QED theory of the nuclear recoil effect in atoms
Shabaev, V M
1998-01-01
The quantum electrodynamic theory of the nuclear recoil effect in atoms to all orders in \\alpha Z is formulated. The nuclear recoil corrections for atoms with one and two electrons over closed shells are considered in detail. The problem of the composite nuclear structure in the theory of the nuclear recoil effect is discussed.
Recoil Effects in Microwave Ramsey Spectroscopy
Wolf, P; Wolf, Peter; Borde, Christian J.
2004-01-01
We present a theory of recoil effects in two zone Ramsey spectroscopy, particularly adapted to microwave frequency standards using laser cooled atoms. We describe the atoms by a statistical distribution of Gaussian wave packets which enables us to derive and quantify effects that are related to the coherence properties of the atomic source and that have not been considered previously. We show that, depending on the experimental conditions, the expected recoil frequency shift can be partially cancelled by these effects which can be significant at microwave wavelengths whilst negligible at optical ones. We derive analytical expressions for the observed interference signal in the weak field approximation, and numerical results for realistic caesium fountain parameters. In the near future Cs and Rb fountain clocks are expected to reach uncertainties which are of the same order of magnitude (10^{-16}) as first estimates of the recoil shift at microwave frequencies. We show, however, that the partial cancellation p...
Recoil Effects in Microwave Ramsey Spectroscopy
Peter Wolf; Christian J. Borde
2004-03-27
We present a theory of recoil effects in two zone Ramsey spectroscopy, particularly adapted to microwave frequency standards using laser cooled atoms. We describe the atoms by a statistical distribution of Gaussian wave packets which enables us to derive and quantify effects that are related to the coherence properties of the atomic source and that have not been considered previously. We show that, depending on the experimental conditions, the expected recoil frequency shift can be partially cancelled by these effects which can be significant at microwave wavelengths whilst negligible at optical ones. We derive analytical expressions for the observed interference signal in the weak field approximation, and numerical results for realistic caesium fountain parameters. In the near future Cs and Rb fountain clocks are expected to reach uncertainties which are of the same order of magnitude (10^{-16}) as first estimates of the recoil shift at microwave frequencies. We show, however, that the partial cancellation predicted by the complete theory presented here leads to frequency shifts which are up to an order of magnitude smaller. Nonetheless observation of the microwave recoil shift should be possible under particular experimental conditions (increased microwave power, variation of atomic temperature and launching height etc.). We hope that the present paper can provide some guidance for such experiments that would test the underlying theory and its assumptions, which in turn is essential for the next generation of microwave frequency standards.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gattone, A. O.; Hwang, W.-Y. P.
1985-06-01
In this paper, we invoke the formalism used previously by Krajcik and Foldy to obtain the relativistic center-of-mass coordinates for a system of pointlike Dirac particles. This procedure allows us to investigate a recent dispute regarding the size, as well as the proper formulation, of recoil corrections to baryon magnetic moments in a bag model. Our results suggest that the overall center-of-mass-system motion, when factored out properly to yield the momentum-conservation ? functions, does not result in the additional and sizable recoil corrections as addressed specifically by Betz and Goldflam as well as by Guichon. It appears that the major recoil contribution to the baryon magnetic moment comes from the spinor rotation of the constituent quarks. Although the dispute in question is related to effects of first order in q/M with q the magnitude of the momentum transfer and M the baryon mass and so can be settled with confidence, it appears that terms of order (q/M)2 or beyond are highly model-dependent.
Recoil effects in valence band photoemission of organic solids.
Shang, Ming-Hui; Fujikawa, Takashi; Ueno, Nobuo
2013-04-01
Recoil effects in valence band X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are studied for both abb-trifluorostyrene and styrene molecular crystal systems. The gradual changes of XPS spectra excited by several photon energies are theoretically investigated within the tight-binding approximation and harmonic approximation of lattice vibrations and have been explained in terms of not only atomic mass but also atomic orbital (AO) population. The recoil effect of valence band photoemission strongly depends on the population and partial photoionization cross section (PICS) of AOs as well as the masses of composite atoms. In abb-trifluorostyrene F 2p dominant bands show the recoil shift close to free F atom recoil shift, and C 2s dominant bands show that to free C atom recoil shift, whereas the mixed bands of C and F give rise to the peak asymmetries due to their different recoil shifts. For these systems, hydrogen contribution is negligibly small which is in contrast to our previous results for the crystals composed of small organic molecules. We also discuss some potential uses of the recoil shifts for these systems. PMID:23441983
Nuclear recoil effects in antiprotonic and muonic atoms
Veitia, Andrzej; Pachucki, Krzysztof [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Warsaw University, Hoz-dota 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland)
2004-04-01
Relativistic nuclear recoil effects are studied for antiprotonic and muonic atoms. The generalization of the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian including vacuum polarization is presented. Previous treatments are corrected, and the result for the 2S{sub 12}-2P{sub 12} splitting in muonic hydrogen is updated.
Remote recoil: a new wave mean interaction effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bühler, Oliver; McIntyre, Michael E.
2003-10-01
We present a theoretical study of a fundamentally new wave mean or wave vortex interaction effect able to force persistent, cumulative change in mean flows in the absence of wave breaking or other kinds of wave dissipation. It is associated with the refraction of non-dissipating waves by inhomogeneous mean (vortical) flows. The effect is studied in detail in the simplest relevant model, the two-dimensional compressible flow equations with a generic polytropic equation of state. This includes the usual shallow-water equations as a special case. The refraction of a narrow, slowly varying wavetrain of small-amplitude gravity or sound waves obliquely incident on a single weak (low Froude or Mach number) vortex is studied in detail. It is shown that, concomitant with the changes in the waves' pseudomomentum due to the refraction, there is an equal and opposite recoil force that is felt, in effect, by the vortex core. This effective force is called a ‘remote recoil’ to stress that there is no need for the vortex core and wavetrain to overlap in physical space. There is an accompanying ‘far-field recoil’ that is still more remote, as in classical vortex-impulse problems. The remote-recoil effects are studied perturbatively using the wave amplitude and vortex weakness as small parameters. The nature of the remote recoil is demonstrated in various set-ups with wavetrains of finite or infinite length. The effective recoil force {bm R}_V on the vortex core is given by an expression resembling the classical Magnus force felt by moving cylinders with circulation. In the case of wavetrains of infinite length, an explicit formula for the scattering angle theta_* of waves passing a vortex at a distance is derived correct to second order in Froude or Mach number. To this order {bm R}_V {~} theta_*. The formula is cross-checked against numerical integrations of the ray-tracing equations. This work is part of an ongoing study of internal-gravity-wave dynamics in the atmosphere and may be important for the development of future gravity-wave parametrization schemes in numerical models of the global atmospheric circulation. At present, all such schemes neglect remote-recoil effects caused by horizontally inhomogeneous mean flows. Taking these effects into account should make the parametrization schemes significantly more accurate.
Direct Measurement of Recoil Effects on Ar-Ar Standards
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hall, C. M.
2011-12-01
Advances in the precision possible with the Ar-Ar method using new techniques and equipment have led to considerable effort to improve the accuracy of the calibration of interlaboratory standards. However, ultimately the accuracy of the method relies on the measurement of 40Ar*/39ArK ratios on primary standards that have been calibrated with the K-Ar method and, in turn, on secondary standards that are calibrated against primary standards. It is usually assumed that an Ar-Ar total gas age is equivalent to a K-Ar age, but this assumes that there is zero loss of Ar due to recoil. Instead, traditional Ar-Ar total gas ages are in fact Ar retention ages [1] and not, strictly speaking, comparable to K-Ar ages. There have been efforts to estimate the importance of this effect on standards along with prescriptions for minimizing recoil effects [2,3], but these studies have relied on indirect evidence for 39Ar recoil. We report direct measurements of 39Ar recoil for a set of primary and secondary standards using the vacuum encapsulation techniques of [1] and show that significant adjustments to ages assigned to some standards may be needed. The fraction f of 39Ar lost due to recoil for primary standards MMhb-1 hornblende and GA-1550 biotite are 0.00367 and 0.00314 respectively. It is possible to modify the assumed K-Ar ages of these standards so that when using their measured Ar retention 40Ar*/39ArK ratios, one obtains a correct K-Ar age for an unknown, assuming that the unknown sample has zero loss of 39Ar due to recoil. Assuming a primary K-Ar age for MMhb-1 of 520.4 Ma, the modified age would be 522.1 Ma and assuming a primary K-Ar age for GA-1550 of 98.79 Ma [4] yields a modified effective age of 99.09 Ma. Measured f values for secondary standards FCT-3 biotite, FCT-2 sanidine and TCR-2 sanidine are 0.00932, 0.00182 and 0.00039 respectively. Using an R value for FCT-3 biotite relative to MMhb-1 [5], the K-Ar age for this standard would be 27.83 Ma and using R values for FCT and TC sanidines [4] against GA-1550, their K-Ar ages would be 28.06 Ma and 28.41 Ma respectively. For retrospective recalculation purposes, the effective Ar-Ar age of these samples that should yield correct K-Ar ages for unknowns with zero recoil loss would be 28.09 Ma, 28.11 Ma and 28.42 Ma for FCT-3 biotite, FCT-2 sanidine and TCR-2 sanidine respectively. The measured f for FCT-3 appears to explain the R value of it relative to FCT sanidine of 1.0086 found by [8]. From the low T portion of the Ar release spectra of the biotite and amphibole standards, it is clear that the dominant recoil artifact affecting Ar release is the re-implantation mechanism seen in clay samples [1,6,7] and not the loss of 39Ar at the surface of the grain. The geometry of neighboring grains during irradiation and internal defects may predominate in controlling recoil loss. [1] Dong et al., 1995, Science, 267, 355-359. [2] Paine et al., 2006, Geochim.Cosmochim. Acta, 70, 1507-1517. [3] Jourdan et al., 2007, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 71, 2791-2808 [4] Renne et al., 1998, Chem. Geol., 145 117-152. [5] Hall & Farrell, 1995, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 133, 327-338. [6] Hall et al., 1997, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 148, 287-298. [7] Hall et al., 2000, Econ. Geol., 95, 1739-1752. [8] Di Vincenzo & Roman Skála, 2009, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 73, 493-513.
Bursts of Radiation and Recoil Effects in Electromagnetism and Gravitation
C. Barrabès; P. A. Hogan
2000-12-06
The Maxwell field of a charge e which experiences an impulsive acceleration or deceleration is constructed explicitly by subdividing Minkowskian space-time into two halves bounded by a future null-cone and then glueing the halves back together with appropriate matching conditions. The resulting retarded radiation can be viewed as instantaneous electromagnetic bremsstrahlung. If we similarly consider a spherically symmetric, moving gravitating mass, to experience an impulsive deceleration, as viewed by a distant observer, then this is accompanied by the emission of a light-like shell whose total energy measured by this observer is the same as the kinetic energy of the source before it stops. This phenomenon is a recoil effect which may be thought of as a limiting case of a Kinnersley rocket.
Radiation Recoil Effects on the Dynamical Evolution of Asteroids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cotto-Figueroa, Desiree
The Yarkovsky effect is a radiation recoil force that results in a semimajor axis drift in the orbit that can cause Main Belt asteroids to be delivered to powerful resonances from which they could be transported to Earth-crossing orbits. This force depends on the spin state of the object, which is modified by the YORP effect, a variation of the Yarkovsky effect that results in a torque that changes the spin rate and the obliquity. Extensive analyses of the basic behavior of the YORP effect have been previously conducted in the context of the classical spin state evolution of rigid bodies (YORP cycle). However, the YORP effect has an extreme sensitivity to the topography of the asteroids and a minor change in the shape of an aggregate asteroid can stochastically change the YORP torques. Here we present the results of the first simulations that self-consistently model the YORP effect on the spin states of dynamically evolving aggregates. For these simulations we have developed several algorithms and combined them with two codes, TACO and pkdgrav. TACO is a thermophysical asteroid code that models the surface of an asteroid using a triangular facet representation and which can compute the YORP torques. The code pkdgrav is a cosmological N-body tree code modified to simulate the dynamical evolution of asteroids represented as aggregates of spheres using gravity and collisions. The continuous changes in the shape of an aggregate result in a different evolution of the YORP torques and therefore aggregates do not evolve through the YORP cycle as a rigid body would. Instead of having a spin evolution ruled by long periods of rotational acceleration and deceleration as predicted by the classical YORP cycle, the YORP effect is self-limiting and stochastic on aggregate asteroids. We provide a statistical description of the spin state evolution which lays out the foundation for new simulations of a coupled Yarkovsky/YORP evolution. Both self-limiting YORP and to a lesser degree a stochastic YORP provide a viable means to explain why the Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) population seems to remember their initial spin states at the time of delivery from the Main Belt. The YORP effect drives the obliquity of most objects that follow the YORP cycle to the values of 0, 90 and 180 degrees. NEAs could complete a YORP cycle on timescales much shorter than their typical dynamical lifetime. Therefore, one should expect the obliquity distribution of the population of NEAs to be concentrated about those values if they follow the YORP cycle. But to obtain a direct measurement of the obliquity distribution will require radar observations or multiple lightcurves at different illumination and orbital phases for each NEA. Instead of obtaining a direct measurement, the obliquity distribution can be inferred if the distribution of semimajor axis drift rates due to the Yarkovsky effect can be measured. From the linear heat diffusion theory for a spherical body, the semimajor axis drift rate varies linearly with cosine obliquity. Previous studies have attempted to infer the obliquity distribution taking advantage of this simple dependence. However, those results should be considered only approximate because of the neglect of the dependence of the semimajor axis drift rate on density, thermal properties, and shape. Here we seek to obtain the obliquity distribution of NEAs using a better approach based on Bayesian inference that takes into account our prior knowledge of the distributions of the physical parameters on which the semimajor axis drift rates depend. A preliminary obliquity distribution of the NEA population has been estimated to be a V-shaped model that lacks a concentration of objects at an obliquity of 90 degrees and which suggests that the most probable value of the fraction of retrograde rotators is 70.0%. Once the obliquity distribution is obtained, it can in turn be used to test YORP predictions and constrain YORP evolution.
Is CHF triggered by the vapor recoil effect?
Nikolayev, Vadim S; Chatain, D
2007-01-01
This paper deals with the triggering mechanism of the boiling crisis, a transition from nucleate to film boiling. We observe the boiling crisis in pool saturated boiling experimentally at nearly critical pressure to take advantage of the slowness of the bubble growth and of the smallness of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) that defines the transition point. Such experiments require the reduced gravity conditions. Close to the CHF, the slow growth of the individual dry spots and their subsequent fusion on the transparent heater are observed through the latter. As discussed in the paper, these observations are consistent with numerical results obtained with the vapor recoil model of the boiling crisis.
The effects of large angle plural scattering on heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnston, P. N.; Franich, R. D.; Bubb, I. F.; El Bouanani, M.; Cohen, D. D.; Dytlewski, N.; Siegele, R.
2000-03-01
Heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis (HIERDA) is becoming widely used to study a range of problems in materials science, however there is no standard methodology for the analysis of HIERDA spectra. Major impediments are the effects of multiple and plural scattering which are very significant, even for quite thin (˜100 nm) layers of very heavy elements. To examine the effects of multiple scattering a fast FORTRAN version of TRIM has been adapted to simulate the spectrum of backscattered and recoiled ions reaching the detector. The results of the simulations are compared with experimental measurements on well characterised samples including thin Au layers and pure elements beyond the single scattering critical angle performed using ToF-E HIERDA at Lucas Heights and show good agreement except in the long tails.
Black hole as a point radiator and recoil effect on the brane world.
Frolov, Valeri; Stojkovi?, Dejan
2002-10-01
A small black hole attached to a brane in a higher-dimensional space emitting quanta into the bulk may leave the brane as a result of a recoil. We construct a field theory model in which such a black hole is described as a massive scalar particle with internal degrees of freedom. In this model, the probability of transition between the different internal levels is identical to the probability of thermal emission calculated for the Schwarzschild black hole. The discussed recoil effect implies that the thermal emission of the black holes, which might be created by interaction of high energy particles in colliders, could be terminated and the energy nonconservation can be observed in the brane experiments. PMID:12365979
Recoil effects and CP violation in neutron scattering
Gudkov, V.P. )
1992-07-01
The problem of the imitation of {ital CP} violation in neutron scattering is discussed. The thermal motion of nuclei cannot contribute to symmetry-violating effects. The influence of the nuclear depolarization due to neutron scattering is estimated.
Quantum effects in electron beam pumped GaAs
Yahia, M. E. [Faculty of Engineering, The British University in Egypt (BUE), El-Shorouk City, Cairo (Egypt) [Faculty of Engineering, The British University in Egypt (BUE), El-Shorouk City, Cairo (Egypt); National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences (NILES), Cairo University (Egypt); Azzouz, I. M. [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences (NILES), Cairo University (Egypt)] [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences (NILES), Cairo University (Egypt); Moslem, W. M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Port Said University, Port Said (Egypt)] [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Port Said University, Port Said (Egypt)
2013-08-19
Propagation of waves in nano-sized GaAs semiconductor induced by electron beam are investigated. A dispersion relation is derived by using quantum hydrodynamics equations including the electrons and holes quantum recoil effects, exchange-correlation potentials, and degenerate pressures. It is found that the propagating modes are instable and strongly depend on the electron beam parameters, as well as the quantum recoil effects and degenerate pressures. The instability region shrinks with the increase of the semiconductor number density. The instability arises because of the energetic electron beam produces electron-hole pairs, which do not keep in phase with the electrostatic potential arising from the pair plasma.
Gravitational recoil: effects on massive black hole occupation fraction over cosmic time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volonteri, Marta; Gültekin, Kayhan; Dotti, Massimo
2010-06-01
We assess the influence of massive black hole (MBH) ejections from galaxy centres due to gravitational radiation recoil, along the cosmic merger history of the MBH population. We discuss the `danger' of recoil for MBHs as a function of different MBH spin-orbit configurations and of the host halo cosmic bias, and on how that reflects on the occupation fraction of MBHs. We assess ejection probabilities for mergers occurring in a gas-poor environment, in which the MBH binary coalescence is driven by stellar dynamical processes and the spin-orbit configuration is expected to be isotropically distributed. We contrast this case with the `aligned' case. The latter is the more realistic situation for gas-rich, i.e. `wet', mergers, which are expected for high-redshift galaxies. We find that if all haloes at z > 5-7 host an MBH, the probability of the Milky Way (or similar size galaxy) to host an MBH today is less than 50 per cent, unless MBHs form continuously in galaxies. The occupation fraction of MBHs, intimately related to halo bias and MBH formation efficiency, plays a crucial role in increasing the retention fraction. Small haloes, with shallow potential wells and low escape velocities, have a high ejection probability, but the MBH merger rate is very low along their galaxy formation merger hierarchy: MBH formation processes are likely inefficient in such shallow potential wells. Recoils can decrease the overall frequency of MBHs in small galaxies to ~60 per cent, while they have little effect on the frequency of MBHs in large galaxies (at most a 20 per cent effect).
Quantum radiation reaction effects in multiphoton Compton scattering
A. Di Piazza; K. Z. Hatsagortsyan; C. H. Keitel
2010-11-24
Radiation reaction effects in the interaction of an electron and a strong laser field are investigated in the realm of quantum electrodynamics. We identify quantum radiation reaction with the multiple photon recoils experienced by the laser-driven electron due to consecutive incoherent photon emissions. After determining a quantum radiation dominated regime, we demonstrate how in this regime quantum signatures of radiation reaction strongly affect multiphoton Compton scattering spectra and that they could be measurable in principle with presently available laser technology.
Piszczatowski, Konrad; Puchalski, Mariusz; Komasa, Jacek; Jeziorski, Bogumi?; Szalewicz, Krzysztof
2015-05-01
Future metrology standards will be partly based on physical quantities computed from first principles rather than measured. In particular, a new pressure standard can be established if the dynamic polarizability of helium can be determined from theory with an uncertainty smaller than 0.2 ppm. We present calculations of the frequency-dependent part of this quantity including relativistic effects with full account of leading nuclear recoil terms and using highly optimized explicitly correlated basis sets. A particular emphasis is put on uncertainty estimates. At the He-Ne laser wavelength of 632.9908 nm, the computed polarizability value of 1.39181141 a.u. has uncertainty of 0.1 ppm that is 2 orders of magnitude smaller than those of the most accurate polarizability measurements. We also obtained an accurate expansion of the helium refractive index in powers of density. PMID:25978230
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piszczatowski, Konrad; Puchalski, Mariusz; Komasa, Jacek; Jeziorski, Bogumi?; Szalewicz, Krzysztof
2015-05-01
Future metrology standards will be partly based on physical quantities computed from first principles rather than measured. In particular, a new pressure standard can be established if the dynamic polarizability of helium can be determined from theory with an uncertainty smaller than 0.2 ppm. We present calculations of the frequency-dependent part of this quantity including relativistic effects with full account of leading nuclear recoil terms and using highly optimized explicitly correlated basis sets. A particular emphasis is put on uncertainty estimates. At the He-Ne laser wavelength of 632.9908 nm, the computed polarizability value of 1.39181141 a.u. has uncertainty of 0.1 ppm that is 2 orders of magnitude smaller than those of the most accurate polarizability measurements. We also obtained an accurate expansion of the helium refractive index in powers of density.
Introduction Quantum Hall Effect
Budker, Dmitry
Introduction Quantum Hall Effect Topological Insulators Application Topological Insulators Yize Jin;Introduction Quantum Hall Effect Topological Insulators Application Outline 1 Introduction 2 Quantum Hall Effect 3 Topological Insulators Quantum Spin Hall Effect Band Structure The First Found Topological
Jeans instability with exchange effects in quantum dusty magnetoplasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jamil, M.; Rasheed, A.; Rozina, Ch.; Jung, Y.-D.; Salimullah, M.
2015-08-01
Jeans instability is examined in magnetized quantum dusty plasmas using the quantum hydrodynamic model. The quantum effects are considered via exchange-correlation potential, recoil effect, and Fermi degenerate pressure, in addition to thermal effects of plasma species. It is found that the electron exchange and correlation potential have significant effects over the threshold value of wave vector and Jeans instability. The presence of electron exchange and correlation effect shortens the time of dust sound that comparatively stabilizes the self gravitational collapse. The results at quantum scale are helpful in understanding the collapse of the self-gravitating dusty plasma systems.
Temperature Dependence and Recoil-free Fraction Effects in Olivines Across the Mg-Fe Solid Solution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sklute, E. C.; Rothstein, Y.; Dyar, M. D.; Schaefer, M. W.; Menzies, O. N.; Bland, P. A.; Berry, F. J.
2005-01-01
Olivine and pyroxene are the major ferromagnesian minerals in most meteorite types and in mafic igneous rocks that are dominant at the surface of the Earth. It is probable that they are the major mineralogical components at the surface of any planetary body that has undergone differentiation processes. In situ mineralogical studies of the rocks and soils on Mars suggest that olivine is a widespread mineral on that planet s surface (particularly at the Gusev site) and that it has been relatively unaffected by alteration. Thus an understanding of the characteristics of Mossbauer spectra of olivine is of great importance in interpreting MER results. However, variable temperature Mossbauer spectra of olivine, which are needed to quantify recoil-free fraction effects and to understand the temperature dependence of olivine spectra, are lacking in the literature. Thus, we present here a study of the temperature dependence and recoil-free fraction of a series of synthetic olivines.
