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Sample records for quantum physics

  1. Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rae, Alastair

    2012-03-01

    Preface to the second edition; Preface to the first edition; 1. Quantum physics; 2. Which way are the photons pointing?; 3. What can be hidden in a pair of photons?; 4. Wonderful Copenhagen?; 5. Is it all in the mind?; 6. Many worlds; 7. Is it a matter of size?; 8. Backwards and forwards; 9. Only one way forward?; 10. Can we be consistent?; 11. Illusion or reality?; Further reading.

  2. Quantum Physics for Beginners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, J.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests a new approach for teaching secondary school quantum physics. Reviews traditional approaches and presents some characteristics of the three-part "Quantum Physics for Beginners" project, including: quantum physics, quantum mechanics, and a short historical survey. (SK)

  3. Faces of Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haag, Rudolf

    We review conceptual structures met in quantum physics and note changes of basic concepts and language partly due to a maturing process in the 80 odd years since their first evocation by the founding fathers in Copenhagen, partly demanded or suggested by the passage from quantum mechanics to relativistic quantum field theory, local quantum physics and high energy experiments. It is in particular the concept of "observable" which lost its central role as a description of the measurement of some hypothetical property of a "physical system" under investigation and shifted to an auxiliary position as referring to a detector whose signals serve for the reconstruction of a history described in equations like (9.6), (9.7). The primary role is taken over by the notion of a (microscopic) event constituting the bridge to reality and to finer features of space-time.

  4. Quantum physics meets biology

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, Markus; Juffmann, Thomas; Vedral, Vlatko

    2009-01-01

    Quantum physics and biology have long been regarded as unrelated disciplines, describing nature at the inanimate microlevel on the one hand and living species on the other hand. Over the past decades the life sciences have succeeded in providing ever more and refined explanations of macroscopic phenomena that were based on an improved understanding of molecular structures and mechanisms. Simultaneously, quantum physics, originally rooted in a world-view of quantum coherences, entanglement, and other nonclassical effects, has been heading toward systems of increasing complexity. The present perspective article shall serve as a “pedestrian guide” to the growing interconnections between the two fields. We recapitulate the generic and sometimes unintuitive characteristics of quantum physics and point to a number of applications in the life sciences. We discuss our criteria for a future “quantum biology,” its current status, recent experimental progress, and also the restrictions that nature imposes on bold extrapolations of quantum theory to macroscopic phenomena. PMID:20234806

  5. Quantum physics and language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lévy-Leblond, Jean-Marc

    1988-07-01

    A novel theory, when it appears, cannot but use old words to label new concepts. In some cases, the extension in meaning thus conferred to standard terminology is natural enough so that the transfer may not lead to too many misunderstandings. Most often, however, and especially when the conceptual gap between the old and the new theory is a wide one, a casual transfer of términology may lead to epistemological and pedagogical difficulties. This situation has been and still is particularly serious in quantum theory. Here, the careless use of words taken from classical physics - such as quantum “mechanics”, “uncertainty”, etc. - , is compounded by the uncritical use of interpretative terms linked to a definite, if implicit, philosophical point of view - such as “complementarity”, “wave-particle duality”, “observables”, etc. While these words and the ideas they represent have played a major role in the birth of quantum physics more than half a century ago, they are no longer necessarily the best ones to be used today. It is not argued here that we should start afresh and create from scratch a supposedly adequate vocabulary for quantum physics. Abuse of language certainly is unavoidable in science as it is in any human communication; without it, language would not live and evolve. But, at the very least, let us recognize it for what it is, so that it does not add its troubles to already complicated issues. And in some definite instances, still, a willing effort to replace specially ambiguous words might be worthwhile.

  6. Quantum optics. Gravity meets quantum physics

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Bernhard W.

    2015-02-27

    Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity is a classical formulation but a quantum mechanical description of gravitational forces is needed, not only to investigate the coupling of classical and quantum systems but simply to give a more complete description of our physical surroundings. In this issue of Nature Photonics, Wen-Te Liao and Sven Ahrens reveal a link between quantum and gravitational physics. They propose that in the quantum-optical effect of superradiance, the world line of electromagnetic radiation is changed by the presence of a gravitational field.

  7. The Physics of Quantum Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falci, Giuseppe; Paladino, Elisabette

    2015-10-01

    Quantum Computation has emerged in the past decades as a consequence of down-scaling of electronic devices to the mesoscopic regime and of advances in the ability of controlling and measuring microscopic quantum systems. QC has many interdisciplinary aspects, ranging from physics and chemistry to mathematics and computer science. In these lecture notes we focus on physical hardware, present day challenges and future directions for design of quantum architectures.

  8. Quantum Physics in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, I.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses a teaching strategy for introducing quantum ideas into the school classroom using modern devices. Develops the concepts of quantization, wave-particle duality, nonlocality, and tunneling. (JRH)

  9. Quantum physics and complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biamonte, Jacob

    2014-03-01

    There is a widely used and successful theory of ``chemical reaction networks,'' which provides a framework describing systems governed by mass action kinetics. Computer science and population biology use the same ideas under a different name: ``stochastic Petri nets.'' But if we look at these theories from the perspective of quantum theory, they turn out to involve creation and annihilation operators, coherent states and other well-known ideas--yet in a context where probabilities replace amplitudes. I will explain this connection as part of a detailed analogy between quantum mechanics and stochastic mechanics which we've produced several results on recently, including the recent analytical results uniting quantum physics and complex networks. Our general idea is about merging concepts from quantum physics and complex network theory to provide a bidirectional bridge between both disciplines. Support is acknowledged from the Foundational Questions Institute (FQXi) and the Compagnia di San Paolo Foundation.

  10. Finite groups and quantum physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kornyak, V. V.

    2013-02-15

    Concepts of quantum theory are considered from the constructive 'finite' point of view. The introduction of a continuum or other actual infinities in physics destroys constructiveness without any need for them in describing empirical observations. It is shown that quantum behavior is a natural consequence of symmetries of dynamical systems. The underlying reason is that it is impossible in principle to trace the identity of indistinguishable objects in their evolution-only information about invariant statements and values concerning such objects is available. General mathematical arguments indicate that any quantum dynamics is reducible to a sequence of permutations. Quantum phenomena, such as interference, arise in invariant subspaces of permutation representations of the symmetry group of a dynamical system. Observable quantities can be expressed in terms of permutation invariants. It is shown that nonconstructive number systems, such as complex numbers, are not needed for describing quantum phenomena. It is sufficient to employ cyclotomic numbers-a minimal extension of natural numbers that is appropriate for quantum mechanics. The use of finite groups in physics, which underlies the present approach, has an additional motivation. Numerous experiments and observations in the particle physics suggest the importance of finite groups of relatively small orders in some fundamental processes. The origin of these groups is unclear within the currently accepted theories-in particular, within the Standard Model.

  11. Quantum simulations of physics problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somma, Rolando D.; Ortiz, Gerardo; Knill, Emanuel H.; Gubernatis, James

    2003-08-01

    If a large Quantum Computer (QC) existed today, what type of physical problems could we efficiently simulate on it that we could not simulate on a classical Turing machine? In this paper we argue that a QC could solve some relevant physical "questions" more efficiently. The existence of one-to-one mappings between different algebras of observables or between different Hilbert spaces allow us to represent and imitate any physical system by any other one (e.g., a bosonic system by a spin-1/2 system). We explain how these mappings can be performed showing quantum networks useful for the efficient evaluation of some physical properties, such as correlation functions and energy spectra.

  12. Unifying Quantum Physics with Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2014-09-01

    We find that the natural logarithm of the age of the universe in quantum mechanical units is close to 137. Since science is not religion, it is our moral duty to recognize the importance of this finding on the following ground. The experimentally obtained number 137 is a mystical number in science, as if written by the hand of God. It is found in cosmology; unlike other theories, it works in biology too. A formula by Boltzmann also works in both: biology and physics, as if it is in the heart of God. His formula simply leads to finding the logarithm of microstates. One of the two conflicting theories of physics (1) Einstein's theory of General Relativity and (2) Quantum Physics, the first applies only in cosmology, but the second applies in biology too. Since we have to convert the age of the universe, 13 billion years, into 1,300,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 Planck times to get close to 137, quantum physics clearly shows the characteristics of unifying with biology. The proof of its validity also lies in its ability to extend information system observed in biology.

  13. Physical synthesis of quantum circuits using templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirkhani, Zahra; Mohammadzadeh, Naser

    2016-06-01

    Similar to traditional CMOS circuits, quantum circuit design flow is divided into two main processes: logic synthesis and physical design. Addressing the limitations imposed on optimization of the quantum circuit metrics because of no information sharing between logic synthesis and physical design processes, the concept of "physical synthesis" was introduced for quantum circuit flow, and a few techniques were proposed for it. Following that concept, in this paper a new approach for physical synthesis inspired by template matching idea in quantum logic synthesis is proposed to improve the latency of quantum circuits. Experiments show that by using template matching as a physical synthesis approach, the latency of quantum circuits can be improved by more than 23.55 % on average.

  14. Quantum Security for the Physical Layer

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Travis S

    2013-01-01

    The physical layer describes how communication signals are encoded and transmitted across a channel. Physical security often requires either restricting access to the channel or performing periodic manual inspections. In this tutorial, we describe how the field of quantum communication offers new techniques for securing the physical layer. We describe the use of quantum seals as a unique way to test the integrity and authenticity of a communication channel and to provide security for the physical layer. We present the theoretical and physical underpinnings of quantum seals including the quantum optical encoding used at the transmitter and the test for non-locality used at the receiver. We describe how the envisioned quantum physical sublayer senses tampering and how coordination with higher protocol layers allow quantum seals to influence secure routing or tailor data management methods. We conclude by discussing challenges in the development of quantum seals, the overlap with existing quantum key distribution cryptographic services, and the relevance of a quantum physical sublayer to the future of communication security.

  15. Innovative quantum technologies for microgravity fundamental physics and biological research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kierk, I. K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new technology program, within the fundamental physics, focusing on four quantum technology areas: quantum atomics, quantum optics, space superconductivity and quantum sensor technology, and quantum field based sensor and modeling technology.

  16. Innovative quantum technologies for microgravity fundamental physics and biological research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kierk, I.; Israelsson, U.; Lee, M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a new technology program, within the fundamental physics research program, focusing on four quantum technology areas: quantum atomics, quantum optics, space superconductivity and quantum sensor technology, and quantum fluid based sensor and modeling technology.

  17. Simulating physical phenomena with a quantum computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Gerardo

    2003-03-01

    In a keynote speech at MIT in 1981 Richard Feynman raised some provocative questions in connection to the exact simulation of physical systems using a special device named a ``quantum computer'' (QC). At the time it was known that deterministic simulations of quantum phenomena in classical computers required a number of resources that scaled exponentially with the number of degrees of freedom, and also that the probabilistic simulation of certain quantum problems were limited by the so-called sign or phase problem, a problem believed to be of exponential complexity. Such a QC was intended to mimick physical processes exactly the same as Nature. Certainly, remarks coming from such an influential figure generated widespread interest in these ideas, and today after 21 years there are still some open questions. What kind of physical phenomena can be simulated with a QC?, How?, and What are its limitations? Addressing and attempting to answer these questions is what this talk is about. Definitively, the goal of physics simulation using controllable quantum systems (``physics imitation'') is to exploit quantum laws to advantage, and thus accomplish efficient imitation. Fundamental is the connection between a quantum computational model and a physical system by transformations of operator algebras. This concept is a necessary one because in Quantum Mechanics each physical system is naturally associated with a language of operators and thus can be considered as a possible model of quantum computation. The remarkable result is that an arbitrary physical system is naturally simulatable by another physical system (or QC) whenever a ``dictionary'' between the two operator algebras exists. I will explain these concepts and address some of Feynman's concerns regarding the simulation of fermionic systems. Finally, I will illustrate the main ideas by imitating simple physical phenomena borrowed from condensed matter physics using quantum algorithms, and present experimental

  18. Quantum physics: Teleportation for two

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tittel, Wolfgang

    2015-02-01

    The 'no-cloning' theorem of quantum mechanics forbids the perfect copying of properties of photons or electrons. But quantum teleportation allows their flawless transfer -- now even for two properties simultaneously. See Letter p.516

  19. Undergraduate computational physics projects on quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candela, D.

    2015-08-01

    Computational projects on quantum computing suitable for students in a junior-level quantum mechanics course are described. In these projects students write their own programs to simulate quantum computers. Knowledge is assumed of introductory quantum mechanics through the properties of spin 1/2. Initial, more easily programmed projects treat the basics of quantum computation, quantum gates, and Grover's quantum search algorithm. These are followed by more advanced projects to increase the number of qubits and implement Shor's quantum factoring algorithm. The projects can be run on a typical laptop or desktop computer, using most programming languages. Supplementing resources available elsewhere, the projects are presented here in a self-contained format especially suitable for a short computational module for physics students.

  20. Quantum Hamiltonian Physics with Supercomputers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vary, James P.

    2014-06-01

    The vision of solving the nuclear many-body problem in a Hamiltonian framework with fundamental interactions tied to QCD via Chiral Perturbation Theory is gaining support. The goals are to preserve the predictive power of the underlying theory, to test fundamental symmetries with the nucleus as laboratory and to develop new understandings of the full range of complex quantum phenomena. Advances in theoretical frameworks (renormalization and many-body methods) as well as in computational resources (new algorithms and leadership-class parallel computers) signal a new generation of theory and simulations that will yield profound insights into the origins of nuclear shell structure, collective phenomena and complex reaction dynamics. Fundamental discovery opportunities also exist in such areas as physics beyond the Standard Model of Elementary Particles, the transition between hadronic and quark-gluon dominated dynamics in nuclei and signals that characterize dark matter. I will review some recent achievements and present ambitious consensus plans along with their challenges for a coming decade of research that will build new links between theory, simulations and experiment. Opportunities for graduate students to embark upon careers in the fast developing field of supercomputer simulations is also discussed.

  1. H-theorem in quantum physics.

    PubMed

    Lesovik, G B; Lebedev, A V; Sadovskyy, I A; Suslov, M V; Vinokur, V M

    2016-01-01

    Remarkable progress of quantum information theory (QIT) allowed to formulate mathematical theorems for conditions that data-transmitting or data-processing occurs with a non-negative entropy gain. However, relation of these results formulated in terms of entropy gain in quantum channels to temporal evolution of real physical systems is not thoroughly understood. Here we build on the mathematical formalism provided by QIT to formulate the quantum H-theorem in terms of physical observables. We discuss the manifestation of the second law of thermodynamics in quantum physics and uncover special situations where the second law can be violated. We further demonstrate that the typical evolution of energy-isolated quantum systems occurs with non-diminishing entropy. PMID:27616571

  2. Localization and Entanglement in Relativistic Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yngvason, Jakob

    These notes are a slightly expanded version of a lecture presented in February 2012 at the workshop "The Message of Quantum Science—Attempts Towards a Synthesis" held at the ZIF in Bielefeld. The participants were physicists with a wide range of different expertise and interests. The lecture was intended as a survey of a small selection of the insights into the structure of relativistic quantum physics that have accumulated through the efforts of many people over more than 50 years. (Including, among many others, R. Haag, H. Araki, D. Kastler, H.-J. Borchers, A. Wightman, R. Streater, B. Schroer, H. Reeh, S. Schlieder, S. Doplicher, J. Roberts, R. Jost, K. Hepp, J. Fröhlich, J. Glimm, A. Jaffe, J. Bisognano, E. Wichmann, D. Buchholz, K. Fredenhagen, R. Longo, D. Guido, R. Brunetti, J. Mund, S. Summers, R. Werner, H. Narnhofer, R. Verch, G. Lechner, ….) This contribution discusses some facts about relativistic quantum physics, most of which are quite familiar to practitioners of Algebraic Quantum Field Theory (AQFT) [Also known as Local Quantum Physics (Haag, Local quantum physics. Springer, Berlin, 1992).] but less well known outside this community. No claim of originality is made; the goal of this contribution is merely to present these facts in a simple and concise manner, focusing on the following issues: Explaining how quantum mechanics (QM) combined with (special) relativity, in particular an upper bound on the propagation velocity of effects, leads naturally to systems with an infinite number of degrees of freedom (relativistic quantum fields).

  3. Physics: Quantum problems solved through games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maniscalco, Sabrina

    2016-04-01

    Humans are better than computers at performing certain tasks because of their intuition and superior visual processing. Video games are now being used to channel these abilities to solve problems in quantum physics. See Letter p.210

  4. Quantum simulations of relativistic quantum physics in circuit QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedernales, J. S.; Di Candia, R.; Ballester, D.; Solano, E.

    2013-05-01

    We present a scheme for simulating relativistic quantum physics in circuit quantum electrodynamics. By using three classical microwave drives, we show that a superconducting qubit strongly coupled to a resonator field mode can be used to simulate the dynamics of the Dirac equation and Klein paradox in all regimes. Using the same setup we also propose the implementation of the Foldy-Wouthuysen canonical transformation, after which the time derivative of the position operator becomes a constant of the motion.

  5. On foundation of quantum physics

    SciTech Connect

    Solov'ev, E. A.

    2009-05-15

    Some aspects of the interpretation of quantum theory are discussed. It is emphasized that quantum theory is formulated in the Cartesian coordinate system; in other coordinates the result obtained with the help of the Hamiltonian formalism and commutator relations between 'canonically conjugated' coordinate and momentum operators leads to a wrong version of quantum mechanics. The origin of time is analyzed by the example of atomic collision theory in detail; it is shown that the time-dependent Schroedinger equation is meaningless since in the high-impact-energy limit it transforms into an equation with two time-like variables. Following the Einstein-Rozen-Podolsky experiment and Bell's inequality, the wave function is interpreted as an actual field of information in the elementary form. The concept 'measurement' is also discussed.

  6. Teaching Quantum Physics without Paradoxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Art

    2007-01-01

    Although the resolution to the wave-particle paradox has been known for 80 years, it is seldom presented. Briefly, the resolution is that material particles and photons are the quanta of extended spatially continuous but energetically quantized fields. But because the resolution resides in quantum field theory and is not usually spelled out in…

  7. Advanced Level Physics Students' Conceptions of Quantum Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashhadi, Azam

    This study addresses questions about particle physics that focus on the nature of electrons. Speculations as to whether they are more like particles or waves or like neither illustrate the difficulties with which students are confronted when trying to incorporate the concepts of quantum physics into their overall conceptual framework. Such…

  8. Beyond relativity and quantum mechanics: space physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Henry H.

    2011-09-01

    Albert Einstein imposed an observer-based epistemology upon physics. Relativity and Quantum Mechanics limit physics to describing and modeling the observer's sensations and measurements. Their "underlying reality" consists only of ideas that serve to model the observer's experience. These positivistic models cannot be used to form physical theories of Cosmic phenomena. To do this, we must again remove the observer from the center of physics. When we relate motion to Cosmic space instead of to observers and we attempt to explain the causes of Cosmic phenomena, we are forced to admit that Cosmic space is a substance. We need a new physics of space. We can begin by replacing Relativity with a modified Lorentzian-Newtonian model of spatial flow, and Quantum Mechanics with a wave-based theory of light and electrons. Space physics will require the reinterpretation of all known phenomena, concepts, and mathematical models.

  9. Preparation and measurement in quantum physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, James L.; Band, William

    1992-05-01

    To honor Henry Margenau on the occasion of his 90th birthday, we attempt in this essay to integrate certain aspects of the physics, philosophy, and pedagogy of quantum mechanics in a manner very much inspired by Margenau's idealist scientific epistemology. Over half a century ago, Margenau was perhaps the first philosopher of science to recognize and elaborate upon the essential distinction between the preparation of a quantum state and the measurement of an observable associated with a system in that state; yet in contemporary quantum texts that distinction rarely receives adequate emphasis even though, as we demonstrate, it may be explicated through a series of simple illustrations.

  10. Toward a physical theory of quantum cognition.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Taiki

    2014-01-01

    Recently, mathematical models based on quantum formalism have been developed in cognitive science. The target articles in this special issue of Topics in Cognitive Science clearly illustrate how quantum theoretical formalism can account for various aspects of human judgment and decision making in a quantitatively and mathematically rigorous manner. In this commentary, we show how future studies in quantum cognition and decision making should be developed to establish theoretical foundations based on physical theory, by introducing Taketani's three-stage theory of the development of science. Also, implications for neuroeconomics (another rapidly evolving approach to human judgment and decision making) are discussed. PMID:24482329

  11. Parables of physics and a quantum romance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machacek, A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers regularly use stories to amplify the concepts taught and to encourage student engagement. The literary form of a parable is particularly suitable for classroom use, and examples are given, including a longer one intended to stimulate discussion on the nature of quantum physics (and the wave-particle duality in particular).

  12. Parables of Physics and a Quantum Romance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machacek, A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers regularly use stories to amplify the concepts taught and to encourage student engagement. The literary form of a parable is particularly suitable for classroom use, and examples are given, including a longer one intended to stimulate discussion on the nature of quantum physics (and the wave-particle duality in particular).

  13. The Negative Binomial Distribution in Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söderholm, Jonas; Inoue, Shuichiro

    2009-06-01

    We give examples of situations where the negative binomial distribution has appeared in quantum physics since its debut in the work of Planck. Several of its properties are reviewed, and Mandel's Q-parameter is shown to play an interesting role. The photon-pair distributions of squeezed vacuum and squeezed single-photon states are identified as negative binomial.

  14. Quantum physics reimagined for the general public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobroff, Julien

    2015-03-01

    Quantum Physics has always been a challenging issue for outreach. It is invisible, non-intuitive and written in sophisticated mathematics. In our ``Physics Reimagined'' research group, we explore new ways to present that field to the general public. Our approach is to develop close collaborations between physicists and designers or graphic artists. By developing this new kind of dialogue, we seek to find new ways to present complex phenomena and recent research topics to the public at large. For example, we created with web-illustrators a series of 3D animations about basic quantum laws and research topics (graphene, Bose-Einstein condensation, decoherence, pump-probe techniques, ARPES...). We collaborated with designers to develop original setups, from quantum wave animated models or foldings to a superconducting circus with levitating animals. With illustrators, we produced exhibits, comic strips or postcards displaying the physicists in their labs, either famous ones or even our own colleagues in their daily life as researchers. With artists, we recently made a stop-motion picture to explain in an esthetic way the process of discovery and scientific publication. We will discuss how these new types of outreach projects allowed us to engage the public with modern physics both on a scientific and cultural level and how the concepts and process can easily be replicated and expanded by other physicists. We are at the precise time when creative tools, interfaces, and ways of sharing and learning are rapidly evolving (wikipedia, MOOCs, smartphones...). If scientists don't step forward to employ these tools and develop new resources, other people will, and the integrity of the science and underlying character of research risks being compromised. All our productions are free to use and can be downloaded at www.PhysicsReimagined.com (for 3D quantum videos, specific link: www.QuantumMadeSimple.com) This work benefited from the support of the Chair ``Physics Reimagined

  15. Discrimination of physical states in quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shingu-Yano, Mayumi; Shibata, Fumiaki

    2001-04-01

    Quantum mechanical relaxation and decoherence processes are studied from a view point of discrimination problem of physical states. This is based on an information statistical mechanical method, where concept of a probability density and an entropy is to be generalized. We use a quasi-probability density of Q-function (Husimi function) and the corresponding entropy (Wehrl-Lieb entropy) and apply the method to a Brownian motion of an oscillator and a non-linear spin relaxation process. Our main concern lies in obtaining a discrimination probability Pd as a function of time and temperature. Quantum mechanical fluctuation causes profound effects than the thermal fluctuation.

  16. Towards testing quantum physics in deep space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltenbaek, Rainer

    2016-07-01

    MAQRO is a proposal for a medium-sized space mission to use the unique environment of deep space in combination with novel developments in space technology and quantum technology to test the foundations of physics. The goal is to perform matter-wave interferometry with dielectric particles of up to 10^{11} atomic mass units and testing for deviations from the predictions of quantum theory. Novel techniques from quantum optomechanics with optically trapped particles are to be used for preparing the test particles for these experiments. The core elements of the instrument are placed outside the spacecraft and insulated from the hot spacecraft via multiple thermal shields allowing to achieve cryogenic temperatures via passive cooling and ultra-high vacuum levels by venting to deep space. In combination with low force-noise microthrusters and inertial sensors, this allows realizing an environment well suited for long coherence times of macroscopic quantum superpositions and long integration times. Since the original proposal in 2010, significant progress has been made in terms of technology development and in refining the instrument design. Based on these new developments, we submitted/will submit updated versions of the MAQRO proposal in 2015 and 2016 in response to Cosmic-Vision calls of ESA for a medium-sized mission. A central goal has been to address and overcome potentially critical issues regarding the readiness of core technologies and to provide realistic concepts for further technology development. We present the progress on the road towards realizing this ground-breaking mission harnessing deep space in novel ways for testing the foundations of physics, a technology pathfinder for macroscopic quantum technology and quantum optomechanics in space.

  17. Modeling quantum physics with machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Bezanilla, Alejandro; Arsenault, Louis-Francois; Millis, Andrew; Littlewood, Peter; von Lilienfeld, Anatole

    2014-03-01

    Machine Learning (ML) is a systematic way of inferring new results from sparse information. It directly allows for the resolution of computationally expensive sets of equations by making sense of accumulated knowledge and it is therefore an attractive method for providing computationally inexpensive 'solvers' for some of the important systems of condensed matter physics. In this talk a non-linear regression statistical model is introduced to demonstrate the utility of ML methods in solving quantum physics related problem, and is applied to the calculation of electronic transport in 1D channels. DOE contract number DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  18. EPR paradox, quantum nonlocality and physical reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupczynski, M.

    2016-03-01

    Eighty years ago Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen demonstrated that instantaneous reduction of wave function, believed to describe completely a pair of entangled physical systems, led to EPR paradox. The paradox disappears in statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM) according to which a wave function describes only an ensemble of identically prepared physical systems. QM predicts strong correlations between outcomes of measurements performed on different members of EPR pairs in far-away locations. Searching for an intuitive explanation of these correlations John Bell analysed so called local realistic hidden variable models and proved that correlations consistent with these models satisfy Bell inequalities which are violated by some predictions of QM and by experimental data. Several different local models were constructed and inequalities proven. Some eminent physicists concluded that Nature is definitely nonlocal and that it is acting according to a law of nonlocal randomness. According to these law perfectly random, but strongly correlated events, can be produced at the same time in far away locations and a local and causal explanation of their occurrence cannot be given. We strongly disagree with this conclusion and we prove the contrary by analysing in detail some influential finite sample proofs of Bell and CHSH inequalities and so called Quantum Randi Challenges. We also show how one can win so called Bell's game without violating locality of Nature. Nonlocal randomness is inconsistent with local quantum field theory, with standard model in elementary particle physics and with causal laws and adaptive dynamics prevailing in the surrounding us world. The experimental violation of Bell-type inequalities does not prove the nonlocality of Nature but it only confirms a contextual character of quantum observables and gives a strong argument against counterfactual definiteness and against a point of view according to which experimental outcomes are produced

  19. Physics of Quantum Structures in Photovoltaic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Andersen, John D.

    2005-01-01

    There has been considerable activity recently regarding the possibilities of using various nanostructures and nanomaterials to improve photovoltaic conversion of solar energy. Recent theoretical results indicate that dramatic improvements in device efficiency may be attainable through the use of three-dimensional arrays of zero-dimensional conductors (i.e., quantum dots) in an ordinary p-i-n solar cell structure. Quantum dots and other nanostructured materials may also prove to have some benefits in terms of temperature coefficients and radiation degradation associated with space solar cells. Two-dimensional semiconductor superlattices have already demonstrated some advantages in this regard. It has also recently been demonstrated that semiconducting quantum dots can also be used to improve conversion efficiencies in polymeric thin film solar cells. Improvement in thin film cells utilizing conjugated polymers has also be achieved through the use of one-dimensional quantum structures such as carbon nanotubes. It is believed that carbon nanotubes may contribute to both the disassociation as well as the carrier transport in the conjugated polymers used in certain thin film photovoltaic cells. In this paper we will review the underlying physics governing some of the new photovoltaic nanostructures being pursued, as well as the the current methods being employed to produce III-V, II-VI, and even chalcopyrite-based nanomaterials and nanostructures for solar cells.

  20. Physical realization of the Glauber quantum oscillator

    PubMed Central

    Gentilini, Silvia; Braidotti, Maria Chiara; Marcucci, Giulia; DelRe, Eugenio; Conti, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    More than thirty years ago Glauber suggested that the link between the reversible microscopic and the irreversible macroscopic world can be formulated in physical terms through an inverted harmonic oscillator describing quantum amplifiers. Further theoretical studies have shown that the paradigm for irreversibility is indeed the reversed harmonic oscillator. As outlined by Glauber, providing experimental evidence of these idealized physical systems could open the way to a variety of fundamental studies, for example to simulate irreversible quantum dynamics and explain the arrow of time. However, supporting experimental evidence of reversed quantized oscillators is lacking. We report the direct observation of exploding n = 0 and n = 2 discrete states and Γ0 and Γ2 quantized decay rates of a reversed harmonic oscillator generated by an optical photothermal nonlinearity. Our results give experimental validation to the main prediction of irreversible quantum mechanics, that is, the existence of states with quantized decay rates. Our results also provide a novel perspective to optical shock-waves, potentially useful for applications as lasers, optical amplifiers, white-light and X-ray generation. PMID:26522653

  1. Physical realization of the Glauber quantum oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentilini, Silvia; Braidotti, Maria Chiara; Marcucci, Giulia; Delre, Eugenio; Conti, Claudio

    2015-11-01

    More than thirty years ago Glauber suggested that the link between the reversible microscopic and the irreversible macroscopic world can be formulated in physical terms through an inverted harmonic oscillator describing quantum amplifiers. Further theoretical studies have shown that the paradigm for irreversibility is indeed the reversed harmonic oscillator. As outlined by Glauber, providing experimental evidence of these idealized physical systems could open the way to a variety of fundamental studies, for example to simulate irreversible quantum dynamics and explain the arrow of time. However, supporting experimental evidence of reversed quantized oscillators is lacking. We report the direct observation of exploding n = 0 and n = 2 discrete states and Γ0 and Γ2 quantized decay rates of a reversed harmonic oscillator generated by an optical photothermal nonlinearity. Our results give experimental validation to the main prediction of irreversible quantum mechanics, that is, the existence of states with quantized decay rates. Our results also provide a novel perspective to optical shock-waves, potentially useful for applications as lasers, optical amplifiers, white-light and X-ray generation.

  2. Teaching Quantum Physics in Upper Secondary School in France:

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lautesse, Philippe; Vila Valls, Adrien; Ferlin, Fabrice; Héraud, Jean-Loup; Chabot, Hugues

    2015-01-01

    One of the main problems in trying to understand quantum physics is the nature of the referent of quantum theory. This point is addressed in the official French curriculum in upper secondary school. Starting in 2012, after about 20 years of absence, quantum physics has returned to the national program. On the basis of the historical construction…

  3. On the physical realizability of quantum stochastic walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taketani, Bruno; Govia, Luke; Schuhmacher, Peter; Wilhelm, Frank

    Quantum walks are a promising framework that can be used to both understand and implement quantum information processing tasks. The recently developed quantum stochastic walk combines the concepts of a quantum walk and a classical random walk through open system evolution of a quantum system, and have been shown to have applications in as far reaching fields as artificial intelligence. However, nature puts significant constraints on the kind of open system evolutions that can be realized in a physical experiment. In this work, we discuss the restrictions on the allowed open system evolution, and the physical assumptions underpinning them. We then introduce a way to circumvent some of these restrictions, and simulate a more general quantum stochastic walk on a quantum computer, using a technique we call quantum trajectories on a quantum computer. We finally describe a circuit QED approach to implement discrete time quantum stochastic walks.

  4. Quantum Dots: An Experiment for Physical or Materials Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, L. D.; Arceo, J. F.; Hughes, W. C.; DeGraff, B. A.; Augustine, B. H.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is conducted for obtaining quantum dots for physical or materials chemistry. This experiment serves to both reinforce the basic concept of quantum confinement and providing a useful bridge between the molecular and solid-state world.

  5. Group action in topos quantum physics

    SciTech Connect

    Flori, C.

    2013-03-15

    Topos theory has been suggested first by Isham and Butterfield, and then by Isham and Doering, as an alternative mathematical structure within which to formulate physical theories. In particular, it has been used to reformulate standard quantum mechanics in such a way that a novel type of logic is used to represent propositions. In this paper, we extend this formulation to include the notion of a group and group transformation in such a way that we overcome the problem of twisted presheaves. In order to implement this we need to change the type of topos involved, so as to render the notion of continuity of the group action meaningful.

  6. The Qubit as Key to Quantum Physics Part II: Physical Realizations and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dür, Wolfgang; Heusler, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Using the simplest possible quantum system--the qubit--the fundamental concepts of quantum physics can be introduced. This highlights the common features of many different physical systems, and provides a unifying framework when teaching quantum physics at the high school or introductory level. In a previous "TPT" article and in a…

  7. BOOK REVIEW: Quantum Physics in One Dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, David

    2004-05-01

    To a casual ostrich the world of quantum physics in one dimension may sound a little one-dimensional, suitable perhaps for those with an unhealthy obsession for the esoteric. Nothing of course could be further from the truth. The field is remarkably rich and broad, and for more than fifty years has thrown up innumerable challenges. Theorists, realising that the role of interactions in 1D is special and that well known paradigms of higher dimensions (Fermi liquid theory for example) no longer apply, took up the challenge of developing new concepts and techniques to understand the undoubted pecularities of one-dimensional systems. And experimentalists have succeeded in turning pipe dreams into reality, producing an impressive and ever increasing array of experimental realizations of 1D systems, from the molecular to the mesoscopic---spin and ladder compounds, organic superconductors, carbon nanotubes, quantum wires, Josephson junction arrays and so on. Many books on the theory of one-dimensional systems are however written by experts for experts, and tend as such to leave the non-specialist a touch bewildered. This is understandable on both fronts, for the underlying theoretical techniques are unquestionably sophisticated and not usually part of standard courses in many-body theory. A brave author it is then who aims to produce a well rounded, if necessarily partial, overview of quantum physics in one dimension, accessible to a beginner yet taking them to the edge of current research, and providing en route a thorough grounding in the fundamental ideas, basic methods and essential phenomenology of the field. It is of course the brave who succeed in this world, and Thierry Giamarchi does just that with this excellent book, written by an expert for the uninitiated. Aimed in particular at graduate students in theoretical condensed matter physics, and assumimg little theoretical background on the part of the reader (well just a little), Giamarchi writes in a refreshingly

  8. Quantum physics and the beam splitter mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hénault, François

    2015-09-01

    Optical lossless beam splitters are frequently encountered in fundamental physics experiments regarding the nature of light, including "which-way" determination or the EPR paradox and their measurement apparatus. Although they look as common optical components at first glance, their behaviour remains somewhat mysterious since they apparently exhibit stand-alone particle-like features, and then wave-like characteristics when inserted into a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. In this communication are examined and discussed some basic properties of these beamssplitters, both from a classical optics and quantum physics point of view. Herein the most evident convergences and contradictions are highlighted, and the results of a few emblematic experiments demonstrating photon existence are discussed. Alternative empirical models are also proposed in order to shed light on some remaining issues.

  9. Designing Learning Environments to Teach Interactive Quantum Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puente, Sonia M. Gomez; Swagten, Henk J. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at describing and analysing systematically an interactive learning environment designed to teach Quantum Physics, a second-year physics course. The instructional design of Quantum Physics is a combination of interactive lectures (using audience response systems), tutorials and self-study in unit blocks, carried out with small…

  10. Refined Characterization of Student Perspectives on Quantum Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.

    2010-01-01

    The perspectives of introductory classical physics students can often negatively influence how those students later interpret quantum phenomena when taking an introductory course in modern physics. A detailed exploration of student perspectives on the interpretation of quantum physics is needed, both to characterize student understanding of…

  11. Teaching Quantum Interpretations: Revisiting the Goals and Practices of Introductory Quantum Physics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.

    2015-01-01

    Most introductory quantum physics instructors would agree that transitioning students from classical to quantum thinking is an important learning goal, but may disagree on whether or how this can be accomplished. Although (and perhaps because) physicists have long debated the physical interpretation of quantum theory, many instructors choose to…

  12. Atomic physics: A milestone in quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Stephen D.

    2016-08-01

    Quantum computers require many quantum bits to perform complex calculations, but devices with more than a few bits are difficult to program. A device based on five atomic quantum bits shows a way forward. See Letter p.63

  13. Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.; Gandolfi, S.; Pederiva, F.; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, R.; Schmidt, K. E.; Wiringa, R. B.

    2015-09-01

    Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab-initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states, moments, and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. The nuclear interactions and currents are reviewed along with a description of the continuum quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit, and three-body interactions. A variety of results are presented, including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. Low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars are also described. Furthermore, a coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.

  14. Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Carlson, J.; Gandolfi, S.; Pederiva, F.; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, R.; Schmidt, K. E.; Wiringa, R. B.

    2015-09-01

    Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab-initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states, moments, and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. The nuclear interactions and currents are reviewed along with a description of the continuum quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit,more » and three-body interactions. A variety of results are presented, including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. Low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars are also described. Furthermore, a coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.« less

  15. Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Carlson, Joseph A.; Gandolfi, Stefano; Pederiva, Francesco; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, Rocco; Schmidt, K. E,; Wiringa, Robert B.

    2014-10-19

    Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved very valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab-initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states, moments and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. We review the nuclear interactions and currents, and describe the continuum Quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit, and three-bodymore » interactions. We present a variety of results including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. We also describe low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars. A coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.« less

  16. Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.; Gandolfi, S.; Pederiva, F.; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, R.; Schmidt, K. E.; Wiringa, R. B.

    2015-09-09

    Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab-initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states, moments, and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. The nuclear interactions and currents are reviewed along with a description of the continuum quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit, and three-body interactions. A variety of results are presented, including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. Low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars are also described. Furthermore, a coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.

  17. Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Joseph A.; Gandolfi, Stefano; Pederiva, Francesco; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, Rocco; Schmidt, K. E,; Wiringa, Robert B.

    2014-10-19

    Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved very valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab-initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states, moments and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. We review the nuclear interactions and currents, and describe the continuum Quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit, and three-body interactions. We present a variety of results including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. We also describe low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars. A coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.

  18. Connecting nuclear physics to quantum chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Daniel R.

    2011-10-27

    I discuss how effective theories and numerical simulations of Quantum Chromodynamics are together helping us understand the interaction between neutrons and protons. Explicit numerical evaluation of the QCD path integral, using lattice methods and super-computers, appears to be the best option for calculations of QCD in the non-perturbative regime. I show that complementary information is provided by effective theories, which can help to relate these intensive ''lattice QCD'' calculations to nuclear-physics experiments. I place particular emphasis on the way in which the long-distance symmetries of QCD observed in lattice simulations constrain the interactions of neutrons and protons with one another, and I show how this leads to predictions for electron scattering from light nuclei.

  19. BOOK REVIEW: Quantum Physics in One Dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, David

    2004-05-01

    To a casual ostrich the world of quantum physics in one dimension may sound a little one-dimensional, suitable perhaps for those with an unhealthy obsession for the esoteric. Nothing of course could be further from the truth. The field is remarkably rich and broad, and for more than fifty years has thrown up innumerable challenges. Theorists, realising that the role of interactions in 1D is special and that well known paradigms of higher dimensions (Fermi liquid theory for example) no longer apply, took up the challenge of developing new concepts and techniques to understand the undoubted pecularities of one-dimensional systems. And experimentalists have succeeded in turning pipe dreams into reality, producing an impressive and ever increasing array of experimental realizations of 1D systems, from the molecular to the mesoscopic---spin and ladder compounds, organic superconductors, carbon nanotubes, quantum wires, Josephson junction arrays and so on. Many books on the theory of one-dimensional systems are however written by experts for experts, and tend as such to leave the non-specialist a touch bewildered. This is understandable on both fronts, for the underlying theoretical techniques are unquestionably sophisticated and not usually part of standard courses in many-body theory. A brave author it is then who aims to produce a well rounded, if necessarily partial, overview of quantum physics in one dimension, accessible to a beginner yet taking them to the edge of current research, and providing en route a thorough grounding in the fundamental ideas, basic methods and essential phenomenology of the field. It is of course the brave who succeed in this world, and Thierry Giamarchi does just that with this excellent book, written by an expert for the uninitiated. Aimed in particular at graduate students in theoretical condensed matter physics, and assumimg little theoretical background on the part of the reader (well just a little), Giamarchi writes in a refreshingly

  20. The Physical Renormalization of Quantum Field Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Binger, Michael William.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2007-02-20

    The profound revolutions in particle physics likely to emerge from current and future experiments motivates an improved understanding of the precise predictions of the Standard Model and new physics models. Higher order predictions in quantum field theories inevitably requires the renormalization procedure, which makes sensible predictions out of the naively divergent results of perturbation theory. Thus, a robust understanding of renormalization is crucial for identifying and interpreting the possible discovery of new physics. The results of this thesis represent a broad set of investigations in to the nature of renormalization. The author begins by motivating a more physical approach to renormalization based on gauge-invariant Green's functions. The resulting effective charges are first applied to gauge coupling unification. This approach provides an elegant formalism for understanding all threshold corrections, and the gauge couplings unify in a more physical manner compared to the usual methods. Next, the gauge-invariant three-gluon vertex is studied in detail, revealing an interesting and rich structure. The effective coupling for the three-gluon vertex, {alpha}(k{sub 1}{sup 2}, k{sub 2}{sup 2}, k{sub 3}{sup 2}), depends on three momentum scales and gives rise to an effective scale Q{sub eff}{sup 2}(k{sub 1}{sup 2}, k{sub 2}{sup 2}, k{sub 3}{sup 2}) which governs the (sometimes surprising) behavior of the vertex. The effects of nonzero internal masses are important and have a complicated threshold and pseudo-threshold structure. The pinch-technique effective charge is also calculated to two-loops and several applications are discussed. The Higgs boson mass in Split Supersymmetry is calculated to two-loops, including all one-loop threshold effects, leading to a downward shift in the Higgs mass of a few GeV. Finally, the author discusses some ideas regarding the overall structure of perturbation theory. This thesis lays the foundation for a comprehensive multi

  1. Attention, Intention, and Will in Quantum Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, H.P.

    1999-05-01

    How is mind related to matter? This ancient question inphilosophy is rapidly becoming a core problem in science, perhaps themost important of all because it probes the essential nature of manhimself. The origin of the problem is a conflict between the mechanicalconception of human beings that arises from the precepts of classicalphysical theory and the very different idea that arises from ourintuition: the former reduces each of us to an automaton, while thelatter allows our thoughts to guide our actions. The dominantcontemporary approaches to the problem attempt to resolve this conflictby clinging to the classical concepts, and trying to explain away ourmisleading intuition. But a detailed argument given here shows why, in ascientific approach to this problem, it is necessary to use the morebasic principles of quantum physics, which bring the observer into thedynamics, rather than to accept classical precepts that are profoundlyincorrect precisely at the crucial point of the role of humanconsciousness in the dynamics of human brains. Adherence to the quantumprinciples yields a dynamical theory of the mind/brain/body system thatis in close accord with our intuitive idea of what we are. In particular,the need for a self-observing quantum system to pose certain questionscreates a causal opening that allowsmind/brain dynamics to have threedistinguishable but interlocked causal processes, one micro-local, onestochastic, and the third experiential. Passing to the classical limit inwhich the critical difference between zero and the finite actual value ofPlanck's constant is ignored not only eliminates the chemical processesthat are absolutely crucial to the functioning of actual brains, itsimultaneously blinds the resulting theoretical construct to the physicalfine structure wherein the effect of mind on matter lies: the use of thislimit in this context is totally unjustified from a physicsperspective.

  2. Probing Planckian physics in de Sitter space with quantum correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Jun; Zhang, Yao-Zhong; Gould, Mark D.; Fan, Heng; Sun, Cheng-Yi; Yang, Wen-Li

    2014-12-15

    We study the quantum correlation and quantum communication channel of both free scalar and fermionic fields in de Sitter space, while the Planckian modification presented by the choice of a particular α-vacuum has been considered. We show the occurrence of degradation of quantum entanglement between field modes for an inertial observer in curved space, due to the radiation associated with its cosmological horizon. Comparing with standard Bunch–Davies choice, the possible Planckian physics causes some extra decrement on the quantum correlation, which may provide the means to detect quantum gravitational effects via quantum information methodology in future. Beyond single-mode approximation, we construct proper Unruh modes admitting general α-vacua, and find a convergent feature of both bosonic and fermionic entanglements. In particular, we show that the convergent points of fermionic entanglement negativity are dependent on the choice of α. Moreover, an one-to-one correspondence between convergent points H{sub c} of negativity and zeros of quantum capacity of quantum channels in de Sitter space has been proved. - Highlights: • Quantum correlation and quantum channel in de Sitter space are studied. • Gibbons–Hawking effect causes entanglement degradation for static observer. • Planckian physics causes extra decrement on quantum correlation. • Convergent feature of negativity relies on the choice of alpha-vacua. • Link between negativity convergence and quantum channel capacity is given.

  3. Time and a physical Hamiltonian for quantum gravity.

    PubMed

    Husain, Viqar; Pawłowski, Tomasz

    2012-04-01

    We present a nonperturbative quantization of general relativity coupled to dust and other matter fields. The dust provides a natural time variable, leading to a physical Hamiltonian with spatial diffeomorphism symmetry. The surprising feature is that the Hamiltonian is not a square root. This property, together with the kinematical structure of loop quantum gravity, provides a complete theory of quantum gravity, and puts applications to cosmology, quantum gravitational collapse, and Hawking radiation within technical reach. PMID:22540782

  4. Are quantum-mechanical-like models possible, or necessary, outside quantum physics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnitsky, Arkady

    2014-12-01

    This article examines some experimental conditions that invite and possibly require recourse to quantum-mechanical-like mathematical models (QMLMs), models based on the key mathematical features of quantum mechanics, in scientific fields outside physics, such as biology, cognitive psychology, or economics. In particular, I consider whether the following two correlative features of quantum phenomena that were decisive for establishing the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics play similarly important roles in QMLMs elsewhere. The first is the individuality and discreteness of quantum phenomena, and the second is the irreducibly probabilistic nature of our predictions concerning them, coupled to the particular character of the probabilities involved, as different from the character of probabilities found in classical physics. I also argue that these features could be interpreted in terms of a particular form of epistemology that suspends and even precludes a causal and, in the first place, realist description of quantum objects and processes. This epistemology limits the descriptive capacity of quantum theory to the description, classical in nature, of the observed quantum phenomena manifested in measuring instruments. Quantum mechanics itself only provides descriptions, probabilistic in nature, concerning numerical data pertaining to such phenomena, without offering a physical description of quantum objects and processes. While QMLMs share their use of the quantum-mechanical or analogous mathematical formalism, they may differ by the roles, if any, the two features in question play in them and by different ways of interpreting the phenomena they considered and this formalism itself. This article will address those differences as well.

  5. Quantum Mesoscopic Physics of Electrons and Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkermans, Eric

    2013-03-01

    We first review basic notions of coherent quantum transport at the mesoscopic scale for both electronic and photonic systems. We then show that successful descriptions developed for coherent electronic transport (e.g. weak localization and UCF) and thermodynamics (persistent currents), noise and full counting statistics can be extended and applied to the study of Quantum Electrodynamics of quantum conductors and of quantum optics based on photons emitted by such conductors. In this context, we discuss the two following specific problems : (1) Ramsey fringes and time domain interference for particle creation form a quantum vacuum with a specific application to dynamical Coulomb blockade. In that setup, the current noise of a coherent conductor is biased by two successive voltage pulses. An interference pattern between photon assisted processes is observed which is explained by the contribution of several processes to the probability to emit photons after each pulse. Recent experiments in this context will be discussed. (2) Quantum emitter coupled to a fractal environment. A new and unexpected type of oscillatory structures for the probability of spontaneous emission has been obtained which results from the fractal nature of the quantum vacuum. When applied to the case of a tunnel junction as a quantum emitter of photons, the same oscillatory structure arises for the conductance of the tunnel junction. This work was supported by the Israel Science Foundation Grant No.924/09

  6. Teaching and Understanding of Quantum Interpretations in Modern Physics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.

    2010-01-01

    Just as expert physicists vary in their personal stances on interpretation in quantum mechanics, instructors vary on whether and how to teach interpretations of quantum phenomena in introductory modern physics courses. In this paper, we document variations in instructional approaches with respect to interpretation in two similar modern physics…

  7. Quantum physics: Destruction of discrete charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarov, Yuli V.

    2016-08-01

    Electric charge is quantized in units of the electron's charge. An experiment explores the suppression of charge quantization caused by quantum fluctuations and supports a long-standing theory that explains this behaviour. See Letter p.58

  8. Teaching Quantum Physics in Upper Secondary School in France:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lautesse, Philippe; Vila Valls, Adrien; Ferlin, Fabrice; Héraud, Jean-Loup; Chabot, Hugues

    2015-10-01

    One of the main problems in trying to understand quantum physics is the nature of the referent of quantum theory. This point is addressed in the official French curriculum in upper secondary school. Starting in 2012, after about 20 years of absence, quantum physics has returned to the national program. On the basis of the historical construction of quantum physics, we identify two epistemological positions with respect to this problem: The first one (close to the so-called Copenhagen school) is termed the conservative position and the second one (associated with the work of Bunge and Lévy-Leblond) the innovative position. We then analyze French textbooks used by teachers, in order to reveal the implicit positions adopted. We conclude with the idea that highlighting these epistemological choices can help teachers reflect upon the historical and epistemological roots of quantum physics. Such an analysis can contribute to developing and implementing appropriate teaching sequences for quantum physics. We explore the application of these epistemological positions to Young's paradigmatic experiment using the double slits.

  9. Transnational Quantum: Quantum Physics in India through the Lens of Satyendranath Bose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Somaditya

    2016-08-01

    This paper traces the social and cultural dimensions of quantum physics in colonial India where Satyendranath Bose worked. By focusing on Bose's approach towards the quantum and his collaboration with Albert Einstein, I argue that his physics displayed both the localities of doing science in early twentieth century India as well as a cosmopolitan dimension. He transformed the fundamental new concept of the light quantum developed by Einstein in 1905 within the social and political context of colonial India. This cross-pollination of the local with the global is termed here as the locally rooted cosmopolitan nature of Bose's science. The production of new knowledge through quantum statistics by Bose show the co-constructed nature of physics and the transnational nature of the quantum.

  10. Transnational Quantum: Quantum Physics in India through the Lens of Satyendranath Bose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Somaditya

    2016-05-01

    This paper traces the social and cultural dimensions of quantum physics in colonial India where Satyendranath Bose worked. By focusing on Bose's approach towards the quantum and his collaboration with Albert Einstein, I argue that his physics displayed both the localities of doing science in early twentieth century India as well as a cosmopolitan dimension. He transformed the fundamental new concept of the light quantum developed by Einstein in 1905 within the social and political context of colonial India. This cross-pollination of the local with the global is termed here as the locally rooted cosmopolitan nature of Bose's science. The production of new knowledge through quantum statistics by Bose show the co-constructed nature of physics and the transnational nature of the quantum.

  11. Quantum physics with non-Hermitian operators Quantum physics with non-Hermitian operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Carl; Fring, Andreas; Günther, Uwe; Jones, Hugh

    2012-11-01

    The main motivation behind the call for this special issue was to gather recent results, developments and open problems in quantum physics with non-Hermitian operators. There have been previous special issues in this journal [1, 2] and elsewhere on this subject. The intention of this issue is to reflect the current state of this rapidly-developing field. It has therefore been open to all contributions containing new results on non-Hermitian theories that are explicitly PT-symmetric and/or pseudo-Hermitian or quasi-Hermitian. In the last decade these types of systems have proved to be viable self-consistent physical theories with well defined unitary time-evolution and real spectra. As the large number of responses demonstrates, this is a rapidly evolving field of research. A consensus has been reached regarding most of the fundamental problems, and the general ideas and techniques are now readily being employed in many areas of physics. Nonetheless, this issue still contains some treatments of a more general nature regarding the spectral analysis of these models, in particular, the physics of the exceptional points, the breaking of the PT-symmetry, an interpretation of negative energies and the consistent implementation of the WKB analysis. This issue also contains a treatment of a scattering theory associated with these types of systems, weak measurements, coherent states, decoherence, unbounded metric operators and the inclusion of domain issues to obtain well defined self-adjoint theories. Contributions in the form of applications of the general ideas include: studies of classical shock-waves and tunnelling, supersymmetric models, spin chain models, models with ring structure, random matrix models, the Pauli equation, the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, quasi-exactly solvable models, integrable models such as the Calogero model, Bose-Einstein condensates, thermodynamics, nonlinear oligomers, quantum catastrophes, the Landau-Zener problem and pseudo

  12. One hundred years of quantum physics.

    PubMed

    Kleppner, D; Jackiw, R

    2000-08-11

    This year marks the 100th anniversary of Max Planck's creation of the quantum concept, an idea so revolutionary that it took nearly 30 years for scientists to develop it into the theory that has transformed the way scientists view reality. In this month's essay, Daniel Kleppner and Roman Jackiw recount how quantum theory, which they rate as "the most precisely tested and most successful theory in the history of science," came to be, how it changed the world, and how it might continue to evolve to make the dream of ultimate understanding of the universe come true. PMID:17839156

  13. Making the Transition from Classical to Quantum Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutt, Amit

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the nature of the conceptual understandings developed by Year 12 Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE) physics students as they made the transition from the essentially deterministic notions of classical physics, to interpretations characteristic of quantum theory. The research findings revealed the fact that the…

  14. Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Comprehension of Quantum Mechanical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didis, Nilufer; Eryilmaz, Ali; Erkoc, Sakir

    2010-01-01

    When quantum theory caused a paradigm shift in physics, it introduced difficulties in both learning and teaching of physics. Because of its abstract, counter-intuitive and mathematical structure, students have difficulty in learning this theory, and instructors have difficulty in teaching the concepts of the theory. This case study investigates…

  15. Designing learning environments to teach interactive Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Puente, Sonia M.; Swagten, Henk J. M.

    2012-10-01

    This study aims at describing and analysing systematically an interactive learning environment designed to teach Quantum Physics, a second-year physics course. The instructional design of Quantum Physics is a combination of interactive lectures (using audience response systems), tutorials and self-study in unit blocks, carried out with small groups. Individual formative feedback was introduced as a rapid assessment tool to provide an overview on progress and identify gaps by means of questioning students at three levels: conceptual; prior knowledge; homework exercises. The setup of Quantum Physics has been developed as a result of several loops of adjustments and improvements from a traditional-like type of teaching to an interactive classroom. Results of this particular instructional arrangement indicate significant gains in students' achievements in comparison with the traditional structure of this course, after recent optimisation steps such as the implementation of an individual feedback system.

