Spontaneous recoil effects of optical pumping on trapped atoms
S. Wallentowitz; P. E. Toschek
2008-08-08
The recoil effects of spontaneous photon emissions during optical pumping of a trapped three-level atom are exactly calculated. Without resort to the Lamb-Dicke approximation, and considering arbitrary detuning and saturation of the pump laser, the density of recoil shifts in phase space is derived. It is shown that this density is not of Gaussian shape, and that it becomes isotropic in phase space only for a branching ratio corresponding to fluorescence scattering but unfavorable for optical pumping. The dependence of its anisotropy on the laser saturation is discussed in the resonant case, and the mapping of moments of the atom's center-of-mass motion due to the pumping is presented. Moreover, it is shown how optimum parameters for protecting the center-of-mass quantum state from pump-induced disturbance depend on the specific property to be protected.
Gravitational-recoil effects on fermion propagation in space-time foam
Jonathan Richard Ellis; Nikolaos E Mavromatos; Dimitri V Nanopoulos; G Volkov
1999-01-01
Motivated by the possible experimental opportunities to test quantum gravity via its effects on high-energy neutrinos propagating through space-time foam, we discuss how to incorporate spin structures in our D-brane description of gravitational recoil effects in vacuo. We also point to an interesting analogous condensed-matter system. We use a suitable supersymmetrization of the Born-Infeld action for excited D-brane gravitational backgrounds
Gravitational-Recoil Effects on Fermion Propagation in Space-Time Foam
John Ellis; N. E. Mavromatos; D. V. Nanopoulos; G. Volkov
2000-01-01
Motivated by the possible experimental opportunities to test quantum gravity via its effects on high-energy neutrinos propagating through space-time foam, we discuss how to incorporate spin structures in our D-brane description of gravitational recoil effects in vacuo. We also point to an interesting analogous condensed-matter system. We use a suitable supersymmetrization of the Born-Infeld action for excited D-brane gravitational backgrounds
Nuclear recoil effects in antiprotonic and muonic atoms
Veitia, Andrzej; Pachucki, Krzysztof [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Warsaw University, Hoz-dota 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland)
2004-04-01
Relativistic nuclear recoil effects are studied for antiprotonic and muonic atoms. The generalization of the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian including vacuum polarization is presented. Previous treatments are corrected, and the result for the 2S{sub 12}-2P{sub 12} splitting in muonic hydrogen is updated.
Recoil Effects in Positronium Energy Levels to Order ff 6 Krzysztof Pachucki
Pachucki, Krzysztof
Recoil Effects in Positronium Energy Levels to Order ff 6 Krzysztof Pachucki Institute levels of order ff 6 due to photon exchanges are calculated in the effective HamilÂ tonian approach a different approach to bound state QED and calculated a recoil correction of order ff 6 to the HFS of n
Bursts of Radiation and Recoil Effects in Electromagnetism and Gravitation
C. Barrabès; P. A. Hogan
2000-12-06
The Maxwell field of a charge e which experiences an impulsive acceleration or deceleration is constructed explicitly by subdividing Minkowskian space-time into two halves bounded by a future null-cone and then glueing the halves back together with appropriate matching conditions. The resulting retarded radiation can be viewed as instantaneous electromagnetic bremsstrahlung. If we similarly consider a spherically symmetric, moving gravitating mass, to experience an impulsive deceleration, as viewed by a distant observer, then this is accompanied by the emission of a light-like shell whose total energy measured by this observer is the same as the kinetic energy of the source before it stops. This phenomenon is a recoil effect which may be thought of as a limiting case of a Kinnersley rocket.
Is CHF triggered by the vapor recoil effect?
Nikolayev, Vadim S; Chatain, D
2007-01-01
This paper deals with the triggering mechanism of the boiling crisis, a transition from nucleate to film boiling. We observe the boiling crisis in pool saturated boiling experimentally at nearly critical pressure to take advantage of the slowness of the bubble growth and of the smallness of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) that defines the transition point. Such experiments require the reduced gravity conditions. Close to the CHF, the slow growth of the individual dry spots and their subsequent fusion on the transparent heater are observed through the latter. As discussed in the paper, these observations are consistent with numerical results obtained with the vapor recoil model of the boiling crisis.
Interference, recoil, and uncontrollable interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ulfbeck, Ole
2014-07-01
When the initial state in a collision involves indeterminate momenta, the conservation law for momentum no longer applies to the individual event with a sharpness beyond the indeterminacy. As a consequence, there are collisions that are recoilless in the sense that the state of one of the quanta is unchanged by the collision while the other quantum emerges in a superposition of momenta. Recoilless collisions that avoid entanglement are basic for experiments studying coherence effects for individual quanta involving interactions of the quantum with reflectors or diaphragms. The idea that in interference experiments there is an inevitable recoil that can be made unobservable by firmly bolting the reflector or diaphragm to a solid support is false since in interference with individual quanta there is no recoil to control. The highly quantal character of the reflector or diaphragm in the interference experiment apparently went unnoticed in the conception of complementarity.
Quantum effects in electron beam pumped GaAs
Yahia, M. E. [Faculty of Engineering, The British University in Egypt (BUE), El-Shorouk City, Cairo (Egypt) [Faculty of Engineering, The British University in Egypt (BUE), El-Shorouk City, Cairo (Egypt); National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences (NILES), Cairo University (Egypt); Azzouz, I. M. [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences (NILES), Cairo University (Egypt)] [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences (NILES), Cairo University (Egypt); Moslem, W. M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Port Said University, Port Said (Egypt)] [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Port Said University, Port Said (Egypt)
2013-08-19
Propagation of waves in nano-sized GaAs semiconductor induced by electron beam are investigated. A dispersion relation is derived by using quantum hydrodynamics equations including the electrons and holes quantum recoil effects, exchange-correlation potentials, and degenerate pressures. It is found that the propagating modes are instable and strongly depend on the electron beam parameters, as well as the quantum recoil effects and degenerate pressures. The instability region shrinks with the increase of the semiconductor number density. The instability arises because of the energetic electron beam produces electron-hole pairs, which do not keep in phase with the electrostatic potential arising from the pair plasma.
Recoil effect of the ice hockey stick during a slap shot.
Villaseñor, A; Turcotte, R A; Pearsall, D J
2006-08-01
The purpose of this study was to examine the "recoil" effect of the ice hockey stick shaft during a stationary slap shot. Nine male adult subjects (four elite and five recreational) were tested. Their performances were evaluated by simultaneously recording stick movement and internal bending from high-speed digital video (1,000 Hz) and puck acceleration from a triaxial accelerometer positioned inside the puck. In addition, an electrical circuit measured blade-puck contact time. Data were analyzed with a one-way MANOVA for several dependent variables, including final puck velocity, puck acceleration, maximum stick shaft bending (angle and distance deflection), stick shaft angular velocities, blade-puck contact time, and corresponding time events. The results indicate the following. First, blade-puck contact time was greater for the elite than for recreational players (38 +/- 9 ms and 27 +/- 5 ms); however, measures for puck acceleration were essentially the same (63.8 g +/- 9.9 and 61.8 g +/- 19.5). Two, the elite players were able to generate greater puck velocities (120 +/- 18 km/h and 80.3 +/- 11.6 km/h). Three, the recoil timing was found to be reater for elite players (59.8% of blade-puck contact). PMID:17215552
Felicissimo, V.C.; Guimaraes, F.F. [Theoretical Chemistry, Roslagstullsbacken 15, Royal Institute of Technology, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, CEP-31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Gel'mukhanov, F. [Theoretical Chemistry, Roslagstullsbacken 15, Royal Institute of Technology, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)
2005-08-15
The C K and O K x-ray photoelectron spectra of the CO molecule, driven by a strong ir field, are studied theoretically. An enhancement of the recoil effect, which results in a strong dependence of the electron vibrational profile on the energy of x-ray photon, is found. The enhancement of the recoil effect happens due to an ir-induced increase of the wave-packet size. An extra enhancement occurs when the gradients of ground and ionized states approach each other. Under an increase of the photon energy, different sides of the x-ray photoelectron band experience blue- and redshifts, which are related to the difference of the gradients of the ground and core ionized states in the points of the vertical transitions near turning points of the wave packet. This makes the ir-x-ray pump-probe spectroscopy a very promising tool to study the shape of the potential energy surfaces.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Joseph S. Krajcik
2009-10-14
Quantum theory is an extremely advanced and complicated model. However, some aspects are accessible and useful for building an appreciation and understanding of the novel properties exhibited by matter at the nanoscale. In this chapter, the authors presen
Temperature Dependence and Recoil-free Fraction Effects in Olivines Across the Mg-Fe Solid Solution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sklute, E. C.; Rothstein, Y.; Dyar, M. D.; Schaefer, M. W.; Menzies, O. N.; Bland, P. A.; Berry, F. J.
2005-01-01
Olivine and pyroxene are the major ferromagnesian minerals in most meteorite types and in mafic igneous rocks that are dominant at the surface of the Earth. It is probable that they are the major mineralogical components at the surface of any planetary body that has undergone differentiation processes. In situ mineralogical studies of the rocks and soils on Mars suggest that olivine is a widespread mineral on that planet s surface (particularly at the Gusev site) and that it has been relatively unaffected by alteration. Thus an understanding of the characteristics of Mossbauer spectra of olivine is of great importance in interpreting MER results. However, variable temperature Mossbauer spectra of olivine, which are needed to quantify recoil-free fraction effects and to understand the temperature dependence of olivine spectra, are lacking in the literature. Thus, we present here a study of the temperature dependence and recoil-free fraction of a series of synthetic olivines.
Quantum Radiation Reaction Effects in Multiphoton Compton Scattering
Di Piazza, A.; Hatsagortsyan, K. Z.; Keitel, C. H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)
2010-11-26
Radiation reaction effects in the interaction of an electron and a strong laser field are investigated in the realm of quantum electrodynamics. We identify the quantum radiation reaction with the multiple photon recoils experienced by the laser-driven electron due to consecutive incoherent photon emissions. After determining a quantum radiation dominated regime, we demonstrate how in this regime quantum signatures of the radiation reaction strongly affect multiphoton Compton scattering spectra and that they could be measurable in principle with presently available laser technology.
Recoil-induced gain and collective atomic recoil laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verkerk, Philippe
1998-07-01
Recoil-induced resonances have been observed in pump-probe spectroscopy with cold atoms. On the other hand, a model for collective atomic recoil laser has been developed by R. Bonifacio and co-workers. These two systems rely on the recoil effect due to the absorption or the emission of a photon by an atom and share may features. In this paper, we shall investigate the relationship between the two models and clarify the underlying physics. We'll review also the experimental results.
The Effect of Gravitational Recoil on Black Holes Forming in a Hierarchical Universe
N. I. Libeskind; S. Cole; C. S. Frenk; J. C. Helly
2005-12-02
Galactic bulges are known to harbour central black holes whose mass is tightly correlated with the stellar mass and velocity dispersion of the bulge. In a hierarchical universe, mergers of subgalactic units are accompanied by the amalgamation of bulges and the likely coalescence of galactocentric black holes. In these mergers, the beaming of gravitational radiation during the plunge phase of the black hole collision can impart a linear momentum kick or ``gravitational recoil'' to the remnant. If large enough, this kick will eject the remnant from the galaxy and populate intergalactic space with wandering black holes. Using a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation, we investigate the effect of black hole ejections on the scatter in the relation between black hole and bulge mass. We find that although not the dominant source of the measured scatter, they do make a significant contribution and may be used to set a constraint, v_kickblack holes are ejected from the progenitors of present day galaxies, giving rise to a population of wandering intrahalo and intergalactic black holes whose distribution we investigate in high-resolution N-body simulations of Milk-Way mass halos. We find that intergalactic black holes make up only ~2-3% of the total galactic black hole mass but, within a halo, wandering black holes can contribute up to about half of the total black hole mass orbiting the central galaxy. Intrahalo black holes offer a natural explanation for the compact X-ray sources often seen near the centres of galaxies and for the hyperluminous non-central X-ray source in M82.
, this modification is the sum of a term due to the Doppler effect, and another term that is the "recoil energy" (seeResonances of the confined hydrogenoÂ¨id ion and the Dicke effect in non-relativistic quantum orders in the coupling parameters is given. This analysis is related to the Lamb-Dicke effect. Contents 1
Force optimized recoil control system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Townsend, P. E.; Radkiewicz, R. J.; Gartner, R. F.
1982-05-01
Reduction of the recoil force of high rate of fire automatic guns was proven effective. This system will allow consideration of more powerful guns for use in both helicopter and armored personnel carrier applications. By substituting the large shock loads of firing guns with a nearly constant force, both vibration and fatigue problems that prevent mounting of powerful automatic guns is eliminated.
Quantum Hall effect in quantum electrodynamics
Penin, Alexander A. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2J1 (Canada); and Institute for Nuclear Research of Russian Academy of Sciences, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation)
2009-03-15
We consider the quantum Hall effect in quantum electrodynamics and find a deviation from the quantum-mechanical prediction for the Hall conductivity due to radiative antiscreening of electric charge in an external magnetic field. A weak dependence of the universal von Klitzing constant on the magnetic field strength, which can possibly be observed in a dedicated experiment, is predicted.
Bernevig, B.Andrei; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2010-01-15
The quantum Hall liquid is a novel state of matter with profound emergent properties such as fractional charge and statistics. Existence of the quantum Hall effect requires breaking of the time reversal symmetry caused by an external magnetic field. In this work, we predict a quantized spin Hall effect in the absence of any magnetic field, where the intrinsic spin Hall conductance is quantized in units of 2 e/4{pi}. The degenerate quantum Landau levels are created by the spin-orbit coupling in conventional semiconductors in the presence of a strain gradient. This new state of matter has many profound correlated properties described by a topological field theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohseni, Masoud; Omar, Yasser; Engel, Gregory S.; Plenio, Martin B.
2014-08-01
List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Quantum biology: introduction Graham R. Fleming and Gregory D. Scholes; 2. Open quantum system approaches to biological systems Alireza Shabani, Masoud Mohseni, Seogjoo Jang, Akihito Ishizaki, Martin Plenio, Patrick Rebentrost, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Jianshu Cao, Seth Lloyd and Robert Silbey; 3. Generalized Förster resonance energy transfer Seogjoo Jang, Hoda Hossein-Nejad and Gregory D. Scholes; 4. Multidimensional electronic spectroscopy Tomáš Man?al; Part II. Quantum Effects in Bacterial Photosynthetic Energy Transfer: 5. Structure, function, and quantum dynamics of pigment protein complexes Ioan Kosztin and Klaus Schulten; 6. Direct observation of quantum coherence Gregory S. Engel; 7. Environment-assisted quantum transport Masoud Mohseni, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Patrick Rebentrost, Alireza Shabani, Seth Lloyd, Susana F. Huelga and Martin B. Plenio; Part III. Quantum Effects in Higher Organisms and Applications: 8. Excitation energy transfer in higher plants Elisabet Romero, Vladimir I. Novoderezhkin and Rienk van Grondelle; 9. Electron transfer in proteins Spiros S. Skourtis; 10. A chemical compass for bird navigation Ilia A. Solov'yov, Thorsten Ritz, Klaus Schulten and Peter J. Hore; 11. Quantum biology of retinal Klaus Schulten and Shigehiko Hayashi; 12. Quantum vibrational effects on sense of smell A. M. Stoneham, L. Turin, J. C. Brookes and A. P. Horsfield; 13. A perspective on possible manifestations of entanglement in biological systems Hans J. Briegel and Sandu Popescu; 14. Design and applications of bio-inspired quantum materials Mohan Sarovar, Dörthe M. Eisele and K. Birgitta Whaley; 15. Coherent excitons in carbon nanotubes Leonas Valkunas and Darius Abramavicius; Glossary; References; Index.
Gerhard Groessing; Siegfried Fussy; Johannes Mesa Pascasio; Herbert Schwabl
2015-02-13
We show that during stochastic beam attenuation in double slit experiments, there appear unexpected new effects for transmission factors below $a\\lesssim10^{-4}$, which can eventually be observed with the aid of weak measurement techniques. These are denoted as quantum sweeper effects, which are characterized by the bunching together of low counting rate particles within very narrow spatial domains. We employ a "superclassical" modeling procedure which we have previously shown to produce predictions identical with those of standard quantum theory. Thus it is demonstrated that in reaching down to ever weaker channel intensities, the nonlinear nature of the probability density currents becomes ever more important. We finally show that the resulting unexpected effects nevertheless implicitly also exist in standard quantum mechanics.
Transport of Radioactive Material by Alpha Recoil
Icenhour, A.S.
2005-05-19
The movement of high-specific-activity radioactive particles (i.e., alpha recoil) has been observed and studied since the early 1900s. These studies have been motivated by concerns about containment of radioactivity and the protection of human health. Additionally, studies have investigated the potential advantage of alpha recoil to effect separations of various isotopes. This report provides a review of the observations and results of a number of the studies.
Gravitational Recoil and Astrophysical Impact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sperhake, Ulrich
Asymmetric emission of gravitational waves from astrophysical sources leads to a net flux of linear momentum from the source and, by momentum conservation, imparts a gravitational recoil on the emitting source. Numerical relativity simulations have revealed that this effect can lead to astonishingly large kick velocities, so-called superkicks, of several thousand km/s in the inspiral and merger of black-hole binaries. We here discuss the calculation of the recoil in black-hole spacetimes and the astrophysical repercussions of such large kicks, in particular related to the possible displacement or ejection of supermassive black holes from their host galaxies. We also discuss possible mechanisms that would make superkicks less likely to occur in astrophysical binaries and thus explain why most, if not all, galaxies observed in this context appear to harbor a black hole at their center.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Airapetian, A.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Belostotski, S.; Borisenko, A.; Bowles, J.; Brodski, I.; Bryzgalov, V.; Burns, J.; Capitani, G. P.; Carassiti, V.; Ciullo, G.; Clarkson, A.; Contalbrigo, M.; De Leo, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Diefenthaler, M.; Di Nezza, P.; Düren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Guler, H.; Gregor, I. M.; Hartig, M.; Hill, G.; Hoek, M.; Holler, Y.; Hristova, I.; Jo, H. S.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Kisselev, A.; Krause, B.; Krauss, B.; Lagamba, L.; Lehmann, I.; Lenisa, P.; Lu, S.; Lu, X.-G.; Lumsden, S.; Mahon, D.; Martinez de la Ossa, A.; Murray, M.; Mussgiller, A.; Nowak, W.-D.; Naryshkin, Y.; Osborne, A.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Perez-Benito, R.; Petrov, A.; Pickert, N.; Prahl, V.; Protopopescu, D.; Reinecke, M.; Riedl, C.; Rith, K.; Rosner, G.; Rubacek, L.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salomatin, Y.; Schnell, G.; Seitz, B.; Shearer, C.; Shutov, V.; Statera, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, J.; Stinzing, F.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Vandenbroucke, A.; Van Haarlem, Y.; Van Hulse, C.; Varanda, M.; Veretennikov, D.; Vilardi, I.; Vikhrov, V.; Vogel, C.; Yaschenko, S.; Ye, Z.; Yu, W.; Zeiler, D.; Zihlmann, B.
2013-05-01
For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with a field strength of 1T. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.
Recoil corrections in antikaon-deuteron scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mai, Maxim; Baru, Vadim; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Rusetsky, Akaki
2015-03-01
The recoil retardation effect in the K-d scattering length is studied. Using the nonrelativistic effective field theory approach, it is demonstrated that a systematic perturbative expansion of the recoil corrections in the parameter ? =MK/mN is possible in spite of the fact that K-d scattering at low energies is inherently nonperturbative due to the large values of the K ¯ N scattering lengths. The first-order correction to the K-d scattering length due to single insertion of the retardation term in the multiple-scattering series is calculated. The recoil effect turns out to be reasonably small even at the physical value of MK/mN?0.5 .
Quantum Effects in Biological Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Sisir
2014-07-01
The debates about the trivial and non-trivial effects in biological systems have drawn much attention during the last decade or so. What might these non-trivial sorts of quantum effects be? There is no consensus so far among the physicists and biologists regarding the meaning of "non-trivial quantum effects". However, there is no doubt about the implications of the challenging research into quantum effects relevant to biology such as coherent excitations of biomolecules and photosynthesis, quantum tunneling of protons, van der Waals forces, ultrafast dynamics through conical intersections, and phonon-assisted electron tunneling as the basis for our sense of smell, environment assisted transport of ions and entanglement in ion channels, role of quantum vacuum in consciousness. Several authors have discussed the non-trivial quantum effects and classified them into four broad categories: (a) Quantum life principle; (b) Quantum computing in the brain; (c) Quantum computing in genetics; and (d) Quantum consciousness. First, I will review the above developments. I will then discuss in detail the ion transport in the ion channel and the relevance of quantum theory in brain function. The ion transport in the ion channel plays a key role in information processing by the brain.
Gaussian effective potential: Quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stevenson, P. M.
1984-10-01
We advertise the virtues of the Gaussian effective potential (GEP) as a guide to the behavior of quantum field theories. Much superior to the usual one-loop effective potential, the GEP is a natural extension of intuitive notions familiar from quantum mechanics. A variety of quantum-mechanical examples are studied here, with an eye to field-theoretic analogies. Quantum restoration of symmetry, dynamical mass generation, and "quantum-mechanical resuscitation" are among the phenomena discussed. We suggest how the GEP could become the basis of a systematic approximation procedure. A companion paper will deal with scalar field theory.
Spin-orbit coupling and quantum spin Hall effect for neutral atoms without spin flips.
Kennedy, Colin J; Siviloglou, Georgios A; Miyake, Hirokazu; Burton, William Cody; Ketterle, Wolfgang
2013-11-27
We propose a scheme which realizes spin-orbit coupling and the quantum spin Hall effect for neutral atoms in optical lattices without relying on near resonant laser light to couple different spin states. The spin-orbit coupling is created by modifying the motion of atoms in a spin-dependent way by laser recoil. The spin selectivity is provided by Zeeman shifts created with a magnetic field gradient. Alternatively, a quantum spin Hall Hamiltonian can be created by all-optical means using a period-tripling, spin-dependent superlattice. PMID:24329453
THE INTEGER QUANTUM HALL EFFECT
Rubloff, Gary W.
THE INTEGER QUANTUM HALL EFFECT Justin H.Wilson Wednesday, September 18, 13 #12;QUANTUM HALL = xyV t 0 = h/e tot(t) Change of one flux quantum returns us to initial state integer e = Q = xy = xy h e xy = integer e2 h Wednesday, September 18, 13 #12;CHERN NUMBER (t) H = 1 2 " i~@x + e Lx 2
Mikhail Lemeshko; Bretislav Friedrich
2009-03-26
We present the physics of the quantum Zeno effect, whose gist is often expressed by invoking the adage "a watched pot never boils". We review aspects of the theoretical and experimental work done on the effect since its inception in 1977, and mention some applications. We dedicate the article - with our very best wishes - to Rudolf Zahradnik at the occasion of his great jubilee. Perhaps Rudolf's lasting youthfulness and freshness are due to that he himself had been frequently observed throughout his life: until the political turn-around in 1989 by those who wished, by their surveillance, to prevent Rudolf from spoiling the youth by his personal culture and his passion for science and things beautiful and useful in general. This attempt had failed. Out of gratitude, the youth has infected Rudolf with its youthfulness. Chronically. Since 1989, Rudolf has been closely watched by the public at large. For the same traits of his as before, but with the opposite goal and for the benefit of all generations. We relish keeping him in sight ...
Lemeshko, Mikhail
2009-01-01
We present the physics of the quantum Zeno effect, whose gist is often expressed by invoking the adage "a watched pot never boils". We review aspects of the theoretical and experimental work done on the effect since its inception in 1977, and mention some applications. We dedicate the article - with our very best wishes - to Rudolf Zahradnik at the occasion of his great jubilee. Perhaps Rudolf's lasting youthfulness and freshness are due to that he himself had been frequently observed throughout his life: until the political turn-around in 1989 by those who wished, by their surveillance, to prevent Rudolf from spoiling the youth by his personal culture and his passion for science and things beautiful and useful in general. This attempt had failed. Out of gratitude, the youth has infected Rudolf with its youthfulness. Chronically. Since 1989, Rudolf has been closely watched by the public at large. For the same traits of his as before, but with the opposite goal and for the benefit of all generations. We relish...
Topological quantum computation via the quantum tunneling effect.
Kou, Su-Peng
2009-03-27
Quantum computers are predicted to utilize quantum states to process tasks far faster than those of conventional classical computers. In this Letter we show an alternative approach towards building topological quantum computers by tuning the quantum tunneling effect of degenerate quantum states in topological order, instead of braiding anyons. Using a designer Hamiltonian-the Wen-Plaquette model as an example, we study its quantum tunneling effect of the toric codes and show how to control the toric codes to realize topological quantum computation. In particular, we give a proposal to the measurement of the toric codes from Aharonov-Bohm interferences of quasiparticles. PMID:19392257
George Svetlichny
2009-02-27
The quantum teleportation protocol can be used to probabilistically simulate a quantum circuit with backward-in-time connections. This allows us to analyze some conceptual problems of time travel in the context of physically realizable situations, to realize encrypted measurements of future states for which the decryption key becomes available only after the state is created, and to probabilistically realize a multistage quantum state processing within the time needed to complete only one stage. The probabilistic nature of the process resolves any paradox.
Effective equations for the quantum pendulum from momentous quantum mechanics
Hernandez, Hector H.; Chacon-Acosta, Guillermo [Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua, Facultad de Ingenieria, Nuevo Campus Universitario, Chihuahua 31125 (Mexico); Departamento de Matematicas Aplicadas y Sistemas, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Cuajimalpa, Artificios 40, Mexico D. F. 01120 (Mexico)
2012-08-24
In this work we study the quantum pendulum within the framework of momentous quantum mechanics. This description replaces the Schroedinger equation for the quantum evolution of the system with an infinite set of classical equations for expectation values of configuration variables, and quantum dispersions. We solve numerically the effective equations up to the second order, and describe its evolution.
Quantum Chaos and Effective Thermalization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Altland, Alexander; Haake, Fritz
2012-02-01
We demonstrate effective equilibration for unitary quantum dynamics under conditions of classical chaos. Focusing on the paradigmatic example of the Dicke model, we show how a constructive description of the thermalization process is facilitated by the Glauber Q or Husimi function, for which the evolution equation turns out to be of Fokker-Planck type. The equation describes a competition of classical drift and quantum diffusion in contractive and expansive directions. By this mechanism the system follows a “quantum smoothened” approach to equilibrium, which avoids the notorious singularities inherent to classical chaotic flows.
Hernández de la Peña, L; Gulam Razul, M S; Kusalik, P G
2005-10-01
Quantum and classical simulations are carried out on ice Ih over a range of temperatures utilizing the TIP4P water model. The rigid-body centroid molecular dynamics method employed allows for the investigation of equilibrium and dynamical properties of the quantum system. The impact of quantization on the local structure, as measured by the radial and spatial distribution functions, as well as the energy is presented. The effects of quantization on the lattice vibrations, associated with the molecular translations and librations, are also reported. Comparison of quantum and classical simulation results indicates that shifts in the average potential energy are equivalent to rising the temperature about 80 K and are therefore non-negligible. The energy shifts due to quantization and the quantum mechanical uncertainties observed in ice are smaller than the values previously reported for liquid water. Additionally, we carry out a comparative study of melting in our classical and quantum simulations and show that there are significant differences between classical and quantum ice. PMID:16238406
The quantum Hall effect in quantum dot systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beltukov, Y. M.; Greshnov, A. A.
2014-12-01
It is proposed to use quantum dots in order to increase the temperatures suitable for observation of the integer quantum Hall effect. A simple estimation using Fock-Darwin spectrum of a quantum dot shows that good part of carriers localized in quantum dots generate the intervals of plateaus robust against elevated temperatures. Numerical calculations employing local trigonometric basis and highly efficient kernel polynomial method adopted for computing the Hall conductivity reveal that quantum dots may enhance peak temperature for the effect by an order of magnitude, possibly above 77 K. Requirements to potentials, quality and arrangement of the quantum dots essential for practical realization of such enhancement are indicated. Comparison of our theoretical results with the quantum Hall measurements in InAs quantum dot systems from two experimental groups is also given.
The effect of quantum memory on quantum games
M. Ramzan; Ahmad Nawaz; A. H. Toor; M. K. Khan
2008-07-28
We study quantum games with correlated noise through a generalized quantization scheme. We investigate the effects of memory on quantum games, such as Prisoner's Dilemma, Battle of the Sexes and Chicken, through three prototype quantum-correlated channels. It is shown that the quantum player enjoys an advantage over the classical player for all nine cases considered in this paper for the maximally entangled case. However, the quantum player can also outperform the classical player for subsequent cases that can be noted in the case of the Battle of the Sexes game. It can be seen that the Nash equilibria do not change for all the three games under the effect of memory.
Wave kinetics of relativistic quantum plasmas
Mendonca, J. T. [IPFN, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)
2011-06-15
A quantum kinetic equation, valid for relativistic unmagnetized plasmas, is derived here. This equation describes the evolution of a quantum quasi-distribution, which is the Wigner function for relativistic spinless charged particles in a plasma, and it is exactly equivalent to a Klein-Gordon equation. Our quantum kinetic equation reduces to the Vlasov equation in the classical limit, where the Wigner function is replaced by a classical distribution function. An approximate form of the quantum kinetic equation is also derived, which includes first order quantum corrections. This is applied to electron plasma waves, for which a new dispersion relation is obtained. It is shown that quantum recoil effects contribute to the electron Landau damping with a third order derivative term. The case of high frequency electromagnetic waves is also considered. Its dispersion relation is shown to be insensitive to quantum recoil effects for equilibrium plasma distributions.
RELATIVISTIC SUPPRESSION OF BLACK HOLE RECOILS
Kesden, Michael; Sperhake, Ulrich; Berti, Emanuele [California Institute of Technology, MC 350-17, 1216 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)
2010-06-01
Numerical-relativity simulations indicate that the black hole produced in a binary merger can recoil with a velocity up to v {sub max} {approx_equal} 4000 km s{sup -1} with respect to the center of mass of the initial binary. This challenges the paradigm that most galaxies form through hierarchical mergers, yet retain supermassive black holes (SBHs) at their centers despite having escape velocities much less than v {sub max}. Interaction with a circumbinary disk can align the binary black hole spins with their orbital angular momentum, reducing the recoil velocity of the final black hole produced in the subsequent merger. However, the effectiveness of this alignment depends on highly uncertain accretion flows near the binary black holes. In this paper, we show that if the spin S {sub 1} of the more massive binary black hole is even partially aligned with the orbital angular momentum L, relativistic spin precession on sub-parsec scales can align the binary black hole spins with each other. This alignment significantly reduces the recoil velocity even in the absence of gas. For example, if the angle between S {sub 1} and L at large separations is 10{sup 0} while the second spin S {sub 2} is isotropically distributed, the spin alignment discussed in this paper reduces the median recoil from 864 km s{sup -1} to 273 km s{sup -1} for maximally spinning black holes with a mass ratio of 9/11. This reduction will greatly increase the fraction of galaxies retaining their SBHs.
Quantum channels and memory effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caruso, Filippo; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano
2014-10-01
Any physical process can be represented as a quantum channel mapping an initial state to a final state. Hence it can be characterized from the point of view of communication theory, i.e., in terms of its ability to transfer information. Quantum information provides a theoretical framework and the proper mathematical tools to accomplish this. In this context the notion of codes and communication capacities have been introduced by generalizing them from the classical Shannon theory of information transmission and error correction. The underlying assumption of this approach is to consider the channel not as acting on a single system, but on sequences of systems, which, when properly initialized allow one to overcome the noisy effects induced by the physical process under consideration. While most of the work produced so far has been focused on the case in which a given channel transformation acts identically and independently on the various elements of the sequence (memoryless configuration in jargon), correlated error models appear to be a more realistic way to approach the problem. A slightly different, yet conceptually related, notion of correlated errors applies to a single quantum system which evolves continuously in time under the influence of an external disturbance which acts on it in a non-Markovian fashion. This leads to the study of memory effects in quantum channels: a fertile ground where interesting novel phenomena emerge at the intersection of quantum information theory and other branches of physics. A survey is taken of the field of quantum channels theory while also embracing these specific and complex settings.
Interface effect in coupled quantum wells
Hao, Ya-Fei, E-mail: haoyafei@zjnu.cn [Physics Department, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, Zhejiang 321004 (China)
2014-06-28
This paper intends to theoretically investigate the effect of the interfaces on the Rashba spin splitting of two coupled quantum wells. The results show that the interface related Rashba spin splitting of the two coupled quantum wells is both smaller than that of a step quantum well which has the same structure with the step quantum well in the coupled quantum wells. And the influence of the cubic Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction of the coupled quantum wells is larger than that of a step quantum well. It demonstrates that the spin relaxation time of the two coupled quantum wells will be shorter than that of a step quantum well. As for the application in the spintronic devices, a step quantum well may be better than the coupled quantum wells, which is mentioned in this paper.
Precision spectroscopy by photon-recoil signal amplification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wan, Yong; Gebert, Florian; Wübbena, Jannes B.; Scharnhorst, Nils; Amairi, Sana; Leroux, Ian D.; Hemmerling, Börge; Lörch, Niels; Hammerer, Klemens; Schmidt, Piet O.
2014-01-01
Precision spectroscopy of atomic and molecular ions offers a window to new physics, but is typically limited to species with a cycling transition for laser cooling and detection. Quantum logic spectroscopy has overcome this limitation for species with long-lived excited states. Here we extend quantum logic spectroscopy to fast, dipole-allowed transitions and apply it to perform an absolute frequency measurement. We detect the absorption of photons by the spectroscopically investigated ion through the photon recoil imparted on a co-trapped ion of a different species, on which we can perform efficient quantum logic detection techniques. This amplifies the recoil signal from a few absorbed photons to thousands of fluorescence photons. We resolve the line centre of a dipole-allowed transition in 40Ca+ to 1/300 of its observed linewidth, rendering this measurement one of the most accurate of a broad transition. The simplicity and versatility of this approach enables spectroscopy of many previously inaccessible species.
RECOILING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN SPIN-FLIP RADIO GALAXIES
Liu, F. K.; Wang Dong [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Chen Xian, E-mail: fkliu@pku.edu.cn [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China)
2012-02-20
Numerical relativity simulations predict that coalescence of supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries leads not only to a spin flip but also to a recoiling of the merger remnant SMBHs. In the literature, X-shaped radio sources are popularly suggested to be candidates for SMBH mergers with spin flip of jet-ejecting SMBHs. Here we investigate the spectral and spatial observational signatures of the recoiling SMBHs in radio sources undergoing black hole spin flip. Our results show that SMBHs in most spin-flip radio sources have mass ratio q {approx}> 0.3 with a minimum possible value q{sub min} {approx_equal} 0.05. For major mergers, the remnant SMBHs can get a kick velocity as high as 2100 km s{sup -1} in the direction within an angle {approx}< 40 Degree-Sign relative to the spin axes of remnant SMBHs, implying that recoiling quasars are biased to be with high Doppler-shifted broad emission lines while recoiling radio galaxies are biased to large apparent spatial off-center displacements. We also calculate the distribution functions of line-of-sight velocity and apparent spatial off-center displacements for spin-flip radio sources with different apparent jet reorientation angles. Our results show that the larger the apparent jet reorientation angle is, the larger the Doppler-shifting recoiling velocity and apparent spatial off-center displacement will be. We investigate the effects of recoiling velocity on the dust torus in spin-flip radio sources and suggest that recoiling of SMBHs would lead to 'dust-poor' active galactic nuclei. Finally, we collect a sample of 19 X-shaped radio objects and for each object give the probability of detecting the predicted signatures of recoiling SMBH.
Quantum mechanical effects from deformation theory
Much, A. [Max-Planck-Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, 04103 Leipzig, Germany and Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Leipzig, 04009 Leipzig (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, 04103 Leipzig, Germany and Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Leipzig, 04009 Leipzig (Germany)
2014-02-15
We consider deformations of quantum mechanical operators by using the novel construction tool of warped convolutions. The deformation enables us to obtain several quantum mechanical effects where electromagnetic and gravitomagnetic fields play a role. Furthermore, a quantum plane can be defined by using the deformation techniques. This in turn gives an experimentally verifiable effect.
Nuclear quantum effects in water
Joseph A. Morrone; Roberto Car
2008-03-25
In this work, a path integral Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulation of liquid water is performed. It is found that the inclusion of nuclear quantum effects systematically improves the agreement of first principles simulations of liquid water with experiment. In addition, the proton momentum distribution is computed utilizing a recently developed open path integral molecular dynamics methodology. It is shown that these results are in good agreement with neutron Compton scattering data for liquid water and ice.
Planck's quantum-driven integer quantum Hall effect in chaos.
Chen, Yu; Tian, Chushun
2014-11-21
We find in a canonical chaotic system, the kicked spin-1/2 rotor, a Planck's quantum(he)-driven phenomenon bearing a close analogy to the integer quantum Hall effect but of chaos origin. Specifically, the rotor's energy growth is unbounded ("metallic" phase) for a discrete set of critical values of he, but otherwise bounded ("insulating" phase). The latter phase is topological and characterized by a quantum number ("quantized Hall conductance"). The number jumps by unity whenever he passes through each critical value as it decreases. Our findings indicate that rich topological quantum phenomena can emerge from chaos. PMID:25479514
Planck's Quantum-Driven Integer Quantum Hall Effect in Chaos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yu; Tian, Chushun
2014-11-01
We find in a canonical chaotic system, the kicked spin-1 /2 rotor, a Planck's quantum(he)-driven phenomenon bearing a close analogy to the integer quantum Hall effect but of chaos origin. Specifically, the rotor's energy growth is unbounded ("metallic" phase) for a discrete set of critical values of he, but otherwise bounded ("insulating" phase). The latter phase is topological and characterized by a quantum number ("quantized Hall conductance"). The number jumps by unity whenever he passes through each critical value as it decreases. Our findings indicate that rich topological quantum phenomena can emerge from chaos.
Quantum effect on luminosity-redshift relation
Li-Fang Li; Jian-Yang Zhu
2010-07-09
There are many different proposals for a theory of quantum gravity. Even leaving aside the fundamental difference among theories such as the string theory and the non-perturbative quantum gravity, we are still left with many ambiguities (and/or parameters to be determined) with regard to the choice of variables, the choice of related groups, etc. Loop quantum gravity is also in such a state. It is interesting to search for experimental observables to distinguish these quantum schemes. This paper investigates the loop quantum gravity effect on luminosity-redshift relation. The quantum bounce behavior of loop quantum cosmology is found to result in multivalued correspondence in luminosity-redshift relation. And the detail multivalued behavior can tell the difference of different quantum parameters. The inverse volume quantum correction does not result in bounce behavior in this model, but affects luminosity-redshift relation also significantly.
Median recoil direction as a WIMP directional detection signal
Green, Anne M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Morgan, Ben [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)
2010-03-15
Direct detection experiments have reached the sensitivity to detect dark matter weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). Demonstrating that a putative signal is due to WIMPs, and not backgrounds, is a major challenge, however. The direction dependence of the WIMP scattering rate provides a potential WIMP 'smoking gun'. If the WIMP distribution is predominantly smooth, the Galactic recoil distribution is peaked in the direction opposite to the direction of Solar motion. Previous studies have found that, for an ideal detector, of order 10 WIMP events would be sufficient to reject isotropy, and rule out an isotropic background. We examine how the median recoil direction could be used to confirm the WIMP origin of an anisotropic recoil signal. Specifically, we determine the number of events required to confirm the direction of solar motion as the median inverse recoil direction at 95% confidence. We find that for zero background 31 events are required, a factor of {approx}2 more than are required to simply reject isotropy. We also investigate the effect of a nonzero isotropic background. As the background rate is increased the number of events required increases, initially fairly gradually and then more rapidly, once the signal becomes subdominant. We also discuss the effect of features in the speed distribution at large speeds, as found in recent high resolution simulations, on the median recoil direction.
Effects of quantum gravity on black holes
Deyou Chen; Houwen Wu; Haitang Yang; Shuzheng Yang
2014-10-19
In this review, we discuss effects of quantum gravity on black hole physics. After a brief review of the origin of the minimal observable length from various quantum gravity theories, we present the tunneling method. To incorporate quantum gravity effects, we modify the Klein-Gordon equation and Dirac equation by the modified fundamental commutation relations. Then we use the modified equations to discuss the tunneling radiation of scalar particles and fermions. The corrected Hawking temperatures are related to the quantum numbers of the emitted particles. Quantum gravity corrections slow down the increase of the temperatures. The remnants are observed as $M_{\\hbox{Res}}\\gtrsim \\frac{M_p}{\\sqrt{\\beta_0}}$. The mass is quantized by the modified Wheeler-DeWitt equation and is proportional to $n$ in quantum gravity regime. The thermodynamical property of the black hole is studied by the influence of quantum gravity effects.
Quadrupole anisotropy from photon quantum effects
Alexei V Nesteruk; Roy Maartens
1995-11-15
We consider quantum effects of an electromagnetic field in a radiation-dominated almost FRW spacetime. The dominant non-local quantum correction to the photon distribution is a quadrupole moment, corresponding to an effective anisotropic pressure in the energy-momentum tensor.
Magnetic field effects on quantum ring excitons
Jakyoung Song; Sergio E. Ulloa
2001-01-01
We study the effect of magnetic field and geometric confinement on excitons confined to a quantum ring. We use analytical matrix elements of the Coulomb interaction and diagonalize numerically the effective-mass Hamiltonian of the problem. To explore the role of different boundary conditions, we investigate the quantum ring structure with a parabolic confinement potential, which allows the wave functions to
Effects of Static Imperfections for Quantum Computing
Giuliano Benenti; Giulio Casati
2003-01-01
We model the quantum computer hardware as a two-dimensional lattice of qubits with static imperfections, i.e. fluctuations in individual qubit energies and residual short-range inter-qubit couplings. We show that these imperfections can lead to the emergence of quantum chaos and dynamical thermalization also in a quantum computer ideally decoupled from the environment. We discuss their effect on the stability of
Planck's quantum-driven integer quantum Hall effect in chaos
Yu Chen; Chushun Tian
2014-09-18
The integer quantum Hall effect (IQHE) and chaos are commonly conceived as being unrelated. Contrary to common wisdoms, we find in a canonical chaotic system, the kicked spin-$1/2$ rotor, a Planck's quantum($h_e$)-driven phenomenon bearing a firm analogy to IQHE but of chaos origin. Specifically, the rotor's energy growth is unbounded ('metallic' phase) for a discrete set of critical $h_e$-values, but otherwise bounded ('insulating' phase). The latter phase is topological in nature and characterized by a quantum number ('quantized Hall conductance'). The number jumps by unity whenever $h_e$ decreases passing through each critical value. Our findings, within the reach of cold-atom experiments, indicate that rich topological quantum phenomena may emerge from chaos.
The Compton effect: Transition to quantum mechanics
R. H. Stuewer
2000-01-01
The discovery of the Compton effect at the end of 1922 was a decisive event in the transition to the new quantum mechanics of 1925-1926 because it stimulated physicists to examine anew the fundamental problem of the interaction between radiation and matter. I first discuss Albert Einstein's light-quantum hypothesis of 1905 and why physicists greeted it with extreme skepticism, despite
Effect algebras and unsharp quantum logics
D. J. Foulis; M. K. Bennett
1994-01-01
The effects in a quantum-mechanical system form a partial algebra and a partially ordered set which is the prototypical example of the effect algebras discussed in this paper. The relationships among effect algebras and such structures as orthoalgebras and orthomodular posets are investigated, as are morphisms and group- valued measures (or charges) on effect algebras. It is proved that there
Topological issues in effective quantum theories
Sachindeo Vaidya
1998-01-01
The Born-Oppenheimer (B-O) approximation is an intuitively appealing as well as an efficient scheme to discuss quantum theories that allow a natural separation of degrees of freedom according to energy scales. This dissertation studies a subtle and remarkable interaction between two topological effects in certain effective quantum theories, one being the violation of parity [\\/cal P] and time-reversal [\\/cal T
Nuclear recoil correction to the g factor of boron-like argon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shchepetnov, A. A.; Glazov, D. A.; Volotka, A. V.; Shabaev, V. M.; Tupitsyn, I. I.; Plunien, G.
2015-01-01
The nuclear recoil effect to the g factor of boron-like ions is investigated. The one-photon-exchange correction to the nuclear recoil effect is calculated in the nonrelativistic approximation for the nuclear recoil operator and in the Breit approximation for the interelectronic-interaction operator. The screening potential is employed to estimate the higher-order contributions. The updated g-factor values are presented for the ground 2P1/2 and first excited 2P3/2 states of B-like argon 40Ar13+, which are presently being measured by the ARTEMIS group at GSI.
Optimal tunneling enhances the quantum photovoltaic effect in double quantum dots
Wang, Chen
We investigate the quantum photovoltaic effect in double quantum dots by applying the nonequilibrium quantum master equation. A drastic suppression of the photovoltaic current is observed near the open circuit voltage, ...
D'Agnolo, Andrea
Quantum Computing and Lie Theory Feynman's suggestion that the only effective way to model quantum that a quantum computer could, in theory, factor large integers or do discrete logarithms in polynomial time the basic quantum mechanics necessary to understand the theory, describe quantum algorithms and explain
Doppler- and recoil-free laser excitation of Rydberg states via three-photon transitions
Ryabtsev, I. I.; Beterov, I. I.; Tretyakov, D. B.; Entin, V. M.; Yakshina, E. A. [A. V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics SB RAS, Prospekt Lavrentyeva 13, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)
2011-11-15
Three-photon laser excitation of Rydberg states by three different laser beams can be arranged in a starlike geometry that simultaneously eliminates the recoil effect and Doppler broadening. Our analytical and numerical calculations for a particular laser excitation scheme 5S{sub 1/2}{yields}5P{sub 3/2}{yields}6S{sub 1/2}{yields}nP in Rb atoms have shown that, compared to the one- and two-photon laser excitation, this approach provides much narrower linewidth and longer coherence time for both cold atom samples and hot vapors, if the intermediate one-photon resonances of the three-photon transition are detuned by more than respective single-photon Doppler widths. This method can be used to improve fidelity of Rydberg quantum gates and precision of spectroscopic measurements in Rydberg atoms.
About the importance of the nuclear recoil in ?emission near the DNA
E. Lodi Rizzini; A. Bianconi; M. Corradini; M. Leali; V. Mascagna; L. Venturelli; N. Zurlo
2011-07-19
The effect of the energy deposition inside the human body made by radioactive substances is discussed. For the first time, we stress the importance of the recoiling nucleus in such reactions, particularly concerning the damage caused on the DNA structure.
Gas powered fluid gun with recoil mitigation
Grubelich, Mark C; Yonas, Gerold
2013-11-12
A gas powered fluid gun for propelling a stream or slug of a fluid at high velocity toward a target. Recoil mitigation is provided that reduces or eliminates the associated recoil forces, with minimal or no backwash. By launching a quantity of water in the opposite direction, net momentum forces are reduced or eliminated. Examples of recoil mitigation devices include a cone for making a conical fluid sheet, a device forming multiple impinging streams of fluid, a cavitating venturi, one or more spinning vanes, or an annular tangential entry/exit.
Retention studies of recoiling daughter nuclides of 225Ac in polymer vesicles.
Wang, G; de Kruijff, R M; Rol, A; Thijssen, L; Mendes, E; Morgenstern, A; Bruchertseifer, F; Stuart, M C A; Wolterbeek, H T; Denkova, A G
2014-02-01
Alpha radionuclide therapy is steadily gaining importance and a large number of pre-clinical and clinical studies have been carried out. However, due to the recoil effects the daughter recoil atoms, most of which are alpha emitters as well, receive energies that are much higher than the energies of chemical bonds resulting in decoupling of the radionuclide from common targeting agents. Here, we demonstrate that polymer vesicles (i.e. polymersomes) can retain recoiling daughter nuclei based on an experimental study examining the retention of (221)Fr and (213)Bi when encapsulating (225)Ac. PMID:24374072
Locality and universality of quantum memory effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, B.-H.; Wißmann, S.; Hu, X.-M.; Zhang, C.; Huang, Y.-F.; Li, C.-F.; Guo, G.-C.; Karlsson, A.; Piilo, J.; Breuer, H.-P.
2014-09-01
The modeling and analysis of the dynamics of complex systems often requires to employ non-Markovian stochastic processes. While there is a clear and well-established mathematical definition for non-Markovianity in the case of classical systems, the extension to the quantum regime recently caused a vivid debate, leading to many different proposals for the characterization and quantification of memory effects in the dynamics of open quantum systems. Here, we derive a mathematical representation for the non-Markovianity measure based on the exchange of information between the open system and its environment, which reveals the locality and universality of non-Markovianity in the quantum state space and substantially simplifies its numerical and experimental determination. We further illustrate the application of this representation by means of an all-optical experiment which allows the measurement of the degree of memory effects in a photonic quantum process with high accuracy.
Coherent quantum effects through dispersive bosonic media
Ye Saiyun [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Yang Zhenbiao; Zheng Shibiao [Department of Physics, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Serafini, Alessio [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)
2010-07-15
The coherent evolution of two qubits mediated by a set of bosonic field modes is investigated. By assuming a specific asymmetric encoding of the quantum states in the internal levels of the qubits, we show that entangling quantum gates can be realized, with high fidelity, even when a large number of mediating modes is involved. The effect of losses and imperfections on the gates' operation is also considered in detail.
Classification of macroscopic quantum effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farrow, Tristan; Vedral, Vlatko
2015-02-01
We review canonical experiments on systems that have pushed the boundary between the quantum and classical worlds towards much larger scales, and discuss their unique features that enable quantum coherence to survive. Because the types of systems differ so widely, we use a case by case approach to identifying the different parameters and criteria that capture their behaviour in a quantum mechanical framework. We find it helpful to categorise systems into three broad classes defined by mass, spatio-temporal coherence, and number of particles. The classes are not mutually exclusive and in fact the properties of some systems fit into several classes. We discuss experiments by turn, starting with interference of massive objects like macromolecules and micro-mechanical resonators, followed by self-interference of single particles in complex molecules, before examining the striking advances made with superconducting qubits. Finally, we propose a theoretical basis for quantifying the macroscopic features of a system to lay the ground for a more systematic comparison of the quantum properties in disparate systems.
Scintillation Response of Liquid Xenon to Low Energy Nuclear Recoils
E. Aprile; K. L. Giboni; P. Majewski; K. Ni; M. Yamashita; R. Hasty; A. Manzur; D. N. McKinsey
2005-03-29
Liquid Xenon (LXe) is expected to be an excellent target and detector medium to search for dark matter in the form of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). Knowledge of LXe ionization and scintillation response to low energy nuclear recoils expected from the scattering of WIMPs by Xe nuclei is important for determining the sensitivity of LXe direct detection experiments. Here we report on new measurements of the scintillation yield of Xe recoils with kinetic energy as low as 10 keV. The dependence of the scintillation yield on applied electric field was also measured in the range of 0 to 4 kV/cm. Results are in good agreement with recent theoretical predictions that take into account the effect of biexcitonic collisions in addition to the nuclear quenching effect.
Ramsey type Sub-Recoil Cooling
Sander, F; Esslinger, T; Hänsch, T W; Sander, Frank; Devolder, Thibaut; Esslinger, Tilman; Hansch, Theodor W.
1996-01-01
We experimentally study the motion of atoms interacting with a periodically pulsed near resonant standing wave. For discrete pulse frequencies we observe a comb-like momentum distribution. The peaks have widths of 0.3 recoil momenta and a spacing which is an integer multiple of the recoil momentum. The atomic population is trapped in ground states which periodically evolve to dark states each time the standing wave is switched on.
Berkeley Experiments on Superfluid Macroscopic Quantum Effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Packard, Richard
2006-09-01
This paper provides a brief history of the evolution of the Berkeley experiments on macroscopic quantum effects in superfluid helium. The narrative follows the evolution of the experiments proceeding from the detection of single vortex lines to vortex photography to quantized circulation in 3He to Josephson effects and superfluid gyroscopes in both 4He and 3He.
