UBS is advantageous in higher state initialization efficiency and higher measurement accuracy. Finally, I
The Measurement Problem in Quantum Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogawa, Shuzo
2001-02-01
Since the establishment of quantum mechanics in the 20s of this century, the controversial discussions 1 have ever continued about its basis, that is the measurement problem of quantum mechanics. Strangely those discussions are prevailed mainly in the circle of theoretical group, while the experimental physicists who are directly concerned with the measurement, indifferently to the discussion have performed their study works, showing firmly the validity of quantum theory. This curious affair seems to be stemmed from the situation that the discussions overlooked by basing on what quantum theoretic ground the experimental equipments are installed, its sure operations are examined and the obtained results are explained, etc. In this talk 2 we shall aim to make clear the relation between the experiment and the structure of quantum mechanics, and to present some epistemological considerations on the quantum mechanics.
Thermodynamic integration from classical to quantum mechanics
Habershon, Scott; Manolopoulos, David E.
2011-12-14
We present a new method for calculating quantum mechanical corrections to classical free energies, based on thermodynamic integration from classical to quantum mechanics. In contrast to previous methods, our method is numerically stable even in the presence of strong quantum delocalization. We first illustrate the method and its relationship to a well-established method with an analysis of a one-dimensional harmonic oscillator. We then show that our method can be used to calculate the quantum mechanical contributions to the free energies of ice and water for a flexible water model, a problem for which the established method is unstable.
Quantum Mechanics with a Little Less Mystery
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cropper, William H.
1969-01-01
Suggests the "route of the inquiring mind in presenting the esoteric quantum mechanical postulates and concepts in an understandable form. Explains that the quantum mechanical postulates are but useful mathematical forms to express thebroader principles of superposition and correspondence. Briefly describes some of the features which makes the…
Relativity of representations in quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de la Torre, A. C.
2002-03-01
Only the position representation is used in introductory quantum mechanics and the momentum representation is not usually presented until advanced undergraduate courses. To emphasize the relativity of the representations of the abstract formulation of quantum mechanics, two examples of representations related to the operators αX+(1-α)P and 1/2(XP+PX) are presented.
Spin Glass a Bridge Between Quantum Computation and Statistical Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohzeki, Masayuki
2013-09-01
In this chapter, we show two fascinating topics lying between quantum information processing and statistical mechanics. First, we introduce an elaborated technique, the surface code, to prepare the particular quantum state with robustness against decoherence. Interestingly, the theoretical limitation of the surface code, accuracy threshold, to restore the quantum state has a close connection with the problem on the phase transition in a special model known as spin glasses, which is one of the most active researches in statistical mechanics. The phase transition in spin glasses is an intractable problem, since we must strive many-body system with complicated interactions with change of their signs depending on the distance between spins. Fortunately, recent progress in spin-glass theory enables us to predict the precise location of the critical point, at which the phase transition occurs. It means that statistical mechanics is available for revealing one of the most interesting parts in quantum information processing. We show how to import the special tool in statistical mechanics into the problem on the accuracy threshold in quantum computation. Second, we show another interesting technique to employ quantum nature, quantum annealing. The purpose of quantum annealing is to search for the most favored solution of a multivariable function, namely optimization problem. The most typical instance is the traveling salesman problem to find the minimum tour while visiting all the cities. In quantum annealing, we introduce quantum fluctuation to drive a particular system with the artificial Hamiltonian, in which the ground state represents the optimal solution of the specific problem we desire to solve. Induction of the quantum fluctuation gives rise to the quantum tunneling effect, which allows nontrivial hopping from state to state. We then sketch a strategy to control the quantum fluctuation efficiently reaching the ground state. Such a generic framework is called
Quantum mechanics of open systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Melikidze, Akakii
In quantum mechanics, there is a set of problems where the system of interest interacts with another system, usually called "environment". This interaction leads to the exchange of energy and information and makes the dynamics of the system of interest essentially non-unitary. Such problems often appeared in condensed matter physics and attracted much attention after recent advances in nanotechnology. As broadly posed as they are, these problems require a variety of different approaches. This thesis is an attempt to examine several of these approaches in applications to different condensed matter problems. The first problem concerns the so-called "Master equation" approach which is very popular in quantum optics. I show that analytic properties of environmental correlators lead to strong restrictions on the applicability of the approach to the strong-coupling regime of interest in condensed matter physics. In the second problem, I use path integrals to treat the localization of particles on attractive short-range potentials when the environment produces an effective viscous friction force. I find that friction changes drastically the localization properties and leads to much stronger localization in comparison to the non-dissipative case. This has implications for the motion of heavy particles in fermionic liquids and, as will be argued below, is also relevant to the problem of high-temperature superconductivity. Finally, the third problem deals with the interplay of geometric phases and energy dissipation which occurs in the motion of vortices in superconductors. It is shown that this interplay leads to interesting predictions for vortex tunneling in high-temperature superconductors which have been partially confirmed by experiments.
Improving students' understanding of quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Guangtian
2011-12-01
Learning physics is challenging at all levels. Students' difficulties in the introductory level physics courses have been widely studied and many instructional strategies have been developed to help students learn introductory physics. However, research shows that there is a large diversity in students' preparation and skills in the upper-level physics courses and it is necessary to provide scaffolding support to help students learn advanced physics. This thesis explores issues related to students' common difficulties in learning upper-level undergraduate quantum mechanics and how these difficulties can be reduced by research-based learning tutorials and peer instruction tools. We investigated students' difficulties in learning quantum mechanics by administering written tests and surveys to many classes and conducting individual interviews with a subset of students. Based on these investigations, we developed Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorials (QuILTs) and peer instruction tools to help students build a hierarchical knowledge structure of quantum mechanics through a guided approach. Preliminary assessments indicate that students' understanding of quantum mechanics is improved after using the research-based learning tools in the junior-senior level quantum mechanics courses. We also designed a standardized conceptual survey that can help instructors better probe students' understanding of quantum mechanics concepts in one spatial dimension. The validity and reliability of this quantum mechanics survey is discussed.
The actual content of quantum theoretical kinematics and mechanics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heisenberg, W.
1983-01-01
First, exact definitions are supplied for the terms: position, velocity, energy, etc. (of the electron, for instance), such that they are valid also in quantum mechanics. Canonically conjugated variables are determined simultaneously only with a characteristic uncertainty. This uncertainty is the intrinsic reason for the occurrence of statistical relations in quantum mechanics. Mathematical formulation is made possible by the Dirac-Jordan theory. Beginning from the basic principles thus obtained, macroscopic processes are understood from the viewpoint of quantum mechanics. Several imaginary experiments are discussed to elucidate the theory.
Realist model approach to quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hájíček, P.
2013-06-01
The paper proves that quantum mechanics is compatible with the constructive realism of modern philosophy of science. The proof is based on the observation that properties of quantum systems that are uniquely determined by their preparations can be assumed objective without the difficulties that are encountered by the same assumption about values of observables. The resulting realist interpretation of quantum mechanics is made rigorous by studying the space of quantum states—the convex set of state operators. Prepared states are classified according to their statistical structure into indecomposable and decomposable instead of pure and mixed. Simple objective properties are defined and showed to form a Boolean lattice.
Quantum Mechanical Models Of The Fermi Shuttle
Sternberg, James
2011-06-01
The Fermi shuttle is a mechanism in which high energy electrons are produced in an atomic collision by multiple collisions with a target and a projectile atom. It is normally explained purely classically in terms of the electron's orbits prescribed in the collision. Common calculations to predict the Fermi shuttle use semi-classical methods, but these methods still rely on classical orbits. In reality such collisions belong to the realm of quantum mechanics, however. In this paper we discuss several purely quantum mechanical calculations which can produce the Fermi shuttle. Being quantum mechanical in nature, these calculations produce these features by wave interference, rather than by classical orbits.
Causal structure in categorical quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lal, Raymond Ashwin
Categorical quantum mechanics is a way of formalising the structural features of quantum theory using category theory. It uses compound systems as the primitive notion, which is formalised by using symmetric monoidal categories. This leads to an elegant formalism for describing quantum protocols such as quantum teleportation. In particular, categorical quantum mechanics provides a graphical calculus that exposes the information flow of such protocols in an intuitive way. However, the graphical calculus also reveals surprising features of these protocols; for example, in the quantum teleportation protocol, information appears to flow `backwards-in-time'. This leads to question of how causal structure can be described within categorical quantum mechanics, and how this might lead to insight regarding the structural compatibility between quantum theory and relativity. This thesis is concerned with the project of formalising causal structure in categorical quantum mechanics. We begin by studying an abstract view of Bell-type experiments, as described by `no-signalling boxes', and we show that under time-reversal no-signalling boxes generically become signalling. This conflicts with the underlying symmetry of relativistic causal structure. This leads us to consider the framework of categorical quantum mechanics from the perspective of relativistic causal structure. We derive the properties that a symmetric monoidal category must satisfy in order to describe systems in such a background causal structure. We use these properties to define a new type of category, and this provides a formal framework for describing protocols in spacetime. We explore this new structure, showing how it leads to an understanding of the counter-intuitive information flow of protocols in categorical quantum mechanics. We then find that the formal properties of our new structure are naturally related to axioms for reconstructing quantum theory, and we show how a reconstruction scheme based on
The gravitational constant as a quantum mechanical expression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roza, Engel
A quantitatively verifiable expression for the gravitational constant is derived in terms of quantum mechanical quantities. This derivation appears to be possible by selecting a suitable physical process in which the transformation of the equation of motion into a quantum mechanical wave equation can be obtained by Einstein's geodesic approach. The selected process is the pi-meson, modeled as the one-body equivalent of a two-body quantum mechanical oscillator in which the vibrating mass is modeled as the result of the two energy fluxes from the quark and the antiquark. The quantum mechanical formula for the gravitational constant appears to show a quantitatively verifiable relationship with the Higgs boson as conceived in the Standard Model.
Operational Axioms for Quantum Mechanics
D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro
2007-02-21
The mathematical formulation of Quantum Mechanics in terms of complex Hilbert space is derived for finite dimensions, starting from a general definition of physical experiment and from five simple Postulates concerning experimental accessibility and simplicity. For the infinite dimensional case, on the other hand, a C*-algebra representation of physical transformations is derived, starting from just four of the five Postulates via a Gelfand-Naimark-Segal (GNS) construction. The present paper simplifies and sharpens the previous derivation in Ref. [1]. The main ingredient of the axiomatization is the postulated existence of faithful states that allows one to calibrate the experimental apparatus. Such notion is at the basis of the operational definitions of the scalar product and of the transposed of a physical transformation. What is new in the present paper with respect to Ref. [1], is the operational deduction of an involution corresponding to the complex-conjugation for effects, whose extension to transformations allows to define the adjoint of a transformation when the extension is composition-preserving. The existence of such composition-preserving extension among possible extensions is analyzed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beveratos, Alexios; Abram, Izo; Gérard, Jean-Michel; Robert-Philip, Isabelle
2014-12-01
For the past fifteen years, single semiconductor quantum dots, often referred to as solid-state artificial atoms, have been at the forefront of various research direction lines for experimental quantum information science, in particular in the development of practical sources of quantum states of light. Here we review the research to date, on the tailoring of the emission properties from single quantum dots producing single photons, indistinguishable single photons and entangled photon pairs. Finally, the progress and future prospects for applications of single dots in quantum information processing is considered.
Why space has three dimensions: A quantum mechanical explanation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marcer, Peter; Schempp, Walter
2000-05-01
The theoretical physics of a quantum mechanical model of space, relativistic quantum holography, is described. It specifies three dimensions, such as is validated by the nature of our spatial experience, but where additionally, quantum non-locality, which Feynman described as the only mystery of quantum theory, is made manifest by means of observable phase relationships. For example, synchronicity between events, and other phenomena such as are described by the geometric/Berry phase, etc., which are outside the bounds of classical explanation. It can therefore be hypothesized: a) that we live in a entirely quantum mechanical world/universe and not a classical mechanical one (where quantum phenomena are confined to the microscopic scale) as is the current generally held scientific view, b) that three spatial dimensions are a fundamental consequence of quantum mechanics, c) that quantum holography is a natural candidate to explain quantum gravity, such that mass/inertia concerns not the eigenvalues of some operator, but rather the observable gauge invariant phases of a state vector, postulated to be that of the universe itself, as a whole, and d) that this model provides a natural explanation in terms of relativistic quantum signal processing of any each individual's perception and cognition will be of a three dimensional world, defined similarly in relation to each individual's quantum state vector, describing its mind/body and associated gauge invariant phases or mindset, which have observable consequences, such that mental processes and events can cause neural events and processes! These testable hypotheses, if validated, will have profound implications for our understanding, radically changing our scientific perspective on the world, as we enter the new millennium. .
Lateral Quantum Dots for Quantum Information Processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
House, Matthew Gregory
The possibility of building a computer that takes advantage of the most subtle nature of quantum physics has been driving a lot of research in atomic and solid state physics for some time. It is still not clear what physical system or systems can be used for this purpose. One possibility that has been attracting significant attention from researchers is to use the spin state of an electron confined in a semiconductor quantum dot. The electron spin is magnetic in nature, so it naturally is well isolated from electrical fluctuations that can a loss of quantum coherence. It can also be manipulated electrically, by taking advantage of the exchange interaction. In this work we describe several experiments we have done to study the electron spin properties of lateral quantum dots. We have developed lateral quantum dot devices based on the silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor, and studied the physics of electrons confined in these quantum dots. We measured the electron spin excited state lifetime, which was found to be as long as 30 ms at the lowest magnetic fields that we could measure. We fabricated and characterized a silicon double quantum dot. Using this double quantum dot design, we fabricated devices which combined a silicon double quantum dot with a superconducting microwave resonator. The microwave resonator was found to be sensitive to two-dimensional electrons in the transistor channel, which we measured and characterized. We developed a new method for extracting information from random telegraph signals, which are produced when we observe thermal fluctuations of electrons in quantum dots. The new statistical method, based on the hidden Markov model, allows us to detect spin-dependent effects in such fluctuations even though we are not able to directly observe the electron spin. We use this analysis technique on data from two experiments involving gallium arsenide quantum dots and use it to measure spin-dependent tunneling rates. Our results advance the
The transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cramer, John G.
1986-07-01
The interpretational problems of quantum mechanics are considered. The way in which the standard Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics deals with these problems is reviewed. A new interpretation of the formalism of quantum mechanics, the transactional interpretation, is presented. The basic element of this interpretation is the transaction describing a quantum event as an exchange of advanced and retarded waves, as implied by the work of Wheeler and Feynman, Dirac, and others. The transactional interpretation is explicitly nonlocal and thereby consistent with recent tests of the Bell inequality, yet is relativistically invariant and fully causal. A detailed comparison of the transactional and Copenhagen interpretations is made in the context of well-known quantum-mechanical Gedankenexperimente and "paradoxes." The transactional interpretation permits quantum-mechanical wave functions to be interpreted as real waves physically present in space rather than as "mathematical representations of knowledge" as in the Copenhagen interpretation. The transactional interpretation is shown to provide insight into the complex character of the quantum-mechanical state vector and the mechanism associated with its "collapse." It also leads in a natural way to justification of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and the Born probability law (P=ψψ*), basic elements of the Copenhagen interpretation.