  16. The Oxford Questions on the foundations of quantum physics.

    PubMed

    Briggs, G A D; Butterfield, J N; Zeilinger, A

    2013-09-01

    The twentieth century saw two fundamental revolutions in physics-relativity and quantum. Daily use of these theories can numb the sense of wonder at their immense empirical success. Does their instrumental effectiveness stand on the rock of secure concepts or the sand of unresolved fundamentals? Does measuring a quantum system probe, or even create, reality or merely change belief? Must relativity and quantum theory just coexist or might we find a new theory which unifies the two? To bring such questions into sharper focus, we convened a conference on Quantum Physics and the Nature of Reality. Some issues remain as controversial as ever, but some are being nudged by theory's secret weapon of experiment. PMID:24062626

  17. Synthesis of quantum chromodynamics and nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.; Lepage, G.P.

    1980-08-01

    The asymptotic freedom behavior of quantum chromodynamics allows the rigorous calculation of hadronic and nuclear amplitudes at short distances by perturbative methods. The implications of QCD for large-momentum-transfer nuclear form factors and scattering processes, as well as for the structure of nuclear wave functions and nuclear interactions at short distances, are discussed. The necessity for color-polarized internal nuclear states is also discussed. 6 figures.

  18. Probing Planckian physics in de Sitter space with quantum correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jun; Zhang, Yao-Zhong; Gould, Mark D.; Fan, Heng; Sun, Cheng-Yi; Yang, Wen-Li

    2014-12-01

    We study the quantum correlation and quantum communication channel of both free scalar and fermionic fields in de Sitter space, while the Planckian modification presented by the choice of a particular α-vacuum has been considered. We show the occurrence of degradation of quantum entanglement between field modes for an inertial observer in curved space, due to the radiation associated with its cosmological horizon. Comparing with standard Bunch-Davies choice, the possible Planckian physics causes some extra decrement on the quantum correlation, which may provide the means to detect quantum gravitational effects via quantum information methodology in future. Beyond single-mode approximation, we construct proper Unruh modes admitting general α-vacua, and find a convergent feature of both bosonic and fermionic entanglements. In particular, we show that the convergent points of fermionic entanglement negativity are dependent on the choice of α. Moreover, an one-to-one correspondence between convergent points Hc of negativity and zeros of quantum capacity of quantum channels in de Sitter space has been proved.

  19. Quantum Mechanics for Beginning Physics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Mark B.

    2010-01-01

    The past two decades of attention to introductory physics education has emphasized enhanced development of conceptual understanding to accompany calculational ability. Given this, it is surprising that current texts continue to rely on the Bohr model to develop a flawed intuition, and introduce correct atomic physics on an ad hoc basis. For…

  20. The Qubit as Key to Quantum Physics Part II: Physical Realizations and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dür, Wolfgang; Heusler, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    Using the simplest possible quantum system—the qubit—the fundamental concepts of quantum physics can be introduced. This highlights the common features of many different physical systems, and provides a unifying framework when teaching quantum physics at the high school or introductory level. In a previous TPT article and in a separate paper posted online, we introduced catchy visualizations of the qubit based on the Bloch sphere or just the unit circle (see also Refs. 3-8 for other approaches highlighting the importance of the qubit). These visualizations open the way to understand basic ideas of quantum physics even without knowledge of the underlying mathematical formalism. In addition, simple mathematics can be introduced to describe the qubit as an abstract object and basic unit of quantum information. This generalizes the digital bit as a basic unit of classical information. The proposed visualizations can be used even at the high school level, while the mathematical explanations are of importance when teaching quantum physics at the undergraduate university level. This approach provides a unified framework to introduce common features of all quantum systems, such as the stochastic behavior and state change of a superposition state under measurement.

  1. The geometric phase in quantum physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bohm, A.

    1993-03-01

    After an explanatory introduction, a quantum system in a classical time-dependent environment is discussed; an example is a magnetic moment in a classical magnetic field. At first, the general abelian case is discussed in the adiabatic approximation. Then the geometric phase for nonadiabatic change of the environment (Anandan--Aharonov phase) is introduced, and after that general cyclic (nonadiabatic) evolution is discussed. The mathematics of fiber bundles is introduced, and some of its results are used to describe the relation between the adiabatic Berry phase and the geometric phase for general cyclic evolution of a pure state. The discussion is restricted to the abelian, U(1) phase.

  2. Mapping of topological quantum circuits to physical hardware.

    PubMed

    Paler, Alexandru; Devitt, Simon J; Nemoto, Kae; Polian, Ilia

    2014-01-01

    Topological quantum computation is a promising technique to achieve large-scale, error-corrected computation. Quantum hardware is used to create a large, 3-dimensional lattice of entangled qubits while performing computation requires strategic measurement in accordance with a topological circuit specification. The specification is a geometric structure that defines encoded information and fault-tolerant operations. The compilation of a topological circuit is one important aspect of programming a quantum computer, another is the mapping of the topological circuit into the operations performed by the hardware. Each qubit has to be controlled, and measurement results are needed to propagate encoded quantum information from input to output. In this work, we introduce an algorithm for mapping an topological circuit to the operations needed by the physical hardware. We determine the control commands for each qubit in the computer and the relevant measurements that are needed to track information as it moves through the circuit. PMID:24722360

  3. Mapping of Topological Quantum Circuits to Physical Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paler, Alexandru; Devitt, Simon J.; Nemoto, Kae; Polian, Ilia

    2014-04-01

    Topological quantum computation is a promising technique to achieve large-scale, error-corrected computation. Quantum hardware is used to create a large, 3-dimensional lattice of entangled qubits while performing computation requires strategic measurement in accordance with a topological circuit specification. The specification is a geometric structure that defines encoded information and fault-tolerant operations. The compilation of a topological circuit is one important aspect of programming a quantum computer, another is the mapping of the topological circuit into the operations performed by the hardware. Each qubit has to be controlled, and measurement results are needed to propagate encoded quantum information from input to output. In this work, we introduce an algorithm for mapping an topological circuit to the operations needed by the physical hardware. We determine the control commands for each qubit in the computer and the relevant measurements that are needed to track information as it moves through the circuit.

  4. The Oxford Questions on the foundations of quantum physics

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, G. A. D.; Butterfield, J. N.; Zeilinger, A.

    2013-01-01

    The twentieth century saw two fundamental revolutions in physics—relativity and quantum. Daily use of these theories can numb the sense of wonder at their immense empirical success. Does their instrumental effectiveness stand on the rock of secure concepts or the sand of unresolved fundamentals? Does measuring a quantum system probe, or even create, reality or merely change belief? Must relativity and quantum theory just coexist or might we find a new theory which unifies the two? To bring such questions into sharper focus, we convened a conference on Quantum Physics and the Nature of Reality. Some issues remain as controversial as ever, but some are being nudged by theory's secret weapon of experiment. PMID:24062626

  5. Teaching quantum interpretations: Revisiting the goals and practices of introductory quantum physics courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.

    2015-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] Most introductory quantum physics instructors would agree that transitioning students from classical to quantum thinking is an important learning goal, but may disagree on whether or how this can be accomplished. Although (and perhaps because) physicists have long debated the physical interpretation of quantum theory, many instructors choose to avoid emphasizing interpretive themes; or they discuss the views of scientists in their classrooms, but do not adequately attend to student interpretations. In this synthesis and extension of prior work, we demonstrate the following: (i) instructors vary in their approaches to teaching interpretive themes; (ii) different instructional approaches have differential impacts on student thinking; and (iii) when student interpretations go unattended, they often develop their own (sometimes scientifically undesirable) views. We introduce here a new modern physics curriculum that explicitly attends to student interpretations, and provide evidence-based arguments that doing so helps them to develop more consistent interpretations of quantum phenomena, more sophisticated views of uncertainty, and greater interest in quantum physics.

  6. A Quantum Chemistry Concept Inventory for Physical Chemistry Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick-Perez, Marilu; Luxford, Cynthia J.; Windus, Theresa L.; Holme, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    A 14-item, multiple-choice diagnostic assessment tool, the quantum chemistry concept inventory or QCCI, is presented. Items were developed based on published student misconceptions and content coverage and then piloted and used in advanced physical chemistry undergraduate courses. In addition to the instrument itself, data from both a pretest,…

  7. Quantum Physics and Mental Health Counseling: The Time Is...!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerstein, Lawrence H.; Bennett, Matt

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a new framework of mental health counseling based on quantum physics. The framework stresses systemic thinking and intervention, interdependence, and the importance of adopting a novel perspective about time, space, reality, and change. This framework has the potential of modifying mental health counseling practice and training. Offers…

  8. Understanding Probabilistic Interpretations of Physical Systems: A Prerequisite to Learning Quantum Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bao, Lei; Redish, Edward F.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the critical role of probability in making sense of quantum physics and addresses the difficulties science and engineering undergraduates experience in helping students build a model of how to think about probability in physical systems. (Contains 17 references.) (Author/YDS)

  9. Path-integral approach to 't Hooft's derivation of quantum physics from classical physics

    SciTech Connect

    Blasone, Massimo; Jizba, Petr; Kleinert, Hagen

    2005-05-15

    We present a path-integral formulation of 't Hooft's derivation of quantum physics from classical physics. The crucial ingredient of this formulation is Gozzi et al.'s supersymmetric path integral of classical mechanics. We quantize explicitly two simple classical systems: the planar mathematical pendulum and the Roessler dynamical system.

  10. Physics on the boundary between classical and quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    't Hooft, Gerard

    2014-04-01

    Nature's laws in the domain where relativistic effects, gravitational effects and quantum effects are all comparatively strong are far from understood. This domain is called the Planck scale. Conceivably, a theory can be constructed where the quantum nature of phenomena at such scales can be attributed to something fundamentally simpler. However, arguments that quantum mechanics cannot be explained in terms of any classical theory using only classical logic seem to be based on sound mathematical considerations: there can't be physical laws that require "conspiracy". It may therefore be surprising that there are several explicit quantum systems where these considerations apparently do not apply. In the lecture we will show several such counterexamples. These are quantum models that do have a classical origin. The most curious of these models is superstring theory. This theory is often portrayed as to underly the quantum field theory of the subatomic particles, including the "Standard Model". So now the question is asked: how can this model feature "conspiracy", and how bad is that? Is there conspiracy in the vacuum fluctuations?

  11. Being qua becoming: Aristotle's "Metaphysics", quantum physics, and Process Philosophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, David Kelley

    In Aristotle's First Philosophy, science and philosophy were partners, but with the rise of empiricism, went their separate ways. Metaphysics combined the rational and irrational (i.e. final cause/unmoved mover) elements of existence to equate being with substance, postulating prime matter as pure potential that was actuated by form to create everything. Modern science reveres pure reason and postulates its theory of being by a rigorous scientific methodology. The Standard Model defines matter as energy formed into fundamental particles via forces contained in fields. Science has proved Aristotle's universe wrong in many ways, but as physics delves deeper into the quantum world, empiricism is reaching its limits concerning fundamental questions of existence. To achieve its avowed mission of explaining existence completely, physics must reunite with philosophy in a metascience modeled on the First Philosophy of Aristotle. One theory of being that integrates quantum physics and metaphysics is Process Philosophy.

  12. Large numbers hypothesis. IV - The cosmological constant and quantum physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    In standard physics quantum field theory is based on a flat vacuum space-time. This quantum field theory predicts a nonzero cosmological constant. Hence the gravitational field equations do not admit a flat vacuum space-time. This dilemma is resolved using the units covariant gravitational field equations. This paper shows that the field equations admit a flat vacuum space-time with nonzero cosmological constant if and only if the canonical LNH is valid. This allows an interpretation of the LNH phenomena in terms of a time-dependent vacuum state. If this is correct then the cosmological constant must be positive.

  13. Physical theories, eternal inflation, and the quantum universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Yasunori

    2011-11-01

    Infinities in eternal inflation have long been plaguing cosmology, making any predictions highly sensitive to how they are regulated. The problem exists already at the level of semi-classical general relativity, and has a priori nothing to do with quantum gravity. On the other hand, we know that certain problems in semi-classical gravity, for example physics of black holes and their evaporation, have led to understanding of surprising, quantum natures of spacetime and gravity, such as the holographic principle and horizon complementarity. In this paper, we present a framework in which well-defined predictions are obtained in an eternally inflating multiverse, based on the principles of quantum mechanics. We propose that the entire multiverse is described purely from the viewpoint of a single "observer," who describes the world as a quantum state defined on his/her past light cones bounded by the (stretched) apparent horizons. We find that quantum mechanics plays an essential role in regulating infinities. The framework is "gauge invariant," i.e. predictions do not depend on how spacetime is parametrized, as it should be in a theory of quantum gravity. Our framework provides a fully unified treatment of quantum measurement processes and the multiverse. We conclude that the eternally inflating multiverse and many worlds in quantum mechanics are the same. Other important implications include: global spacetime can be viewed as a derived concept; the multiverse is a transient phenomenon during the world relaxing into a supersymmetric Minkowski state. We also present a model of "initial conditions" for the multiverse. By extrapolating our framework to the extreme, we arrive at a picture that the entire multiverse is a fluctuation in the stationary, fractal "mega-multiverse," in which an infinite sequence of multiverse productions occurs. The framework discussed here does not suffer from problems/paradoxes plaguing other measures proposed earlier, such as the youngness

  14. Photonic dark matter portal and quantum physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alavi, S. A.; Kazemian, F. S.

    2016-02-01

    We study a model of dark matter in which the hidden sector interacts with standard model particles via a hidden photonic portal. We investigate the effects of this new interaction on the hydrogen atom, including the Stark, Zeeman and hyperfine effects. Using the accuracy of the measurement of energy, we obtain an upper bound for the coupling constant of the model as f ⩽ 10-12. We also calculate the contribution from the hidden photonic portal to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon as aμ ⩽ 2.2 × 10-23 (for the dark particle mass scale 100 MeV), which provides an important probe of physics beyond the standard model.

  15. The Art and Science of Experimentation in Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnitsky, Arkady

    2010-05-01

    Taking its historical point of departure in Heisenberg's work, this article offers a view of quantum mechanics as, arguably, the first truly experimental and truly mathematical physical theory, that is, a theory concerned with experimenting with nature and mathematics alike. It is truly experimental because it is not, as in classical physics, merely the independent behavior of the system considered, in other words, what happens in any event, that we track, but what kind of experiments we perform that defines what happens. By the same token, the theory is also truly mathematical because, at least in the interpretation adopted here, its mathematical formalism does not stand in the service of a mathematical description of (quantum) physical processes in space and time in the way the formalism of classical physics does, but is only used to predict the outcomes of relevant experiments. It also follows that quantum theories experiment more freely with mathematics itself, since we invent predictive mathematical schemes, rather than proceed by refining mathematically our phenomenal representations of nature, which process constrains us in classical mechanics.

  16. Quantum algorithm for obtaining the eigenstates of a physical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hefeng

    2016-05-01

    We propose a quantum algorithm for solving the following problem: given the Hamiltonian of a physical system and one of its eigenvalues, how do we obtain the corresponding eigenstate? The algorithm is based on the resonance phenomenon. For a probe qubit coupled to a quantum system, the system exhibits resonance dynamics when the frequency of the probe qubit matches a transition frequency in the system. Therefore the system can be guided to evolve to the eigenstate with a known eigenvalue by inducing the resonance between the probe qubit and a designed transition in the system. This algorithm can also be used to obtain the energy spectrum of a physical system and can achieve even quadratic speedup over the phase estimation algorithm.

  17. The Pendulum as a Vehicle for Transitioning from Classical to Quantum Physics: History, Quantum Concepts, and Educational Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Marianne B.; Garner, James; Reid, David

    2004-01-01

    In this article we use the pendulum as the vehicle for discussing the transition from classical to quantum physics. Since student knowledge of the classical pendulum can be generalized to all harmonic oscillators, we propose that a quantum analysis of the pendulum can lead students into the unanticipated consequences of quantum phenomena at the…

  18. A proposed physical analog for a quantum probability amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Jeffrey

    What is the physical analog of a probability amplitude? All quantum mathematics, including quantum information, is built on amplitudes. Every other science uses probabilities; QM alone uses their square root. Why? This question has been asked for a century, but no one previously has proposed an answer. We will present cylindrical helices moving toward a particle source, which particles follow backwards. Consider Feynman's book QED. He speaks of amplitudes moving through space like the hand of a spinning clock. His hand is a complex vector. It traces a cylindrical helix in Cartesian space. The Theory of Elementary Waves changes direction so Feynman's clock faces move toward the particle source. Particles follow amplitudes (quantum waves) backwards. This contradicts wave particle duality. We will present empirical evidence that wave particle duality is wrong about the direction of particles versus waves. This involves a paradigm shift; which are always controversial. We believe that our model is the ONLY proposal ever made for the physical foundations of probability amplitudes. We will show that our ``probability amplitudes'' in physical nature form a Hilbert vector space with adjoints, an inner product and support both linear algebra and Dirac notation.

  19. Using optical clock to probe quantum many-body physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jun

    2016-05-01

    The progress of optical lattice clock has benefited greatly from the understanding of atomic interactions. At the same time, the precision of clock spectroscopy has been applied to explore many-body spin interactions including SU(N) symmetry. Our recent work on this combined front of quantum metrology and many-body physics includes the probe of spin-orbital physics in the lattice clock and the investigation of a Fermi degenerate gas of 105 87Sr atoms in a three-dimensional magic-wavelength optical lattice.

  20. Physical characterization of quantum devices from nonlocal correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Navascués, Miguel; Scarani, Valerio; Vértesi, Tamás; Yang, Tzyh Haur

    2015-02-01

    In the device-independent approach to quantum information theory, quantum systems are regarded as black boxes that, given an input (the measurement setting), return an output (the measurement result). These boxes are then treated regardless of their actual internal working. In this paper we develop swap, a theoretical concept that, in combination with the tool of semidefinite methods for the characterization of quantum correlations, allows us to estimate physical properties of the black boxes from the observed measurement statistics. We find that the swap tool provides bounds orders of magnitude better than previously known techniques (e.g., for a Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt violation larger than 2.57, swap predicts a singlet fidelity greater than 70 % ). This method also allows us to deal with hitherto intractable cases such as robust device-independent self-testing of nonmaximally entangled two-qutrit states in the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu scenario (for which Jordan's lemma does not apply) and the device-independent certification of entangled measurements. We further apply the swap method to relate nonlocal correlations to work extraction and quantum dimensionality, hence demonstrating that this tool can be used to study a wide variety of properties relying on the sole knowledge of accessible statistics.

  1. A Survey of Physical Principles Attempting to Define Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oas, Gary; Acacio de Barros, J.

    Quantum mechanics, one of the most successful theories in the history of science, was created to account for physical systems not describable by classical physics. Though it is consistent with all experiments conducted thus far, many of its core concepts (amplitudes, global phases, etc.) can not be directly accessed and its interpretation is still the subject of intense debate, more than 100 years since it was introduced. So, a fundamental question is why this particular mathematical model is the one that nature chooses, if indeed it is the correct model. In the past two decades there has been a renewed effort to determine what physical or informational principles define quantum mechanics. In this chapter, recent attempts at establishing reasonable physical principles are reviewed and their degree of success is tabulated. An alternative approach using joint quasi-probability distributions is shown to provide a common basis of representing most of the proposed principles. It is argued that having a common representation of the principles can provide intuition and guidance to relate current principles or advance new principles. The current state of affairs, along with some alternative views are discussed.

  2. On the fundamental role of dynamics in quantum physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Holger F.

    2016-05-01

    Quantum theory expresses the observable relations between physical properties in terms of probabilities that depend on the specific context described by the "state" of a system. However, the laws of physics that emerge at the macroscopic level are fully deterministic. Here, it is shown that the relation between quantum statistics and deterministic dynamics can be explained in terms of ergodic averages over complex valued probabilities, where the fundamental causality of motion is expressed by an action that appears as the phase of the complex probability multiplied with the fundamental constant ħ. Importantly, classical physics emerges as an approximation of this more fundamental theory of motion, indicating that the assumption of a classical reality described by differential geometry is merely an artefact of an extrapolation from the observation of macroscopic dynamics to a fictitious level of precision that does not exist within our actual experience of the world around us. It is therefore possible to completely replace the classical concepts of trajectories with the more fundamental concept of action phase probabilities as a universally valid description of the deterministic causality of motion that is observed in the physical world.

  3. Persistent Currents and Quantum Critical Phenomena in Mesoscopic Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelyak, Oleksandr

    In this thesis, we study persistent currents and quantum critical phenomena in the systems of mesoscopic physics. As an introduction in Chapter 1 we familiarize the reader with the area of mesoscopic physics. We explain how mesoscopic systems are different from quantum systems of single atoms and molecules and bulk systems with an Avogadro number of elements. We also describe some important mesoscopic phenomena. One of the mathematical tools that we extensively use in our studies is Random Matrix Theorty. This theory is not a part of standard physics courses and for educational purposes we provide the basics of Random Matrix Theory in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3 we study the persistent current of noninteracting electrons in quantum billiards. We consider simply connected chaotic Robnik-Berry quantum billiard and its annular analog. The electrons move in the presence of a point-like magnetic flux at the center of the billiard. For the simply connected billiard, we find a large diamagnetic contribution to the persistent current at small flux, which is independent of the flux and is proportional to the number of electrons (or equivalently the density since we keep the area fixed). The size of this diamagnetic contribution is much larger than the previously studied mesoscopic fluctuations in the persistent current in the simply connected billiard. This behavior of persistent current can ultimately be traced to the response of the angular-momentum l = 0 levels (neglected in semiclassical expansions) on the unit disk to a point-like flux at its center. We observe the same behavior for the annular billiard when the inner radius is much smaller than the outer one. We also find that the usual fluctuating persistent current and Anderson-like localization due to boundary scattering are seen when the annulus tends to a one-dimensional ring. We explore the conditions for the observability of this phenomenon. In Chapter 4 we study quantum critical phenomena in a system of two

  4. How to upload a physical quantum state into correlation space

    SciTech Connect

    Morimae, Tomoyuki

    2011-04-15

    In the framework of the computational tensor network [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 220503 (2007)], the quantum computation is performed in a virtual linear space called the correlation space. It was recently shown [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 050503 (2009)] that a state in a correlation space can be downloaded to the real physical space. In this paper, conversely, we study how to upload a state from a real physical space to the correlation space. After showing the impossibility of cloning a state between a real physical space and the correlation space, we propose a simple teleportation-like method of uploading. This method also enables the Gottesman-Chuang gate teleportation trick and entanglement swapping in the virtual-real hybrid setting. Furthermore, compared with the inverse of the downloading method by Cai et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 050503 (2009)], which also works to upload, the proposed uploading method has several advantages.

  5. Physical realization of quantum teleportation for a nonmaximal entangled state

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Asano, Masanari; Ohya, Masanori

    2010-08-15

    Recently, Kossakowski and Ohya (K-O) proposed a new teleportation scheme which enables perfect teleportation even for a nonmaximal entangled state [A. Kossakowski and M. Ohya, Infinite Dimensional Analysis Quantum Probability and Related Topics 10, 411 (2007)]. To discuss a physical realization of the K-O scheme, we propose a model based on quantum optics. In our model, we take a superposition of Schroedinger's cat states as an input state being sent from Alice to Bob, and their entangled state is generated by a photon number state through a beam splitter. When the average photon number for our input states is equal to half the number of photons into the beam splitter, our model has high fidelity.

  6. Dipolar Physics in an Erbium Quantum Gas Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebert, Anne; Krahn, Aaron; Phelps, Gregory; Dickerson, Susannah; Greiner, Markus; Erbium Lab Team

    2016-05-01

    Erbium offers exciting possibilities for extending the single-site imaging work of current quantum gas microscopes. With a magnetic dipole moment of 7μB, the dipole-dipole interaction of erbium is 50 times that of alkali atoms. The long-range and anisotropic nature of the dipole interaction adds richness to the short-range interactions that dominate the physics of the ground-state alkali atoms commonly used in ultracold experiments today. Erbium has several abundant isotopes, giving the added flexibility of studying both bosonic and fermionic systems. We present proposed avenues of research for the dipolar microscope being developed, including studies of magnetism, the Einstein-de Haas effect, and quantum phase transitions with fractional filling factors.

  7. The physical underpinning of security proofs for quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boileau, Jean Christian

    The dawn of quantum technology unveils a plethora of new possibilities and challenges in the world of information technology, one of which is the quest for secure information transmission. A breakthrough in classical algorithm or the development of a quantum computer could threaten the security of messages encoded using public key cryptosystems based on one-way function such as RSA. Quantum key distribution (QKD) offers an unconditionally secure alternative to such schemes, even in the advent of a quantum computer, as it does not rely on mathematical or technological assumptions, but rather on the universality of the laws of quantum mechanics. Physical concepts associated with quantum mechanics, like the uncertainty principle or entanglement, paved the way to the first successful security proof for QKD. Ever since, further development in security proofs for QKD has been remarkable. But the connection between entanglement distillation and the uncertainty principle has remained hidden under a pile of mathematical burden. Our main goal is to dig the physics out of the new advances in security proofs for QKD. By introducing an alternative definition of private state, which elaborates the ideas of Mayers and Koashi, we explain how the security of all QKD protocols follows from an entropic uncertainty principle. We show explicitly how privacy amplification protocol can be reduced to a private state distillation protocol constructed from our observations about the uncertainty principle. We also derive a generic security proof for one-way permutation-invariant QKD protocols. Considering collective attack, we achieve the same secret key generation rate as the Devetak-Winter's bound. Generalizing an observation from Kraus, Branciard and Renner, we have provided an improved version of the secret key generation rates by considering a different symmetrization. In certain situations, we argue that Azuma's inequality can simplify the security proof considerably, and we explain

  8. Counterfactual quantum-information transfer without transmitting any physical particles.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qi; Cheng, Liu-Yong; Chen, Li; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate quantum information can be transferred between two distant participants without any physical particles traveling between them. The key procedure of the counterfactual scheme is to entangle two nonlocal qubits with each other without interaction, so the scheme can also be used to generate nonlocal entanglement counterfactually. We here illustrate the scheme by using flying photon qubits and Rydberg atom qubits assisted by a mesoscopic atomic ensemble. Unlike the typical teleportation, the present scheme can transport an unknown qubit in a nondeterministic manner without prior entanglement sharing or classical communication between the two distant participants. PMID:25672936

  9. A Synthetic Approach to the Transfer Matrix Method in Classical and Quantum Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pujol, O.; Perez, J. P.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose a synthetic approach to the transfer matrix method in classical and quantum physics. This method is an efficient tool to deal with complicated physical systems of practical importance in geometrical light or charged particle optics, classical electronics, mechanics, electromagnetics and quantum physics. Teaching…

  10. Perspectives in quantum physics: Epistemological, ontological and pedagogical An investigation into student and expert perspectives on the physical interpretation of quantum mechanics, with implications for modern physics instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baily, Charles Raymond

    A common learning goal for modern physics instructors is for students to recognize a difference between the experimental uncertainty of classical physics and the fundamental uncertainty of quantum mechanics. Our studies suggest this notoriously difficult task may be frustrated by the intuitively realist perspectives of introductory students, and a lack of ontological flexibility in their conceptions of light and matter. We have developed a framework for understanding and characterizing student perspectives on the physical interpretation of quantum mechanics, and demonstrate the differential impact on student thinking of the myriad ways instructors approach interpretive themes in their introductory courses. Like expert physicists, students interpret quantum phenomena differently, and these interpretations are significantly influenced by their overall stances on questions central to the so-called measurement problem: Is the wave function physically real, or simply a mathematical tool? Is the collapse of the wave function an ad hoc rule, or a physical transition not described by any equation? Does an electron, being a form of matter, exist as a localized particle at all times? These questions, which are of personal and academic interest to our students, are largely only superficially addressed in our introductory courses, often for fear of opening a Pandora's Box of student questions, none of which have easy answers. We show how a transformed modern physics curriculum (recently implemented at the University of Colorado) may positively impact student perspectives on indeterminacy and wave-particle duality, by making questions of classical and quantum reality a central theme of our course, but also by making the beliefs of our students, and not just those of scientists, an explicit topic of discussion.

  11. Quantum Humor: The Playful Side of Physics at Bohr's Institute for Theoretical Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, Paul

    2012-09-01

    From the 1930s to the 1950s, a period of pivotal developments in quantum, nuclear, and particle physics, physicists at Niels Bohr's Institute for Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen took time off from their research to write humorous articles, letters, and other works. Best known is the Blegdamsvej Faust, performed in April 1932 at the close of one of the Institute's annual conferences. I also focus on the Journal of Jocular Physics, a humorous tribute to Bohr published on the occasions of his 50th, 60th, and 70th birthdays in 1935, 1945, and 1955. Contributors included Léon Rosenfeld, Victor Weisskopf, George Gamow, Oskar Klein, and Hendrik Casimir. I examine their contributions along with letters and other writings to show that they offer a window into some issues in physics at the time, such as the interpretation of complementarity and the nature of the neutrino, as well as the politics of the period.

  12. How to upload a physical quantum state into correlation space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimae, Tomoyuki

    2011-04-01

    In the framework of the computational tensor network [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.98.220503 98, 220503 (2007)], the quantum computation is performed in a virtual linear space called the correlation space. It was recently shown [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.103.050503 103, 050503 (2009)] that a state in a correlation space can be downloaded to the real physical space. In this paper, conversely, we study how to upload a state from a real physical space to the correlation space. After showing the impossibility of cloning a state between a real physical space and the correlation space, we propose a simple teleportation-like method of uploading. This method also enables the Gottesman-Chuang gate teleportation trick and entanglement swapping in the virtual-real hybrid setting. Furthermore, compared with the inverse of the downloading method by Cai [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.103.050503 103, 050503 (2009)], which also works to upload, the proposed uploading method has several advantages.

  13. Exploring flocking via quantum many-body physics techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souslov, Anton; Loewe, Benjamin; Goldbart, Paul M.

    2015-03-01

    Flocking refers to the spontaneous breaking of spatial isotropy and time-reversal symmetries in collections of bodies such as birds, fish, locusts, bacteria, and artificial active systems. The transport of matter along biopolymers using molecular motors also involves the breaking of these symmetries, which in some cases are known to be broken explicitly. We study these classical nonequilibrium symmetry-breaking phenomena by means of models of many strongly interacting particles that hop on a periodic lattice. We employ a mapping between the classical and quantum dynamics of many-body systems, combined with tools from many-body theory. In particular, we examine the formation and properties of nematic and polar order in low-dimensional, strongly-interacting active systems using techniques familiar from fermionic systems, such as self-consistent field theory and bosonization. Thus, we find that classical active systems can exhibit analogs of quantum phenomena such as spin-orbit coupling, magnetism, and superconductivity. The models we study connect the physics of asymmetric exclusion processes to the spontaneous emergence of transport and flow, and also provide a soluble cousin of Vicsek's model system of self-propelled particles.

  14. Local State and Sector Theory in Local Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojima, Izumi; Okamura, Kazuya; Saigo, Hayato

    2016-06-01

    We define a new concept of local states in the framework of algebraic quantum field theory (AQFT). Local states are a natural generalization of states and give a clear vision of localization in the context of QFT. In terms of them, we can find a condition from which follows automatically the famous DHR selection criterion in DHR-DR theory. As a result, we can understand the condition as consequences of physically natural state preparations in vacuum backgrounds. Furthermore, a theory of orthogonal decomposition of completely positive (CP) maps is developed. It unifies a theory of orthogonal decomposition of states and order structure theory of CP maps. Using it, localized version of sectors is formulated, which gives sector theory for local states with respect to general reference representations.

  15. Ad Hoc Physical Hilbert Spaces in Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Francisco M.; Garcia, Javier; Semorádová, Iveta; Znojil, Miloslav

    2015-12-01

    The overall principles of what is now widely known as PT-symmetric quantum mechanics are listed, explained and illustrated via a few examples. In particular, models based on an elementary local interaction V(x) are discussed as motivated by the naturally emergent possibility of an efficient regularization of an otherwise unacceptable presence of a strongly singular repulsive core in the origin. The emphasis is put on the constructive aspects of the models. Besides the overall outline of the formalism we show how the low-lying energies of bound states may be found in closed form in certain dynamical regimes. Finally, once these energies are found real we explain that in spite of a manifest non-Hermiticity of the Hamiltonian the time-evolution of the system becomes unitary in a properly amended physical Hilbert space.

  16. Local State and Sector Theory in Local Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojima, Izumi; Okamura, Kazuya; Saigo, Hayato

    2016-04-01

    We define a new concept of local states in the framework of algebraic quantum field theory (AQFT). Local states are a natural generalization of states and give a clear vision of localization in the context of QFT. In terms of them, we can find a condition from which follows automatically the famous DHR selection criterion in DHR-DR theory. As a result, we can understand the condition as consequences of physically natural state preparations in vacuum backgrounds. Furthermore, a theory of orthogonal decomposition of completely positive (CP) maps is developed. It unifies a theory of orthogonal decomposition of states and order structure theory of CP maps. Using it, localized version of sectors is formulated, which gives sector theory for local states with respect to general reference representations.

  17. Electron-hole quantum physics in ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versteegh, M. A. M.

    2011-09-01

    This dissertation describes several new aspects of the quantum physics of electrons and holes in zinc oxide (ZnO), including a few possible applications. Zinc oxide is a II-VI semiconductor with a direct band gap in the ultraviolet. Experimental and theoretical studies have been performed, both on bulk ZnO and on ZnO nanowires. Chapter 2 presents a new technique for an ultrafast all-optical shutter, based on two-photon absorption in a ZnO crystal. This shutter can be used for luminescence experiments requiring extremely high time-resolution. Chapter 3 describes a time-resolved study on the electron-hole many-body effects in highly excited ZnO at room temperature, in particular band-filling, band-gap renormalization, and the disappearance of the exciton resonance due to screening. In Chapter 4, the quantum many-body theory developed and experimentally verified in Chapter 3, is used to explain laser action in ZnO nanowires, and compared with experimental results. In contrast to current opinion, the results indicate that excitons are not involved in the laser action. The measured emission wavelength, the laser threshold, and the spectral distance between the laser modes are shown to be excellently explained by our quantum many-body theory. Multiple scattering of light in a forest of nanowires can be employed to enhance light absorption in solar cells. Optimization of this technique requires better understanding of light diffusion in such a nanowire forest. In Chapter 5 we demonstrate a method, based on two-photon absorption, to directly measure the residence time of light in a nanowire forest, and we show that scanning electron microscope (SEM) images can be used to predict the photon mean free path. In Chapter 6 we present a new ultrafast all-optical transistor, consisting of a forest of ZnO nanowires. After excitation, laser action in this forest causes rapid recombination of the majority of the electrons and holes, limiting the amplification to 1.2 picoseconds only

  18. The relation between the quantum discord and quantum teleportation: The physical interpretation of the transition point between different quantum discord decay regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roszak, K.; Cywiński, Ł.

    2015-10-01

    We study quantum teleportation via Bell-diagonal mixed states of two qubits in the context of the intrinsic properties of the quantum discord. We show that when the quantum-correlated state of the two qubits is used for quantum teleportation, the character of the teleportation efficiency changes substantially depending on the Bell-diagonal-state parameters, which can be seen when the worst-case-scenario or best-case-scenario fidelity is studied. Depending on the parameter range, one of two types of single-qubit states is hardest/easiest to teleport. The transition between these two parameter ranges coincides exactly with the transition between the range of classical correlation decay and quantum correlation decay characteristic for the evolution of the quantum discord. The correspondence provides a physical interpretation for the prominent feature of the decay of the quantum discord.

  19. 'Who Thinks Abstractly?': Quantum Theory and the Architecture of Physical Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Plotnitsky, Arkady

    2011-03-28

    Beginning with its introduction by W. Heisenberg, quantum mechanics was often seen as an overly abstract theory, mathematically and physically, vis-a-vis classical physics or relativity. This perception was amplified by the fact that, while the quantum-mechanical formalism provided effective predictive algorithms for the probabilistic predictions concerning quantum experiments, it appeared unable to describe, even by way idealization, quantum processes themselves in space and time, in the way classical mechanics or relativity did. The aim of the present paper is to reconsider the nature of mathematical and physical abstraction in modern physics by offering an analysis of the concept of ''physical fact'' and of the concept of 'physical concept', in part by following G. W. F. Hegel's and G. Deleuze's arguments concerning the nature of conceptual thinking. In classical physics, relativity, and quantum physics alike, I argue, physical concepts are defined by the following main features - 1) their multi-component multiplicity; 2) their essential relations to problems; 3) and the interactions between physical, mathematical, and philosophical components within each concept. It is the particular character of these interactions in quantum mechanics, as defined by its essentially predictive (rather than descriptive) nature, that distinguishes it from classical physics and relativity.

  20. Chemical physics: Quantum control of light-induced reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, David W.

    2016-07-01

    An investigation of how ultracold molecules are broken apart by light reveals surprising, previously unobserved quantum effects. The work opens up avenues of research in quantum optics. See Letter p.122

  1. Classical Physics and the Bounds of Quantum Correlations.

    PubMed

    Frustaglia, Diego; Baltanás, José P; Velázquez-Ahumada, María C; Fernández-Prieto, Armando; Lujambio, Aintzane; Losada, Vicente; Freire, Manuel J; Cabello, Adán

    2016-06-24

    A unifying principle explaining the numerical bounds of quantum correlations remains elusive, despite the efforts devoted to identifying it. Here, we show that these bounds are indeed not exclusive to quantum theory: for any abstract correlation scenario with compatible measurements, models based on classical waves produce probability distributions indistinguishable from those of quantum theory and, therefore, share the same bounds. We demonstrate this finding by implementing classical microwaves that propagate along meter-size transmission-line circuits and reproduce the probabilities of three emblematic quantum experiments. Our results show that the "quantum" bounds would also occur in a classical universe without quanta. The implications of this observation are discussed. PMID:27391707

  2. Classical Physics and the Bounds of Quantum Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frustaglia, Diego; Baltanás, José P.; Velázquez-Ahumada, María C.; Fernández-Prieto, Armando; Lujambio, Aintzane; Losada, Vicente; Freire, Manuel J.; Cabello, Adán

    2016-06-01

    A unifying principle explaining the numerical bounds of quantum correlations remains elusive, despite the efforts devoted to identifying it. Here, we show that these bounds are indeed not exclusive to quantum theory: for any abstract correlation scenario with compatible measurements, models based on classical waves produce probability distributions indistinguishable from those of quantum theory and, therefore, share the same bounds. We demonstrate this finding by implementing classical microwaves that propagate along meter-size transmission-line circuits and reproduce the probabilities of three emblematic quantum experiments. Our results show that the "quantum" bounds would also occur in a classical universe without quanta. The implications of this observation are discussed.

  3. A synthetic approach to the transfer matrix method in classical and quantum physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujol, O.; Pérez, J. P.

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose a synthetic approach to the transfer matrix method in classical and quantum physics. This method is an efficient tool to deal with complicated physical systems of practical importance in geometrical light or charged particle optics, classical electronics, mechanics, electromagnetics and quantum physics. Teaching would benefit by using the abcd-matrix which in addition is easy to implement on a personal computer.

  4. ``Simplest Molecule'' Clarifies Modern Physics II. Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, William; Reimer, Tyle

    2015-05-01

    A ``simplest molecule'' consisting of CW- laser beam pairs helps to clarify relativity from poster board - I. In spite of a seemingly massless evanescence, an optical pair also clarifies classical and quantum mechanics of relativistic matter and antimatter. Logical extension of (x,ct) and (ω,ck) geometry gives relativistic action functions of Hamiltonian, Lagrangian, and Poincare that may be constructed in a few ruler-and-compass steps to relate relativistic parameters for group or phase velocity, momentum, energy, rapidity, stellar aberration, Doppler shifts, and DeBroglie wavelength. This exposes hyperbolic and circular trigonometry as two sides of one coin connected by Legendre contact transforms. One is Hamiltonian-like with a longitudinal rapidity parameter ρ (log of Doppler shift). The other is Lagrange-like with a transverse angle parameter σ (stellar aberration). Optical geometry gives recoil in absorption, emission, and resonant Raman-Compton acceleration and distinguishes Einstein rest mass, Galilean momentum mass, and Newtonian effective mass. (Molecular photons appear less bullet-like and more rocket-like.) In conclusion, modern space-time physics appears as a simple result of the more self-evident Evenson's axiom: ``All colors go c.''

  5. "simplest Molecule" Clarifies Modern Physics II. Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, T. C.; Harter, W. G.

    2014-06-01

    A "simplest molecule" consisting of CW-laser beam pairs helps to clarify relativity in Talk I. In spite of a seemingly massless evanescence, an optical pair also clarifies classical and quantum mechanics of relativistic matter and anti-matter. *Logical extension of (x,ct) and (ω,ck) geometry gives relativistic action functions of Hamiltonian, Lagrangian, and Poincare that may be constructed in a few ruler-and-compass steps to relate relativistic parameters for group or phase velocity, momentum, energy, rapidity, stellar aberration, Doppler shifts, and DeBroglie wavelength. This exposes hyperbolic and circular trigonometry as two sides of one coin connected by Legendre contact transforms. One is Hamiltonian-like with a longitudinal rapidity parameter ρ (log of Doppler shift). The other is Lagrange-like with a transverse angle parameter σ (stellar aberration). Optical geometry gives recoil in absorption, emission, and resonant Raman-Compton acceleration and distinguishes Einstein rest mass, Galilean momentum mass, and Newtonian effective mass. (Molecular photons appear less bullet-like and more rocket-like.) In conclusion, modern space-time physics appears as a simple result of the more self-evident Evenson's axiom: "All colors go c."

  6. Some Examples of Contextuality in Physics: Implications to Quantum Cognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acacio de Barros, J.; Oas, Gary

    Contextuality, the impossibility of assigning a single random variable to represent the outcomes of the same measurement procedure under different experimental conditions, is a central aspect of quantum mechanics. Thus defined, it appears in well-known cases in quantum mechanics, such as the double-slit experiment, the Bell-EPR experiment, and the Kochen-Specker theorem. Here we examine contextuality in such cases, and discuss how each of them bring different conceptual issues when applied to quantum cognition. We then focus on the shortcomings of using quantum probabilities to describe social systems, and explain how negative quasi-probability distributions may address such limitations.

  7. Physical Meaning of the Optimum Measurement Process in Quantum Detection Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osaki, Masao; Kozuka, Haruhisa; Hirota, Osamu

    1996-01-01

    The optimum measurement processes are represented as the optimum detection operators in the quantum detection theory. The error probability by the optimum detection operators goes beyond the standard quantum limit automatically. However the optimum detection operators are given by pure mathematical descriptions. In order to realize a communication system overcoming the standard quantum limit, we try to give the physical meaning of the optimum detection operators.

  8. PREFACE: International Symposium "Nanoscience and Quantum Physics 2011" (nanoPHYS'11)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Susumu; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Nakamura, Takashi; Nakamura, Masaaki

    2011-07-01

    Quantum physics has developed modern views of nature for more than a century. In addition to this traditional role, quantum physics has acquired new significance in the 21st century as the field responsible for driving and supporting nanoscience research, which will have even greater importance in the future because nanoscience will be the academic foundation for new technologies. The Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, are now conducting a "Nanoscience and Quantum Physics" project (Physics G-COE project) supported by the Global Center of Excellence Program of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (MEXT) in order to promote research and education in these important academic fields. The International Symposium on Nanoscience and Quantum Physics, held in Tokyo, Japan, 26-28 January 2011 (nanoPHYS'11) was organized by the Physics G-COE project of the Tokyo Institute of Technology to provide an international forum for the open exchange of topical information and for stimulating discussion on novel concepts and future prospects of nanoscience and quantum physics. There were a total of 118 papers including 34 invited papers. This nanoPHYS'11 is the fourth symposium of this kind organized by the Tokyo Institute of Technology. Topics focused on in the symposium included: Category 1: Novel nanostructure (Nanowires, Nanotubes, Spin-related structure, etc) Category 2: Novel transport and electronic properties (Graphene, Topological insulators, Coherent control, etc) Category 3: Electronic and optical properties of nanostructure Category 4: Fundamental physics and new concept in quantum physics Category 5: Quantum Physics - Quantum information Category 6: Quantum Physics - Nuclear and Hadron Physics Category 7: Quantum Physics - Astrophysics, etc All the papers submitted to this issue have been reviewed under a stringent refereeing process, according to the normal rules of this Journal. The editors are grateful to all the

  9. Visualization of the Invisible: The Qubit as Key to Quantum Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dür, Wolfgang; Heusler, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Quantum mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics, however rather difficult to teach at the introductory level due to the conceptual difficulties and the required advanced mathematics. Nevertheless, attempts to identify relevant features of quantum mechanics and to put forward concepts of how to teach it have been proposed. Here we present…

  10. The Place of Learning Quantum Theory in Physics Teacher Education: Motivational Elements Arising from the Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Körhasan, Nilüfer Didis

    2015-01-01

    Quantum theory is one of the most successful theories in physics. Because of its abstract, mathematical, and counter-intuitive nature, many students have problems learning the theory, just as teachers experience difficulty in teaching it. Pedagogical research on quantum theory has mainly focused on cognitive issues. However, affective issues about…

  11. Exponential Sensitivity and its Cost in Quantum Physics.

    PubMed

    Gilyén, András; Kiss, Tamás; Jex, Igor

    2016-01-01

    State selective protocols, like entanglement purification, lead to an essentially non-linear quantum evolution, unusual in naturally occurring quantum processes. Sensitivity to initial states in quantum systems, stemming from such non-linear dynamics, is a promising perspective for applications. Here we demonstrate that chaotic behaviour is a rather generic feature in state selective protocols: exponential sensitivity can exist for all initial states in an experimentally realisable optical scheme. Moreover, any complex rational polynomial map, including the example of the Mandelbrot set, can be directly realised. In state selective protocols, one needs an ensemble of initial states, the size of which decreases with each iteration. We prove that exponential sensitivity to initial states in any quantum system has to be related to downsizing the initial ensemble also exponentially. Our results show that magnifying initial differences of quantum states (a Schrödinger microscope) is possible; however, there is a strict bound on the number of copies needed. PMID:26861076

  12. Exponential Sensitivity and its Cost in Quantum Physics

    PubMed Central

    Gilyén, András; Kiss, Tamás; Jex, Igor

    2016-01-01

    State selective protocols, like entanglement purification, lead to an essentially non-linear quantum evolution, unusual in naturally occurring quantum processes. Sensitivity to initial states in quantum systems, stemming from such non-linear dynamics, is a promising perspective for applications. Here we demonstrate that chaotic behaviour is a rather generic feature in state selective protocols: exponential sensitivity can exist for all initial states in an experimentally realisable optical scheme. Moreover, any complex rational polynomial map, including the example of the Mandelbrot set, can be directly realised. In state selective protocols, one needs an ensemble of initial states, the size of which decreases with each iteration. We prove that exponential sensitivity to initial states in any quantum system has to be related to downsizing the initial ensemble also exponentially. Our results show that magnifying initial differences of quantum states (a Schrödinger microscope) is possible; however, there is a strict bound on the number of copies needed. PMID:26861076

  13. Understanding the physics of a possible non-Abelian fractional quantum hall effect state.

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Wei; Crawford, Matthew; Tallakulam, Madhu; Ross, Anthony Joseph, III

    2010-10-01

    We wish to present in this report experimental results from a one-year Senior Council Tier-1 LDRD project that focused on understanding the physics of a possible non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall effect state. We first give a general introduction to the quantum Hall effect, and then present the experimental results on the edge-state transport in a special fractional quantum Hall effect state at Landau level filling {nu} = 5/2 - a possible non-Abelian quantum Hall state. This state has been at the center of current basic research due to its potential applications in fault-resistant topological quantum computation. We will also describe the semiconductor 'Hall-bar' devices we used in this project. Electron physics in low dimensional systems has been one of the most exciting fields in condensed matter physics for many years. This is especially true of quantum Hall effect (QHE) physics, which has seen its intellectual wealth applied in and has influenced many seemingly unrelated fields, such as the black hole physics, where a fractional QHE-like phase has been identified. Two Nobel prizes have been awarded for discoveries of quantum Hall effects: in 1985 to von Klitzing for the discovery of integer QHE, and in 1998 to Tsui, Stormer, and Laughlin for the discovery of fractional QHE. Today, QH physics remains one of the most vibrant research fields, and many unexpected novel quantum states continue to be discovered and to surprise us, such as utilizing an exotic, non-Abelian FQHE state at {nu} = 5/2 for fault resistant topological computation. Below we give a briefly introduction of the quantum Hall physics.

  14. Quantum Chromodynamics and nuclear physics at extreme energy density. Progress report, May 1992--April 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, B.

    1993-05-15

    This report discusses research in the following topics: Hadron structure physics; relativistic heavy ion collisions; finite- temperature QCD; real-time lattice gauge theory; and studies in quantum field theory.

  15. On estimating perturbative coefficients in quantum field theory and statistical physics

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, M.A. |

    1994-05-01

    The authors present a method for estimating perturbative coefficients in quantum field theory and Statistical Physics. They are able to obtain reliable error-bars for each estimate. The results, in all cases, are excellent.

  16. Destructive physical analysis of degraded quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sin, Y.; Lingley, Z.; Brodie, M.; Presser, N.; Moss, S. C.; Kirch, J.; Chang, C. C.; Boyle, C.; Mawst, L. J.; Botez, D.; Lindberg, D.; Earles, T.

    2015-03-01

    Remarkable progress made in quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) has led them to find an increasing number of applications in remote sensing, chemical sensing, and free space communications, in addition to potential space applications. However, little has been reported on reliability and failure modes of QCLs although it is crucial to understand failure modes and underlying degradation mechanisms in developing QCLs that meet lifetime requirements for space missions. Focused ion beam (FIB) techniques have been employed to investigate failure modes in various types of laser diodes. Our group has also used FIB to study failure modes in single-mode and multi-mode InGaAs-AlGaAs strained QW lasers, but few groups have used this technique to investigate failure modes in QCLs. In our study, we report on destructive physical analysis (DPA) of degraded InGaAs-InAlAs QCLs using FIB and high-resolution TEM techniques. The active region of QCLs that we studied consisted of two-23 stage layers of InGaAs-InAlAs separated by a 0.5 μm thick InP spacer layer for 8.4μm QCLs and 30-stage layers of lattice-matched InGaAs-InAlAs heterostructure for 4.7μm QCLs. The MOVPE-grown laser structures were fabricated into deep-etched ridge waveguide QCLs. L-I-V-spectral characteristics were measured at RT under pulsed operation. Our 8.4μm QCLs with as-cleaved and HR-coated facets showed a laser threshold of 1.7 A and a threshold voltage of 13 V at RT, whereas our 4.7μm QCLs without facet coating showed threshold currents of 320 - 400 mA and threshold voltages of 13 - 13.5V. Failures were generated via short-term tests of QCLs. FIB systems were used to study the damage area on the front facet and also to prepare TEM cross sections at different locations along the waveguide for defect and chemical analyses using a HR-TEM. In contrast to the COMD damaged area showing as a blister on the front facet of QW lasers, the damaged area of QCLs was significantly extended into the InP substrate due to a much

  17. Report and recommendations on multimedia materials for teaching and learning quantum physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, B.; Dębowska, E.; Arpornthip, T.; Girwidz, R.; Greczyło, T.; Kohnle, A.; Melder, T.; Michelini, M.; Santi, L.; Silva, J.

    2016-05-01

    An international collaboration of physicists, affiliated with Multimedia Physics for Teaching and Learning (MPTL) and MERLOT, performed a survey and review of multimedia-based learning materials for quantum physics and quantum mechanics. The review process was based on more than a decade of experience with similar topical learning material reviews. A total of approximately 250 items were considered for review and eight were recommended by the reviewers. These are described in this report. Observations about quantum learning resources and multimedia tools are included.

  18. Can different quantum state vectors correspond to the same physical state? An experimental test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigg, Daniel; Monz, Thomas; Schindler, Philipp; Martinez, Esteban A.; Hennrich, Markus; Blatt, Rainer; Pusey, Matthew F.; Rudolph, Terry; Barrett, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A century after the development of quantum theory, the interpretation of a quantum state is still discussed. If a physicist claims to have produced a system with a particular quantum state vector, does this represent directly a physical property of the system, or is the state vector merely a summary of the physicist’s information about the system? Assume that a state vector corresponds to a probability distribution over possible values of an unknown physical or ‘ontic’ state. Then, a recent no-go theorem shows that distinct state vectors with overlapping distributions lead to predictions different from quantum theory. We report an experimental test of these predictions using trapped ions. Within experimental error, the results confirm quantum theory. We analyse which kinds of models are ruled out.

  19. Physically feasible three-level transitionless quantum driving with multiple Schrödinger dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xue-Ke; Ai, Qing; Qiu, Jing; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2016-05-01

    Three-level quantum systems, which possess some unique characteristics beyond two-level ones, such as electromagnetically induced transparency, coherent trapping, and Raman scatting, play important roles in solid-state quantum information processing. Here, we introduce an approach to implement the physically feasible three-level transitionless quantum driving with multiple Schrödinger dynamics (MSDs). It can be used to control accurately population transfer and entanglement generation for three-level quantum systems in a nonadiabatic way. Moreover, we propose an experimentally realizable hybrid architecture, based on two nitrogen-vacancy-center ensembles coupled to a transmission line resonator, to realize our transitionless scheme which requires fewer physical resources and simple procedures, and it is more robust against environmental noises and control parameter variations than conventional adiabatic passage techniques. All these features inspire the further application of MSDs on robust quantum information processing in experiment.

  20. Quantum simulations in phase-space: from quantum optics to ultra-cold physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummond, Peter D.; Chaturvedi, Subhash

    2016-07-01

    As a contribution to the international year of light, we give a brief history of quantum optics in phase-space, with new directions including quantum simulations of multipartite Bell violations, opto-mechanics, ultra-cold atomic systems, matter-wave Bell violations, coherent transport and quantum fluctuations in the early Universe. We mostly focus on exact methods using the positive-P representation, and semiclassical truncated Wigner approximations.

  1. Physical interpretation of Jeans instability in quantum plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2014-08-15

    In this paper, we use the quantum hydrodynamics and its hydrostatic limit to investigate the newly posed problem of Jeans instability in quantum plasmas from a different point of view in connection with the well-known Chandrasekhar mass-limit on highly collapsed degenerate stellar configurations. It is shown that the hydrodynamic stability of a spherically symmetric uniform quantum plasma with a given fixed mass is achieved by increase in its mass-density or decrease in the radius under the action of gravity. It is also remarked that for masses beyond the limiting Jeans-mass, the plasma becomes completely unstable and the gravitational collapse would proceed forever. This limiting mass is found to depend strongly on the composition of the quantum plasma and the atomic-number of the constituent ions, where it is observed that heavier elements rather destabilize the quantum plasma hydrodynamically. It is also shown that the Chandrasekhar mass-limit for white dwarf stars can be directly obtained from the hydrostatic limit of our model.