Constraining effective quantum gravity with LISA
Yunes, Nicolas
2008-01-01
All modern routes leading to a quantum theory of gravity -- i.e., perturbative quantum gravitational one-loop exact correction to the global chiral current in the standard model, string theory, and perhaps even loop quantum gravity -- require supplementing the Einstein-Hilbert action with a parity-violating Chern-Simons term. Such a term leads to amplitude-birefringent gravitational wave propagation: i.e., one (circular) polarization state amplified with propagation while the other is attenuated. The proposed Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is capable of observing gravitational wave sources at cosmological distances, suggesting the possibility that LISA observations may place a strong bound on this manifestation of quantum gravity. Here we report on a calculation of the effect that spacetime amplitude birefringence has on the signal LISA is capable of observing from inspiraling supermassive black hole binaries at large redshift. We find that the birefringence manifests itself in the observations as ...
Self-similar recoil of inviscid drops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sierou, Asimina; Lister, John R.
2004-05-01
After capillary pinchoff of a fluid thread or drop, the newly created drop tips recoil due to the large local curvature. Similarity solutions for the postpinchoff recoil of an axisymmetric inviscid fluid of density ?1 and surface tension ? immersed in a surrounding fluid of density ?2 are obtained over a range of the density ratio D=?2/?1. The far-field shape of the two new drops and the far-field dipole potentials are prescribed from known prepinching solutions [D. Leppinen and J. R. Lister, Phys. Fluids 15, 568 (2003)] and the positions and self-similar shape of the two recoiling tips are calculated. The momentum of the prepinching flow makes a significant difference to the recoiling shapes. Capillary waves are observed, in agreement with previous two-dimensional studies and analytical calculations, and the wave frequency is found to increase with D. The recoil of a single axisymmetric drop (with a conical far-field shape) under surface tension is also studied as a function of D and the far-field cone angle ?0. Capillary waves are again observed, and the results for small values of ?0 are shown to agree well with previous asymptotic predictions. The related problem of violent jet emission, following the formation of a near-conical structure with very high curvature at its tip, is also discussed and its similarity with the recoiling cone problem investigated.
Quantum metrology and estimation of Unruh effect
Wang, Jieci; Tian, Zehua; Jing, Jiliang; Fan, Heng
2014-01-01
We study the quantum metrology for a pair of entangled Unruh-Dewitt detectors when one of them is accelerated and coupled to a massless scalar field. Comparing with previous schemes, our model requires only local interaction and avoids the use of cavities in the probe state preparation process. We show that the probe state preparation and the interaction between the accelerated detector and the external field have significant effects on the value of quantum Fisher information, correspondingly pose variable ultimate limit of precision in the estimation of Unruh effect. We find that the precision of the estimation can be improved by a larger effective coupling strength and a longer interaction time. Alternatively, the energy gap of the detector has a range that can provide us a better precision. Thus we may adjust those parameters and attain a higher precision in the estimation. We also find that an extremely high acceleration is not required in the quantum metrology process. PMID:25424772
Quantum metrology and estimation of Unruh effect.
Wang, Jieci; Tian, Zehua; Jing, Jiliang; Fan, Heng
2014-01-01
We study the quantum metrology for a pair of entangled Unruh-Dewitt detectors when one of them is accelerated and coupled to a massless scalar field. Comparing with previous schemes, our model requires only local interaction and avoids the use of cavities in the probe state preparation process. We show that the probe state preparation and the interaction between the accelerated detector and the external field have significant effects on the value of quantum Fisher information, correspondingly pose variable ultimate limit of precision in the estimation of Unruh effect. We find that the precision of the estimation can be improved by a larger effective coupling strength and a longer interaction time. Alternatively, the energy gap of the detector has a range that can provide us a better precision. Thus we may adjust those parameters and attain a higher precision in the estimation. We also find that an extremely high acceleration is not required in the quantum metrology process. PMID:25424772
Quantum metrology and estimation of Unruh effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jieci; Tian, Zehua; Jing, Jiliang; Fan, Heng
2014-11-01
We study the quantum metrology for a pair of entangled Unruh-Dewitt detectors when one of them is accelerated and coupled to a massless scalar field. Comparing with previous schemes, our model requires only local interaction and avoids the use of cavities in the probe state preparation process. We show that the probe state preparation and the interaction between the accelerated detector and the external field have significant effects on the value of quantum Fisher information, correspondingly pose variable ultimate limit of precision in the estimation of Unruh effect. We find that the precision of the estimation can be improved by a larger effective coupling strength and a longer interaction time. Alternatively, the energy gap of the detector has a range that can provide us a better precision. Thus we may adjust those parameters and attain a higher precision in the estimation. We also find that an extremely high acceleration is not required in the quantum metrology process.
Measurement of scintillation efficiency for nuclear recoils in liquid argon
D. Gastler; E. Kearns; A. Hime; L. C. Stonehill; S. Seibert; J. Klein; W. H. Lippincott; D. N. McKinsey; J. A. Nikkel
2012-05-08
The scintillation light yield of liquid argon from nuclear recoils relative to electronic recoils has been measured as a function of recoil energy from 10 keVr up to 250 keVr. The scintillation efficiency, defined as the ratio of the nuclear recoil scintillation response to the electronic recoil response, is 0.25 \\pm 0.01 + 0.01(correlated) above 20 keVr.
The effects of nonextensivity on quantum dissipation
Choi, Jeong Ryeol
2014-01-01
Nonextensive dynamics for a quantum dissipative system described by a Caldirola-Kanai (CK) Hamiltonian is investigated in SU(1,1) coherent states. To see the effects of nonextensivity, the system is generalized through a modification fulfilled by replacing the ordinary exponential function in the standard CK Hamiltonian with the q-exponential function. We confirmed that the time behavior of the system is somewhat different depending on the value of q which is the degree of nonextensivity. The effects of q on quantum energy dissipation and other parameters are illustrated and discussed in detail. PMID:24468727
Quantum plasma effects in the classical regime
G. Brodin; M. Marklund; G. Manfredi
2008-02-01
For quantum effects to be significant in plasmas it is often assumed that the temperature over density ratio must be small. In this paper we challenge this assumption by considering the contribution to the dynamics from the electron spin properties. As a starting point we consider a multicomponent plasma model, where electrons with spin up and spin down are regarded as different fluids. By studying the propagation of Alfv\\'{e}n wave solitons we demonstrate that quantum effects can survive in a relatively high-temperature plasma. The consequences of our results are discussed.
The Compton effect: Transition to quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stuewer, R. H.
2000-11-01
The discovery of the Compton effect at the end of 1922 was a decisive event in the transition to the new quantum mechanics of 1925-1926 because it stimulated physicists to examine anew the fundamental problem of the interaction between radiation and matter. I first discuss Albert Einstein's light-quantum hypothesis of 1905 and why physicists greeted it with extreme skepticism, despite Robert A. Millikan's confirmation of Einstein's equation of the photoelectric effect in 1915. I then follow in some detail the experimental and theoretical research program that Arthur Holly Compton pursued between 1916 and 1922 at the University of Minnesota, the Westinghouse Lamp Company, the Cavendish Laboratory, and Washington University that culminated in his discovery of the Compton effect. Surprisingly, Compton was not influenced directly by Einstein's light-quantum hypothesis, in contrast to Peter Debye and H.A. Kramers, who discovered the quantum theory of scattering independently. I close by discussing the most significant response to that discovery, the Bohr-Kramers-Slater theory of 1924, its experimental refutation, and its influence on the emerging new quantum mechanics.
A recoil resilient lumen support, design, fabrication and mechanical evaluation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehdizadeh, Arash; Ali, Mohamed Sultan Mohamed; Takahata, Kenichi; Al-Sarawi, Said; Abbott, Derek
2013-06-01
Stents are artificial implants that provide scaffolding to a cavity inside the body. This paper presents a new luminal device for reducing the mechanical failure of stents due to recoil, which is one of the most important issues in stenting. This device, which we call a recoil-resilient ring (RRR), is utilized standalone or potentially integrated with existing stents to address the problem of recoil. The proposed structure aims to minimize the need for high-pressure overexpansion that can induce intra-luminal trauma and excess growth of vascular tissue causing later restenosis. The RRR is an overlapped open ring with asymmetrical sawtooth structures that are intermeshed. These teeth can slide on top of each other, while the ring is radially expanded, but interlock step-by-step so as to keep the final expanded state against compressional forces that normally cause recoil. The RRRs thus deliver balloon expandability and, when integrated with a stent, bring both radial rigidity and longitudinal flexibility to the stent. The design of the RRR is investigated through finite element analysis (FEA), and then the devices are fabricated using micro-electro-discharge machining of 200-µm-thick Nitinol sheet. The standalone RRR is balloon expandable in vitro by 5-7 Atm in pressure, which is well within the recommended in vivo pressure ranges for stenting procedures. FEA compression tests indicate 13× less reduction of the cross-sectional area of the RRR compared with a typical stainless steel stent. These results also show perfect elastic recovery of the RRR after removal of the pressure compared to the remaining plastic deformations of the stainless steel stent. On the other hand, experimental loading tests show that the fabricated RRRs have 2.8× radial stiffness compared to a two-column section of a commercial stent while exhibiting comparable elastic recovery. Furthermore, testing of in vitro expansion in a mock artery tube shows around 2.9% recoil, approximately 5-11× smaller than the recoil reported for commercial stents. These experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the device design for the targeted luminal support and stenting applications.
PHYSICAL REVIEW A 85, 023826 (2012) Dynamic quantum Kerr effect in circuit quantum electrodynamics
Martinis, John M.
PHYSICAL REVIEW A 85, 023826 (2012) Dynamic quantum Kerr effect in circuit quantum electrodynamics-state cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) systems [2Â5], with strongly enhanced coupling strength between regime to avoid measurement-induced demolition of the qubit quantum state. Here we explore the qubit
Observation of the Dependence of Scintillation from Nuclear Recoils in Liquid Argon on Drift Field
T. Alexander; H. O. Back; H. Cao; A. G. Cocco; F. DeJongh; G. Fiorillo; C. Galbiati; C. Ghag; L. Grandi; C. Kendziora; W. H. Lippincott; B. Loer; C. Love; L. Manenti; C. J. Martoff; Y. Meng; D. Montanari; P. Mosteiro; D. Olvitt; S. Pordes; H. Qian; B. Rossi; R. Saldanha; W. Tan; J. Tatarowicz; S. Walker; H. Wang; A. W. Watson; S. Westerdale; J. Yoo
2013-12-16
We have exposed a dual-phase Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr-TPC) to a low energy pulsed narrowband neutron beam, produced at the Notre Dame Institute for Structure and Nuclear Astrophysics to study the scintillation light yield of recoiling nuclei in a LAr-TPC. A liquid scintillation counter was arranged to detect and identify neutrons scattered in the LAr-TPC target and to select the energy of the recoiling nuclei. We report the observation of a significant dependence on drift field of liquid argon scintillation from nuclear recoils of 11 keV. This observation is important because, to date, estimates of the sensitivity of noble liquid TPC dark matter searches are based on the assumption that electric field has only a small effect on the light yield from nuclear recoils.
Observation of the Dependence of Scintillation from Nuclear Recoils in Liquid Argon on Drift Field
Alexander, T; Cao, H; Cocco, A G; DeJongh, F; Fiorillo, G; Galbiati, C; Ghag, C; Grandi, L; Kendziora, C; Lippincott, W H; Loer, B; Love, C; Manenti, L; Martoff, C J; Meng, Y; Montanari, D; Mosteiro, P; Olvitt, D; Pordes, S; Qian, H; Rossi, B; Saldanha, R; Tan, W; Tatarowicz, J; Walker, S; Wang, H; Watson, A W; Westerdale, S; Yoo, J
2013-01-01
We have exposed a dual-phase Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr-TPC) to a low energy pulsed narrowband neutron beam, produced at the Notre Dame Institute for Structure and Nuclear Astrophysics to study the scintillation light yield of recoiling nuclei in a LAr-TPC. A liquid scintillation counter was arranged to detect and identify neutrons scattered in the LAr-TPC target and to select the energy of the recoiling nuclei. We report the observation of a significant dependence on drift field of liquid argon scintillation from nuclear recoils of 11 keV. This observation is important because, to date, estimates of the sensitivity of noble liquid TPC dark matter searches are based on the assumption that electric field has only a small effect on the light yield from nuclear recoils.
Anatomy of the Binary Black Hole Recoil: A Multipolar Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schnittman, Jeremy; Buonanno, Alessandra; vanMeter, James R.; Baker, John G.; Boggs, William D.; Centrella, Joan; Kelly, Bernard J.; McWilliams, Sean T.
2007-01-01
We present a multipolar analysis of the recoil velocity computed in recent numerical simulations of binary black hole coalescence, for both unequal masses and non-zero, non-precessing spins. We show that multipole moments up to and including 1 = 4 are sufficient to accurately reproduce the final recoil velocity (= 98%) and that only a few dominant modes contribute significantly to it (2 95%). We describe how the relative amplitude, and more importantly, the relative phase, of these few modes control the way in which the recoil builds up throughout the inspiral, merger, and ring-down phases. We also find that the numerical results can be reproduced, to a high level of accuracy, by an effective Newtonian formula for the multipole moments obtained by replacing in the Newtonian formula the radial separation with an effective radius computed from the numerical data. Beyond the merger, the numerical results are reproduced by a superposition of three Kerr quasi-normal modes. Analytic formulae, obtained by expressing the multipole moments in terms of the fundamental QNMs of a Kerr BH, are able to explain the onset and amount of '.anti-kick" for each of the simulations. Lastly, we apply this multipolar analysis to understand the remarkable difference between the amplitudes of planar and non-planar kicks for equal-mass spinning black holes.
Recoiling from a Kick in the Head-On Case
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choi, Dae-Il; Kelly, Bernard J.; Boggs, William D.; Baker, John G.; Centrella, Joan; Van Meter, James
2007-01-01
Recoil "kicks" induced by gravitational radiation are expected in the inspiral and merger of black holes. Recently the numerical relativity community has begun to measure the significant kicks found when both unequal masses and spins are considered. Because understanding the cause and magnitude of each component of this kick may be complicated in inspiral simulations, we consider these effects in the context of a simple test problem. We study recoils from collisions of binaries with initially head-on trajectories, starting with the simplest case of equal masses with no spin; adding spin and varying the mass ratio, both separately and jointly. We find spin-induced recoils to be significant even in head-on configurations. Additionally, it appears that the scaling of transverse kicks with spins is consistent with post-Newtonian (PN) theory, even though the kick is generated in the nonlinear merger interaction, where PN theory should not apply. This suggests that a simple heuristic description might be effective in the estimation of spin-kicks.
Quantum fluid model of coherent stimulated radiation by a dense relativistic cold electron beam
Monteiro, L. F.; Serbeto, A.; Tsui, K. H. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Campus da Praia Vermelha, Niterói, RJ 24210-346 (Brazil)] [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Campus da Praia Vermelha, Niterói, RJ 24210-346 (Brazil); Mendonça, J. T.; Galvão, R. M. O. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP 05508-090 (Brazil)] [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP 05508-090 (Brazil)
2013-07-15
Using a quantum fluid model, the linear dispersion relation for FEL pumped by a short wavelength laser wiggler is deduced. Subsequently, a new quantum corrected resonance condition is obtained. It is shown that, in the limit of low energy electron beam and low frequency pump, the quantum recoil effect can be neglected, recovering the classical FEL resonance condition, k{sub s}=4k{sub w}?{sup 2}. On the other hand, for short wavelength and high energy electron beam, the quantum recoil effect becomes strong and the resonance condition turns into k{sub s}=2?(k{sub w}/?{sub c})?{sup 3/2}, with ?{sub c} being the reduced Compton wavelength. As a result, a set of nonlinear coupled equations, which describes the quantum FEL dynamics as a three-wave interaction, is obtained. Neglecting wave propagation effects, this set of equations is solved numerically and results are presented.
Using the Quantum Zeno Effect for the Suppression of Decoherence
Yasushi Kondo; Yuichiro Matsuzaki; Kei Matsushima; Jefferson G. Filgueiras
2014-06-27
Projective measurements are an essential element of quantum mechanics. In most cases, they cause an irreversible change of the quantum system on which they act. However, measurements can also be used to stabilize quantum states from decay processes, which is known as the Quantum Zeno Effect. Here, we demonstrate this effect for the case of superposition states of nuclear spin qubits, using an ancilla to perform the measurement. As a result, the quantum state of the qubit is protected against dephasing.
Stochasticity effects in quantum radiation reaction.
Neitz, N; Di Piazza, A
2013-08-01
When an ultrarelativistic electron beam collides with a sufficiently intense laser pulse, radiation-reaction effects can strongly alter the beam dynamics. In the realm of classical electrodynamics, radiation reaction has a beneficial effect on the electron beam as it tends to reduce its energy spread. Here we show that when quantum effects become important, radiation reaction induces the opposite effect; i.e., the energy distribution of the electron beam spreads out after interacting with the laser pulse. We identify the physical origin of this opposite tendency in the intrinsic stochasticity of photon emission, which becomes substantial in the quantum regime. Our numerical simulations indicate that the predicted effects of the stochasticity can be measured already with presently available lasers and electron accelerators. PMID:23952410
Significant Quantum Effects in Hydrogen Activation
2014-01-01
Dissociation of molecular hydrogen is an important step in a wide variety of chemical, biological, and physical processes. Due to the light mass of hydrogen, it is recognized that quantum effects are often important to its reactivity. However, understanding how quantum effects impact the reactivity of hydrogen is still in its infancy. Here, we examine this issue using a well-defined Pd/Cu(111) alloy that allows the activation of hydrogen and deuterium molecules to be examined at individual Pd atom surface sites over a wide range of temperatures. Experiments comparing the uptake of hydrogen and deuterium as a function of temperature reveal completely different behavior of the two species. The rate of hydrogen activation increases at lower sample temperature, whereas deuterium activation slows as the temperature is lowered. Density functional theory simulations in which quantum nuclear effects are accounted for reveal that tunneling through the dissociation barrier is prevalent for H2 up to ?190 K and for D2 up to ?140 K. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations indicate that the effective barrier to H2 dissociation is so low that hydrogen uptake on the surface is limited merely by thermodynamics, whereas the D2 dissociation process is controlled by kinetics. These data illustrate the complexity and inherent quantum nature of this ubiquitous and seemingly simple chemical process. Examining these effects in other systems with a similar range of approaches may uncover temperature regimes where quantum effects can be harnessed, yielding greater control of bond-breaking processes at surfaces and uncovering useful chemistries such as selective bond activation or isotope separation. PMID:24684530
Significant quantum effects in hydrogen activation.
Kyriakou, Georgios; Davidson, Erlend R M; Peng, Guowen; Roling, Luke T; Singh, Suyash; Boucher, Matthew B; Marcinkowski, Matthew D; Mavrikakis, Manos; Michaelides, Angelos; Sykes, E Charles H
2014-05-27
Dissociation of molecular hydrogen is an important step in a wide variety of chemical, biological, and physical processes. Due to the light mass of hydrogen, it is recognized that quantum effects are often important to its reactivity. However, understanding how quantum effects impact the reactivity of hydrogen is still in its infancy. Here, we examine this issue using a well-defined Pd/Cu(111) alloy that allows the activation of hydrogen and deuterium molecules to be examined at individual Pd atom surface sites over a wide range of temperatures. Experiments comparing the uptake of hydrogen and deuterium as a function of temperature reveal completely different behavior of the two species. The rate of hydrogen activation increases at lower sample temperature, whereas deuterium activation slows as the temperature is lowered. Density functional theory simulations in which quantum nuclear effects are accounted for reveal that tunneling through the dissociation barrier is prevalent for H2 up to ?190 K and for D2 up to ?140 K. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations indicate that the effective barrier to H2 dissociation is so low that hydrogen uptake on the surface is limited merely by thermodynamics, whereas the D2 dissociation process is controlled by kinetics. These data illustrate the complexity and inherent quantum nature of this ubiquitous and seemingly simple chemical process. Examining these effects in other systems with a similar range of approaches may uncover temperature regimes where quantum effects can be harnessed, yielding greater control of bond-breaking processes at surfaces and uncovering useful chemistries such as selective bond activation or isotope separation. PMID:24684530
The Quantum Hall Effect in Graphene
Paolo Cea
2012-04-24
We investigate the quantum Hall effect in graphene. We argue that in graphene in presence of an external magnetic field there is dynamical generation of mass by a rearrangement of the Dirac sea. We show that the mechanism breaks the lattice valley degeneracy only for the $n=0$ Landau levels and leads to the new observed $\
Multipartite entanglement control via Quantum Zeno Effect
J. G. Oliveira Jr.; R. Rossi Jr.; M. C. Nemes
2008-10-28
We develop a protocol based on 2M pairwise interacting qubits, which through Quantum Zeno Effect controls the entanglement distribution of the system. We also show that if the coupling constants are different the QZE may be used to achieve perfect entanglement swap.
Effective Evolution Equations from Quantum Dynamics
Niels Benedikter; Marcello Porta; Benjamin Schlein
2015-02-09
In these notes we review the material presented at the summer school on "Mathematical Physics, Analysis and Stochastics" held at the University of Heidelberg in July 2014. We consider the time-evolution of quantum systems and in particular the rigorous derivation of effective equations approximating the many-body Schr\\"odinger dynamics in certain physically interesting regimes.
Room-Temperature Quantum Hall Effect in Graphene
K. S. Novoselov; Philip Kim; Zhigang Jiang; Horst Stormer; Yuanbo Zhang; Sergey Morozov; G. S. Boebinger; P. Kim; A. K. Geim
2007-01-01
The quantum Hall effect (QHE), one example of a quantum phenomenon that occurs on a truly macroscopic scale, has attracted intense interest since its discovery in 1980 and has helped elucidate many important aspects of quantum physics. It has also led to the establishment of a new metrological standard, the resistance quantum. Disappointingly, however, the QHE has been observed only
Unconventional Integer Quantum Hall effect in graphene
V. P. Gusynin; S. G. Sharapov
2005-08-16
Monolayer graphite films, or graphene, have quasiparticle excitations that can be described by 2+1 dimensional Dirac theory. We demonstrate that this produces an unconventional form of the quantized Hall conductivity $\\sigma_{xy} = - (2 e^2/h)(2n+1)$ with $n=0,1,...$, that notably distinguishes graphene from other materials where the integer quantum Hall effect was observed. This unconventional quantization is caused by the quantum anomaly of the $n=0$ Landau level and was discovered in recent experiments on ultrathin graphite films.
Unconventional Integer Quantum Hall Effect in Graphene
V. P. Gusynin; S. G. Sharapov
2005-01-01
Monolayer graphite films, or graphene, have quasiparticle excitations that\\u000acan be described by 2+1 dimensional Dirac theory. We demonstrate that this\\u000aproduces an unconventional form of the quantized Hall conductivity $\\\\sigma_{xy}\\u000a= - (2 e^2\\/h)(2n+1)$ with $n=0,1,...$, that notably distinguishes graphene from\\u000aother materials where the integer quantum Hall effect was observed. This\\u000aunconventional quantization is caused by the quantum
Effective equilibrium theory of nonequilibrium quantum transport
Dutt, Prasenjit [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Koch, Jens [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Han, Jong [Department of Physics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States); Le Hur, Karyn, E-mail: karyn.lehur@yale.edu [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)
2011-12-15
The theoretical description of strongly correlated quantum systems out of equilibrium presents several challenges and a number of open questions persist. Here, we focus on nonlinear electronic transport through an interacting quantum dot maintained at finite bias using a concept introduced by Hershfield [S. Hershfield, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70 2134 (1993)] whereby one can express such nonequilibrium quantum impurity models in terms of the system's Lippmann-Schwinger operators. These scattering operators allow one to reformulate the nonequilibrium problem as an effective equilibrium problem associated with a modified Hamiltonian. In this paper, we provide a pedagogical analysis of the core concepts of the effective equilibrium theory. First, we demonstrate the equivalence between observables computed using the Schwinger-Keldysh framework and the effective equilibrium approach, and relate Green's functions in the two theoretical frameworks. Second, we expound some applications of this method in the context of interacting quantum impurity models. We introduce a novel framework to treat effects of interactions perturbatively while capturing the entire dependence on the bias voltage. For the sake of concreteness, we employ the Anderson model as a prototype for this scheme. Working at the particle-hole symmetric point, we investigate the fate of the Abrikosov-Suhl resonance as a function of bias voltage and magnetic field. - Highlights: > Reformulation of steady-state nonequilibrium quantum transport, following Hershfield. > Derivation of effective equilibrium density operator using the 'open-system' approach. > Equivalence with the Keldysh description and formulas relating the two approaches. > Novel framework to treat interactions perturbatively. > Application to nonequilibrium Anderson model and fate of Abrikosov-Suhl resonance.
Quantum electrodynamics effects on helium fine Krzysztof Pachucki z
Pachucki, Krzysztof
Quantum electrodynamics effects on helium fine structure Krzysztof Pachucki z Institute. Opt. Phys. 1. Introduction The calculation of quantum electrodynamics (QED) effects in few electron; Quantum electrodynamics effects on helium fine structure 2 In section 2 we summarize lower order terms
Quantum Mechanical Effects in Gravitational Collapse
Eric Greenwood
2010-01-12
In this thesis we investigate quantum mechanical effects to various aspects of gravitational collapse. These quantum mechanical effects are implemented in the context of the Functional Schr\\"odinger formalism. The Functional Schr\\"odinger formalism allows us to investigate the time-dependent evolutions of the quantum mechanical effects, which is beyond the scope of the usual methods used to investigate the quantum mechanical corrections of gravitational collapse. Utilizing the time-dependent nature of the Functional Schr\\"odinger formalism, we study the quantization of a spherically symmetric domain wall from the view point of an asymptotic and infalling observer, in the absence of radiation. To build a more realistic picture, we then study the time-dependent nature of the induced radiation during the collapse using a semi-classical approach. Using the domain wall and the induced radiation, we then study the time-dependent evolution of the entropy of the domain wall. Finally we make some remarks about the possible inclusion of backreaction into the system.
Quantum Zeno effect in a multilevel molecule
D. Bruno; P. Facchi; S. Longo; P. Minelli; S. Pascazio; A. Scardicchio
2010-01-19
We study the dynamics of the populations of a model molecule endowed with two sets of rotational levels of different parity, whose ground levels are energy degenerate and coupled by a constant interaction. The relaxation rate from one set of levels to the other one has an interesting dependence on the average collision frequency of the molecules in the gas. This is interpreted as a quantum Zeno effect due to the decoherence effects provoked by the molecular collisions.
Effect of trapping in degenerate quantum plasmas
Shah, H. A.; Qureshi, M. N. S. [Department of Physics, GC University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Tsintsadze, N. [Department of Physics, GC University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Salam Chair, GC University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan)
2010-03-15
In the present work we consider the effect of trapping as a microscopic process in a plasma consisting of quantum electrons and nondegenerate ions. The formation of solitary structures is investigated in two cases: first when the electrons are fully degenerate and second when small temperature effects are taken into account. It is seen that not only rarefactive but coupled rarefactive and compressive solitons are obtained under different temperature conditions.
Zeeman Effect in Parabolic Quantum Dots
R. Rinaldi; P. V. Giugno; R. Cingolani; H. Lipsanen; M. Sopanen; J. Tulkki; J. Ahopelto
1996-01-01
An unprecedentedly well resolved Zeeman effect has been observed when confined carriers moving along a closed mesoscopic path experience an external magnetic field orthogonal to the orbit plane. Large Zeeman splitting of excited higher angular momentum states is observed in the magnetoluminescence spectrum of quantum dots induced by self-organized InP islands on InGaAs\\/GaAs. The measured effect is quantitatively reproduced by
Constraining effective quantum gravity with LISA
Nicolas Yunes; Lee Samuel Finn
2008-11-02
All modern routes leading to a quantum theory of gravity -- i.e., perturbative quantum gravitational one-loop exact correction to the global chiral current in the standard model, string theory, and perhaps even loop quantum gravity -- require supplementing the Einstein-Hilbert action with a parity-violating Chern-Simons term. Such a term leads to amplitude-birefringent gravitational wave propagation: i.e., one (circular) polarization state amplified with propagation while the other is attenuated. The proposed Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is capable of observing gravitational wave sources at cosmological distances, suggesting the possibility that LISA observations may place a strong bound on this manifestation of quantum gravity. Here we report on a calculation of the effect that spacetime amplitude birefringence has on the signal LISA is capable of observing from inspiraling supermassive black hole binaries at large redshift. We find that the birefringence manifests itself in the observations as an anomalous precession of the binary's orbital angular momentum as it evolves toward coalescence, whose magnitude depends on the integrated history of the Chern-Simons coupling over the worldline of radiation wavefront. We estimate that LISA could place bounds on Chern-Simons modified gravity that are several orders of magnitude stronger than the present Solar System constraints, thus providing a probe of the quantum structure of spacetime.
Constraining effective quantum gravity with LISA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yunes, Nicolás; Finn, Lee Samuel
2009-03-01
All modern routes leading to a quantum theory of gravity - i.e., perturbative quantum gravitational one-loop exact correction to the global chiral current in the standard model, string theory, and perhaps even loop quantum gravity - require supplementing the Einstein-Hilbert action with a parity-violating Chern-Simons term. Such a term leads to amplitude-birefringent gravitational wave propagation: i.e., one (circular) polarization state amplified with propagation while the other is attenuated. The proposed Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is capable of observing gravitational wave sources at cosmological distances, suggesting the possibility that LISA observations may place a strong bound on this manifestation of quantum gravity. Here we report on a calculation of the effect that spacetime amplitude birefringence has on the signal LISA is capable of observing from inspiraling supermassive black hole binaries at large redshift. We find that the birefringence manifests itself in the observations as an anomalous precession of the binary's orbital angular momentum as it evolves toward coalescence, whose magnitude depends on the integrated history of the Chern-Simons coupling over the worldline of radiation wavefront. We estimate that LISA could place bounds on Chern-Simons modified gravity that are several orders of magnitude stronger than the present Solar System constraints, thus providing a probe of the quantum structure of spacetime.
Anomalous Nuclear Quantum Effects in Ice
Pamuk, B; Ramirez, R; Herrero, C P; Stephens, P W; Allen, P B; Fernandez-Serra, M V
2011-01-01
The experimental volume of H$_2$O ice is smaller than that of D$_2$O, and this isotope shift, with anomalous sign, is not reproduced by state of art empirical potentials. We show that {\\it ab initio} density functional theory does reproduce it, accounting correctly for a subtle interplay between intermolecular libration modes, with a normal isotope effect, and intramolecular stretching modes. The latter have an anomalous inverse isotope shift on the volume, because of quantum effects related to the well known anticorrelation between the covalent and hydrogen bonds. We also show, both experimentally and theoretically that the volume's isotope shift of H$_2\\text{}^{18}$O ice has positive sign. Relative to the the classical limit, the net effect of quantum nuclei (H and O) on volume has the conventional (positive) sign at T=0 but it becomes negative above $\\sim 70$ K, indicating that it may be also relevant for liquid water.
Effects of lasing in a one-dimensional quantum metamaterial
Hidehiro Asai; Sergey Savel'ev; Shiro Kawabata; Alexandre Zagoskin
2014-12-15
Electromagnetic pulse propagation in a quantum metamaterial - artificial, globally quantum coherent optical medium - is numerically simulated. We show that for the quantum metamaterials based on superconducting quantum bits, initialized in an easily reachable factorized state, lasing in microwave range is triggered, accompanied by the chaotization of qubit states and generation of higher harmonics. These effects may provide a tool for characterization and optimization of quantum metamaterial prototypes.
Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in Hg_1-yMn_yTe Quantum Wells
Liu, Chao-Xing; /Tsinghua U., Beijing /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Qi, Xiao-Liang; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Dai, Xi; Fang, Zhong; /Beijing, Inst. Phys.; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2010-03-19
The quantum Hall effect is usually observed when the two-dimensional electron gas is subjected to an external magnetic field, so that their quantum states form Landau levels. In this work we predict that a new phenomenon, the quantum anomalous Hall effect, can be realized in Hg{sub 1-y}Mn{sub y}Te quantum wells, without the external magnetic field and the associated Landau levels. This effect arises purely from the spin polarization of the Mn atoms, and the quantized Hall conductance is predicted for a range of quantum well thickness and the concentration of the Mn atoms. This effect enables dissipationless charge current in spintronics devices.
Effective mass of nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics Fumio Hiroshima
Effective mass of nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics Fumio Hiroshima and K. R. Ito December 26, 2005 Abstract The effective mass meff of the nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics with spin 1 in the case including spin 1/2. 1 Introduction 1.1 Quantum electrodynamics In this review we study
Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in Magnetically Doped InAs/GaSb Quantum Wells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Qing-Ze; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Hai-Jun; Samarth, Nitin; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Liu, Chao-Xing
2014-10-01
The quantum anomalous Hall effect has recently been observed experimentally in thin films of Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 at a low temperature (˜30 mK). In this work, we propose realizing the quantum anomalous Hall effect in more conventional diluted magnetic semiconductors with magnetically doped InAs/GaSb type-II quantum wells. Based on a four-band model, we find an enhancement of the Curie temperature of ferromagnetism due to band edge singularities in the inverted regime of InAs/GaSb quantum wells. Below the Curie temperature, the quantum anomalous Hall effect is confirmed by the direct calculation of Hall conductance. The parameter regime for the quantum anomalous Hall phase is identified based on the eight-band Kane model. The high sample quality and strong exchange coupling make magnetically doped InAs/GaSb quantum wells good candidates for realizing the quantum anomalous Hall insulator at a high temperature.
Total Quantum Zeno Effect beyond Zeno Time
D. Mundarain; M. Orszag; J. Stephany
2007-04-12
In this work we show that is possible to obtain Total Quantum Zeno Effect in an unstable systems for times larger than the correlation time of the bath. The effect is observed for some particular systems in which one can chose appropriate observables which frequent measurements freeze the system into the initial state. For a two level system in a squeezed bath one can show that there are two bath dependent observables displaying Total Zeno Effect when the system is initialized in some particular states. We show also that these states are intelligent states of two conjugate observables associated to the electromagnetic fluctuations of the bath.
Effective potentials in the integral quantum Hall effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lado, F.
2003-06-01
The exact n-body distribution functions are calculated for a two-dimensional, noninteracting quantum electron gas in an external magnetic field for any temperature and density. At low temperature and filled lowest Landau level, these functions are identical to the exact distribution functions obtained by Jancovici [Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 386 (1981)] for the classical two-dimensional one-component plasma (2DOCP) at the special plasma parameter ?=2. This establishes that the quantum state with filling factor ?=1, associated with the integral quantum Hall effect, is precisely described by an effective classical potential ?(r)=-2 ln r, so that a classical Boltzmann factor of 2DOCP form can replace the quantum Slater sum. Further, this Boltzmann factor exactly matches that constructed by Laughlin [Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 1395 (1983)] to account for the fractional quantum Hall effect. Additional effective potentials for higher filling factors ?=2,3,… are obtained semianalytically from the exact Yvon-Born-Green integral equation and numerically from the approximate hypernetted-chain integral equation. They have the asymptotic form ?(r)˜-(2/?)ln r.
Quantum particles and an effective spacetime geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonder, Yuri
2012-08-01
Spacetime geometry is supposed to be measured by identifying the trajectories of free test particles with geodesics. In practice, this cannot be done because, being described by Quantum Mechanics, particles do not follow trajectories. As a first step to study how it is possible to read spacetime geometry with quantum particles, we model these particles with classical extended objects. We propose to represent such extended objects by its covariant center of mass, which generically does not follow a geodesic of the background metric. We present a scheme that allows to extract some of components of an "effective" connection, namely, the connection that would be obtained if the locus of the center of mass is regarded as a geodesic. We discuss some issues that arise when trying to obtain all the components of the effective connection and its possible implications.
Quantum gravity effects in the Kerr spacetime
Reuter, M. [Institute of Physics, University of Mainz, Staudingerweg 7, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Tuiran, E. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Norte, Km 5 via a Puerto Colombia, AA-1569 Barranquilla (Colombia)
2011-02-15
We analyze the impact of the leading quantum gravity effects on the properties of black holes with nonzero angular momentum by performing a suitable renormalization group improvement of the classical Kerr metric within quantum Einstein gravity. In particular, we explore the structure of the horizons, the ergosphere, and the static limit surfaces as well as the phase space available for the Penrose process. The positivity properties of the effective vacuum energy-momentum tensor are also discussed and the 'dressing' of the black hole's mass and angular momentum are investigated by computing the corresponding Komar integrals. The pertinent Smarr formula turns out to retain its classical form. As for their thermodynamical properties, a modified first law of black-hole thermodynamics is found to be satisfied by the improved black holes (to second order in the angular momentum); the corresponding Bekenstein-Hawking temperature is not proportional to the surface gravity.
Polymer quantum effects on compact stars models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chacón-Acosta, Guillermo; Hernandez-Hernandez, Héctor H.
2015-03-01
In this work we study a completely degenerate Fermi gas at zero temperature by a semiclassical approximation for a Hamiltonian that arises in polymer quantum mechanics. Polymer quantum systems are quantum mechanical models quantized in a similar way as in loop quantum gravity, allowing the study of the discreteness of space and other features of the loop quantization in a simplified way. We obtain the polymer modified thermodynamical properties for this system by noticing that the corresponding Fermi energy is exactly the same as if one directly polymerizes the momentum pF. We also obtain the expansion of the corresponding thermodynamical variables in terms of small values of the polymer length scale ?. We apply these results to study a simple model of a compact one-dimensional star where the gravitational collapse is supported by electron degeneracy pressure. As a consequence, polymer corrections to the mass of the object are found. By using bounds for the polymer length found in Bose-Einstein condensates experiments we compute the modification in the mass of the compact object due to polymer effects of order 10-8. This result is similar to the other order found by different approaches such as generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), and that certainly is within the error reported in typical measurements of white dwarf masses.
Fractional quantum Hall effect at low temperatures
A. M. Chang; D. C. Tsui; M. A. Paalanen; H. L. Störmer; J. C. M. Hwang
1983-01-01
We report a systematic study of the 23 fractional quantum Hall effect at low temperatures (65-770 mK) for a GaAs-AlxGa1-xAs sample of very high mobility (106 cm2\\/V sec). We find the 23 Hall plateau to be accurately quantized. The diagonal and Hall resistivities are observed to be activated at each given filling factor nu=nheB around 23. The activation energy has
Quantum Spin Hall Effect in Graphene
C. L. Kane; E. J. Mele
2005-01-01
We study the effects of spin orbit interactions on the low energy electronic\\u000astructure of a single plane of graphene. We find that in an experimentally\\u000aaccessible low temperature regime the symmetry allowed spin orbit potential\\u000aconverts graphene from an ideal two dimensional semimetallic state to a quantum\\u000aspin Hall insulator. This novel electronic state of matter is gapped in
Quantum Mechanics on Manifolds and Topological Effects
Giovanni Morchio; Franco Strocchi
2007-01-01
A unique classification of the topological effects associated to quantum mechanics on manifolds is obtained on the basis of\\u000a the invariance under diffeomorphisms and the realization of the Lie–Rinehart relations between the generators of the diffeomorphism\\u000a group and the algebra of C\\u000a ? functions on the manifold. This leads to a unique (“Lie–Rinehart”) C\\u000a *-algebra as observable algebra; its regular
The pinning effect in quantum dots
Monisha, P. J., E-mail: pjmonisha@gmail.com [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500046 (India); Mukhopadhyay, Soma [Department of Physics, D V R College of Engineering and Technology, Hyderabad-502285 (India)
2014-04-24
The pinning effect is studied in a Gaussian quantum dot using the improved Wigner-Brillouin perturbation theory (IWBPT) in the presence of electron-phonon interaction. The electron ground state plus one phonon state is degenerate with the electron in the first excited state. The electron-phonon interaction lifts the degeneracy and the first excited states get pinned to the ground state plus one phonon state as we increase the confinement frequency.
HERMES Recoil Detector Roberto Francisco Prez Benito
Design Requirement Recoil Detector (RD) Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) Scintillating Fiber Tracker (SFT cell inside beam pipe #12;11 Silicon Strip Detector (SSD)Silicon Strip Detector (SSD)Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) 2 layers of double sided TIGRE sensors 16 TIGRE sensors operate in beam vacuum few cm close
Proton recoil scintillator neutron rem meter
Olsher, Richard H. (Los Alamos, NM); Seagraves, David T. (Los Alamos, NM)
2003-01-01
A neutron rem meter utilizing proton recoil and thermal neutron scintillators to provide neutron detection and dose measurement. In using both fast scintillators and a thermal neutron scintillator the meter provides a wide range of sensitivity, uniform directional response, and uniform dose response. The scintillators output light to a photomultiplier tube that produces an electrical signal to an external neutron counter.
A programmable quantum current standard from the Josephson and the quantum Hall effects
Poirier, W., E-mail: wilfrid.poirier@lne.fr; Lafont, F.; Djordjevic, S.; Schopfer, F.; Devoille, L. [Quantum metrology group, Laboratoire National de métrologie et d'Essais, 29 avenue Roger Hennequin, 78197 Trappes (France)
2014-01-28
We propose a way to realize a programmable quantum current standard (PQCS) from the Josephson voltage standard and the quantum Hall resistance standard (QHR) exploiting the multiple connection technique provided by the quantum Hall effect (QHE) and the exactness of the cryogenic current comparator. The PQCS could lead to breakthroughs in electrical metrology like the realization of a programmable quantum current source, a quantum ampere-meter, and a simplified closure of the quantum metrological triangle. Moreover, very accurate universality tests of the QHE could be performed by comparing PQCS based on different QHRs.
Quantum theory of the inverse Faraday effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Battiato, M.; Barbalinardo, G.; Oppeneer, P. M.
2014-01-01
We provide a quantum theoretical description of the magnetic polarization induced by intense circularly polarized light in a material. Such effect—commonly referred to as the inverse Faraday effect—is treated using beyond-linear response theory, considering the applied electromagnetic field as external perturbation. An analytical time-dependent solution of the Liouville-von Neumann equation to second order is obtained for the density matrix and used to derive expressions for the optomagnetic polarization. Two distinct cases are treated, the long-time adiabatic limit of polarization imparted by continuous wave irradiation, and the full temporal shape of the transient magnetic polarization induced by a short laser pulse. We further derive expressions for the Verdet constants for the inverse, optomagnetic Faraday effect and for the conventional, magneto-optical Faraday effect and show that they are in general different. Additionally, we derive expressions for the Faraday and inverse Faraday effects within the Drude-Lorentz theory and demonstrate that their equality does not hold in general, but only for dissipationless media. As an example, we perform initial quantum mechanical calculations of the two Verdet constants for a hydrogenlike atom and we extract the trends. We observe that one reason for a large inverse Faraday effect in heavy atoms is the spatial extension of the wave functions rather than the spin-orbit interaction, which nonetheless contributes positively.
BlackMax: A black-hole event generator with rotation, recoil, split branes, and brane tension
Dai Dechang; Starkman, Glenn [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7079 (United States); Stojkovic, Dejan [Department of Physics, SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260-1500 (United States); Issever, Cigdem; Tseng, Jeff [University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Rizvi, Eram [Queen Mary, University of London, London (United Kingdom)
2008-04-01
We present a comprehensive black-hole event generator, BlackMax, which simulates the experimental signatures of microscopic and Planckian black-hole production and evolution at the LHC in the context of brane world models with low-scale quantum gravity. The generator is based on phenomenologically realistic models free of serious problems that plague low-scale gravity, thus offering more realistic predictions for hadron-hadron colliders. The generator includes all of the black-hole gray-body factors known to date and incorporates the effects of black-hole rotation, splitting between the fermions, nonzero brane tension, and black-hole recoil due to Hawking radiation (although not all simultaneously). The generator can be interfaced with Herwig and Pythia. The main code can be downloaded from http://www-pnp.physics.ox.ac.uk/{approx}issever/BlackMax/blackmax.html.
Recoil proton distribution in high energy photoproduction processes
E. Bartos; E. A. Kuraev; Yu. P. Peresunko; E. A. Vinokurov
2006-11-22
For high energy linearly polarized photon--proton scattering we have calculated the azimuthal and polar angle distributions in inclusive on recoil proton experimental setup. We have taken into account the production of lepton and pseudoscalar meson charged pairs. The typical values of cross sections are of order of hundreds of picobarn. The size of polarization effects are of order of several percents. The results are generalized for the case of electroproduction processes on the proton at rest and for high energy proton production process on resting proton.
Elastic Recoil Detection of Depletion Layer Formation During Anodic Bonding
Hirschfeld, Deidre A. [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, New Mexico 87801 (United States); Walsh, David S.; Watson, Chad S. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)
2003-08-26
Conventional elastic recoil detection (ERD) techniques have been employed in an attempt to elucidate the effects time, temperature and alkali ion content have on depletion layer formation during anodic bonding. Hydrogen and/or lithium ion concentration profiles were evaluated for both untreated and lithium-treated sodium borosilicate glass. From in situ ERD, depletion layer formation is highly dependent on temperature and alkali ion content. Lithium-treated sodium borosilicate glass improves depletion layer formation at low temperatures and at high temperatures increased ion mobility results in rapid depletion layer formation.
Quantum nonlocal effects on optical properties of spherical nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moradi, Afshin
2015-02-01
To study the scattering of electromagnetic radiation by a spherical metallic nanoparticle with quantum spatial dispersion, we develop the standard nonlocal Mie theory by allowing for the excitation of the quantum longitudinal plasmon modes. To describe the quantum nonlocal effects, we use the quantum longitudinal dielectric function of the system. As in the standard Mie theory, the electromagnetic fields are expanded in terms of spherical vector wavefunctions. Then, the usual Maxwell boundary conditions are imposed plus the appropriate additional boundary conditions. Examples of calculated extinction spectra are presented, and it is found that the frequencies of the subsidiary peaks, due to quantum bulk plasmon excitations exhibit strong dependence on the quantum spatial dispersion.
Ionization and scintillation of nuclear recoils in gaseous xenon
Renner, J; Goldschmidt, A; Matis, H S; Miller, T; Nakajima, Y; Nygren, D; Oliveira, C A B; Shuman, D; Álvarez, V; Borges, F I G; Cárcel, S; Castel, J; Cebrián, S; Cervera, A; Conde, C A N; Dafni, T; Dias, T H V T; Díaz, J; Esteve, R; Evtoukhovitch, P; Fernandes, L M P; Ferrario, P; Ferreira, A L; Freitas, E D C; Gil, A; Gómez, H; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; González-Díaz, D; Gutiérrez, R M; Hauptman, J; Morata, J A Hernando; Herrera, D C; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Jinete, M A; Labarga, L; Laing, A; Liubarsky, I; Lopes, J A M; Lorca, D; Losada, M; Luzón, G; Marí, A; Martín-Albo, J; Martínez, A; Moiseenko, A; Monrabal, F; Monserrate, M; Monteiro, C M B; Mora, F J; Moutinho, L M; Vidal, J Muñoz; da Luz, H Natal; Navarro, G; Nebot-Guinot, M; Palma, R; Pérez, J; Aparicio, J L Pérez; Ripoll, L; Rodríguez, A; Rodríguez, J; Santos, F P; Santos, J M F dos; Seguí, L; Serra, L; Simón, A; Sofka, C; Sorel, M; Toledo, J F; Tomás, A; Torrent, J; Tsamalaidze, Z; Veloso, J F C A; Villar, J A; Webb, R C; White, J; Yahlali, N
2014-01-01
Ionization and scintillation produced by nuclear recoils in gaseous xenon at approximately 14 bar have been simultaneously observed in an electroluminescent time projection chamber. Neutrons from radioisotope $\\alpha$-Be neutron sources were used to induce xenon nuclear recoils, and the observed recoil spectra were compared to a detailed Monte Carlo employing estimated ionization and scintillation yields for nuclear recoils. The ability to discriminate between electronic and nuclear recoils using the ratio of ionization to primary scintillation is demonstrated. These results encourage further investigation on the use of xenon in the gas phase as a detector medium in dark matter direct detection experiments.
Ionization and scintillation of nuclear recoils in gaseous xenon
J. Renner; V. M. Gehman; A. Goldschmidt; H. S. Matis; T. Miller; Y. Nakajima; D. Nygren; C. A. B. Oliveira; D. Shuman; V. Álvarez; F. I. G. Borges; S. Cárcel; J. Castel; S. Cebrián; A. Cervera; C. A. N. Conde; T. Dafni; T. H. V. T. Dias; J. Díaz; R. Esteve; P. Evtoukhovitch; L. M. P. Fernandes; P. Ferrario; A. L. Ferreira; E. D. C. Freitas; A. Gil; H. Gómez; J. J. Gómez-Cadenas; D. González-Díaz; R. M. Gutiérrez; J. Hauptman; J. A. Hernando Morata; D. C. Herrera; F. J. Iguaz; I. G. Irastorza; M. A. Jinete; L. Labarga; A. Laing; I. Liubarsky; J. A. M. Lopes; D. Lorca; M. Losada; G. Luzón; A. Marí; J. Martín-Albo; A. Martínez; A. Moiseenko; F. Monrabal; M. Monserrate; C. M. B. Monteiro; F. J. Mora; L. M. Moutinho; J. Muñoz Vidal; H. Natal da Luz; G. Navarro; M. Nebot-Guinot; R. Palma; J. Pérez; J. L. Pérez Aparicio; L. Ripoll; A. Rodríguez; J. Rodríguez; F. P. Santos; J. M. F. dos Santos; L. Seguí; L. Serra; A. Simón; C. Sofka; M. Sorel; J. F. Toledo; A. Tomás; J. Torrent; Z. Tsamalaidze; J. F. C. A. Veloso; J. A. Villar; R. C. Webb; J. White; N. Yahlali
2014-09-09
Ionization and scintillation produced by nuclear recoils in gaseous xenon at approximately 14 bar have been simultaneously observed in an electroluminescent time projection chamber. Neutrons from radioisotope $\\alpha$-Be neutron sources were used to induce xenon nuclear recoils, and the observed recoil spectra were compared to a detailed Monte Carlo employing estimated ionization and scintillation yields for nuclear recoils. The ability to discriminate between electronic and nuclear recoils using the ratio of ionization to primary scintillation is demonstrated. These results encourage further investigation on the use of xenon in the gas phase as a detector medium in dark matter direct detection experiments.
Angular dependence of recoil proton polarization in high-energy ?d \\to p n
X. Jiang; J. Arrington; F. Benmokhtar; A. Camsonne; J. P. Chen; S. Choi; E. Chudakov; F. Cusanno; A. Deur; D. Dutta; F. Garibaldi; D. Gaskell; O. Gayou; R. Gilman; C. Glashauser; D. Hamilton; O. Hansen; D. W. Higinbotham; R. J. Holt; C. W. de Jager; M. K. Jones; L. J. Kaufman; E. R. Kinney; K. Kramer; L. Lagamba; R. de Leo; J. Lerose; D. Lhuillier; R. Lindgren; N. Liyanage; K. McCormick; Z. -E. Meziani; R. Michaels; B. Moffit; P. Monaghan; S. Nanda; K. D. Paschke; C. F. Perdrisat; V. Punjabi; I. A. Qattan; R. D. Ransome; P. E. Reimer; B. Reitz; A. Saha; E. C. Schulte; R. Sheyor; K. Slifer; P. Solvignon; V. Sulkosky; G. M. Urciuoli; E. Voutier; K. Wang; K. Wijesooriya; B. Wojtsekhowski; L. Zhu
2007-02-02
We measured the angular dependence of the three recoil proton polarization components in two-body photodisintegration of the deuteron at a photon energy of 2 GeV. These new data provide a benchmark for calculations based on quantum chromodynamics. Two of the five existing models have made predictions of polarization observables. Both explain the longitudinal polarization transfer satisfactorily.. Transverse polarizations are not well described, but suggest isovector dominance.