Consecutive Measurements in Quantum Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glick, Jennifer R.; Adami, Christoph
The physics of quantum measurement still continues to puzzle with no resolution in sight between competing interpretations, in particular because no interpretation has so far produced predictions that would be falsifiable via experiment. Here we present an analysis of consecutive projective measurements performed on a quantum state using quantum information theory, where the entanglement between the quantum system and a measuring device is explicitly taken into account, and where the consecutive measurements increase the joint Hilbert space while the wavefunction of the joint system never collapses. Using this relative-state formalism we rederive well-known results for the pairwise correlation between any two measurement devices, but show that considering the joint as well as conditional entropy of three devices reveals a difference between the collapse and no-collapse pictures of quantum measurement that is experimentally testable. This research was funded by a Michigan State University Enrichment Fellowship.
Quantum mechanics and the social sciences: After hermeneutics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heelan, Patrick A.
1995-04-01
Quantum mechanics is interpreted, in the spirit of Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg, as about physical objects in so far as these are revealed by and within the local, social, and historical process of measurement. An analysis of the hermeneutical aspect of quantum mechanical measurement reveals close analogues with the hermeneutical social/historical sciences. The hermeneutical analysis of science requires the move from the epistemological attitude to an ontological one.
On the tomographic picture of quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ibort, A.; Man'ko, V. I.; Marmo, G.; Simoni, A.; Ventriglia, F.
2010-06-01
We formulate necessary and sufficient conditions for a symplectic tomogram of a quantum state to determine the density state. We establish a connection between the (re)construction by means of symplectic tomograms with the construction by means of Naimark positive definite functions on the Weyl-Heisenberg group. This connection is used to formulate properties which guarantee that tomographic probabilities describe quantum states in the probability representation of quantum mechanics.
Strange Bedfellows: Quantum Mechanics and Data Mining
Weinstein, Marvin; /SLAC
2009-12-16
Last year, in 2008, I gave a talk titled Quantum Calisthenics. This year I am going to tell you about how the work I described then has spun off into a most unlikely direction. What I am going to talk about is how one maps the problem of finding clusters in a given data set into a problem in quantum mechanics. I will then use the tricks I described to let quantum evolution lets the clusters come together on their own.
Strange Bedfellows: Quantum Mechanics and Data Mining
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weinstein, Marvin
2010-02-01
Last year, in 2008, I gave a talk titled Quantum Calisthenics. This year I am going to tell you about how the work I described then has spun off into a most unlikely direction. What I am going to talk about is how one maps the problem of finding clusters in a given data set into a problem in quantum mechanics. I will then use the tricks I described to let quantum evolution lets the clusters come together on their own.
Consistency of PT-symmetric quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brody, Dorje C.
2016-03-01
In recent reports, suggestions have been put forward to the effect that parity and time-reversal (PT) symmetry in quantum mechanics is incompatible with causality. It is shown here, in contrast, that PT-symmetric quantum mechanics is fully consistent with standard quantum mechanics. This follows from the surprising fact that the much-discussed metric operator on Hilbert space is not physically observable. In particular, for closed quantum systems in finite dimensions there is no statistical test that one can perform on the outcomes of measurements to determine whether the Hamiltonian is Hermitian in the conventional sense, or PT-symmetric—the two theories are indistinguishable. Nontrivial physical effects arising as a consequence of PT symmetry are expected to be observed, nevertheless, for open quantum systems with balanced gain and loss.
Quantum mechanics and the generalized uncertainty principle
Bang, Jang Young; Berger, Micheal S.
2006-12-15
The generalized uncertainty principle has been described as a general consequence of incorporating a minimal length from a theory of quantum gravity. We consider a simple quantum mechanical model where the operator corresponding to position has discrete eigenvalues and show how the generalized uncertainty principle results for minimum uncertainty wave packets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mugur-Schächter, Mioara
1993-01-01
In previous works we have established that the spacetime probabilistic organization of the quantum theory is determined by the spacetime characteristics of the operations by which the observer produces the objects to be studied (“states” of microsystems) and obtains qualifications of these. Guided by this first conclusion, we have then built a “general syntax of relativized conceptualization” where any description is explicitly and systematically referred to the two basic epistemic operations by which the conceptor introduces the object to be qualified and then obtains qualifications of it. Inside this syntax there emerges a general typology of the relativized descriptions. Here we show that with respect to this typology the type of the predictive quantum mechanical descriptions acquires a precise definition. It appears that the quantum mechanical formalism has captured and has expressed directly in a mathematical language the most complex form in which can occur a first descriptional phase that lies universally at the bottom of any chain of conceptualization. The main features of the Hilbert-Dirac algorithms are decoded in terms of the general syntax of relativized conceptualization. This renders explicit the semantical contents of the quantum mechanical representations relating each one of these to its mathematical quantum mechanical expression. Basic insufficiencies are thus identified and, correlatively, false problems as well as answers to these, or guides toward answers. Globally the results obtained provide a basis for future attempts at a general mathematical representation of the processes of conceptualization. “Il pourrait, en effet, être dangereux pour l'avenir de la Physique qu'elle se contente trop facilement de purs formalismes, d'images floues et d'explications toutes verbales s'exprimant par des mots à signification imprécise”—Louis de Broglie, Certitudes et Incertitudes de la Science (Albin Michel, Paris, 1965).
Mechanical equivalent of quantum heat engines.
Arnaud, Jacques; Chusseau, Laurent; Philippe, Fabrice
2008-06-01
Quantum heat engines employ as working agents multilevel systems instead of classical gases. We show that under some conditions quantum heat engines are equivalent to a series of reservoirs at different altitudes containing balls of various weights. A cycle consists of picking up at random a ball from one reservoir and carrying it to the next, thereby performing or absorbing some work. In particular, quantum heat engines, employing two-level atoms as working agents, are modeled by reservoirs containing balls of weight 0 or 1. The mechanical model helps us prove that the maximum efficiency of quantum heat engines is the Carnot efficiency. Heat pumps and negative temperatures are considered. PMID:18643212
A Reconstruction of Quantum Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kochen, Simon
2015-05-01
We show that exactly the same intuitively plausible definitions of state, observable, symmetry, dynamics, and compound systems of the classical Boolean structure of intrinsic properties of systems lead, when applied to the structure of extrinsic, relational quantum properties, to the standard quantum formalism, including the Schrödinger equation and the von Neumann-Lüders Projection Rule. This approach is then applied to resolving the paradoxes and difficulties of the orthodox interpretation.
Evading Quantum Mechanics: Engineering a Classical Subsystem within a Quantum Environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsang, Mankei; Caves, Carlton M.
2012-07-01
Quantum mechanics is potentially advantageous for certain information-processing tasks, but its probabilistic nature and requirement of measurement backaction often limit the precision of conventional classical information-processing devices, such as sensors and atomic clocks. Here we show that, by engineering the dynamics of coupled quantum systems, it is possible to construct a subsystem that evades the measurement backaction of quantum mechanics, at all times of interest, and obeys any classical dynamics, linear or nonlinear, that we choose. We call such a system a quantum-mechanics-free subsystem (QMFS). All of the observables of a QMFS are quantum-nondemolition (QND) observables; moreover, they are dynamical QND observables, thus demolishing the widely held belief that QND observables are constants of motion. QMFSs point to a new strategy for designing classical information-processing devices in regimes where quantum noise is detrimental, unifying previous approaches that employ QND observables, backaction evasion, and quantum noise cancellation. Potential applications include gravitational-wave detection, optomechanical-force sensing, atomic magnetometry, and classical computing. Demonstrations of dynamical QMFSs include the generation of broadband squeezed light for use in interferometric gravitational-wave detection, experiments using entangled atomic-spin ensembles, and implementations of the quantum Toffoli gate.
Intrusion Detection with Quantum Mechanics: A Photonic Quantum Fence
Humble, Travis S; Bennink, Ryan S; Grice, Warren P; Owens, Israel J
2008-01-01
We describe the use of quantum-mechanically entangled photons for sensing intrusions across a physical perimeter. Our approach to intrusion detection uses the no-cloning principle of quantum information science as protection against an intruder s ability to spoof a sensor receiver using a classical intercept-resend attack. We explore the bounds on detection using quantum detection and estimation theory, and we experimentally demonstrate the underlying principle of entanglement-based detection using the visibility derived from polarization-correlation measurements.
An axiomatic formulation of the Montevideo interpretation of quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gambini, Rodolfo; García-Pintos, Luis Pedro; Pullin, Jorge
We make a first attempt to axiomatically formulate the Montevideo interpretation of quantum mechanics. In this interpretation environmental decoherence is supplemented with loss of coherence due to the use of realistic clocks to measure time to solve the measurement problem. The resulting formulation is framed entirely in terms of quantum objects. Unlike in ordinary quantum mechanics, classical time only plays the role of an unobservable parameter. The formulation eliminates any privileged role of the measurement process giving an objective definition of when an event occurs in a system.
Interpretation and Predictability of Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wada, Sumio
A non-probabilistic interpretation of quantum mechanics asserts that we get a prediction only when a wave function has a peak. Taking this interpretation seriously, we discuss how to find a peak in the wave function of the universe, by using some minisuperspace models with homogeneous degrees of freedom and also a model with cosmological perturbations. Then we show how to recover our classical picture of the universe from the quantum theory, and comment on the physical meaning of the backreaction equation.
Quantum mechanical streamlines. I - Square potential barrier
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hirschfelder, J. O.; Christoph, A. C.; Palke, W. E.
1974-01-01
Exact numerical calculations are made for scattering of quantum mechanical particles hitting a square two-dimensional potential barrier (an exact analog of the Goos-Haenchen optical experiments). Quantum mechanical streamlines are plotted and found to be smooth and continuous, to have continuous first derivatives even through the classical forbidden region, and to form quantized vortices around each of the nodal points. A comparison is made between the present numerical calculations and the stationary wave approximation, and good agreement is found between both the Goos-Haenchen shifts and the reflection coefficients. The time-independent Schroedinger equation for real wavefunctions is reduced to solving a nonlinear first-order partial differential equation, leading to a generalization of the Prager-Hirschfelder perturbation scheme. Implications of the hydrodynamical formulation of quantum mechanics are discussed, and cases are cited where quantum and classical mechanical motions are identical.
Student Difficulties in Learning Quantum Mechanics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnston, I. D.; Crawford, K.; Fletcher, P. R.
1998-01-01
Reports on a preliminary project that uses a phenomenographic approach to explore the ways in which a small number of fundamental ideas are conceptualized by students who are judged to have mastered quantum mechanics material. (DDR)
Quantum mechanical stabilization of Minkowski signature wormholes
Visser, M.
1989-05-19
When one attempts to construct classical wormholes in Minkowski signature Lorentzian spacetimes violations of both the weak energy hypothesis and averaged weak energy hypothesis are encountered. Since the weak energy hypothesis is experimentally known to be violated quantum mechanically, this suggests that a quantum mechanical analysis of Minkowski signature wormholes is in order. In this note I perform a minisuperspace analysis of a simple class of Minkowski signature wormholes. By solving the Wheeler-de Witt equation for pure Einstein gravity on this minisuperspace the quantum mechanical wave function of the wormhole is obtained in closed form. The wormhole is shown to be quantum mechanically stabilized with an average radius of order the Planck length. 8 refs.
Fundamental Quantum Mechanics--A Graphic Presentation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wise, M. N.; Kelley, T. G.
1977-01-01
Describes a presentation of basic quantum mechanics for nonscience majors that relies on a computer-generated graphic display to circumvent the usual mathematical difficulties. It allows a detailed treatment of free-particle motion in a wave picture. (MLH)
How Rutherford missed discovering quantum mechanical identity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Temmer, G. M.
1989-03-01
An interesting quirk in the energy dependence of alpha-particle scattering from helium caused Lord Rutherford to miss a major discovery—namely, the consequences of quantum mechanical identity—before their prediction by Mott a short time later.
Uncertainty in quantum mechanics: faith or fantasy?
Penrose, Roger
2011-12-13
The word 'uncertainty', in the context of quantum mechanics, usually evokes an impression of an essential unknowability of what might actually be going on at the quantum level of activity, as is made explicit in Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and in the fact that the theory normally provides only probabilities for the results of quantum measurement. These issues limit our ultimate understanding of the behaviour of things, if we take quantum mechanics to represent an absolute truth. But they do not cause us to put that very 'truth' into question. This article addresses the issue of quantum 'uncertainty' from a different perspective, raising the question of whether this term might be applied to the theory itself, despite its unrefuted huge success over an enormously diverse range of observed phenomena. There are, indeed, seeming internal contradictions in the theory that lead us to infer that a total faith in it at all levels of scale leads us to almost fantastical implications. PMID:22042902
On the geometrization of quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tavernelli, Ivano
2016-08-01
Nonrelativistic quantum mechanics is commonly formulated in terms of wavefunctions (probability amplitudes) obeying the static and the time-dependent Schrödinger equations (SE). Despite the success of this representation of the quantum world a wave-particle duality concept is required to reconcile the theory with observations (experimental measurements). A first solution to this dichotomy was introduced in the de Broglie-Bohm theory according to which a pilot-wave (solution of the SE) is guiding the evolution of particle trajectories. Here, I propose a geometrization of quantum mechanics that describes the time evolution of particles as geodesic lines in a curved space, whose curvature is induced by the quantum potential. This formulation allows therefore the incorporation of all quantum effects into the geometry of space-time, as it is the case for gravitation in the general relativity.
Experimental status of quaternionic quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brumby, S. P.; Joshi, G. C.
1996-05-01
Analysis of the logical foundations of quantum mechanics indicates the possibility of constructing a theory using quaternionic Hilbert spaces. Whether this mathematical structure reflects reality is a matter for experiment to decide. We review the only direct search for quaternionic quantum mechanics yet carried out and outline a recent proposal by the present authors to look for quaternionic effects in correlated multi-particle systems. We set out how such experiments might distinguish between the several quaternionic models proposed in the literature.