  2. Experimental quantum simulations of many-body physics with trapped ions.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Ch; Porras, Diego; Schaetz, Tobias

    2012-02-01

    Direct experimental access to some of the most intriguing quantum phenomena is not granted due to the lack of precise control of the relevant parameters in their naturally intricate environment. Their simulation on conventional computers is impossible, since quantum behaviour arising with superposition states or entanglement is not efficiently translatable into the classical language. However, one could gain deeper insight into complex quantum dynamics by experimentally simulating the quantum behaviour of interest in another quantum system, where the relevant parameters and interactions can be controlled and robust effects detected sufficiently well. Systems of trapped ions provide unique control of both the internal (electronic) and external (motional) degrees of freedom. The mutual Coulomb interaction between the ions allows for large interaction strengths at comparatively large mutual ion distances enabling individual control and readout. Systems of trapped ions therefore exhibit a prominent system in several physical disciplines, for example, quantum information processing or metrology. Here, we will give an overview of different trapping techniques of ions as well as implementations for coherent manipulation of their quantum states and discuss the related theoretical basics. We then report on the experimental and theoretical progress in simulating quantum many-body physics with trapped ions and present current approaches for scaling up to more ions and more-dimensional systems. PMID:22790343

  3. On the Reasonable and Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in Classical and Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnitsky, Arkady

    2011-03-01

    The point of departure for this article is Werner Heisenberg's remark, made in 1929: "It is not surprising that our language [or conceptuality] should be incapable of describing processes occurring within atoms, for … it was invented to describe the experiences of daily life, and these consist only of processes involving exceedingly large numbers of atoms. … Fortunately, mathematics is not subject to this limitation, and it has been possible to invent a mathematical scheme—the quantum theory [quantum mechanics]—which seems entirely adequate for the treatment of atomic processes." The cost of this discovery, at least in Heisenberg's and related interpretations of quantum mechanics (such as that of Niels Bohr), is that, in contrast to classical mechanics, the mathematical scheme in question no longer offers a description, even an idealized one, of quantum objects and processes. This scheme only enables predictions, in general, probabilistic in character, of the outcomes of quantum experiments. As a result, a new type of the relationships between mathematics and physics is established, which, in the language of Eugene Wigner adopted in my title, indeed makes the effectiveness of mathematics unreasonable in quantum but, as I shall explain, not in classical physics. The article discusses these new relationships between mathematics and physics in quantum theory and their implications for theoretical physics—past, present, and future.

  4. Derivation of quantum mechanics from a single fundamental modification of the relations between physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Holger F.

    2014-04-01

    Recent results obtained in quantum measurements indicate that the fundamental relations between three physical properties of a system can be represented by complex conditional probabilities. Here, it is shown that these relations provide a fully deterministic and universally valid framework on which all of quantum mechanics can be based. Specifically, quantum mechanics can be derived by combining the rules of Bayesian probability theory with only a single additional law that explains the phases of complex probabilities. This law, which I introduce here as the law of quantum ergodicity, is based on the observation that the reality of physical properties cannot be separated from the dynamics by which they emerge in measurement interactions. The complex phases are an expression of this inseparability and represent the dynamical structure of transformations between the different properties. In its quantitative form, the law of quantum ergodicity describes a fundamental relation between the ergodic probabilities obtained by dynamical averaging and the deterministic relations between three properties expressed by the complex conditional probabilities. The complete formalism of quantum mechanics can be derived from this one relation, without any axiomatic mathematical assumptions about state vectors or superpositions. It is therefore possible to explain all quantum phenomena as the consequence of a single fundamental law of physics.

  5. Does Quantum Physics Refute Realism, Materialism and Determinism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Mario

    2012-01-01

    It is argued that the correct answer to the three questions in the title is "no": that the theses being denied derive from traditional philosophy, not from the way the quantum theories are used. For example, the calculation of the energy spectrum of an atom assumes the autonomous existence of the atom, rather than its dependence upon the observer.…

  6. Quantum Chromodynamics and Nuclear Physics at Extreme Energy Density

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, B.; Bass, S.A.; Chandrasekharan, S.; Mehen, T.; Springer, R.P.

    2005-11-07

    The report describes research in theoretical quantum chromodynamics, including effective field theories of hadronic interactions, properties of strongly interacting matter at extreme energy density, phenomenology of relativistic heavy ion collisions, and algorithms and numerical simulations of lattice gauge theory and other many-body systems.

  7. Quantum Computation and Quantum Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Michael A.; Chuang, Isaac L.

    2010-12-01

    Part I. Fundamental Concepts: 1. Introduction and overview; 2. Introduction to quantum mechanics; 3. Introduction to computer science; Part II. Quantum Computation: 4. Quantum circuits; 5. The quantum Fourier transform and its application; 6. Quantum search algorithms; 7. Quantum computers: physical realization; Part III. Quantum Information: 8. Quantum noise and quantum operations; 9. Distance measures for quantum information; 10. Quantum error-correction; 11. Entropy and information; 12. Quantum information theory; Appendices; References; Index.

  8. One-dimensional chain of quantum molecule motors as a mathematical physics model for muscle fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Tie-Yan

    2015-12-01

    A quantum chain model of multiple molecule motors is proposed as a mathematical physics theory for the microscopic modeling of classical force-velocity relation and tension transients in muscle fibers. The proposed model was a quantum many-particle Hamiltonian to predict the force-velocity relation for the slow release of muscle fibers, which has not yet been empirically defined and was much more complicated than the hyperbolic relationships. Using the same Hamiltonian model, a mathematical force-velocity relationship was proposed to explain the tension observed when the muscle was stimulated with an alternative electric current. The discrepancy between input electric frequency and the muscle oscillation frequency could be explained physically by the Doppler effect in this quantum chain model. Further more, quantum physics phenomena were applied to explore the tension time course of cardiac muscle and insect flight muscle. Most of the experimental tension transient curves were found to correspond to the theoretical output of quantum two- and three-level models. Mathematical modeling electric stimulus as photons exciting a quantum three-level particle reproduced most of the tension transient curves of water bug Lethocerus maximus. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Foundation for the Central Universities of China.

  9. Al+ optical clocks for fundamental physics, geodesy, and quantum metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Chin-Wen

    2011-05-01

    Laser-cooled trapped atoms have long been recognized as potentially very accurate frequency standards for clocks. Ultimate accuracies of 10-18 to 10-19 appear possible, limited by the time-dilation of trapped ions that move at laser-cooled velocities. The Al+ ion is an attractive candidate for high accuracy, owing to its narrow electronic transition in the optical regime and low sensitivity to ambient field perturbations. Precision spectroscopy on Al+ is enabled by quantum information techniques. With Al+ ``quantum-logic'' clocks, the current accuracy of 8.6 ×10-18 has enabled a geo-potential-difference measurement that detected a height change of 37 +/- 17 cm due to the gravitational red-shift. We have also observed quantum coherence between two Al+ ions with a record Q-factor of 3.4 ×1016, and compared the Al+ resonance frequency to that of a single Hg+ ion to place limits on the temporal variation of the fine-structure constant. This work is done in collaboration with D. B. Hume, M. J. Thorpe, D. J. Wineland, and T. Rosenband. Work supported by ONR, AFOSR, DARPA, NSA, and IARPA.

  10. Perspectives in Quantum Physics: Epistemological, Ontological and Pedagogical--An Investigation into Student and Expert Perspectives on the Physical Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics, with Implications for Modern Physics Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baily, Charles Raymond

    2011-01-01

    A common learning goal for modern physics instructors is for students to recognize a difference between the experimental uncertainty of classical physics and the fundamental uncertainty of quantum mechanics. Our studies suggest this notoriously difficult task may be frustrated by the intuitively "realist" perspectives of introductory students, and…

  11. Visualization of the Invisible: The Qubit as Key to Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dür, Wolfgang; Heusler, Stefan

    2014-11-01

    Quantum mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics, however rather difficult to teach at the introductory level due to the conceptual difficulties and the required advanced mathematics. Nevertheless, attempts to identify relevant features of quantum mechanics and to put forward concepts of how to teach it have been proposed.1-8 Here we present an approach to quantum physics based on the simplest quantum mechanical system—the quantum bit (qubit).1 Like its classical counterpart—the bit—a qubit corresponds to a two-level system, i.e., some system with a physical property that can admit two possible values. While typically a physical system has more than just one property or the property can admit more than just two values, in many situations most degrees of freedom can be considered to be fixed or frozen. Hence a variety of systems can be effectively described as a qubit. For instance, one may consider the spin of an electron or atom, with spin up and spin down as two possible values, and where other properties of the particle such as its mass or its position are fixed. Further examples include the polarization degree of freedom of a photon (horizontal and vertical polarization), two electronic degrees of freedom (i.e., two energy levels) of an atom, or the position of an atom in a double well potential (atom in left or right well). In all cases, only two states are relevant to describe the system.

  12. Quantum sweeps, synchronization, and Kibble-Zurek physics in dissipative quantum spin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriet, Loïc; Le Hur, Karyn

    2016-02-01

    We address dissipation effects on the nonequilibrium quantum dynamics of an ensemble of spins-1/2 coupled via an Ising interaction. Dissipation is modeled by a (Ohmic) bath of harmonic oscillators at zero temperature and correspond either to the sound modes of a one-dimensional Bose-Einstein (quasi-)condensate or to the zero-point fluctuations of a long transmission line. We consider the dimer comprising two spins and the quantum Ising chain with long-range interactions and develop an (mathematically and numerically) exact stochastic approach to address nonequilibrium protocols in the presence of an environment. For the two-spin case, we first investigate the dissipative quantum phase transition induced by the environment through quantum quenches and study the effect of the environment on the synchronization properties. Then we address Landau-Zener-Stueckelberg-Majorana protocols for two spins and for the spin array. In this latter case, we adopt a stochastic mean-field point of view and present a Kibble-Zurek-type argument to account for interaction effects in the lattice. Such dissipative quantum spin arrays can be realized in ultracold atoms, trapped ions, and mesoscopic systems and are related to Kondo lattice models.

  13. Learning Pathways in High-School Level Quantum Atomic Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedderer, Hans; Petri, Juergen

    Investigations of changes in conceptions during physics instruction are the logical and necessary steps to follow successful international research on students' preinstructional conceptions. The theoretical perspective integrates currently available frameworks of cognition, cognitive states, and cognitive processes in physics. Particular emphasis…

  14. Quantum Optics, Diffraction Theory, and Elementary Particle Physics

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Physical optics has expanded greatly in recent years. Though it remains part of the ancestry of elementary particle physics, there are once again lessons to be learned from it. I shall discuss several of these, including some that have emerged at CERN and Brookhaven.

  15. The Physics of Life and Quantum Complex Matter: A Case of Cross-Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Poccia, Nicola; Bianconi, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Progress in the science of complexity, from the Big Bang to the coming of humankind, from chemistry and biology to geosciences and medicine, and from materials engineering to energy sciences, is leading to a shift of paradigm in the physical sciences. The focus is on the understanding of the non-equilibrium process in fine tuned systems. Quantum complex materials such as high temperature superconductors and living matter are both non-equilibrium and fine tuned systems. These topics have been subbjects of scientific discussion in the Rome Symposium on the “Quantum Physics of Living Matter”. PMID:26791661

  16. Analog quantum computing (AQC) by revisiting the underlying physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werbos, Paul J.

    2015-05-01

    It has been proven that universal quantum computers based on qubits and classical analog networks both have superTuring capabilities. It is a grand challenge to computer science to prove that the combination of the two, in analog (continuous variable) quantum computing, offers supersuperTuring capability, the best we can achieve. Computing with continuous spins is now the most promising path AQC. Two papers at SPIE2014 described unbreakable quantum codes using continuous spins beyond what traditional qubits allow. To make this real, we must first develop a realistic ability to model and predict the behavior of networks of spin gates which act in part as polarizers. Last year I proposed a triphoton experiment, where three entangled photons go to linear polarizers set to angles θa, θb and θc. Assuming a "collapse of the wave function" yields predictions for the coincidence detection rate, R3/R0(θa, θb, θc) significantly different from the prediction of a new family of models based on classical Markov Random Fields (MRF) across space time, even though both yield the same correct prediction in the two-photon case. We cannot expect to predict systems of 100 entangled photons correctly if we cannot even predict three yet. Yanhua Shih is currently performing this experiment, as a first step to demonstrating a new technology to produce 100 entangled photons (collaborating with Scully) and understanding larger systems. I have also developed continuous-time versions of the MRF models and of "collapse of the wave function", so as to eliminate the need to assume metaphysical observers in general.

  17. Does Quantum Physics Refute Realism, Materialism and Determinism?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunge, Mario

    2012-10-01

    It is argued that the correct answer to the three questions in the title is "no": that the theses being denied derive from traditional philosophy, not from the way the quantum theories are used. For example, the calculation of the energy spectrum of an atom assumes the autonomous existence of the atom, rather than its dependence upon the observer. However, it is also suggested that the problem has been unnecessarily complicated by a careless use of the terms `realism', `materialism', and `determinism'. Precise definitions of these words are proposed.

  18. PEET: a Matlab tool for estimating physical gate errors in quantum information processing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hocker, David; Kosut, Robert; Rabitz, Herschel

    2016-06-01

    A Physical Error Estimation Tool (PEET) is introduced in Matlab for predicting physical gate errors of quantum information processing (QIP) operations by constructing and then simulating gate sequences for a wide variety of user-defined, Hamiltonian-based physical systems. PEET is designed to accommodate the interdisciplinary needs of quantum computing design by assessing gate performance for users familiar with the underlying physics of QIP, as well as those interested in higher-level computing operations. The structure of PEET separates the bulk of the physical details of a system into Gate objects, while the construction of quantum computing gate operations are contained in GateSequence objects. Gate errors are estimated by Monte Carlo sampling of noisy gate operations. The main utility of PEET, though, is the implementation of QuantumControl methods that act to generate and then test gate sequence and pulse-shaping techniques for QIP performance. This work details the structure of PEET and gives instructive examples for its operation.

  19. Physics of risk and uncertainty in quantum decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.

    2009-10-01

    The Quantum Decision Theory, developed recently by the authors, is applied to clarify the role of risk and uncertainty in decision making and in particular in relation to the phenomenon of dynamic inconsistency. By formulating this notion in precise mathematical terms, we distinguish three types of inconsistency: time inconsistency, planning paradox, and inconsistency occurring in some discounting effects. While time inconsistency is well accounted for in classical decision theory, the planning paradox is in contradiction with classical utility theory. It finds a natural explanation in the frame of the Quantum Decision Theory. Different types of discounting effects are analyzed and shown to enjoy a straightforward explanation within the suggested theory. We also introduce a general methodology based on self-similar approximation theory for deriving the evolution equations for the probabilities of future prospects. This provides a novel classification of possible discount factors, which include the previously known cases (exponential or hyperbolic discounting), but also predicts a novel class of discount factors that decay to a strictly positive constant for very large future time horizons. This class may be useful to deal with very long-term discounting situations associated with intergenerational public policy choices, encompassing issues such as global warming and nuclear waste disposal.

  20. Few-electron physics in Double quantum dots in carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Stecher, Javier; Wunsch, Bernhard; Lukin, Mikahil; Demler, Eugene; Rey, Ana Maria

    2010-03-01

    Recent experimental progress on few-electron quantum dots (also known as artificial atoms) has allowed the controllable manipulation of the spin degrees of freedom of the confined electrons. Such control is at the heart of semiconductor-based spintronics and quantum-information proposals. Double-well quantum dot in semiconducting carbon nanotubes exhibit rich physics due to the additional valley degree of freedom. Here, we study the few-electron spectrum of a carbon-nanotube double quantum dot with spin-orbit coupling. We find that Coulomb interactions can cause strong correlation effects which lead to different ground state transitions. In particular, we show that such strong correlations can produce the disappearance of the Pauli blockade in transport experiments and an interaction-induced ferromagnetic ground state.

  1. A Model of the Creative Process Based on Quantum Physics and Vedic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Laura Hall

    1988-01-01

    Using tenets from Vedic science and quantum physics, this model of the creative process suggests that the unified field of creation is pure consciousness, and that the development of the creative process within individuals mirrors the creative process within the universe. Rational and supra-rational creative thinking techniques are also described.…

  2. Relativity, Quantum Physics and Philosophy in the Upper Secondary Curriculum: Challenges, Opportunities and Proposed Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henriksen, Ellen K.; Bungum, Berit; Angell, Carl; Tellefsen, Catherine W.; Frågåt, Thomas; Bøe, Maria Vetleseter

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we discuss how quantum physics and relativity can be taught in upper secondary school, in ways that promote conceptual understanding and philosophical reflections. We present the ReleQuant project, in which web-based teaching modules have been developed. The modules address competence aims in the Norwegian national curriculum for…

  3. Learning Introductory Quantum Physics: Sensori-Motor Experiences and Mental Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ke, Jiun-Liang; Monk, Martin; Duschl, Richard

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports a cross-sectional study of Taiwanese physics students' understanding of subatomic phenomena that are explained by quantum mechanics. The study uses students' explanations of their answers to items in a questionnaire as a proxy for students' thinking. The variation in students' explanations is discussed as is the development in…

  4. Investigating Student Understanding of Quantum Physics: Spontaneous Models of Conductivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittmann, Michael C.; Steinberg, Richard N.; Redish, Edward F.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates student reasoning about models of conduction. Reports that students often are unable to account for the existence of free electrons in a conductor and create models that lead to incorrect predictions and responses contradictory to expert descriptions of the physics involved. (Contains 36 references.) (Author/YDS)

  5. Quantum steering ellipsoids, extremal physical states and monogamy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, Antony; Jevtic, Sania; Jennings, David; Wiseman, Howard; Rudolph, Terry

    2014-08-01

    Any two-qubit state can be faithfully represented by a steering ellipsoid inside the Bloch sphere, but not every ellipsoid inside the Bloch sphere corresponds to a two-qubit state. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for when the geometric data describe a physical state and investigate maximal volume ellipsoids lying on the physical-unphysical boundary. We derive monogamy relations for steering that are strictly stronger than the Coffman-Kundu-Wootters (CKW) inequality for monogamy of concurrence. The CKW result is thus found to follow from the simple perspective of steering ellipsoid geometry. Remarkably, we can also use steering ellipsoids to derive non-trivial results in classical Euclidean geometry, extending Euler's inequality for the circumradius and inradius of a triangle.

  6. Nonperturbative Quantum Physics from Low-Order Perturbation Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mera, Héctor; Pedersen, Thomas G.; Nikolić, Branislav K.

    2015-10-01

    The Stark effect in hydrogen and the cubic anharmonic oscillator furnish examples of quantum systems where the perturbation results in a certain ionization probability by tunneling processes. Accordingly, the perturbed ground-state energy is shifted and broadened, thus acquiring an imaginary part which is considered to be a paradigm of nonperturbative behavior. Here we demonstrate how the low order coefficients of a divergent perturbation series can be used to obtain excellent approximations to both real and imaginary parts of the perturbed ground state eigenenergy. The key is to use analytic continuation functions with a built-in singularity structure within the complex plane of the coupling constant, which is tailored by means of Bender-Wu dispersion relations. In the examples discussed the analytic continuation functions are Gauss hypergeometric functions, which take as input fourth order perturbation theory and return excellent approximations to the complex perturbed eigenvalue. These functions are Borel consistent and dramatically outperform widely used Padé and Borel-Padé approaches, even for rather large values of the coupling constant.

  7. Topological phases and polaron physics in ultracold quantum gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grusdt, Fabian

    2016-05-01

    The description of quantum many-body systems poses a formidable theoretical challenge. A seemingly simple problem is the coupling of a single impurity atom to non-interacting Bogoliubov phonons in a surrounding Bose-Einstein condensate. The system can be described by a polaron model at intermediate couplings - an 80 year problem. The situation has been realized experimentally, but when the impurity mass is small compared to the Boson mass, neither mean-field nor strong-coupling expansions are valid anymore. Now the impurity acts as an exchange particle, mediating phonon-phonon interactions. In this talk I present a semi-analytical solution to the polaron problem. I will show that the approach can be generalized to solve far-from equilibrium polaron problems, too, and elaborate on connections with recent experiments involving ultracold atoms and photons. A completely different class of many-body problems are systems with topological order. In recent years we have seen an uprise of cold-atomic or photonic implementations of artificial gauge fields, providing a corner stone for the realization of topological phases of matter. In the second part of my talk, I will address the challenging problem how non-local topological orders can be detected. It will be demonstrated that many-body topological invariants can be measured, making use of mobile impurities as coherent probes of the highly entangled groundstates. I will discuss Laughlin states and comment on possible realizations using ultracold atoms.

  8. Nonlinear Riccati equations as a unifying link between linear quantum mechanics and other fields of physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuch, Dieter

    2014-04-01

    Theoretical physics seems to be in a kind of schizophrenic state. Many phenomena in the observable macroscopic world obey nonlinear evolution equations, whereas the microscopic world is governed by quantum mechanics, a fundamental theory that is supposedly linear. In order to combine these two worlds in a common formalism, at least one of them must sacrifice one of its dogmas. I claim that linearity in quantum mechanics is not as essential as it apparently seems since quantum mechanics can be reformulated in terms of nonlinear Riccati equations. In a first step, it will be shown where complex Riccati equations appear in time-dependent quantum mechanics and how they can be treated and compared with similar space-dependent Riccati equations in supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Furthermore, the time-independent Schrödinger equation can also be rewritten as a complex Riccati equation. Finally, it will be shown that (real and complex) Riccati equations also appear in many other fields of physics, like statistical thermodynamics and cosmology.

  9. Gleason-Type Theorem for Projective Measurements, Including Qubits: The Born Rule Beyond Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Zela, F.

    2016-05-01

    Born's quantum probability rule is traditionally included among the quantum postulates as being given by the squared amplitude projection of a measured state over a prepared state, or else as a trace formula for density operators. Both Gleason's theorem and Busch's theorem derive the quantum probability rule starting from very general assumptions about probability measures. Remarkably, Gleason's theorem holds only under the physically unsound restriction that the dimension of the underlying Hilbert space H must be larger than two. Busch's theorem lifted this restriction, thereby including qubits in its domain of validity. However, while Gleason assumed that observables are given by complete sets of orthogonal projectors, Busch made the mathematically stronger assumption that observables are given by positive operator-valued measures. The theorem we present here applies, similarly to the quantum postulate, without restricting the dimension of H and for observables given by complete sets of orthogonal projectors. We also show that the Born rule applies beyond the quantum domain, thereby exhibiting the common root shared by some quantum and classical phenomena.

  10. Predicting the valley physics of silicon quantum dots directly from a device layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamble, John King; Harvey-Collard, Patrick; Jacobson, N. Tobias; Bacewski, Andrew D.; Nielsen, Erik; Montaño, Inès; Rudolph, Martin; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Muller, Richard P.

    Qubits made from electrostatically-defined quantum dots in Si-based systems are excellent candidates for quantum information processing applications. However, the multi-valley structure of silicon's band structure provides additional challenges for the few-electron physics critical to qubit manipulation. Here, we present a theory for valley physics that is predictive, in that we take as input the real physical device geometry and experimental voltage operation schedule, and with minimal approximation compute the resulting valley physics. We present both effective mass theory and atomistic tight-binding calculations for two distinct metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) quantum dot systems, directly comparing them to experimental measurements of the valley splitting. We conclude by assessing these detailed simulations' utility for engineering desired valley physics in future devices. Sandia is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000. The authors gratefully acknowledge support from the Sandia National Laboratories Truman Fellowship Program, which is funded by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program.

  11. Quantum simulation of 2D topological physics in a 1D array of optical cavities

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xi-Wang; Zhou, Xingxiang; Li, Chuan-Feng; Xu, Jin-Shi; Guo, Guang-Can; Zhou, Zheng-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Orbital angular momentum of light is a fundamental optical degree of freedom characterized by unlimited number of available angular momentum states. Although this unique property has proved invaluable in diverse recent studies ranging from optical communication to quantum information, it has not been considered useful or even relevant for simulating nontrivial physics problems such as topological phenomena. Contrary to this misconception, we demonstrate the incredible value of orbital angular momentum of light for quantum simulation by showing theoretically how it allows to study a variety of important 2D topological physics in a 1D array of optical cavities. This application for orbital angular momentum of light not only reduces required physical resources but also increases feasible scale of simulation, and thus makes it possible to investigate important topics such as edge-state transport and topological phase transition in a small simulator ready for immediate experimental exploration. PMID:26145177

  12. Hydrodynamics of the Physical Vacuum: I. Scalar Quantum Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sbitnev, Valeriy I.

    2016-05-01

    Physical vacuum is a special superfluid medium. Its motion is described by the Navier-Stokes equation having two slightly modified terms that relate to internal forces. They are the pressure gradient and the dissipation force because of viscosity. The modifications are as follows: (a) the pressure gradient contains an added term describing the pressure multiplied by the entropy gradient; (b) time-averaged viscosity is zero, but its variance is not zero. Owing to these modifications, the Navier-Stokes equation can be reduced to the Schrödinger equation describing behavior of a particle into the vacuum, which looks like a superfluid medium populated by enormous amount of virtual particle-antiparticle pairs.

  13. Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Correct?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brassard, Gilles; Méthot, André Allan

    2010-04-01

    In an earlier paper written in loving memory of Asher Peres, we gave a critical analysis of the celebrated 1935 paper in which Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) challenged the completeness of quantum mechanics. There, we had pointed out logical shortcomings in the EPR paper. Now, we raise additional questions concerning their suggested program to find a theory that would “provide a complete description of the physical reality”. In particular, we investigate the extent to which the EPR argumentation could have lead to the more dramatic conclusion that quantum mechanics is in fact incorrect. With this in mind, we propose a speculation, made necessary by a logical shortcoming in the EPR paper caused by the lack of a necessary condition for “elements of reality”, and surmise that an eventually complete theory would either be inconsistent with quantum mechanics, or would at least violate Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle.

  14. A topos foundation for theories of physics: II. Daseinisation and the liberation of quantum theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döring, A.; Isham, C. J.

    2008-05-01

    This paper is the second in a series whose goal is to develop a fundamentally new way of constructing theories of physics. The motivation comes from a desire to address certain deep issues that arise when contemplating quantum theories of space and time. Our basic contention is that constructing a theory of physics is equivalent to finding a representation in a topos of a certain formal language that is attached to the system. Classical physics arises when the topos is the category of sets. Other types of theory employ a different topos. In this paper, we study in depth the topos representation of the propositional language, PL(S ), for the case of quantum theory. In doing so, we make a direct link with, and clarify, the earlier work on applying topos theory to quantum physics. The key step is a process we term "daseinisation" by which a projection operator is mapped to a subobject of the spectral presheaf—the topos quantum analog of a classical state space. In the second part of the paper, we change gear with the introduction of the more sophisticated local language L(S ). From this point forward, throughout the rest of the series of papers, our attention will be devoted almost entirely to this language. In the present paper, we use L(S ) to study "truth objects" in the topos. These are objects in the topos that play the role of states: a necessary development as the spectral presheaf has no global elements, and hence, there are no micro-states in the sense of classical physics. Truth objects therefore play a crucial role in our formalism.

  15. Relativity, quantum physics and philosophy in the upper secondary curriculum: challenges, opportunities and proposed approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksen, Ellen K.; Bungum, Berit; Angell, Carl; Tellefsen, Cathrine W.; Frågåt, Thomas; Vetleseter Bøe, Maria

    2014-11-01

    In this article, we discuss how quantum physics and relativity can be taught in upper secondary school, in ways that promote conceptual understanding and philosophical reflections. We present the ReleQuant project, in which web-based teaching modules have been developed. The modules address competence aims in the Norwegian national curriculum for physics (final year of upper secondary education), which is unique in that it includes general relativity, entangled photons and the epistemological consequences of modern physics. These topics, with their high demands on students’ understanding of abstract and counter-intuitive concepts and principles, are challenging for teachers to teach and for students to learn. However, they also provide opportunities to present modern physics in innovative ways that students may find motivating and relevant both in terms of modern technological applications and in terms of contributions to students’ intellectual development. Beginning with these challenges and opportunities, we briefly present previous research and theoretical perspectives with relevance to student learning and motivation in modern physics. Based on this, we outline the ReleQuant teaching approach, where students use written and oral language and a collaborative exploration of animations and simulations as part of their learning process. Finally, we present some of the first experiences from classroom tests of the quantum physics modules.

  16. Teaching quantum physics by the sum over paths approach and GeoGebra simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malgieri, M.; Onorato, P.; De Ambrosis, A.

    2014-09-01

    We present a research-based teaching sequence in introductory quantum physics using the Feynman sum over paths approach. Our reconstruction avoids the historical pathway, and starts by reconsidering optics from the standpoint of the quantum nature of light, analysing both traditional and modern experiments. The core of our educational path lies in the treatment of conceptual and epistemological themes, peculiar of quantum theory, based on evidence from quantum optics, such as the single photon Mach-Zehnder and Zhou-Wang-Mandel experiments. The sequence is supported by a collection of interactive simulations, realized in the open source GeoGebra environment, which we used to assist students in learning the basics of the method, and help them explore the proposed experimental situations as modeled in the sum over paths perspective. We tested our approach in the context of a post-graduate training course for pre-service physics teachers; according to the data we collected, student teachers displayed a greatly improved understanding of conceptual issues, and acquired significant abilities in using the sum over path method for problem solving.

  17. Circuit quantum electrodynamics simulator of flat band physics in a Lieb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zi-He; Wang, Yan-Pu; Xue, Zheng-Yuan; Yang, Wan-Li; Hu, Yong; Gao, Jin-Hua; Wu, Ying

    2016-06-01

    The concept of flat band plays an important role in strongly correlated many-body physics. However, the demonstration of the flat band physics is highly nontrivial due to intrinsic limitations in conventional condensed-matter materials. Here we propose a circuit quantum electrodynamics simulator of the two-dimensional (2D) Lieb lattice exhibiting a flat middle band. By exploiting the parametric conversion method, we design a photonic Lieb lattice with in situ tunable hopping strengths in a 2D array of coupled superconducting transmissionline resonators. Moreover, the flexibility of our proposal enables the incorporation of both the artificial gauge field and the strong photon-photon interaction in a time- and site-resolved manner. To unambiguously demonstrate the synthesized flat band, we further investigate the observation of the flat band localization of microwave photons through the pumping and the steady-state measurements of only a few sites on the lattice. Requiring only current level of technique and being robust against imperfections in realistic circuits, our scheme can be readily tested in experiment and may pave a new way towards the realization of exotic photonic quantum Hall fluids including anomalous quantum Hall effect and bosonic fractional quantum Hall effect without magnetic field.

  18. BOOK REVIEW: The Quantum Mechanics Solver: How to Apply Quantum Theory to Modern Physics, 2nd edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbin, J. M.

    2007-07-01

    he hallmark of a good book of problems is that it allows you to become acquainted with an unfamiliar topic quickly and efficiently. The Quantum Mechanics Solver fits this description admirably. The book contains 27 problems based mainly on recent experimental developments, including neutrino oscillations, tests of Bell's inequality, Bose Einstein condensates, and laser cooling and trapping of atoms, to name a few. Unlike many collections, in which problems are designed around a particular mathematical method, here each problem is devoted to a small group of phenomena or experiments. Most problems contain experimental data from the literature, and readers are asked to estimate parameters from the data, or compare theory to experiment, or both. Standard techniques (e.g., degenerate perturbation theory, addition of angular momentum, asymptotics of special functions) are introduced only as they are needed. The style is closer to a non-specialist seminar rather than an undergraduate lecture. The physical models are kept simple; the emphasis is on cultivating conceptual and qualitative understanding (although in many of the problems, the simple models fit the data quite well). Some less familiar theoretical techniques are introduced, e.g. a variational method for lower (not upper) bounds on ground-state energies for many-body systems with two-body interactions, which is then used to derive a surprisingly accurate relation between baryon and meson masses. The exposition is succinct but clear; the solutions can be read as worked examples if you don't want to do the problems yourself. Many problems have additional discussion on limitations and extensions of the theory, or further applications outside physics (e.g., the accuracy of GPS positioning in connection with atomic clocks; proton and ion tumor therapies in connection with the Bethe Bloch formula for charged particles in solids). The problems use mainly non-relativistic quantum mechanics and are organised into three

  19. PT symmetry in quantum physics: From a mathematical curiosity to optical experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Carl M.

    2016-04-01

    Space-time reflection symmetry, or PT symmetry, first proposed in quantum mechanics by Bender and Boettcher in 1998 [1], has become an active research area in fundamental physics. More than two thousand papers have been published on the subject and papers have appeared in two dozen categories of the arXiv. Over two dozen international conferences and symposia specifically devoted to PT symmetry have been held and many PhD theses have been written.

  20. Quantum corrections in modern gauge theories of fundamental interactions and the search for new physics

    SciTech Connect

    Zucchini, R.

    1988-01-01

    We show that the analysis of the quantum effects in gauge theories yields several constraints which may be used to test their internal consistency and physical viability. We have studied, in particular, the Higgs sector of the minimal standard model and tested the universality of the weak interactions and the conserved-vector-current hypothesis. Finally, we have analyzed modular invariance in the closed bosonic string.

  1. Further Evidence in Support of the Universal Nilpotent Grammatical Computational Paradigm of Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcer, Peter J.; Rowlands, Peter

    2010-12-01

    Further evidence is presented in favour of the computational paradigm, conceived and constructed by Rowlands and Diaz, as detailed in Rowlands' book Zero to Infinity (2007) [2], and in particular the authors' paper `The Grammatical Universe: the Laws of Thermodynamics and Quantum Entanglement' [1]. The paradigm, which has isomorphic group and algebraic quantum mechanical language interpretations, not only predicts the well-established facts of quantum physics, the periodic table, chemistry / valence and of molecular biology, whose understanding it extends; it also provides an elegant, simple solution to the unresolved quantum measurement problem. In this fundamental paradigm, all the computational constructs / predictions that emerge, follow from the simple fact, that, as in quantum mechanics, the wave function is defined only up to an arbitrary fixed phase. This fixed phase provides a simple physical understanding of the quantum vacuum in quantum field theory, where only relative phases, known to be able to encode 3+1 relativistic space-time geometries, can be measured. It is the arbitrary fixed measurement standard, against which everything that follows is to be measured, even though the standard itself cannot be, since nothing exists against which to measure it. The standard, as an arbitrary fixed reference phase, functions as the holographic basis for a self-organized universal quantum process of emergent novel fermion states of matter where, following each emergence, the arbitrary standard is re-fixed anew so as to provide a complete history / holographic record or hologram of the current fixed past, advancing an unending irreversible evolution, such as is the evidence of our senses. The fermion states, in accord with the Pauli exclusion principle, each correspond to a unique nilpotent symbol in the infinite alphabet (which specifies the grammar in this nilpotent universal computational rewrite system (NUCRS) paradigm); and the alphabet, as Hill and Rowlands

  2. Further Evidence in Support of the Universal Nilpotent Grammatical Computational Paradigm of Quantum Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Marcer, Peter J.; Rowlands, Peter

    2010-12-22

    Further evidence is presented in favour of the computational paradigm, conceived and constructed by Rowlands and Diaz, as detailed in Rowlands' book Zero to Infinity (2007), and in particular the authors' paper 'The Grammatical Universe: the Laws of Thermodynamics and Quantum Entanglement'. The paradigm, which has isomorphic group and algebraic quantum mechanical language interpretations, not only predicts the well-established facts of quantum physics, the periodic table, chemistry / valence and of molecular biology, whose understanding it extends; it also provides an elegant, simple solution to the unresolved quantum measurement problem. In this fundamental paradigm, all the computational constructs / predictions that emerge, follow from the simple fact, that, as in quantum mechanics, the wave function is defined only up to an arbitrary fixed phase. This fixed phase provides a simple physical understanding of the quantum vacuum in quantum field theory, where only relative phases, known to be able to encode 3+1 relativistic space-time geometries, can be measured. It is the arbitrary fixed measurement standard, against which everything that follows is to be measured, even though the standard itself cannot be, since nothing exists against which to measure it. The standard, as an arbitrary fixed reference phase, functions as the holographic basis for a self-organized universal quantum process of emergent novel fermion states of matter where, following each emergence, the arbitrary standard is re-fixed anew so as to provide a complete history / holographic record or hologram of the current fixed past, advancing an unending irreversible evolution, such as is the evidence of our senses. The fermion states, in accord with the Pauli exclusion principle, each correspond to a unique nilpotent symbol in the infinite alphabet (which specifies the grammar in this nilpotent universal computational rewrite system (NUCRS) paradigm); and the alphabet, as Hill and Rowlands

  3. Q-Machine Plasmas Yielding New Experimental Methodologies of Sheared-Flow and Nano-Quantum Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Hatakeyama, Rikizo; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2008-10-15

    The traditional Q machine has been modified in accordance with the evolution of experimental methodologies ranging from modern plasma physics to extreme nanoscience. A special emphasis is placed on physics of sheared-flow related electron-temperature-gradient modes and nano-quantum physics or electronics based on fullerene and carbon nanotubes.

  4. Critical Examination of Incoherent Operations and a Physically Consistent Resource Theory of Quantum Coherence.

    PubMed

    Chitambar, Eric; Gour, Gilad

    2016-07-15

    Considerable work has recently been directed toward developing resource theories of quantum coherence. In this Letter, we establish a criterion of physical consistency for any resource theory. This criterion requires that all free operations in a given resource theory be implementable by a unitary evolution and projective measurement that are both free operations in an extended resource theory. We show that all currently proposed basis-dependent theories of coherence fail to satisfy this criterion. We further characterize the physically consistent resource theory of coherence and find its operational power to be quite limited. After relaxing the condition of physical consistency, we introduce the class of dephasing-covariant incoherent operations as a natural generalization of the physically consistent operations. Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived for the convertibility of qubit states using dephasing-covariant operations, and we show that these conditions also hold for other well-known classes of incoherent operations. PMID:27472102

  5. Critical Examination of Incoherent Operations and a Physically Consistent Resource Theory of Quantum Coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitambar, Eric; Gour, Gilad

    2016-07-01

    Considerable work has recently been directed toward developing resource theories of quantum coherence. In this Letter, we establish a criterion of physical consistency for any resource theory. This criterion requires that all free operations in a given resource theory be implementable by a unitary evolution and projective measurement that are both free operations in an extended resource theory. We show that all currently proposed basis-dependent theories of coherence fail to satisfy this criterion. We further characterize the physically consistent resource theory of coherence and find its operational power to be quite limited. After relaxing the condition of physical consistency, we introduce the class of dephasing-covariant incoherent operations as a natural generalization of the physically consistent operations. Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived for the convertibility of qubit states using dephasing-covariant operations, and we show that these conditions also hold for other well-known classes of incoherent operations.

  6. Physical Architecture for a Universal Topological Quantum Computer based on a Network of Majorana Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sau, Jay; Barkeshli, Maissam

    The idea of topological quantum computation (TQC) is to encode and manipulate quantum information in an intrinsically fault-tolerant manner by utilizing the physics of topologically ordered phases of matter. Currently, the most promising platforms for a topological qubit are either in terms of Majorana fermion zero modes (MZMs) in spin-orbit coupled superconducting nanowires or in terms of the Kitaev Z2 surface code. However, the topologically robust operations that are possible in these systems are not sufficient for realizing a universal gate set for topological quantum computation. Here, we show that an array of coupled semiconductor/superconductor nanowires with MZM edge states can be used to realize a more sophisticated type of non-Abelian defect, a genon in an Ising X Ising topological state. This leads to a possible implementation of the missing topologically protected pi/8 phase gate and thus paves a path for universal topological quantum computation based on semiconductor-superconductor nanowire technology. We provide detailed numerical estimates of the relevant energy scales, which we show to lie within accessible ranges. J. S. was supported by Microsoft Station Q, startup funds from the University of Maryland and NSF-JQI-PFC.

  7. Entropy and the Shelf Model: A Quantum Physical Approach to a Physical Property

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungermann, Arnd H.

    2006-01-01

    In contrast to most other thermodynamic data, entropy values are not given in relation to a certain--more or less arbitrarily defined--zero level. They are listed in standard thermodynamic tables as absolute values of specific substances. Therefore these values describe a physical property of the listed substances. One of the main tasks of…

  8. The role of philosophy in the conceptual development of quantum physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamond, Ethel

    Making a distinction between the context of discovery and the context of justification, I examine the relationship between philosophy and the discovery of quantum physics. I do this by focusing on four of the most important contributors to quantum theory: Albert Einstein, Werner Heisenberg, Erwin Schrodinger and Niels Bohr. Looking to the period immediately preceding the era in which quantum physics was developed, I first explore the scientific writings of Hermann von Helmholtz, Ernst Mach, Heinrich Hertz and Ludwig Boltzmann. In doing so, I uncover the integral role classic philosophy played in the scientific investigations of nineteenth-century German and Austrian physicists. After establishing the cultural link between scientific writing and philosophic training at that time and place in history, I investigate the formative philosophic influences on Einstein, Heisenberg, Schrodinger and Bohr. By a close examination of some of their most important scientific papers, this dissertation reveals the way in which these early twentieth-century scientists continued an important nineteenth-century European tradition of integrating philosophic thought in their scientific creative thinking.

  9. Symmetric tensor networks and practical simulation algorithms to sharply identify classes of quantum phases distinguishable by short-range physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Ying; Jiang, Shenghan

    Phases of matter are sharply defined in the thermodynamic limit. One major challenge of accurately simulating quantum phase diagrams of interacting quantum systems is due to the fact that numerical simulations usually deal with the energy density, a local property of quantum wavefunctions, while identifying different quantum phases generally rely on long-range physics. In this paper we construct generic fully symmetric quantum wavefunctions under certain assumptions using a type of tensor networks: projected entangled pair states, and provide practical simulation algorithms based on them. We find that quantum phases can be organized into crude classes distinguished by short-range physics, which is related to the fractionalization of both on-site symmetries and space-group symmetries. Consequently, our simulation algorithms, which are useful to study long-range physics as well, are expected to be able to sharply determine crude classes in interacting quantum systems efficiently. Examples of these crude classes are demonstrated in half-integer quantum spin systems on the kagome lattice. Limitations and generalizations of our results are discussed. The Alfred P. Sloan fellowship and National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-1151440.

  10. What the complex joint probabilities observed in weak measurements can tell us about quantum physics

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, Holger F.

    2014-12-04

    Quantummechanics does not permit joint measurements of non-commuting observables. However, it is possible to measure the weak value of a projection operator, followed by the precise measurement of a different property. The results can be interpreted as complex joint probabilities of the two non-commuting measurement outcomes. Significantly, it is possible to predict the outcome of completely different measurements by combining the joint probabilities of the initial state with complex conditional probabilities relating the new measurement to the possible combinations of measurement outcomes used in the characterization of the quantum state. We can therefore conclude that the complex conditional probabilities observed in weak measurements describe fundamental state-independent relations between non-commuting properties that represent the most fundamental form of universal laws in quantum physics.

  11. Topics in gravitational-wave science: Macroscopic quantum mechanics and black hole physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huan

    The theories of relativity and quantum mechanics, the two most important physics discoveries of the 20th century, not only revolutionized our understanding of the nature of space-time and the way matter exists and interacts, but also became the building blocks of what we currently know as modern physics. My thesis studies both subjects in great depths --- this intersection takes place in gravitational-wave physics. The first part of this thesis (Chapter 2) concerns how to minimize the adverse effect of thermal fluctuations on the sensitivity of advanced gravitational detectors, thereby making them closer to being quantum-limited. My colleagues and I present a detailed analysis of coating thermal noise in advanced gravitational-wave detectors, which is the dominant noise source of Advanced LIGO in the middle of the detection frequency band. We identified the two elastic loss angles, clarified the different components of the coating Brownian noise, and obtained their cross spectral densities. The second part of this thesis (Chapters 3 -- 7) concerns formulating experimental concepts and analyzing experimental results that demonstrate the quantum mechanical behavior of macroscopic objects --- as well as developing theoretical tools for analyzing quantum measurement processes. In Chapter 3, we study the open quantum dynamics of optomechanical experiments in which a single photon strongly influences the quantum state of a mechanical object. We also explain how to engineer the mechanical oscillator's quantum state by modifying the single photon's wave function. The most promising gravitational waves for direct detection are those emitted from highly energetic astrophysical processes, sometimes involving black holes --- a type of object predicted by general relativity whose properties depend highly on the strong-field regime of the theory. Although black holes have been inferred to exist at centers of galaxies and in certain so-called X-ray binary objects, detecting

  12. What the complex joint probabilities observed in weak measurements can tell us about quantum physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Holger F.

    2014-12-01

    Quantummechanics does not permit joint measurements of non-commuting observables. However, it is possible to measure the weak value of a projection operator, followed by the precise measurement of a different property. The results can be interpreted as complex joint probabilities of the two non-commuting measurement outcomes. Significantly, it is possible to predict the outcome of completely different measurements by combining the joint probabilities of the initial state with complex conditional probabilities relating the new measurement to the possible combinations of measurement outcomes used in the characterization of the quantum state. We can therefore conclude that the complex conditional probabilities observed in weak measurements describe fundamental state-independent relations between non-commuting properties that represent the most fundamental form of universal laws in quantum physics.

  13. PREFACE: 6th International Workshop on Pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonians in Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fring, Andreas; Jones, Hugh; Znojil, Miloslav

    2008-06-01

    Attempts to understand the quantum mechanics of non-Hermitian Hamiltonian systems can be traced back to the early days, one example being Heisenberg's endeavour to formulate a consistent model involving an indefinite metric. Over the years non-Hermitian Hamiltonians whose spectra were believed to be real have appeared from time to time in the literature, for instance in the study of strong interactions at high energies via Regge models, in condensed matter physics in the context of the XXZ-spin chain, in interacting boson models in nuclear physics, in integrable quantum field theories as Toda field theories with complex coupling constants, and also very recently in a field theoretical scenario in the quantization procedure of strings on an AdS5 x S5 background. Concrete experimental realizations of these types of systems in the form of optical lattices have been proposed in 2007. In the area of mathematical physics similar non-systematic results appeared sporadically over the years. However, intensive and more systematic investigation of these types of non- Hermitian Hamiltonians with real eigenvalue spectra only began about ten years ago, when the surprising discovery was made that a large class of one-particle systems perturbed by a simple non-Hermitian potential term possesses a real energy spectrum. Since then regular international workshops devoted to this theme have taken place. This special issue is centred around the 6th International Workshop on Pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonians in Quantum Physics held in July 2007 at City University London. All the contributions contain significant new results or alternatively provide a survey of the state of the art of the subject or a critical assessment of the present understanding of the topic and a discussion of open problems. Original contributions from non-participants were also invited. Meanwhile many interesting results have been obtained and consensus has been reached on various central conceptual issues in the

  14. The limits of predictability: Indeterminism and undecidability in classical and quantum physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolev, Alexandre V.

    This thesis is a collection of three case studies, investigating various sources of indeterminism and undecidability as they bear upon in principle unpredictability of the behaviour of mechanistic systems in both classical and quantum physics. I begin by examining the sources of indeterminism and acausality in classical physics. Here I discuss the physical significance of an often overlooked and yet important Lipschitz condition, the violation of which underlies the existence of anomalous non-trivial solutions in the Norton-type indeterministic systems. I argue that the singularity arising from the violation of the Lipschitz condition in the systems considered appears to be so fragile as to be easily destroyed by slightly relaxing certain (infinite) idealizations required by these models. In particular, I show that the idealization of an absolutely nondeformable, or infinitely rigid, dome appears to be an essential assumption for anomalous motion to begin; any slightest elastic deformations of the dome due to finite rigidity of the dome destroy the shape of the dome required for indeterminism to obtain. I also consider several modifications of the original Norton's example and show that indeterminism in these cases, too, critically depends on the nature of certain idealizations pertaining to elastic properties of the bodies in these models. As a result, I argue that indeterminism of the Norton-type Lipschitz-indeterministic systems should rather be viewed as an artefact of certain (infinite) idealizations essential for the models, depriving the examples of much of their intended metaphysical import, as, for example, in Norton's antifundamentalist programme. Second, I examine the predictive computational limitations of a classical Laplace's demon. I demonstrate that in situations of self-fulfilling prognoses the class of undecidable propositions about certain future events, in general, is not empty; any Laplace's demon having all the information about the world now

  15. On the Meaning of Element in the Science of Italic Tradition, the Question of Physical Objectivity (and/or Physical Meaning) and Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscarino, Giuseppe

    2006-06-01

    It is questioned: Is quantum mechanics a new science or a new (or rather old) philosophy of physical science? It is shown that Einstein's attempt in his article of 1935 to bring the concept of "element" from the classical (we call it Italic) philosophical-epistemological tradition, which goes under the names of Pythagoras Parmenides, Democritus, and Newton, into quantum mechanical theory is unclear, inadequate and contradictory.

  16. A review of progress in the physics of open quantum systems: theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotter, I.; Bird, J. P.

    2015-11-01

    This report on progress explores recent advances in our theoretical and experimental understanding of the physics of open quantum systems (OQSs). The study of such systems represents a core problem in modern physics that has evolved to assume an unprecedented interdisciplinary character. OQSs consist of some localized, microscopic, region that is coupled to an external environment by means of an appropriate interaction. Examples of such systems may be found in numerous areas of physics, including atomic and nuclear physics, photonics, biophysics, and mesoscopic physics. It is the latter area that provides the main focus of this review, an emphasis that is driven by the capacity that exists to subject mesoscopic devices to unprecedented control. We thus provide a detailed discussion of the behavior of mesoscopic devices (and other OQSs) in terms of the projection-operator formalism, according to which the system under study is considered to be comprised of a localized region (Q), embedded into a well-defined environment (P) of scattering wavefunctions (with Q   +   P   =   1). The Q subspace must be treated using the concepts of non-Hermitian physics, and of particular interest here is: the capacity of the environment to mediate a coupling between the different states of Q; the role played by the presence of exceptional points (EPs) in the spectra of OQSs; the influence of EPs on the rigidity of the wavefunction phases, and; the ability of EPs to initiate a dynamical phase transition (DPT). EPs are singular points in the continuum, at which two resonance states coalesce, that is where they exhibit a non-avoided crossing. DPTs occur when the quantum dynamics of the open system causes transitions between non-analytically connected states, as a function of some external control parameter. Much like conventional phase transitions, the behavior of the system on one side of the DPT does not serve as a reliable indicator of that on the other. In

  17. A review of progress in the physics of open quantum systems: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Rotter, I; Bird, J P

    2015-11-01

    This report on progress explores recent advances in our theoretical and experimental understanding of the physics of open quantum systems (OQSs). The study of such systems represents a core problem in modern physics that has evolved to assume an unprecedented interdisciplinary character. OQSs consist of some localized, microscopic, region that is coupled to an external environment by means of an appropriate interaction. Examples of such systems may be found in numerous areas of physics, including atomic and nuclear physics, photonics, biophysics, and mesoscopic physics. It is the latter area that provides the main focus of this review, an emphasis that is driven by the capacity that exists to subject mesoscopic devices to unprecedented control. We thus provide a detailed discussion of the behavior of mesoscopic devices (and other OQSs) in terms of the projection-operator formalism, according to which the system under study is considered to be comprised of a localized region (Q), embedded into a well-defined environment (P) of scattering wavefunctions (with Q   +   P   =   1). The Q subspace must be treated using the concepts of non-Hermitian physics, and of particular interest here is: the capacity of the environment to mediate a coupling between the different states of Q; the role played by the presence of exceptional points (EPs) in the spectra of OQSs; the influence of EPs on the rigidity of the wavefunction phases, and; the ability of EPs to initiate a dynamical phase transition (DPT). EPs are singular points in the continuum, at which two resonance states coalesce, that is where they exhibit a non-avoided crossing. DPTs occur when the quantum dynamics of the open system causes transitions between non-analytically connected states, as a function of some external control parameter. Much like conventional phase transitions, the behavior of the system on one side of the DPT does not serve as a reliable indicator of that on the other. In

  18. Adiposopathy, metabolic syndrome, quantum physics, general relativity, chaos and the Theory of Everything.

    PubMed

    Bays, Harold

    2005-05-01

    Excessive fat (adiposity) and dysfunctional fat (adiposopathy) constitute the most common worldwide epidemics of our time -- and perhaps of all time. Ongoing efforts to explain how the micro (adipocyte) and macro (body organ) biologic systems interact through function and dysfunction in promoting Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia are not unlike the mechanistic and philosophical thinking processes involved in reconciling the micro (quantum physics) and macro (general relativity) theories in physics. Currently, the term metabolic syndrome refers to a constellation of consequences often associated with excess body fat and is an attempt to unify the associations known to exist between the four fundamental metabolic diseases of obesity, hyperglycemia (including Type 2 diabetes mellitus), hypertension and dyslipidemia. However, the association of adiposity with these metabolic disorders is not absolute and the metabolic syndrome does not describe underlying causality, nor does the metabolic syndrome necessarily reflect any reasonably related pathophysiologic process. Just as with quantum physics, general relativity and the four fundamental forces of the universe, the lack of an adequate unifying theory of micro causality and macro consequence is unsatisfying, and in medicine, impairs the development of agents that may globally improve both obesity and obesity-related metabolic disease. Emerging scientific and clinical evidence strongly supports the novel concept that it is not adiposity alone, but rather it is adiposopathy that is the underlying cause of most cases of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Adiposopathy is a plausible Theory of Everything for mankind's greatest metabolic epidemics. PMID:15889967

  19. The XXth International Workshop High Energy Physics and Quantum Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Workshop continues a series of workshops started by the Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Lomonosov Moscow State University (SINP MSU) in 1985 and conceived with the purpose of presenting topics of current interest and providing a stimulating environment for scientific discussion on new developments in theoretical and experimental high energy physics and physical programs for future colliders. Traditionally the list of workshop attendees includes a great number of active young scientists and students from Russia and other countries. This year Workshop is organized jointly by the SINP MSU and the Southern Federal University (SFedU) and will take place in the holiday hotel "Luchezarniy" (Effulgent) situated on the Black Sea shore in a picturesque natural park in the suburb of the largest Russian resort city Sochi - the host city of the XXII Olympic Winter Games to be held in 2014. The main topics to be covered are: Experimental results from the LHC. Tevatron summary: the status of the Standard Model and the boundaries on BSM physics. Future physics at Linear Colliders and super B-factories. Extensions of the Standard Model and their phenomenological consequences at the LHC and Linear Colliders: SUSY extensions of the Standard Model; particle interactions in space-time with extra dimensions; strings, quantum groups and new ideas from modern algebra and geometry. Higher order corrections and resummations for collider phenomenology. Automatic calculations of Feynman diagrams and Monte Carlo simulations. LHC/LC and astroparticle/cosmology connections. Modern nuclear physics and relativistic nucleous-nucleous collisions.

  20. Some physics and system issues in the security analysis of quantum key distribution protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, Horace P.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we review a number of issues on the security of quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols that bear directly on the relevant physics or mathematical representation of the QKD cryptosystem. It is shown that the cryptosystem representation itself may miss out many possible attacks, which are not accounted for in the security analysis and proofs. Hence, the final security claims drawn from such analysis are not reliable, apart from foundational issues about the security criteria that are discussed elsewhere. The cases of continuous-variable QKD and multi-photon sources are elaborated upon.