Jiang, X.; Arrington, J.; Benmokhtar, F.; Camsonne, A.; Chen, J. P.; Holt, R. J.; Qattan, I. A.; Reimer, P. E.; Schulte, E. C.; Wijesooriya, K.; Physics; Rutgers Univ.; Univ. Blaise Pascal; Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility
2007-05-01
We measured the angular dependence of the three recoil-proton polarization components in two-body photodisintegration of the deuteron at a photon energy of 2 GeV. These new data provide a benchmark for calculations based on quantum chromodynamics. Two of the five existing models have made predictions of polarization observables. Both explain the longitudinal polarization transfer satisfactorily. Transverse polarizations are not well described, but suggest isovector dominance.
Jiang, X.; Benmokhtar, F.; Glashauser, C.; McCormick, K.; Ransome, R. D. [Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Arrington, J.; Holt, R. J.; Reimer, P. E.; Schulte, E. C.; Wijesooriya, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Camsonne, A. [Universite Blaise Pascal/IN2P3, F-63177 Aubiere (France); Chen, J. P.; Chudakov, E.; Gaskell, D.; Hansen, O.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Jager, C. W. de; Jones, M. K.; Lerose, J.; Michaels, R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)] (and others)
2007-05-04
We measured the angular dependence of the three recoil-proton polarization components in two-body photodisintegration of the deuteron at a photon energy of 2 GeV. These new data provide a benchmark for calculations based on quantum chromodynamics. Two of the five existing models have made predictions of polarization observables. Both explain the longitudinal polarization transfer satisfactorily. Transverse polarizations are not well described, but suggest isovector dominance.
Quantum Spin Hall Effect in Silicene
Liu, Cheng-Cheng; Yao, Yugui
2011-01-01
Recent years have witnessed great interest in the quantum spin Hall effect (QSHE) which is a new quantum state of matter with nontrivial topological property due to the scientific importance as a novel quantum state and the technological applications in spintronics. Taking account of Si, Ge significant importance as semiconductor material and intense interest in the realization of QSHE for spintronics, here we investigate the spin-orbit opened energy gap and the band topology in recently synthesized silicene using first-principles calculations. We demonstrate that silicene with topologically nontrivial electronic structures can realize QSHE by exploiting adiabatic continuity and direct calculation of the Z2 topological invariant. We predict that QSHE in silicene can be observed in an experimentally accessible low temperature regime with the spin-orbit band gap of 1.55 meV, much higher than that of graphene due to large spin-orbit coupling and the low-buckled structure. Furthermore, we find that the gap will i...
Quantum Spin Hall Effect in Silicene
Cheng-Cheng Liu; Wanxiang Feng; Yugui Yao
2011-04-07
Recent years have witnessed great interest in the quantum spin Hall effect (QSHE) which is a new quantum state of matter with nontrivial topological property due to the scientific importance as a novel quantum state and the technological applications in spintronics. Taking account of Si, Ge significant importance as semiconductor material and intense interest in the realization of QSHE for spintronics, here we investigate the spin-orbit opened energy gap and the band topology in recently synthesized silicene using first-principles calculations. We demonstrate that silicene with topologically nontrivial electronic structures can realize QSHE by exploiting adiabatic continuity and direct calculation of the Z2 topological invariant. We predict that QSHE in silicene can be observed in an experimentally accessible low temperature regime with the spin-orbit band gap of 1.55 meV, much higher than that of graphene due to large spin-orbit coupling and the low-buckled structure. Furthermore, we find that the gap will increase to 2.90 meV under certain pressure strain. Finally, we also study germanium with similar low buckled stable structure, and predict that SOC opens a band gap of 23.9 meV, much higher than the liquid nitrogen temperature.
Scintillation efficiency for low energy nuclear recoils in liquid xenon dark matter detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mu, Wei; Xiong, Xiaonu; Ji, Xiangdong
2015-02-01
We perform a theoretical study of the scintillation efficiency of the low energy region crucial for liquid xenon dark matter detectors. We develop a computer program to simulate the cascading process of the recoiling xenon nucleus in liquid xenon and calculate the nuclear quenching effect due to atomic collisions. We use the electronic stopping power extrapolated from experimental data to the low energy region, and take into account the effects of electron escape from electron-ion pair recombination using the generalized Thomas-Imel model fitted to scintillation data. Our result agrees well with the experiments from neutron scattering and vanishes rapidly as the recoil energy drops below 3 keV.
Spacetime symmetries of the quantum Hall effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geracie, Michael; Son, Dam Thanh; Wu, Chaolun; Wu, Shao-Feng
2015-02-01
We study the symmetries of nonrelativistic systems with an emphasis on applications to the fractional quantum Hall effect. A source for the energy current of a Galilean system is introduced and the nonrelativistic diffeomorphism invariance studied in previous work is enhanced to a full spacetime symmetry, allowing us to derive a number of Ward identities. These symmetries are smooth in the massless limit of the lowest Landau level. We develop a formalism for Newton-Cartan geometry with torsion to write these Ward identities in a covariant form. Previous results on the connection between Hall viscosity and Hall conductivity are reproduced.
Unruh effect, quantum thermometer and geometric phase
A. Capolupo; G. Vitiello
2015-02-02
We analyze the properties of the geometric phase of a two level atom system in the case in which the atoms are accelerated by an external potential and in the case in which they interact with a thermal state. Non-trivial values of the geometric phases are obtained. We then propose the realization of an interferometer in which the analysis of Mukunda-Simon phase can demonstrate the existence of the Unruh effect. The realization of a very precise quantum thermometer is also discussed.
Spacetime Symmetries of the Quantum Hall Effect
Michael Geracie; Dam Thanh Son; Chaolun Wu; Shao-Feng Wu
2014-09-06
We study the symmetries of non-relativistic systems with an emphasis on applications to the fractional quantum Hall effect. A source for the energy current of a Galilean system is introduced and the non-relativistic diffeomorphism invariance studied in previous work is enhanced to a full spacetime symmetry, allowing us to derive a number of Ward identities. These symmetries are smooth in the massless limit of the lowest Landau level. We develop a formalism for Newton-Cartan geometry with torsion to write these Ward identities in a covariant form. Previous results on the connection between Hall viscosity and Hall conductivity are reproduced.
Quantum tunneling vs. thermal effects in experiments on adiabatic quantum computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silevitch, D. M.; Rosenbaum, T. F.; Aeppli, G.
2015-02-01
Traditional simulated annealing uses thermal fluctuations for convergence in optimization problems. Quantum tunneling provides a different mechanism for moving between states, with the potential for reduced time scales and different outcomes. Thermal and quantum annealing are compared in two concentration regimes of a model disordered magnet, where the effects of quantum mechanics can be tuned both by varying an applied magnetic field and by controlling the strength of thermal coupling between the magnet and an external heat bath. The results indicate that quantum annealing hastens convergence to the final state, and that the quantum character of the final state can be engineered thermodynamically.
Quantum Coherence Effects in Novel Quantum Optical Systems
Sete, Eyob Alebachew
2012-10-19
and find interesting applications. We show that quantum coherence can lead to transient Raman lasing and lasing without inversion in short wavelength spectral regions--extreme ultraviolet and x-ray--without the requirement of incoherent pumping. For example...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elyasi, P.; SalmanOgli, A.
2014-05-01
This paper investigates GaAs/AlGaAs modified quantum dot nanocrystal and GaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dot-quantum well heteronanocrystal. These quantum dots have been analyzed by the finite element numerical methods. Simulations carried out for state n=1, l=0, and m=0 which are original, orbital, and magnetic state of quantum numbers. The effects of variation in radius layers such as total radius, GaAs core, shell and AlGaAs barriers radius on the wavelength and emission coefficient are studied. For the best time, it has also investigated the effect of mole fraction on emission coefficient. Meanwhile, one of the problems in biological applications is alteration of the emission wavelength of a quantum dot by changing in its dimension. This problem will be resolved by changing in potential profile.
Contribution of recoil atoms to irradiation damage in absorber materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simeone, D.; Hablot, O.; Micalet, V.; Bellon, P.; Serruys, Y.
1997-08-01
Absorbing materials are used to control the reactivity of nuclear reactors by taking advantage of nuclear reactions (e.g., 10B(n,?) 7Li) where neutrons are absorbed. During such reactions, energetic recoils are produced. As a result, radiation damage in absorbing materials originates both from these nuclear reactions and from elastic collisions between neutrons and atoms. This damage eventually leads to a partial destruction of the materials, and this is the main limitation on their lifetime in nuclear reactors. Using a formalism developed to calculate displacements per atoms (dpa) in a multi atomic target, we have calculated damages in terms of displacements per atom in a (n,?) absorbing material taking into account geometrical effects of 10 boron self shielding and transmutation reactions induced by neutrons inside the absorber. Radiation damage is calculated for boron carbide and hafnium diboride ceramics in a Pressurized Water Reactor environment. It is shown that recoils produced by nuclear reactions account for the main part of the radiation damage created in these ceramics. Damages are calculated as a function of the distance from the center of an absorber pellet. Due to the self-shielding effect, these damage curves exhibit sharp maxima, the position of which changes in time.
Recoil and Power Corrections in High-x_T Direct-Photon Production
Sterman, G; Sterman, George; Vogelsang, Werner
2004-01-01
We study a class of nonperturbative corrections to single-inclusive photon cross sections at measured transverse momentum p_T, in the large-x_T limit. We develop an extension of the joint (threshold and transverse momentum) resummation formalism, appropriate for large x_T, in which there are no kinematic singularities associated with recoil, and for which matching to fixed order and to threshold resummation at next-to-leading logarithm (NLL) is straightforward. Beyond NLL, we find contributions that can be attributed to recoil from initial state radiation. Associated power corrections occur as inverse powers of p_T^2 and are identified from the infrared structure of integrals over the running coupling. They have significant energy dependence and decrease from typical fixed-target to collider energies. Energy conservation, which is incorporated into joint resummation, moderates the effects of perturbative recoil and power corrections for large x_T.
Effective Evolution Equations in Quantum Physics
Benjamin Schlein
2011-11-29
In these notes, we review some recent mathematical results concerning the derivation of effective evolution equations from many body quantum mechanics. In particular, we discuss the emergence of the Hartree equation in the so-called mean field regime (for example, for systems of gravitating bosons), and we show that the Gross-Pitaevskii equation approximates the dynamics of initially trapped Bose-Einstein condensates. We explain how effective evolution equations can be derived, on the one hand, by analyzing the so called BBGKY hierarchy, describing the time-evolution of reduced density matrices, and, on the other hand, by studying the dynamics of coherent initial states in a Fock-space representation of the many body system.
Covariant effective action for loop quantum cosmology a la Palatini
Olmo, Gonzalo J. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)] [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Singh, Parampreet, E-mail: olmo@iem.cfmac.csic.es, E-mail: psingh@perimeterinstitute.ca [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)] [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)
2009-01-15
In loop quantum cosmology, non-perturbative quantum gravity effects lead to the resolution of the big bang singularity by a quantum bounce without introducing any new degrees of freedom. Though fundamentally discrete, the theory admits a continuum description in terms of an effective Hamiltonian. Here we provide an algorithm to obtain the corresponding effective action, establishing in this way the covariance of the theory for the first time. This result provides new insights on the continuum properties of the discrete structure of quantum geometry and opens new avenues to extract physical predictions such as those related to gauge invariant cosmological perturbations.
Guiding effect of quantum wells in semiconductor lasers
Aleshkin, V Ya; Dikareva, Natalia V; Dubinov, A A; Zvonkov, B N; Karzanova, Maria V; Kudryavtsev, K E; Nekorkin, S M; Yablonskii, A N
2013-05-31
The guiding effect of InGaAs quantum wells in GaAs- and InP-based semiconductor lasers has been studied theoretically and experimentally. The results demonstrate that such waveguides can be effectively used in laser structures with a large refractive index difference between the quantum well material and semiconductor matrix and a large number of quantum wells (e.g. in InP-based structures). (semiconductor lasers. physics and technology)
Dynamical competition between quantum Hall and quantum spin Hall effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quelle, A.; Morais Smith, C.
2014-11-01
In this paper, we investigate the occurrence of quantum phase transitions in topological systems out of equilibrium. More specifically, we consider graphene with a sizable spin-orbit coupling, irradiated by circularly polarized light. In the absence of light, the spin-orbit coupling drives a quantum spin Hall phase where edge currents with opposite spins counterpropagate. On the other hand, the light generates a time-dependent vector potential, which leads to a hopping parameter with staggered time-dependent phases around the benzene ring. The model is a dynamical version of the Haldane model, which considers a static staggered flux with zero total flux through each plaquette. Since the light breaks time-reversal symmetry, a quantum Hall (QH) phase protected by an integer topological invariant arises. An important difference with the static QH phase is the existence of counterpropagating edge states at different momenta, which are made possible by zero- and two-photon resonances. By numerically solving the complete problem, with spin-orbit coupling and light, and investigating different values of the driving frequency ? , we show that the spectrum exhibits nontrivial gaps not only at zero energy but also at ? /2 . This additional gap is created by photon resonances between the valence and conduction band of graphene, and the symmetry of the spectrum forces it to lie at ? /2 . By increasing the intensity of the irradiation, the topological state in the zero energy gap undergoes a dynamical phase transition from a quantum spin Hall to a quantum Hall phase, whereas the gap around ? /2 remains in the quantum Hall regime.
Anomalous nuclear quantum effects in ice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pamuk, Betül; Soler, Jose M.; Allen, Philip B.; Fernández-Serra, Marivi
2012-02-01
The lattice parameters of light (H2O) and heavy (D2O) Ih ice at 10 K differ by 0.09%.[1] The larger lattice constant is that of the heavier isotope. This isotope shift with anomalous sign is linked to the zero point point energy of phonons in ice. To determine the origin of this anomaly, we use ab initio density functional theory to compute the free energy of ice within the quasiharmonic approximation. As expected, the frozen lattice constant at T = 0 K is smaller than the quantum lattice constant, independent of the isotopic substitution. We find that, the heavy isotope D gives more zero point expansion than H, whereas the heavy isotope ^18O gives normal zero point expansion, i.e smaller than ^16O. Relative to the the classical result, the net effect of quantum nuclei (H and O) on volume has the conventional (positive) sign at T = 0 but it becomes negative above 70 K, indicating that it may be also relevant for liquid water. These results are not reproduced by state of art polarizable empirical potentials.[2] [1] B. K. R"ottger et. al., Acta Cryst. B 50, 644-648 (1994). [2] C. P. Herrero and R. Ram'irez, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 094510 (2011).
The effective field theory treatment of quantum gravity
Donoghue, John F. [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)
2012-09-24
This is a pedagogical introduction to the treatment of quantum general relativity as an effective field theory. It starts with an overview of the methods of effective field theory and includes an explicit example. Quantum general relativity matches this framework and I discuss gravitational examples as well as the limits of the effective field theory. I also discuss the insights from effective field theory on the gravitational effects on running couplings in the perturbative regime.
Noise Effects in Quantum Magic Squares Game
Gawron, P; Sladkowski, J
2008-01-01
In the article we analyse how noisiness of quantum channels can influence the magic squares quantum pseudo-telepathy game. We show that the probability of success can be used to determine characteristics of quantum channels. Therefore the game deserves more careful study aiming at its implementation.
Noise Effects in Quantum Magic Squares Game
P. Gawron; J. A. Miszczak; J. Sladkowski
2008-01-31
In the article we analyse how noisiness of quantum channels can influence the magic squares quantum pseudo-telepathy game. We show that the probability of success can be used to determine characteristics of quantum channels. Therefore the game deserves more careful study aiming at its implementation.
Scintillation of liquid neon from electronic and nuclear recoils
J. A. Nikkel; R. Hasty; W. H. Lippincott; D. N. McKinsey
2006-12-04
We have measured the time dependence of scintillation light from electronic and nuclear recoils in liquid neon, finding a slow time constant of 15.4+-0.2 us. Pulse shape discrimination is investigated as a means of identifying event type in liquid neon. Finally, the nuclear recoil scintillation efficiency is measured to be 0.26+-0.03 for 387 keV nuclear recoils.
Effective equations for isotropic quantum cosmology including matter
Bojowald, Martin; Hernandez, Hector; Skirzewski, Aureliano [Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, Pennsylvania State University, 104 Davey Lab, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua, Facultad de Ingenieria, Nuevo Campus Universitario, Chihuahua 31125 (Mexico); Centro de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de los Andes, Merida 5101 (Venezuela)
2007-09-15
Effective equations often provide powerful tools to develop a systematic understanding of detailed properties of a quantum system. This is especially helpful in quantum cosmology where several conceptual and technical difficulties associated with the full quantum equations can be avoided in this way. Here, effective equations for Wheeler-DeWitt and loop quantizations of spatially flat, isotropic cosmological models sourced by a massive or interacting scalar are derived and studied. The resulting systems are remarkably different from that given for a free, massless scalar. This has implications for the coherence of evolving states and the realization of a bounce in loop quantum cosmology.
Remnants, fermions' tunnelling and effects of quantum gravity
Deyou Chen; Qingquan Jiang; Peng Wang; Haitang Yang
2013-12-16
The remnants are investigated by fermions' tunnelling from a 4-dimensional charged dilatonic black hole and a 5-dimensional black string. Based on the generalized uncertainty principle, effects of quantum gravity are taken into account. The quantum numbers of the emitted fermions affects the Hawking temperatures. For the black hole, the quantum gravity correction slows down the increase of the temperature, which leads to the remnant left in the evaporation. For the black string, the existence of the remnant is determined by the quantum gravity correction and effects of the extra compact dimension.
Neutron electric form factor via recoil polarimetry
Richard Madey; Andrei Semenov; Simon Taylor; Aram Aghalaryan; Erick Crouse; Glen MacLachlan; Bradley Plaster; Shigeyuki Tajima; William Tireman; Chenyu Yan; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Brian Anderson; Razmik Asaturyan; O. Baker; Alan Baldwin; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; Michael Christy; Steve Churchwell; Leon Cole; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; Mostafa Elaasar; Rolf Ent; Manouchehr Farkhondeh; Howard Fenker; John Finn; Liping Gan; Kenneth Garrow; Paul Gueye; Calvin Howell; Bitao Hu; Mark Jones; James Kelly; Cynthia Keppel; Mahbubul Khandaker; Wooyoung Kim; Stanley Kowalski; Allison Lung; David Mack; D. Manley; Pete Markowitz; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Allena Opper; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi; Brian Raue; Tilmann Reichelt; Joerg Reinhold; Julie Roche; Yoshinori Sato; Wonick Seo; Neven Simicevic; Gregory Smith; Samuel Stepanyan; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Paul Ulmer; William Vulcan; John Watson; Steven Wells; Frank Wesselmann; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Seunghoon Yang; Lulin Yuan; Wei-Ming Zhang; Hong Guo Zhu; Xiaofeng Zhu
2003-05-01
The ratio of the electric to the magnetic form factor of the neutron, G_En/G_Mn, was measured via recoil polarimetry from the quasielastic d({pol-e},e'{pol-n)p reaction at three values of Q^2 [viz., 0.45, 1.15 and 1.47 (GeV/c)^2] in Hall C of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Preliminary data indicate that G_En follows the Galster parameterization up to Q^2 = 1.15 (GeV/c)^2 and appears to rise above the Galster parameterization at Q^2 = 1.47 (GeV/c)^2.
Decoherence effects on quantum control by reverse optimized pulse sequences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guerra, C. A. Estrada; Villamizar, D. Velasco; Rego, Luis G. C.
2012-08-01
The external coherent control over the dynamics of quantum systems has been the aim of many studies in recent years, and several theoretical frameworks have been devised for that purpose. However, several of the proposed methods have been developed to control isolated quantum systems, disregarding the decoherence effects that impinge on the ubiquitous open quantum systems that exhibit a more complex dynamics than their isolated counterparts. In this paper, we investigate the effects of dissipation and decoherence for a quantum-control procedure based on sequences of reverse optimized electromagnetic pulses. Although the method performs well for pure quantum systems, moderate decoherence and dissipation hinders its accomplishment for ordinary conditions, irrespective of the pulse sequence rate. The method can be appropriate, nonetheless, for dynamical decoupling of the quantum subsystem from the environment.
3d Quantum Gravity and Effective Non-Commutative Quantum Field Theory
Laurent Freidel; Etera R. Livine
2006-05-17
We show that the effective dynamics of matter fields coupled to 3d quantum gravity is described after integration over the gravitational degrees of freedom by a braided non-commutative quantum field theory symmetric under a kappa-deformation of the Poincare group.
Effects of depolarizing quantum channels on BB84 and SARG04 quantum cryptography protocols
Youn-Chang Jeong; Yong-Su Kim; Yoon-Ho Kim
2010-02-11
We report experimental studies on the effect of the depolarizing quantum channel on weak-pulse BB84 and SARG04 quantum cryptography. The experimental results show that, in real world conditions in which channel depolarization cannot be ignored, BB84 should perform better than SARG04.
Quantum electrodynamics in finite volume and nonrelativistic effective field theories
Fodor, Z; Katz, S D; Lellouch, L; Portelli, A; Szabo, K K; Toth, B C
2015-01-01
Electromagnetic effects are increasingly being accounted for in lattice quantum chromodynamics computations. Because of their long-range nature, they lead to large finite-size effects over which it is important to gain analytical control. Nonrelativistic effective field theories provide an efficient tool to describe these effects. Here we argue that some care has to be taken when applying these methods to quantum electrodynamics in a finite volume.
Quantum electrodynamics in finite volume and nonrelativistic effective field theories
Z. Fodor; C. Hoelbling; S. D. Katz; L. Lellouch; A. Portelli; K. K. Szabo; B. C. Toth
2015-02-24
Electromagnetic effects are increasingly being accounted for in lattice quantum chromodynamics computations. Because of their long-range nature, they lead to large finite-size effects over which it is important to gain analytical control. Nonrelativistic effective field theories provide an efficient tool to describe these effects. Here we argue that some care has to be taken when applying these methods to quantum electrodynamics in a finite volume.
On Quantum Effects in a Theory of Biological Evolution
Martin-Delgado, M. A.
2012-01-01
We construct a descriptive toy model that considers quantum effects on biological evolution starting from Chaitin's classical framework. There are smart evolution scenarios in which a quantum world is as favorable as classical worlds for evolution to take place. However, in more natural scenarios, the rate of evolution depends on the degree of entanglement present in quantum organisms with respect to classical organisms. If the entanglement is maximal, classical evolution turns out to be more favorable. PMID:22413059
Effective fault-tolerant quantum computation with slow measurements
David P. DiVincenzo; Panos Aliferis
2006-08-03
How important is fast measurement for fault-tolerant quantum computation? Using a combination of existing and new ideas, we argue that measurement times as long as even 1,000 gate times or more have a very minimal effect on the quantum accuracy threshold. This shows that slow measurement, which appears to be unavoidable in many implementations of quantum computing, poses no essential obstacle to scalability.
On Quantum Effects in a Theory of Biological Evolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin-Delgado, M. A.
2012-03-01
We construct a descriptive toy model that considers quantum effects on biological evolution starting from Chaitin's classical framework. There are smart evolution scenarios in which a quantum world is as favorable as classical worlds for evolution to take place. However, in more natural scenarios, the rate of evolution depends on the degree of entanglement present in quantum organisms with respect to classical organisms. If the entanglement is maximal, classical evolution turns out to be more favorable.
Synchrotron-radiation experiments with recoil ions
Levin, J.C.
1989-01-01
Studies of atoms, ions and molecules with synchrotron radiation have generally focused on measurements of properties of the electrons ejected during, or after, the photoionization process. Much can also be learned, however, about the atomic or molecular relaxation process by studies of the residual ions or molecular fragments following inner-shell photoionization. Measurements are reported of mean kinetic energies of highly charged argon, krypton, and xenon recoil ions produced by vacancy cascades following inner-shell photoionization using white and monochromatic synchrotron x radiation. Energies are much lower than for the same charge-state ions produced by charged-particle impact. The results may be applicable to design of future angle-resolved ion-atom collision experiments. Photoion charge distributions are presented and compared with other measurements and calculations. Related experiments with synchrotron-radiation produced recoil ion, including photoionization of stored ions and measurement of shakeoff in near-threshold excitation, are briefly discussed. 24 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.
A study of Quantum Correlation for Three Qubit States under the effect of Quantum Noisy Channels
Pratik K. Sarangi; Indranil Chakrabarty
2014-11-27
We study the dynamics of quantum dissension for three qubit states in various dissipative channels such as amplitude damping, dephasing and depolarizing. Our study is solely based on Markovian environments where quantum channels are without memory and each qubit is coupled to its own environment. We start with mixed GHZ, mixed W, mixture of separable states, a mixed biseparable state, as the initial states and mostly observe that the decay of quantum dissension is asymptotic in contrast to sudden death of quantum entanglement in similar environments. This is a clear indication of the fact that quantum correlation in general is more robust against the effect of noise. However, for a given class of initial mixed states we find a temporary leap in quantum dissension for a certain interval of time. More precisely, we observe the revival of quantum correlation to happen for certain time period. This signifies that the measure of quantum correlation such as quantum discord, quantum dissension, defined from the information theoretic perspective is different from the correlation defined from the entanglement-separability paradigm and can increase under the effect of the local noise. We also study the effects of these channels on the monogamy score of each of these initial states. Interestingly, we find that for certain class of states and channels, there is change from negative values to positive values of the monogamy score with classical randomness as well as with time. This gives us an important insight in obtaining states which are freely sharable (polygamous state) from the states which are not freely sharable (monogamous). This is indeed a remarkable feature, as we can create monogamous states from polygamous states Monogamous states are considered to have more signatures of quantum ness and can be used for security purpose.
Recoiling from a kick in the head-on collision of spinning black holes
Choi, Dae-Il [Gravitational Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, 52-11, Eoun-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon, 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Kelly, Bernard J.; Baker, John G.; Centrella, Joan; Van Meter, James [Gravitational Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Boggs, William D. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)
2007-11-15
Recoil ''kicks'' induced by gravitational radiation are expected in the inspiral and merger of black holes. Recently the numerical relativity community has begun to measure the significant kicks found when both unequal masses and spins are considered. Because understanding the cause and magnitude of each component of this kick may be complicated in inspiral simulations, we consider these effects in the context of a simple test problem. We study recoils from collisions of binaries with initially head-on trajectories, starting with the simplest case of equal masses with no spin and then adding spin and varying the mass ratio, both separately and jointly. We find spin-induced recoils to be significant relative to unequal-mass recoils even in head-on configurations. Additionally, it appears that the scaling of transverse kicks with spins is consistent with post-Newtonian theory, even though the kick is generated in the nonlinear merger interaction, where post-Newtonian theory should not apply. This suggests that a simple heuristic description might be effective in the estimation of spin kicks.
Integer quantum Hall effect and correlated disorder
Greshnov, A. A., E-mail: a_greshnov@hotmail.com; Zegrya, G. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)
2007-11-15
The effect of the form of the random potential of impurities and defects on the longitudinal {sigma}{sub xx} and Hall {sigma}{sub xy} components of conductivity in the mode of the integer quantum Hall effect is theoretically investigated. It is shown that the width of the Hall conductivity plateau as well as the peak values of the longitudinal conductivity heavily depend on the ratio {lambda}/a{sub H} between the random potential correlation length and the magnetic length. For the first time, it is established that in the case of the short-wavelength potential {lambda} << a{sub H}, the peak values of {sigma}{sub xx}{sup (N)} are directly proportional to the Landau level number N {>=} 1, {sigma}{sub xx} = 0.5Ne{sup 2}/h, whereas the peak values of {sigma}{sub xx}{sup (N)} are independent of the Landau level number in the case of the long-wavelength potential {lambda} >> a{sub H}, and their magnitude is much lower than 0.5e{sup 2}/h. The obtained results are in good agreement with the available experimental data.
Quantum noise memory effect of multiple scattered light
P. Lodahl
2005-06-30
We investigate frequency correlations in multiple scattered light that are present in the quantum fluctuations. The memory effect for quantum and classical noise is compared, and found to have markedly different frequency scaling, which was confirmed in a recent experiment. Furthermore, novel mesoscopic correlations are predicted that depend on the photon statistics of the incoming light.
Cancer proliferation and therapy: the Warburg effect and quantum metabolism
Lloyd A. Demetrius; Johannes F. Coy; Jack A. Tuszynski
2010-01-01
BACKGROUND: Most cancer cells, in contrast to normal differentiated cells, rely on aerobic glycolysis instead of oxidative phosphorylation to generate metabolic energy, a phenomenon called the Warburg effect. MODEL: Quantum metabolism is an analytic theory of metabolic regulation which exploits the methodology of quantum mechanics to derive allometric rules relating cellular metabolic rate and cell size. This theory explains differences
Radiation effects in Si-Ge quantum size structure (Review)
Sobolev, N. A., E-mail: sobolev@ua.pt [Universidade de Aveiro, Departamento de Fisica and I3N (Portugal)
2013-02-15
The article is dedicated to the review and analysis of the effects and processes occurring in Si-Ge quantum size semiconductor structures upon particle irradiation including ion implantation. Comparisons to bulk materials are drawn. The reasons of the enhanced radiation hardness of superlattices and quantum dots are elucidated. Some technological applications of the radiation treatment are reviewed.
Direct Evidence of Secondary Recoiled Nuclei From High Energy Protons
G. Cellere; A. Paccagnella; A. Visconti; S. Beltrami; J. Schwank; M. Shaneyfelt; D. Lambert; P. Paillet; V. Ferlet-Cavrois; J. Baggio; R. Harboe-Sorensen; E. Blackmore; A. Virtanen; P. Fuochi
2008-01-01
The production of secondary recoiled particles from interactions between high energy protons and microelectronics devices was investigated. By using NAND Flash memories, we were able to directly obtain analog information on recoil characteristics. While our results qualitatively confirm the role of nuclear reactions, in particular of those with tungsten, a quantitative model based on Monte Carlo and device-level simulations cannot
Memory effects in quantum channel discrimination
Giulio Chiribella; Giacomo M. D'Ariano; Paolo Perinotti
2008-04-02
We consider quantum-memory assisted protocols for discriminating quantum channels. We show that for optimal discrimination of memory channels, memory assisted protocols are needed. This leads to a new notion of distance for channels with memory. For optimal discrimination and estimation of sets of unitary channels memory-assisted protocols are not required.
Quantum Spin Hall Effect in Inverted Type II Semiconductors
Liu, Chaoxing; /Tsinghua U., Beijing /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Hughes, Taylor L.; Qi, Xiao-Liang; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Wang, Kang; /UCLA; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2010-03-19
The quantum spin Hall (QSH) state is a topologically non-trivial state of quantum matter which preserves time-reversal symmetry; it has an energy gap in the bulk, but topologically robust gapless states at the edge. Recently, this novel effect has been predicted and observed in HgTe quantum wells. In this work we predict a similar effect arising in Type-II semiconductor quantum wells made from InAs/GaSb/AlSb. Because of a rare band alignment the quantum well band structure exhibits an 'inverted' phase similar to CdTe/HgTe quantum wells, which is a QSH state when the Fermi level lies inside the gap. Due to the asymmetric structure of this quantum well, the effects of inversion symmetry breaking and inter-layer charge transfer are essential. By standard self-consistent calculations, we show that the QSH state persists when these corrections are included, and a quantum phase transition between the normal insulator and the QSH phase can be electrically tuned by the gate voltage.
Monte Carlo simulation of quantum Zeno effect in the brain
Danko Georgiev
2014-12-11
Environmental decoherence appears to be the biggest obstacle for successful construction of quantum mind theories. Nevertheless, the quantum physicist Henry Stapp promoted the view that the mind could utilize quantum Zeno effect to influence brain dynamics and that the efficacy of such mental efforts would not be undermined by environmental decoherence of the brain. To address the physical plausibility of Stapp's claim, we modeled the brain using quantum tunneling of an electron in a multiple-well structure such as the voltage sensor in neuronal ion channels and performed Monte Carlo simulations of quantum Zeno effect exerted by the mind upon the brain in the presence or absence of environmental decoherence. The simulations unambiguously showed that the quantum Zeno effect breaks down for timescales greater than the brain decoherence time. To generalize the Monte Carlo simulation results for any n-level quantum system, we further analyzed the change of brain entropy due to the mind probing actions and proved a theorem according to which local projections cannot decrease the von Neumann entropy of the unconditional brain density matrix. The latter theorem establishes that Stapp's model is physically implausible but leaves a door open for future development of quantum mind theories provided the brain has a decoherence-free subspace.
Nuclear recoil scintillation and ionisation yields in liquid xenon from ZEPLIN-III data
M. Horn; V. A. Belov; D. Yu. Akimov; H. M. Araújo; E. J. Barnes; A. A. Burenkov; V. Chepel; A. Currie; B. Edwards; C. Ghag; A. Hollingsworth; G. E. Kalmus; A. S. Kobyakin; A. G. Kovalenko; V. N. Lebedenko; A. Lindote; M. I. Lopes; R. Lüscher; P. Majewski; A. StJ. Murphy; F. Neves; S. M. Paling; J. Pinto da Cunha; R. Preece; J. J. Quenby; L. Reichhart; P. R. Scovell; C. Silva; V. N. Solovov; N. J. T. Smith; P. F. Smith; V. N. Stekhanov; T. J. Sumner; C. Thorne; L. de Viveiros; R. J. Walker
2011-10-17
Scintillation and ionisation yields for nuclear recoils in liquid xenon above 10 keVnr (nuclear recoil energy) are deduced from data acquired using broadband Am-Be neutron sources. The nuclear recoil data from several exposures to two sources were compared to detailed simulations. Energy-dependent scintillation and ionisation yields giving acceptable fits to the data were derived. Efficiency and resolution effects are treated using a light collection Monte Carlo, measured photomultiplier response profiles and hardware trigger studies. A gradual fall in scintillation yield below ~40 keVnr is found, together with a rising ionisation yield; both are in good agreement with the latest independent measurements. The analysis method is applied to both the most recent ZEPLIN-III data, acquired with a significantly upgraded detector and a precision-calibrated Am-Be source, as well as to the earlier data from the first run in 2008. A new method for deriving the recoil scintillation yield, which includes sub-threshold S1 events, is also presented which confirms the main analysis.
Quantum corrections to conductivity under conditions of the integer quantum Hall effect
Greshnov, A. A., E-mail: a_greshnov@hotmail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation)
2012-06-15
Quantum corrections to the conductivity of a two-dimensional electron gas under conditions of the integer quantum Hall effect have been studied. It is shown that violation of the one-parameter scaling under conditions of quantizing magnetic fields, {omega}{sub c}{tau} Much-Greater-Than 1, occurs at a level of the perturbation theory. The results of diagrammatic calculation of the quantum correction are in agreement with the numerical dependences of the peaks in the longitudinal conductivity on the effective size of the sample, in contrast to earlier calculations based on the unitary nonlinear {sigma}-model. Due to this, consideration of Landau quantization represents a criterion for correct description of the quantum Hall effect.
Two quantum effects in the theory of gravitation
Robinson, Sean Patrick, 1977-
2005-01-01
We will discuss two methods by which the formalism of quantum field theory can be included in calculating the physical effects of gravitation. In the first of these, the consequences of treating general relativity as an ...
Imaging transport resonances in the quantum Hall effect
Steele, Gary Alexander
2006-01-01
We image charge transport in the quantum Hall effect using a scanning charge accumulation microscope. Applying a DC bias voltage to the tip induces a highly resistive ring-shaped incompressible strip (IS) in a very high ...
Plasmon modes of metallic nanowires including quantum nonlocal effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moradi, Afshin
2015-03-01
The properties of electrostatic surface and bulk plasmon modes of cylindrical metallic nanowires are investigated, using the quantum hydrodynamic theory of plasmon excitation which allows an analytical study of quantum tunneling effects through the Bohm potential term. New dispersion relations are obtained for each type of mode and their differences with previous treatments based on the standard hydrodynamic model are analyzed in detail. Numerical results show by considering the quantum effects, as the value of wave number increases, the surface modes are slightly red-shifted first and then blue-shifted while the bulk modes are blue-shifted.
Spacetime effects on satellite-based quantum communications
Bruschi, David Edward; Fuentes, Ivette; Jennewein, Thomas; Razavi, Mohsen
2013-01-01
We investigate the effects of space-time curvature on space-based quantum communication protocols. We analyze tasks that require either the exchange of single photons in a certain entanglement distribution protocol or beams of light in a continuous-variable quantum key distribution scheme. We find that gravity affects the propagation of photons, therefore acting as a noisy channel for the transmission of information. The effects can be measured with current technology.
Quantum Backreaction (Casimir) Effect II. Scalar and Electromagnetic Fields
Andrzej Herdegen
2006-01-01
. Casimir effect in most general terms may be understood as a backreaction of a quantum system causing an adiabatic change of\\u000a the external conditions under which it is placed. This paper is the second installment of a work scrutinizing this effect\\u000a with the use of algebraic methods in quantum theory. The general scheme worked out in the first part is
Separability of sequential isomorphisms on quantum effects in multipartite systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Kan; Sun, Fanguo; Hou, Jinchuan
2015-02-01
In the paper, we study separability of sequential isomorphisms on quantum effects in multipartite systems. First we obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for separable sequential isomorphisms in bipartite systems. Secondly, in finite-dimensional bipartite systems, separability of sequential endomorphisms on quantum effects is discussed. Furthermore, we extend these conclusions to the multipartite case. Finally, applying our results, an equivalent characterization of local unitary operations is given.
Integer Quantum Hall Effect for Bosons
Todadri, Senthil
A simple physical realization of an integer quantum Hall state of interacting two dimensional bosons is provided. This is an example of a symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phase which is a generalization of the concept ...
Wang, Yunliang, E-mail: ylwang@ustb.edu.cn; Lü, Xiaoxia [Department of Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)] [Department of Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)
2014-02-15
The modulational instability of quantum electrostatic acoustic waves in electron-hole quantum semiconductor plasmas is investigated using the quantum hydrodynamic model, from which a modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation with damping effects is derived using the reductive perturbation method. Here, we consider the combined effects of quantum recoil, quantum degenerate pressures, as well as the exchange-correlation effect standing for the electrons (holes) spin. The modulational instability for different semiconductors (GaAs, GaSb, and InP) is discussed. The collision between electron (hole) and phonon is also investigated. The permitted maximum time for modulational instability and the damping features of quantum envelope solitary wave are all determined by the collision. The approximate solitary solution with damping effects is presented in weak collision limit. The damping properties were discussed by numerical method.
Hussain, Shazia T.; Kutty, Shelby; Steinmetz, Michael; Sohns, Jan M.; Fasshauer, Martin; Staab, Wieland; Unterberg-Buchwald, Christina; Bigalke, Boris; Lotz, Joachim; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Schuster, Andreas
2014-01-01
Objectives Cardiovascular magnetic resonance feature tracking (CMR-FT) offers quantification of myocardial deformation from routine cine images. However, data using CMR-FT to quantify left ventricular (LV) torsion and diastolic recoil are not yet available. We therefore sought to evaluate the feasibility and reproducibility of CMR-FT to quantify LV torsion and peak recoil rate using an optimal anatomical approach. Methods Short-axis cine stacks were acquired at rest and during dobutamine stimulation (10 and 20 µg·kg?1·min?1) in 10 healthy volunteers. Rotational displacement was analysed for all slices. A complete 3D-LV rotational model was developed using linear interpolation between adjacent slices. Torsion was defined as the difference between apical and basal rotation, divided by slice distance. Depending on the distance between the most apical (defined as 0% LV distance) and basal (defined as 100% LV distance) slices, four different models for the calculation of torsion were examined: Model-1 (25–75%), Model-2 (0–100%), Model-3 (25–100%) and Model-4 (0–75%). Analysis included subendocardial, subepicardial and global torsion and recoil rate (mean of subendocardial and subepicardial values). Results Quantification of torsion and recoil rate was feasible in all subjects. There was no significant difference between the different models at rest. However, only Model-1 (25–75%) discriminated between rest and stress (Global Torsion: 2.7±1.5°cm?1, 3.6±2.0°cm?1, 5.1±2.2°cm?1, p<0.01; Global Recoil Rate: ?30.1±11.1°cm?1s?1,?46.9±15.0°cm?1s?1,?68.9±32.3°cm?1s?1, p<0.01; for rest, 10 and 20 µg·kg?1·min?1 of dobutamine, respectively). Reproducibility was sufficient for all parameters as determined by Bland-Altman analysis, intraclass correlation coefficients and coefficient of variation. Conclusions CMR-FT based derivation of myocardial torsion and recoil rate is feasible and reproducible at rest and with dobutamine stress. Using an optimal anatomical approach measuring rotation at 25% and 75% apical and basal LV locations allows effective quantification of torsion and recoil dynamics. Application of these new measures of deformation by CMR-FT should next be explored in disease states. PMID:25285656
Common physical mechanism for integer and fractional quantum Hall effects
Jianhua wang; Kang Li; Shuming Long; Yi Yuan
2012-01-24
Integer and fractional quantum Hall effects were studied with different physics models and explained by different physical mechanisms. In this paper, the common physical mechanism for integer and fractional quantum Hall effects is studied, where a new unified formulation of integer and fractional quantum Hall effect is presented. Firstly, we introduce a 2-dimensional ideal electron gas model in the presence of strong magnetic field with symmetry gauge, and the transverse electric filed $\\varepsilon_2$ is also introduced to balance Lorentz force. Secondly, the Pauli equation is solved where the wave function and energy levels is given explicitly. Thirdly, after the calculation of the degeneracy density for 2-dimensional ideal electron gas system, the Hall resistance of the system is obtained, where the quantum Hall number $\
Characterization of control noise effects in optimal quantum unitary dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hocker, David; Brif, Constantin; Grace, Matthew D.; Donovan, Ashley; Ho, Tak-San; Tibbetts, Katharine Moore; Wu, Rebing; Rabitz, Herschel
2014-12-01
This work develops measures for quantifying the effects of field noise upon targeted unitary transformations. Robustness to noise is assessed in the framework of the quantum control landscape, which is the mapping from the control to the unitary transformation performance measure (quantum gate fidelity). Within that framework, a geometric interpretation of stochastic noise effects naturally arises, where more robust optimal controls are associated with regions of small overlap between landscape curvature and the noise correlation function. Numerical simulations of this overlap in the context of quantum information processing reveal distinct noise spectral regimes that better support robust control solutions. This perspective shows the dual importance of both noise statistics and the control form for robustness, thereby opening up new avenues of investigation on how to mitigate noise effects in quantum systems.
Characterization of control noise effects in optimal quantum unitary dynamics
David Hocker; Constantin Brif; Matthew D. Grace; Ashley Donovan; Tak-San Ho; Katharine Moore Tibbetts; Rebing Wu; Herschel Rabitz
2014-11-13
This work develops measures for quantifying the effects of field noise upon targeted unitary transformations. Robustness to noise is assessed in the framework of the quantum control landscape, which is the mapping from the control to the unitary transformation performance measure (quantum gate fidelity). Within that framework, a new geometric interpretation of stochastic noise effects naturally arises, where more robust optimal controls are associated with regions of small overlap between landscape curvature and the noise correlation function. Numerical simulations of this overlap in the context of quantum information processing reveal distinct noise spectral regimes that better support robust control solutions. This perspective shows the dual importance of both noise statistics and the control form for robustness, thereby opening up new avenues of investigation on how to mitigate noise effects in quantum systems.
Impurity position effect on optical properties of various quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khordad, R.; Bahramiyan, H.
2015-02-01
In this work, we have investigated the effect of impurity position on optical properties of a pyramid and a cone like quantum dot. For this goal, we first obtain the energy levels and wave functions using finite element method (FEM) in the presence of impurity. Then, we have studied the influence of impurity location on refractive index changes and absorption coefficients of the two quantum dots. We found that there is a maximum value for total refractive index changes and absorption coefficients at a special impurity position. Also, we have found that the refractive index changes and absorption coefficients of a cone like quantum dot are greater than a pyramid quantum dot in same volume and height. According to the results, it is deduced that the impurity location plays an important and considerable role in the electronic and optical properties of a pyramid and a cone like quantum dot.
Huge Quantum Gravity Effects in the Solar System
Don N. Page
2010-05-17
Normally one thinks of the motion of the planets around the Sun as a highly classical phenomenon, so that one can neglect quantum gravity in the Solar System. However, classical chaos in the planetary motion amplifies quantum uncertainties so that they become very large, giving huge quantum gravity effects. For example, evidence suggests that Uranus may eventually be ejected from the Solar System, but quantum uncertainties would make the direction at which it leaves almost entirely uncertain, and the time of its exit uncertain by about a billion billion years. For a time a billion billion years from now, there are huge quantum uncertainties whether Uranus will be within the Solar System, within the Galaxy, or even within causal contact of the Galaxy.
Control of Quantum-Confined Stark Effect in InGaN-Based Quantum Wells
Jae-Hyun Ryou; P. Douglas Yoder; Jianping Liu; Zachary Lochner; Hyunsoo Kim; Suk Choi; Hee Jin Kim; Russell D. Dupuis
2009-01-01
This paper reviews current technological developments in polarization engineering and the control of the quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) for InxGa1- xN-based quantum-well active regions, which are generally employed in visible LEDs for solid-state lighting applications. First, the origin of the QCSE in III-N wurtzite semiconductors is introduced, and polarization-induced internal fields are discussed in order to provide contextual background. Next,
Theory of ionizing neutrino-atom collisions: The role of atomic recoil
Konstantin A. Kouzakov; Alexander I. Studenikin
2014-11-09
We consider theoretically ionization of an atom by neutrino impact taking into account electromagnetic interactions predicted for massive neutrinos by theories beyond the Standard Model. The effects of atomic recoil in this process are estimated using the one-electron and semiclassical approximations and are found to be unimportant unless the energy transfer is very close to the ionization threshold. We show that the energy scale where these effects become important is insignificant for current experiments searching for magnetic moments of reactor antineutrinos.
Modeling the Observability of Recoiling Black Holes as Offset Quasars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blecha, Laura; Torrey, Paul Adam; Vogelsberger, Mark; Genel, Shy; Springel, Volker; Sijacki, Debora; Snyder, Greg; Bird, Simeon; Nelson, Dylan R.; Xu, Dandan; Hernquist, Lars E.
2015-01-01
The merger of two supermassive black holes (SMBHs) imparts a gravitational-wave (GW) recoil kick to the remnant SMBH. In extreme cases these kicks may be thousands of km/s -- enough to easily eject them from their host galaxies. Moderate recoil kicks may also cause substantial displacements of the SMBH, however. An actively-accreting, recoiling SMBH may be observable as an offset quasar. Prior to the advent of a space-based GW observatory, detections of these offset quasars may offer the best chance for identifying recent SMBH mergers. Indeed, observational searches for recoiling quasars have already identified several promising candidates. However, systematic searches for recoils are currently hampered by large uncertainties regarding how often offset quasars should be observable, where they are most likely to be found, and whether BH spin alignment prior to merger is efficient at suppressing large recoils. Motivated by this, we have developed a model for the observable population of recoiling quasars in a cosmological framework, utilizing detailed information about the progenitor galaxies from state-of-the-art cosmological hydrodynamic simulations (the Illustris Project). The model for offset quasar lifetimes includes a physically-motivated, time-dependent model for accretion onto kicked SMBHs, and results are analyzed for a range of possible BH spin alignment models. We find that the observability of offset quasars depends strongly on the efficiency of pre-merger spin alignment, with promising indications that observations of recoils could distinguish between at least the extreme limits of spin alignment models. Our results also suggest that observable offset quasars should inhabit preferred types of host galaxies, where again these populations depend on the degree of pre-merger spin alignment. These findings will be valuable for planned and future dedicated searches for recoiling quasars, and they indicate that such objects might be used to place indirect constraints on SMBH spins.
Aharonov-Bohm Effect: a Quantum Variation and Classical Analogy
Vladan Pankovic; Darko Kapor; Stevica Djurovic; Milan Pantic
2014-04-23
In this work we consider a quantum variation of the usual Aharonov-Bohm effect with two solenoids sufficiently close one to the other so that (external) electron cannot propagate between two solenoids but only around both solenoids. Here magnetic field (or classical vector potential of the electromagnetic field) acting at quantum propagating (external) electron represents the quantum mechanical average value or statistical mixture. It is obtained by wave function of single (internal, quantum propagating within some solenoid wire) electron (or homogeneous ensemble of such (internal) electrons) representing a quantum superposition with two practically non-interfering terms. All this implies that phase difference and interference shape translation of the quantum propagating (external) electron represent the quantum mechanical average value or statistical mixture. On the other hand we consider a classical analogy and variation of the usual Aharonov-Bohm effect in which Aharonov-Bohm solenoid is used for the primary coil inside secondary large coil in the remarkable classical Faraday experiment of the electromagnetic induction.
Quantum effects in liquid water and ice: model dependence.
Hernández de la Peña, Lisandro; Kusalik, Peter G
2006-08-01
This paper explores the influence of choice of potential model on the quantum effects observed in liquid water and ice. This study utilizes standard rigid models and a more formal context for the rigid-body centroid molecular dynamics methodology used to perform the quantum simulations is provided. Quantum and classical molecular dynamics simulations are carried out for liquid water and ice Ih at 298 and 220 K, respectively, with the simple point charge/extended and TIP4P-Ew water models. The results obtained for equilibrium and dynamical properties are compared with those recently reported on TIP4P [L. Hernandez de la Pena and P. G. Kusalik, J. Chem. Phys. 121, 5992 (2004); L. Hernandez de la Pena et al., J. Chem. Phys 123, 144506 (2005)]. For the liquid, an energy shift of about 8% and an average molecular uncertainty of about 11 degrees were found independently of the water model. The self-diffusion coefficient consistently increases by more than 50% when going from the classical to the quantum system and quantum dynamics are found to reproduce the experimental isotopic shifts with the models examined. The ice results compare remarkably well with those previously reported for the TIP4P water model; they confirm that quantum effects are considerable and that the quantum mechanical uncertainty and the energy shifts due to quantization are smaller in ice than in liquid water. The relevance of these findings in the context of the construction of water models is briefly discussed. PMID:16942231
Path Integrals and Alternative Effective Dynamics in Loop Quantum Cosmology
Li Qin; Guo Deng; Yongge Ma
2012-06-06
The alternative dynamics of loop quantum cosmology is examined by the path integral formulation. We consider the spatially flat FRW models with a massless scalar field, where the alternative quantization inherit more features from full loop quantum gravity. The path integrals can be formulated in both timeless and deparameterized frameworks. It turns out that the effective Hamiltonians derived from the two different viewpoints are equivalent to each other. Moreover, the first-order modified Friedmann equations are derived and predict quantum bounces for contracting universe, which coincide with those obtained in canonical theory.
Quantum effects improve the energy efficiency of feedback control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horowitz, Jordan M.; Jacobs, Kurt
2014-04-01
The laws of thermodynamics apply equally well to quantum systems as to classical systems, and because of this, quantum effects do not change the fundamental thermodynamic efficiency of isothermal refrigerators or engines. We show that, despite this fact, quantum mechanics permits measurement-based feedback control protocols that are more thermodynamically efficient than their classical counterparts. As part of our analysis, we perform a detailed accounting of the thermodynamics of unitary feedback control and elucidate the sources of inefficiency in measurement-based and coherent feedback.
Michele Allegra; Paolo Giorda; Seth Lloyd
2015-03-18
In this paper we address the problem of charaterizing coherence in dissipative (Markovian) quantum evolutions. We base our analysis on the decoherent histories formalism which is the most basic and proper approach to assess coherence properties of quantum evolutions. We introduce and test different quantifiers and we show how these are able to capture the (average) coherence of general quantum evolutions on various time scales and for different levels of environmentally induced decoherence. In order to show the effectiveness of the introduced tools, we thoroughly apply them to a paradigmatic instance of quantum process where the role of coherence is being hotly debated: exciton transport in the FMO photosynthetic complex and its most relevant trimeric subunit. Our analysis illustrates how the high efficiency of environmentally assisted transport can be traced back to the coherence properties of the evolution and the interference between pathways in the decoherent histories formalism. Indeed, we show that the bath essentially implements a quantum recoil avoiding effect on the exciton dynamics: the action of decoherence in the system is set at precisely the right level needed to preserve and sustain the benefits of the fast initial quantum delocalization of the exciton over the network, while preventing the subsequent recoil that would necessarily follow form a purely coherent dynamics. This picture becomes very clear when expressed in terms of pathways leading to the exit site: the action of the bath is seen to selectively kill the negative interference between pathways, while retaining the intial positive one.