Basing quantum theory on information processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barnum, Howard
2008-03-01
I consider information-based derivations of the quantum formalism, in a framework encompassing quantum and classical theory and a broad spectrum of theories serving as foils to them. The most ambitious hope for such a derivation is a role analogous to Einstein's development of the dynamics and kinetics of macroscopic bodies, and later of their gravitational interactions, on the basis of simple principles with clear operational meanings and experimental consequences. Short of this, it could still provide a principled understanding of the features of quantum mechanics that account for its greater-than-classical information-processing power, helping guide the search for new quantum algorithms and protocols. I summarize the convex operational framework for theories, and discuss information-processing in theories therein. Results include the fact that information that can be obtained without disturbance is inherently classical, generalized no-cloning and no-broadcasting theorems, exponentially secure bit commitment in all non-classical theories without entanglement, properties of theories that allow teleportation, and properties of theories that allow ``remote steering'' of ensembles using entanglement. Joint work with collaborators including Jonathan Barrett, Matthew Leifer, Alexander Wilce, Oscar Dahlsten, and Ben Toner.
Testing foundations of quantum mechanics with photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shadbolt, Peter; Mathews, Jonathan C. F.; Laing, Anthony; O'Brien, Jeremy L.
2014-04-01
Quantum mechanics continues to predict effects at odds with a classical understanding of nature. Experiments with light at the single-photon level have historically been at the forefront of fundamental tests of quantum theory and the current developments in photonic technologies enable the exploration of new directions. Here we review recent photonic experiments to test two important themes in quantum mechanics: wave-particle duality, which is central to complementarity and delayed-choice experiments; and Bell nonlocality, where the latest theoretical and technological advances have allowed all controversial loopholes to be separately addressed in different experiments.
Relativistic Quantum Mechanics and Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gross, Franz
1999-04-01
An accessible, comprehensive reference to modern quantum mechanics and field theory. In surveying available books on advanced quantum mechanics and field theory, Franz Gross determined that while established books were outdated, newer titles tended to focus on recent developments and disregard the basics. Relativistic Quantum Mechanics and Field Theory fills this striking gap in the field. With a strong emphasis on applications to practical problems as well as calculations, Dr. Gross provides complete, up-to-date coverage of both elementary and advanced topics essential for a well-rounded understanding of the field. Developing the material at a level accessible even to newcomers to quantum mechanics, the book begins with topics that every physicist should know-quantization of the electromagnetic field, relativistic one body wave equations, and the theoretical explanation of atomic decay. Subsequent chapters prepare readers for advanced work, covering such major topics as gauge theories, path integral techniques, spontaneous symmetry breaking, and an introduction to QCD, chiral symmetry, and the Standard Model. A special chapter is devoted to relativistic bound state wave equations-an important topic that is often overlooked in other books. Clear and concise throughout, Relativistic Quantum Mechanics and Field Theory boasts examples from atomic and nuclear physics as well as particle physics, and includes appendices with background material. It is an essential reference for anyone working in quantum mechanics today.
Quantum Probability Theory and the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fröhlich, Jürg; Schubnel, Baptiste
By and large, people are better at coining expressions than at filling them with interesting, concrete contents. Thus, it may not be very surprising that there are many professional probabilists who may have heard the expression but do not appear to be aware of the need to develop "quantum probability theory" into a thriving, rich, useful field featured at meetings and conferences on probability theory. Although our aim, in this essay, is not to contribute new results on quantum probability theory, we hope to be able to let the reader feel the enormous potential and richness of this field. What we intend to do, in the following, is to contribute some novel points of view to the "foundations of quantum mechanics", using mathematical tools from "quantum probability theory" (such as the theory of operator algebras).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oss, Stefano; Rosi, Tommaso
2015-01-01
We have developed an app for iOS-based smart-phones/tablets that allows a 3-D, complex phase-based colorful visualization of hydrogen atom wave functions. Several important features of the quantum behavior of atomic orbitals can easily be made evident, thus making this app a useful companion in introductory modern physics classes. There are many…
Virtual Learning Environment for Interactive Engagement with Advanced Quantum Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pedersen, Mads Kock; Skyum, Birk; Heck, Robert; Müller, Romain; Bason, Mark; Lieberoth, Andreas; Sherson, Jacob F.
2016-06-01
A virtual learning environment can engage university students in the learning process in ways that the traditional lectures and lab formats cannot. We present our virtual learning environment StudentResearcher, which incorporates simulations, multiple-choice quizzes, video lectures, and gamification into a learning path for quantum mechanics at the advanced university level. StudentResearcher is built upon the experiences gathered from workshops with the citizen science game Quantum Moves at the high-school and university level, where the games were used extensively to illustrate the basic concepts of quantum mechanics. The first test of this new virtual learning environment was a 2014 course in advanced quantum mechanics at Aarhus University with 47 enrolled students. We found increased learning for the students who were more active on the platform independent of their previous performances.
Quantum Mechanics Based Multiscale Modeling of Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Gang
2013-03-01
We present two quantum mechanics based multiscale approaches that can simulate extended defects in metals accurately and efficiently. The first approach (QCDFT) can treat multimillion atoms effectively via density functional theory (DFT). The method is an extension of the original quasicontinuum approach with DFT as its sole energetic formulation. The second method (QM/MM) has to do with quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics coupling based on the constrained density functional theory, which provides an exact framework for a self-consistent quantum mechanical embedding. Several important materials problems will be addressed using the multiscale modeling approaches, including hydrogen-assisted cracking in Al, magnetism-controlled dislocation properties in Fe and Si pipe diffusion along Al dislocation core. We acknowledge the support from the Office of Navel Research and the Army Research Office.
Computations in quantum mechanics made easy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korsch, H. J.; Rapedius, K.
2016-09-01
Convenient and simple numerical techniques for performing quantum computations based on matrix representations of Hilbert space operators are presented and illustrated by various examples. The applications include the calculations of spectral and dynamical properties for one-dimensional and two-dimensional single-particle systems as well as bosonic many-particle and open quantum systems. Due to their technical simplicity these methods are well suited as a tool for teaching quantum mechanics to undergraduates and graduates. Explicit implementations of the presented numerical methods in Matlab are given.
Hot Fluids and Nonlinear Quantum Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahajan, Swadesh M.; Asenjo, Felipe A.
2015-05-01
A hot relativistic fluid is viewed as a collection of quantum objects that represent interacting elementary particles. We present a conceptual framework for deriving nonlinear equations of motion obeyed by these hypothesized objects. A uniform phenomenological prescription, to affect the quantum transition from a corresponding classical system, is invoked to derive the nonlinear Schrödinger, Klein-Gordon, and Pauli-Schrödinger and Feynman-GellMaan equations. It is expected that the emergent hypothetical nonlinear quantum mechanics would advance, in a fundamental way, both the conceptual understanding and computational abilities, particularly, in the field of extremely high energy-density physics.
Quantum Mechanics, Spacetime Locality, and Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nomura, Yasunori
2013-08-01
Quantum mechanics introduces the concept of probability at the fundamental level, yielding the measurement problem. On the other hand, recent progress in cosmology has led to the "multiverse" picture, in which our observed universe is only one of the many, bringing an apparent arbitrariness in defining probabilities, called the measure problem. In this paper, we discuss how these two problems are related with each other, developing a picture for quantum measurement and cosmological histories in the quantum mechanical universe. In order to describe the cosmological dynamics correctly within the full quantum mechanical context, we need to identify the structure of the Hilbert space for a system with gravity. We argue that in order to keep spacetime locality, the Hilbert space for dynamical spacetime must be defined only in restricted spacetime regions: in and on the (stretched) apparent horizon as viewed from a fixed reference frame. This requirement arises from eliminating all the redundancies and overcountings in a general relativistic, global spacetime description of nature. It is responsible for horizon complementarity as well as the "observer dependence" of horizons/spacetime—these phenomena arise to represent changes of the reference frame in the relevant Hilbert space. This can be viewed as an extension of the Poincaré transformation in the quantum gravitational context. Given an initial condition, the evolution of the multiverse state obeys the laws of quantum mechanics—it evolves deterministically and unitarily. The beginning of the multiverse, however, is still an open issue.
Highlighting the Mechanism of the Quantum Speedup by Time-Symmetric and Relational Quantum Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castagnoli, Giuseppe
2016-03-01
Bob hides a ball in one of four drawers. Alice is to locate it. Classically she has to open up to three drawers, quantally just one. The fundamental reason for this quantum speedup is not known. The usual representation of the quantum algorithm is limited to the process of solving the problem. We extend it to the process of setting the problem. The number of the drawer with the ball becomes a unitary transformation of the random outcome of the preparation measurement. This extended, time-symmetric, representation brings in relational quantum mechanics. It is with respect to Bob and any external observer and cannot be with respect to Alice. It would tell her the number of the drawer with the ball before she opens any drawer. To Alice, the projection of the quantum state due to the preparation measurement should be retarded at the end of her search; in the input state of the search, the drawer number is determined to Bob and undetermined to Alice. We show that, mathematically, one can ascribe any part of the selection of the random outcome of the preparation measurement to the final Alice's measurement. Ascribing half of it explains the speedup of the present algorithm. This leaves the input state to Bob unaltered and projects that to Alice on a state of lower entropy where she knows half of the number of the drawer with the ball in advance. The quantum algorithm turns out to be a sum over histories in each of which Alice knows in advance that the ball is in a pair of drawers and locates it by opening one of the two. In the sample of quantum algorithms examined, the part of the random outcome of the initial measurement selected by the final measurement is one half or slightly above it. Conversely, given an oracle problem, the assumption it is one half always corresponds to an existing quantum algorithm and gives the order of magnitude of the number of oracle queries required by the optimal one.
Interpretation and predictability of quantum mechanics and quantum cosmology
Wada, S.
1988-06-01
A non-probabilistic interpretation of quantum mechanics asserts that the authors get a prediction only when a wave function has a peak. Taking this interpretation seriously, the authors discuss how to find a peak in the wave function of the universe, by using some minisuperspace models. With homogeneous degrees of freedom and also a model with cosmological perturbations. Then the authors show how to recover their classical picture of the universe from the quantum theory, and comment on the physical meaning of the backreaction equation.
On testing for the stage of collapse in quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Becker, Lon Stephen
The question was considered whether it is possible to experimentally narrow down the time of collapse in the measurement process of quantum mechanics. A form of experiment was developed towards that end. The proof of John von Neumann that it is impossible to determine the time of collapse was analyzed, and its hidden assumptions were exploited in the design of the experiment. The reinterpretation of quantum mechanics by David Bohm was introduced to give an alternative way of looking at quantum mechanics. An objection to this view was discussed but rejected. Finally a pair of thought experiments were offered with the potential to be converted in the future into tests for whether collapse has occurred at various points in the measurement process.
Superstrings and the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
't Hooft, Gerard
2014-05-01
It is put forward that modern elementary particle physics cannot be completely unified with the laws of gravity and general relativity without addressing the question of the ontological interpretation of quantum mechanics itself. The position of superstring theory in this general question is emphasized: superstrings may well form exactly the right mathematical system that can explain how quantum mechanics can be linked to a deterministic picture of our world. Deterministic interpretations of quantum mechanics are usually categorically rejected, because of Bell's powerful observations, and indeed these apply here also, but we do emphasize that the models we arrive at are super-deterministic, which is exactly the case where Bell expressed his doubts. Strong correlations at space-like separations could explain the apparent contradictions.
Multichannel framework for singular quantum mechanics
Camblong, Horacio E.; Epele, Luis N.; Fanchiotti, Huner; García Canal, Carlos A.; Ordóñez, Carlos R.
2014-01-15
A multichannel S-matrix framework for singular quantum mechanics (SQM) subsumes the renormalization and self-adjoint extension methods and resolves its boundary-condition ambiguities. In addition to the standard channel accessible to a distant (“asymptotic”) observer, one supplementary channel opens up at each coordinate singularity, where local outgoing and ingoing singularity waves coexist. The channels are linked by a fully unitary S-matrix, which governs all possible scenarios, including cases with an apparent nonunitary behavior as viewed from asymptotic distances. -- Highlights: •A multichannel framework is proposed for singular quantum mechanics and analogues. •The framework unifies several established approaches for singular potentials. •Singular points are treated as new scattering channels. •Nonunitary asymptotic behavior is subsumed in a unitary multichannel S-matrix. •Conformal quantum mechanics and the inverse quartic potential are highlighted.
Whiteheadian process and quantum theory
Stapp, H.
1998-08-01
There are deep similarities between Whitehead's idea of the process by which nature unfolds and the ideas of quantum theory. Whitehead says that the world is made of ''actual occasions'', each of which arises from potentialities created by prior actual occasions. These actual occasions are happenings modeled on experiential events, each of which comes into being and then perishes, only to be replaced by a successor. It is these experience-like happenings that are the basic realities of nature, according to Whitehead, not the persisting physical particles that Newtonian physics took be the basic entities. Similarly, Heisenberg says that what is really happening in a quantum process is the emergence of an actual from potentialities created by prior actualities. In the orthodox Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory the actual things to which the theory refer are increments in ''our knowledge''. These increments are experiential events. The particles of classical physics lose their fundamental status: they dissolve into diffuse clouds of possibilities. At each stage of the unfolding of nature the complete cloud of possibilities acts like the potentiality for the occurrence of a next increment in knowledge, whose occurrence can radically change the cloud of possibilities/potentialities for the still-later increments in knowledge. The fundamental difference between these ideas about nature and the classical ideas that reigned from the time of Newton until this century concerns the status of the experiential aspects of nature. These are things such as thoughts, ideas, feelings, and sensations. They are distinguished from the physical aspects of nature, which are described in terms of quantities explicitly located in tiny regions of space and time. According to the ideas of classical physics the physical world is made up exclusively of things of this latter type, and the unfolding of the physical world is determined by causal connections involving only these things
Space and time from quantum mechanics
Chew, G.F.
1992-09-16
Classical mechanics historically preceded quantum mechanics and thus far has not been displaced from primary status; the path to construction of quantum theory has remained rooted in classical ideas about objective reality within space and time. Use of a less correct theory as underpinning for a more correct theory not only is unaesthetic but has spawned the perplexing and never-resolved puzzle of measurement. A growing number of physicist-philosophers torture themselves these days over collapse of the quantum-mechanical state vector when measurement is performed. Additionally, pointlike structure of the spacetime manifold underlying local classical fields has endowed quantum theory with mathematical dilemmas. It has been proposed by Gell-Mann and Hartle that objectively-realistic ideas such as measurement may lack a priori status, the predominantly classical present universe having evolved as a relic of the big bang. Other authors have suggested that spacetime itself need not be a priori but may stem from quantum mechanics. Haag has written recently that spacetime without (quantum) events is probably a meaningless concept. Henry Stapp and I have for several years been exploring a simple quantum system devoid of classical underpinning, even spacetime, but admitting within the Hilbert space a special Lie-group-related category of vector known as coherent state. Groups unitarily representable in our Hilbert space include the Poincare group, which relates to 3 + 1 spacetime. Coherent states generally are labeled by parameters associated with unitary group representations, and it has long been recognized that when such parameters become large a classical objective interpretation may result. Stapp and I have been attempting to understand space and time via large coherent-state parameters. Six years ago I presented to this gathering a preliminary report on our enterprise; in this paper I provide an update.
