Measurement of the Magnetic Flux Noise Spectrum in Superconducting Xmon Transmon Quantum Bits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiaro, Ben; Sank, D.; Kelly, J.; Chen, Z.; Campbell, B.; Dunsworth, A.; O'Malley, P.; Neill, C.; Quintana, C.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; Barends, R.; Chen, Y.; Fowler, A.; Jeffrey, E.; Migrant, A.; Mutus, J.; Roushan, P.; White, T.; Martinis, J. M.
Dephasing induced by magnetic flux noise limits the performance of modern superconducting quantum processors. We measure the flux noise power spectrum in planar, frequency-tunable, Xmon transmon quantum bits (qubits), with several SQUID loop geometries. We extend the Ramsey Tomography Oscilloscope (RTO) technique by rapid sampling up to 1 MHz, without state reset, to measure the flux noise power spectrum between 10-2 and 105 Hz. The RTO measurements are combined with idle gate randomized benchmarking and Ramsey decay to give a more complete picture of dephasing in SQUID-based devices.
Noise and measurement errors in a practical two-state quantum bit commitment protocol
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loura, Ricardo; Almeida, Álvaro J.; André, Paulo S.; Pinto, Armando N.; Mateus, Paulo; Paunković, Nikola
2014-05-01
We present a two-state practical quantum bit commitment protocol, the security of which is based on the current technological limitations, namely the nonexistence of either stable long-term quantum memories or nondemolition measurements. For an optical realization of the protocol, we model the errors, which occur due to the noise and equipment (source, fibers, and detectors) imperfections, accumulated during emission, transmission, and measurement of photons. The optical part is modeled as a combination of a depolarizing channel (white noise), unitary evolution (e.g., systematic rotation of the polarization axis of photons), and two other basis-dependent channels, namely the phase- and bit-flip channels. We analyze quantitatively the effects of noise using two common information-theoretic measures of probability distribution distinguishability: the fidelity and the relative entropy. In particular, we discuss the optimal cheating strategy and show that it is always advantageous for a cheating agent to add some amount of white noise—the particular effect not being present in standard quantum security protocols. We also analyze the protocol's security when the use of (im)perfect nondemolition measurements and noisy or bounded quantum memories is allowed. Finally, we discuss errors occurring due to a finite detector efficiency, dark counts, and imperfect single-photon sources, and we show that the effects are the same as those of standard quantum cryptography.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mück, Michael; Korn, Matthias; Mugford, C. G. A.; Kycia, J. B.; Clarke, John
2005-01-01
Critical current fluctuations with a 1/f spectral density (f is frequency) are potentially a limiting source of intrinsic decoherence in superconducting quantum bits (qubits) based on Josephson tunnel junctions. Prior measurements of this noise were made at nonzero voltages whereas qubits are operated in the zero voltage state. We report measurements of 1/f noise in a dc superconducting quantum interference device first, coupled to a resonant tank circuit and operated in a dispersive mode at zero voltage, and, second, operated conventionally with a current bias in the voltage regime. Both measurements yield essentially the same magnitude of critical current 1/f noise.
Optimal encryption of quantum bits
Boykin, P. Oscar; Roychowdhury, Vwani
2003-04-01
We show that 2n random classical bits are both necessary and sufficient for encrypting any unknown state of n quantum bits in an informationally secure manner. We also characterize the complete set of optimal protocols in terms of a set of unitary operations that comprise an orthonormal basis in a canonical inner product space. Moreover, a connection is made between quantum encryption and quantum teleportation that allows for a different proof of optimality of teleportation.
Security of quantum bit-string generation
Barrett, Jonathan; Massar, Serge
2004-11-01
We consider the cryptographic task of bit-string generation. This is a generalization of coin tossing in which two mistrustful parties wish to generate a string of random bits such that an honest party can be sure that the other cannot have biased the string too much. We consider a quantum protocol for this task, originally introduced in Phys. Rev. A 69, 022322 (2004), that is feasible with present day technology. We introduce security conditions based on the average bias of the bits and the Shannon entropy of the string. For each, we prove rigorous security bounds for this protocol in both noiseless and noisy conditions under the most general attacks allowed by quantum mechanics. Roughly speaking, in the absence of noise, a cheater can only bias significantly a vanishing fraction of the bits, whereas in the presence of noise, a cheater can bias a constant fraction, with this fraction depending quantitatively on the level of noise. We also discuss classical protocols for the same task, deriving upper bounds on how well a classical protocol can perform. This enables the determination of how much noise the quantum protocol can tolerate while still outperforming classical protocols. We raise several conjectures concerning both quantum and classical possibilities for large n cryptography. An experiment corresponding to the scheme analyzed in this paper has been performed and is reported elsewhere.
Deterministic relativistic quantum bit commitment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adlam, Emily; Kent, Adrian
2015-06-01
We describe new unconditionally secure bit commitment schemes whose security is based on Minkowski causality and the monogamy of quantum entanglement. We first describe an ideal scheme that is purely deterministic, in the sense that neither party needs to generate any secret randomness at any stage. We also describe a variant that allows the committer to proceed deterministically, requires only local randomness generation from the receiver, and allows the commitment to be verified in the neighborhood of the unveiling point. We show that these schemes still offer near-perfect security in the presence of losses and errors, which can be made perfect if the committer uses an extra single random secret bit. We discuss scenarios where these advantages are significant.
Multi-Bit Quantum Private Query
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Wei-Xu; Liu, Xing-Tong; Wang, Jian; Tang, Chao-Jing
2015-09-01
Most of the existing Quantum Private Queries (QPQ) protocols provide only single-bit queries service, thus have to be repeated several times when more bits are retrieved. Wei et al.'s scheme for block queries requires a high-dimension quantum key distribution system to sustain, which is still restricted in the laboratory. Here, based on Markus Jakobi et al.'s single-bit QPQ protocol, we propose a multi-bit quantum private query protocol, in which the user can get access to several bits within one single query. We also extend the proposed protocol to block queries, using a binary matrix to guard database security. Analysis in this paper shows that our protocol has better communication complexity, implementability and can achieve a considerable level of security.
A practical quantum bit commitment protocol
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arash Sheikholeslam, S.; Aaron Gulliver, T.
2012-01-01
In this paper, we introduce a new quantum bit commitment protocol which is secure against entanglement attacks. A general cheating strategy is examined and shown to be practically ineffective against the proposed approach.
Quantum bit commitment under Gaussian constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandilara, Aikaterini; Cerf, Nicolas J.
2012-06-01
Quantum bit commitment has long been known to be impossible. Nevertheless, just as in the classical case, imposing certain constraints on the power of the parties may enable the construction of asymptotically secure protocols. Here, we introduce a quantum bit commitment protocol and prove that it is asymptotically secure if cheating is restricted to Gaussian operations. This protocol exploits continuous-variable quantum optical carriers, for which such a Gaussian constraint is experimentally relevant as the high optical nonlinearity needed to effect deterministic non-Gaussian cheating is inaccessible.
Quantum random bit generation using stimulated Raman scattering.
Bustard, Philip J; Moffatt, Doug; Lausten, Rune; Wu, Guorong; Walmsley, Ian A; Sussman, Benjamin J
2011-12-01
Random number sequences are a critical resource in a wide variety of information systems, including applications in cryptography, simulation, and data sampling. We introduce a quantum random number generator based on the phase measurement of Stokes light generated by amplification of zero-point vacuum fluctuations using stimulated Raman scattering. This is an example of quantum noise amplification using the most noise-free process possible: near unitary quantum evolution. The use of phase offers robustness to classical pump noise and the ability to generate multiple bits per measurement. The Stokes light is generated with high intensity and as a result, fast detectors with high signal-to-noise ratios can be used for measurement, eliminating the need for single-photon sensitive devices. The demonstrated implementation uses optical phonons in bulk diamond. PMID:22273908
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oss, Stefano; Rosi, Tommaso
2015-01-01
We have developed an app for iOS-based smart-phones/tablets that allows a 3-D, complex phase-based colorful visualization of hydrogen atom wave functions. Several important features of the quantum behavior of atomic orbitals can easily be made evident, thus making this app a useful companion in introductory modern physics classes. There are many…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oss, Stefano; Rosi, Tommaso
2015-04-01
We have developed an app for iOS-based smart-phones/tablets that allows a 3-D, complex phase-based colorful visualization of hydrogen atom wave functions. Several important features of the quantum behavior of atomic orbitals can easily be made evident, thus making this app a useful companion in introductory modern physics classes. There are many reasons why quantum mechanical systems and phenomena are difficult both to teach and deeply understand. They are described by equations that are generally hard to visualize, and they often oppose the so-called "common sense" based on the human perception of the world, which is built on mental images such as locality and causality. Moreover students cannot have direct experience of those systems and solutions, and generally do not even have the possibility to refer to pictures, videos, or experiments to fill this gap. Teachers often encounter quite serious troubles in finding out a sensible way to speak about the wonders of quantum physics at the high school level, where complex formalisms are not accessible at all. One should however consider that this is quite a common issue in physics and, more generally, in science education. There are plenty of natural phenomena whose models (not only at microscopic and atomic levels) are of difficult, if not impossible, visualization. Just think of certain kinds of waves, fields of forces, velocities, energy, angular momentum, and so on. One should also notice that physical reality is not the same as the images we make of it. Pictures (formal, abstract ones, as well as artists' views) are a convenient bridge between these two aspects.
Fighting noise with noise in realistic quantum teleportation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fortes, Raphael; Rigolin, Gustavo
2015-07-01
We investigate how the efficiency of the quantum teleportation protocol is affected when the qubits involved in the protocol are subjected to noise or decoherence. We study all types of noise usually encountered in real-world implementations of quantum communication protocols, namely, the bit-flip, phase-flip (phase damping), depolarizing, and amplitude-damping noise. Several realistic scenarios are studied in which a part or all of the qubits employed in the execution of the quantum teleportation protocol are subjected to the same or different types of noise. We find noise scenarios not yet known in which more noise or less entanglement lead to more efficiency. Furthermore, we show that if noise is unavoidable it is better to subject the qubits to different noise channels in order to obtain an increase in the efficiency of the protocol.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semenov, Andrew G.; Zaikin, Andrei D.
2016-07-01
Quantum phase slips (QPSs) generate voltage fluctuations in superconducting nanowires. Employing the Keldysh technique and making use of the phase-charge duality arguments, we develop a theory of QPS-induced voltage noise in such nanowires. We demonstrate that quantum tunneling of the magnetic flux quanta across the wire yields quantum shot noise which obeys Poisson statistics and is characterized by a power-law dependence of its spectrum SΩ on the external bias. In long wires, SΩ decreases with increasing frequency Ω and vanishes beyond a threshold value of Ω at T →0 . The quantum coherent nature of QPS noise yields nonmonotonous dependence of SΩ on T at small Ω .
Impossibility of Growing Quantum Bit Commitments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Winkler, Severin; Tomamichel, Marco; Hengl, Stefan; Renner, Renato
2011-08-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) is often, more correctly, called key growing. Given a short key as a seed, QKD enables two parties, connected by an insecure quantum channel, to generate a secret key of arbitrary length. Conversely, no key agreement is possible without access to an initial key. Here, we consider another fundamental cryptographic task, commitments. While, similar to key agreement, commitments cannot be realized from scratch, we ask whether they may be grown. That is, given the ability to commit to a fixed number of bits, is there a way to augment this to commitments to strings of arbitrary length? Using recently developed information-theoretic techniques, we answer this question in the negative.
Power of one bit of quantum information in quantum metrology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cable, Hugo; Gu, Mile; Modi, Kavan
2016-04-01
We present a model of quantum metrology inspired by the computational model known as deterministic quantum computation with one quantum bit (DQC1). Using only one pure qubit together with l fully mixed qubits we obtain measurement precision (defined as root-mean-square error for the parameter being estimated) at the standard quantum limit, which is typically obtained using the same number of uncorrelated qubits in fully pure states. In principle, the standard quantum limit can be exceeded using an additional qubit which adds only a small amount of purity. We show that the discord in the final state vanishes only in the limit of attaining infinite precision for the parameter being estimated.
Continuous operation of high bit rate quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dixon, A. R.; Yuan, Z. L.; Dynes, J. F.; Sharpe, A. W.; Shields, A. J.
2010-04-01
We demonstrate a quantum key distribution with a secure bit rate exceeding 1 Mbit/s over 50 km fiber averaged over a continuous 36 h period. Continuous operation of high bit rates is achieved using feedback systems to control path length difference and polarization in the interferometer and the timing of the detection windows. High bit rates and continuous operation allows finite key size effects to be strongly reduced, achieving a key extraction efficiency of 96% compared to keys of infinite lengths.
Strong no-go theorem for Gaussian quantum bit commitment
Magnin, Loieck; Magniez, Frederic; Leverrier, Anthony
2010-01-15
Unconditionally secure bit commitment is forbidden by quantum mechanics. We extend this no-go theorem to continuous-variable protocols where both players are restricted to use Gaussian states and operations, which is a reasonable assumption in current-state optical implementations. Our Gaussian no-go theorem also provides a natural counter-example to a conjecture that quantum mechanics can be rederived from the assumption that key distribution is allowed while bit commitment is forbidden in Nature.
Quantum bit commitment with cheat sensitive binding and approximate sealing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yan-Bing; Xu, Sheng-Wei; Huang, Wei; Wan, Zong-Jie
2015-04-01
This paper proposes a cheat-sensitive quantum bit commitment scheme based on single photons, in which Alice commits a bit to Bob. Here, Bob’s probability of success at cheating as obtains the committed bit before the opening phase becomes close to \\frac{1}{2} (just like performing a guess) as the number of single photons used is increased. And if Alice alters her committed bit after the commitment phase, her cheating will be detected with a probability that becomes close to 1 as the number of single photons used is increased. The scheme is easy to realize with present day technology.
Secure self-calibrating quantum random-bit generator
Fiorentino, M.; Santori, C.; Spillane, S. M.; Beausoleil, R. G.; Munro, W. J.
2007-03-15
Random-bit generators (RBGs) are key components of a variety of information processing applications ranging from simulations to cryptography. In particular, cryptographic systems require 'strong' RBGs that produce high-entropy bit sequences, but traditional software pseudo-RBGs have very low entropy content and therefore are relatively weak for cryptography. Hardware RBGs yield entropy from chaotic or quantum physical systems and therefore are expected to exhibit high entropy, but in current implementations their exact entropy content is unknown. Here we report a quantum random-bit generator (QRBG) that harvests entropy by measuring single-photon and entangled two-photon polarization states. We introduce and implement a quantum tomographic method to measure a lower bound on the 'min-entropy' of the system, and we employ this value to distill a truly random-bit sequence. This approach is secure: even if an attacker takes control of the source of optical states, a secure random sequence can be distilled.
Experimental bit commitment based on quantum communication and special relativity.
Lunghi, T; Kaniewski, J; Bussières, F; Houlmann, R; Tomamichel, M; Kent, A; Gisin, N; Wehner, S; Zbinden, H
2013-11-01
Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which Bob wishes to commit a secret bit to Alice. Perfectly secure bit commitment between two mistrustful parties is impossible through asynchronous exchange of quantum information. Perfect security is however possible when Alice and Bob split into several agents exchanging classical and quantum information at times and locations suitably chosen to satisfy specific relativistic constraints. Here we report on an implementation of a bit commitment protocol using quantum communication and special relativity. Our protocol is based on [A. Kent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 130501 (2012)] and has the advantage that it is practically feasible with arbitrary large separations between the agents in order to maximize the commitment time. By positioning agents in Geneva and Singapore, we obtain a commitment time of 15 ms. A security analysis considering experimental imperfections and finite statistics is presented. PMID:24237497
Classical noise, quantum noise and secure communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tannous, C.; Langlois, J.
2016-01-01
Secure communication based on message encryption might be performed by combining the message with controlled noise (called pseudo-noise) as performed in spread-spectrum communication used presently in Wi-Fi and smartphone telecommunication systems. Quantum communication based on entanglement is another route for securing communications as demonstrated by several important experiments described in this work. The central role played by the photon in unifying the description of classical and quantum noise as major ingredients of secure communication systems is highlighted and described on the basis of the classical and quantum fluctuation dissipation theorems.
Coexistence of High-Bit-Rate Quantum Key Distribution and Data on Optical Fiber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patel, K. A.; Dynes, J. F.; Choi, I.; Sharpe, A. W.; Dixon, A. R.; Yuan, Z. L.; Penty, R. V.; Shields, A. J.
2012-10-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) uniquely allows the distribution of cryptographic keys with security verified by quantum mechanical limits. Both protocol execution and subsequent applications require the assistance of classical data communication channels. While using separate fibers is one option, it is economically more viable if data and quantum signals are simultaneously transmitted through a single fiber. However, noise-photon contamination arising from the intense data signal has severely restricted both the QKD distances and secure key rates. Here, we exploit a novel temporal-filtering effect for noise-photon rejection. This allows high-bit-rate QKD over fibers up to 90 km in length and populated with error-free bidirectional Gb/s data communications. With a high-bit rate and range sufficient for important information infrastructures, such as smart cities and 10-Gbit Ethernet, QKD is a significant step closer toward wide-scale deployment in fiber networks.
Quantum Dialogue Based on Hypertanglement Against Collective Noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Rui-jin; Li, Dong-fen; Zhang, Feng-li; Qin, Zhiguang; Baaguere, Edward; Zhan, Huayi
2016-08-01
The major problem faced by photons propagating through a physical channel is that of collective noise. This collective noise has the ability to reduce the number of quantum bits that are transmitted, thereby reduces the message fidelity. The traditional method of noise immunity is the use of entanglement purification, which consumes a lot of quantum resources in accomplishing the joint probability of noise immunity but does not guarantee accurate quantum dialog. In this paper, we investigate a new approach to quantum dialogue in which quantum information can be faithfully transmitted via a noisy channel. we constructs corresponding Decoherence Free Subspace(DFS), the quantum state after the change is in the maximally entangled state, so as to realize the fidelity of quantum dialogue model that can ensure the accuracy and noise resistance, and secret information exchange.
Quantum Dialogue Based on Hypertanglement Against Collective Noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Rui-jin; Li, Dong-fen; Zhang, Feng-li; Qin, Zhiguang; Baaguere, Edward; Zhan, Huayi
2016-03-01
The major problem faced by photons propagating through a physical channel is that of collective noise. This collective noise has the ability to reduce the number of quantum bits that are transmitted, thereby reduces the message fidelity. The traditional method of noise immunity is the use of entanglement purification, which consumes a lot of quantum resources in accomplishing the joint probability of noise immunity but does not guarantee accurate quantum dialog. In this paper, we investigate a new approach to quantum dialogue in which quantum information can be faithfully transmitted via a noisy channel. we constructs corresponding Decoherence Free Subspace(DFS), the quantum state after the change is in the maximally entangled state, so as to realize the fidelity of quantum dialogue model that can ensure the accuracy and noise resistance, and secret information exchange.
One-bit digital-to-analog converter based on rapid single flux quantum circuit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirayama, F.; Maezawa, M.; Suzuki, M.
2007-10-01
Rapid single flux quantum digital-to-analog (D/A) converters which synthesize arbitrary waveforms with metrological accuracy are under development. We propose a 1-bit RSFQ D/A converter which is expected to operate at higher sampling frequencies than the multi-bit converter and is suitable for multi-chip operation to achieve the output voltages exceeding 100 mV. Calculations of the noise power and the attenuation of the signal suggested that the rms error in a 10 kHz sine wave synthesized by the 1-bit converter with a third-order low-pass filter can be smaller than 10-7 at the sampling frequency of 100 MHz. A prototype 1-bit D/A converter was fabricated and the generation of dc voltages was confirmed as expected.
Cloning the entanglement of a pair of quantum bits
Lamoureux, Louis-Philippe; Navez, Patrick; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Fiurasek, Jaromir
2004-04-01
It is shown that any quantum operation that perfectly clones the entanglement of all maximally entangled qubit pairs cannot preserve separability. This 'entanglement no-cloning' principle naturally suggests that some approximate cloning of entanglement is nevertheless allowed by quantum mechanics. We investigate a separability-preserving optimal cloning machine that duplicates all maximally entangled states of two qubits, resulting in 0.285 bits of entanglement per clone, while a local cloning machine only yields 0.060 bits of entanglement per clone.
Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment via pre- and post-selected quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yan-Bing; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Li, Zi-Chen; Qin, Su-Juan; Yang, Ya-Tao
2014-01-01
Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment is a most important and realizable quantum bit commitment (QBC) protocol. By taking advantage of quantum mechanism, it can achieve higher security than classical bit commitment. In this paper, we propose a QBC schemes based on pre- and post-selected quantum states. The analysis indicates that both of the two participants' cheat strategies will be detected with non-zero probability. And the protocol can be implemented with today's technology as a long-term quantum memory is not needed.
Security bound of cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment.
He, Guang Ping
2015-01-01
Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment (CSQBC) loosens the security requirement of quantum bit commitment (QBC), so that the existing impossibility proofs of unconditionally secure QBC can be evaded. But here we analyze the common features in all existing CSQBC protocols, and show that in any CSQBC having these features, the receiver can always learn a non-trivial amount of information on the sender's committed bit before it is unveiled, while his cheating can pass the security check with a probability not less than 50%. The sender's cheating is also studied. The optimal CSQBC protocols that can minimize the sum of the cheating probabilities of both parties are found to be trivial, as they are practically useless. We also discuss the possibility of building a fair protocol in which both parties can cheat with equal probabilities. PMID:25796977
Security bound of cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment
He, Guang Ping
2015-01-01
Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment (CSQBC) loosens the security requirement of quantum bit commitment (QBC), so that the existing impossibility proofs of unconditionally secure QBC can be evaded. But here we analyze the common features in all existing CSQBC protocols, and show that in any CSQBC having these features, the receiver can always learn a non-trivial amount of information on the sender's committed bit before it is unveiled, while his cheating can pass the security check with a probability not less than 50%. The sender's cheating is also studied. The optimal CSQBC protocols that can minimize the sum of the cheating probabilities of both parties are found to be trivial, as they are practically useless. We also discuss the possibility of building a fair protocol in which both parties can cheat with equal probabilities. PMID:25796977
Security bound of cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Guang Ping
2015-03-01
Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment (CSQBC) loosens the security requirement of quantum bit commitment (QBC), so that the existing impossibility proofs of unconditionally secure QBC can be evaded. But here we analyze the common features in all existing CSQBC protocols, and show that in any CSQBC having these features, the receiver can always learn a non-trivial amount of information on the sender's committed bit before it is unveiled, while his cheating can pass the security check with a probability not less than 50%. The sender's cheating is also studied. The optimal CSQBC protocols that can minimize the sum of the cheating probabilities of both parties are found to be trivial, as they are practically useless. We also discuss the possibility of building a fair protocol in which both parties can cheat with equal probabilities.
Can relativistic bit commitment lead to secure quantum oblivious transfer?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Guang Ping
2015-05-01
While unconditionally secure bit commitment (BC) is considered impossible within the quantum framework, it can be obtained under relativistic or experimental constraints. Here we study whether such BC can lead to secure quantum oblivious transfer (QOT). The answer is not completely negative. In one hand, we provide a detailed cheating strategy, showing that the "honest-but-curious adversaries" in some of the existing no-go proofs on QOT still apply even if secure BC is used, enabling the receiver to increase the average reliability of the decoded value of the transferred bit. On the other hand, it is also found that some other no-go proofs claiming that a dishonest receiver can always decode all transferred bits simultaneously with reliability 100% become invalid in this scenario, because their models of cryptographic protocols are too ideal to cover such a BC-based QOT.
Unforgeable noise-tolerant quantum tokens
Pastawski, Fernando; Yao, Norman Y.; Jiang, Liang; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Cirac, J. Ignacio
2012-01-01
The realization of devices that harness the laws of quantum mechanics represents an exciting challenge at the interface of modern technology and fundamental science. An exemplary paragon of the power of such quantum primitives is the concept of “quantum money” [Wiesner S (1983) ACM SIGACT News 15:78–88]. A dishonest holder of a quantum bank note will invariably fail in any counterfeiting attempts; indeed, under assumptions of ideal measurements and decoherence-free memories such security is guaranteed by the no-cloning theorem. In any practical situation, however, noise, decoherence, and operational imperfections abound. Thus, the development of secure “quantum money”-type primitives capable of tolerating realistic infidelities is of both practical and fundamental importance. Here, we propose a novel class of such protocols and demonstrate their tolerance to noise; moreover, we prove their rigorous security by determining tight fidelity thresholds. Our proposed protocols require only the ability to prepare, store, and measure single quantum bit memories, making their experimental realization accessible with current technologies.
Quantum Error Correction with Biased Noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brooks, Peter
Quantum computing offers powerful new techniques for speeding up the calculation of many classically intractable problems. Quantum algorithms can allow for the efficient simulation of physical systems, with applications to basic research, chemical modeling, and drug discovery; other algorithms have important implications for cryptography and internet security. At the same time, building a quantum computer is a daunting task, requiring the coherent manipulation of systems with many quantum degrees of freedom while preventing environmental noise from interacting too strongly with the system. Fortunately, we know that, under reasonable assumptions, we can use the techniques of quantum error correction and fault tolerance to achieve an arbitrary reduction in the noise level. In this thesis, we look at how additional information about the structure of noise, or "noise bias," can improve or alter the performance of techniques in quantum error correction and fault tolerance. In Chapter 2, we explore the possibility of designing certain quantum gates to be extremely robust with respect to errors in their operation. This naturally leads to structured noise where certain gates can be implemented in a protected manner, allowing the user to focus their protection on the noisier unprotected operations. In Chapter 3, we examine how to tailor error-correcting codes and fault-tolerant quantum circuits in the presence of dephasing biased noise, where dephasing errors are far more common than bit-flip errors. By using an appropriately asymmetric code, we demonstrate the ability to improve the amount of error reduction and decrease the physical resources required for error correction. In Chapter 4, we analyze a variety of protocols for distilling magic states, which enable universal quantum computation, in the presence of faulty Clifford operations. Here again there is a hierarchy of noise levels, with a fixed error rate for faulty gates, and a second rate for errors in the distilled
Experimental approximation of the Jones polynomial with one quantum bit.