Molecular modeling of the effects of 40Ar recoil in illite particles on their K-Ar isotope dating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szczerba, Marek; Derkowski, Arkadiusz; Kalinichev, Andrey G.; ?rodo?, Jan
2015-06-01
The radioactive decay of 40K to 40Ar is the basis of isotope age determination of micaceous clay minerals formed during diagenesis. The difference in K-Ar ages between fine and coarse grained illite particles has been interpreted using detrital-authigenic components system, its crystallization history or post-crystallization diffusion. Yet another mechanism should also be considered: natural 40Ar recoil. Whether this recoil mechanism can result in a significant enough loss of 40Ar to provide observable decrease of K-Ar age of the finest illite crystallites at diagenetic temperatures - is the primary objective of this study which is based on molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations. All the simulations were performed for the same kinetic energy (initial velocity) of the 40Ar atom, but for varying recoil angles that cover the entire range of their possible values. The results show that 40Ar recoil can lead to various deformations of the illite structure, often accompanied by the displacement of OH groups or breaking of the Si-O bonds. Depending on the recoil angle, there are four possible final positions of the 40Ar atom with respect to the 2:1 layer at the end of the simulation: it can remain in the interlayer space or end up in the closest tetrahedral, octahedral or the opposite tetrahedral sheet. No simulation angles were found for which the 40Ar atom after recoil passes completely through the 2:1 layer. The energy barrier for 40Ar passing through the hexagonal cavity from the tetrahedral sheet into the interlayer was calculated to be 17 kcal/mol. This reaction is strongly exothermic, therefore there is almost no possibility for 40Ar to remain in the tetrahedral sheet of the 2:1 layer over geological time periods. It will either leave the crystal, if close enough to the edge, or return to the interlayer space. On the other hand, if 40Ar ends up in the octahedral sheet after recoil, a substantially higher energy barrier of 55 kcal/mol prevents it from leaving the TOT layer over geological time. Based on the results of MD simulations, the estimates of the potential effect of 40Ar recoil on the K-Ar dating of illite show that some of 40Ar is lost and the loss is substantially dependent on the crystallite dimensions. The 40Ar loss can vary from 10% for the finest crystallites (two 2:1 layers thickness and <0.02 ?m in diameter) to close to zero for the thickest and largest (in the ab plane) ones. Because the decrease of the K-Ar estimated age is approximately proportional to the 40Ar loss, the finer crystallites show lower apparent age than the coarser ones, although the age of crystallization is assumed equal for all the crystallites. From the model it is also clear that the lack of K removal from illite fringes (potentially Ar-free) strongly increases the apparent age differences among crystallites of different size.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Joseph S. Krajcik
2009-10-14
Quantum theory is an extremely advanced and complicated model. However, some aspects are accessible and useful for building an appreciation and understanding of the novel properties exhibited by matter at the nanoscale. In this chapter, the authors presen
Recoil effects of a motional scatterer on single-photon scattering in one dimension
Li, Qiong; Xu, D. Z.; Cai, C. Y.; Sun, C. P.
2013-01-01
The scattering of a single photon with sufficiently high energy can cause a recoil of a motional scatterer. We study its backaction on the photon's coherent transport in one dimension by modeling the motional scatterer as a two-level system, which is trapped in a harmonic potential. While the reflection spectrum is of a single peak in the Lamb-Dicke limit, multi-peaks due to phonon excitations can be observed in the reflection spectrum as the trap becomes looser or the mass of the two-level system becomes smaller. PMID:24220217
Bosco, C; Rusko, H
1983-11-01
The enhancement of performance in stretch-shortening exercises has been attributed to the recoil of elastic energy stored during the stretching phase. If the time between stretching and shortening (coupling time) is too long the stored elastic energy can be wasted. In the present study, coupling time was increased by asking ten male subjects to run on a treadmill at different speeds (2.2-5.2 m X s-1) using special soft shoes in addition to normal shoes. The results indicated that running with soft shoes required greater energy consumption than running with normal shoes except at slow speed (2.2 m X s-1). When the running speed was increased the extra energy consumed using soft shoes was parallelly enhanced (0.4 J X kg-1/step at 5.2 m X s-1). It was suggested that the effect of coupling time as limiting factor for recoil of elastic energy was relevant in fast twitch (FT) fibers, which were progressively recruited when the running speed was increased. This is consistent to the fact that cross-bridge life time in FT fibers is very short, and therefore more sensitive to coupling time. At slow running speed (2.2 m X s-1) only slow twitch (ST) fibers were recruited and the enhancement of coupling time was not long enough to provocate detachment of cross-bridges of ST fibers, which possess a long cross-bridge life time. It was concluded that the different recruitment of ST and FT fibers influenced the pattern of recoil of elastic energy which was dependent on the running speed. PMID:6659989
L. P. Grishchuk
1993-02-26
Contents: Introduction. The Present State of the Universe. What Can We Expect From a Complete Cosmological Theory? An Overview of Quantum Effects in Cosmology. Parametric (Superadiabatic) Amplification of Classical Waves. Graviton Creation in the Inflationary Universe. Quantum States of a Harmonic Oscillator. Squeezed Quantum States of Relic Gravitons and Primordial Density Perturbations. Quantum Cosmology, Minisuperspace Models and Inflation. From the Space of Classical Solutions to the Space of Wave Functions. On the Probability of Quantum Tunneling From "Nothing". Duration of Inflation
Final state effects in quantum fluids
Silver, R.N.
1989-01-01
The extraction of momentum distributions from high energy scattering experiment depends on the validity of the impulse approximation (IA) which has been extensively discussed in the workshop overview. The IA assumes that in the scattering process the kinetic energy imparted to a recoiling particle is large compared to the potential energy due to neighboring particles. While this may be true for x-ray Compton scattering from electronic systems, it is less true for quasielastic electron-nucleus scattering, and it is invalid for deep inelastic neutron scattering (DINS) from quantum fluids and solids such as helium. In the latter case, the interatomic potential has a steeply repulsive core which is never negligible compared to the kinetic energies which can be imparted in feasible neutron scattering experiments. The corrections to the IA due to interactions of the recoiling atom with neighboring atoms are termed ''final state effects'' (FSE). This paper presents the theory of FSE for the case of deep inelastic neutron scattering from /sup 4/He quantum fluids. The lessons should also be applicable to momentum distribution experiments in many other systems. 28 refs., 12 figs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrosky, T.; Tasaki, S.; Prigogine, I.
1990-12-01
Misra and Sudarshan pointed out, based on the quantum measurement theory, that repeated measurements lead to a slowing down of the transition, which they called the quantum Zeno effect. Recently, Itano, Heinzen, Bollinger and Wineland have reported that they succeeded in observing that effect. We show that the results of Itano et al. can be recovered through conventional quantum mechanics and do not involve a repeated reduction of the wave function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrosky, T.; Tasaki, S.; Prigogine, I.
1991-01-01
In 1977, Misra and Sudarshan showed, based on the quantum measurement theory, that an unstable particle will never be found to decay when it is continuously observed. They called it the quantum Zeno effect (or paradox). More generally the quantum Zeno effect is associated to the inhibition of transitions by frequent measurements. This possibility has attracted much interest over the last years. Recently, Itano, Heinzen, Bollinger and Wineland have reported that they succeeded in observing the quantum Zeno effect. This would indeed be an important step towards the understanding of the role of the observer in quantum mechanics. However, in the present paper, we will show that their results can be recovered through conventional quantum mechanics and do not involve a repeated reduction (or collapse) of the wave function.
Campanelli, Manuela; Lousto, Carlos O; Zlochower, Yosef; Merritt, David
2007-06-01
Recent calculations of gravitational radiation recoil generated during black-hole binary mergers have reopened the possibility that a merged binary can be ejected even from the nucleus of a massive host galaxy. Here we report the first systematic study of gravitational recoil of equal-mass binaries with equal, but counteraligned, spins parallel to the orbital plane. Such an orientation of the spins is expected to maximize the recoil. We find that recoil velocity (which is perpendicular to the orbital plane) varies sinusoidally with the angle that the initial spin directions make with the initial linear momenta of each hole and scales up to a maximum of approximately 4000 km s-1 for maximally rotating holes. Our results show that the amplitude of the recoil velocity can depend sensitively on spin orientations of the black holes prior to merger. PMID:17677894
Bernevig, B.Andrei; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2010-01-15
The quantum Hall liquid is a novel state of matter with profound emergent properties such as fractional charge and statistics. Existence of the quantum Hall effect requires breaking of the time reversal symmetry caused by an external magnetic field. In this work, we predict a quantized spin Hall effect in the absence of any magnetic field, where the intrinsic spin Hall conductance is quantized in units of 2 e/4{pi}. The degenerate quantum Landau levels are created by the spin-orbit coupling in conventional semiconductors in the presence of a strain gradient. This new state of matter has many profound correlated properties described by a topological field theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohseni, Masoud; Omar, Yasser; Engel, Gregory S.; Plenio, Martin B.
2014-08-01
List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Quantum biology: introduction Graham R. Fleming and Gregory D. Scholes; 2. Open quantum system approaches to biological systems Alireza Shabani, Masoud Mohseni, Seogjoo Jang, Akihito Ishizaki, Martin Plenio, Patrick Rebentrost, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Jianshu Cao, Seth Lloyd and Robert Silbey; 3. Generalized Förster resonance energy transfer Seogjoo Jang, Hoda Hossein-Nejad and Gregory D. Scholes; 4. Multidimensional electronic spectroscopy Tomáš Man?al; Part II. Quantum Effects in Bacterial Photosynthetic Energy Transfer: 5. Structure, function, and quantum dynamics of pigment protein complexes Ioan Kosztin and Klaus Schulten; 6. Direct observation of quantum coherence Gregory S. Engel; 7. Environment-assisted quantum transport Masoud Mohseni, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Patrick Rebentrost, Alireza Shabani, Seth Lloyd, Susana F. Huelga and Martin B. Plenio; Part III. Quantum Effects in Higher Organisms and Applications: 8. Excitation energy transfer in higher plants Elisabet Romero, Vladimir I. Novoderezhkin and Rienk van Grondelle; 9. Electron transfer in proteins Spiros S. Skourtis; 10. A chemical compass for bird navigation Ilia A. Solov'yov, Thorsten Ritz, Klaus Schulten and Peter J. Hore; 11. Quantum biology of retinal Klaus Schulten and Shigehiko Hayashi; 12. Quantum vibrational effects on sense of smell A. M. Stoneham, L. Turin, J. C. Brookes and A. P. Horsfield; 13. A perspective on possible manifestations of entanglement in biological systems Hans J. Briegel and Sandu Popescu; 14. Design and applications of bio-inspired quantum materials Mohan Sarovar, Dörthe M. Eisele and K. Birgitta Whaley; 15. Coherent excitons in carbon nanotubes Leonas Valkunas and Darius Abramavicius; Glossary; References; Index.
The recoil shadow anisotropy method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gueorguieva, E.; Kaci, M.; Schück, C.; Minkova, A.; Vieu, Ch.; Correia, J. J.; Dionisio, J. S.
2001-12-01
The Recoil Shadow Anisotropy Method (RSAM) is a new experimental method for identifying isomers in the nanosecond range and measuring their half-lives. This method can be applied to experiments performed with thin targets and ?-ray multidetector arrays including collimated composite detectors and does not require any additional device. It uses the shadow effect imposed by the collimators on the different elements of composite detectors for ?-rays emitted by recoiling nuclei. RSAM was developed for the clover detectors of the Eurogam-2 array and tested using several data sets obtained with this array. A number of known isomers with half-lives lying between 0.9 and 18 ns in 194Hg, 191Au, 148Gd, 149Gd, 193Pb and 194Pb have been successfully re-measured, proving the ability of RSAM for lifetime measurements.
Effectively calculable quantum mechanics
Arkady Bolotin
2015-08-16
According to mathematical constructivism, a mathematical object can exist only if there is a way to compute (or "construct") it; so, what is non-computable is non-constructive. In the example of the quantum model, whose Fock states are associated with Fibonacci numbers, this paper shows that the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics is non-constructive since it permits an undecidable (or effectively impossible) subset of Hilbert space. On the other hand, as it is argued in the paper, if one believes that testability of predictions is the most fundamental property of any physical theory, one need to accept that quantum mechanics must be an effectively calculable (and thus mathematically constructive) theory. With that, a way to reformulate quantum mechanics constructively, while keeping its mathematical foundation unchanged, leads to hypercomputation. In contrast, the proposed in the paper superselection rule, which acts by effectively forbidding a coherent superposition of quantum states corresponding to potential and actual infinity, can introduce computable constructivism in a quantum mechanical theory with no need for hypercomputation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grössing, G.; Fussy, S.; Mesa Pascasio, J.; Schwabl, H.
2015-07-01
We show that during stochastic beam attenuation in double slit experiments, there appear unexpected new effects for transmission factors below a ? 10?4, which can eventually be observed with the aid of weak measurement techniques. These are denoted as quantum sweeper effects, which are characterized by the bunching together of low counting rate particles within very narrow spatial domains. We employ a “superclassical” modeling procedure which we have previously shown to produce predictions identical with those of standard quantum theory. Thus it is demonstrated that in reaching down to ever weaker channel intensities, the nonlinear nature of the probability density currents becomes ever more important. We finally show that the resulting unexpected effects nevertheless implicitly also exist in standard quantum mechanics.
Recoil by Auger electrons: Theory and application
Demekhin, Ph. V.; Scheit, S.; Cederbaum, L. S.
2009-10-28
General equations accounting for the molecular dynamics induced by the recoil of a fast Auger electron are presented. The implications of the degree of localization of the molecular orbitals of diatomic molecules involved in the Auger decay are analyzed. It is shown that the direct and exchange terms of the Auger transition matrix element may give rise to opposite signs and hence to opposite directions of the recoil momenta transferred to the nuclear vibrational motion. Consequently, these terms have a different impact on the recoil-induced nuclear dynamics in the final Auger decay state. The developed theory is applied to study the influence of the recoil on the interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD) following the K-LL Auger decay of the Ne dimer. Our calculations illustrate a significant effect of the recoil of nuclei on the computed wave packets propagating on the potential energy curve populated by the Auger decay. The corresponding final states of the Auger process decay further by ICD. We show that the recoil momentum imparted onto the nuclei modifies the computed ICD spectra considerably.
Jardin, P.; Grandin, J.P.; Cassimi, A. ); Lemoigne, J.P.; Gosselin, A.; Husson, X.; Hennecart, D.; Lepoutre, A. )
1993-06-05
We present a new Recoil Ion Momentum Spectrometer designed for ion-atom collision experiments at G.A.N.I.L. accelerator. We expect an energy resolution of the order of 1 meV mainly due to the use of a high density supersonic molecular beam target providing reduced velocity distributed target atoms.
Casimir Effect for Quantum Graphs
D. U. Matrasulov; J. R. Yusupov; P. K. Khabibullaev; A. A. Saidov
2007-07-25
The Casimir effects for one-dimensional fractal networks, so-called quantum graphs is studied. Based on the Green function approach for quantum graphs zero-point energy for some simplest topologies is written explicitly.
Azure, Michael T.; Archer, Ronald D.; Sastry, Kandula S. R.; Rao, Dandamudi V.; Howell, Roger W.
2012-01-01
The radiochemical dipyrrolidinedithiocarbamato-212Pb(II) [212Pb(PDC)2] is synthesized and its effects on colony formation in cultured Chinese hamster V79 cells are investigated. The cellular uptake, biological retention, subcellular distribution and cytotoxicity of the radiocompound are determined. The 212Pb is taken up quickly by the cells, reaching saturation levels in 1.25 h. When the cells are washed, the intracellular activity is retained with a biological half-life of 11.6 h. Gamma-ray spectroscopy indicates that the 212Pb daughters (212Bi, 212Po and 208Tl) are in secular equilibrium within the cell. About 72% of the cellular activity localizes in the cell nucleus, of which 35% is bound specifically to nuclear DNA. The mean cellular uptake required to achieve 37% survival is 0.35 mBq of 212Pb per cell, which delivers a dose of 1.0 Gy to the cell nucleus when the recoil energy of 212Bi and 212Po decays is ignored and 1.7 Gy when recoil is included. The corresponding RBE values compared to acute external 137Cs ? rays at 37% survival are 4.0 and 2.3, respectively. The chemical Pb(PDC)2 is not chemotoxic at the concentrations used in this study. Because the ?-particle emitter 212Pb decays to the ?-particle-emitting daughters 212Bi and 212Po, these studies provide information on the biological effects of ?-particle decays that occur in the cell nucleus. Our earlier studies with cells of the same cell line using 210Po (emits 5.3 MeV ? particle) localized predominantly in the cytoplasm resulted in an RBE of 6. These earlier results for 210Po, along with the present results for 212Pb, suggest that the recoil energy associated with the 212Bi and 212Po daughter nuclei plays little or no role in imparting biological damage to critical targets in the cell nucleus. PMID:7938477
Quantum Effects in Biological Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Sisir
2014-07-01
The debates about the trivial and non-trivial effects in biological systems have drawn much attention during the last decade or so. What might these non-trivial sorts of quantum effects be? There is no consensus so far among the physicists and biologists regarding the meaning of "non-trivial quantum effects". However, there is no doubt about the implications of the challenging research into quantum effects relevant to biology such as coherent excitations of biomolecules and photosynthesis, quantum tunneling of protons, van der Waals forces, ultrafast dynamics through conical intersections, and phonon-assisted electron tunneling as the basis for our sense of smell, environment assisted transport of ions and entanglement in ion channels, role of quantum vacuum in consciousness. Several authors have discussed the non-trivial quantum effects and classified them into four broad categories: (a) Quantum life principle; (b) Quantum computing in the brain; (c) Quantum computing in genetics; and (d) Quantum consciousness. First, I will review the above developments. I will then discuss in detail the ion transport in the ion channel and the relevance of quantum theory in brain function. The ion transport in the ion channel plays a key role in information processing by the brain.
Gaussian effective potential: Quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stevenson, P. M.
1984-10-01
We advertise the virtues of the Gaussian effective potential (GEP) as a guide to the behavior of quantum field theories. Much superior to the usual one-loop effective potential, the GEP is a natural extension of intuitive notions familiar from quantum mechanics. A variety of quantum-mechanical examples are studied here, with an eye to field-theoretic analogies. Quantum restoration of symmetry, dynamical mass generation, and "quantum-mechanical resuscitation" are among the phenomena discussed. We suggest how the GEP could become the basis of a systematic approximation procedure. A companion paper will deal with scalar field theory.
Spin-orbit coupling and quantum spin Hall effect for neutral atoms without spin flips.
Kennedy, Colin J; Siviloglou, Georgios A; Miyake, Hirokazu; Burton, William Cody; Ketterle, Wolfgang
2013-11-27
We propose a scheme which realizes spin-orbit coupling and the quantum spin Hall effect for neutral atoms in optical lattices without relying on near resonant laser light to couple different spin states. The spin-orbit coupling is created by modifying the motion of atoms in a spin-dependent way by laser recoil. The spin selectivity is provided by Zeeman shifts created with a magnetic field gradient. Alternatively, a quantum spin Hall Hamiltonian can be created by all-optical means using a period-tripling, spin-dependent superlattice. PMID:24329453
Spin-Orbit Coupling and Quantum Spin Hall Effect for Neutral Atoms without Spin Flips
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kennedy, Colin J.; Siviloglou, Georgios A.; Miyake, Hirokazu; Burton, William Cody; Ketterle, Wolfgang
2013-11-01
We propose a scheme which realizes spin-orbit coupling and the quantum spin Hall effect for neutral atoms in optical lattices without relying on near resonant laser light to couple different spin states. The spin-orbit coupling is created by modifying the motion of atoms in a spin-dependent way by laser recoil. The spin selectivity is provided by Zeeman shifts created with a magnetic field gradient. Alternatively, a quantum spin Hall Hamiltonian can be created by all-optical means using a period-tripling, spin-dependent superlattice.
Interpreting Recoil for Undergraduate Students
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elsayed, Tarek A.
2012-04-01
The phenomenon of recoil is usually explained to students in the context of Newton's third law. Typically, when a projectile is fired, the recoil of the launch mechanism is interpreted as a reaction to the ejection of the smaller projectile. The same phenomenon is also interpreted in the context of the conservation of linear momentum, which is closely related to Newton's third law. Since the actual microscopic causes of recoil differ from one problem to another, some students (and teachers) may not be satisfied with understanding recoil through the principles of conservation of linear momentum and Newton's third law. For these students, the origin of the recoil motion should be presented in more depth.
Quantum Effects in Communications Systems
J. P. Gordon
1962-01-01
The information capacity of various communications systems is considered. Quantum effects are taken fully into account. The entropy of an electromagnetic wave having the quantum statistical properties of white noise in a single transmission mode is found, and from it the information efficiency of various possible systems may be derived. The receiving systems considered include amplifiers, heterodyne and homodyne converters
George Svetlichny
2009-02-27
The quantum teleportation protocol can be used to probabilistically simulate a quantum circuit with backward-in-time connections. This allows us to analyze some conceptual problems of time travel in the context of physically realizable situations, to realize encrypted measurements of future states for which the decryption key becomes available only after the state is created, and to probabilistically realize a multistage quantum state processing within the time needed to complete only one stage. The probabilistic nature of the process resolves any paradox.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akamatsu, Silvère; Faivre, Gabriel
1996-04-01
Directional-solidification experiments are often perturbed by the nucleation of gas bubbles and other residual-impurity effects. We present a detailed experimental study of these phenomena in the system CBr{4}-C2Cl6 directionally solidified in thin films. As is usual in this type of experiments, we use zone-refined and outgased products, but do not fill and seal the samples under vacuum. We study the solute-redistribution transient (initial recoil of the growth front) in samples of as-refined CBr{4}, in the absence of bubbles. This in situ method allows us to detect all the impurities present in our samples and to estimate their concentrations and partition coefficients. We point out several artefacts that may be caused by the dissolved residual impurities (shift of the cellular threshold velocity, modifications of the morphology of the cellular front). We then describe in detail the nucleation-growth process of gas bubbles during the course of solidification. There exists a steady growth pattern consisting of a periodic array of tubular bubbles similar to the rod-like pattern of eutectics and monotectics. We study the morphology of this state as a function of the growth velocity. We show that, at high velocity, the pattern decomposes in a series of independent local two-phased structures, the solid-vapour (SV) fingers, of width a few diffusion lengths. Between the SV fingers, the front is unperturbed.
Effective equations for the quantum pendulum from momentous quantum mechanics
Hernandez, Hector H.; Chacon-Acosta, Guillermo
2012-08-24
In this work we study the quantum pendulum within the framework of momentous quantum mechanics. This description replaces the Schroedinger equation for the quantum evolution of the system with an infinite set of classical equations for expectation values of configuration variables, and quantum dispersions. We solve numerically the effective equations up to the second order, and describe its evolution.
Quantum effects in linguistic endeavors
F. Tito Arecchi
2015-05-21
Classifying the information content of neural spike trains in a linguistic endeavor, an uncertainty relation emerges between the bit size of a word and its duration. This uncertainty is associated with the task of synchronizing the spike trains of different duration representing different words. The uncertainty involves peculiar quantum features, so that word comparison amounts to measurement-based-quantum computation. Such a quantum behavior explains the onset and decay of the memory window connecting successive pieces of a linguistic text. The behavior here discussed is applicable to other reported evidences of quantum effects in human linguistic processes, so far lacking a plausible framework, since either no efforts to assign an appropriate quantum constant had been associated or speculating on microscopic processes dependent on Planck's constant resulted in unrealistic decoherence times.
Quantum chaos and effective thermalization
Altland, Alexander
2011-01-01
We demonstrate effective equilibration for unitary quantum dynamics under conditions of classical chaos. Focusing on the paradigmatic example of the Dicke model, we show how a constructive description of the thermalization process is facilitated by the Glauber $Q$ or Husimi function, for which the evolution equation turns out to be of Fokker-Planck type. The equation describes a competition of classical drift and quantum diffusion in contractive and expansive directions. By this mechanism the system follows a 'quantum smoothened' approach to equilibrium, which avoids the notorious singularities inherent to classical chaotic flows.
Quantum chaos and effective thermalization.