Space and time from quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chew, G. F.
1992-09-01
Classical mechanics historically preceded quantum mechanics and thus far has not been displaced from primary status; the path to construction of quantum theory has remained rooted in classical ideas about objective reality within space and time. Use of a less correct theory as underpinning for a more correct theory not only is unaesthetic but has spawned the perplexing and never-resolved puzzle of measurement. A growing number of physicist-philosophers torture themselves these days over the collapse of the quantum-mechanical state vector when measurement is performed. Additionally, the pointlike structure of the spacetime manifold underlying local classical fields has endowed quantum theory with mathematical dilemmas. It has been proposed by Gell-Mann and Hartle that objectively-realistic ideas such as measurement may lack a priori status, the predominantly classical present universe having evolved as a relic of the big bang. Other authors have suggested that spacetime itself need not be a priori but may stem from quantum mechanics. Haag has written recently that spacetime without (quantum) events is probably a meaningless concept. Henry Stapp and I have for several years been exploring a simple quantum system devoid of classical underpinning, even spacetime, but admitting within the Hilbert space a special Lie-group-related category of vector known as a coherent state. Groups unitarily representable in our Hilbert space include the Poincare group, which relates to 3 + 1 spacetime. Coherent states generally are labeled by parameters associated with unitary group representations, and it has long been recognized that when such parameters become large a classical objective interpretation may result. Stapp and I have been attempting to understand space and time via large coherent-state parameters. Six years ago I presented to this gathering a preliminary report on our enterprise; in this paper I provide an update.
Quantum mechanics and reality: An interpretation of Everett's theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lehner, Christoph Albert
The central part of Everett's formulation of quantum mechanics is a quantum mechanical model of memory and of observation as the recording of information in a memory. To use this model as an answer to the measurement problem, Everett has to assume that a conscious observer can be in a superposition of such memory states and be unaware of it. This assumption has puzzled generations of readers. The fundamental aim of this dissertation is to find a set of simpler assumptions which are sufficient to show that Everett's model is empirically adequate. I argue that Everett's model needs three assumptions to account for the process of observation: an assumption of decoherence of observers as quantum mechanical systems; an assumption of supervenience of mental states (qualities) over quantum mechanical properties; and an assumption about the interpretation of quantum mechanical states in general: quantum mechanical states describe ensembles of states of affairs coexisting in the same system. I argue that the only plausible understanding of such ensembles is as ensembles of possibilities, and that all standard no-collapse interpretations agree in this reading of quantum mechanical states. Their differences can be understood as different theories about what marks the real state within this ensemble, and Everett's theory as the claim that no additional 'mark of reality' is necessary. Using the three assumptions, I argue that introspection cannot determine the objective quantum mechanical state of an observer. Rather, the introspective qualities of a quantum mechanical state can be represented by a (classical) statistical ensemble of subjective states. An analysis of these subjective states and their dynamics leads to the conclusion that they suffice to give empirically correct predictions. The argument for the empirical adequacy of the subjective state entails that knowledge of the objective quantum mechanical state is impossible in principle. Empirical reality for a conscious
Statistical mechanics based on fractional classical and quantum mechanics
Korichi, Z.; Meftah, M. T.
2014-03-15
The purpose of this work is to study some problems in statistical mechanics based on the fractional classical and quantum mechanics. At first stage we have presented the thermodynamical properties of the classical ideal gas and the system of N classical oscillators. In both cases, the Hamiltonian contains fractional exponents of the phase space (position and momentum). At the second stage, in the context of the fractional quantum mechanics, we have calculated the thermodynamical properties for the black body radiation, studied the Bose-Einstein statistics with the related problem of the condensation and the Fermi-Dirac statistics.
Two basic Uncertainty Relations in Quantum Mechanics
Angelow, Andrey
2011-04-07
In the present article, we discuss two types of uncertainty relations in Quantum Mechanics-multiplicative and additive inequalities for two canonical observables. The multiplicative uncertainty relation was discovered by Heisenberg. Few years later (1930) Erwin Schroedinger has generalized and made it more precise than the original. The additive uncertainty relation is based on the three independent statistical moments in Quantum Mechanics-Cov(q,p), Var(q) and Var(p). We discuss the existing symmetry of both types of relations and applicability of the additive form for the estimation of the total error.
Two basic Uncertainty Relations in Quantum Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Angelow, Andrey
2011-04-01
In the present article, we discuss two types of uncertainty relations in Quantum Mechanics-multiplicative and additive inequalities for two canonical observables. The multiplicative uncertainty relation was discovered by Heisenberg. Few years later (1930) Erwin Schrödinger has generalized and made it more precise than the original. The additive uncertainty relation is based on the three independent statistical moments in Quantum Mechanics-Cov(q,p), Var(q) and Var(p). We discuss the existing symmetry of both types of relations and applicability of the additive form for the estimation of the total error.
An Axiomatic Basis for Quantum Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cassinelli, Gianni; Lahti, Pekka
2016-06-01
In this paper we use the framework of generalized probabilistic theories to present two sets of basic assumptions, called axioms, for which we show that they lead to the Hilbert space formulation of quantum mechanics. The key results in this derivation are the co-ordinatization of generalized geometries and a theorem of Solér which characterizes Hilbert spaces among the orthomodular spaces. A generalized Wigner theorem is applied to reduce some of the assumptions of Solér's theorem to the theory of symmetry in quantum mechanics. Since this reduction is only partial we also point out the remaining open questions.
Remarks on Dersarkissian's cosmic quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Massa, C.
1985-12-01
Dersarkissian (1984) has proposed a cosmic quantum mechanics (CQM) characterized by the constant hg approximately equal to 10 to the 75th ergs approximately equal to 10 to the 102nd h, where h is Planck's constant of ordinary quantum mechanics; galaxies are the elementary particles of CQM. Uncertainty arguments in CQM give a number of constraints on the masses of galaxies and thus a concrete way to test CQM. A condition that has to be satisfied for a massive body to be subject to CQM is proposed.
Debugging quantum processes using monitoring measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yangjia; Ying, Mingsheng
2014-04-01
Since observation on a quantum system may cause the system state collapse, it is usually hard to find a way to monitor a quantum process, which is a quantum system that continuously evolves. We propose a protocol that can debug a quantum process by monitoring, but not disturb the evolution of the system. This protocol consists of an error detector and a debugging strategy. The detector is a projection operator that is orthogonal to the anticipated system state at a sequence of time points, and the strategy is used to specify these time points. As an example, we show how to debug the computational process of quantum search using this protocol. By applying the Skolem-Mahler-Lech theorem in algebraic number theory, we find an algorithm to construct all of the debugging protocols for quantum processes of time-independent Hamiltonians.
Photonic qubits for remote quantum information processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maunz, P.; Olmschenk, S.; Hayes, D.; Matsukevich, D. N.; Duan, L.-M.; Monroe, C.
2009-05-01
Quantum information processing between remote quantum memories relies on a fast and faithful quantum channel. Recent experiments employed both, the photonic polarization and frequency qubits, in order to entangle remote atoms [1, 2], to teleport quantum information [3] and to operate a quantum gate between distant atoms. Here, we compare the dierent schemes used in these experiments and analyze the advantages of the dierent choices of atomic and photonic qubits and their coherence properties. [4pt] [1] D. L. Moehring et al. Nature 449, 68 (2007).[0pt] [2] D. N. Matsukevich et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 150404 2008).[0pt] [3] S. Olmschenk et al. Science, 323, 486 (2009).
A proof of von Neumann's postulate in Quantum Mechanics
Conte, Elio
2010-05-04
A Clifford algebraic analysis is explained. It gives proof of von Neumann's postulate on quantum measurement. It is of basic significance to explain the problem of quantum wave function reduction in quantum mechanics.
Emergence of Quantum Mechanics from a Sub-Quantum Statistical Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grössing, Gerhard
2015-10-01
A research program within the scope of theories on "Emergent Quantum Mechanics" is presented, which has gained some momentum in recent years. Via the modeling of a quantum system as a non-equilibrium steady-state maintained by a permanent throughput of energy from the zero-point vacuum, the quantum is considered as an emergent system. We implement a specific "bouncer-walker" model in the context of an assumed sub-quantum statistical physics, in analogy to the results of experiments by Couder and Fort on a classical wave-particle duality. We can thus give an explanation of various quantum mechanical features and results on the basis of a "21st century classical physics", such as the appearance of Planck's constant, the Schrödinger equation, etc. An essential result is given by the proof that averaged particle trajectories' behaviors correspond to a specific type of anomalous diffusion termed "ballistic" diffusion on a sub-quantum level...
A new introductory quantum mechanics curriculum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohnle, Antje; Bozhinova, Inna; Browne, Dan; Everitt, Mark; Fomins, Aleksejs; Kok, Pieter; Kulaitis, Gytis; Prokopas, Martynas; Raine, Derek; Swinbank, Elizabeth
2014-01-01
The Institute of Physics New Quantum Curriculum consists of freely available online learning and teaching materials (quantumphysics.iop.org) for a first course in university quantum mechanics starting from two-level systems. This approach immediately immerses students in inherently quantum-mechanical aspects by focusing on experiments that have no classical explanation. It allows from the start a discussion of the interpretive aspects of quantum mechanics and quantum information theory. This paper gives an overview of the resources available from the IOP website. The core text includes around 80 articles which are co-authored by leading experts, arranged in themes, and can be used flexibly to provide a range of alternative approaches. Many of the articles include interactive simulations with accompanying activities and problem sets that can be explored by students to enhance their understanding. Much of the linear algebra needed for this approach is included in the resource. Solutions to activities are available to instructors. The resources can be used in a variety of ways, from being supplemental to existing courses to forming a complete programme.
Generalized Hofmann quantum process fidelity bounds for quantum filters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sedlák, Michal; Fiurášek, Jaromír
2016-04-01
We propose and investigate bounds on the quantum process fidelity of quantum filters, i.e., probabilistic quantum operations represented by a single Kraus operator K . These bounds generalize the Hofmann bounds on the quantum process fidelity of unitary operations [H. F. Hofmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 160504 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.160504] and are based on probing the quantum filter with pure states forming two mutually unbiased bases. Determination of these bounds therefore requires far fewer measurements than full quantum process tomography. We find that it is particularly suitable to construct one of the probe bases from the right eigenstates of K , because in this case the bounds are tight in the sense that if the actual filter coincides with the ideal one, then both the lower and the upper bounds are equal to 1. We theoretically investigate the application of these bounds to a two-qubit optical quantum filter formed by the interference of two photons on a partially polarizing beam splitter. For an experimentally convenient choice of factorized input states and measurements we study the tightness of the bounds. We show that more stringent bounds can be obtained by more sophisticated processing of the data using convex optimization and we compare our methods for different choices of the input probe states.
Gillespie, D.T.
1996-08-01
In reply to the preceding Comment on an article by D. T. Gillespie [Phys. Rev. A {bold 49}, 1607 (1994)], it is emphasized that the most plausible interpretation of the singly conditioned probability function implies that the evolution of the two-state quantum system being considered {ital cannot} be characterized as a Markov process on those states over {ital any} time interval. And it is pointed out that an alternative interpretation that is offered in the Comment appears to be in conflict with quantum mechanics.
Understanding Entanglement as a Resource for Quantum Information Processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cohen, Scott M.
2008-05-01
Ever since Erwin Schrodinger shocked the physics world by killing (and not killing) his cat, entanglement has played a critical role in attempts to understand quantum mechanics. More recently, entanglement has been shown to be a valuable resource, of central importance for quantum computation and the processing of quantum information. In this talk, I will describe a new diagrammatic approach to understanding why entanglement is so valuable, the key idea being that entanglement between two systems ``creates'' multiple images of the state of a third. By way of example, I will show how to ``visualize'' teleportation of unknown quantum states, and how to use entanglement to implement an interaction between spatially separated (and therefore non-interacting!) systems. These ideas have also proven useful in quantum state discrimination, where the state of a quantum system is unknown and is to be determined.
Consistent interpretations of quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Omnès, Roland
1992-04-01
Within the last decade, significant progress has been made towards a consistent and complete reformulation of the Copenhagen interpretation (an interpretation consisting in a formulation of the experimental aspects of physics in terms of the basic formalism; it is consistent if free from internal contradiction and complete if it provides precise predictions for all experiments). The main steps involved decoherence (the transition from linear superpositions of macroscopic states to a mixing), Griffiths histories describing the evolution of quantum properties, a convenient logical structure for dealing with histories, and also some progress in semiclassical physics, which was made possible by new methods. The main outcome is a theory of phenomena, viz., the classically meaningful properties of a macroscopic system. It shows in particular how and when determinism is valid. This theory can be used to give a deductive form to measurement theory, which now covers some cases that were initially devised as counterexamples against the Copenhagen interpretation. These theories are described, together with their applications to some key experiments and some of their consequences concerning epistemology.
Quantum Mechanics Concept Assessment: Development and Validation Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sadaghiani, Homeyra R.; Pollock, Steven J.
2015-01-01
As part of an ongoing investigation of students' learning in first semester upper-division quantum mechanics, we needed a high-quality conceptual assessment instrument for comparing outcomes of different curricular approaches. The process of developing such a tool started with converting a preliminary version of a 14-item open-ended quantum…
Quantum Mechanics of the Einstein-Hopf Model.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Milonni, P. W.
1981-01-01
The Einstein-Hopf model for the thermodynamic equilibrium between the electromagnetic field and dipole oscillators is considered within the framework of quantum mechanics. Both the wave and particle aspects of the Einstein fluctuation formula are interpreted in terms of the fundamental absorption and emission processes. (Author/SK)
Subjective and objective probabilities in quantum mechanics
Srednicki, Mark
2005-05-15
We discuss how the apparently objective probabilities predicted by quantum mechanics can be treated in the framework of Bayesian probability theory, in which all probabilities are subjective. Our results are in accord with earlier work by Caves, Fuchs, and Schack, but our approach and emphasis are different. We also discuss the problem of choosing a noninformative prior for a density matrix.
Comparison of Classical and Quantum Mechanical Uncertainties.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Peslak, John, Jr.
1979-01-01
Comparisons are made for the particle-in-a-box, the harmonic oscillator, and the one-electron atom. A classical uncertainty principle is derived and compared with its quantum-mechanical counterpart. The results are discussed in terms of the statistical interpretation of the uncertainty principle. (Author/BB)
Quantum Mechanics Studies of Cellobiose Conformations
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Three regions of the Phi,Psi space of cellobiose were analyzed with quantum mechanics. A central region, in which most crystal structures are found, was covered by a 9 x 9 grid of 20° increments of Phi and Psi. Besides these 81 constrained minimizations, we studied two central sub-regions and two re...
The geometric semantics of algebraic quantum mechanics.