Passante, G; Moussa, O; Ryan, C A; Laflamme, R
2009-12-18
We present experimental results approximating the Jones polynomial using 4 qubits in a liquid state nuclear magnetic resonance quantum information processor. This is the first experimental implementation of a complete problem for the deterministic quantum computation with one quantum bit model of quantum computation, which uses a single qubit accompanied by a register of completely random states. The Jones polynomial is a knot invariant that is important not only to knot theory, but also to statistical mechanics and quantum field theory. The implemented algorithm is a modification of the algorithm developed by Shor and Jordan suitable for implementation in NMR. These experimental results show that for the restricted case of knots whose braid representations have four strands and exactly three crossings, identifying distinct knots is possible 91% of the time. PMID:20366244
Fully Distrustful Quantum Bit Commitment and Coin Flipping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silman, J.; Chailloux, A.; Aharon, N.; Kerenidis, I.; Pironio, S.; Massar, S.
2011-06-01
In the distrustful quantum cryptography model the parties have conflicting interests and do not trust one another. Nevertheless, they trust the quantum devices in their labs. The aim of the device-independent approach to cryptography is to do away with the latter assumption, and, consequently, significantly increase security. It is an open question whether the scope of this approach also extends to protocols in the distrustful cryptography model, thereby rendering them “fully” distrustful. In this Letter, we show that for bit commitment—one of the most basic primitives within the model—the answer is positive. We present a device-independent (imperfect) bit-commitment protocol, where Alice’s and Bob’s cheating probabilities are ≃0.854 and (3)/(4), which we then use to construct a device-independent coin flipping protocol with bias ≲0.336.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrist, Ruben S.; Wootton, James R.; Katzgraber, Helmut G.
2015-04-01
Current approaches for building quantum computing devices focus on two-level quantum systems which nicely mimic the concept of a classical bit, albeit enhanced with additional quantum properties. However, rather than artificially limiting the number of states to two, the use of d -level quantum systems (qudits) could provide advantages for quantum information processing. Among other merits, it has recently been shown that multilevel quantum systems can offer increased stability to external disturbances. In this study we demonstrate that topological quantum memories built from qudits, also known as Abelian quantum double models, exhibit a substantially increased resilience to noise. That is, even when taking into account the multitude of errors possible for multilevel quantum systems, topological quantum error-correction codes employing qudits can sustain a larger error rate than their two-level counterparts. In particular, we find strong numerical evidence that the thresholds of these error-correction codes are given by the hashing bound. Considering the significantly increased error thresholds attained, this might well outweigh the added complexity of engineering and controlling higher-dimensional quantum systems.
Simplified quantum bit commitment using single photon nonlocality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Guang Ping
2014-10-01
We simplified our previously proposed quantum bit commitment (QBC) protocol based on the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, by replacing symmetric beam splitters with asymmetric ones. It eliminates the need for random sending time of the photons; thus, the feasibility and efficiency are both improved. The protocol is immune to the cheating strategy in the Mayers-Lo-Chau no-go theorem of unconditionally secure QBC, because the density matrices of the committed states do not satisfy a crucial condition on which the no-go theorem holds.
Bit-Serial Adder Based on Quantum Dots
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fijany, Amir; Toomarian, Nikzad; Modarress, Katayoon; Spotnitz, Mathew
2003-01-01
A proposed integrated circuit based on quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) would function as a bit-serial adder. This circuit would serve as a prototype building block for demonstrating the feasibility of quantum-dots computing and for the further development of increasingly complex and increasingly capable quantum-dots computing circuits. QCA-based bit-serial adders would be especially useful in that they would enable the development of highly parallel and systolic processors for implementing fast Fourier, cosine, Hartley, and wavelet transforms. The proposed circuit would complement the QCA-based circuits described in "Implementing Permutation Matrices by Use of Quantum Dots" (NPO-20801), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 10 (October 2001), page 42 and "Compact Interconnection Networks Based on Quantum Dots" (NPO-20855), which appears elsewhere in this issue. Those articles described the limitations of very-large-scale-integrated (VLSI) circuitry and the major potential advantage afforded by QCA. To recapitulate: In a VLSI circuit, signal paths that are required not to interact with each other must not cross in the same plane. In contrast, for reasons too complex to describe in the limited space available for this article, suitably designed and operated QCA-based signal paths that are required not to interact with each other can nevertheless be allowed to cross each other in the same plane without adverse effect. In principle, this characteristic could be exploited to design compact, coplanar, simple (relative to VLSI) QCA-based networks to implement complex, advanced interconnection schemes. To enable a meaningful description of the proposed bit-serial adder, it is necessary to further recapitulate the description of a quantum-dot cellular automation from the first-mentioned prior article: A quantum-dot cellular automaton contains four quantum dots positioned at the corners of a square cell. The cell contains two extra mobile electrons that can tunnel (in the
Shuttle bit rate synchronizer. [signal to noise ratios and error analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huey, D. C.; Fultz, G. L.
1974-01-01
A shuttle bit rate synchronizer brassboard unit was designed, fabricated, and tested, which meets or exceeds the contractual specifications. The bit rate synchronizer operates at signal-to-noise ratios (in a bit rate bandwidth) down to -5 dB while exhibiting less than 0.6 dB bit error rate degradation. The mean acquisition time was measured to be less than 2 seconds. The synchronizer is designed around a digital data transition tracking loop whose phase and data detectors are integrate-and-dump filters matched to the Manchester encoded bits specified. It meets the reliability (no adjustments or tweaking) and versatility (multiple bit rates) of the shuttle S-band communication system through an implementation which is all digital after the initial stage of analog AGC and A/D conversion.
Dissipative production of a maximally entangled steady state of two quantum bits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Y.; Gaebler, J. P.; Reiter, F.; Tan, T. R.; Bowler, R.; Sørensen, A. S.; Leibfried, D.; Wineland, D. J.
2013-12-01
Entangled states are a key resource in fundamental quantum physics, quantum cryptography and quantum computation. Introduction of controlled unitary processes--quantum gates--to a quantum system has so far been the most widely used method to create entanglement deterministically. These processes require high-fidelity state preparation and minimization of the decoherence that inevitably arises from coupling between the system and the environment, and imperfect control of the system parameters. Here we combine unitary processes with engineered dissipation to deterministically produce and stabilize an approximate Bell state of two trapped-ion quantum bits (qubits), independent of their initial states. Compared with previous studies that involved dissipative entanglement of atomic ensembles or the application of sequences of multiple time-dependent gates to trapped ions, we implement our combined process using trapped-ion qubits in a continuous time-independent fashion (analogous to optical pumping of atomic states). By continuously driving the system towards the steady state, entanglement is stabilized even in the presence of experimental noise and decoherence. Our demonstration of an entangled steady state of two qubits represents a step towards dissipative state engineering, dissipative quantum computation and dissipative phase transitions. Following this approach, engineered coupling to the environment may be applied to a broad range of experimental systems to achieve desired quantum dynamics or steady states. Indeed, concurrently with this work, an entangled steady state of two superconducting qubits was demonstrated using dissipation.
A short impossibility proof of quantum bit commitment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiribella, Giulio; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Schlingemann, Dirk; Werner, Reinhard
2013-06-01
Bit commitment protocols, whose security is based on the laws of quantum mechanics alone, are generally held to be impossible on the basis of a concealment-bindingness tradeoff (Lo and Chau, 1997 [1], Mayers, 1997 [2]). A strengthened and explicit impossibility proof has been given in D'Ariano et al. (2007) [3] in the Heisenberg picture and in a C*-algebraic framework, considering all conceivable protocols in which both classical and quantum information is exchanged. In the present Letter we provide a new impossibility proof in the Schrödinger picture, greatly simplifying the classification of protocols and strategies using the mathematical formulation in terms of quantum combs (Chiribella et al., 2008 [4]), with each single-party strategy represented by a conditioned comb. We prove that assuming a stronger notion of concealment-for each classical communication history, not in average-allows Alice's cheat to pass also the worst-case Bob's test. The present approach allows us to restate the concealment-bindingness tradeoff in terms of the continuity of dilations of probabilistic quantum combs with the metric given by the comb discriminability-distance.
All-optical quantum random bit generation from intrinsically binary phase of parametric oscillators.
Marandi, Alireza; Leindecker, Nick C; Vodopyanov, Konstantin L; Byer, Robert L
2012-08-13
We demonstrate a novel all-optical quantum random number generator (RNG) based on above-threshold binary phase state selection in a degenerate optical parametric oscillator (OPO). Photodetection is not a part of the random process, and no post processing is required for the generated bit sequence. We show that the outcome is statistically random with 99% confidence, and verify that the randomness is due to the phase of initiating photons generated through spontaneous parametric down conversion of the pump, with negligible contribution of classical noise sources. With the use of micro- and nanoscale OPO resonators, this technique offers a promise for simple, robust, and high-speed on-chip all-optical quantum RNGs. PMID:23038574
High-Order Noise Filtering in Nontrivial Quantum Logic Gates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Green, Todd; Uys, Hermann; Biercuk, Michael J.
2012-07-01
Treating the effects of a time-dependent classical dephasing environment during quantum logic operations poses a theoretical challenge, as the application of noncommuting control operations gives rise to both dephasing and depolarization errors that must be accounted for in order to understand total average error rates. We develop a treatment based on effective Hamiltonian theory that allows us to efficiently model the effect of classical noise on nontrivial single-bit quantum logic operations composed of arbitrary control sequences. We present a general method to calculate the ensemble-averaged entanglement fidelity to arbitrary order in terms of noise filter functions, and provide explicit expressions to fourth order in the noise strength. In the weak noise limit we derive explicit filter functions for a broad class of piecewise-constant control sequences, and use them to study the performance of dynamically corrected gates, yielding good agreement with brute-force numerics.
High-order noise filtering in nontrivial quantum logic gates.
Green, Todd; Uys, Hermann; Biercuk, Michael J
2012-07-13
Treating the effects of a time-dependent classical dephasing environment during quantum logic operations poses a theoretical challenge, as the application of noncommuting control operations gives rise to both dephasing and depolarization errors that must be accounted for in order to understand total average error rates. We develop a treatment based on effective Hamiltonian theory that allows us to efficiently model the effect of classical noise on nontrivial single-bit quantum logic operations composed of arbitrary control sequences. We present a general method to calculate the ensemble-averaged entanglement fidelity to arbitrary order in terms of noise filter functions, and provide explicit expressions to fourth order in the noise strength. In the weak noise limit we derive explicit filter functions for a broad class of piecewise-constant control sequences, and use them to study the performance of dynamically corrected gates, yielding good agreement with brute-force numerics. PMID:23030139
Geometric Quantum Noise of Spin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shnirman, Alexander; Gefen, Yuval; Saha, Arijit; Burmistrov, Igor S.; Kiselev, Mikhail N.; Altland, Alexander
2015-05-01
The presence of geometric phases is known to affect the dynamics of the systems involved. Here, we consider a quantum degree of freedom, moving in a dissipative environment, whose dynamics is described by a Langevin equation with quantum noise. We show that geometric phases enter the stochastic noise terms. Specifically, we consider small ferromagnetic particles (nanomagnets) or quantum dots close to Stoner instability, and investigate the dynamics of the total magnetization in the presence of tunneling coupling to the metallic leads. We generalize the Ambegaokar-Eckern-Schön effective action and the corresponding semiclassical equations of motion from the U(1) case of the charge degree of freedom to the SU(2) case of the magnetization. The Langevin forces (torques) in these equations are strongly influenced by the geometric phase. As a first but nontrivial application, we predict low temperature quantum diffusion of the magnetization on the Bloch sphere, which is governed by the geometric phase. We propose a protocol for experimental observation of this phenomenon.
Multi-bit quantum random number generation by measuring positions of arrival photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Qiurong; Zhao, Baosheng; Liao, Qinghong; Zhou, Nanrun
2014-10-01
We report upon the realization of a novel multi-bit optical quantum random number generator by continuously measuring the arrival positions of photon emitted from a LED using MCP-based WSA photon counting imaging detector. A spatial encoding method is proposed to extract multi-bits random number from the position coordinates of each detected photon. The randomness of bits sequence relies on the intrinsic randomness of the quantum physical processes of photonic emission and subsequent photoelectric conversion. A prototype has been built and the random bit generation rate could reach 8 Mbit/s, with random bit generation efficiency of 16 bits per detected photon. FPGA implementation of Huffman coding is proposed to reduce the bias of raw extracted random bits. The random numbers passed all tests for physical random number generator.
Multi-bit quantum random number generation by measuring positions of arrival photons.
Yan, Qiurong; Zhao, Baosheng; Liao, Qinghong; Zhou, Nanrun
2014-10-01
We report upon the realization of a novel multi-bit optical quantum random number generator by continuously measuring the arrival positions of photon emitted from a LED using MCP-based WSA photon counting imaging detector. A spatial encoding method is proposed to extract multi-bits random number from the position coordinates of each detected photon. The randomness of bits sequence relies on the intrinsic randomness of the quantum physical processes of photonic emission and subsequent photoelectric conversion. A prototype has been built and the random bit generation rate could reach 8 Mbit/s, with random bit generation efficiency of 16 bits per detected photon. FPGA implementation of Huffman coding is proposed to reduce the bias of raw extracted random bits. The random numbers passed all tests for physical random number generator. PMID:25362380
Multi-bit quantum random number generation by measuring positions of arrival photons
Yan, Qiurong; Zhao, Baosheng; Liao, Qinghong; Zhou, Nanrun
2014-10-15
We report upon the realization of a novel multi-bit optical quantum random number generator by continuously measuring the arrival positions of photon emitted from a LED using MCP-based WSA photon counting imaging detector. A spatial encoding method is proposed to extract multi-bits random number from the position coordinates of each detected photon. The randomness of bits sequence relies on the intrinsic randomness of the quantum physical processes of photonic emission and subsequent photoelectric conversion. A prototype has been built and the random bit generation rate could reach 8 Mbit/s, with random bit generation efficiency of 16 bits per detected photon. FPGA implementation of Huffman coding is proposed to reduce the bias of raw extracted random bits. The random numbers passed all tests for physical random number generator.
Efficient quantum state transfer in an engineered chain of quantum bits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sandberg, Martin; Knill, Emanuel; Kapit, Eliot; Vissers, Michael R.; Pappas, David P.
2016-03-01
We present a method of performing quantum state transfer in a chain of superconducting quantum bits. Our protocol is based on engineering the energy levels of the qubits in the chain and tuning them all simultaneously with an external flux bias. The system is designed to allow sequential adiabatic state transfers, resulting in on-demand quantum state transfer from one end of the chain to the other. Numerical simulations of the master equation using realistic parameters for capacitive nearest-neighbor coupling, energy relaxation, and dephasing show that fast, high-fidelity state transfer should be feasible using this method.
Two-bit quantum random number generator based on photon-number-resolving detection.
Jian, Yi; Ren, Min; Wu, E; Wu, Guang; Zeng, Heping
2011-07-01
Here we present a new fast two-bit quantum random number generator based on the intrinsic randomness of the quantum physical phenomenon of photon statistics of coherent light source. Two-bit random numbers were generated according to the number of detected photons in each light pulse by a photon-number-resolving detector. Poissonian photon statistics of the coherent light source guaranteed the complete randomness of the bit sequences. Multi-bit true random numbers were generated for the first time based on the multi-photon events from a coherent light source. PMID:21806174
Quantum-noise randomized ciphers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nair, Ranjith; Yuen, Horace P.; Corndorf, Eric; Eguchi, Takami; Kumar, Prem
2006-11-01
We review the notion of a classical random cipher and its advantages. We sharpen the usual description of random ciphers to a particular mathematical characterization suggested by the salient feature responsible for their increased security. We describe a concrete system known as αη and show that it is equivalent to a random cipher in which the required randomization is affected by coherent-state quantum noise. We describe the currently known security features of αη and similar systems, including lower bounds on the unicity distances against ciphertext-only and known-plaintext attacks. We show how αη used in conjunction with any standard stream cipher such as the Advanced Encryption Standard provides an additional, qualitatively different layer of security from physical encryption against known-plaintext attacks on the key. We refute some claims in the literature that αη is equivalent to a nonrandom stream cipher.
Quantum-noise randomized ciphers
Nair, Ranjith; Yuen, Horace P.; Kumar, Prem; Corndorf, Eric; Eguchi, Takami
2006-11-15
We review the notion of a classical random cipher and its advantages. We sharpen the usual description of random ciphers to a particular mathematical characterization suggested by the salient feature responsible for their increased security. We describe a concrete system known as {alpha}{eta} and show that it is equivalent to a random cipher in which the required randomization is affected by coherent-state quantum noise. We describe the currently known security features of {alpha}{eta} and similar systems, including lower bounds on the unicity distances against ciphertext-only and known-plaintext attacks. We show how {alpha}{eta} used in conjunction with any standard stream cipher such as the Advanced Encryption Standard provides an additional, qualitatively different layer of security from physical encryption against known-plaintext attacks on the key. We refute some claims in the literature that {alpha}{eta} is equivalent to a nonrandom stream cipher.
Localization of quantum Bernoulli noises
Wang, Caishi; Zhang, Jihong
2013-10-15
The family (∂{sub k},∂{sub k}{sup *}){sub k≥0} of annihilation and creation operators acting on square integrable functionals of a Bernoulli process Z= (Z{sub k}){sub k⩾0} can be interpreted as quantum Bernoulli noises. In this note we consider the operator family (ℓ{sub k},ℓ{sub k}{sup *}){sub k≥0}, where ℓ{sub k}=∂{sub k}E{sub k} with E{sub k} being the conditional expectation (operator) given σ-field σ(Z{sub j}; 0 ⩽j⩽k). We show that ℓ{sub k} (resp. ℓ{sub k}{sup *}) is essentially a kind of localization of the annihilation operator ∂{sub k} (resp. creation operator ∂{sub k}{sup *}). We examine properties of the family (ℓ{sub k},ℓ{sub k}{sup *}){sub k≥0} and prove, among other things, that ℓ{sub k} and ℓ{sub k}{sup *} satisfy a local canonical anti-communication relation and (ℓ{sub k}{sup *}){sub k≥0} forms a mutually orthogonal operator sequence although each ℓ{sub k} is not a projection operator. We find that the operator series Σ{sub k=0}{sup ∞}ℓ{sub k}{sup *}Xℓ{sub k} converges in the strong operator topology for each bounded operator X acting on square integrable functionals of Z. In particular we get an explicit sum of the operator series Σ{sub k=0}{sup ∞}ℓ{sub k}{sup *}ℓ{sub k}. A useful norm estimate on Σ{sub k=0}{sup ∞}ℓ{sub k}{sup *}Xℓ{sub k} is also obtained. Finally we show applications of our main results to quantum dynamical semigroups and quantum probability.
Single-shot optical readout of a quantum bit using cavity quantum electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Shuo; Waks, Edo
2016-07-01
We propose a method to perform single-shot optical readout of a quantum bit (qubit) using cavity quantum electrodynamics. We selectively couple the optical transitions associated with different qubit basis states to the cavity and utilize the change in cavity transmissivity to generate a qubit readout signal composed of many photons. We show that this approach enables single-shot optical readout even when the qubit does not have a good cycling transition, which is required for standard resonance fluorescence measurements. We calculate the probability that the measurement detects the correct qubit state using the example of a quantum-dot spin under various experimental conditions and demonstrate that it can exceed 0.99.
A low noise exchange gate in double quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nielsen, Erik; Carroll, Malcolm; Muller, Richard
2010-03-01
Minimizing the effects of noise is a central challenge to the creation of solid-state singlet-triplet double quantum dot (DQD) quantum bits (qubits). Charge noise, electronics error or inhomogeneous fields have all separately been addressed with different approaches. The demand for qubit operations robust to the combination of all noise sources places simultaneous requirements, however, that are not clearly compatible. We investigate the feasibility of achieving an exchange gate in a DQD system that is more robust to multiple sources of noise such as slight error around the applied bias point due to electronics or charge noise combined with external inhomogeneous B-field effects, addressed with dynamically coupled gates. A full configuration interaction (CI) method is used to compute the exchange energy as a function of dot shape and detuning voltage in order to identify the more robust operations. In particular the CI calculation provides significantly better accuracy for the (2,0) configuration of the DQD system, which is a potentially important low noise operating regime. This work was supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Low frequency noise elimination technique for 24-bit Σ-Δ data acquisition systems.
Qu, Shao-Bo; Robert, Olivier; Lognonné, Philippe; Zhou, Ze-Bing; Yang, Shan-Qing
2015-03-01
Low frequency 1/f noise is one of the key limiting factors of high precision measurement instruments. In this paper, digital correlated double sampling is implemented to reduce the offset and low frequency 1/f noise of a data acquisition system with 24-bit sigma delta (Σ-Δ) analog to digital converter (ADC). The input voltage is modulated by cross-coupled switches, which are synchronized to the sampling clock, and converted into digital signal by ADC. By using a proper switch frequency, the unwanted parasitic signal frequencies generated by the switches are avoided. The noise elimination processing is made through the principle of digital correlated double sampling, which is equivalent to a time shifted subtraction for the sampled voltage. The low frequency 1/f noise spectrum density of the data acquisition system is reduced to be flat down to the measurement frequency lower limit, which is about 0.0001 Hz in this paper. The noise spectrum density is eliminated by more than 60 dB at 0.0001 Hz, with a residual noise floor of (9 ± 2) nV/Hz(1/2) which is limited by the intrinsic white noise floor of the ADC above its corner frequency. PMID:25832259
Quantum Noise in Large-Scale Coherent Nonlinear Photonic Circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santori, Charles; Pelc, Jason S.; Beausoleil, Raymond G.; Tezak, Nikolas; Hamerly, Ryan; Mabuchi, Hideo
2014-06-01
A semiclassical simulation approach is presented for studying quantum noise in large-scale photonic circuits incorporating an ideal Kerr nonlinearity. A circuit solver is used to generate matrices defining a set of stochastic differential equations, in which the resonator field variables represent random samplings of the Wigner quasiprobability distributions. Although the semiclassical approach involves making a large-photon-number approximation, tests on one- and two-resonator circuits indicate satisfactory agreement between the semiclassical and full-quantum simulation results in the parameter regime of interest. The semiclassical model is used to simulate random errors in a large-scale circuit that contains 88 resonators and hundreds of components in total and functions as a four-bit ripple counter. The error rate as a function of on-state photon number is examined, and it is observed that the quantum fluctuation amplitudes do not increase as signals propagate through the circuit, an important property for scalability.
A quantum speedup in machine learning: finding an N-bit Boolean function for a classification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoo, Seokwon; Bang, Jeongho; Lee, Changhyoup; Lee, Jinhyoung
2014-10-01
We compare quantum and classical machines designed for learning an N-bit Boolean function in order to address how a quantum system improves the machine learning behavior. The machines of the two types consist of the same number of operations and control parameters, but only the quantum machines utilize the quantum coherence naturally induced by unitary operators. We show that quantum superposition enables quantum learning that is faster than classical learning by expanding the approximate solution regions, i.e., the acceptable regions. This is also demonstrated by means of numerical simulations with a standard feedback model, namely random search, and a practical model, namely differential evolution.
Room temperature single-photon detectors for high bit rate quantum key distribution
Comandar, L. C.; Patel, K. A.; Fröhlich, B. Lucamarini, M.; Sharpe, A. W.; Dynes, J. F.; Yuan, Z. L.; Shields, A. J.; Penty, R. V.
2014-01-13
We report room temperature operation of telecom wavelength single-photon detectors for high bit rate quantum key distribution (QKD). Room temperature operation is achieved using InGaAs avalanche photodiodes integrated with electronics based on the self-differencing technique that increases avalanche discrimination sensitivity. Despite using room temperature detectors, we demonstrate QKD with record secure bit rates over a range of fiber lengths (e.g., 1.26 Mbit/s over 50 km). Furthermore, our results indicate that operating the detectors at room temperature increases the secure bit rate for short distances.
Bit-oriented quantum public-key encryption based on quantum perfect encryption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Chenmiao; Yang, Li
2016-08-01
A bit-oriented quantum public-key encryption scheme is presented. We use Boolean functions as private-key and randomly changed pairs of quantum state and classical string as public-keys. Following the concept of quantum perfect encryption, we prepare the public-key with Hadamard transformation and Pauli transformation. The quantum part of public-keys is various with different classical strings. In contrast to the typical classical public-key scheme, one private-key in our scheme corresponds to an exponential number of public-keys. We investigate attack to the private-key and prove that the public-key is a totally mixed state. So the adversary cannot acquire any information about private-key from measurement of the public-key. Then, the attack to encryption is analyzed. Since the trace distance between two different ciphertexts is zero, the adversary cannot distinguish between the two ciphertext states and also obtains nothing about plaintext and private-key. Thus, we have the conclusion that the proposed scheme is information-theoretically secure under an attack of the private-key and encryption.