  1. Even-denominator fractional quantum Hall physics in ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smet, Jurgen

    2015-03-01

    The study of even denominator fractional quantum Hall physics has for a long time been the exclusive privilege of the III-V semiconductor community. Its discovery at filling 5/2 and 7/2 in GaAs unleashed a flood of theoretical as well as experimental work, because these states are in essence thought to be p-wave superconducting ground states possessing non-abelian excitations. Recently however even-denominator fractional quantum Hall physics has been observed outside of the realm of III-V heterostructures in the emergent ZnO 2D electron system. ZnO not only exhibits a robust quantum Hall state at filling 7/2, but also at unconventional fillings. There is an incipient 9/2 state in perpendicular field and a fully resolved 3/2-state emerges when tilting. The latter is believed to be, just like the 7/2 state, a genuine single component state analogous to the 5/2 and 7/2 states in GaAs. Alternatively, it could be a two component spin state, a variant two-component state that has not previously been reported. The use of ZnO for investigating this even denominator FQH-physics offers a powerful additional degree of freedom. Because the Zeeman splitting and the cyclotron energy are comparable, it is possible to alter the orbital character of the partially filled level at fixed filling by tilting the sample. Our studies show unequivocally that the orbital nature of the partially filled level is crucial for the appearance of even-denominator fractional quantum Hall physics. While a basic understanding has been developed, key features remain to be understood with the spin degree of freedom likely playing a prominent role. This work has been performed together with J. Falson (University of Tokyo), D. Maryenko (RIKEN), B. Friess (MPI-FKF), D. Zhang (MPI-FKF), Y. Kozuka (University of Tokyo), A. Tsukazaki (Tohuku University and JST), M. Kawasaki (University of Tokyo and RIKEN).

  2. Hadron Physics from Superconformal Quantum Mechanics and Its Light-Front Holographic Embedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Téramond, Guy F.

    2016-06-01

    The complex nonperturbative color-confining dynamics of QCD is well captured in a semiclassical effective theory based on superconformal quantum mechanics and its extension to the light-front. I describe here how this new approach to hadron physics incorporates confinement, the appearance of nearly massless pseudoscalar particles, and Regge spectroscopy consistent with experiment. It also gives remarkable connections between the meson and baryon spectrum across the light and heavy-light hadron spectrum. I also briefly discuss how higher spin states are consistently described in this framework by the holographic embedding of the superconformal theory in a higher dimensional semiclassical gravity theory.

  3. Light-front quantum chromodynamics. A framework for the analysis of hadron physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, B. L. G.; Bassetto, A.; Brodsky, S. J.; Broniowski, W.; Dalley, S.; Frederico, T.; Głazek, S. D.; Hiller, J. R.; Ji, C.-R.; Karmanov, V.; Kulshreshtha, D.; Mathiot, J.-F.; Melnitchouk, W.; Miller, G. A.; Papavassiliou, J.; Polyzou, W. N.; Stefanis, N. G.; Vary, J. P.; Ilderton, A.; Heinzl, T.

    2014-06-01

    An outstanding goal of physics is to find solutions that describe hadrons in the theory of strong interactions, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). For this goal, the light-front Hamiltonian formulation of QCD (LFQCD) is a complementary approach to the well-established lattice gauge method. LFQCD offers access to the hadrons' nonperturbative quark and gluon amplitudes, which are directly testable in experiments at existing and future facilities. We present an overview of the promises and challenges of LFQCD in the context of unsolved issues in QCD that require broadened and accelerated investigation. We identify specific goals of this approach and address its quantifiable uncertainties.

  4. Improving the quantum mechanics content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge of physics graduate students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshman, Emily Megan

    Many physics graduate students face the unique challenge of being both students and teachers concurrently. To succeed in these roles, they must develop both physics content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge. My research focuses on improving both the content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge of first year graduate students. To improve their content knowledge, I have focused on improving graduate students' conceptual understanding of quantum mechanics covered in upper-level undergraduate courses since our earlier investigations suggest that many graduate students struggle in developing a conceptual understanding of quantum mechanics. Learning tools, such as the Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorials (QuILTs) that I have developed, have been successful in helping graduate students improve their understanding of Dirac notation and single photon behavior in the context of a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer. In addition, I have been involved in enhancing our semester long course professional development course for teaching assistants (TAs) by including research-based activities. In particular, I have been researching the implications of graduate TAs' reflections on the connections between their grading practices and student learning, i.e., the development of introductory physics students' content knowledge and problem-solving, reasoning, and metacognitive skills. This research involves having graduate students grade sample student solutions to introductory physics problems. Afterward, the graduate TAs discuss with each other the pros and cons of different grading rubrics on student learning and formulate a joint grading rubric to grade the problem. The graduate TAs are individually asked to reformulate a rubric and grade problems using the rubric several months after the group activity to assess the impact of the intervention on graduate TAs. In addition to the intervention focusing on grading sample student solutions, graduate TAs are also asked to answer

  5. BOOK REVIEW: Quantum Generations. A history of physics in the twentieth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Neil

    2000-03-01

    Physics has a long history, but more physics has been discovered in the twentieth century than in all previous eras together. That in itself would be a sufficient justification for a history of physics in the twentieth century, but the end of the previous century also marked a discontinuity, from Newtonian classical physics to relativity and quantum mechanics. If any single event marks the start of the process it is the discovery of x-rays in 1895, and Kragh's century spans from about 1895 to about 1995. It is, of course, too much for a single volume, even a large one, and Kragh recognizes from the outset that he has to be selective and concentrate on those subjects that define twentieth-century physics. For the early part of the century the author relies on carefully chosen secondary sources, to avoid the near-impossible task of absorbing a multitude of original papers. The recent period is more difficult, and the sources are articles, reviews, and the recollections of physicists. The book is in three main sections, roughly to the end of World War I, to the end of World War II, and up to 1995, plus a retrospective summary. It deals with more than just discoveries in physics, looking also at physicists and institutions, and at their interactions with the rest of society. The broad outlines of many discoveries are often known to physicists who have no special interest in history, and Kragh is careful to point out where these conventional accounts are inadequate. The first chapters set the scene at the end of the nineteenth century, acknowledging that there was a belief that all the grand underlying principles had been established, but also pointing out that there was a ferment of attempts to reinterpret physics in terms of concepts like vortices and hyperspaces. The history begins with the mould-breaking discoveries of x-rays, radioactivity and the electron. The chapters that follow look at theories about atomic structure, and at quantum physics, relativity and

  6. Chandrasekhar limit: an elementary approach based on classical physics and quantum theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinochet, Jorge; Van Sint Jan, Michael

    2016-05-01

    In a brief article published in 1931, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar made public an important astronomical discovery. In his article, the then young Indian astrophysicist introduced what is now known as the Chandrasekhar limit. This limit establishes the maximum mass of a stellar remnant beyond which the repulsion force between electrons due to the exclusion principle can no longer stop the gravitational collapse. In the present article, we create an elemental approximation to the Chandrasekhar limit, accessible to non-graduate science and engineering students. The article focuses especially on clarifying the origins of Chandrasekhar’s discovery and the underlying physical concepts. Throughout the article, only basic algebra is used as well as some general notions of classical physics and quantum theory.

  7. The impact of Einsteinian relativity and quantum physics theories on conceptualizations of the self in psychology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rechberger, Elke Ruth

    1999-11-01

    Prior to the 1600s c.e., the church was the final authority for theories about the universe and humanity's role within it. However, when the mathematical theories put forth by scientists such as Copernicus and Galileo refuted traditional theological explanations about the cosmos, a shift to science as the premiere authority for theories was established, a tradition which continues to this day. In the following century, the work of Newton set forth a theory of the universe operating as a machine, where all things were potentially knowable, measurable, and predictable. His mechanistic hypotheses helped substantiate a corollary philosophy known as modernism. In the early 1900s, Einstein's theories about light and relativity began to indicate a universe significantly less absolute. His work set the stage for the development of quantum physics theories, whose hallmarks are probability, uncertainty, and complementarity. Quantum physics theories helped substantiate the philosophy known as postmodernism, where truth is nonexistent, reality is a subjectively constructed phenomenon, and the concept of an individual self is considered an illusion. Given that developments in physics have had profound impact across academic disciplines, including psychology, this study examine the effect of major revolutions in physics to corollary developments in theories about the self in psychology. It is the assertion of this work that modernist conceptualization of the self is one that is highly individualistic and defined in mechanistic terms, whereas the postmodern conceptualization of the self is significantly more socially constructed and has more interpersonally fluid, amorphous boundaries. Implications for conceptualizations of the self from either the modern or postmodern paradigm are discussed, as well as suggestions for future theory development.

  8. BOOK REVIEW: Quantum Generations. A history of physics in the twentieth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Neil

    2000-03-01

    Physics has a long history, but more physics has been discovered in the twentieth century than in all previous eras together. That in itself would be a sufficient justification for a history of physics in the twentieth century, but the end of the previous century also marked a discontinuity, from Newtonian classical physics to relativity and quantum mechanics. If any single event marks the start of the process it is the discovery of x-rays in 1895, and Kragh's century spans from about 1895 to about 1995. It is, of course, too much for a single volume, even a large one, and Kragh recognizes from the outset that he has to be selective and concentrate on those subjects that define twentieth-century physics. For the early part of the century the author relies on carefully chosen secondary sources, to avoid the near-impossible task of absorbing a multitude of original papers. The recent period is more difficult, and the sources are articles, reviews, and the recollections of physicists. The book is in three main sections, roughly to the end of World War I, to the end of World War II, and up to 1995, plus a retrospective summary. It deals with more than just discoveries in physics, looking also at physicists and institutions, and at their interactions with the rest of society. The broad outlines of many discoveries are often known to physicists who have no special interest in history, and Kragh is careful to point out where these conventional accounts are inadequate. The first chapters set the scene at the end of the nineteenth century, acknowledging that there was a belief that all the grand underlying principles had been established, but also pointing out that there was a ferment of attempts to reinterpret physics in terms of concepts like vortices and hyperspaces. The history begins with the mould-breaking discoveries of x-rays, radioactivity and the electron. The chapters that follow look at theories about atomic structure, and at quantum physics, relativity and

  9. Surface-treated biocompatible ZnS quantum dots: Synthesis, photo-physical and microstructural properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taherian, M.; Sabbagh Alvani, A. A.; Shokrgozar, M. A.; Salimi, R.; Moosakhani, S.; Sameie, H.; Tabatabaee, F.

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, the ZnS semiconductor quantum dots were successfully synthesized via an aqueous method utilizing glutathione (GSH), thioglycolic acid (TGA) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as capping agents. The structural, morphological and photo-physical properties and biocompatibility were investigated using comprehensive characterization techniques such as x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), UV-Vis optical absorption, photoluminescence (PL) spectrometer and MTT assay. The XRD patterns showed a cubic zinc blende crystal structure and a crystallite size of about 2-3 nm using Scherrer's equation confirmed by the electron micrographs and Effective Mass Approximation (EMA). The DLS and zeta-potential results revealed that GSH capped ZnS nanoparticles have the narrowest size distribution with an average size of 27 nm and relatively good colloidal stability. Also, the FT-IR spectrum confirmed the interaction of the capping agent groups with ZnS nanoparticles. According to the UV-Vis absorption results, optical bandgap of the spherical capped nanoparticles is higher compared to the uncapped sample and could be wider than 3.67 eV (corresponding to the bulk ZnS), which is due to the quantum confinement effect. From photoluminescence spectra, it was found that the emission becomes more intensive and shifts towards the shorter wavelengths in the presence of the capping agent. Moreover, the emission mechanism of uncapped and capped ZnS was discussed in detail. Finally, the MTT results revealed the satisfactory (>94%) biocompatibility of GSH capped ZnS quantum dots which would be a promising candidate applicable in fluorescent biological labels.

  10. Self-Localized Quasi-Particle Excitation in Quantum Electrodynamics and Its Physical Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feranchuk, Ilya D.; Feranchuk, Sergey I.

    2007-12-01

    The self-localized quasi-particle excitation of the electron-positron field (EPF) is found for the first time in the framework of a standard form of the quantum electrodynamics. This state is interpreted as the ''physical'' electron (positron) and it allows one to solve the following problems: i) to express the ''primary'' charge e0 and the mass m0 of the ''bare'' electron in terms of the observed values of e and m of the ''physical'' electron without any infinite parameters and by essentially nonperturbative way; ii) to consider μ-meson as another self-localized EPF state and to estimate the ratio mμ/m; iii) to prove that the self-localized state is Lorentz-invariant and its energy spectrum corresponds to the relativistic free particle with the observed mass m; iv) to show that the expansion in a power of the observed charge e << 1 corresponds to the strong coupling e! xpansion in a power of the ''primary'' charge e-10 ~ e when the interaction between the ``physical'' electron and the transverse electromagnetic field is considered by means of the perturbation theory and all terms of this series are free from the ultraviolet divergence.

  11. Analog quantum computing (AQC) and the need for time-symmetric physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werbos, Paul J.; Dolmatova, Ludmilla

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses what will be necessary to achieve the full potential capabilities of analog quantum computing (AQC), which is defined here as the enrichment of continuous-variable computing to include stochastic, nonunitary circuit elements such as dissipative spin gates and address the wider range of tasks emerging from new trends in engineering, such as approximation of stochastic maps, ghost imaging and new forms of neural networks and intelligent control. This paper focuses especially on what is needed in terms of new experiments to validate remarkable new results in the modeling of triple entanglement, and in creating a pathway which links fundamental theoretical work with hard core experimental work, on a pathway to AQC similar to the pathway to digital quantum computing already blazed by Zeilinger's group. It discusses the most recent experiments and reviews two families of alternative models based on the traditional eigenvector projection model of polarizers and on a new family of local realistic models based on Markov Random Fields across space-time adhering to the rules of time-symmetric physics. For both families, it reviews lumped parameter versions, continuous time extension and possibilities for extension to continuous space and time.

  12. RADIANCE AND PHOTON NOISE: Imaging in geometrical optics, physical optics, quantum optics and radiology

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Myers, Kyle J.; Caucci, Luca

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental way of describing a photon-limited imaging system is in terms of a Poisson random process in spatial, angular and wavelength variables. The mean of this random process is the spectral radiance. The principle of conservation of radiance then allows a full characterization of the noise in the image (conditional on viewing a specified object). To elucidate these connections, we first review the definitions and basic properties of radiance as defined in terms of geometrical optics, radiology, physical optics and quantum optics. The propagation and conservation laws for radiance in each of these domains are reviewed. Then we distinguish four categories of imaging detectors that all respond in some way to the incident radiance, including the new category of photon-processing detectors. The relation between the radiance and the statistical properties of the detector output is discussed and related to task-based measures of image quality and the information content of a single detected photon. PMID:27478293

  13. Radiance and photon noise: imaging in geometrical optics, physical optics, quantum optics, and radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Myers, Kyle J.; Caucci, Luca

    2014-09-01

    A fundamental way of describing a photon-limited imaging system is in terms of a Poisson random process sin spatial, angular and wavelength variables. The mean of this random process is the spectral radiance. The principle of conservation of radiance then allows a full characterization of the noise in the image (conditional on viewing a specified object). To elucidate these connections, we first review the definitions and basic properties of radiance as defined in terms of geometrical optics, radiology, physical optics and quantum optics. The propagation and conservation laws for radiance in each of these domains are reviewed. Then we distinguish four categories of imaging detectors that all respond in some way to the incident radiance, including the new category of photon-processing detectors. The relation between the radiance and the statistical properties of the detector output is discussed and related to task-based measures of image quality and the information content of a single detected photon.

  14. Magnetic compasses in biological systems: Does quantum physics play a role?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritz, Thorsten

    2011-03-01

    One hypothesis of the process underlying the magnetic compass of animals surmises that the magnetic field is perceived by its effect on the coherent spin evolution within a non-equilibrium photochemical radical pair reaction. If this hypothesis were proven, it would be a dramatic demonstration of a quantum process with clear biological significance. We will review the physics of the radical pair mechanism and the current state of evidence supporting it. Experimentally, we will focus on the use radio-frequency magnetic fields to affect a radical-pair based mechanism in birds and discuss the approach and its limitations. Theoretically, we will focus on the question of how one should design a radical pair to be optimally sensitive to the direction of a weak magnetic field. Regardless of whether or not a radical pair mechanism is indeed used by birds or other animals, optimal design features could be used to manufacture biologically inspired, but man-made magnetic compass systems.

  15. Higher orbital physics and artificial gauge fields with ultracold quantum gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengstock, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    Recently the physics of quantum gases in higher orbitals attracted a lot of attention, theoretically and experimentally. We report on studies of a new type of superfluid described by a complex order parameter, resulting from an interaction-induced hybridization of the two lowest orbitals for a binary spin-mixture. As a main result we observe a quantum phase transition between the normal superfluid and this unconventional superfluid phase, where the local phase angle of the complex order parameter is continuously twisted between neighboring lattice sites. In addition we discuss new experimental work on the creation of artificial gauge potentials for neutral atoms in 1D and 2D lattices, which do not rely on the internal structure of the atoms. Via a time-dependent driving of the optical lattice we have full control over amplitude and phase of the complex valued hopping parameters. In a 2D triangular lattice, we demonstrate the realization of gauge invariant staggered fluxes. Our system consists of an array of tubes filled with bosonic atoms having a well-defined local phase. The phase distribution obtained in presence of large amplitude staggered fluxes - where frustration plays a key role - obeys two fundamental symmetries, the discrete Ising symmetry (Z2) and a continuous global phase symmetry (U(1)). Via the full control of the staggered gauge fields, we are able to break the Ising symmetry on purpose which means lifting the degeneracy of the two possible Ising states, in analogy to a longitudinal homogenous magnetic field in the standard Ising-Spin model. The measurements reveal ``textbook like'' magnetization curves with the well known dependence on both, the external magnetic field and the temperature. We observe a thermally driven phase transition from an ordered Ising (ferromagnetic) to an unordered (paramagnetic) state. Future directions to combine orbital physics and gauge fields will be discussed.

  16. I.I. Rabi Prize in Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics Talk: Novel Quantum Physics in Few- and Many-body Atomic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Cheng

    2011-05-01

    Recent cold atom researches are reaching out far beyond the realm that was conventionally viewed as atomic physics. Many long standing issues in other physics disciplines or in Gedanken-experiments are nowadays common targets of cold atom physicists. Two prominent examples will be discussed in this talk: BEC-BCS crossover and Efimov physics. Here, cold atoms are employed to emulate electrons in superconductors, and nucleons in nuclear reactions, respectively. The ability to emulate exotic or thought systems using cold atoms stems from the precisely determined, simple, and tunable interaction properties of cold atoms. New experimental tools have also been devised toward an ultimate goal: a complete control and a complete characterization of a few- or many-body quantum system. We are tantalizingly close to this major milestone, and will soon open new venues to explore new quantum phenomena that may (or may not!) exist in scientists' dreams.

  17. Quantum simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, I. M.; Ashhab, S.; Nori, Franco

    2014-01-01

    Simulating quantum mechanics is known to be a difficult computational problem, especially when dealing with large systems. However, this difficulty may be overcome by using some controllable quantum system to study another less controllable or accessible quantum system, i.e., quantum simulation. Quantum simulation promises to have applications in the study of many problems in, e.g., condensed-matter physics, high-energy physics, atomic physics, quantum chemistry, and cosmology. Quantum simulation could be implemented using quantum computers, but also with simpler, analog devices that would require less control, and therefore, would be easier to construct. A number of quantum systems such as neutral atoms, ions, polar molecules, electrons in semiconductors, superconducting circuits, nuclear spins, and photons have been proposed as quantum simulators. This review outlines the main theoretical and experimental aspects of quantum simulation and emphasizes some of the challenges and promises of this fast-growing field.

  18. Impact of Interactive Engagement on Reducing the Gender Gap in Quantum Physics Learning Outcomes among Senior Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adegoke, Benson Adesina

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the author examines the extent to which an interactive engagement approach can reduce the gender gap in senior secondary school (SSS) (age 16-18 years) students' learning outcomes in quantum physics. One hundred and twenty one (male = 65; female = 56) SSS 3 students participated in this study. They were randomly selected from two…

  19. Unitary Representations of the Inhomogeneous Lorentz Group and Their Significance in Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straumann, Norbert

    Minkowski's great discovery of the spacetime structure behind Einstein's special theory of relativity (SR) had an enormous impact on much of twentieth-century physics. (For a historical account of Minkowski's Raum und Zeit lecture and Poincaré's pioneering contribution, we refer to [1] and Chap. 2, 10.1007/978-3-642-41992-8_2.) The symmetry requirement of physical theories with respect to the automorphism group of Minkowski spacetime - the inhomogeneous Lorentz or Poincaré group - is particularly constraining in the domain of relativistic quantum theory and led to profound insights. Among the most outstanding early contributions are Wigner's great papers on relativistic invariance [2]. His description of the (projective) irreducible representations of the inhomogeneous Lorentz group, that classified single particle states in terms of mass and spin, has later been taken up on the mathematical side by George Mackey, who developed Wigner's ideas into a powerful theory with a variety of important applications [3] [4] [5]. Mackey`s theory of induced representations has become an important part of representation theory for locally compact groups. For certain classes it provides a full description of all irreducible unitary representations.

  20. Structurally Dynamic Cellular Networks as Models for Planck Scale Physics and the Quantum Vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Requardt, Manfred

    Starting from the working hypothesis that both physics and the corresponding mathematics have to be described by means of discrete concepts on the Planck scale, one of the many problems one has to face in this enterprise is to find the discrete protoforms of the building blocks of our ordinary continuum physics and mathematics. We regard these continuum concepts and continuum space-time (S-T) in particular as being emergent, coarse-grained and derived relative to an underlying erratic and disordered microscopic substratum which is expected to play by quite different rules. A central role in our analysis is played by a geometric renormalization group which creates (among other things) a kind of sparse translocal network of correlations in classical continuous space-time and underlies in our view such mysterious phenomena as holography and the black hole entropy-area law. The same point of view holds for quantum theory which we also regard as a low-energy, coarse-grained continuum theory, being emergent from something more fundamental.

  1. CALL FOR PAPERS: Special issue on Pseudo Hermitian Hamiltonians in Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fring, Andreas; Jones, Hugh F.; Znojil, Miloslav

    2007-11-01

    This is a call for contributions to a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical dedicated to the subject of Pseudo Hermitian Hamiltonians in Quantum Physics as featured in the conference '6th International Workshop on Pseudo Hermitian Hamiltonians in Quantum Physics', City University London, UK, July 16--18 2007 (http://www.staff.city.ac.uk/~fring/PT/). Invited speakers at that meeting as well as other researchers working in the field are invited to submit a research paper to this issue. The Editorial Board has invited Andreas Fring, Hugh F Jones and Miloslav Znojil to serve as Guest Editors for the special issue. Their criteria for acceptance of contributions are as follows: •The subject of the paper should relate to the subject of the workshop ((see list of topics in the website of the conference http://www.staff.city.ac.uk/~fring/PT/). •Contributions will be refereed and processed according to the usual procedure of the journal. •Conference papers may be based on already published work but should either contain significant additional new results and/or insights or give a survey of the present state of the art, a critical assessment of the present understanding of a topic, and a discussion of open problems. •Papers submitted by non-participants should be original and contain substantial new results. The guidelines for the preparation of contributions are the following: •The DEADLINE for submission of contributions is 16 November 2007. This deadline will allow the special issue to appear in June 2008. •There is a nominal page limit of 16 printed pages (approximately 9600 words) per contribution. For papers exceeding this limit, the Guest Editors reserve the right to request a reduction in length. Further advice on publishing your work in Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical may be found at www.iop.org/Journals/jphysa. •Contributions to the special issue should, if possible, be submitted electronically by web

  2. The Emergence of a Root Metaphor in Modern Physics: Max Planck's "Quantum" Metaphor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Sheehan, Richard D.

    1997-01-01

    Uses metaphorical analysis to determine whether or not Max Planck invented the quantum postulate. Demonstrates how metaphorical analysis can be used to analyze the rhetoric of revolutionary texts in science. Concludes that, in his original 1900 quantum paper, Planck considered the quantum postulate to be important, but not revolutionary. (PA)

  3. The Inflationary Origin of the Seeds of Cosmic Structure: Quantum Theory and the Need for Novel Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudarsky, Daniel

    The Inflationary account for the emerging of the seeds of cosmic structure from quantum fluctuations is a central part of our current views of cosmology. It is, on the one hand, extremely successful at the phenomenological level, and yet, it retains an aspect that is generally regarded as controversial: The exact mechanism by which quantum fluctuations transmute into actual inhomogeneities. We will review the considerations that lead us to conclude that the fully satisfactory resolution of the issue requires novel physics, and we will discuss an option we have been considering in this regard.

  4. Creativity and Quantum Physics: a New World View Unifying Current Theories of Creativity and Pointing Toward New Research Methodologies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Kimberly Ann

    1990-01-01

    Divisions in definitions of creativity have centered primarily on the working definition of discontinuity and the inclusion of intrinsic features such as unconscious processing and intrinsic motivation and reinforcement. These differences generally result from Cohen's two world views underlying theories of creativity: Organismic, oriented toward holism; or mechanistic, oriented toward cause-effect reductionism. The quantum world view is proposed which theoretically and empirically unifies organismic and mechanistic elements of creativity. Based on Goswami's Idealistic Interpretation of quantum physics, the quantum view postulates the mind -brain as consisting of both classical and quantum structures and functions. The quantum domain accesses the transcendent order through coherent superpositions (a state of potentialities), while the classical domain performs the function of measuring apparatus through amplifying and recording the result of the collapse of the pure mental state. A theoretical experiment, based on the 1980 Marcel study of conscious and unconscious word-sense disambiguation, is conducted which compares the predictions of the quantum model with those of the 1975 Posner and Snyder Facilitation and Inhibition model. Each model agrees that while conscious access to information is limited, unconscious access is unlimited. However, each model differently defines the connection between these states: The Posner model postulates a central processing mechanism while the quantum model postulates a self-referential consciousness. Consequently, the two models predict differently. The strength of the quantum model lies in its ability to distinguish between classical and quantum definitions of discontinuity, as well as clarifying the function of consciousness, without added assumptions or ad-hoc analysis: Consciousness is an essential, valid feature of quantum mechanisms independent of the field of cognitive psychology. According to the quantum model, through a

  5. Nicholas Metropolis Award for Outstanding Doctoral Thesis Work in Computational Physics: Quantum many-body physics of ultracold molecules in optical lattices: models and simulation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Experimental progress in generating and manipulating synthetic quantum systems, such as ultracold atoms and molecules in optical lattices, has revolutionized our understanding of quantum many-body phenomena and posed new challenges for modern numerical techniques. Ultracold molecules, in particular, feature long-range dipole-dipole interactions and a complex and selectively accessible internal structure of rotational and hyperfine states, leading to many-body models with long range interactions and many internal degrees of freedom. Additionally, the many-body physics of ultracold molecules is often probed far from equilibrium, and so algorithms which simulate quantum many-body dynamics are essential. Numerical methods which are to have significant impact in the design and understanding of such synthetic quantum materials must be able to adapt to a variety of different interactions, physical degrees of freedom, and out-of-equilibrium dynamical protocols. Matrix product state (MPS)-based methods, such as the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG), have become the de facto standard for strongly interacting low-dimensional systems. Moreover, the flexibility of MPS-based methods makes them ideally suited both to generic, open source implementation as well as to studies of the quantum many-body dynamics of ultracold molecules. After introducing MPSs and variational algorithms using MPSs generally, I will discuss my own research using MPSs for many-body dynamics of long-range interacting systems. In addition, I will describe two open source implementations of MPS-based algorithms in which I was involved, as well as educational materials designed to help undergraduates and graduates perform research in computational quantum many-body physics using a variety of numerical methods including exact diagonalization and static and dynamic variational MPS methods. Finally, I will mention present research on ultracold molecules in optical lattices, such as the exploration of

  6. Physics, Technology and Modeling of SILICON(1 - Germanium(x) Quantum Well P-Mosfets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaumik, Kaushik

    In this thesis, the physics of operation, electrical modeling and process technology for a p-channel quantum well Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect transistor (p-QWMOSFET) are investigated for application at the Ultra -Large-Scale-Integration (ULSI) level. Short channel (200 nm) p-QWMOSFETs, realized using the strained Si_{1-x}Ge_{x}/Si material system, are studied as a Si-based heterostructure technology to extend the performance of Complementary-MOS (CMOS) circuits. The epitaxial design space for a deep submicron p-QWMOSFET is mapped out using a self-consistent Schrodinger -Poisson solver. Guidelines are presented for the epitaxial profile to optimize the hole population in the Si_{1-x}Ge_{x} quantum well over a large gate bias swing. In addition, a semi-analytical charge control model for the p-QWMOSFET is developed to compute the charge distribution within the device for any arbitrary gate bias. The transport characteristics of holes in strained Si_{1-x}Ge_{x } quantum wells are developed through a study of band structure attributes and scattering phenomena. It is concluded that the smaller effective mass of holes in strained Si_{1-x}Ge_ {x} films results in a reduction of phonon scattering which translates into higher mobilities. Unfortunately, this mobility improvement is tempered by the presence of alloy scattering in the material system. However, the hole saturated drift velocity (v_{ sat}) is predicted to increase with larger Ge mole fractions since the optical phonon spectrum retains a high energy character while the carrier transverse effective mass decreases. This enhancement in v _{sat} is critical towards the realization of high performance, deep submicron p-QWMOSFETs. To validate the device models and the enhanced hole saturation velocity hypothesis, p-QWMOSFETs were fabricated on Si/Si_{1-x}Ge_ {x}/Si heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) with varying Ge mole fractions, x. The fabrication sequence maintains a low thermal budget

  7. Quantum transport simulation of exciton condensate transport physics in a double-layer graphene system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, Xuehao; Register, Leonard F.; MacDonald, Allan H.; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2015-12-01

    Spatially indirect electron-hole exciton condensates stabilized by interlayer Fock exchange interactions have been predicted in systems containing a pair of two-dimensional semiconductor or semimetal layers separated by a thin tunnel dielectric. The layer degree of freedom in these systems can be described as a pseudospin. Condensation is then analogous to ferromagnetism, and the interplay between collective and quasiparticle contributions to transport is analogous to phenomena that are heavily studied in spintronics. These phenomena are the basis for pseudospintronic device proposals based on possible low-voltage switching between high (nearly shorted) and low interlayer conductance states and on near-perfect Coulomb drag-counterflow current along the layers. In this work, a quantum transport simulator incorporating a nonlocal Fock exchange interaction is presented, and used to model the essential transport physics in, for specificity, a graphene-dielectric-graphene system. Finite-size effects, Coulomb drag-counterflow current, critical interlayer currents beyond which interlayer dc conductance collapses at subthermal voltages, nonlocal coupling between interlayer critical currents in multiple lead devices, and an Andreev-like reflection process are illustrated.

  8. Extension of the quantum-kinetic model to lunar and Mars return physics

    SciTech Connect

    Liechty, D. S.; Lewis, M. J.

    2014-02-15

    The ability to compute rarefied, ionized hypersonic flows is becoming more important as missions such as Earth reentry, landing high-mass payloads on Mars, and the exploration of the outer planets and their satellites are being considered. A recently introduced molecular-level chemistry model, the quantum-kinetic, or Q-K, model that predicts reaction rates for gases in thermal equilibrium and non-equilibrium using only kinetic theory and fundamental molecular properties, is extended in the current work to include electronic energy level transitions and reactions involving charged particles. Like the Q-K procedures for neutral species chemical reactions, these new models are phenomenological procedures that aim to reproduce the reaction/transition rates but do not necessarily capture the exact physics. These engineering models are necessarily efficient due to the requirement to compute billions of simulated collisions in direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations. The new models are shown to generally agree within the spread of reported transition and reaction rates from the literature for near equilibrium conditions.

  9. Fractional quantum Hall physics with ultracold Rydberg gases in artificial gauge fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grusdt, F.; Fleischhauer, M.

    2013-04-01

    We study ultracold Rydberg-dressed Bose gases subject to artificial gauge fields in the fractional quantum Hall (FQH) regime. The characteristics of the Rydberg interaction give rise to interesting many-body ground states different from standard FQH physics in the lowest Landau level. The nonlocal but rapidly decreasing interaction potential favors crystalline ground states for very dilute systems. While a simple Wigner crystal becomes energetically favorable compared to the Laughlin liquid for filling fractions ν<1/12, a correlated crystal of composite particles emerges already for ν≤1/6 with a large energy gap to the simple Wigner crystal. The presence of a new length scale, the Rydberg blockade radius aB, gives rise to a bubble crystal phase for ν≲1/4 when the average particle distance becomes less than aB, which describes the region of saturated, almost constant interaction potential. For larger fillings indications for strongly correlated cluster liquids are found.

  10. Probing bulk physics in the 5/2 fractional quantum Hall effect using the Corbino geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Benjamin; Bennaceur, Keyan; Bilodeau, Simon; Gaucher, Samuel; Lilly, Michael; Reno, John; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken; Reulet, Bertrand; Gervais, Guillaume

    We present two- and four-point Corbino geometry transport measurements in the second Landau level in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures. By avoiding edge transport, we are able to directly probe the physics of the bulk quasiparticles in fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states including 5/2. Our highest-quality sample shows stripe and bubble phases in high Landau levels, and most importantly well-resolved FQH minima in the second Landau level. We report Arrhenius-type fits to the activated conductance, and find that σ0 agrees well with theory and existing Hall geometry data in the first Landau level, but not in the second Landau level. We will discuss the advantages the Corbino geometry could bring to various experiments designed to detect the non-Abelian entropy at 5/2, and our progress towards realizing those schemes. The results of these experiments could complement interferometry and other edge-based measurements by providing direct evidence for non-Abelian behaviour of the bulk quasiparticles. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL8500.

  11. Extension of the quantum-kinetic model to lunar and Mars return physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liechty, D. S.; Lewis, M. J.

    2014-02-01

    The ability to compute rarefied, ionized hypersonic flows is becoming more important as missions such as Earth reentry, landing high-mass payloads on Mars, and the exploration of the outer planets and their satellites are being considered. A recently introduced molecular-level chemistry model, the quantum-kinetic, or Q-K, model that predicts reaction rates for gases in thermal equilibrium and non-equilibrium using only kinetic theory and fundamental molecular properties, is extended in the current work to include electronic energy level transitions and reactions involving charged particles. Like the Q-K procedures for neutral species chemical reactions, these new models are phenomenological procedures that aim to reproduce the reaction/transition rates but do not necessarily capture the exact physics. These engineering models are necessarily efficient due to the requirement to compute billions of simulated collisions in direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations. The new models are shown to generally agree within the spread of reported transition and reaction rates from the literature for near equilibrium conditions.

  12. Radiance and photon noise: imaging in geometrical optics, physical optics, quantum optics and radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caucci, Luca; Myers, Kyle J.; Barrett, Harrison H.

    2016-01-01

    The statistics of detector outputs produced by an imaging system are derived from basic radiometric concepts and definitions. We show that a fundamental way of describing a photon-limited imaging system is in terms of a Poisson random process in spatial, angular, and wavelength variables. We begin the paper by recalling the concept of radiance in geometrical optics, radiology, physical optics, and quantum optics. The propagation and conservation laws for radiance in each of these domains are reviewed. Building upon these concepts, we distinguish four categories of imaging detectors that all respond in some way to the incident radiance, including the new category of photon-processing detectors (capable of measuring radiance on a photon-by-photon basis). This allows us to rigorously show how the concept of radiance is related to the statistical properties of detector outputs and to the information content of a single detected photon. A Monte-Carlo technique, which is derived from the Boltzmann transport equation, is presented as a way to estimate probability density functions to be used in reconstruction from photon-processing data.

  13. The Butterfly and the Photon:. New Perspectives on Unpredictability, and the Notion of Casual Reality, in Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, T. N.

    2012-12-01

    This essay discusses a proposal that draws together the three great revolutionary theories of 20th Century physics: quantum theory, relativity theory and chaos theory. Motivated by the Bohmian notion of implicate order, and what in chaos theory would be described as a strange attractor, the proposal attributes special ontological significance to certain non-computable, dynamically invariant state-space geometries for the universe as a whole. Studying the phenomenon of quantum interference, it is proposed to understand quantum wave-particle duality, and indeed classical electromagnetism, in terms of particles in space time and waves on this state space geometry. Studying the EPR experiment, the acausal constraints that this invariant geometry provides on spatially distant degrees of freedom, provides a way for the underlying dynamics to be consistent with the Bell theorem, yet be relativistically covariant ("nonlocality without nonlocality"). It is suggested that the physical basis for such non-computable geometries lies in properties of gravity with the information irreversibility implied by black hole no-hair theorems being crucial. In conclusion it is proposed that quantum theory may be emergent from an extended theory of gravity which is geometric not only in space time, but also in state space. Such a notion would undermine most current attempts to "quantise gravity".

  14. On the Importance of Interpretation in Quantum Physics: A Reply to Elise Crull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassallo, Antonio; Esfeld, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Elise Crull (Found Phys. doi:10.1007/s10701-014-9847-4, 2014) claims that by invoking decoherence it is possible (i) to obviate many "fine grained" issues often conflated under the common designation of measurement problem, and (ii) to make substantial progresses in the fields of quantum gravity and quantum cosmology, without any early incorporation of a particular interpretation in the quantum formalism. We point out that Crull is mistaken about decoherence and tacitly assumes some kind of interpretation of the quantum formalism.

  15. Physics of lateral triple quantum-dot molecules with controlled electron numbers.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chang-Yu; Shim, Yun-Pil; Korkusinski, Marek; Hawrylak, Pawel

    2012-11-01

    We review the recent progress in theory and experiments with lateral triple quantum dots with controlled electron numbers down to one electron in each dot. The theory covers electronic and spin properties as a function of topology, number of electrons, gate voltage and external magnetic field. The orbital Hund's rules and Nagaoka ferromagnetism, magnetic frustration and chirality, interplay of quantum interference and electron-electron interactions and geometrical phases are described and related to charging and transport spectroscopy. Fabrication techniques and recent experiments are covered, as well as potential applications of triple quantum-dot molecule in coherent control, spin manipulation and quantum computation. PMID:23072742

  16. Nobel Prizes in Physics and Chemistry 2014: Celebrating the International Year of Light 2015, commemorating the Old Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yu

    2015-01-01

    2015 is the International Year of Light and Light-based Technologies (IYL), while the physics and chemistry Nobel Prizes 2014 are both about light. The work leading to the two prizes share the same basic theoretical foundation: when an electron jumps from a higher energy level to a lower energy level, the energy difference is transformed into a photon. This basic way of light generation is a key part of the Old Quantum Theory. Interestingly, the date of announcing the 2014 Nobel Prize for physics coincided with the birthdays of Niels Bohr and, especially, of Planck's blackbody radiation formula. In connection with the two 2014 Nobel Prizes, we recall the development of the Old Quantum Theory by Planck, Einstein and Bohr.

  17. Applying and assessing some semi-local density functionals for condensed matter physics and quantum chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Pan

    Density functional theory (DFT) is a widely used quantum mechanical method for the simulation of the electronic structure of atoms, molecules, and solids. The only part that needs to be approximated is the exchange-correlation energy as a functional of the electron density. After many-year development, there is a huge variety of exchange-correlation functionals. According to the ingredients, an exchange-correlation functional can be classified as a semi-local functional or beyond. A semi-local functional can be nonempirical or empirical and only uses locality information, such as electron density, gradient of the density, Laplacian of the density, and kinetic energy density. Unlike a non-local functional that uses non-locality information, a semi-local functional is computationally efficient and can be applied to large systems. The meta-generalized gradient approximation (meta-GGA), which is the highest-level semi-local functional, has the potential to give a good description for condensed matter physics and quantum chemistry. We built the self-consistent revised Tao-Perdew-Staroverov-Scuseria (revTPSS) meta-GGA into the band-structure program BAND to test the performances of some self-consistent semi-local functionals on lattice constant with a 58-solid test set. The self-consistent effect of revTPSS was also discussed. The vibration of a crystal has a contribution to the ground state energy of a system, which is the zero-point energy at zero temperature. It has anharmonicity at the equilibrium geometry. The standard DFT doesn't consider the zero-point energy of a crystal. We used density functional perturbation theory (DFPT), which is a powerful and flexible theoretical technique within the density functional framework, to study the zero-point energy and make a correction to the lattice constant. The method was compared to a traditional zero-point anharmonic expansion method that is based on the Debye and Dugdale-MacDonald approximations. We also tested some new

  18. Quantum paradoxes originating from the nonclassical statistics of physical properties related to each other by half-periodic transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Holger F.

    2015-06-01

    Quantum paradoxes show that quantum statistics can exceed the limits of positive joint probabilities for physical properties that cannot be measured jointly. It is therefore impossible to describe the relations between the different physical properties of a quantum system by assigning joint realities to their observable values. Instead, recent experimental results obtained by weak measurements suggest that nonclassical correlations could be expressed by complex valued quasiprobabilities, where the phases of the complex probabilities express the action of transformations between the noncommuting properties [H. F. Hofmann, New J. Phys. 13, 103009 (2011), 10.1088/1367-2630/13/10/103009]. In these relations, negative probabilities necessarily emerge whenever the physical properties involved are related to each other by half-periodic transformations, since such transformations are characterized by action phases of π in their complex probabilities. It is therefore possible to trace the failure of realist assumptions back to a fundamental and universally valid relation between statistics and dynamics that associates half-periodic transformations with negative probabilities.

  19. Towards quantum many-body physics with Sr in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blatt, Sebastian; Jansa, Nejc; Escudero, Rodrigo G.; Heinz, André; Park, Annie Jihyun; Snigirev, Stepan; Dalibard, Jean; Bloch, Immanuel

    2016-05-01

    Within the last decade, fermionic alkaline earth atoms in optical lattices have become a platform for precision measurements, culminating in the realization of an atomic clock with the currently highest stability and accuracy at the 2 ×10-18 level. In the meantime, quantum degenerate gases of all bosonic and fermionic isotopes of Sr have been realized. With the extension of the quantum gas microscopy technique to fermionic alkali metal atoms, experiments with quantum degenerate gases in optical lattices have taken another step towards full control over the internal and external degrees of freedom of fermions in optical lattices. Here, we report on the construction of a new experiment with quantum degenerate gases of Sr in optical lattices. Our experiment aims to combine the high spatial control over the atomic degrees of freedom from quantum gas microscopy with the precision control over the internal degrees of freedom enabled by optical lattice clock techniques.

  20. "Loops and Legs in Quantum Field Theory", 12th DESY Workshop on Elementary Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The bi-annual international conference "Loops and Legs in Quantum Field Theory" has been held at Weimar, Germany, from April 27 to May 02, 2014. It has been the 12th conference of this series, started in 1992. The main focus of the conference are precision calculations of multi- loop and multi-leg processes in elementary particle physics for processes at present and future high-energy facilities within and beyond the Standard Model. At present many physics questions studied deal with processes at the LHC and future facilities like the ILC. A growing number of contributions deals with important developments in the field of computational technologies and algorithmic methods, including large-scale computer algebra, efficient methods to compute large numbers of Feynman diagrams, analytic summation and integration methods of various kinds, new related function spaces, precise numerical methods and Monte Carlo simulations. The present conference has been attended by more than 110 participants from all over the world, presenting more than 75 contributions, most of which have been written up for these pro- ceedings. The present volume demonstrates in an impressive way the enormous development of the field during the last few years, reaching the level of 5-loop calculations in QCD and a like- wise impressive development in massive next-to-leading order and next-to-next-to-leading order processes. Computer algebraic and numerical calculations require terabyte storage and many CPU years, even after intense parallelization, to obtain state-of-the-art theoretical predictions. The city of Weimar gave a suitable frame to the conference, with its rich history, especially in literature, music, arts, and architecture. Goethe, Schiller, Wieland, Herder, Bach and Liszt lived there and created many of their masterpieces. The many young participants signal that our field is prosperous and faces an exciting future. The conference hotel "Kaiserin Augusta" offered a warm hospitality and

  1. How the Jones polynomial give rise to physical states of quantum general relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Bruegmann, B. ); Gambini, R. ); Pullin, J. )

    1993-01-01

    Solutions to both the diffeomorphism and the hamiltonian constraint of quantum gravity have been found in the loop representation, which is based on Ashtekar's new variables. While the diffeomorphism constraint is easily solved by considering loop functionals which are knot invariants, there remains the puzzle why several of the known knot invariants are also solutions to the hamiltonian constraint. We show how the Jones polynomial gives rise to an infinite set of solutions to all the constraints of quantum gravity thereby illuminating the structure of the space of solutions and suggesting the existence of a deep connection between quantum gravity and knot theory at a dynamical level.

  2. Electro-physical characteristics of MIS structures with HgTe- based single quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzyadukh, S.; Nesmelov, S.; Voitsekhovskii, A.; Gorn, D.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents brief research results of the admittance of metal-insulator- semiconductor (MIS) structures based on Hg1-xCdxTe grown by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) method including single HgCdTe/HgTe/HgCdTe quantum wells (QW) in the surface layer. The thickness of a quantum well was 5.6 nm, and the composition of barrier layers with the thickness of 35 nm was close to 0.65. Measurements were conducted in the range of temperatures from 8 to 200 K. It is shown that for structure with quantum well based on HgTe capacitance and conductance oscillations in the strong inversion are observed. Also it is assumed these oscillations are related with the recharging of quantum levels in HgTe.

  3. Bosonic anomalies, induced fractional quantum numbers, and degenerate zero modes: The anomalous edge physics of symmetry-protected topological states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juven C.; Santos, Luiz H.; Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2015-05-01

    The boundary of symmetry-protected topological states (SPTs) can harbor new quantum anomaly phenomena. In this work, we characterize the bosonic anomalies introduced by the 1+1D non-onsite-symmetric gapless edge modes of (2+1)D bulk bosonic SPTs with a generic finite Abelian group symmetry (isomorphic to G =∏iZNi=ZN1×ZN2×ZN3×⋯ ). We demonstrate that some classes of SPTs (termed "Type II") trap fractional quantum numbers (such as fractional ZN charges) at the 0D kink of the symmetry-breaking domain walls, while some classes of SPTs (termed "Type III") have degenerate zero energy modes (carrying the projective representation protected by the unbroken part of the symmetry), either near the 0D kink of a symmetry-breaking domain wall, or on a symmetry-preserving 1D system dimensionally reduced from a thin 2D tube with a monodromy defect 1D line embedded. More generally, the energy spectrum and conformal dimensions of gapless edge modes under an external gauge flux insertion (or twisted by a branch cut, i.e., a monodromy defect line) through the 1D ring can distinguish many SPT classes. We provide a manifest correspondence from the physical phenomena, the induced fractional quantum number, and the zero energy mode degeneracy to the mathematical concept of cocycles that appears in the group cohomology classification of SPTs, thus achieving a concrete physical materialization of the cocycles. The aforementioned edge properties are formulated in terms of a long wavelength continuum field theory involving scalar chiral bosons, as well as in terms of matrix product operators and discrete quantum lattice models. Our lattice approach yields a regularization with anomalous non-onsite symmetry for the field theory description. We also formulate some bosonic anomalies in terms of the Goldstone-Wilczek formula.

  4. From Propagation to Structure: The Experimental Technique of Bombardment as a Contributing Factor to the Emerging Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hon, Giora

    I observe that quantum physics emerged at the turn of the last century when physics had shifted its concern from propagation phenomena to questions of structure. This transition materialized with the development of a new experimental technique, the bombardment method. The transition is well exemplified by the move from the experimental studies of Heinrich Hertz to those of Ernest Rutherford, and from those of Heinrich Hertz and Philipp Lenard to those of James Franck and Gustav Hertz. I trace the history of Rutherford's experimental bombardment method as it emerged from nineteenth-century propagation studies. I then demonstrate the use of the bombardment method in another experimental context, namely, in the celebrated experiment of Franck and Hertz. I locate the root of this experiment in Lenard's experimental studies and analyze Franck and Hertz's flawed interpretation of it. I conclude by underlining the crucial role that Bohr's quantum theory of the atom played in helping to establish these bombardment experiments as milestones of modern physics.

  5. Investigation of physical implementation of one-way quantum repeaters with multilevel systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muralidharan, Sreraman; Zou, Chang-Ling; Li, Linshu; Wen, Jianming; Jiang, Liang

    Error correcting codes of multilevel systems have been shown to be resource efficient for the correction of erasure errors. One way quantum repeaters based on multilevel systems offer ultrafast key generation rates, while consuming lower resources than qubit based schemes (arXiv:1504.08054). On the other hand, they are technologically demanding. Here, we identify the key technological requirements needed for the implementation of quantum repeaters with multilevel systems and propose different experimental techniques that can be used to overcome the difficulties. We propose a generalized Duan-Kimble scheme for the generation of error correcting codes of multilevel systems with time-bin qudits.

  6. Secondary school teachers discussing the pedagogical and cultural aspects in teaching-learning quantum physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelini, Marisa; Stefanel, Alberto

    2008-05-01

    The instructional path and its tutorials of a teaching-learning proposal for quantum mechanics based on a Dirac approach and focused on building the theoretical thinking were used in a Master blended module for in-service teacher training. The proposal was discussed in a web laboratory and in a workshop proposed in-presence, warranting the personal involvement of forming teachers in concept analysis. We document enhancement of the competencies in order to discuss the crucial point of quantum theory and design instructional path centered on them.

  7. PHYSICAL FOUNDATIONS OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Interference properties of coherent photons selectively reflected from resonance media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veklenko, B. A.

    2002-05-01

    It is shown that, according to the quantum theory of light, the spatial period of an interference pattern formed by light incident on a medium and reflected from it is determined both by the wavelength of light and the number of coherent photons in a scattered mode. The scattered signal is assumed arbitrarily weak.

  8. Application of the theory of open quantum systems to nuclear physics problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargsyan, V. V.; Kanokov, Z.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.

    2016-03-01

    Quantum diffusion equations with transport coefficients explicitly depending on time are derived from the generalized non-Markovian Langevin equations. The asymptotic behavior of the friction and diffusion coefficients is investigated in the case of the FC and RWA couplings between the collective and internal subsystems. An asymptotic expression is obtained for the propagator of the density matrix of the open quantum system with the general quadratic Hamiltonian, linearly coupled (in coordinate and momentum) to internal degrees of freedom. The effect of different sets of transport coefficients on the decoherence and decay rate of the metastable state is investigated using the master equation for the reduced density matrix of open quantum systems. The developed approach is used to study the capture of the projectile nucleus by the target nucleus at energies near the Coulomb barrier. Capture cross sections in asymmetric reactions are well described with allowance for the calculated capture probabilities. Particular cases where dissipation favors penetration through the potential barrier are found. The generalized Kramers formula for the quasi-stationary decay rate of the quantum metastable systems is analytically derived.

  9. Nanoscale Interfaces in Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells: Physical Insights and Materials Engineering Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Kyle Wayne

    With growing global energy demand there will be an increased need for sources of renewable energy such as solar cells. To make these photovoltaic technologies more competitive with conventional energy sources such as coal and natural gas requires further reduction in manufacturing costs that can be realized by solution processing and roll-to-roll printing. Colloidal quantum dots are a bandgap tunable, solution processible, semiconductor material which may offer a path forward to efficient, inexpensive photovoltaics. Despite impressive progress in performance with these materials, there remain limitations in photocarrier collection that must be overcome. This dissertation focuses on the characterization of charge recombination and transport in colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics, and the application of this knowledge to the development of new and better materials. Core-shell, PbS-CdS, quantum dots were investigated in an attempt to achieve better surface passivation and reduce electronic defects which can limit performance. Optimization of this material led to improved open circuit voltage, exceeding 0.6 V for the first time, and record published performance of 6% efficiency. Using temperature-dependent and transient photovoltage measurements we explored the significance of interface recombination on the operation of these devices. Careful engineering of the electrode using atomic layer deposition of ZnO helped lead to better TiO2 substrate materials and allowed us to realize a nearly two-fold reduction in recombination rate and an enhancement upwards of 50 mV in open circuit voltage. Carrier extraction efficiency was studied in these devices using intensity dependent current-voltage data of an operational solar cell. By developing an analytical model to describe recombination loss within the active layer of the device we were able to accurately determine transport lengths ranging up to 90 nm. Transient absorption and photoconductivity techniques were used to study

  10. Quantum correlations and distinguishability of quantum states

    SciTech Connect

    Spehner, Dominique

    2014-07-15

    A survey of various concepts in quantum information is given, with a main emphasis on the distinguishability of quantum states and quantum correlations. Covered topics include generalized and least square measurements, state discrimination, quantum relative entropies, the Bures distance on the set of quantum states, the quantum Fisher information, the quantum Chernoff bound, bipartite entanglement, the quantum discord, and geometrical measures of quantum correlations. The article is intended both for physicists interested not only by collections of results but also by the mathematical methods justifying them, and for mathematicians looking for an up-to-date introductory course on these subjects, which are mainly developed in the physics literature.

  11. Physically flexible, rapid-response gas sensor based on colloidal quantum dot solids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Li, Min; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Hu, Long; Fu, Qiuyun; Zhou, Dongxiang; Xia, Zhe; Sargent, Edward H; Tang, Jiang

    2014-05-01

    A gas sensor based on PbS colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) is constructed on a paper substrate, yielding flexible, rapid-response NO₂ gas sensors, fabricated from the solution phase. The devices are highly sensitive and fully recoverable at room temperature, which is attributed to the excellent access of gas molecules to the CQD surface, realized by surface ligand removal, combined with the desirable binding energy of NO₂ with the PbS CQDs. PMID:24452852

  12. Time-optimal excitation of maximum quantum coherence: Physical limits and pulse sequences.

    PubMed

    Köcher, S S; Heydenreich, T; Zhang, Y; Reddy, G N M; Caldarelli, S; Yuan, H; Glaser, S J

    2016-04-28

    Here we study the optimum efficiency of the excitation of maximum quantum (MaxQ) coherence using analytical and numerical methods based on optimal control theory. The theoretical limit of the achievable MaxQ amplitude and the minimum time to achieve this limit are explored for a set of model systems consisting of up to five coupled spins. In addition to arbitrary pulse shapes, two simple pulse sequence families of practical interest are considered in the optimizations. Compared to conventional approaches, substantial gains were found both in terms of the achieved MaxQ amplitude and in pulse sequence durations. For a model system, theoretically predicted gains of a factor of three compared to the conventional pulse sequence were experimentally demonstrated. Motivated by the numerical results, also two novel analytical transfer schemes were found: Compared to conventional approaches based on non-selective pulses and delays, double-quantum coherence in two-spin systems can be created twice as fast using isotropic mixing and hard spin-selective pulses. Also it is proved that in a chain of three weakly coupled spins with the same coupling constants, triple-quantum coherence can be created in a time-optimal fashion using so-called geodesic pulses. PMID:27131527

  13. Theory and Experiment in the Quantum-Relativity Revolution (Pais History of Physics Prize 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brush, Stephen

    2010-02-01

    Does new scientific knowledge come from theory (whose predictions are confirmed by experiment) or from experiment (whose results are explained by theory)? Either can happen, depending on whether theory is ahead of experiment or experiment is ahead of theory at a particular time. In the first case, new theoretical hypotheses are made and their predictions are tested by experiments. But even when the predictions are successful, we can't be sure that some other hypothesis might not have produced the same prediction. In the second case, as in a detective story, there are already enough facts, but several theories have failed to explain them. When a new hypothesis plausibly explains all of the facts, it may be quickly accepted before any further experiments are done. In the quantum- relativity revolution there are examples of both situations. Because of the two-stage development of both relativity (``special,'' then ``general'') and quantum theory (``old,'' then ``quantum mechanics'') in the period 1905-1930, we can make a double comparison of acceptance by prediction and by explanation. A curious anti-symmetry is revealed and discussed. )

  14. Time-optimal excitation of maximum quantum coherence: Physical limits and pulse sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köcher, S. S.; Heydenreich, T.; Zhang, Y.; Reddy, G. N. M.; Caldarelli, S.; Yuan, H.; Glaser, S. J.