Enhancing quantum effects via periodic modulations in optomechanical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farace, Alessandro; Giovannetti, Vittorio
2012-07-01
Parametrically modulated optomechanical systems have been recently proposed as a simple and efficient setting for the quantum control of a micromechanical oscillator: relevant possibilities include the generation of squeezing in the oscillator position (or momentum) and the enhancement of entanglement between mechanical and radiation modes. In this paper we further investigate this modulation regime, considering an optomechanical system with one or more parameters being modulated over time. We first apply a sinusoidal modulation of the mechanical frequency and characterize the optimal regime in which the visibility of purely quantum effects is maximal. We then introduce a second modulation on the input laser intensity and analyze the interplay between the two. We find that an interference pattern shows up, so that different choices of the relative phase between the two modulations can either enhance or cancel the desired quantum effects, opening new possibilities for optimal quantum control strategies.
The quantization of topology, from quantum Hall effect to quantum gravity
Patrascu, Andrei T
2014-01-01
It is the goal of this article to extend the notion of quantization from the standard interpretation focused on non-commuting observables defined starting from classical analogues, to the topological equivalents defined in terms of coefficient groups in (co)homology. It is shown that the commutation relations between quantum observables become (non)compatibility relations between coefficient groups. The main result is the construction of a new, higher-level form of quantization, as seen from the perspective of the universal coefficient theorem. This idea brings us closer to a consistent quantization of gravity, allows for a systematic description of topology changing string interactions but also gives new, quantum-topological degrees of freedom in discussions involving quantum information. On the practical side, a possible connection to the fractional quantum Hall effect is explored.
Lee, Gyeong Won [Department of Applied Physics, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Applied Physics, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young-Dae [Department of Applied Physics, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Applied Physics, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 Eighth Street, Troy, New York 12180-3590 (United States)
2013-06-15
The influence of the electron-exchange and quantum screening on the Thomson scattering process is investigated in degenerate quantum Fermi plasmas. The Thomson scattering cross section in quantum plasmas is obtained by the plasma dielectric function and fluctuation-dissipation theorem as a function of the electron-exchange parameter, Fermi energy, plasmon energy, and wave number. It is shown that the electron-exchange effect enhances the Thomson scattering cross section in quantum plasmas. It is also shown that the differential Thomson scattering cross section has a minimum at the scattering angle ?=?/2. It is also found that the Thomson scattering cross section increases with an increase of the Fermi energy. In addition, the Thomson scattering cross section is found to be decreased with increasing plasmon energy.
The quantization of topology, from quantum Hall effect to quantum gravity
Andrei T. Patrascu
2014-11-17
It is the goal of this article to extend the notion of quantization from the standard interpretation focused on non-commuting observables defined starting from classical analogues, to the topological equivalents defined in terms of coefficient groups in (co)homology. It is shown that the commutation relations between quantum observables become (non)compatibility relations between coefficient groups. The main result is the construction of a new, higher-level form of quantization, as seen from the perspective of the universal coefficient theorem. This idea brings us closer to a consistent quantization of gravity, allows for a systematic description of topology changing string interactions but also gives new, quantum-topological degrees of freedom in discussions involving quantum information. On the practical side, a possible connection to the fractional quantum Hall effect is explored.
A quantitative account of quantum effects in liquid water
Georgios S. Fanourgakis; Gregory K. Schenter; Sotiris S. Xantheas
2006-01-01
We report converged quantum statistical mechanical simulations of liquid water with the Thole-type Model (version 2.1), Flexible, polarizable (TTM2.1-F) interaction potential for water. Simulations of total length of 600 ps with a 0.05 fs time step for a periodic unit cell of 256 molecules with up to 32 replicas per atom suggest that the quantum effects contribute 1.01+\\/-0.02 kcal\\/mol to
A quantitative account of quantum effects in liquid water
G. S. Fanourgakis; G. K. Schenter; S. S. Xantheas
2006-01-01
We report converged quantum statistical mechanical simulations of liquid water with the Thole-type Model (version 2.1), Flexible, polarizable (TTM2.1-F) interaction potential for water. Simulations of total length of 600 ps with a 0.05 fs time step for a periodic unit cell of 256 molecules with up to 32 replicas per atom suggest that the quantum effects contribute 1.01±0.02 kcal?mol to
Quantum Electrodynamics Effects in Heavy Ions and Atoms
Shabaev, V. M.; Andreev, O. V.; Bondarev, A. I.; Glazov, D. A.; Kozhedub, Y. S.; Maiorova, A. V.; Tupitsyn, I. I. [Department of Physics, St. Petersburg State University, Ulianovskaya 1, Petrodvorets, 198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Plunien, G. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, TU Dresden, Mommsenstrasse 13, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Volotka, A. V. [Department of Physics, St. Petersburg State University, Ulianovskaya 1, Petrodvorets, 198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, TU Dresden, Mommsenstrasse 13, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)
2011-05-11
Quantum electrodynamics theory of heavy ions and atoms is considered. The current status of calculations of the binding energies, the hyperfine splitting and g factor values in heavy few-electron ions is reviewed. The theoretical predictions are compared with available experimental data. A special attention is focused on tests of quantum electrodynamics in strong electromagnetic fields and on determination of the fundamental constants. Recent progress in calculations of the parity nonconservation effects with heavy atoms and ions is also reported.
Spacetime effects on satellite-based quantum communications
David Edward Bruschi; Tim Ralph; Ivette Fuentes; Thomas Jennewein; Mohsen Razavi
2014-04-26
We investigate the consequences of space-time being curved on space-based quantum communication protocols. We analyze tasks that require either the exchange of single photons in a certain entanglement distribution protocol or beams of light in a continuous-variable quantum key distribution scheme. We find that gravity affects the propagation of photons, therefore adding additional noise to the channel for the transmission of information. The effects could be measured with current technology.
Quantum Coherence Effects in Four-level Diamond Atomic System
Bao-Quan Ou; Lin-Mei Liang; Cheng-Zu Li
2008-10-28
A symmetric four-level closed-loop $\\diamondsuit$ type (the diamond structure) atomic system driven by four coherent optical fields is investigated. The system shows rich quantum interference and coherence features. When symmetry of the system is broken, interesting phenomena such as single and double dark resonances appear. As a result, the double electromagnetically induced transparency effect is generated, which will facilitate the implementation of quantum phase gate operation.
Polymer quantum effects on compact stars models
Guillermo Chacon-Acosta; Hector Hernandez-Hernandez
2014-08-05
In this work we study a completely degenerated fermion gas at zero temperature within a semiclassical approximation for the Hamiltonian arising in polymer quantum mechanics. Polymer quantum systems are quantum mechanical models quantized in a similar way as in loop quantum gravity that allow the study of the discreteness of space and other features of the loop quantization in a simplified way. We obtain the polymer modified thermodynamical properties noticing that the corresponding Fermi energy is exactly the same as if one directly polymerizes the momentum $p_F$. We also obtain the corresponding expansion of thermodynamical variables for small values of the polymer length scale $\\lambda$. With this results we study a simple model of a compact object where the gravitational collapse is supported by electron degeneracy pressure. We find polymer corrections to the mass of the star. When compared with typical measurements of the mass of white dwarfs we obtain a bound on the polymer length of $\\lambda^2\\lesssim 10^{-26}m^2$.
Study of correlations in fractional quantum Hall effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Chuntai
Bulk two-dimensional electron systems in a strong perpendicular magnetic field exhibit the fascinating phenomenon of fractional quantum Hall effect. Composite fermion theory was developed in the process of understanding the fractional quantum Hall effect and was proven to work successfully for the FQHE and even beyond. In this dissertation, we explore the effect of the strong correlation between electrons in several cases. All of them belong to the category of 2DES in strong perpendicular magnetic field and they are listed below: (i) A fractional quantum Hall island surrounded by a bulk fractional quantum Hall state with a different filling factor. Specifically, we study the resonant tunneling composite fermions through their quasibound states around the island. A rich set of possible transitions are found and the possible relevance to an interesting experiment is discussed. Also, we discuss the subtlety of separating the effect of fractional braiding statistics from other factors. (ii) Correlated states of a quantum dot, at high magnetic fields, assuming four electrons with two components. Such a dot can be realized by reducing the two lateral dimensions of a 2DES tremendously. Both the liquid states and crystallites (the latter occurring at large angular momenta) of four electrons in terms of composite fermions are considered. Residual interaction between composite fermions is shown to leads to complex spin correlations. (iii) Bilayer quantum Hall effect at total filling nuT = 5. This can accommodate an excitonic superfluid state at small layer separations just like at nuT = 1. At large layer separations, however, nuT = 5 state evolves into uncorrelated nu = 5/2 fractional quantum Hall states in both layers, in contrast to uncorrelated composite Fermi sea in nu T = 1 case. We focus on finding the critical layer separation at which the correlation between electrons on different layers are destroyed. Effects due to the finite width of the layers are also considered.
Comparison of recoil-induced resonances and the collective atomic recoil laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berman, P. R.
1999-01-01
The theories of recoil-induced resonances (RIR) [J. Guo, P. R. Berman, B. Dubetsky, and G. Grynberg, Phys. Rev. A 46, 1426 (1992)] and the collective atomic recoil laser (CARL) [R. Bonifacio and L. De Salvo, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 341, 360 (1994)] are compared. Both theories can be used to derive expressions for the gain experienced by a probe field interacting with an ensemble of two-level atoms that are simultaneously driven by a pump field. It is shown that the underlying formalisms of the RIR and CARL are equivalent. Differences between the RIR and CARL arise because the theories are typically applied for different ranges of the parameters appearing in the theory. The RIR limit is one in which the time derivative of the probe field amplitude, dE2/dt, depends locally on E2(t) and the gain depends linearly on the atomic density, while the CARL limit is one in which dE2/dt=?t0f(t,t')E2(t')dt', where f is a kernel, and the gain has a nonlinear dependence on the atomic density. Validity conditions for the RIR or CARL limits are established in terms of the various parameters characterizing the atom-field interaction. The probe gain for a probe-pump detuning equal to zero is analyzed in some detail, in order to understand how gain arises in a system which, at first glance, appears to have a symmetry that would preclude the possibility for gain. Moreover, it is shown that these calculations, carried out in perturbation theory, have a range of applicability beyond the recoil problem. Experimental possibilities for observing CARL are discussed.
Exerpts from the history of alpha recoils.
Samuelsson, Christer
2011-05-01
Any confined air volume holding radon ((222)Rn) gas bears a memory of past radon concentrations due to (210)Pb (T(1/2) = 22 y) and its progenies entrapped in all solid objects in the volume. The efforts of quantifying past radon exposures by means of the left-behind long-lived radon progenies started in 1987 with this author's unsuccessful trials of removing (214)Po from radon exposed glass objects. In this contribution the history and different techniques of assessing radon exposure to man in retrospect will be overviewed. The main focus will be on the implantation of alpha recoils into glass surfaces, but also potential traps in radon dwellings will be discussed. It is concluded that for a successful retrospective application, three crucial imperatives must be met, i.e. firstly, the object must persistently store a certain fraction of the created (210)Pb atoms, secondly, be resistant over decades towards disturbances from the outside and thirdly, all (210)Pb atoms analysed must originate from airborne radon only. For large-scale radon epidemiological studies, non-destructive and inexpensive measurement techniques are essential. Large-scale studies cannot be based on objects rarely found in dwellings or not available for measurements. PMID:21306801
Quantum dissipative Brownian motion and the Casimir effect.
Ingold, Gert-Ludwig; Lambrecht, Astrid; Reynaud, Serge
2009-10-01
We explore an analogy between the thermodynamics of a free dissipative quantum particle in one dimension and that of an electromagnetic field between two mirrors of finite conductivity. While a free particle isolated from its environment will effectively be in the high-temperature limit for any nonvanishing temperature, a finite coupling to the environment leads to quantum effects ensuring the correct low-temperature behavior. Even then, it is found that under appropriate circumstances the entropy can be a nonmonotonic function of the temperature. Such a scenario with its specific dependence on the ratio of temperature and damping constant also appears for the transverse electric mode in the Casimir effect. The limits of vanishing dissipation for the quantum particle and of infinite conductivity of the mirrors in the Casimir effect both turn out to be noncontinuous. PMID:19905279
Effective field theory of relativistic quantum hall systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golkar, Siavash; Roberts, Matthew M.; Son, Dam Thanh
2014-12-01
Motivated by the observation of the fractional quantum Hall effect in graphene, we consider the effective field theory of relativistic quantum Hall states. We find that, beside the Chern-Simons term, the effective action also contains a term of topological nature, which couples the electromagnetic field with a topologically conserved current of 2 + 1 dimensional relativistic fluid. In contrast to the Chern-Simons term, the new term involves the spacetime metric in a nontrivial way. We extract the predictions of the effective theory for linear electromagnetic and gravitational responses. For fractional quantum Hall states at the zeroth Landau level, additional holomorphic constraints allow one to express the results in terms of two dimensionless constants of topological nature.
More benefits of semileptonic rare B decays at low recoil: CP violation
Christoph Bobeth; Gudrun Hiller; Danny van Dyk
2011-01-01
We present a systematic analysis of the angular distribution of decays with l?=?e, ? in the low recoil region (i.e. at high dileptonin variant masses of the order of the mass of the b-quark) to account model-independently for CP violation beyond the Standard Model, working to next-to-leading order QCD. From\\u000a the employed heavy quark effective theory framework we identify the
Ratchet effects in graphene and quantum wells with lateral superlattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golub, L. E.; Nalitov, A. V.; Ivchenko, E. L.; Olbrich, P.; Kamann, J.; Eroms, J.; Weiss, D.; Ganichev, S. D.
2013-12-01
Theoretical and experimental studies on the ratchet effects in graphene and in quantum wells with a lateral superlattice excited by alternating electric fields of terahertz frequency range are presented. We discuss the Seebeck ratchet effect and helicity driven photocurrents and show that the photocurrent generation is based on the combined action of a spatially periodic in-plane potential and a spatially modulated light.
Quantum origin of an anomalous isotope effect in ozone formation
Reid, Scott A.
Quantum origin of an anomalous isotope effect in ozone formation D. Babikov *, B.K. Kendrick, R mechanical calculations of the ðJ ¼ 0Þ energies and lifetimes of the metastable states of ozone on a new effect in the reaction that forms ozone because of their role in the energy transfer mechanism, in which
``Interaction--free'' interaction: entangling evolution via quantum Zeno effect
Pawe? Horodecki
1998-07-11
The effect of entangling evolution induced by frequently repeated quantum measurement is presented. The interesting possibility of conditional freezing the system in maximally entangled state out of Zeno effect regime is also revealed. The illustration of the phenomena in terms of dynamical version of ``interaction free'' measurement is presented. Some general conclusions are provided.
Pseudogap Mediated by Quantum-Size Effects in Lead Islands
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Kedong; Zhang, Xieqiu; Loy, M. M. T.; Chiang, T.-C.; Xiao, Xudong
2009-03-01
Quantum confinement effects in both metallic and semiconducting materials are subjects of intense prevailing interest. For thin films and islands of Pb grown on semiconductor surface, quantum well states have been clearly identified and their consequences in growth, thermal stability, and superconductivity have been well studied. In this talk, we will present scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurement results of Pb islands on Si(111) at high energy resolution that reveal a novel pseudogap, or a pseudopeak in special cases, around the Fermi level in addition to the usual quantum well states. These gap or peak features persist to temperatures as high as ˜80 K and are uniquely related to the quantum well nanostructure of the Pb islands. A systematic analysis indicates that electron-phonon scattering is responsible for the observed electronic structure. The behavior of the pseudogap has a strong resemblance to that of the pseudogap in high temperature superconductors and certain connections may be speculated.
Effective Physical Processes and Active Information in Quantum Computing
Ignazio Licata
2007-10-23
The recent debate on hypercomputation has arisen new questions both on the computational abilities of quantum systems and the Church-Turing Thesis role in Physics. We propose here the idea of "effective physical process" as the essentially physical notion of computation. By using the Bohm and Hiley active information concept we analyze the differences between the standard form (quantum gates) and the non-standard one (adiabatic and morphogenetic) of Quantum Computing, and we point out how its Super-Turing potentialities derive from an incomputable information source in accordance with Bell's constraints. On condition that we give up the formal concept of "universality", the possibility to realize quantum oracles is reachable. In this way computation is led back to the logic of physical world.
Quantum Hall effect on the Lobachevsky plane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bulaev, D. V.; Geyler, V. A.; Margulis, V. A.
2003-09-01
The Hall conductivity of an electron gas on the surface of constant negative curvature (the Lobachevsky plane) in the presence of an orthogonal magnetic field is investigated. It is shown that the surface curvature decreases the quantum Hall plateau widths and shifts the steps in the Hall conductivity to higher magnetic fields (or to lower values of the chemical potential). An increase of temperature results in smearing of the steps.
Quantum Electrodynamical Effects in Dusty Plasmas
M. Marklund; L. Stenflo; P. K. Shukla; G. Brodin
2005-05-31
A new nonlinear electromagnetic wave mode in a magnetized dusty plasma is predicted. Its existence depends on the interaction of an intense circularly polarized electromagnetic wave with a dusty plasma, where quantum electrodynamical photon-photon scattering is taken into account. Specifically, we consider a dusty electron-positron-ion plasma, and show that the propagation of the new mode is admitted. It could be of significance for the physics of supernova remnants and in neutron star formation.
Simulating the dynamical quantum Hall effect with superconducting qubits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xu-Chen; Zhang, Dan-Wei; Xu, Peng; Yu, Yang; Zhu, Shi-Liang
2015-02-01
We propose an experimental scheme to simulate the dynamical quantum Hall effect and the related interaction-induced topological transition with a superconducting-qubit array. We show that a one-dimensional Heisenberg model with tunable parameters can be realized in an array of superconducting qubits. The quantized plateau, which is a feature of the dynamical quantum Hall effect, will emerge in the Berry curvature of the superconducting qubits as a function of the coupling strength between nearest-neighbor qubits. We numerically calculate the Berry curvatures of two-, four-, and six-qubit arrays and find that the interaction-induced topological transition can be easily observed with the simplest two-qubit array. Furthermore, we analyze some practical conditions in typical experiments for observing this dynamical quantum Hall effect.
Simulating dynamical quantum Hall effect with superconducting qubits
Xu-Chen Yang; Dan-Wei Zhang; Peng Xu; Yang Yu; Shi-Liang Zhu
2015-01-20
We propose an experimental scheme to simulate the dynamical quantum Hall effect and the related interaction-induced topological transition with a superconducting-qubit array. We show that a one-dimensional Heisenberg model with tunable parameters can be realized in an array of superconducting qubits. The quantized plateaus, which is a feature of the dynamical quantum Hall effect, will emerge in the Berry curvature of the superconducting qubits as a function of the coupling strength between nearest neighbor qubits. We numerically calculate the Berry curvatures of two-, four- and six-qubit arrays, and find that the interaction-induced topological transition can be easily observed with the simplest two-qubit array. Furthermore, we analyze some practical conditions in typical experiments for observing such dynamical quantum Hall effect.
A coherent understanding of low-energy nuclear recoils in liquid xenon
Sorensen, Peter, E-mail: pfs@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)
2010-09-01
Liquid xenon detectors such as XENON10 and XENON100 obtain a significant fraction of their sensitivity to light (?<10 GeV) particle dark matter by looking for nuclear recoils of only a few keV, just above the detector threshold. Yet in this energy regime a correct treatment of the detector threshold and resolution remains unclear. The energy dependence of the scintillation yield of liquid xenon for nuclear recoils also bears heavily on detector sensitivity, yet numerous measurements have not succeeded in obtaining concordant results. In this article we show that the ratio of detected ionization to scintillation can be leveraged to constrain the scintillation yield. We also present a rigorous treatment of liquid xenon detector threshold and energy resolution. Notably, the effective energy resolution differs significantly from a simple Poisson distribution. We conclude with a calculation of dark matter exclusion limits, and show that existing data from liquid xenon detectors strongly constrain recent interpretations of light dark matter.
Quantum Zeno effect for a free-moving particle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Porras, Miguel A.; Luis, Alfredo; Gonzalo, Isabel
2014-12-01
Although the quantum Zeno effect takes its name from Zeno's arrow paradox, the effect of frequently observing the position of a freely moving particle on its motion has not been analyzed in detail in the frame of standard quantum mechanics. We study the evolution of a moving free particle while monitoring whether it lingers in a given region of space, and explain the dependence of the lingering probability on the frequency of the measurements and the initial momentum of the particle. Stopping the particle entails the emergence of Schrödinger cat states during the observed evolution, closely connected to the high-order diffraction modes in Fabry-Pérot optical resonators.
The spin Hall effect in a quantum gas.
Beeler, M C; Williams, R A; Jiménez-García, K; LeBlanc, L J; Perry, A R; Spielman, I B
2013-06-13
Electronic properties such as current flow are generally independent of the electron's spin angular momentum, an internal degree of freedom possessed by quantum particles. The spin Hall effect, first proposed 40 years ago, is an unusual class of phenomena in which flowing particles experience orthogonally directed, spin-dependent forces--analogous to the conventional Lorentz force that gives the Hall effect, but opposite in sign for two spin states. Spin Hall effects have been observed for electrons flowing in spin-orbit-coupled materials such as GaAs and InGaAs (refs 2, 3) and for laser light traversing dielectric junctions. Here we observe the spin Hall effect in a quantum-degenerate Bose gas, and use the resulting spin-dependent Lorentz forces to realize a cold-atom spin transistor. By engineering a spatially inhomogeneous spin-orbit coupling field for our quantum gas, we explicitly introduce and measure the requisite spin-dependent Lorentz forces, finding them to be in excellent agreement with our calculations. This 'atomtronic' transistor behaves as a type of velocity-insensitive adiabatic spin selector, with potential application in devices such as magnetic or inertial sensors. In addition, such techniques for creating and measuring the spin Hall effect are clear prerequisites for engineering topological insulators and detecting their associated quantized spin Hall effects in quantum gases. As implemented, our system realizes a laser-actuated analogue to the archetypal semiconductor spintronic device, the Datta-Das spin transistor. PMID:23739329
Quantum effects in the dynamics of biological systems
Bialek, W.S.
1983-09-01
The performance of biological sensory systems is shown to reach the quantum limits to measurement, this being true in spite of the high levels of thermal noise associated with operation at phisiological temperatures. Theoretical issues associated with quantum-limited measurement at high temperatures are addressed and strategies for such measurements which make use of active filtering are formulated. Experimental and theoretical evidence supporting the existence of active filters in the sensors of the inner ear is discussed. Simple model Hamiltonians are formulated which seem to describe the dynamics of biological molecules and field-theoretic techniques are developed to solve these Hamiltonians in a variety of parameter regimes. Conditions for non-trivial quantum effects in these models are compared with experiments on the primary events of photosynthesis and the low-temperature behavior of heme proteins. Predicted quantum effects are observed and independent observations support the assignment of parameters outside the regime where semi-classical approximations are valid. In each case considered, theoretical analysis demonstrates that quantum effects in biology are significant if not dominant, and this leads to fundamentally new interpretations of several biological processes. Detailed experiments are proposed which will provide quantitative tests of these new interpretations.
Dynamical quantum Hall effect in the parameter space
Gritsev, V.; Polkovnikov, A.
2012-01-01
Geometric phases in quantum mechanics play an extraordinary role in broadening our understanding of fundamental significance of geometry in nature. One of the best known examples is the Berry phase [M.V. Berry (1984), Proc. Royal. Soc. London A, 392:45], which naturally emerges in quantum adiabatic evolution. So far the applicability and measurements of the Berry phase were mostly limited to systems of weakly interacting quasi-particles, where interference experiments are feasible. Here we show how one can go beyond this limitation and observe the Berry curvature, and hence the Berry phase, in generic systems as a nonadiabatic response of physical observables to the rate of change of an external parameter. These results can be interpreted as a dynamical quantum Hall effect in a parameter space. The conventional quantum Hall effect is a particular example of the general relation if one views the electric field as a rate of change of the vector potential. We illustrate our findings by analyzing the response of interacting spin chains to a rotating magnetic field. We observe the quantization of this response, which we term the rotational quantum Hall effect. PMID:22493228
Linear and nonlinear electrostatic modes in a strongly coupled quantum plasma
Ghosh, Samiran [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Calcutta, 92, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Chakrabarti, Nikhil [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Shukla, P. K. [International Center for Advanced Studies in Physical Sciences and Institute for Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics and Astronomy, Ruhr University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum, Germany and Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and Centre for Energy Research, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)
2012-07-15
The properties of linear and nonlinear electrostatic waves in a strongly coupled electron-ion quantum plasma are investigated. In this study, the inertialess electrons are degenerate, while non-degenerate inertial ions are strongly correlated. The ion dynamics is governed by the continuity and the generalized viscoelastic momentum equations. The quantum forces associated with the quantum statistical pressure and the quantum recoil effect act on the degenerate electron fluid, whereas strong ion correlation effects are embedded in generalized viscoelastic momentum equation through the viscoelastic relaxation of ion correlations and ion fluid shear viscosities. Hence, the spectra of linear electrostatic modes are significantly affected by the strong ion coupling effect. In the weakly nonlinear limit, due to ion-ion correlations, the quantum plasma supports a dispersive shock wave, the dynamics of which is governed by the Korteweg-de Vries Burgers' equation. For a particular value of the quantum recoil effect, only monotonic shock structure is observed. Possible applications of our investigation are briefly mentioned.
Effects of reservoir squeezing on quantum systems and work extraction.
Huang, X L; Wang, Tao; Yi, X X
2012-11-01
We establish a quantum Otto engine cycle in which the working substance contacts with squeezed reservoirs during the two quantum isochoric processes. We consider two working substances: (1) a qubit and (2) two coupled qubits. Due to the effects of squeezing, the working substance can be heated to a higher effective temperature, which leads to many interesting features different from the ordinary ones, such as (1) for the qubit as working substance, if we choose the squeezed parameters properly, the positive work can be exported even when T(H)
Loop quantum gravity effects on inflation and the CMB
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsujikawa, Shinji; Singh, Parampreet; Maartens, Roy
2004-12-01
In loop quantum cosmology, the universe avoids a big bang singularity and undergoes an early and short super-inflation phase. During super-inflation, non-perturbative quantum corrections to the dynamics drive an inflaton field up its potential hill, thus setting the initial conditions for standard inflation. We show that this effect can raise the inflaton high enough to achieve sufficient e-foldings in the standard inflation era. We analyse the cosmological perturbations generated when slow-roll is violated after super-inflation and show that loop quantum effects can in principle leave an indirect signature on the largest scales in the CMB, with some loss of power and running of the spectral index.
Advanced theory of multiple exciton generation effect in quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oksengendler, B. L.; Turaeva, N. N.; Rashidova, S. S.
2012-06-01
The theoretical aspects of the effect of multiple exciton generation (MEG) in quantum dots (QDs) have been analysed in this work. The statistical theory of MEG in QDs based on Fermi's approach is presented, taking into account the momentum conservation law. According to Fermi this approach should give the ultimate quantum efficiencies of multiple particle generation. The microscopic mechanism of this effect is based on the theory of electronic "shaking". According to this approach, the wave function of "shaking" electrons can be selected as Plato's functions with effective charges depending on the number of generated excitons. From the theory it is known increasing the number of excitons leads to enhancement of the Auger recombination of electrons which results in reduced quantum yields of excitons. The deviation of the averaged multiplicity of the MEG effect from the Poisson law of fluctuations has been investigated on the basis of synergetics approaches. In addition the role of interface electronic states of QDs and ligands has been considered by means of quantum mechanical approaches. The size optimisation of QDs has been performed to maximise the multiplicity of the MEG effect.
Instanton effects and quantum spectral curves
Johan Kallen; Marcos Marino
2014-04-16
We study a spectral problem associated to the quantization of a spectral curve arising in local mirror symmetry. The perturbative WKB quantization condition is determined by the quantum periods, or equivalently by the refined topological string in the Nekrasov-Shatashvili (NS) limit. We show that the information encoded in the quantum periods is radically insufficient to determine the spectrum: there is an infinite series of instanton corrections, which are non-perturbative in \\hbar, and lead to an exact WKB quantization condition. Moreover, we conjecture the precise form of the instanton corrections: they are determined by the standard or un-refined topological string free energy, and we test our conjecture successfully against numerical calculations of the spectrum. This suggests that the non-perturbative sector of the NS refined topological string contains information about the standard topological string. As an application of the WKB quantization condition, we explain some recent observations relating membrane instanton corrections in ABJM theory to the refined topological string.
Modeling quantum gravity effects in inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinec, Emil J.; Moore, Wynton E.
2014-07-01
Cosmological models in 1+1 dimensions are an ideal setting for investigating the quantum structure of inflationary dynamics — gravity is renormalizable, while there is room for spatial structure not present in the minisuperspace approximation. We use this fortuitous convergence to investigate the mechanism of slow-roll eternal inflation. A variant of 1+1 Liouville gravity coupled to matter is shown to model precisely the scalar sector of cosmological perturbations in 3+1 dimensions. A particular example of quintessence in 1+1d is argued on the one hand to exhibit slow-roll eternal inflation according to standard criteria; on the other hand, a field redefinition relates the model to pure de Sitter gravity coupled to a free scalar matter field with no potential. This and other examples show that the standard logic leading to slow-roll eternal inflation is not invariant under field redefinitions, thus raising concerns regarding its validity. Aspects of the quantization of Liouville gravity as a model of quantum de Sitter space are also discussed.
Strain effects on silicon donor exchange: Quantum computer architecture considerations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koiller, Belita; Hu, Xuedong; Das Sarma, S.
2002-09-01
Proposed silicon-based quantum-computer architectures have attracted attention because of their promise for scalability and their potential for synergetically utilizing the available resources associated with the existing infrastructure of the powerful Si technology. Quantitative understanding of and precise physical control over donor (e.g., phosphorus) exchange are crucial elements in the physics underlying the proposed Si-based quantum-computer hardware. An important potential problem in this context is that intervalley interference originating from the degeneracy in the Si conduction-band edge causes fast oscillations in donor exchange coupling, which imposes significant constraints on the Si quantum-computer architecture. In this paper we consider the effect of external strain on Si donor exchange in the context of quantum-computer hardware. We study donor-electron exchange in uniaxially strained Si, since strain partially lifts the valley degeneracy in the bulk. In particular, we focus on the effects of donor displacements among lattice sites on the exchange coupling, investigating whether intervalley interference poses less of a problem to exchange coupling of donors in strained Si. We show, using the Kohn-Luttinger envelope-function approach, that fast oscillations in exchange coupling indeed disappear for donor pairs that satisfy certain conditions for their relative positions, while in other situations the donor exchange coupling remains oscillatory, with periods close to interatomic spacing. We also comment on the possible role of controlled external strain in the design and fabrication of Si quantum-computer architecture.
Strain effects on silicon donor exchange: Quantum computer architecture considerations
Belita Koiller; Xuedong Hu; S. Das Sarma
2001-12-05
Proposed Silicon-based quantum computer architectures have attracted attention because of their promise for scalability and their potential for synergetically utilizing the available resources associated with the existing infrastructure of the powerful Si technology. Quantitative understanding of and precise physical control over donor (e.g. Phosphorus) exchange are crucial elements in the physics underlying the proposed Si-based quantum computer hardware. An important potential problem in this context is that inter-valley interference originating from the degeneracy in the Si conduction band edge causes fast oscillations in donor exchange coupling, which imposes significant constraints on the Si quantum computer architecture. In this paper we consider the effect of external strain on Si donor exchange in the context of quantum computer hardware. We study donor electron exchange in uniaxially strained Si, since strain partially lifts the valley degeneracy in the bulk. In particular, we focus on the effects of donor displacements among lattice sites on the exchange coupling, investigating whether inter-valley interference poses less of a problem to exchange coupling of donors in strained Si. We show, using the Kohn-Luttinger envelope function approach, that fast oscillations in exchange coupling indeed disappear for donor pairs that satisfy certain conditions for their relative positions, while in other situations the donor exchange coupling remains oscillatory, with periods close to interatomic spacing. We also comment on the possible role of controlled external strain in the design and fabrication of Si quantum computer architecture.
Energetic recoils in UO2 simulated using five different potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Devanathan, Ram; Yu, Jianguo; Weber, William J.
2009-05-01
This report presents the results of classical molecular dynamics simulations of the diffuse premelting transition, melting, and defect production by 1 keV U recoils in UO2 using five different rigid ion potentials. The experimentally observed premelting transition occurred for all five cases. For all the potentials studied, dynamic defect annealing is highly effective and is accompanied by replacement events on the anion sublattice. The primary damage state after ˜15 ps consists of isolated Frenkel pairs and interstitial and vacancy clusters of various sizes. The average displacement energy varies from ˜28 to ˜83 eV and the number of Frenkel pairs is different by a factor of 3 depending on the choice of potential. The size and spatial distribution of vacancy and interstitial clusters is drastically different for the potentials studied. The results provide statistics of defect production. They point to a pressing need to determine defect formation, migration, and binding energies in UO2 from first principles and to develop reliable potentials based on this data for simulating microstructural evolution in nuclear fuel under operating conditions.
Energetic recoils in UO2 simulated using five different potentials.
Devanathan, Ram; Yu, Jianguo; Weber, William J
2009-05-01
This report presents the results of classical molecular dynamics simulations of the diffuse premelting transition, melting, and defect production by 1 keV U recoils in UO(2) using five different rigid ion potentials. The experimentally observed premelting transition occurred for all five cases. For all the potentials studied, dynamic defect annealing is highly effective and is accompanied by replacement events on the anion sublattice. The primary damage state after approximately 15 ps consists of isolated Frenkel pairs and interstitial and vacancy clusters of various sizes. The average displacement energy varies from approximately 28 to approximately 83 eV and the number of Frenkel pairs is different by a factor of 3 depending on the choice of potential. The size and spatial distribution of vacancy and interstitial clusters is drastically different for the potentials studied. The results provide statistics of defect production. They point to a pressing need to determine defect formation, migration, and binding energies in UO(2) from first principles and to develop reliable potentials based on this data for simulating microstructural evolution in nuclear fuel under operating conditions. PMID:19425785
Optimal quantum estimation of the Unruh-Hawking effect.
Aspachs, Mariona; Adesso, Gerardo; Fuentes, Ivette
2010-10-01
We address on general quantum-statistical grounds the problem of optimal detection of the Unruh-Hawking effect. We show that the effect signatures are magnified up to potentially observable levels if the scalar field to be probed has high mean energy from an inertial perspective: The Unruh-Hawking effect acts like an amplification channel. We prove that a field in a Fock inertial state, probed via photon counting by a noninertial detector, realizes the optimal strategy attaining the ultimate sensitivity allowed by quantum mechanics for the observation of the effect. We define the parameter regime in which the effect can be reliably revealed in laboratory experiments, regardless of the specific implementation. PMID:21230889
Quantum mechanical effects of topological origin
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duru, I. H.
1993-01-01
Following a brief review of the original Casimir and Aharonov-Bohm effects, some other effects of similar natures are mentioned. A Casimir interaction between AB fluxes is presented. Possible realizations of the Casimir effects for massive charged fields in solid state structures and a new AB effect for photons are suggested.
Calculation of recoil implantation profiles using known range statistics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fung, C. D.; Avila, R. E.
1985-01-01
A method has been developed to calculate the depth distribution of recoil atoms that result from ion implantation onto a substrate covered with a thin surface layer. The calculation includes first order recoils considering projected range straggles, and lateral straggles of recoils but neglecting lateral straggles of projectiles. Projectile range distributions at intermediate energies in the surface layer are deduced from look-up tables of known range statistics. A great saving of computing time and human effort is thus attained in comparison with existing procedures. The method is used to calculate recoil profiles of oxygen from implantation of arsenic through SiO2 and of nitrogen from implantation of phosphorus through Si3N4 films on silicon. The calculated recoil profiles are in good agreement with results obtained by other investigators using the Boltzmann transport equation and they also compare very well with available experimental results in the literature. The deviation between calculated and experimental results is discussed in relation to lateral straggles. From this discussion, a range of surface layer thickness for which the method applies is recommended.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benatti, Fabio; Floreanini, Roberto; Scholes, Greg
2012-08-01
The last years have witnessed fast growing developments in the use of quantum mechanics in technology-oriented and information-related fields, especially in metrology, in the developments of nano-devices and in understanding highly efficient transport processes. The consequent theoretical and experimental outcomes are now driving new experimental tests of quantum mechanical effects with unprecedented accuracies that carry with themselves the concrete possibility of novel technological spin-offs. Indeed, the manifold advances in quantum optics, atom and ion manipulations, spintronics and nano-technologies are allowing direct experimental verifications of new ideas and their applications to a large variety of fields. All of these activities have revitalized interest in quantum mechanics and created a unique framework in which theoretical and experimental physics have become fruitfully tangled with information theory, computer, material and life sciences. This special issue aims to provide an overview of what is currently being pursued in the field and of what kind of theoretical reference frame is being developed together with the experimental and theoretical results. It consists of three sections: 1. Memory effects in quantum dynamics and quantum channels 2. Driven open quantum systems 3. Experiments concerning quantum coherence and/or decoherence The first two sections are theoretical and concerned with open quantum systems. In all of the above mentioned topics, the presence of an external environment needs to be taken into account, possibly in the presence of external controls and/or forcing, leading to driven open quantum systems. The open system paradigm has proven to be central in the analysis and understanding of many basic issues of quantum mechanics, such as the measurement problem, quantum communication and coherence, as well as for an ever growing number of applications. The theory is, however, well-settled only when the so-called Markovian or memoryless, approximation applies. When strong coupling or long environmental relaxation times make memory effects important for a realistic description of the dynamics, new strategies are asked for and the assessment of the general structure of non-Markovian dynamical equations for realistic systems is a crucial issue. The impact of quantum phenomena such as coherence and entanglement in biology has recently started to be considered as a possible source of the high efficiency of certain biological mechanisms, including e.g. light harvesting in photosynthesis and enzyme catalysis. In this effort, the relatively unknown territory of driven open quantum systems is being explored from various directions, with special attention to the creation and stability of coherent structures away from thermal equilibrium. These investigations are likely to advance our understanding of the scope and role of quantum mechanics in living systems; at the same time they provide new ideas for the developments of next generations of devices implementing highly efficient energy harvesting and conversion. The third section concerns experimental studies that are currently being pursued. Multidimensional nonlinear spectroscopy, in particular, has played an important role in enabling experimental detection of the signatures of coherence. Recent remarkable results suggest that coherence—both electronic and vibrational—survive for substantial timescales even in complex biological systems. The papers reported in this issue describe work at the forefront of this field, where researchers are seeking a detailed understanding of the experimental signatures of coherence and its implications for light-induced processes in biology and chemistry.
Plasma wave instability in a quantum field effect transistor with magnetic field effect
Zhang, Li-Ping; Xue, Ju-Kui [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China)] [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China)
2013-08-15
The current-carrying state of a nanometer Field Effect Transistor (FET) may become unstable against the generation of high-frequency plasma waves and lead to generation of terahertz radiation. In this paper, the influences of magnetic field, quantum effects, electron exchange-correlation, and thermal motion of electrons on the instability of the plasma waves in a nanometer FET are reported. We find that, while the electron exchange-correlation suppresses the radiation power, the magnetic field, the quantum effects, and the thermal motion of electrons can enhance the radiation power. The radiation frequency increases with quantum effects and thermal motion of electrons, but decreases with electron exchange-correlation effect. Interestingly, we find that magnetic field can suppress the quantum effects and the thermal motion of electrons and the radiation frequency changes non-monotonely with the magnetic field. These properties could make the nanometer FET advantageous for realization of practical terahertz oscillations.
Recoil velocity at second post-Newtonian order for spinning black hole binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Racine, Étienne; Buonanno, Alessandra; Kidder, Larry
2009-08-01
We compute the flux of linear momentum carried by gravitational waves emitted from spinning binary black holes at second post-Newtonian (2PN) order for generic orbits. In particular we provide explicit expressions of three new types of terms, namely, next-to-leading order spin-orbit terms at 1.5 post-Newtonian (1.5PN) order, spin-orbit tail terms at 2PN order, and spin-spin terms at 2PN order. Restricting ourselves to quasicircular orbits, we integrate the linear-momentum flux over time to obtain the recoil velocity as function of orbital frequency. We find that in the so-called superkick configuration the higher-order spin corrections can increase the recoil velocity up to a factor ˜3 with respect to the leading-order PN prediction. Whereas the recoil velocity computed in PN theory within the adiabatic approximation can accurately describe the early inspiral phase, we find that its fast increase during the late inspiral and plunge, and the arbitrariness in determining until when it should be trusted, makes the PN predictions for the total recoil not very accurate and robust. Nevertheless, the linear-momentum flux at higher PN orders can be employed to build more reliable resummed expressions aimed at capturing the nonperturbative effects until merger. Furthermore, we provide expressions valid for generic orbits, and accurate at 2PN order, for the energy and angular momentum carried by gravitational waves emitted from spinning binary black holes. Specializing to quasicircular orbits we compute the spin-spin terms at 2PN order in the expression for the evolution of the orbital frequency and found agreement with Mikóczi, Vasúth, and Gergely. We also verified that in the limit of extreme mass ratio our expressions for the energy and angular momentum fluxes match the ones of Tagoshi, Shibata, Tanaka, and Sasaki obtained in the context of black hole perturbation theory.
CHANDRA HIGH-RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS OF CID-42, A CANDIDATE RECOILING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE
Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Aldcroft, T.; Trichas, M.; Fruscione, A. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bongiorno, A.; Brusa, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Blecha, L.; Loeb, A. [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Comastri, A.; Gilli, R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, Bologna 40127 (Italy); Salvato, M.; Komossa, S. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, Excellence Cluster, Boltzmannstrass 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Koekemoer, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Mainieri, V. [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Piconcelli, E. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, Monteporzio-Catone 00040 (Italy); Vignali, C. [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, Bologna 40127 (Italy)
2012-06-10
We present Chandra High Resolution Camera observations of CID-42, a candidate recoiling supermassive black hole (SMBH) at z = 0.359 in the COSMOS survey. CID-42 shows two optical compact sources resolved in the HST/ACS image embedded in the same galaxy structure and a velocity offset of {approx}1300 km s{sup -1} between the H{beta} broad and narrow emission line, as presented by Civano et al. Two scenarios have been proposed to explain the properties of CID-42: a gravitational wave (GW) recoiling SMBH and a double Type 1/Type 2 active galactic nucleus (AGN) system, where one of the two is recoiling because of slingshot effect. In both scenarios, one of the optical nuclei hosts an unobscured AGN, while the other one, either an obscured AGN or a star-forming compact region. The X-ray Chandra data allow us to unambiguously resolve the X-ray emission and unveil the nature of the two optical sources in CID-42. We find that only one of the optical nuclei is responsible for the whole X-ray unobscured emission observed and a 3{sigma} upper limit on the flux of the second optical nucleus is measured. The upper limit on the X-ray luminosity plus the analysis of the multiwavelength spectral energy distribution indicate the presence of a star-forming region in the second source rather than an obscured SMBH, thus favoring the GW recoil scenario. However, the presence of a very obscured SMBH cannot be fully ruled out. A new X-ray feature, in a SW direction with respect to the main source, is discovered and discussed.
1. Quantum Zeno effect (QZE) "proves" projective measurement
Sun, Chang-Pu
Packet Collapse (WPC), Projection Measurement , Wave Function Reduction, Strong measurement ( )A a a a= a von Neumann 1929 #12;WPC results in quantum Zeno effect 2 2 2n- 0 0 2n 2 2 0 0 ( ) 2 2 P(=n)= 1 1
Quantum gravity effects in black holes at the LHC
G. L. Alberghi; Roberto Casadio; Alessandro Tronconi
2007-01-01
We study possible back-reaction and quantum gravity effects in the evaporation of black holes which could be produced at the LHC through a modification of the Hawking emission. The corrections are phenomenologically taken into account by employing a modified relation between the black hole mass and temperature. The usual assumption that black holes explode around 1 TeV is also released,
Quenching Factor for Low Energy Nuclear Recoils in a Plastic Scintillator
L. Reichhart; D. Yu. Akimov; H. M. Araujo; E. J. Barnes; V. A. Belov; A. A. Burenkov; V. Chepel; A. Currie; L. DeViveiros; B. Edwards; V. Francis; C. Ghag; A. Hollingsworth; M. Horn; G. E. Kalmus; A. S. Kobyakin; A. G. Kovalenko; V. N. Lebedenko; A. Lindote; M. I. Lopes; R. Luscher; P. Majewski; A. St J. Murphy; F. Neves; S. M. Paling; J. Pinto da Cunha; R. Preece; J. J. Quenby; P. R. Scovell; C. Silva; V. N. Solovov; N. J. T. Smith; P. F. Smith; V. N. Stekhanov; T. J. Sumner; C. Thorne; R. J. Walker
2011-11-09
Plastic scintillators are widely used in industry, medicine and scientific research, including nuclear and particle physics. Although one of their most common applications is in neutron detection, experimental data on their response to low-energy nuclear recoils are scarce. Here, the relative scintillation efficiency for neutron-induced nuclear recoils in a polystyrene-based plastic scintillator (UPS-923A) is presented, exploring recoil energies between 125 keV and 850 keV. Monte Carlo simulations, incorporating light collection efficiency and energy resolution effects, are used to generate neutron scattering spectra which are matched to observed distributions of scintillation signals to parameterise the energy-dependent quenching factor. At energies above 300 keV the dependence is reasonably described using the semi-empirical formulation of Birks and a kB factor of (0.014+/-0.002) g/MeVcm^2 has been determined. Below that energy the measured quenching factor falls more steeply than predicted by the Birks formalism.
The Benefits of B ---> K* l+ l- Decays at Low Recoil
Bobeth, Christoph; van Dyk, Danny
2010-01-01
Using the heavy quark effective theory framework put forward by Grinstein and Pirjol we work out predictions for B -> K* l+ l-, l = (e, mu), decays for a softly recoiling K*, i.e., for large dilepton masses sqrt{q^2} of the order of the b-quark mass m_b. We work to lowest order in Lambda/Q, where Q = (m_b, sqrt{q^2}) and include the next-to-leading order corrections from the charm quark mass m_c and the strong coupling at O(m_c^2/Q^2, alpha_s). The leading Lambda/m_b corrections are parametrically suppressed. The improved Isgur-Wise form factor relations correlate the B -> K* l+ l- transversity amplitudes, which simplifies the description of the various decay observables and provides opportunities for the extraction of the electroweak short distance couplings. We propose new angular observables which have very small hadronic uncertainties. We exploit existing data on B -> K* l+ l- distributions and show that the low recoil region provides powerful additional information to the large recoil one. We find disjoi...
The Benefits of B ---> K* l+ l- Decays at Low Recoil
Christoph Bobeth; Gudrun Hiller; Danny van Dyk
2010-07-08
Using the heavy quark effective theory framework put forward by Grinstein and Pirjol we work out predictions for B -> K* l+ l-, l = (e, mu), decays for a softly recoiling K*, i.e., for large dilepton masses sqrt{q^2} of the order of the b-quark mass m_b. We work to lowest order in Lambda/Q, where Q = (m_b, sqrt{q^2}) and include the next-to-leading order corrections from the charm quark mass m_c and the strong coupling at O(m_c^2/Q^2, alpha_s). The leading Lambda/m_b corrections are parametrically suppressed. The improved Isgur-Wise form factor relations correlate the B -> K* l+ l- transversity amplitudes, which simplifies the description of the various decay observables and provides opportunities for the extraction of the electroweak short distance couplings. We propose new angular observables which have very small hadronic uncertainties. We exploit existing data on B -> K* l+ l- distributions and show that the low recoil region provides powerful additional information to the large recoil one. We find disjoint best-fit solutions, which include the Standard Model, but also beyond-the-Standard Model ones. This ambiguity can be accessed with future precision measurements.
Iyengar, Srinivasan S.
Vibrational Spectra Including Critical Nuclear Quantum Effects Isaiah Sumner and Srinivasan S. Iyengar to study vibrational spectroscopy in clusters inclusive of critical nuclear quantum effects. This approach function, where the wavepacket flux from the quantized particle is combined with classical nuclear
Quantum field effects on cosmological phase transition in anisotropic spacetimes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wunghong, Huang
1993-10-01
The one-loop renormalized effective potentials for the massive ?4 theory on the spatially homogeneous models of Bianchi type I and Kantowski-Sachs type are evaluated. It is used to see how the quantum field affects the cosmological phase transition in the anisotropic spacetimes. For simplicity, it is assumed that the spacetimes are slowly varying or have special metric forms. The author obtains the analytic results and presents a detailed discussion of the quantum field corrections to symmetry breaking or symmetry restoration in the model spacetimes.
Tunneling in Polymer Quantization and the Quantum Zeno Effect
Durmus Ali Demir; Ozan Sargin
2014-09-25
As an application of the polymer quantization scheme, in this work we investigate the one dimensional quantum mechanical tunneling phenomenon from the perspective of polymer representation of a non-relativistic point particle and derive the transmission and reflection coefficients. Since any tunneling phenomenon inevitably evokes a tunneling time we attempt an analytical calculation of tunneling times by defining an operator well suited in discrete spatial geometry. The results that we come up with hint at appearance of the Quantum Zeno Effect in polymer framework.
Quantum effects in the dynamics of deeply supercooled water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agapov, A. L.; Kolesnikov, A. I.; Novikov, V. N.; Richert, R.; Sokolov, A. P.
2015-02-01
Despite its simple chemical structure, water remains one of the most puzzling liquids with many anomalies at low temperatures. Combining neutron scattering and dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, we show that quantum fluctuations are not negligible in deeply supercooled water. Our dielectric measurements reveal the anomalously weak temperature dependence of structural relaxation in vapor-deposited water close to the glass transition temperature Tg˜136 K . We demonstrate that this anomalous behavior can be explained well by quantum effects. These results have significant implications for our understanding of water dynamics.
Quantum cosmological effects from the high redshift supernova observations
V. V. Kuzmichev
2004-07-01
Subject of this contribution is to demonstrate that the observed faintness of the supernovae at the high redshift can be considered as a manifestation of quantum effects at cosmological scales. We show that observed redshift distribution of coordinate distances to the type Ia supernovae can be explained by the local manifestations of quantum fluctuations of the cosmological scale factor about its average value. These fluctuations can arise in the early universe, grow with time, and produce observed accelerating or decelerating expansions of space subdomains containing separate supernovae with high redshift whereas the universe as a whole expands at a steady rate.
The Quantum Spin Hall Effect: Theory and Experiment
Konig, Markus; Buhmann, Hartmut; Molenkamp, Laurens W.; /Wurzburg U.; Hughes, Taylor L.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Liu, Chao-Xing; /Tsinghua U., Beijing /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2010-03-19
The search for topologically non-trivial states of matter has become an important goal for condensed matter physics. Recently, a new class of topological insulators has been proposed. These topological insulators have an insulating gap in the bulk, but have topologically protected edge states due to the time reversal symmetry. In two dimensions the helical edge states give rise to the quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect, in the absence of any external magnetic field. Here we review a recent theory which predicts that the QSH state can be realized in HgTe/CdTe semiconductor quantum wells. By varying the thickness of the quantum well, the band structure changes from a normal to an 'inverted' type at a critical thickness d{sub c}. We present an analytical solution of the helical edge states and explicitly demonstrate their topological stability. We also review the recent experimental observation of the QSH state in HgTe/(Hg,Cd)Te quantum wells. We review both the fabrication of the sample and the experimental setup. For thin quantum wells with well width d{sub QW} < 6.3 nm, the insulating regime shows the conventional behavior of vanishingly small conductance at low temperature. However, for thicker quantum wells (d{sub QW} > 6.3 nm), the nominally insulating regime shows a plateau of residual conductance close to 2e{sup 2}/h. The residual conductance is independent of the sample width, indicating that it is caused by edge states. Furthermore, the residual conductance is destroyed by a small external magnetic field. The quantum phase transition at the critical thickness, d{sub c} = 6.3 nm, is also independently determined from the occurrence of a magnetic field induced insulator to metal transition.