Altland, Alexander; Haake, Fritz
2012-02-17
We demonstrate effective equilibration for unitary quantum dynamics under conditions of classical chaos. Focusing on the paradigmatic example of the Dicke model, we show how a constructive description of the thermalization process is facilitated by the Glauber Q or Husimi function, for which the evolution equation turns out to be of Fokker-Planck type. The equation describes a competition of classical drift and quantum diffusion in contractive and expansive directions. By this mechanism the system follows a "quantum smoothened" approach to equilibrium, which avoids the notorious singularities inherent to classical chaotic flows. PMID:22401203
RELATIVISTIC SUPPRESSION OF BLACK HOLE RECOILS
Kesden, Michael; Sperhake, Ulrich; Berti, Emanuele
2010-06-01
Numerical-relativity simulations indicate that the black hole produced in a binary merger can recoil with a velocity up to v {sub max} {approx_equal} 4000 km s{sup -1} with respect to the center of mass of the initial binary. This challenges the paradigm that most galaxies form through hierarchical mergers, yet retain supermassive black holes (SBHs) at their centers despite having escape velocities much less than v {sub max}. Interaction with a circumbinary disk can align the binary black hole spins with their orbital angular momentum, reducing the recoil velocity of the final black hole produced in the subsequent merger. However, the effectiveness of this alignment depends on highly uncertain accretion flows near the binary black holes. In this paper, we show that if the spin S {sub 1} of the more massive binary black hole is even partially aligned with the orbital angular momentum L, relativistic spin precession on sub-parsec scales can align the binary black hole spins with each other. This alignment significantly reduces the recoil velocity even in the absence of gas. For example, if the angle between S {sub 1} and L at large separations is 10{sup 0} while the second spin S {sub 2} is isotropically distributed, the spin alignment discussed in this paper reduces the median recoil from 864 km s{sup -1} to 273 km s{sup -1} for maximally spinning black holes with a mass ratio of 9/11. This reduction will greatly increase the fraction of galaxies retaining their SBHs.
RECOILING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN SPIN-FLIP RADIO GALAXIES
Liu, F. K.; Wang Dong; Chen Xian
2012-02-20
Numerical relativity simulations predict that coalescence of supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries leads not only to a spin flip but also to a recoiling of the merger remnant SMBHs. In the literature, X-shaped radio sources are popularly suggested to be candidates for SMBH mergers with spin flip of jet-ejecting SMBHs. Here we investigate the spectral and spatial observational signatures of the recoiling SMBHs in radio sources undergoing black hole spin flip. Our results show that SMBHs in most spin-flip radio sources have mass ratio q {approx}> 0.3 with a minimum possible value q{sub min} {approx_equal} 0.05. For major mergers, the remnant SMBHs can get a kick velocity as high as 2100 km s{sup -1} in the direction within an angle {approx}< 40 Degree-Sign relative to the spin axes of remnant SMBHs, implying that recoiling quasars are biased to be with high Doppler-shifted broad emission lines while recoiling radio galaxies are biased to large apparent spatial off-center displacements. We also calculate the distribution functions of line-of-sight velocity and apparent spatial off-center displacements for spin-flip radio sources with different apparent jet reorientation angles. Our results show that the larger the apparent jet reorientation angle is, the larger the Doppler-shifting recoiling velocity and apparent spatial off-center displacement will be. We investigate the effects of recoiling velocity on the dust torus in spin-flip radio sources and suggest that recoiling of SMBHs would lead to 'dust-poor' active galactic nuclei. Finally, we collect a sample of 19 X-shaped radio objects and for each object give the probability of detecting the predicted signatures of recoiling SMBH.
? -decay chains of recoiled superheavy nuclei: A theoretical study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niyti, Sawhney, Gudveen; Sharma, Manoj K.; Gupta, Raj K.
2015-05-01
A systematic theoretical study of ? -decay half-lives in the superheavy mass region of the periodic table of elements is carried out by extending the quantum-mechanical fragmentation theory based on the preformed cluster model (PCM) to include temperature (T ) dependence in its built-in preformation and penetration probabilities of decay fragments. Earlier, the ? -decay chains of the isotopes of Z =115 were investigated by using the standard PCM for spontaneous decays, with"hot-optimum" orientation effects included, which required a constant scaling factor of 104 to approach the available experimental data. In the present approach of the PCM (T ?0 ), the temperature effects are included via the recoil energy of the residual superheavy nucleus (SHN) left after x -neutron emission from the superheavy compound nucleus. The important result is that the ? -decay half-lives calculated by the PCM (T ?0 ) match the experimental data nearly exactly, without using any scaling factor of the type used in the PCM. Note that the PCM (T ?0 ) is an equivalent of the dynamical cluster-decay model for heavy-ion collisions at angular momentum ? =0 . The only parameter of model is the neck-length parameter ? R , which for the calculated half-lives of ? -decay chains of various isotopes of Z =113 to 118 nuclei formed in "hot-fusion" reactions is found to be nearly constant, i.e., ? R ?0.95 ±0.05 fm for all the ? -decay chains studied. The use of recoiled residue nucleus as a secondary heavy-ion beam for nuclear reactions has also been suggested in the past.
Precision spectroscopy by photon-recoil signal amplification
Yong Wan; Florian Gebert; Jannes B. Wübbena; Nils Scharnhorst; Sana Amairi; Ian D. Leroux; Börge Hemmerling; Niels Lörch; Klemens Hammerer; Piet O. Schmidt
2014-02-07
Precision spectroscopy of atomic and molecular ions offers a window to new physics, but is typically limited to species with a cycling transition for laser cooling and detection. Quantum logic spectroscopy has overcome this limitation for species with long-lived excited states. Here, we extend quantum logic spectroscopy to fast, dipole-allowed transitions and apply it to perform an absolute frequency measurement. We detect the absorption of photons by the spectroscopically investigated ion through the photon recoil imparted on a co-trapped ion of a different species, on which we can perform efficient quantum logic detection techniques. This amplifies the recoil signal from a few absorbed photons to thousands of fluorescence photons. We resolve the line center of a dipole-allowed transition in 40Ca+ to 1/300 of its observed linewidth, rendering this measurement one of the most accurate of a broad transition. The simplicity and versatility of this approach enables spectroscopy of many previously inaccessible species.
The quantum Hall effect in quantum dot systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beltukov, Y. M.; Greshnov, A. A.
2014-12-01
It is proposed to use quantum dots in order to increase the temperatures suitable for observation of the integer quantum Hall effect. A simple estimation using Fock-Darwin spectrum of a quantum dot shows that good part of carriers localized in quantum dots generate the intervals of plateaus robust against elevated temperatures. Numerical calculations employing local trigonometric basis and highly efficient kernel polynomial method adopted for computing the Hall conductivity reveal that quantum dots may enhance peak temperature for the effect by an order of magnitude, possibly above 77 K. Requirements to potentials, quality and arrangement of the quantum dots essential for practical realization of such enhancement are indicated. Comparison of our theoretical results with the quantum Hall measurements in InAs quantum dot systems from two experimental groups is also given.
Quantum discord in the Dynamical Casimir Effect
Carlos Sabín; Ivette Fuentes; Göran Johansson
2015-07-16
We analyse the generation of quantum discord by means of the dynamical Casimir effect in superconducting waveguides modulated by superconducting quantum interferometric devices. We show that for realistic experimental parameters, the conditions for the existence of quantum discord are less demanding than the previously considered for quantum entanglement or non-classicality. The states with non-zero discord and zero entanglement generated by the dynamical Casimir effect are a useful resource for quantum cryptography.
Quantum computing of quantum chaos and imperfection effects
Pil Hun Song; Dima L. Shepelyansky
2000-09-01
We study numerically the imperfection effects in the quantum computing of the kicked rotator model in the regime of quantum chaos. It is shown that there are two types of physical characteristics: for one of them the quantum computation errors grow exponentially with the number of qubits in the computer while for the other the growth is polynomial. Certain similarity between classical and quantum computing errors is also discussed.
Wave kinetics of relativistic quantum plasmas
Mendonca, J. T. [IPFN, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)
2011-06-15
A quantum kinetic equation, valid for relativistic unmagnetized plasmas, is derived here. This equation describes the evolution of a quantum quasi-distribution, which is the Wigner function for relativistic spinless charged particles in a plasma, and it is exactly equivalent to a Klein-Gordon equation. Our quantum kinetic equation reduces to the Vlasov equation in the classical limit, where the Wigner function is replaced by a classical distribution function. An approximate form of the quantum kinetic equation is also derived, which includes first order quantum corrections. This is applied to electron plasma waves, for which a new dispersion relation is obtained. It is shown that quantum recoil effects contribute to the electron Landau damping with a third order derivative term. The case of high frequency electromagnetic waves is also considered. Its dispersion relation is shown to be insensitive to quantum recoil effects for equilibrium plasma distributions.
Electric Field effects on quantum correlations in semiconductor quantum dots
S. Shojaei; M. Mahdian; R. Yousefjani
2012-05-01
We study the effect of external electric bias on the quantum correlations in the array of optically excited coupled semiconductor quantum dots. The correlations are characterized by the quantum discord and concurrence and are observed using excitonic qubits. We employ the lower bound of concurrence for thermal density matrix at different temperatures. The effect of the F\\"orster interaction on correlations will be studied. Our theoretical model detects nonvanishing quantum discord when the electric field is on while concurrence dies, ensuring the existence of nonclassical correlations as measured by the quantum discord.
Quantum channels and memory effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caruso, Filippo; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano
2014-10-01
Any physical process can be represented as a quantum channel mapping an initial state to a final state. Hence it can be characterized from the point of view of communication theory, i.e., in terms of its ability to transfer information. Quantum information provides a theoretical framework and the proper mathematical tools to accomplish this. In this context the notion of codes and communication capacities have been introduced by generalizing them from the classical Shannon theory of information transmission and error correction. The underlying assumption of this approach is to consider the channel not as acting on a single system, but on sequences of systems, which, when properly initialized allow one to overcome the noisy effects induced by the physical process under consideration. While most of the work produced so far has been focused on the case in which a given channel transformation acts identically and independently on the various elements of the sequence (memoryless configuration in jargon), correlated error models appear to be a more realistic way to approach the problem. A slightly different, yet conceptually related, notion of correlated errors applies to a single quantum system which evolves continuously in time under the influence of an external disturbance which acts on it in a non-Markovian fashion. This leads to the study of memory effects in quantum channels: a fertile ground where interesting novel phenomena emerge at the intersection of quantum information theory and other branches of physics. A survey is taken of the field of quantum channels theory while also embracing these specific and complex settings.
Quantum channels and memory effects
F. Caruso; V. Giovannetti; C. Lupo; S. Mancini
2014-12-15
Any physical process can be represented as a quantum channel mapping an initial state to a final state. Hence it can be characterized from the point of view of communication theory, i.e., in terms of its ability to transfer information. Quantum information provides a theoretical framework and the proper mathematical tools to accomplish this. In this context the notion of codes and communication capacities have been introduced by generalizing them from the classical Shannon theory of information transmission and error correction. The underlying assumption of this approach is to consider the channel not as acting on a single system, but on sequences of systems, which, when properly initialized allow one to overcome the noisy effects induced by the physical process under consideration. While most of the work produced so far has been focused on the case in which a given channel transformation acts identically and independently on the various elements of the sequence (memoryless configuration in jargon), correlated error models appear to be a more realistic way to approach the problem. A slightly different, yet conceptually related, notion of correlated errors applies to a single quantum system which evolves continuously in time under the influence of an external disturbance which acts on it in a non-Markovian fashion. This leads to the study of memory effects in quantum channels: a fertile ground where interesting novel phenomena emerge at the intersection of quantum information theory and other branches of physics. A survey is taken of the field of quantum channels theory while also embracing these specific and complex settings.
Quantum Annealing and Quantum Fluctuation Effect in Frustrated Ising Systems
Shu Tanaka; Ryo Tamura
2012-02-27
Quantum annealing method has been widely attracted attention in statistical physics and information science since it is expected to be a powerful method to obtain the best solution of optimization problem as well as simulated annealing. The quantum annealing method was incubated in quantum statistical physics. This is an alternative method of the simulated annealing which is well-adopted for many optimization problems. In the simulated annealing, we obtain a solution of optimization problem by decreasing temperature (thermal fluctuation) gradually. In the quantum annealing, in contrast, we decrease quantum field (quantum fluctuation) gradually and obtain a solution. In this paper we review how to implement quantum annealing and show some quantum fluctuation effects in frustrated Ising spin systems.
Quantum discord in the dynamical Casimir effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sabín, Carlos; Fuentes, Ivette; Johansson, Göran
2015-07-01
We analyze the generation of quantum discord by means of the dynamical Casimir effect in superconducting wave guides modulated by superconducting quantum interferometric devices. We show that for realistic experimental parameters, the conditions for the existence of quantum discord are less demanding than the previously considered for quantum entanglement or nonclassicality. These results could facilitate the experimental confirmation of the quantum nature of the dynamical Casimir effect radiation. Moreover, the states with nonzero discord and zero entanglement generated by the dynamical Casimir effect are a useful resource for quantum cryptography.
Interface effect in coupled quantum wells
Hao, Ya-Fei, E-mail: haoyafei@zjnu.cn [Physics Department, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, Zhejiang 321004 (China)
2014-06-28
This paper intends to theoretically investigate the effect of the interfaces on the Rashba spin splitting of two coupled quantum wells. The results show that the interface related Rashba spin splitting of the two coupled quantum wells is both smaller than that of a step quantum well which has the same structure with the step quantum well in the coupled quantum wells. And the influence of the cubic Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction of the coupled quantum wells is larger than that of a step quantum well. It demonstrates that the spin relaxation time of the two coupled quantum wells will be shorter than that of a step quantum well. As for the application in the spintronic devices, a step quantum well may be better than the coupled quantum wells, which is mentioned in this paper.
Quantum zeno effect and intracavity polarization filters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kitano, M.
1997-02-01
The quantum Zeno effect is the suppression of transitions between quantum states by frequent destruction of coherence. We show that the quantum Zeno effect manifests itself in practical intracavity polarization filters, such as birefringent filters and Faraday filters. Repetitive decoherence is provided by the intracavity linear polarizers. The counter-intuitive fact that the use of imperfect linear polarizers yields the narrower bandwidth can be understood in terms of the quantum Zeno effect.
Median recoil direction as a WIMP directional detection signal
Green, Anne M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Morgan, Ben [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)
2010-03-15
Direct detection experiments have reached the sensitivity to detect dark matter weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). Demonstrating that a putative signal is due to WIMPs, and not backgrounds, is a major challenge, however. The direction dependence of the WIMP scattering rate provides a potential WIMP 'smoking gun'. If the WIMP distribution is predominantly smooth, the Galactic recoil distribution is peaked in the direction opposite to the direction of Solar motion. Previous studies have found that, for an ideal detector, of order 10 WIMP events would be sufficient to reject isotropy, and rule out an isotropic background. We examine how the median recoil direction could be used to confirm the WIMP origin of an anisotropic recoil signal. Specifically, we determine the number of events required to confirm the direction of solar motion as the median inverse recoil direction at 95% confidence. We find that for zero background 31 events are required, a factor of {approx}2 more than are required to simply reject isotropy. We also investigate the effect of a nonzero isotropic background. As the background rate is increased the number of events required increases, initially fairly gradually and then more rapidly, once the signal becomes subdominant. We also discuss the effect of features in the speed distribution at large speeds, as found in recent high resolution simulations, on the median recoil direction.
Quantum mechanical effects from deformation theory
Much, A. [Max-Planck-Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, 04103 Leipzig, Germany and Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Leipzig, 04009 Leipzig (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, 04103 Leipzig, Germany and Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Leipzig, 04009 Leipzig (Germany)
2014-02-15
We consider deformations of quantum mechanical operators by using the novel construction tool of warped convolutions. The deformation enables us to obtain several quantum mechanical effects where electromagnetic and gravitomagnetic fields play a role. Furthermore, a quantum plane can be defined by using the deformation techniques. This in turn gives an experimentally verifiable effect.
Quantum zeno effect and intracavity polarization filters
M. Kitano
1997-01-01
The quantum Zeno effect is the suppression of transitions between quantum states by frequent destruction of coherence. We show that the quantum Zeno effect manifests itself in practical intracavity polarization filters, such as birefringent filters and Faraday filters. Repetitive decoherence is provided by the intracavity linear polarizers. The counter-intuitive fact that the use of imperfect linear polarizers yields the narrower
Nuclear quantum effects in water
Joseph A. Morrone; Roberto Car
2008-01-01
In this work, a path integral Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics ootnotetextCPMD V3.11 Copyright IBM Corp 1990-2006, Copyright MPI fuer Festkoerperforschung Stuttgart 1997-2001. simulation of liquid water is performed. It is found that the inclusion of nuclear quantum effects systematically improves the agreement of first-principles simulations of liquid water with experiment. In addition, the proton momentum distribution is computed utilizing a recently
Nuclear quantum effects in water
Joseph A. Morrone; Roberto Car
2008-03-25
In this work, a path integral Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulation of liquid water is performed. It is found that the inclusion of nuclear quantum effects systematically improves the agreement of first principles simulations of liquid water with experiment. In addition, the proton momentum distribution is computed utilizing a recently developed open path integral molecular dynamics methodology. It is shown that these results are in good agreement with neutron Compton scattering data for liquid water and ice.
Hyperbolic supersymmetric quantum Hall effect
Hasebe, Kazuki [Department of General Education, Takuma National College of Technology, Takuma-cho, Mitoyo-city, Kagawa 769-1192 (Japan)
2008-12-15
Developing a noncompact version of the supersymmetric Hopf map, we formulate the quantum Hall effect on a superhyperboloid. Based on OSp(1|2) group theoretical methods, we first analyze the one-particle Landau problem, and successively explore the many-body problem where the Laughlin wave function, hard-core pseudopotential Hamiltonian, and topological excitations are derived. It is also shown that the fuzzy superhyperboloid emerges at the lowest Landau level.
Stochastic resonance effects in quantum channels
Garry Bowen; Stefano Mancini
2005-12-13
We provide some examples of quantum channels where the addition of noise is able to enhance the information transmission rate. This may happen for both quantum and classical uses and realizes stochastic resonance effects.
Quantum gravity effects on space-time
Martin Bojowald
2010-02-12
General relativity promotes space-time to a physical, dynamical object subject to equations of motion. Quantum gravity, accordingly, must provide a quantum framework for space-time, applicable on the smallest distance scales. Just like generic states in quantum mechanics, quantum space-time structures may be highly counter-intuitive. But if low-energy effects can be extracted, they shed considerable light on the implications to be expected for a dynamical quantum space-time. Loop quantum gravity has provided several such effects, but even in the symmetry-reduced setting of loop quantum cosmology no complete picture of effective space-time geometries describing especially the regime near the big bang has been obtained. The overall situation regarding space-time structures and cosmology is reviewed here, with an emphasis on the role of dynamical states, effective equations, and general covariance.
Quantum effect on luminosity-redshift relation
Li-Fang Li; Jian-Yang Zhu
2010-07-09
There are many different proposals for a theory of quantum gravity. Even leaving aside the fundamental difference among theories such as the string theory and the non-perturbative quantum gravity, we are still left with many ambiguities (and/or parameters to be determined) with regard to the choice of variables, the choice of related groups, etc. Loop quantum gravity is also in such a state. It is interesting to search for experimental observables to distinguish these quantum schemes. This paper investigates the loop quantum gravity effect on luminosity-redshift relation. The quantum bounce behavior of loop quantum cosmology is found to result in multivalued correspondence in luminosity-redshift relation. And the detail multivalued behavior can tell the difference of different quantum parameters. The inverse volume quantum correction does not result in bounce behavior in this model, but affects luminosity-redshift relation also significantly.
Effective Gain Measurement in Quantum Cascade Lasers
Petta, Jason
Effective Gain Measurement in Quantum Cascade Lasers A new method to measure gain in Quantum Cascade Lasers Bryan Haslam*, Zhijun Liu, Scott Howard, Claire Gmachl Department of Electrical Engineering, PRISM, *BYU Supported by NSF, PRISM #12;Outline Lasers The Basics Quantum Cascade Lasers Gain and Loss
3D Quantum Gravity and Effective Noncommutative Quantum Field Theory
Freidel, Laurent; Livine, Etera R. [Perimeter Institute, 31 Caroline Street, North Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5, Canada, and Laboratoire de Physique, ENS Lyon, CNRS UMR 5672, 46 Allee d'Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)
2006-06-09
We show that the effective dynamics of matter fields coupled to 3D quantum gravity is described after integration over the gravitational degrees of freedom by a braided noncommutative quantum field theory symmetric under a {kappa} deformation of the Poincare group.
Planck's quantum-driven integer quantum Hall effect in chaos.
Chen, Yu; Tian, Chushun
2014-11-21
We find in a canonical chaotic system, the kicked spin-1/2 rotor, a Planck's quantum(he)-driven phenomenon bearing a close analogy to the integer quantum Hall effect but of chaos origin. Specifically, the rotor's energy growth is unbounded ("metallic" phase) for a discrete set of critical values of he, but otherwise bounded ("insulating" phase). The latter phase is topological and characterized by a quantum number ("quantized Hall conductance"). The number jumps by unity whenever he passes through each critical value as it decreases. Our findings indicate that rich topological quantum phenomena can emerge from chaos. PMID:25479514
Planck's Quantum-Driven Integer Quantum Hall Effect in Chaos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yu; Tian, Chushun
2014-11-01
We find in a canonical chaotic system, the kicked spin-1 /2 rotor, a Planck's quantum(he)-driven phenomenon bearing a close analogy to the integer quantum Hall effect but of chaos origin. Specifically, the rotor's energy growth is unbounded ("metallic" phase) for a discrete set of critical values of he, but otherwise bounded ("insulating" phase). The latter phase is topological and characterized by a quantum number ("quantized Hall conductance"). The number jumps by unity whenever he passes through each critical value as it decreases. Our findings indicate that rich topological quantum phenomena can emerge from chaos.
Four pi-recoil proportional counter used as neutron spectrometer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bennett, E. F.
1968-01-01
Study considers problems encountered in using 4 pi-recoil counters for neutron spectra measurement. Emphasis is placed on calibration, shape discrimination, variation of W, the average energy loss per ion pair, and the effects of differentiation on the intrinsic counter resolution.
Effects of quantum gravity on black holes
Deyou Chen; Houwen Wu; Haitang Yang; Shuzheng Yang
2014-10-19
In this review, we discuss effects of quantum gravity on black hole physics. After a brief review of the origin of the minimal observable length from various quantum gravity theories, we present the tunneling method. To incorporate quantum gravity effects, we modify the Klein-Gordon equation and Dirac equation by the modified fundamental commutation relations. Then we use the modified equations to discuss the tunneling radiation of scalar particles and fermions. The corrected Hawking temperatures are related to the quantum numbers of the emitted particles. Quantum gravity corrections slow down the increase of the temperatures. The remnants are observed as $M_{\\hbox{Res}}\\gtrsim \\frac{M_p}{\\sqrt{\\beta_0}}$. The mass is quantized by the modified Wheeler-DeWitt equation and is proportional to $n$ in quantum gravity regime. The thermodynamical property of the black hole is studied by the influence of quantum gravity effects.
Quantum Zeno Effect in the Measurement Problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Namiki, Mikio; Pasaczio, Saverio
1996-01-01
Critically analyzing the so-called quantum Zeno effect in the measurement problem, we show that observation of this effect does not necessarily mean experimental evidence for the naive notion of wave-function collapse by measurement (the simple projection rule). We also examine what kind of limitation the uncertainty relation and others impose on the observation of the quantum Zeno effect.
Quantum Confinement and Coulomb Effects in Semiconductor Quantum Dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Y. Z.; Koch, S. W.; Thoai, D. B. Tran
Coulomb and quantum confinement effects in small semiconductor microcrystallites are analyzed. Energies and wavefunctions for one- and two-electron-hole-pair states are computed and optical absorption spectra are evaluated.