Cruz Morales, John Alexander; Zilber, Boris
2015-08-01
In this paper, we will present an ongoing project that aims to use model theory as a suitable mathematical setting for studying the formalism of quantum mechanics. We argue that this approach provides a geometric semantics for such a formalism by means of establishing a (non-commutative) duality between certain algebraic and geometric objects. PMID:26124252
Quantum Mechanics, Pattern Recognition, and the Mammalian Brain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chapline, George
2008-10-01
Although the usual way of representing Markov processes is time asymmetric, there is a way of describing Markov processes, due to Schrodinger, which is time symmetric. This observation provides a link between quantum mechanics and the layered Bayesian networks that are often used in automated pattern recognition systems. In particular, there is a striking formal similarity between quantum mechanics and a particular type of Bayesian network, the Helmholtz machine, which provides a plausible model for how the mammalian brain recognizes important environmental situations. One interesting aspect of this relationship is that the "wake-sleep" algorithm for training a Helmholtz machine is very similar to the problem of finding the potential for the multi-channel Schrodinger equation. As a practical application of this insight it may be possible to use inverse scattering techniques to study the relationship between human brain wave patterns, pattern recognition, and learning. We also comment on whether there is a relationship between quantum measurements and consciousness.
Time and the foundations of quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pashby, Thomas
Quantum mechanics has provided philosophers of science with many counterintuitive insights and interpretive puzzles, but little has been written about the role that time plays in the theory. One reason for this is the celebrated argument of Wolfgang Pauli against the inclusion of time as an observable of the theory, which has been seen as a demonstration that time may only enter the theory as a classical parameter. Against this orthodoxy I argue that there are good reasons to expect certain kinds of `time observables' to find a representation within quantum theory, including clock operators (which provide the means to measure the passage of time) and event time operators, which provide predictions for the time at which a particular event occurs, such as the appearance of a dot on a luminescent screen. I contend that these time operators deserve full status as observables of the theory, and on re ection provide a uniquely compelling reason to expand the set of observables allowed by the standard formalism of quantum mechanics. In addition, I provide a novel association of event time operators with conditional probabilities, and propose a temporally extended form of quantum theory to better accommodate the time of an event as an observable quantity. This leads to a proposal to interpret quantum theory within an event ontology, inspired by Bertrand Russell's Analysis of Matter. On this basis I mount a defense of Russell's relational theory of time against a recent attack.
The Compton effect: Transition to quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stuewer, R. H.
2000-11-01
The discovery of the Compton effect at the end of 1922 was a decisive event in the transition to the new quantum mechanics of 1925-1926 because it stimulated physicists to examine anew the fundamental problem of the interaction between radiation and matter. I first discuss Albert Einstein's light-quantum hypothesis of 1905 and why physicists greeted it with extreme skepticism, despite Robert A. Millikan's confirmation of Einstein's equation of the photoelectric effect in 1915. I then follow in some detail the experimental and theoretical research program that Arthur Holly Compton pursued between 1916 and 1922 at the University of Minnesota, the Westinghouse Lamp Company, the Cavendish Laboratory, and Washington University that culminated in his discovery of the Compton effect. Surprisingly, Compton was not influenced directly by Einstein's light-quantum hypothesis, in contrast to Peter Debye and H.A. Kramers, who discovered the quantum theory of scattering independently. I close by discussing the most significant response to that discovery, the Bohr-Kramers-Slater theory of 1924, its experimental refutation, and its influence on the emerging new quantum mechanics.
Time in classical and in quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elçi, A.
2010-07-01
This paper presents an analysis of the time concept in classical mechanics from the perspective of the invariants of a motion. The analysis shows that there is a conceptual gap concerning time in the Dirac-Heisenberg-von Neumann formalism and that Bohr's complementarity principle does not fill the gap. In the Dirac-Heisenberg-von Neumann formalism, a particle's properties are represented by Heisenberg matrices. This axiom is the source of the time problem in quantum mechanics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aspelmeyer, Markus; Schwab, Keith
2008-09-01
diverse backgrounds and approaches of the researchers. As diverse as the approaches are the manifold of goals and perspectives for operating mechanical systems close to or within the quantum regime. Already now, nanomechanical sensors achieve single-molecule mass detection and magnetic resonance force detection from single-electron spins although they are operated far from quantum. Quantum-limited mechanical devices promise a new technology with hitherto unachieved performance for high-resolution sensing. This is also of high relevance for macroscopic mechanical resonators used in gravitational wave detectors. Furthermore, the increasing capability to couple mechanical modes to individual quantum systems raises the interesting question of whether mechanics can serve as a quantum bus in hybrid implementations of quantum information processing. Finally, the possibility of generating quantum superposition states that involve displacements of a massive macroscopic object (such as the center of mass of a mechanical beam) provides a completely new parameter regime for testing quantum theory over the amazing range from nanomechanical objects of several picograms up to gram-scale mirrors used in gravitational wave interferometers. We are looking forward to these fascinating developments! This Focus Issue is intended to highlight the present status of the field and to provide both introduction and motivation for students and researchers who want to get familiar with this exciting area or even want to join it. It also complements the conference activities of our community during the last year, where a series of dedicated invited sessions at several international conferences (APS March Meeting 2008, CLEO/QELS 2008, OSA Frontiers in Optics 2008, PQE 2008/2009 etc) culminated in the first Gordon Conference on 'Mechanical Systems at the Quantum Limit'. Given the fast development of the field it was not surprising to see that during the collection of the following contributions new
Quantum mechanical studies of carbon structures
Bartelt, Norman Charles; Ward, Donald; Zhou, Xiaowang; Foster, Michael E.; Schultz, Peter A.; Wang, Bryan M.; McCarty, Kevin F.
2015-10-01
Carbon nanostructures, such as nanotubes and graphene, are of considerable interest due to their unique mechanical and electrical properties. The materials exhibit extremely high strength and conductivity when defects created during synthesis are minimized. Atomistic modeling is one technique for high resolution studies of defect formation and mitigation. To enable simulations of the mechanical behavior and growth mechanisms of C nanostructures, a high-fidelity analytical bond-order potential for the C is needed. To generate inputs for developing such a potential, we performed quantum mechanical calculations of various C structures.
Quantum Mechanical Scattering in Nanoscale Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gianfrancesco, A. G.; Ilyashenko, A.; Boucher, C. R.; Ram-Mohan, L. R.
2012-02-01
We investigate quantum scattering using the finite element method. Unlike textbook treatments employing asymptotic boundary conditions (BCs), we use modified BCs, which permits computation close to the near-field region and reduces the Cauchy BCs to Dirichlet BCs, greatly simplifying the analysis. Scattering from any finite quantum mechanical potential can be modeled, including scattering in a finite waveguide geometry and in the open domain. Being numerical, our analysis goes beyond the Born Approximation, and the finite element approach allows us to transcend geometric constraints. Results of the formulation will be presented with several case studies, including spin dependent scattering, demonstrating the high accuracy and flexibility attained in this approach.
A Primer on Resonances in Quantum Mechanics
Rosas-Ortiz, Oscar; Fernandez-Garcia, Nicolas; Cruz y Cruz, Sara
2008-11-13
After a pedagogical introduction to the concept of resonance in classical and quantum mechanics, some interesting applications are discussed. The subject includes resonances occurring as one of the effects of radiative reaction, the resonances involved in the refraction of electromagnetic waves by a medium with a complex refractive index, and quantum decaying systems described in terms of resonant states of the energy (Gamow-Siegert functions). Some useful mathematical approaches like the Fourier transform, the complex scaling method and the Darboux transformation are also reviewed.
Quantum mechanics of 4-derivative theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salvio, Alberto; Strumia, Alessandro
2016-04-01
A renormalizable theory of gravity is obtained if the dimension-less 4-derivative kinetic term of the graviton, which classically suffers from negative unbounded energy, admits a sensible quantization. We find that a 4-derivative degree of freedom involves a canonical coordinate with unusual time-inversion parity, and that a correspondingly unusual representation must be employed for the relative quantum operator. The resulting theory has positive energy eigenvalues, normalizable wavefunctions, unitary evolution in a negative-norm configuration space. We present a formalism for quantum mechanics with a generic norm.
Emergence of quantum mechanics from a sub-quantum statistical mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grössing, Gerhard
2014-07-01
A research program within the scope of theories on "Emergent Quantum Mechanics" is presented, which has gained some momentum in recent years. Via the modeling of a quantum system as a non-equilibrium steady-state maintained by a permanent throughput of energy from the zero-point vacuum, the quantum is considered as an emergent system. We implement a specific "bouncer-walker" model in the context of an assumed sub-quantum statistical physics, in analogy to the results of experiments by Couder and Fort on a classical wave-particle duality. We can thus give an explanation of various quantum mechanical features and results on the basis of a "21st century classical physics", such as the appearance of Planck's constant, the Schrödinger equation, etc. An essential result is given by the proof that averaged particle trajectories' behaviors correspond to a specific type of anomalous diffusion termed "ballistic" diffusion on a sub-quantum level. It is further demonstrated both analytically and with the aid of computer simulations that our model provides explanations for various quantum effects such as double-slit or n-slit interference. We show the averaged trajectories emerging from our model to be identical to Bohmian trajectories, albeit without the need to invoke complex wavefunctions or any other quantum mechanical tool. Finally, the model provides new insights into the origins of entanglement, and, in particular, into the phenomenon of a "systemic" non-locality.
``the Human BRAIN & Fractal quantum mechanics''
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosary-Oyong, Se, Glory
In mtDNA ever retrieved from Iman Tuassoly, et.al:Multifractal analysis of chaos game representation images of mtDNA''.Enhances the price & valuetales of HE. Prof. Dr-Ing. B.J. HABIBIE's N-219, in J. Bacteriology, Nov 1973 sought:'' 219 exist as separate plasmidDNA species in E.coli & Salmonella panama'' related to ``the brain 2 distinct molecular forms of the (Na,K)-ATPase..'' & ``neuron maintains different concentration of ions(charged atoms'' thorough Rabi & Heisenber Hamiltonian. Further, after ``fractal space time are geometric analogue of relativistic quantum mechanics''[Ord], sought L.Marek Crnjac: ``Chaotic fractals at the root of relativistic quantum physics''& from famous Nottale: ``Scale relativity & fractal space-time:''Application to Quantum Physics , Cosmology & Chaotic systems'',1995. Acknowledgements to HE. Mr. H. TUK SETYOHADI, Jl. Sriwijaya Raya 3, South-Jakarta, INDONESIA.
Quantum mechanics on phase space and teleportation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Messamah, Juba; Schroeck, Franklin E.; Hachemane, Mahmoud; Smida, Abdallah; Hamici, Amel H.
2015-03-01
The formalism of quantum mechanics on phase space is used to describe the standard protocol of quantum teleportation with continuous variables in order to partially investigate the interplay between this formalism and quantum information. Instead of the Wigner quasi-probability distributions used in the standard protocol, we use positive definite true probability densities which account for unsharp measurements through a proper wave function representing a non-ideal quantum measuring device. This is based on a result of Schroeck and may be taken on any relativistic or nonrelativistic phase space. The obtained formula is similar to a known formula in quantum optics, but contains the effect of the measuring device. It has been applied in three cases. In the first case, the two measuring devices, corresponding to the two entangled parts shared by Alice and Bob, are not entangled and described by two identical Gaussian wave functions with respect to the Heisenberg group. They lead to a probability density identical to the function which is analyzed and compared with the Wigner formalism. A new expression of the teleportation fidelity for a coherent state in terms of the quadrature variances is obtained. In the second case, these two measuring devices are entangled in a two-mode squeezed vacuum state. In the third case, two Gaussian states are combined in an entangled squeezed state. The overall observation is that the state of the measuring devices shared by Alice and Bob influences the fidelity of teleportation through their unsharpness and entanglement.
Virtual Processes and Quantum Tunnelling as Fictions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Arthur, Richard T. W.
2012-01-01
In this paper it is argued that virtual processes are dispensable fictions. The argument proceeds by a comparison with the phenomenon of quantum tunnelling. Building on an analysis of Levy-Leblond and Balibar, it is argued that, although the phenomenon known as quantum tunnelling certainly occurs and is at the basis of many paradigmatic quantum…
Logical reformulation of quantum mechanics. I. Foundations
Omnes, R.
1988-11-01
The basic rules of quantum mechanics are reformulated. They deal primarily with individual systems and do not assume that every ket may represent a physical state. The customary kinematic and dynamic rules then allow to construct consistent Boolean logics describing the history of a system, following essentially Griffiths' proposal. Logical implication is defined within these logics, the multiplicity of which reflects the complementary principle. Only one interpretive rule of quantum mechanics is necessary in such a framework. It states that these logics provide bona fide foundations for the description of a quantum system and for reasoning about it. One attempts to build up classical physics, including classical logic, on these quantum foundations. The resulting theory of measurement needs not to state a priori that the eigenvalues of an observable have to be the results of individual measurements nor to assume wave packet reduction. Both these properties can be obtained as consequences of the basic rules. One also needs not to postulate that every observable is measurable, even in principle. A proposition calculus is obtained, allowing in principle the replacement of the discussion of problems concerned with the practical interpretation of experiments by due calculations.
Hidden variables and nonlocality in quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hemmick, Douglas Lloyd
1997-05-01
Most physicists hold a skeptical attitude toward a 'hidden variables' interpretation of quantum theory, despite David Bohm's successful construction of such a theory and John S. Bell's strong arguments in favor of the idea. The first reason for doubt concerns certain mathematical theorems (von Neumann's, Gleason's, Kochen and Specker's, and Bell's) which can be applied to the hidden variables issue. These theorems are often credited with proving that hidden variables are indeed 'impossible', in the sense that they cannot replicate the predictions of quantum mechanics. Many who do not draw such a strong conclusion nevertheless accept that hidden variables have been shown to exhibit prohibitively complicated features. The second concern is that the most sophisticated example of a hidden variables theory-that of David Bohm-exhibits non-locality, i.e., consequences of events at one place can propagate to other places instantaneously. However, neither the mathematical theorems in question nor the attribute of nonlocality detract from the importance of a hidden variables interpretation of quantum theory. Nonlocality is present in quantum mechanics itself, and is a required characteristic of any theory that agrees with the quantum mechanical predictions. We first discuss the earliest analysis of hidden variables-that of von Neumann's theorem-and review John S. Bell's refutation of von Neumann's 'impossibility proof'. We recall and elaborate on Bell's arguments regarding the theorems of Gleason, and Kochen and Specker. According to Bell, these latter theorems do not imply that hidden variables interpretations are untenable, but instead that such theories must exhibit contextuality, i.e., they must allow for the dependence of measurement results on the characteristics of both measured system and measuring apparatus. We demonstrate a new way to understand the implications of both Gleason's theorem and Kochen and Specker's theorem by noting that they prove a result we call
Resolution of the Klein Paradox within Relativistic Quantum Mechanics
Alhaidari, A. D.