    2016-04-01

    Here we study the optimum efficiency of the excitation of maximum quantum (MaxQ) coherence using analytical and numerical methods based on optimal control theory. The theoretical limit of the achievable MaxQ amplitude and the minimum time to achieve this limit are explored for a set of model systems consisting of up to five coupled spins. In addition to arbitrary pulse shapes, two simple pulse sequence families of practical interest are considered in the optimizations. Compared to conventional approaches, substantial gains were found both in terms of the achieved MaxQ amplitude and in pulse sequence durations. For a model system, theoretically predicted gains of a factor of three compared to the conventional pulse sequence were experimentally demonstrated. Motivated by the numerical results, also two novel analytical transfer schemes were found: Compared to conventional approaches based on non-selective pulses and delays, double-quantum coherence in two-spin systems can be created twice as fast using isotropic mixing and hard spin-selective pulses. Also it is proved that in a chain of three weakly coupled spins with the same coupling constants, triple-quantum coherence can be created in a time-optimal fashion using so-called geodesic pulses.

  15. Quantum physics in neuroscience and psychology: A neurophysicalmodel o f mind/brain interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, Henry P.; Schwartz, Jeffrey M.; Beauregard, Mario

    2004-06-01

    Contemporary physical theory brings directly and irreducibly into the overall causal structure certain psychologically described choices made by human beings about how they will act. This key development in basic physical theory is applicable to neuroscience, and it provides neuroscientists and psychologists with an alternative conceptual structure for describing neural processes.

  16. The infinite well and Dirac delta function potentials as pedagogical, mathematical and physical models in quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloni, M.; Robinett, R. W.

    2014-07-01

    The infinite square well and the attractive Dirac delta function potentials are arguably two of the most widely used models of one-dimensional bound-state systems in quantum mechanics. These models frequently appear in the research literature and are staples in the teaching of quantum theory on all levels. We review the history, mathematical properties, and visualization of these models, their many variations, and their applications to physical systems. For the ISW and the attractive DDF potentials, Eq. (4) implies, as expected, that energy eigenfunctions will have a kink-a discontinuous first derivative at the location of the infinite jump(s) in the potentials. However, the large |p| behavior of the momentum-space energy eigenfunction given by Eq. (5) will be |ϕ(p)|∝1/p2. Therefore for the ISW and the attractive DDF potentials, expectation value of p will be finite, but even powers of p higher than 2 will not lead to convergent integrals. This analysis proves that despite the kinks in the ISW and attractive DDF eigenfunctions, is finite, and therefore yield appropriate solutions to the Schrödinger equation.The existence of power-law ‘tails’ of a momentum distribution as indicated in Eq. (5) in the case of ‘less than perfect’ potentials [41], including a 1/p2 power-law dependence for a singular potential (such as the DDF form) may seem a mathematical artifact, but we note two explicit realizations of exactly this type of behavior in well-studied quantum systems.As noted below (in Section 6.2) the momentum-space energy eigenfunction of the ground state of one of the most familiar (and singular) potentials, namely that of the Coulomb problem, is given by ϕ1,0,0(p)=√{8p0/π}p0/2 where p0=ħ/a0 with a0 the Bohr radius. This prediction for the p-dependence of the hydrogen ground state momentum-space distribution was verified by Weigold [42] and collaborators with measurements taken out to p-values beyond 1.4p0; well out onto the power

  17. Quantum frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Matthew J.

    2014-02-01

    The framework of quantum frames can help unravel some of the interpretive difficulties i the foundation of quantum mechanics. In this paper, I begin by tracing the origins of this concept in Bohr's discussion of quantum theory and his theory of complementarity. Engaging with various interpreters and followers of Bohr, I argue that the correct account of quantum frames must be extended beyond literal space-time reference frames to frames defined by relations between a quantum system and the exosystem or external physical frame, of which measurement contexts are a particularly important example. This approach provides superior solutions to key EPR-type measurement and locality paradoxes.

  18. Physical reasons of emission transformation in infrared CdSeTe/ZnS quantum dots at bioconjugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torchynska, T. V.

    2015-04-01

    The core/shell CdSeTe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) with emission at 780-800 nm (1.55-1.60 eV) have been studied by means of photoluminescence (PL) and Raman scattering methods in the nonconjugated state and after conjugation to different antibodies (Ab): (i) mouse monoclonal [8C9] human papilloma virus Ab, anti-HPV 16-E7 Ab, (ii) mouse monoclonal [C1P5] human papilloma virus HPV16 E6+HPV18 E6 Ab, and (iii) pseudo rabies virus (PRV) Ab. The transformations of PL and Raman scattering spectra of QDs, stimulated by conjugated antibodies, have been revealed and discussed. The energy band diagram of core/shell CdSeTe/ZnS QDs has been designed that helps to analyze the PL spectra and their transformations at the bioconjugation. It is shown that the core in CdSeTe/ZnS QDs is complex and including the type II quantum well. The last fact permits to explain the nature of infrared (IR) optical transitions (1.55-1.60 eV) and the high energy PL band (1.88-1.94 eV) in the nonconjugated and bioconjugated QDs. A set of physical reasons has been analyzed with the aim to explain the transformation of PL spectra in bioconjugated QDs. Finally it is shown that two factors are responsible for the PL spectrum transformation at bioconjugation to charged antibodies: (i) the change of energy band profile in QDs and (ii) the shift of QD energy levels in the strong quantum confinement case. The effect of PL spectrum transformation is useful for the study of QD bioconjugation to specific antibodies and can be a powerful technique for early medical diagnostics.

  19. Photo-physical properties enhancement of bare and core-shell quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumin, Md Abdul; Akhter, Kazi Farida; Charpentier, Paul A.

    2014-03-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) (also known as quantum dots, QDs) have attracted immense attention for their size-tunable optical properties that makes them impressive candidates for solar cells, light emitting devices, lasers, as well as biomedical imaging. However monodispersity, high and consistent photoluminescence, photostability, and biocompatibility are still major challenges. This work focuses on optimizing the photophysical properties and biocompatibility of QDs by forming core-shell nanostructures and their encapsulation by a carrier. Highly luminescent CdS and CdS-ZnS core-shell QDs with 5 nm sizes were synthesized using a facile approach based on pyrolysis of the single molecule precursors. After capping the CdS QDs with a thin layer of ZnS to reduce toxicity, the photoluminescence and photostability of the core-shell QDs was significantly enhanced. To make both the bare and core/shell structure QDs more resistant against photochemical reactions, a mesoporous silica layer was grown on the QDs through a reverse microemulsion technique based on hydrophobic interaction. This encapsulation enhanced the quantum yield and photostability compared to the bare QDs by providing much stronger resistance to oxidation and Oswald ripening of QDs. Encapsulation also improved biocompatibility of QDs that was evaluated with human umbilical vein endothelial cell lines (HUVEC).

  20. Photo-physical properties enhancement of bare and core-shell quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Mumin, Md Abdul Akhter, Kazi Farida Charpentier, Paul A.

    2014-03-31

    Semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) (also known as quantum dots, QDs) have attracted immense attention for their size-tunable optical properties that makes them impressive candidates for solar cells, light emitting devices, lasers, as well as biomedical imaging. However monodispersity, high and consistent photoluminescence, photostability, and biocompatibility are still major challenges. This work focuses on optimizing the photophysical properties and biocompatibility of QDs by forming core-shell nanostructures and their encapsulation by a carrier. Highly luminescent CdS and CdS-ZnS core-shell QDs with 5 nm sizes were synthesized using a facile approach based on pyrolysis of the single molecule precursors. After capping the CdS QDs with a thin layer of ZnS to reduce toxicity, the photoluminescence and photostability of the core-shell QDs was significantly enhanced. To make both the bare and core/shell structure QDs more resistant against photochemical reactions, a mesoporous silica layer was grown on the QDs through a reverse microemulsion technique based on hydrophobic interaction. This encapsulation enhanced the quantum yield and photostability compared to the bare QDs by providing much stronger resistance to oxidation and Oswald ripening of QDs. Encapsulation also improved biocompatibility of QDs that was evaluated with human umbilical vein endothelial cell lines (HUVEC)

  1. Quantum Kibble-Zurek physics in the presence of spatially correlated dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalbach, P.; Vishveshwara, Smitha; Clerk, Aashish A.

    2015-07-01

    We study how the universal properties of quantum quenches across critical points are modified by a weak coupling to a thermal bath, focusing on the paradigmatic case of the transverse field Ising model. Beyond the standard quench-induced Kibble-Zurek defect production in the absence of the bath, the bath contributes extra thermal defects. We show that spatial correlations in the noise produced by the bath can play a crucial role: one obtains quantitatively different scaling regimes depending on whether the correlation length of the noise is smaller or larger than the Kibble-Zurek length associated with the quench speed, and the thermal length set by the temperature. For the case of spatially correlated bath noise, additional thermal defect generation is restricted to a window that is both quantum critical and excluded from the nonequilibrium regime surrounding the critical point. We map the dissipative quench problem to a set of effectively independent dissipative Landau-Zener problems. Using this mapping along with both analytic and numerical calculations allows us to find the scaling of the excess defect density produced in the quench, and it suggests a generic picture for such dissipative quenches.

  2. Carl gustav jung, quantum physics and the spiritual mind: a mystical vision of the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Valadas Ponte, Diogo; Schäfer, Lothar

    2013-12-01

    We describe similarities in the ontology of quantum physics and of Carl Gustav Jung's psychology. In spite of the fact that physics and psychology are usually considered as unrelated, in the last century, both of these disciplines have led at the same time to revolutionary changes in the Western understanding of the cosmic order, discovering a non-empirical realm of the universe that doesn't consist of material things but of forms. These forms are real, even though they are invisible, because they have the potential to appear in the empirical world and act in it. We present arguments that force us to believe, that the empirical world is an emanation out of a cosmic realm of potentiality, whose forms can appear as physical structures in the external world and as archetypal concepts in our mind. Accordingly, the evolution of life now appears no longer as a process of the adaptation of species to their environment, but as the adaptation of minds to increasingly complex forms that exist in the cosmic potentiality. The cosmic connection means that the human mind is a mystical mind. PMID:25379259

  3. Carl Gustav Jung, Quantum Physics and the Spiritual Mind: A Mystical Vision of the Twenty-First Century

    PubMed Central

    Valadas Ponte, Diogo; Schäfer, Lothar

    2013-01-01

    We describe similarities in the ontology of quantum physics and of Carl Gustav Jung’s psychology. In spite of the fact that physics and psychology are usually considered as unrelated, in the last century, both of these disciplines have led at the same time to revolutionary changes in the Western understanding of the cosmic order, discovering a non-empirical realm of the universe that doesn’t consist of material things but of forms. These forms are real, even though they are invisible, because they have the potential to appear in the empirical world and act in it. We present arguments that force us to believe, that the empirical world is an emanation out of a cosmic realm of potentiality, whose forms can appear as physical structures in the external world and as archetypal concepts in our mind. Accordingly, the evolution of life now appears no longer as a process of the adaptation of species to their environment, but as the adaptation of minds to increasingly complex forms that exist in the cosmic potentiality. The cosmic connection means that the human mind is a mystical mind. PMID:25379259

  4. A Wave Equation including Leptons and Quarks for the Standard Model of Quantum Physics in Clifford Algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daviau, Claude; Bertrand, Jacques

    A wave equation with mass term is studied for all particles and antiparticles of the first generation: electron and its neutrino, positron and antineutrino, quarks $u$ and $d$ with three states of color and antiquarks $\\overline{u}$ and $\\overline{d}$. This wave equation is form invariant under the $Cl_3^*$ group generalizing the relativistic invariance. It is gauge invariant under the $U(1)\\times SU(2) \\times SU(3)$ group of the standard model of quantum physics. The wave is a function of space and time with value in the Clifford algebra $Cl_{1,5}$. All features of the standard model, charge conjugation, color, left waves, Lagrangian formalism, are linked to the geometry of this extended space-time.

  5. Does time differ from change? Philosophical appraisal of the problem of time in quantum gravity and in physics: A response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbour, Julian

    2015-11-01

    In this paper I respond to the paper "Does time differ from change? Philosophical appraisal of the problem of time in quantum gravity and in physics" by Alexis de Saint-Ours, in which, among other things, he contrasts the views of Rovelli and myself. There are three main parts in my response. First, I consider Saint-Ours's question about the relationship between time and change and whether it is possible to have the latter without the former. Second, I go into somewhat more detail about the differences between Rovelli and myself concerning the nature of relationalism. Finally, I take the opportunity to discuss how my ideas about the nature of time have changed during the last decade as a result of examination of the role played by scale in the dynamics of the universe.

  6. Quantum physics in neuroscience and psychology: A neurophysicalmodel of the mind/brain interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Jeffrey M.; Stapp, Henry P.; Beauregard, Mario

    2004-09-21

    Neuropsychological research on the neural basis of behavior generally posits that brain mechanisms will ultimately suffice to explain all psychologically described phenomena. This assumption stems from the idea that the brain is made up entirely of material particles and fields, and that all causal mechanisms relevant to neuroscience can therefore be formulated solely in terms of properties of these elements. Thus terms having intrinsic mentalistic and/or experiential content (e.g., ''feeling,'' ''knowing,'' and ''effort'') are not included as primary causal factors. This theoretical restriction is motivated primarily by ideas about the natural world that have been known to be fundamentally incorrect for more than three quarters of a century. Contemporary basic physical theory differs profoundly from classical physics on the important matter of how the consciousness of human agents enters into the structure of empirical phenomena. The new principles contradict the older idea that local mechanical processes alone can account for the structure of all observed empirical data. Contemporary physical theory brings directly and irreducibly into the overall causal structure certain psychologically described choices made by human agents about how they will act. This key development in basic physical theory is applicable to neuroscience, and it provides neuroscientists and psychologists with an alternative conceptual framework for describing neural processes. Indeed, due to certain structural features of ion channels critical to synaptic function, contemporary physical theory must in principle be used when analyzing human brain dynamics. The new framework, unlike its classical-physics-based predecessor is erected directly upon, and is compatible with, the prevailing principles of physics, and is able to represent more adequately than classical concepts the neuroplastic mechanisms relevant to the growing number of empirical studies of the capacity of directed attention and

  7. Quantum physics in neuroscience and psychology: a neurophysical model of mind–brain interaction

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Jeffrey M; Stapp, Henry P; Beauregard, Mario

    2005-01-01

    Neuropsychological research on the neural basis of behaviour generally posits that brain mechanisms will ultimately suffice to explain all psychologically described phenomena. This assumption stems from the idea that the brain is made up entirely of material particles and fields, and that all causal mechanisms relevant to neuroscience can therefore be formulated solely in terms of properties of these elements. Thus, terms having intrinsic mentalistic and/or experiential content (e.g. ‘feeling’, ‘knowing’ and ‘effort’) are not included as primary causal factors. This theoretical restriction is motivated primarily by ideas about the natural world that have been known to be fundamentally incorrect for more than three-quarters of a century. Contemporary basic physical theory differs profoundly from classic physics on the important matter of how the consciousness of human agents enters into the structure of empirical phenomena. The new principles contradict the older idea that local mechanical processes alone can account for the structure of all observed empirical data. Contemporary physical theory brings directly and irreducibly into the overall causal structure certain psychologically described choices made by human agents about how they will act. This key development in basic physical theory is applicable to neuroscience, and it provides neuroscientists and psychologists with an alternative conceptual framework for describing neural processes. Indeed, owing to certain structural features of ion channels critical to synaptic function, contemporary physical theory must in principle be used when analysing human brain dynamics. The new framework, unlike its classic-physics-based predecessor, is erected directly upon, and is compatible with, the prevailing principles of physics. It is able to represent more adequately than classic concepts the neuroplastic mechanisms relevant to the growing number of empirical studies of the capacity of directed attention and

  8. Effect of cadmium selenide quantum dots on the dielectric and physical parameters of ferroelectric liquid crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D. P.; Gupta, S. K.; Manohar, R.; Varia, M. C.; Kumar, S.; Kumar, A.

    2014-07-21

    The effect of cadmium selenide quantum dots (CdSe QDs) on the dielectric relaxation and material constants of a ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) has been investigated. Along with the characteristic Goldstone mode, a new relaxation mode has been induced in the FLC material due to the presence of CdSe QDs. This new relaxation mode is strongly dependent on the concentration of CdSe QDs but is found to be independent of the external bias voltage and temperature. The material constants have also been modified remarkably due to the presence of CdSe QDs. The appearance of this new relaxation phenomenon has been attributed to the concentration dependent interaction between CdSe QDs and FLC molecules.

  9. A Web-based Quantum Mechanics Course for first Year Graduate Students in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breinig, M.

    1996-11-01

    All class materials for the 1996 graduate Quantum Mechanics course at the University of Tennessee are distributed over the Internet (http://electron4.phys.utk.edu). Complete class notes are available in PDF format. Homework problems and solutions are distributed in PDF format or as scanned notes. Students need Web access using a graphical browser with a PDF reader plug-in (Adobe Acrobat) installed. The news and mail clients must be able to display attachments, such as graphics files, inline. A class news group has been set up. Students use this news group to discus class material, homework problems, and anything else of interest among themselves. Numerical solutions are presented in the form of Java programs.

  10. Quantifying Quantumness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Daniel; Giraud, Olivier; Braun, Peter A.

    2010-03-01

    We introduce and study a measure of ``quantumness'' of a quantum state based on its Hilbert-Schmidt distance from the set of classical states. ``Classical states'' were defined earlier as states for which a positive P-function exists, i.e. they are mixtures of coherent states [1]. We study invariance properties of the measure, upper bounds, and its relation to entanglement measures. We evaluate the quantumness of a number of physically interesting states and show that for any physical system in thermal equilibrium there is a finite critical temperature above which quantumness vanishes. We then use the measure for identifying the ``most quantum'' states. Such states are expected to be potentially most useful for quantum information theoretical applications. We find these states explicitly for low-dimensional spin-systems, and show that they possess beautiful, highly symmetric Majorana representations. [4pt] [1] Classicality of spin states, Olivier Giraud, Petr Braun, and Daniel Braun, Phys. Rev. A 78, 042112 (2008)

  11. Physical aspects of unitary evolution of Bianchi-I quantum cosmological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Sridip

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we examine some physical aspects of unitary evolution of the Bianchi-I model. In particular, we investigate the behavior of the volume and the scale factor as a function of time for the Bianchi-I universe with ultra-relativistic fluid (α = 1). The expectation value of volume is shown not to hit any singularity. We elucidate on the anisotropic nature of the solution and physically interpret the wavefunction as a superposition of collapsing universe and expanding universe mimicking Hartle-Hawking type wavefunction. The same analysis has been done for α \

  12. Realism vs. Constructivism in Contemporary Physics: The Impact of the Debate on the Understanding of Quantum Theory and Its Instructional Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karakostas, Vassilios; Hadzidaki, Pandora

    2005-01-01

    In the present study we attempt to incorporate the philosophical dialogue about physical reality into the instructional process of quantum mechanics. Taking into account that both scientific realism and constructivism represent, on the basis of a rather broad spectrum, prevalent philosophical currents in the domain of science education, the…

  13. A Writing and Ethics Component for a Quantum Mechanics, Physical Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, John T.; Strickland, Michael

    2010-01-01

    A writing-across-the-curriculum and ethics component is presented for a second-semester, physical chemistry course. The activity involves introducing ethical issues pertinent to scientists. Students are asked to read additional material, participate in discussions, and write essays and a paper on an ethical issue. The writing and discussion…

  14. Control of physical and optical properties of II-VI quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sooklal, Kelly Sonja

    This thesis primarily concentrates on two semiconductors, CdS and ZnS, both of which have been widely used in the fabrication of electrical devices. Nanoparticles of CdS and ZnS have both been prepared using a variety of synthetic methods. These "quantum confined" particles exhibit a wide range of size dependent properties which can be modified by either altering their size and/or surface chemistry. In one set of experiments, it was found that the location of Mn 2+ profoundly affects the photophysics of ZnS nanoclusters. Mn 2+ substituted for Zn2+ in the ZnS lattice produced orange emission with lifetimes that were intermediate between those found for micron clusters and smaller nanoclusters. The addition of Mn2+ to the outside of the preformed ZnS nanoclusters showed near-band gap emission in the ultraviolet with even shorter lifetimes. We have also used these Mn2+ doped nanoclusters to fabricate electroluminescent devices. In another set of experiments, the effects of different ions on the photophysics of ZnS nanoclusters was investigated. Depending on the cation, we have been able to produce ZnS nanoclusters that emit in the blue, green, yellow and orange regions of the visible spectrum by incorporating Cu2+, Pb2+ and Mn2+. Quantum dots of CdS have also been prepared using several different stabilizing agents. CdS nanoparticles that have been synthesized using dendrimers as hosts exhibit striking optical and electronic features. Intense blue-green emission is observed when the CdS-dendrimer nanocomposites are formed in methanol and/or acidified methanol solutions. Bright yellow emission is observed when the semiconductor-dendrimer nanocomposites are prepared in water and/or basic methanol solutions. One additional experiment was performed using capping groups to modify the photophysics of CdS. Nanometer-sized CdS were prepared using a series of 4-substituted thiophenols as capping agents. The 4-substituents included both electron-donating and electron

  15. Quantum confinement and photoresponsivity of β-In2Se3 nanosheets grown by physical vapour transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, Nilanthy; Staddon, Christopher R.; Smith, Emily F.; Stec, Jakub; Gay, Dean; Mudd, Garry W.; Makarovsky, Oleg; Kudrynskyi, Zakhar R.; Kovalyuk, Zakhar D.; Eaves, Laurence; Patanè, Amalia; Beton, Peter H.

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate that β-In2Se3 layers with thickness ranging from 2.8 to 100 nm can be grown on SiO2/Si, mica and graphite using a physical vapour transport method. The β-In2Se3 layers are chemically stable at room temperature and exhibit a blue-shift of the photoluminescence emission when the layer thickness is reduced, due to strong quantum confinement of carriers by the physical boundaries of the material. The layers are characterised using Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction from which we confirm lattice constants c = 28.31 ± 0.05 Å and a = 3.99 ± 0.02 Å. In addition, these layers show high photoresponsivity of up to ∼2 × 103 A W‑1 at λ = 633 nm, with rise and decay times of τ r = 0.6 ms and τ d = 2.5 ms, respectively, confirming the potential of the as-grown layers for high sensitivity photodetectors.

  16. Quantum double-exchange physics with ultracold atoms and synthetic gauge potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schachenmayer, Johannes; Isaev, Leonid; Rey, Ana Maria

    We study an interplay between local spin exchange and Néel antiferromagnetism in a two-band optical lattice. The lowest narrow band is half-filled and implements the magnetic background, while a higher band contains mobile atoms. When the local spins are locked in a Néel state, the motion of itinerant atoms is hindered by exchange energy barriers and the system is a flat-band insulator. As we show, this picture breaks down when exchange interaction between local and mobile spins is comparable to an energy scale of the Néel state. In this regime, formation of singlets between local and itinerant spins gives rise to a metallic phase of mobile atoms dressed by the spin fluctuations. This state is characterized by coupled spin-charge excitations whose spin is transverse to the Néel vector. Our predictions can be realized with ultracold alkaline-earth fermionic atoms coupled to a laser-induced staggered magnetic field, which stabilizes the Néel order and controls the amount of quantum fluctuations of local spins. By tuning the strength of this laser coupling relative to the exchange interaction, one can either adiabatically drive the crossover between the flat-band insulator and correlated metal phases, or explore non-equilibrium spin-charge dynamics in quench experiments. This work was supported by the NSF (PIF-1211914 and PFC-1125844), AFOSR, AFOSR-MURI, NIST and ARO individual investigator awards.

  17. Synthetic dimensions in integrated photonics: From optical isolation to four-dimensional quantum Hall physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Tomoki; Price, Hannah M.; Goldman, Nathan; Zilberberg, Oded; Carusotto, Iacopo

    2016-04-01

    Recent technological advances in integrated photonics have spurred on the study of topological phenomena in engineered bosonic systems. Indeed, the controllability of silicon ring-resonator arrays has opened up new perspectives for building lattices for photons with topologically nontrivial bands and integrating them into photonic devices for practical applications. Here, we push these developments even further by exploiting the different modes of a silicon ring resonator as an extra dimension for photons. Tunneling along this synthetic dimension is implemented via an external time-dependent modulation that allows for the generation of engineered gauge fields. We show how this approach can be used to generate a variety of exciting topological phenomena in integrated photonics, ranging from a topologically-robust optical isolator in a spatially one-dimensional (1D) ring-resonator chain to a driven-dissipative analog of the 4D quantum Hall effect in a spatially 3D resonator lattice. Our proposal paves the way towards the use of topological effects in the design of novel photonic lattices supporting many frequency channels and displaying higher connectivities.

  18. Wigner and Kondo physics in quantum point contacts revealed by scanning gate microscopy.

    PubMed

    Brun, B; Martins, F; Faniel, S; Hackens, B; Bachelier, G; Cavanna, A; Ulysse, C; Ouerghi, A; Gennser, U; Mailly, D; Huant, S; Bayot, V; Sanquer, M; Sellier, H

    2014-01-01

    Quantum point contacts exhibit mysterious conductance anomalies in addition to well-known conductance plateaus at multiples of 2e(2)/h. These 0.7 and zero-bias anomalies have been intensively studied, but their microscopic origin in terms of many-body effects is still highly debated. Here we use the charged tip of a scanning gate microscope to tune in situ the electrostatic potential of the point contact. While sweeping the tip distance, we observe repetitive splittings of the zero-bias anomaly, correlated with simultaneous appearances of the 0.7 anomaly. We interpret this behaviour in terms of alternating equilibrium and non-equilibrium Kondo screenings of different spin states localized in the channel. These alternating Kondo effects point towards the presence of a Wigner crystal containing several charges with different parities. Indeed, simulations show that the electron density in the channel is low enough to reach one-dimensional Wigner crystallization over a size controlled by the tip position. PMID:24978440

  19. Wigner and Kondo physics in quantum point contacts revealed by scanning gate microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, B.; Martins, F.; Faniel, S.; Hackens, B.; Bachelier, G.; Cavanna, A.; Ulysse, C.; Ouerghi, A.; Gennser, U.; Mailly, D.; Huant, S.; Bayot, V.; Sanquer, M.; Sellier, H.

    2014-06-01

    Quantum point contacts exhibit mysterious conductance anomalies in addition to well-known conductance plateaus at multiples of 2e2/h. These 0.7 and zero-bias anomalies have been intensively studied, but their microscopic origin in terms of many-body effects is still highly debated. Here we use the charged tip of a scanning gate microscope to tune in situ the electrostatic potential of the point contact. While sweeping the tip distance, we observe repetitive splittings of the zero-bias anomaly, correlated with simultaneous appearances of the 0.7 anomaly. We interpret this behaviour in terms of alternating equilibrium and non-equilibrium Kondo screenings of different spin states localized in the channel. These alternating Kondo effects point towards the presence of a Wigner crystal containing several charges with different parities. Indeed, simulations show that the electron density in the channel is low enough to reach one-dimensional Wigner crystallization over a size controlled by the tip position.

  20. Proposal and physics of AlInN-delta-GaN quantum well ultraviolet lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng; Ooi, Yu Kee; Zhang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    The use of AlInN-delta-GaN quantum wells (QWs) active region for ultraviolet (UV) laser with wavelength (λ) ˜ 250-300 nm was proposed and investigated in this work. The design of active region consists of 24 Å staggered Al0.91In0.09N/Al0.82In0.18N layers with a 3 Å lattice-matched GaN delta layer, which enables dominant conduction band (C) to heavy hole (HH) subband transition. In addition, the insertion of the ultra-thin delta GaN layer will strongly localize the electron-hole wave functions toward the center of the QW, which leads to large transverse electric (TE) polarized optical gain. In comparison to the use of a conventional AlGaN QW system, the proposed AlInN-delta-GaN QW structure results in ˜3 times improvement in TE-gain at 255 nm. By tuning the delta-GaN thickness, the TE-polarized optical gain up to 3700 cm-1 can be obtained for λ ˜ 280-300 nm, which is very promising to serve as an alternative active region for high-efficiency UV lasers.

  1. Physical and biophysical assessment of highly fluorescent, magnetic quantum dots of a wurtzite-phase manganese selenide system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Runjun; Das, Queen; Hussain, Anowar; Ramteke, Anand; Choudhury, Amarjyoti; Mohanta, Dambarudhar

    2014-07-01

    Combining fluorescence and magnetic features in a non-iron based, select type of quantum dots (QDs) can have immense value in cellular imaging, tagging and other nano-bio interface applications, including targeted drug delivery. Herein, we report on the colloidal synthesis and physical and biophysical assessment of wurtzite-type manganese selenide (MnSe) QDs in cell culture media. Aiming to provide a suitable colloidal system of biological relevance, different concentrations of reactants and ligands (e.g., thioglycolic acid, TGA) have been considered. The average size of the QDs is ˜7 nm, which exhibited a quantum yield of ˜75% as compared to rhodamine 6 G dye®. As revealed from time-resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) response, the near band edge emission followed a bi-exponential decay feature with characteristic times of ˜0.64 ns and 3.04 ns. At room temperature, the QDs were found to exhibit paramagnetic features with coercivity and remanence impelled by TGA concentrations. With BSA as a dispersing agent, the QDs showed an improved optical stability in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Media® (DMEM) and Minimum Essential Media® (MEM), as compared to the Roswell Park Memorial Institute® (RPMI-1640) media. Finally, the cell viability of lymphocytes was found to be strongly influenced by the concentration of MnSe QDs, and had a safe limit upto 0.5 μM. With BSA inclusion in cell media, the cellular uptake of MnSe QDs was observed to be more prominent, as revealed from fluorescence imaging. The fabrication of water soluble, nontoxic MnSe QDs would open up an alternative strategy in nanobiotechnology, while preserving their luminescent and magnetic properties intact.

  2. Physical and biophysical assessment of highly fluorescent, magnetic quantum dots of a wurtzite-phase manganese selenide system.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Runjun; Das, Queen; Hussain, Anowar; Ramteke, Anand; Choudhury, Amarjyoti; Mohanta, Dambarudhar

    2014-07-11

    Combining fluorescence and magnetic features in a non-iron based, select type of quantum dots (QDs) can have immense value in cellular imaging, tagging and other nano-bio interface applications, including targeted drug delivery. Herein, we report on the colloidal synthesis and physical and biophysical assessment of wurtzite-type manganese selenide (MnSe) QDs in cell culture media. Aiming to provide a suitable colloidal system of biological relevance, different concentrations of reactants and ligands (e.g., thioglycolic acid, TGA) have been considered. The average size of the QDs is ∼7 nm, which exhibited a quantum yield of ∼75% as compared to rhodamine 6 G dye(®). As revealed from time-resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) response, the near band edge emission followed a bi-exponential decay feature with characteristic times of ∼0.64 ns and 3.04 ns. At room temperature, the QDs were found to exhibit paramagnetic features with coercivity and remanence impelled by TGA concentrations. With BSA as a dispersing agent, the QDs showed an improved optical stability in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Media(®) (DMEM) and Minimum Essential Media(®) (MEM), as compared to the Roswell Park Memorial Institute(®) (RPMI-1640) media. Finally, the cell viability of lymphocytes was found to be strongly influenced by the concentration of MnSe QDs, and had a safe limit upto 0.5 μM. With BSA inclusion in cell media, the cellular uptake of MnSe QDs was observed to be more prominent, as revealed from fluorescence imaging. The fabrication of water soluble, nontoxic MnSe QDs would open up an alternative strategy in nanobiotechnology, while preserving their luminescent and magnetic properties intact. PMID:24960126

  3. Quantum memory Quantum memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gouët, Jean-Louis; Moiseev, Sergey

    2012-06-01

    quest for higher efficiency, better fidelity, broader bandwidth, multimode capacity and longer storage lifetime is pursued in all those approaches, as shown in this special issue. The improvement of quantum memory operation specifically requires in-depth study and control of numerous physical processes leading to atomic decoherence. The present issue reflects the development of rare earth ion doped matrices offering long lifetime superposition states, either as bulk crystals or as optical waveguides. The need for quantum sources and high efficiency detectors at the single photon level is also illustrated. Several papers address the networking of quantum memories either in long-haul cryptography or in the prospect of quantum processing. In this context, much attention has been paid recently to interfacing quantum light with superconducting qubits and with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. Finally, the quantum interfacing of light with matter raises questions on entanglement. The last two papers are devoted to the generation of entanglement by dissipative processes. It is shown that long lifetime entanglement may be built in this way. We hope this special issue will help readers to become familiar with the exciting field of ensemble-based quantum memories and will stimulate them to bring deeper insights and new ideas to this area.

  4. Some Thermodynamic Considerations on the Physical and Quantum Nature of Space and Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohrab, Siavash H.; Piltch, Nancy (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    It is suggested that the Planck h = m(sub k)c Lambda(sub k) and the Boltzmann k = m(sub k)c nu(sub k)Constants have stochastic foundation. It is further suggested that a body of fluid at equilibrium is composed of a spectrum of molecular clusters (energy levels) the size of which are governed by the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution function. Brownian motions are attributed to equilibrium between suspensions and molecular clusters. Atomic (molecular) transition between different size atomic- (molecular-) clusters (energy levels) is shown to result in emission/absorption of energy in accordance with Bohr's theory of atomic spectra. Physical space is identified as a tachyonic fluid that is Dirac's stochastic ether or de Broglie's hidden thermostat. Compressibility of physical space, in accordance with Planck's compressible ether, is shown to result in the Lorentz-Fitzgerald contraction, thus providing a causal explanation of relativistic effect in accordance with the perceptions of Poincare and Lorentz. The invariant Schrodinger equation is derived from the invariant Bernoulli equation for incompressible potential flow. Following Heisenberg a temporal uncertainty relation is introduced as Delta(nu(sub Beta)) Delta(Rho(sub Beta)) > = k.

  5. Connla's well: An exploration of similar elements of ancient Celtic perspectives and David Bohm's theories in quantum physics from a Jungian perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciel, Duan

    This dissertation addresses the common elements between ancient Celtic mystical doctrines and philosophy and David Bohm's unique theories in quantum physics through a Jungian lens, using research based in dialogical hermeneutics. The premise of this dissertation is that psi, or the probability wave function of quantum physics, and its world of potentia are the same entities as Jung's objective psyche (or collective unconscious) and its domain, the unus mundus. In addition, the study explores the remarkable similarity between the ancient Celts' Otherworld, quantum physics' world of potentia, and Jung's unus mundus. These similarities argue for an in-depth Jungian analysis of this important but largely neglected mythology. The study explores the supposition, based partially on physicist David Bohm's theories of the implicate and explicate orders, that the above world of potentia intertwines with our three-dimensional world in a reciprocal creativity, designed to enhance both worlds. The study further advocates a greater emphasis on the creative arts therapies in the therapeutic situation, based on the above reciprocity. It is argued that this emphasis on creativity in the temenos may activate a profound "quantum leap" of insight in the analysand, most likely due to the reciprocity in which the objective psyche responds uniquely to the particular and individual creativity offered in order to heal the personal psyche. As we creatively access the objective psyche, that entity responds in kind, giving us new understanding and allowing us to change our attitudes and to further individuation, which in turn enhances the objective psyche. In addition, a psyche of reality is postulated in which Jung's concept of the objective psyche is expanded from the collective unconscious of humankind to a collective unconscious of All That Is, reflecting the findings in quantum physics that our universe is self-aware, organic, and holistic rather than mechanical and fragmented.

  6. Physics of Gravitational Interaction: Geometry of Space or Quantum Field in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baryshev, Yurij

    2006-03-01

    Thirring-Feynman's tensor field approach to gravitation opens new understanding on the physics of gravitational interaction and stimulates novel experiments on the nature of gravity. According to Field Gravity, the universal gravity force is caused by exchange of gravitons - the quanta of gravity field. Energy of this field is well-defined and excludes the singularity. All classical relativistic effects are the same as in General Relativity. The intrinsic scalar (spin 0) part of gravity field corresponds to ``antigravity'' and only together with the pure tensor (spin 2) part gives the usual Newtonian force. Laboratory and astrophysical experiments which may test the predictions of FG, will be performed in near future. In particular, observations at gravity observatories with bar and interferometric detectors, like Explorer, Nautilus, LIGO and VIRGO, will check the predicted scalar gravitational waves from supernova explosions. New types of cosmological models in Minkowski space are possible too.

  7. Accurate Semilocal Density Functional for Condensed-Matter Physics and Quantum Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jianmin; Mo, Yuxiang

    2016-08-12

    Most density functionals have been developed by imposing the known exact constraints on the exchange-correlation energy, or by a fit to a set of properties of selected systems, or by both. However, accurate modeling of the conventional exchange hole presents a great challenge, due to the delocalization of the hole. Making use of the property that the hole can be made localized under a general coordinate transformation, here we derive an exchange hole from the density matrix expansion, while the correlation part is obtained by imposing the low-density limit constraint. From the hole, a semilocal exchange-correlation functional is calculated. Our comprehensive test shows that this functional can achieve remarkable accuracy for diverse properties of molecules, solids, and solid surfaces, substantially improving upon the nonempirical functionals proposed in recent years. Accurate semilocal functionals based on their associated holes are physically appealing and practically useful for developing nonlocal functionals. PMID:27563956

  8. Accurate Semilocal Density Functional for Condensed-Matter Physics and Quantum Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Jianmin; Mo, Yuxiang

    2016-08-01

    Most density functionals have been developed by imposing the known exact constraints on the exchange-correlation energy, or by a fit to a set of properties of selected systems, or by both. However, accurate modeling of the conventional exchange hole presents a great challenge, due to the delocalization of the hole. Making use of the property that the hole can be made localized under a general coordinate transformation, here we derive an exchange hole from the density matrix expansion, while the correlation part is obtained by imposing the low-density limit constraint. From the hole, a semilocal exchange-correlation functional is calculated. Our comprehensive test shows that this functional can achieve remarkable accuracy for diverse properties of molecules, solids, and solid surfaces, substantially improving upon the nonempirical functionals proposed in recent years. Accurate semilocal functionals based on their associated holes are physically appealing and practically useful for developing nonlocal functionals.

  9. About the physical meaning of the critical temperature for catastrophic optical damage in high power quantum well laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souto, J.; Pura, J. L.; Jiménez, J.

    2016-02-01

    It is usually assumed that the catastrophic optical damage of high power laser diodes is launched when a critical local temperature (T c) is reached; temperatures ranging from 120 °C to 200 °C were experimentally reported. However, the physical meaning of T c in the degradation process is still unclear. In this work we show that, in the presence of a local heat source in the active region, the temperature of the laser structure, calculated using finite element methods, is widely inhomogeneously distributed among the different layers forming the device. This is due to the impact that the low dimensionality and the thermal boundary resistances have on the thermal transport across the laser structure. When these key factors are explicitly considered, the quantum well (QW) temperature can be several hundred degrees higher than the temperature of the guides and cladding layers. Due to the size of the experimental probes, the measured critical temperature is a weighted average over the QW, guides, and claddings. We show the existence of a large difference between the calculated average temperature, equivalent to the experimentally measured temperature, and the peak temperature localized in the QW. A parallel study on double heterostructure lasers is also included for comparison.

  10. Investigations on the physical origin of lateral photovoltage in PbS-colloidal quantum dot/Si heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abhale, Atul Prakash; Koteswara Rao, K. S. R.; Pendyala, N. B.; Banerjee, A.

    2016-03-01

    Restricted area heterojunctions, an array of lead sulfide colloidal quantum dots (PbS-CQDs) and crystalline silicon, are studied with a non-destructive remote contact light beam induced current (RC-LBIC) technique. As well as getting good quality active area images we observed an anomalous unipolar signal response for the PbS-CQD/n-Si devices and a conventionally expected bipolar signal profile for the PbS-CQD/p-Si devices. Interestingly, our simulation results consistently yielded a unipolar and bipolar nature in the signals related to the PbS-CQD/n-Si and PbS-CQD/p-Si heterostructures, respectively. In order to explain the physical mechanism involved in the unipolar signal response of the PbS-CQD/n-Si devices, we propose a model based on the band alignment in the heterojunctions, in addition to the distribution of photo-induced excess majority carriers across the junction. Given that the RC-LBIC technique is well suited to this context, the presence of these two distinct mechanisms (the bipolar and unipolar nature of the signals) needs to be considered in order to have a better interpretation of the data in the characterization of an array of homo/heterojunctions.

  11. Exploring the Macroscopic Quantum Physics of Motion with Superfluid He-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lorenzo, Laura; Pearlman, Aaron; Schwab, Keith

    We demonstrate the use of superfluid helium-4 as an extremely low loss optomechanical element. We form an optomechanical system with a cylindrical niobium superconducting TE011 resonator whose 40 cm3 inner cylindrical cavity is filled with 4He. Coupling is realized via the variations in permittivity resulting from the density profile of the acoustic modes. Acoustic losses in helium-4 below 500 mK are governed by the intrinsic nonlinearity of sound, leading to an attenuation which drops as T4, indicating the possibility of quality factors (Q) over 1010 at 10 mK. In our lowest loss mode, we demonstrate this T4 law at temperatures down to 50 mK, realizing an acoustic Q of 1.35*108 at 8.1 kHz. When coupled with a low phase noise microwave source, we expect this system to be utilized as a probe of macroscopic quantized motion, for precision measurements to search for fundamental physical length scales, and as a continuous gravitational wave detector. Our estimates suggest that a resonant superfluid acoustic system could exceed the sensitivity of current broad-band detectors for narrow-band sources such as pulsars. De Lorenzo, L. A. and Schwab, K. C., New J. Phys. 16, 113020 (2014).

  12. Quantum chemical study of small BnCm cluster structures and their physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharipov, Alexander S.; Loukhovitski, Boris I.; Starik, Alexander M.

    2015-09-01

    Different isomeric forms of BnCm clusters with n = 0, ..., 5, m = 0, ..., 5 with the isomerization energy up to 5 eV have been identified by using the multi-step heuristic algorithm based on semiempirical, ab initio and density functional theory calculations. Physical properties, such as rotational constants and characteristic vibrational temperatures, collision diameter, enthalpy of formation, cohesive energy, dipole moment, static isotropic polarizability and magnetic moment of different isomeric forms have been obtained with the usage of density functional theory. It has been revealed that the electric properties of clusters depend on their structure. It was found that the isomers with linear structure contribute mostly to the average polarizability of the ensemble of the isomeric forms of given class of clusters. Temperature-dependent thermodynamic properties of clusters including specific heat capacity and entropy were calculated taking into account the contribution of excited electronic states and possible isomeric forms in the anharmonic oscillator approximation for vibrational degrees of freedom. It was shown that the effect of structural isomers on the thermodynamic properties of the Boltzmann ensemble of clusters can be significant. Supplementary material in the form of one zip file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2015-60308-0

  13. Evanescent Effects can Alter Ultraviolet Divergences in Quantum Gravity without Physical Consequences.

    PubMed

    Bern, Zvi; Cheung, Clifford; Chi, Huan-Hang; Davies, Scott; Dixon, Lance; Nohle, Josh

    2015-11-20

    Evanescent operators such as the Gauss-Bonnet term have vanishing perturbative matrix elements in exactly D=4 dimensions. Similarly, evanescent fields do not propagate in D=4; a three-form field is in this class, since it is dual to a cosmological-constant contribution. In this Letter, we show that evanescent operators and fields modify the leading ultraviolet divergence in pure gravity. To analyze the divergence, we compute the two-loop identical-helicity four-graviton amplitude and determine the coefficient of the associated (nonevanescent) R^{3} counterterm studied long ago by Goroff and Sagnotti. We compare two pairs of theories that are dual in D=4: gravity coupled to nothing or to three-form matter, and gravity coupled to zero-form or to two-form matter. Duff and van Nieuwenhuizen showed that, curiously, the one-loop trace anomaly-the coefficient of the Gauss-Bonnet operator-changes under p-form duality transformations. We concur and also find that the leading R^{3} divergence changes under duality transformations. Nevertheless, in both cases, the physical renormalized two-loop identical-helicity four-graviton amplitude can be chosen to respect duality. In particular, its renormalization-scale dependence is unaltered. PMID:26636841

  14. Quantum Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitin, Vladimir; Kochelap, Viacheslav; Stroscio, Michael A.

    1999-07-01

    Quantum Heterostructures provides a detailed description of the key physical and engineering principles of quantum semiconductor heterostructures. Blending important concepts from physics, materials science, and electrical engineering, it also explains clearly the behavior and operating features of modern microelectronic and optoelectronic devices. The authors begin by outlining the trends that have driven development in this field, most importantly the need for high-performance devices in computer, information, and communications technologies. They then describe the basics of quantum nanoelectronics, including various transport mechanisms. In the latter part of the book, they cover novel microelectronic devices, and optical devices based on quantum heterostructures. The book contains many homework problems and is suitable as a textbook for undergraduate and graduate courses in electrical engineering, physics, or materials science. It will also be of great interest to those involved in research or development in microelectronic or optoelectronic devices.

  15. Quantum Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Matthias

    2013-03-01

    Quantum mechanics plays a crucial role in many day-to-day products, and has been successfully used to explain a wide variety of observations in Physics. While some quantum effects such as tunneling limit the degree to which modern CMOS devices can be scaled to ever reducing dimensions, others may potentially be exploited to build an entirely new computing architecture: The quantum computer. In this talk I will review several basic concepts of a quantum computer. Why quantum computing and how do we do it? What is the status of several (but not all) approaches towards building a quantum computer, including IBM's approach using superconducting qubits? And what will it take to build a functional machine? The promise is that a quantum computer could solve certain interesting computational problems such as factoring using exponentially fewer computational steps than classical systems. Although the most sophisticated modern quantum computing experiments to date do not outperform simple classical computations, it is increasingly becoming clear that small scale demonstrations with as many as 100 qubits are beginning to be within reach over the next several years. Such a demonstration would undoubtedly be a thrilling feat, and usher in a new era of controllably testing quantum mechanics or quantum computing aspects. At the minimum, future demonstrations will shed much light on what lies ahead.

  16. Two-dimensional models as testing ground for principles and concepts of local quantum physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroer, Bert

    2006-02-01

    In the past two-dimensional models of QFT have served as theoretical laboratories for testing new concepts under mathematically controllable condition. In more recent times low-dimensional models (e.g., chiral models, factorizing models) often have been treated by special recipes in a way which sometimes led to a loss of unity of QFT. In the present work, I try to counteract this apartheid tendency by reviewing past results within the setting of the general principles of QFT. To this I add two new ideas: (1) a modular interpretation of the chiral model Diff( S)-covariance with a close connection to the recently formulated local covariance principle for QFT in curved spacetime and (2) a derivation of the chiral model temperature duality from a suitable operator formulation of the angular Wick rotation (in analogy to the Nelson-Symanzik duality in the Ostertwalder-Schrader setting) for rational chiral theories. The SL (2, Z) modular Verlinde relation is a special case of this thermal duality and (within the family of rational models) the matrix S appearing in the thermal duality relation becomes identified with the statistics character matrix S. The relevant angular "Euclideanization" is done in the setting of the Tomita-Takesaki modular formalism of operator algebras. I find it appropriate to dedicate this work to the memory of J.A. Swieca with whom I shared the interest in two-dimensional models as a testing ground for QFT for more than one decade. This is a significantly extended version of an "Encyclopedia of Mathematical Physics" contribution hep-th/0502125.

  17. Two-dimensional models as testing ground for principles and concepts of local quantum physics

    SciTech Connect

    Schroer, Bert . E-mail: schroer@cbpf.br

    2006-02-15

    In the past two-dimensional models of QFT have served as theoretical laboratories for testing new concepts under mathematically controllable condition. In more recent times low-dimensional models (e.g., chiral models, factorizing models) often have been treated by special recipes in a way which sometimes led to a loss of unity of QFT. In the present work, I try to counteract this apartheid tendency by reviewing past results within the setting of the general principles of QFT. To this I add two new ideas: (1) a modular interpretation of the chiral model Diff(S)-covariance with a close connection to the recently formulated local covariance principle for QFT in curved spacetime and (2) a derivation of the chiral model temperature duality from a suitable operator formulation of the angular Wick rotation (in analogy to the Nelson-Symanzik duality in the Ostertwalder-Schrader setting) for rational chiral theories. The SL (2, Z) modular Verlinde relation is a special case of this thermal duality and (within the family of rational models) the matrix S appearing in the thermal duality relation becomes identified with the statistics character matrix S. The relevant angular 'Euclideanization' is done in the setting of the Tomita-Takesaki modular formalism of operator algebras. I find it appropriate to dedicate this work to the memory of J.A. Swieca with whom I shared the interest in two-dimensional models as a testing ground for QFT for more than one decade. This is a significantly extended version of an 'Encyclopedia of Mathematical Physics' contribution hep-th/0502125.

  18. Quantum picturalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coecke, Bob

    2010-01-01

    Why did it take us 50 years since the birth of the quantum mechanical formalism to discover that unknown quantum states cannot be cloned? Yet, the proof of the 'no-cloning theorem' is easy, and its consequences and potential for applications are immense. Similarly, why did it take us 60 years to discover the conceptually intriguing and easily derivable physical phenomenon of 'quantum teleportation'? We claim that the quantum mechanical formalism doesn't support our intuition, nor does it elucidate the key concepts that govern the behaviour of the entities that are subject to the laws of quantum physics. The arrays of complex numbers are kin to the arrays of 0s and 1s of the early days of computer programming practice. Using a technical term from computer science, the quantum mechanical formalism is 'low-level'. In this review we present steps towards a diagrammatic 'high-level' alternative for the Hilbert space formalism, one which appeals to our intuition. The diagrammatic language as it currently stands allows for intuitive reasoning about interacting quantum systems, and trivialises many otherwise involved and tedious computations. It clearly exposes limitations such as the no-cloning theorem, and phenomena such as quantum teleportation. As a logic, it supports 'automation': it enables a (classical) computer to reason about interacting quantum systems, prove theorems, and design protocols. It allows for a wider variety of underlying theories, and can be easily modified, having the potential to provide the required step-stone towards a deeper conceptual understanding of quantum theory, as well as its unification with other physical theories. Specific applications discussed here are purely diagrammatic proofs of several quantum computational schemes, as well as an analysis of the structural origin of quantum non-locality. The underlying mathematical foundation of this high-level diagrammatic formalism relies on so-called monoidal categories, a product of a fairly

  19. Topics of LIGO physics: Quantum noise in advanced interferometers and template banks for compact-binary inspirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanbei

    2003-12-01

    This thesis deals with the planning for advanced interferometeric gravitational-wave detectors, as well as the detection of inspiral waves using first-generation interferometers. In Chapters 2 4 (in collaboration with Alessandra Buonanno), the signal recycling interferometer proposed for LIGO-II is studied in the two-photon formalism. This study reveals the optical spring effect, which allows the interferometer to beat the standard quantum limit, while in the same time introduces a dynamical instability. A classical control system is designed to suppress this instability. In Chapter 5 (in collaboration with Alessandra Buonanno and Nergis Mavalvala), the quantum noise in heterodyne readout schemes for advanced interferometers is studied. In Chapter 6 (in collaboration with Patricia Purdue), a QND Speed-Meter interferometer with Michelson topology is proposed, analyzed and shown to be a promising candidate for third-generation interferometers (LIGO-III or EURO). This design requires adding a kilometer-scale cavity into the interferometer. In Chapter 7, Sagnac interferometers are analyzed and shown to exhibit a similar broadband QND performance without the need of additional cavity—as expected since these interferometers are sensitive only to time-dependent mirror displacement, and are automatic speed meters. In Chapter 8 (in collaboration with Alessandra Buonanno and Michele Vallisneri), the Post-Newtonian (PN) breakdown at late-stage inspirals of non-spinning binary black holes (with 5 M⊙ < m1, m2 < 20 M⊙ ) is studied. We propose the use of Detection Template Families (DTFs)—extensions of ordinary PN templates that can mimic all different PN waveforms and hence are plausible to catch the real waveform, yet do not provide straightforward parameter estimation. In Chapter 9 (in collaboration with Alessandra Buonanno and Michele Vallisneri), binaries carrying spins are studied using an adiabatic PN model. Based on features of the precession dynamics, we

  20. Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, D. Allan

    1980-01-01

    The author presents the argument that the past few years, in terms of new discoveries, insights, and questions raised, have been among the most productive in the history of physics. Selected for discussion are some of the most important new developments in physics research. (Author/SA)

  1. Quantum information and computation

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.H.

    1995-10-01

    A new quantum theory of communication and computation is emerging, in which the stuff transmitted or processed is not classical information, but arbitrary superpositions of quantum states. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  2. The quantum space race

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennewein, Thomas; Higgins, Brendon

    2013-03-01

    Sending satellites equipped with quantum technologies into space will be the first step towards a global quantum-communication network. As Thomas Jennewein and Brendon Higgins explain, these systems will also enable physicists to test fundamental physics in new regimes.