Recoiling black holes: prospects for detection and implications of spin alignment
Blecha, Laura; Kelley, Luke Zoltan; Torrey, Paul; Vogelsberger, Mark; Nelson, Dylan; Springel, Volker; Snyder, Gregory; Hernquist, Lars
2015-01-01
Supermassive black hole (BH) mergers produce powerful gravitational wave (GW) emission. Asymmetry in this emission imparts a recoil kick to the merged BH, which can eject the BH from its host galaxy altogether. Recoiling BHs could be observed as offset active galactic nuclei (AGN). Several candidates have been identified, but systematic searches have been hampered by large uncertainties regarding their observability. By extracting merging BHs and host galaxy properties from the Illustris cosmological simulations, we have developed a comprehensive model for recoiling AGN. Here, for the first time, we model the effects of BH spin alignment and recoil dynamics based on the gas-richness of host galaxies. For comparable assumptions, we find much higher rates of recoiling AGN than Volonteri & Madau (2008), indicating systematic differences between BH populations in semi-analytic models and cosmological simulations. We predict that if BH spins are not highly aligned, seeing-limited observations could resolve off...
Alekseev, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Institute of Physics (Russian Federation)], E-mail: valeks@sci.lebedev.ru
2007-03-15
An approach has been developed that allows the Rayleigh scattering cross section to be calculated with allowance for the quantum character of motion of the center of mass of the trapped scattering particles. The shape of the line of light scattering from a Bose condensate in a parabolic trap has been studied. A shift of the scattering line center is equal to the recoil shift, while the line width depends on the chemical potential of the Bose gas and on the relaxation time of the velocity of the above-condensate recoil particles. A velocity distribution function in the beam of recoil atoms formed in the course of induced Rayleigh scattering is determined. It is shown that, under the typical experimental conditions, the characteristic width {delta}v/v of the recoil velocity distribution in this beam is on the order of 10{sup -3} at a velocity v on the order of several centimeters per second.
Quenching and Channeling of Nuclear Recoils in NaI[Tl]: Implications for Dark Matter Searches
J. I. Collar
2013-03-18
A new experimental evaluation of the quenching factor for nuclear recoils in NaI[Tl] is described. Systematics affecting previous measurements are addressed by careful characterization of the emission spectrum of the neutron source, use of a small scintillator coupled to an ultra-bialkali high quantum efficiency photomultiplier, and evaluation of non-linearities in the electron recoil response via Compton scattering. A trend towards a rapidly diminishing quenching factor with decreasing sodium recoil energy is revealed. Additionally, no evidence for crystal lattice channeling of low-energy recoiling ions is found in a scintillator of known crystallographic orientation. A discussion on how these findings affect dark matter searches employing NaI[Tl] (e.g., DAMA/LIBRA) is offered.
Quenching and Channeling of Nuclear Recoils in NaI[Tl]: Implications for Dark Matter Searches
Collar, J I
2013-01-01
A new experimental evaluation of the quenching factor for nuclear recoils in NaI[Tl] is described. Systematics affecting previous measurements are addressed by careful characterization of the emission spectrum of the neutron source, use of a small scintillator coupled to an ultra-bialkali high quantum efficiency photomultiplier, and evaluation of non-linearities in the electron recoil response via Compton scattering. A trend towards a rapidly diminishing quenching factor with decreasing sodium recoil energy is revealed. Additionally, no evidence for crystal lattice channeling of low-energy recoiling ions is found in a scintillator of known crystallographic orientation. A discussion on how these findings affect dark matter searches employing NaI[Tl] (e.g., DAMA/LIBRA) is offered.
The Quantum Zeno Effect -- Watched Pots in the Quantum World
Anu Venugopalan
2012-11-15
In the 5th century B.C.,the philosopher and logician Zeno of Elea posed several paradoxes which remained unresolved for over two thousand five hundred years. The $20^{th}$ century saw some resolutions to Zeno's mind boggling problems. This long journey saw many significant milestones in the form of discoveries like the tools of converging series and theories on infinite sets in mathematics. In recent times, the Zeno effect made an intriguing appearance in a rather unlikely place - a situation involving the time evolution of a quantum system, which is subject to "observations" over a period of time. Leonid Khalfin working in the former USSR in the 1960s and ECG Sudarshan and B. Misra at the University of Texas, Austin, first drew attention to this problem. In 1977, ECG Sudarshan and B. Misra published a paper on the quantum Zeno effect, called "The Zeno's paradox in quantum theory". Their fascinating result revealed the bizarre workings of the quantum world. Misra and Sudarshan's 1977 paper activated over two decades of theoretical and experimental explorations into the subject and still continues to evoke a lot of interest. In the following, the quantum Zeno effect is described and a brief outline of some of the work following Misra and Sudarshan's paper is given. The quantum Zeno effect is yet another example of the myriad unimaginable possibilities that lie waiting in the magical world of the quantum.
Quantum Zeno effect and quantum Zeno paradox in atomic physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Block, Ellen; Berman, P. R.
1991-08-01
Itano and co-workers [Wayne M. Itano, D. J. Heinzen, J. J. Bollinger, and D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. A 41, 2295 (1990)] have recently reported the experimental verification of the quantum Zeno effect, which is the inhibition of a quantum transition by frequent measurements. In this article, we offer an alternative interpretation of the quantum Zeno effect. We show that an analysis of the dynamics of the full three-level system gives the same result. There is no need to assume explicitly that the wave function has collapsed, nor even to assume that an ideal measurement has been made. In addition, we differentiate between what has been referred to as the quantum Zeno effect and what has been termed the quantum Zeno paradox. The former is the inhibition of induced transitions, and the latter is the, as yet experimentally unobserved, inhibition of spontaneous decay. Our interpretation, which emphasizes the ``measurement''-induced interruption of atomic-state coherences as the cause of inhibited quantum transitions, suggests a resolution to the quantum Zeno paradox. The theoretical limit of continuous observation is discussed.
Quantum communication complexity using the quantum Zeno effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tavakoli, Armin; Anwer, Hammad; Hameedi, Alley; Bourennane, Mohamed
2015-07-01
The quantum Zeno effect (QZE) is the phenomenon in which the unitary evolution of a quantum state is suppressed, e.g., due to frequent measurements. Here, we investigate the use of the QZE in a class of communication complexity problems (CCPs). Quantum entanglement is known to solve certain CCPs beyond classical constraints. However, recent developments have yielded CCPs for which superclassical results can be obtained using only communication of a single d -level quantum state (qudit) as a resource. In the class of CCPs considered here, we show quantum reduction of complexity in three ways: using (i) entanglement and the QZE, (ii) a single qudit and the QZE, and (iii) a single qudit. We have performed a proof of concept experimental demonstrations of three party CCP protocol based on single-qubit communication with and without QZE.
Recoil Based Fuel Breeding Fuel Structure
Liviu Popa-Simil; Liviu
2008-01-01
Nuclear transmutation reactions are based on the absorption of a smaller particle as neutron, proton, deuteron, alpha, etc. The resulting compound nucleus gets out of its initial lattice mainly by taking the recoil, also with help from its sudden change in chemical properties. The recoil implantation is used in correlation with thin and ultra thin materials mainly for producing radiopharmaceuticals
Recoil corrections in the hydrogen isoelectronic sequence
G. S. Adkins; J. Sapirstein
2005-12-26
A version of the Bethe-Salpeter equation appropriate for calculating recoil corrections in highly charged hydrogenlike ions is presented. The nucleus is treated as a scalar particle of charge Z, and the electron treated relativistically. The known recoil corrections of order $m^2/M(Z\\alpha)^4$ are derived in both this formalism and in NRQED.
Casimir effect and the quantum vacuum
R. L. Jaffe
2005-01-01
In discussions of the cosmological constant, the Casimir effect is often invoked as decisive evidence that the zero-point energies of quantum fields are ''real.'' On the contrary, Casimir effects can be formulated and Casimir forces can be computed without reference to zero-point energies. They are relativistic, quantum forces between charges and currents. The Casimir force (per unit area) between parallel
Recoil Experiments Using a Compressed Air Cannon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, Brett
2006-12-01
Ping-Pong vacuum cannons, potato guns, and compressed air cannons are popular and dramatic demonstrations for lecture and lab.1-3 Students enjoy them for the spectacle, but they can also be used effectively to teach physics. Recently we have used a student-built compressed air cannon as a laboratory activity to investigate impulse, conservation of momentum, and kinematics. It is possible to use the cannon, along with the output from an electronic force plate, as the basis for many other experiments in the laboratory. In this paper, we will discuss the recoil experiment done by our students in the lab and also mention a few other possibilities that this apparatus could be used for.
Accurate Models for Astrophysical Black Hole Recoils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zlochower, Yosef; Lousto, Carlos
2015-04-01
When black-hole binaries merge, an intense, asymmetrical burst of radiation can cause the remnant to recoil at thousands of kilometers a second, large enough to eject the remnant black hole out of the host galaxy. The actual recoil will depend on the size and orientation of the black-hole spins and the mass ratio of the binary. Modeling the recoil for this seven dimensional parameters space can be prohibitively expensive. However, careful choices of configurations can be used to model the recoil for a broad class of astrophysically important binaries. Here we describe the results from a large set of new simulations which we use to develop several interpolative formulas for the recoil that are accurate over a broad range of mass ratios and spins. The authors gratefully acknowledge the NSF for financial support from Grants PHY-1305730, PHY-1212426, PHY-1229173.
Nonlinear effects in quantum dissipation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vitali, David; Grigolini, Paolo
1990-12-01
We study a two-level system linearly interacting with a set of quantum-mechanical oscillators, referred to as the ``bath.'' This system is formally equivalent to a magnetic dipole, with spin 1/2, precessing with the Larmor frequency ?0 around a fixed magnetic field along the z axis and undergoing the influence of a fluctuating field along the x axis. These bath fluctuations are not independent of the state of the spin, and the crucial problem to be studied in this paper is precisely how to take the reaction field, i.e., the influence of the bath on the system, into account. We find a general result based on neglecting a contribution to the reaction field proportional to ?x(t)-, where the angle brackets denote averaging on both the spin and the bath space, with a density matrix corresponding to the spin polarized along the x axis. We show that under the special condition that the spin does not significantly depart from its initial state, our general result turns out to coincide with the noninteracting-blip approximation (NBA) of Leggett and co-workers [Rev. Mod. Phys. 59, 1 (1987)]. When we make the assumption that both quantum and thermal fluctuations of the bath can be neglected and that the time scale of the bath is virtually zero (adiabatic assumption), our general result turns out to coincide with the prediction of the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DNSE) of Davydov and Kislukha [Phys. Status Solidi B 59, 465 (1973)] and Davydov $[-Biology and Quantum Mechanics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1982)] in the two-sites case. This means that the nonlinear effects proven by Kenkre and co-workers [Phys. Rev. B 34, 4959 (1986); 35, 1473 (1987)] to accompany a significant departure of the spin from the initial state are lost by the NBA. On the other hand, our approach provides a rigorous evaluation of the effects of the oscillator fluctuations on the predictions of the DNSE. It is shown that the quantum fluctuations might have a significant role also in the region of high temperature to which the nonadiabatic corrections of Kenkre and co-workers apply. Finally, it is shown that a still more accurate approximation would be that of neglecting a reaction field proportional to ?x(t)-s, where s denotes an average carried out only on the spin space. This approximation leads our approach to coincide with the exact result in the special case where both the spin and its bath are replaced by their classical counterparts. Under this approximation, the detrapping would be equivalent to an Arrhenius-like thermal-activation process. When the coupling strength between the system and its bath is decreased, the spin is expected to depart from the initial trapped state. The dynamics of this process is expected to be influenced by the joint action of the bath fluctuations (both thermal and quantum mechanical) and of the nonlinearity stemming from the reaction field, and ignored by the NBA. This intriguing problem should be the subject of further investigations.
Recoil-decay tagging spectroscopy of 74162W88
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, H. J.; Cederwall, B.; Bäck, T.; Qi, C.; Doncel, M.; Jakobsson, U.; Auranen, K.; Bönig, S.; Drummond, M. C.; Grahn, T.; Greenlees, P.; HerzáÅ, A.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Konki, J.; Kröll, T.; Leino, M.; McPeake, C.; O'Donnell, D.; Page, R. D.; Pakarinen, J.; Partanen, J.; Peura, P.; Rahkila, P.; Ruotsalainen, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Sarén, J.; Say??, B.; Scholey, C.; Sorri, J.; Stolze, S.; Taylor, M. J.; Thornthwaite, A.; Uusitalo, J.; Xiao, Z. G.
2015-07-01
Excited states in the highly neutron-deficient nucleus 162W have been investigated via the 92Mo (78Kr,2? ) 162W reaction. Prompt ? rays were detected by the JUROGAM II high-purity germanium detector array and the recoiling fusion-evaporation products were separated by the recoil ion transport unit (RITU) gas-filled recoil separator and identified with the gamma recoil electron alpha tagging (GREAT) spectrometer at the focal plane of RITU. ? rays from 162W were identified uniquely using mother-daughter and mother-daughter-granddaughter ? -decay correlations. The observation of a rotational-like ground-state band is interpreted within the framework of total Routhian surface (TRS) calculations, which suggest an axially symmetric ground-state shape with a ? -soft minimum at ?2?0.15 . Quasiparticle alignment effects are discussed based on cranked shell model calculations. New measurements of the 162W ground-state ? -decay energy and half-life were also performed. The observed ? -decay energy agrees with previous measurements. The half-life of 162W was determined to be t1 /2=990 (30 ) ms. This value deviates significantly from the currently adopted value of t1 /2=1360 (70 ) ms. In addition, the ? -decay energy and half-life of 166Os were measured and found to agree with the adopted values.
Quantum Zeno effect in parameter estimation
Alexander Holm Kiilerich; Klaus Mølmer
2015-09-22
The quantum Zeno effect freezes the evolution of a quantum system subject to frequent measure- ments. We apply a Fisher information analysis to show that because of this effect, a closed quantum system should be probed as rarely as possible while a dissipative quantum systems should be probed at specifically determined intervals to yield the optimal estimation of parameters governing the sys- tem dynamics. With a Bayesian analysis we show that a few frequent measurements are needed to identify the parameter region within which the Fisher information analysis applies
Fractional quantum Hall effect revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacak, J.; ?yd?ba, P.; Jacak, L.
2015-10-01
The topology-based explanation of the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) is summarized. The cyclotron braid subgroups crucial for this approach are introduced in order to identify the origin of the Laughlin correlations in 2D (two-dimensional) Hall systems. Flux-tubes and vortices for composite fermions in their standard constructions are explained in terms of cyclotron braids. The derivation of the hierarchy of the FQHE is proposed by mapping onto the integer effect within the topology-based approach. The experimental observations of the FQHE supporting the cyclotron braid picture are reviewed with a special attention paid to recent experiments with a suspended graphene. The triggering role of a carrier mobility for organization of the fractional state in Hall configuration is emphasized. The prerequisites for the FQHE are indicated including topological conditions substantially increasing the previously accepted set of physical necessities. The explanation of numerical studies by exact diagonalizations of the fractional Chern insulator states is formulated in terms of the topology condition applied to the Berry field flux quantization. Some new ideas withz regard to the synthetic fractional states in the optical lattices are also formulated.
Planck's quantum-driven integer quantum Hall effect in chaos
Yu Chen; Chushun Tian
2014-09-18
The integer quantum Hall effect (IQHE) and chaos are commonly conceived as being unrelated. Contrary to common wisdoms, we find in a canonical chaotic system, the kicked spin-$1/2$ rotor, a Planck's quantum($h_e$)-driven phenomenon bearing a firm analogy to IQHE but of chaos origin. Specifically, the rotor's energy growth is unbounded ('metallic' phase) for a discrete set of critical $h_e$-values, but otherwise bounded ('insulating' phase). The latter phase is topological in nature and characterized by a quantum number ('quantized Hall conductance'). The number jumps by unity whenever $h_e$ decreases passing through each critical value. Our findings, within the reach of cold-atom experiments, indicate that rich topological quantum phenomena may emerge from chaos.
Effective scenario of loop quantum cosmology.
Ding, You; Ma, Yongge; Yang, Jinsong
2009-02-01
Semiclassical states in isotropic loop quantum cosmology are employed to show that the improved dynamics has the correct classical limit. The effective Hamiltonian for the quantum cosmological model with a massless scalar field is thus obtained, which incorporates also the next to leading order quantum corrections. The possibility that the higher order correction terms may lead to significant departure from the leading order effective scenario is revealed. If the semiclassicality of the model is maintained in the large scale limit, there are great possibilities for a k=0 Friedmann expanding universe to undergo a collapse in the future due to the quantum gravity effect. Thus the quantum bounce and collapse may contribute a cyclic universe in the new scenario. PMID:19257499
Quantum effects on propagation of bulk and surface waves in a thin quantum plasma film
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moradi, Afshin
2015-06-01
The propagation of bulk and surface plasma waves in a thin quantum plasma film is investigated, taking into account the quantum effects. The generalized bulk and surface plasma dispersion relation due to quantum effects is derived, using the quantum hydrodynamic dielectric function and applying appropriate additional boundary conditions. The quantum mechanical and film geometric effects on the bulk and surface modes are discussed. It is found that quantum effects become important for a thin film of small thickness.
Doppler- and recoil-free laser excitation of Rydberg states via three-photon transitions
Ryabtsev, I. I.; Beterov, I. I.; Tretyakov, D. B.; Entin, V. M.; Yakshina, E. A.
2011-11-15
Three-photon laser excitation of Rydberg states by three different laser beams can be arranged in a starlike geometry that simultaneously eliminates the recoil effect and Doppler broadening. Our analytical and numerical calculations for a particular laser excitation scheme 5S{sub 1/2}{yields}5P{sub 3/2}{yields}6S{sub 1/2}{yields}nP in Rb atoms have shown that, compared to the one- and two-photon laser excitation, this approach provides much narrower linewidth and longer coherence time for both cold atom samples and hot vapors, if the intermediate one-photon resonances of the three-photon transition are detuned by more than respective single-photon Doppler widths. This method can be used to improve fidelity of Rydberg quantum gates and precision of spectroscopic measurements in Rydberg atoms.
Spin-orbit force, recoil corrections, and possible BB¯* and DD¯* molecular states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Lu; Ma, Li; Zhu, Shi-Lin
2014-05-01
In the framework of the one-boson exchange model, we have calculated the effective potentials between two heavy mesons BB¯* and DD¯* from the t- and u-channel ?-, ?-, ?-, ?-, and ?-meson exchanges with four kinds of quantum number: I=0, JPC=1++; I =0, JPC=1+-; I =1, JPC=1++; I =1, JPC=1+-. We keep the recoil corrections to the BB¯* and DD¯* systems up to O(1/M2). The spin-orbit force appears at O(/1M), which turns out to be important for the very loosely bound molecular states. Our numerical results show that the momentum-related corrections are unfavorable to the formation of the molecular states in the I =0, JPC=1++ and I =1, JPC=1+- channels in the DD¯* system.
Gas powered fluid gun with recoil mitigation
Grubelich, Mark C; Yonas, Gerold
2013-11-12
A gas powered fluid gun for propelling a stream or slug of a fluid at high velocity toward a target. Recoil mitigation is provided that reduces or eliminates the associated recoil forces, with minimal or no backwash. By launching a quantity of water in the opposite direction, net momentum forces are reduced or eliminated. Examples of recoil mitigation devices include a cone for making a conical fluid sheet, a device forming multiple impinging streams of fluid, a cavitating venturi, one or more spinning vanes, or an annular tangential entry/exit.
Nuclear quantum effects in water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morrone, Joseph; Car, Roberto
2008-03-01
In this work, a path integral Car-Parrinello molecular dynamicsootnotetextCPMD V3.11 Copyright IBM Corp 1990-2006, Copyright MPI fuer Festkoerperforschung Stuttgart 1997-2001. simulation of liquid water is performed. It is found that the inclusion of nuclear quantum effects systematically improves the agreement of first-principles simulations of liquid water with experiment. In addition, the proton momentum distribution is computed utilizing a recently developed ``open'' path integral molecular dynamics methodologyootnotetextJ.A. Morrone, V. Srinivasan, D. Sebastiani, R. Car J. Chem. Phys. 126 234504 (2007).. It is shown that these results, which are consistent with our computations of the liquid structure, are in good agreement with neutron Compton scattering dataootnotetextG.F. Reiter, J.C. Li, J. Mayers, T. Abdul-Redah, P. Platzman Braz. J. Phys. 34 142 (2004).. The remaining discrepancies between experiment and the present results are indicative of some degree of over-binding in the hydrogen bond network, likely engendered by the use of semi-local approximations to density functional theory in order to describe the electronic structure.
Radiation pressure in SFA theory: retardation and recoil corrections
Krajewska, K
2015-01-01
Radiation pressure effects in ionization by short linearly-polarized laser pulses are investigated in the framework of strong-field approximation, in both nonrelativistic and relativistic formulations. Differences between both approaches are discussed, and retardation and recoil corrections are defined. It is demonstrated how these corrections can be incorporated into the nonrelativistic approach, leading to the so-called quasi-relativistic formulation. These three approaches are further applied to the analysis of signatures of radiation pressure in energy-angular distributions of photoelectrons. It is demonstrated that, for Ti:Sapphire laser pulses of intensities up to $10^{16}\\mathrm{W/cm}^2$, predictions of the quasi-relativistic formulation agree well with those of the full relativistic one, and that the recoil corrections contribute predominantly to the radiation pressure effects.
Scintillation Response of Liquid Xenon to Low Energy Nuclear Recoils
E. Aprile; K. L. Giboni; P. Majewski; K. Ni; M. Yamashita; R. Hasty; A. Manzur; D. N. McKinsey
2005-03-29
Liquid Xenon (LXe) is expected to be an excellent target and detector medium to search for dark matter in the form of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). Knowledge of LXe ionization and scintillation response to low energy nuclear recoils expected from the scattering of WIMPs by Xe nuclei is important for determining the sensitivity of LXe direct detection experiments. Here we report on new measurements of the scintillation yield of Xe recoils with kinetic energy as low as 10 keV. The dependence of the scintillation yield on applied electric field was also measured in the range of 0 to 4 kV/cm. Results are in good agreement with recent theoretical predictions that take into account the effect of biexcitonic collisions in addition to the nuclear quenching effect.
Casimir Effect : Optomechanics in Quantum Vacuum
Astrid Lambrecht; Serge Reynaud
2011-09-01
The Casimir effect results from the optomechanical coupling between field fluctuations and mirrors in quantum vacuum. This contribution to the 20th International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy (ICOLS 2011) discusses the current status in the comparison between theory and experiments.
Hartman effect and dissipative quantum systems
Samyadeb Bhattacharya; Sisir Roy
2012-10-25
The dwell time for dissipative quantum system is shown to increase with barrier width. It clearly precludes Hartman effect for dissipative systems. Here calculation has been done for inverted parabolic potential barrier.
Difference posets, effects, and quantum measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dvure?enskij, Anatolij; Pulmannová, Sylvia
1994-04-01
Difference posets as generalizations of quantum logics, orthoalgebras, and effects are studied. Observables and measures generalizing normalized POV-measures and generalized measures on sets of effects are introduced. Characterization of orthomodularity of subsets of a difference poset in terms of triangle closedness and regularity of these subsets enables us to characterize observables with a Boolean range. Boolean powers of difference posets are investigated; they have similar properties to that of tensor products, and their connection with quantum measurements is studied.
Discrimination of nuclear recoils from alpha particles with superheated liquids
F. Aubin; M. Auger; E. Behnke; B. Beltran; K. Clark; X. Dai; A. Davour; M. -H. Genest; G. Giroux; R. Gornea; R. Faust; C. B. Krauss; C. Leroy; L. Lessard; I. Levine; C. Levy; J. -P. Martin; T. Morlat; A. J. Noble; P. Nadeau; M. -C. Piro; S. Pospisil; T. Shepherd; J. Sodomka; N. Starinski; I. Stekl; C. Storey; U. Wichoski; V. Zacek
2008-09-23
The PICASSO collaboration observed for the first time a significant difference between the acoustic signals induced by neutrons and alpha particles in a detector based on superheated liquids. This new discovery offers the possibility of improved background suppression and could be especially useful for dark matter experiments. This new effect may be attributed to the formation of multiple bubbles on alpha tracks, compared to single nucleations created by neutron induced recoils.
THE INTEGER QUANTUM HALL EFFECT
Lathrop, Daniel P.