Bit-oriented quantum public-key encryption based on quantum perfect encryption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Chenmiao; Yang, Li
2016-05-01
A bit-oriented quantum public-key encryption scheme is presented. We use Boolean functions as private-key and randomly changed pairs of quantum state and classical string as public-keys. Following the concept of quantum perfect encryption, we prepare the public-key with Hadamard transformation and Pauli transformation. The quantum part of public-keys is various with different classical strings. In contrast to the typical classical public-key scheme, one private-key in our scheme corresponds to an exponential number of public-keys. We investigate attack to the private-key and prove that the public-key is a totally mixed state. So the adversary cannot acquire any information about private-key from measurement of the public-key. Then, the attack to encryption is analyzed. Since the trace distance between two different ciphertexts is zero, the adversary cannot distinguish between the two ciphertext states and also obtains nothing about plaintext and private-key. Thus, we have the conclusion that the proposed scheme is information-theoretically secure under an attack of the private-key and encryption.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daly, Scott J.; Feng, Xiaofan
2003-01-01
Continuous tone, or "contone", imagery usually has 24 bits/pixel as a minimum, with eight bits each for the three primaries in typical displays. However, lower-cost displays constrain this number because of various system limitations. Conversely, high quality displays seek to achieve 9-10 bits/pixel/color, though there may be system bottlenecks limited at 8. The two main artifacts from reduced bit-depth are contouring and loss of amplitude detail; these can be prevented by dithering the image prior to these bit-depth losses. Early work in this area includes Roberts" noise modulation technique, Mista"s blue noise mask, Tyler"s technique of bit-stealing, and Mulligan"s use of the visual system"s spatiotemporal properties for spatiotemporal dithering. However, most halftoning/dithering work was primarily directed to displays at the lower end of bits/pixel (e.g., 1 bit as in halftoning) and higher ppi. Like Tyler, we approach the problem from the higher end of bits/pixel/color, say 6-8, and use available high frequency color content to generate even higher luminance amplitude resolution. Bit-depth extension with a high starting bit-depth (and often lower spatial resolution) changes the game substantially from halftoning experience. For example, complex algorithms like error diffusion and annealing are not needed, just the simple addition of noise. Instead of a spatial dither, it is better to use an amplitude dither, termed microdither by Pappas. We have looked at methods of generating the highest invisible opponent color spatiotemporal noise and other patterns, and have used Ahumada"s concept of equivalent input noise to guide our work. This paper will report on techniques and observations made in achieving contone quality on ~100 ppi 6 bits/pixel/color LCD displays with no visible dither patterns, noise, contours, or loss of amplitude detail at viewing distances as close as the near focus limit (~120 mm). These include the interaction of display nonlinearities and
Unforgeable Noise-Tolerant Quantum Tokens
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Norman; Pastawski, Fernando; Jiang, Liang; Lukin, Mikhail; Cirac, Ignacio
2012-06-01
The realization of devices which harness the laws of quantum mechanics represents an exciting challenge at the interface of modern technology and fundamental science. An exemplary paragon of the power of such quantum primitives is the concept of ``quantum money.'' A dishonest holder of a quantum bank-note will invariably fail in any forging attempts; indeed, under assumptions of ideal measurements and decoherence-free memories such security is guaranteed by the no-cloning theorem. In any practical situation, however, noise, decoherence and operational imperfections abound. Thus, the development of secure ``quantum money''-type primitives capable of tolerating realistic infidelities is of both practical and fundamental importance. Here, we propose a novel class of such protocols and demonstrate their tolerance to noise; moreover, we prove their rigorous security by determining tight fidelity thresholds. Our proposed protocols require only the ability to prepare, store and measure single qubit quantum memories, making their experimental realization accessible with current technologies.
Deterministic quantum teleportation of photonic quantum bits by a hybrid technique.
Takeda, Shuntaro; Mizuta, Takahiro; Fuwa, Maria; van Loock, Peter; Furusawa, Akira
2013-08-15
Quantum teleportation allows for the transfer of arbitrary unknown quantum states from a sender to a spatially distant receiver, provided that the two parties share an entangled state and can communicate classically. It is the essence of many sophisticated protocols for quantum communication and computation. Photons are an optimal choice for carrying information in the form of 'flying qubits', but the teleportation of photonic quantum bits (qubits) has been limited by experimental inefficiencies and restrictions. Main disadvantages include the fundamentally probabilistic nature of linear-optics Bell measurements, as well as the need either to destroy the teleported qubit or attenuate the input qubit when the detectors do not resolve photon numbers. Here we experimentally realize fully deterministic quantum teleportation of photonic qubits without post-selection. The key step is to make use of a hybrid technique involving continuous-variable teleportation of a discrete-variable, photonic qubit. When the receiver's feedforward gain is optimally tuned, the continuous-variable teleporter acts as a pure loss channel, and the input dual-rail-encoded qubit, based on a single photon, represents a quantum error detection code against photon loss and hence remains completely intact for most teleportation events. This allows for a faithful qubit transfer even with imperfect continuous-variable entangled states: for four qubits the overall transfer fidelities range from 0.79 to 0.82 and all of them exceed the classical limit of teleportation. Furthermore, even for a relatively low level of the entanglement, qubits are teleported much more efficiently than in previous experiments, albeit post-selectively (taking into account only the qubit subspaces), and with a fidelity comparable to the previously reported values. PMID:23955230
Quantum noise in photothermal cooling
De Liberato, Simone; Lambert, Neill; Nori, Franco
2011-03-15
We study the problem of cooling a mechanical oscillator using the photothermal (bolometric) force. Contrary to previous attempts to model this system, we take into account the noise effects due to the granular nature of photon absorption. We achieve this by developing a Langevin formalism for the motion of the cantilever, valid in the bad-cavity limit, which includes both photon absorption shot noise and the noise due to radiation pressure. This allows us to tackle the cooling problem down to the noise-dominated regime and to find reasonable estimates for the lowest achievable phonon occupation in the cantilever.
Quantum information. Unconditional quantum teleportation between distant solid-state quantum bits.
Pfaff, W; Hensen, B J; Bernien, H; van Dam, S B; Blok, M S; Taminiau, T H; Tiggelman, M J; Schouten, R N; Markham, M; Twitchen, D J; Hanson, R
2014-08-01
Realizing robust quantum information transfer between long-lived qubit registers is a key challenge for quantum information science and technology. Here we demonstrate unconditional teleportation of arbitrary quantum states between diamond spin qubits separated by 3 meters. We prepare the teleporter through photon-mediated heralded entanglement between two distant electron spins and subsequently encode the source qubit in a single nuclear spin. By realizing a fully deterministic Bell-state measurement combined with real-time feed-forward, quantum teleportation is achieved upon each attempt with an average state fidelity exceeding the classical limit. These results establish diamond spin qubits as a prime candidate for the realization of quantum networks for quantum communication and network-based quantum computing. PMID:25082696
Excess optical quantum noise in atomic sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novikova, Irina; Mikhailov, Eugeniy; Xiao, Yanhong
2015-05-01
Enhanced nonlinear optical response of a coherent atomic medium is the basis for many atomic sensors, and their performance is ultimately limited by the quantum fluctuations of the optical read-out. Here we demonstrate that off-resonant interactions can significantly modify the quantum noise of the optical field, even when their effect on the mean signal is negligible. We illustrate this concept by using an atomic magnetometer based on the nonlinear Faraday effect: the rotation of the light polarization is mainly determined by the resonant light-induced spin alignment, which alone does not change the photon statistics of the optical probe. Yet, we found that the minimum noise of output polarization rotation measurements is above the expected shot noise limit. This excess quantum noise is due to off-resonant coupling and grows with atomic density. We also show that the detection scheme can be modified to reduce the measured quantum noise (even below the shot-noise limit) but only at the expense of the reduced rotational sensitivity. These results show the existence of previously unnoticed factors in fundamental limitations in atomic magnetometry and could have impacts in many other atom-light based precision measurements. We acknowledge the support from AFOSR (grant FA9550-13-1-0098), NSF (grant PHY-1308281), NBRPC(973 Program Grant 2012CB921604 and 2011CB921604), and NNSFC (Grants No. 11322436).
Negative excess noise in gated quantum wires
Dolcini, F.; Trauzettel, B.; Safi, I.; Grabert, H.
2009-04-23
The electrical current noise of a quantum wire is expected to increase with increasing applied voltage. We show that this intuition can be wrong. Specifically, we consider a single channel quantum wire with impurities and with a capacitive coupling to a metallic gate, and find that its excess noise, defined as the change in the noise caused by the finite voltage, can be negative at zero temperature. This feature is present both for large (c>>c{sub q}) and small (c<
Kim, Min-Kyu; Hong, Seong-Kwan; Kwon, Oh-Kyong
2015-01-01
This paper presents a fast multiple sampling method for low-noise CMOS image sensor (CIS) applications with column-parallel successive approximation register analog-to-digital converters (SAR ADCs). The 12-bit SAR ADC using the proposed multiple sampling method decreases the A/D conversion time by repeatedly converting a pixel output to 4-bit after the first 12-bit A/D conversion, reducing noise of the CIS by one over the square root of the number of samplings. The area of the 12-bit SAR ADC is reduced by using a 10-bit capacitor digital-to-analog converter (DAC) with four scaled reference voltages. In addition, a simple up/down counter-based digital processing logic is proposed to perform complex calculations for multiple sampling and digital correlated double sampling. To verify the proposed multiple sampling method, a 256 × 128 pixel array CIS with 12-bit SAR ADCs was fabricated using 0.18 μm CMOS process. The measurement results shows that the proposed multiple sampling method reduces each A/D conversion time from 1.2 μs to 0.45 μs and random noise from 848.3 μV to 270.4 μV, achieving a dynamic range of 68.1 dB and an SNR of 39.2 dB. PMID:26712765
Kim, Min-Kyu; Hong, Seong-Kwan; Kwon, Oh-Kyong
2015-01-01
This paper presents a fast multiple sampling method for low-noise CMOS image sensor (CIS) applications with column-parallel successive approximation register analog-to-digital converters (SAR ADCs). The 12-bit SAR ADC using the proposed multiple sampling method decreases the A/D conversion time by repeatedly converting a pixel output to 4-bit after the first 12-bit A/D conversion, reducing noise of the CIS by one over the square root of the number of samplings. The area of the 12-bit SAR ADC is reduced by using a 10-bit capacitor digital-to-analog converter (DAC) with four scaled reference voltages. In addition, a simple up/down counter-based digital processing logic is proposed to perform complex calculations for multiple sampling and digital correlated double sampling. To verify the proposed multiple sampling method, a 256 × 128 pixel array CIS with 12-bit SAR ADCs was fabricated using 0.18 μm CMOS process. The measurement results shows that the proposed multiple sampling method reduces each A/D conversion time from 1.2 μs to 0.45 μs and random noise from 848.3 μV to 270.4 μV, achieving a dynamic range of 68.1 dB and an SNR of 39.2 dB. PMID:26712765
Robustness of quantum correlations against linear noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Zhihua; Cao, Huaixin; Qu, Shixian
2016-05-01
Relative robustness of quantum correlations (RRoQC) of a bipartite state is firstly introduced relative to a classically correlated state. Robustness of quantum correlations (RoQC) of a bipartite state is then defined as the minimum of RRoQC of the state relative to all classically correlated ones. It is proved that as a function on quantum states, RoQC is nonnegative, lower semi-continuous and neither convex nor concave; especially, it is zero if and only if the state is classically correlated. Thus, RoQC not only quantifies the endurance of quantum correlations of a state against linear noise, but also can be used to distinguish between quantum and classically correlated states. Furthermore, the effects of local quantum channels on the robustness are explored and characterized.
How noise affects quantum detector tomography
Wang, Q. Renema, J. J.; Exter, M. P.van; Dood, M. J. A. de; Gaggero, A.; Mattioli, F.; Leoni, R.
2015-10-07
We determine the full photon number response of a NbN superconducting nanowire single photon detector via quantum detector tomography, and the results show the separation of linear, effective absorption efficiency from the internal detection efficiencies. In addition, we demonstrate an error budget for the complete quantum characterization of the detector. We find that for short times, the dominant noise source is shot noise, while laser power fluctuations limit the accuracy for longer timescales. The combined standard uncertainty of the internal detection efficiency derived from our measurements is about 2%.
Quantum coin flipping secure against channel noises
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Yuexin
2015-08-01
So far, most existing single-shot quantum coin flipping (QCF) protocols have failed in a noisy quantum channel. Here, we present a nested-structure framework that makes it possible to achieve partially noise-tolerant QCF, due to a trade-off between the security and the justice correctness. It is showed that noise-tolerant single-shot QCF protocols can be produced by filling the presented framework up with existing or even future protocols. We also proved a lower bound of 0.25, with which a cheating Alice or Bob could bias the outcome.
Quantum walk in terms of quantum Bernoulli noises
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Caishi; Ye, Xiaojuan
2016-05-01
Quantum Bernoulli noises are the family of annihilation and creation operators acting on Bernoulli functionals, which satisfy a canonical anti-commutation relation in equal time. In this paper, we first present some new results concerning quantum Bernoulli noises, which themselves are interesting. Then, based on these new results, we construct a time-dependent quantum walk with infinitely many degrees of freedom. We prove that the walk has a unitary representation and hence belongs to the category of the so-called unitary quantum walks. We examine its distribution property at the vacuum initial state and some other initial states and find that it has the same limit distribution as the classical random walk, which contrasts sharply with the case of the usual quantum walks with finite degrees of freedom.
Resonant Perturbation Theory of Decoherence and Relaxation of Quantum Bits
Merkli, M.; Berman, G. P.; Sigal, I. M.
2010-01-01
We describe our recenmore » t results on the resonant perturbation theory of decoherence and relaxation for quantum systems with many qubits. The approach represents a rigorous analysis of the phenomenon of decoherence and relaxation for general N -level systems coupled to reservoirs of bosonic fields. We derive a representation of the reduced dynamics valid for all times t ≥ 0 and for small but fixed interaction strength. Our approach does not involve master equation approximations and applies to a wide variety of systems which are not explicitly solvable.« less
Detecting relay attacks on RFID communication systems using quantum bits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jannati, Hoda; Ardeshir-Larijani, Ebrahim
2016-08-01
RFID systems became widespread in variety of applications because of their simplicity in manufacturing and usability. In the province of critical infrastructure protection, RFID systems are usually employed to identify and track people, objects and vehicles that enter restricted areas. The most important vulnerability which is prevalent among all protocols employed in RFID systems is against relay attacks. Until now, to protect RFID systems against this kind of attack, the only approach is the utilization of distance-bounding protocols which are not applicable over low-cost devices such as RFID passive tags. This work presents a novel technique using emerging quantum technologies to detect relay attacks on RFID systems. Recently, it is demonstrated that quantum key distribution (QKD) can be implemented in a client-server scheme where client only requires an on-chip polarization rotator that may be integrated into a handheld device. Now we present our technique for a tag-reader scenario which needs similar resources as the mentioned QKD scheme. We argue that our technique requires less resources and provides lower probability of false alarm for the system, compared with distance-bounding protocols, and may pave the way to enhance the security of current RFID systems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Giacobino, E.; Marin, F.; Bramati, A.; Jost, V.; Poizat, J. Ph.; Roch, J.-F.; Grangier, P.; Zhang, T.-C.
1996-01-01
We have investigated the intensity noise of single mode laser diodes, either free-running or using different types of line narrowing techniques at room temperature. We have measured an intensity squeezing of 1.2 dB with grating-extended cavity lasers and 1.4 dB with injection locked lasers (respectively 1.6 dB and 2.3 dB inferred at the laser output). We have observed that the intensity noise of a free-running nominally single mode laser diode results from a cancellation effect between large anti-correlated fluctuations of the main mode and of weak longitudinal side modes. Reducing the side modes by line narrowing techniques results in intensity squeezing.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Warner, Joseph D.; Theofylaktos, Onoufrios
2012-01-01
A method of determining the bit error rate (BER) of a digital circuit from the measurement of the analog S-parameters of the circuit has been developed. The method is based on the measurement of the noise and the standard deviation of the noise in the S-parameters. Once the standard deviation and the mean of the S-parameters are known, the BER of the circuit can be calculated using the normal Gaussian function.
Implementation of SFQ Microwave Choppers for Controlling Quantum Bits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miura, S.; Takeuchi, N.; Yamanashi, Y.; Yoshikawa, N.
In order to control the state of qubits by a microwave pulse, the irradiation time and the amplitude have to be controlled precisely. We have developed a single-flux-quantum (SFQ) microwave chopper for high-speed switching of microwave pulses. The proposed chopper is composed of a DC/SFQ convertor, an SFQ switch, a PTL driver, and a superconducting low-pass filter (LPF). The chopper converts an input microwave, which is generated by an external microwave generator at the room temperature, into microwave pulses by using start/stop SFQ control signals. We designed and implemented a microwave chopper module, which can be attached to dilution refrigerators. SFQ chips were fabricated using the ISTEC 2.5 kA/cm2 Nb process. We tested the microwave chopper module at 4.2 K, and demonstrated that a 5-GHz microwave whose amplitude ranging from 0 μV to 150 μV can be chopped by the SFQ control signals.
Magnetic adatoms as memory bits: A quantum master equation analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karlewski, Christian; Marthaler, Michael; Märkl, Tobias; Balashov, Timofey; Wulfhekel, Wulf; Schön, Gerd
2015-06-01
Due to underlying symmetries, the ground states of magnetic adatoms may be highly stable, which opens perspectives for application as single-atom memory. A specific example is a single holmium atom (with J =8 ) on a platinum (111) surface for which exceptionally long lifetimes were observed in recent scanning tunneling microscopy studies. For control and read-out, the atom must be coupled to electronic contacts. Hence the spin dynamics of the system is governed by a quantum master equation. Our analysis shows that, in general, it cannot be reduced to a classical master equation in the basis of the unperturbed crystal-field Hamiltonian. Rather, depending on parameters and control fields, "environment-induced superselection" principles choose the appropriate set of basis states, which in turn determines the specific relaxation channels and lifetimes. Our simulations suggest that in ideal situations the lifetimes should be even longer than observed in the experiment. We, therefore, investigate the influence of various perturbations. We also study the initialization process of the state of the Ho atom by applied voltage pulses and conclude that fast, high fidelity preparation, on a 100 -ns time scale, should be possible.
Quantum key distribution using qudits that each encode one bit of raw key
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chau, H. F.
2015-12-01
All known qudit-based prepare-and-measure quantum key distribution (PMQKD) schemes are more error resilient than their qubit-based counterparts. Their high error resiliency comes partly from the careful encoding of multiple bits of signals used to generate the raw key in each transmitted qudit so that the same eavesdropping attempt causes a higher bit error rate (BER) in the raw key. Here I show that highly-error-tolerant PMQKD schemes can be constructed simply by encoding one bit of classical information in each transmitted qudit in the form (|i > ±|j >) /√{2 } , where |i > 's form an orthonormal basis of the 2n-dimensional Hilbert space. Moreover, I prove that these schemes can tolerate up to the theoretical maximum of a 50% BER for n ≥2 provided the raw key is generated under a certain technical condition, making them extremely-error-tolerant PMQKD schemes involving the transmission of unentangled finite-dimensional qudits. This shows the potential of processing quantum information using lower-dimensional quantum signals encoded in a higher-dimensional quantum state.
Eavesdropping on Semi-Quantum Secret Sharing Scheme of Specific Bits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, Aihan; Fu, Fangbo
2016-04-01
In a recent paper, Xie et al. (Int. Theor. Phys. 54, 3819-3824, 2015) proposed a semi-quantum secret sharing scheme based on specific bits. In this paper, a simple attack strategy (intercept-resend attack) is shown to prove that the Xie et al.'s scheme is not secure for a dishonest participant, and an improved protocol based on GHZ state is proposed. The improved protocol is secure and improves the efficiency of the previous one.
Eavesdropping on Semi-Quantum Secret Sharing Scheme of Specific Bits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, Aihan; Fu, Fangbo
2016-09-01
In a recent paper, Xie et al. (Int. Theor. Phys. 54, 3819-3824, 2015) proposed a semi-quantum secret sharing scheme based on specific bits. In this paper, a simple attack strategy (intercept-resend attack) is shown to prove that the Xie et al.'s scheme is not secure for a dishonest participant, and an improved protocol based on GHZ state is proposed. The improved protocol is secure and improves the efficiency of the previous one.
Anderson, Brandon M.; Collins, David
2005-10-15
We compare the failure probabilities of ensemble implementations of quantum algorithms which use pseudopure initial states, quantified by their polarization, to those of competing classical probabilistic algorithms. Specifically we consider a class algorithms which require only one bit to output the solution to problems. For large ensemble sizes, we present a general scheme to determine a critical polarization beneath which the quantum algorithm fails with greater probability than its classical competitor. We apply this to the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm and show that the critical polarization is 86.6%.
Quantum noise and the threshold of hearing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bialek, W.; Schweitzer, A.
1985-01-01
It is argued that the sensitivity of the ear reaches a limit imposed by the uncertainty principle. This is possible only if the receptor cell holds the detector elements in a special nonequilibrium state which has the same noise characteristics as a ground (T = 0 K) state. To accomplish this 'active cooling' the molecular dynamics of the system must maintain quantum mechanical coherence over the time scale of the measurement.
Rescuing a Quantum Phase Transition with Quantum Noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Gu; Novais, Eduardo; Baranger, Harold
We show that placing a quantum system in contact with an environment can enhance non-Fermi-liquid correlations, rather than destroying quantum effects as is typical. The system consists of two quantum dots in series with two leads; the highly resistive leads couple charge flow through the dots to the electromagnetic environment (noise). The similarity to the two impurity Kondo model suggests that there will be a quantum phase transition between a Kondo phase and a local singlet phase. However, this transition is destabilized by charge tunneling between the two leads. Our main result is that sufficiently strong quantum noise suppresses this charge transfer and leads to stabilization of the quantum phase transition. We present the phase diagram, the ground state degeneracy at the four fixed points, and the leading temperature dependence of the conductance near these points. Partially supported by (1) the U.S. DOE, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, under Grant No. DE-SC0005237 and (2) FAPESP (BRAZIL) under Grant 2014/26356-9.
Dong Li; Xiu Xiaoming; Gao Yajun; Yi, X. X.
2011-10-15
Using three-photon polarization-entangled GHZ states or W states, we propose controlled quantum key distribution protocols for circumventing two main types of collective noise, collective dephasing noise, or collective rotation noise. Irrespective of the number of controllers, a three-photon state can generate a one-bit secret key. The storage technique of quantum states is dispensable for the controller and the receiver, and it therefore allows performing the process in a more convenient mode. If the photon cost in a security check is disregarded, then the efficiency theoretically approaches unity.
Quantum Markov semigroups constructed from quantum Bernoulli noises
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Caishi; Chen, Jinshu
2016-02-01
Quantum Bernoulli noises (QBNs) are the family of annihilation and creation operators acting on Bernoulli functionals, which can describe a two-level quantum system with infinitely many sites. In this paper, we consider the problem to construct quantum Markov semigroups (QMSs) directly from QBNs. We first establish several new theorems concerning QBNs. In particular, we define the number operator acting on Bernoulli functionals by using the canonical orthonormal basis, prove its self-adjoint property, and describe precisely its connections with QBN in a mathematically rigorous way. We then show the possibility to construct QMS directly from QBN. This is done by combining the general results on QMS with our new results on QBN obtained here. Finally, we examine some properties of QMS constructed from QBN.
A Gaussian measure of quantum phase noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schleich, Wolfgang P.; Dowling, Jonathan P.
1992-01-01
We study the width of the semiclassical phase distribution of a quantum state in its dependence on the average number of photons (m) in this state. As a measure of phase noise, we choose the width, delta phi, of the best Gaussian approximation to the dominant peak of this probability curve. For a coherent state, this width decreases with the square root of (m), whereas for a truncated phase state it decreases linearly with increasing (m). For an optimal phase state, delta phi decreases exponentially but so does the area caught underneath the peak: all the probability is stored in the broad wings of the distribution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hwang, Won-Young; Su, Hong-Yi; Bae, Joonwoo
2016-07-01
We study N-dimensional measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol where one checking state is used. Only assuming that the checking state is a superposition of other N sources, we show that the protocol is secure in zero quantum-bit-error-rate case, suggesting possibility of the protocol. The method may be applied in other quantum information processing.
Stromatias, Evangelos; Neil, Daniel; Pfeiffer, Michael; Galluppi, Francesco; Furber, Steve B; Liu, Shih-Chii
2015-01-01
Increasingly large deep learning architectures, such as Deep Belief Networks (DBNs) are the focus of current machine learning research and achieve state-of-the-art results in different domains. However, both training and execution of large-scale Deep Networks require vast computing resources, leading to high power requirements and communication overheads. The on-going work on design and construction of spike-based hardware platforms offers an alternative for running deep neural networks with significantly lower power consumption, but has to overcome hardware limitations in terms of noise and limited weight precision, as well as noise inherent in the sensor signal. This article investigates how such hardware constraints impact the performance of spiking neural network implementations of DBNs. In particular, the influence of limited bit precision during execution and training, and the impact of silicon mismatch in the synaptic weight parameters of custom hybrid VLSI implementations is studied. Furthermore, the network performance of spiking DBNs is characterized with regard to noise in the spiking input signal. Our results demonstrate that spiking DBNs can tolerate very low levels of hardware bit precision down to almost two bits, and show that their performance can be improved by at least 30% through an adapted training mechanism that takes the bit precision of the target platform into account. Spiking DBNs thus present an important use-case for large-scale hybrid analog-digital or digital neuromorphic platforms such as SpiNNaker, which can execute large but precision-constrained deep networks in real time. PMID:26217169
Stromatias, Evangelos; Neil, Daniel; Pfeiffer, Michael; Galluppi, Francesco; Furber, Steve B.; Liu, Shih-Chii
2015-01-01
Increasingly large deep learning architectures, such as Deep Belief Networks (DBNs) are the focus of current machine learning research and achieve state-of-the-art results in different domains. However, both training and execution of large-scale Deep Networks require vast computing resources, leading to high power requirements and communication overheads. The on-going work on design and construction of spike-based hardware platforms offers an alternative for running deep neural networks with significantly lower power consumption, but has to overcome hardware limitations in terms of noise and limited weight precision, as well as noise inherent in the sensor signal. This article investigates how such hardware constraints impact the performance of spiking neural network implementations of DBNs. In particular, the influence of limited bit precision during execution and training, and the impact of silicon mismatch in the synaptic weight parameters of custom hybrid VLSI implementations is studied. Furthermore, the network performance of spiking DBNs is characterized with regard to noise in the spiking input signal. Our results demonstrate that spiking DBNs can tolerate very low levels of hardware bit precision down to almost two bits, and show that their performance can be improved by at least 30% through an adapted training mechanism that takes the bit precision of the target platform into account. Spiking DBNs thus present an important use-case for large-scale hybrid analog-digital or digital neuromorphic platforms such as SpiNNaker, which can execute large but precision-constrained deep networks in real time. PMID:26217169
Quantum issues in optical communication. [noise reduction in signal reception
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kennedy, R. S.
1973-01-01
Various approaches to the problem of controlling quantum noise, the dominant noise in an optical communications system, are discussed. It is shown that, no matter which way the problem is approached, there always remain uncertainties. These uncertainties exist because, to date, only very few communication problems have been solved in their full quantum form.
Quantum noise in parametric amplification under phase-mismatched conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inoue, K.