Testing quantum gravity effects with latest CMB observations
Yi-Fu Cai; Yi Wang
2014-06-19
Inspired by quantum gravitational physics, the approach of non-commutative (NC) phase space leads to a modified dispersion relation of gravitational waves. This feature, if applied to the very early universe, gives rise to a modified power spectrum of primordial tensor perturbations with a suppression of power on large scales. We confront this phenomenon with the BICEP2 and Planck experiments, and show that inflation with the modified dispersion relation can simultaneously fit the observations better than the standard inflationary paradigm. In particular, the numerical result implies that with the latest cosmological microwave background (CMB) observations, a quantum gravity modified power spectrum of primordial tensor modes is preferred at a statistical significance of more than $3\\sigma$ compared with the minimal model. Our study indicates that the potential tension between the BICEP2 and Planck data may be resolved by quantum gravity effects.
Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in Magnetic Insulator Heterostructure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Gang; Wang, Jing; Felser, Claudia; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng
2015-03-01
Based on ab initio calculations, we predict that a monolayer of Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 and GdI2 heterostructure is a quantum anomalous Hall insulator with a non-trivial band gap up to 38 meV. The principle behind our prediction is that the band inversion between two topologically trivial ferromagnetic insulators can result in a non-zero Chern number, which offers a better way to realize the quantum anomalous Hall state without random magnetic doping. In addition, a simple effective model is presented to describe the basic mechanism of spin polarized band inversion in this system. Moreover, we predict that 3D quantum anomalous Hall insulator could be realized in (Bi2/3Cr1/3)2Te3/GdI2 superlattice.
Quantum effects in high-gain free-electron lasers.
Schroeder, C B; Pellegrini, C; Chen, P
2001-11-01
A many-particle fully quantized theory for a free-electron laser which is valid in the high-gain regime is presented. We examine quantum corrections for the high-gain single-pass free-electron laser. It is shown that quantum effects become significant when the photon energy becomes comparable to the gain bandwidth. The initiation of the free-electron laser process from quantum fluctuations in the position and momentum of the electrons is considered, and the parameter regime for enhanced start-up is identified. Photon statistics of the free-electron laser radiation are discussed, and the photon number statistics for the self-amplified spontaneous emission are calculated. PMID:11736108
On the Convergence in Effective Loop Quantum Cosmology
Corichi, Alejandro [Instituto de Matematicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A. Postal 61-3, Morelia, Michoacan 58090 (Mexico); Center for Fundamental Theory, Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, Pennsylvania State University, University Park PA 16802 (United States); Vukasinac, Tatjana [Facultad de Ingenieria Civil, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo Morelia, Michoacan 58000 (Mexico); Zapata, Jose Antonio [Instituto de Matematicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A. Postal 61-3, Morelia, Michoacan 58090 (Mexico)
2010-07-12
In Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC) there is a discreteness parameter {lambda}, that has been heuristically associated to a fundamental granularity of quantum geometry. It is also possible to consider {lambda} as a regulator in the same spirit as that used in lattice field theory, where it specifies a regular lattice in the real line. A particular quantization of the k = 0 FLRW loop cosmological model yields a completely solvable model, known as solvable loop quantum cosmology(sLQC). In this contribution, we consider effective classical theories motivated by sLQC and study their {lambda}-dependence, with a special interest on the limit {lambda}{yields}0 and the role of the evolution parameter in the convergence of such limit.
Quantum anomalous Hall effect in magnetic insulator heterostructure.
Xu, Gang; Wang, Jing; Felser, Claudia; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng
2015-03-11
On the basis of ab initio calculations, we predict that a monolayer of Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 and GdI2 heterostructure is a quantum anomalous Hall insulator with a nontrivial band gap up to 38 meV. The principle behind our prediction is that the band inversion between two topologically trivial ferromagnetic insulators can result in a nonzero Chern number, which offers a better way to realize the quantum anomalous Hall state without random magnetic doping. In addition, a simple effective model is presented to describe the basic mechanism of spin polarized band inversion in this system. Moreover, we predict that 3D quantum anomalous Hall insulator could be realized in (Bi2/3Cr1/3)2Te3 /GdI2 superlattice. PMID:25642896
Possible observational windows for quantum effects from black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giddings, Steven B.
2014-12-01
Quantum information transfer necessary to reconcile black hole evaporation with quantum mechanics, while approximately preserving regular near-horizon geometry, can be simply parametrized in terms of couplings of the black hole internal state to quantum fields of the black hole atmosphere. The necessity of transferring sufficient information for unitarization sets the strengths of these couplings. Such couplings via the stress tensor offer apparently significant advantages, and behave like quantum fluctuations of the effective metric near the horizon. At the requisite strength, these fluctuations, while soft (low energy/momentum), have significant magnitude, and so can deflect near-horizon geodesics that span distances of order the black hole radius. Thus, the presence of such couplings can result in effects that could be detected or constrained by observation: disruption of near-horizon accretion flows, scintillation of light passing close to the black hole, and alteration of gravitational wave emission from inspirals. These effects could in particular distort features of Sgr A* expected to be observed, e.g., by the Event Horizon Telescope, such as the black hole shadow and photon ring.
Quantum corrections to spin effects in general relativity
G. G. Kirilin
2005-07-16
Quantum power corrections to the gravitational spin-orbit and spin-spin interactions, as well as to the Lense-Thirring effect, were found for particles of spin 1/2. These corrections arise from diagrams of second order in Newton gravitational constant G with two massless particles in the unitary cut in the t-channel. The corrections obtained differ from the previous calculation of the corrections to spin effects for rotating compound bodies with spinless constituents.
Electro-Optic Effect Explanation with Quantum Photonic Model
Hassan Kaatuzian; AliAkbar Wahedy Zarch; Ahmad Amjadi; Ahmad Ajdarzadeh Oskouei
2007-05-09
In this paper, we have explained transverse electro-optic effect by quantum-photonic model (QPM). This model interpret this effect by photon-electron interaction in attosecond regime. We simulate applied electric field on molecule and crystal by Monte-Carlo method in time domain when a light beam is propagated through the waveguide. We show how the waveguide response to an optical signal with different wavelengths when a transverse electric field applied to the waveguide.
Quantum Hall effect in graphene decorated with disordered multilayer patches
Nam, Youngwoo, E-mail: youngwoo.nam@chalmers.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Sun, Jie, E-mail: jie.sun@chalmers.se; Lindvall, Niclas; Kireev, Dmitry; Yurgens, August [Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden)] [Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Jae Yang, Seung; Rae Park, Chong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Woo Park, Yung [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)
2013-12-02
Quantum Hall effect (QHE) is observed in graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition using platinum catalyst. The QHE is even seen in samples which are irregularly decorated with disordered multilayer graphene patches and have very low mobility (<500 cm{sup 2}V{sup ?1}s{sup ?1}). The effect does not seem to depend on electronic mobility and uniformity of the resulting material, which indicates the robustness of QHE in graphene.
A holographic model for the fractional quantum Hall effect
Matthew Lippert; Rene Meyer; Anastasios Taliotis
2014-12-23
Experimental data for fractional quantum Hall systems can to a large extent be explained by assuming the existence of a modular symmetry group commuting with the renormalization group flow and hence mapping different phases of two-dimensional electron gases into each other. Based on this insight, we construct a phenomenological holographic model which captures many features of the fractional quantum Hall effect. Using an SL(2,Z)-invariant Einstein-Maxwell-axio-dilaton theory capturing the important modular transformation properties of quantum Hall physics, we find dyonic diatonic black hole solutions which are gapped and have a Hall conductivity equal to the filling fraction, as expected for quantum Hall states. We also provide several technical results on the general behavior of the gauge field fluctuations around these dyonic dilatonic black hole solutions: We specify a sufficient criterion for IR normalizability of the fluctuations, demonstrate the preservation of the gap under the SL(2,Z) action, and prove that the singularity of the fluctuation problem in the presence of a magnetic field is an accessory singularity. We finish with a preliminary investigation of the possible IR scaling solutions of our model and some speculations on how they could be important for the observed universality of quantum Hall transitions.
A holographic model for the fractional quantum Hall effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lippert, Matthew; Meyer, René; Taliotis, Anastasios
2015-01-01
Experimental data for fractional quantum Hall systems can to a large extent be explained by assuming the existence of a ?0(2) modular symmetry group commuting with the renormalization group flow and hence mapping different phases of two-dimensional electron gases into each other. Based on this insight, we construct a phenomenological holographic model which captures many features of the fractional quantum Hall effect. Using an -invariant Einstein-Maxwell-axio-dilaton theory capturing the important modular transformation properties of quantum Hall physics, we find dyonic diatonic black hole solutions which are gapped and have a Hall conductivity equal to the filling fraction, as expected for quantum Hall states. We also provide several technical results on the general behavior of the gauge field fluctuations around these dyonic dilatonic black hole solutions: we specify a sufficient criterion for IR normalizability of the fluctuations, demonstrate the preservation of the gap under the action, and prove that the singularity of the fluctuation problem in the presence of a magnetic field is an accessory singularity. We finish with a preliminary investigation of the possible IR scaling solutions of our model and some speculations on how they could be important for the observed universality of quantum Hall transitions.
Quantum plasmon effects in epsilon-near-zero metamaterials
Moaied, M; Ostrikov, K
2014-01-01
Dispersion properties of metals and propagation of quantum bulk plasmon in the high photon energy regime are studied. The nonlocal dielectric permittivity of a metal is determined by the quantum plasma effects and is calculated by applying the Wigner equation in the kinetic theory and taking into account the electron lattice collisions. The properties of epsilon near zero material are investigated in a thin gold film. The spectrum and the damping rate of the quantum bulk plasmon are obtained for a wide range of energies, and the electron wave function is analytically calculated in both classical and quantum limits. It is shown that the quantum bulk plasmons exist with a propagation length of 1 to 10nm, which strongly depends on the electron energy. The propagation length is found to be much larger than the propagation length in the classical regime which is comparable to the atomic radius and the average inter particle distance. It is found that the spatial localization of the electron wave function is extend...
Effect of local channels on quantum steering ellipsoids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Xueyuan; Fan, Heng
2015-02-01
The effect of a local trace-preserving single-qubit channel on a two-qubit state is investigated in the frame of quantum steering ellipsoids (QSEs). The phenomenon of locally increased quantum discord is visualized in this picture. We strictly prove that a B -side two-qubit discordant state can be locally prepared from a classical state by a trace-preserving channel on qubit B if and only if its QSE of B is a nonradial line segment. For states with higher-dimensional QSEs, the phenomenon of locally increased quantum correlation generally happens when the shape of the QSE is like a baguette. Based on this observation, we find a class of entangled states whose quantum discord can be increased by the local amplitude-damping channel. Further, we find that the local quantum channel does not increase the size of the QSEs of either qubit A or qubit B , for the needle-shaped QSE states, or for the Bell diagonal states with higher-dimensional QSEs.
Effective time-independent analysis for quantum kicked systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bandyopadhyay, Jayendra N.; Guha Sarkar, Tapomoy
2015-03-01
We present a mapping of potentially chaotic time-dependent quantum kicked systems to an equivalent approximate effective time-independent scenario, whereby the system is rendered integrable. The time evolution is factorized into an initial kick, followed by an evolution dictated by a time-independent Hamiltonian and a final kick. This method is applied to the kicked top model. The effective time-independent Hamiltonian thus obtained does not suffer from spurious divergences encountered if the traditional Baker-Cambell-Hausdorff treatment is used. The quasienergy spectrum of the Floquet operator is found to be in excellent agreement with the energy levels of the effective Hamiltonian for a wide range of system parameters. The density of states for the effective system exhibits sharp peaklike features, pointing towards quantum criticality. The dynamics in the classical limit of the integrable effective Hamiltonian shows remarkable agreement with the nonintegrable map corresponding to the actual time-dependent system in the nonchaotic regime. This suggests that the effective Hamiltonian serves as a substitute for the actual system in the nonchaotic regime at both the quantum and classical level.
Dellis, A T; Kominis, I K
2012-03-01
Magnetic-sensitive radical-ion-pair reactions are understood to underlie the biochemical magnetic compass used by avian species for navigation. Recent experiments have provided growing evidence for the radical-ion-pair magnetoreception mechanism, while recent theoretical advances have unravelled the quantum nature of radical-ion-pair reactions, which were shown to manifest a host of quantum-information-science concepts and effects, like quantum measurement, quantum jumps and the quantum Zeno effect. We here show that the quantum Zeno effect provides for the robustness of the avian compass mechanism, and immunizes its magnetic and angular sensitivity against the deleterious and molecule-specific exchange and dipolar interactions. PMID:22142839
Effect of quantum therapy on pork quality
Bodnár, Martin; Nagy, Jozef; Popelka, Peter; Koréneková, Beáta; Ma?anga, Ján; Nagyová, Alena
2011-01-01
In this study the impact of quantum therapy on meat quality of slaughtered pigs was investigated. For this purpose the pigs were treated with different doses of magnet-infrared-laser (MIL) radiation. Animals were divided into four groups according to radiation doses (4096, 512, and 64 Hz, and control without application), which were applied in the lumbar area of musculus longissimus dorsi (loin) at various time intervals prior to the slaughter (14 d, 24 h, and 1 h). Animals were slaughtered and the meat quality was evaluated by determining of pH value (1, 3, and 24 h post slaughter), drip loss, colour, and lactic acid and phosphoric acid amounts. MIL therapy can be used in various fields of veterinary medicine as are surgery and orthopaedics, internal medicine, dentistry, pulmonology, gastroenterology, gynaecology, urology, nephrology, and dermatology. The results achieved showed that MIL radiation used in a short period before slaughter (1 h) can cause a change in the meat quality, as reflected by the non-standard development of pH values, increases in drip loss, and changes of meat colour. PMID:22042653
Photodynamic antibacterial effect of graphene quantum dots.
Ristic, Biljana Z; Milenkovic, Marina M; Dakic, Ivana R; Todorovic-Markovic, Biljana M; Milosavljevic, Momir S; Budimir, Milica D; Paunovic, Verica G; Dramicanin, Miroslav D; Markovic, Zoran M; Trajkovic, Vladimir S
2014-05-01
Synthesis of new antibacterial agents is becoming increasingly important in light of the emerging antibiotic resistance. In the present study we report that electrochemically produced graphene quantum dots (GQD), a new class of carbon nanoparticles, generate reactive oxygen species when photoexcited (470 nm, 1 W), and kill two strains of pathogenic bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Bacterial killing was demonstrated by the reduction in number of bacterial colonies in a standard plate count method, the increase in propidium iodide uptake confirming the cell membrane damage, as well as by morphological defects visualized by atomic force microscopy. The induction of oxidative stress in bacteria exposed to photoexcited GQD was confirmed by staining with a redox-sensitive fluorochrome dihydrorhodamine 123. Neither GQD nor light exposure alone were able to cause oxidative stress and reduce the viability of bacteria. Importantly, mouse spleen cells were markedly less sensitive in the same experimental conditions, thus indicating a fairly selective antibacterial photodynamic action of GQD. PMID:24612819
Negative muon chemistry: the quantum muon effect and the finite nuclear mass effect.
Posada, Edwin; Moncada, Félix; Reyes, Andrés
2014-10-01
The any-particle molecular orbital method at the full configuration interaction level has been employed to study atoms in which one electron has been replaced by a negative muon. In this approach electrons and muons are described as quantum waves. A scheme has been proposed to discriminate nuclear mass and quantum muon effects on chemical properties of muonic and regular atoms. This study reveals that the differences in the ionization potentials of isoelectronic muonic atoms and regular atoms are of the order of millielectronvolts. For the valence ionizations of muonic helium and muonic lithium the nuclear mass effects are more important. On the other hand, for 1s ionizations of muonic atoms heavier than beryllium, the quantum muon effects are more important. In addition, this study presents an assessment of the nuclear mass and quantum muon effects on the barrier of He? + H2 reaction. PMID:25188920
Qian, Xiaofeng
Quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect materials feature edge states that are topologically protected from backscattering. However, the small band gap in materials that have been identified as QSH insulators limits applications. ...
Recoil-alpha-fission and recoil-alpha-alpha-fission events observed in the reaction Ca-48 + Am-243
Forsberg, U; Andersson, L -L; Di Nitto, A; Düllmann, Ch E; Gates, J M; Golubev, P; Gregorich, K E; Gross, C J; Herzberg, R -D; Hessberger, F P; Khuyagbaatar, J; Kratz, J V; Rykaczewski, K; Sarmiento, L G; Schädel, M; Yakushev, A; Åberg, S; Ackermann, D; Block, M; Brand, H; Carlsson, B G; Cox, D; Derkx, X; Dobaczewski, J; Eberhardt, K; Even, J; Fahlander, C; Gerl, J; Jäger, E; Kindler, B; Krier, J; Kojouharov, I; Kurz, N; Lommel, B; Mistry, A; Mokry, C; Nazarewicz, W; Nitsche, H; Omtvedt, J P; Papadakis, P; Ragnarsson, I; Runke, J; Schaffner, H; Schausten, B; Shi, Y; Thörle-Pospiech, P; Torres, T; Traut, T; Trautmann, N; Türler, A; Ward, A; Ward, D E; Wiehl, N
2015-01-01
Products of the fusion-evaporation reaction Ca-48 + Am-243 were studied with the TASISpec set-up at the gas-filled separator TASCA at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum f\\"ur Schwerionenforschung. Amongst the detected thirty correlated alpha-decay chains associated with the production of element Z=115, two recoil-alpha-fission and five recoil-alpha-alpha-fission events were observed. The latter are similar to four such events reported from experiments performed at the Dubna gas-filled separator. Contrary to their interpretation, we propose an alternative view, namely to assign eight of these eleven decay chains of recoil-alpha(-alpha)-fission type to start from the 3n-evaporation channel 115-288. The other three decay chains remain viable candidates for the 2n-evaporation channel 115-289.
Recoil-alpha-fission and recoil-alpha-alpha-fission events observed in the reaction Ca-48 + Am-243
U. Forsberg; D. Rudolph; L. -L. Andersson; A. Di Nitto; Ch. E. Düllmann; J. M. Gates; P. Golubev; K. E. Gregorich; C. J. Gross; R. -D. Herzberg; F. P. Hessberger; J. Khuyagbaatar; J. V. Kratz; K. Rykaczewski; L. G. Sarmiento; M. Schädel; A. Yakushev; S. Åberg; D. Ackermann; M. Block; H. Brand; B. G. Carlsson; D. Cox; X. Derkx; J. Dobaczewski; K. Eberhardt; J. Even; C. Fahlander; J. Gerl; E. Jäger; B. Kindler; J. Krier; I. Kojouharov; N. Kurz; B. Lommel; A. Mistry; C. Mokry; W. Nazarewicz; H. Nitsche; J. P. Omtvedt; P. Papadakis; I. Ragnarsson; J. Runke; H. Schaffner; B. Schausten; Y. Shi; P. Thörle-Pospiech; T. Torres; T. Traut; N. Trautmann; A. Türler; A. Ward; D. E. Ward; N. Wiehl
2015-02-10
Products of the fusion-evaporation reaction Ca-48 + Am-243 were studied with the TASISpec set-up at the gas-filled separator TASCA at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum f\\"ur Schwerionenforschung. Amongst the detected thirty correlated alpha-decay chains associated with the production of element Z=115, two recoil-alpha-fission and five recoil-alpha-alpha-fission events were observed. The latter are similar to four such events reported from experiments performed at the Dubna gas-filled separator. Contrary to their interpretation, we propose an alternative view, namely to assign eight of these eleven decay chains of recoil-alpha(-alpha)-fission type to start from the 3n-evaporation channel 115-288. The other three decay chains remain viable candidates for the 2n-evaporation channel 115-289.
Towards a quantum theory of chiral magnetic effect
V. Orlovsky; V. Shevchenko
2010-08-30
We discuss three possible ways to address quantum physics behind chiral magnetic effect and electric charge fluctuation patterns in heavy ion collisions. The first one makes use of P-parity violation probed by local order parameters, the second considers CME in quantum measurement theory framework and the third way is to study P-odd * P-odd contributions to P-even observables. In the latter approach relevant form-factor is extracted and computed for weak magnetic field in confinement region and for free quarks in strong field regime. It is shown that the effect is negligible in the former case. We also discuss saturation effect - charge fluctuation asymmetry for free fermions reaches constant value at asymptotically large fields.
Evanescent radiation, quantum mechanics and the Casimir effect
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schatten, Kenneth H.
1989-01-01
An attempt to bridge the gap between classical and quantum mechanics and to explain the Casimir effect is presented. The general nature of chaotic motion is discussed from two points of view: the first uses catastrophe theory and strange attractors to describe the deterministic view of this motion; the underlying framework for chaos in these classical dynamic systems is their extreme sensitivity to initial conditions. The second interpretation refers to randomness associated with probabilistic dynamics, as for Brownian motion. The present approach to understanding evanescent radiation and its relation to the Casimir effect corresponds to the first interpretation, whereas stochastic electrodynamics corresponds to the second viewpoint. The nonlinear behavior of the electromagnetic field is also studied. This well-understood behavior is utilized to examine the motions of two orbiting charges and shows a closeness between the classical behavior and the quantum uncertainty principle. The evanescent radiation is used to help explain the Casimir effect.
Quantum anti-Zeno effect without rotating wave approximation
Ai Qing; Sun, C. P. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Li Yong [Department of Physics and Center of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Zheng Hang [Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)
2010-04-15
In this article, we systematically study the spontaneous decay phenomenon of a two-level system under the influences of both its environment and repetitive measurements. In order to clarify some well-established conclusions about the quantum Zeno effect (QZE) and the quantum anti-Zeno effect (QAZE), we do not use the rotating wave approximation (RWA) in obtaining an effective Hamiltonian. We examine various spectral distributions by making use of our present approach in comparison with other approaches. It is found that with respect to a bare excited state even without the RWA, the QAZE can still happen for some cases, for example, the interacting spectra of hydrogen. However, for a physical excited state, which is a renormalized dressed state of the atomic state, the QAZE disappears and only the QZE remains. These discoveries inevitably show a transition from the QZE to the QAZE as the measurement interval changes.
Anti-Zeno effect for quantum transport in disordered systems
Fujii, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Katsuji [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)
2010-10-15
We demonstrate that repeated measurements in disordered systems can induce a quantum anti-Zeno effect under certain conditions to enhance quantum transport. The enhancement of energy transfer is really exhibited in multisite models under repeated measurements. The optimal measurement interval for the anti-Zeno effect and the maximal efficiency of energy transfer are specified in terms of the relevant physical parameters. Since the environment acts as frequent measurements on the system, the decoherence-induced energy transfer, which has been discussed recently for photosynthetic complexes, may be interpreted in terms of the anti-Zeno effect. We further find an interesting phenomenon in a specific three-site case, where local decoherence or repeated measurements may even promote entanglement generation between the nonlocal sites.
Jet Extinction from Non-Perturbative Quantum Gravity Effects
Can Kilic; Amitabh Lath; Keith Rose; Scott Thomas
2013-12-17
The infrared-ultraviolet properties of quantum gravity suggest on very general grounds that hard short distance scattering processes are highly suppressed for center of mass scattering energies beyond the fundamental Planck scale. If this scale is not too far above the electroweak scale, these non-perturbative quantum gravity effects could be manifest as an extinction of high transverse momentum jets at the LHC. To model these effects we implement an Extinction Monte Carlo modification of the Pythia event generator based on a large damping Veneziano form factor modification of hard QCD scattering processes. Using this we illustrate the leading effects of extinction on the inclusive jet transverse momentum spectrum at the LHC. We estimate that an extinction mass scale of up to roughly half the center of mass beam collision energy could be probed with high statistics data.
Interaction Matrix Element Fluctuations in Ballistic Quantum Dots: Dynamical Effects
L. Kaplan; Y. Alhassid
2009-09-17
We study matrix element fluctuations of the two-body screened Coulomb interaction and of the one-body surface charge potential in ballistic quantum dots, comparing behavior in actual chaotic billiards with analytic results previously obtained in a normalized random wave model. We find that the matrix element variances in actual chaotic billiards typically exceed by a factor of 3 or 4 the predictions of the random wave model, for dot sizes commonly used in experiments. We discuss dynamical effects that are responsible for this enhancement. These dynamical effects have an even more striking effect on the covariance, which changes sign when compared with random wave predictions. In billiards that do not display hard chaos, an even larger enhancement of matrix element fluctuations is possible. These enhanced fluctuations have implications for peak spacing statistics and spectral scrambling for quantum dots in the Coulomb blockade regime.
Memory effects in attenuation and amplification quantum processes
Lupo, Cosmo [School of Science and Technology, University of Camerino, via Madonna delle Carceri 9, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Giovannetti, Vittorio [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Mancini, Stefano [School of Science and Technology, University of Camerino, via Madonna delle Carceri 9, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)
2010-09-15
With increasing communication rates via quantum channels, memory effects become unavoidable whenever the use rate of the channel is comparable to the typical relaxation time of the channel environment. We introduce a model of a bosonic memory channel, describing correlated noise effects in quantum-optical processes via attenuating or amplifying media. To study such a channel model, we make use of a proper set of collective field variables, which allows us to unravel the memory effects, mapping the n-fold concatenation of the memory channel to a unitarily equivalent, direct product of n single-mode bosonic channels. We hence estimate the channel capacities by relying on known results for the memoryless setting. Our findings show that the model is characterized by two different regimes, in which the cross correlations induced by the noise among different channel uses are either exponentially enhanced or exponentially reduced.
Memory effects in attenuation and amplification quantum processes
Cosmo Lupo; Vittorio Giovannetti; Stefano Mancini
2010-10-05
With increasing communication rates via quantum channels, memory effects become unavoidable whenever the use rate of the channel is comparable to the typical relaxation time of the channel environment. We introduce a model of a bosonic memory channel, describing correlated noise effects in quantum-optical processes via attenuating or amplifying media. To study such a channel model, we make use of a proper set of collective field variables, which allows us to unravel the memory effects, mapping the n-fold concatenation of the memory channel to a unitarily equivalent, direct product of n single-mode bosonic channels. We hence estimate the channel capacities by relying on known results for the memoryless setting. Our findings show that the model is characterized by two different regimes, in which the cross correlations induced by the noise among different channel uses are either exponentially enhanced or exponentially reduced.
The Unruh effect interpreted as a quantum noise channel
S. Omkar; Subhashish Banerjee; R. Srikanth; Ashutosh Kumar Alok
2014-08-07
We derive the operator-sum representation for the noise channel that acts on a mode of a free Dirac field, as seen by a relativistically accelerated observer. A modal qubit thus appears as if subjected to quantum noise that degrades quantum information, as observed in the accelerated reference frame. We compare and contrast this noise channel, which arises from the Unruh effect, from a conventional noise due to environmental decoherence. We show that the Unruh channel produces an amplitude damping like effect, associated with zero temperature, even though the Unruh effect is associated with a non-zero temperature. Asymptotically, the Bloch sphere subjected to the channel does not converge to a point, as would be expected by fluctuation-dissipation arguments, but contracts by a finite factor. We note that turning off the drive that generates the acceleration corresponds to a non-completely-positive (NCP) map.
The quantum Goldilocks effect: on the convergence of timescales in quantum transport
Seth Lloyd; Masoud Mohseni; Alireza Shabani; Herschel Rabitz
2011-11-21
Excitonic transport in photosynthesis exhibits a wide range of time scales. Absorption and initial relaxation takes place over tens of femtoseconds. Excitonic lifetimes are on the order of a nanosecond. Hopping rates, energy differences between chromophores, reorganization energies, and decoherence rates correspond to time scales on the order of picoseconds. The functional nature of the divergence of time scales is easily understood: strong coupling to the electromagnetic field over a broad band of frequencies yields rapid absorption, while long excitonic lifetimes increase the amount of energy that makes its way to the reaction center to be converted to chemical energy. The convergence of the remaining time scales to the centerpoint of the overall temporal range is harder to understand. In this paper we argue that the convergence of timescales in photosynthesis can be understood as an example of the `quantum Goldilocks effect': natural selection tends to drive quantum systems to the degree of quantum coherence that is `just right' for attaining maximum efficiency. We provide a general theory of optimal and robust, efficient transport in quantum systems, and show that it is governed by a single parameter.
Danil Doubochinski; Jonathan Tennenbaum
2007-11-30
Einstein, De Broglie and others hoped that the schism between classical and quantum physics might one day be overcome by a theory taking into account the essential nonlinearity of elementary physical processes. However, neither their attempts, nor subsequent ones were able to supply a unifying principle that could serve as a starting-point for a coherent understanding of both microphysical and macroscopic phenomena. In the late 1960s the phenomenon of amplitude quantization, or Macroscopic Quantum Effect (MQE), was discovered in a class of nonlinear oscillating systems in which two or more subsystems are coupled to each other by interactions having a specific phase-dependent character -- so-called argumental interactions. Experimental and theoretical studies of the MQE, carried out up to the present time, suggest the possibility of a new conceptual framework for physics, which would provide a bridge between classical and quantum physics, replacing the Newtonian notion of "force" by a new conception of physical interaction. The present paper presents a brief introduction to the MQE and some ideas about its possible significance in the search for new approaches to the understanding of quantum phenomena.
Loop quantum cosmology of Bianchi IX: Effective dynamics
Alejandro Corichi; Edison Montoya
2015-02-09
We study numerically the solutions to the effective equations of Bianchi IX spacetimes within Loop Quantum Cosmology. We consider Bianchi IX models with and without inverse triad corrections whose matter content is a scalar field without mass. The solutions are classified using the classical observables. We show that both effective theories --with lapse N=V and N=1-- solve the big bang singularity and reproduce the classical dynamics far from the bounce. Moreover, due to the spatial compactness, there is an infinity number of bounces and recollapses. We study the limit of large volume and show that both effective theories reproduce the same dynamics, thus recovering general relativity. We implement a procedure to identify amongst the Bianchi IX solutions, those that behave like k=0,1 FLRW as well as Bianchi I, II, and VII_0 models. The effective solutions exhibit Bianchi I phases with Bianchi II transitions and also Bianchi VII_0 phases, which had not been studied before, at the quantum nor effective level. We comment on the possible implications of these results for a quantum modification to the classical BKL behaviour.
On the implications of the Quantum-Pigeonhole Effect
Alastair Rae; Ted Forgan
2014-12-04
There has been considerable interest in a recent preprint - arXiv/1407.3194 - describing an effect named as the Quantum Pigeonhole Principle. The classical pigeonhole principle (classical PHP) refers to a result in number theory which states that if n objects are distributed between m boxes, with m less than n, then at least one box must contain more than one object. An experiment is proposed in the preprint where interactions between particles would reveal that they were in the same box, but a quantum mechanical measurement would imply that no more than 1 of the n objects is contained in any of the m boxes, even though n is greater than m. This result has been greeted by the authors of the preprint and some others as being of great importance in the understanding of quantum mechanics. In this paper we show by a full quantum mechanical treatment that the effect appears to arise as a result of interference between the components of the wavefunctions, each of which is subject to the classical PHP.
Nonadiabatic effect on the quantum heat flux control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uchiyama, Chikako
2014-05-01
We provide a general formula of quantum transfer that includes the nonadiabatic effect under periodic environmental modulation by using full counting statistics in Hilbert-Schmidt space. Applying the formula to an anharmonic junction model that interacts with two bosonic environments within the Markovian approximation, we find that the quantum transfer is divided into the adiabatic (dynamical and geometrical phases) and nonadiabatic contributions. This extension shows the dependence of quantum transfer on the initial condition of the anharmonic junction just before the modulation, as well as the characteristic environmental parameters such as interaction strength and cut-off frequency of spectral density. We show that the nonadiabatic contribution represents the reminiscent effect of past modulation including the transition from the initial condition of the anharmonic junction to a steady state determined by the very beginning of the modulation. This enables us to tune the frequency range of modulation, whereby we can obtain the quantum flux corresponding to the geometrical phase by setting the initial condition of the anharmonic junction.
SO(5) symmetry in the quantum Hall effect in graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Fengcheng; Sodemann, Inti; Araki, Yasufumi; MacDonald, Allan H.; Jolicoeur, Thierry
2014-12-01
Electrons in graphene have four flavors associated with low-energy spin and valley degrees of freedom. The fractional quantum Hall effect in graphene is dominated by long-range Coulomb interactions, which are invariant under rotations in spin-valley space. This SU(4) symmetry is spontaneously broken at most filling factors, and also weakly broken by atomic scale valley-dependent and valley-exchange interactions with coupling constants gz and g?. In this paper, we demonstrate that when gz=-g? , an exact SO(5) symmetry survives which unifies the Néel spin order parameter of the antiferromagnetic state and the X Y valley order parameter of the Kekulé distortion state into a single five-component order parameter. The proximity of the highly insulating quantum Hall state observed in graphene at ? =0 to an ideal SO(5) symmetric quantum Hall state remains an open experimental question. We illustrate the physics associated with this SO(5) symmetry by studying the multiplet structure and collective dynamics of filling factor ? =0 quantum Hall states based on exact-diagonalization and low-energy effective theory approaches. This allows to illustrate how manifestations of the SO(5) symmetry would survive even when it is weakly broken.
Mesoscopic effects in quantum phases of ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices
Carr, L. D.; Schirmer, D. G. [Department of Physics, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Joint Quantum Institute, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Wall, M. L. [Department of Physics, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Brown, R. C.; Williams, J. E.; Clark, Charles W. [Joint Quantum Institute, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)
2010-01-15
We present a wide array of quantum measures on numerical solutions of one-dimensional Bose- and Fermi-Hubbard Hamiltonians for finite-size systems with open boundary conditions. Finite-size effects are highly relevant to ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices, where an external trap creates smaller effective regions in the form of the celebrated 'wedding cake' structure and the local density approximation is often not applicable. Specifically, for the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian we calculate number, quantum depletion, local von Neumann entropy, generalized entanglement or Q measure, fidelity, and fidelity susceptibility; for the Fermi-Hubbard Hamiltonian we also calculate the pairing correlations, magnetization, charge-density correlations, and antiferromagnetic structure factor. Our numerical method is imaginary time propagation via time-evolving block decimation. As part of our study we provide a careful comparison of canonical versus grand canonical ensembles and Gutzwiller versus entangled simulations. The most striking effect of finite size occurs for bosons: we observe a strong blurring of the tips of the Mott lobes accompanied by higher depletion, and show how the location of the first Mott lobe tip approaches the thermodynamic value as a function of system size.
Mesoscopic effects in quantum phases of ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carr, L. D.; Wall, M. L.; Schirmer, D. G.; Brown, R. C.; Williams, J. E.; Clark, Charles W.
2010-01-01
We present a wide array of quantum measures on numerical solutions of one-dimensional Bose- and Fermi-Hubbard Hamiltonians for finite-size systems with open boundary conditions. Finite-size effects are highly relevant to ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices, where an external trap creates smaller effective regions in the form of the celebrated “wedding cake” structure and the local density approximation is often not applicable. Specifically, for the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian we calculate number, quantum depletion, local von Neumann entropy, generalized entanglement or Q measure, fidelity, and fidelity susceptibility; for the Fermi-Hubbard Hamiltonian we also calculate the pairing correlations, magnetization, charge-density correlations, and antiferromagnetic structure factor. Our numerical method is imaginary time propagation via time-evolving block decimation. As part of our study we provide a careful comparison of canonical versus grand canonical ensembles and Gutzwiller versus entangled simulations. The most striking effect of finite size occurs for bosons: we observe a strong blurring of the tips of the Mott lobes accompanied by higher depletion, and show how the location of the first Mott lobe tip approaches the thermodynamic value as a function of system size.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ezawa, Motohiko
2013-12-01
Silicene is a monolayer of silicon atoms forming a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice, which shares almost every remarkable property with graphene. The low energy dynamics is described by Dirac electrons, but they are massive due to relatively large spin-orbit interactions. I will explain the following properties of silicene: 1) The band structure is controllable by applying an electric field. 2) Silicene undergoes a phase transition from a topological insulator to a band insulator by applying external electric field. 3) The topological phase transition can be detected experimentally by way of diamagnetism. 4) There is a novel valley-spin selection rules revealed by way of photon absorption. 5) Silicene yields a remarkably many phases such as quantum anomalous Hall phase and valley polarized metal when the exchange field is additionally introduced. 6) A silicon nanotubes can be used to convey spin currents under an electric field.
Ezawa, Motohiko [Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)
2013-12-04
Silicene is a monolayer of silicon atoms forming a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice, which shares almost every remarkable property with graphene. The low energy dynamics is described by Dirac electrons, but they are massive due to relatively large spin-orbit interactions. I will explain the following properties of silicene: 1) The band structure is controllable by applying an electric field. 2) Silicene undergoes a phase transition from a topological insulator to a band insulator by applying external electric field. 3) The topological phase transition can be detected experimentally by way of diamagnetism. 4) There is a novel valley-spin selection rules revealed by way of photon absorption. 5) Silicene yields a remarkably many phases such as quantum anomalous Hall phase and valley polarized metal when the exchange field is additionally introduced. 6) A silicon nanotubes can be used to convey spin currents under an electric field.
Musk, A W; Gandevia, B
1976-01-01
Sixty-seven workers in the detergent industry whose exposure to proteolytic enzyme ceased in 1969 have been examined clinically and functionally. By comparison with 42 lightly and moderately exposed subjects, 13 heavily exposed subjects showed significant loss of pulmonary elastic recoil as evidenced by increased lung volumes and increased pulmonary compliance, but there were no differences in airways resistance or other parameters of lung function. No difference was found between the two groups in relation to symptoms on exposure, current exercise tolerance, skin reactivity to the proteolytic enzyme alcalase, trypsin inhibitor capacity, and other features. An increased clinical grade of breathlessness was associated with evidence of airways obstruction, but not of altered elastic recoil. Comparison of the data on lung mechanics with results obtained in 1970 suggests that partial recovery of pulmonary elastic recoil may have occurred in some cases. It is also suggested that diminished elastic recoil, in the absence of impairment of transfer factor at rest, may reflect altered physical properties of the lung fibre network without loss of effective surface area available for gas exchange. PMID:963000
Relativistic Doppler effect in quantum communication
Asher Peres; Daniel R. Terno
2003-04-06
When an electromagnetic signal propagates in vacuo, a polarization detector cannot be rigorously perpendicular to the wave vector because of diffraction effects. The vacuum behaves as a noisy channel, even if the detectors are perfect. The ``noise'' can however be reduced and nearly cancelled by a relative motion of the observer toward the source. The standard definition of a reduced density matrix fails for photon polarization, because the transversality condition behaves like a superselection rule. We can however define an effective reduced density matrix which corresponds to a restricted class of positive operator-valued measures. There are no pure photon qubits, and no exactly orthogonal qubit states.
Precise coincidence of effective potentials in the integral and fractional quantum Hall effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lado, F.
2003-06-01
The exact n-body distribution functions are calculated for a two-dimensional, noninteracting quantum electron gas in an external magnetic field for any temperature and density. At low temperature and filled lowest-Landau-level, these functions are identical to the exact distribution functions obtained by Jancovici [Phys. Rev. Lett. 46 (1981) 386] for the classical two-dimensional one-component plasma at the special plasma parameter ?=2, establishing that the quantum state with filling factor ?=1, associated with the integral quantum Hall effect, is precisely described by an effective classical potential ?( r)=-2ln r. Further, this Boltzmann factor exactly matches that constructed by Laughlin [Phys. Rev. Lett. 50 (1983) 1395] to account for the fractional quantum Hall effect.
Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon
. The nuclear quantum effects of the transferring hydrogen are included with a mixed quantum/classical molecular dynamics method in which the hydrogen nucleus is described as a multidimensional vibrational wave function of electronic quantum effects is required for the description of the breaking and forming of chemical bonds
Accurate Simulations of Pb Recoils in SuperCDMS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Redl, P.
2014-09-01
SuperCDMS is a direct detection search for WIMPs, currently operating a 9 kg array of germanium detectors in the Soudan Underground Laboratory. The detectors, known as iZIPs, are cylindrical in shape and each flat surface is instrumented with both ionization and phonon sensors. Charge and phonon information is collected for each event, and comparing the energy collected in the phonon sensors to the charge sensors gives excellent discrimination power between nuclear recoil and electron recoil events. Furthermore, this technology provides excellent discrimination between surface and bulk events. In order to show the surface event rejection capability of these detectors, two Pb sources were installed facing two of the detectors currently operating in the Soudan experimental run. The Pb decays to Bi, which in turn decays to Po. The Po decays by alpha emission, yielding a recoiling Pb ion with 103 keV kinetic energy and an alpha particle with 5.4 MeV kinetic energy. We used the non-standard Screened Nuclear Recoil Physics List (Mendenhall and Weller, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 227:420-430, 2005) in Geant4 (Agostinelli et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 506:250-303, 2003) to simulate all of the above decays and achieve excellent agreement with experiment. The focus of this paper is the simulation of the Po decay.
Status and Prospects of the HERMES Recoil Detector
/Scintillator sandwich Fiber Detector (SFT) 2 barrels with 4 layers of scintillating fibers 2 parallel and 2 stereo SFT Particle Identification 8HERMES Recoil Detector A. Mussgiller, SPIN 2008, 10/10/08 SSDV /c : SSD & SFT & PDp ~0.6 GeV /c #12; Particle Identification (p > 0
THE NEW HRIBF RECOIL MASS SPECTROMETER | PERFORMANCE AND FIRST RESULTS
THE NEW HRIBF RECOIL MASS SPECTROMETER | PERFORMANCE AND FIRST RESULTS By Thomas Nelson Ginter: Date: #12;c Copyright by Thomas Nelson Ginter 1999 All Rights Reserved #12;ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am pleased NELSON GINTER Dissertation under the direction of Professors J. H. Hamilton and A. V. Ramayya For more
The Performance of the HRIBF Recoil Mass Spectrometry
Ginter, T.N.
1998-11-13
The Recoil Mass Spectrometer (RMS) is a mass separator located at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This paper describes the RMS, its performance, its detector systems, and discusses some experiments to illustrate its capabilities.
A Candidate Recoiling Black Hole in a Nearby Dwarf Galaxy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koss, Michael
2014-10-01
We have discovered a BH recoil candidate offset by 800 pc from a nearby dwarf galaxy. The object, SDSS1133, shows offset broad lines and strong variability. While originally classified as a supernova because of its non-detection in 2005, we detect it in recent and past observations over 63 years. Using high-resolution adaptive optics observations, we constrain the source emission region to be <12 pc. Overall these properties are consistent with theoretical predictions for a runaway BH ejected from its host by gravitational-wave recoil following a merger. We propose a small, 4 orbit HST observation using the COS spectrograph in the FUV, to test for broad C IV emission and other high ionization emission lines which would decisively favor the recoiling BH interpretation. The unique UV spectroscopic capability of HST is critical to decide whether this is a recoiling black hole or an unprecedented 50 year outbursting LBV star (e.g. Eta Carina) followed by a unique long duration SN IIn with rebrightening. Either discovery would be extremely exciting. Finally, SDSS1133 has recently undergone a 1.3 mag rebrightening in PanSTARRS imaging suggesting that the coming year is a critical time to observe the source at maximum.
Vacuum state truncation via the quantum Zeno effect
Tae-Gon Noh
2012-08-22
In the context of quantum state engineering we analyze the effect of observation on nonlinear optical $n$-photon Fock state generation. We show that it is possible to truncate the vacuum component from an arbitrary photon number superposition without modifying its remaining parts. In the course of the full dynamical analysis of the effect of observation, it is also found that the Zeno and the anti-Zeno effects repeat periodically. We discuss the close relationship between vacuum state truncation and so-called "interaction-free" measurement.
Effective Coupling Constant in Renormalization Group for the Quantum Electrodynamics
Hirohisa Ishikawa; Keiji Watanabe
2007-10-08
Effective coupling constant in quantum electrodynamics is investigated. A pole appears in the effective coupling constant for the space-like momentum if it is calculated by perturbation. The pole can be eliminated by the analytic regularization. For QED the effective coupling constant is written in terms of the scale parameter, $\\Lambda$, having the dimension of mass as in the case of QCD. $\\Lambda$ is determined by comparing with the experimental data. The calculated result agrees with experiment with $\\Lambda\\approx 1.64\\times 10^{47}$ GeV; it is very large but much smaller than the mass scale of Landau ghost.
Nabben, Reinhard
interpretation of the predicted effects has been proposed. PACS numbers: 42.50.Ct,73.21.-b,78.67.Hc I for the quantum information processing8,9 and quantum metrology10 . In practice, the strong light matter coupling
Fractional quantum Hall effect in a curved space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Can, Tankut Uzay
The fractional quantum Hall (FQH) effect occurs when two-dimensional electrons in a high magnetic field condense to form an incompressible quantum liquid. This quantum phase is known to support particle-like excitations with fractional charge and anyonic statistics. A powerful theoretical approach to understanding these properties involves constructing an ansatz for the ground state wave function, and probing the response to variations in magnetic flux and background metric. The resulting universal kinetic coefficients for electromagnetic and gravitational response provide a nearly complete characterization of the FQH state. However, typically only the response to homogeneous deformations is considered, which leaves open the question of how these quantum liquids couple to local curvature and magnetic field gradients. In this thesis, we discuss FQH states in the lowest Landau level on more general curved spaces and for non-uniform magnetic fields. These states prove to have a rich structure which reveals a close connection between electromagnetic and gravitational responses. We see this by studying local transformation properties of correlation functions under geometric deformations and field variations. We also develop a method for computing the exact asymptotic expansion of ground state correlation functions.
Efficient semiclassical quantum nuclear effects for shock compression studies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reed, Evan
2013-03-01
A fast methodology is described for atomistic simulations of shock-compressed materials that incorporates quantum nuclear effects in a self-consistent fashion. We introduce a modification of the multiscale shock technique (MSST) that couples to a quantum thermal bath described by a colored noise Langevin thermostat. The new approach, which we call QB-MSST, is of comparable computational cost to MSST and self-consistently incorporates quantum heat capacities and Bose-Einstein harmonic vibrational distributions. As a first test, we study shock-compressed methane using the ReaxFF potential. The Hugoniot curves predicted from the new approach are found comparable with existing experimental data. We find that the self-consistent nature of the method results in the onset of chemistry at 40% lower pressure on the shock Hugoniot than observed with classical molecular dynamics. The temperature shift associated with quantum heat capacity is determined to be the primary factor in this shift.[4pt] In collaboration with Tingting Qi, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University.
Investigation of Thermal Effects in Quantum-Cascade Lasers
C. A. Evans; V. D. Jovanovic; Dragan Indjin; Zoran Ikonic; Paul Harrison
2006-01-01
The development of a thermal model for quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) is presented. The model is used in conjunc- tion with a self-consistent scattering rate calculation of the electron dynamics of an InGaAs-AlAsSb QCL to calculate the temperature distribution throughout the device which can be a limiting factor for high temperature operation. The model is used to investigate the effects
Quantum size effects in CdS thin films
Der-San Chuu; Chang-Ming Dai
1992-01-01
Resonant Raman spectroscopy is used to study quantum size effects in CdS films. The lattice softening of the CdS LO-phonon mode in a CdS film with a thickness less than 800 Å is observed. As the thickness is less than 410 Å, the TO-phonon mode is observed at 4880 Å excitation wavelength, which is above the band gap of bulk
Casimir effect: An avatar of the quantum vacuum
Kuloth V. Shajesh
2008-01-01
In this dissertation we study the Casimir effect, which is demonstrated to be a manifestation of the quantum vacuum. The boundary conditions are imposed by constructing delta-function potentials, so-called semitransparent boundaries. The coupling to the delta-function potential reduces to the Dirichlet boundary condition in the strong coupling limit. In the case of electrodynamics the strong coupling limit corresponds to metallic
Quantum Hall Effect and Twistor Theory
Dana Mihai; George Sparling; Philip Tillman
It is proposed that Maxwell theory, with a topological term, in four non- commutative dimensions, where the co-ordinates obey the Heisenberg alge- bra, is an umbrella theory for the description of the two-dimensional Quan- tum Hall Effect (following the fluidic approach of Susskind and Polychron- akos), the twistor analyses of self-dual gravity, solitons and instantons and the twistor theory of
Absolute absorption cross sections from photon recoil in a matter-wave interferometer
Eibenberger, Sandra; Cotter, J P; Arndt, Markus
2014-01-01
We measure the absolute absorption cross section of molecules using a matter-wave interferometer. A nanostructured density distribution is imprinted onto a dilute molecular beam through quantum interference. As the beam crosses the light field of a probe laser some molecules will absorb a single photon. These absorption events impart a momentum recoil which shifts the position of the molecule relative to the unperturbed beam. Averaging over the shifted and unshifted components within the beam leads to a reduction of the fringe visibility, enabling the absolute absorption cross section to be extracted with high accuracy. This technique is independent of the molecular density, it is minimally invasive and successfully eliminates all problems related to photon-cycling, state-mixing, photo-bleaching, photo-induced heating, fragmentation and ionization. It can therefore be extended to a wide variety of neutral molecules, clusters and nanoparticles.
Absolute absorption cross sections from photon recoil in a matter-wave interferometer
Sandra Eibenberger; Xiaxi Cheng; J. P. Cotter; Markus Arndt
2014-08-13
We measure the absolute absorption cross section of molecules using a matter-wave interferometer. A nanostructured density distribution is imprinted onto a dilute molecular beam through quantum interference. As the beam crosses the light field of a probe laser some molecules will absorb a single photon. These absorption events impart a momentum recoil which shifts the position of the molecule relative to the unperturbed beam. Averaging over the shifted and unshifted components within the beam leads to a reduction of the fringe visibility, enabling the absolute absorption cross section to be extracted with high accuracy. This technique is independent of the molecular density, it is minimally invasive and successfully eliminates all problems related to photon-cycling, state-mixing, photo-bleaching, photo-induced heating, fragmentation and ionization. It can therefore be extended to a wide variety of neutral molecules, clusters and nanoparticles.
Quantum instanton evaluation of the kinetic isotope effects
Vanicek, Jiri; Miller, William H.; Castillo, Jesus F.; Aoiz, F.Javier
2005-04-19
A general quantum-mechanical method for computing kinetic isotope effects is presented. The method is based on the quantum instanton approximation for the rate constant and on the path integral Metropolis Monte-Carlo evaluation of the Boltzmann operator matrix elements. It computes the kinetic isotope effect directly, using a thermodynamic integration with respect to the mass of the isotope, thus avoiding the more computationally expensive process of computing the individual rate constants. The method is more accurate than variational transition-state theories or the semiclassical instanton method since it does not assume a single reaction path and does not use a semiclassical approximation of the Boltzmann operator. While the general Monte-Carlo implementation makes the method accessible to systems with a large number of atoms, we present numerical results for the Eckart barrier and for the collinear and full three-dimensional isotope variants of the hydrogen exchange reaction H+H{sub 2} {yields} H{sub 2}+H. In all seven test cases, for temperatures between 250 K and 600 K, the error of the quantum instanton approximation for the kinetic isotope effects is less than {approx}10%.
Non-Markovianity and memory effects in quantum open systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hou, S. C.; Liang, S. L.; Yi, X. X.
2015-01-01
Although a number of measures for quantum non-Markovianity have been proposed recently, it is still an open question whether these measures directly characterize the memory effect of the environment, i.e., the dependence of a quantum state on its past in a time evolution. In this paper, we present a criterion and propose a measure for non-Markovianity with clear physical interpretations of the memory effect. The non-Markovianity is defined by the inequality T (t2,t0) ?T (t2,t1) T (t1,t0) in terms of memoryless dynamical map T introduced in this paper. This definition is conceptually distinct from that based on divisibility used by Rivas et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 050403 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.050403], whose violation is manifested by noncomplete positivity of the dynamical map. We demonstrate via a typical quantum process that without Markovian approximation, nonzero memory effects (non-Markovianity) always exist even if the non-Markovianity is zero by the other non-Markovianity measures.