): Advanced Quantum Mechanics II PHYS 40202 : taken from - http://oer.physics.manchester.ac.uk/AQM2/Notes conductance adds another parameter that can "flow" H. Levine, S. B. Libby, and A. M. M. Pruisken, PRL 51, 1915
Generalized effective description of loop quantum cosmology
Ashtekar, Abhay
2015-01-01
The effective description of loop quantum cosmology (LQC) has proved to be a convenient platform to study phenomenological implications of the quantum bounce that resolves the classical big-bang singularity. Originally, this description was derived using Gaussian quantum states with small dispersions. In this paper we present a generalization to incorporate states with large dispersions. Specifically, we derive the \\emph{generalized} effective Friedmann and Raychaudhuri equations and propose a generalized effective Hamiltonian which are being used in an ongoing study of the phenomenological consequences of a broad class of quantum geometries. We also discuss an interesting interplay between the physics of states with larger dispersions in standard LQC, and of sharply peaked states in (hypothetical) LQC theories with larger area gap.
Generalized effective description of loop quantum cosmology
Abhay Ashtekar; Brajesh Gupt
2015-09-29
The effective description of loop quantum cosmology (LQC) has proved to be a convenient platform to study phenomenological implications of the quantum bounce that resolves the classical big-bang singularity. Originally, this description was derived using Gaussian quantum states with small dispersions. In this paper we present a generalization to incorporate states with large dispersions. Specifically, we derive the \\emph{generalized} effective Friedmann and Raychaudhuri equations and propose a generalized effective Hamiltonian which are being used in an ongoing study of the phenomenological consequences of a broad class of quantum geometries. We also discuss an interesting interplay between the physics of states with larger dispersions in standard LQC, and of sharply peaked states in (hypothetical) LQC theories with larger area gap.
A recoil resilient lumen support, design, fabrication and mechanical evaluation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehdizadeh, Arash; Ali, Mohamed Sultan Mohamed; Takahata, Kenichi; Al-Sarawi, Said; Abbott, Derek
2013-06-01
Stents are artificial implants that provide scaffolding to a cavity inside the body. This paper presents a new luminal device for reducing the mechanical failure of stents due to recoil, which is one of the most important issues in stenting. This device, which we call a recoil-resilient ring (RRR), is utilized standalone or potentially integrated with existing stents to address the problem of recoil. The proposed structure aims to minimize the need for high-pressure overexpansion that can induce intra-luminal trauma and excess growth of vascular tissue causing later restenosis. The RRR is an overlapped open ring with asymmetrical sawtooth structures that are intermeshed. These teeth can slide on top of each other, while the ring is radially expanded, but interlock step-by-step so as to keep the final expanded state against compressional forces that normally cause recoil. The RRRs thus deliver balloon expandability and, when integrated with a stent, bring both radial rigidity and longitudinal flexibility to the stent. The design of the RRR is investigated through finite element analysis (FEA), and then the devices are fabricated using micro-electro-discharge machining of 200-µm-thick Nitinol sheet. The standalone RRR is balloon expandable in vitro by 5-7 Atm in pressure, which is well within the recommended in vivo pressure ranges for stenting procedures. FEA compression tests indicate 13× less reduction of the cross-sectional area of the RRR compared with a typical stainless steel stent. These results also show perfect elastic recovery of the RRR after removal of the pressure compared to the remaining plastic deformations of the stainless steel stent. On the other hand, experimental loading tests show that the fabricated RRRs have 2.8× radial stiffness compared to a two-column section of a commercial stent while exhibiting comparable elastic recovery. Furthermore, testing of in vitro expansion in a mock artery tube shows around 2.9% recoil, approximately 5-11× smaller than the recoil reported for commercial stents. These experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the device design for the targeted luminal support and stenting applications.
Recoil detection of the lightest neutralino in MSSM singlet extensions
Barger, Vernon; Lewis, Ian; McCaskey, Mat; Shaughnessy, Gabe; Yencho, Brian [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Langacker, Paul [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)
2007-06-01
We investigate the correlated predictions of singlet extended MSSM models for direct detection and the cosmological relic density of the lightest neutralino. To illustrate the general effects of the singlet, we take heavy sleptons and squarks. We apply CERN LEP (g-2){sub {mu}}, and perturbativity constraints. We find that the WMAP upper bound on the cold dark matter density limits much of the parameter space to regions where the lightest neutralino can be discovered in recoil experiments. The results for the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model and U(1){sup '}-extended minimal supersymmetric standard model are typically similar to the MSSM since their light neutralinos have similar compositions and masses. In the nearly minimal supersymmetric standard model the neutralino is often very light and its recoil detection is within the reach of the CDMS II experiment. In general, most points in the parameter spaces of the singlet models we consider are accessible to the WARP experiment.
? decay and recoil decay tagging studies of 183Tl
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raddon, P. M.; Jenkins, D. G.; O'Leary, C. D.; Simons, A. J.; Wadsworth, R.; Andreyev, A. N.; Page, R. D.; Carpenter, M. P.; Kondev, F. G.; Enqvist, T.; Greenlees, P. T.; Jones, P. M.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Kettunen, H.; Leino, M.; Leppänen, A.-P.; Nieminen, P.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Uusitalo, J.; Joss, D. T.
2004-12-01
High-spin states in the nucleus 183Tl have been studied using the recoil decay tagging and recoil tagging techniques. The data have enabled new structures to be identified which are believed to be based on prolate f7/2 , h9/2 , and oblate h9/2 configurations. In addition, the prolate i3/2 structure has also been extended. The systematics of the newly identified structures will be discussed. The ? decay of 183Tl has also been investigated. Examination of both delayed and prompt ? rays in coincidence with the prominent 6333-keV ? decay, together with an investigation of the effects of the summing of L electrons, allow assignment of transitions and the construction of tentative low-spin decay schemes for 179Au and 175Ir .
D'Agnolo, Andrea
Quantum Computing and Lie Theory Feynman's suggestion that the only effective way to model quantum phe- nomena on a computer would be to build a computer that made use of quantum mechanics was one of the cornerstones of the birth of quantum com- puting. In his later years he studied both classical and quantum
Anatomy of the Binary Black Hole Recoil: A Multipolar Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schnittman, Jeremy; Buonanno, Alessandra; vanMeter, James R.; Baker, John G.; Boggs, William D.; Centrella, Joan; Kelly, Bernard J.; McWilliams, Sean T.
2007-01-01
We present a multipolar analysis of the recoil velocity computed in recent numerical simulations of binary black hole coalescence, for both unequal masses and non-zero, non-precessing spins. We show that multipole moments up to and including 1 = 4 are sufficient to accurately reproduce the final recoil velocity (= 98%) and that only a few dominant modes contribute significantly to it (2 95%). We describe how the relative amplitude, and more importantly, the relative phase, of these few modes control the way in which the recoil builds up throughout the inspiral, merger, and ring-down phases. We also find that the numerical results can be reproduced, to a high level of accuracy, by an effective Newtonian formula for the multipole moments obtained by replacing in the Newtonian formula the radial separation with an effective radius computed from the numerical data. Beyond the merger, the numerical results are reproduced by a superposition of three Kerr quasi-normal modes. Analytic formulae, obtained by expressing the multipole moments in terms of the fundamental QNMs of a Kerr BH, are able to explain the onset and amount of '.anti-kick" for each of the simulations. Lastly, we apply this multipolar analysis to understand the remarkable difference between the amplitudes of planar and non-planar kicks for equal-mass spinning black holes.
Recoiling from a Kick in the Head-On Case
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choi, Dae-Il; Kelly, Bernard J.; Boggs, William D.; Baker, John G.; Centrella, Joan; Van Meter, James
2007-01-01
Recoil "kicks" induced by gravitational radiation are expected in the inspiral and merger of black holes. Recently the numerical relativity community has begun to measure the significant kicks found when both unequal masses and spins are considered. Because understanding the cause and magnitude of each component of this kick may be complicated in inspiral simulations, we consider these effects in the context of a simple test problem. We study recoils from collisions of binaries with initially head-on trajectories, starting with the simplest case of equal masses with no spin; adding spin and varying the mass ratio, both separately and jointly. We find spin-induced recoils to be significant even in head-on configurations. Additionally, it appears that the scaling of transverse kicks with spins is consistent with post-Newtonian (PN) theory, even though the kick is generated in the nonlinear merger interaction, where PN theory should not apply. This suggests that a simple heuristic description might be effective in the estimation of spin-kicks.
The Quantum Zeno Effect -- Watched Pots in the Quantum World
Venugopalan, Anu
2012-01-01
In the 5th century B.C.,the philosopher and logician Zeno of Elea posed several paradoxes which remained unresolved for over two thousand five hundred years. The $20^{th}$ century saw some resolutions to Zeno's mind boggling problems. This long journey saw many significant milestones in the form of discoveries like the tools of converging series and theories on infinite sets in mathematics. In recent times, the Zeno effect made an intriguing appearance in a rather unlikely place - a situation involving the time evolution of a quantum system, which is subject to "observations" over a period of time. Leonid Khalfin working in the former USSR in the 1960s and ECG Sudarshan and B. Misra at the University of Texas, Austin, first drew attention to this problem. In 1977, ECG Sudarshan and B. Misra published a paper on the quantum Zeno effect, called "The Zeno's paradox in quantum theory". Their fascinating result revealed the bizarre workings of the quantum world. Misra and Sudarshan's 1977 paper activated over two ...
Locality and universality of quantum memory effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, B.-H.; Wißmann, S.; Hu, X.-M.; Zhang, C.; Huang, Y.-F.; Li, C.-F.; Guo, G.-C.; Karlsson, A.; Piilo, J.; Breuer, H.-P.
2014-09-01
The modeling and analysis of the dynamics of complex systems often requires to employ non-Markovian stochastic processes. While there is a clear and well-established mathematical definition for non-Markovianity in the case of classical systems, the extension to the quantum regime recently caused a vivid debate, leading to many different proposals for the characterization and quantification of memory effects in the dynamics of open quantum systems. Here, we derive a mathematical representation for the non-Markovianity measure based on the exchange of information between the open system and its environment, which reveals the locality and universality of non-Markovianity in the quantum state space and substantially simplifies its numerical and experimental determination. We further illustrate the application of this representation by means of an all-optical experiment which allows the measurement of the degree of memory effects in a photonic quantum process with high accuracy.
Investigation on modeling and controability of a magnetorheological gun recoil damper
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Hongsheng; Wang, Juan; Wang, Jiong; Qian, Suxiang; Li, Yancheng
2009-07-01
Magnetorheological (MR) fluid as a new smart material has done well in the vibration and impact control engineering fields because of its good electromechanical coupling characteristics, preferable dynamic performance and higher sensitivity. And success of MRF has been apparent in many engineering applied fields, such as semi-active suspension, civil engineering, etc. So far, little research has been done about MR damper applied into the weapon system. Its primary purpose of this study is to identify its dynamic performance and controability of the artillery recoil mechanism equipped with MR damper. Firstly, based on the traditional artillery recoil mechanism, a recoil dynamic model is developed in order to obtain an ideal rule between recoil force and its stroke. Then, its effects of recoil resistance on the stability and firing accuracy of artillery are explored. Because MR gun recoil damper under high impact load shows a typical nonlinear character and there exists a shear-thinning phenomenon, to establish an accurate dynamic model has been a seeking aim of its design and application for MR damper under high impact load. Secondly, in this paper, considering its actual bearing load, an inertia factor was introduced to Herschel-Bulkley model, and some factor's effect on damping force are simulated and analyzed by using numerical simulation, including its dynamic performance under different flow coefficients and input currents. Finally, both of tests with the fixed current and different On-Off control algorithms have been done to confirm its controability of MR gun recoil damper under high impact load. Experimental results show its dynamic performances of the large-scale single-ended MR gun recoil damper can be changed by altering the applied currents and it has a good controllability.
Coherent quantum effects through dispersive bosonic media
Ye Saiyun; Yang Zhenbiao; Zheng Shibiao; Serafini, Alessio
2010-07-15
The coherent evolution of two qubits mediated by a set of bosonic field modes is investigated. By assuming a specific asymmetric encoding of the quantum states in the internal levels of the qubits, we show that entangling quantum gates can be realized, with high fidelity, even when a large number of mediating modes is involved. The effect of losses and imperfections on the gates' operation is also considered in detail.
Coherent quantum effects through dispersive bosonic media
Sai-Yun Ye; Zhen-Biao Yang; Shi-Biao Zheng; Alessio Serafini
2010-04-24
The coherent evolution of two atomic qubits mediated by a set of bosonic field modes is investigated. By assuming a specific encoding of the quantum states in the internal levels of the two atoms we show that entangling quantum gates can be realised, with high fidelity, even when a large number of mediating modes is involved. The effect of losses and imperfections on the gates' operation is also considered in detail.
Quantum Harmonic Oscillator and Nonstationary Casimir Effect
V. V. Dodonov; A. V. Dodonov
2005-01-01
We consider the relations between the theory of quantum nonstationary damped oscillator and nonstationary Casimir effect in\\u000a view of the problem of photon creation from vacuum inside the cavity with periodical time-dependent conductivity of a thin\\u000a semiconductor boundary layer, which simulates periodical displacements of the cavity boundaries. We develop a consistent model\\u000a of quantum damped harmonic oscillator with arbitrary time-dependent
Some boundary effects in quantum field theory
Bezerra, V.B.; Rego-Monteiro, M.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Caixa Postal 5008, 58051-970 Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2004-09-15
We have constructed a quantum field theory in a finite box, with periodic boundary conditions, using the hypothesis that particles living in a finite box are created and/or annihilated by the creation and/or annihilation operators, respectively, of a quantum harmonic oscillator on a circle. An expression for the effective coupling constant is obtained, showing explicitly its dependence on the dimension of the box.
Classification of macroscopic quantum effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farrow, Tristan; Vedral, Vlatko
2015-02-01
We review canonical experiments on systems that have pushed the boundary between the quantum and classical worlds towards much larger scales, and discuss their unique features that enable quantum coherence to survive. Because the types of systems differ so widely, we use a case by case approach to identifying the different parameters and criteria that capture their behaviour in a quantum mechanical framework. We find it helpful to categorise systems into three broad classes defined by mass, spatio-temporal coherence, and number of particles. The classes are not mutually exclusive and in fact the properties of some systems fit into several classes. We discuss experiments by turn, starting with interference of massive objects like macromolecules and micro-mechanical resonators, followed by self-interference of single particles in complex molecules, before examining the striking advances made with superconducting qubits. Finally, we propose a theoretical basis for quantifying the macroscopic features of a system to lay the ground for a more systematic comparison of the quantum properties in disparate systems.
Oscillation and recoil of single and consecutively printed droplets.
Yang, Xin; Chhasatia, Viral H; Sun, Ying
2013-02-19
In this study, the recoil and oscillation of single and consecutively printed drops on substrates of different wettabilities are examined using a high speed camera. The results show that, for a droplet impact on a dry surface at Weber number ~ O (1), both inertia and capillary effects are important in the initial spreading regime before the droplet starts to oscillate. For a substrate of higher wettability, drop oscillation decays faster due to a stronger viscous dissipation over a longer oscillation path parallel to the substrate. It is also found that when a drop impacts on a sessile drop sitting on a hydrophobic substrate, the combined drop recoil twice resulted from the coalescence of the two drops, whereas no recoil is observed for the impact of a single drop on a dry surface under the same condition. Furthermore, a single-degree-of-freedom vibration model for the height oscillation of single and combined drops on a hydrophobic substrate is established. For the condition considered, the model predictions match well with the experiments. The results also show the extent to which the increase in the liquid viscosity facilitates oscillation damping and the quantitative extension of the oscillation time of a combined drop compared to a single drop. PMID:23360081
Berkeley Experiments on Superfluid Macroscopic Quantum Effects
Packard, Richard [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2006-09-07
This paper provides a brief history of the evolution of the Berkeley experiments on macroscopic quantum effects in superfluid helium. The narrative follows the evolution of the experiments proceeding from the detection of single vortex lines to vortex photography to quantized circulation in 3He to Josephson effects and superfluid gyroscopes in both 4He and 3He.
Quantum Confined Stark Effect in Wide Parabolic Quantum Wells
Sylwia Zieli?ska-Raczy?ska; Gerard Czajkowski; David Ziemkiewicz
2015-07-30
We show how to compute the optical functions of Wide Parabolic Quantum Wells (WPQWs) exposed to uniform electric F applied in the growth direction, in the excitonic energy region. The effect of the coherence between the electron-hole pair and the electromagnetic field of the propagating wave including the electron-hole screened Coulomb potential is adopted, and the valence band structure is taken into account in the cylindrical approximation. The role of the interaction potential and of the applied electric field, which mix the energy states according to different quantum numbers and create symmetry forbidden transitions, is stressed. We use the Real Density Matrix Approach (RDMA) and an effective e-h potential, which enable to derive analytical expressions for the WPQWs electrooptical functions. Choosing the susceptibility, we performed numerical calculations appropriate to a GaAs/GaAlAs WPQWs. We have obtained a red shift of the absorption maxima (Quantum Confined Stark Effect), asymmetric upon the change of the direction of the applied field (F -> -F), parabolic for the ground state and strongly dependent on the confinement parameters (the QWs sizes), changes in the oscillator strengths, and new peaks related to the states with different parity for electron and hole.
Effective pure states for bulk quantum computation
Knill, E.; Chuang, I.; Laflamme, R.
1997-11-01
In bulk quantum computation one can manipulate a large number of indistinguishable quantum computers by parallel unitary operations and measure expectation values of certain observables with limited sensitivity. The initial state of each computer in the ensemble is known but not pure. Methods for obtaining effective pure input states by a series of manipulations have been described by Gershenfeld and Chuang (logical labeling) and Corey et al. (spatial averaging) for the case of quantum computation with nuclear magnetic resonance. We give a different technique called temporal averaging. This method is based on classical randomization, requires no ancilla qubits and can be implemented in nuclear magnetic resonance without using gradient fields. We introduce several temporal averaging algorithms suitable for both high temperature and low temperature bulk quantum computing and analyze the signal to noise behavior of each.
Effective mass in quantum effects of radiation pressure
M. Pinard; Y. Hadjar; A. Heidmann
1999-09-02
We study the quantum effects of radiation pressure in a high-finesse cavity with a mirror coated on a mechanical resonator. We show that the optomechanical coupling can be described by an effective susceptibility which takes into account every acoustic modes of the resonator and their coupling to the light. At low frequency this effective response is similar to a harmonic response with an effective mass smaller than the total mass of the mirror. For a plano-convex resonator the effective mass is related to the light spot size and becomes very small for small optical waists, thus enhancing the quantum effects of optomechanical coupling.
Quantum metrology and estimation of Unruh effect
Wang, Jieci; Tian, Zehua; Jing, Jiliang; Fan, Heng
2014-01-01
We study the quantum metrology for a pair of entangled Unruh-Dewitt detectors when one of them is accelerated and coupled to a massless scalar field. Comparing with previous schemes, our model requires only local interaction and avoids the use of cavities in the probe state preparation process. We show that the probe state preparation and the interaction between the accelerated detector and the external field have significant effects on the value of quantum Fisher information, correspondingly pose variable ultimate limit of precision in the estimation of Unruh effect. We find that the precision of the estimation can be improved by a larger effective coupling strength and a longer interaction time. Alternatively, the energy gap of the detector has a range that can provide us a better precision. Thus we may adjust those parameters and attain a higher precision in the estimation. We also find that an extremely high acceleration is not required in the quantum metrology process. PMID:25424772
Quantum metrology and detection of Unruh effect
Jieci Wang; Zehua Tian; Jiliang Jing; Heng Fan
2014-10-19
We study the quantum metrology for a pair of entangled Unruh-Dewitt detectors when one of them is accelerated and coupled to a massless scalar field. Comparing with previous schemes, our model requires only local interaction and avoids the use of cavities in the probe state preparation process. We show that the probe state preparation and the interaction between the accelerated detector and the external field have significant effects on the value of quantum Fisher information, correspondingly pose variable ultimate limit of precision in the estimation of Unruh effect. We find that the precision of the estimation can be improved by a larger effective coupling strength and a longer interaction time. Alternatively, the energy gap of the detector has a range that can provide us a better precision. Thus we may adjust those parameters and attain a higher precision in the estimation. We also find that an extremely high acceleration is not required in the quantum metrology process.
Nonlinear effect on quantum control for two-level systems
W. Wang; J. Shen; X. X. Yi
2009-06-05
The traditional quantum control theory focuses on linear quantum system. Here we show the effect of nonlinearity on quantum control of a two-level system, we find that the nonlinearity can change the controllability of quantum system. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the Lyapunov control can be used to overcome this uncontrollability induced by the nonlinear effect.
Nonlinear effect on quantum control for two-level systems
Wang, W; Yi, X X
2009-01-01
The traditional quantum control theory focuses on linear quantum system. Here we show the effect of nonlinearity on quantum control of a two-level system, we find that the nonlinearity can change the controllability of quantum system. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the Lyapunov control can be used to overcome this uncontrollability induced by the nonlinear effect.
Casimir effect in a quantum space-time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olmedo, Javier; Gambini, Rodolfo; Pullin, Jorge
2015-04-01
We study the Casimir effect for large spherical shells. Instead of a continuous background space-time, we consider a recent exact solution of a spherically symmetric vacuum space-time in loop quantum gravity, where the effective geometry becomes discrete. The quantum space-time naturally regularizes the quantum field theory and the correct result for the Casimir effect is obtained without regularization nor renormalization. This shows that quantum geometry can help to deal with the infinities of quantum field theory.
Quantum fluid model of coherent stimulated radiation by a dense relativistic cold electron beam
Monteiro, L. F.; Serbeto, A.; Tsui, K. H.; Mendonça, J. T.; Galvão, R. M. O.
2013-07-15
Using a quantum fluid model, the linear dispersion relation for FEL pumped by a short wavelength laser wiggler is deduced. Subsequently, a new quantum corrected resonance condition is obtained. It is shown that, in the limit of low energy electron beam and low frequency pump, the quantum recoil effect can be neglected, recovering the classical FEL resonance condition, k{sub s}=4k{sub w}?{sup 2}. On the other hand, for short wavelength and high energy electron beam, the quantum recoil effect becomes strong and the resonance condition turns into k{sub s}=2?(k{sub w}/?{sub c})?{sup 3/2}, with ?{sub c} being the reduced Compton wavelength. As a result, a set of nonlinear coupled equations, which describes the quantum FEL dynamics as a three-wave interaction, is obtained. Neglecting wave propagation effects, this set of equations is solved numerically and results are presented.
Casimir effect and the quantum vacuum
Jaffe, R.L. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)
2005-07-15
In discussions of the cosmological constant, the Casimir effect is often invoked as decisive evidence that the zero-point energies of quantum fields are ''real.'' On the contrary, Casimir effects can be formulated and Casimir forces can be computed without reference to zero-point energies. They are relativistic, quantum forces between charges and currents. The Casimir force (per unit area) between parallel plates vanishes as {alpha}, the fine structure constant, goes to zero, and the standard result, which appears to be independent of {alpha}, corresponds to the {alpha}{yields}{infinity} limit.
Casimir effect in a quantum space–time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gambini, Rodolfo; Olmedo, Javier; Pullin, Jorge
2015-06-01
We apply quantum field theory in quantum space–time techniques to study the Casimir effect for large spherical shells. As background we use the recently constructed exact quantum solution for spherically symmetric vacuum space–time in loop quantum gravity. All calculations are finite and one recovers the usual results without the need for regularization or renormalization. This is an example of how loop quantum gravity provides a natural resolution to the infinities of quantum field theories.
Casimir effect in a quantum space-time
Rodolfo Gambini; Javier Olmedo; Jorge Pullin
2014-10-16
We apply quantum field theory in quantum space-time techniques to study the Casimir effect for large spherical shells. As background we use the recently constructed exact quantum solution for spherically symmetric vacuum space-time in loop quantum gravity. All calculations are finite and one recovers the usual results without the need of regularization or renormalization. This is an example of how loop quantum gravity provides a natural resolution to the infinities of quantum field theories.