2011-10-27
We present a resolution of the Klein paradox within the framework of one-particle relativistic quantum mechanics (no pair production). Not only reflection becomes total but the vacuum remains neutral as well. This is accomplished by replacing the pair production process with virtual negative energy ''incidence'' within the barrier in a process analogous to the introduction of image charges in electrostatic and virtual sources in optics.
Compressed Sensing Quantum Process Tomography for Superconducting Quantum Gates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodionov, Andrey
An important challenge in quantum information science and quantum computing is the experimental realization of high-fidelity quantum operations on multi-qubit systems. Quantum process tomography (QPT) is a procedure devised to fully characterize a quantum operation. We first present the results of the estimation of the process matrix for superconducting multi-qubit quantum gates using the full data set employing various methods: linear inversion, maximum likelihood, and least-squares. To alleviate the problem of exponential resource scaling needed to characterize a multi-qubit system, we next investigate a compressed sensing (CS) method for QPT of two-qubit and three-qubit quantum gates. Using experimental data for two-qubit controlled-Z gates, taken with both Xmon and superconducting phase qubits, we obtain estimates for the process matrices with reasonably high fidelities compared to full QPT, despite using significantly reduced sets of initial states and measurement configurations. We show that the CS method still works when the amount of data is so small that the standard QPT would have an underdetermined system of equations. We also apply the CS method to the analysis of the three-qubit Toffoli gate with simulated noise, and similarly show that the method works well for a substantially reduced set of data. For the CS calculations we use two different bases in which the process matrix is approximately sparse (the Pauli-error basis and the singular value decomposition basis), and show that the resulting estimates of the process matrices match with reasonably high fidelity. For both two-qubit and three-qubit gates, we characterize the quantum process by its process matrix and average state fidelity, as well as by the corresponding standard deviation defined via the variation of the state fidelity for different initial states. We calculate the standard deviation of the average state fidelity both analytically and numerically, using a Monte Carlo method. Overall
Applications of computational quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Temel, Burcin
This original research dissertation is composed of a new numerical technique based on Chebyshev polynomials that is applied on scattering problems, a phenomenological kinetics study for CO oxidation on RuO2 surface, and an experimental study on methanol coupling with doped metal oxide catalysts. Minimum Error Method (MEM), a least-squares minimization method, provides an efficient and accurate alternative to solve systems of ordinary differential equations. Existing methods usually utilize matrix methods which are computationally costful. MEM, which is based on the Chebyshev polynomials as a basis set, uses the recursion relationships and fast Chebyshev transforms which scale as O(N). For large basis set calculations this provides an enormous computational efficiency in the calculations. Chebyshev polynomials are also able to represent non-periodic problems very accurately. We applied MEM on elastic and inelastic scattering problems: it is more efficient and accurate than traditionally used Kohn variational principle, and it also provides the wave function in the interaction region. Phenomenological kinetics (PK) is widely used in industry to predict the optimum conditions for a chemical reaction. PK neglects the fluctuations, assumes no lateral interactions, and considers an ideal mix of reactants. The rate equations are tested by fitting the rate constants to the results of the experiments. Unfortunately, there are numerous examples where a fitted mechanism was later shown to be erroneous. We have undertaken a thorough comparison between the phenomenological equations and the results of kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations performed on the same system. The PK equations are qualitatively consistent with the KMC results but are quantitatively erroneous as a result of interplays between the adsorption and desorption events. The experimental study on methanol coupling with doped metal oxide catalysts demonstrates the doped metal oxides as a new class of catalysts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asano, Masanari; Basieva, Irina; Khrennikov, Andrei; Ohya, Masanori; Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Yamato, Ichiro
2015-10-01
We discuss foundational issues of quantum information biology (QIB)—one of the most successful applications of the quantum formalism outside of physics. QIB provides a multi-scale model of information processing in bio-systems: from proteins and cells to cognitive and social systems. This theory has to be sharply distinguished from "traditional quantum biophysics". The latter is about quantum bio-physical processes, e.g., in cells or brains. QIB models the dynamics of information states of bio-systems. We argue that the information interpretation of quantum mechanics (its various forms were elaborated by Zeilinger and Brukner, Fuchs and Mermin, and D' Ariano) is the most natural interpretation of QIB. Biologically QIB is based on two principles: (a) adaptivity; (b) openness (bio-systems are fundamentally open). These principles are mathematically represented in the framework of a novel formalism— quantum adaptive dynamics which, in particular, contains the standard theory of open quantum systems.
Beyond relativity and quantum mechanics: space physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lindner, Henry H.
2011-09-01
Albert Einstein imposed an observer-based epistemology upon physics. Relativity and Quantum Mechanics limit physics to describing and modeling the observer's sensations and measurements. Their "underlying reality" consists only of ideas that serve to model the observer's experience. These positivistic models cannot be used to form physical theories of Cosmic phenomena. To do this, we must again remove the observer from the center of physics. When we relate motion to Cosmic space instead of to observers and we attempt to explain the causes of Cosmic phenomena, we are forced to admit that Cosmic space is a substance. We need a new physics of space. We can begin by replacing Relativity with a modified Lorentzian-Newtonian model of spatial flow, and Quantum Mechanics with a wave-based theory of light and electrons. Space physics will require the reinterpretation of all known phenomena, concepts, and mathematical models.
Quantum mechanics without the projection postulate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bub, Jeffrey
1992-05-01
I show that the quantum state ω can be interpreted as defining a probability measure on a subalgebra of the algebra of projection operators that is not fixed (as in classical statistical mechanics) but changes with ω and appropriate boundary conditions, hence with the dynamics of the theory. This subalgebra, while not embeddable into a Boolean algebra, will always admit two-valued homomorphisms, which correspond to the different possible ways in which a set of “determinate” quantities (selected by ω and the boundary conditions) can have values. The probabilities defined by ω (via the Born rule) are probabilities over these two-valued homomorphisms or value assignments. So any universe of interacting systems, including those functioning as measuring instruments, can be modelled quantum mechanically without the projection postulate.
Quantum mechanics concept assessment: Development and validation study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadaghiani, Homeyra R.; Pollock, Steven J.
2015-06-01
As part of an ongoing investigation of students' learning in first semester upper-division quantum mechanics, we needed a high-quality conceptual assessment instrument for comparing outcomes of different curricular approaches. The process of developing such a tool started with converting a preliminary version of a 14-item open-ended quantum mechanics assessment tool (QMAT) to a multiple-choice (MC) format. Further question refinement, development of effective distractors, adding new questions, and robust statistical analysis has led to a 31-item quantum mechanics concept assessment (QMCA) test. The QMCA is used as post-test only to assess students' knowledge about five main topics of quantum measurement: the time-independent Schrödinger equation, wave functions and boundary conditions, time evolution, and probability density. During two years of testing and refinement, the QMCA has been given in alpha (N =61 ) and beta versions (N =263 ) to students in upper division quantum mechanics courses at 11 different institutions with an average post-test score of 54%. By allowing for comparisons of student learning across different populations and institutions, the QMCA provides instructors and researchers a more standard measure of effectiveness of different curricula or teaching strategies on student conceptual understanding of quantum mechanics. In this paper, we discuss the construction of effective distractors and the use of student interviews and expert feedback to revise and validate both questions and distractors. We include the results of common statistical tests of reliability and validity, which suggest the instrument is presently in a stable, usable, and promising form.
Diffeomorphism groups and nonlinear quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldin, Gerald A.
2012-02-01
This talk is dedicated to my friend and collaborator, Prof. Dr. Heinz-Dietrich Doebner, on the occasion of his 80th birthday. I shall review some highlights of the approach we have taken in deriving and interpreting an interesting class of nonlinear time-evolution equations for quantum-mechanical wave functions, with few equations; more detail may be found in the references. Then I shall comment on the corresponding hydrodynamical description.
Covariant quantum mechanics applied to noncommutative geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Astuti, Valerio
2015-08-01
We here report a result obtained in collaboration with Giovanni Amelino-Camelia, first shown in the paper [1]. Applying the manifestly covariant formalism of quantum mechanics to the much studied Snyder spacetime [2] we show how it is trivial in every physical observables, this meaning that every measure in this spacetime gives the same results that would be obtained in the flat Minkowski spacetime.
Collocation method for fractional quantum mechanics
Amore, Paolo; Hofmann, Christoph P.; Saenz, Ricardo A.; Fernandez, Francisco M.
2010-12-15
We show that it is possible to obtain numerical solutions to quantum mechanical problems involving a fractional Laplacian, using a collocation approach based on little sinc functions, which discretizes the Schroedinger equation on a uniform grid. The different boundary conditions are naturally implemented using sets of functions with the appropriate behavior. Good convergence properties are observed. A comparison with results based on a Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin analysis is performed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greca, Ileana Maria; Freire, Olival
Teaching physics implies making choices. In the case of teaching quantum physics, besides an educational choice - the didactic strategy - another choice must be made, an epistemological one, concerning the interpretation of quantum theory itself. These two choices are closely connected. We have chosen a didactic strategy that privileges the phenomenological-conceptual approach, with emphasis upon quantum features of the systems, instead of searching for classical analogies. This choice has led us to present quantum theory associated with an orthodox, yet realistic, interpretation of the concept of quantum state, considered as the key concept of quantum theory, representing the physical reality of a system, independent of measurement processes. The results of the mplementation of this strategy, with three groups of engineering students, showed that more than a half of them attained a reasonable understanding of the basics of quantum mechanics (QM) for this level. In addition, a high degree of satisfaction was attained with the classes as 80% of the students of the experimental groups claimed to have liked it and to be interested in learning more about QM.
Hunting for Snarks in Quantum Mechanics
Hestenes, David
2009-12-08
A long-standing debate over the interpretation of quantum mechanics has centered on the meaning of Schroedinger's wave function {psi} for an electron. Broadly speaking, there are two major opposing schools. On the one side, the Copenhagen school(led by Bohr, Heisenberg and Pauli) holds that {psi} provides a complete description of a single electron state; hence the probability interpretation of {psi}{psi}* expresses an irreducible uncertainty in electron behavior that is intrinsic in nature. On the other side, the realist school(led by Einstein, de Broglie, Bohm and Jaynes) holds that {psi} represents a statistical ensemble of possible electron states; hence it is an incomplete description of a single electron state. I contend that the debaters have overlooked crucial facts about the electron revealed by Dirac theory. In particular, analysis of electron zitterbewegung(first noticed by Schroedinger) opens a window to particle substructure in quantum mechanics that explains the physical significance of the complex phase factor in {psi}. This led to a testable model for particle substructure with surprising support by recent experimental evidence. If the explanation is upheld by further research, it will resolve the debate in favor of the realist school. I give details. The perils of research on the foundations of quantum mechanics have been foreseen by Lewis Carroll in The Hunting of the Snark{exclamation_point}.
Quantum information processing with electronic and nuclear spins in semiconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klimov, Paul Victor
Traditional electronic and communication devices operate by processing binary information encoded as bits. Such digital devices have led to the most advanced technologies that we encounter in our everyday lives and they influence virtually every aspect of our society. Nonetheless, there exists a much richer way to encode and process information. By encoding information in quantum mechanical states as qubits, phenomena such as coherence and entanglement can be harnessed to execute tasks that are intractable to digital devices. Under this paradigm, it should be possible to realize quantum computers, quantum communication networks and quantum sensors that outperform their classical counterparts. The electronic spin states of color-center defects in the semiconductor silicon carbide have recently emerged as promising qubit candidates. They have long-lived quantum coherence up to room temperature, they can be controlled with mature magnetic resonance techniques, and they have a built-in optical interface operating near the telecommunication bands. In this thesis I will present two of our contributions to this field. The first is the electric-field control of electron spin qubits. This development lays foundation for quantum electronics that operate via electrical gating, much like traditional electronics. The second is the universal control and entanglement of electron and nuclear spin qubits in an ensemble under ambient conditions. This development lays foundation for quantum devices that have a built-in redundancy and can operate in real-world conditions. Both developments represent important steps towards practical quantum devices in an electronic grade material.
A quantum-mechanical relaxation model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skomski, R.; Kashyap, A.; Sellmyer, D. J.
2012-04-01
The atomic origin of micromagnetic damping is investigated by developing and solving a quantum-mechanical relaxation model. A projection-operator technique is used to derive an analytical expression for the relaxation time as a function of the heat-bath and interaction parameters. The present findings are consistent with earlier research beyond the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation and show that the underlying relaxation mechanism is very general. Zermelo's recurrence paradox means that there is no true irreversibility in non-interacting nanoparticles, but the corresponding recurrence times are very long and can be ignored in many cases.
A multiscale quantum mechanics/electromagnetics method for device simulations.
Yam, ChiYung; Meng, Lingyi; Zhang, Yu; Chen, GuanHua
2015-04-01
Multiscale modeling has become a popular tool for research applying to different areas including materials science, microelectronics, biology, chemistry, etc. In this tutorial review, we describe a newly developed multiscale computational method, incorporating quantum mechanics into electronic device modeling with the electromagnetic environment included through classical electrodynamics. In the quantum mechanics/electromagnetics (QM/EM) method, the regions of the system where active electron scattering processes take place are treated quantum mechanically, while the surroundings are described by Maxwell's equations and a semiclassical drift-diffusion model. The QM model and the EM model are solved, respectively, in different regions of the system in a self-consistent manner. Potential distributions and current densities at the interface between QM and EM regions are employed as the boundary conditions for the quantum mechanical and electromagnetic simulations, respectively. The method is illustrated in the simulation of several realistic systems. In the case of junctionless field-effect transistors, transfer characteristics are obtained and a good agreement between experiments and simulations is achieved. Optical properties of a tandem photovoltaic cell are studied and the simulations demonstrate that multiple QM regions are coupled through the classical EM model. Finally, the study of a carbon nanotube-based molecular device shows the accuracy and efficiency of the QM/EM method. PMID:25611987
Quantum processes: A Whiteheadian interpretation of quantum field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bain, Jonathan
Quantum processes: A Whiteheadian interpretation of quantum field theory is an ambitious and thought-provoking exercise in physics and metaphysics, combining an erudite study of the very complex metaphysics of A.N. Whitehead with a well-informed discussion of contemporary issues in the philosophy of algebraic quantum field theory. Hättich's overall goal is to construct an interpretation of quantum field theory. He does this by translating key concepts in Whitehead's metaphysics into the language of algebraic quantum field theory. In brief, this Hättich-Whitehead (H-W, hereafter) interpretation takes "actual occasions" as the fundamental ontological entities of quantum field theory. An actual occasion is the result of two types of processes: a "transition process" in which a set of initial possibly-possessed properties for the occasion (in the form of "eternal objects") is localized to a space-time region; and a "concrescence process" in which a subset of these initial possibly-possessed properties is selected and actualized to produce the occasion. Essential to these processes is the "underlying activity", which conditions the way in which properties are initially selected and subsequently actualized. In short, under the H-W interpretation of quantum field theory, an initial set of possibly-possessed eternal objects is represented by a Boolean sublattice of the lattice of projection operators determined by a von Neumann algebra R (O) associated with a region O of Minkowski space-time, and the underlying activity is represented by a state on R (O) obtained by conditionalizing off of the vacuum state. The details associated with the H-W interpretation involve imposing constraints on these representations motivated by principles found in Whitehead's metaphysics. These details are spelled out in the three sections of the book. The first section is a summary and critique of Whitehead's metaphysics, the second section introduces the formalism of algebraic quantum field
Quantum mechanics with coordinate dependent noncommutativity
Kupriyanov, V. G.