2016-05-01
This paper studies quantum noise in parametric amplification under phase-mismatched conditions. The equations of motion of the quantum-mechanical field operators, which include phase mismatch under unsaturated conditions are first derived from the Heisenberg equation. Next, the noise figure is evaluated using the solutions of the derived equations. The results indicate that phase mismatch scarcely affects noise property in phase-insensitive amplification while it has a notable effect in case of phase-sensitive amplification.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mizugaki, Yoshinao; Takahashi, Yoshitaka; Shimada, Hiroshi; Maezawa, Masaaki
We designed and operated a 9-bit single-flux-quantum (SFQ) digital-to-analog converter (DAC). SFQ pulse-frequency modulation (PFM) was employed for generation of variable quantum output voltage, where a 9-bit variable pulse number multiplier and a 100-fold voltage multiplier were the key components. Test chips were fabricated using a Nb Josephson integration technology. Arbitrary voltage waveforms were synthesized with the maximum voltage of 2.54 mV. For ac voltage standard applications, relationships between the DAC resolution and the synthesized waveform frequency are discussed.
All-optical electron spin quantum computer with ancilla bits for operations in each coupled-dot cell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohshima, Toshio
2000-12-01
A cellular quantum computer with a spin qubit and ancilla bits in each cell is proposed. The whole circuit works only with the help of external optical pulse sequences. In the operation, some of the ancilla bits are activated, and autonomous single-and two-qubit operations are made. In the sleep mode of a cell, the decoherence of the qubit is negligibly small. Since only two cells at most are active at once, the coherence can be maintained for a sufficiently long time for practical purposes. A device structure using a coupled-quantum-dot array with possible operation and measurement schemes is also proposed.
Implementation of a two-state quantum bit commitment protocol in optical fibers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Almeida, Á. J.; Stojanovic, A. D.; Paunković, N.; Loura, R.; Muga, N. J.; Silva, N. A.; Mateus, P.; André, P. S.; Pinto, A. N.
2016-01-01
We demonstrate experimentally the feasibility of a two-state quantum bit commitment protocol, which is both concealing and partially binding, assuming technological limitations. The security of this protocol is based on the lack of long-term stable quantum memories. We use a polarization-encoding scheme and optical fiber as a quantum channel. The measurement probability for the commitment is obtained and the optimal cheating strategy demonstrated. The average success rates for an honest player in the case where the measurements are performed using equal bases are 93.4%, when the rectilinear basis is measured, and 96.7%, when the diagonal basis is measured. The rates for the case when the measurements are performed in different bases are 52.9%, when the rectilinear basis is measured, and 55.4% when the diagonal basis is measured. The average success rates for the optimal cheating strategy are 80% and 73.8%, which are way below the success rates of an honest player. Using a strict numerical validity criterion, we show that, for these experimental values, the protocol is secure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tu, Yanfei; Kim, May E.; Shahriar, Selim M.
2014-10-01
Previously, we had proposed the technique of light shift imbalance induced blockade which leads to a condition where a collection of non-interacting atoms under laser excitation remains combined to a superposition of the ground and the fist excited states, thus realizing a collective state quantum bit which in turn can be used to realize a quantum computer. In this paper, we show first that the light shift imbalance by itself is actually not enough to produce such a blockade, and explain the reason by the limitation of our previous analysis had reached this constraint. We then show that by introducing Rydberg interaction, it is possible to achieve such a blockade for a wide range of parameters. Analytic arguments used to establish these results are confirmed by numerical simulations. The fidelity of coupled quantum gates based on such collective state qubits is highly insensitive to the exact number of atoms in the ensemble. As such, this approach may prove be viable for scalable quantum computing based on neutral atoms.
Implementation of energy efficient single flux quantum digital circuits with sub-aJ/bit operation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volkmann, M. H.; Sahu, A.; Fourie, C. J.; Mukhanov, O. A.
2013-01-01
We report the first experimental demonstration of recently proposed energy efficient single flux quantum logic, eSFQ. This logic can represent the next generation of RSFQ logic, eliminating the dominant static power dissipation associated with a dc bias current distribution and providing over two orders of magnitude efficiency improvement over conventional RSFQ logic. We further demonstrate that the introduction of passive phase shifters allows the reduction of dynamic power dissipation by about 20%, reaching ˜0.8 aJ/bit operation. Two types of demonstration eSFQ circuit, shift registers and demultiplexers (deserializers), were implemented using the standard HYPRES 4.5 kA cm-2 fabrication process. In this paper, we present eSFQ circuit design and demonstrate the viability and performance metrics of eSFQ circuits through simulations and experimental testing.
Noise Robust Speech Watermarking with Bit Synchronisation for the Aeronautical Radio
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hofbauer, Konrad; Hering, Horst
Analogue amplitude modulation radios are used for air/ ground voice communication between aircraft pilots and controllers. The identification of the aircraft, so far always transmitted verbally, could be embedded as a watermark in the speech signal and thereby prevent safety-critical misunderstandings. The first part of this paper presents an overview on this watermarking application. The second part proposes a speech watermarking algorithm that embeds data in the linear prediction residual of unvoiced narrowband speech at a rate of up to 2 kbit/s. A bit synchroniser is developed which enables the transmission over analogue channels and which reaches the optimal limit within one to two percentage points in terms of raw bit error rate. Simulations show the robustness of the method for the AWGN channel.
Liu, Mao Tong; Lim, Han Chuen
2014-09-22
When implementing O-band quantum key distribution on optical fiber transmission lines carrying C-band data traffic, noise photons that arise from spontaneous Raman scattering or insufficient filtering of the classical data channels could cause the quantum bit-error rate to exceed the security threshold. In this case, a photon heralding scheme may be used to reject the uncorrelated noise photons in order to restore the quantum bit-error rate to a low level. However, the secure key rate would suffer unless one uses a heralded photon source with sufficiently high heralding rate and heralding efficiency. In this work we demonstrate a heralded photon source that has a heralding efficiency that is as high as 74.5%. One disadvantage of a typical heralded photon source is that the long deadtime of the heralding detector results in a significant drop in the heralding rate. To counter this problem, we propose a passively spatial-multiplexed configuration at the heralding arm. Using two heralding detectors in this configuration, we obtain an increase in the heralding rate by 37% and a corresponding increase in the heralded photon detection rate by 16%. We transmit the O-band photons over 10 km of noisy optical fiber to observe the relation between quantum bit-error rate and noise-degraded second-order correlation function of the transmitted photons. The effects of afterpulsing when we shorten the deadtime of the heralding detectors are also observed and discussed. PMID:25321795
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kerczewski, Robert J.; Daugherty, Elaine S.; Kramarchuk, Ihor
1987-01-01
The performance of microwave systems and components for digital data transmission can be characterized by a plot of the bit-error rate as a function of the signal to noise ratio (or E sub b/E sub o). Methods for the efficient automated measurement of bit-error rates and signal-to-noise ratios, developed at NASA Lewis Research Center, are described. Noise measurement considerations and time requirements for measurement accuracy, as well as computer control and data processing methods, are discussed.
Hwang, Won-Young; Su, Hong-Yi; Bae, Joonwoo
2016-01-01
We study N-dimensional measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol where one checking state is used. Only assuming that the checking state is a superposition of other N sources, we show that the protocol is secure in zero quantum-bit-error-rate case, suggesting possibility of the protocol. The method may be applied in other quantum information processing. PMID:27452275
Hwang, Won-Young; Su, Hong-Yi; Bae, Joonwoo
2016-01-01
We study N-dimensional measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol where one checking state is used. Only assuming that the checking state is a superposition of other N sources, we show that the protocol is secure in zero quantum-bit-error-rate case, suggesting possibility of the protocol. The method may be applied in other quantum information processing. PMID:27452275
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kevin, Garapo; Mhlambululi, Mafu; Francesco, Petruccione
2016-07-01
We investigate the effect of collective-rotation noise on the security of the six-state quantum key distribution. We study the case where the eavesdropper, Eve, performs an intercept-resend attack on the quantum communication between Alice, the sender, and Bob, the receiver. We first derive the collective-rotation noise model for the six-state protocol and then parameterize the mutual information between Alice and Eve. We then derive quantum bit error rate for three intercept-resend attack scenarios. We observe that the six-state protocol is robust against intercept-resend attacks on collective rotation noise channels when the rotation angle is kept within certain bounds. Project supported by the South African Research Chair Initiative of the Department of Science and Technology and National Research Foundation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tournet, J.; Gosselink, D.; Miao, G.-X.; Jaikissoon, M.; Langenberg, D.; McConkey, T. G.; Mariantoni, M.; Wasilewski, Z. R.
2016-06-01
The quest for a universal quantum computer has renewed interest in the growth of superconducting materials on semiconductor substrates. High-quality superconducting thin films will make it possible to improve the coherence time of superconducting quantum bits (qubits), i.e., to extend the time a qubit can store the amplitude and phase of a quantum state. The electrical losses in superconducting qubits highly depend on the quality of the metal layers the qubits are made from. Here, we report on the epitaxy of single-crystal Al (011) layers on GaAs (001) substrates. Layers with 110 nm thickness were deposited by means of molecular beam epitaxy at low temperature and monitored by in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction performed simultaneously at four azimuths. The single-crystal nature of the layers was confirmed by ex situ high-resolution x-ray diffraction. Differential interference contrast and atomic force microscopy analysis of the sample’s surface revealed a featureless surface with root mean square roughness of 0.55 nm. A detailed in situ study allowed us to gain insight into the nucleation mechanisms of Al layers on GaAs, highlighting the importance of GaAs surface reconstruction in determining the final Al layer crystallographic orientation and quality. A highly uniform and stable GaAs (001)-(2× 4) reconstruction reproducibly led to a pure Al (011) phase, while an arsenic-rich GaAs (001)-(4× 4) reconstruction yielded polycrystalline films with an Al (111) dominant orientation. The near-atomic smoothness and single-crystal character of Al films on GaAs, in combination with the ability to trench GaAs substrates, could set a new standard for the fabrication of superconducting qubits.
A 13-bit Noise Shaping SAR-ADC with Dual-Polarity Digital Calibration.
Park, Hangue; Ghovanloo, Maysam
2013-06-01
We present a new noise shaping method and a dual polarity calibration technique suited for successive approximation register type analog to digital converters (SAR-ADC). Noise is pushed to higher frequencies with the noise shaping by adding a switched capacitor. The SAR capacitor array mismatch has been compensated by the dual-polarity digital calibration with minimum circuit overhead. A proof-of-concept prototype SAR-ADC using the proposed techniques has been fabricated in a 0.5-μm standard CMOS technology. It achieves 67.7 dB SNDR at 62.5 kHz sampling frequency, while consuming 38.3μW power with 1.8 V supply. PMID:23682207
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, Hong; Orgun, Mehmet A.; Xiao, Jinghua; Xue, Liyin
2014-07-01
We propose two fault-tolerant high-capacity quantum key distribution schemes, in which an entangled pair over a collective-noise channel consisting of one logical qubit and one physical qubit can carry four bits of key information. The basic idea is to use 2-extended unitary operations from collective noises together with quantum dense coding. The key messages are encoded on logical qubits of two physical qubits with sixteen 2-extended unitary operations based on collective noises. The key can be recovered using Bell-state analysis on the logical qubit and a single-photon measurement on the physical qubit rather than three-qubit GHZ joint measurements. The proposed protocols require a collation table to be shared between Alice and Bob in advance. Consequently, the key messages carried by an entangled state, in our protocol, have doubled at the price of sharing the collation table between Alice and Bob. However, the efficiency of qubits is enhanced because a quantum bit is more expensive to prepare than a classical bit.
A comparison of quantum limited dose and noise equivalent dose
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Job, Isaias D.; Boyce, Sarah J.; Petrillo, Michael J.; Zhou, Kungang
2016-03-01
Quantum-limited-dose (QLD) and noise-equivalent-dose (NED) are performance metrics often used interchangeably. Although the metrics are related, they are not equivalent unless the treatment of electronic noise is carefully considered. These metrics are increasingly important to properly characterize the low-dose performance of flat panel detectors (FPDs). A system can be said to be quantum-limited when the Signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) is proportional to the square-root of x-ray exposure. Recent experiments utilizing three methods to determine the quantum-limited dose range yielded inconsistent results. To investigate the deviation in results, generalized analytical equations are developed to model the image processing and analysis of each method. We test the generalized expression for both radiographic and fluoroscopic detectors. The resulting analysis shows that total noise content of the images processed by each method are inherently different based on their readout scheme. Finally, it will be shown that the NED is equivalent to the instrumentation-noise-equivalent-exposure (INEE) and furthermore that the NED is derived from the quantum-noise-only method of determining QLD. Future investigations will measure quantum-limited performance of radiographic panels with a modified readout scheme to allow for noise improvements similar to measurements performed with fluoroscopic detectors.
Fault tolerant channel-encrypting quantum dialogue against collective noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, TianYu
2015-04-01
In this paper, two fault tolerant channel-encrypting quantum dialogue (QD) protocols against collective noise are presented. One is against collective-dephasing noise, while the other is against collective-rotation noise. The decoherent-free states, each of which is composed of two physical qubits, act as traveling states combating collective noise. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs, which play the role of private quantum key, are securely shared between two participants over a collective-noise channel in advance. Through encryption and decryption with private quantum key, the initial state of each traveling two-photon logical qubit is privately shared between two participants. Due to quantum encryption sharing of the initial state of each traveling logical qubit, the issue of information leakage is overcome. The private quantum key can be repeatedly used after rotation as long as the rotation angle is properly chosen, making quantum resource economized. As a result, their information-theoretical efficiency is nearly up to 66.7%. The proposed QD protocols only need single-photon measurements rather than two-photon joint measurements for quantum measurements. Security analysis shows that an eavesdropper cannot obtain anything useful about secret messages during the dialogue process without being discovered. Furthermore, the proposed QD protocols can be implemented with current techniques in experiment.
Hondo, Toshinobu; Kawai, Yousuke; Toyoda, Michisato
2015-01-01
Rapid acquisition of time-of-flight (TOF) spectra from fewer acquisitions on average was investigated using the newly introduced 12-bit digitizer, Keysight model U5303A. This is expected to achieve a spectrum acquisition 32 times faster than the commonly used 8-bit digitizer for an equal signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Averaging fewer pulses improves the detection speed and chromatographic separation performance. However, increasing the analog-to-digital converter bit resolution for a high-frequency signal, such as a TOF spectrum, increases the system noise and requires the timing jitter (aperture error) to be minimized. We studied the relationship between the S/N ratio and the average number of acquisitions using U5303A and compared this with an 8-bit digitizer. The results show that the noise, measured as root-mean-square, decreases linearly to the square root of the average number of acquisitions without background subtraction, which means that almost no systematic noise existed in our signal bandwidth of interest (a few hundreds megahertz). In comparison, 8-bit digitizers that are commonly used in the market require 32 times more pulses with background subtraction. PMID:25906030
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Maria Yu; Teo, Kim Keng; Chan, Kheong Sann
2015-05-01
Shingled Magnetic Recording (SMR) is an upcoming technology to see the hard disk drive industry over until heat assisted magnetic recording or another technology matures. In this work, we study the impact of variations in media parameters on the raw channel bit error rate (BER) through micromagnetic simulations and the grain flipping probability channel model in the SMR situation. This study aims to provide feedback to media designers on how media property variations influence the SMR channel performance. In particular, we analyse the effect of variations in the anisotropy constant (Ku), saturation magnetization (Ms), easy axis (ez), grain size (gs), and exchange coupling (Ax), on the written micromagnetic output and the ensuing hysteresis loop. We also compare these analyses with the channel performance on signal to noise ratio (SNR) and the raw channel BER.
Continuous-variable quantum key distribution with Gaussian source noise
Shen Yujie; Peng Xiang; Yang Jian; Guo Hong
2011-05-15
Source noise affects the security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV QKD) and is difficult to analyze. We propose a model to characterize Gaussian source noise through introducing a neutral party (Fred) who induces the noise with a general unitary transformation. Without knowing Fred's exact state, we derive the security bounds for both reverse and direct reconciliations and show that the bound for reverse reconciliation is tight.
How discord underlies the noise resilience of quantum illumination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weedbrook, Christian; Pirandola, Stefano; Thompson, Jayne; Vedral, Vlatko; Gu, Mile
2016-04-01
The benefits of entanglement can outlast entanglement itself. In quantum illumination, entanglement is employed to better detect reflecting objects in environments so noisy that all entanglement is destroyed. Here, we show that quantum discord—a more resilient form of quantum correlations—explains the resilience of quantum illumination. We introduce a quantitative relation between the performance gain in quantum illumination and the amount of discord used to encode information about the presence or absence of a reflecting object. This highlights discords role preserving the benefits of entanglement in entanglement breaking noise.
Quantum noise limits to matter-wave interferometry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scully, Marlan O.; Dowling, Jonathan P.
1994-01-01
We derive the quantum limits for an atomic interferometer in which the atoms obey either Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac statistics. It is found that the limiting quantum noise is due to the uncertainty associated with the particle sorting between the two branches of the interferometer. As an example, the quantum-limited sensitivity of a matter-wave gyroscope is calculated and compared with that of laser gyroscopes.
Superconducting Quantum Arrays for Wideband Antennas and Low Noise Amplifiers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mukhanov, O.; Prokopemko, G.; Romanofsky, Robert R.
2014-01-01
Superconducting Quantum Iinetference Filters (SQIF) consist of a two-dimensional array of niobium Josephson Junctions formed into N loops of incommensurate area. This structure forms a magnetic field (B) to voltage transducer with an impulse like response at B0. In principle, the signal-to-noise ratio scales as the square root of N and the noise can be made arbitrarily small (i.e. The SQIF chips are expected to exhibit quantum limited noise performance). A gain of about 20 dB was recently demonstrated at 10 GHz.
Reducing the overhead for quantum computation when noise is biased
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Webster, Paul; Bartlett, Stephen D.; Poulin, David
2015-12-01
We analyze a model for fault-tolerant quantum computation with low overhead suitable for situations where the noise is biased. The basis for this scheme is a gadget for the fault-tolerant preparation of magic states that enable universal fault-tolerant quantum computation using only Clifford gates that preserve the noise bias. We analyze the distillation of |T > -type magic states using this gadget at the physical level, followed by concatenation with the 15-qubit quantum Reed-Muller code, and comparing our results with standard constructions. In the regime where the noise bias (rate of Pauli Z errors relative to other single-qubit errors) is greater than a factor of 10, our scheme has lower overhead across a broad range of relevant noise rates.
Optomechanical synchronization phenomena in the presence of (quantum) noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weiss, Talitha; Kronwald, Andreas; Walter, Stefan; Marquardt, Florian
Synchronization is a phenomenon that appears in various natural and man-made systems. Optomechanical limit-cycle oscillators can synchronize when they are coupled to each other or to an external periodic force. Classically, in the absence of noise, different synchronization regimes can be identified. Notably, optomechanical systems tend to synchronize either in-phase or anti-phase. We investigate how the synchronization behaviour is affected in the presence of the fundamental quantum noise (arXiv:1507.06190). We find a regime where fluctuations drive transitions between the classical synchronization states and explore the quantum-to-classical crossover. Finally, we compare the effects of quantum noise to the effects of thermal noise.
A comprehensive model for quantum noise characterization in digital mammography.
Monnin, P; Bosmans, H; Verdun, F R; Marshall, N W
2016-03-01
A version of cascaded systems analysis was developed specifically with the aim of studying quantum noise propagation in x-ray detectors. Signal and quantum noise propagation was then modelled in four types of x-ray detectors used for digital mammography: four flat panel systems, one computed radiography and one slot-scan silicon wafer based photon counting device. As required inputs to the model, the two dimensional (2D) modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectra (NPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were measured for six mammography systems that utilized these different detectors. A new method to reconstruct anisotropic 2D presampling MTF matrices from 1D radial MTFs measured along different angular directions across the detector is described; an image of a sharp, circular disc was used for this purpose. The effective pixel fill factor for the FP systems was determined from the axial 1D presampling MTFs measured with a square sharp edge along the two orthogonal directions of the pixel lattice. Expectation MTFs were then calculated by averaging the radial MTFs over all possible phases and the 2D EMTF formed with the same reconstruction technique used for the 2D presampling MTF. The quantum NPS was then established by noise decomposition from homogenous images acquired as a function of detector air kerma. This was further decomposed into the correlated and uncorrelated quantum components by fitting the radially averaged quantum NPS with the radially averaged EMTF(2). This whole procedure allowed a detailed analysis of the influence of aliasing, signal and noise decorrelation, x-ray capture efficiency and global secondary gain on NPS and detector DQE. The influence of noise statistics, pixel fill factor and additional electronic and fixed pattern noises on the DQE was also studied. The 2D cascaded model and decompositions performed on the acquired images also enlightened the observed quantum NPS and DQE anisotropy. PMID:26895467
A comprehensive model for quantum noise characterization in digital mammography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monnin, P.; Bosmans, H.; Verdun, F. R.; Marshall, N. W.
2016-03-01
A version of cascaded systems analysis was developed specifically with the aim of studying quantum noise propagation in x-ray detectors. Signal and quantum noise propagation was then modelled in four types of x-ray detectors used for digital mammography: four flat panel systems, one computed radiography and one slot-scan silicon wafer based photon counting device. As required inputs to the model, the two dimensional (2D) modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectra (NPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were measured for six mammography systems that utilized these different detectors. A new method to reconstruct anisotropic 2D presampling MTF matrices from 1D radial MTFs measured along different angular directions across the detector is described; an image of a sharp, circular disc was used for this purpose. The effective pixel fill factor for the FP systems was determined from the axial 1D presampling MTFs measured with a square sharp edge along the two orthogonal directions of the pixel lattice. Expectation MTFs were then calculated by averaging the radial MTFs over all possible phases and the 2D EMTF formed with the same reconstruction technique used for the 2D presampling MTF. The quantum NPS was then established by noise decomposition from homogenous images acquired as a function of detector air kerma. This was further decomposed into the correlated and uncorrelated quantum components by fitting the radially averaged quantum NPS with the radially averaged EMTF2. This whole procedure allowed a detailed analysis of the influence of aliasing, signal and noise decorrelation, x-ray capture efficiency and global secondary gain on NPS and detector DQE. The influence of noise statistics, pixel fill factor and additional electronic and fixed pattern noises on the DQE was also studied. The 2D cascaded model and decompositions performed on the acquired images also enlightened the observed quantum NPS and DQE anisotropy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaiser, F.; Aktas, D.; Fedrici, B.; Lunghi, T.; Labonté, L.; Tanzilli, S.
2016-06-01
We demonstrate an experimental method for measuring energy-time entanglement over almost 80 nm spectral bandwidth in a single shot with a quantum bit error rate below 0.5%. Our scheme is extremely cost-effective and efficient in terms of resources as it employs only one source of entangled photons and one fixed unbalanced interferometer per phase-coded analysis basis. We show that the maximum analysis spectral bandwidth is obtained when the analysis interferometers are properly unbalanced, a strategy which can be straightforwardly applied to most of today's experiments based on energy-time and time-bin entanglement. Our scheme has therefore a great potential for boosting bit rates and reducing the resource overhead of future entanglement-based quantum key distribution systems.
Rapid single-flux-quantum circuits for low noise mK operation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Intiso, Samuel; Pekola, Jukka; Savin, Alexander; Devyatov, Ygor; Kidiyarova-Shevchenko, Anna
2006-05-01
Rapid single-flux-quantum (RSFQ) technology has been proposed as control electronics for superconducting quantum bits because of the material and working temperature compatibility. In this work, we consider practical aspects of RSFQ circuit design for low noise low power operation. At the working temperature of 20 mK and operational frequency of 2 GHz, dissipated power per junction is reduced to 25 pW by using 6 µA critical current junctions available at the Hypres and VTT low Jc fabrication process. To limit phonon temperature to 30 mK, a maximum of 40 junctions can be placed on a 5 mm × 5 mm chip. Electron temperature in resistive shunts of Josephson junctions is minimized by use of cooling fins, giving minimum electron temperatures of about 150 mK for the Hypres process and 70 mK for the VTT process.
Quantum stochastic calculus associated with quadratic quantum noises
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, Un Cig; Sinha, Kalyan B.
2016-02-01
We first study a class of fundamental quantum stochastic processes induced by the generators of a six dimensional non-solvable Lie †-algebra consisting of all linear combinations of the generalized Gross Laplacian and its adjoint, annihilation operator, creation operator, conservation, and time, and then we study the quantum stochastic integrals associated with the class of fundamental quantum stochastic processes, and the quantum Itô formula is revisited. The existence and uniqueness of solution of a quantum stochastic differential equation is proved. The unitarity conditions of solutions of quantum stochastic differential equations associated with the fundamental processes are examined. The quantum stochastic calculus extends the Hudson-Parthasarathy quantum stochastic calculus.
Practical scheme to share a secret key through a quantum channel with a 27.6% bit error rate
Chau, H.F.
2002-12-01
A secret key shared through quantum key distribution between two cooperative players is secure against any eavesdropping attack allowed by the laws of physics. Yet, such a key can be established only when the quantum channel error rate due to eavesdropping or imperfect apparatus is low. Here, a practical quantum key distribution scheme by making use of an adaptive privacy amplification procedure with two-way classical communication is reported. Then, it is proven that the scheme generates a secret key whenever the bit error rate of the quantum channel is less than 0.5-0.1{radical}(5){approx_equal}27.6%, thereby making it the most error resistant scheme known to date.
Practical scheme to share a secret key through a quantum channel with a 27.6% bit error rate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chau, H. F.
2002-12-01
A secret key shared through quantum key distribution between two cooperative players is secure against any eavesdropping attack allowed by the laws of physics. Yet, such a key can be established only when the quantum channel error rate due to eavesdropping or imperfect apparatus is low. Here, a practical quantum key distribution scheme by making use of an adaptive privacy amplification procedure with two-way classical communication is reported. Then, it is proven that the scheme generates a secret key whenever the bit error rate of the quantum channel is less than 0.5-0.1(5)≈27.6%, thereby making it the most error resistant scheme known to date.
Noise-resistant optimal spin squeezing via quantum control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pichler, T.; Caneva, T.; Montangero, S.; Lukin, M. D.; Calarco, T.
2016-01-01
Entangled atomic states, such as spin-squeezed states, represent a promising resource for a new generation of quantum sensors and atomic clocks. We demonstrate that optimal control techniques can be used to substantially enhance the degree of spin squeezing in strongly interacting many-body systems, even in the presence of noise and imperfections. Specifically, we present a protocol that is robust to noise and outperforms conventional methods. Potential experimental implementations are discussed.