  3. A Back-to-Front Derivation: The Equal Spacing of Quantum Levels Is a Proof of Simple Harmonic Oscillator Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, David L.; Romero, Luciana C. Davila

    2009-01-01

    The dynamical behaviour of simple harmonic motion can be found in numerous natural phenomena. Within the quantum realm of atomic, molecular and optical systems, two main features are associated with harmonic oscillations: a finite ground-state energy and equally spaced quantum energy levels. Here it is shown that there is in fact a one-to-one…

  4. The Behavioral Changes That Can Be Realized When Leaders Are Exposed to the Theories and Metaphors Found in Quantum Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfrey, David Wayne

    2009-01-01

    Many are beginning to see the promise that the quantum world has offered those who manage and lead organizations (Wheatley, 1992; Zohar, 1997). The Newtonian world is one in which all "things" are reduced to their smallest parts, separated, divided, and analyzed with predictability, with complete control being the ultimate goal. The quantum world…

  5. III-V semiconductor Quantum Well systems: Physics of Gallium Arsenide two-dimensional hole systems and engineering of mid-infrared Quantum Cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, YenTing

    This dissertation examines two types of III-V semiconductor quantum well systems: two-dimensional holes in GaAs, and mid-infrared Quantum Cascade lasers. GaAs holes have a much reduced hyperfine interaction with the nuclei due to the p-like orbital, resulting in a longer hole spin coherence time comparing to the electron spin coherence time. Therefore, holes' spins are promising candidates for quantum computing qubits, but the effective mass and the Lande g-factor, whose product determines the spin-susceptibility of holes, are not well known. In this thesis, we measure the effective hole mass through analyzing the temperature dependence of Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in a relatively strong interacting two-dimensional hole systems confined to a 20 nm-wide, (311)A GaAs quantum well. The holes in this system occupy two nearly-degenerate spin subbands whose effective mass we measure to be ˜ 0.2 me. We then apply a sufficiently strong parallel magnetic field to fully depopulate one of the spin subbands, and the spin susceptibility of the two-dimensional hole system is deduced from the depopulation field. We also confine holes in closely spaced bilayer GaAs quantum wells to study the interlayer tunneling spectrum as a function of interlayer bias and in-plane magnetic field, in hope of probing the hole's Fermi contour. Quantum Cascade lasers are one of the major mid-infrared light sources well suited for applications in health and environmental sensing. One of the important factors that affect Quantum Cascade laser performance is the quality of the interfaces between the epitaxial layers. What has long been neglected is that interface roughness causes intersubband scattering, and thus affecting the relation between the lifetimes of the upper and lower laser states, which determines if population inversion is possible. We first utilize strategically added interface roughness in the laser design to engineer the intersubband scattering lifetimes. We further

  6. Quantum state and quantum entanglement protection using quantum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuchao; Li, Ying; Wang, Xiangbin; Kwek, Leong Chuan; Yu, Zongwen; Zou, Wenjie

    2015-03-01

    The time evolution of some quantum states can be slowed down or even stopped under frequent measurements. This is the usual quantum Zeno effect. Here we report an operator quantum Zeno effect, in which the evolution of some physical observables is slowed down through measurements even though thequantum state changes randomly with time. Based on the operator quantum Zeno effect, we show how we can protect quantum information from decoherence with two-qubit measurements, realizable with noisy two-qubit interactions. Besides, we report the quantum entanglement protection using weak measurement and measurement reversal scheme. Exposed in the nonzero temperature environment, a quantum system can both lose and gain excitations by interacting with the environment. In this work, we show how to optimally protect quantum states and quantum entanglement in such a situation based on measurement reversal from weak measurement. In particular, we present explicit formulas of protection. We find that this scheme can circumvent the entanglement sudden death in certain conditions.

  7. Introduction to Quantum Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekert, A.

    A computation is a physical process. It may be performed by a piece of electronics or on an abacus, or in your brain, but it is a process that takes place in nature and as such it is subject to the laws of physics. Quantum computers are machines that rely on characteristically quantum phenomena, such as quantum interference and quantum entanglement in order to perform computation. In this series of lectures I want to elaborate on the computational power of such machines.

  8. The quantum universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hey, Anthony J. G.; Walters, Patrick

    This book provides a descriptive, popular account of quantum physics. The basic topics addressed include: waves and particles, the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, the Schroedinger equation and matter waves, atoms and nuclei, quantum tunneling, the Pauli exclusion principle and the elements, quantum cooperation and superfluids, Feynman rules, weak photons, quarks, and gluons. The applications of quantum physics to astrophyics, nuclear technology, and modern electronics are addressed.

  9. Quantum information causality.

    PubMed

    Pitalúa-García, Damián

    2013-05-24

    How much information can a transmitted physical system fundamentally communicate? We introduce the principle of quantum information causality, which states the maximum amount of quantum information that a quantum system can communicate as a function of its dimension, independently of any previously shared quantum physical resources. We present a new quantum information task, whose success probability is upper bounded by the new principle, and show that an optimal strategy to perform it combines the quantum teleportation and superdense coding protocols with a task that has classical inputs. PMID:23745844

  10. Realistic physical origin of the quantum observable operator algebra in the frame of the causal stochastic interpretation of quantum mechanics: The relativistic spin-zero case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cufaro-Petroni, N.; Dewdney, C.; Holland, P.; Kyprianidis, T.; Vigier, J. P.

    1985-09-01

    The deduction by Guerra and Marra of the usual quantum operator algebra from a canonical variable Hamiltonian treatment of Nelson's hydrodynamical stochastic description of real nonrelativistic Schrödinger waves is extended to the causal stochastic interpretation given by Guerra and Ruggiero and by Vigier of relativistic Klein-Gordon waves. A specific representation shows that the Poisson brackets for canonical hydrodynamical observables become ``averages'' of quantum observables in the given state. Stochastic quantization thus justifies the standard procedure of replacing the classical particle (or field) observables with operators according to the scheme pμ-->-iħ∂μ and Lμν-->-iħ(xμ∂ν-xν∂μ).

  11. Quantum chromodynamics and nuclear physics at extreme energy density. Progress report, May 15, 1993--May 14, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, B.; Springer, R.P.

    1994-05-15

    This report briefly discusses the following topics: quark-gluon plasma and high-energy collisions; hadron structure and chiral dynamics; nonperturbative studies and nonabelian gauge theories; and studies in quantum field theory.

  12. Book Review: John von Neumann and the foundations of quantum physics. (Vienna Circle Institute yearbook (2000), 8) Miklos Redei and Michael Stoltzner (Eds.); Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 2001, pp., US 125, ISBN 0792368126

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupher, Tracy

    Some people may be surprised to learn that John von Neumann's work on the foundations of quantum physics went far beyond what is contained within the pages of his Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics (MFQM) (von Neumann, 1955). However, this narrow focus often ignores von Neumann's later work on quantum logic and what are now called in his honor, von Neumann algebras. This volume honoring von Neumann's contributions to physics is unique in that, while it contains 12 papers that examine various aspects of von Neumann's work, it also contains two of his previously unpublished papers and some of his previously unpublished correspondence.

  13. Quantum microbiology.

    PubMed

    Trevors, J T; Masson, L

    2011-01-01

    During his famous 1943 lecture series at Trinity College Dublin, the reknown physicist Erwin Schrodinger discussed the failure and challenges of interpreting life by classical physics alone and that a new approach, rooted in Quantum principles, must be involved. Quantum events are simply a level of organization below the molecular level. This includes the atomic and subatomic makeup of matter in microbial metabolism and structures, as well as the organic, genetic information code of DNA and RNA. Quantum events at this time do not elucidate, for example, how specific genetic instructions were first encoded in an organic genetic code in microbial cells capable of growth and division, and its subsequent evolution over 3.6 to 4 billion years. However, due to recent technological advances, biologists and physicists are starting to demonstrate linkages between various quantum principles like quantum tunneling, entanglement and coherence in biological processes illustrating that nature has exerted some level quantum control to optimize various processes in living organisms. In this article we explore the role of quantum events in microbial processes and endeavor to show that after nearly 67 years, Schrödinger was prophetic and visionary in his view of quantum theory and its connection with some of the fundamental mechanisms of life. PMID:21368338

  14. Z 2-graded classical r-matrices and algebraic Bethe ansatz: applications to integrable models of quantum optics and nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrypnyk, T.

    2016-09-01

    We consider quantum integrable models based on the Lie algebra gl(n) and non-skew-symmetric classical r-matrices associated with Z 2-gradings of gl(n) of the following type: {gl}(n)={gl}{(n)}\\bar{0}+{gl}{(n)}\\bar{1}, where {gl}{(n)}\\bar{0}={gl}({n}1)\\oplus {gl}(n-{n}1). Among the considered models are Gaudin-type models with an external magnetic field, used in nuclear physics to produce proton–neutron Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieer-type models, n-level many-mode Jaynes–Cummings–Dicke-type models of quantum optics, matrix generalization of Bose–Hubbard dimers, etc. We diagonalize the constructed models by means of the ‘generalized’ nested Bethe ansatz.

  15. The contextual and modal character of quantum mechanics : a formal and philosophical analysis in the foundations of physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ronde, C.

    2011-11-01

    This doctoral dissertation contains four main elements: 1. We put forward an interpretational map of quantum mechanics in general and of the modal interpretation in particular based on metaphysical and anti-metaphysical stances. 2. In contraposition to what we characterize as the anti-metaphysical and classical metaphysical stances we collect arguments in favor of a constructive metaphysical stance. 3. We analyze the meaning of contextuality and possibility in quantum theory in general, and in the modal interpretation in particular. 4. Finally, we end up with a proposal for the development of a possible constructive metaphysical scheme based on the notion of potentiality. Although some of these problems are well known in the literature we attempt to cast new light on the discussion through the analysis of the concepts involved and their relation to the formalism. We attempt to make explicit the tension in between the theoretical conditions and the conceptual structure of the theory, in order to discuss and disclose the metaphysical ideas involved within the different interpretational problems of quantum mechanics. We believe that this analysis can help us to understand much of the implicit background of such theoretical conditions. The dissertation centers itself on the modal and contextual character of quantum mechanics. On the one hand, we discuss the contextual character of quantum possibility through the development of a Modal Kochen-Specker theorem, and on the other hand, we analyze the contextual character of quantum correlations through the distinction of properties. In the last part we discuss some more speculative ideas related to the possible metaphysical developments of quantum mechanics based on the notion of potentiality.

  16. Quantum algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrams, Daniel S.

    This thesis describes several new quantum algorithms. These include a polynomial time algorithm that uses a quantum fast Fourier transform to find eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a Hamiltonian operator, and that can be applied in cases (commonly found in ab initio physics and chemistry problems) for which all known classical algorithms require exponential time. Fast algorithms for simulating many body Fermi systems are also provided in both first and second quantized descriptions. An efficient quantum algorithm for anti-symmetrization is given as well as a detailed discussion of a simulation of the Hubbard model. In addition, quantum algorithms that calculate numerical integrals and various characteristics of stochastic processes are described. Two techniques are given, both of which obtain an exponential speed increase in comparison to the fastest known classical deterministic algorithms and a quadratic speed increase in comparison to classical Monte Carlo (probabilistic) methods. I derive a simpler and slightly faster version of Grover's mean algorithm, show how to apply quantum counting to the problem, develop some variations of these algorithms, and show how both (apparently distinct) approaches can be understood from the same unified framework. Finally, the relationship between physics and computation is explored in some more depth, and it is shown that computational complexity theory depends very sensitively on physical laws. In particular, it is shown that nonlinear quantum mechanics allows for the polynomial time solution of NP-complete and #P oracle problems. Using the Weinberg model as a simple example, the explicit construction of the necessary gates is derived from the underlying physics. Nonlinear quantum algorithms are also presented using Polchinski type nonlinearities which do not allow for superluminal communication. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14- 0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)

  17. Quo Vadis quantum annealing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Arnab; Suzuki, Sei

    2015-02-01

    In this article we sketch a broad outline of quantum annealing as a framework for realizing analog quantum computation. We provide a short review of the basic ideas and discuss some issues relevant to the current scenario of condensed matter physics and quantum computation.

  18. Dannie Heineman Prize for Mathematical Physics Prize Lecture: Correlation Functions in Integrable Models II: The Role of Quantum Affine Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimbo, Michio

    2013-03-01

    Since the beginning of 1980s, hidden infinite dimensional symmetries have emerged as the origin of integrability: first in soliton theory and then in conformal field theory. Quest for symmetries in quantum integrable models has led to the discovery of quantum groups. On one hand this opened up rapid mathematical developments in representation theory, combinatorics and other fields. On the other hand it has advanced understanding of correlation functions of lattice models, leading to multiple integral formulas in integrable spin chains. We shall review these developments which continue up to the present time.

  19. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 31-34: Inductance; Wave Properties of Light; Interference; and Introduction to Quantum Physics].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is Part of a series of 41 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 Pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized courses in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  20. Quantum Social Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haven, Emmanuel; Khrennikov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Preface; Part I. Physics Concepts in Social Science? A Discussion: 1. Classical, statistical and quantum mechanics: all in one; 2. Econophysics: statistical physics and social science; 3. Quantum social science: a non-mathematical motivation; Part II. Mathematics and Physics Preliminaries: 4. Vector calculus and other mathematical preliminaries; 5. Basic elements of quantum mechanics; 6. Basic elements of Bohmian mechanics; Part III. Quantum Probabilistic Effects in Psychology: Basic Questions and Answers: 7. A brief overview; 8. Interference effects in psychology - an introduction; 9. A quantum-like model of decision making; Part IV. Other Quantum Probabilistic Effects in Economics, Finance and Brain Sciences: 10. Financial/economic theory in crisis; 11. Bohmian mechanics in finance and economics; 12. The Bohm-Vigier Model and path simulation; 13. Other applications to economic/financial theory; 14. The neurophysiological sources of quantum-like processing in the brain; Conclusion; Glossary; Index.

  1. Quantum algorithms for quantum field theories.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Stephen P; Lee, Keith S M; Preskill, John

    2012-06-01

    Quantum field theory reconciles quantum mechanics and special relativity, and plays a central role in many areas of physics. We developed a quantum algorithm to compute relativistic scattering probabilities in a massive quantum field theory with quartic self-interactions (φ(4) theory) in spacetime of four and fewer dimensions. Its run time is polynomial in the number of particles, their energy, and the desired precision, and applies at both weak and strong coupling. In the strong-coupling and high-precision regimes, our quantum algorithm achieves exponential speedup over the fastest known classical algorithm. PMID:22654052

  2. Research program in particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Dicus, D.A.; Ritchie, J.L.; Lang, K.

    1992-07-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Quantum Gravity and Mathematical Physics; Phenomenology; Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Field Theory; Status of BNL Expt. 791; BNL Expt. 791; BNL Expt. 888; and SSC Activities.

  3. Quantum Locality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapp, Henry P.

    2012-05-01

    Robert Griffiths has recently addressed, within the framework of a `consistent quantum theory' that he has developed, the issue of whether, as is often claimed, quantum mechanics entails a need for faster-than-light transfers of information over long distances. He argues that the putative proofs of this property that involve hidden variables include in their premises some essentially classical-physics-type assumptions that are not entailed by the precepts of quantum mechanics. Thus whatever is proved is not a feature of quantum mechanics, but is a property of a theory that tries to combine quantum theory with quasi-classical features that go beyond what is entailed by quantum theory itself. One cannot logically prove properties of a system by establishing, instead, properties of a system modified by adding properties alien to the original system. Hence Griffiths' rejection of hidden-variable-based proofs is logically warranted. Griffiths mentions the existence of a certain alternative proof that does not involve hidden variables, and that uses only macroscopically described observable properties. He notes that he had examined in his book proofs of this general kind, and concluded that they provide no evidence for nonlocal influences. But he did not examine the particular proof that he cites. An examination of that particular proof by the method specified by his `consistent quantum theory' shows that the cited proof is valid within that restrictive version of quantum theory. An added section responds to Griffiths' reply, which cites general possibilities of ambiguities that might make what is to be proved ill-defined, and hence render the pertinent `consistent framework' ill defined. But the vagaries that he cites do not upset the proof in question, which, both by its physical formulation and by explicit identification, specify the framework to be used. Griffiths confirms the validity of the proof insofar as that pertinent framework is used. The section also shows

  4. Duality quantum computer and the efficient quantum simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Shi-Jie; Long, Gui-Lu

    2016-03-01

    Duality quantum computing is a new mode of a quantum computer to simulate a moving quantum computer passing through a multi-slit. It exploits the particle wave duality property for computing. A quantum computer with n qubits and a qudit simulates a moving quantum computer with n qubits passing through a d-slit. Duality quantum computing can realize an arbitrary sum of unitaries and therefore a general quantum operator, which is called a generalized quantum gate. All linear bounded operators can be realized by the generalized quantum gates, and unitary operators are just the extreme points of the set of generalized quantum gates. Duality quantum computing provides flexibility and a clear physical picture in designing quantum algorithms, and serves as a powerful bridge between quantum and classical algorithms. In this paper, after a brief review of the theory of duality quantum computing, we will concentrate on the applications of duality quantum computing in simulations of Hamiltonian systems. We will show that duality quantum computing can efficiently simulate quantum systems by providing descriptions of the recent efficient quantum simulation algorithm of Childs and Wiebe (Quantum Inf Comput 12(11-12):901-924, 2012) for the fast simulation of quantum systems with a sparse Hamiltonian, and the quantum simulation algorithm by Berry et al. (Phys Rev Lett 114:090502, 2015), which provides exponential improvement in precision for simulating systems with a sparse Hamiltonian.

  5. Surmounting the Cartesian Cut Through Philosophy, Physics, Logic, Cybernetics, and Geometry: Self-reference, Torsion, the Klein Bottle, the Time Operator, Multivalued Logics and Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapoport, Diego L.

    2011-01-01

    In this transdisciplinary article which stems from philosophical considerations (that depart from phenomenology—after Merleau-Ponty, Heidegger and Rosen—and Hegelian dialectics), we develop a conception based on topological (the Moebius surface and the Klein bottle) and geometrical considerations (based on torsion and non-orientability of manifolds), and multivalued logics which we develop into a unified world conception that surmounts the Cartesian cut and Aristotelian logic. The role of torsion appears in a self-referential construction of space and time, which will be further related to the commutator of the True and False operators of matrix logic, still with a quantum superposed state related to a Moebius surface, and as the physical field at the basis of Spencer-Brown's primitive distinction in the protologic of the calculus of distinction. In this setting, paradox, self-reference, depth, time and space, higher-order non-dual logic, perception, spin and a time operator, the Klein bottle, hypernumbers due to Musès which include non-trivial square roots of ±1 and in particular non-trivial nilpotents, quantum field operators, the transformation of cognition to spin for two-state quantum systems, are found to be keenly interwoven in a world conception compatible with the philosophical approach taken for basis of this article. The Klein bottle is found not only to be the topological in-formation for self-reference and paradox whose logical counterpart in the calculus of indications are the paradoxical imaginary time waves, but also a classical-quantum transformer (Hadamard's gate in quantum computation) which is indispensable to be able to obtain a complete multivalued logical system, and still to generate the matrix extension of classical connective Boolean logic. We further find that the multivalued logic that stems from considering the paradoxical equation in the calculus of distinctions, and in particular, the imaginary solutions to this equation

  6. The Impact of the Philosophical Implications of the Relativity and Quantum Theories on the Teaching of College Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambler, Seymour

    The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent the breakdown of Newtonian classical physics and the new concepts of modern physics have changed the treatment of elementary physics in undergraduate college textbooks and to evaluate implications of the change. Forty-three textbooks published between 1910 and 1966 were examined and placed…

  7. PREFACE: The Quantum Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, Stephen L.; Bassi, Angelo; Dowker, Fay; Dürr, Detlef

    2007-03-01

    This special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical entitled 'The Quantum Universe' is dedicated to Professor Giancarlo Ghirardi on the occasion of his 70th birthday. Giancarlo Ghirardi has made many important contributions to the foundations of quantum mechanics including the celebrated Ghirardi Rimini Weber (GRW) model of spontaneous wavefunction collapse. However, although Professor Ghirardi's birthday is the inspiration for this issue, it has a much broader scope than the area traditionally known as Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. All invited authors are experts in areas of physics in which quantum theory is fundamental: non relativistic quantum mechanics, quantum computation and information, quantum field theory, quantum gravity, quantum cosmology and philosophy of science. The issue was conceived as an opportunity for workers in these diverse areas to share with the widest possible readership their views on quantum theory. Authors were encouraged to give their personal assessment of the role of quantum theory in their work particularly as it pertains to a vision of the global aims of their research. The articles are accessible to any physicist with a solid knowledge of quantum mechanics, and many contain an emphasis on conceptual developments, both those achieved and those hoped for. One theme that runs throughout Giancarlo Ghirardi's contributions to science is the unity of physics: the development of the GRW model itself was motivated by the conviction that the same physics should govern microscopic and macroscopic systems. However, readers of this special issue will clearly see that there is no unity as yet in the views of workers on fundamental quantum theories. Indeed the diversity of the articles, ranging from technical developments in well defined approaches, to new proposals for interpretations of quantum mechanics, indicates the state of fundamental physics: healthily active and yet lacking the consensus we seek in science

  8. Quantum Particles From Quantum Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görnitz, T.; Schomäcker, U.

    2012-08-01

    Many problems in modern physics demonstrate that for a fundamental entity a more general conception than quantum particles or quantum fields are necessary. These concepts cannot explain the phenomena of dark energy or the mind-body-interaction. Instead of any kind of "small elementary building bricks", the Protyposis, an abstract and absolute quantum information, free of special denotation and open for some purport, gives the solution in the search for a fundamental substance. However, as long as at least relativistic particles are not constructed from the Protyposis, such an idea would remain in the range of natural philosophy. Therefore, the construction of relativistic particles without and with rest mass from quantum information is shown.

  9. Relativistic Quantum Scars

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Liang; Lai Yingcheng; Ferry, David K.; Goodnick, Stephen M.; Akis, Richard

    2009-07-31

    The concentrations of wave functions about classical periodic orbits, or quantum scars, are a fundamental phenomenon in physics. An open question is whether scarring can occur in relativistic quantum systems. To address this question, we investigate confinements made of graphene whose classical dynamics are chaotic and find unequivocal evidence of relativistic quantum scars. The scarred states can lead to strong conductance fluctuations in the corresponding open quantum dots via the mechanism of resonant transmission.

  10. The Forbidden Quantum Adder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Rodriguez, U.; Sanz, M.; Lamata, L.; Solano, E.

    2015-07-01

    Quantum information provides fundamentally different computational resources than classical information. We prove that there is no unitary protocol able to add unknown quantum states belonging to different Hilbert spaces. This is an inherent restriction of quantum physics that is related to the impossibility of copying an arbitrary quantum state, i.e., the no-cloning theorem. Moreover, we demonstrate that a quantum adder, in absence of an ancillary system, is also forbidden for a known orthonormal basis. This allows us to propose an approximate quantum adder that could be implemented in the lab. Finally, we discuss the distinct character of the forbidden quantum adder for quantum states and the allowed quantum adder for density matrices.

  11. Advances in quantum teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirandola, S.; Eisert, J.; Weedbrook, C.; Furusawa, A.; Braunstein, S. L.

    2015-10-01

    Quantum teleportation is one of the most important protocols in quantum information. By exploiting the physical resource of entanglement, quantum teleportation serves as a key primitive across a variety of quantum information tasks and represents an important building block for quantum technologies, with a pivotal role in the continuing progress of quantum communication, quantum computing and quantum networks. Here we summarize the basic theoretical ideas behind quantum teleportation and its variant protocols. We focus on the main experiments, together with the technical advantages and disadvantages associated with the use of the various technologies, from photonic qubits and optical modes to atomic ensembles, trapped atoms and solid-state systems. After analysing the current state-of-the-art, we finish by discussing open issues, challenges and potential future implementations.

  12. The Forbidden Quantum Adder.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Rodriguez, U; Sanz, M; Lamata, L; Solano, E

    2015-01-01

    Quantum information provides fundamentally different computational resources than classical information. We prove that there is no unitary protocol able to add unknown quantum states belonging to different Hilbert spaces. This is an inherent restriction of quantum physics that is related to the impossibility of copying an arbitrary quantum state, i.e., the no-cloning theorem. Moreover, we demonstrate that a quantum adder, in absence of an ancillary system, is also forbidden for a known orthonormal basis. This allows us to propose an approximate quantum adder that could be implemented in the lab. Finally, we discuss the distinct character of the forbidden quantum adder for quantum states and the allowed quantum adder for density matrices. PMID:26153134

  13. Quantum computing with trapped ions

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    The significance of quantum computation for cryptography is discussed. Following a brief survey of the requirements for quantum computational hardware, an overview of the ion trap quantum computation project at Los Alamos is presented. The physical limitations to quantum computation with trapped ions are analyzed and an assessment of the computational potential of the technology is made.

  14. Quantum energy teleportation in a quantum Hall system

    SciTech Connect

    Yusa, Go; Izumida, Wataru; Hotta, Masahiro

    2011-09-15

    We propose an experimental method for a quantum protocol termed quantum energy teleportation (QET), which allows energy transportation to a remote location without physical carriers. Using a quantum Hall system as a realistic model, we discuss the physical significance of QET and estimate the order of energy gain using reasonable experimental parameters.

  15. Quantum optical signatures in strong-field laser physics: Infrared photon counting in high-order-harmonic generation

    PubMed Central

    Gonoskov, I. A.; Tsatrafyllis, N.; Kominis, I. K.; Tzallas, P.

    2016-01-01

    We analytically describe the strong-field light-electron interaction using a quantized coherent laser state with arbitrary photon number. We obtain a light-electron wave function which is a closed-form solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE). This wave function provides information about the quantum optical features of the interaction not accessible by semi-classical theories. With this approach we can reveal the quantum optical properties of high harmonic generation (HHG) process in gases by measuring the photon statistics of the transmitted infrared (IR) laser radiation. This work can lead to novel experiments in high-resolution spectroscopy in extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) and attosecond science without the need to measure the XUV light, while it can pave the way for the development of intense non-classical light sources. PMID:27601191

  16. Quantum optical signatures in strong-field laser physics: Infrared photon counting in high-order-harmonic generation.

    PubMed

    Gonoskov, I A; Tsatrafyllis, N; Kominis, I K; Tzallas, P

    2016-01-01

    We analytically describe the strong-field light-electron interaction using a quantized coherent laser state with arbitrary photon number. We obtain a light-electron wave function which is a closed-form solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE). This wave function provides information about the quantum optical features of the interaction not accessible by semi-classical theories. With this approach we can reveal the quantum optical properties of high harmonic generation (HHG) process in gases by measuring the photon statistics of the transmitted infrared (IR) laser radiation. This work can lead to novel experiments in high-resolution spectroscopy in extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) and attosecond science without the need to measure the XUV light, while it can pave the way for the development of intense non-classical light sources. PMID:27601191

  17. F center in lithium fluoride revisited: Comparison of solid-state physics and quantum-chemistry approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karsai, Ferenc; Tiwald, Paul; Laskowski, Robert; Tran, Fabien; Koller, David; Gräfe, Stefanie; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Wirtz, Ludger; Blaha, Peter

    2014-03-01

    We revisit the theoretical description of the F color center in lithium fluoride employing advanced complementary ab initio techniques. We compare the results from periodic supercell calculations involving density-functional theory (DFT) and post-DFT techniques with those from the embedded-cluster approach involving quantum-chemical many-electron wave-function techniques. These alternative approaches yield results in good agreement with each other and with the experimental data provided that correlation effects are properly taken into account.

  18. Quantum algorithms for quantum field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Ever since Feynman's original proposal for quantum computers, one of the primary applications envisioned has been efficient simulation of other quantum systems. In fact, it has been conjectured that quantum computers would be universal simulators, which can simulate all physical systems using computational resources that scale polynomially with the system's number of degrees of freedom. Quantum field theories have posed a challenge in that the set of degrees of freedom is formally infinite. We show how quantum computers, if built, could nevertheless efficiently simulate certain quantum field theories at bounded energy scales. Our algorithm includes a new state preparation technique which we believe may find additional applications in quantum algorithms. Joint work with Keith Lee and John Preskill.

  19. Quantum Uniqueness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sych, Denis; Leuchs, Gerd

    2015-12-01

    Classical physics allows for the existence of pairs of absolutely identical systems. Pairwise application of identical measurements to each of those systems always leads to exactly alike results irrespectively of the choice of measurements. Here we ask a question how the picture looks like in the quantum domain. Surprisingly, we get a counterintuitive outcome. Pairwise application of identical (but a priori unknown) measurements cannot always lead to exactly alike results. We interpret this as quantum uniqueness—a feature that has no classical analog.

  20. Quantum Finance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baaquie, Belal E.

    2007-09-01

    Foreword; Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Synopsis; Part I. Fundamental Concepts of Finance: 2. Introduction to finance; 3. Derivative securities; Part II. Systems with Finite Number of Degrees of Freedom: 4. Hamiltonians and stock options; 5. Path integrals and stock options; 6. Stochastic interest rates' Hamiltonians and path integrals; Part III. Quantum Field Theory of Interest Rates Models: 7. Quantum field theory of forward interest rates; 8. Empirical forward interest rates and field theory models; 9. Field theory of Treasury Bonds' derivatives and hedging; 10. Field theory Hamiltonian of forward interest rates; 11. Conclusions; Appendix A: mathematical background; Brief glossary of financial terms; Brief glossary of physics terms; List of main symbols; References; Index.

  1. Quantum Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekert, Artur

    1994-08-01

    As computers become faster they must become smaller because of the finiteness of the speed of light. The history of computer technology has involved a sequence of changes from one type of physical realisation to another - from gears to relays to valves to transistors to integrated circuits and so on. Quantum mechanics is already important in the design of microelectronic components. Soon it will be necessary to harness quantum mechanics rather than simply take it into account, and at that point it will be possible to give data processing devices new functionality.

  2. Superradiant Quantum Heat Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardal, Ali Ü. C.; Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür E.

    2015-08-01

    Quantum physics revolutionized classical disciplines of mechanics, statistical physics, and electrodynamics. One branch of scientific knowledge however seems untouched: thermodynamics. Major motivation behind thermodynamics is to develop efficient heat engines. Technology has a trend to miniaturize engines, reaching to quantum regimes. Development of quantum heat engines (QHEs) requires emerging field of quantum thermodynamics. Studies of QHEs debate whether quantum coherence can be used as a resource. We explore an alternative where it can function as an effective catalyst. We propose a QHE which consists of a photon gas inside an optical cavity as the working fluid and quantum coherent atomic clusters as the fuel. Utilizing the superradiance, where a cluster can radiate quadratically faster than a single atom, we show that the work output becomes proportional to the square of the number of the atoms. In addition to practical value of cranking up QHE, our result is a fundamental difference of a quantum fuel from its classical counterpart.

  3. Superradiant Quantum Heat Engine

    PubMed Central

    Hardal, Ali Ü. C.; Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür E.

    2015-01-01

    Quantum physics revolutionized classical disciplines of mechanics, statistical physics, and electrodynamics. One branch of scientific knowledge however seems untouched: thermodynamics. Major motivation behind thermodynamics is to develop efficient heat engines. Technology has a trend to miniaturize engines, reaching to quantum regimes. Development of quantum heat engines (QHEs) requires emerging field of quantum thermodynamics. Studies of QHEs debate whether quantum coherence can be used as a resource. We explore an alternative where it can function as an effective catalyst. We propose a QHE which consists of a photon gas inside an optical cavity as the working fluid and quantum coherent atomic clusters as the fuel. Utilizing the superradiance, where a cluster can radiate quadratically faster than a single atom, we show that the work output becomes proportional to the square of the number of the atoms. In addition to practical value of cranking up QHE, our result is a fundamental difference of a quantum fuel from its classical counterpart. PMID:26260797

  4. Superradiant Quantum Heat Engine.

    PubMed

    Hardal, Ali Ü C; Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür E

    2015-01-01

    Quantum physics revolutionized classical disciplines of mechanics, statistical physics, and electrodynamics. One branch of scientific knowledge however seems untouched: thermodynamics. Major motivation behind thermodynamics is to develop efficient heat engines. Technology has a trend to miniaturize engines, reaching to quantum regimes. Development of quantum heat engines (QHEs) requires emerging field of quantum thermodynamics. Studies of QHEs debate whether quantum coherence can be used as a resource. We explore an alternative where it can function as an effective catalyst. We propose a QHE which consists of a photon gas inside an optical cavity as the working fluid and quantum coherent atomic clusters as the fuel. Utilizing the superradiance, where a cluster can radiate quadratically faster than a single atom, we show that the work output becomes proportional to the square of the number of the atoms. In addition to practical value of cranking up QHE, our result is a fundamental difference of a quantum fuel from its classical counterpart. PMID:26260797

  5. Quantum Feynman Ratchet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Ketan; Kawai, Ryoichi

    As nanotechnology advances, understanding of the thermodynamic properties of small systems becomes increasingly important. Such systems are found throughout physics, biology, and chemistry manifesting striking properties that are a direct result of their small dimensions where fluctuations become predominant. The standard theory of thermodynamics for macroscopic systems is powerless for such ever fluctuating systems. Furthermore, as small systems are inherently quantum mechanical, influence of quantum effects such as discreteness and quantum entanglement on their thermodynamic properties is of great interest. In particular, the quantum fluctuations due to quantum uncertainty principles may play a significant role. In this talk, we investigate thermodynamic properties of an autonomous quantum heat engine, resembling a quantum version of the Feynman Ratchet, in non-equilibrium condition based on the theory of open quantum systems. The heat engine consists of multiple subsystems individually contacted to different thermal environments.

  6. Quantum Cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruß, D.; Meyer, T.

    The Greek words "kryptos" ≡ "hidden" and "logos" ≡ "word" are the etymological sources for "cryptology," the science of secure communication. Within cryptology, one distinguishes cryptography (or "code-making") and cryptanalysis (or "code-breaking"). The aim of cryptography is to ensure secret or "secure" communication between a sender, traditionally called Alice, and a receiver, called Bob. The encryption and decryption of a so-called plain text into a cipher text and back is achieved using a certain key (not necessarily the same for Alice and Bob), as illustrated in Fig. 1. Here, "secure" means that an eavesdropper, called Eve, has no information on the message. In this chapter we will show that in classical cryptography (using classical signals), security relies on the assumed difficulty to solve certain mathematical tasks, whereas in quantum cryptography (using quantum signals), security arises from the laws of quantum physics.

  7. Recent progress of quantum communication in China (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang

    2016-04-01

    Quantum communication, based on the quantum physics, can provide information theoretical security. Building a global quantum network is one ultimate goal for the research of quantum information. Here, this talk will review the progress for quantum communication in China, including quantum key distribution over metropolitan area with untrustful relay, field test of quantum entanglement swapping over metropolitan network, the 2000 km quantum key distribution main trunk line, and satellite based quantum communication.

  8. Complementarity and quantum walks

    SciTech Connect

    Kendon, Viv; Sanders, Barry C.

    2005-02-01

    We show that quantum walks interpolate between a coherent 'wave walk' and a random walk depending on how strongly the walker's coin state is measured; i.e., the quantum walk exhibits the quintessentially quantum property of complementarity, which is manifested as a tradeoff between knowledge of which path the walker takes vs the sharpness of the interference pattern. A physical implementation of a quantum walk (the quantum quincunx) should thus have an identifiable walker and the capacity to demonstrate the interpolation between wave walk and random walk depending on the strength of measurement.

  9. Work and quantum phase transitions: quantum latency.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, E; Bragança, H; Dorner, R; França Santos, M; Vedral, V; Modi, K; Goold, J

    2014-06-01

    We study the physics of quantum phase transitions from the perspective of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. For first-order quantum phase transitions, we find that the average work done per quench in crossing the critical point is discontinuous. This leads us to introduce the quantum latent work in analogy with the classical latent heat of first order classical phase transitions. For second order quantum phase transitions the irreversible work is closely related to the fidelity susceptibility for weak sudden quenches of the system Hamiltonian. We demonstrate our ideas with numerical simulations of first, second, and infinite order phase transitions in various spin chain models. PMID:25019721

  10. Recent results on jet physics and tests of QCD (Quantum Chromodynamics) in e sup + e sup minus annihilation

    SciTech Connect

    Bethke, S.

    1989-11-01

    Experimental investigations to test specific predictions of Quantum Chromodynamics and to adjust the free parameters of the theory are reviewed. Determinations of the strong coupling constant, {alpha}{sub s}, in {Upsilon}-decays and in the continuum of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} annihilations are summarized and discussed. Studies on production rates of multijet hadronic final states in the center of mass energy range of 22 GeV to 93 GeV, including optimizations of both the scale parameter {Lambda}{sub {ovr MS}} and the renormalization scale {mu}{sup 2} in O({alpha}{sub s}{sup 2}) perturbative QCD, are presented. The status of experimental tests of the nonabelian nature of QCD is summarized. 48 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. The computer as a physical system: A microscopic quantum mechanical Hamiltonian model of computers as represented by Turing machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benioff, Paul

    1980-05-01

    In this paper a microscopic quantum mechanical model of computers as represented by Turing machines is constructed. It is shown that for each number N and Turing machine Q there exists a Hamiltonian H N Q and a class of appropriate initial states such that if c is such an initial state, then ψ Q N (t)=exp(-1 H N Q t) ψ Q N (0) correctly describes at times t 3, t 6,⋯, t 3N model states that correspond to the completion of the first, second, ⋯, Nth computation step of Q. The model parameters can be adjusted so that for an arbitrary time interval Δ around t 3, t 6,⋯, t 3N, the "machine" part of ψ Q N (t) is stationary.

  12. Quantum set theory and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, E.

    1984-01-01

    The work of von Neumann tells us that the logic of quantum mechanics is not Boolenan. This suggests the formulation of a quantum theory of sets based on quantum logic much as modern set theory is based on Boolean logic. In the first part of this dissertation such a quantum set theory is developed. In the second part, quantum set theory is proposed as a universal language for physics. A quantum topology and the beginnings of a quantum geometry are developed in this language. Finally, a toy model is studied. It gives indications of possible lines for progress in this program.

  13. Emergent mechanics, quantum and un-quantum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralston, John P.

    2013-10-01

    There is great interest in quantum mechanics as an "emergent" phenomenon. The program holds that nonobvious patterns and laws can emerge from complicated physical systems operating by more fundamental rules. We find a new approach where quantum mechanics itself should be viewed as an information management tool not derived from physics nor depending on physics. The main accomplishment of quantum-style theory comes in expanding the notion of probability. We construct a map from macroscopic information as data" to quantum probability. The map allows a hidden variable description for quantum states, and efficient use of the helpful tools of quantum mechanics in unlimited circumstances. Quantum dynamics via the time-dependent Shroedinger equation or operator methods actually represents a restricted class of classical Hamiltonian or Lagrangian dynamics, albeit with different numbers of degrees of freedom. We show that under wide circumstances such dynamics emerges from structureless dynamical systems. The uses of the quantum information management tools are illustrated by numerical experiments and practical applications

  14. Quantum nonlocality

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, H.P.

    1988-04-01

    It is argued that the validity of the predictions of quantum theory in certain spin-correlation experiments entails a violation of Einstein's locality idea that no causal influence can act outside the forward light cone. First, two preliminary arguments suggesting such a violation are reviewed. They both depend, in intermediate stages, on the idea that the results of certain unperformed experiments are physically determinate. The second argument is entangled also with the problem of the meaning of physical reality. A new argument having neither of these characteristics is constructed. It is based strictly on the orthodox ideas of Bohr and Heisenberg, and has no realistic elements, or other ingredients, that are alien to orthodox quantum thinking.

  15. A quantum renaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspelmeyer, Markus; Zeilinger, Anton

    2008-07-01

    Pure curiosity has been the driving force behind many groundbreaking experiments in physics. This is no better illustrated than in quantum mechanics, initially the physics of the extremely small. Since its beginnings in the 1920s and 1930s, researchers have wanted to observe the counterintuitive properties of quantum mechanics directly in the laboratory. However, because experimental technology was not sufficiently developed at the time, people like Niels Bohr, Albert Einstein, Werner Heisenberg and Erwin Schrödinger relied instead on "gedankenexperiments" (thought experiments) to investigate the quantum physics of individual particles, mainly electrons and photons.

  16. The quantum epoché.

    PubMed

    Pylkkänen, Paavo

    2015-12-01

    The theme of phenomenology and quantum physics is here tackled by examining some basic interpretational issues in quantum physics. One key issue in quantum theory from the very beginning has been whether it is possible to provide a quantum ontology of particles in motion in the same way as in classical physics, or whether we are restricted to stay within a more limited view of quantum systems, in terms of complementary but mutually exclusive phenomena. In phenomenological terms we could describe the situation by saying that according to the usual interpretation of quantum theory (especially Niels Bohr's), quantum phenomena require a kind of epoché (i.e. a suspension of assumptions about reality at the quantum level). However, there are other interpretations (especially David Bohm's) that seem to re-establish the possibility of a mind-independent ontology at the quantum level. We will show that even such ontological interpretations contain novel, non-classical features, which require them to give a special role to "phenomena" or "appearances", a role not encountered in classical physics. We will conclude that while ontological interpretations of quantum theory are possible, quantum theory implies the need of a certain kind of epoché even for this type of interpretations. While different from the epoché connected to phenomenological description, the "quantum epoché" nevertheless points to a potentially interesting parallel between phenomenology and quantum philosophy. PMID:26276464

  17. Measuring Chern numbers in Atomic Gases: 2D and 4D Quantum Hall Physics in the Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Nathan

    Optical-lattice experiments have recently succeeded in probing the geometry of 2D Bloch bands with cold neutral atoms. Beyond these local geometrical effects, which are captured by the Berry curvature, 2D Bloch bands may also display non-trivial topology, a global property captured by a topological invariant (e.g. the first Chern number). Such topological properties have dramatic consequences on the transport of non-interacting atoms, such as quantized responses whenever the bands are uniformly populated. In this talk, I will start with the first experimental demonstration of topological transport in a gas of neutral particles, which revealed the Chern number through a cold-atom analogue of quantum-Hall measurements. I will then describe how this Chern-number measurement could be extended in order to probe the topology of higher-dimensional systems. In particular, I will show how the second Chern number - an emblematic topological invariant associated with 4D Bloch bands - could be extracted from an atomic gas, using a 3D optical lattice extended by a synthetic dimension. Finally, I will describe a general scheme by which optical lattices of subwavelength spacing could be realized. This method leads to topological band structures with significantly enhanced energy scales, offering an interesting route towards the experimental realization of strongly-correlated topological states with cold atoms.

  18. Composite material made of plasmonic nanoshells with quantum dot cores: loss-compensation and ε-near-zero physical properties.

    PubMed

    Campione, Salvatore; Capolino, Filippo

    2012-06-15

    A theoretical investigation of loss-compensation capabilities in composite materials made of plasmonic nanoshells is carried out by considering quantum dots (QDs) as the nanoshells' cores. The QD and metal permittivities are modeled according to published experimental data. We determine the modes with real or complex wavenumber able to propagate in a 3D periodic lattice of nanoshells. Mode analysis is also used to assess that only one propagating mode is dominant in the composite material whose optical properties can hence be described via homogenization theory. Therefore, the material effective permittivity is found by comparing different techniques: (i) the mentioned mode analysis, (ii) Maxwell Garnett mixing rule and (iii) the Nicolson-Ross-Weir method based on transmission and reflection when considering a metamaterial of finite thickness. The three methods are in excellent agreement, because the nanoshells considered in this paper are very subwavelength, thus justifying the parameter homogenization. We show that QDs are able to provide loss-compensated ε-near-zero metamaterials and also loss-compensated metamaterials with large negative values of permittivity. Besides compensating for losses, the strong gain via QD can provide optical amplification with particular choices of the nanoshell and lattice dimensions. PMID:22595780

  19. Quantum Dots: Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Vukmirovic, Nenad; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2009-11-10

    This review covers the description of the methodologies typically used for the calculation of the electronic structure of self-assembled and colloidal quantum dots. These are illustrated by the results of their application to a selected set of physical effects in quantum dots.

  20. Old Wine in New Bottles: Quantum Theory in Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent, Henry A.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses similarities between chemistry and three central concepts of quantum physics: (1) stationary states; (2) wave functions; and (3) complementarity. Based on these and other similarities, it is indicated that quantum physics is a chemical physics. (JN)

  1. Insights on the physics and application of off-plane quantum transport through graphene and 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannaccone, G.; Zhang, Q.; Bruzzone, S.; Fiori, G.

    2016-01-01

    Different proposals of graphene transistors based on off-plane (i.e., vertical) transport, have recently appeared in the literature, exhibiting experimental current modulation of a factor 104-105 at room temperature. These devices overcome the lack of bandgap that undermines the operation of graphene transistors, and positively exploit graphene's ultimate thinness, high conductivity, and low density of states. However, very little is known about vertical transport through graphene and two-dimensional materials, either in terms of experiments or theory. In this paper we will discuss the physics and the electronics of off-plane transport through hetero-structures of graphene and 2D materials. We investigate transport across vertical heterostructures of 2D materials with multi-scale simulations, including first-principle density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's functions based on NanoTCAD ViDES. We show that unexpected behaviors emerge, which are not observed in the more familiar semiconductor heterostructures based on III-V and II-VI materials systems, and that are not predicted by simplistic physical models. Such properties have a significant impact on the design and performance of transistors for digital or high frequency operations.

  2. Resource Letter QI-1: Quantum Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauch, Frederick W.

    2016-07-01

    This Resource Letter surveys the history and modern developments in the field of quantum information. It is written to guide advanced undergraduates, beginning graduate students, and other new researchers to the theoretical and experimental aspects of this field. The topics covered include quantum states and processes, quantum coding and cryptography, quantum computation, the experimental implementation of quantum information processing, and the role of quantum information in the fundamental properties and foundations of physical theories.

  3. Quantum control and a novel atom-light quantum interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessen, Poul S.; Anderson, Brian E.; Montano, Enrique; Hemmer, Daniel; Sosa Martinez, Hector; Smith, Aaron

    2014-09-01

    The emerging field of quantum engineering seeks to design and construct quantum devices for use in technological applications. To do so, one must learn to prepare a physical system in a well defined quantum state, drive it though a specified evolution, and access its final state through measurement. Historically, some of the most successful laboratory platforms with which to explore these challenges have originated in the field of quantum optics. This work reviews some of the recent advances in single- and many atom quantum control at the College of Optical Science, and their integration into a novel atom-light quantum interface.

  4. Reviews Toy: Air swimmers Book: Their Arrows will Darken the Sun: The Evolution and Science of Ballistics Book: Physics Experiments for your Bag Book: Quantum Physics for Poets Equipment: SEP colour wheel kit Equipment: SEP colour mixing kit Software: USB DrDAQ App: iHandy Level Equipment: Photonics Explorer kit Web Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-01-01

    WE RECOMMEND Air swimmers Helium balloon swims like a fish Their Arrows will Darken the Sun: The Evolution and Science of Ballistics Ballistics book hits the spot Physics Experiments for your Bag Handy experiments for your lessons Quantum Physics for Poets Book shows the economic importance of physics SEP colour wheel kit Wheels investigate colour theory SEP colour mixing kit Cheap colour mixing kit uses red, green and blue LEDs iHandy Level iPhone app superbly measures angles Photonics Explorer kit Free optics kit given to schools WORTH A LOOK DrDAQ DrDAQ software gets an upgrade WEB WATCH Websites show range of physics

  5. Lateral Quantum Dots for Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    House, Matthew Gregory

    The possibility of building a computer that takes advantage of the most subtle nature of quantum physics has been driving a lot of research in atomic and solid state physics for some time. It is still not clear what physical system or systems can be used for this purpose. One possibility that has been attracting significant attention from researchers is to use the spin state of an electron confined in a semiconductor quantum dot. The electron spin is magnetic in nature, so it naturally is well isolated from electrical fluctuations that can a loss of quantum coherence. It can also be manipulated electrically, by taking advantage of the exchange interaction. In this work we describe several experiments we have done to study the electron spin properties of lateral quantum dots. We have developed lateral quantum dot devices based on the silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor, and studied the physics of electrons confined in these quantum dots. We measured the electron spin excited state lifetime, which was found to be as long as 30 ms at the lowest magnetic fields that we could measure. We fabricated and characterized a silicon double quantum dot. Using this double quantum dot design, we fabricated devices which combined a silicon double quantum dot with a superconducting microwave resonator. The microwave resonator was found to be sensitive to two-dimensional electrons in the transistor channel, which we measured and characterized. We developed a new method for extracting information from random telegraph signals, which are produced when we observe thermal fluctuations of electrons in quantum dots. The new statistical method, based on the hidden Markov model, allows us to detect spin-dependent effects in such fluctuations even though we are not able to directly observe the electron spin. We use this analysis technique on data from two experiments involving gallium arsenide quantum dots and use it to measure spin-dependent tunneling rates. Our results advance the

  6. The Logic of Nature, Complexity and New Physics From Quark-Gluon Plasma to Superstrings, Quantum Gravity and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zichichi, Antonino

    2008-07-01

    Mini-courses on basics. Complexity of chaotic fields and standard model parameters / C. Beck. QCD at low energy: the simplicity of complex non-perturbative phenomena / G. Colangelo. Complexity and landscape in string theory / F. Denef, M. R. Douglas. Black holes, qubits and the Fano plane / M. J. Duff, S. Ferrara. The status of lattice QCD / R. Kenway. The landscape and its physics foundations - how string theory generates the landscape / L. Susskind. Complexity and nonextensive statistical mechanics - theory, experiments, observations and computer simulations / C. Tsallis. Complexity at the fundamental level: consequences for LHC / A. Zichichi -- Highlights from laboratories. Present and future of the Gran Sasso underground laboratory / E. Coccia. From BABAR to the future / M. A. Giorgi. Evidence for a quark-gluon plasma at RHIC / J. W. Harris. International linear collider / N. S. Lockyer. Diffraction at HERA on the quark and gluon scale / B. Löhr. LHC Upgrade / H. Wenninger -- Seminars on specialistic topics. How to detect extra-dimensions / I. Antoniadis. Supercomputing: general purpose and custom architectures / R. Petronzio -- Homage to R. H. Dalitz. Dick Dalitz: examples of his contributions to particle physics / G. R. Goldstein -- Special sessions for new talents. Noncommutative gravity and the [symbol]-Lie algebra of diffeomorphisms / P. Aschieri. Events with isolated leptons and missing transverse momentum in ep collisions at HERA / G. Brandt. From quark gluon plasma to a perfect fluid of quarks and beyond / M. Csanád. Analog models beyond kinematics / S. Fagnocchi. Complexity in cosmic structures / F. s. Labini. Inclusive measurements as an mSUGRA signal with ATLAS / D. López Mateos. Unraveling the [symbol] nature by connecting KLOE and BABAR data through analyticity / S. Pacetti. Dynamic time scales in colored glass nuclear matter / V. Parihar. Mapping the transverse size of the proton / O. Smith. Scalar higher dimensional theories in 1/N

  7. Comparing student understanding of quantum physics when embedding multimodal representations into two different writing formats: Presentation format versus summary report format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunel, Murat; Hand, Brian; Gunduz, Sevket

    2006-11-01

    Physics as a subject for school students requires an understanding and ability to move between different modes of representation for the concepts under review. However, the inability of students to have a multimodal understanding of the concepts is seen as restricting their understandings of the concepts. The aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness of using writing-to-learn strategies that required students to embed multimodal representations of the concepts. In particular, the study compared a presentation format with a summary report format for students learning quantum theory. A pre-post test design was used to compare performances of these two groups across two units. For unit 1, students' scores from groups that completed either a presentation format (PowerPoint presentation) or a summary report format (chapter summary) were compared. No limits were placed on the amount of text or the number of representations used. For unit 2, products of both groups were constructed for an audience of year 10 students. The presentation format group (PowerPoint) was limited to 15 slides, with a maximum of 10 words displayed per slide; a script was written to accompany the presentation. Slides could include graphical and mathematical formulae; however, the text could not. The summary report format group that wrote out its explanations was limited to four pages and was required to incorporate multimodal representations. Results indicated that for both units students using the presentation format group scored significantly better on tests than the summary report format group. The effect size difference between the groups increased for the second unit, indicating that more practice was leading to better student understanding of the physics concepts.

  8. Quantum technology: from research to application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleich, Wolfgang P.; Ranade, Kedar S.; Anton, Christian; Arndt, Markus; Aspelmeyer, Markus; Bayer, Manfred; Berg, Gunnar; Calarco, Tommaso; Fuchs, Harald; Giacobino, Elisabeth; Grassl, Markus; Hänggi, Peter; Heckl, Wolfgang M.; Hertel, Ingolf-Volker; Huelga, Susana; Jelezko, Fedor; Keimer, Bernhard; Kotthaus, Jörg P.; Leuchs, Gerd; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Maurer, Ueli; Pfau, Tilman; Plenio, Martin B.; Rasel, Ernst Maria; Renn, Ortwin; Silberhorn, Christine; Schiedmayer, Jörg; Schmitt-Landsiedel, Doris; Schönhammer, Kurt; Ustinov, Alexey; Walther, Philip; Weinfurter, Harald; Welzl, Emo; Wiesendanger, Roland; Wolf, Stefan; Zeilinger, Anton; Zoller, Peter

    2016-05-01

    The term quantum physics refers to the phenomena and characteristics of atomic and subatomic systems which cannot be explained by classical physics. Quantum physics has had a long tradition in Germany, going back nearly 100 years. Quantum physics is the foundation of many modern technologies. The first generation of quantum technology provides the basis for key areas such as semiconductor and laser technology. The "new" quantum technology, based on influencing individual quantum systems, has been the subject of research for about the last 20 years. Quantum technology has great economic potential due to its extensive research programs conducted in specialized quantum technology centres throughout the world. To be a viable and active participant in the economic potential of this field, the research infrastructure in Germany should be improved to facilitate more investigations in quantum technology research.

  9. Chemical modification of Hyflon® AD copolymer end groups by means of physical and chemical treatments. A joint spectroscopic and quantum chemical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radice, Stefano; Canil, Giorgio; Millefanti, Stefano; Tortelli, Vito; Milani, Alberto; Castiglioni, Chiara

    2015-06-01

    In this paper is presented a study on the effects of physical treatments, namely electron beam irradiation or fluorination, on a perfluoropolymer copolymer of tetrafluoroethylene with 2,2,4-trifluoro-5-trifluoromethoxy-1,3-dioxole (Hyflon® AD copolymer). The analysis has been carried out by means of IR spectroscopy and quantum chemical modeling based on density functional theory; this combined experimental/theoretical approach has proven effective for the interpretation of previously unassigned IR bands, which are associated to functional groups generated by polymer degradation and chain scission. We performed a systematic screening of chemical groups and structures compatible with degradation pathways that are possible from the chemical point of view: the chemical mechanisms and the correlation with the spectroscopic experimental data (both frequency and intensity) provide guidelines in understanding the phenomena. Moreover, the spectroscopic experimental/theoretical and chemical approaches allowed us to identify some chemical structures responsible for the unassigned IR bands in the Cdbnd O stretching frequency region above 1800 cm-1, which is typical for carbonyl groups in fluorinated systems.

  10. Teaching Quantum Uncertainty1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, Art

    2011-10-01

    An earlier paper2 introduces quantum physics by means of four experiments: Youngs double-slit interference experiment using (1) a light beam, (2) a low-intensity light beam with time-lapse photography, (3) an electron beam, and (4) a low-intensity electron beam with time-lapse photography. It's ironic that, although these experiments demonstrate most of the quantum fundamentals, conventional pedagogy stresses their difficult and paradoxical nature. These paradoxes (i.e., logical contradictions) vanish, and understanding becomes simpler, if one takes seriously the fact that quantum mechanics is the nonrelativistic limit of our most accurate physical theory, namely quantum field theory, and treats the Schroedinger wave function, as well as the electromagnetic field, as quantized fields.2 Both the Schroedinger field, or "matter field," and the EM field are made of "quanta"—spatially extended but energetically discrete chunks or bundles of energy. Each quantum comes nonlocally from the entire space-filling field and interacts with macroscopic systems such as the viewing screen by collapsing into an atom instantaneously and randomly in accordance with the probability amplitude specified by the field. Thus, uncertainty and nonlocality are inherent in quantum physics. This paper is about quantum uncertainty. A planned later paper will take up quantum nonlocality.