Spectral Effects in Quantum Teleportation
Humble, Travis S; Grice, Warren P
2007-01-01
We use a multimode description of polarization-encoded qubits to analyze the quantum teleportation protocol. Specifically, we investigate how the teleportation fidelity depends on the spectral correlations inherent to polarization-entangled photons generated by type-II spontaneous parametric down conversion. We find that the maximal obtainable fidelity depends on the spectral entanglement carried by the joint probability amplitude, a result which we quantify for the case of a joint spectrum approximated by a correlated Gaussian function. We contrast these results with a similar analysis of the visibility obtained in a polarization-correlation experiment.
Spectral effects in quantum teleportation
Humble, Travis S.; Grice, Warren P.
2007-02-15
We use a multimode description of polarization-encoded qubits to analyze the quantum teleportation protocol. Specifically, we investigate how the teleportation fidelity depends on the spectral correlations inherent to polarization-entangled photons generated by type-II spontaneous parametric down conversion. We find that the maximal obtainable fidelity depends on the spectral entanglement carried by the joint probability amplitude, a result which we quantify for the case of a joint spectrum approximated by a correlated Gaussian function. We contrast these results with a similar analysis of the visibility obtained in a polarization-correlation experiment.
Significant Quantum Effects in Hydrogen Activation
2014-01-01
Dissociation of molecular hydrogen is an important step in a wide variety of chemical, biological, and physical processes. Due to the light mass of hydrogen, it is recognized that quantum effects are often important to its reactivity. However, understanding how quantum effects impact the reactivity of hydrogen is still in its infancy. Here, we examine this issue using a well-defined Pd/Cu(111) alloy that allows the activation of hydrogen and deuterium molecules to be examined at individual Pd atom surface sites over a wide range of temperatures. Experiments comparing the uptake of hydrogen and deuterium as a function of temperature reveal completely different behavior of the two species. The rate of hydrogen activation increases at lower sample temperature, whereas deuterium activation slows as the temperature is lowered. Density functional theory simulations in which quantum nuclear effects are accounted for reveal that tunneling through the dissociation barrier is prevalent for H2 up to ?190 K and for D2 up to ?140 K. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations indicate that the effective barrier to H2 dissociation is so low that hydrogen uptake on the surface is limited merely by thermodynamics, whereas the D2 dissociation process is controlled by kinetics. These data illustrate the complexity and inherent quantum nature of this ubiquitous and seemingly simple chemical process. Examining these effects in other systems with a similar range of approaches may uncover temperature regimes where quantum effects can be harnessed, yielding greater control of bond-breaking processes at surfaces and uncovering useful chemistries such as selective bond activation or isotope separation. PMID:24684530
Protecting entanglement via the quantum Zeno effect
Sabrina Maniscalco; Francesco Francica; Rosa L. Zaffino; Nicola Lo Gullo; Francesco Plastina
2007-10-21
We study the exact entanglement dynamics of two atoms in a lossy resonator. Besides discussing the steady-state entanglement, we show that in the strong coupling regime the system-reservoir correlations induce entanglement revivals and oscillations and propose a strategy to fight against the deterioration of the entanglement using the quantum Zeno effect.
The Quantum Hall Effect in Graphene
Paolo Cea
2012-04-24
We investigate the quantum Hall effect in graphene. We argue that in graphene in presence of an external magnetic field there is dynamical generation of mass by a rearrangement of the Dirac sea. We show that the mechanism breaks the lattice valley degeneracy only for the $n=0$ Landau levels and leads to the new observed $\
Thermal disequilibrium effects in quantum reflection
Druzhinina, Viola; Mudrich, Marcel; Buchleitner, Andreas [Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs Universitaet Freiburg, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Arnecke, Florian; Madronero, Javier [Physik Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85747 Garching (Germany)
2010-09-15
We show that the quantum reflection coefficient of ultracold heavy atoms scattering off a dielectric surface can be tuned in a wide range by suitable choice of surface and environment temperatures. This effect results from a temperature-dependent repulsive part of the van der Waals-Casimir-Polder-Lifshitz atom-surface interaction potential.
Quantum Effects in Black Hole Interiors
Warren G. Anderson; Patrick R. Brady; Werner Israel; Sharon M. Morsink
1992-10-23
The Weyl curvature inside a black hole formed in a generic collapse grows, classically without bound, near to the inner horizon, due to partial absorption and blueshifting of the radiative tail of the collapse. Using a spherical model, we examine how this growth is modified by quantum effects of conformally coupled massless fields.
Proton recoil scintillator neutron rem meter
Olsher, Richard H. (Los Alamos, NM); Seagraves, David T. (Los Alamos, NM)
2003-01-01
A neutron rem meter utilizing proton recoil and thermal neutron scintillators to provide neutron detection and dose measurement. In using both fast scintillators and a thermal neutron scintillator the meter provides a wide range of sensitivity, uniform directional response, and uniform dose response. The scintillators output light to a photomultiplier tube that produces an electrical signal to an external neutron counter.
Optical recoil of asymmetric nano-optical antenna.
Song, Jung-Hwan; Shin, Jonghwa; Lim, Hee-Jin; Lee, Yong-Hee
2011-08-01
We propose nano-optical antennas with asymmetric radiation patterns as light-driven mechanical recoil force generators. Directional antennas are found to generate recoil force efficiently when driven in the spectral proximity of their resonances. It is also shown that the recoil force is equivalent to the Poynting vector integrated over a closed sphere containing the antenna structures. PMID:21934854
Optical recoil of asymmetric nano-optical antenna
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Jung-Hwan; Shin, Jonghwa; Lim, Hee-Jin; Lee, Yong-Hee
2011-08-01
We propose nano-optical antennas with asymmetric radiation patterns as light-driven mechanical recoil force generators. Directional antennas are found to generate recoil force efficiently when driven in the spectral proximity of their resonances. It is also shown that the recoil force is equivalent to the Poynting vector integrated over a closed sphere containing the antenna structures.
Gravitation: global formulation and quantum effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aldrovandi, R.; Pereira, J. G.; Vu, K. H.
2004-01-01
A non-integrable phase-factor global approach to gravitation is developed by using the similarity of teleparallel gravity to electromagnetism. The phase shifts of both the COW and the gravitational Aharonov Bohm effects are obtained. It is then shown, by considering a simple slit experiment, that in the classical limit the global approach yields the same result as the gravitational Lorentz force equation of teleparallel gravity. It represents, therefore, the quantum mechanical version of the classical description provided by the gravitational Lorentz force equation. As teleparallel gravity can be formulated independently of the equivalence principle, it will consequently require no generalization of this principle at the quantum level.
Effect of trapping in degenerate quantum plasmas
Shah, H. A.; Qureshi, M. N. S. [Department of Physics, GC University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Tsintsadze, N. [Department of Physics, GC University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Salam Chair, GC University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan)
2010-03-15
In the present work we consider the effect of trapping as a microscopic process in a plasma consisting of quantum electrons and nondegenerate ions. The formation of solitary structures is investigated in two cases: first when the electrons are fully degenerate and second when small temperature effects are taken into account. It is seen that not only rarefactive but coupled rarefactive and compressive solitons are obtained under different temperature conditions.
Quantum Mechanical Effects in Gravitational Collapse
Eric Greenwood
2010-01-12
In this thesis we investigate quantum mechanical effects to various aspects of gravitational collapse. These quantum mechanical effects are implemented in the context of the Functional Schr\\"odinger formalism. The Functional Schr\\"odinger formalism allows us to investigate the time-dependent evolutions of the quantum mechanical effects, which is beyond the scope of the usual methods used to investigate the quantum mechanical corrections of gravitational collapse. Utilizing the time-dependent nature of the Functional Schr\\"odinger formalism, we study the quantization of a spherically symmetric domain wall from the view point of an asymptotic and infalling observer, in the absence of radiation. To build a more realistic picture, we then study the time-dependent nature of the induced radiation during the collapse using a semi-classical approach. Using the domain wall and the induced radiation, we then study the time-dependent evolution of the entropy of the domain wall. Finally we make some remarks about the possible inclusion of backreaction into the system.
Partial order of quantum effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lahti, Pekka J.; MaÌ§czynski, Maciej J.
1995-04-01
The set of effects is not a lattice with respect to its natural order. Projection operators do have the greatest lower bounds (and the least upper bounds) in that set, but there are also other (incomparable) effects which share this property. However, the coexistence, the commutativity, and the regularity of a pair of effects are not sufficient for the existence of their infima and suprema. The structure of the range of an observable (as a normalized POV measure) can vary from that of a commutative Boolean to a noncommutative non-Boolean subset of effects.
Constraining effective quantum gravity with LISA
Nicolas Yunes; Lee Samuel Finn
2008-11-02
All modern routes leading to a quantum theory of gravity -- i.e., perturbative quantum gravitational one-loop exact correction to the global chiral current in the standard model, string theory, and perhaps even loop quantum gravity -- require supplementing the Einstein-Hilbert action with a parity-violating Chern-Simons term. Such a term leads to amplitude-birefringent gravitational wave propagation: i.e., one (circular) polarization state amplified with propagation while the other is attenuated. The proposed Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is capable of observing gravitational wave sources at cosmological distances, suggesting the possibility that LISA observations may place a strong bound on this manifestation of quantum gravity. Here we report on a calculation of the effect that spacetime amplitude birefringence has on the signal LISA is capable of observing from inspiraling supermassive black hole binaries at large redshift. We find that the birefringence manifests itself in the observations as an anomalous precession of the binary's orbital angular momentum as it evolves toward coalescence, whose magnitude depends on the integrated history of the Chern-Simons coupling over the worldline of radiation wavefront. We estimate that LISA could place bounds on Chern-Simons modified gravity that are several orders of magnitude stronger than the present Solar System constraints, thus providing a probe of the quantum structure of spacetime.
Polaron effects in one-dimensional lateral quantum wires and parabolic quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Degani, Marcos H.; Farias, Gil A.
1990-12-01
The polaronic effects for electrons confined in one-dimensional lateral quantum wires and parabolic quantum dots are calculated taking into account both the electron-bulk-LO-phonon interaction and the electron-interface-phonon interaction. We find that the effects of the interface phonons are important and cannot be neglected in these systems. Our calculations suggest that the polaron effects on quantum dots are larger than on lateral quantum wires due to the weaker in-plane confinement in the latter.
The Quantum-Classical and Mind-Brain Linkages: The Quantum Zeno Effect in Binocular Rivalry
Henry P. Stapp
2007-11-05
A quantum mechanical theory of the relationship between perceptions and brain dynamics based on von Neumann's theory of measurments is applied to a recent quantum theoretical treatment of binocular rivaly that makes essential use of the quantum Zeno effect to give good fits to the complex available empirical data. The often-made claim that decoherence effects in the warm, wet, noisy brain must eliminate quantum effects at the macroscopic scale pertaining to perceptions is examined, and it is argued, on the basis of fundamental principles. that the usual decoherence effects will not upset the quantum Zeno effect that is being exploited in the cited work.
The Quantum-Classical and Mind-Brain Linkages: The Quantum Zeno Effect in Binocular Rivalry
Stapp, Henry P
2007-01-01
A quantum mechanical theory of the relationship between perceptions and brain dynamics based on von Neumann's theory of measurments is applied to a recent quantum theoretical treatment of binocular rivaly that makes essential use of the quantum Zeno effect to give good fits to the complex available empirical data. The often-made claim that decoherence effects in the warm, wet, noisy brain must eliminate quantum effects at the macroscopic scale pertaining to perceptions is examined, and it is argued, on the basis of fundamental principles. that the usual decoherence effects will not upset the quantum Zeno effect that is being exploited in the cited work.
Recoil proton distribution in high energy photoproduction processes
E. Bartos; E. A. Kuraev; Yu. P. Peresunko; E. A. Vinokurov
2006-11-22
For high energy linearly polarized photon--proton scattering we have calculated the azimuthal and polar angle distributions in inclusive on recoil proton experimental setup. We have taken into account the production of lepton and pseudoscalar meson charged pairs. The typical values of cross sections are of order of hundreds of picobarn. The size of polarization effects are of order of several percents. The results are generalized for the case of electroproduction processes on the proton at rest and for high energy proton production process on resting proton.
Anomalous Nuclear Quantum Effects in Ice
Pamuk, B; Ramirez, R; Herrero, C P; Stephens, P W; Allen, P B; Fernandez-Serra, M V
2011-01-01
The experimental volume of H$_2$O ice is smaller than that of D$_2$O, and this isotope shift, with anomalous sign, is not reproduced by state of art empirical potentials. We show that {\\it ab initio} density functional theory does reproduce it, accounting correctly for a subtle interplay between intermolecular libration modes, with a normal isotope effect, and intramolecular stretching modes. The latter have an anomalous inverse isotope shift on the volume, because of quantum effects related to the well known anticorrelation between the covalent and hydrogen bonds. We also show, both experimentally and theoretically that the volume's isotope shift of H$_2\\text{}^{18}$O ice has positive sign. Relative to the the classical limit, the net effect of quantum nuclei (H and O) on volume has the conventional (positive) sign at T=0 but it becomes negative above $\\sim 70$ K, indicating that it may be also relevant for liquid water.
BlackMax: A black-hole event generator with rotation, recoil, split branes, and brane tension
Dai Dechang; Starkman, Glenn [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7079 (United States); Stojkovic, Dejan [Department of Physics, SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260-1500 (United States); Issever, Cigdem; Tseng, Jeff [University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Rizvi, Eram [Queen Mary, University of London, London (United Kingdom)
2008-04-01
We present a comprehensive black-hole event generator, BlackMax, which simulates the experimental signatures of microscopic and Planckian black-hole production and evolution at the LHC in the context of brane world models with low-scale quantum gravity. The generator is based on phenomenologically realistic models free of serious problems that plague low-scale gravity, thus offering more realistic predictions for hadron-hadron colliders. The generator includes all of the black-hole gray-body factors known to date and incorporates the effects of black-hole rotation, splitting between the fermions, nonzero brane tension, and black-hole recoil due to Hawking radiation (although not all simultaneously). The generator can be interfaced with Herwig and Pythia. The main code can be downloaded from http://www-pnp.physics.ox.ac.uk/{approx}issever/BlackMax/blackmax.html.
Ionization and scintillation of nuclear recoils in gaseous xenon
J. Renner; V. M. Gehman; A. Goldschmidt; H. S. Matis; T. Miller; Y. Nakajima; D. Nygren; C. A. B. Oliveira; D. Shuman; V. Álvarez; F. I. G. Borges; S. Cárcel; J. Castel; S. Cebrián; A. Cervera; C. A. N. Conde; T. Dafni; T. H. V. T. Dias; J. Díaz; R. Esteve; P. Evtoukhovitch; L. M. P. Fernandes; P. Ferrario; A. L. Ferreira; E. D. C. Freitas; A. Gil; H. Gómez; J. J. Gómez-Cadenas; D. González-Díaz; R. M. Gutiérrez; J. Hauptman; J. A. Hernando Morata; D. C. Herrera; F. J. Iguaz; I. G. Irastorza; M. A. Jinete; L. Labarga; A. Laing; I. Liubarsky; J. A. M. Lopes; D. Lorca; M. Losada; G. Luzón; A. Marí; J. Martín-Albo; A. Martínez; A. Moiseenko; F. Monrabal; M. Monserrate; C. M. B. Monteiro; F. J. Mora; L. M. Moutinho; J. Muñoz Vidal; H. Natal da Luz; G. Navarro; M. Nebot-Guinot; R. Palma; J. Pérez; J. L. Pérez Aparicio; L. Ripoll; A. Rodríguez; J. Rodríguez; F. P. Santos; J. M. F. dos Santos; L. Seguí; L. Serra; A. Simón; C. Sofka; M. Sorel; J. F. Toledo; A. Tomás; J. Torrent; Z. Tsamalaidze; J. F. C. A. Veloso; J. A. Villar; R. C. Webb; J. White; N. Yahlali
2014-09-09
Ionization and scintillation produced by nuclear recoils in gaseous xenon at approximately 14 bar have been simultaneously observed in an electroluminescent time projection chamber. Neutrons from radioisotope $\\alpha$-Be neutron sources were used to induce xenon nuclear recoils, and the observed recoil spectra were compared to a detailed Monte Carlo employing estimated ionization and scintillation yields for nuclear recoils. The ability to discriminate between electronic and nuclear recoils using the ratio of ionization to primary scintillation is demonstrated. These results encourage further investigation on the use of xenon in the gas phase as a detector medium in dark matter direct detection experiments.
Effects of lasing in a one-dimensional quantum metamaterial
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asai, Hidehiro; Savel'ev, Sergey; Kawabata, Shiro; Zagoskin, Alexandre M.
2015-04-01
Electromagnetic pulse propagation in a quantum metamaterial, an artificial, globally quantum coherent optical medium, is numerically simulated. We show that a one-dimensional quantum metamaterial based on superconducting quantum bits, initialized in an easily reachable factorized excited state, demonstrates lasing in the microwave range, accompanied by the chaotization of qubit states and generation of higher harmonics. These effects may provide a tool for characterization and optimization of quantum metamaterial prototypes.
Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in Hg_1-yMn_yTe Quantum Wells
Liu, Chao-Xing; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Dai, Xi; Fang, Zhong; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2010-03-19
The quantum Hall effect is usually observed when the two-dimensional electron gas is subjected to an external magnetic field, so that their quantum states form Landau levels. In this work we predict that a new phenomenon, the quantum anomalous Hall effect, can be realized in Hg{sub 1-y}Mn{sub y}Te quantum wells, without the external magnetic field and the associated Landau levels. This effect arises purely from the spin polarization of the Mn atoms, and the quantized Hall conductance is predicted for a range of quantum well thickness and the concentration of the Mn atoms. This effect enables dissipationless charge current in spintronics devices.
Angular dependence of recoil proton polarization in high-energy \\gamma d \\to p n
X. Jiang; J. Arrington; F. Benmokhtar; A. Camsonne; J.P. Chen; S. Choi; E. Chudakov; F. Cusanno; A. Deur; D. Dutta; F. Garibaldi; D. Gaskell; O. Gayou; R. Gilman; C. Glashauser; D. Hamilton; O. Hansen; D.W. Higinbotham; R.J. Holt; C.W. de Jager; M.K. Jones; L.J. Kaufman; E.R. Kinney; K. Kramer; L. Lagamba; R. de Leo; J. Lerose; D. Lhuillier; R. Lindgren; N. Liyanage; K. McCormick; Z.-E. Meziani; R. Michaels; B. Moffit; P. Monaghan; S. Nanda; K.D. Paschke; C.F. Perdrisat; V. Punjabi; I.A. Qattan; R.D. Ransome; P.E. Reimer; B. Reitz; A. Saha; E.C. Schulte; R. Sheyor; K. Slifer; P. Solvignon; V. Sulkosky; G.M. Urciuoli; E. Voutier; K. Wang; K. Wijesooriya; B. Wojtsekhowski; L. Zhu
2007-02-26
We measured the angular dependence of the three recoil proton polarization components in two-body photodisintegration of the deuteron at a photon energy of 2 GeV. These new data provide a benchmark for calculations based on quantum chromodynamics. Two of the five existing models have made predictions of polarization observables. Both explain the longitudinal polarization transfer satisfactorily.. Transverse polarizations are not well described, but suggest isovector dominance.
Jiang, X.; Benmokhtar, F.; Glashauser, C.; McCormick, K.; Ransome, R. D. [Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Arrington, J.; Holt, R. J.; Reimer, P. E.; Schulte, E. C.; Wijesooriya, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Camsonne, A. [Universite Blaise Pascal/IN2P3, F-63177 Aubiere (France); Chen, J. P.; Chudakov, E.; Gaskell, D.; Hansen, O.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Jager, C. W. de; Jones, M. K.; Lerose, J.; Michaels, R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)] (and others)
2007-05-04
We measured the angular dependence of the three recoil-proton polarization components in two-body photodisintegration of the deuteron at a photon energy of 2 GeV. These new data provide a benchmark for calculations based on quantum chromodynamics. Two of the five existing models have made predictions of polarization observables. Both explain the longitudinal polarization transfer satisfactorily. Transverse polarizations are not well described, but suggest isovector dominance.
Jiang, X.; Arrington, J.; Benmokhtar, F.; Camsonne, A.; Chen, J. P.; Holt, R. J.; Qattan, I. A.; Reimer, P. E.; Schulte, E. C.; Wijesooriya, K.; Physics; Rutgers Univ.; Univ. Blaise Pascal; Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility
2007-05-01
We measured the angular dependence of the three recoil-proton polarization components in two-body photodisintegration of the deuteron at a photon energy of 2 GeV. These new data provide a benchmark for calculations based on quantum chromodynamics. Two of the five existing models have made predictions of polarization observables. Both explain the longitudinal polarization transfer satisfactorily. Transverse polarizations are not well described, but suggest isovector dominance.
X. Jiang; J. Arrington; F. Benmokhtar; A. Camsonne; J. P. Chen; S. Choi; E. Chudakov; F. Cusanno; A. Deur; D. Dutta; F. Garibaldi; D. Gaskell; O. Gayou; R. Gilman; C. Glashauser; D. Hamilton; O. Hansen; D. W. Higinbotham; R. J. Holt; C. W. de Jager; M. K. Jones; L. J. Kaufman; E. R. Kinney; K. Kramer; L. Lagamba; R. de Leo; J. Lerose; D. Lhuillier; R. Lindgren; N. Liyanage; K. McCormick; Z.-E. Meziani; R. Michaels; B. Mof?t; P. Monaghan; S. Nanda; K. D. Paschke; C. F. Perdrisat; V. Punjabi; I. A. Qattan; R. D. Ransome; P. E. Reimer; B. Reitz; A. Saha; E. C. Schulte; R. Sheyor; K. Slifer; P. Solvignon; V. Sulkosky; G. M. Urciuoli; E. Voutier; K. Wang; K. Wijesooriya; B. Wojtsekhowski; and L. Zhu
2007-05-01
We measured the angular dependence of the three recoil-proton polarization components in two-body photodisintegration of the deuteron at a photon energy of 2 GeV. These new data provide a benchmark for calculations based on quantum chromodynamics. Two of the five existing models have made predictions of polarization observables. Both explain the longitudinal polarization transfer satisfactorily. Transverse polarizations are not well described, but suggest isovector dominance.
Quantum gravity effects in the Kerr spacetime
Reuter, M.; Tuiran, E.
2011-02-15
We analyze the impact of the leading quantum gravity effects on the properties of black holes with nonzero angular momentum by performing a suitable renormalization group improvement of the classical Kerr metric within quantum Einstein gravity. In particular, we explore the structure of the horizons, the ergosphere, and the static limit surfaces as well as the phase space available for the Penrose process. The positivity properties of the effective vacuum energy-momentum tensor are also discussed and the 'dressing' of the black hole's mass and angular momentum are investigated by computing the corresponding Komar integrals. The pertinent Smarr formula turns out to retain its classical form. As for their thermodynamical properties, a modified first law of black-hole thermodynamics is found to be satisfied by the improved black holes (to second order in the angular momentum); the corresponding Bekenstein-Hawking temperature is not proportional to the surface gravity.
Concentration Effect of Quantum and Classical Correlations during Quantum Brachistochrone Evolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Bao-Kui; Zhao, Shou-Xin
2015-09-01
We explore the role of quantum brachistochrone evolution to quantum and classical correlations in three-qubit systems, and show that the time-averaged correlations of three-qubit systems exhibit an obvious concentration effect, which means both the standard deviations of time-averaged quantum and classical correlations decrease with the separation angle. Furthermore, we find that the concentration effect on genuine tripartite entanglement is the most significant during the quantum brachistochrone evolution of three-qubit systems.