Monitoring quantum wavefunctions in the presence of dephasing noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uys, Hermann
2011-05-01
POVM measurements allow quantum state estimation in real-time with minimal disruption of the dynamics. Here we demonstrate that high fidelity state estimation is possible even in the presence of dephasing and amplitude noise by simulating such measurements on a two-level system undergoing Rabi oscillations. Finite estimation fidelity persists long after the decoherence times set by the noise fields in the absence of measurements.
Fault-tolerant quantum blind signature protocols against collective noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ming-Hui; Li, Hui-Fang
2016-07-01
This work proposes two fault-tolerant quantum blind signature protocols based on the entanglement swapping of logical Bell states, which are robust against two kinds of collective noises: the collective-dephasing noise and the collective-rotation noise, respectively. Both of the quantum blind signature protocols are constructed from four-qubit decoherence-free (DF) states, i.e., logical Bell qubits. The initial message is encoded on the logical Bell qubits with logical unitary operations, which will not destroy the anti-noise trait of the logical Bell qubits. Based on the fundamental property of quantum entanglement swapping, the receiver simply performs two Bell-state measurements (rather than four-qubit joint measurements) on the logical Bell qubits to verify the signature, which makes the protocols more convenient in a practical application. Different from the existing quantum signature protocols, our protocols can offer the high fidelity of quantum communication with the employment of logical qubits. Moreover, we hereinafter prove the security of the protocols against some individual eavesdropping attacks, and we show that our protocols have the characteristics of unforgeability, undeniability and blindness.
Single-channel 40 Gbit/s digital coherent QAM quantum noise stream cipher transmission over 480 km.
Yoshida, Masato; Hirooka, Toshihiko; Kasai, Keisuke; Nakazawa, Masataka
2016-01-11
We demonstrate the first 40 Gbit/s single-channel polarization-multiplexed, 5 Gsymbol/s, 16 QAM quantum noise stream cipher (QNSC) transmission over 480 km by incorporating ASE quantum noise from EDFAs as well as the quantum shot noise of the coherent state with multiple photons for the random masking of data. By using a multi-bit encoded scheme and digital coherent transmission techniques, secure optical communication with a record data capacity and transmission distance has been successfully realized. In this system, the signal level received by Eve is hidden by both the amplitude and the phase noise. The highest number of masked signals, 7.5 x 10(4), was achieved by using a QAM scheme with FEC, which makes it possible to reduce the output power from the transmitter while maintaining an error free condition for Bob. We have newly measured the noise distribution around I and Q encrypted data and shown experimentally with a data size of as large as 2(25) that the noise has a Gaussian distribution with no correlations. This distribution is suitable for the random masking of data. PMID:26832295
Coping with noise in programmable quantum annealers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perdomo-Ortiz, Alejandro
Solving real-world applications with quantum annealing algorithms requires overcoming several challenges, ranging from translating the computational problem at hand to the quantum-machine language, to tuning several other parameters of the quantum algorithm that have a significant impact on performance of the device. In this talk, we discuss these challenges, strategies developed to enhance performance, and also a more efficient implementation of several applications. For example, in http://arxiv.org/abs/1503.05679 we proposed an method to measure residual systematic biases in the programmable parameters of large-scale quantum annealers. Although the method described there works from a practical point of view, a few questions were left unanswered. One of these puzzles was the observation of a broad distribution in the estimated effective qubit temperatures throughout the device . In this talk, we will present our progress in understanding these puzzles and how these new insights allow for a more effective bias correction protocol. We will present the impact of these new parameter setting and bias correction protocols in the performance of hard discrete optimization problems and in the successful implementation of quantum-assisted machine-learning algorithms.
Noise Estimation and Adaptive Encoding for Asymmetric Quantum Error Correcting Codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Florjanczyk, Jan; Brun, Todd; Center for Quantum Information Science; Technology Team
We present a technique that improves the performance of asymmetric quantum error correcting codes in the presence of biased qubit noise channels. Our study is motivated by considering what useful information can be learned from the statistics of syndrome measurements in stabilizer quantum error correcting codes (QECC). We consider the case of a qubit dephasing channel where the dephasing axis is unknown and time-varying. We are able to estimate the dephasing angle from the statistics of the standard syndrome measurements used in stabilizer QECC's. We use this estimate to rotate the computational basis of the code in such a way that the most likely type of error is covered by the highest distance of the asymmetric code. In particular, we use the [ [ 15 , 1 , 3 ] ] shortened Reed-Muller code which can correct one phase-flip error but up to three bit-flip errors. In our simulations, we tune the computational basis to match the estimated dephasing axis which in turn leads to a decrease in the probability of a phase-flip error. With a sufficiently accurate estimate of the dephasing axis, our memory's effective error is dominated by the much lower probability of four bit-flips. Aro MURI Grant No. W911NF-11-1-0268.
Highly noise resistant multiqubit quantum correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laskowski, Wiesław; Vértesi, Tamás; Wieśniak, Marcin
2015-11-01
We analyze robustness of correlations of the N-qubit GHZ and Dicke states against white noise admixture. For sufficiently large N, the Dicke states (for any number of excitations) lead to more robust violation of local realism than the GHZ states (e.g. for N > 8 for the W state). We also identify states that are the most resistant to white noise. Surprisingly, it turns out that these states are the GHZ states augmented with fully product states. Based on our numerical analysis conducted up to N = 8, and an analytical formula derived for any N parties, we conjecture that the three-qubit GHZ state augmented with a product of (N - 3) pure qubits is the most robust against white noise admixture among any N-qubit state. As a by-product, we derive a single Bell inequality and show that it is violated by all pure entangled states of a given number of parties. This gives an alternative proof of Gisin’s theorem.
Noise-resilient quantum evolution steered by dynamical decoupling.
Liu, Gang-Qin; Po, Hoi Chun; Du, Jiangfeng; Liu, Ren-Bao; Pan, Xin-Yu
2013-01-01
Realistic quantum computing is subject to noise. Therefore, an important frontier in quantum computing is to implement noise-resilient quantum control over qubits. At the same time, dynamical decoupling can protect the coherence of qubits. Here we demonstrate non-trivial quantum evolution steered by dynamical decoupling control, which simultaneously suppresses noise effects. We design and implement a self-protected controlled-NOT gate on the electron spin of a nitrogen-vacancy centre and a nearby carbon-13 nuclear spin in diamond at room temperature, by employing an engineered dynamical decoupling control on the electron spin. Final state fidelity of 0.91(1) is observed in preparation of a Bell state using the gate. At the same time, the qubit coherence time is elongated at least 30 fold. The design scheme does not require the dynamical decoupling control to commute with the qubit interaction and therefore works for general qubit systems. This work marks a step towards implementing realistic quantum computing systems. PMID:23912335
Origin of quantum noise and decoherence in distributed amplifiers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franson, J. D.; Kirby, B. T.
2015-11-01
The use of distributed amplifiers may have some potential advantages for the transmission of quantum information through optical fibers. In addition to the quantum noise introduced by the amplifiers, entanglement between atoms in the amplifying media and the optical field corresponds to which-path information that can further reduce the coherence. Here we analyze the effects of decoherence in a phase-insensitive distributed amplifier by using perturbation theory to calculate the state of the entire system including the atomic media. For an initial coherent state, tracing over the atomic states allows the reduced density matrix of the field to be expressed as a mixture of squeezed states with a reduced spread in photon number and an increased phase uncertainty. The amplifier noise and decoherence can be interpreted as being due to entanglement with the environment rather than the amplification of vacuum fluctuation noise.
Telegraph noise in coupled quantum dot circuits induced by a quantum point contact.
Taubert, D; Pioro-Ladrière, M; Schröer, D; Harbusch, D; Sachrajda, A S; Ludwig, S
2008-05-01
Charge detection utilizing a highly biased quantum point contact has become the most effective probe for studying few electron quantum dot circuits. Measurements on double and triple quantum dot circuits is performed to clarify a back action role of charge sensing on the confined electrons. The quantum point contact triggers inelastic transitions, which occur quite generally. Under specific device and measurement conditions these transitions manifest themselves as bounded regimes of telegraph noise within a stability diagram. A nonequilibrium transition from artificial atomic to molecular behavior is identified. Consequences for quantum information applications are discussed. PMID:18518321
Optical spectrum analyzer with quantum-limited noise floor.
Bishof, M; Zhang, X; Martin, M J; Ye, Jun
2013-08-30
Interactions between atoms and lasers provide the potential for unprecedented control of quantum states. Fulfilling this potential requires detailed knowledge of frequency noise in optical oscillators with state-of-the-art stability. We demonstrate a technique that precisely measures the noise spectrum of an ultrastable laser using optical lattice-trapped 87Sr atoms as a quantum projection noise-limited reference. We determine the laser noise spectrum from near dc to 100 Hz via the measured fluctuations in atomic excitation, guided by a simple and robust theory model. The noise spectrum yields a 26(4) mHz linewidth at a central frequency of 429 THz, corresponding to an optical quality factor of 1.6×10(16). This approach improves upon optical heterodyne beats between two similar laser systems by providing information unique to a single laser and complements the traditionally used Allan deviation which evaluates laser performance at relatively long time scales. We use this technique to verify the reduction of resonant noise in our ultrastable laser via feedback from an optical heterodyne beat. Finally, we show that knowledge of our laser's spectrum allows us to accurately predict the laser-limited stability for optical atomic clocks. PMID:24033036
Fast quantum noise in the Landau-Zener transition
Pokrovsky, V. L.; Sun, D.
2007-07-01
We show by direct calculation starting from a microscopic model that the two-state system with time-dependent energy levels in the presence of fast quantum noise obeys the master equation. The solution of master equation is found analytically and analyzed in a broad range of parameters. The fast transverse noise affects the transition probability during much longer time (the accumulation time) than the longitudinal one. The action of the fast longitudinal noise is restricted by the shorter Landau-Zener time, the same as in the regular Landau-Zener process. The large ratio of time scales allows solving the Landau-Zener problem with longitudinal noise only, and then solving the same problem with the transverse noise only and matching the two solutions. The correlation of the longitudinal and transverse noise renormalizes the Landau-Zener transition matrix element and can strongly enhance the survival probability, whereas the transverse noise always reduces it. If the noise is fast, its intensity at which the multiquantum processes become essential corresponds to a deeply adiabatic regime. We briefly discuss possible applications of the general theory to the molecular magnets.
Demonstration of quantum superiority in learning parity with noise with superconducting qubits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ristè, Diego; da Silva, Marcus; Ryan, Colm; Cross, Andrew; Smolin, John; Gambetta, Jay; Chow, Jerry; Johnson, Blake
A problem in machine learning is to identify the function programmed in an unknown device, or oracle, having only access to its output. In particular, a parity function computes the parity of a subset of a bit register. We implement an oracle executing parity functions in a five-qubit superconducting processor and compare the performance of a classical and a quantum learner. The classical learner reads the output of multiple oracle calls and uses the results to infer the hidden function. In addition to querying the oracle, the quantum learner can apply coherent rotations on the output register before the readout. We show that, given a target success probability, the quantum approach outperforms the classical one in the number of queries needed. Moreover, this gap increases with readout noise and with the size of the qubit register. This result shows that quantum advantage can already emerge in current systems with a few, noisy qubits. We acknowledge support from IARPA under Contract W911NF-10-1-0324.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Obada, A.-S. F.; Hessian, H. A.; Mohamed, A.-B. A.; Homid, Ali H.
2013-11-01
Based on the one- and two-qubit gates defined and generated via superconducting transmon qubits homogeneously coupled to a superconducting stripline resonator, we present a new physical protocol for implementing an N-bit discrete quantum Fourier transform. We propose and illustrate a detailed experimental feasibility for realizing the algorithm. The average fidelity is computed to prove the success of this algorithm. Estimated time for implementing the protocol using the proposed scheme is compared with previous schemes. Estimates show that the protocol can be successfully implemented within the present experimental limits.
Environmental noise reduction for holonomic quantum gates
Parodi, Daniele; Zanghi, Nino; Sassetti, Maura; Solinas, Paolo
2007-07-15
We study the performance of holonomic quantum gates, driven by lasers, under the effect of a dissipative environment modeled as a thermal bath of oscillators. We show how to enhance the performance of the gates by a suitable choice of the loop in the manifold of the controllable parameters of the laser. For a simplified, albeit realistic model, we find the surprising result that for a long time evolution the performance of the gate (properly estimated in terms of average fidelity) increases. On the basis of this result, we compare holonomic gates with the so-called stimulated raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) gates.
Blind quantum computation over a collective-noise channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takeuchi, Yuki; Fujii, Keisuke; Ikuta, Rikizo; Yamamoto, Takashi; Imoto, Nobuyuki
2016-05-01
Blind quantum computation (BQC) allows a client (Alice), who only possesses relatively poor quantum devices, to delegate universal quantum computation to a server (Bob) in such a way that Bob cannot know Alice's inputs, algorithm, and outputs. The quantum channel between Alice and Bob is noisy, and the loss over the long-distance quantum communication should also be taken into account. Here we propose to use decoherence-free subspace (DFS) to overcome the collective noise in the quantum channel for BQC, which we call DFS-BQC. We propose three variations of DFS-BQC protocols. One of them, a coherent-light-assisted DFS-BQC protocol, allows Alice to faithfully send the signal photons with a probability proportional to a transmission rate of the quantum channel. In all cases, we combine the ideas based on DFS and the Broadbent-Fitzsimons-Kashefi protocol, which is one of the BQC protocols, without degrading unconditional security. The proposed DFS-based schemes are generic and hence can be applied to other BQC protocols where Alice sends quantum states to Bob.
Description of quantum noise by a Langevin equation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Metiu, H.; Schon, G.
1984-01-01
General features of the quantum noise problem expressed as the equations of motion for a particle coupled to a set of oscillators are investigated analytically. Account is taken of the properties of the companion oscillators by formulating quantum statistical correlation Langevin equations (QSLE). The frequency of the oscillators is then retained as a natural cut-off for the quantum noise. The QSLE is further extended to encompass the particle trajectory and is bounded by initial and final states of the oscillator. The states are expressed as the probability of existence at the moment of particle collision that takes the oscillator into a final state. Two noise sources then exist: a statistical uncertainty of the initial state and the quantum dynamical uncertainty associated with a transition from the initial to final state. Feynman's path-integral formulation is used to characterize the functional of the particle trajectory, which slows the particle. It is shown that the energy loss may be attributed to friction, which satisfies energy conservation laws.
Intensity modulation and direct detection quantum key distribution based on quantum noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ikuta, Takuya; Inoue, Kyo
2016-01-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) has been studied for achieving perfectly secure cryptography based on quantum mechanics. This paper presents a novel QKD scheme that is based on an intensity-modulation and direct-detection system. Two slightly intensity-modulated pulses are sent from a transmitter, and a receiver determines key bits from the directly detected intensity. We analyzed the system performance for two typical eavesdropping methods, a beam splitting attack and an intercept-resend attack, with an assumption that the transmitting and receiving devices are fully trusted. Our brief analysis showed that short- or middle-range QKD systems are achievable with a simple setup.
QED (quantum-electrodynamical) theory of excess spontaneous emission noise
Milonni, P.W.
1990-01-01
The results of a quantum-electrodynamical theory of excess spontaneous emission noise in lossy resonators will be presented. The Petermann K factor'' does not enter into the spontaneous emission rate of a single atom in the cavity. The QED theory allows different interpretations of the K factor, and we use this fact to justify semiclassical analyses and to provide in one example a simple derivation of K in terms of the amplification of the quantum vacuum field entering the resonator through its mirrors. 17 refs.
Heralded Storage of a Photonic Quantum Bit in a Single Atom
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalb, Norbert; Reiserer, Andreas; Ritter, Stephan; Rempe, Gerhard
2015-06-01
Combining techniques of cavity quantum electrodynamics, quantum measurement, and quantum feedback, we have realized the heralded transfer of a polarization qubit from a photon onto a single atom with 39% efficiency and 86% fidelity. The reverse process, namely, qubit transfer from the atom onto a given photon, is demonstrated with 88% fidelity and an estimated efficiency of up to 69%. In contrast to previous work based on two-photon interference, our scheme is robust against photon arrival-time jitter and achieves much higher efficiencies. Thus, it constitutes a key step toward the implementation of a long-distance quantum network.
Heralded Storage of a Photonic Quantum Bit in a Single Atom.
Kalb, Norbert; Reiserer, Andreas; Ritter, Stephan; Rempe, Gerhard
2015-06-01
Combining techniques of cavity quantum electrodynamics, quantum measurement, and quantum feedback, we have realized the heralded transfer of a polarization qubit from a photon onto a single atom with 39% efficiency and 86% fidelity. The reverse process, namely, qubit transfer from the atom onto a given photon, is demonstrated with 88% fidelity and an estimated efficiency of up to 69%. In contrast to previous work based on two-photon interference, our scheme is robust against photon arrival-time jitter and achieves much higher efficiencies. Thus, it constitutes a key step toward the implementation of a long-distance quantum network. PMID:26196608
Optimal alphabets for noise-resistant quantum cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sych, Denis V.; Grishanin, Boris A.; Zadkov, Victor N.
2005-06-01
Possibilities of improving critical error rate of quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols for different strategies of eavesdropping are investigated. QKD-protocols with discrete alphabets letters of which form regular polyhedrons on the Bloch sphere (tetrahedron octahedron cube icosahedron and dodecahedron which have 4, 6, 8, 12 and 20 vertexes respectively) and QKD-protocol with continuous alphabet which corresponds to the limiting case of a polyhedron with infinitive number of vortexes are considered. Stability of such QKD-protocols to the noise in a quantum channel which is due to the Eve's interference that apply either intercept-receipt or optimal eavesdropping strategy at the individual attacks is studied in detail. It is shown that in case of optimal eavesdropping strategy after bases reconciliation the QKD-protocol with continuous alphabet surpasses all other protocols in terms of noise-resistance. Without basis reconciliation the highest critical error rate have the protocol with tetrahedron-type alphabet.
Noise performance of high-efficiency germanium quantum dot photodetectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siontas, Stylianos; Liu, Pei; Zaslavsky, Alexander; Pacifici, Domenico
2016-08-01
We report on the noise analysis of high performance germanium quantum dot (Ge QD) photodetectors with responsivity up to ˜2 A/W and internal quantum efficiency up to ˜400%, over the 400-1100 nm wavelength range and at a reverse bias of -10 V. Photolithography was performed to define variable active-area devices that show suppressed dark current, leading to a higher signal-to-noise ratio, up to 105, and specific detectivity D * ≃ 6 × 10 12 cm Hz 1 / 2 W-1. These figures of merit suggest Ge QDs as a promising alternative material for high-performance photodetectors working in the visible to near-infrared spectral range.
Anomalous diffusion in quantum Brownian motion with colored noise
Ford, G. W.; O'Connell, R. F.
2006-03-15
Anomalous diffusion is discussed in the context of quantum Brownian motion with colored noise. It is shown that earlier results follow simply and directly from the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. The limits on the long-time dependence of anomalous diffusion are shown to be a consequence of the second law of thermodynamics. The special case of an electron interacting with the radiation field is discussed in detail. We apply our results to wave-packet spreading.
Quantum channels with correlated noise and entanglement teleportation
Yeo Ye
2003-05-01
Motivated by the results of Macchiavello and Palma on entanglement-enhanced information transmission over a quantum channel with correlated noise, we demonstrate how the entanglement teleportation scheme of Lee and Kim gives rise to two uncorrelated generalized depolarizing channels. In an attempt to find a teleportation scheme that yields two correlated generalized depolarizing channels, we discover a teleportation scheme that allows one to learn about the entanglement in an entangled pure input state, without decreasing the amount of entanglement associated with it.
Telegraphic noise in transport through colloidal quantum dots.
Lachance-Quirion, Dany; Tremblay, Samuel; Lamarre, Sébastien A; Méthot, Vincent; Gingras, Daniel; Camirand Lemyre, Julien; Pioro-Ladrière, Michel; Allen, Claudine Nì
2014-02-12
We report measurements of electrical transport through single CdSe/CdS core/shell colloidal quantum dots (cQDs) connected to source and drain contacts. We observe telegraphic switching noise showing few plateaus at room temperature. We model and interpret these results as charge trapping of individual trap states, and therefore we resolve individual charge defects in these high-quality low-strain cQDs. The small number of observed defects quantitatively validates the passivation method based on thick CdS shells nearly lattice-matched to CdSe cores first developed to suppress photoluminescence blinking. Finally, we introduce a figure of merit useful to efficiently distinguish telegraphic noise from noise with a Gaussian distribution. PMID:24437447
Suppression of 1/f Flux Noise in Superconducting Quantum Circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Pradeep; Freeland, John; Yu, Clare; Wu, Ruqian; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Hui; Shi, Chuntai; Pappas, David; McDermott, Robert
Low frequency 1/f magnetic flux noise is a dominant contributor to dephasing in superconducting quantum circuits. It is believed that the noise is due to a high density of unpaired magnetic defect states at the surface of the superconducting thin films. We have performed X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) experiments that point to adsorbed molecular oxygen as the dominant source of magnetism in these films. By improving the vacuum environment of our superconducting devices, we have achieved a significant reduction in surface magnetic susceptibility and 1/f flux noise power spectral density. These results open the door to realization of superconducting qubits with improved dephasing times. State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
Quantum correlations of identical particles subject to classical environmental noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beggi, Andrea; Buscemi, Fabrizio; Bordone, Paolo
2016-06-01
In this work, we propose a measure for the quantum discord of indistinguishable particles, based on the definition of entanglement of particles given in Wiseman and Vaccaro (Phys Rev Lett 91:097902, 2003. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.91.097902). This discord of particles is then used to evaluate the quantum correlations in a system of two identical bosons (fermions), where the particles perform a quantum random walk described by the Hubbard Hamiltonian in a 1D lattice. The dynamics of the particles is either unperturbed or subject to a classical environmental noise—such as random telegraph, pink or brown noise. The observed results are consistent with those for the entanglement of particles, and we observe that on-site interaction between particles have an important protective effect on correlations against the decoherence of the system.
Quantum Dephasing in a Gated GaAs Triple Quantum Dot due to Nonergodic Noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delbecq, M. R.; Nakajima, T.; Stano, P.; Otsuka, T.; Amaha, S.; Yoneda, J.; Takeda, K.; Allison, G.; Ludwig, A.; Wieck, A. D.; Tarucha, S.
2016-01-01
We extract the phase coherence of a qubit defined by singlet and triplet electronic states in a gated GaAs triple quantum dot, measuring on time scales much shorter than the decorrelation time of the environmental noise. In this nonergodic regime, we observe that the coherence is boosted and several dephasing times emerge, depending on how the phase stability is extracted. We elucidate their mutual relations, and demonstrate that they reflect the noise short-time dynamics.
Quantum Dephasing in a Gated GaAs Triple Quantum Dot due to Nonergodic Noise.
Delbecq, M R; Nakajima, T; Stano, P; Otsuka, T; Amaha, S; Yoneda, J; Takeda, K; Allison, G; Ludwig, A; Wieck, A D; Tarucha, S
2016-01-29
We extract the phase coherence of a qubit defined by singlet and triplet electronic states in a gated GaAs triple quantum dot, measuring on time scales much shorter than the decorrelation time of the environmental noise. In this nonergodic regime, we observe that the coherence is boosted and several dephasing times emerge, depending on how the phase stability is extracted. We elucidate their mutual relations, and demonstrate that they reflect the noise short-time dynamics. PMID:26871350
Czekaj, L.; Horodecki, P.; Korbicz, J. K.; Chhajlany, R. W.
2010-08-15
Superadditivity effects of communication capacities are known in the case of discrete variable quantum channels. We describe the continuous variable analog of one of these effects in the framework of Gaussian multiple access channels (MACs). Classically, superadditivity-type effects are strongly restricted: For example, adding resources to one sender is never advantageous to other senders in sending their respective information to the receiver. We show that this rule can be surpassed using quantum resources, giving rise to a type of truly quantum superadditivity. This is illustrated here for two examples of experimentally feasible Gaussian MACs.
Coherent and conventional gravidynamic quantum 1/f noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Handel, Peter H.; George, Thomas F.
2008-04-01
Quantum 1/f noise is a fundamental fluctuation of currents, physical cross sections or process rates, caused by infrared coupling of the current carriers to very low frequency (soft) quanta, also known as infraquanta. The latter are soft gravitons in the gravidynamic case with the coupling constant g= pGM2/Nch considered here -- soft photons in the electrodynamic case and soft transversal piezo-phonons in the lattice-dynamical case. Here p=3.14 and F=psi. Quantum 1/f noise is a new aspect of quantum mechanics expressed mainly through the coherent quantum 1/f effect 2g/pf derived here for large systems, and mainly through the conventional quantum 1/f effect for small systems or individual particles. Both effects are present in general, and their effects are superposed in a first approximation with the help of a coherence (weight) parameter s" that will be derived elsewhere for the gravitational case. The spectral density of fractional fluctuations S(dj/j,f) for j=e(hk/2pm)|F|2 is S(F2,f)/<|F|2> = S(j,f)/
An Immune Quantum Communication Model for Dephasing Noise Using Four-Qubit Cluster State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Rui-jin; Li, Dong-fen; Qin, Zhi-guang
2016-01-01
Quantum secure communication of dephasing in the presence of noise is a hot spot in research in the field of quantum secure communication. Quantum steganography aims is to transfer secret information in public quantum channel. But because effect of annealing phase noise, quantum states which is need to transfer easily delayed or changed. So, quantum steganography is very meaning apply to transmit secret information covertly in quantum noisy channels. The article introduced dephasing noise impact on the physics of quantum state, through the theoretical research, construct the logic of quantum states to back the phase noise immunity, and construct the decoherence free subspace, It can guarantees fidelity secret information exchange through quantum communication model in a noisy environment.