  11. Introduction to quantum turbulence.

    PubMed

    Barenghi, Carlo F; Skrbek, Ladislav; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R

    2014-03-25

    The term quantum turbulence denotes the turbulent motion of quantum fluids, systems such as superfluid helium and atomic Bose-Einstein condensates, which are characterized by quantized vorticity, superfluidity, and, at finite temperatures, two-fluid behavior. This article introduces their basic properties, describes types and regimes of turbulence that have been observed, and highlights similarities and differences between quantum turbulence and classical turbulence in ordinary fluids. Our aim is also to link together the articles of this special issue and to provide a perspective of the future development of a subject that contains aspects of fluid mechanics, atomic physics, condensed matter, and low-temperature physics. PMID:24704870

  12. Is quantum mechanics exact?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapustin, Anton

    2013-06-01

    We formulate physically motivated axioms for a physical theory which for systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom uniquely lead to quantum mechanics as the only nontrivial consistent theory. Complex numbers and the existence of the Planck constant common to all systems arise naturally in this approach. The axioms are divided into two groups covering kinematics and basic measurement theory, respectively. We show that even if the second group of axioms is dropped, there are no deformations of quantum mechanics which preserve the kinematic axioms. Thus, any theory going beyond quantum mechanics must represent a radical departure from the usual a priori assumptions about the laws of nature.

  13. Introduction to quantum turbulence

    PubMed Central

    Barenghi, Carlo F.; Skrbek, Ladislav; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2014-01-01

    The term quantum turbulence denotes the turbulent motion of quantum fluids, systems such as superfluid helium and atomic Bose–Einstein condensates, which are characterized by quantized vorticity, superfluidity, and, at finite temperatures, two-fluid behavior. This article introduces their basic properties, describes types and regimes of turbulence that have been observed, and highlights similarities and differences between quantum turbulence and classical turbulence in ordinary fluids. Our aim is also to link together the articles of this special issue and to provide a perspective of the future development of a subject that contains aspects of fluid mechanics, atomic physics, condensed matter, and low-temperature physics. PMID:24704870

  14. Chiral quantum walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Dawei; Biamonte, Jacob D.; Li, Jun; Li, Hang; Johnson, Tomi H.; Bergholm, Ville; Faccin, Mauro; Zimborás, Zoltán; Laflamme, Raymond; Baugh, Jonathan; Lloyd, Seth

    2016-04-01

    Given its importance to many other areas of physics, from condensed-matter physics to thermodynamics, time-reversal symmetry has had relatively little influence on quantum information science. Here we develop a network-based picture of time-reversal theory, classifying Hamiltonians and quantum circuits as time symmetric or not in terms of the elements and geometries of their underlying networks. Many of the typical circuits of quantum information science are found to exhibit time asymmetry. Moreover, we show that time asymmetry in circuits can be controlled using local gates only and can simulate time asymmetry in Hamiltonian evolution. We experimentally implement a fundamental example in which controlled time-reversal asymmetry in a palindromic quantum circuit leads to near-perfect transport. Our results pave the way for using time-symmetry breaking to control coherent transport and imply that time asymmetry represents an omnipresent yet poorly understood effect in quantum information science.

  15. Quantum random number generation

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Xiongfeng; Yuan, Xiao; Cao, Zhu; Zhang, Zhen; Qi, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Here, quantum physics can be exploited to generate true random numbers, which play important roles in many applications, especially in cryptography. Genuine randomness from the measurement of a quantum system reveals the inherent nature of quantumness — coherence, an important feature that differentiates quantum mechanics from classical physics. The generation of genuine randomness is generally considered impossible with only classical means. Based on the degree of trustworthiness on devices, quantum random number generators (QRNGs) can be grouped into three categories. The first category, practical QRNG, is built on fully trusted and calibrated devices and typically can generate randomness at a high speed by properly modeling the devices. The second category is self-testing QRNG, where verifiable randomness can be generated without trusting the actual implementation. The third category, semi-self-testing QRNG, is an intermediate category which provides a tradeoff between the trustworthiness on the device and the random number generation speed.

  16. Quantum random number generation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ma, Xiongfeng; Yuan, Xiao; Cao, Zhu; Zhang, Zhen; Qi, Bing

    2016-06-28

    Here, quantum physics can be exploited to generate true random numbers, which play important roles in many applications, especially in cryptography. Genuine randomness from the measurement of a quantum system reveals the inherent nature of quantumness -- coherence, an important feature that differentiates quantum mechanics from classical physics. The generation of genuine randomness is generally considered impossible with only classical means. Based on the degree of trustworthiness on devices, quantum random number generators (QRNGs) can be grouped into three categories. The first category, practical QRNG, is built on fully trusted and calibrated devices and typically can generate randomness at amore » high speed by properly modeling the devices. The second category is self-testing QRNG, where verifiable randomness can be generated without trusting the actual implementation. The third category, semi-self-testing QRNG, is an intermediate category which provides a tradeoff between the trustworthiness on the device and the random number generation speed.« less

  17. Surface Enhanced Quantum Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangan, Chitra

    2013-05-01

    Miniaturization of quantum technologies have led to physics that require the marriage of atomic physics and nanomaterials science. Some of the resulting areas of research are hybrid quantum devices, single-molecule spectroscopies, table-top intense field generators, etc. I will present an area of research that I dub ``Surface-enhanced quantum control'' that is an exciting way of controlling light and nanomatter. By combining the electromagnetic enhancement properties of plasmonic nanomaterials with the modification of the atomic properties, we can achieve an unprecedented level of control over quantum dynamics. I will present examples of surface-enhanced state purification, in which quantum states near metal nanostructures can be rapidly purified by the application of a weak near-resonant control field. We gratefully acknowledge support from the NSERC Discovery Grant Program and the NSERC Strategic Network for Bioplasmonic Systems.

  18. Physics in the Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisskopf, Victor F.

    1970-01-01

    Provides a review of the great discoveries, theoretical concepts and development of physics in the 20th century. The growth and significance of diverse fields such as quantum theory, relativity theory, atomic physics, molecular physics, the physics of the solid state, nuclear physics, astrophysics, plasma physics, and particle physics are…

  19. Cryptography, quantum computation and trapped ions

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Richard J.

    1998-03-01

    The significance of quantum computation for cryptography is discussed. Following a brief survey of the requirements for quantum computational hardware, an overview of the ion trap quantum computation project at Los Alamos is presented. The physical limitations to quantum computation with trapped ions are analyzed and an assessment of the computational potential of the technology is made.

  20. Practical quantum digital signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Hua-Lei; Fu, Yao; Chen, Zeng-Bing

    2016-03-01

    Guaranteeing nonrepudiation, unforgeability as well as transferability of a signature is one of the most vital safeguards in today's e-commerce era. Based on fundamental laws of quantum physics, quantum digital signature (QDS) aims to provide information-theoretic security for this cryptographic task. However, up to date, the previously proposed QDS protocols are impractical due to various challenging problems and most importantly, the requirement of authenticated (secure) quantum channels between participants. Here, we present the first quantum digital signature protocol that removes the assumption of authenticated quantum channels while remaining secure against the collective attacks. Besides, our QDS protocol can be practically implemented over more than 100 km under current mature technology as used in quantum key distribution.

  1. Geometrical aspects of quantum spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, P.M.

    1996-05-11

    Various geometrical aspects of quantum spaces are presented showing the possibility of building physics on quantum spaces. In the first chapter the authors give the motivations for studying noncommutative geometry and also review the definition of a Hopf algebra and some general features of the differential geometry on quantum groups and quantum planes. In Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 the noncommutative version of differential calculus, integration and complex structure are established for the quantum sphere S{sub 1}{sup 2} and the quantum complex projective space CP{sub q}(N), on which there are quantum group symmetries that are represented nonlinearly, and are respected by all the aforementioned structures. The braiding of S{sub q}{sup 2} and CP{sub q}(N) is also described. In Chapter 4 the quantum projective geometry over the quantum projective space CP{sub q}(N) is developed. Collinearity conditions, coplanarity conditions, intersections and anharmonic ratios is described. In Chapter 5 an algebraic formulation of Reimannian geometry on quantum spaces is presented where Riemannian metric, distance, Laplacian, connection, and curvature have their quantum counterparts. This attempt is also extended to complex manifolds. Examples include the quantum sphere, the complex quantum projective space and the two-sheeted space. The quantum group of general coordinate transformations on some quantum spaces is also given.

  2. Quantum Theory and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastin, Ted

    2009-07-01

    List of participants; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. The function of the colloquium - editorial; 2. The conceptual problem of quantum theory from the experimentalist's point of view O. R. Frisch; Part II. Niels Bohr and Complementarity: The Place of the Classical Language: 3. The Copenhagen interpretation C. F. von Weizsäcker; 4. On Bohr's views concerning the quantum theory D. Bohm; Part III. The Measurement Problem: 5. Quantal observation in statistical interpretation H. J. Groenewold; 6. Macroscopic physics, quantum mechanics and quantum theory of measurement G. M. Prosperi; 7. Comment on the Daneri-Loinger-Prosperi quantum theory of measurement Jeffrey Bub; 8. The phenomenology of observation and explanation in quantum theory J. H. M. Whiteman; 9. Measurement theory and complex systems M. A. Garstens; Part IV. New Directions within Quantum Theory: What does the Quantum Theoretical Formalism Really Tell Us?: 10. On the role of hidden variables in the fundamental structure of physics D. Bohm; 11. Beyond what? Discussion: space-time order within existing quantum theory C. W. Kilmister; 12. Definability and measurability in quantum theory Yakir Aharonov and Aage Petersen; 13. The bootstrap idea and the foundations of quantum theory Geoffrey F. Chew; Part V. A Fresh Start?: 14. Angular momentum: an approach to combinatorial space-time Roger Penrose; 15. A note on discreteness, phase space and cohomology theory B. J. Hiley; 16. Cohomology of observations R. H. Atkin; 17. The origin of half-integral spin in a discrete physical space Ted Bastin; Part VI. Philosophical Papers: 18. The unity of physics C. F. von Weizsäcker; 19. A philosophical obstacle to the rise of new theories in microphysics Mario Bunge; 20. The incompleteness of quantum mechanics or the emperor's missing clothes H. R. Post; 21. How does a particle get from A to B?; Ted Bastin; 22. Informational generalization of entropy in physics Jerome Rothstein; 23. Can life explain quantum mechanics? H. H

  3. Statistical Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, Claudine

    Statistical Physics bridges the properties of a macroscopic system and the microscopic behavior of its constituting particles, otherwise impossible due to the giant magnitude of Avogadro's number. Numerous systems of today's key technologies - such as semiconductors or lasers - are macroscopic quantum objects; only statistical physics allows for understanding their fundamentals. Therefore, this graduate text also focuses on particular applications such as the properties of electrons in solids with applications, and radiation thermodynamics and the greenhouse effect.

  4. Geometry of Quantum States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bengtsson, Ingemar; Zyczkowski, Karol

    2006-05-01

    Quantum information theory is at the frontiers of physics, mathematics and information science, offering a variety of solutions that are impossible using classical theory. This book provides an introduction to the key concepts used in processing quantum information and reveals that quantum mechanics is a generalisation of classical probability theory. After a gentle introduction to the necessary mathematics the authors describe the geometry of quantum state spaces. Focusing on finite dimensional Hilbert spaces, they discuss the statistical distance measures and entropies used in quantum theory. The final part of the book is devoted to quantum entanglement - a non-intuitive phenomenon discovered by Schrödinger, which has become a key resource for quantum computation. This richly-illustrated book is useful to a broad audience of graduates and researchers interested in quantum information theory. Exercises follow each chapter, with hints and answers supplied. The first book to focus on the geometry of quantum states Stresses the similarities and differences between classical and quantum theory Uses a non-technical style and numerous figures to make the book accessible to non-specialists

  5. Research in theoretical particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, D.W.; Munczek, H.; Ralston, J.

    1992-05-01

    This report discusses the following topics in high energy physics: dynamical symmetry breaking and Schwinger-Dyson equation; consistency bound on the minimal model Higgs mass; tests of physics beyond the standard model; particle astrophysics; the interface between perturbative and non-perturbative QCD; cosmology; anisotropy in quantum networks and integer quantum hall behavior; anomalous color transparency; quantum treatment of solitons; color transparency; quantum stabilization of skyrmions; and casimir effect. (LSP)

  6. Quantum teleportation between remote atomic-ensemble quantum memories

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Xiao-Hui; Xu, Xiao-Fan; Li, Che-Ming; Yuan, Zhen-Sheng; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Quantum teleportation and quantum memory are two crucial elements for large-scale quantum networks. With the help of prior distributed entanglement as a “quantum channel,” quantum teleportation provides an intriguing means to faithfully transfer quantum states among distant locations without actual transmission of the physical carriers [Bennett CH, et al. (1993) Phys Rev Lett 70(13):1895–1899]. Quantum memory enables controlled storage and retrieval of fast-flying photonic quantum bits with stationary matter systems, which is essential to achieve the scalability required for large-scale quantum networks. Combining these two capabilities, here we realize quantum teleportation between two remote atomic-ensemble quantum memory nodes, each composed of ∼108 rubidium atoms and connected by a 150-m optical fiber. The spin wave state of one atomic ensemble is mapped to a propagating photon and subjected to Bell state measurements with another single photon that is entangled with the spin wave state of the other ensemble. Two-photon detection events herald the success of teleportation with an average fidelity of 88(7)%. Besides its fundamental interest as a teleportation between two remote macroscopic objects, our technique may be useful for quantum information transfer between different nodes in quantum networks and distributed quantum computing. PMID:23144222

  7. Quantum teleportation between remote atomic-ensemble quantum memories.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xiao-Hui; Xu, Xiao-Fan; Li, Che-Ming; Yuan, Zhen-Sheng; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2012-12-11

    Quantum teleportation and quantum memory are two crucial elements for large-scale quantum networks. With the help of prior distributed entanglement as a "quantum channel," quantum teleportation provides an intriguing means to faithfully transfer quantum states among distant locations without actual transmission of the physical carriers [Bennett CH, et al. (1993) Phys Rev Lett 70(13):1895-1899]. Quantum memory enables controlled storage and retrieval of fast-flying photonic quantum bits with stationary matter systems, which is essential to achieve the scalability required for large-scale quantum networks. Combining these two capabilities, here we realize quantum teleportation between two remote atomic-ensemble quantum memory nodes, each composed of ∼10(8) rubidium atoms and connected by a 150-m optical fiber. The spin wave state of one atomic ensemble is mapped to a propagating photon and subjected to Bell state measurements with another single photon that is entangled with the spin wave state of the other ensemble. Two-photon detection events herald the success of teleportation with an average fidelity of 88(7)%. Besides its fundamental interest as a teleportation between two remote macroscopic objects, our technique may be useful for quantum information transfer between different nodes in quantum networks and distributed quantum computing. PMID:23144222

  8. Recoverability in quantum information theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilde, Mark

    The fact that the quantum relative entropy is non-increasing with respect to quantum physical evolutions lies at the core of many optimality theorems in quantum information theory and has applications in other areas of physics. In this work, we establish improvements of this entropy inequality in the form of physically meaningful remainder terms. One of the main results can be summarized informally as follows: if the decrease in quantum relative entropy between two quantum states after a quantum physical evolution is relatively small, then it is possible to perform a recovery operation, such that one can perfectly recover one state while approximately recovering the other. This can be interpreted as quantifying how well one can reverse a quantum physical evolution. Our proof method is elementary, relying on the method of complex interpolation, basic linear algebra, and the recently introduced Renyi generalization of a relative entropy difference. The theorem has a number of applications in quantum information theory, which have to do with providing physically meaningful improvements to many known entropy inequalities. This is based on arXiv:1505.04661, now accepted for publication in Proceedings of the Royal Society A. I acknowledge support from startup funds from the Department of Physics and Astronomy at LSU, the NSF under Award No. CCF-1350397, and the DARPA Quiness Program through US Army Research Office award W31P4Q-12-1-0019.

  9. Richard L. Greene Dissertation Award in Experimental Condensed Matter or Materials Physics Talk: Ferromagnetic quantum criticality in YbNi4 P2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steppke, Alexander

    In a number of strongly correlated electron systems quantum phase transitions can be observed by the suppression of antiferromagnetic order. In contrast the prototypical continuous quantum phase transition of a metallic ferromagnet is often preempted by a first-order transition or a superconducting state. We show that the Kondo lattice system YbNi4P2 exhibits a ferromagnetically ordered phase with a very low Curie temperature of 0.15K. The compound can be tuned to a ferromagnetic quantum critical point by substitution of phosphorus by arsenic. With thermodynamic studies of specific heat, ac susceptibility and thermal expansion we show strong evidence for the ferromagnetic order and the quantum criticality in the YbNi4(P 1-x As x)2 doping series and the existence of a ferromagnetic quantum critical point at zero applied field for small substitutions.

  10. Quantum Locality?

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, Henry

    2011-11-10

    Robert Griffiths has recently addressed, within the framework of a ‘consistent quantum theory’ (CQT) that he has developed, the issue of whether, as is often claimed, quantum mechanics entails a need for faster-than-light transfers of information over long distances. He argues, on the basis of his examination of certain arguments that claim to demonstrate the existence of such nonlocal influences, that such influences do not exist. However, his examination was restricted mainly to hidden-variable-based arguments that include in their premises some essentially classical-physics-type assumptions that are fundamentally incompatible with the precepts of quantum physics. One cannot logically prove properties of a system by attributing to the system properties alien to that system. Hence Griffiths’ rejection of hidden-variable-based proofs is logically warranted. Griffiths mentions the existence of a certain alternative proof that does not involve hidden variables, and that uses only macroscopically described observable properties. He notes that he had examined in his book proofs of this general kind, and concluded that they provide no evidence for nonlocal influences. But he did not examine the particular proof that he cites. An examination of that particular proof by the method specified by his ‘consistent quantum theory’ shows that the cited proof is valid within that restrictive framework. This necessary existence, within the ‘consistent’ framework, of long range essentially instantaneous influences refutes the claim made by Griffiths that his ‘consistent’ framework is superior to the orthodox quantum theory of von Neumann because it does not entail instantaneous influences. An added section responds to Griffiths’ reply, which cites a litany of ambiguities that seem to restrict, devastatingly, the scope of his CQT formalism, apparently to buttress his claim that my use of that formalism to validate the nonlocality theorem is flawed. But the

  11. Quantum computers: Definition and implementations

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Delgado, Carlos A.; Kok, Pieter

    2011-01-15

    The DiVincenzo criteria for implementing a quantum computer have been seminal in focusing both experimental and theoretical research in quantum-information processing. These criteria were formulated specifically for the circuit model of quantum computing. However, several new models for quantum computing (paradigms) have been proposed that do not seem to fit the criteria well. Therefore, the question is what are the general criteria for implementing quantum computers. To this end, a formal operational definition of a quantum computer is introduced. It is then shown that, according to this definition, a device is a quantum computer if it obeys the following criteria: Any quantum computer must consist of a quantum memory, with an additional structure that (1) facilitates a controlled quantum evolution of the quantum memory; (2) includes a method for information theoretic cooling of the memory; and (3) provides a readout mechanism for subsets of the quantum memory. The criteria are met when the device is scalable and operates fault tolerantly. We discuss various existing quantum computing paradigms and how they fit within this framework. Finally, we present a decision tree for selecting an avenue toward building a quantum computer. This is intended to help experimentalists determine the most natural paradigm given a particular physical implementation.

  12. Quantum computers: Definition and implementations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Delgado, Carlos A.; Kok, Pieter

    2011-01-01

    The DiVincenzo criteria for implementing a quantum computer have been seminal in focusing both experimental and theoretical research in quantum-information processing. These criteria were formulated specifically for the circuit model of quantum computing. However, several new models for quantum computing (paradigms) have been proposed that do not seem to fit the criteria well. Therefore, the question is what are the general criteria for implementing quantum computers. To this end, a formal operational definition of a quantum computer is introduced. It is then shown that, according to this definition, a device is a quantum computer if it obeys the following criteria: Any quantum computer must consist of a quantum memory, with an additional structure that (1) facilitates a controlled quantum evolution of the quantum memory; (2) includes a method for information theoretic cooling of the memory; and (3) provides a readout mechanism for subsets of the quantum memory. The criteria are met when the device is scalable and operates fault tolerantly. We discuss various existing quantum computing paradigms and how they fit within this framework. Finally, we present a decision tree for selecting an avenue toward building a quantum computer. This is intended to help experimentalists determine the most natural paradigm given a particular physical implementation.

  13. Quantum correlation via quantum coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chang-shui; Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Haiqing

    2014-06-01

    Quantum correlation includes quantum entanglement and quantum discord. Both entanglement and discord have a common necessary condition—quantum coherence or quantum superposition. In this paper, we attempt to give an alternative understanding of how quantum correlation is related to quantum coherence. We divide the coherence of a quantum state into several classes and find the complete coincidence between geometric (symmetric and asymmetric) quantum discords and some particular classes of quantum coherence. We propose a revised measure for total coherence and find that this measure can lead to a symmetric version of geometric quantum correlation, which is analytic for two qubits. In particular, this measure can also arrive at a monogamy equality on the distribution of quantum coherence. Finally, we also quantify a remaining type of quantum coherence and find that for two qubits, it is directly connected with quantum nonlocality.

  14. Quantum Cauchy surfaces in canonical quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chun-Yen

    2016-09-01

    For a Dirac theory of quantum gravity obtained from the refined algebraic quantization procedure, we propose a quantum notion of Cauchy surfaces. In such a theory, there is a kernel projector for the quantized scalar and momentum constraints, which maps the kinematic Hilbert space {{K}} into the physical Hilbert space {{H}}. Under this projection, a quantum Cauchy surface isomorphically represents a physical subspace {{D}}\\subset {{H}} with a kinematic subspace {{V}}\\subset {{K}}. The isomorphism induces the complete sets of Dirac observables in {{D}}, which faithfully represent the corresponding complete sets of self-adjoint operators in {{V}}. Due to the constraints, a specific subset of the observables would be ‘frozen’ as number operators, providing a background physical time for the rest of the observables. Therefore, a proper foliation with the quantum Cauchy surfaces may provide an observer frame describing the physical states of spacetimes in a Schrödinger picture, with the evolutions under a specific physical background. A simple model will be supplied as an initiative trial.

  15. Some introductory formalizations on the affine Hilbert spaces model of the origin of life. I. On quantum mechanical measurement and the origin of the genetic code: a general physical framework theory.

    PubMed

    Balázs, András

    2006-08-01

    A physical (affine Hilbert spaces) frame is developed for the discussion of the interdependence of the problem of the origin (symbolic assignment) of the genetic code and a possible endophysical (a kind of "internal") quantum measurement in an explicite way, following the general considerations of Balázs (Balázs, A., 2003. BioSystems 70, 43-54; Balázs, A., 2004a. BioSystems 73, 1-11). Using the Everett (a dynamic) interpretation of quantum mechanics, both the individual code assignment and the concatenated linear symbolism is discussed. It is concluded that there arises a skewed quantal probability field, with a natural dynamic non-linearity in codon assignment within the physical model adopted (essentially corresponding to a much discussed biochemical frame of self-catalyzed binding (charging) of t RNA like proto RNAs (ribozymes) with amino acids). This dynamic specific molecular complex assumption of individual code assignment, and the divergence of the code in relation to symbol concatenation, are discussed: our frame supports the former and interpret the latter as single-type codon (triplet), also unambiguous and extended assignment, selection in molecular evolution, corresponding to converging towards the fixedpoint of the internal dynamics of measurement, either in a protein- or RNA-world. In this respect, the general physical consequence is the introduction of a fourth rank semidiagonal energy tensor (see also Part II) ruling the internal dynamics as a non-linear in principle second-order one. It is inferred, as a summary, that if the problem under discussion could be expressed by the concepts of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics in some yet not quite specified way, the matter would be particularly interesting with respect to both the origin of life and quantum mechanics, as a dynamically supported natural measurement-theoretical split between matter ("hardware") and (internal) symbolism ("software") aspects of living matter. PMID

  16. Quantum Statistical Testing of a Quantum Random Number Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Travis S

    2014-01-01

    The unobservable elements in a quantum technology, e.g., the quantum state, complicate system verification against promised behavior. Using model-based system engineering, we present methods for verifying the opera- tion of a prototypical quantum random number generator. We begin with the algorithmic design of the QRNG followed by the synthesis of its physical design requirements. We next discuss how quantum statistical testing can be used to verify device behavior as well as detect device bias. We conclude by highlighting how system design and verification methods must influence effort to certify future quantum technologies.

  17. Quantum Quasi-Paradoxes and Quantum Sorites Paradoxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2009-03-01

    There can be generated many paradoxes or quasi-paradoxes that may occur from the combination of quantum and non-quantum worlds in physics. Even the passage from the micro-cosmos to the macro-cosmos, and reciprocally, can generate unsolved questions or counter-intuitive ideas. We define a quasi-paradox as a statement which has a prima facie self-contradictory support or an explicit contradiction, but which is not completely proven as a paradox. We present herein four elementary quantum quasi-paradoxes and their corresponding quantum Sorites paradoxes, which form a class of quantum quasi-paradoxes.

  18. Entangled states in quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruža, Jānis

    2010-01-01

    In some circles of quantum physicists, a view is maintained that the nonseparability of quantum systems-i.e., the entanglement-is a characteristic feature of quantum mechanics. According to this view, the entanglement plays a crucial role in the solution of quantum measurement problem, the origin of the “classicality” from the quantum physics, the explanation of the EPR paradox by a nonlocal character of the quantum world. Besides, the entanglement is regarded as a cornerstone of such modern disciplines as quantum computation, quantum cryptography, quantum information, etc. At the same time, entangled states are well known and widely used in various physics areas. In particular, this notion is widely used in nuclear, atomic, molecular, solid state physics, in scattering and decay theories as well as in other disciplines, where one has to deal with many-body quantum systems. One of the methods, how to construct the basis states of a composite many-body quantum system, is the so-called genealogical decomposition method. Genealogical decomposition allows one to construct recurrently by particle number the basis states of a composite quantum system from the basis states of its forming subsystems. These coupled states have a structure typical for entangled states. If a composite system is stable, the internal structure of its forming basis states does not manifest itself in measurements. However, if a composite system is unstable and decays onto its forming subsystems, then the measurables are the quantum numbers, associated with these subsystems. In such a case, the entangled state has a dynamical origin, determined by the Hamiltonian of the corresponding decay process. Possible correlations between the quantum numbers of resulting subsystems are determined by the symmetries-conservation laws of corresponding dynamical variables, and not by the quantum entanglement feature.

  19. Quantum Computation: Theory, Practice, and Future Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Isaac

    2000-03-01

    Information is physical, and computation obeys physical laws. Ones and zeros -- elementary classical bits of information -- must be represented in physical media to be stored and processed. Traditionally, these objects are well described by classical physics, but increasingly, as we edge towards the limits of semiconductor technology, we reach a new regime where the laws of quantum physics become dominant. Strange new phenomena, like entanglement and quantum coherence, become available as new resources. How can such resources be utilized for computation? What physical systems allow construction and control of quantum phenomena? How is this relevant to future directions in information technology? The theoretical promise of quantum computation is polynomial speedup of searches, and exponentially speedups for other certain problems such as factoring. But the experimental challenge to realize such algorithms in practice is enormous: to date, quantum computers with only a handful of quantum bits have been realized in the laboratory, using electromagnetically trapped ions, and with magnetic resonance techniques. On the other hand, quantum information has been communicated over long distances using single photons. The future of quantum computation is currently subject to intense scrutiny. It may well be that these machines will not be practical. More quantum algorithms must be discovered, and new physical implementations must be realized. Quantum computation and quantum information are young fields with major issues to be overcome, but already, they have forever changed the way we think of the physical world and what can be computed with it.

  20. Geometric diffusion of quantum trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; Liu, Ren-Bao

    2015-01-01

    A quantum object can acquire a geometric phase (such as Berry phases and Aharonov–Bohm phases) when evolving along a path in a parameter space with non-trivial gauge structures. Inherent to quantum evolutions of wavepackets, quantum diffusion occurs along quantum trajectories. Here we show that quantum diffusion can also be geometric as characterized by the imaginary part of a geometric phase. The geometric quantum diffusion results from interference between different instantaneous eigenstate pathways which have different geometric phases during the adiabatic evolution. As a specific example, we study the quantum trajectories of optically excited electron-hole pairs in time-reversal symmetric insulators, driven by an elliptically polarized terahertz field. The imaginary geometric phase manifests itself as elliptical polarization in the terahertz sideband generation. The geometric quantum diffusion adds a new dimension to geometric phases and may have applications in many fields of physics, e.g., transport in topological insulators and novel electro-optical effects. PMID:26178745

  1. Geometric diffusion of quantum trajectories.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Liu, Ren-Bao

    2015-01-01

    A quantum object can acquire a geometric phase (such as Berry phases and Aharonov-Bohm phases) when evolving along a path in a parameter space with non-trivial gauge structures. Inherent to quantum evolutions of wavepackets, quantum diffusion occurs along quantum trajectories. Here we show that quantum diffusion can also be geometric as characterized by the imaginary part of a geometric phase. The geometric quantum diffusion results from interference between different instantaneous eigenstate pathways which have different geometric phases during the adiabatic evolution. As a specific example, we study the quantum trajectories of optically excited electron-hole pairs in time-reversal symmetric insulators, driven by an elliptically polarized terahertz field. The imaginary geometric phase manifests itself as elliptical polarization in the terahertz sideband generation. The geometric quantum diffusion adds a new dimension to geometric phases and may have applications in many fields of physics, e.g., transport in topological insulators and novel electro-optical effects. PMID:26178745

  2. Space-time quantum imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, Ronald E.; Deacon, Keith S.; Tunick, Arnold

    2013-09-01

    We report on an experimental demonstration of quantum imaging where the images are stored in both space and time. Quantum images of remote objects are produced with rotating ground glass induced chaotic laser light and two sensors measuring at different space-time points. Quantum images are observed to move depending on the time delay between the sensor measurements. The experiments provide a new testbed for exploring the time and space scale fundamental physics of quantum imaging and suggest new pathways for quantum information storage and processing. The moved quantum images are in fact new images that are stored in a space-time virtual memory process. The images are stored within the same quantum imaging data sets and thus quantum imaging can produce more information per photon measured than was previously realized.

  3. Photonic Quantum Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barz, Stefanie

    2013-05-01

    Quantum physics has revolutionized our understanding of information processing and enables computational speed-ups that are unattainable using classical computers. In this talk I will present a series of experiments in the field of photonic quantum computing. The first experiment is in the field of photonic state engineering and realizes the generation of heralded polarization-entangled photon pairs. It overcomes the limited applicability of photon-based schemes for quantum information processing tasks, which arises from the probabilistic nature of photon generation. The second experiment uses polarization-entangled photonic qubits to implement ``blind quantum computing,'' a new concept in quantum computing. Blind quantum computing enables a nearly-classical client to access the resources of a more computationally-powerful quantum server without divulging the content of the requested computation. Finally, the concept of blind quantum computing is applied to the field of verification. A new method is developed and experimentally demonstrated, which verifies the entangling capabilities of a quantum computer based on a blind Bell test.

  4. Quantum Information Processing with Trapped Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, M.D.; Schaetz, T.; Chiaverini, J.; Leibfried, D.; Britton, J.; Itano, W.M.; Jost, J.D.; Langer, C.; Ozeri, R.; Wineland, D.J.; Knill, E.

    2005-05-05

    We summarize two experiments on the creation and manipulation of multi-particle entangled states of trapped atomic ions - quantum dense coding and quantum teleportation. The techniques used in these experiments constitute an important step toward performing large-scale quantum information processing. The techniques also have application in other areas of physics, providing improvement in quantum-limited measurement and fundamental tests of quantum mechanical principles, for example.

  5. Advanced Concepts in Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Giampiero; Marmo, Giuseppe; Miele, Gennaro; Sudarshan, George

    2014-11-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction: the need for a quantum theory; 2. Experimental foundations of quantum theory; 3. Waves and particles; 4. Schrödinger picture, Heisenberg picture and probabilistic aspects; 5. Integrating the equations of motion; 6. Elementary applications: 1-dimensional problems; 7. Elementary applications: multidimensional problems; 8. Coherent states and related formalism; 9. Introduction to spin; 10. Symmetries in quantum mechanics; 11. Approximation methods; 12. Modern pictures of quantum mechanics; 13. Formulations of quantum mechanics and their physical implications; 14. Exam problems; Glossary of geometric concepts; References; Index.

  6. Crucial Experiments in Quantum Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trigg, George L.

    The six experiments included in this monography are titled Blackbody Radiation, Collision of Electrons with Atoms, The Photoelectric Effect, Magnetic Properties of Atoms, The Scattering of X-Rays, and Diffraction of Electrons by a Crystal Lattice. The discussion provides historical background by giving description of the original experiments and…

  7. Quantum Mechanics in Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aeppli, G.

    2009-08-01

    Atomic physics is undergoing a large revival because of the possibility of trapping and cooling ions and atoms both for individual quantum control as well as collective quantum states, such as Bose-Einstein condensates. The present lectures start from the `atomic' physics of isolated atoms in semiconductors and insulators and proceed to coupling them together to yield magnets undergoing quantum phase transitions as well as displaying novel quantum states with no classical analogs. The lectures are based on: G.-Y. Xu et al., Science 317, 1049-1052 (2007); G. Aeppli, P. Warburton, C. Renner, BT Technology Journal, 24, 163-169 (2006); H. M. Ronnow et al., Science 308, 392-395 (2005) and N. Q. Vinh et al., PNAS 105, 10649-10653 (2008).

  8. Quantum Mechanics in Insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Aeppli, G.

    2009-08-20

    Atomic physics is undergoing a large revival because of the possibility of trapping and cooling ions and atoms both for individual quantum control as well as collective quantum states, such as Bose-Einstein condensates. The present lectures start from the 'atomic' physics of isolated atoms in semiconductors and insulators and proceed to coupling them together to yield magnets undergoing quantum phase transitions as well as displaying novel quantum states with no classical analogs. The lectures are based on: G.-Y. Xu et al., Science 317, 1049-1052 (2007); G. Aeppli, P. Warburton, C. Renner, BT Technology Journal, 24, 163-169 (2006); H. M. Ronnow et al., Science 308, 392-395 (2005) and N. Q. Vinh et al., PNAS 105, 10649-10653 (2008).

  9. Prospective applications of optical quantum memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussières, Félix; Sangouard, Nicolas; Afzelius, Mikael; de Riedmatten, Hugues; Simon, Christoph; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2013-10-01

    An optical quantum memory can be broadly defined as a system capable of storing a quantum state through interaction with light at optical frequencies. During the last decade, intense research was devoted to their development, mostly with the aim of fulfilling the requirements of their first two applications, namely quantum repeaters and linear-optical quantum computation. A better understanding of those requirements then motivated several different experimental approaches. Along the way, other exciting applications emerged, such as as quantum metrology, single-photon detection, tests of the foundations of quantum physics, device-independent quantum information processing and nonlinear processing of quantum information. Here we review several prospective applications of optical quantum memories, as well as recent experimental achievements pertaining to these applications. This review highlights that optical quantum memories have become essential for the development of optical quantum information processing.

  10. Adiabatic Quantum Simulation of Quantum Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Babbush, Ryan; Love, Peter J.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2014-01-01

    We show how to apply the quantum adiabatic algorithm directly to the quantum computation of molecular properties. We describe a procedure to map electronic structure Hamiltonians to 2-body qubit Hamiltonians with a small set of physically realizable couplings. By combining the Bravyi-Kitaev construction to map fermions to qubits with perturbative gadgets to reduce the Hamiltonian to 2-body, we obtain precision requirements on the coupling strengths and a number of ancilla qubits that scale polynomially in the problem size. Hence our mapping is efficient. The required set of controllable interactions includes only two types of interaction beyond the Ising interactions required to apply the quantum adiabatic algorithm to combinatorial optimization problems. Our mapping may also be of interest to chemists directly as it defines a dictionary from electronic structure to spin Hamiltonians with physical interactions. PMID:25308187

  11. Unifying Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2013-04-01

    Century old GR fails to unify quantum physics, nuclear force or distinguish between the mass of living bodies from inert mass. Probabilistic gravity [1] explains strong coupling (nuclear force). The natural log of the age of the universe, 10E60 in Planck times, equaling 137 (1/Alpha) extends physics to deeper science, if we stand on the shoulders of giants like Feynman and Gamow. Implications of [1] are that it is not the earth, but M and S numbers of the particles of the earth are remotely interacting with corresponding numbers of the particles of the moon and the sun respectively, neglecting other heavenly bodies in this short draft. This new physics is likely to enable creative scientific minds to throw light on a theoretical basis for an otherwise arbitrary cosmological constant, uniformity of microwave background, further vindication of Boltzmann, quantum informatics, Einstein’s later publicized views and more, eliminating the need to spend money for implicitly nonexistent quantum gravity and graviton.[4pt] [1] Journal of Physical Science and Applications 2 (7) (2012) 265-268.

  12. On Quantum Integrable Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Danilov, Viatcheslav; Nagaitsev, Sergei; /Fermilab

    2011-11-01

    Many quantum integrable systems are obtained using an accelerator physics technique known as Ermakov (or normalized variables) transformation. This technique was used to create classical nonlinear integrable lattices for accelerators and nonlinear integrable plasma traps. Now, all classical results are carried over to a nonrelativistic quantum case. In this paper we have described an extension of the Ermakov-like transformation to the Schroedinger and Pauli equations. It is shown that these newly found transformations create a vast variety of time dependent quantum equations that can be solved in analytic functions, or, at least, can be reduced to time-independent ones.

  13. Consistent Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2001-11-01

    Quantum mechanics is one of the most fundamental yet difficult subjects in physics. Nonrelativistic quantum theory is presented here in a clear and systematic fashion, integrating Born's probabilistic interpretation with Schrödinger dynamics. Basic quantum principles are illustrated with simple examples requiring no mathematics beyond linear algebra and elementary probability theory. The quantum measurement process is consistently analyzed using fundamental quantum principles without referring to measurement. These same principles are used to resolve several of the paradoxes that have long perplexed physicists, including the double slit and Schrödinger's cat. The consistent histories formalism used here was first introduced by the author, and extended by M. Gell-Mann, J. Hartle and R. Omnès. Essential for researchers yet accessible to advanced undergraduate students in physics, chemistry, mathematics, and computer science, this book is supplementary to standard textbooks. It will also be of interest to physicists and philosophers working on the foundations of quantum mechanics. Comprehensive account Written by one of the main figures in the field Paperback edition of successful work on philosophy of quantum mechanics

  14. Quantum probabilities from quantum entanglement: experimentally unpacking the Born rule

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Harris, Jérémie; Bouchard, Frédéric; Santamato, Enrico; Zurek, Wojciech H.; Boyd, Robert W.; Karimi, Ebrahim

    2016-05-01

    The Born rule, a foundational axiom was used to deduce probabilities of events from wavefunctions, is indispensable in the everyday practice of quantum physics. It is also key in the quest to reconcile the ostensibly inconsistent laws of the quantum and classical realms, as it confers physical significance to reduced density matrices, the essential tools of decoherence theory. Following Bohr's Copenhagen interpretation, textbooks postulate the Born rule outright. But, recent attempts to derive it from other quantum principles have been successful, holding promise for simplifying and clarifying the quantum foundational bedrock. Moreover, a major family of derivations is based onmore » envariance, a recently discovered symmetry of entangled quantum states. Here, we identify and experimentally test three premises central to these envariance-based derivations, thus demonstrating, in the microworld, the symmetries from which the Born rule is derived. Furthermore, we demonstrate envariance in a purely local quantum system, showing its independence from relativistic causality.« less

  15. Quantum probabilities from quantum entanglement: experimentally unpacking the Born rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Jérémie; Bouchard, Frédéric; Santamato, Enrico; Zurek, Wojciech H.; Boyd, Robert W.; Karimi, Ebrahim

    2016-05-01

    The Born rule, a foundational axiom used to deduce probabilities of events from wavefunctions, is indispensable in the everyday practice of quantum physics. It is also key in the quest to reconcile the ostensibly inconsistent laws of the quantum and classical realms, as it confers physical significance to reduced density matrices, the essential tools of decoherence theory. Following Bohr’s Copenhagen interpretation, textbooks postulate the Born rule outright. However, recent attempts to derive it from other quantum principles have been successful, holding promise for simplifying and clarifying the quantum foundational bedrock. A major family of derivations is based on envariance, a recently discovered symmetry of entangled quantum states. Here, we identify and experimentally test three premises central to these envariance-based derivations, thus demonstrating, in the microworld, the symmetries from which the Born rule is derived. Further, we demonstrate envariance in a purely local quantum system, showing its independence from relativistic causality.

  16. News Education: Physics Education Networks meeting has global scale Competition: Competition seeks the next Brian Cox Experiment: New measurement of neutrino time-of-flight consistent with the speed of light Event: A day for all those who teach physics Conference: Students attend first Anglo-Japanese international science conference Celebration: Will 2015 be the 'Year of Light'? Teachers: Challenging our intuition in spectacular fashion: the fascinating world of quantum physics awaits Research: Science sharpens up sport Learning: Kittinger and Baumgartner: on a mission to the edge of space International: London International Youth Science Forum calls for leading young scientists Competition: Physics paralympian challenge needs inquisitive, analytical, artistic and eloquent pupils Forthcoming events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-05-01

    Education: Physics Education Networks meeting has global scale Competition: Competition seeks the next Brian Cox Experiment: New measurement of neutrino time-of-flight consistent with the speed of light Event: A day for all those who teach physics Conference: Students attend first Anglo-Japanese international science conference Celebration: Will 2015 be the 'Year of Light'? Teachers: Challenging our intuition in spectacular fashion: the fascinating world of quantum physics awaits Research: Science sharpens up sport Learning: Kittinger and Baumgartner: on a mission to the edge of space International: London International Youth Science Forum calls for leading young scientists Competition: Physics paralympian challenge needs inquisitive, analytical, artistic and eloquent pupils Forthcoming events

  17. Quantum cosmology: a review.

    PubMed

    Bojowald, Martin

    2015-02-01

    In quantum cosmology, one applies quantum physics to the whole universe. While no unique version and no completely well-defined theory is available yet, the framework gives rise to interesting conceptual, mathematical and physical questions. This review presents quantum cosmology in a new picture that tries to incorporate the importance of inhomogeneity. De-emphasizing the traditional minisuperspace view, the dynamics is rather formulated in terms of the interplay of many interacting 'microscopic' degrees of freedom that describe the space-time geometry. There is thus a close relationship with more-established systems in condensed-matter and particle physics even while the large set of space-time symmetries (general covariance) requires some adaptations and new developments. These extensions of standard methods are needed both at the fundamental level and at the stage of evaluating the theory by effective descriptions. PMID:25582917

  18. PREFACE: Quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Andrew; Ferry, David; Stoneham, Marshall

    2006-05-01

    Microelectronics and the classical information technologies transformed the physics of semiconductors. Photonics has given optical materials a new direction. Quantum information technologies, we believe, will have immense impact on condensed matter physics. The novel systems of quantum information processing need to be designed and made. Their behaviours must be manipulated in ways that are intrinsically quantal and generally nanoscale. Both in this special issue and in previous issues (see e.g., Spiller T P and Munro W J 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 V1-10) we see the emergence of new ideas that link the fundamentals of science to the pragmatism of market-led industry. We hope these papers will be followed by many others on quantum information processing in the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter.

  19. Effective methods for quantum theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahma, Suddhasattwa

    Whenever a full theory is unavailable, effective frameworks serve as powerful tools for examining physical phenomena below some energy scale. However, standard quantum field theory techniques are not always applicable in various exotic, yet physically relevant, systems. This thesis presents a new effective method for quantum theories, which is particularly tailored towards background independent theories such as gravity. Our main motivation is to utilize these techniques to extract the semi-classical dynamics from canonical quantum gravity theories. Application to field theoretic toy models of loop quantum gravity and non-associative quantum mechanics is elaborated in detail. We also extend this framework to fully constrained systems, as is required for gravity, and discuss several consequences for quantum gravity.

  20. Quantum Computing: Solving Complex Problems

    ScienceCinema

    DiVincenzo, David [IBM Watson Research Center

    2009-09-01

    One of the motivating ideas of quantum computation was that there could be a new kind of machine that would solve hard problems in quantum mechanics. There has been significant progress towards the experimental realization of these machines (which I will review), but there are still many questions about how such a machine could solve computational problems of interest in quantum physics. New categorizations of the complexity of computational problems have now been invented to describe quantum simulation. The bad news is that some of these problems are believed to be intractable even on a quantum computer, falling into a quantum analog of the NP class. The good news is that there are many other new classifications of tractability that may apply to several situations of physical interest.

  1. Quantum Computing: Solving Complex Problems

    SciTech Connect

    DiVincenzo, David

    2007-04-12

    One of the motivating ideas of quantum computation was that there could be a new kind of machine that would solve hard problems in quantum mechanics. There has been significant progress towards the experimental realization of these machines (which I will review), but there are still many questions about how such a machine could solve computational problems of interest in quantum physics. New categorizations of the complexity of computational problems have now been invented to describe quantum simulation. The bad news is that some of these problems are believed to be intractable even on a quantum computer, falling into a quantum analog of the NP class. The good news is that there are many other new classifications of tractability that may apply to several situations of physical interest.

  2. Quantum Computing: Solving Complex Problems

    SciTech Connect

    DiVincenzo, David

    2007-04-11

    One of the motivating ideas of quantum computation was that there could be a new kind of machine that would solve hard problems in quantum mechanics. There has been significant progress towards the experimental realization of these machines (which I will review), but there are still many questions about how such a machine could solve computational problems of interest in quantum physics. New categorizations of the complexity of computational problems have now been invented to describe quantum simulation. The bad news is that some of these problems are believed to be intractable even on a quantum computer, falling into a quantum analog of the NP class. The good news is that there are many other new classifications of tractability that may apply to several situations of physical interest.

  3. Correspondence between quantum and classical information: Generalized quantum measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Grishanin, Boris A.; Zadkov, Victor N.

    2006-04-15

    The concept of generalized quantum measurement is introduced as a transformation that sets a one-to-one correspondence between the initial states of the measured object system and final states of the object-meter system with the help of a classical informational index, unambiguously linked to a classically compatible set of quantum states. It is shown that the generalized quantum measurement concept covers all key types of quantum measurement--standard projective, entangling, fuzzy, and generalized measurements with a partial or complete destruction of initial information associated with the object. A special class of soft quantum measurements as a basic model for the fuzzy measurements widespread in physics is introduced and its information properties are studied in detail. Also, a special class of partially destructive measurements mapping all states of the Hilbert space of a finite-dimensional quantum system onto the basis states of an infinite-dimensional quantum system is considered.

  4. Quantum cloning attacks against PUF-based quantum authentication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yao; Gao, Ming; Li, Mo; Zhang, Jian

    2016-08-01

    With the advent of physical unclonable functions (PUFs), PUF-based quantum authentication systems have been proposed for security purposes, and recently, proof-of-principle experiment has been demonstrated. As a further step toward completing the security analysis, we investigate quantum cloning attacks against PUF-based quantum authentication systems and prove that quantum cloning attacks outperform the so-called challenge-estimation attacks. We present the analytical expression of the false-accept probability by use of the corresponding optimal quantum cloning machines and extend the previous results in the literature. In light of these findings, an explicit comparison is made between PUF-based quantum authentication systems and quantum key distribution protocols in the context of cloning attacks. Moreover, from an experimental perspective, a trade-off between the average photon number and the detection efficiency is discussed in detail.

  5. Quantum cloning attacks against PUF-based quantum authentication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yao; Gao, Ming; Li, Mo; Zhang, Jian

    2016-05-01

    With the advent of physical unclonable functions (PUFs), PUF-based quantum authentication systems have been proposed for security purposes, and recently, proof-of-principle experiment has been demonstrated. As a further step toward completing the security analysis, we investigate quantum cloning attacks against PUF-based quantum authentication systems and prove that quantum cloning attacks outperform the so-called challenge-estimation attacks. We present the analytical expression of the false-accept probability by use of the corresponding optimal quantum cloning machines and extend the previous results in the literature. In light of these findings, an explicit comparison is made between PUF-based quantum authentication systems and quantum key distribution protocols in the context of cloning attacks. Moreover, from an experimental perspective, a trade-off between the average photon number and the detection efficiency is discussed in detail.

  6. Quantum circuit for optimal eavesdropping in quantum key distribution using phase-time coding

    SciTech Connect

    Kronberg, D. A.; Molotkov, S. N.

    2010-07-15

    A quantum circuit is constructed for optimal eavesdropping on quantum key distribution proto- cols using phase-time coding, and its physical implementation based on linear and nonlinear fiber-optic components is proposed.

  7. Quantum networks reveal quantum nonlocality.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Daniel; Almeida, Mafalda L; Scarani, Valerio; Acín, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The results of local measurements on some composite quantum systems cannot be reproduced classically. This impossibility, known as quantum nonlocality, represents a milestone in the foundations of quantum theory. Quantum nonlocality is also a valuable resource for information-processing tasks, for example, quantum communication, quantum key distribution, quantum state estimation or randomness extraction. Still, deciding whether a quantum state is nonlocal remains a challenging problem. Here, we introduce a novel approach to this question: we study the nonlocal properties of quantum states when distributed and measured in networks. We show, using our framework, how any one-way entanglement distillable state leads to nonlocal correlations and prove that quantum nonlocality is a non-additive resource, which can be activated. There exist states, local at the single-copy level, that become nonlocal when taking several copies of them. Our results imply that the nonlocality of quantum states strongly depends on the measurement context. PMID:21304513

  8. Quantum-enhanced absorption refrigerators

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Luis A.; Palao, José P.; Alonso, Daniel; Adesso, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamics is a branch of science blessed by an unparalleled combination of generality of scope and formal simplicity. Based on few natural assumptions together with the four laws, it sets the boundaries between possible and impossible in macroscopic aggregates of matter. This triggered groundbreaking achievements in physics, chemistry and engineering over the last two centuries. Close analogues of those fundamental laws are now being established at the level of individual quantum systems, thus placing limits on the operation of quantum-mechanical devices. Here we study quantum absorption refrigerators, which are driven by heat rather than external work. We establish thermodynamic performance bounds for these machines and investigate their quantum origin. We also show how those bounds may be pushed beyond what is classically achievable, by suitably tailoring the environmental fluctuations via quantum reservoir engineering techniques. Such superefficient quantum-enhanced cooling realises a promising step towards the technological exploitation of autonomous quantum refrigerators. PMID:24492860

  9. Quantum-enhanced absorption refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Luis A.; Palao, José P.; Alonso, Daniel; Adesso, Gerardo

    2014-02-01

    Thermodynamics is a branch of science blessed by an unparalleled combination of generality of scope and formal simplicity. Based on few natural assumptions together with the four laws, it sets the boundaries between possible and impossible in macroscopic aggregates of matter. This triggered groundbreaking achievements in physics, chemistry and engineering over the last two centuries. Close analogues of those fundamental laws are now being established at the level of individual quantum systems, thus placing limits on the operation of quantum-mechanical devices. Here we study quantum absorption refrigerators, which are driven by heat rather than external work. We establish thermodynamic performance bounds for these machines and investigate their quantum origin. We also show how those bounds may be pushed beyond what is classically achievable, by suitably tailoring the environmental fluctuations via quantum reservoir engineering techniques. Such superefficient quantum-enhanced cooling realises a promising step towards the technological exploitation of autonomous quantum refrigerators.

  10. Quantum-enhanced absorption refrigerators.

    PubMed

    Correa, Luis A; Palao, José P; Alonso, Daniel; Adesso, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamics is a branch of science blessed by an unparalleled combination of generality of scope and formal simplicity. Based on few natural assumptions together with the four laws, it sets the boundaries between possible and impossible in macroscopic aggregates of matter. This triggered groundbreaking achievements in physics, chemistry and engineering over the last two centuries. Close analogues of those fundamental laws are now being established at the level of individual quantum systems, thus placing limits on the operation of quantum-mechanical devices. Here we study quantum absorption refrigerators, which are driven by heat rather than external work. We establish thermodynamic performance bounds for these machines and investigate their quantum origin. We also show how those bounds may be pushed beyond what is classically achievable, by suitably tailoring the environmental fluctuations via quantum reservoir engineering techniques. Such superefficient quantum-enhanced cooling realises a promising step towards the technological exploitation of autonomous quantum refrigerators. PMID:24492860

  11. Quantum Information: Opportunities and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Bennink, Ryan S

    2008-01-01

    Modern society is shaped by the ability to transmit, manipulate, and store large amounts of information. Although we tend to think of information as abstract, information is physical, and computing is a physical process. How then should we understand information in a quantum world, in which physical systems may exist in multiple states at once and are altered by the very act of observation? This question has evolved into an exciting new field of research called Quantum Information (QI). QI challenges many accepted rules and practices in computer science. For example, a quantum computer would turn certain hard problems into soft problems, and would render common computationally-secure encryption methods (such as RSA) insecure. At the same time, quantum communication would provide an unprecedented kind of intrinsic information security at the level of the smallest physical objects used to store or transmit the information. This talk provides a general introduction to the subject of quantum information and its relevance to cyber security. In the first part, two of the stranger aspects of quantum physics namely, superposition and uncertainty are explained, along with their relation to the concept of information. These ideas are illustrated with a few examples: quantum ID cards, quantum key distribution, and Grover s quantum search algorithm. The state-of-the-art in quantum computing and communication hardware is then discussed, along with the daunting technological challenges that must be overcome. Relevant experimental and theoretical efforts at ORNL are highlighted. The talk concludes with speculations on the short- and long-term impact of quantum information on cyber security.

  12. Controlling quantum information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landahl, Andrew John

    Quantum information science explores ways in which quantum physical laws can be harnessed to control the acquisition, transmission, protection, and processing of information. This field has seen explosive growth in the past several years from progress on both theoretical and experimental fronts. Essential to this endeavor are methods for controlling quantum information. In this thesis, I present three new approaches for controlling quantum information. First, I present a new protocol for continuously protecting unknown quantum states from noise. This protocol combines and expands ideas from the theories of quantum error correction and quantum feedback control. The result can outperform either approach by itself. I generalize this protocol to all known quantum stabilizer codes, and study its application to the three-qubit repetition code in detail via Monte Carlo simulations. Next, I present several new protocols for controlling quantum information that are fault-tolerant. These protocols require only local quantum processing due to the topological properties of the quantum error correcting codes upon which they are built. I show that each protocol's fault-dependence behavior exhibits an order-disorder phase transition when mapped onto an associated statistical-mechanical model. I review the critical error rates of these protocols found by numerical study of the associated models, and I present new analytic bounds for them using a self-avoiding random walk argument. Moreover, I discuss fault-tolerant procedures for encoding, error-correction, computing, and decoding quantum information using these protocols, and calculate the accuracy threshold of fault-tolerant quantum memory for protocols using them. I end by presenting a new class of quantum algorithms that solve combinatorial optimization problems solely by measurement. I compute the running times of these algorithms by establishing an explicit dynamical model for the measurement process. This model, the

  13. The Study On The Physical Properties Of CdS Quantum Dots Synthesized By Ligand Exchange in Cd{sup 2+}-thiol Aqueous Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, S. Y.; Yoo, D. S.; Kim, I. G.; Choo, M. S.; Kim, G. W.; Lee, E. S.; Lee, B. C.