Coulomb effects between electrons in quantum box structures
R. Yang; P. P. Ruden; D. L. Smith
1995-01-01
The effects of the Coulomb repulsion between electrons in single and multiple, vertically stacked quantum boxes are studied. We model the single electron states in quantum boxes as two-dimensional harmonic oscillator states and construct two-electron wavefunctions by the configuration interaction technique. Strong correlation effects determine the electronic structure of two electrons in a single quantum box. Based on the ground
The pinning effect in quantum dots
Monisha, P. J., E-mail: pjmonisha@gmail.com [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500046 (India); Mukhopadhyay, Soma [Department of Physics, D V R College of Engineering and Technology, Hyderabad-502285 (India)
2014-04-24
The pinning effect is studied in a Gaussian quantum dot using the improved Wigner-Brillouin perturbation theory (IWBPT) in the presence of electron-phonon interaction. The electron ground state plus one phonon state is degenerate with the electron in the first excited state. The electron-phonon interaction lifts the degeneracy and the first excited states get pinned to the ground state plus one phonon state as we increase the confinement frequency.
Doping silicon with erbium by recoil implantation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feklistov, K. V.; Abramkin, D. S.; Obodnikov, V. I.; Popov, V. P.
2015-08-01
In attempt to achieve strong surface doping of silicon with erbium, silicon was implanted with 250-keV argon ions through a thin erbium film deposited on the target surface. As a result, erbium recoil atoms were knocked out of the film and incorporated into the silicon substrate. In this way, silicon was doped with erbium atoms to a concentration of 5 × 1020 cm-3 within a depth slightly above 10 nm. For the formation of stable optically active ErO n complexes, oxygen recoil atoms were also incorporated into silicon. During the subsequent heat treatment, about half of the implanted erbium atoms segregated in the surface SiO2 layer. The main fraction of erbium retained in silicon after heat treatments is optically inactive.
Polymer quantum effects on compact stars models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chacón-Acosta, Guillermo; Hernandez-Hernandez, Héctor H.
2015-03-01
In this work we study a completely degenerate Fermi gas at zero temperature by a semiclassical approximation for a Hamiltonian that arises in polymer quantum mechanics. Polymer quantum systems are quantum mechanical models quantized in a similar way as in loop quantum gravity, allowing the study of the discreteness of space and other features of the loop quantization in a simplified way. We obtain the polymer modified thermodynamical properties for this system by noticing that the corresponding Fermi energy is exactly the same as if one directly polymerizes the momentum pF. We also obtain the expansion of the corresponding thermodynamical variables in terms of small values of the polymer length scale ?. We apply these results to study a simple model of a compact one-dimensional star where the gravitational collapse is supported by electron degeneracy pressure. As a consequence, polymer corrections to the mass of the object are found. By using bounds for the polymer length found in Bose-Einstein condensates experiments we compute the modification in the mass of the compact object due to polymer effects of order 10-8. This result is similar to the other order found by different approaches such as generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), and that certainly is within the error reported in typical measurements of white dwarf masses.
The Recoil Momentum Dependence of the Deuterium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rutt, Paul Martin
We measured of the recoil momentum dependence of the d(e,e^'n)p cross section at a central vec q of 335 MeV/c. These measurements were part of experiment 85-05 at the Bates Linear Accelerator Center which also measured the electric and magnetic form factors of the neutron, G_sp{rm E}{n} and G_sp{rm M}{n }. The experiment was run with a 444 MeV electron beam incident on a 5 cm target of liquid deuterium. Outgoing electrons of different momenta were selected by changing the dipole field of the electron spectrometer OHIPS which was at a fixed angle of 47^circ. Neutrons were measured using an 1 x 4 array of mineral oil scintillators at an angle of -57^circ . The recoil momentum transfer covered a range of -43 to 165 MeV/C in six overlapping points. The kinematics were such that extensive radiative corrections were needed and techniques for performing these corrections are described. The shape of the cross section as a function of recoil momentum was compared to and found to be in good agreement with a nonrelativistic calculation which included final-state-interactions.
Recoil momentum dynamics for the antiscreening interaction
Montenegro, E.C.
1994-12-31
The electron loss by swift, highly charged ions with light, neutral targets, is due to two different and competing mechanisms. In the first possibility the projectile electron is ionized by the action of the target nucleus screened by the target electrons, which remain in the their ground state during the collision. This is called the screening mode and in this mode the exchange of energy and momentum in the collision is essentially carried out between the projectile electron and the target nucleus. In the second possibility the target electrons assume the role of the active ionizing agent of the projectile electron and the exchange of energy and momentum in the collision occurs essentially between these two active electrons. This is called the antiscreening mode. Although the target nucleus participates in the antiscreening process in an indirect way, the overall conservation of energy and momentum affects the motion of the target nucleus after the collision. This influence comes through the momentum of the ejected target electron, which can be sufficiently large in assymetric collisions to affect the target recoil momentum. This behavior has been observed in recent experiments using high-resolution recoil momentum spectroscopy which is able to separate the screening and antiscreening contributions in the recoil momentum spectrum and to characterize the dynamic differences between these two modes.
Quantum theory of the inverse Faraday effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Battiato, M.; Barbalinardo, G.; Oppeneer, P. M.
2014-01-01
We provide a quantum theoretical description of the magnetic polarization induced by intense circularly polarized light in a material. Such effect—commonly referred to as the inverse Faraday effect—is treated using beyond-linear response theory, considering the applied electromagnetic field as external perturbation. An analytical time-dependent solution of the Liouville-von Neumann equation to second order is obtained for the density matrix and used to derive expressions for the optomagnetic polarization. Two distinct cases are treated, the long-time adiabatic limit of polarization imparted by continuous wave irradiation, and the full temporal shape of the transient magnetic polarization induced by a short laser pulse. We further derive expressions for the Verdet constants for the inverse, optomagnetic Faraday effect and for the conventional, magneto-optical Faraday effect and show that they are in general different. Additionally, we derive expressions for the Faraday and inverse Faraday effects within the Drude-Lorentz theory and demonstrate that their equality does not hold in general, but only for dissipationless media. As an example, we perform initial quantum mechanical calculations of the two Verdet constants for a hydrogenlike atom and we extract the trends. We observe that one reason for a large inverse Faraday effect in heavy atoms is the spatial extension of the wave functions rather than the spin-orbit interaction, which nonetheless contributes positively.
Quantum Extremism: Effective Potential and Extremal Paths
E. N. Argyres; M. T. M. van Kessel; R. H. P. Kleiss
2009-07-07
The reality and convexity of the effective potential in quantum field theories has been studied extensively in the context of Euclidean space-time. It has been shown that canonical and path-integral approaches may yield different results, thus resolving the `convexity problem'. We discuss the transferral of these treatments to Minkowskian space-time, which also necessitates a careful discussion of precisely which field configurations give the dominant contributions to the path integral. In particular, we study the effective potential for the N=1 linear sigma model.
Integer Quantum Hall Effect in Graphene
Ahmed Jellal
2015-04-24
We study the quantum Hall effect in a monolayer graphene by using an approach based on thermodynamical properties. This can be done by considering a system of Dirac particles in an electromagnetic field and taking into account of the edges effect as a pseudo-potential varying continuously along the $x$ direction. At low temperature and in the weak electric field limit, we explicitly determine the thermodynamical potential. With this, we derive the particle numbers in terms of the quantized flux and therefore the Hall conductivity immediately follows.
A programmable quantum current standard from the Josephson and the quantum Hall effects
Poirier, W., E-mail: wilfrid.poirier@lne.fr; Lafont, F.; Djordjevic, S.; Schopfer, F.; Devoille, L. [Quantum metrology group, Laboratoire National de métrologie et d'Essais, 29 avenue Roger Hennequin, 78197 Trappes (France)
2014-01-28
We propose a way to realize a programmable quantum current standard (PQCS) from the Josephson voltage standard and the quantum Hall resistance standard (QHR) exploiting the multiple connection technique provided by the quantum Hall effect (QHE) and the exactness of the cryogenic current comparator. The PQCS could lead to breakthroughs in electrical metrology like the realization of a programmable quantum current source, a quantum ampere-meter, and a simplified closure of the quantum metrological triangle. Moreover, very accurate universality tests of the QHE could be performed by comparing PQCS based on different QHRs.
Quantum spin Hall effect of light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bliokh, Konstantin Y.; Smirnova, Daria; Nori, Franco
2015-06-01
Maxwell’s equations, formulated 150 years ago, ultimately describe properties of light, from classical electromagnetism to quantum and relativistic aspects. The latter ones result in remarkable geometric and topological phenomena related to the spin-1 massless nature of photons. By analyzing fundamental spin properties of Maxwell waves, we show that free-space light exhibits an intrinsic quantum spin Hall effect—surface modes with strong spin-momentum locking. These modes are evanescent waves that form, for example, surface plasmon-polaritons at vacuum-metal interfaces. Our findings illuminate the unusual transverse spin in evanescent waves and explain recent experiments that have demonstrated the transverse spin-direction locking in the excitation of surface optical modes. This deepens our understanding of Maxwell’s theory, reveals analogies with topological insulators for electrons, and offers applications for robust spin-directional optical interfaces.
OPTICS. Quantum spin Hall effect of light.
Bliokh, Konstantin Y; Smirnova, Daria; Nori, Franco
2015-06-26
Maxwell's equations, formulated 150 years ago, ultimately describe properties of light, from classical electromagnetism to quantum and relativistic aspects. The latter ones result in remarkable geometric and topological phenomena related to the spin-1 massless nature of photons. By analyzing fundamental spin properties of Maxwell waves, we show that free-space light exhibits an intrinsic quantum spin Hall effect—surface modes with strong spin-momentum locking. These modes are evanescent waves that form, for example, surface plasmon-polaritons at vacuum-metal interfaces. Our findings illuminate the unusual transverse spin in evanescent waves and explain recent experiments that have demonstrated the transverse spin-direction locking in the excitation of surface optical modes. This deepens our understanding of Maxwell's theory, reveals analogies with topological insulators for electrons, and offers applications for robust spin-directional optical interfaces. PMID:26113717
Quantum confined Stark effect in Gaussian quantum wells: A tight-binding study
Ramírez-Morales, A.; Martínez-Orozco, J. C.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I. [Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad Esquina Con Paseo La Bufa S/N, 98060 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)
2014-05-15
The main characteristics of the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) are studied theoretically in quantum wells of Gaussian profile. The semi-empirical tight-binding model and the Green function formalism are applied in the numerical calculations. A comparison of the QCSE in quantum wells with different kinds of confining potential is presented.
On Effective Procedures in Analyzing of Quantum Operations and Processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jamio?kowski, Andrzej
2013-01-01
In this paper we discuss some constructive procedures which can be used in certain characterizations of quantum operations and quantum channels. In particular, an effective method of checking if a given quantum operation is irreducible or not is presented. Also the question of the existance of decoherence-free subspaces for a given quantum operation is discussed. Our methods make use of an explicit form of a fixed quantum operation in its Kraus representation. Some examples based on the theory of open quantum systems are discussed.
Non-monotonicity in the quantum-classical transition: Chaos induced by quantum effects
Arie Kapulkin; Arjendu K. Pattanayak
2007-08-08
The transition from classical to quantum behavior for chaotic systems is understood to be accompanied by the suppression of chaotic effects as the relative size of $\\hbar$ is increased. We show evidence to the contrary in the behavior of the quantum trajectory dynamics of a dissipative quantum chaotic system, the double-well Duffing oscillator. The classical limit in the case considered has regular behavior, but as the effective $\\hbar$ is increased we see chaotic behavior. This chaos then disappears deeper into the quantum regime, which means that the quantum-classical transition in this case is non-monotonic in $\\hbar$.
Memory Effects in Quantum Channel Discrimination Giulio Chiribella,1
D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro
Memory Effects in Quantum Channel Discrimination Giulio Chiribella,1 Giacomo M. D'Ariano,1 quantum-memory assisted protocols for discriminating quantum channels. We show that for optimal discrimination of memory channels, memory assisted protocols are needed. This leads to a new notion of distance
TEMPERATURE EFFECTS AND TRANSPORT PHENOMENA IN TERAHERTZ QUANTUM CASCADE LASERS
Massachusetts at Lowell, University of
TEMPERATURE EFFECTS AND TRANSPORT PHENOMENA IN TERAHERTZ QUANTUM CASCADE LASERS BY PHILIP C Quantum cascade lasers (QCL's) employ the mid- and far-infrared intersubband ra- diative transitions been possible without his ability to explain the often frustrating physics of quantum cascade lasers. I
Scintillation of liquid neon from electronic and nuclear recoils
J. A. Nikkel; R. Hasty; W. H. Lippincott; D. N. McKinsey
2006-12-04
We have measured the time dependence of scintillation light from electronic and nuclear recoils in liquid neon, finding a slow time constant of 15.4+-0.2 us. Pulse shape discrimination is investigated as a means of identifying event type in liquid neon. Finally, the nuclear recoil scintillation efficiency is measured to be 0.26+-0.03 for 387 keV nuclear recoils.
Dynamical Casimir effect in quantum-information processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benenti, Giuliano; D'Arrigo, Antonio; Siccardi, Stefano; Strini, Giuliano
2014-11-01
We demonstrate, in the regime of ultrastrong matter-field coupling, the strong connection between the dynamical Casimir effect (DCE) and the performance of quantum-information protocols. Our results are illustrated by means of a realistic quantum communication channel and show that the DCE is a fundamental limit for quantum computation and communication and that novel schemes are required to implement ultrafast and reliable quantum gates. Strategies to partially counteract the DCE are also discussed.
Slow light based on quantum effects in quantum wells and quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Shu-Wei
This is a detailed study of slow light based on quantum effects in semiconductor nanostructures. We propose to implement an optical buffer using semiconductor quantum dots and quantum wells based on coherent population oscillation and spin related electromagnetically induced transparency. We identify different pump-and-probe schemes and develop comprehensive theoretical models which include important physical mechanisms in semiconductors. Semiconductors have unique properties which are inaccessible to other slow light media, and these enable the possibilities of controlling the semiconductor-based optical buffer in addition to the optical method. We investigate how to electrically control group index (slowdown factor) in quantum dots by using reverse bias voltage and forward injection current. We also develop a model to use the anisotropy of the light-hole exciton to vary the slowdown factor via two different mechanisms (coherent population oscillation and spin related electromagnetically induced transparency). Finally, we propose an idea to use the strain to control the spin relaxation time in semiconductors, which can help spin-dependent slow light in semiconductors. This research shows that the semiconductor is a promising candidate to demonstrate an optical buffer and can provide more flexible control than other slow light materials.
Quantum Spring from the Casimir Effect
Chao-Jun Feng; Xin-Zhou Li
2010-07-13
The Casimir effect arises not only in the presence of material boundaries but also in space with nontrivial topology. In this paper, we choose a topology of the flat $(D+1)$-dimensional spacetime, which causes the helix boundary condition for a Hermitian massless scalar field. Especially, Casimir effect for a massless scalar field on the helix boundary condition is investigated in two and three dimensions by using the zeta function techniques. The Casimir force parallel to the axis of the helix behaves very much like the force on a spring that obeys the Hooke's law when the ratio $r$ of the pitch to the circumference of the helix is small, but in this case, the force comes from a quantum effect, so we would like to call it \\textit{quantum spring}. When $r$ is large, this force behaves like the Newton's law of universal gravitation in the leading order. On the other hand, the force perpendicular to the axis decreases monotonously with the increasing of the ratio $r$. Both forces are attractive and their behaviors are the same in two and three dimensions.
Quantum Spring from the Casimir Effect
Feng, Chao-Jun; 10.1016/j.physletb.2010.06.030
2010-01-01
The Casimir effect arises not only in the presence of material boundaries but also in space with nontrivial topology. In this paper, we choose a topology of the flat $(D+1)$-dimensional spacetime, which causes the helix boundary condition for a Hermitian massless scalar field. Especially, Casimir effect for a massless scalar field on the helix boundary condition is investigated in two and three dimensions by using the zeta function techniques. The Casimir force parallel to the axis of the helix behaves very much like the force on a spring that obeys the Hooke's law when the ratio $r$ of the pitch to the circumference of the helix is small, but in this case, the force comes from a quantum effect, so we would like to call it \\textit{quantum spring}. When $r$ is large, this force behaves like the Newton's law of universal gravitation in the leading order. On the other hand, the force perpendicular to the axis decreases monotonously with the increasing of the ratio $r$. Both forces are attractive and their behavi...
Quantum spring from the Casimir effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Chao-Jun; Li, Xin-Zhou
2010-07-01
The Casimir effect arises not only in the presence of material boundaries but also in space with nontrivial topology. In this Letter, we choose a topology of the flat (D + 1)-dimensional spacetime, which causes the helix boundary condition for a Hermitian massless scalar field. Especially, Casimir effect for a massless scalar field on the helix boundary condition is investigated in two and three dimensions by using the zeta function techniques. The Casimir force parallel to the axis of the helix behaves very much like the force on a spring that obeys the Hooke's law when the ratio r of the pitch to the circumference of the helix is small, but in this case, the force comes from a quantum effect, so we would like to call it quantum spring. When r is large, this force behaves like the Newton's law of universal gravitation in the leading order. On the other hand, the force perpendicular to the axis decreases monotonously with the increasing of the ratio r. Both forces are attractive and their behaviors are the same in two and three dimensions.
Thermal recoil force, telemetry, and the Pioneer anomaly
Toth, Viktor T.; Turyshev, Slava G. [Ottawa, Ontario K1N 9H5 (Canada); Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California 91109-8099 (United States)
2009-02-15
Precision navigation of spacecraft requires accurate knowledge of small forces, including the recoil force due to anisotropies of thermal radiation emitted by spacecraft systems. We develop a formalism to derive the thermal recoil force from the basic principles of radiative heat exchange and energy-momentum conservation. The thermal power emitted by the spacecraft can be computed from engineering data obtained from flight telemetry, which yields a practical approach to incorporate the thermal recoil force into precision spacecraft navigation. Alternatively, orbit determination can be used to estimate the contribution of the thermal recoil force. We apply this approach to the Pioneer anomaly using a simulated Pioneer 10 Doppler data set.
Neutron electric form factor via recoil polarimetry
Richard Madey; Andrei Semenov; Simon Taylor; Aram Aghalaryan; Erick Crouse; Glen MacLachlan; Bradley Plaster; Shigeyuki Tajima; William Tireman; Chenyu Yan; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Brian Anderson; Razmik Asaturyan; O. Baker; Alan Baldwin; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; Michael Christy; Steve Churchwell; Leon Cole; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; Mostafa Elaasar; Rolf Ent; Manouchehr Farkhondeh; Howard Fenker; John Finn; Liping Gan; Kenneth Garrow; Paul Gueye; Calvin Howell; Bitao Hu; Mark Jones; James Kelly; Cynthia Keppel; Mahbubul Khandaker; Wooyoung Kim; Stanley Kowalski; Allison Lung; David Mack; D. Manley; Pete Markowitz; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Allena Opper; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi; Brian Raue; Tilmann Reichelt; Joerg Reinhold; Julie Roche; Yoshinori Sato; Wonick Seo; Neven Simicevic; Gregory Smith; Samuel Stepanyan; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Paul Ulmer; William Vulcan; John Watson; Steven Wells; Frank Wesselmann; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Seunghoon Yang; Lulin Yuan; Wei-Ming Zhang; Hong Guo Zhu; Xiaofeng Zhu
2003-05-01
The ratio of the electric to the magnetic form factor of the neutron, G_En/G_Mn, was measured via recoil polarimetry from the quasielastic d({pol-e},e'{pol-n)p reaction at three values of Q^2 [viz., 0.45, 1.15 and 1.47 (GeV/c)^2] in Hall C of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Preliminary data indicate that G_En follows the Galster parameterization up to Q^2 = 1.15 (GeV/c)^2 and appears to rise above the Galster parameterization at Q^2 = 1.47 (GeV/c)^2.
TOWARDS THE FRACTIONAL QUANTUM HALL EFFECT: A NONCOMMUTATIVE GEOMETRY PERSPECTIVE
Marcolli, Matilde
TOWARDS THE FRACTIONAL QUANTUM HALL EFFECT: A NONCOMMUTATIVE GEOMETRY PERSPECTIVE MATILDE MARCOLLI effect based on noncommutative geometry. We begin by recalling some clas- sical geometry of electrons how one can obtain this way a single electron model of the integer quantum Hall effect. While
Effective mass of nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics Fumio Hiroshima
Effective mass of nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics Fumio Hiroshima and K. R. Ito December 26, 2005 Abstract The effective mass meff of the nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics with spin 1, respectively. The effective mass meff is given through two point function R4 (, T[(x)(0)])ei(x0p0-x
Topological Quantum Computation by Manipulating Quantum Tunneling Effect of the Toric Codes
Su-Peng Kou
2008-06-10
Quantum computers are predicted to utilize quantum states to perform memory and to process tasks far faster than those of conventional classical computers. In this paper we show a new road towards building fault tolerance quantum computer by tuning quantum tunneling effect of the degenerate quantum states in topological order, instead of by braiding anyons. Using a designer Hamiltonian - the Wen-Plaquette model as an example, we study its quantum tunneling effect of the toric codes and show how to control the toric code to realize topological quantum computation (TQC). In particular, we give a proposal to the measurement of TQC. In the end the realization of the Wen-Plaquette model in cold atoms is discussed.
Ki, Dae-Han; Jung, Young-Dae
2011-07-15
The magnetic field and quantum screening effects on the occurrence scattering time advance for the electron-ion collision are investigated in quantum magnetoplasmas. The result shows that the occurrence scattering time advance decreases with an increase of the magnetic-field strength. It is also found that the occurrence time advance decreases with increasing projectile energy and increases with increasing scattering angle. In addition, the occurrence time advance decreases with an increase of the quantum effect, i.e., Fermi wavelength.
Quantum tunneling vs. thermal effects in experiments on adiabatic quantum computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silevitch, D. M.; Rosenbaum, T. F.; Aeppli, G.
2015-02-01
Traditional simulated annealing uses thermal fluctuations for convergence in optimization problems. Quantum tunneling provides a different mechanism for moving between states, with the potential for reduced time scales and different outcomes. Thermal and quantum annealing are compared in two concentration regimes of a model disordered magnet, where the effects of quantum mechanics can be tuned both by varying an applied magnetic field and by controlling the strength of thermal coupling between the magnet and an external heat bath. The results indicate that quantum annealing hastens convergence to the final state, and that the quantum character of the final state can be engineered thermodynamically.
Nuclear quantum effects and kinetic isotope effects in enzyme reactions.
Vardi-Kilshtain, Alexandra; Nitoker, Neta; Major, Dan Thomas
2015-09-15
Enzymes are extraordinarily effective catalysts evolved to perform well-defined and highly specific chemical transformations. Studying the nature of rate enhancements and the mechanistic strategies in enzymes is very important, both from a basic scientific point of view, as well as in order to improve rational design of biomimetics. Kinetic isotope effect (KIE) is a very important tool in the study of chemical reactions and has been used extensively in the field of enzymology. Theoretically, the prediction of KIEs in condensed phase environments such as enzymes is challenging due to the need to include nuclear quantum effects (NQEs). Herein we describe recent progress in our group in the development of multi-scale simulation methods for the calculation of NQEs and accurate computation of KIEs. We also describe their application to several enzyme systems. In particular we describe the use of combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods in classical and quantum simulations. The development of various novel path-integral methods is reviewed. These methods are tailor suited to enzyme systems, where only a few degrees of freedom involved in the chemistry need to be quantized. The application of the hybrid QM/MM quantum-classical simulation approach to three case studies is presented. The first case involves the proton transfer in alanine racemase. The second case presented involves orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase where multidimensional free energy simulations together with kinetic isotope effects are combined in the study of the reaction mechanism. Finally, we discuss the proton transfer in nitroalkane oxidase, where the enzyme employs tunneling as a catalytic fine-tuning tool. PMID:25769515
Nontrivial quantum and quantum-like effects in biosystems: Unsolved questions and paradoxes.