2013-11-15
Noncommutative quantum mechanics can be considered as a first step in the construction of quantum field theory on noncommutative spaces of generic form, when the commutator between coordinates is a function of these coordinates. In this paper we discuss the mathematical framework of such a theory. The noncommutativity is treated as an external antisymmetric field satisfying the Jacobi identity. First, we propose a symplectic realization of a given Poisson manifold and construct the Darboux coordinates on the obtained symplectic manifold. Then we define the star product on a Poisson manifold and obtain the expression for the trace functional. The above ingredients are used to formulate a nonrelativistic quantum mechanics on noncommutative spaces of general form. All considered constructions are obtained as a formal series in the parameter of noncommutativity. In particular, the complete algebra of commutation relations between coordinates and conjugated momenta is a deformation of the standard Heisenberg algebra. As examples we consider a free particle and an isotropic harmonic oscillator on the rotational invariant noncommutative space.
Quantum metrology with unitary parametrization processes
Liu, Jing; Jing, Xiao-Xing; Wang, Xiaoguang
2015-01-01
Quantum Fisher information is a central quantity in quantum metrology. We discuss an alternative representation of quantum Fisher information for unitary parametrization processes. In this representation, all information of parametrization transformation, i.e., the entire dynamical information, is totally involved in a Hermitian operator . Utilizing this representation, quantum Fisher information is only determined by and the initial state. Furthermore, can be expressed in an expanded form. The highlights of this form is that it can bring great convenience during the calculation for the Hamiltonians owning recursive commutations with their partial derivative. We apply this representation in a collective spin system and show the specific expression of . For a simple case, a spin-half system, the quantum Fisher information is given and the optimal states to access maximum quantum Fisher information are found. Moreover, for an exponential form initial state, an analytical expression of quantum Fisher information by operator is provided. The multiparameter quantum metrology is also considered and discussed utilizing this representation. PMID:25708678
Bohmian Mechanics In A Macroscopic Quantum System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haven, Emmanuel
2006-01-01
In the so called `causal' interpretation of quantum mechanics, an electron is considered as a particle and such particle is influenced not only by a classical but also by a so called quantum potential. This idea was developed by Professor Bohm in an important paper. In this paper we use some of the basics of this interpretation in a financial option pricing environment. The causal interpretation allows for trajectories. Path breaking work by Professors Bohm and Hiley and Khrennikov and Choustova have made that the causal interpretation is a step closer to potential applications in social science. In this paper we consider the wave function as a wave of information. We consider the gradient of the phase of this wave function and show how the option price could be influenced by this gradient.
Indirect Acquisition of Information in Quantum Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ballesteros, M.; Fraas, M.; Fröhlich, J.; Schubnel, B.
2016-02-01
Long sequences of successive direct (projective) measurements or observations of just a few "uninteresting" physical quantities pertaining to a quantum system, such as clicks of some detectors, may reveal indirect, but precise and unambiguous information on the values of some very "interesting" observables of the system. In this paper, the mathematics underlying this claim is developed; i.e., we attempt to contribute to a mathematical theory of indirect and, in particular, non-demolition observations and measurements in quantum mechanics. Our attempt leads us to make some novel uses of classical notions and results of probability theory, such as the "algebra of functions measurable at infinity", the Central Limit Theorem, results concerning relative entropy and its role in the theory of large deviations, etc.
Unstable trajectories and the quantum mechanical uncertainty
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moser, Hans R.
2008-08-01
There is still an ongoing discussion about various seemingly contradictory aspects of classical particle motion and its quantum mechanical counterpart. One of the best accepted viewpoints that intend to bridge the gap is the so-called Copenhagen Interpretation. A major issue there is to regard wave functions as probability amplitudes (usually for the position of a particle). However, the literature also reports on approaches that claim a trajectory for any quantum mechanical particle, Bohmian mechanics probably being the most prominent one among these ideas. We introduce a way to calculate trajectories as well, but our crucial ingredient is their well controlled local (thus also momentaneous) degree of instability. By construction, at every moment their unpredictability, i.e., their local separation rates of neighboring trajectories, is governed by the local value of the given modulus square of a wave function. We present extensive numerical simulations of the H and He atom, and for some velocity-related quantities, namely angular momentum and total energy, we inspect their agreement with the values appearing in wave mechanics. Further, we interpret the archetypal double slit interference experiment in the spirit of our findings. We also discuss many-particle problems far beyond He, which guides us to a variety of possible applications.
Reciprocal relativity of noninertial frames: quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Low, Stephen G.
2007-04-01
Noninertial transformations on time-position-momentum-energy space {t, q, p, e} with invariant Born-Green metric ds^{2}=-d t^{2}+\\frac{1}{c^{2}}\\,d q^{2}+\\frac{1}{b^{2}} \\big(d p^{2}-\\frac{1}{c^{2}}\\,d e^{2}\\big) and the symplectic metric -de ∧ dt + dp ∧ dq are studied. This {\\cal U}1,3) group of transformations contains the Lorentz group as the inertial special case and, in the limit of small forces and velocities, reduces to the expected Hamilton transformations leaving invariant the symplectic metric and the nonrelativistic line element ds2 = -dt2. The {\\cal U}( 1,3) transformations bound relative velocities by c and relative forces by b. Spacetime is no longer an invariant subspace but is relative to noninertial observer frames. In the limit of b → ∞, spacetime is invariant. Born was lead to the metric by a concept of reciprocity between position and momentum degrees of freedom and for this reason we call this reciprocal relativity. For large b, such effects will almost certainly only manifest in a quantum regime. Wigner showed that special relativistic quantum mechanics follows from the projective representations of the inhomogeneous Lorentz group. Projective representations of a Lie group are equivalent to the unitary representations of its central extension. The same method of projective representations for the inhomogeneous {\\cal U}( 1,3) group is used to define the quantum theory in the noninertial case. The central extension of the inhomogeneous {\\cal U}( 1,3) group is the cover of the quaplectic group {\\cal Q}( 1,3) ={\\cal U}( 1,3) \\otimes _{s}{\\cal H}(4) . {\\cal H}( 4) is the Weyl-Heisenberg group. The {\\cal H}( 4) group, and the associated Heisenberg commutation relations central to quantum mechanics, results directly from requiring projective representations. A set of second-order wave equations result from the representations of the Casimir operators.
Symbolic dynamics of successive quantum-mechanical measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beck, Christian; Graudenz, Dirk
1992-11-01
We consider successive measurements on quantum-mechnical systems and investigate the way in which sequences of measurements produce information. The eigenvalues of suitable projection operators form symbolic sequences that characterize the quantum system under consideration. For several model systems with finite-dimensional state space, we explicitly calculate the probabilities to observe certain symbol sequences and determine the corresponding Rényi entropies K(β) with the help of the transfer-matrix method. A nontrivial dependence on β is observed. We show that the Rényi entropies as well as the symbol-sequence probabilities of the quantum-mechanical measurement process coincide with those of appropriate classes of one-dimensional chaotic maps.
Experimental demonstration of simplified quantum process tomography.
Wu, Z; Li, S; Zheng, W; Peng, X; Feng, M
2013-01-14
The essential tool to characterize dynamics of an open quantum system is quantum process tomography (QPT). Although standard QPT methods are hard to be scalable, simplified QPT approach is available if we have the prior knowledge that the system Hamiltonian commutes with the system-environment interaction Hamiltonian. Using a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) quantum simulator, we experimentally simulate dephasing channels to demonstrate the simplified QPT as well as the standard QPT method as a comparison. The experimental results agree well with our predictions which confirm the validity and better efficiency of the simplified QPT. PMID:23320694
An opto-magneto-mechanical quantum interface between distant superconducting qubits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Keyu; Vanner, Michael R.; Twamley, Jason
2014-07-01
A quantum internet, where widely separated quantum devices are coherently connected, is a fundamental vision for local and global quantum information networks and processing. Superconducting quantum devices can now perform sophisticated quantum engineering locally on chip and a detailed method to achieve coherent optical quantum interconnection between distant superconducting devices is a vital, but highly challenging, goal. We describe a concrete opto-magneto-mechanical system that can interconvert microwave-to-optical quantum information with high fidelity. In one such node we utilise the magnetic fields generated by the supercurrent of a flux qubit to coherently modulate a mechanical oscillator that is part of a high-Q optical cavity to achieve high fidelity microwave-to-optical quantum information exchange. We analyze the transfer between two spatially distant nodes connected by an optical fibre and using currently accessible parameters we predict that the fidelity of transfer could be as high as ~80%, even with significant loss.
Quantum time and spatial localization in relativistic quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
von Zuben, Francis Stephen Geisler
1999-11-01
Two related problems in relativistic quantum mechanics, the apparent superluminal propagation of initially localized particles, and the dependence of their localization on the motion of the observer, are analyzed in the context of the theory of constraints. Time and energy operators are introduced for the free relativistic particle, and a parametrization invariant formulation is obtained through Dirac constraint theory. The resulting description is of a system constrained in momentum and energy, but not in position or time, for which observables are constants of the motion. The Klein-Gordon equation is recovered on a physical Hilbert space, constructed via integration over the proper time from an augmented Hilbert space, wherein time and energy are dynamical variables. It is shown that the position observable acts on states in the augmented space; those states having strictly positive energy are non-local in time. Localization arises on a particular space-like hyperplane from quantum interference in time, position measurements receiving contributions from the past and future. Apparent causality problems are resolved by noting that, as the particle is potentially in the past, it can propagate to distant regions without exceeding the speed of light. Non-locality of the same system to a moving observer is due to Lorentz rotation of spatial axes out of the interference minimum.
Quantum mechanics and faster-than-light communication Methodological considerations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghirardi, G. C.; Weber, T.
1983-11-01
A critical analysis is made of proposals for faster-than-light communications schemes based on quantum mechanics concepts. The point of view taken is that no reduction in one physical system can have an instantaneous effect on another, isolated system. It is shown that the philosophical contradictions exposed by the Einstein-Podolsky Rosen can be directly transferred to an interpretation of physical events. Attention is directed toward the possibility of a photon, propagating in one direction with either circular or plane polarization, entering a nonselective laser tube. The photon originally emerged from a quantum decay process which yielded two photons traveling in opposite directions. The photon in the laser gain tube precipitates a beam which is polarized as the initiating photon. A first observer can then determine the polarization observed by a second observer (with the laser) before the signal arrives. It is concluded that the FLASH argument of Herbert (1982) therefore assumes a violation of quantum mechanical laws in order to use quantum mechanics to prove that faster-than-light communication is possible.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aspelmeyer, Markus; Schwab, Keith
2008-09-01
diverse backgrounds and approaches of the researchers. As diverse as the approaches are the manifold of goals and perspectives for operating mechanical systems close to or within the quantum regime. Already now, nanomechanical sensors achieve single-molecule mass detection and magnetic resonance force detection from single-electron spins although they are operated far from quantum. Quantum-limited mechanical devices promise a new technology with hitherto unachieved performance for high-resolution sensing. This is also of high relevance for macroscopic mechanical resonators used in gravitational wave detectors. Furthermore, the increasing capability to couple mechanical modes to individual quantum systems raises the interesting question of whether mechanics can serve as a quantum bus in hybrid implementations of quantum information processing. Finally, the possibility of generating quantum superposition states that involve displacements of a massive macroscopic object (such as the center of mass of a mechanical beam) provides a completely new parameter regime for testing quantum theory over the amazing range from nanomechanical objects of several picograms up to gram-scale mirrors used in gravitational wave interferometers. We are looking forward to these fascinating developments! This Focus Issue is intended to highlight the present status of the field and to provide both introduction and motivation for students and researchers who want to get familiar with this exciting area or even want to join it. It also complements the conference activities of our community during the last year, where a series of dedicated invited sessions at several international conferences (APS March Meeting 2008, CLEO/QELS 2008, OSA Frontiers in Optics 2008, PQE 2008/2009 etc) culminated in the first Gordon Conference on 'Mechanical Systems at the Quantum Limit'. Given the fast development of the field it was not surprising to see that during the collection of the following contributions new
Formalism and applications of decohering histories in quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chisolm, Eric Dewayne
Quantum mechanics possesses a nonintuitive feature which makes it difficult to interpret consistently: A generic quantum state can not be thought of as a classical statistical ensemble. Empirically, however, some things do behave as classical ensembles; for example, a measurement process produces a statistical ensemble of results, although a simple quantum mechanical calculation fails to verify this. The same could be said of everything in the ``classical'' world of our experience, where quantum effects are completely absent but it is not clear why. A formalism for systematically expressing these interference effects, developed by Griffiths, Omnés, and Gell-Mann and Hartle, is called the decohering histories formulation of quantum mechanics, and its fundamental notions are histories (sequences of events at a succession of times) and a decoherence functional, which measures the interference between histories. They suggest that quantum mechanics is properly thought of as a theory of closed systems in which only histories that diagonalize the decoherence functional actually occur, guaranteeing the absence of interference. I first explain why such a formalism is even necessary by deriving the most general form for an interference term and explaining why these terms pose an interpretive problem; then I describe the decoherence formulation. Next I consider decoherence as a geometrical condition in the space of linear operators on a Hilbert space; I use it to discuss exhaustively the types of decohering histories allowed in a finite dimensional state space, and I conclude that they cannot describe complicated stochastic processes. I also comment on the consequences of these results for systems with larger Hilbert spaces. Then I discuss attempts to demonstrate that decoherence occurs dynamically in the macroscopic world and in measurement situations; I exhibit a simple model of my own and I discuss the results of others, and I conclude that the calculations that are
The metaphysics of quantum mechanics: Modal interpretations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gluck, Stuart Murray
2004-11-01
This dissertation begins with the argument that a preferred way of doing metaphysics is through philosophy of physics. An understanding of quantum physics is vital to answering questions such as: What counts as an individual object in physical ontology? Is the universe fundamentally indeterministic? Are indiscernibles identical? This study explores how the various modal interpretations of quantum mechanics answer these sorts of questions; modal accounts are one of the two classes of interpretations along with so-called collapse accounts. This study suggests a new alternative within the class of modal views that yields a more plausible ontology, one in which the Principle of the Identity of Indisceribles is necessarily true. Next, it shows that modal interpretations can consistently deny that the universe must be fundamentally indeterministic so long as they accept certain other metaphysical commitments: either a perfect initial distribution of states in the universe or some form of primitive dispositional properties. Finally, the study sketches out a future research project for modal interpretations based on developing quantified quantum logic.