    2011-12-23

    We synthesized CdS quantum dots in aqueous medium using three thiolate-ligands, 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME), 3-mercaptopropanoic acid (MPA) and dimercaprol (BAL) by ligand exchange method. With a fixed concentration of thiols, the absorption edge of the quantum dots formed shifted towards shorter wavelength, as to the decreasing of a concentration of CdCl{sub 2}. When a concentration of CdCl{sub 2} and thiol was same, band gap energies and average sizes of the quantum dots were shown to be 2.65 eV, 3.26 nm for MPA, 2.84 eV, 3.16 nm for 2 ME and 3.16 eV, 1.81 nm for BAL, respectively. PL spectra analysis shows that as the decrease in molar concentration of CdCl{sub 2}, emission peak shifted towards shorter wavelength.

  14. Tests and prospects of new physics at very high energy. Beyond the standard basic principles, and beyond conventional matter and space-time. On the possible origin of Quantum Mechanics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis

    2015-05-01

    Recent results and announcements by Planck and BICEP2 have led to important controversies in the fields of Cosmology and Particle Physics. As new ideas and alternative approaches can since then more easily emerge, the link between the Mathematical Physics aspects of theories and the interpretation of experimental results becomes more direct. This evolution is also relevant for Particle Physics experiments at very high energy, where the interpretation of data on the highest-energy cosmic rays remains a major theoretical and phenomenological challenge. Alternative particle physics and cosmology can raise fundamental questions such as that of the structure of vacuum and space-time. In particular, the simplified description of the physical vacuum contained in standard quantum field theory does not necessarily correspond to reality at a deeper level, and similarly for the relativistic space-time based on four real variables. In a more general approach, the definition itself of vacuum can be a difficult task. The spinorial space-time (SST) we suggested in 1996-97 automatically incorporates a local privileged space direction (PSD) for each comoving observer, possibly leading to a locally anisotropic vacuum structure. As the existence of the PSD may have been confirmed by Planck, and a possible discovery of primordial B-modes in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) may turn out to contain new evidence for the SST, we explore other possible implications of this approach to space-time. The SST structure can naturally be at the origin of Quantum Mechanics at distance scales larger than the fundamental one if standard particles are dealt with as vacuum excitations. We also discuss possible implications of our lack of knowledge of the structure of vacuum, as well as related theoretical, phenomenological and cosmological uncertainties. Pre-Big Bang scenarios and new ultimate constituents of matter (including superbradyons) are crucial open subjects

  15. Quantum ontologies

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, H.P.

    1988-12-01

    Quantum ontologies are conceptions of the constitution of the universe that are compatible with quantum theory. The ontological orientation is contrasted to the pragmatic orientation of science, and reasons are given for considering quantum ontologies both within science, and in broader contexts. The principal quantum ontologies are described and evaluated. Invited paper at conference: Bell's Theorem, Quantum Theory, and Conceptions of the Universe, George Mason University, October 20-21, 1988. 16 refs.

  16. Quantum teleportation on a photonic chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalf, Benjamin J.; Spring, Justin B.; Humphreys, Peter C.; Thomas-Peter, Nicholas; Barbieri, Marco; Kolthammer, W. Steven; Jin, Xian-Min; Langford, Nathan K.; Kundys, Dmytro; Gates, James C.; Smith, Brian J.; Smith, Peter G. R.; Walmsley, Ian A.

    2014-10-01

    Quantum teleportation is a fundamental concept in quantum physics that now finds important applications at the heart of quantum technology, including quantum relays, quantum repeaters and linear optics quantum computing. Photonic implementations have largely focused on achieving long-distance teleportation for decoherence-free quantum communication. Teleportation also plays a vital role in photonic quantum computing, for which large linear optical networks will probably require an integrated architecture. Here, we report a fully integrated implementation of quantum teleportation in which all key parts of the circuit—entangled state preparation, Bell-state analysis and tomographic state measurement—are performed on a reconfigurable photonic chip. We also show that a novel element-wise characterization method is critical to the mitigation of component errors, a key technique that will become increasingly important as integrated circuits reach the higher complexities necessary for quantum enhanced operation.

  17. Algorithmic analysis of quantum radar cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzagorta, Marco; Venegas-Andraca, Salvador

    2015-05-01

    Sidelobe structures on classical radar cross section graphs are a consequence of discontinuities in the surface currents. In contrast, quantum radar theory states that sidelobe structures on quantum radar cross section graphs are due to quantum interference. Moreover, it is conjectured that quantum sidelobe structures may be used to detect targets oriented off the specular direction. Because of the high data bandwidth expected from quantum radar, it may be necessary to use sophisticated quantum signal analysis algorithms to determine the presence of stealth targets through the sidelobe structures. In this paper we introduce three potential quantum algorithmic techniques to compute classical and quantum radar cross sections. It is our purpose to develop a computer science-oriented tool for further physical analysis of quantum radar models as well as applications of quantum radar technology in various fields.

  18. Quantum technologies with hybrid systems

    PubMed Central

    Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field. PMID:25737558

  19. Quantum black holes in loop quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmedo, Javier

    2016-03-01

    In this contribution I will comment on the last advances in relation to the loop quantization of spherically symmetric spacetimes. I will briefly summarize the vacuum case, where the physical states and observables are known explicitly. The main physical consequences are i) a genuine discretization of the geometry and ii) singularity resolution. Afterwards I will consider the coupling with a thin spherically symmetric null-dust shell. This is one of the simplest collapse scenarios with nontrivial dynamics. I will provide a representation for the scalar constraint that is consistent with the Dirac quantization approach, and the quantum observables of the model. Finally, I comment on the possible physical consequences of this model.

  20. The New Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Gordon

    2009-08-01

    Introduction Gordon Fraser; Part I. Matter and the Universe: 1. Cosmology Wendy Freedman and Rocky Kolb; 2. Gravity Ronald Adler; 3. Astrophysics Arnon Dar; 4. Particles and the standard model Chris Quigg; 5. Superstrings Michael Green; Part II. Quantum Matter: 6. Atoms and photons Claude Cohen-Tannoudji and Jean Dalibard; 7. The quantum world of ultra-cold atoms Christopher Foot and William Phillips; 8. Superfluidity Henry Hall; 9. Quantum phase transitions Subir Sachdev; Part III. Quanta in Action: 10. Quantum entanglement Anton Zeilinger; 11. Quanta, ciphers and computers Artur Ekert; 12. Small-scale structure and nanoscience Yoseph Imry; Part IV. Calculation and Computation: 13. Nonlinearity Henry Abarbanel; 14. Complexity Antonio Politi; 15. Collaborative physics, e-science and the grid Tony Hey and Anne Trefethen; Part V. Science in Action: 16. Biophysics Cyrus Safinya; 17. Medical physics Nicolaj Pavel; 18. Physics and materials Robert Cahn; 19. Physics and society Ugo Amaldi.

  1. The New Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Gordon

    2006-04-01

    Introduction Gordon Fraser; Part I. Matter and the Universe: 1. Cosmology Wendy Freedman and Rocky Kolb; 2. Gravity Ronald Adler; 3. Astrophysics Arnon Dar; 4. Particles and the standard model Chris Quigg; 5. Superstrings Michael Green; Part II. Quantum Matter: 6. Atoms and photons Claude Cohen-Tannoudji and Jean Dalibard; 7. The quantum world of ultra-cold atoms Christopher Foot and William Phillips; 8. Superfluidity Henry Hall; 9. Quantum phase transitions Subir Sachdev; Part III. Quanta in Action: 10. Quantum entanglement Anton Zeilinger; 11. Quanta, ciphers and computers Artur Ekert; 12. Small-scale structure and nanoscience Yoseph Imry; Part IV. Calculation and Computation: 13. Nonlinearity Henry Abarbanel; 14. Complexity Antonio Politi; 15. Collaborative physics, e-science and the grid Tony Hey and Anne Trefethen; Part V. Science in Action: 16. Biophysics Cyrus Safinya; 17. Medical physics Nicolaj Pavel; 18. Physics and materials Robert Cahn; 19. Physics and society Ugo Amaldi.

  2. Decoherence in infinite quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, Philippe; Hellmich, Mario

    2012-09-01

    We review and discuss a notion of decoherence formulated in the algebraic framework of quantum physics. Besides presenting some sufficient conditions for the appearance of decoherence in the case of Markovian time evolutions we provide an overview over possible decoherence scenarios. The framework for decoherence we establish is sufficiently general to accommodate quantum systems with infinitely many degrees of freedom.

  3. The quantum game of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrighi, Pablo; Grattage, Jonathan

    2012-06-01

    The idea that our universe can be modelled as a giant computer dates back to the 1970s. But as Pablo Arrighi and Jonathan Grattage describe, quantum-information theorists are now hoping to revitalize this idea by making the "digital physics" project compatible with quantum theory.

  4. Quantum Computer Games: Quantum Minesweeper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren

    2010-01-01

    The computer game of quantum minesweeper is introduced as a quantum extension of the well-known classical minesweeper. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. Quantum minesweeper demonstrates the effects of superposition, entanglement and their non-local characteristics. While in the classical…

  5. The Scales of Time, Length, Mass, Energy, and Other Fundamental Physical Quantities in the Atomic World and the Use of Atomic Units in Quantum Mechanical Calculations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Boon K.; Li, Wai-Kee

    2011-01-01

    This article is divided into two parts. In the first part, the atomic unit (au) system is introduced and the scales of time, space (length), and speed, as well as those of mass and energy, in the atomic world are discussed. In the second part, the utility of atomic units in quantum mechanical and spectroscopic calculations is illustrated with…

  6. Entangled States, Holography and Quantum Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Chapline, G F

    2003-08-13

    Starting with an elementary discussion of quantum holography, we show that entangled quantum states of qubits provide a ''local'' representation of the global geometry and topology of quantum Riemann surfaces. This representation may play an important role in both mathematics and physics. Indeed, the simplest way to represent the fundamental objects in a ''theory of everything'' may be as muti-qubit entangled states.

  7. Entropy flow in quantum heat engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Mohammad; Nazarov, Yuli

    2015-03-01

    We evaluate Shannon and Renyi entropy flows from generic quantum heat engines (QHE) to a weakly-coupled probe environment kept in thermal equilibrium. We show the flows are determined by two quantities: heat flow and fictitious dissipation that manifest the quantum coherence in the engine. Our theory leads to novel physics in quantum heat engines.

  8. Quantum Statistical Testing of a QRNG Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Travis S; Pooser, Raphael C; Britt, Keith A

    2013-01-01

    We present the algorithmic design of a quantum random number generator, the subsequent synthesis of a physical design and its verification using quantum statistical testing. We also describe how quantum statistical testing can be used to diagnose channel noise in QKD protocols.

  9. Quantum chromodynamics with advanced computing

    SciTech Connect

    Kronfeld, Andreas S.; /Fermilab

    2008-07-01

    We survey results in lattice quantum chromodynamics from groups in the USQCD Collaboration. The main focus is on physics, but many aspects of the discussion are aimed at an audience of computational physicists.

  10. Quantum memristors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeiffer, P.; Egusquiza, I. L.; di Ventra, M.; Sanz, M.; Solano, E.

    2016-07-01

    Technology based on memristors, resistors with memory whose resistance depends on the history of the crossing charges, has lately enhanced the classical paradigm of computation with neuromorphic architectures. However, in contrast to the known quantized models of passive circuit elements, such as inductors, capacitors or resistors, the design and realization of a quantum memristor is still missing. Here, we introduce the concept of a quantum memristor as a quantum dissipative device, whose decoherence mechanism is controlled by a continuous-measurement feedback scheme, which accounts for the memory. Indeed, we provide numerical simulations showing that memory effects actually persist in the quantum regime. Our quantization method, specifically designed for superconducting circuits, may be extended to other quantum platforms, allowing for memristor-type constructions in different quantum technologies. The proposed quantum memristor is then a building block for neuromorphic quantum computation and quantum simulations of non-Markovian systems.

  11. Quantum memristors.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, P; Egusquiza, I L; Di Ventra, M; Sanz, M; Solano, E

    2016-01-01

    Technology based on memristors, resistors with memory whose resistance depends on the history of the crossing charges, has lately enhanced the classical paradigm of computation with neuromorphic architectures. However, in contrast to the known quantized models of passive circuit elements, such as inductors, capacitors or resistors, the design and realization of a quantum memristor is still missing. Here, we introduce the concept of a quantum memristor as a quantum dissipative device, whose decoherence mechanism is controlled by a continuous-measurement feedback scheme, which accounts for the memory. Indeed, we provide numerical simulations showing that memory effects actually persist in the quantum regime. Our quantization method, specifically designed for superconducting circuits, may be extended to other quantum platforms, allowing for memristor-type constructions in different quantum technologies. The proposed quantum memristor is then a building block for neuromorphic quantum computation and quantum simulations of non-Markovian systems. PMID:27381511

  12. Quantum memristors

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, P.; Egusquiza, I. L.; Di Ventra, M.; Sanz, M.; Solano, E.

    2016-01-01

    Technology based on memristors, resistors with memory whose resistance depends on the history of the crossing charges, has lately enhanced the classical paradigm of computation with neuromorphic architectures. However, in contrast to the known quantized models of passive circuit elements, such as inductors, capacitors or resistors, the design and realization of a quantum memristor is still missing. Here, we introduce the concept of a quantum memristor as a quantum dissipative device, whose decoherence mechanism is controlled by a continuous-measurement feedback scheme, which accounts for the memory. Indeed, we provide numerical simulations showing that memory effects actually persist in the quantum regime. Our quantization method, specifically designed for superconducting circuits, may be extended to other quantum platforms, allowing for memristor-type constructions in different quantum technologies. The proposed quantum memristor is then a building block for neuromorphic quantum computation and quantum simulations of non-Markovian systems. PMID:27381511

  13. Fundamentals of Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, C. L.

    2005-06-01

    Quantum mechanics has evolved from a subject of study in pure physics to one with a wide range of applications in many diverse fields. The basic concepts of quantum mechanics are explained in this book in a concise and easy-to-read manner emphasising applications in solid state electronics and modern optics. Following a logical sequence, the book is focused on the key ideas and is conceptually and mathematically self-contained. The fundamental principles of quantum mechanics are illustrated by showing their application to systems such as the hydrogen atom, multi-electron ions and atoms, the formation of simple organic molecules and crystalline solids of practical importance. It leads on from these basic concepts to discuss some of the most important applications in modern semiconductor electronics and optics. Containing many homework problems and worked examples, the book is suitable for senior-level undergraduate and graduate level students in electrical engineering, materials science and applied physics. Clear exposition of quantum mechanics written in a concise and accessible style Precise physical interpretation of the mathematical foundations of quantum mechanics Illustrates the important concepts and results by reference to real-world examples in electronics and optoelectronics Contains homeworks and worked examples, with solutions available for instructors

  14. Beyond the Quantum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieuwenhuizen, Theo M.; Mehmani, Bahar; Špička, Václav; Aghdami, Maryam J.; Khrennikov, Andrei Yu

    2007-09-01

    pt. A. Introductions. The mathematical basis for deterministic quantum mechanics / G.'t Hooft. What did we learn from quantum gravity? / A. Ashtekar. Bose-Einstein condensates and EPR quantum non-locality / F. Laloe. The quantum measurement process: lessons from an exactly solvable model / A.E. Allahverdyan, R. Balian and Th. M. Nieuwenhuizen -- pt. B. Quantum mechanics and quantum information. POVMs: a small but important step beyond standard quantum mechanics / W. M. de Muynck. State reduction by measurements with a null result / G. Nienhuis. Solving open questions in the Bose-Einstein condensation of an ideal gas via a hybrid mixture of laser and statistical physics / M. Kim, A. Svidzinsky and M.O. Scully. Twin-Photon light scattering and causality / G. Puentes, A. Aiello and J. P. Woerdman. Simultaneous measurement of non-commuting observables / G. Aquino and B. Mehmani. Quantum decoherence and gravitational waves / M.T. Jaekel ... [et al.]. Role of various entropies in the black hole information loss problem / Th. M. Nieuwenhuizen and I.V. Volovich. Quantum and super-quantum correlations / G.S. Jaeger -- pt. C. Long distance correlations and bell inequalities. Understanding long-distance quantum correlations / L. Marchildon. Connection of probability models to EPR experiments: probability spaces and Bell's theorem / K. Hess and W. Philipp. Fair sampling vs no-signalling principle in EPR experiments / G. Adenier and A. Yu. Khrennikov -- pt. D. Mathematical foundations. Where the mathematical structure of quantum mechanics comes from / G.M. D'Ariano. Phase space description of quantum mechanics and non-commutative geometry: Wigner-Moyal and Bohm in a wider context / B.J. Hiley. Quantum mechanics as simple algorithm for approximation of classical integrals / A. Yu. Khrennikov. Noncommutative quantum mechanics viewed from Feynman Formalism / J. Lages ... [et al.]. Beyond the quantum in Snyder space / J.F.S. van Huele and M. K. Transtrum -- pt. E. Stochastic

  15. Reverse Quantum Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Jeffrey

    2010-02-01

    As preposterous as it might sound, if quantum waves travel in the reverse direction from subatomic particles, then most of quantum physics can be explained without quantum weirdness or Schr"odinger's cat. Quantum mathematics is unchanged. The diffraction pattern on the screen of the double slit experiment is the same. This proposal is not refuted by the Innsbruck experiments; this is NOT a hidden local variable theory. Research evidence will be presented that is consistent with the idea waves travel in the opposite direction as neutrons. If one's thinking shifts from forwards to backwards quantum waves, the world changes so drastically it is almost unimaginable. Quantum waves move from the mathematical to the real world, multiply in number, and reverse in direction. Wave-particle duality is undone. In the double slit experiment every part of the target screen is emitting such quantum waves in all directions. Some pass through the two slits. Interference occurs on the opposite side of the barrier than is usually imagined. They impinge on ``S'' and an electron is released at random. Because of the interference it is more likely to follow some waves than others. It follows one and only one wave backward; hitting the screen where it's wave originated. )

  16. Quantum Rabi Model in Quantum Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedernales, Julen; Las Heras, Urtzi; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique

    We will discuss how to simulate a wide range of regimes of the Quantum Rabi Model (QRM) in quantum platforms as trapped ions and circuit QED. Directly accesible regimes of the QRM correspond to a very narrow set of values of the ratio between the coupling strength and the characteristic frequencies of the system, typically in the strong coupling regime or in the perturbative zone of the ultrastrong coupling regime. However, with analog and digital quantum simulation techniques we can access the most elusive regimes of the QRM. Recent theoretical developments have disclosed a plethora of physical phenomena appearing at these previously unexplored regimes of the QRM, making its experimental implementation timely and of high interest.

  17. Exploiting Quantum Resonance to Solve Combinatorial Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail; Fijany, Amir

    2006-01-01

    Quantum resonance would be exploited in a proposed quantum-computing approach to the solution of combinatorial optimization problems. In quantum computing in general, one takes advantage of the fact that an algorithm cannot be decoupled from the physical effects available to implement it. Prior approaches to quantum computing have involved exploitation of only a subset of known quantum physical effects, notably including parallelism and entanglement, but not including resonance. In the proposed approach, one would utilize the combinatorial properties of tensor-product decomposability of unitary evolution of many-particle quantum systems for physically simulating solutions to NP-complete problems (a class of problems that are intractable with respect to classical methods of computation). In this approach, reinforcement and selection of a desired solution would be executed by means of quantum resonance. Classes of NP-complete problems that are important in practice and could be solved by the proposed approach include planning, scheduling, search, and optimal design.

  18. Repeated interactions in open quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bruneau, Laurent; Joye, Alain; Merkli, Marco

    2014-07-15

    Analyzing the dynamics of open quantum systems has a long history in mathematics and physics. Depending on the system at hand, basic physical phenomena that one would like to explain are, for example, convergence to equilibrium, the dynamics of quantum coherences (decoherence) and quantum correlations (entanglement), or the emergence of heat and particle fluxes in non-equilibrium situations. From the mathematical physics perspective, one of the main challenges is to derive the irreversible dynamics of the open system, starting from a unitary dynamics of the system and its environment. The repeated interactions systems considered in these notes are models of non-equilibrium quantum statistical mechanics. They are relevant in quantum optics, and more generally, serve as a relatively well treatable approximation of a more difficult quantum dynamics. In particular, the repeated interaction models allow to determine the large time (stationary) asymptotics of quantum systems out of equilibrium.

  19. Using computer algebra in quantum computation and quantum games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolívar, David A.

    2011-05-01

    Research in contemporary physics is emphasizing the development and evolution of computer systems to facilitate the calculations. Quantum computing is a branch of modern physics is believed promising results for the future, Thanks to the ability of qubits to store more information than a bit. The work of this paper focuses on the simulation of certain quantum algorithms such as the prisoner's dilemma in its quantum version using the MATHEMATICA® software and implementing stochastic version of the software MAPLE ® and the Grover search algorithm that simulates finding a needle in a haystack.

  20. Quantum Phase Extraction in Isospectral Electronic Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Christopher

    2010-04-28

    Quantum phase is not a direct observable and is usually determined by interferometric methods. We present a method to map complete electron wave functions, including internal quantum phase information, from measured single-state probability densities. We harness the mathematical discovery of drum-like manifolds bearing different shapes but identical resonances, and construct quantum isospectral nanostructures possessing matching electronic structure but divergent physical structure. Quantum measurement (scanning tunneling microscopy) of these 'quantum drums' [degenerate two-dimensional electron states on the Cu(111) surface confined by individually positioned CO molecules] reveals that isospectrality provides an extra topological degree of freedom enabling robust quantum state transplantation and phase extraction.

  1. Spikes in quantum trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilloy, Antoine; Bauer, Michel; Bernard, Denis

    2015-11-01

    A quantum system subjected to a strong continuous monitoring undergoes quantum jumps. This very-well-known fact hides a neglected subtlety: sharp scale-invariant fluctuations invariably decorate the jump process, even in the limit where the measurement rate is very large. This article is devoted to the quantitative study of these remaining fluctuations, which we call spikes, and to a discussion of their physical status. We start by introducing a classical model where the origin of these fluctuations is more intuitive, and then jump to the quantum realm where their existence is less intuitive. We compute the exact distribution of the spikes for a continuously monitored qubit. We conclude by discussing their physical and operational relevance.

  2. Universal quantum correlation close to quantum critical phenomena.

    PubMed

    Qin, Meng; Ren, Zhong-Zhou; Zhang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    We study the ground state quantum correlation of Ising model in a transverse field (ITF) by implementing the quantum renormalization group (QRG) theory. It is shown that various quantum correlation measures and the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality will highlight the critical point related with quantum phase transitions, and demonstrate nonanalytic phenomena and scaling behavior when the size of the systems becomes large. Our results also indicate a universal behavior of the critical exponent of ITF under QRG theory that the critical exponent of different measures is identical, even when the quantities vary from entanglement measures to quantum correlation measures. This means that the two kinds of quantum correlation criterion including the entanglement-separability paradigm and the information-theoretic paradigm have some connections between them. These remarkable behaviors may have important implications on condensed matter physics because the critical exponent directly associates with the correlation length exponent. PMID:27189504

  3. Universal quantum correlation close to quantum critical phenomena

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Meng; Ren, Zhong-Zhou; Zhang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    We study the ground state quantum correlation of Ising model in a transverse field (ITF) by implementing the quantum renormalization group (QRG) theory. It is shown that various quantum correlation measures and the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality will highlight the critical point related with quantum phase transitions, and demonstrate nonanalytic phenomena and scaling behavior when the size of the systems becomes large. Our results also indicate a universal behavior of the critical exponent of ITF under QRG theory that the critical exponent of different measures is identical, even when the quantities vary from entanglement measures to quantum correlation measures. This means that the two kinds of quantum correlation criterion including the entanglement-separability paradigm and the information-theoretic paradigm have some connections between them. These remarkable behaviors may have important implications on condensed matter physics because the critical exponent directly associates with the correlation length exponent. PMID:27189504

  4. Universal quantum correlation close to quantum critical phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Meng; Ren, Zhong-Zhou; Zhang, Xin

    2016-05-01

    We study the ground state quantum correlation of Ising model in a transverse field (ITF) by implementing the quantum renormalization group (QRG) theory. It is shown that various quantum correlation measures and the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality will highlight the critical point related with quantum phase transitions, and demonstrate nonanalytic phenomena and scaling behavior when the size of the systems becomes large. Our results also indicate a universal behavior of the critical exponent of ITF under QRG theory that the critical exponent of different measures is identical, even when the quantities vary from entanglement measures to quantum correlation measures. This means that the two kinds of quantum correlation criterion including the entanglement-separability paradigm and the information-theoretic paradigm have some connections between them. These remarkable behaviors may have important implications on condensed matter physics because the critical exponent directly associates with the correlation length exponent.

  5. Tensor Networks and Quantum Error Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferris, Andrew J.; Poulin, David

    2014-07-01

    We establish several relations between quantum error correction (QEC) and tensor network (TN) methods of quantum many-body physics. We exhibit correspondences between well-known families of QEC codes and TNs, and demonstrate a formal equivalence between decoding a QEC code and contracting a TN. We build on this equivalence to propose a new family of quantum codes and decoding algorithms that generalize and improve upon quantum polar codes and successive cancellation decoding in a natural way.

  6. Quantumness, Randomness and Computability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solis, Aldo; Hirsch, Jorge G.

    2015-06-01

    Randomness plays a central role in the quantum mechanical description of our interactions. We review the relationship between the violation of Bell inequalities, non signaling and randomness. We discuss the challenge in defining a random string, and show that algorithmic information theory provides a necessary condition for randomness using Borel normality. We close with a view on incomputablity and its implications in physics.

  7. Teaching Quantum Uncertainty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Art

    2011-01-01

    An earlier paper introduces quantum physics by means of four experiments: Youngs double-slit interference experiment using (1) a light beam, (2) a low-intensity light beam with time-lapse photography, (3) an electron beam, and (4) a low-intensity electron beam with time-lapse photography. It's ironic that, although these experiments demonstrate…

  8. Studies in quantum field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polmar, S. K.

    The theoretical physics group at Washington University has been devoted to the solution of problems in theoretical and mathematical physics. All of the personnel on this task have a similar approach to their research in that they apply sophisticated analytical and numerical techniques to problems primarily in quantum field theory. Specifically, this group has worked on quantum chromodynamics, classical Yang-Mills fields, chiral symmetry breaking condensates, lattice field theory, strong-coupling approximations, perturbation theory in large order, nonlinear waves, 1/N expansions, quantum solitons, phase transitions, nuclear potentials, and early universe calculations.

  9. Quantum random walks without walking

    SciTech Connect

    Manouchehri, K.; Wang, J. B.

    2009-12-15

    Quantum random walks have received much interest due to their nonintuitive dynamics, which may hold the key to a new generation of quantum algorithms. What remains a major challenge is a physical realization that is experimentally viable and not limited to special connectivity criteria. We present a scheme for walking on arbitrarily complex graphs, which can be realized using a variety of quantum systems such as a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped inside an optical lattice. This scheme is particularly elegant since the walker is not required to physically step between the nodes; only flipping coins is sufficient.

  10. Quantum robots and quantum computers

    SciTech Connect

    Benioff, P.

    1998-07-01

    Validation of a presumably universal theory, such as quantum mechanics, requires a quantum mechanical description of systems that carry out theoretical calculations and systems that carry out experiments. The description of quantum computers is under active development. No description of systems to carry out experiments has been given. A small step in this direction is taken here by giving a description of quantum robots as mobile systems with on board quantum computers that interact with different environments. Some properties of these systems are discussed. A specific model based on the literature descriptions of quantum Turing machines is presented.

  11. Quantum hair and quantum gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, S. ); Krauss, L.M. ); Preskill, J. ); Wilczek, F. )

    1992-01-01

    A black hole may carry quantum numbers that are not associated with massless gauge fields, contrary to the spirit of the 'no-hair' theorems. The 'quantum hair' is invisible in the classical limit, but measurable via quantum interference experiments. Quantum hair alters the temperature of the radiation emitted by a black hole. It also induces non-zero expectation values for fields outside the event horizon; these expectation values are non-perturbative in [Dirac h], and decay exponentially far from the hole. The existence of quantum hair demonstrates that a black hole can have an intricate quantum-mechanical structure that is completely missed by standard semiclassical theory.

  12. Quantum Darwinism

    SciTech Connect

    Zurek, Wojciech H

    2008-01-01

    Quantum Darwinism - proliferation, in the environment, of multiple records of selected states of the system (its information-theoretic progeny) - explains how quantum fragility of individual state can lead to classical robustness of their multitude.

  13. Quantum Orbifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harju, Antti J.

    2016-06-01

    This is a study of orbifold-quotients of quantum groups (quantum orbifolds {Θ } rightrightarrows Gq). These structures have been studied extensively in the case of the quantum S U 2 group. A generalized theory of quantum orbifolds over compact simple and simply connected quantum groups is developed. Associated with a quantum orbifold there is an invariant subalgebra and a crossed product algebra. For each spin quantum orbifold, there is a unitary equivalence class of Dirac spectral triples over the invariant subalgebra, and for each effective spin quantum orbifold associated with a finite group action, there is a unitary equivalence class of Dirac spectral triples over the crossed product algebra. A Hopf-equivariant Fredholm index problem is studied as an application.

  14. Quantum memristors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pfeiffer, P.; Egusquiza, I. L.; Di Ventra, M.; Sanz, M.; Solano, E.

    2016-07-06

    Technology based on memristors, resistors with memory whose resistance depends on the history of the crossing charges, has lately enhanced the classical paradigm of computation with neuromorphic architectures. However, in contrast to the known quantized models of passive circuit elements, such as inductors, capacitors or resistors, the design and realization of a quantum memristor is still missing. Here, we introduce the concept of a quantum memristor as a quantum dissipative device, whose decoherence mechanism is controlled by a continuous-measurement feedback scheme, which accounts for the memory. Indeed, we provide numerical simulations showing that memory effects actually persist in the quantummore » regime. Our quantization method, specifically designed for superconducting circuits, may be extended to other quantum platforms, allowing for memristor-type constructions in different quantum technologies. As a result, the proposed quantum memristor is then a building block for neuromorphic quantum computation and quantum simulations of non-Markovian systems.« less

  15. Simulating biochemical physics with computers: 1. Enzyme catalysis by phosphotriesterase and phosphodiesterase; 2. Integration-free path-integral method for quantum-statistical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Kin-Yiu

    We have simulated two enzymatic reactions with molecular dynamics (MD) and combined quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) techniques. One reaction is the hydrolysis of the insecticide paraoxon catalyzed by phosphotriesterase (PTE). PTE is a bioremediation candidate for environments contaminated by toxic nerve gases (e.g., sarin) or pesticides. Based on the potential of mean force (PMF) and the structural changes of the active site during the catalysis, we propose a revised reaction mechanism for PTE. Another reaction is the hydrolysis of the second-messenger cyclic adenosine 3'-5'-monophosphate (cAMP) catalyzed by phosphodiesterase (PDE). Cyclicnucleotide PDE is a vital protein in signal-transduction pathways and thus a popular target for inhibition by drugs (e.g., ViagraRTM). A two-dimensional (2-D) free-energy profile has been generated showing that the catalysis by PDE proceeds in a two-step SN2-type mechanism. Furthermore, to characterize a chemical reaction mechanism in experiment, a direct probe is measuring kinetic isotope effects (KIEs). KIEs primarily arise from internuclear quantum-statistical effects, e.g., quantum tunneling and quantization of vibration. To systematically incorporate the quantum-statistical effects during MD simulations, we have developed an automated integration-free path-integral (AIF-PI) method based on Kleinert's variational perturbation theory for the centroid density of Feynman's path integral. Using this analytic method, we have performed ab initio pathintegral calculations to study the origin of KIEs on several series of proton-transfer reactions from carboxylic acids to aryl substituted alpha-methoxystyrenes in water. In addition, we also demonstrate that the AIF-PI method can be used to systematically compute the exact value of zero-point energy (beyond the harmonic approximation) by simply minimizing the centroid effective potential.

  16. Adiabatic Quantum Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landahl, Andrew

    2012-10-01

    Quantum computers promise to exploit counterintuitive quantum physics principles like superposition, entanglement, and uncertainty to solve problems using fundamentally fewer steps than any conventional computer ever could. The mere possibility of such a device has sharpened our understanding of quantum coherent information, just as lasers did for our understanding of coherent light. The chief obstacle to developing quantum computer technology is decoherence--one of the fastest phenomena in all of physics. In principle, decoherence can be overcome by using clever entangled redundancies in a process called fault-tolerant quantum error correction. However, the quality and scale of technology required to realize this solution appears distant. An exciting alternative is a proposal called ``adiabatic'' quantum computing (AQC), in which adiabatic quantum physics keeps the computer in its lowest-energy configuration throughout its operation, rendering it immune to many decoherence sources. The Adiabatic Quantum Architectures In Ultracold Systems (AQUARIUS) Grand Challenge Project at Sandia seeks to demonstrate this robustness in the laboratory and point a path forward for future hardware development. We are building devices in AQUARIUS that realize the AQC architecture on up to three quantum bits (``qubits'') in two platforms: Cs atoms laser-cooled to below 5 microkelvin and Si quantum dots cryo-cooled to below 100 millikelvin. We are also expanding theoretical frontiers by developing methods for scalable universal AQC in these platforms. We have successfully demonstrated operational qubits in both platforms and have even run modest one-qubit calculations using our Cs device. In the course of reaching our primary proof-of-principle demonstrations, we have developed multiple spinoff technologies including nanofabricated diffractive optical elements that define optical-tweezer trap arrays and atomic-scale Si lithography commensurate with placing individual donor atoms with

  17. Computational multiqubit tunnelling in programmable quantum annealers.

    PubMed

    Boixo, Sergio; Smelyanskiy, Vadim N; Shabani, Alireza; Isakov, Sergei V; Dykman, Mark; Denchev, Vasil S; Amin, Mohammad H; Smirnov, Anatoly Yu; Mohseni, Masoud; Neven, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    Quantum tunnelling is a phenomenon in which a quantum state traverses energy barriers higher than the energy of the state itself. Quantum tunnelling has been hypothesized as an advantageous physical resource for optimization in quantum annealing. However, computational multiqubit tunnelling has not yet been observed, and a theory of co-tunnelling under high- and low-frequency noises is lacking. Here we show that 8-qubit tunnelling plays a computational role in a currently available programmable quantum annealer. We devise a probe for tunnelling, a computational primitive where classical paths are trapped in a false minimum. In support of the design of quantum annealers we develop a nonperturbative theory of open quantum dynamics under realistic noise characteristics. This theory accurately predicts the rate of many-body dissipative quantum tunnelling subject to the polaron effect. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate that quantum tunnelling outperforms thermal hopping along classical paths for problems with up to 200 qubits containing the computational primitive. PMID:26739797

  18. Fundamental aspects of quantum Brownian motion

    SciTech Connect

    Haenggi, Peter; Ingold, Gert-Ludwig

    2005-06-01

    With this work we elaborate on the physics of quantum noise in thermal equilibrium and in stationary nonequilibrium. Starting out from the celebrated quantum fluctuation-dissipation theorem we discuss some important consequences that must hold for open, dissipative quantum systems in thermal equilibrium. The issue of quantum dissipation is exemplified with the fundamental problem of a damped harmonic quantum oscillator. The role of quantum fluctuations is discussed in the context of both, the nonlinear generalized quantum Langevin equation and the path integral approach. We discuss the consequences of the time-reversal symmetry for an open dissipative quantum dynamics and, furthermore, point to a series of subtleties and possible pitfalls. The path integral methodology is applied to the decay of metastable states assisted by quantum Brownian noise.

  19. Computational multiqubit tunnelling in programmable quantum annealers

    PubMed Central

    Boixo, Sergio; Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.; Shabani, Alireza; Isakov, Sergei V.; Dykman, Mark; Denchev, Vasil S.; Amin, Mohammad H.; Smirnov, Anatoly Yu; Mohseni, Masoud; Neven, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    Quantum tunnelling is a phenomenon in which a quantum state traverses energy barriers higher than the energy of the state itself. Quantum tunnelling has been hypothesized as an advantageous physical resource for optimization in quantum annealing. However, computational multiqubit tunnelling has not yet been observed, and a theory of co-tunnelling under high- and low-frequency noises is lacking. Here we show that 8-qubit tunnelling plays a computational role in a currently available programmable quantum annealer. We devise a probe for tunnelling, a computational primitive where classical paths are trapped in a false minimum. In support of the design of quantum annealers we develop a nonperturbative theory of open quantum dynamics under realistic noise characteristics. This theory accurately predicts the rate of many-body dissipative quantum tunnelling subject to the polaron effect. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate that quantum tunnelling outperforms thermal hopping along classical paths for problems with up to 200 qubits containing the computational primitive. PMID:26739797

  20. ASCR Workshop on Quantum Computing for Science

    SciTech Connect

    Aspuru-Guzik, Alan; Van Dam, Wim; Farhi, Edward; Gaitan, Frank; Humble, Travis; Jordan, Stephen; Landahl, Andrew J; Love, Peter; Lucas, Robert; Preskill, John; Muller, Richard P.; Svore, Krysta; Wiebe, Nathan; Williams, Carl

    2015-06-01

    This report details the findings of the DOE ASCR Workshop on Quantum Computing for Science that was organized to assess the viability of quantum computing technologies to meet the computational requirements of the DOE’s science and energy mission, and to identify the potential impact of quantum technologies. The workshop was held on February 17-18, 2015, in Bethesda, MD, to solicit input from members of the quantum computing community. The workshop considered models of quantum computation and programming environments, physical science applications relevant to DOE's science mission as well as quantum simulation, and applied mathematics topics including potential quantum algorithms for linear algebra, graph theory, and machine learning. This report summarizes these perspectives into an outlook on the opportunities for quantum computing to impact problems relevant to the DOE’s mission as well as the additional research required to bring quantum computing to the point where it can have such impact.

  1. Neutron Matter Wave Quantum Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauch, Helmut

    2012-06-01

    Neutron matter-wave optics provides the basis for new quantum experiments and a step towards applications of quantum phenomena. Most experiments have been performed with a perfect crystal neutron interferometer where widely separated coherent beams can be manipulated individually. Various geometric phases have been measured and their robustness against fluctuation effects has been proven, which may become a useful property for advanced quantum communication. Quantum contextuality for single particle systems shows that quantum correlations are to some extent more demanding than classical ones. In this case entanglement between external and internal degrees of freedom offers new insights into basic laws of quantum physics. Non-contextuality hidden variable theories can be rejected by arguments based on the Kochen-Specker theorem.

  2. Topology-driven quantum phase transitions in time-reversal-invariant anyonic quantum liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gils, Charlotte; Trebst, Simon; Kitaev, Alexei; Ludwig, Andreas W. W.; Troyer, Matthias; Wang, Zhenghan

    2009-11-01

    Indistinguishable particles in two dimensions can be characterized by anyonic quantum statistics, which is more general than that of bosons or fermions. Anyons emerge as quasiparticles in fractional quantum Hall states and in certain frustrated quantum magnets. Quantum liquids of anyons show degenerate ground states, where the degeneracy depends on the topology of the underlying surface. Here, we present a new type of continuous quantum phase transition in such anyonic quantum liquids, which is driven by quantum fluctuations of the topology. The critical state connecting two anyonic liquids on surfaces with different topologies is reminiscent of the notion of a `quantum foam' with fluctuations on all length scales. This exotic quantum phase transition arises in a microscopic model of interacting anyons for which we present an exact solution in a linear geometry. We introduce an intuitive physical picture of this model that unifies string nets and loop gases, and provide a simple description of topological quantum phases and their phase transitions.

  3. Permutation-invariant quantum codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Yingkai

    2014-12-01

    A quantum code is a subspace of a Hilbert space of a physical system chosen to be correctable against a given class of errors, where information can be encoded. Ideally, the quantum code lies within the ground space of the physical system. When the physical model is the Heisenberg ferromagnet in the absence of an external magnetic field, the corresponding ground space contains all permutation-invariant states. We use techniques from combinatorics and operator theory to construct families of permutation-invariant quantum codes. These codes have length proportional to t2; one family of codes perfectly corrects arbitrary weight t errors, while the other family of codes approximately correct t spontaneous decay errors. The analysis of our codes' performance with respect to spontaneous decay errors utilizes elementary matrix analysis, where we revisit and extend the quantum error correction criterion of Knill and Laflamme, and Leung, Chuang, Nielsen and Yamamoto.

  4. Karl Popper's Quantum Ghost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, William

    2004-05-01

    Karl Popper, though not trained as a physicist and embarrassed early in his career by a physics error pointed out by Einstein and Bohr, ultimately made substantial contributions to the interpretation of quantum mechanics. As was often the case, Popper initially formulated his position by criticizing the views of others - in this case Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg. Underlying Popper's criticism was his belief that, first, the "standard interpretation" of quantum mechanics, sometimes called the Copenhagen interpretation, abandoned scientific realism and second, the assertion that quantum theory was "complete" (an assertion rejected by Einstein among others) amounted to an unfalsifiable claim. Popper insisted that the most basic predictions of quantum mechanics should continue to be tested, with an eye towards falsification rather than mere adding of decimal places to confirmatory experiments. His persistent attacks on the Copenhagen interpretation were aimed not at the uncertainty principle itself and the formalism from which it was derived, but at the acceptance by physicists of an unclear epistemology and ontology that left critical questions unanswered. In 1999, physicists at the University of Maryland conducted a version of Popper's Experiment, re-igniting the debate over quantum predictions and the role of locality in physics.

  5. Quantum cheques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulick, Subhayan Roy; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.

    2016-06-01

    We propose the idea of a quantum cheque scheme, a cryptographic protocol in which any legitimate client of a trusted bank can issue a cheque, that cannot be counterfeited or altered in anyway, and can be verified by a bank or any of its branches. We formally define a quantum cheque and present the first unconditionally secure quantum cheque scheme and show it to be secure against any no-signalling adversary. The proposed quantum cheque scheme can been perceived as the quantum analog of Electronic Data Interchange, as an alternate for current e-Payment Gateways.

  6. Quantum cheques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulick, Subhayan Roy; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.

    2016-03-01

    We propose the idea of a quantum cheque scheme, a cryptographic protocol in which any legitimate client of a trusted bank can issue a cheque, that cannot be counterfeited or altered in anyway, and can be verified by a bank or any of its branches. We formally define a quantum cheque and present the first unconditionally secure quantum cheque scheme and show it to be secure against any no-signalling adversary. The proposed quantum cheque scheme can been perceived as the quantum analog of Electronic Data Interchange, as an alternate for current e-Payment Gateways.

  7. Physics in 100 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilczek, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Here I indulge in wide-ranging speculations on the shape of physics, and technology closely related to physics, over the next one hundred years. Themes include the many faces of unification, the re-imagining of quantum theory, and new forms of engineering on small, intermediate, and large scales.

  8. Quantum cosmological metroland model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Edward; Franzen, Anne

    2010-02-01

    Relational particle mechanics is useful for modelling whole-universe issues such as quantum cosmology or the problem of time in quantum gravity, including some aspects outside the reach of comparably complex mini-superspace models. In this paper, we consider the mechanics of pure shape and not scale of four particles on a line, so that the only physically significant quantities are ratios of relative separations between the constituents' physical objects. Many of our ideas and workings extend to the N-particle case. As such models' configurations resemble depictions of metro lines in public transport maps, we term them 'N-stop metrolands'. This 4-stop model's configuration space is a 2-sphere, from which our metroland mechanics interpretation is via the 'cubic' tessellation. This model yields conserved quantities which are mathematically SO(3) objects like angular momenta but are physically relative dilational momenta (i.e. coordinates dotted with momenta). We provide and interpret various exact and approximate classical and quantum solutions for 4-stop metroland; from these results one can construct expectations and spreads of shape operators that admit interpretations as relative sizes and the 'homogeneity of the model universe's contents', and also objects of significance for the problem of time in quantum gravity (e.g. in the naïve Schrödinger and records theory timeless approaches).

  9. Counterfactual quantum certificate authorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenoy H., Akshata; Srikanth, R.; Srinivas, T.

    2014-05-01

    We present a multipartite protocol in a counterfactual paradigm. In counterfactual quantum cryptography, secure information is transmitted between two spatially separated parties even when there is no physical travel of particles transferring the information between them. We propose here a tripartite counterfactual quantum protocol for the task of certificate authorization. Here a trusted third party, Alice, authenticates an entity Bob (e.g., a bank) that a client Charlie wishes to securely transact with. The protocol is counterfactual with respect to either Bob or Charlie. We prove its security against a general incoherent attack, where Eve attacks single particles.

  10. Quantum robots and environments

    SciTech Connect

    Benioff, P.

    1998-08-01

    Quantum robots and their interactions with environments of quantum systems are described, and their study justified. A quantum robot is a mobile quantum system that includes an on-board quantum computer and needed ancillary systems. Quantum robots carry out tasks whose goals include specified changes in the state of the environment, or carrying out measurements on the environment. Each task is a sequence of alternating computation and action phases. Computation phase activites include determination of the action to be carried out in the next phase, and recording of information on neighborhood environmental system states. Action phase activities include motion of the quantum robot and changes in the neighborhood environment system states. Models of quantum robots and their interactions with environments are described using discrete space and time. A unitary step operator T that gives the single time step dynamics is associated with each task. T=T{sub a}+T{sub c} is a sum of action phase and computation phase step operators. Conditions that T{sub a} and T{sub c} should satisfy are given along with a description of the evolution as a sum over paths of completed phase input and output states. A simple example of a task{emdash}carrying out a measurement on a very simple environment{emdash}is analyzed in detail. A decision tree for the task is presented and discussed in terms of the sums over phase paths. It is seen that no definite times or durations are associated with the phase steps in the tree, and that the tree describes the successive phase steps in each path in the sum over phase paths. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. Prospects for quantum computation with trapped ions

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.J.; James, D.F.V.

    1997-12-31

    Over the past decade information theory has been generalized to allow binary data to be represented by two-state quantum mechanical systems. (A single two-level system has come to be known as a qubit in this context.) The additional freedom introduced into information physics with quantum systems has opened up a variety of capabilities that go well beyond those of conventional information. For example, quantum cryptography allows two parties to generate a secret key even in the presence of eavesdropping. But perhaps the most remarkable capabilities have been predicted in the field of quantum computation. Here, a brief survey of the requirements for quantum computational hardware, and an overview of the in trap quantum computation project at Los Alamos are presented. The physical limitations to quantum computation with trapped ions are discussed.

  12. Quantum decoherence and interlevel relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crull, Elise M.

    Quantum decoherence is a dynamical process whereby a system's phase relations become delocalized due to interaction and subsequent entanglement with its environment. This delocalization, or decoherence, forces the quantum system into a state that is apparently classical (or apparently an eigenstate) by prodigiously suppressing features that typically give rise to so-called quantum behavior. Thus it has been frequently proposed by physicists and philosophers alike that decoherence explains the dynamical transition from quantum behavior to classical behavior. Statements like this assume the existence of distinct realms, however, and the present thesis is an exploration of the metaphysical consequences of quantum decoherence motivated by the question of the quantum-to-classical transition and interlevel relations: if there are in-principle "classical" and "quantum" levels, what are the relations between them? And if there are no such levels, what follows? Importantly, the following philosophical investigations are carried out by intentionally leaving aside the measurement problem and concerns about particular interpretations of quantum mechanics. Good philosophical work, it is argued, can be done without adopting a specific interpretational framework and without recourse to the measurement problem. After introducing the physics of decoherence and exploring the four canonical models applied to system-environment interactions, it is argued that, ontologically speaking, there exist no levels. This claim---called the "nontological thesis"---exposes as ill-posed questions regarding the transition from the quantum regime to the classical regime and reveals the inappropriateness of interlevel relations (like reduction, supervenience and emergence) operating within metaphysical frameworks. The nontological thesis has further important consequences regarding intralevel relations: not only are there no meaningful ways to carve the world into levels, but there are no meaningful

  13. Quantum effects in the understanding of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Hameroff, Stuart R; Craddock, Travis J A; Tuszynski, Jack A

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a historical perspective on the development and application of quantum physics methodology beyond physics, especially in biology and in the area of consciousness studies. Quantum physics provides a conceptual framework for the structural aspects of biological systems and processes via quantum chemistry. In recent years individual biological phenomena such as photosynthesis and bird navigation have been experimentally and theoretically analyzed using quantum methods building conceptual foundations for quantum biology. Since consciousness is attributed to human (and possibly animal) mind, quantum underpinnings of cognitive processes are a logical extension. Several proposals, especially the Orch OR hypothesis, have been put forth in an effort to introduce a scientific basis to the theory of consciousness. At the center of these approaches are microtubules as the substrate on which conscious processes in terms of quantum coherence and entanglement can be built. Additionally, Quantum Metabolism, quantum processes in ion channels and quantum effects in sensory stimulation are discussed in this connection. We discuss the challenges and merits related to quantum consciousness approaches as well as their potential extensions. PMID:25012711

  14. Hacking the quantum revolution: 1925-1975

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweber, Silvan S.

    2015-01-01

    I argue that the quantum revolution should be seen as an Ian Hacking type of scientific revolution: a profound, longue durée, multidisciplinary process of transforming our understanding of physical nature, with deep-rooted social components from the start. The "revolution" exhibits a characteristic style of reasoning - the hierarchization of physical nature - and developed and uses a specific language - quantum field theory (QFT). It is by virtue of that language that the quantum theory has achieved some of its deepest insights into the description of the dynamics of the physical world. However, the meaning of what a quantum field theory is and what it describes has deeply altered, and one now speaks of "effective" quantum field theories. Interpreting all present day quantum field theories as but "effective" field theories sheds additional light on Phillip Anderson's assertion that "More is different". This important element is addressed in the last part of the paper.

  15. Hacking the quantum revolution: 1925-1975

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweber, Silvan S.

    2015-02-01

    I argue that the quantum revolution should be seen as an Ian Hacking type of scientific revolution: a profound, longue durée, multidisciplinary process of transforming our understanding of physical nature, with deep-rooted social components from the start. The "revolution" exhibits a characteristic style of reasoning - the hierarchization of physical nature — and developed and uses a specific language - quantum field theory (QFT). It is by virtue of that language that the quantum theory has achieved some of its deepest insights into the description of the dynamics of the physical world. However, the meaning of what a quantum field theory is and what it describes has deeply altered, and one now speaks of "effective" quantum field theories. Interpreting all present day quantum field theories as but "effective" field theories sheds additional light on Phillip Anderson's assertion that "More is different". This important element is addressed in the last part of the paper.

  16. Quantum volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, V. A.

    2015-08-01

    Quantum systems in a mechanical embedding, the breathing mode of a small particles, optomechanical system, etc. are far not the full list of examples in which the volume exhibits quantum behavior. Traditional consideration suggests strain in small systems as a result of a collective movement of particles, rather than the dynamics of the volume as an independent variable. The aim of this work is to show that some problem here might be essentially simplified by introducing periodic boundary conditions. At this case, the volume is considered as the independent dynamical variable driven by the internal pressure. For this purpose, the concept of quantum volume based on Schrödinger’s equation in 𝕋3 manifold is proposed. It is used to explore several 1D model systems: An ensemble of free particles under external pressure, quantum manometer and a quantum breathing mode. In particular, the influence of the pressure of free particle on quantum oscillator is determined. It is shown also that correction to the spectrum of the breathing mode due to internal degrees of freedom is determined by the off-diagonal matrix elements of the quantum stress. The new treatment not using the “force” theorem is proposed for the quantum stress tensor. In the general case of flexible quantum 3D dynamics, quantum deformations of different type might be introduced similarly to monopole mode.

  17. Quantum Opportunities and Challenges for Fundamental Sciences in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Nan

    2012-01-01

    Space platforms offer unique environment for and measurements of quantum world and fundamental physics. Quantum technology and measurements enhance measurement capabilities in space and result in greater science returns.

  18. Quantum games as quantum types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delbecque, Yannick

    In this thesis, we present a new model for higher-order quantum programming languages. The proposed model is an adaptation of the probabilistic game semantics developed by Danos and Harmer [DH02]: we expand it with quantum strategies which enable one to represent quantum states and quantum operations. Some of the basic properties of these strategies are established and then used to construct denotational semantics for three quantum programming languages. The first of these languages is a formalisation of the measurement calculus proposed by Danos et al. [DKP07]. The other two are new: they are higher-order quantum programming languages. Previous attempts to define a denotational semantics for higher-order quantum programming languages have failed. We identify some of the key reasons for this and base the design of our higher-order languages on these observations. The game semantics proposed in this thesis is the first denotational semantics for a lambda-calculus equipped with quantum types and with extra operations which allow one to program quantum algorithms. The results presented validate the two different approaches used in the design of these two new higher-order languages: a first one where quantum states are used through references and a second one where they are introduced as constants in the language. The quantum strategies presented in this thesis allow one to understand the constraints that must be imposed on quantum type systems with higher-order types. The most significant constraint is the fact that abstraction over part of the tensor product of many unknown quantum states must not be allowed. Quantum strategies are a new mathematical model which describes the interaction between classical and quantum data using system-environment dialogues. The interactions between the different parts of a quantum system are described using the rich structure generated by composition of strategies. This approach has enough generality to be put in relation with other

  19. A Quantum Proxy Weak Blind Signature Scheme Based on Controlled Quantum Teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hai-Jing; Yu, Yao-Feng; Song, Qin; Gao, Lan-Xiang

    2015-04-01

    Proxy blind signature is applied to the electronic paying system, electronic voting system, mobile agent system, security of internet, etc. A quantum proxy weak blind signature scheme is proposed in this paper. It is based on controlled quantum teleportation. Five-qubit entangled state functions as quantum channel. The scheme uses the physical characteristics of quantum mechanics to implement message blinding, so it could guarantee not only the unconditional security of the scheme but also the anonymity of the messages owner.

  20. A Quantum Proxy Weak Blind Signature Scheme Based on Controlled Quantum Teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hai-Jing; Yu, Yao-Feng; Song, Qin; Gao, Lan-Xiang

    2014-09-01

    Proxy blind signature is applied to the electronic paying system, electronic voting system, mobile agent system, security of internet, etc. A quantum proxy weak blind signature scheme is proposed in this paper. It is based on controlled quantum teleportation. Five-qubit entangled state functions as quantum channel. The scheme uses the physical characteristics of quantum mechanics to implement message blinding, so it could guarantee not only the unconditional security of the scheme but also the anonymity of the messages owner.