Gravitational-wave probe of effective quantum gravity
Alexander, Stephon; Finn, Lee Samuel; Yunes, Nicolas [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)
2008-09-15
All modern routes leading to a quantum theory of gravity - i.e., perturbative quantum gravitational one-loop exact correction to the global chiral current in the standard model, string theory, and loop quantum gravity - require modification of the classical Einstein-Hilbert action for the spacetime metric by the addition of a parity-violating Chern-Simons term. The introduction of such a term leads to spacetimes that manifest an amplitude birefringence in the propagation of gravitational waves. While the degree of birefringence may be intrinsically small, its effects on a gravitational wave accumulate as the wave propagates. Observation of gravitational waves that have propagated over cosmological distances may allow the measurement of even a small birefringence, providing evidence of quantum gravitational effects. The proposed Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will be sensitive enough to observe the gravitational waves from sources at cosmological distances great enough that interesting bounds on the Chern-Simons coupling may be found. Here we evaluate the effect of a Chern-Simons induced spacetime birefringence to the propagation of gravitational waves from such systems. Focusing attention on the gravitational waves from coalescing binary black holes systems, which LISA will be capable of observing at redshifts approaching 30, we find that the signature of Chern-Simons gravity is a time-dependent change in the apparent orientation of the binary's orbital angular momentum with respect to the observer line-of-sight, with the magnitude of change reflecting the integrated history of the Chern-Simons coupling over the worldline of the radiation wave front. While spin-orbit coupling in the binary system will also lead to an evolution of the system's orbital angular momentum, the time dependence and other details of this real effect are different than the apparent effect produced by Chern-Simons birefringence, allowing the two effects to be separately identified. In this way gravitational-wave observations with LISA may thus provide our first and only opportunity to probe the quantum structure of spacetime over cosmological distances.
Quantum gravitational optics: Effective Raychaudhuri equation
Ahmadi, N. [Department of Physics, University of Tehran, North Karegar Avenue, Tehran 14395-547 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nouri-Zonoz, M. [Department of Physics, University of Tehran, North Karegar Avenue, Tehran 14395-547 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, P.O. Box 19395-5531 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2006-08-15
Vacuum polarization in QED in a background gravitational field induces interactions which effectively modify the classical picture of light rays, as the null geodesics of spacetime. These interactions violate the strong equivalence principle and affect the propagation of light leading to superluminal photon velocities. Taking into account the QED vacuum polarization, we study the propagation of a bundle of rays in a background gravitational field. To do so we study the perturbative deformation of the Raychaudhuri equation through the influence of vacuum polarization on photon propagation. We analyze the contribution of the above interactions to the optical scalars, namely, shear, vorticity, and expansion using the Newman-Penrose formalism.
Quantum gravitational optics: Effective Raychaudhuri equation
N. Ahmadi; M. Nouri-Zonoz
2006-12-26
Vacuum polarization in QED in a background gravitational field induces interactions which {\\it effectively} modify the classical picture of light rays, as the null geodesics of spacetime. These interactions violate the strong equivalence principle and affect the propagation of light leading to superluminal photon velocities. Taking into account the QED vacuum polarization, we study the propagation of a bundle of rays in a background gravitational field. To do so we consider the perturbative deformation of Raychaudhuri equation through the influence of vacuum polarization on photon propagation. We analyze the contribution of the above interactions to the optical scalars namely, shear, vorticity and expansion using the Newman-Penrose formalism.
Quantum gravitational optics: Effective Raychaudhuri equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmadi, N.; Nouri-Zonoz, M.
2006-08-01
Vacuum polarization in QED in a background gravitational field induces interactions which effectively modify the classical picture of light rays, as the null geodesics of spacetime. These interactions violate the strong equivalence principle and affect the propagation of light leading to superluminal photon velocities. Taking into account the QED vacuum polarization, we study the propagation of a bundle of rays in a background gravitational field. To do so we study the perturbative deformation of the Raychaudhuri equation through the influence of vacuum polarization on photon propagation. We analyze the contribution of the above interactions to the optical scalars, namely, shear, vorticity, and expansion using the Newman-Penrose formalism.
A new look at an energetic (e,2e) reaction: Binary versus recoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kheifets, A. S.; Naja, A.; Staicu Casagrande, E. M.; Lahmam-Bennani, A.
2009-11-01
We analyze the recoil-to-binary peak ratio in an energetic (e,2e) reaction on the valence ns sub-shell of noble gas atoms. Dramatic qualitative change in this ratio dependence on the ejected electron energy can be explained by variation of reflectivity of the short-range Hartree-Fock potential. The reflectivity increases profoundly from lighter (He) to heavier (Ne and Ar) noble gas atoms because of modification of the scattering phases due to occupation of the target p orbitals (Levinson theorem). This effect is further modified due to strong inter-shell correlations in Ar. These theoretical predictions are confirmed experimentally.
A coherent understanding of low-energy nuclear recoils in liquid xenon
Peter Sorensen
2010-09-07
Liquid xenon detectors such as XENON10 and XENON100 obtain a significant fraction of their sensitivity to light (xenon for nuclear recoils also bears heavily on detector sensitivity, yet numerous measurements have not succeeded in obtaining concordant results. In this article we show that the ratio of detected ionization to scintillation can be leveraged to constrain the scintillation yield. We also present a rigorous treatment of liquid xenon detector threshold and energy resolution. Notably, the effective energy resolution differs significantly from a simple Poisson distribution. We conclude with a calculation of dark matter exclusion limits, and show that existing data from liquid xenon detectors strongly constrain recent interpretations of light dark matter.
Quantum-Enhanced Thermoelectric Effects in Polycyclic Molecular Junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barr, Joshua; Stafford, Charles
2012-02-01
We calculate the thermoelectric response of a polycyclic molecular junction including electron-electron interactions. To do this, the molecular Green's function is determined via a Lanczos-based technique and ?-electron effective field theory is used to model the degrees of freedom most relevant to transport. In these junctions we find that the presence of multiple rings leads to higher order quantum interference features giving rise to dramatic enhancements of molecular thermoelectric effects, consistent with previous predictions based on Hueckel theory, which neglected electron correlations.
Novel quantum interference effects in transport through molecular radicals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergfield, Justin; Solomon, Gemma; Stafford, Charles; Ratner, Mark
2012-02-01
In molecules with an unpaired electron (radicals), we predict a correlation-induced `Mott-node' in the transmission spectrum arising from destructive interference between transport contributions from different charge states of the molecule. This class of quantum interference effect has no single-particle analog and cannot be described by effective single-particle theories. Large errors in the thermoelectric properties and nonlinear current-voltage response of molecular radical junctions are introduced when the complementary wave and particle aspects of the electron are not properly treated. A method to accurately calculate the low-energy transport through a radical-based junction using an Anderson model is given.
Nonlocal Memory Effects in the Dynamics of Open Quantum Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laine, Elsi-Mari; Breuer, Heinz-Peter; Piilo, Jyrki; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can
2012-05-01
We explore the possibility to generate nonlocal dynamical maps of an open quantum system through local system-environment interactions. Employing a generic decoherence process induced by a local interaction Hamiltonian, we show that initial correlations in a composite environment can lead to nonlocal open system dynamics which exhibit strong memory effects, although the local dynamics is Markovian. In a model of two entangled photons interacting with two dephasing environments, we find a direct connection between the degree of memory effects and the amount of correlation in the initial environmental state. The results demonstrate that, contrary to conventional wisdom, enlarging an open system can change the dynamics from Markovian to non-Markovian.
Complex scattering dynamics and the integer quantum Hall effect
Trugman, S.A.; Waugh, F.R.
1987-01-01
The effect of a magnetic field on potential scattering is investigated microscopically. A magnetic field renders the scattering of a classical charged particle far more complex than previously suspected. Consequences include possible 1/f noise and an explanation of the observed breakdown of the quantum Hall effect at large currents. A particular scatterer is described by a discontinuous one dimensional Hamiltonian map, a class of maps that has not previously been studied. A renormalization group analysis indicates that singular behavior arises from the interplay of electron orbits that are periodic and orbits that are quasiperiodic.
Scattering approach to quantum transport and many body effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pichard, Jean-Louis; Freyn, Axel
2010-12-01
We review a series of works discussing how the scattering approach to quantum transport developed by Landauer and Buttiker for one body elastic scatterers can be extended to the case where electron-electron interactions act inside the scattering region and give rise to many body scattering. Firstly, we give an exact numerical result showing that at zero temperature a many body scatterer behaves as an effective one body scatterer, with an interaction dependent transmission. Secondly, we underline that this effective scatterer depends on the presence of external scatterers put in its vicinity. The implications of this non local scattering are illustrated studying the conductance of a quantum point contact where electrons interact with a scanning gate microscope. Thirdly, using the numerical renormalization group developed by Wilson for the Kondo problem, we study a double dot spinless model with an inter-dot interaction U and inter-dot hopping td, coupled to leads by hopping terms tc. We show that the quantum conductance as a function of td is given by a universal function, independently of the values of U and tc, if one measures td in units of a characteristic scale ?(U,tc). Mapping the double dot system without spin onto a single dot Anderson model with spin and magnetic field, we show that ?(U,tc) = 2TK, where TK is the Kondo temperature of the Anderson model.
Quantum backreaction (Casimir) effect. II. Scalar and electromagnetic fields
Andrzej Herdegen
2005-07-02
Casimir effect in most general terms may be understood as a backreaction of a quantum system causing an adiabatic change of the external conditions under which it is placed. This paper is the second installment of a work scrutinizing this effect with the use of algebraic methods in quantum theory. The general scheme worked out in the first part is applied here to the discussion of particular models. We consider models of the quantum scalar field subject to external interaction with ``softened'' Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions on two parallel planes. We show that the case of electromagnetic field with softened perfect conductor conditions on the planes may be reduced to the other two. The ``softening'' is implemented on the level of the dynamics, and is not imposed ad hoc, as is usual in most treatments, on the level of observables. We calculate formulas for the backreaction energy in these models. We find that the common belief that for electromagnetic field the backreaction force tends to the strict Casimir formula in the limit of ``removed cutoff'' is not confirmed by our strict analysis. The formula is model dependent and the Casimir value is merely a term in the asymptotic expansion of the formula in inverse powers of the distance of the planes. Typical behaviour of the energy for large separation of the plates in the class of models considered is a quadratic fall-of. Depending on the details of the ``softening'' of the boundary conditions the backreaction force may become repulsive for large separations.
Magnetoelectric effects in an organometallic quantum magnet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zapf, V. S.; Sengupta, P.; Batista, C. D.; Nasreen, F.; Wolff-Fabris, F.; Paduan-Filho, A.
2011-04-01
Metal-organic materials constitute a new field in which to search for ferroelectricity and coupling between electricity and magnetism. We observe a magnetic field-induced change in the electric polarization, ?P(H), that reaches 50 ?C/m2 in single crystals of NiCl2-4SC(NH2)2 (DTN). DTN forms a tetragonal structure that breaks inversion symmetry with the electrically polar thiourea molecules [SC(NH2)] all tilted in the same direction along the c axis. The field H induces canted antiferromagnetism of the Ni S=1 spins between 2 and 12 T and our measurements show that the electric polarization increases monotonically in this range, saturating above 12 T. By modeling the microscopic origin of this magnetoelectric effect, we find that the leading contribution to ?P comes from the change in the crystal electric field, with a smaller contribution from magnetic exchange striction. The finite value of ?P induced by magnetostriction results from the polar nature of the thiourea molecules bonded to the Ni atoms, and it is amplified by the softness of these organic molecules.
A quantitative account of quantum effects in liquid water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fanourgakis, G. S.; Schenter, G. K.; Xantheas, S. S.
2006-10-01
We report converged quantum statistical mechanical simulations of liquid water with the Thole-type Model (version 2.1), Flexible, polarizable (TTM2.1-F) interaction potential for water. Simulations of total length of 600ps with a 0.05fs time step for a periodic unit cell of 256 molecules with up to 32 replicas per atom suggest that the quantum effects contribute 1.01±0.02kcal/mol to the liquid enthalpy of formation at 298.15K. They furthermore demonstrate for the first time a quantitative agreement with experiment for the heights and broadening of the intramolecular OH and HH peaks in the radial distribution functions.
Supersymmetry and Unconventional Quantum Hall Effect in Graphene
Motohiko Ezawa
2006-06-03
We present a unified description of the quantum Hall effect in graphene on the basis of the 8-component Dirac Hamiltonian and the supersymmetric (SUSY) quantum mechanics. It is remarkable that the zero-energy state emerges because the Zeeman splitting is exactly as large as the Landau level separation, as implies that the SUSY is a good symmetry. For nonzero energy states, the up-spin state and the down-spin state form a supermultiplet possessing the spin SU(2) symmetry. We extend the Dirac Hamiltonian to include two indices $j_{\\uparrow}$ and $j_{\\downarrow}$, characterized by the dispersion relation $E(p) \\propto p^{j_{\\uparrow}+j_{\\downarrow}}$ and the Berry phase $\\pi (j_{\\uparrow}-j_{\\downarrow})$. The quantized Hall conductivity is shown to be $\\sigma_{xy}=\\pm (2n+j_{\\uparrow}+j_{\\downarrow}) 2e^{2}/h$.
Quantum effects with an X-ray free electron laser
C. D. Roberts; S. M. Schmidt; D. V. Vinnik
2002-06-03
A quantum kinetic equation coupled with Maxwell's equation is used to estimate the laser power required at an XFEL facility to expose intrinsically quantum effects in the process of QED vacuum decay via spontaneous pair production. A 9 TW-peak XFEL laser with photon energy 8.3 keV could be sufficient to initiate particle accumulation and the consequent formation of a plasma of spontaneously produced pairs. The evolution of the particle number in the plasma will exhibit non-Markovian aspects of the strong-field pair production process and the plasma's internal currents will generate an electric field whose interference with that of the laser leads to plasma oscillations.
Understanding boundary effects in quantum state tomography - One qubit case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sugiyama, Takanori; Turner, Peter S.; Murao, Mio
2014-12-01
For classical and quantum estimation with finite data sets, the estimation error can deviate significantly from its asymptotic (large data set) behavior. In quantum state tomography, a major reason for this is the existence of a boundary in the parameter space imposed by constraints, such as the positive semidefiniteness of density matrices. Intuitively, we should be able to reduce the estimation error by using our knowledge of these constraints. This intuition is correct for maximumlikelihood estimators, but the size of the reduction has not been evaluated quantitatively. In this proceeding, we evaluate the improvement in one qubit state tomography by using mathematical tools in classical statistical estimation theory. In particular, we show that the effect of the reduction decreases exponentially with respect to the number of data sets when the true state is mixed, and it remains at arbitrarily large data set when the true state is pure.
Matrix method analysis of quantum Hall effect device connections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ortolano, M.; Callegaro, L.
2012-02-01
The modelling of electrical connections of single, or several, multiterminal quantum Hall effect (QHE) devices is relevant for electrical metrology: it is known, in fact, that certain particular connections allow (i) the realization of multiples or fractions of the quantized resistance, or (ii) the rejection of stray impedances, so that the configuration maintains the status of quantum standard. Ricketts-Kemeny and Delahaye equivalent circuits are known to be accurate models of the QHE: however, the numerical or analytical solution of electrical networks including these equivalent circuits can be difficult. In this paper, we introduce a method of analysis based on the representation of a QHE device by means of the indefinite admittance matrix: external connections are then represented with another matrix, easily written by inspection. Some examples, including the solution of double- and triple-series connections, are shown.
Possible quantum gravity effects on the gravitational deflection of light
Xin Li; Zhe Chang
2010-07-02
We investigate possible quantum gravity (QG) effects on the gravitational deflection of light. Two forms of deformation of the Schwarzschild spacetime are proposed. The first ansatz is a given Finslerian line element, it could be regarded as a weak QG effect on the Schwarzschild spacetime. Starting from this ansatz, we deduce the deflection angle of the light ray which passes a weak gravitational source. The second ansatz could be regarded as a strong QG effect on the Schwarzschild spacetime. The deflection angle of the light ray which passes a weak gravitational source is deduced in this Riemannian spacetime. This QG effect may distinguish the mixed light rays in the absence of gravitational source by a "spectroscope" (the gravitational source). The solutions of gravitational field equation in this Riemannian spacetime indicate that the QG effect could be regarded as the vacuum energy and the energy density of vacuum is related to the spacetime deformation parameter.
Loop quantum cosmology of Bianchi IX: Effective dynamics
Corichi, Alejandro
2015-01-01
We study numerically the solutions to the effective equations of Bianchi IX spacetimes within Loop Quantum Cosmology. We consider Bianchi IX models with and without inverse triad corrections whose matter content is a scalar field without mass. The solutions are classified using the classical observables. We show that both effective theories --with lapse N=V and N=1-- solve the big bang singularity and reproduce the classical dynamics far from the bounce. Moreover, due to the spatial compactness, there is an infinity number of bounces and recollapses. We study the limit of large volume and show that both effective theories reproduce the same dynamics, thus recovering general relativity. We implement a procedure to identify amongst the Bianchi IX solutions, those that behave like k=0,1 FLRW as well as Bianchi I, II, and VII_0 models. The effective solutions exhibit Bianchi I phases with Bianchi II transitions and also Bianchi VII_0 phases, which had not been studied before, at the quantum nor effective level. W...
Quantum Hall effect on the Grassmannians Gr2(CN)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ball?, F.; Behtash, A.; Kürkçüo?lu, S.; Ünal, G.
2014-05-01
Quantum Hall effects on the complex Grassmann manifolds Gr2(CN) are formulated. We set up the Landau problem in Gr2(CN) and solve it using group theoretical techniques and provide the energy spectrum and the eigenstates in terms of the SU(N) Wigner D functions for charged particles on Gr2(CN) under the influence of Abelian and non-Abelian background magnetic monopoles or a combination of these. In particular, for the simplest case of Gr2(C4), we explicitly write down the U(1) background gauge field as well as the single- and many-particle eigenstates by introducing the Plücker coordinates and show by calculating the two-point correlation function that the lowest Landau level at filling factor ? =1 forms an incompressible fluid. Our results are in agreement with the previous results in the literature for the quantum Hall effect on CPN and generalize them to all Gr2(CN) in a suitable manner. Finally, we heuristically identify a relation between the U(1) Hall effect on Gr2(C4) and the Hall effect on the odd sphere S5, which is yet to be investigated in detail, by appealing to the already-known analogous relations between the Hall effects on CP3 and CP7 and those on the spheres S4 and S8, respectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Shoubhik; Ghosh, Bahniman; Balmukund Rahi, Shiromani
2015-02-01
We investigate the quantum-mechanical effects on the electrical properties of the double-gate junction-less field effect transistors. The quantum-mechanical effect, or carrier energy-quantization effects on the threshold voltage, of DG-JLFET are analytically modeled and incorporated in the Duarte et al. model and then verified by TCAD simulation.
Gamma-ray free-electron lasers: Quantum fluid model
Silva, H M
2014-01-01
A quantum fluid model is used to describe the interacion of a nondegenerate cold relativistic electron beam with an intense optical wiggler taking into account the beam space-charge potential and photon recoil effect. A nonlinear set of coupled equations are obtained and solved numerically. The numerical results shows that in the limit of plasma wave-breaking an ultra-high power radiation pulse are emitted at the$\\gamma$-ray wavelength range which can reach an output intensity near the Schwinger limit depending of the values of the FEL parameters such as detuning and input signal initial phase at the entrance of the interaction region.
Effect of quantum nuclear motion on hydrogen bonding
McKenzie, Ross H., E-mail: r.mckenzie@uq.edu.au; Bekker, Christiaan [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072 (Australia)] [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072 (Australia); Athokpam, Bijyalaxmi; Ramesh, Sai G. [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)] [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)
2014-05-07
This work considers how the properties of hydrogen bonded complexes, X–H?Y, are modified by the quantum motion of the shared proton. Using a simple two-diabatic state model Hamiltonian, the analysis of the symmetric case, where the donor (X) and acceptor (Y) have the same proton affinity, is carried out. For quantitative comparisons, a parametrization specific to the O–H?O complexes is used. The vibrational energy levels of the one-dimensional ground state adiabatic potential of the model are used to make quantitative comparisons with a vast body of condensed phase data, spanning a donor-acceptor separation (R) range of about 2.4 ? 3.0 Å, i.e., from strong to weak hydrogen bonds. The position of the proton (which determines the X–H bond length) and its longitudinal vibrational frequency, along with the isotope effects in both are described quantitatively. An analysis of the secondary geometric isotope effect, using a simple extension of the two-state model, yields an improved agreement of the predicted variation with R of frequency isotope effects. The role of bending modes is also considered: their quantum effects compete with those of the stretching mode for weak to moderate H-bond strengths. In spite of the economy in the parametrization of the model used, it offers key insights into the defining features of H-bonds, and semi-quantitatively captures several trends.
Quantum effects on compressional Alfven waves in compensated semiconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amin, M. R.
2015-03-01
Amplitude modulation of a compressional Alfven wave in compensated electron-hole semiconductor plasmas is considered in the quantum magnetohydrodynamic regime in this paper. The important ingredients of this study are the inclusion of the particle degeneracy pressure, exchange-correlation potential, and the quantum diffraction effects via the Bohm potential in the momentum balance equations of the charge carriers. A modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation is derived for the evolution of the slowly varying amplitude of the compressional Alfven wave by employing the standard reductive perturbation technique. Typical values of the parameters for GaAs, GaSb, and GaN semiconductors are considered in analyzing the linear and nonlinear dispersions of the compressional Alfven wave. Detailed analysis of the modulation instability in the long-wavelength regime is presented. For typical parameter ranges of the semiconductor plasmas and at the long-wavelength regime, it is found that the wave is modulationally unstable above a certain critical wavenumber. Effects of the exchange-correlation potential and the Bohm potential in the wave dynamics are also studied. It is found that the effect of the Bohm potential may be neglected in comparison with the effect of the exchange-correlation potential in the linear and nonlinear dispersions of the compressional Alfven wave.
Elio Conte; Andrei Yuri Khrennikov; Orlando Todarello; Antonio Federici; Joseph P. Zbilut
2008-08-27
We introduce the quantum theoretical formulation to determine a posteriori, if existing, the quantum wave functions and to estimate the quantum interference effects of mental states. Such quantum features are actually found in the case of an experiment involving the perception and the cognition in humans. Also some specific psychological variables are introduced and it is obtained that they characterize in a stringent manner the quantum behaviour of mind during such performed experiment.
Possible astrophysical observables of quantum gravity effects near black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pen, Ue-Li; Broderick, Avery E.
2014-12-01
Recent implications of results from quantum information theory applied to black holes have led to the confusing conclusions that require either abandoning the equivalence principle (e.g. the firewall picture), or locality, or even more unpalatable options. The recent discovery of a pulsar orbiting a black hole opens up new possibilities for tests of theories of gravity. We examine possible observational effects of semiclassical quantum gravity in the vicinity of black holes, as probed by pulsars and event horizon telescope imaging of flares. In some cases, pulsar radiation may be observable at wavelengths only two orders of magnitude shorter than the Hawking radiation, so precision interferometry of lensed pulsar images may shed light on the quantum gravitational processes and interaction of Hawking radiation with the space-time near the black hole. This paper discusses the impact on the pulsar radiation interference pattern, which is observable through the modulation index in the foreseeable future, and discusses a possible classical limit of non-locality.
Improvements of the DRAGON recoil separator at ISAC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vockenhuber, C.; Buchmann, L.; Caggiano, J.; Chen, A. A.; D'Auria, J. M.; Davis, C. A.; Greife, U.; Hussein, A.; Hutcheon, D. A.; Ottewell, D.; Ouellet, C. O.; Parikh, A.; Pearson, J.; Ruiz, C.; Ruprecht, G.; Trinczek, M.; Zylberberg, J.
2008-10-01
The DRAGON (Detector of Recoils And Gammas Of Nuclear reactions) is used to measure radiative proton and alpha capture reaction rates involving both stable and radioactive, heavy-ion reactants at the TRIUMF-ISAC high intensity radioactive beam facility. Completed in 2001 it has been used for several challenging studies for nuclear astrophysics, e.g. 12C(?, ?) 16O, 21Na(p, ?) 22Mg, 26gAl(p, ?) 27Si and 40Ca(?, ?) 44Ti. Since initial operation, a number of improvements have been incorporated which are described here. These include a beam centering monitor based on a CCD camera, a mechanical iris to skim of beam halo, a solid state stripper acting as a charge state booster for beams with A ? 30, beta and gamma detectors to monitor beam intensity and to determine beam contamination in experiments with radioactive beam and the ionization chamber for both recoil identification and isobar separation.
Andrew Puckett
2010-02-01
The electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon characterize the effect of its internal structure on its response to an electromagnetic probe as studied in elastic electronnucleon scattering. These form factors are functions of the squared four-momentum transfer Q2 between the electron and the proton. The two main classes of observables of this reaction are the scattering cross section and polarization asymmetries, both of which are sensitive to the form factors in different ways. When considering large f momentum transfers, double-polarization observables offer superior sensitivity to the electric form factor. This thesis reports the results of a new measurement of the ratio of the electric and magnetic form factors of the proton at high momentum transfer using the recoil polarization technique. A polarized electron beam was scattered from a liquid hydrogen target, transferring polarization to the recoiling protons. These protons were detected in a magnetic spectrometer which was used to reconstruct their kinematics, including their scattering angles and momenta, and the position of the interaction vertex. A proton polarimeter measured the polarization of the recoiling protons by measuring the azimuthal asymmetry in the angular distribution of protons scattered in CH2 analyzers. The scattered electron was detected in a large acceptance electromagnetic calorimeter in order to suppress inelastic backgrounds. The measured ratio of the transverse and longitudinal polarization components of the scattered proton is directly proportional to the ratio of form factors GpE=GpM. The measurements reported in this thesis took place at Q2 =5.2, 6.7, and 8.5 GeV2, and represent the most accurate measurements of GpE in this Q2 region to date.
Tunable interactions and the fractional quantum Hall effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papic, Zlatko
2013-03-01
We explore several realistic methods of tuning the interactions in two-dimensional electronic systems in high magnetic fields. We argue that these experimental probes can be useful in studying the interplay of topology, quantum geometry and symmetry breaking in the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE). In particular, we show that the mixing of subbands and Landau levels in GaAs wide quantum wells breaks the particle-hole symmetry between the Moore-Read Pfaffian state and its particle-hole conjugate, the anti-Pfaffian, in such a way that the latter is unambiguously favored and generically describes the ground state at 5/2 filling [1]. Furthermore, the tilting of the magnetic field, or more generally variation of the band mass tensor, probes the fluctuation of the intrinsic metric degree of freedom of the incompressible fluids, and ultimately induces the crossover to the broken-symmetry and nematic phases in higher Landau levels [2]. Some of these mechanisms also lead to an enhancement of the excitation gap of the non-Abelian states, as observed in recent experiments. Finally, we compare the tuning capabilities in conventional systems with that in multilayer graphene and related materials with Dirac-type carriers where tuning the band structure and dielectric environment provides a simple and direct method to engineer more robust FQHE states and to study quantum transitions between them [3]. [4pt] [1] Z. Papic, F. D. M. Haldane, and E. H. Rezayi, arXiv:1209.6606 (2012).[0pt] [2] Bo Yang, Z. Papic, E. H. Rezayi, R. N. Bhatt, F. D. M. Haldane, Phys. Rev. B 85, 165318 (2012).[0pt] [3] Z. Papic, R. Thomale, D. A. Abanin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 176602 (2011); Z. Papic, D. A. Abanin, Y. Barlas, and R. N. Bhatt, Phys. Rev. B 84, 241306(R) (2011); D. A. Abanin, Z. Papic, Y. Barlas, and R. N. Bhatt, New J. Phys. 14, 025009 (2012).
Recoiling Supermassive Black Holes: A Search in the Nearby Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lena, D.; Robinson, A.; Marconi, A.; Axon, D. J.; Capetti, A.; Merritt, D.; Batcheldor, D.
2014-11-01
The coalescence of a binary black hole can be accompanied by a large gravitational recoil due to anisotropic emission of gravitational waves. A recoiling supermassive black hole (SBH) can subsequently undergo long-lived oscillations in the potential well of its host galaxy, suggesting that offset SBHs may be common in the cores of massive ellipticals. We have analyzed Hubble Space Telescope archival images of 14 nearby core ellipticals, finding evidence for small (lsim 10 pc) displacements between the active galactic nucleus (AGN; the location of the SBH) and the center of the galaxy (the mean photocenter) in 10 of them. Excluding objects that may be affected by large-scale isophotal asymmetries, we consider six galaxies to have detected displacements, including M87, where a displacement was previously reported by Batcheldor et al. In individual objects, these displacements can be attributed to residual gravitational recoil oscillations following a major or minor merger within the last few gigayears. For plausible merger rates, however, there is a high probability of larger displacements than those observed, if SBH coalescence took place in these galaxies. Remarkably, the AGN-photocenter displacements are approximately aligned with the radio source axis in four of the six galaxies with displacements, including three of the four having relatively powerful kiloparsec-scale jets. This suggests intrinsic asymmetries in radio jet power as a possible displacement mechanism, although approximate alignments are also expected for gravitational recoil. Orbital motion in SBH binaries and interactions with massive perturbers can produce the observed displacement amplitudes but do not offer a ready explanation for the alignments.
Determining influence of four-wave mixing effect on quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vavulin, D. N.; Egorov, V. I.; Gleim, A. V.; Chivilikhin, S. A.
2014-10-01
We consider the possibility of multiplexing the classical and quantum signals in a quantum cryptography system with optical fiber used as a transmission medium. If the quantum signal is located at a frequency close to the frequency of classical signals, a set of nonlinear effects such as FWM (four-wave mixing) and Raman scattering is observed. The impact of four-wave mixing (FWM) effect on error level is described and analyzed in this work in case of large frequency diversity between classical and quantum signals. It is shown that the influence of FWM is negligible for convenient quantum key distribution.
Scheme for tunable quantum phase gate and effective preparation of graph-state entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Gong-Wei; Zou, Xu-Bo; Ye, Ming-Yong; Lin, Xiu-Min; Guo, Guang-Can
2008-03-01
A scheme is presented for realizing a quantum phase gate with three-level atoms, solid-state qubits—often called artificial atoms, or ions that share a quantum data bus such as a single-mode field in the cavity quantum electrodynamics system or a collective vibrational state of trapped ions. In this scheme, the conditional phase shift is tunable and controllable via the total effective interaction time. Furthermore, the method can be used to effectively prepare graph states, which are important resources for quantum computation, quantum error correction, studies of multiparticle entanglement, and fundamental tests of nonlocality and decoherence.
Nuclear recoil energy spectrum of finite-sized dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Anffany
2012-10-01
Research has shown that direct dark matter detection experiments can distinguish between pointlike and finite-sized dark-matter candidates, both of which are of theoretical interests. In particular, there is an additional form factor in the typical cross section of finite-sized dark matter, causing the nuclear recoil energy spectrum of finite-sized dark matter to decrease more rapidly with the recoil energy than that of pointlike dark matter. Since the spectrum of finite-sized dark matter peaks below 1 keV, which is the common experimental threshold, and falls off rapidly at higher energies, detector with sub-keV threshold is necessary. The current goal of TEXONO-CDEX research program, on the studies of low energy neutrino and dark matter physics at Kuo-Sheng Reactor Neutrino Laboratory and China Jin-Ping Underground Laboratory, is to open the sub-keV detector window with germanium detectors. This work derives a model-independent, theoretical prediction of the nuclear recoil energy spectrum of finite-sized dark matter and is working toward using the predicted spectrum to analyze the experimental data of TEXONO-CDEX, in hope to substantiate or rule out dark matter candidates.
Quantum confinement in Si and Ge nanostructures: effect of crystallinity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barbagiovanni, Eric G.; Lockwood, David J.; Costa Filho, Raimundo N.; Goncharova, Lyudmila V.; Simpson, Peter J.
2013-10-01
We look at the relationship between the preparation method of Si and Ge nanostructures (NSs) and the structural, electronic, and optical properties in terms of quantum confinement (QC). QC in NSs causes a blue shift of the gap energy with decreasing NS dimension. Directly measuring the effect of QC is complicated by additional parameters, such as stress, interface and defect states. In addition, differences in NS preparation lead to differences in the relevant parameter set. A relatively simple model of QC, using a `particle-in-a-box'-type perturbation to the effective mass theory, was applied to Si and Ge quantum wells, wires and dots across a variety of preparation methods. The choice of the model was made in order to distinguish contributions that are solely due to the effects of QC, where the only varied experimental parameter was the crystallinity. It was found that the hole becomes de-localized in the case of amorphous materials, which leads to stronger confinement effects. The origin of this result was partly attributed to differences in the effective mass between the amorphous and crystalline NS as well as between the electron and hole. Corrections to our QC model take into account a position dependent effective mass. This term includes an inverse length scale dependent on the displacement from the origin. Thus, when the deBroglie wavelength or the Bohr radius of the carriers is on the order of the dimension of the NS the carriers `feel' the confinement potential altering their effective mass. Furthermore, it was found that certain interface states (Si-O-Si) act to pin the hole state, thus reducing the oscillator strength.
Is the Quantum Hall Effect influenced by the gravitational field?
Friedrich W. Hehl; Yuri N. Obukhov; Bernd Rosenow
2003-10-13
Most of the experiments on the quantum Hall effect (QHE) were made at approximately the same height above sea level. A future international comparison will determine whether the gravitational field $\\mathbf{g}(x)$ influences the QHE. In the realm of (1 + 2)-dimensional phenomenological macroscopic electrodynamics, the Ohm-Hall law is metric independent (`topological'). This suggests that it does not couple to $\\mathbf{g}(x)$. We corroborate this result by a microscopic calculation of the Hall conductance in the presence of a post-Newtonian gravitational field.
Fractional quantum Hall effect at Landau level filling ? =4 /11
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, W.; Baldwin, K. W.; West, K. W.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; Tsui, D. C.
2015-01-01
We report low-temperature electronic transport results on the fractional quantum Hall effect of composite fermions at Landau level filling ? =4 /11 in a very high mobility and low density sample. Measurements were carried out at temperatures down to 15 mK , where an activated magnetoresistance Rx x and a quantized Hall resistance Rx y, within 1 % of the expected value of h /(4 /11 ) e2 , were observed. The temperature dependence of the Rx x minimum at 4 /11 yields an activation energy gap of ˜7 mK . Developing Hall plateaus were also observed at the neighboring states at ? =3 /8 and 5 /13 .
Scalar spin chirality and quantum hall effect on triangular lattices
Martin, Ivar [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batista, Cristian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
We study the Kondo Lattice and Hubbard models on a triangular lattice for band filling factor 3/4. We show that a simple non-coplanar chiral spin ordering (scalar spin chirality) is naturally realized in both models due to perfect nesting of the fermi surface. The resulting triple-Q magnetic ordering is a natural counterpart of the collinear Neel ordering of the half-filled square lattice Hubbard model. We show that the obtained chiral phase exhibits a spontaneous quantum Hall-effect with {sigma}{sub xy} = e{sup 2}/h.
Quantum interference effects in antidot lattices in magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakanishi, Takeshi; Ando, Tsuneya
1996-09-01
A numerical study is performed on quantum interference effects in antidot lattices in a weak magnetic field with the use of a recursive Green's function technique. An irregular Aharonov-Bohm (AB)-type oscillation varying sensitively with antidot diameters and periods is dominant in ideal antidot lattices. The AB-type oscillation disappears and an Al'tshuler, Aranov, and Spivak (AAS) oscillation manifests itself in the presence of fluctuations in the size or position of antidots. The AAS oscillation is much stronger in hexagonal lattices than in square lattices, in good agreement with experiments.
Macroscopic quantum vacuum effects due to boundary conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Qun
In the presence of proper boundary conditions, quantum fluctuations have observable consequences in the macroscopic world. In this thesis, two such manifestations are studied, namely the Casimir force acting between two uncharged conducting surfaces and the modification of the spontaneous emission rate of fermionic atoms from Pauli blocking. We first discuss the results from the electrostatic calibrations in the attempt to measure the Casimir force in the cylinder-plane geometry. Systematic effects previously unidentified such as the distance-dependence of the minimizing potential and the significant deviation of the scaling exponent from the expected theoretical value have been observed. These findings have serious implications for the data analysis procedures and could lead to inaccurate determination of important parameters. Possible causes of these anomalies are also discussed. We then studied ways to cool fermions down to lower temperatures which are required to explore many predicted quantum phenomena. For dual-species sympathetic cooling, we show that changing the dimensionality of the trap could lead to a better heat capacity matching and lower temperatures for fermions. We have also proposed a prospective new cooling mechanism for single-species traps. This mechanism takes advantage of a complementary effect to the Purcell effect which leads to the suppression of the spontaneous emission and consequently a lower cooling limit. Thermalization studies of a test particle coupled to different heat baths are also presented, as well as the current status of our laser cooling apparatus.
Disorder effects in the quantum Hall effect of graphene p-n junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jian; Shen, Shun-Qing
2008-11-01
The quantum Hall effect in graphene p-n junctions is studied numerically with emphasis on the effect of disorder at the interface of two adjacent regions. Conductance plateaus are found to be attached to the intensity of the disorder and are accompanied by universal conductance fluctuations in the bipolar regime, which is in good agreement with theoretical predictions of the random matrix theory on quantum chaotic cavities. The calculated Fano factors can be used in an experimental identification of the underlying transport character.
Ground-state cooling of a trapped ion by quantum interference pathways
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Jian-Qi; Duan, Qian-Heng; Guo, Chu; Wu, Chun-Wang; Wu, Wei; Chen, Ping-Xing
2014-10-01
We investigate the possibility of enhancement of cooling a trapped ion by combining the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) effect with the standing-wave coupling. Our study shows that the quantum destructive interference which is caused by the EIT effect and the standing-wave coupling can cancel all the dominant heating effects if appropriate parameters are chosen. The analytical predictions and numerical simulations show that the final temperature can be much lower than the recoil energy. In addition, this fast-cooling scheme is robust against fluctuations of the strength of the laser beams, which makes it more feasible for experimental realization.
Semianalytical quantum model for graphene field-effect transistors
Pugnaghi, Claudio; Grassi, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.grassi@unibo.it; Gnudi, Antonio; Di Lecce, Valerio; Gnani, Elena; Reggiani, Susanna; Baccarani, Giorgio [ARCES and DEI, University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 2, 40136 Bologna (Italy)
2014-09-21
We develop a semianalytical model for monolayer graphene field-effect transistors in the ballistic limit. Two types of devices are considered: in the first device, the source and drain regions are doped by charge transfer with Schottky contacts, while, in the second device, the source and drain regions are doped electrostatically by a back gate. The model captures two important effects that influence the operation of both devices: (i) the finite density of states in the source and drain regions, which limits the number of states available for transport and can be responsible for negative output differential resistance effects, and (ii) quantum tunneling across the potential steps at the source-channel and drain-channel interfaces. By comparison with a self-consistent non-equilibrium Green's function solver, we show that our model provides very accurate results for both types of devices, in the bias region of quasi-saturation as well as in that of negative differential resistance.
Path Integral and Effective Hamiltonian in Loop Quantum Cosmology
Haiyun Huang; Yongge Ma; Li Qin
2011-06-27
We study the path integral formulation of Friedmann universe filled with a massless scalar field in loop quantum cosmology. All the isotropic models of $k=0,+1,-1$ are considered. To construct the path integrals in the timeless framework, a multiple group-averaging approach is proposed. Meanwhile, since the transition amplitude in the deparameterized framework can be expressed in terms of group-averaging, the path integrals can be formulated for both deparameterized and timeless frameworks. Their relation is clarified. It turns out that the effective Hamiltonian derived from the path integral in deparameterized framework is equivalent to the effective Hamiltonian constraint derived from the path integral in timeless framework, since they lead to same equations of motion. Moreover, the effective Hamiltonian constraints of above models derived in canonical theory are confirmed by the path integral formulation.
Confined monopoles induced by quantum effects in dense QCD
Eto, Minoru [Mathematical Physics Laboratory, RIKEN Nishina Center, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Nitta, Muneto [Department of Physics, and Research and Education Center for Natural Sciences, Keio University, 4-1-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8521 (Japan); Yamamoto, Naoki [Institute for Nuclear Theory, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1550 (United States)
2011-04-15
We analytically show that mesonic bound states of confined monopoles appear inside a non-Abelian vortex string in massless three-flavor QCD at large quark chemical potential {mu}. The orientational modes CP{sup 2} in the internal space of a vortex is described by the low-energy effective world-sheet theory. Mesons of confined monopoles are dynamically generated as bound states of kinks by the quantum effects in the effective theory. The mass of monopoles is shown to be an exponentially soft scale M{approx}{Delta}exp[-c({mu}/{Delta}){sup 2}], with the color superconducting gap {Delta} and some constant c. A possible quark-monopole duality between the hadron phase and the color superconducting phase is also discussed.
Graphene nanomesh photodetector with effective charge tunnelling from quantum dots.
Liu, Xiang; Liu, Nianze; Liu, Mingju; Tao, Zhi; Kuang, Wenjian; Ji, Xiangbing; Chen, Jing; Lei, Wei; Dai, Qing; Li, Chi; Li, Xuehua; Nathan, Arokia
2015-03-01
Graphene nanomesh (GNM)-based optoelectronics integrated with quantum dots (QDs) are investigated in this article. The charge transfer mechanism in the QDs/GNM interface is probed in four terminal gated FET-type photodetectors. The insulating ligand is used to make the GNM/ligand/QDs vertically behave like a metal/insulate/semiconductor (MIS) structure to facilitate the charge tunnelling. With the current constraint effect of the GNM and the effective charge tunnelling, a high-performance photodetector is fabricated with higher responsivity, higher on/off ratio and shorter response time. The results of our analysis and experimental approach can be extended to future graphene-based photodetectors, as long as suitable ligands and an effective architecture are chosen for this type of device. PMID:25673220
On Quantum Coherence Effects in Photo and Solar Cells
Kimberly Chapin; Konstantin Dorfman; Anatoly Svidzinsky; Marlan Scully
2011-02-01
We show that quantum coherence can increase the quantum efficiency of various thermodynamic systems. For example, we can enhance the quantum efficiency for a quantum dot photocell, a laser based solar cell and the photo-Carnot quantum heat engine. Our results are fully consistent with the laws of thermodynamics contrary to comments found in the paper of A.P. Kirk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 048703 (2011).
Robustness of quantum spin Hall effect in an external magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Song-Bo; Zhang, Yan-Yang; Shen, Shun-Qing
2014-09-01
The edge states in the quantum spin Hall effect are expected to be protected by time reversal symmetry. The experimental observation of the quantized conductance was reported in the InAs/GaSb quantum well (Du et al., arXiv:1306.1925), up to a large magnetic field, which raises a question on the robustness of the edge states in the quantum spin Hall effect under time reversal symmetry breaking. Here we present a theoretical calculation on topological invariants for the Benevig-Hughes-Zhang model in an external magnetic field, and find that the quantum spin Hall effect remains robust up to a large magnetic field. The critical value of the magnetic field breaking the quantum spin Hall effect is dominantly determined by the band gap at the ? point instead of the indirect band gap between the conduction and valence bands. This illustrates that the quantum spin Hall effect could persist even under time reversal symmetry breaking.
Alekseev, I; Novikov, D
2014-02-01
By the use of various modes of Mössbauer spectroscopy after effects of irradiation of metal iron with (12)C(4+) and (14)N(5+) ions of medium energies, and alpha-particles and the (208)Tl, (208,212)Pb, and (216)Po recoil from a (228)Th-source have been studied. The experimental data obtained in the study enabled various types of external and internal radiation to be compared in regard to the damage they cause, as well as to their effect on the structure-, phase composition- and corrosion resistance properties of metallic iron. Irradiation with (12)C(4+) and (14)N(5+) ions is accompanied by both structural disordering of the ?-Fe lattice, and the appearance of ?-phase in the bulk metal. This is indicated by a single line which is 2 to 3-fold broadened (as compared to the lines of the magnetic sextet). This is a result of a strong local heating of the lattice in the thermal spike area with a subsequent instant cooling-down and recrystallization of this "molted" area. Irradiation of iron foils with (12)C(4+)- and (14)N(5+) ions and with recoil nuclei does provoke corrosion processes (the formation of ?-FeOOH) and is accompanied by an intensive oxidation of the metal. PMID:24378918
Graphene nanomesh photodetector with effective charge tunnelling from quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xiang; Liu, Nianze; Liu, Mingju; Tao, Zhi; Kuang, Wenjian; Ji, Xiangbing; Chen, Jing; Lei, Wei; Dai, Qing; Li, Chi; Li, Xuehua; Nathan, Arokia
2015-02-01
Graphene nanomesh (GNM)-based optoelectronics integrated with quantum dots (QDs) are investigated in this article. The charge transfer mechanism in the QDs/GNM interface is probed in four terminal gated FET-type photodetectors. The insulating ligand is used to make the GNM/ligand/QDs vertically behave like a metal/insulate/semiconductor (MIS) structure to facilitate the charge tunnelling. With the current constraint effect of the GNM and the effective charge tunnelling, a high-performance photodetector is fabricated with higher responsivity, higher on/off ratio and shorter response time. The results of our analysis and experimental approach can be extended to future graphene-based photodetectors, as long as suitable ligands and an effective architecture are chosen for this type of device.Graphene nanomesh (GNM)-based optoelectronics integrated with quantum dots (QDs) are investigated in this article. The charge transfer mechanism in the QDs/GNM interface is probed in four terminal gated FET-type photodetectors. The insulating ligand is used to make the GNM/ligand/QDs vertically behave like a metal/insulate/semiconductor (MIS) structure to facilitate the charge tunnelling. With the current constraint effect of the GNM and the effective charge tunnelling, a high-performance photodetector is fabricated with higher responsivity, higher on/off ratio and shorter response time. The results of our analysis and experimental approach can be extended to future graphene-based photodetectors, as long as suitable ligands and an effective architecture are chosen for this type of device. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The TEM image of all the four QDs with different ligands, the PL and UV-vis spectra of QDs and the GNM/QDs with different ligands and the testing device on the probe station under the LED light. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06883a
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sisterson, J. M.
2005-01-01
Cosmic rays interact with extraterrestrial materials to produce a variety of spallation products. If these cosmogenic nuclides are produced within an inclusion in such material, then an important consideration is the loss of the product nuclei, which recoil out of the inclusion. Of course, at the same time, some atoms of the product nuclei under study may be knocked into the inclusion from the surrounding material, which is likely to have a different composition to that of the inclusion [1]. For example, Ne-21 would be produced in presolar grains, such as SiC, when irradiated in interstellar space. However, to calculate a presolar age, one needs to know how much 21Ne is retained in the grain. For small grains, the recoil losses might be large [2, 3] To study this effect under laboratory conditions, recoil measurements were made using protons with energies from 66 - 1600 MeV on Si, Al and Ba targets [3, 4, 5].
Efficient Multi-Dimensional Simulation of Quantum Confinement Effects in Advanced MOS Devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biegel, Bryan A.; Ancona, Mario G.; Rafferty, Conor S.; Yu, Zhiping
2000-01-01
We investigate the density-gradient (DG) transport model for efficient multi-dimensional simulation of quantum confinement effects in advanced MOS devices. The formulation of the DG model is described as a quantum correction ot the classical drift-diffusion model. Quantum confinement effects are shown to be significant in sub-100nm MOSFETs. In thin-oxide MOS capacitors, quantum effects may reduce gate capacitance by 25% or more. As a result, the inclusion of quantum effects may reduce gate capacitance by 25% or more. As a result, the inclusion of quantum effects in simulations dramatically improves the match between C-V simulations and measurements for oxide thickness down to 2 nm. Significant quantum corrections also occur in the I-V characteristics of short-channel (30 to 100 nm) n-MOSFETs, with current drive reduced by up to 70%. This effect is shown to result from reduced inversion charge due to quantum confinement of electrons in the channel. Also, subthreshold slope is degraded by 15 to 20 mV/decade with the inclusion of quantum effects via the density-gradient model, and short channel effects (in particular, drain-induced barrier lowering) are noticeably increased.
Quantum resonance effects in exchange, photodissociation, and recombination reactions
Pack, R.; Kendrick, B.; Kress, J.; Walker, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hayes, E. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Lagana, A. [Univ. of Perugia (Italy); Parker, G. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Butcher, E. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)
1996-04-01
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project studied quantum resonance effects on chemical reactions. The authors accurate reactive scattering calculations showed that quantum resonance phenomena dominate most chemical reactions and are essential to any real understanding of reactivity. It was found that, as long-lived metastable states of the colliding system, resonances can decay to reactants, products, or a mixture of both. Only the latter contribute to reaction. Conditions under which resonances can be neglected or treated statistically were studied. Important implications about the mechanism of recombination reactions were discovered, and some remarkable effects of geometric phases on the symmetries and energies of resonances were also discovered. Calculations were completed for the reaction H + O{sub 2} {yields} OH + O, which is the rate limiting step in the combustion of all hydrocarbons and the single most important reaction in all of combustion chemistry.
Testing quantum-like models of judgment for question order effects
Thomas Boyer-Kassem; Sébastien Duchêne; Éric Guerci
2015-01-19
Lately, so-called "quantum" models, based on parts of the mathematics of quantum mechanics, have been developed in decision theory and cognitive sciences to account for seemingly irrational or paradoxical human judgments. In this paper, we limit ourselves to such quantum-like models that address order effects. It has been argued that such models are able to account for existing and new empirical data, and meet some a priori predictions. From the quantum law of reciprocity, we derive new empirical predictions that we call the Grand Reciprocity equations, that must be satisfied by quantum-like models on the condition that they are non-degenerate. We show that existing non-degenerate quantum-like models for order effects fail this test on several existing data sets. We take it to suggest that degenerate quantum-like models should be the focus of forthcoming research in the area.
The trouble with orbits: the Stark effect in the old and the new quantum theory
Anthony Duncan; Michel Janssen
2014-04-21
The old quantum theory and Schr\\"odinger's wave mechanics (and other forms of quantum mechanics) give the same results for the line splittings in the first-order Stark effect in hydrogen, the leading terms in the splitting of the spectral lines emitted by a hydrogen atom in an external electric field. We examine the account of the effect in the old quantum theory, which was hailed as a major success of that theory, from the point of view of wave mechanics. First, we show how the new quantum mechanics solves a fundamental problem one runs into in the old quantum theory with the Stark effect. It turns out that, even without an external field, it depends on the coordinates in which the quantum conditions are imposed which electron orbits are allowed in a hydrogen atom. The allowed energy levels and hence the line splittings are independent of the coordinates used but the size and eccentricity of the orbits are not. In the new quantum theory, this worrisome non-uniqueness of orbits turns into the perfectly innocuous non-uniqueness of bases in Hilbert space. Second, we review how the so-called WKB (Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin) approximation method for solving the Schr\\"odinger equation reproduces the quantum conditions of the old quantum theory amended by some additional half-integer terms. These extra terms remove the need for some arbitrary extra restrictions on the allowed orbits that the old quantum theory required over and above the basic quantum conditions
Zhang, Zi-Hui; Liu, Wei; Ju, Zhengang; Tiam Tan, Swee; Ji, Yun; Kyaw, Zabu; Zhang, Xueliang; Wang, Liancheng; Wei Sun, Xiao, E-mail: exwsun@ntu.edu.sg, E-mail: volkan@stanfordalumni.org [LUMINOUS Centre of Excellence for Semiconductor Lighting and Displays, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Volkan Demir, Hilmi, E-mail: exwsun@ntu.edu.sg, E-mail: volkan@stanfordalumni.org [LUMINOUS Centre of Excellence for Semiconductor Lighting and Displays, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Electronics, Department of Physics, and UNAM-Institute of Material Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, TR-06800 Ankara (Turkey)
2014-06-16
InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown along the polar orientations significantly suffer from the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) caused by the strong polarization induced electric field in the quantum wells, which is a fundamental problem intrinsic to the III-nitrides. Here, we show that the QCSE is self-screened by the polarization induced bulk charges enabled by designing quantum barriers. The InN composition of the InGaN quantum barrier graded along the growth orientation opportunely generates the polarization induced bulk charges in the quantum barrier, which well compensate the polarization induced interface charges, thus avoiding the electric field in the quantum wells. Consequently, the optical output power and the external quantum efficiency are substantially improved for the LEDs. The ability to self-screen the QCSE using polarization induced bulk charges opens up new possibilities for device engineering of III-nitrides not only in LEDs but also in other optoelectronic devices.