Supersymmetric quantum mechanics and its applications
Sukumar, C.V.
2004-12-23
The Hamiltonian in Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics is defined in terms of charges that obey the same algebra as that of the generators of supersymmetry in field theory. The consequences of this symmetry for the spectra of the component parts that constitute the supersymmetric system are explored. The implications of supersymmetry for the solutions of the Schroedinger equation, the Dirac equation, the inverse scattering theory and the multi-soliton solutions of the KdV equation are examined. Applications to scattering problems in Nuclear Physics with specific reference to singular potentials which arise from considerations of supersymmetry will be discussed.
Landau problem in noncommutative quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sayipjamal, Dulat; Li, Kang
2008-02-01
The Landau problem in non-commutative quantum mechanics (NCQM) is studied. First by solving the Schrödinger equations on noncommutative (NC) space we obtain the Landau energy levels and the energy correction that is caused by space-space noncommutativity. Then we discuss the noncommutative phase space case, namely, space-space and momentum-momentum non-commutative case, and we get the explicit expression of the Hamiltonian as well as the corresponding eigenfunctions and eigenvalues. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (10465004, 10665001, 10575026) and Abdus Salam ICTP, Trieste, Italy
Quantum-mechanical Brayton engine working with a particle in a one-dimensional harmonic trap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, H.
2013-05-01
Based on the quantum version of thermodynamic processes, a quantum-mechanical Brayton engine model has been established. Expressions for the power output and efficiency of the engine are derived. Some fundamental optimal relations and general performance characteristic curves of the cycle are obtained. Furthermore, we note that it is possible to resist the reduction in efficiency, caused by compression of the adiabatic process, by decreasing the amount of energy levels of the quantum system. The results obtained here will provide theoretical guidance for the design of some new quantum-mechanical engines.
Controlled Hawking process by quantum energy teleportation
Hotta, Masahiro
2010-02-15
In this paper, a new quantum mechanical method to extract energy from black holes with contracting horizons is proposed. The method is based on a gedanken experiment on quantum energy teleportation, which has been recently proposed in quantum information theory. We consider this quantum energy teleportation protocol for N massless fields in near-horizon regions of large-mass black holes with near-horizon geometry described by the Minkowski metric. For each field, a two-level spin is strongly coupled with the local quantum fluctuation outside the horizon during a short time period. After the measurement of N fields, N-bit information is obtained. During the measurement, positive-energy wave packets of the fields form and then fall into the black hole. The amount of excitation energy is independent of the measurement result. After absorption of the wave packets and increase of the black-hole mass, a measurement-result-dependent local operation of the N fields is performed outside the horizon. Then, accompanying the extraction of positive energy from the quantum fluctuation by the operation, negative-energy wave packets of the fields form and then fall into the black hole, decreasing the black-hole mass. This implies that a part of the absorbed positive energy emitted from the measurement devices is effectively retrieved from the black hole via the measurement results.
Quantum information processing with trapped ion chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manning, Timothy Andrew
Trapped atomic ion systems are currently the most advanced platform for quantum information processing. Their long coherence times, pristine state initialization and detection, and precisely controllable and versatile interactions make them excellent quantum systems for experiments in quantum computation and quantum simulation. One of the more promising schemes for quantum computing consists of performing single and multi-qubit quantum gates on qubits in a linear ion crystal. Some of the key challenges of scaling such a system are the individual addressing of arbitrary subsets of ions and controlling the growing complexity of motional mode interactions as the number of qubits increases or when the gates are performed faster. Traditional entangling quantum gates between ion qubits use laser pulses to couple the qubit states to the collective motion of the crystal, thereby generating a spin-spin interaction that can produce entanglement between selected qubits. The intrinsic limitations on the performance of gates using this method can be alleviated by applying optimally shaped pulses instead of pulses with constant amplitude. This thesis explains the theory behind this pulse shaping scheme and how it is implemented on a chain of Yb ions held in a linear radiofrequency 'Paul' trap. Several experiments demonstrate the technique in chains of two, three, and five ions using various types of pulse shapes. A tightly focused individual addressing beam allows us to apply the entangling gates to a target pair of ions, and technical issues related to such tight focusing are discussed. Other advantages to the pulse shaping scheme include a robustness against detuning errors and the possibility of suppressing undesirable coupling due to optical spillover on neighboring ions. Combined with ion shuttling, we harness these features to perform sequential gates to different qubit pairs in order to create genuine tripartite entangled states and demonstrate the programmable quantum
Differentiability of correlations in realistic quantum mechanics
Cabrera, Alejandro; Faria, Edson de; Pujals, Enrique; Tresser, Charles
2015-09-15
We prove a version of Bell’s theorem in which the locality assumption is weakened. We start by assuming theoretical quantum mechanics and weak forms of relativistic causality and of realism (essentially the fact that observable values are well defined independently of whether or not they are measured). Under these hypotheses, we show that only one of the correlation functions that can be formulated in the framework of the usual Bell theorem is unknown. We prove that this unknown function must be differentiable at certain angular configuration points that include the origin. We also prove that, if this correlation is assumed to be twice differentiable at the origin, then we arrive at a version of Bell’s theorem. On the one hand, we are showing that any realistic theory of quantum mechanics which incorporates the kinematic aspects of relativity must lead to this type of rough correlation function that is once but not twice differentiable. On the other hand, this study brings us a single degree of differentiability away from a relativistic von Neumann no hidden variables theorem.
Quantum Mechanical Study of Nanoscale MOSFET
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Svizhenko, Alexei; Anantram, M. P.; Govindan, T. R.; Biegel, Bryan
2001-01-01
The steady state characteristics of MOSFETS that are of practical Interest are the drive current, off-current, dope of drain current versus drain voltage, and threshold voltage. In this section, we show that quantum mechanical simulations yield significantly different results from drift-diffusion based methods. These differences arise because of the following quantum mechanical features: (I) polysilicon gate depletion in a manner opposite to the classical case (II) dependence of the resonant levels in the channel on the gate voltage, (III) tunneling of charge across the gate oxide and from source to drain, (IV) quasi-ballistic flow of electrons. Conclusions dI/dV versus V does not increase in a manner commensurate with the increase in number of subbands. - The increase in dI/dV with bias is much smaller then the increase in the number of subbands - a consequence of bragg reflection. Our calculations show an increase in transmission with length of contact, as seen in experiments. It is desirable for molecular electronics applications to have a small contact area, yet large coupling. In this case, the circumferential dependence of the nanotube wave function dictates: - Transmission in armchair tubes saturates around unity - Transmission in zigzag tubes saturates at two.
Differentiability of correlations in realistic quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cabrera, Alejandro; de Faria, Edson; Pujals, Enrique; Tresser, Charles
2015-09-01
We prove a version of Bell's theorem in which the locality assumption is weakened. We start by assuming theoretical quantum mechanics and weak forms of relativistic causality and of realism (essentially the fact that observable values are well defined independently of whether or not they are measured). Under these hypotheses, we show that only one of the correlation functions that can be formulated in the framework of the usual Bell theorem is unknown. We prove that this unknown function must be differentiable at certain angular configuration points that include the origin. We also prove that, if this correlation is assumed to be twice differentiable at the origin, then we arrive at a version of Bell's theorem. On the one hand, we are showing that any realistic theory of quantum mechanics which incorporates the kinematic aspects of relativity must lead to this type of rough correlation function that is once but not twice differentiable. On the other hand, this study brings us a single degree of differentiability away from a relativistic von Neumann no hidden variables theorem.
A quantum protective mechanism in photosynthesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marais, Adriana; Sinayskiy, Ilya; Petruccione, Francesco; van Grondelle, Rienk
2015-03-01
Since the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis, living systems have developed protective mechanisms against reactive oxygen species. During charge separation in photosynthetic reaction centres, triplet states can react with molecular oxygen generating destructive singlet oxygen. The triplet product yield in bacteria is observed to be reduced by weak magnetic fields. Reaction centres from plants' photosystem II share many features with bacterial reaction centres, including a high-spin iron whose function has remained obscure. To explain observations that the magnetic field effect is reduced by the iron, we propose that its fast-relaxing spin plays a protective role in photosynthesis by generating an effective magnetic field. We consider a simple model of the system, derive an analytical expression for the effective magnetic field and analyse the resulting triplet yield reduction. The protective mechanism is robust for realistic parameter ranges, constituting a clear example of a quantum effect playing a macroscopic role vital for life.
A quantum protective mechanism in photosynthesis
Marais, Adriana; Sinayskiy, Ilya; Petruccione, Francesco; van Grondelle, Rienk
2015-01-01
Since the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis, living systems have developed protective mechanisms against reactive oxygen species. During charge separation in photosynthetic reaction centres, triplet states can react with molecular oxygen generating destructive singlet oxygen. The triplet product yield in bacteria is observed to be reduced by weak magnetic fields. Reaction centres from plants' photosystem II share many features with bacterial reaction centres, including a high-spin iron whose function has remained obscure. To explain observations that the magnetic field effect is reduced by the iron, we propose that its fast-relaxing spin plays a protective role in photosynthesis by generating an effective magnetic field. We consider a simple model of the system, derive an analytical expression for the effective magnetic field and analyse the resulting triplet yield reduction. The protective mechanism is robust for realistic parameter ranges, constituting a clear example of a quantum effect playing a macroscopic role vital for life. PMID:25732807
Supersymmetric quantum mechanics and the Korteweg--de Vries hierarchy
Grant, A.K.; Rosner, J.L. )
1994-05-01
The connection between supersymmetric quantum mechanics and the Korteweg--de Vries (KdV) equation is discussed, with particular emphasis on the KdV conservation laws. It is shown that supersymmetric quantum mechanics aids in the derivation of the conservation laws, and gives some insight into the Miura transformation that converts the KdV equation into the modified KdV equation. The construction of the [tau] function by means of supersymmetric quantum mechanics is discussed.
Lagrangian dynamics for classical, Brownian, and quantum mechanical particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pavon, Michele
1996-07-01
In the framework of Nelson's stochastic mechanics [E. Nelson, Dynamical Theories of Brownian Motion (Princeton University, Princeton, 1967); F. Guerra, Phys. Rep. 77, 263 (1981); E. Nelson, Quantum Fluctuations (Princeton University, Princeton, 1985)] we seek to develop the particle counterpart of the hydrodynamic results of M. Pavon [J. Math. Phys. 36, 6774 (1995); Phys. Lett. A 209, 143 (1995)]. In particular, a first form of Hamilton's principle is established. We show that this variational principle leads to the correct equations of motion for the classical particle, the Brownian particle in thermodynamical equilibrium, and the quantum particle. In the latter case, the critical process q satisfies a stochastic Newton law. We then introduce the momentum process p, and show that the pair (q,p) satisfies canonical-like equations.
Exclusive processes in quantum chromodynamics
Brodsky, S.J.; Lepage, G.P.
1981-06-01
Large momentum transfer exclusive processes and the short distance structure of hadronic wave functions can be systematically analyzed within the context of perturbative QCD. Predictions for meson form factors, two-photon processes ..gamma gamma.. ..-->.. M anti M, hadronic decays of heavy quark systems, and a number of other related QCD phenomena are reviewed.
Student Understanding of Time Dependence in Quantum Mechanics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Emigh, Paul J.; Passante, Gina; Shaffer, Peter S.
2015-01-01
The time evolution of quantum states is arguably one of the more difficult ideas in quantum mechanics. In this article, we report on results from an investigation of student understanding of this topic after lecture instruction. We demonstrate specific problems that students have in applying time dependence to quantum systems and in recognizing…
Sub-Poissonian processes in quantum optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davidovich, Luiz
1996-01-01
The author reviews methods for generating sub-Poissonian light and related concepts. This light has energy fluctuations reduced below the level which corresponds to a classical Poissonian process (shot-noise level). After an introduction to the concept of nonclassical light, an overview is given of the main methods of quantum-noise reduction. Sub-Poissonian processes are exemplified in different areas of optics, ranging from single-atom resonance fluorescence to nonlinear optics, laser physics, and cavity quantum electrodynamics. Emphasis is placed on the conceptual foundations, and on developments in laser theory that lead to the possibility, already demonstrated experimentally, of linewidth narrowing and sub-Poissonian light generation in lasers and masers. The sources of quantum noise in these devices are analyzed, and four noise-suppression methods are discussed in detail: regularization of the pumping, suppression of spontaneous-emission noise, nonadiabatic evolution of the atomic variables, and twin-beam generation.
Exponential energy growth due to slow parameter oscillations in quantum mechanical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turaev, Dmitry
2016-05-01
It is shown that a periodic emergence and destruction of an additional quantum number leads to an exponential growth of energy of a quantum mechanical system subjected to a slow periodic variation of parameters. The main example is given by systems (e.g., quantum billiards and quantum graphs) with periodically divided configuration space. In special cases, the process can also lead to a long period of cooling that precedes the acceleration, and to the desertion of the states with a particular value of the quantum number.
Reversibility in Quantum Models of Stochastic Processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gier, David; Crutchfield, James; Mahoney, John; James, Ryan
Natural phenomena such as time series of neural firing, orientation of layers in crystal stacking and successive measurements in spin-systems are inherently probabilistic. The provably minimal classical models of such stochastic processes are ɛ-machines, which consist of internal states, transition probabilities between states and output values. The topological properties of the ɛ-machine for a given process characterize the structure, memory and patterns of that process. However ɛ-machines are often not ideal because their statistical complexity (Cμ) is demonstrably greater than the excess entropy (E) of the processes they represent. Quantum models (q-machines) of the same processes can do better in that their statistical complexity (Cq) obeys the relation Cμ >= Cq >= E. q-machines can be constructed to consider longer lengths of strings, resulting in greater compression. With code-words of sufficiently long length, the statistical complexity becomes time-symmetric - a feature apparently novel to this quantum representation. This result has ramifications for compression of classical information in quantum computing and quantum communication technology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Lay Nam; Lewis, Zachary; Minic, Djordje; Takeuchi, Tatsu
2013-12-01
We propose mutant versions of quantum mechanics constructed on vector spaces over the finite Galois fields GF(3) and GF(9). The mutation we consider here is distinct from what we proposed in previous papers on Galois field quantum mechanics. In this new mutation, the canonical expression for expectation values is retained instead of that for probabilities. In fact, probabilities are indeterminate. Furthermore, it is shown that the mutant quantum mechanics over the finite field GF(9) exhibits super-quantum correlations (i.e. the Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt bound is 4). We comment on the fundamental physical importance of these results in the context of quantum gravity.