Information leakage resistant quantum dialogue against collective noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, TianYu
2014-12-01
In this paper, two information leakage resistant quantum dialogue (QD) protocols over a collective-noise channel are proposed. Decoherence-free subspace (DFS) is used to erase the influence from two kinds of collective noise, i.e., collective-dephasing noise and collective-rotation noise, where each logical qubit is composed of two physical qubits and free from noise. In each of the two proposed protocols, the secret messages are encoded on the initial logical qubits via two composite unitary operations. Moreover, the single-photon measurements rather than the Bell-state measurements or the more complicated measurements are needed for decoding, making the two proposed protocols easier to implement. The initial state of each logical qubit is privately shared between the two authenticated users through the direct transmission of its auxiliary counterpart. Consequently, the information leakage problem is avoided in the two proposed protocols. Moreover, the detailed security analysis also shows that Eve's several famous active attacks can be effectively overcome, such as the Trojan horse attack, the intercept-resend attack, the measure-resend attack, the entangle-measure attack and the correlation-elicitation (CE) attack.
Role of thermal noise in tripartite quantum steering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Meng; Gong, Qihuang; Ficek, Zbigniew; He, Qiongyi
2014-08-01
The influence of thermal noise on bipartite and tripartite quantum steering induced by a short laser pulse in a hybrid three-mode optomechanical system is investigated. The calculation is carried out under the bad cavity limit, the adiabatic approximation of a slowly varying amplitude of the cavity mode, and with the assumption of driving the cavity mode with a blue detuned strong laser pulse. Under such conditions, explicit expressions of the bipartite and tripartite steering parameters are obtained, and the concept of collective tripartite quantum steering, recently introduced by He and Reid [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 250403 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.250403], is clearly explored. It is found that both bipartite and tripartite steering parameters are sensitive functions of the initial state of the modes and distinctly different steering behavior could be observed depending on whether the modes were initially in a thermal state or not. For the modes initially in a vacuum state, the bipartite and tripartite steering occur simultaneously over the entire interaction time. This indicates that collective tripartite steering cannot be achieved. The collective steering can be achieved for the modes initially prepared in a thermal state. We find that the initial thermal noise is more effective in destroying the bipartite rather than the tripartite steering which, on the other hand, can persist even for a large thermal noise. For the initial vacuum state of a steered mode, the tripartite steering exists over the entire interaction time even if the steering modes are in very noisy thermal states. When the steered mode is initially in a thermal state, it can be collectively steered by the other modes. There are thresholds for the average number of the thermal photons above which the existing tripartite steering appears as the collective steering. Finally, we point out that the collective steering may provide a resource in a hybrid quantum network for quantum secret sharing
A rapid single flux quantum 1 bit arithmetic logic unit constructed with a half-adder cell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jung, K. R.; Kim, J. Y.; Kang, J. H.; Kirichenko, A. F.; Park, J. H.; Hahn, T. S.
2004-06-01
We have designed, fabricated, and tested a rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) 1 bit arithmetic logic unit (ALU) block. The circuit consists of three DC current driven SFQ switches and a half-adder. We successfully tested the half-adder cell at clock frequency up to 20 GHz. The switches were commutating output ports of the half-adder to produce AND, OR, XOR, or ADD functions. For a high-speed test, we attached two switches at the input ports of the half-adder to control the high-speed input data by low-frequency pattern generators. The output in this measurement was an eye-diagram. Using this set-up, the circuit was successfully tested up to 20 GHz. The chip was fabricated using a standard HYPRES 1 kA cm-2 Nb Josephson junction fabrication process.
Probabilistic quantum teleportation in the presence of noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fortes, Raphael; Rigolin, Gustavo
2016-06-01
We extend the research program initiated in [Phys. Rev. A 92, 012338 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.012338] from noisy deterministic teleportation protocols to noisy probabilistic (conditional) protocols. Our main goal now is to study how we can increase the fidelity of the teleported state in the presence of noise by working with probabilistic protocols. We work with several scenarios involving the most common types of noise in realistic implementations of quantum communication tasks and find many cases where adding more noise to the probabilistic protocol increases considerably the fidelity of the teleported state, without decreasing the probability of a successful run of the protocol. Also, there are cases where the entanglement of the channel connecting Alice and Bob leading to the greatest fidelity is not maximal. Moreover, there exist cases where the optimal fidelity for the probabilistic protocols are greater than the maximal fidelity (2 /3 ) achievable by using only classical resources, while the optimal ones for the deterministic protocols under the same conditions lie below this limit. This result clearly illustrates that in some cases we can only get a truly quantum teleportation if we use probabilistic instead of deterministic protocols.
Focus on quantum effects and noise in biomolecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fleming, G. R.; Huelga, S. F.; Plenio, M. B.
2011-11-01
The role of quantum mechanics in biological organisms has been a fundamental question of twentieth-century biology. It is only now, however, with modern experimental techniques, that it is possible to observe quantum mechanical effects in bio-molecular complexes directly. Indeed, recent experiments have provided evidence that quantum effects such as wave-like motion of excitonic energy flow, delocalization and entanglement can be seen even in complex and noisy biological environments (Engel et al 2007 Nature 446 782; Collini et al 2010 Nature 463 644; Panitchayangkoon et al 2010 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 107 12766). Motivated by these observations, theoretical work has highlighted the importance of an interplay between environmental noise and quantum coherence in such systems (Mohseni et al 2008 J. Chem. Phys. 129 174106; Plenio and Huelga 2008 New J. Phys. 10 113019; Olaya-Castro et al 2008 Phys. Rev. B 78 085115; Rebentrost et al 2009 New J. Phys. 11 033003; Caruso et al 2009 J. Chem. Phys. 131 105106; Ishizaki and Fleming 2009 J. Chem. Phys. 130 234111). All of this has led to a surge of interest in the exploration of quantum effects in biological systems in order to understand the possible relevance of non-trivial quantum features and to establish a potential link between quantum coherence and biological function. These studies include not only exciton transfer across light harvesting complexes, but also the avian compass (Ritz et al 2000 Biophys. J. 78 707), and the olfactory system (Turin 1996 Chem. Sens. 21 773; Chin et al 2010 New J. Phys. 12 065002). These examples show that the full understanding of the dynamics at bio-molecular length (10 Å) and timescales (sub picosecond) in noisy biological systems can uncover novel phenomena and concepts and hence present a fertile ground for truly multidisciplinary research.
4-bit Bipolar Triangle Voltage Waveform Generator Using Single-Flux-Quantum Circuit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watanabe, Tomoki; Takahashi, Yoshitaka; Shimada, Hiroshi; Maezawa, Masaaki; Mizugaki, Yoshinao
SFQ digital-to-analog converters (DACs) are one of the candidates for AC voltage standards. We have proposed SFQ-DACs based on frequency modulation (FM). Bipolar output is required for applications of AC voltage standards, while our previous SFQ-DACs generated only positive voltages. In this paper, we present our design of a 4-bit bipolar triangle voltage waveform generator comprising an SFQ-DAC. The waveform generator has two output ports. Synthesized half-period waveforms are alternately generated in one of the output ports. The bipolar output is realized by observing the differential voltage between the ports. We confirmed a 72-μVPP bipolar triangle voltage waveform at the frequency of 35.7 Hz.
Equivalence of a Bit Pixel Image to a Quantum Pixel Image
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ortega, Laurel Carlos; Dong, Shi-Hai; Cruz-Irisson, M.
2015-11-01
We propose a new method to transform a pixel image to the corresponding quantum-pixel using a qubit per pixel to represent each pixels classical weight in a quantum image matrix weight. All qubits are linear superposition, changing the coefficients level by level to the entire longitude of the gray scale with respect to the base states of the qubit. Classically, these states are just bytes represented in a binary matrix, having code combinations of 1 or 0 at all pixel locations. This method introduces a qubit-pixel image representation of images captured by classical optoelectronic methods. Supported partially by the project 20150964-SIP-IPN, Mexico
Dissipative Landau-Zener quantum dynamics with transversal and longitudinal noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Javanbakht, S.; Nalbach, P.; Thorwart, M.
2015-05-01
We determine the Landau-Zener transition probability in a dissipative environment including both longitudinal as well as transversal quantum-mechanical noise originating from a single noise source. For this, we use the numerically exact quasiadiabatic path integral, as well as the approximative nonequilibrium Bloch equations. We find that transversal quantum noise in general influences the Landau-Zener probability much more strongly than longitudinal quantum noise does at a given temperature and system-bath coupling strength. In other words, transversal noise contributions become important even when the coupling strength of transversal noise is smaller than that of longitudinal noise. We furthermore reveal that transversal noise renormalizes the tunnel coupling independent of temperature. Finally, we show that the effect of mixed longitudinal and transversal noise originating from a single bath cannot be obtained from an incoherent sum of purely longitudinal and purely transversal noise.
Quantum noise effects with Kerr-nonlinearity enhancement in coupled gain-loss waveguides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Bing; Yan, Shu-Bin; Wang, Jing; Xiao, Min
2015-05-01
It is generally difficult to study the dynamical properties of a quantum system with both inherent quantum noises and nonperturbative nonlinearity. Due to the possibly drastic intensity increase of an input coherent light in gain-loss waveguide couplers with parity-time (PT ) symmetry, the Kerr effect from a nonlinearity added into the system can be greatly enhanced and is expected to create macroscopic entangled states of the output light fields with huge photon numbers. Meanwhile, quantum noises also coexist with the amplification and dissipation of the light fields. Under the interplay between the quantum noises and nonlinearity, the quantum dynamical behaviors of the systems become rather complicated. However, the important quantum noise effects have been mostly neglected in previous studies about nonlinear PT -symmetric systems. Here we present a solution to this nonperturbative quantum nonlinear problem, showing the real-time evolution of the system observables. The enhanced Kerr nonlinearity is found to give rise to a previously unknown decoherence effect that is irrelevant to the quantum noises and imposes a limit on the emergence of macroscopic nonclassicality. In contrast to what happens in linear systems, the quantum noises exert significant impact on the system dynamics and can create nonclassical light field states in conjunction with the enhanced Kerr nonlinearity. This study on the noise involved in quantum nonlinear dynamics of coupled gain-loss waveguides can help to better understand the quantum noise effects in many nonlinear systems.
Suppression of low-frequency charge noise in gates-defined GaAs quantum dots
You, Jie; Li, Hai-Ou E-mail: gpguo@ustc.edu.cn; Wang, Ke; Cao, Gang; Song, Xiang-Xiang; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guo-Ping E-mail: gpguo@ustc.edu.cn
2015-12-07
To reduce the charge noise of a modulation-doped GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dot, we have fabricated shallow-etched GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots using the wet-etching method to study the effects of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) underneath the metallic gates. The low-frequency 1/f noise in the Coulomb blockade region of the shallow-etched quantum dot is compared with a non-etched quantum dot on the same wafer. The average values of the gate noise are approximately 0.5 μeV in the shallow-etched quantum dot and 3 μeV in the regular quantum dot. Our results show the quantum dot low-frequency charge noise can be suppressed by the removal of the 2DEG underneath the metallic gates, which provides an architecture for noise reduction.
Experimental unconditionally secure bit commitment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yang; Cao, Yuan; Curty, Marcos; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Li, Yu-Huai; Lin, Ze-Hong; Sun, Qi-Chao; Li, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Teng-Yun; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Cabello, Adan; Pan, Jian-Wei
2014-03-01
Quantum physics allows unconditionally secure communication between parties that trust each other. However, when they do not trust each other such as in the bit commitment, quantum physics is not enough to guarantee security. Only when relativistic causality constraints combined, the unconditional secure bit commitment becomes feasible. Here we experimentally implement a quantum bit commitment with relativistic constraints that offers unconditional security. The commitment is made through quantum measurements in two quantum key distribution systems in which the results are transmitted via free-space optical communication to two agents separated with more than 20 km. Bits are successfully committed with less than 5 . 68 ×10-2 cheating probability. This provides an experimental proof of unconditional secure bit commitment and demonstrates the feasibility of relativistic quantum communication.
Experimental Unconditionally Secure Bit Commitment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yang; Cao, Yuan; Curty, Marcos; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Li, Yu-Huai; Lin, Ze-Hong; Sun, Qi-Chao; Li, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Teng-Yun; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Cabello, Adán; Pan, Jian-Wei
2014-01-01
Quantum physics allows for unconditionally secure communication between parties that trust each other. However, when the parties do not trust each other such as in the bit commitment scenario, quantum physics is not enough to guarantee security unless extra assumptions are made. Unconditionally secure bit commitment only becomes feasible when quantum physics is combined with relativistic causality constraints. Here we experimentally implement a quantum bit commitment protocol with relativistic constraints that offers unconditional security. The commitment is made through quantum measurements in two quantum key distribution systems in which the results are transmitted via free-space optical communication to two agents separated with more than 20 km. The security of the protocol relies on the properties of quantum information and relativity theory. In each run of the experiment, a bit is successfully committed with less than 5.68×10-2 cheating probability. This demonstrates the experimental feasibility of quantum communication with relativistic constraints.
Experimental unconditionally secure bit commitment.
Liu, Yang; Cao, Yuan; Curty, Marcos; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Li, Yu-Huai; Lin, Ze-Hong; Sun, Qi-Chao; Li, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Teng-Yun; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Cabello, Adán; Pan, Jian-Wei
2014-01-10
Quantum physics allows for unconditionally secure communication between parties that trust each other. However, when the parties do not trust each other such as in the bit commitment scenario, quantum physics is not enough to guarantee security unless extra assumptions are made. Unconditionally secure bit commitment only becomes feasible when quantum physics is combined with relativistic causality constraints. Here we experimentally implement a quantum bit commitment protocol with relativistic constraints that offers unconditional security. The commitment is made through quantum measurements in two quantum key distribution systems in which the results are transmitted via free-space optical communication to two agents separated with more than 20 km. The security of the protocol relies on the properties of quantum information and relativity theory. In each run of the experiment, a bit is successfully committed with less than 5.68×10(-2) cheating probability. This demonstrates the experimental feasibility of quantum communication with relativistic constraints. PMID:24483878
Robust shot-noise measurement for continuous-variable quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kunz-Jacques, Sébastien; Jouguet, Paul
2015-02-01
We study a practical method to measure the shot noise in real time in continuous-variable quantum key distribution systems. The amount of secret key that can be extracted from the raw statistics depends strongly on this quantity since it affects in particular the computation of the excess noise (i.e., noise in excess of the shot noise) added by an eavesdropper on the quantum channel. Some powerful quantum hacking attacks relying on faking the estimated value of the shot noise to hide an intercept and resend strategy were proposed. Here, we provide experimental evidence that our method can defeat the saturation attack and the wavelength attack.
Extending the lifetime of a quantum bit with error correction in superconducting circuits.
Ofek, Nissim; Petrenko, Andrei; Heeres, Reinier; Reinhold, Philip; Leghtas, Zaki; Vlastakis, Brian; Liu, Yehan; Frunzio, Luigi; Girvin, S M; Jiang, L; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Devoret, M H; Schoelkopf, R J
2016-08-25
Quantum error correction (QEC) can overcome the errors experienced by qubits and is therefore an essential component of a future quantum computer. To implement QEC, a qubit is redundantly encoded in a higher-dimensional space using quantum states with carefully tailored symmetry properties. Projective measurements of these parity-type observables provide error syndrome information, with which errors can be corrected via simple operations. The 'break-even' point of QEC--at which the lifetime of a qubit exceeds the lifetime of the constituents of the system--has so far remained out of reach. Although previous works have demonstrated elements of QEC, they primarily illustrate the signatures or scaling properties of QEC codes rather than test the capacity of the system to preserve a qubit over time. Here we demonstrate a QEC system that reaches the break-even point by suppressing the natural errors due to energy loss for a qubit logically encoded in superpositions of Schrödinger-cat states of a superconducting resonator. We implement a full QEC protocol by using real-time feedback to encode, monitor naturally occurring errors, decode and correct. As measured by full process tomography, without any post-selection, the corrected qubit lifetime is 320 microseconds, which is longer than the lifetime of any of the parts of the system: 20 times longer than the lifetime of the transmon, about 2.2 times longer than the lifetime of an uncorrected logical encoding and about 1.1 longer than the lifetime of the best physical qubit (the |0〉f and |1〉f Fock states of the resonator). Our results illustrate the benefit of using hardware-efficient qubit encodings rather than traditional QEC schemes. Furthermore, they advance the field of experimental error correction from confirming basic concepts to exploring the metrics that drive system performance and the challenges in realizing a fault-tolerant system. PMID:27437573
Basset, J.; Stockklauser, A.; Jarausch, D.-D.; Frey, T.; Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W.; Wallraff, A.; Ensslin, K.; Ihn, T.
2014-08-11
We evaluate the charge noise acting on a GaAs/GaAlAs based semiconductor double quantum dot dipole-coupled to the voltage oscillations of a superconducting transmission line resonator. The in-phase (I) and the quadrature (Q) components of the microwave tone transmitted through the resonator are sensitive to charging events in the surrounding environment of the double dot with an optimum sensitivity of 8.5×10{sup −5} e/√(Hz). A low frequency 1/f type noise spectrum combined with a white noise level of 6.6×10{sup −6} e{sup 2}/Hz above 1 Hz is extracted, consistent with previous results obtained with quantum point contact charge detectors on similar heterostructures. The slope of the 1/f noise allows to extract a lower bound for the double-dot charge qubit dephasing rate which we compare to the one extracted from a Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian approach. The two rates are found to be similar emphasizing that charge noise is the main source of dephasing in our system.
Noise robustness of the incompatibility of quantum measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heinosaari, Teiko; Kiukas, Jukka; Reitzner, Daniel
2015-08-01
The existence of incompatible measurements is a fundamental phenomenon having no explanation in classical physics. Intuitively, one considers given measurements to be incompatible within a framework of a physical theory, if their simultaneous implementation on a single physical device is prohibited by the theory itself. In the mathematical language of quantum theory, measurements are described by POVMs (positive operator valued measures), and given POVMs are by definition incompatible if they cannot be obtained via coarse-graining from a single common POVM; this notion generalizes noncommutativity of projective measurements. In quantum theory, incompatibility can be regarded as a resource necessary for manifesting phenomena such as Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) Bell inequality violations or Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering which do not have classical explanation. We define operational ways of quantifying this resource via the amount of added classical noise needed to render the measurements compatible, i.e., useless as a resource. In analogy to entanglement measures, we generalize this idea by introducing the concept of incompatibility measure, which is monotone in local operations. In this paper, we restrict our consideration to binary measurements, which are already sufficient to explicitly demonstrate nontrivial features of the theory. In particular, we construct a family of incompatibility monotones operationally quantifying violations of certain scaled versions of the CHSH Bell inequality, prove that they can be computed via a semidefinite program, and show how the noise-based quantities arise as special cases. We also determine maximal violations of the new inequalities, demonstrating how Tsirelson's bound appears as a special case. The resource aspect is further motivated by simple quantum protocols where our incompatibility monotones appear as relevant figures of merit.
Room-temperature quantum bit storage exceeding 39 minutes using ionized donors in silicon-28.
Saeedi, Kamyar; Simmons, Stephanie; Salvail, Jeff Z; Dluhy, Phillip; Riemann, Helge; Abrosimov, Nikolai V; Becker, Peter; Pohl, Hans-Joachim; Morton, John J L; Thewalt, Mike L W
2013-11-15
Quantum memories capable of storing and retrieving coherent information for extended times at room temperature would enable a host of new technologies. Electron and nuclear spin qubits using shallow neutral donors in semiconductors have been studied extensively but are limited to low temperatures (≲10 kelvin); however, the nuclear spins of ionized donors have the potential for high-temperature operation. We used optical methods and dynamical decoupling to realize this potential for an ensemble of phosphorous-31 donors in isotopically purified silicon-28 and observed a room-temperature coherence time of over 39 minutes. We further showed that a coherent spin superposition can be cycled from 4.2 kelvin to room temperature and back, and we report a cryogenic coherence time of 3 hours in the same system. PMID:24233718
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cripe, Jonathan; Singh, Robinjeet; Corbitt, Thomas; LIGO Collaboration
2016-03-01
Advanced LIGO is predicted to be limited by quantum noise at intermediate and high frequencies when it reaches design sensitivity. The quantum noise, including radiation pressure noise at intermediate frequencies, will need to be reduced in order to increase the sensitivity of future gravitational wave interferometers. We report recent progress towards measuring quantum radiation pressure noise in a cryogenic optomechanical cavity. The low noise microfabricated mechanical oscillator and cryogenic apparatus allow direct broadband thermal noise measurements which test thermal noise models and damping mechanisms. We also progress toward the measurement of the ponderomotive squeezing produced by the optomechanical cavity and the reduction of radiation pressure noise using squeezed light. These techniques may be applicable to an upgrade of Advanced LIGO or the next generation of gravitational wave detectors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Yan; Zhang, Shi-Bin; Yan, Li-Li; Han, Gui-Hua
2015-05-01
By using six-qubit decoherence-free (DF) states as quantum carriers and decoy states, a robust quantum secure direct communication and authentication (QSDCA) protocol against decoherence noise is proposed. Four six-qubit DF states are used in the process of secret transmission, however only the |0‧⟩ state is prepared. The other three six-qubit DF states can be obtained by permuting the outputs of the setup for |0‧⟩. By using the |0‧⟩ state as the decoy state, the detection rate and the qubit error rate reach 81.3%, and they will not change with the noise level. The stability and security are much higher than those of the ping-pong protocol both in an ideal scenario and a decoherence noise scenario. Even if the eavesdropper measures several qubits, exploiting the coherent relationship between these qubits, she can gain one bit of secret information with probability 0.042. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61402058), the Science and Technology Support Project of Sichuan Province of China (Grant No. 2013GZX0137), the Fund for Young Persons Project of Sichuan Province of China (Grant No. 12ZB017), and the Foundation of Cyberspace Security Key Laboratory of Sichuan Higher Education Institutions, China (Grant No. szjj2014-074).
Lasing in circuit quantum electrodynamics with strong noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marthaler, M.; Utsumi, Y.; Golubev, D. S.
2015-05-01
We study a model which can describe a superconducting single-electron transistor or a double quantum dot coupled to a transmission-line oscillator. In both cases the degree of freedom is given by a charged particle, which couples strongly to the electromagnetic environment or phonons. We consider the case where a lasing condition is established and study the dependence of the average photon number in the resonator on the spectral function of the electromagnetic environment. We focus on three important cases: a strongly coupled environment with a small cutoff frequency, a structured environment peaked at a specific frequency, and 1 /f noise. We find that the electromagnetic environment can have a substantial impact on the photon creation. Resonance peaks are in general broadened and additional resonances can appear.
Thermal and Quantum Mechanical Noise of a Superfluid Gyroscope
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chui, Talso; Penanen, Konstantin
2004-01-01
A potential application of a superfluid gyroscope is for real-time measurements of the small variations in the rotational speed of the Earth, the Moon, and Mars. Such rotational jitter, if not measured and corrected for, will be a limiting factor on the resolution potential of a GPS system. This limitation will prevent many automation concepts in navigation, construction, and biomedical examination from being realized. We present the calculation of thermal and quantum-mechanical phase noise across the Josephson junction of a superfluid gyroscope. This allows us to derive the fundamental limits on the performance of a superfluid gyroscope. We show that the fundamental limit on real-time GPS due to rotational jitter can be reduced to well below 1 millimeter/day. Other limitations and their potential mitigation will also be discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smarandache, Florentin; Christianto, V.
2011-03-01
Mu-bit is defined here as `multi-space bit'. It is different from the standard meaning of bit in conventional computation, because in Smarandache's multispace theory (also spelt multi-space) the bit is created simultaneously in many subspaces (that form together a multi-space). This new `bit' term is different from multi-valued-bit already known in computer technology, for example as MVLong. This new concept is also different from qu-bit from quantum computation terminology. We know that using quantum mechanics logic we could introduce new way of computation with `qubit' (quantum bit), but the logic remains Neumann. Now, from the viewpoint of m-valued multi-space logic, we introduce a new term: `mu-bit' (from `multi-space bit).
Reprint of : A computational approach to quantum noise in time-dependent nanoelectronic devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaury, Benoit; Waintal, Xavier
2016-08-01
We derive simple expressions that relate the noise and correlation properties of a general time-dependent quantum conductor to the wave functions of the system. The formalism provides a practical route for numerical calculations of quantum noise in an externally driven system. We illustrate the approach with numerical calculations of the noise properties associated to a voltage pulse applied on a one-dimensional conductor. The methodology is however fully general and can be used for a large class of mesoscopic conductors.
A computational approach to quantum noise in time-dependent nanoelectronic devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaury, Benoit; Waintal, Xavier
2016-01-01
We derive simple expressions that relate the noise and correlation properties of a general time-dependent quantum conductor to the wave functions of the system. The formalism provides a practical route for numerical calculations of quantum noise in an externally driven system. We illustrate the approach with numerical calculations of the noise properties associated to a voltage pulse applied on a one-dimensional conductor. The methodology is however fully general and can be used for a large class of mesoscopic conductors.
Quantum dialogue protocols over collective noise using entanglement of GHZ state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Chih-Hung; Yang, Chun-Wei; Hzu, Geng-Rong; Hwang, Tzonelih; Kao, Shih-Hung
2016-07-01
In this paper, two quantum dialogue (QD) protocols based on the entanglement of GHZ states are proposed to resist the collective noise. Besides, two new coding functions are designed for each of the proposed protocols, which can resist two types of collective noise: collective-dephasing noise and collective-rotation noise, respectively. Furthermore, it is also argued that these QD protocols are also free from the Trojan horse attacks and the information leakage problem.
Noise-induced relaxation of a quantum oscillator interacting with a thermal bath
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Efremov, G. F.; Mourokh, L. G.; Smirnov, A. Yu.
1993-04-01
The non-Markovian theory of quantum Brownian motion is used to analyse the relaxation of a harmonic oscillator nonlinearly coupled to a thermal bath and driven by external noise. It is shown that this nonlinearity leads to interference between additive noise and multiplicative noise and to the effect of additive noise-induced relaxation of a high frequency oscillator interacting with a low frequency thermal bath.
Quantum dialogue protocols over collective noise using entanglement of GHZ state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Chih-Hung; Yang, Chun-Wei; Hzu, Geng-Rong; Hwang, Tzonelih; Kao, Shih-Hung
2016-04-01
In this paper, two quantum dialogue (QD) protocols based on the entanglement of GHZ states are proposed to resist the collective noise. Besides, two new coding functions are designed for each of the proposed protocols, which can resist two types of collective noise: collective-dephasing noise and collective-rotation noise, respectively. Furthermore, it is also argued that these QD protocols are also free from the Trojan horse attacks and the information leakage problem.
Error Sensitivity to Environmental Noise in Quantum Circuits for Chemical State Preparation.