Role of electrical field in quantum Hall effect of graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Ji
2013-01-01
The ballistic motion of carriers of graphene in an orthogonal electromagnetic field is investigated to explain quantum Hall effect of graphene under experimental conditions. With the electrical field, all electronic eigen-states have the same expectation value of the velocity operator, or classically, all carriers move in cycloid-like curves with the same average velocity. This velocity is the origin of the Hall conductance and its magnitude is just appropriate so that the quantized Hall conductance is exactly independent of the external field. Electrical field changes each Landau level into a bundle of energies. Hall conductance plateaus occur in small fields as bundle gaps exist and are destroyed in intermediate fields as bundles overlap. As the electrical field tends to the critical point, all bundles have the same width, and bundle gaps increase to infinity rapidly. As a result, saturation of the Hall conductance may be observed. Electrical field thus demonstrates nonlinear effects on the Hall conductance.
Anisotropic Charge Kondo Effect in a Triple Quantum Dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoo, Gwangsu; Park, Jinhong; Lee, S.-S. B.; Sim, H.-S.
2014-12-01
We predict that an anisotropic charge Kondo effect appears in a triple quantum dot, when the system has twofold degenerate ground states of (1,1,0) and (0,0,1) charge configurations. Using bosonization and refermionization methods, we find that at low temperature the system has the two different phases of massive charge fluctuations between the two charge configurations and vanishing fluctuations, which are equivalent with the Kondo-screened and ferromagnetic phases of the anisotropic Kondo model, respectively. The phase transition is identifiable by electron conductance measurement, offering the possibility of experimentally exploring the anisotropic Kondo model. Our charge Kondo effect has a similar origin to that in a negative-U Anderson impurity.
Quantum Gravity Effects in Black Holes at the LHC
Gian Luigi Alberghi; Roberto Casadio; Alessandro Tronconi
2007-02-16
We study possible back-reaction and quantum gravity effects in the evaporation of black holes which could be produced at the LHC through a modification of the Hawking emission. The corrections are phenomenologically taken into account by employing a modified relation between the black hole mass and temperature. The usual assumption that black holes explode around $1 $TeV is also released, and the evaporation process is extended to (possibly much) smaller final masses. We show that these effects could be observable for black holes produced with a relatively large mass and should therefore be taken into account when simulating micro-black hole events for the experiments planned at the LHC.
Kondo effect in coupled quantum dots under magnetic fields
Aono, Tomosuke; Eto, Mikio
2001-08-15
The Kondo effect in coupled quantum dots is investigated theoretically under magnetic fields. We show that the magnetoconductance (MC) illustrates the peak structures of Kondo resonant spectra. When the dot-dot tunneling coupling V{sub C} is smaller than the dot-lead coupling {Delta} (level broadening), Kondo resonant levels appear at the Fermi level (E{sub F}). The Zeeman splitting of the levels weakens the Kondo effect, which results in a negative MC. When V{sub C} is larger than {Delta}, the Kondo resonances form bonding and antibonding levels, located below and above E{sub F}, respectively. We observe a positive MC since the Zeeman splitting increases the overlap between the levels at E{sub F}. In the presence of antiferromagnetic spin coupling between the dots, the sign of the MC can change as a function of the gate voltage.
Thermoelectric effects in quantum Hall systems beyond linear response
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
López, Rosa; Hwang, Sun-Yong; Sánchez, David
2014-12-01
We consider a quantum Hall system with an antidot acting as a energy dependent scatterer. In the purely charge case, we find deviations from the Wiedemann-Franz law that take place in the nonlinear regime of transport. We also discuss Peltier effects beyond linear response and describe both effects using magnetic-field asymmetric transport coefficients. For the spin case such as that arising along the helical edge states of a two-dimensional topological insulator, we investigate the generation of spin currents as a result of applied voltage and temperature differences in samples attached to ferromagnetic leads. We find that in the parallel configuration the spin current can be tuned with the leads' polarization even in the linear regime of transport. In contrast, for antiparallel magnetizations the spin currents has a strict nonlinear dependence on the the applied fields.
Nonequilibrium phonon effects in midinfrared quantum cascade lasers
Shi, Y. B., E-mail: yshi9@wisc.edu; Knezevic, I., E-mail: knezevic@engr.wisc.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706-1691 (United States)
2014-09-28
We investigate the effects of nonequilibrium phonon dynamics on the operation of a GaAs-based midinfrared quantum cascade laser over a range of temperatures (77–300?K) via a coupled ensemble Monte Carlo simulation of electron and optical-phonon systems. Nonequilibrium phonon effects are shown to be important below 200?K. At low temperatures, nonequilibrium phonons enhance injection selectivity and efficiency by drastically increasing the rate of interstage electron scattering from the lowest injector state to the next-stage upper lasing level via optical-phonon absorption. As a result, the current density and modal gain at a given field are higher and the threshold current density lower and considerably closer to experiment than results obtained with thermal phonons. By amplifying phonon absorption, nonequilibrium phonons also hinder electron energy relaxation and lead to elevated electronic temperatures.
Effective interactions and elementary excitations in quantum liquids
Pines, D.
1986-01-01
The effective interactions which provide a wavevector and frequency dependent restoring force for collective modes in quantum liquids are derived for the helium liquids by means of physical arguments and sum rule and continuity considerations. A simple model is used to take into account mode-mode coupling between collective and multiparticle excitations, and the results for the zero-temperature liquid /sup 4/He phonon-maxon-roton spectrum are shown to compare favorably with experiment and with microscopic calculation. The role played by spin-dependent backflow in liquid /sup 3/He is analyzed, and a physical interpretation of its variation with density and spin-polarization is presented. A progress report is given on recent work on effective interactions and elementary excitations in nuclear matter, with particular attention to features encountered in the latter system which have no counterparts in the helium liquids.
Barrier penetration effects on thermopower in semiconductor quantum wells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaidya, R. G.; Sankeshwar, N. S.; Mulimani, B. G.
2014-01-01
Finite confinement effects, due to the penetration of the electron wavefunction into the barriers of a square well potential, on the low-temperature acoustic-phonon-limited thermopower (TP) of 2DEG are investigated. The 2DEG is considered to be scattered by acoustic phonons via screened deformation potential and piezoelectric couplings. Incorporating the barrier penetration effects, the dependences of diffusion TP and phonon drag TP on barrier height are studied. An expression for phonon drag TP is obtained. Numerical calculations of temperature dependences of mobility and TP for a 10 nm InN/In xGa1-xN quantum well for different values of x show that the magnitude and behavior of TP are altered. A decrease in the barrier height from 500 meV by a factor of 5, enhances the mobility by 34% and reduces the TP by 58% at 20 K. Results are compared with those of infinite barrier approximation.
Barrier penetration effects on thermopower in semiconductor quantum wells
Vaidya, R. G. [Department of Physics, Karnatak University, Dharwad, Karnataka, India – 580 003 (India) [Department of Physics, Karnatak University, Dharwad, Karnataka, India – 580 003 (India); Department of Physics and C.E.I.E, Tumkur University, Tumkur, Karnataka, India – 573 102 (India); Sankeshwar, N. S., E-mail: n-s-sankeshwar@hotmail.com; Mulimani, B. G. [Department of Physics, Karnatak University, Dharwad, Karnataka, India – 580 003 (India)] [Department of Physics, Karnatak University, Dharwad, Karnataka, India – 580 003 (India)
2014-01-15
Finite confinement effects, due to the penetration of the electron wavefunction into the barriers of a square well potential, on the low–temperature acoustic-phonon-limited thermopower (TP) of 2DEG are investigated. The 2DEG is considered to be scattered by acoustic phonons via screened deformation potential and piezoelectric couplings. Incorporating the barrier penetration effects, the dependences of diffusion TP and phonon drag TP on barrier height are studied. An expression for phonon drag TP is obtained. Numerical calculations of temperature dependences of mobility and TP for a 10 nm InN/In {sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}N quantum well for different values of x show that the magnitude and behavior of TP are altered. A decrease in the barrier height from 500 meV by a factor of 5, enhances the mobility by 34% and reduces the TP by 58% at 20 K. Results are compared with those of infinite barrier approximation.
Fu, Jian; Xu, Yingying; Dong, Hongtao
2010-01-01
We demonstrate that n classical fields modulated with n different pseudorandom phase sequences can constitute a 2^n-dimensional Hilbert space that contains tensor product structure. By using classical fields modulated with pseudorandom phase sequences, we discuss effective simulation of Bell states and GHZ state, and apply both correlation analysis and von Neumann entropy to characterize the simulation. We obtain similar results with the cases in quantum mechanics and find that the conclusions can be easily generalized to n quantum particles. The research on simulation of quantum entanglement may be important, for it not only provides useful insights into fundamental features of quantum entanglement, but also yields new insights into quantum computation.
Phase diagram of the two-component fractional quantum Hall effect.
Archer, Alexander C; Jain, Jainendra K
2013-06-14
We calculate the phase diagram of the two component fractional quantum Hall effect as a function of the spin or valley Zeeman energy and the filling factor, which reveals new phase transitions and phase boundaries spanning many fractional plateaus. This phase diagram is relevant to the fractional quantum Hall effect in graphene and in GaAs and AlAs quantum wells, when either the spin or valley degree of freedom is active. PMID:25165951
Transforming quantum operations: quantum supermaps
G. Chiribella; G. M. D'Ariano; P. Perinotti
2008-10-22
We introduce the concept of quantum supermap, describing the most general transformation that maps an input quantum operation into an output quantum operation. Since quantum operations include as special cases quantum states, effects, and measurements, quantum supermaps describe all possible transformations between elementary quantum objects (quantum systems as well as quantum devices). After giving the axiomatic definition of supermap, we prove a realization theorem, which shows that any supermap can be physically implemented as a simple quantum circuit. Applications to quantum programming, cloning, discrimination, estimation, information-disturbance trade-off, and tomography of channels are outlined.
More Benefits of Semileptonic Rare B Decays at Low Recoil: CP Violation
Christoph Bobeth; Gudrun Hiller; Danny van Dyk
2011-12-08
We present a systematic analysis of the angular distribution of Bbar -> Kbar^\\ast (-> Kbar pi) l^+ l^- decays with l = e, mu in the low recoil region (i.e. at high dilepton invariant masses of the order of the mass of the b-quark) to account model-independently for CP violation beyond the Standard Model, working to next-to-leading order QCD. From the employed heavy quark effective theory framework we identify the key CP observables with reduced hadronic uncertainties. Since some of the CP asymmetries are CP-odd they can be measured without B-flavour tagging. This is particularly beneficial for Bbar_s,B_s -> phi(-> K^+ K^-) l^+ l^- decays, which are not self-tagging, and we work out the corresponding time-integrated CP asymmetries. Presently available experimental constraints allow the proposed CP asymmetries to be sizeable, up to values of the order ~ 0.2, while the corresponding Standard Model values receive a strong parametric suppression at the level of O(10^-4). Furthermore, we work out the allowed ranges of the short-distance (Wilson) coefficients C_9,C_10 in the presence of CP violation beyond the Standard Model but no further Dirac structures. We find the Bbar_s -> mu^+ mu^- branching ratio to be below 9*10^-9 (at 95% CL). Possibilities to check the performance of the theoretical low recoil framework are pointed out.
Ionization yield from nuclear recoils in liquid-xenon dark matter detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mu, Wei; Ji, Xiangdong
2015-03-01
The ionization yield in a two-phase liquid xenon dark-matter detector has been studied in keV nuclear recoil energy region. The newly obtained nuclear quenching as well as the average energy required to produce an electron-ion pair from the measurement in Seguinot (1992) are used to calculate the total electric charges produced. To estimate the fraction of the electron charges collected, the Thomas-Imel model is generalized to describe the field dependence for nuclear recoils in liquid xenon. With free parameters fitted to experimentally measured 56.5 keV nuclear recoils, the energy dependence of ionization yield for nuclear recoils is predicted, which increases as recoil energy decreases and reaches the maximum value at 2?3 keV. This prediction agrees well with existing data and may help to lower the energy detection threshold for nuclear recoils to ?1 keV.
Elio Conte; Andrei Yuri Khrennikov; Orlando Todarello; Antonio Federici; Roberta De Robertis; Joseph P. Zbilut
We introduce the quantum theoretical formulation to determine a posteriori, if existing, the quantum wave functions and to estimate the quantum interference effects of mental states. Such quantum features are actually found in the case of an experiment involving the perception and the cognition in humans. Also some specific psychological variables are introduced and it is obtained that they characterize
Landau damping and the onset of particle trapping in quantum plasmas
Daligault, Jérôme [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)
2014-04-15
Using analytical theory and simulations, we assess the impact of quantum effects on non-linear wave-particle interactions in quantum plasmas. We more specifically focus on the resonant interaction between Langmuir waves and electrons, which, in classical plasmas, lead to particle trapping. Two regimes are identified depending on the difference between the time scale of oscillation t{sub B}(k)=?(m/eEk) of a trapped electron and the quantum time scale t{sub q}(k)=2m/?k{sup 2} related to recoil effect, where E and k are the wave amplitude and wave vector. In the classical-like regime, t{sub B}(k)?quantum regime, t{sub B}(k)?>?t{sub q}(k), particle trapping is hampered by the finite recoil imparted to resonant electrons in their interactions with plasmons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Govorov, Alexander O.; Wixforth, Achim; Kalameitsev, Alexander V.
2001-03-01
We study theoretically and experimentally the nonlinear interaction of intense surface acoustic waves (SAW) and electrons in a semiconductor quantum well [1]. The experiments performed on hybrid semiconductor-piezoelectric structures exhibit strongly nonlinear effects due to the formation of moving electron wires. To describe the experiments, we develop a coupled-amplitude nonlinear theory for the two-dimensional plasma in the classical and quantum regimes. At low temperatures, the calculated attenuation of sound exhibits quantum oscillations caused by the discrete level spectrum and the density of states in moving quantum wires. [1] M. Rotter et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2171 (1999); A. O. Govorov et al., Phys. Rev. B 62, 2659 (2000).
Quantum statistical and dynamical effects in vortex systems
G. Blatter; B. Ivlev; Yu. Kagan; V. Vinokur; Theoretische Physik
1994-01-01
We review some recent developments in the quantum statistical mechanics and in the quantum dynamics of the vortex system in high temperature- and in conventional high-resistivity thin-film superconductors.
Nuclear recoil detection in liquid argon using a two-phase CRAD and DD neutron generator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bondar, A.; Buzulutskov, A.; Dolgov, A.; Grishnyaev, E.; Polosatkin, S.; Shemyakina, E.; Sokolov, A.
2014-08-01
The detection of nuclear recoils in noble liquids using neutron elastic scattering off nuclei is relevant in the field of calibration of rare-event detectors for dark matter search and coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering experiments. We present here the first results on nuclear recoil detection in liquid Ar, using a two-phase Cryogenic Avalanche Detector (CRAD) and DD neutron generator. The technique to select the nuclear recoils for backward neutron scattering has been demonstrated.
Recoil ion charge state distribution following the beta(sup +) decay of {sup 21}Na
Scielzo, Nicholas D.; Freedman, Stuart J.; Fujikawa, Brian K.; Vetter, Paul A.
2003-01-03
The charge state distribution following the positron decay of 21Na has been measured, with a larger than expected fraction of the daughter 21Ne in positive charge states. No dependence on either the positron or recoil nucleus energy is observed. The data is compared to a simple model based on the sudden approximation. Calculations suggest a small but important contribution from recoil ionization has important consequences for precision beta decay correlation experiments detecting recoil ions.
Loop Quantum effects on Om-diagnostic and its Cosmological Implications
Prabir Rudra
2014-10-19
In this paper we study the Loop quantum effects on the \\textit{Om} diagnostic and subsequently on the universe. We reconstruct the \\textit{Om} diagnostic in the background of Loop quantum gravity and then study the behaviour of various Chaplygin gas dark energy models using the modified diagnostic in a comparative scenario. The trajectories discriminate the various dark energy models from each other both in the Einstein gravity as well as Loop quantum gravity. The Loop quantum effects are also clearly noticeable from the trajectories in past, present and future universe. We see that the Loop quantum deviations are highly pronounced in the early universe, but alleviates as we tend towards the present universe and continue to decay in future. Thus it puts a big question on the effectiveness and consequently the suitability of loop quantum cosmology to explain the future universe.
Hall effect of triplons in a dimerized quantum magnet.
Romhányi, Judit; Penc, Karlo; Ganesh, R
2015-01-01
SrCu2(BO3)2 is the archetypal quantum magnet with a gapped dimer-singlet ground state and triplon excitations. It serves as an excellent realization of the Shastry-Sutherland model, up to small anisotropies arising from Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions. Here we demonstrate that these anisotropies, in fact, give rise to topological character in the triplon band structure. The triplons form a new kind of Dirac cone with three bands touching at a single point, a spin-1 generalization of graphene. An applied magnetic field opens band gaps resulting in topological bands with Chern numbers ±2. SrCu2(BO3)2 thus provides a magnetic analogue of the integer quantum Hall effect and supports topologically protected edge modes. At a threshold value of the magnetic field set by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions, the three triplon bands touch once again in a spin-1 Dirac cone, and lose their topological character. We predict a strong thermal Hall signature in the topological regime. PMID:25865559
Electronic transport and quantum localization effects in organic semiconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciuchi, S.; Fratini, S.
2012-12-01
We explore the charge transport mechanism in organic semiconductors based on a model that accounts for the thermal intermolecular disorder at work in pure crystalline compounds, as well as extrinsic sources of disorder that are present in current experimental devices. Starting from the Kubo formula, we describe a theoretical framework that relates the time-dependent quantum dynamics of electrons to the frequency-dependent conductivity. The electron mobility is then calculated through a relaxation time approximation that accounts for quantum localization corrections beyond Boltzmann theory, and allows us to efficiently address the interplay between highly conducting states in the band range and localized states induced by disorder in the band tails. The emergence of a “transient localization” phenomenon is shown to be a general feature of organic semiconductors that is compatible with the bandlike temperature dependence of the mobility observed in pure compounds. Carrier trapping by extrinsic disorder causes a crossover to a thermally activated behavior at low temperature, which is progressively suppressed upon increasing the carrier concentration, as is commonly observed in organic field-effect transistors. Our results establish a direct connection between the localization of the electronic states and their conductive properties, formalizing phenomenological considerations that are commonly used in the literature.
Band Collapse and the Quantum Hall Effect in Graphene
Bernevig, B.Andrei; Hughes, Taylor L.; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Chen, Han-Dong; /Illinois U., Urbana; Wu, Congjun; /Santa Barbara, KITP
2010-03-16
The recent Quantum Hall experiments in graphene have confirmed the theoretically well-understood picture of the quantum Hall (QH) conductance in fermion systems with continuum Dirac spectrum. In this paper we take into account the lattice, and perform an exact diagonalization of the Landau problem on the hexagonal lattice. At very large magnetic fields the Dirac argument fails completely and the Hall conductance, given by the number of edge states present in the gaps of the spectrum, is dominated by lattice effects. As the field is lowered, the experimentally observed situation is recovered through a phenomenon which we call band collapse. As a corollary, for low magnetic field, graphene will exhibit two qualitatively different QHE's: at low filling, the QHE will be dominated by the 'relativistic' Dirac spectrum and the Hall conductance will be odd-integer; above a certain filling, the QHE will be dominated by a non-relativistic spectrum, and the Hall conductance will span all integers, even and odd.
Quantum effects in the diffusion of hydrogen on Ru(0001)
McIntosh, Eliza M; Ellis, John; Michaelides, Angelos; Allison, William
2014-01-01
An understanding of hydrogen diffusion on metal surfaces is important, not just for its role in heterogeneous catalysis and hydrogen fuel cell technology, but also because it provides model systems where tunneling can be studied under well-defined conditions. Here we report helium spin-echo measurements of the atomic-scale motion of hydrogen on the Ru(0001) surface between 75 and 250 K. Quantum effects are evident at temperatures as high as 200 K, while below 120 K we observe a tunneling-dominated temperature independent jump rate of 1.9$\\times$10$^9$ s$^{-1}$, many orders of magnitude faster than previously seen. Quantum transition state theory calculations based on ab initio path-integral simulations reproduce the temperature dependence of the rate at higher temperatures and predict a crossover to tunneling-dominated diffusion at low temperatures, although the tunneling rate is under-estimated, highlighting the need for future experimental and theoretical studies of hydrogen diffusion on well-defined surfac...
Nanoscale optimization of quantum dot media for effective photovoltaic conversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sablon, K. A.; Sergeev, A.; Little, J. W.; Vagidov, N.; Mitin, V.
2014-06-01
Nanoscale engineering of band profile and potential profile provide effective tools for the management of photoelectron processes in quantum dot (QD) photovoltaic devices. We investigate the QD devices with various 1-?m InAs /GaAs QD media placed in a 3-?m base GaAs p-n junction. We found that n-charging of quantum dots (QDs) create potential barriers around QDs. QD growth between ultrathin AlGaAs layers leads to the formation of AlGaAs "fence" barriers, and reduces the wetting layers (WLs). The barriers around QDs and reduction of the wetting layer substantially suppress recombination processes via QDs. The n-doping of interdot space in QD media enhances electron extraction from QDs. All of our QD devices show short-circuit current, JSC, higher than that of the reference cell, but smaller open-circuit voltage, VOC.. In the QD devices, the short circuit currents increase by ~0.1 mA/cm2 per dot layer. JSC reaches 28.4 mA/cm2 in the device with QD media that combines dot charging, fence barriers, and WL reduction.
Quantum Reality, Complex Numbers and the Meteorological Butterfly Effect
T. N. Palmer
2005-01-17
A not-too-technical version of the paper: "A Granular Permutation-based Representation of Complex Numbers and Quaternions: Elements of a Realistic Quantum Theory" - Proc. Roy. Soc.A (2004) 460, 1039-1055. The phrase "meteorological butterfly effect" is introduced to illustrate, not the familiar loss of predictability in low-dimensional chaos, but the much less familiar and much more radical paradigm of the finite-time predictability horizon, associated with upscale transfer of uncertainty in certain multi-scale systems. This motivates a novel reinterpretation of unit complex numbers (and quaternions) in terms of a family of self-similar permutation operators. A realistic deterministic kinematic reformulation of the foundations of quantum theory is given using this reinterpretation of complex numbers. Using a property of the cosine function not normally encountered in physics, that it is irrational for all dyadic rational angles between 0 and pi/2, this reformulation is shown to have the emergent property of counterfactual indefiniteness and is therefore not non-locally causal.
Unconventional quantum Hall effect and Berry's phase of 2pi in bilayer graphene
K. S. Novoselov; E. McCann; S. V. Morozov; V. I. Fal'Ko; M. I. Katsnelson; U. Zeitler; D. Jiang; F. Schedin; A. K. Geim
2006-01-01
There are two known distinct types of the integer quantum Hall effect. One is the conventional quantum Hall effect, characteristic of two-dimensional semiconductor systems, and the other is its relativistic counterpart observed in graphene, where charge carriers mimic Dirac fermions characterized by Berry's phase pi, which results in shifted positions of the Hall plateaus. Here we report a third type
MAS 335 Cryptography Notes 12: Quantum effects and bibliography Spring 2006
Banaji,. Murad
MAS 335 Cryptography Notes 12: Quantum effects and bibliography Spring 2006 Quantum effects systems, and how this behaviour is relevant to cryptography. There are two aspects which we treat in turn solve the hard problems on which modern public-key cryptography depends (factorisation and dis- crete
Rashba effect in an asymmetric quantum dot in a magnetic field S. Bandyopadhyay
Cahay, Marc
because of the Zeeman effect brought about by the magnetic field due to the contacts. We will callRashba effect in an asymmetric quantum dot in a magnetic field S. Bandyopadhyay Department that causes a Zeeman splitting of the electronic states in the quantum dot. We show that this Zeeman splitting
2005 Nature Publishing Group Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium
Miller, David A. B.
© 2005 Nature Publishing Group Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum to integrate with silicon electronic devices. Germanium is routinely integrated with silicon in electronics8 , but previous silicongermanium structures have also not shown strong modulation effects913 . Here we report
Simulating quantum effects in ferroelectrics from first-principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akbarzadeh, Alireza
We have developed/adopted first-principles-based effective Hamiltonian approaches, within classical Monte Carlo (CMC) and path integral quantum Monte Carlo (PI-QMC) methods, to simulate quantum effects in the incipient ferroelectric KTaO3, both in bulk and thin films. A combined experimental and theoretical (using the above methods) study was also carried out to reveal low temperature properties of BaZrO3. Our findings on KTaO3 bulk reveal that zero-point motion of ions suppresses the paraelectric-to-ferroelectric transition and results in the saturation of the dielectric response to a plateau with a height of 4000 below 10 K, in very good agreement with experiments. Interestingly, our PI-QMC simulations reveal the formation of needle-like correlated dipoles along the [100] directions with a correlation length of ?16 A at low-temperature, as consistent with previous Raman and neutron scattering. Furthermore, very little is known about ferroelectric thin films and specifically about thin films of incipient ferroelectrics. Recently. Haeni et, al. [Nature, 430:758, 2004] observed room temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3 film. Therefore, the Pertsev phase diagram was determined within CMC and PI-QMC for 28-A-thick KTaO 3 thin films. Films are epitaxially grown along [001] directions and are under different electrical boundary conditions. Our findings predict four different phases, i.e. paraelectric, c-phase, r-phase, and aa-phase. CMC results indicate a phase transition at 460 K in a stress-free film under perfect electrical short-circuit conditions. i.e., zero depolarizing field. While this transition is dramatically reduced to 60 K for the same film but experiencing an incomplete screening of 96%. Moreover, PI-QMC indicates that under this 96% screening, quantum effects completely wash out the r-phase in favor of c-phase in case of films that are under compressive strains, while it barely survives at very low temperature for tensile misfit strains ranging between zero and 0.2%. Also regardless of the applied strain, predictions of both CMC and PI-QMC overlap above 140 K. Finally, some possible mechanisms for the experimental anomalies observed in BaZrO3 bulk are discussed. Further theoretical works are needed in these regards, and in particular the development of numerical tools able to simulate dielectric loss and AC fields are desired.
Ho?ava-Lifshitz gravity and effective theory of the fractional quantum Hall effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Chaolun; Wu, Shao-Feng
2015-01-01
We show that Ho?ava-Lifshitz gravity theory can be employed as a covariant framework to build an effective field theory for the fractional quantum Hall effect that respects all the spacetime symmetries such as non-relativistic diffeomorphism invariance and anisotropic Weyl invariance as well as the gauge symmetry. The key to this formalism is a set of correspondence relations that maps all the field degrees of freedom in the Ho?ava-Lifshitz gravity theory to external background (source) fields among others in the effective action of the quantum Hall effect, according to their symmetry transformation properties. We originally derive the map as a holographic dictionary, but its form is independent of the existence of holographic duality. This paves the way for the application of Ho?ava-Lifshitz holography on fractional quantum Hall effect. Using the simplest holographic Chern-Simons model, we compute the low energy effective action at leading orders and show that it captures universal electromagnetic and geometric properties of quantum Hall states, including the Wen-Zee shift, Hall viscosity, angular momentum density and their relations. We identify the shift function in Ho?ava-Lifshitz gravity theory as minus of guiding center velocity and conjugate to guiding center momentum. This enables us to distinguish guiding center angular momentum density from the internal one, which is the sum of Landau orbit spin and intrinsic (topological) spin of the composite particles. Our effective action shows that Hall viscosity is minus half of the internal angular momentum density and proportional to Wen-Zee shift, and Hall bulk viscosity is half of the guiding center angular momentum density.
Efficient Multi-Dimensional Simulation of Quantum Confinement Effects in Advanced MOS Devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biegel, Bryan A.; Rafferty, Conor S.; Ancona, Mario G.; Yu, Zhi-Ping
2000-01-01
We investigate the density-gradient (DG) transport model for efficient multi-dimensional simulation of quantum confinement effects in advanced MOS devices. The formulation of the DG model is described as a quantum correction to the classical drift-diffusion model. Quantum confinement effects are shown to be significant in sub-100nm MOSFETs. In thin-oxide MOS capacitors, quantum effects may reduce gate capacitance by 25% or more. As a result, the inclusion or quantum effects in simulations dramatically improves the match between C-V simulations and measurements for oxide thickness down to 2 nm. Significant quantum corrections also occur in the I-V characteristics of short-channel (30 to 100 nm) n-MOSFETs, with current drive reduced by up to 70%. This effect is shown to result from reduced inversion charge due to quantum confinement of electrons in the channel. Also, subthreshold slope is degraded by 15 to 20 mV/decade with the inclusion of quantum effects via the density-gradient model, and short channel effects (in particular, drain-induced barrier lowering) are noticeably increased.
Decoherence effect on quantum correlation and entanglement in a two-qubit spin chain
Mohammad Reza Pourkarimi; Majid Rahnama; Hossein Rooholamini
2014-08-20
Assuming a two-qubit system in Werner state which evolves in Heisenberg XY model with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction under the effect of different environments. We evaluate and compare quantum entanglement, quantum and classical correlation measures. It is shown that in the absence of decoherence effects, there is a critical value of DM interaction for which entanglement may vanish while quantum and classical correlations do not. In the presence of environment the behavior of correlations depends on the kind of system-environment interaction. Correlations can be sustained by manipulating Hamiltonian anisotropic-parameter in a dissipative environment. Quantum and classical correlations are more stable than entanglement generally.
Controllable effects of quantum fluctuations on spin free-induction decay at room temperature
Liu, Gang-Qin; Pan, Xin-Yu; Jiang, Zhan-Feng; Zhao, Nan; Liu, Ren-Bao
2012-01-01
Fluctuations of local fields cause decoherence of quantum objects. Usually at high temperatures, thermal noises are much stronger than quantum fluctuations unless the thermal effects are suppressed by certain techniques such as spin echo. Here we report the discovery of strong quantum-fluctuation effects of nuclear spin baths on free-induction decay of single electron spins in solids at room temperature. We find that the competition between the quantum and thermal fluctuations is controllable by an external magnetic field. These findings are based on Ramsey interference measurement of single nitrogen-vacancy center spins in diamond and numerical simulation of the decoherence, which are in excellent agreement. PMID:22666535
The effect of dust size distribution on quantum dust acoustic wave
El-Labany, S. K.; El-Taibany, W. F.; Behery, E. E. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Damietta Branch, Damietta El-Gedida, P.O. 34517 (Egypt); El-Siragy, N. M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, P.O. 31527 (Egypt)
2009-09-15
Based on the quantum hydrodynamics theory, a proposed model for quantum dust acoustic waves (QDAWs) is presented including the dust size distribution (DSD) effect. A quantum version of Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation is derived adequate for describing QDAWs. Two different DSD functions are applied. The relevance of the wave velocity, amplitude, and width to the DSD is investigated numerically. The quantum effect changes only the soliton width. A brief conclusion is presented to the current findings and their relevance to astrophysics data is also discussed.
Group velocity of extraordinary waves in superdense magnetized quantum plasma with spin-1/2 effects
Li Chunhua; Ren Haijun; Yang Weihong [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, 230026 Hefei (China); Wu Zhengwei [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, 230026 Hefei (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)
2012-12-15
Based on the one component plasma model, a new dispersion relation and group velocity of elliptically polarized extraordinary electromagnetic waves in a superdense quantum magnetoplasma are derived. The group velocity of the extraordinary wave is modified due to the quantum forces and magnetization effects within a certain range of wave numbers. It means that the quantum spin-1/2 effects can reduce the transport of energy in such quantum plasma systems. Our work should be of relevance for the dense astrophysical environments and the condensed matter physics.
Quantum anomalous Hall effect in 2D organic topological insulators.
Wang, Z F; Liu, Zheng; Liu, Feng
2013-05-10
The quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) is a fundamental transport phenomenon in the field of condensed-matter physics. Without an external magnetic field, spontaneous magnetization combined with spin-orbit coupling gives rise to a quantized Hall conductivity. So far, a number of theoretical proposals have been made to realize the QAHE, but all based on inorganic materials. Here, using first-principles calculations, we predict a family of 2D organic topological insulators for realizing the QAHE. Designed by assembling molecular building blocks of triphenyl-transition-metal compounds into a hexagonal lattice, this new class of organic materials is shown to have a nonzero Chern number and exhibits a gapless chiral edge state within the Dirac gap. PMID:23705732
Quantum effects in the dynamics of proton glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dolinšek, J.; Ar?on, D.; Zalar, B.; Pirc, R.; Blinc, R.; Kind, R.
1996-09-01
The dynamics of proton and deuteron glasses has been studied via the NMR spin-lattice relaxation (T1) of 87Rb and O-D...O deuterons down to T=1.6 K in Rb0.50(NH4)0.50H2PO4,Rb0.58(ND4)0.42D2PO4, and Rb0.68(ND4)0.32D2AsO4. In the glassy phase the relaxation rate was found to be anomalously short and temperature independent as T-->0, whereas this effect is absent in pure ferroelectric RbH2PO4. The temperature independence of T1 at low temperatures demonstrates the presence of phonon-assisted tunneling of the proton and the deuteron between the two potential minima in the H bond. The proton and deuteron glass phases are thus quantum rather than classical glasses.
Magnetoelectric transport and quantum interference effect in ultrathin manganite films
Wang, Cong; Jin, Kui-juan, E-mail: kjjin@iphy.ac.cn; Gu, Lin; Lu, Hui-bin; Li, Shan-ming; Zhou, Wen-jia; Zhao, Rui-qiang; Guo, Hai-zhong; He, Meng; Yang, Guo-zhen [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)
2014-04-21
The magnetoelectric transport behavior with respect to the thicknesses of ultrathin La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3} films is investigated in detail. The metal-insulator phase transition, which has never been observed in bulk La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3}, is found in ultrathin films with thicknesses larger than 6 unit cells. Low-temperature resistivity minima appeared in films with thicknesses less than 10 unit cells. This is attributed to the presence of quantum interference effects. These data suggest that the influence of the weak localization becomes much pronounced as the film thickness decreases from 16 to 8 unit cells.
Non-linear quantum noise effects in scale invariant junctions
Mihail Mintchev; Luca Santoni; Paul Sorba
2015-02-18
We study non-equilibrium steady state transport in scale invariant quantum junctions with focus on the particle and heat fluctuations captured by the two-point current correlation functions. We show that the non-linear behavior of the particle current affects both the particle and heat noise. The existence of domains of enhancement and reduction of the noise power with respect to the linear regime are observed. The impact of the statistics is explored. We demonstrate that in the scale invariant case the bosonic particle noise exceeds the fermionic one in the common domain of heat bath parameters. Multi-lead configurations are also investigated and the effect of probe terminals on the noise is discussed.
Quantum spin Hall effect and topological insulators for light
Bliokh, Konstantin Y
2015-01-01
We show that free-space light has intrinsic quantum spin-Hall effect (QSHE) properties. These are characterized by a non-zero topological spin Chern number, and manifest themselves as evanescent modes of Maxwell equations. The recently discovered transverse spin of evanescent modes demonstrates spin-momentum locking stemming from the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling in Maxwell equations. As a result, any interface between free space and a medium supporting surface modes exhibits QSHE of light with opposite transverse spins propagating in opposite directions. In particular, we find that usual isotropic metals with surface plasmon-polariton modes represent natural 3D topological insulators for light. Several recent experiments have demonstrated transverse spin-momentum locking and spin-controlled unidirectional propagation of light at various interfaces with evanescent waves. Our results show that all these experiments can be interpreted as observations of the QSHE of light.
Magnetic quantum coherence effect in Ni4 molecular transistors.
González, Gabriel; Leuenberger, Michael N
2014-07-01
We present a theoretical study of electron transport in Ni4 molecular transistors in the presence of Zeeman spin splitting and magnetic quantum coherence (MQC). The Zeeman interaction is extended along the leads which produces gaps in the energy spectrum which allow electron transport with spin polarized along a certain direction. We show that the coherent states in resonance with the spin up or down states in the leads induces an effective coupling between localized spin states and continuum spin states in the single molecule magnet and leads, respectively. We investigate the conductance at zero temperature as a function of the applied bias and magnetic field by means of the Landauer formula, and show that the MQC is responsible for the appearence of resonances. Accordingly, we name them MQC resonances. PMID:24918902
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2012-05-11
...et al.] Quantum Choctaw Power, LLC, USG Nevada LLC, et...Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status...Quantum Choctaw Power, LLC...entities as Exempt Wholesale Generators became effective by...
'Dark Matter' as a Quantum Foam In-Flow Effect
Reginald T. Cahill
2005-08-25
The galactic `dark matter' effect is regarded as one of the major problems in fundamental physics. Here it is explained as a self-interaction dynamical effect of space itself, and so is not caused by an unknown form of matter. Because it was based on Kepler's Laws for the motion of the planets in the solar system the Newtonian theory of gravity was too restricted. A reformulation and generalisation of the Newtonian theory of gravity in terms of a velocity in-flow field, representing at a classical level the relative motion of a quantum-foam substructure to space, reveals a key dynamical feature of the phenomenon of gravity, namely the so called `dark matter' effect, which manifests not only in spiral galaxy rotation curves, but also in the borehole g anomaly, globular and galactic black holes, and in ongoing problems in improving the accuracy with which Newton's gravitational constant G is measured. The new theory of gravity involves an additional new dimensionless gravitational constant, and experimental data reveals this to be the fine structure constant. The new theory correctly predicts the globular cluster black hole masses, and that the `frame-dragging' effect is caused by vorticity in the in-flow. The relationship of the new theory of gravity to General Relativity which, like Newtonian gravity, does not have the `dark matter' dynamics, is explained.
Classical and Quantum Branes in c=1 String Theory and Quantum Hall Effect
Alexey Boyarsky; Bogdan Kulik; Oleg Ruchayskiy
2003-01-01
Interpretation of D1 and D0-branes in 1+1 string theory as classical and quantum eigen-values in dual c=1 Matrix Quantum Mechanics (MQM) was recently suggested. MQM is known to be equivalent to a system of N free fermions (eigen-values). By considering quantum mechanics of fermions in the presence of classical eigen-value we are able to calculate explicitly the perturbation of the
Valley-polarized quantum anomalous Hall effect in silicene.
Pan, Hui; Li, Zhenshan; Liu, Cheng-Cheng; Zhu, Guobao; Qiao, Zhenhua; Yao, Yugui
2014-03-14
We find theoretically a new quantum state of matter-the valley-polarized quantum anomalous Hall state in silicene. In the presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling and an exchange field, silicene hosts a quantum anomalous Hall state with Chern number C=2. We show that through tuning the Rashba spin-orbit coupling, a topological phase transition results in a valley-polarized quantum anomalous Hall state, i.e., a quantum state that exhibits the electronic properties of both the quantum valley Hall state (valley Chern number Cv=3) and quantum anomalous Hall state with C=-1. This finding provides a platform for designing dissipationless valleytronics in a more robust manner. PMID:24679320
Quantum-confined Franz-Keldysh effect in ( ZnCdSe) ( ZnSeS) quantum-well laser diodes
A. A. Toropov; T. V. Shubina; S. V. Ivanov; A. V. Lebedev; S. V. Sorokin; E. S. Oh; H. S. Park; P. S. Kop'ev
1996-01-01
The room-temperature electro-absorption in wide (? 150 A?) ZnCdSe quantum wells is explained in terms of the quantum-confined Franz-Keldysh effect. The heavy hole-light hole splitting has been determined both for single quantum well (SQW) and multiple quantum well heterostructures, providing an insight into the distribution of intrinsic strain. The band gap shrinkage due to the many-body Coulomb interactions is shown
Framing Anomaly in the Effective Theory of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gromov, Andrey; Cho, Gil Young; You, Yizhi; Abanov, Alexander G.; Fradkin, Eduardo
2015-01-01
We consider the geometric part of the effective action for the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE). It is shown that accounting for the framing anomaly of the quantum Chern-Simons theory is essential to obtain the correct gravitational linear response functions. In the lowest order in gradients, the linear response generating functional includes Chern-Simons, Wen-Zee, and gravitational Chern-Simons terms. The latter term has a contribution from the framing anomaly which fixes the value of thermal Hall conductivity and contributes to the Hall viscosity of the FQH states on a sphere. We also discuss the effects of the framing anomaly on linear responses for non-Abelian FQH states.
Quantized anomalous Hall effect in two-dimensional ferromagnets: quantum Hall effect in metals.
Onoda, Masaru; Nagaosa, Naoto
2003-05-23
We study the effect of disorder on the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in two-dimensional ferromagnets. The topological nature of the AHE leads to the integer quantum Hall effect from a metal, i.e., the quantization of sigma(xy) induced by the localization except for the few extended states carrying Chern numbers. Extensive numerical study on a model reveals that Pruisken's two-parameter scaling theory holds even when the system has no gap with the overlapping multibands and without the uniform magnetic field. Therefore, the condition for the quantized AHE is given only by the Hall conductivity sigma(xy) without the quantum correction, i.e., /sigma(xy)/>e(2)/(2h). PMID:12785910
The effect of quantum confinement on tunneling field-effect transistors with high-? gate dielectric
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Padilla, J. L.; Gámiz, F.; Godoy, A.
2013-09-01
In this letter, we study the impact of quantum confinement in double gate tunneling field-effect transistors with different body thicknesses in the presence of high-? gate dielectrics. Although better ON currents have been reported for these devices coming out from semiclassical simulations, the inclusion of quantum effects makes the formerly continuous conduction and valence bands become a discrete set of energy subbands, thus, increasing the effective bandgap, and consequently, reducing the current levels. If the high-? dielectric layer covers both the source and the drain, the band energy structure at the tunneling junction is modified (tunneling widths are increased), hence resulting in performance degradation. An optimal configuration seeking to improve ON currents would require low permittivity dielectrics over S/D regions along with high-? materials under the gates.
Framing anomaly in the effective theory of the fractional quantum Hall effect.
Gromov, Andrey; Cho, Gil Young; You, Yizhi; Abanov, Alexander G; Fradkin, Eduardo
2015-01-01
We consider the geometric part of the effective action for the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE). It is shown that accounting for the framing anomaly of the quantum Chern-Simons theory is essential to obtain the correct gravitational linear response functions. In the lowest order in gradients, the linear response generating functional includes Chern-Simons, Wen-Zee, and gravitational Chern-Simons terms. The latter term has a contribution from the framing anomaly which fixes the value of thermal Hall conductivity and contributes to the Hall viscosity of the FQH states on a sphere. We also discuss the effects of the framing anomaly on linear responses for non-Abelian FQH states. PMID:25615495
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karshenboim, Savely G.; Ivanov, Vladimir G.; Korzinin, Evgeny Yu.
2012-03-01
The relativistic recoil contributions to the Uehling corrections are revisited. A controversy in recent calculations is considered, which is based on different approaches including Breit-type and Grotch-type calculations. It is found that calculations in those works were in fact done in different gauges and in some of those gauges contributions to retardation and two-photon-exchange effects were missed. Such effects are evaluated and a consistent result is obtained. A correct expression for the Grotch-type approach is presented, which produces a correct gauge-invariant result. A finite-nuclear-size correction for the Uehling term is also considered. The results are presented for muonic hydrogen and deuterium atoms and for muonic 3He and 4He ions.
Localizationlike effect in two-dimensional alternate quantum walks with periodic coin operations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Franco, Carlo; Paternostro, Mauro
2015-01-01
Exploiting multidimensional quantum walks as feasible platforms for quantum computation and quantum simulation attracts constantly growing attention from a broad experimental physics community. Here, we propose a two-dimensional quantum walk scheme with a single-qubit coin that presents, in the considered regimes, a strong localizationlike effect on the walker. The result could provide new possible directions for the implementation of quantum algorithms or from the point of view of quantum simulation. We characterize the localizationlike effect in terms of the parameters of a step-dependent qubit operation that acts on the coin space after any standard coin operation, showing that a proper choice can guarantee a nonnegligible probability of finding the walker in the origin even for large times. We finally discuss the robustness to imperfections, a qualitative relation with coherences behavior, and possible experimental realizations of this model with the current state-of-the-art settings.
Quantum fluctuations and isotope effects in ab initio descriptions of water
Lu Wang; Michele Ceriotti; Thomas E. Markland
2014-06-24
Nuclear quantum effects, such as zero-point energy and tunneling, cause significant changes to the structure and dynamics of hydrogen bonded systems such as liquid water. However, due to the current inability to simulate liquid water using an exact description of its electronic structure, the interplay between nuclear and electronic quantum effects remains unclear. Here we use simulations that incorporate the quantum mechanical nature of both the nuclei and electrons to provide a fully ab initio determination of the particle quantum kinetic energies, free energy change upon exchanging hydrogen for deuterium and the isotope fractionation ratio in water. These properties, which selectively probe the quantum nature of the nuclear degrees of freedom, allow us to make direct comparison to recent experiments and elucidate how electronic exchange and correlation and nuclear quantum fluctuations determine the structure of the hydrogen bond in water.
The WITCH experiment: Acquiring the first recoil ion spectrum
V. Yu. Kozlov; M. Beck; S. Coeck; P. Delahaye; P. Friedag; M. Herbane; A. Herlert; I. S. Kraev; M. Tandecki; S. Van Gorp; F. Wauters; Ch. Weinheimer; F. Wenander; D. Zakoucky; N. Severijns
2008-07-22
The standard model of the electroweak interaction describes beta-decay in the well-known V-A form. Nevertheless, the most general Hamiltonian of a beta-decay includes also other possible interaction types, e.g. scalar (S) and tensor (T) contributions, which are not fully ruled out yet experimentally. The WITCH experiment aims to study a possible admixture of these exotic interaction types in nuclear beta-decay by a precise measurement of the shape of the recoil ion energy spectrum. The experimental set-up couples a double Penning trap system and a retardation spectrometer. The set-up is installed in ISOLDE/CERN and was recently shown to be fully operational. The current status of the experiment is presented together with the data acquired during the 2006 campaign, showing the first recoil ion energy spectrum obtained. The data taking procedure and corresponding data acquisition system are described in more detail. Several further technical improvements are briefly reviewed.
Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry's phase in graphene
Yuanbo Zhang; Yan-Wen Tan; Horst L. Stormer; Philip Kim
2005-01-01
When electrons are confined in two-dimensional materials, quantum-mechanically enhanced transport phenomena such as the quantum Hall effect can be observed. Graphene, consisting of an isolated single atomic layer of graphite, is an ideal realization of such a two-dimensional system. However, its behaviour is expected to differ markedly from the well-studied case of quantum wells in conventional semiconductor interfaces. This difference
Gate-induced carrier delocalization in quantum dot field effect transistors.
Turk, Michael E; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Oh, Soong Ju; Fafarman, Aaron T; Diroll, Benjamin T; Murray, Christopher B; Kagan, Cherie R; Kikkawa, James M
2014-10-01
We study gate-controlled, low-temperature resistance and magnetotransport in indium-doped CdSe quantum dot field effect transistors. We show that using the gate to accumulate electrons in the quantum dot channel increases the "localization product" (localization length times dielectric constant) describing transport at the Fermi level, as expected for Fermi level changes near a mobility edge. Our measurements suggest that the localization length increases to significantly greater than the quantum dot diameter. PMID:25171186
Effects of the primary recoil spectrum on microstructural evolution
Wiedersich, H.
1989-11-01
For quantitative predictions and comparisons of microstructures that evolve during exposure to different radiation environments at elevated temperature one needs to develop methods that go beyond those based on the number of displacements per atom. The number of freely migrating defects that contribute to the microstructural development is far less than the total number of defects produced, as has been recognized for some time from measurements of radiation-induced segregation and of radiation-enhanced diffusion. One major reason for the small amount of defects available for long range migration is the high concentration and close spatial correlation of vacancies and, to a somewhat lesser degree, of interstitials in cascades produced by high energy knock-ons. As a consequence, many defects either recombine or form immobile defect clusters during the defect formation and cooling phases of the cascades. After doses exceeding a few tenths of a displacement per atom, the residue of small clusters and dislocation loops of vacancy type remaining in the central portions of energetic cascades and subscascades, is the second major reason for the reduction of the mean free path of defects between creation and annihilation. Defect production in various neutron and ion irradiation environments is discussed in light of these facts. A method to calculate the fraction of freely migrating defects from the cluster size distribution of defects produced in cascades is suggested. The results are in good agreement with available data. 22 refs., 5 figs.
Quantum-electrodynamics corrections in pionic hydrogen
Schlesser, S.; Le Bigot, E.-O.; Indelicato, P. [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Ecole Normale Superieure, CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Case 74, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Pachucki, K. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Hoza 69, PL-00-681 Warsaw (Poland)
2011-07-15
We investigate all pure quantum-electrodynamics corrections to the np{yields}1s, n=2-4 transition energies of pionic hydrogen larger than 1 meV, which requires an accurate evaluation of all relevant contributions up to order {alpha}{sup 5}. These values are needed to extract an accurate strong interaction shift from experiment. Many small effects, such as second-order and double vacuum polarization contribution, proton and pion self-energies, finite size and recoil effects are included with exact mass dependence. Our final value differs from previous calculations by up to {approx_equal}11 ppm for the 1s state, while a recent experiment aims at a 4 ppm accuracy.
J. D. Lewin; P. F. Smith
1996-01-01
We present a systematic derivation and discussion of the practical formulae needed to design and interpret direct searches for nuclear recoil events caused by hypothetical weakly interacting dark matter particles. Modifications to the differential energy spectrum arise from the Earth's motion, recoil detection efficiency, instrumental resolution and threshold, multiple target elements, spin-dependent and coherent factors, and nuclear form factor. We
Optimal control of gun recoil in direct fire using magnetorheological absorbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Harinder J.; Wereley, Norman M.
2014-05-01
Optimal control of a gun recoil absorber is investigated for minimizing recoil loads and maximizing rate of fire. A multi-objective optimization problem was formulated by considering the mechanical model of the recoil absorber employing a spring and a magnetorheological (MR) damper. The damper forces are predicted by evaluating pressure drops using a nonlinear Bingham-plastic model. The optimization methodology provides multiple optimal design configurations with a trade-off between recoil load minimization and increased rate of fire. The configurations with low or high recoil loads imply low or high rate of fire, respectively. The gun recoil absorber performance is also analyzed for perturbations in the firing forces. The adaptive control of the MR damper for varying gun firing forces provides a smooth operation by returning the recoil mass to its battery position (ready to reload and fire) without incurring an end-stop impact. Furthermore, constant load transmissions are observed with respect to the recoil stroke by implementing optimal control during the simulated firing events.
Beam suppression of the DRAGON recoil separator for 3He(?,?)7Be
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sjue, S. K. L.; Nara Singh, B. S.; Adsley, P.; Buchmann, L.; Carmona-Gallardo, M.; Davids, B.; Fallis, J.; Fulton, B. R.; Galinski, N.; Hager, U.; Hass, M.; Howell, D.; Hutcheon, D. A.; Laird, A. M.; Martin, L.; Ottewell, D.; Reeve, S.; Ruiz, C.; Ruprecht, G.; Triambak, S.
2013-02-01
Preliminary studies in preparation for an absolute cross-section measurement of the radiative capture reaction 3He(?,?)7Be with the DRAGON recoil separator have demonstrated beam suppression >1014 at the 90% confidence level. A measurement of this cross section by observation of 7Be recoils at the focal plane of the separator should be virtually background free.
Serial intravascular ultrasound studies fail to show evidence of chronic Palmaz-Schatz stent recoil
Jack A. Painter; Gary S. Mintz; S. Chiu Wong; Jeffrey J. Popma; Augusto D. Pichard; Kenneth M. Kent; Lowell F. Satler; Martin B. Leon
1995-01-01
Serial IVUS analysis after intervention and at follow-up showed that late recoil of the Palmaz-Schatz stent rarely occurred, and when it did occur, late stent recoil was minimal. The dominant mechanism of late lumen loss in this setting was neointimal hyperplasia.
Effective-field-theory model for the fractional quantum Hall effect
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhang, S. C.; Hansson, T. H.; Kivelson, S.
1989-01-01
Starting directly from the microscopic Hamiltonian, a field-theory model is derived for the fractional quantum Hall effect. By considering an approximate coarse-grained version of the same model, a Landau-Ginzburg theory similar to that of Girvin (1986) is constructed. The partition function of the model exhibits cusps as a function of density. It is shown that the collective density fluctuations are massive.
Quantum fluctuations and isotope effects in ab initio descriptions of water
Wang, Lu; Markland, Thomas E., E-mail: tmarkland@stanford.edu [Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, 333 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Ceriotti, Michele, E-mail: michele.ceriotti@epfl.ch [Laboratory of Computational Science and Modeling, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)
2014-09-14
Isotope substitution is extensively used to investigate the microscopic behavior of hydrogen bonded systems such as liquid water. The changes in structure and stability of these systems upon isotope substitution arise entirely from the quantum mechanical nature of the nuclei. Here, we provide a fully ab initio determination of the isotope exchange free energy and fractionation ratio of hydrogen and deuterium in water treating exactly nuclear quantum effects and explicitly modeling the quantum nature of the electrons. This allows us to assess how quantum effects in water manifest as isotope effects, and unravel how the interplay between electronic exchange and correlation and nuclear quantum fluctuations determine the structure of the hydrogen bond in water.
Quantum size effects and transport phenomena in PbSe quantum wells and PbSe/EuS superlattices
Rogacheva, E. I.; Nashchekina, O. N.; Ol'khovskaya, S. I.; Sipatov, A. Yu. [National technical university Kharkov polytechnic institute, 21 Frunze St., Kharkov, 61002 (Ukraine); Dresselhaus, M. S. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge MA 02139 (United States)
2013-12-04
It is established that the room-temperature dependences of transport properties on the total thickness of PbSe layers d in PbSe/EuS superlattices exhibit an oscillatory behavior. It is shown that the oscillation period ?d practically coincides with the period of the thickness oscillations observed earlier in single PbSe/EuS quantum well. The non-monotonic character of these dependences is attributed to quantum size effects. The theoretically estimated and experimentally determined ?d values are in good agreement.
Anomalous quantum-confined Stark effects in stacked InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots.
Sheng, Weidong; Leburton, Jean-Pierre
2002-04-22
Vertically stacked and coupled InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots (SADs) are predicted to exhibit strong hole localization even with vanishing separation between the dots, and a nonparabolic dependence of the interband transition energy on the electric field, which is not encountered in single SAD structures. Our study based on an eight-band strain-dependent k x p Hamiltonian indicates that this anomalous quantum confined Stark effect is caused by the three-dimensional strain field distribution which influences drastically the hole states in the stacked SAD structures. PMID:11955264
Piezoelectric effect in InAs/InP quantum rod nanowires grown on silicon substrate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anufriev, Roman; Chauvin, Nicolas; Khmissi, Hammadi; Naji, Khalid; Patriarche, Gilles; Gendry, Michel; Bru-Chevallier, Catherine
2014-05-01
We report on the evidence of a strain-induced piezoelectric field in wurtzite InAs/InP quantum rod nanowires. This electric field, caused by the lattice mismatch between InAs and InP, results in the quantum confined Stark effect and, as a consequence, affects the optical properties of the nanowire heterostructure. It is shown that the piezoelectric field can be screened by photogenerated carriers or removed by increasing temperature. Moreover, a dependence of the piezoelectric field on the quantum rod diameter is observed in agreement with simulations of wurtzite InAs/InP quantum rod nanowire heterostructures.
Piezoelectric effect in InAs/InP quantum rod nanowires grown on silicon substrate
Anufriev, Roman; Chauvin, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.chauvin@insa-lyon.fr; Bru-Chevallier, Catherine [Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon (INL)-UMR5270-CNRS, INSA-Lyon, 7 avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Khmissi, Hammadi [Université de Monastir, Laboratoire de Micro-Optoélectronique et Nanostructures (LMON), Faculté des Sciences, Avenue de l'environnement, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Naji, Khalid; Gendry, Michel [Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon (INL)-UMR5270-CNRS, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 36 avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully (France); Patriarche, Gilles [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures (LPN), UPR20-CNRS, route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France)
2014-05-05
We report on the evidence of a strain-induced piezoelectric field in wurtzite InAs/InP quantum rod nanowires. This electric field, caused by the lattice mismatch between InAs and InP, results in the quantum confined Stark effect and, as a consequence, affects the optical properties of the nanowire heterostructure. It is shown that the piezoelectric field can be screened by photogenerated carriers or removed by increasing temperature. Moreover, a dependence of the piezoelectric field on the quantum rod diameter is observed in agreement with simulations of wurtzite InAs/InP quantum rod nanowire heterostructures.
The role of localized recoil in the formation of Kikuchi patterns.
Winkelmann, Aimo; Vos, Maarten
2013-02-01
In electron scattering from crystals, diffraction spots are replaced by Kikuchi patterns at high momentum transfer. Kikuchi pattern formation is based on the concept of effective incoherent electron sources (or detectors) inside a crystal. The resulting incoherence is a consequence of energy transfer connected with the momentum transfer in large-angle scattering events. We identify atomic recoil as a key incoherent process giving rise to electron Kikuchi patterns in the scope of the "channeling-in and channeling-out" model of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and electron channeling patterns (ECP) in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Using model calculations, we explore the characteristic role of the localization of the incoherent scattering event at specific places within the unit cell. In this way, we explain why sometimes inelastic losses do cause Kikuchi-type contrast, and sometimes inelastic losses result in the disappearance of this contrast in the SEM. PMID:23291360
An energetic (e, 2e) reaction away from the Bethe ridge: recoil versus binary
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kheifets, A. S.; Naja, A.; Casagrande, E. M. Staicu; Lahmam-Bennani, A.
2009-08-01
We analyse the recoil-to-binary (RB) peak intensity ratio in an energetic (e, 2e) reaction performed on the valence ns sub-shell of noble gas atoms away from the Bethe ridge condition. A qualitative change in the RB ratio dependence on the ejected electron energy from He to Ar can be explained by the variation of reflectivity of the short-range Hartree-Fock potential. The reflectivity increases profoundly from lighter (He) to heavier (Ne and Ar) noble gas atoms because of modification of the scattering phases due to occupation of the target p orbitals (Levinson-Seaton theorem). This effect is further modified due to strong inter-shell correlations in Ar. These theoretical predictions are confirmed experimentally.
Temperature effects and transport phenomena in terahertz quantum cascade lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slingerland, Philip C.
Quantum cascade lasers (QCL's) employ the mid- and far-infrared intersubband radiative transitions available in semiconductor heterostructures. Through the precise design and construction of these heterostructures the laser characteristics and output frequencies can be controlled. When fabricated, QCL's offer a lightweight and portable alternative to traditional laser systems which emit in this frequency range. The successful operation of these devices strongly depends on the effects of electron transport. Studies have been conducted on the mechanisms involved in electron transport and a computational model has been completed for QCL performance prediction and design optimization. The implemented approach utilized a three period model of the laser active region with periodic boundary conditions enforced. All of the wavefunctions within these periods were included in a self-consistent rate equation model. This model employed all relevant types of scattering mechanisms within three periods. Additionally, an energy balance equation was studied to determine the set of individual subband electron temperatures. This equation included the influence of both electron-LO phonon and electron-electron scattering. The effect of different modeling parameters within QCL electron temperature predictions are presented along with a description of the complete QCL computational model and comparisons with experimental results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoh, Kanji; Yuasa, Kazuya; Nakazato, Hiromichi
2005-11-01
We propose a method of operating a quantum state machine made of stacked quantum dots buried in adjacent to the channel of a spin field-effect transistor (FET) [S. Datta, B. Das, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56 (1990) 665; K. Yoh, et al., Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Physics of Semiconductors (ICPS) 2004; H. Ohno, K. Yoh et al., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42 (2003) L87; K. Yoh, J. Konda, S. Shiina, N. Nishiguchi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36 (1997) 4134]. In this method, a spin blockade measurement extracts the quantum state of a nearest quantum dot through Coulomb blockade [K. Yoh, J. Konda, S. Shiina, N. Nishiguchi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36 (1997) 4134; K. Yoh, H. Kazama, Physica E 7 (2000) 440] of the adjacent channel conductance. Repeated quantum Zeno-like (QZ) measurements [H. Nakazato, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 (2003) 060401] of the spin blockade is shown to purify the quantum dot states within several repetitions. The growth constraints of the stacked InAs quantum dots are shown to provide an exchange interaction energy in the range of 0.01-1 meV [S. Itoh, et al., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38 (1999) L917; A. Tackeuchi, et al., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42 (2003) 4278]. We have verified that one can reach the fidelity of 90% by repeating the measurement twice, and that of 99.9% by repeating only eleven QZ measurements. Entangled states with two and three vertically stacked dots are achieved with the sampling frequency of the order of 100 MHz.
Peter Diener; Brajesh Gupt; Parampreet Singh
2014-05-16
A key result of isotropic loop quantum cosmology is the existence of a quantum bounce which occurs when the energy density of the matter field approaches a universal maximum close to the Planck density. Though the bounce has been exhibited in various matter models, due to severe computational challenges some important questions have so far remained unaddressed. These include the demonstration of the bounce for widely spread states, its detailed properties for the states when matter field probes regions close to the Planck volume and the reliability of the continuum effective spacetime description in general. In this manuscript we rigorously answer these questions using the Chimera numerical scheme for the isotropic spatially flat model sourced with a massless scalar field. We show that as expected from an exactly solvable model, the quantum bounce is a generic feature of states even with a very wide spread, and for those which bounce much closer to the Planck volume. We perform a detailed analysis of the departures from the effective description and find some expected, and some surprising results. At a coarse level of description, the effective dynamics can be regarded as a good approximation to the underlying quantum dynamics unless the states correspond to small scalar field momenta, in which case they bounce closer to the Planck volume, or are very widely spread. Quantifying the amount of discrepancy between the quantum and the effective dynamics, we find that the departure between them depends in a subtle and non-monotonic way on the field momentum and different fluctuations. Interestingly, the departures are generically found to be such that the effective dynamics overestimates the spacetime curvature, and underestimates the volume at the bounce.
Arrest of Langmuir wave collapse by quantum effects G. Simpson,1
Simpson, Gideon
Arrest of Langmuir wave collapse by quantum effects G. Simpson,1 C. Sulem,1 and P. L. Sulem2 1, France Received 12 August 2009; published 19 November 2009 The arrest of Langmuir wave collapse of the possible arrest of collapse by quantum corrections. This issue was addressed in 3 by implementing
Acceleration of positrons by a relativistic electron beam in the presence of quantum effects
Niknam, A. R. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aki, H.; Khorashadizadeh, S. M. [Physics Department, Birjand University, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Physics Department, Birjand University, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2013-09-15
Using the quantum magnetohydrodynamic model and obtaining the dispersion relation of the Cherenkov and cyclotron waves, the acceleration of positrons by a relativistic electron beam is investigated. The Cherenkov and cyclotron acceleration mechanisms of positrons are compared together. It is shown that growth rate and, therefore, the acceleration of positrons can be increased in the presence of quantum effects.
Effectiveness of classical spin simulations for describing NMR relaxation of quantum spins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elsayed, Tarek A.; Fine, Boris V.
2015-03-01
We investigate the limits of effectiveness of classical spin simulations for predicting free induction decays (FIDs) measured by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance on systems of quantum nuclear spins. The specific limits considered are associated with the range of interaction, the size of individual quantum spins, and the long-time behavior of the FID signals. We compare FIDs measured or computed for lattices of quantum spins (mainly spins 1/2) with the FIDs computed for the corresponding lattices of classical spins. Several cases of excellent quantitative agreement between quantum and classical FIDs are reported along with the cases of gradually decreasing quality of the agreement. We formulate semiempirical criteria defining the situations, when classical simulations are expected to accurately reproduce quantum FIDs. Our findings indicate that classical simulations may be a quantitatively accurate tool of first-principles calculations for a broad class of macroscopic systems, where individual quantum microscopic degrees of freedom are far from the classical limit.
Study of impurity position effect in pyramid and cone like quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khordad, Reza; Bahramiyan, Hossein
2014-08-01
In the present work, we have studied the effect of impurity position on energy levels, the donor binding energy and third harmonic generation of a pyramid and a cone like quantum dot. For this goal, we have calculated the energy levels, wave functions and binding energy using finite element method for various impurity positions. Our results show that the impurity location plays an important and considerable role in the electronic and optical properties in a pyramid and a cone like quantum dot. We found that the third harmonic generation and binding energy of both quantum dots have a maximum value at a special impurity position. The special impurity location is different for the two quantum dots. Also, we have deduced that the third harmonic generation of a cone like quantum dot is larger than a pyramid quantum dot for same volumes and heights.
Elementary framework for cold field emission: Incorporation of quantum-confinement effects
Patterson, A. A., E-mail: apatters@mit.edu; Akinwande, A. I. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Microsystems Technology Laboratories, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)
2013-12-21
Although the Fowler-Nordheim (FN) equation serves as the foundation of cold field emission theory, it may not be suitable for predicting the emitted current density (ECD) from emitters with a quantum-confined electron supply. This work presents an analytical framework for treating cold field emission from metals that includes the effects of a quantum-confined electron supply. Within the framework, quantum confinement in emitters is classified into transverse and normal quantum confinement based on the orientation of the confinement relative to the emission direction. The framework is used to generate equations predicting the ECD from rectangular and cylindrical emitter geometries comprised of electron supplies of reduced dimensionality. Transverse quantum confinement of the electron supply leads to a reduction in the total ECD as transverse emitter dimensions decrease and normal quantum confinement results in an oscillatory ECD as a function of the normal quantum well width. Incorporating a geometry-dependent field enhancement factor into the model reveals an optimal transverse well width for which quantum confinement of the electron supply and field enhancement equally affect the ECD and a maximum total ECD for the emitter geometry at a given applied field is obtained. As a result, the FN equation over-predicts the ECD from emitters with transverse dimensions under approximately 5?nm, and in those cases, geometry-specific ECD equations incorporating quantum-confinement effects should be employed instead.
All-Optical Switching Using the Quantum Zeno Effect and Two-Photon Absorption
B. C. Jacobs; J. D. Franson
2009-05-08
We have previously shown that the quantum Zeno effect can be used to implement quantum logic gates for quantum computing applications, where the Zeno effect was produced using a strong two-photon absorbing medium. Here we show that the Zeno effect can also be used to implement classical logic gates whose inputs and outputs are high-intensity fields (coherent states). The operation of the devices can be understood using a quasi-static analysis, and their switching times are calculated using a dynamic approach. The two-photon absorption coefficient of rubidium vapor is shown to allow operation of these devices at relatively low power levels.
Can effects of quantum gravity be observed in the cosmic microwave background?
Claus Kiefer; Manuel Kraemer
2012-05-23
We investigate the question whether small quantum-gravitational effects can be observed in the anisotropy spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation. An observation of such an effect is needed in order to discriminate between different approaches to quantum gravity. Using canonical quantum gravity with the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, we find a suppression of power at large scales. Current observations only lead to an upper bound on the energy scale of inflation, but the framework is general enough to study other situations in which such effects might indeed be seen.
On quantum effects on the surface of solid hydrogen
Marchenko, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems (Russian Federation)
2013-10-15
The low-frequency spectrum of hypothetical superfluidity on the free surface of a quantum crystal of hydrogen is determined. In the quantum-rough state of the surface, crystallization waves with a quadratic spectrum should propagate. In the atomically smooth state, the spectrum is linear. Crystallization waves propagating along elementary steps are also considered.
Screening effects and Friedel oscillations in quantum-well nanostructures
Kovalev, V. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Chaplik, A. V. [Novosibirsk State University (Russian Federation)], E-mail: chaplik@isp.nsc.ru
2008-11-15
The screening of the Coulomb interaction is studied with regard to Friedel oscillations in multicomponent electron plasma structure. A double quantum well (QW) and a superlattice are considered. The groundstate energy of a donor (exciton) in a double quantum well is calculated by a variational method as a function of the population of subbands.
Calendar effects in quantum mechanics in view of interactive holography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berkovich, Simon
2013-04-01
Quantum mechanics in terms of interactive holography appears as `normal' science [1]. With the holography quantum behavior is determined by the interplay of material formations and their conjugate images. To begin with, this effortlessly elucidates the nonlocality in quantum entanglements. Then, it has been shown that Schr"odinger's dynamics for a single particle arises from Bi-Fragmental random walks of the particle itself and its holographic image. For many particles this picture blurs with fragments merging as bosons or fermions. In biomolecules, swapping of particles and their holographic placeholders leads to self-replication of the living matter. Because of broad interpretations of quantum formalism direct experiments attributing it to holography may not be very compelling. The holographic mechanism better reveals as an absolute frame of reference. A number of physical and biological events exhibit annual variations when Earth orbital position changes with respect to the universal holographic mechanism. The well established calendar variations of heart attacks can be regarded as a positive outcome of a generalization of the Michelson experiment, where holography is interferometry and ailing hearts are detectors of pathologically replicated proteins. Also, there have been already observed calendar changes in radioactive decay rates. The same could be expected for various fine quantum experiences, like, e.g., Josephson tunneling. In other words, Quantum Mechanics (February) Quantum Mechanics (August). [1] S. Berkovich, ``A comprehensive explanation of quantum mechanics,'' www.cs.gwu.edu/research/technical-report/170 .
A Recoil Mass Spectrometer for the HHIRF facility
Cole, J.D. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA)); Cormier, T.M. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA)); Hamilton, J.H. (Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (USA). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy)
1989-01-01
A Recoil Mass Spectrometer (RMS) is to be built that will carry out a broad research program in heavy-ion science. The RMS will make possible the study of otherwise inaccessible exotic nuclei. Careful attention has been given to match the RMS to all the beams available from the HHIRF accelerators, including those beams with the highest energy, as well as massive particles for use in inverse reactions. The RMS is to be a momentum achromat followed by a split electric-dipole mass spectrometer of the type operating at NSRL at the University of Rochester. The RMS is essential for many of the proposed experiments on short-lived and/or low cross-section products. The spectrometer design is discussed, with examples and comparisons with other spectrometers given. Detector arrays to be used with the RMS are also discussed. 21 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Energetic Uranium Recoil Damage in Zircon
Devanathan, Ram; Corrales, Louis R.; Weber, William J.; Chartier, Alain; Meis, Constantin
2006-10-11
Defect production and amorphization due to energetic uranium recoils in zircon (ZrSiO4), which is a promising ceramic nuclear waste form, is studied using molecular dynamics simulations with a partial charge model. An algorithm that distinguishes between undamaged crystal, crystalline defects and amorphous regions is used to develop a fundamental understanding of the primary damage state. The amorphous cascade core is separated from the surrounding crystal by a defect-rich region. Small, chemically inhomogeneous amorphous clusters are also produced around the core. The amorphous regions consist of under-coordinated Zr and polymerized Si leading to amorphization and phase separation on a nanometer scale into Zr- and Si-rich regions. This separation could play an important role in the experimentally observed formation of nanoscale ZrO2 in ZrSiO4 irradiated at elevated temperatures.
Study of nuclear recoils in liquid argon with monoenergetic neutrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Regenfus, C.; Allkofer, Y.; Amsler, C.; Creus, W.; Ferella, A.; Rochet, J.; Walter, M.
2012-07-01
In the framework of developments for liquid argon dark matter detectors we assembled a laboratory setup to scatter neutrons on a small liquid argon target. The neutrons are produced mono-energetically (Ekin = 2.45 MeV) by nuclear fusion in a deuterium plasma and are collimated onto a 3" liquid argon cell operating in single-phase mode (zero electric field). Organic liquid scintillators are used to tag scattered neutrons and to provide a time-of-flight measurement. The setup is designed to study light pulse shapes and scintillation yields from nuclear and electronic recoils as well as from alpha particles at working points relevant for dark matter searches. Liquid argon offers the possibility to scrutinise scintillation yields in noble liquids with respect to the population strength of the two fundamental excimer states. Here we present experimental methods and first results from recent data towards such studies.
Measurement of the neutron electric form factor via recoil polarimetry
T. Reichelt; R. Madey; A.Yu. Semenov; S. Taylor; A. Aghalarian; E. Crouse; G. MacLachlan; B. Plaster; S. Tajima; W. Tireman; C.Y. Yan; A. Ahmidouch; B.D. Anderson; R. Asaturian; O. Baker; A.R. Baldwin; H. Breuer; R. Carlini; E. Christy; S. Churchwell; L. Cole; S. Danagulian; D. Day; M. Elaasar; R. Ent; M. Farkhondeh; H. Fenker; J.M. Finn; L. Gan; K. Garrow; P. Gueye; C. Howell; B. Hu; M.K. Jones; J.J. Kelly; C. Keppel; M. Khandaker; W.Y. Kim; S. Kowalski; A. Lung; D. Mack; D.M. Manley; P. Markowitz; J. Mitchell; H. Mkrtchian; A.K. Opper; C. Perdrisat; V. Punjabi; B. Raue; J. Reinhold; J. Roche; Y. Sato; W. Seo; N. Simicevic; G. Smith; S. Stepanian; V. Tadevosian; L. Tang; P. Ulmer; W. Vulcan; J.W. Watson; S. Wells; F. Wesselmann; S. Wood; C. Yan; S. Yang; L. Yuan; W.M. Zhang; H. Zhu; X. Zhu; H. Arenhovel
2003-10-22
The ratio G{sub c}{sup n}/G{sub m}{sup n} of the electric to the magnetic form factor of the neutron has been measured by analyzing the polarization of the recoiling neutron in quasi-elastic scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons from deuterium at the Q{sup 2} values of 0.45, 1.15, and 1.47 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The experiment has been performed in Hall C of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. With G{sub m}{sup n} being known G can be deduced. The preliminary results show that the lowest Q{sup 2} points follow the Galster parameterization and that the 1.47 (GeV/c){sup 2} point rises above this parameterization.
Time of flight elastic recoil detection for thin film analysis
Rabalais, M.S.; Peterson, D.L. Jr. [Eric Jonsson School of Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Dallas, Texas 75080 (United States); Wang, Y.Q. [Center for Interfacial Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Sheu, W.J.; Glass, G.A. [Acadiana Research Laboratory, University of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette, Louisiana 70504 (United States)
1999-06-01
Time-of-flight elastic recoil detection (TOF-ERD) is a powerful and complimentary technique to Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) for elemental analysis in surfaces and thin films. Its main advantages lie in its capability of not only simultaneously depth profiling light elements (3{lt}Z{lt}9) but also with a superb depth resolution (a few nm). This paper describes the construction and calibration of a TOF-ERD system recently added to the NEC 5SDH-2 1.7 MV Tandem Pelletron{reg_sign} Accelerator at the University of Southwestern Louisiana. Initial results on varying-thickness carbon thin foils using MeV gold ion beams yielded a depth resolution of approximately 3.8 nm. TOF-ERD computer software written on site to simulate spectra and to convert time spectra into depth profiles is also presented. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}
Time of flight elastic recoil detection for thin film analysis
Rabalais, M. S.; Peterson, D. L. Jr.; Wang, Y. Q.; Sheu, W. J.; Glass, G. A. [Eric Jonsson School of Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Dallas, Texas 75080 (United States); Center for Interfacial Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Acadiana Research Laboratory, University of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette, Louisiana 70504 (United States)
1999-06-10
Time-of-flight elastic recoil detection (TOF-ERD) is a powerful and complimentary technique to Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) for elemental analysis in surfaces and thin films. Its main advantages lie in its capability of not only simultaneously depth profiling light elements (3
Recoil Polarization for Delta Excitation in Pion Electroproduction
J. J. Kelly; R. E. Roche; Z. Chai; M. K. Jones; O. Gayou; A. J. Sarty; S. Frullani; K. Aniol; E. J. Beise; F. Benmokhtar; W. Bertozzi; W. U. Boeglin; T. Botto; E. J. Brash; H. Breuer; E. Brown; E. Burtin; J. R. Calarco; C. Cavata; C. C. Chang; N. S. Chant; J.-P. Chen; M. Coman; D. Crovelli; R. De Leo; S. Dieterich; S. Escoffier; K. G. Fissum; V. Garde; F. Garibaldi; S. Georgakopoulus; S. Gilad; R. Gilman; C. Glashausser; J.-O. Hansen; D. W. Higinbotham; A. Hotta; G. M. Huber; H. Ibrahim; M. Iodice; C. W. de Jager; X. Jiang; A. Klimenko; A. Kozlov; G. Kumbartzki; M. Kuss; L. Lagamba; G. Laveissiere; J. J. LeRose; R. A. Lindgren; N. Liyanage; G. J. Lolos; R. W. Lourie; D. J. Margaziotis; F. Marie; P. Markowitz; S. McAleer; D. Meekins; R. Michaels; B. D. Milbrath; J. Mitchell; J. Nappa; D. Neyret; C. F. Perdrisat; M. Potokar; V. A. Punjabi; T. Pussieux; R. D. Ransome; P. G. Roos; M. Rvachev; A. Saha; S. Sirca; R. Suleiman; S. Strauch; J. A. Templon; L. Todor; P. E. Ulmer; G. M. Urciuoli; L. B. Weinstein; K. Wijesooriya; B. Wojtsekhowski; X. Zheng; and L. Zhu
2005-08-01
We measured angular distributions of recoil-polarization response functions for neutral pion electroproduction for W=1.23 GeV at Q{sup 2}=1.0 (GeV/c){sup 2}, obtaining 14 separated response functions plus 2 Rosenbluth combinations; of these, 12 have been observed for the first time. Dynamical models do not describe quantities governed by imaginary parts of interference products well, indicating the need for adjusting magnitudes and phases for nonresonant amplitudes. We performed a nearly model-independent multipole analysis and obtained values for Re(S1+/M1+)=-(6.84+/-0.15)% and Re(E1+/M1+)=-(2.91+/-0.19)% that are distinctly different from those from the traditional Legendre analysis based upon M1+ dominance and sp truncation.
Spectroscopy of {sup 144}Ho using recoil-isomer tagging
Mason, P. J. R; Cullen, D. M. [Schuster Laboratory, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Scholey, C.; Greenlees, P. T.; Jakobsson, U.; Jones, P. M.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Ketelhut, S.; Leino, M.; Nyman, M.; Peura, P.; Puurunen, A.; Rahkila, P.; Ruotsalainen, P.; Sorri, J.; Saren, J.; Uusitalo, J. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, Jyvaeskylae FIN-40014 (Finland); Xu, F. R. [Department of Technical Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)
2010-02-15
Excited states in the proton-unbound odd-odd nucleus {sup 144}Ho have been populated using the {sup 92}Mo({sup 54}Fe,pn){sup 144}Ho reaction and studied using the recoil-isomer-tagging technique. The alignment properties and signature splitting of the rotational band above the I{sup p}i=(8{sup +}){sup 144m}Ho isomer have been analyzed and the isomer confirmed to have a pih{sub 11/2} x nuh{sub 11/2} two-quasiparticle configuration. The configuration-constrained blocking method has been used to calculate the shapes of the ground and isomeric states, which are both predicted to have triaxial nuclear shapes with |gamma|approx =24 deg.
Non-abelian fractional quantum hall effect for fault-resistant topological quantum computation.
Pan, Wei; Thalakulam, Madhu; Shi, Xiaoyan; Crawford, Matthew; Nielsen, Erik; Cederberg, Jeffrey George
2013-10-01
Topological quantum computation (TQC) has emerged as one of the most promising approaches to quantum computation. Under this approach, the topological properties of a non-Abelian quantum system, which are insensitive to local perturbations, are utilized to process and transport quantum information. The encoded information can be protected and rendered immune from nearly all environmental decoherence processes without additional error-correction. It is believed that the low energy excitations of the so-called =5/2 fractional quantum Hall (FQH) state may obey non-Abelian statistics. Our goal is to explore this novel FQH state and to understand and create a scientific foundation of this quantum matter state for the emerging TQC technology. We present in this report the results from a coherent study that focused on obtaining a knowledge base of the physics that underpins TQC. We first present the results of bulk transport properties, including the nature of disorder on the 5/2 state and spin transitions in the second Landau level. We then describe the development and application of edge tunneling techniques to quantify and understand the quasiparticle physics of the 5/2 state.
Direct detection of classically undetectable dark matter through quantum decoherence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riedel, C. Jess
2013-12-01
Although various pieces of indirect evidence about the nature of dark matter have been collected, its direct detection has eluded experimental searches despite extensive effort. If the mass of dark matter is below 1 MeV, it is essentially imperceptible to conventional detection methods because negligible energy is transferred to nuclei during collisions. Here I propose directly detecting dark matter through the quantum decoherence it causes rather than its classical effects, such as recoil or ionization. I show that quantum spatial superpositions are sensitive to low-mass dark matter that is inaccessible to classical techniques. This provides new independent motivation for matter interferometry with large masses, especially on spaceborne platforms. The apparent dark matter wind we experience as the Sun travels through the Milky Way ensures interferometers and related devices are directional detectors, and so are able to provide unmistakable evidence that decoherence has Galactic origins.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Haslam, Bryan
2005-08-05
Gain and Loss are the fundamental factors contributing to laser effectiveness. Simply put, the gain is the light produced by stimulated emission and loss is then the light lost. This can happen if a photon hits an electron in a low energy level state and the electron absorbs the energy and moves to a higher energy level state. It can also happen when light escapes the laser cavity. Lasing is the condition when the gain exceeds the loss. It is very important to know the gain to see how effective your laser really is. The traditional Hakki-Paoli Method was found to be ineffective for measuring gain in quantum cascade lasers. A new, more effective method of measuring gain in quantum cascade lasers was developed and tested.
Quantum effective action in spacetimes with branes and boundaries
Barvinsky, A.O.; Nesterov, D.V. [Theory Department, Lebedev Physics Institute, Leninsky Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)
2006-03-15
We construct quantum effective action in spacetime with branes/boundaries. This construction is based on the reduction of the underlying Neumann type boundary value problem for the propagator of the theory to that of the much more manageable Dirichlet problem. In its turn, this reduction follows from the recently suggested Neumann-Dirichlet duality which we extend beyond the tree-level approximation. In the one-loop approximation this duality suggests that the functional determinant of the differential operator subject to Neumann boundary conditions factorizes into the product of its Dirichlet counterpart and the functional determinant of a special operator on the brane--the inverse of the brane-to-brane propagator. As a byproduct of this relation we suggest a new method for surface terms of the heat kernel expansion. This method allows one to circumvent well-known difficulties in the heat kernel theory on manifolds with boundaries for a wide class of generalized Neumann boundary conditions. In particular, we easily recover several lowest-order surface terms in the case of Robin and oblique boundary onditions. We briefly discuss multiloop applications of the suggested Dirichlet reduction and the prospects of constructing the universal background-field method for systems with branes/boundaries, analogous to the Schwinger-DeWitt technique.
Theory of integer quantum Hall effect in insulating bilayer graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Bitan
2014-05-01
A variational ground state for insulating bilayer graphene (BLG), subject to quantizing magnetic fields, is proposed. Due to the Zeeman coupling, the layer antiferromagnet (LAF) order parameter in fully gapped BLG gets projected onto the spin easy plane, and simultaneously a ferromagnet order, which can further be enhanced by exchange interaction, develops in the direction of the magnetic field. The activation gap for the ? =0 Hall state then displays a crossover from quadratic to linear scaling with the magnetic field, as it gets stronger, and I obtain excellent agreement with a number of recent experiments with realistic strengths for the ferromagnetic interaction. A component of the LAF order, parallel to the external magnetic field, gives birth to additional incompressible Hall states at filling ? =±2, whereas the remote hopping in BLG yields ? =±1 Hall states. Evolution of the LAF order in tilted magnetic fields, scaling of the gap at ? =2, the effect of external electric fields on various Hall plateaus, and different possible hierarchies of fractional quantum Hall states are highlighted.
Quantum Hall effect and edge states in graphene.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brey, Luis
2006-03-01
The experimentally observed quantum Hall effect (QHE) in graphene has renewed the interest in the study of multivalley semiconductors in high magnetic fields. In this work we study some properties of graphene in presence of a high magnetic field. 1) We discuss the form of the quantization of the Hall conductivity. We argue that the Hall conductance can be understood in the general framework of the theory of the QHE in two-dimensional systems. 2) We study the properties of undoped graphene in the QHE regime. We find that the Zeeman coupling combined with the electron-electron interaction favors a spin-polarized ground state against a valley-polarized state. This ground state support low energy collective excitations that are combinations of spin and valley density waves. We discuss the possibility that spin texture excitations, Skyrmions, become the low energy charged excitations in the spin-polarized ground state. 3) Finally we analyze the properties of the edge states in the QHE regime. Due to the valley degeneracy occurring in graphene, electron-like and hole-like Landau levels with different spin and valley orientation cross at the edge of the sample. In the undoped samples Coulomb interaction produces repulsion between the states and forces the states to anti-cross, creating a valley and spin coherent stripe at the edge of the sample. We analyze the excitations occurring in this stripe and discuss their possible relevance in tunnelling experiments.
Igor Romanovsky; Constantine Yannouleas; Uzi Landman
2009-01-15
We investigate the way that the degenerate manifold of midgap edge states in quasicircular graphene quantum dots with zig-zag boundaries supports, under free-magnetic-field conditions, strongly correlated many-body behavior analogous to the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE), familiar from the case of semiconductor heterostructures in high magnetic fields. Systematic exact-diagonalization (EXD) numerical studies are presented for the first time for 5 molecule (REM) type wave function based on the methodology introduced earlier [C. Yannouleas and U. Landman, Phys. Rev. B 66, 115315 (2002)] in the context of the FQHE in two-dimensional semiconductor quantum dots. The EXD wave functions are compared with FQHE trial functions of the Laughlin and the derived REM types. It is found that a variational extension of the REM offers a better description for all fractional fillings compared with that of the Laughlin functions (including total energies and overlaps), a fact that reflects the strong azimuthal localization of the edge electrons. In contrast with the multiring arrangements of electrons in circular semiconductor quantum dots, the graphene REMs exhibit in all instances a single (0,N) polygonal-ring molecular (crystalline) structure, with all the electrons localized on the edge. Disruptions in the zig-zag boundary condition along the circular edge act effectively as impurities that pin the electron molecule, yielding single-particle densities with broken rotational symmetry that portray directly the azimuthal localization of the edge electrons.
Effects of pulse shape on rf SQUID quantum gates
Zhou, Zhongyuan; Chu, Shih-I; Han, Siyuan
2003-06-01
). The flux bias 120 61 04858534849. where the potential energy is given by [2] (2) Here, is the mass of the fictitious “flux” particle, is the particle’s position, is the total magnetic flux enclosed in the SQUID loop, is the flux quantum; is the normalized... applications,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 39, p. 2503, 1968. [2] Z. Zhou, S. I. Chu, and S. Han, “Quantum computing with supercon- ducting devices: A three-level SQUID qubit,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 66, p. 054 527, 2002. [3] S. Han and R. Rouse, “SQUID qubits and quantum...
Interface Phonons and Polaron Effect in Quantum Wires
2010-01-01
The theory of large radius polaron in the quantum wire is developed. The interaction of charge particles with interface optical phonons as well as with optical phonons localized in the quantum wire is taken into account. The interface phonon contribution is shown to be dominant for narrow quantum wires. The wave functions and polaron binding energy are found. It is determined that polaron binding energy depends on the electron mass inside the wire and on the polarization properties of the barrier material. PMID:21124637
An analytical framework for field electron emission, incorporating quantum- confinement effects
Patterson. Alex A. (Alex Andrew)
2013-01-01
As field electron emitters shrink to nanoscale dimensions, the effects of quantum confinement of the electron supply and electric field enhancement at the emitter tip play a significant role in determining the emitted ...
Spin-Orbit Coupling and Quantum Spin Hall Effect for Neutral Atoms without Spin Flips
Miyake, Hirokazu
We propose a scheme which realizes spin-orbit coupling and the quantum spin Hall effect for neutral atoms in optical lattices without relying on near resonant laser light to couple different spin states. The spin-orbit ...
Quantum Size Effects in the Polarizability of Carbon Fullerenes G. K. Gueorguiev,1
the importance of quantum effects in the electronic response of nano- and mesoscopic systems. DOI: 10.1103/Phys underwent a major revolution in the mid-1980s with the experimental pro- duction of high quality cluster
On the Compatibility Between Quantum and Relativistic Effects in an Electromagnetic Bridge Theory
Massimo Auci
2010-03-18
The Dipolar Electromagnetic Source (DEMS) model, based on the Poynting Vector Conjecture, conduces in Bridge Theory to a derivation of the Lorentz transformation connecting pairs of events. The results prove a full compatibility between quantum and relativistic effects.
Thiol-Capped Germanium Nanocrystals: Preparation and Evidence for Quantum Size Effects
Osterloh, Frank
Thiol-Capped Germanium Nanocrystals: Preparation and Evidence for Quantum Size Effects Elayaraja-based strategies have been reported for colloidal preparation of Ge NCs. Among them, the reduction of germanium
Environmental Effects on Quantum Reversal of Mesoscopic Spins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giraud, R.; Chiorescu, I.; Wernsdorfer, W.; Barbara, B.; Jansen, A. G. M.; Caneschi, A.; Mueller, A.; Tkachuk, A. M.
2002-10-01
We describe what we learnt these last years on quantum reversal of large magnetic moments, using mainly conventional SQUID or micro-SQUID magnetometry. Beside the case of ferromagnetic nanoparticles with 103 - 105 atoms (e.g. Co, Ni, Fe, Ferrites), most fruitful systems appeared to be ensembles of magnetic molecules. These molecules, generally arranged in single crystals, carry relatively small magnetic moments (S = 10 in Mn12-ac and Fe8). They are sufficiently apart from each other not to be coupled by exchange interactions. The ground multiplet is split over an energy barrier of tens of kelvin (? 67 K for Mn12) by a strong local crystal field, leading to an Ising-type ground-state. Only weak inter-molecular dipolar interactions are present, as well as intra-molecular interactions, such as hyperfine interactions. Quantum properties of molecule spins are crucially dependent on their magnetic environment of electronic and nuclear spins (the spin bath). Energy fluctuations of the spin bath of about 0.1 K are important, especially at very low temperatures. In particular, they are much larger than the ground-state tunnel splitting of large-spin molecules in low applied fields, of about 10-8 K or even less (such a low value is due to the presence of large energy barriers). Theoretical predictions are experimentally checked for tunneling effects in the presence of non-equilibrated or equilibrated spin-energy distribution. It is also shown that the phonon-bath plays no role in low field, except when the temperature approaches the cross-over temperature to the thermal activation regime. In fact, spin-phonon transitions can play a role only if the tunnel splitting is not too small in comparison with kBT. This is the case both for large-spin molecules in a large magnetic field (e.g. Mn12-ac in a few tesla) and for low-spin molecules, as shown with the study of the molecule V15 (Hilbert space dimension as large as 215 and spin 1/2). We also give our latest results on the extension of these studies beyond molecular magnetism. Single-ion slow quantum relaxation is observed in rare-earth Ho3+ ions highly diluted in an insulating matrix LiYF4. This relaxation is due to the coherent tunneling of individual Ho3+ spins strongly coupled to their nuclear spins, leading to electro-nuclear entangled states at avoided level crossings. In fact tunneling of the spin system is induced by the hyperfine coupling. Together with the important role of the "spin bath", the roles of cross-spin and spin-phonon relaxations are also considered. All these results confirm the emergence of a new field of research: "mesoscopic magnetism".
Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry's phase in graphene.
Zhang, Yuanbo; Tan, Yan-Wen; Stormer, Horst L; Kim, Philip
2005-11-10
When electrons are confined in two-dimensional materials, quantum-mechanically enhanced transport phenomena such as the quantum Hall effect can be observed. Graphene, consisting of an isolated single atomic layer of graphite, is an ideal realization of such a two-dimensional system. However, its behaviour is expected to differ markedly from the well-studied case of quantum wells in conventional semiconductor interfaces. This difference arises from the unique electronic properties of graphene, which exhibits electron-hole degeneracy and vanishing carrier mass near the point of charge neutrality. Indeed, a distinctive half-integer quantum Hall effect has been predicted theoretically, as has the existence of a non-zero Berry's phase (a geometric quantum phase) of the electron wavefunction--a consequence of the exceptional topology of the graphene band structure. Recent advances in micromechanical extraction and fabrication techniques for graphite structures now permit such exotic two-dimensional electron systems to be probed experimentally. Here we report an experimental investigation of magneto-transport in a high-mobility single layer of graphene. Adjusting the chemical potential with the use of the electric field effect, we observe an unusual half-integer quantum Hall effect for both electron and hole carriers in graphene. The relevance of Berry's phase to these experiments is confirmed by magneto-oscillations. In addition to their purely scientific interest, these unusual quantum transport phenomena may lead to new applications in carbon-based electronic and magneto-electronic devices. PMID:16281031
Jian Fu; Xingkun Wu
2015-02-27
An effective simulation of quantum entanglement is presented using classical fields modulated with n pseudorandom phase sequences (PPSs) that constitute a n2^n-dimensional Hilbert space with a tensor product structure. Applications to classical fields are examplied by effective simulation of both Bell and GHZ states, and a correlation analysis was performed to characterize the simulation. Results that strictly comply with criteria of quantum entanglement were obtained and the approach was also shown to be applicable to a system consisting of n quantum particles.
Effective action approach to quantum phase transitions in bosonic lattices
Bradlyn, Barry J
2009-01-01
In this thesis, I develop a new, field-theoretic method for describing the quantum phase transition between Mott insulating and superfluid states observed in bosonic optical lattices. I begin by adding to the Hamiltonian ...
Effect of multimode entanglement on lossy optical quantum metrology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knott, P. A.; Proctor, T. J.; Nemoto, Kae; Dunningham, J. A.; Munro, W. J.
2014-09-01
In optical interferometry multimode entanglement is often assumed to be the driving force behind quantum enhanced measurements. Recent work has shown this assumption to be false: single-mode quantum states perform just as well as their multimode entangled counterparts. We go beyond this to show that when photon losses occur, an inevitability in any realistic system, multimode entanglement is actually detrimental to obtaining quantum enhanced measurements. We specifically apply this idea to a superposition of coherent states, demonstrating that these states show a robustness to loss that allows them to significantly outperform their competitors in realistic systems. A practically viable measurement scheme is then presented that allows measurements close to the theoretical bound, even with loss. These results promote an alternate way of approaching optical quantum metrology using single-mode states that we expect to have great implications for the future.
Switching-on quantum size effects in silicon nanocrystals.
Sun, Wei; Qian, Chenxi; Wang, Liwei; Wei, Muan; Mastronardi, Melanie L; Casillas, Gilberto; Breu, Josef; Ozin, Geoffrey A
2015-01-27
The size-dependence of the absolute luminescence quantum yield of size-separated silicon nanocrystals reveals a "volcano" behavior, which switches on around 5 nm, peaks at near 3.7-3.9 nm, and decreases thereafter. These three regions respectively define: i) the transition from bulk to strongly quantum confined emissive silicon, ii) increasing confinement enhancing radiative recombination, and iii) increasing contributions favoring non-radiative recombination. PMID:25472530
Strain effects on silicon donor exchange: Quantum computer architecture considerations
Belita Koiller; Xuedong Hu
2002-01-01
Proposed silicon-based quantum-computer architectures have attracted attention because of their promise for scalability and their potential for synergetically utilizing the available resources associated with the existing infrastructure of the powerful Si technology. Quantitative understanding of and precise physical control over donor (e.g., phosphorus) exchange are crucial elements in the physics underlying the proposed Si-based quantum-computer hardware. An important potential problem
Pseudogap Mediated by Quantum-Size Effects in Lead Islands
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Kedong; Zhang, Xieqiu; Loy, M. M. T.; Chiang, T.-C.; Xiao, Xudong
2009-02-01
Scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements of Pb islands on Si(111) at high energy resolution reveal a novel pseudogap, or a pseudopeak in special cases, around the Fermi level in addition to the usual quantum well states. These gap or peak features persist to temperatures as high as ˜80K and are uniquely related to the quantum well nanostructure of the Pb islands. A systematic analysis indicates that electron-phonon scattering is responsible for the observed electronic structure.
Edge excitations and the fractional quantum Hall effect in double quantum wells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Renn, S. R.
1992-02-01
The structure of the edge excitations of a quantum Hall droplet, confined in a double quantum well, is studied using a generalized version of the Wen-Stone chiral boson action. As the interwell tunneling, t, is increased, one finds a ``metal-insulator'' transition from a phase where the optic edge mode is ungapped to a phase where the optic mode is gapped. The large-t phase exhibits edge quasiexcitons whose charge is half that of a quasiparticle-quasihole bound state. The critical behavior of the conductances, the exciton gap, and the excitonic order parameter is discussed.
Quantum-mechanical description of Lense-Thirring effect for relativistic scalar particles
Alexander J. Silenko
2014-08-10
Exact expression for the Foldy-Wouthuysen Hamiltonian of scalar particles is used for a quantum-mechanical description of the relativistic Lense-Thirring effect. The exact evolution of the angular momentum operator in the Kerr field approximated by a spatially isotropic metric is found. The quantum-mechanical description of the full Lense-Thirring effect based on the Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector is given in the nonrelativistic and weak-field approximation. Relativistic quantum-mechanical equations for the velocity and acceleration operators are obtained. The equation for the acceleration defines the Coriolis-like and centrifugal-like accelerations and presents the quantum-mechanical description of the frame-dragging effect.
Investigation of complete and incomplete fusion in 20Ne + 51V system using recoil range measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, Sabir; Ahmad, Tauseeef; Kumar, Kamal; Rizvi, I. A.; Agarwal, Avinash; Ghugre, S. S.; Sinha, A. K.; Chaubey, A. K.
2015-01-01
Recoil range distributions of evaporation residues, populated in 20Ne + 51V reaction at Elab ? 145 MeV, have been studied to determine the degree of momentum transferred through the complete and incomplete fusion reactions. Evaporation residues (ERs) populated through the complete and incomplete fusion reactions have been identified on the basis of their recoil range in the Al catcher medium. Measured recoil range of evaporation residues have been compared with the theoretical value calculated using the code SRIM. Range integrated cross section of observed ERs have been compared with the value predicted by statistical model code PACE4.
The quasielastic 2H(e,e'p)n reaction at high recoil momenta
D. Crovelli; Konrad Aniol; Javier Gomez; John LeRose; Arunava Saha; Paul Ulmer; Vina Punjabi; Richard Lindgren; Charles Perdrisat; David Meekins; Joseph Mitchell; Mark Jones; Robert Michaels; Bogdan Wojtsekhowski; Hartmuth Arenhoevel; Michael Finn; Jens-Ole Hansen; Riad Suleiman; Kevin Fissum; Sergey Malov; Cornelis De Jager; Cornelis de Jager; Rikki Roche; Michael Kuss; Eugene Chudakov; Sabine Jeschonnek; Franck Sabatie; Luminita Todor; Meihua Liang; Olivier Gayou; Jian-Ping Chen
2001-11-01
The 2H(e,e'p)n cross section was measured in Hall A of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) in quasielastic kinematics (x=0.96) at a four-momentum transfer squared, Q{sup 2}=0.67 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The experiment was performed in fixed electron kinematics for recoil momenta from zero to 550 MeV/c. Though the measured cross section deviates by 1-2 sigma from a state-of-the-art calculation at low recoil momenta, it agrees at high recoil momenta where final state interactions (FSI) are predicted to be large.
Scintillation yield and time dependence from electronic and nuclear recoils in liquid neon
W. H. Lippincott; K. J. Coakley; D. Gastler; E. Kearns; D. N. McKinsey; J. A. Nikkel
2012-08-13
We have performed measurements of scintillation light in liquid neon, observing a signal yield in our detector as high as (3.5 $\\pm$ 0.4) photoelectrons/keV. We measure pulse shape discrimination efficiency between electronic and nuclear recoils in liquid neon from 50 and 300 keV nuclear recoil energy. We also measure the \\leff\\, parameter in liquid neon between 30 and 370 keV nuclear recoil energy, observing an average \\leff$=0.24$ above 50 keV. We observe a dependence of the scintillation time distribution and signal yield on the pressure and temperature of the liquid neon.
The quasielastic 2H(e,e'p)n reaction at high recoil momenta
P. E. Ulmer; K. A. Aniol; H. Arenhoevel; J. -P. Chen; E. Chudakov; D. Crovelli; J. M. Finn; K. G. Fissum; O. Gayou; J. Gomez; J. -O. Hansen; C. W. de Jager; S. Jeschonnek; M. K. Jones; M. Kuss; J. J. LeRose; M. Liang; R. A. Lindgren; S. Malov; D. Meekins; R. Michaels; J. Mitchell; C. F. Perdrisat; V. Punjabi; R. Roche; F. Sabatie; A. Saha; R. Suleiman; L. Todor; B. B. Wojtsekhowski
2001-11-19
The 2H(e,e'p)n cross section was measured in Hall A of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) in quasielastic kinematics (x=0.96) at a four-momentum transfer squared, Q^2=0.67 (GeV/c)^2. The experiment was performed in fixed electron kinematics for recoil momenta from zero to 550 MeV/c. Though the measured cross section deviates by 1-2 sigma from a state-of-the-art calculation at low recoil momenta, it agrees at high recoil momenta where final state interactions (FSI) are predicted to be large.
Nuclear recoil energy scale in liquid xenon with application to the direct detection of dark matter
Peter Sorensen; Carl Eric Dahl
2011-01-31
We show for the first time that the quenching of electronic excitation from nuclear recoils in liquid xenon is well-described by Lindhard theory, if the nuclear recoil energy is reconstructed using the combined (scintillation and ionization) energy scale proposed by Shutt {\\it et al.}. We argue for the adoption of this perspective in favor of the existing preference for reconstructing nuclear recoil energy solely from primary scintillation. We show that signal partitioning into scintillation and ionization is well-described by the Thomas-Imel box model. We discuss the implications for liquid xenon detectors aimed at the direct detection of dark matter.
Nuclear recoil energy scale in liquid xenon with application to the direct detection of dark matter
Sorensen, P; Dahl, C E
2011-02-14
We show for the first time that the quenching of electronic excitation from nuclear recoils in liquid xenon is well-described by Lindhard theory, if the nuclear recoil energy is reconstructed using the combined (scintillation and ionization) energy scale proposed by Shutt et al.. We argue for the adoption of this perspective in favor of the existing preference for reconstructing nuclear recoil energy solely from primary scintillation. We show that signal partitioning into scintillation and ionization is well-described by the Thomas-Imel box model. We discuss the implications for liquid xenon detectors aimed at the direct detection of dark matter.
Fractional quantum Hall effect and Wigner crystal of interacting composite fermions.
Liu, Yang; Kamburov, D; Hasdemir, S; Shayegan, M; Pfeiffer, L N; West, K W; Baldwin, K W
2014-12-12
In two-dimensional electron systems confined to GaAs quantum wells, as a function of either tilting the sample in a magnetic field or increasing density, we observe multiple spin-polarization transitions of the fractional quantum Hall states at filling factors ?=4/5 and 5/7. The number of observed transitions provides evidence that these are fractional quantum Hall states of interacting two-flux composite fermions. Moreover, the fact that the reentrant integer quantum Hall effect near ?=4/5 always develops following the transition to full spin polarization of the ?=4/5 fractional quantum Hall state links the reentrant phase to a pinned ferromagnetic Wigner crystal of composite fermions. PMID:25541794