Sawaya, Nicolas P D; Smelyanskiy, Mikhail; McClean, Jarrod R; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2016-07-12
Calculating molecular energies is likely to be one of the first useful applications to achieve quantum supremacy, performing faster on a quantum than a classical computer. However, if future quantum devices are to produce accurate calculations, errors due to environmental noise and algorithmic approximations need to be characterized and reduced. In this study, we use the high performance qHiPSTER software to investigate the effects of environmental noise on the preparation of quantum chemistry states. We simulated 18 16-qubit quantum circuits under environmental noise, each corresponding to a unitary coupled cluster state preparation of a different molecule or molecular configuration. Additionally, we analyze the nature of simple gate errors in noise-free circuits of up to 40 qubits. We find that, in most cases, the Jordan-Wigner (JW) encoding produces smaller errors under a noisy environment as compared to the Bravyi-Kitaev (BK) encoding. For the JW encoding, pure dephasing noise is shown to produce substantially smaller errors than pure relaxation noise of the same magnitude. We report error trends in both molecular energy and electron particle number within a unitary coupled cluster state preparation scheme, against changes in nuclear charge, bond length, number of electrons, noise types, and noise magnitude. These trends may prove to be useful in making algorithmic and hardware-related choices for quantum simulation of molecular energies. PMID:27254482
Truly random bit generation based on a novel random Brillouin fiber laser.
Xiang, Dao; Lu, Ping; Xu, Yanping; Gao, Song; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi
2015-11-15
We propose a novel dual-emission random Brillouin fiber laser (RBFL) with bidirectional pumping operation. Numerical simulations and experimental verification of the chaotic temporal and statistical properties of the RBFL are conducted, revealing intrinsic unpredictable intensity fluctuations and two completely uncorrelated laser outputs. A random bit generator based on quantum noise sources in the random Fabry-Perot resonator of the RBFL is realized at a bit rate of 5 Mbps with verified randomness. PMID:26565888
Quantum 1/f noise in high technology applications including ultrasmall structures and devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Handel, Peter H.
1994-05-01
The present report brings a final answer to the question on the nature of fundamental 1/f noise and its ubiquity. A sufficient criterion for a 1/f spectrum in arbitrary chaotic nonlinear systems is derived for the first time. This criterion guarantees a 1/f spectrum for nonlinear systems which also satisfy a condition of mathematical homogeneity. Briefly stated, nonlinearity + homogeneity = 1/f noise. The criterion results because the 1/f spectrum reproduces itself in a self-convolution. Among the five examples to which the criterion is applied is also quantum electrodynamics (QED), resulting in quantum 1/f noise as a fundamental form of quantum chaos. Nonlinearity of the system of a charged particle and its field, plus the basic homogeneity of physical equations causes the criterion to predict the quantum 1/f effect. The simple universal quantum 1/f formula is applied to infrared detectors and yields quantum 1/f noise in the dark current, but not in the photogenerated current. The fractal dimension of quantum 1/f noise is determined on the basis of its quantum chaos definition and is obtained theoretically as a function of bandwidth in a simple model by applying the Grassberger-Procaccia-Takens algorithm to the quantum 1/f theory. The quantum 1/f effect is successfully applied to quartz resonators and bipolar junction transistors. Finally, the quantum 1/f mobility fluctuations are calculated in silicon and the coherent quantum 1/f effect is derived for the first time from a new QED propagator with branch-point singularity. This opens the way to better bridging the gap between coherent and conventional quantum 1/f noise in small and ultrasmall devices.
Quantum noise in differential-type gravitational-wave interferometer and signal recycling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishizawa, A.; Kawamura, S.; Sakagami, Masa-aki
2008-07-01
In the sensitivity of laser interferometer gravitational-wave detectors, there exists the standard quantum limit (SQL), derived from Heisenberg's uncertainty relation. The SQL can be overcome using the quantum correlation between shot noise and radiation-pressure noise. One of the methods to overcome SQL, signal recycling, is considered so far only in a recombined-type interferometer such as Advanced-LIGO, LCGT, and GEO600. In this paper, we investigated quantum noise and signal recycling in a differential-type interferometer. We also applied it to a real detector and compared the sensivity with a recombined type.
Oscillator strength of impurity doped quantum dots: Influence of Gaussian white noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pal, Suvajit; Ganguly, Jayanta; Saha, Surajit; Ghosh, Manas
2015-10-01
We make a rigorous analysis of profiles of oscillator strength of a doped quantum dot in the presence and absence of noise. The noise employed here is a Gaussian white noise. The quantum dot is doped with repulsive Gaussian impurity. Noise has been administered additively and multiplicatively to the system. A perpendicular magnetic field is also present and a static external electric field has been applied. Profile of OS has been minutely monitored with variation of several important quantities such as confinement energy, electric field strength, dopant location, magnetic field strength, dopant potential, noise strength, Al concentration, and mode of application of noise. The profiles are enriched with significant subtleties and often reveal enhancement and maximization of oscillator strength in the presence of noise. These observations are indeed useful in the study of linear and nonlinear optical properties of doped QD systems which bear sufficient technological importance.
Quantum minimax receiver for ternary coherent state signal in the presence of thermal noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kato, Kentaro
2013-02-01
This paper is concerned with the minimax strategy in quantum signal detection theory. First we show a numerical calculation method for finding a solution to the quantum minimax decision problem in the case that the average probability of decision errors is used as the quality function of a quantum communication system. To verify the numerical calculation method, ternary coherent state signal is considered in the absence of thermal noise. After that, the error probability of the quantum minimax receiver for the ternary coherent state signal in the pressure of thermal noise is computed by using this numerical calculation method.
Quantum-projection-noise-limited interferometry with coherent atoms in a Ramsey-type setup
Doering, D.; McDonald, G.; Debs, J. E.; Figl, C.; Altin, P. A.; Bachor, H.-A.; Robins, N. P.; Close, J. D.
2010-04-15
Every measurement of the population in an uncorrelated ensemble of two-level systems is limited by what is known as the quantum projection noise limit. Here, we present quantum-projection-noise-limited performance of a Ramsey-type interferometer using freely propagating coherent atoms. The experimental setup is based on an electro-optic modulator in an inherently stable Sagnac interferometer, optically coupling the two interfering atomic states via a two-photon Raman transition. Going beyond the quantum projection noise limit requires the use of reduced quantum uncertainty (squeezed) states. The experiment described demonstrates atom interferometry at the fundamental noise level and allows the observation of possible squeezing effects in an atom laser, potentially leading to improved sensitivity in atom interferometers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bang, Jeongho; Yoo, Seokwon
2014-12-01
We propose a genetic-algorithm-based method to find the unitary transformations for any desired quantum computation. We formulate a simple genetic algorithm by introducing the "genetic parameter vector" of the unitary transformations to be found. In the genetic algorithm process, all components of the genetic parameter vectors are supposed to evolve to the solution parameters of the unitary transformations. We apply our method to find the optimal unitary transformations and to generalize the corresponding quantum algorithms for a realistic problem, the one-bit oracle decision problem, or the often-called Deutsch problem. By numerical simulations, we can faithfully find the appropriate unitary transformations to solve the problem by using our method. We analyze the quantum algorithms identified by the found unitary transformations and generalize the variant models of the original Deutsch's algorithm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scalbert, D.
2016-04-01
Spin noise spectroscopy is a quite attractive experimental tool for studying unperturbed spin dynamics and magnetic resonance in semiconductor nanostructures. However in some cases its practical interest maybe severely limited by the weakness of the spin noise signal to be detected. In this paper we examine by how much the detection of spin noise of magnetic atoms or of nuclei, in quantum wells or quantum dots, can be improved by making use of cavity-enhanced Faraday rotation. The conditions for optimized cavities are first determined. In reflection geometry it corresponds to tune the cavity to the critical point of impedance matching. It is shown that even for optimized cavities the enhancement in spin noise detection is intrinsically limited by absorption. It turns out that the cavity effect improves the spin noise detection only when the inhomogeneous broadening of the involved optical resonance is large compared to its radiative broadening.
Quantum Fields Obtained from Convoluted Generalized White Noise Never Have Positive Metric
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albeverio, Sergio; Gottschalk, Hanno
2016-05-01
It is proven that the relativistic quantum fields obtained from analytic continuation of convoluted generalized (Lévy type) noise fields have positive metric, if and only if the noise is Gaussian. This follows as an easy observation from a criterion by Baumann, based on the Dell'Antonio-Robinson-Greenberg theorem, for a relativistic quantum field in positive metric to be a free field.
Quantum detection of coherent-state signals in the presence of noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vilnrotter, V. A.; Lau, C. W.
2003-01-01
A general method for solving an important class of quantum detection problems will be presented and evaluated. The quantum theory for detecting pure states for communications purposes has been developed over two decades ago, however the mixed state problem representing signal plus noise states has received little attention due to its great complexity. Here we develop a practical model for solving the mixed-state problem using a discrete approximation to the coherent-state representation of signal plus noise density operators.
Maintaining quantum coherence in the presence of noise through state monitoring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konrad, T.; Uys, H.
2012-01-01
Unsharp measurements allow the estimation and tracking of quantum wave functions in real time with minimal disruption of the dynamics. Here we demonstrate that high-fidelity state monitoring, and hence quantum control, is possible, even in the presence of classical dephasing and amplitude noise, by simulating such measurements on a two-level system undergoing Rabi oscillations. Finite estimation fidelity is found to persist indefinitely after the decoherence times set by the noise fields in the absence of measurement.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
King, Sun-Kun
1996-01-01
The variances of the quantum-mechanical noise in a two-input-port Michelson interferometer within the framework of the Loudon-Ni model were solved exactly in two general cases: (1) one coherent state input and one squeezed state input, and (2) two photon number states inputs. Low intensity limit, exponential decaying signal and the noise due to mixing were discussed briefly.
Current noise in three-terminal hybrid quantum point contacts.
Wu, B H; Wang, C R; Chen, X S; Xu, G J
2014-01-15
We investigate the current noise of three-terminal hybrid structures at arbitrary bias voltages. Our results indicate that the noise can be a useful tool to extract dynamical information in multi-terminal hybrid structures. The zero-frequency noise is sensitive to the coupling with a normal lead. As a result, the characteristic multiple-step structure of the noise Fano factor due to multiple Andreev reflection will be suppressed as we increase this coupling. In addition, the internal dynamics due to processes of Andreev reflection and multiple Andreev reflection raises rich features in the noise spectrum corresponding to the energy differences of various dynamical processes. PMID:24305057
Noise-immune laser receiver - transmitters with the quantum sensitivity limit
Kutaev, Yu F; Mankevich, S K; Nosach, O Yu; Orlov, E P
2009-11-30
We consider the operation principles of noise-immune near-IR receiver - transmitters with the quantum sensitivity limit, in which active quantum filters based on iodine photodissociation quantum amplifiers and iodine lasers are used. The possible applications of these devices in laser location, laser space communication, for the search for signals from extraterrestrial civilisations and sending signals to extraterrestrial civilisations are discussed. (invited paper)
Quantum delayed-choice experiment in an environment with arbitrary white noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filgueiras, J. G.; Sarthour, R. S.; Souza, A. M.; Oliveira, I. S.; Serra, R. M.; Céleri, L. C.
2013-06-01
The development of quantum technologies depends on the investigation of the behaviour of quantum systems in noisy environments, since complete isolation from its environment is impossible to achieve. In this paper, we show that the main features of a quantum delayed-choice experiment hold even if performed in a system with an arbitrary level of white noise. In light of our results, we analyse recent optical and NMR experiments and show that a loophole on non-locality is not fundamental.
Fault-tolerant quantum computation with long-range correlated noise.
Aharonov, Dorit; Kitaev, Alexei; Preskill, John
2006-02-10
We prove a new version of the quantum accuracy threshold theorem that applies to non-Markovian noise with algebraically decaying spatial correlations. We consider noise in a quantum computer arising from a perturbation that acts collectively on pairs of qubits and on the environment, and we show that an arbitrarily long quantum computation can be executed with high reliability in D spatial dimensions, if the perturbation is sufficiently weak and decays with the distance r between the qubits faster than 1/r(D). PMID:16486913
Correctable noise of quantum-error-correcting codes under adaptive concatenation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fern, Jesse
2008-01-01
We examine the transformation of noise under a quantum-error-correcting code (QECC) concatenated repeatedly with itself, by analyzing the effects of a quantum channel after each level of concatenation using recovery operators that are optimally adapted to use error syndrome information from the previous levels of the code. We use the Shannon entropy of these channels to estimate the thresholds of correctable noise for QECCs and find considerable improvements under this adaptive concatenation. Similar methods could be used to increase quantum-fault-tolerant thresholds.
Strong quantum memory at resonant Fermi edges revealed by shot noise.
Ubbelohde, N; Roszak, K; Hohls, F; Maire, N; Haug, R J; Novotný, T
2012-01-01
Studies of non-equilibrium current fluctuations enable assessing correlations involved in quantum transport through nanoscale conductors. They provide additional information to the mean current on charge statistics and the presence of coherence, dissipation, disorder, or entanglement. Shot noise, being a temporal integral of the current autocorrelation function, reveals dynamical information. In particular, it detects presence of non-Markovian dynamics, i.e., memory, within open systems, which has been subject of many current theoretical studies. We report on low-temperature shot noise measurements of electronic transport through InAs quantum dots in the Fermi-edge singularity regime and show that it exhibits strong memory effects caused by quantum correlations between the dot and fermionic reservoirs. Our work, apart from addressing noise in archetypical strongly correlated system of prime interest, discloses generic quantum dynamical mechanism occurring at interacting resonant Fermi edges. PMID:22530093
Guo, Xueshi; Li, Xiaoying; Liu, Nannan; Ou, Z Y
2016-01-01
One of the important functions in a communication network is the distribution of information. It is not a problem to accomplish this in a classical system since classical information can be copied at will. However, challenges arise in quantum system because extra quantum noise is often added when the information content of a quantum state is distributed to various users. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a quantum information tap by using a fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA) with correlated inputs, whose noise is reduced by the destructive quantum interference through quantum entanglement between the signal and the idler input fields. By measuring the noise figure of the FOPA and comparing with a regular FOPA, we observe an improvement of 0.7 ± 0.1 dB and 0.84 ± 0.09 dB from the signal and idler outputs, respectively. When the low noise FOPA functions as an information splitter, the device has a total information transfer coefficient of Ts+Ti = 1.5 ± 0.2, which is greater than the classical limit of 1. Moreover, this fiber based device works at the 1550 nm telecom band, so it is compatible with the current fiber-optical network for quantum information distribution. PMID:27458089
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Xueshi; Li, Xiaoying; Liu, Nannan; Ou, Z. Y.
2016-07-01
One of the important functions in a communication network is the distribution of information. It is not a problem to accomplish this in a classical system since classical information can be copied at will. However, challenges arise in quantum system because extra quantum noise is often added when the information content of a quantum state is distributed to various users. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a quantum information tap by using a fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA) with correlated inputs, whose noise is reduced by the destructive quantum interference through quantum entanglement between the signal and the idler input fields. By measuring the noise figure of the FOPA and comparing with a regular FOPA, we observe an improvement of 0.7 ± 0.1 dB and 0.84 ± 0.09 dB from the signal and idler outputs, respectively. When the low noise FOPA functions as an information splitter, the device has a total information transfer coefficient of Ts+Ti = 1.5 ± 0.2, which is greater than the classical limit of 1. Moreover, this fiber based device works at the 1550 nm telecom band, so it is compatible with the current fiber-optical network for quantum information distribution.
Guo, Xueshi; Li, Xiaoying; Liu, Nannan; Ou, Z. Y.
2016-01-01
One of the important functions in a communication network is the distribution of information. It is not a problem to accomplish this in a classical system since classical information can be copied at will. However, challenges arise in quantum system because extra quantum noise is often added when the information content of a quantum state is distributed to various users. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a quantum information tap by using a fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA) with correlated inputs, whose noise is reduced by the destructive quantum interference through quantum entanglement between the signal and the idler input fields. By measuring the noise figure of the FOPA and comparing with a regular FOPA, we observe an improvement of 0.7 ± 0.1 dB and 0.84 ± 0.09 dB from the signal and idler outputs, respectively. When the low noise FOPA functions as an information splitter, the device has a total information transfer coefficient of Ts+Ti = 1.5 ± 0.2, which is greater than the classical limit of 1. Moreover, this fiber based device works at the 1550 nm telecom band, so it is compatible with the current fiber-optical network for quantum information distribution. PMID:27458089
Squeezing of Quantum Noise of Motion in a Micromechanical Resonator.
Pirkkalainen, J-M; Damskägg, E; Brandt, M; Massel, F; Sillanpää, M A
2015-12-11
A pair of conjugate observables, such as the quadrature amplitudes of harmonic motion, have fundamental fluctuations that are bound by the Heisenberg uncertainty relation. However, in a squeezed quantum state, fluctuations of a quantity can be reduced below the standard quantum limit, at the cost of increased fluctuations of the conjugate variable. Here we prepare a nearly macroscopic moving body, realized as a micromechanical resonator, in a squeezed quantum state. We obtain squeezing of one quadrature amplitude 1.1±0.4 dB below the standard quantum limit, thus achieving a long-standing goal of obtaining motional squeezing in a macroscopic object. PMID:26705631
Noise-driven optical absorption coefficients of impurity doped quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganguly, Jayanta; Saha, Surajit; Pal, Suvajit; Ghosh, Manas
2016-01-01
We make an extensive investigation of linear, third-order nonlinear, and total optical absorption coefficients (ACs) of impurity doped quantum dots (QDs) in presence and absence of noise. The noise invoked in the present study is a Gaussian white noise. The quantum dot is doped with repulsive Gaussian impurity. Noise has been introduced to the system additively and multiplicatively. A perpendicular magnetic field acts as a source of confinement and a static external electric field has been applied. The AC profiles have been studied as a function of incident photon energy when several important parameters such as optical intensity, electric field strength, magnetic field strength, confinement energy, dopant location, relaxation time, Al concentration, dopant potential, and noise strength take on different values. In addition, the role of mode of application of noise (additive/multiplicative) on the AC profiles has also been analyzed meticulously. The AC profiles often consist of a number of interesting observations such as one photon resonance enhancement, shift of AC peak position, variation of AC peak intensity, and bleaching of AC peak. However, presence of noise alters the features of AC profiles and leads to some interesting manifestations. Multiplicative noise brings about more complexity in the AC profiles than its additive counterpart. The observations indeed illuminate several useful aspects in the study of linear and nonlinear optical properties of doped QD systems, specially in presence of noise. The findings are expected to be quite relevant from a technological perspective.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Ashok; Nunley, Hayden; Marino, Alberto
2016-05-01
Quantum noise reduction (QNR) below the standard quantum limit (SQL) has been a subject of interest for the past two to three decades due to its wide range of applications in quantum metrology and quantum information processing. To date, most of the attention has focused on the study of QNR in the temporal domain. However, many areas in quantum optics, specifically in quantum imaging, could benefit from QNR not only in the temporal domain but also in the spatial domain. With the use of a high quantum efficiency electron multiplier charge coupled device (EMCCD) camera, we have observed spatial QNR below the SQL in bright narrowband twin light beams generated through a four-wave mixing (FWM) process in hot rubidium atoms. Owing to momentum conservation in this process, the twin beams are momentum correlated. This leads to spatial quantum correlations and spatial QNR. Our preliminary results show a spatial QNR of over 2 dB with respect to the SQL. Unlike previous results on spatial QNR with faint and broadband photon pairs from parametric down conversion (PDC), we demonstrate spatial QNR with spectrally and spatially narrowband bright light beams. The results obtained will be useful for atom light interaction based quantum protocols and quantum imaging. Work supported by the W.M. Keck Foundation.
Solomon, Justin; Samei, Ehsan
2014-09-15
Purpose: Quantum noise properties of CT images are generally assessed using simple geometric phantoms with uniform backgrounds. Such phantoms may be inadequate when assessing nonlinear reconstruction or postprocessing algorithms. The purpose of this study was to design anatomically informed textured phantoms and use the phantoms to assess quantum noise properties across two clinically available reconstruction algorithms, filtered back projection (FBP) and sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE). Methods: Two phantoms were designed to represent lung and soft-tissue textures. The lung phantom included intricate vessel-like structures along with embedded nodules (spherical, lobulated, and spiculated). The soft tissue phantom was designed based on a three-dimensional clustered lumpy background with included low-contrast lesions (spherical and anthropomorphic). The phantoms were built using rapid prototyping (3D printing) technology and, along with a uniform phantom of similar size, were imaged on a Siemens SOMATOM Definition Flash CT scanner and reconstructed with FBP and SAFIRE. Fifty repeated acquisitions were acquired for each background type and noise was assessed by estimating pixel-value statistics, such as standard deviation (i.e., noise magnitude), autocorrelation, and noise power spectrum. Noise stationarity was also assessed by examining the spatial distribution of noise magnitude. The noise properties were compared across background types and between the two reconstruction algorithms. Results: In FBP and SAFIRE images, noise was globally nonstationary for all phantoms. In FBP images of all phantoms, and in SAFIRE images of the uniform phantom, noise appeared to be locally stationary (within a reasonably small region of interest). Noise was locally nonstationary in SAFIRE images of the textured phantoms with edge pixels showing higher noise magnitude compared to pixels in more homogenous regions. For pixels in uniform regions, noise magnitude was
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Hong-Kang; Wang, Jian; Wang, Qing
2014-04-01
The shot noise of a hybrid triple-quantum-dot (TQD) interferometer has been investigated by employing the nonequilibrium Green's function method, and the general shot noise formula has been derived. The oscillation behaviors of transmission coefficients and shot noise versus the Aharonov-Bohm phase ϕ exhibit asymmetric Fano resonance structure and blockade effect. Sub-Poissonian and super-Poissonian behaviors of shot noise appear in different regimes of terminal bias eVγ contributed by the Andreev reflection, and correlation of Andreev tunneling with the normal electron transport. The inverse resonance and resonance structures emerge in the shot noise and Fano factor with respect to one of the gate voltages in different regimes of eVγ. The asymmetric structure can be enhanced by modifying the energy levels and gate biases of the TQD. The self-correlation and cross-correlation of current components contribute to the enhancement and suppression of shot noise.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yuen, H. P.; Shapiro, J. H.
1978-01-01
To determine the ultimate performance limitations imposed by quantum effects, it is also essential to consider optimum quantum-state generation. Certain 'generalized' coherent states of the radiation field possess novel quantum noise characteristics that offer the potential for greatly improved optical communications. These states have been called two-photon coherent states because they can be generated, in principle, by stimulated two-photon processes. The use of two-photon coherent state (TCS) radiation in free-space optical communications is considered. A simple theory of quantum state propagation is developed. The theory provides the basis for representing the free-space channel in a quantum-mechanical form convenient for communication analysis. The new theory is applied to TCS radiation.
Comparison of the signal-to-noise characteristics of quantum versus thermal ghost imaging
O'Sullivan, Malcolm N.; Chan, Kam Wai Clifford; Boyd, Robert W.
2010-11-15
We present a theoretical comparison of the signal-to-noise characteristics of quantum versus thermal ghost imaging. We first calculate the signal-to-noise ratio of each process in terms of its controllable experimental conditions. We show that a key distinction is that a thermal ghost image always resides on top of a large background; the fluctuations in this background constitutes an intrinsic noise source for thermal ghost imaging. In contrast, there is a negligible intrinsic background to a quantum ghost image. However, for practical reasons involving achievable illumination levels, acquisition times for thermal ghost images are often much shorter than those for quantum ghost images. We provide quantitative predictions for the conditions under which each process provides superior performance. Our conclusion is that each process can provide useful functionality, although under complementary conditions.
Development of a quantum-voltage-calibrated noise thermometer at NIM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qu, J.; Zhang, J. T.; Fu, Y.; Rogalla, H.; Pollarolo, A.; Benz, S. P.
2013-09-01
A quantum-voltage-calibrated Johnson-noise thermometer was developed at NIM, which measures the Boltzmann constant k by comparing the thermal noise across a 100 Ω sense resistor at the temperature of the triple point of water with the pseudo-random frequency-comb voltage waveform synthesized with a bipolar-pulse-driven quantum-voltage-noise source. A measurement with integration period of 10 hours and bandwidth of 640 kHz resulted in a relative offset of 0.5×10-6 from the current CODATA value of k, and a type A relative standard uncertainty of 23×10-6. Benefiting from closely matched noise powers and transmission-line impedances and small nonlinearities in the cross-correlation electronics, the derived k shows self-consistent values and standard uncertainties for different measurement bandwidths.
Development of a quantum-voltage-calibrated noise thermometer at NIM
Qu, J.; Zhang, J. T.; Fu, Y.; Rogalla, H.; Pollarolo, A.; Benz, S. P.
2013-09-11
A quantum-voltage-calibrated Johnson-noise thermometer was developed at NIM, which measures the Boltzmann constant k by comparing the thermal noise across a 100 Ω sense resistor at the temperature of the triple point of water with the pseudo-random frequency-comb voltage waveform synthesized with a bipolar-pulse-driven quantum-voltage-noise source. A measurement with integration period of 10 hours and bandwidth of 640 kHz resulted in a relative offset of 0.5×10{sup −6} from the current CODATA value of k, and a type A relative standard uncertainty of 23×10{sup −6}. Benefiting from closely matched noise powers and transmission-line impedances and small nonlinearities in the cross-correlation electronics, the derived k shows self-consistent values and standard uncertainties for different measurement bandwidths.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muro, Tatsuya; Nishihara, Yoshitaka; Norimoto, Shota; Ferrier, Meydi; Arakawa, Tomonori; Kobayashi, Kensuke; Ihn, Thomas; Rössler, Clemens; Ensslin, Klaus; Reichl, Christian; Wegscheider, Werner
2016-05-01
We report a precise experimental study on the shot noise of a quantum point contact (QPC) fabricated in a GaAs/AlGaAs based high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). The combination of unprecedented cleanliness and very high measurement accuracy has enabled us to discuss the Fano factor to characterize the shot noise with a precision of 0.01. We observed that the shot noise at zero magnetic field exhibits a slight enhancement exceeding the single particle theoretical prediction, and that it gradually decreases as a perpendicular magnetic field is applied. We also confirmed that this additional noise completely vanishes in the quantum Hall regime. These phenomena can be explained by the electron heating effect near the QPC, which is suppressed with increasing magnetic field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herz, Markus; Bouvron, Samuel; Ćavar, Elizabeta; Fonin, Mikhail; Belzig, Wolfgang; Scheer, Elke
2013-09-01
We present a measurement scheme that enables quantitative detection of the shot noise in a scanning tunnelling microscope while scanning the sample. As test objects we study defect structures produced on an iridium single crystal at low temperatures. The defect structures appear in the constant current images as protrusions with curvature radii well below the atomic diameter. The measured power spectral density of the noise is very near to the quantum limit with Fano factor F = 1. While the constant current images show detailed structures expected for tunnelling involving d-atomic orbitals of Ir, we find the current noise to be without pronounced spatial variation as expected for shot noise arising from statistically independent events.We present a measurement scheme that enables quantitative detection of the shot noise in a scanning tunnelling microscope while scanning the sample. As test objects we study defect structures produced on an iridium single crystal at low temperatures. The defect structures appear in the constant current images as protrusions with curvature radii well below the atomic diameter. The measured power spectral density of the noise is very near to the quantum limit with Fano factor F = 1. While the constant current images show detailed structures expected for tunnelling involving d-atomic orbitals of Ir, we find the current noise to be without pronounced spatial variation as expected for shot noise arising from statistically independent events. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02216a
Long-distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution by controlling excess noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Duan; Huang, Peng; Lin, Dakai; Zeng, Guihua
2016-01-01
Quantum cryptography founded on the laws of physics could revolutionize the way in which communication information is protected. Significant progresses in long-distance quantum key distribution based on discrete variables have led to the secure quantum communication in real-world conditions being available. However, the alternative approach implemented with continuous variables has not yet reached the secure distance beyond 100 km. Here, we overcome the previous range limitation by controlling system excess noise and report such a long distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution experiment. Our result paves the road to the large-scale secure quantum communication with continuous variables and serves as a stepping stone in the quest for quantum network.
Long-distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution by controlling excess noise.
Huang, Duan; Huang, Peng; Lin, Dakai; Zeng, Guihua
2016-01-01
Quantum cryptography founded on the laws of physics could revolutionize the way in which communication information is protected. Significant progresses in long-distance quantum key distribution based on discrete variables have led to the secure quantum communication in real-world conditions being available. However, the alternative approach implemented with continuous variables has not yet reached the secure distance beyond 100 km. Here, we overcome the previous range limitation by controlling system excess noise and report such a long distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution experiment. Our result paves the road to the large-scale secure quantum communication with continuous variables and serves as a stepping stone in the quest for quantum network. PMID:26758727
Long-distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution by controlling excess noise
Huang, Duan; Huang, Peng; Lin, Dakai; Zeng, Guihua
2016-01-01
Quantum cryptography founded on the laws of physics could revolutionize the way in which communication information is protected. Significant progresses in long-distance quantum key distribution based on discrete variables have led to the secure quantum communication in real-world conditions being available. However, the alternative approach implemented with continuous variables has not yet reached the secure distance beyond 100 km. Here, we overcome the previous range limitation by controlling system excess noise and report such a long distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution experiment. Our result paves the road to the large-scale secure quantum communication with continuous variables and serves as a stepping stone in the quest for quantum network. PMID:26758727
Quantum noise in differential-type gravitational-wave interferometer and signal recycling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishizawa, Atsushi; Sakagami, Masa-Aki; Kawamura, Seiji
2007-08-01
There exists the standard quantum limit (SQL), derived from Heisenberg’s uncertainty relation, in the sensitivity of laser interferometer gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. However, in the context of a full quantum-mechanical approach, SQL can be overcome using the correlation of shot noise and radiation-pressure noise. So far, signal recycling, which is one of the methods to overcome SQL, is considered only in a recombined-type interferometer such as Advanced LIGO, LCGT, and GEO600. In this paper, we investigated quantum noise and the possibility of signal recycling in a differential-type interferometer. As a result, we found that signal recycling is possible and creates at most three dips in the sensitivity curve of the detector due to two coupled resonators. The additional third dip makes it possible to decrease quantum noise at low frequencies, keeping the moderate sensitivity at high frequencies. Then, taking advantage of the third dip and comparing the sensitivity of a differential-type interferometer with that of a next-generation Japanese GW interferometer, LCGT, we found that signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of inspiral binary is improved by a factor of ≈1.43 for neutron star binary, ≈2.28 for 50M⊙ black hole binary, and ≈2.94 for 100M⊙ black hole binary. We also found that power recycling to increase laser power is possible in our signal-recycling configuration of a detector.
Exact scattering matrix of graphs in magnetic field and quantum noise
Caudrelier, Vincent; Mintchev, Mihail; Ragoucy, Eric
2014-08-15
We consider arbitrary quantum wire networks modelled by finite, noncompact, connected quantum graphs in the presence of an external magnetic field. We find a general formula for the total scattering matrix of the network in terms of its local scattering properties and its metric structure. This is applied to a quantum ring with N external edges. Connecting the external edges of the ring to heat reservoirs, we study the quantum transport on the graph in ambient magnetic field. We consider two types of dynamics on the ring: the free Schrödinger and the free massless Dirac equations. For each case, a detailed study of the thermal noise is performed analytically. Interestingly enough, in presence of a magnetic field, the standard linear Johnson-Nyquist law for the low temperature behaviour of the thermal noise becomes nonlinear. The precise regime of validity of this effect is discussed and a typical signature of the underlying dynamics is observed.
Real-time shot-noise-limited differential photodetection for atomic quantum control.
Martin Ciurana, F; Colangelo, G; Sewell, Robert J; Mitchell, Morgan W
2016-07-01
We demonstrate high-efficiency, shot-noise-limited differential photodetection with real-time signal conditioning, suitable for feedback-based quantum control of atomic systems. The detector system has quantum efficiency of 0.92, is shot-noise-limited from 7.4×10^{5} to 3.7×10^{8} photons per pulse, and provides real-time voltage-encoded output at up to 2.3 M pulses per second. PMID:27367072
Lawrie, Benjamin J; Evans, Philip G; Pooser, Raphael C
2013-01-01
We demonstrate the coherent transduction of quantum noise reduction, or squeezed light, by Ag localized surface plasmons (LSPs). Squeezed light, generated through four-wave-mixing in Rb vapor, is coupled to a Ag nanohole array designed to exhibit LSP mediated extraordinary-optical transmission (EOT) spectrally coincident with the squeezed light source at 795 nm. We demonstrate that quantum noise reduction as a function of transmission is found to match closely with linear attenuation models, thus demonstrating that the photon-LSP-photon transduction process is coherent near the LSP resonance.
Evolution of the Kondo effect in a quantum dot probed by shot noise.
Yamauchi, Yoshiaki; Sekiguchi, Koji; Chida, Kensaku; Arakawa, Tomonori; Nakamura, Shuji; Kobayashi, Kensuke; Ono, Teruo; Fujii, Tatsuya; Sakano, Rui
2011-04-29
We measure the current and shot noise in a quantum dot in the Kondo regime to address the nonequilibrium properties of the Kondo effect. By systematically tuning the temperature and gate voltages to define the level positions in the quantum dot, we observe an enhancement of the shot noise as temperature decreases below the Kondo temperature, which indicates that the two-particle scattering process grows as the Kondo state evolves. Below the Kondo temperature, the Fano factor defined at finite temperature is found to exceed the expected value of unity from the noninteracting model, reaching 1.8±0.2. PMID:21635054
Oblak, Daniel; Tittel, Wolfgang; Vershovski, Anton K.; Mikkelsen, Jens K.; Soerensen, Jens L.; Petrov, Plamen G.; Garrido Alzar, Carlos L.; Polzik, Eugene S.
2005-04-01
We investigate theoretically and experimentally a nondestructive interferometric measurement of the state population of an ensemble of laser-cooled and trapped atoms. This study is a step toward generation of (pseudo)spin squeezing of cold atoms targeted at the improvement of the cesium clock performance beyond the limit set by the quantum projection noise of atoms. We calculate the phase shift and the quantum noise of a near-resonant optical probe pulse propagating through a cloud of cold {sup 133}Cs atoms. We analyze the figure of merit for a quantum nondemolition (QND) measurement of the collective pseudospin and show that it can be expressed simply as a product of the ensemble optical density and the pulse-integrated rate of the spontaneous emission caused by the off-resonant probe light. Based on this, we propose a protocol for the sequence of operations required to generate and utilize spin squeezing for the improved atomic clock performance via a QND measurement on the probe light. In the experimental part we demonstrate that the interferometric measurement of the atomic population can reach a sensitivity of the order of {radical}(N{sub at}) in a cloud of N{sub at} cold atoms, which is an important benchmark toward the experimental realization of the theoretically analyzed protocol.
Efficient tools for quantum metrology with uncorrelated noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kołodyński, Jan; Demkowicz-Dobrzański, Rafał
2013-07-01
Quantum metrology offers enhanced performance in experiments on topics such as gravitational wave-detection, magnetometry or atomic clock frequency calibration. The enhancement, however, requires a delicate tuning of relevant quantum features, such as entanglement or squeezing. For any practical application, the inevitable impact of decoherence needs to be taken into account in order to correctly quantify the ultimate attainable gain in precision. We compare the applicability and the effectiveness of various methods of calculating the ultimate precision bounds resulting from the presence of decoherence. This allows us to place a number of seemingly unrelated concepts into a common framework and arrive at an explicit hierarchy of quantum metrological methods in terms of the tightness of the bounds they provide. In particular, we show a way to extend the techniques originally proposed in Demkowicz-Dobrzański et al (2012 Nature Commun. 3 1063), so that they can be efficiently applied not only in the asymptotic but also in the finite number of particles regime. As a result, we obtain a simple and direct method, yielding bounds that interpolate between the quantum enhanced scaling characteristic for a small number of particles and the asymptotic regime, where quantum enhancement amounts to a constant factor improvement. Methods are applied to numerous models, including noisy phase and frequency estimation, as well as the estimation of the decoherence strength itself.
The effect of classical noise on a quantum two-level system
Aguilar, Jean-Philippe; Berglund, Nils
2008-10-15
We consider a quantum two-level system perturbed by classical noise. The noise is implemented as a stationary diffusion process in the off-diagonal matrix elements of the Hamiltonian, representing a transverse magnetic field. We determine the invariant measure of the system and prove its uniqueness. In the case of Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noise, we determine the speed of convergence to the invariant measure. Finally, we determine an approximate one-dimensional diffusion equation for the transition probabilities. The proofs use both spectral-theoretic and probabilistic methods.
Security of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution with source noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Tianyi; Yu, Song; Zhang, Yi-Chen; Gu, Wanyi; Guo, Hong
2014-11-01
We investigate the security of reverse reconciliation two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution with source noise at both legitimate sides. Because the source noise originates from imperfect devices, we ascribe it to the legitimate sides rather than the eavesdropper. The trusted model consists of a thermal noise injected into a beam splitter. The expressions of secret key rate are derived against collective entangling cloner attacks for homodyne and heterodyne detections. Simulation results show that by applying the trusted model, the security bound of the reverse reconciliation two-way protocols can be tightened, while the advantage over one-way protocols still maintains.
Exploring electro-optic effect of impurity doped quantum dots in presence of Gaussian white noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pal, Suvajit; Ganguly, Jayanta; Saha, Surajit; Ghosh, Manas
2016-01-01
We explore the profiles of electro-optic effect (EOE) of impurity doped quantum dots (QDs) in presence and absence of noise. We have invoked Gaussian white noise in the present study. The quantum dot is doped with Gaussian impurity. Noise has been administered to the system additively and multiplicatively. A perpendicular magnetic field acts as a confinement source and a static external electric field has been applied. The EOE profiles have been followed as a function of incident photon energy when several important parameters such as electric field strength, magnetic field strength, confinement energy, dopant location, relaxation time, Al concentration, dopant potential, and noise strength possess different values. In addition, the role of mode of application of noise (additive/multiplicative) on the EOE profiles has also been scrutinized. The EOE profiles are found to be adorned with interesting observations such as shift of peak position and maximization/minimization of peak intensity. However, the presence of noise and also the pathway of its application bring about rich variety in the features of EOE profiles through some noticeable manifestations. The observations indicate possibilities of harnessing the EOE susceptibility of doped QD systems in presence of noise.
Determination of quantum-noise parameters of realistic cavities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semenov, A. A.; Vogel, W.; Khanbekyan, M.; Welsch, D.-G.
2007-01-01
A procedure is developed which allows one to measure all the parameters occurring in a complete model [A. A. Semenov , Phys. Rev. A 74, 033803 (2006)] of realistic leaky cavities with unwanted noise. The method is based on the reflection of properly chosen test pulses by the cavity.
Effect of noise on geometric logic gates for quantum computation
Blais, A.; Tremblay, A.-M.S.
2003-01-01
We introduce the nonadiabatic, or Aharonov-Anandan, geometric phase as a tool for quantum computation and show how this phase on one qubit can be monitored by a second qubit without any dynamical contribution. We also discuss how this geometric phase could be implemented with superconducting charge qubits. While the nonadiabatic geometric phase may circumvent many of the drawbacks related to the adiabatic (Berry) version of geometric gates, we show that the effect of fluctuations of the control parameters on nonadiabatic phase gates is more severe than for the standard dynamic gates. Similarly, fluctuations also affect to a greater extent quantum gates that use the Berry phase instead of the dynamic phase.
Quantum Metrology: Surpassing the shot-noise limit with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction
Ozaydin, Fatih; Altintas, Azmi Ali
2015-01-01
Entanglement is at the heart of quantum technologies such as quantum information and quantum metrology. Providing larger quantum Fisher information (QFI), entangled systems can be better resources than separable systems in quantum metrology. However the effects on the entanglement dynamics such as decoherence usually decrease the QFI considerably. On the other hand, Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction has been shown to excite entanglement. Since an increase in entanglement does not imply an increase in QFI, and also there are cases where QFI decreases as entanglement increases, it is interesting to study the influence of DM interaction on quantum metrology. In this work, we study the QFI of thermal entanglement of two-qubit and three-qubit Heisenberg models with respect to SU(2) rotations. We show that even at high temperatures, DM interaction excites QFI of both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic models. We also show that QFI of the ferromagnetic model of two qubits can surpass the shot-noise limit of the separable states, while QFI of the antiferromagnetic model in consideration can only approach to the shot-noise limit. Our results open new insights in quantum metrology with Heisenberg models. PMID:26549409
Does the Finite Size of Electrons Affect Quantum Noise in Electronic Devices?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colomés, E.; Marian, D.; Oriols, X.
2015-10-01
Quantum transport is commonly studied with the use of quasi-particle infinite- extended states. This leads to a powerful formalism, the scattering-states theory, able to capture in compact formulas quantities of interest, such as average current, noise, etc.. However, when investigating the spatial size-dependence of quasi-particle wave packets in quantum noise with exchange and tunneling, unexpected new terms appear in the quantum noise expression. For this purpose, the two particle transmission and reflection probabilities for two initial one-particle wave packets (with opposite central momentums) spatially localized at each side of a potential barrier are studied. After the interaction, each wave packet splits into a transmitted and a reflected component. It can be shown that the probability of detecting two (identically injected) electrons at the same side of the barrier is different from zero in very common (single or double barrier) scenarios. This originates an increase of quantum noise which cannot be obtained through the scattering states formalism.
Strong field dynamics and quantum noise in Josephson traveling wave parametric amplifiers (JTWPAs)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Brien, Kevin; Macklin, Chris; Wang, Yuan; Siddiqi, Irfan; Zhang, Xiang
Josephson traveling wave parametric amplifiers (JTWPAs) with resonant phase matching have demonstrated high gain over a broad bandwidth with near quantum-limited noise performance. Several amplifier non-idealities were observed in experiments, including a rapid drop in gain at a certain pump power and a near, but non-unity intrinsic quantum efficiency. To understand these non-idealities, we solve the full nonlinear wave equation for the JTWPA for a sinusoidal drive, finding higher harmonic generation and observing a blow-up at an input pump current below the junction critical current. We find analytic traveling wave solutions in the form of snoidal waves which propagate without distortion. A snoidal drive scheme may increase the drive power at which the blow-up occurs. The quantum noise properties of JTWPAs are critically important for their role as low noise amplifiers. We calculate the noise figure and find that coupling to higher order sidebands imposes an upper limit for the quantum efficiency, in good agreement with empirical results. We further show that this limit can be increased by modest changes to the phase matching of the pump and the dispersion relation.
Ji, Un Cig; Obata, Nobuaki
2010-12-15
The implementation problem for the canonical commutation relation is reduced to a system of differential equations for Fock space operators containing new type of derivatives. We solve these differential equations systematically by means of quantum white noise calculus, and obtain the solution to the implementation problem.
Photoexcited escape probability, optical gain, and noise in quantum well infrared photodetectors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levine, B. F.; Zussman, A.; Gunapala, S. D.; Asom, M. T.; Kuo, J. M.; Hobson, W. S.
1992-01-01
We present a detailed and thorough study of a wide variety of quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs), which were chosen to have large differences in their optical and transport properties. Both n- and p-doped QWIPs, as well as intersubband transitions based on photoexcitation from bound-to-bound, bound-to-quasi-continuum, and bound-to-continuum quantum well states were investigated. The measurements and theoretical analysis included optical absorption, responsivity, dark current, current noise, optical gain, hot carrier mean free path; net quantum efficiency, quantum well escape probability, quantum well escape time, as well as detectivity. These results allow a better understanding of the optical and transport physics and thus a better optimization of the QWIP performance.
Somiya, Kentaro
2009-06-12
Thermal noise of a mirror is one of the most important issues in high-precision measurements such as gravitational-wave detection or cold damping experiments. It has been pointed out that thermal noise of a mirror with multilayer coatings can be reduced by mechanical separation of the layers. In this Letter, we introduce a way to further reduce thermal noise by locking the mechanically separated mirrors. The reduction is limited by the standard quantum limit of control noise, but it can be overcome with a quantum-nondemolition technique, which finally raises a possibility of complete elimination of coating thermal noise. PMID:19658917
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Wei; Wen, QiaoYan; Liu, Bin; Gao, Fei; Sun, Ying
2013-09-01
We present a protocol for quantum private comparison of equality (QPCE) with the help of a semi-honest third party (TP). Instead of employing the entanglement, we use single photons to achieve the comparison in this protocol. By utilizing collective eavesdropping detection strategy, our protocol has the advantage of higher qubit efficiency and lower cost of implementation. In addition to this protocol, we further introduce three robust versions which can be immune to collective dephasing noise, collective-rotation noise and all types of unitary collective noise, respectively. Finally, we show that our protocols can be secure against the attacks from both the outside eavesdroppers and the inside participants by using the theorems on quantum operation discrimination.
Quantum witness of high-speed low-noise single-photon detection.
Zhao, Lin; Huang, Kun; Liang, Yan; Chen, Jie; Shi, Xueshun; Wu, E; Zeng, Heping
2015-12-14
We demonstrate high-speed and low-noise near-infrared single-photon detection by using a capacitance balancing circuit to achieve a high spike noise suppression for an InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode. The single-photon detector could operate at a tunable gate repetition rate from 10 to 60 MHz. A peak detection efficiency of 34% has been achieved with a dark count rate of 9 × 10⁻³ per gate when the detection window was set to 1 ns. Additionally, quantum detector tomography has also been performed at 60 MHz of repetition rate and for the detection window of 1 ns, enabling to witness the quantum features of the detector with the help of a negative Wigner function. By varying the bias voltage of the detector, we further demonstrated a transition from the full-quantum to semi-classical regime. PMID:26698977
Quantum-noise randomized data encryption for wavelength-division-multiplexed fiber-optic networks
Corndorf, Eric; Liang Chuang; Kanter, Gregory S.; Kumar, Prem; Yuen, Horace P.
2005-06-15
We demonstrate high-rate randomized data-encryption through optical fibers using the inherent quantum-measurement noise of coherent states of light. Specifically, we demonstrate 650 Mbit/s data encryption through a 10 Gbit/s data-bearing, in-line amplified 200-km-long line. In our protocol, legitimate users (who share a short secret key) communicate using an M-ry signal set while an attacker (who does not share the secret key) is forced to contend with the fundamental and irreducible quantum-measurement noise of coherent states. Implementations of our protocol using both polarization-encoded signal sets as well as polarization-insensitive phase-keyed signal sets are experimentally and theoretically evaluated. Different from the performance criteria for the cryptographic objective of key generation (quantum key-generation), one possible set of performance criteria for the cryptographic objective of data encryption is established and carefully considered.
Extracting spatial information from noise measurements of multi-spatial-mode quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marino, A. M.; Clark, J. B.; Glorieux, Q.; Lett, P. D.
2012-11-01
We show that it is possible to use the spatial quantum correlations present in twin beams to extract information about the shape of a binary amplitude mask in the path of one of the beams. The scheme, based on noise measurements through homodyne detection, is useful in the regime where the number of photons is low enough that direct detection with a photodiode is difficult but high enough that photon counting is not an option. We find that under some conditions the use of quantum states of light leads to an enhancement of the sensitivity in the estimation of the shape of the mask over what can be achieved with a classical state with equivalent properties (mean photon flux and noise properties). In addition, we show that the level of enhancement that is obtained is a result of the quantum correlations and cannot be explained with only classical correlations.
Quantum Optics Theory of Electronic Noise in Coherent Conductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grimsmo, Arne L.; Qassemi, Farzad; Reulet, Bertrand; Blais, Alexandre
2016-01-01
We consider the electromagnetic field generated by a coherent conductor in which electron transport is described quantum mechanically. We obtain an input-output relation linking the quantum current in the conductor to the measured electromagnetic field. This allows us to compute the outcome of measurements on the field in terms of the statistical properties of the current. We moreover show how under ac bias the conductor acts as a tunable medium for the field, allowing for the generation of single- and two-mode squeezing through fermionic reservoir engineering. These results explain the recently observed squeezing using normal tunnel junctions [G. Gasse et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 136601 (2013); J.-C. Forgues et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 130403 (2015)].
Quantum Optics Theory of Electronic Noise in Coherent Conductors.
Grimsmo, Arne L; Qassemi, Farzad; Reulet, Bertrand; Blais, Alexandre
2016-01-29
We consider the electromagnetic field generated by a coherent conductor in which electron transport is described quantum mechanically. We obtain an input-output relation linking the quantum current in the conductor to the measured electromagnetic field. This allows us to compute the outcome of measurements on the field in terms of the statistical properties of the current. We moreover show how under ac bias the conductor acts as a tunable medium for the field, allowing for the generation of single- and two-mode squeezing through fermionic reservoir engineering. These results explain the recently observed squeezing using normal tunnel junctions [G. Gasse et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 136601 (2013); J.-C. Forgues et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 130403 (2015)]. PMID:26871330
Cross-correlation measurement of quantum shot noise using homemade transimpedance amplifiers.
Hashisaka, Masayuki; Ota, Tomoaki; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Fujisawa, Toshimasa; Muraki, Koji
2014-05-01
We report a cross-correlation measurement system, based on a new approach, which can be used to measure shot noise in a mesoscopic conductor at milliKelvin temperatures. In contrast to other measurement systems in which high-speed low-noise voltage amplifiers are commonly used, our system employs homemade transimpedance amplifiers (TAs). The low input impedance of the TAs significantly reduces the crosstalk caused by unavoidable parasitic capacitance between wires. The TAs are designed to have a flat gain over a frequency band from 2 kHz to 1 MHz. Low-noise performance is attained by installing the TAs at a 4 K stage of a dilution refrigerator. Our system thus fulfills the technical requirements for cross-correlation measurements: low noise floor, high frequency band, and negligible crosstalk between two signal lines. Using our system, shot noise generated at a quantum point contact embedded in a quantum Hall system is measured. The good agreement between the obtained shot-noise data and theoretical predictions demonstrates the accuracy of the measurements. PMID:24880392
Cross-correlation measurement of quantum shot noise using homemade transimpedance amplifiers
Hashisaka, Masayuki Ota, Tomoaki; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Fujisawa, Toshimasa; Muraki, Koji
2014-05-15
We report a cross-correlation measurement system, based on a new approach, which can be used to measure shot noise in a mesoscopic conductor at milliKelvin temperatures. In contrast to other measurement systems in which high-speed low-noise voltage amplifiers are commonly used, our system employs homemade transimpedance amplifiers (TAs). The low input impedance of the TAs significantly reduces the crosstalk caused by unavoidable parasitic capacitance between wires. The TAs are designed to have a flat gain over a frequency band from 2 kHz to 1 MHz. Low-noise performance is attained by installing the TAs at a 4 K stage of a dilution refrigerator. Our system thus fulfills the technical requirements for cross-correlation measurements: low noise floor, high frequency band, and negligible crosstalk between two signal lines. Using our system, shot noise generated at a quantum point contact embedded in a quantum Hall system is measured. The good agreement between the obtained shot-noise data and theoretical predictions demonstrates the accuracy of the measurements.
Shot-Noise in a Quantum Dot as a Spin-current Diode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Souza, F. M.; Penteado, P. H.; Merchant, C. A.; Markovic, N.; Egues, J. C.
2010-03-01
Shot-noise is an unavoidable non-equilibrium current fluctuation that arises from the granularity of the electron charge. In the present work, we investigate shot-noise for the recently proposed spin diode system (1,2). This consists of a quantum dot coupled to two metallic leads, one nonmagnetic (NM) and another ferromagnetic (FM). In the Coulomb blockade regime this system displays a spin-diode effect (1,2), which has recently been probed in a carbon nanotube based quantum dot (2). Our calculation shows that the shot-noise provides a robust signature for this spin-polarization rectification effect. In the bias range for which the current polarization is zero the shot-noise is super-Poissonian. In contrast, for voltages such that the current is spin polarized, the shot-noise becomes sub-Poissonian. Hence shot noise can provide an interesting additional tool to probe spin-polarized transport in these systems. We shall also discuss recent experimental progress in this direction (3). (1) F. M. Souza, J. C. Egues, and A. P. Jauho, Phys. Rev. B 75, 165303 (2007). (2) C. A. Merchant and N. Markovic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 156601 (2008). (3) C. A. Merchant and N. Markovic, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 07C711 (2009).