Melkikh, Alexey V; Khrennikov, Andrei
2015-11-01
Non-trivial quantum effects in biological systems are analyzed. Some unresolved issues and paradoxes related to quantum effects (Levinthal's paradox, the paradox of speed, and mechanisms of evolution) are addressed. It is concluded that the existence of non-trivial quantum effects is necessary for the functioning of living systems. In particular, it is demonstrated that classical mechanics cannot explain the stable work of the cell and any over-cell structures. The need for quantum effects is generated also by combinatorial problems of evolution. Their solution requires a priori information about the states of the evolving system, but within the framework of the classical theory it is not possible to explain mechanisms of its storage consistently. We also present essentials of so called quantum-like paradigm: sufficiently complex bio-systems process information by violating the laws of classical probability and information theory. Therefore the mathematical apparatus of quantum theory may have fruitful applications to describe behavior of bio-systems: from cells to brains, ecosystems and social systems. In quantum-like information biology it is not presumed that quantum information bio-processing is resulted from quantum physical processes in living organisms. Special experiments to test the role of quantum mechanics in living systems are suggested. This requires a detailed study of living systems on the level of individual atoms and molecules. Such monitoring of living systems in vivo can allow the identification of the real potentials of interaction between biologically important molecules. PMID:26160644
Quantum Coherence Effects in Novel Quantum Optical Systems
Sete, Eyob Alebachew
2012-10-19
Optical response of an active medium can substantially be modified when coherent superpositions of states are excited, that is, when systems display quantum coherence and interference. This has led to fascinating applications in atomic and molecular...
Effective Evolution Equations in Quantum Physics
Benjamin Schlein
2011-11-29
In these notes, we review some recent mathematical results concerning the derivation of effective evolution equations from many body quantum mechanics. In particular, we discuss the emergence of the Hartree equation in the so-called mean field regime (for example, for systems of gravitating bosons), and we show that the Gross-Pitaevskii equation approximates the dynamics of initially trapped Bose-Einstein condensates. We explain how effective evolution equations can be derived, on the one hand, by analyzing the so called BBGKY hierarchy, describing the time-evolution of reduced density matrices, and, on the other hand, by studying the dynamics of coherent initial states in a Fock-space representation of the many body system.
Synchrotron-radiation experiments with recoil ions
Levin, J.C.
1989-01-01
Studies of atoms, ions and molecules with synchrotron radiation have generally focused on measurements of properties of the electrons ejected during, or after, the photoionization process. Much can also be learned, however, about the atomic or molecular relaxation process by studies of the residual ions or molecular fragments following inner-shell photoionization. Measurements are reported of mean kinetic energies of highly charged argon, krypton, and xenon recoil ions produced by vacancy cascades following inner-shell photoionization using white and monochromatic synchrotron x radiation. Energies are much lower than for the same charge-state ions produced by charged-particle impact. The results may be applicable to design of future angle-resolved ion-atom collision experiments. Photoion charge distributions are presented and compared with other measurements and calculations. Related experiments with synchrotron-radiation produced recoil ion, including photoionization of stored ions and measurement of shakeoff in near-threshold excitation, are briefly discussed. 24 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elyasi, P.; SalmanOgli, A.
2014-05-01
This paper investigates GaAs/AlGaAs modified quantum dot nanocrystal and GaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dot-quantum well heteronanocrystal. These quantum dots have been analyzed by the finite element numerical methods. Simulations carried out for state n=1, l=0, and m=0 which are original, orbital, and magnetic state of quantum numbers. The effects of variation in radius layers such as total radius, GaAs core, shell and AlGaAs barriers radius on the wavelength and emission coefficient are studied. For the best time, it has also investigated the effect of mole fraction on emission coefficient. Meanwhile, one of the problems in biological applications is alteration of the emission wavelength of a quantum dot by changing in its dimension. This problem will be resolved by changing in potential profile.
Covariant effective action for loop quantum cosmology a la Palatini
Olmo, Gonzalo J. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)] [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Singh, Parampreet, E-mail: olmo@iem.cfmac.csic.es, E-mail: psingh@perimeterinstitute.ca [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)] [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)
2009-01-15
In loop quantum cosmology, non-perturbative quantum gravity effects lead to the resolution of the big bang singularity by a quantum bounce without introducing any new degrees of freedom. Though fundamentally discrete, the theory admits a continuum description in terms of an effective Hamiltonian. Here we provide an algorithm to obtain the corresponding effective action, establishing in this way the covariance of the theory for the first time. This result provides new insights on the continuum properties of the discrete structure of quantum geometry and opens new avenues to extract physical predictions such as those related to gauge invariant cosmological perturbations.
Guiding effect of quantum wells in semiconductor lasers
Aleshkin, V Ya; Dikareva, Natalia V; Dubinov, A A; Zvonkov, B N; Karzanova, Maria V; Kudryavtsev, K E; Nekorkin, S M; Yablonskii, A N
2013-05-31
The guiding effect of InGaAs quantum wells in GaAs- and InP-based semiconductor lasers has been studied theoretically and experimentally. The results demonstrate that such waveguides can be effectively used in laser structures with a large refractive index difference between the quantum well material and semiconductor matrix and a large number of quantum wells (e.g. in InP-based structures). (semiconductor lasers. physics and technology)
Dynamics of quantum entanglement in the reservoir with memory effects
Xiang Hao; Jinqiao Sha; Jian Sun; Shiqun Zhu
2012-08-08
The non-Markovian dynamics of quantum entanglement is studied by the Shabani-Lidar master equation when one of entangled quantum systems is coupled to a local reservoir with memory effects. The completely positive reduced dynamical map can be constructed in the Kraus representation. Quantum entanglement decays more slowly in the non-Markovian environment. The decoherence time for quantum entanglement can be markedly increased by the change of the memory kernel. It is found out that the entanglement sudden death between quantum systems and entanglement sudden birth between the system and reservoir occur at different instants.
Extinction properties of metallic nanowires: Quantum diffraction and retardation effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moradi, Afshin
2015-10-01
The standard Mie theory for the extinction of electromagnetic radiation by a metal cylinder that is irradiated by a normally incident plane wave is extended to the case of a metallic nanowire, where two quantum longitudinal waves are excited. The modification of the Mie theory due to quantum diffraction effects is included by employing the quantum hydrodynamic approximation and applying the appropriate quantum additional boundary conditions. The extinction properties of the system and their differences with previous treatments based on the standard local and nonlocal models are shown. Also, as an example the validity of the nonretarded approximation in the quantum nonlocal optical response of a sodium nanowire is discussed.
Superluminal propagation of evanescent modes as a quantum effect
Zhi-Yong Wang; Cai-Dong Xiong; Bing He
2008-04-08
Contrary to mechanical waves, the two-slit interference experiment of single photons shows that the behavior of classical electromagnetic waves corresponds to the quantum mechanical one of single photons, which is also different from the quantum-field-theory behavior such as the creations and annihilations of photons, the vacuum fluctuations, etc. Owing to a purely quantum effect, quantum tunneling particles including tunneling photons (evanescent modes) can propagate over a spacelike interval without destroying causality. With this picture we conclude that the superluminality of evanescent modes is a quantum mechanical rather than a classical phenomenon.
Non-Markovian effect on the quantum discord
Bo Wang; Zhen-Yu Xu; Ze-Qian Chen; Mang Feng
2009-11-10
We study the non-Markovian effect on the dynamics of the quantum discord by exactly solving a model consisting of two independent qubits subject to two zero-temperature non-Markovian reservoirs, respectively. Considering the two qubits initially prepared in Bell-like or extended Werner-like states, we show that there is no occurrence of the sudden death, but only instantaneous disappearance of the quantum discord at some time points, in comparison to the entanglement sudden death in the same range of the parameters of interest. It implies that the quantum discord is more useful than the entanglement to describe quantum correlation involved in quantum systems.
Non-Markovian effect on the quantum discord
Wang Bo; Xu Zhenyu [Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen Zeqian; Feng Mang [Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China)
2010-01-15
We study the non-Markovian effect on the dynamics of the quantum discord by exactly solving a model consisting of two independent qubits subject to two zero-temperature non-Markovian reservoirs, respectively. Considering the two qubits initially prepared in Bell-like or extended Werner-like states, we show that there is no occurrence of the sudden death, but only instantaneous disappearance of the quantum discord at some time points, in comparison to the entanglement sudden death in the same range of the parameters of interest. This implies that the quantum discord is more useful than the entanglement to describe the quantum correlation involved in quantum systems.
The effective field theory treatment of quantum gravity
Donoghue, John F. [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)
2012-09-24
This is a pedagogical introduction to the treatment of quantum general relativity as an effective field theory. It starts with an overview of the methods of effective field theory and includes an explicit example. Quantum general relativity matches this framework and I discuss gravitational examples as well as the limits of the effective field theory. I also discuss the insights from effective field theory on the gravitational effects on running couplings in the perturbative regime.
Pure recoil corrections to hydrogen energy levels. Krzysztof Pachucki
Pachucki, Krzysztof
on the fermion line), that contribute to hydrogen Lamb shift E(2S \\Gamma 2P ) at the level of one kHz. AccordingPure recoil corrections to hydrogen energy levels. Krzysztof Pachucki Max--Planck--Institut F, Pennsylvannia State University University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA y The pure recoil correction to hydrogen
Weightlessness of photons: A quantum effect
Ari Brynjolfsson
2006-02-17
Contrary to general belief, the Fraunhofer lines have been found to be plasma redshifted and not gravitationally redshifted, when observed on Earth. Quantum mechanical effects cause the photons' gravitational redshift to be reversed as the photons move from the Sun to the Earth. The designs of the experiments, which were thought to have proven the gravitational redshift of photons, are all in the domain of classical physics, and make it impossible to detect the reversal of the gravitational redshifts. The solar redshift experiments, however, are in the domain of quantum mechanics; and the reversal of the redshift is easily detected, when the plasma redshift is taken into account. The photons are found to be weightless relative to a local observer, but repelled relative to a distant observer. The weightlessness of the photons in the gravitational field relative to a local observer is inconsistent with Einstein's equivalence principle. This together with the plasma redshift has profound consequences for the cosmological perspectives. This article gives a theoretical explanation of the observed phenomena, proper interpretation of the many gravitational redshift experiments, and an understanding of how we missed observing the reversal of photons' gravitational redshift. The present analysis indicates that although the photons are weightless in a local system of reference, the experimental evidence indicates that quasi-static electromagnetic fields are not weightless, but adhere to the principle of equivalence.
On quantum effects in condensed matter at high pressures
S. M. Stishov
2001-01-01
Experimental data on the influence of quantum effects on the equation of state and melting at high pressures are reviewed. It is shown that the quantum isotopic effects tend to increase upon compression of substances with predominately Coulomb interaction, whereas compression of the van der Waals substances reveals the opposite trend. 'Cold' melting of 'Coulomb' substances at high pressures is
On quantum effects in condensed matter at high pressures
S. M. Stishov
2001-01-01
Experimental data on the influence of quantum effects on the equation of state and melting at high pressures are reviewed. It is shown that the quantum isotopic effects tend to increase upon compression of substances with predominately Coulomb interaction, whereas compression of the van der Waals substances reveals the opposite trend. ‘Cold’ melting of ‘Coulomb’ substances at high pressures is
Generic Jumps of Fredholm Indices and the Quantum Hall Effect
Generic Jumps of Fredholm Indices and the Quantum Hall Effect J. E. Avron and L. Sadun \\Lambda and open problems that arise in the context of the Quantum Hall Effect. 1 Introduction and Motivation discontinuous jumps that tend to be small. We relate this behavior to certain conjectures and open problems
Noise Effects in Quantum Magic Squares Game
Gawron, P; Sladkowski, J
2008-01-01
In the article we analyse how noisiness of quantum channels can influence the magic squares quantum pseudo-telepathy game. We show that the probability of success can be used to determine characteristics of quantum channels. Therefore the game deserves more careful study aiming at its implementation.
Quantum interference phenomena in the Casimir effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allocca, Andrew A.; Wilson, Justin H.; Galitski, Victor M.
2015-06-01
We propose a definitive test of whether plates involved in Casimir experiments should be modeled with ballistic or diffusive electrons—a prominent controversy highlighted by a number of conflicting experiments. The unambiguous test we propose is a measurement of the Casimir force between a disordered quasi-two-dimensional metallic plate and a three-dimensional metallic system at low temperatures, in which disorder-induced weak-localization effects modify the well-known Drude result in an experimentally tunable way. We calculate the weak-localization correction to the Casimir force as a function of magnetic field and temperature and demonstrate that the quantum interference suppression of the Casimir force is a strong, observable effect. The coexistence of weak-localization suppression in electronic transport and Casimir pressure would lend credence to the Drude theory of the Casimir effect, while the lack of such correlation would indicate a fundamental problem with the existing theory. We also study mesoscopic disorder fluctuations in the Casimir effect and estimate the width of the distribution of Casmir energies due to disorder fluctuations.
Quantum interference phenomena in the Casimir effect
Andrew A. Allocca; Justin H. Wilson; Victor Galitski
2015-01-24
We propose a definitive test of whether plates involved in Casimir experiments should be modeled with ballistic or diffusive electrons--a prominent controversy highlighted by a number of conflicting experiments. The unambiguous test we propose is a measurement of the Casimir force between a disordered quasi-2D metallic plate and a three-dimensional metallic system at low temperatures, in which disorder-induced weak localization effects modify the well-known Drude result in an experimentally tunable way. We calculate the weak localization correction to the Casimir force as a function of magnetic field and temperature and demonstrate that the quantum interference suppression of the Casimir force is a strong, observable effect. The coexistence of weak localization suppression in electronic transport and Casimir pressure would lend credence to the Drude theory of the Casimir effect, while the lack of such correlation would indicate a fundamental problem with the existing theory. We also study mesoscopic disorder fluctuations in the Casimir effect and estimate the width of the distribution of Casmir energies due to disorder fluctuations.
Dynamical competition between quantum Hall and quantum spin Hall effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quelle, A.; Morais Smith, C.
2014-11-01
In this paper, we investigate the occurrence of quantum phase transitions in topological systems out of equilibrium. More specifically, we consider graphene with a sizable spin-orbit coupling, irradiated by circularly polarized light. In the absence of light, the spin-orbit coupling drives a quantum spin Hall phase where edge currents with opposite spins counterpropagate. On the other hand, the light generates a time-dependent vector potential, which leads to a hopping parameter with staggered time-dependent phases around the benzene ring. The model is a dynamical version of the Haldane model, which considers a static staggered flux with zero total flux through each plaquette. Since the light breaks time-reversal symmetry, a quantum Hall (QH) phase protected by an integer topological invariant arises. An important difference with the static QH phase is the existence of counterpropagating edge states at different momenta, which are made possible by zero- and two-photon resonances. By numerically solving the complete problem, with spin-orbit coupling and light, and investigating different values of the driving frequency ? , we show that the spectrum exhibits nontrivial gaps not only at zero energy but also at ? /2 . This additional gap is created by photon resonances between the valence and conduction band of graphene, and the symmetry of the spectrum forces it to lie at ? /2 . By increasing the intensity of the irradiation, the topological state in the zero energy gap undergoes a dynamical phase transition from a quantum spin Hall to a quantum Hall phase, whereas the gap around ? /2 remains in the quantum Hall regime.
Quantum Hall Effect in Hydrogenated Graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guillemette, J.; Sabri, S. S.; Wu, Binxin; Bennaceur, K.; Gaskell, P. E.; Savard, M.; Lévesque, P. L.; Mahvash, F.; Guermoune, A.; Siaj, M.; Martel, R.; Szkopek, T.; Gervais, G.
2013-04-01
The quantum Hall effect is observed in a two-dimensional electron gas formed in millimeter-scale hydrogenated graphene, with a mobility less than 10cm2/V·s and corresponding Ioffe-Regel disorder parameter (kF?)-1?1. In a zero magnetic field and low temperatures, the hydrogenated graphene is insulating with a two-point resistance of the order of 250h/e2. The application of a strong magnetic field generates a negative colossal magnetoresistance, with the two-point resistance saturating within 0.5% of h/2e2 at 45 T. Our observations are consistent with the opening of an impurity-induced gap in the density of states of graphene. The interplay between electron localization by defect scattering and magnetic confinement in two-dimensional atomic crystals is discussed.
Boundary effective action for quantum Hall states
Gromov, Andrey; Abanov, Alexander G
2015-01-01
We consider quantum Hall states on a space with boundary, focusing on the aspects of the edge physics which are completely determined by the symmetries of the problem. There are four distinct terms of Chern-Simons type that appear in the low-energy effective action of the state. Two of these protect gapless edge modes. They describe Hall conductance and, with some provisions, thermal Hall conductance. The remaining two, including the Wen-Zee term, which contributes to the Hall viscosity, do not protect gapless edge modes but are instead related to local boundary response fixed by symmetries. We highlight some basic features of this response. It follows that the coefficient of the Wen-Zee term can change across an interface without closing a gap or breaking a symmetry.
Quantum Simulations of the Hydrophobic Effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grossman, Jeffrey; Schwegler, Eric; Galli, Giulia
2003-03-01
The accelerated development of nano-miniaturization and the merging of semiconductor and biological technologies is already leading to atomic scale ``nano-bio'' devices that contain hydrophobic elements, and a detailed description of the structure of water at these interfaces will play an important role in understanding how such novel technologies should be designed and applied. Our work, using quantum molecular dynamics simulations, demonstrates the need for a new description of water behavior at the interface of a hydrophobic solute. Our simulations for methane and silane in water reveal two new attributes of the hydrophobic effect that have not been observed previously: (1) the dipole tilt angles are different than the symmetric distribution expected from classical calculations; (2) while the tilt angles are the same from one solute to another, the SDF and RDF are dramatically different. These observations challenge traditional assumptions about hydrophobicity and require new postulations which will be discussed.
Casimir effect from macroscopic quantum electrodynamics
T. G. Philbin
2011-06-09
The canonical quantization of macroscopic electromagnetism was recently presented in New J. Phys. 12 (2010) 123008. This theory is here used to derive the Casimir effect, by considering the special case of thermal and zero-point fields. The stress-energy-momentum tensor of the canonical theory follows from Noether's theorem, and its electromagnetic part in thermal equilibrium gives the Casimir energy density and stress tensor. The results hold for arbitrary inhomogeneous magnetodielectrics and are obtained from a rigorous quantization of electromagnetism in dispersive, dissipative media. Continuing doubts about the status of the standard Lifshitz theory as a proper quantum treatment of Casimir forces do not apply to the derivation given here. Moreover, the correct expressions for the Casimir energy density and stress tensor inside media follow automatically from the simple restriction to thermal equilibrium, without the need for complicated thermodynamical or mechanical arguments.
Boundary effective action for quantum Hall states
Andrey Gromov; Kristan Jensen; Alexander G. Abanov
2015-07-20
We consider quantum Hall states on a space with boundary, focusing on the aspects of the edge physics which are completely determined by the symmetries of the problem. There are four distinct terms of Chern-Simons type that appear in the low-energy effective action of the state. Two of these protect gapless edge modes. They describe Hall conductance and, with some provisions, thermal Hall conductance. The remaining two, including the Wen-Zee term, which contributes to the Hall viscosity, do not protect gapless edge modes but are instead related to local boundary response fixed by symmetries. We highlight some basic features of this response. It follows that the coefficient of the Wen-Zee term can change across an interface without closing a gap or breaking a symmetry.
Effective equations for isotropic quantum cosmology including matter
Bojowald, Martin; Skirzewski, Aureliano
2007-01-01
Effective equations often provide powerful tools to develop a systematic understanding of detailed properties of a quantum system. This is especially helpful in quantum cosmology where several conceptual and technical difficulties associated with the full quantum equations can be avoided in this way. Here, effective equations for Wheeler-DeWitt and loop quantizations of spatially flat, isotropic cosmological models sourced by a massive or interacting scalar are derived and studied. The resulting systems are remarkably different from that given for a free, massless scalar. This has implications for the coherence of evolving states and the realization of a bounce in loop quantum cosmology.
Quantum electrodynamics in finite volume and nonrelativistic effective field theories
Fodor, Z; Katz, S D; Lellouch, L; Portelli, A; Szabo, K K; Toth, B C
2015-01-01
Electromagnetic effects are increasingly being accounted for in lattice quantum chromodynamics computations. Because of their long-range nature, they lead to large finite-size effects over which it is important to gain analytical control. Nonrelativistic effective field theories provide an efficient tool to describe these effects. Here we argue that some care has to be taken when applying these methods to quantum electrodynamics in a finite volume.
Quantum electrodynamics in finite volume and nonrelativistic effective field theories
Z. Fodor; C. Hoelbling; S. D. Katz; L. Lellouch; A. Portelli; K. K. Szabo; B. C. Toth
2015-02-24
Electromagnetic effects are increasingly being accounted for in lattice quantum chromodynamics computations. Because of their long-range nature, they lead to large finite-size effects over which it is important to gain analytical control. Nonrelativistic effective field theories provide an efficient tool to describe these effects. Here we argue that some care has to be taken when applying these methods to quantum electrodynamics in a finite volume.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruddy, F. H.; Dulloo, A. R.; Seidel, J. G.; Petrovi?, B.
2004-01-01
An innovative method has been demonstrated for separating alpha-emitting isotopes for medical radiotherapy applications. The method relies on recoil-ion separation rather than on conventional wet chemistry techniques to separate medical isotopes from their precursor sources. The isotopes 225Ac and 213Bi have been separated from electro-deposited sources of 229ThO 2. Separations of 225Ac were carried out by placing nickel recoil collector foils in firm contact with the 229ThO 2 sources. One-stage recoil-ion separations of 225Ac from 229Th have been performed as well as two-stage separations of 213Bi from previously recoil separated 225Ac. In addition, a direct recoil separation of 213Bi from 229Th has been demonstrated. The 213Bi from the one-stage direct separation has a high isotopic purity, but contains small amounts of long-lived 225Ac alpha activity. The two-stage separations of 213Bi produce high isotopic purity material (>99.9999%), but result in lower isotopic yields. Range-energy calculations have been carried out to determine the yields of recoil ions as a function of alpha-particle energy and ThO 2 thickness. The results of the calculations have been benchmarked with recoil separation measurements carried out using ThO 2 electro-deposits over a range of thickness. A computer code based on the generalized Bateman equations has been developed to allow calculations of the amounts of any isotope in the 229Th decay chain as a function of recoil separation exposure time and elapsed time after the separation. An excellent match has been obtained between the predictions of the Bateman calculations and the results of recoil separation measurements. The recoil separation method has proven to be a simple and effective way of separating medically useful isotopes such as 213Bi. In addition, the method has been shown to produce no chemical or radioactive wastes, in contrast to radiochemical separation methods, which generate mixed (chemical and radioactive) waste.
Effects of the Generalized Uncertainty Principle on Quantum Tunneling
Blado, Gardo; Jennings, James; Ceyanes, Joshuah; Sepulveda, Rafael
2015-01-01
In a previous paper [Blado G, Owens C, and Meyers V 2014 Quantum Wells and the Generalized Uncertainty Principle Eur. J. Phys. 35 065011], we showed that quantum gravity effects can be discussed with only a background in non-relativistic quantum mechanics at the undergraduate level by looking at the effect of the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) on the finite and infinite square wells. In this paper, we derive the GUP corrections to the tunneling probability of simple quantum mechanical systems which are accessible to undergraduates (alpha decay, simple models of quantum cosmogenesis and gravitational tunneling radiation) and which employ the WKB approximation, a topic discussed in undergraduate quantum mechanics classes. It is shown that the GUP correction increases the tunneling probability in each of the examples discussed.
Closed-form formula on quantum factorization effectiveness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zawadzki, Piotr
2013-01-01
The quantum factorization effectiveness is limited both by inherent randomness of the quantum measurement and requirement of special selection of parameters controlling behavior of classic algorithms supporting quantum device operation. However, only coarse bounds on probability of successful parameters selection have been published so far. The proof of an exact expression on factorization efficiency constitutes the main contribution of the paper. The proved expression simply relates Shor's algorithm efficiency to properties of the factors forming the composite number.
On Quantum Effects in a Theory of Biological Evolution
M. A. Martin-Delgado
2011-09-02
We construct a descriptive toy model that considers quantum effects on biological evolution starting from Chaitin's classical framework. There are smart evolution scenarios in which a quantum world is as favorable as classical worlds for evolution to take place. However, in more natural scenarios, the rate of evolution depends on the degree of entanglement present in quantum organisms with respect to classical organisms. If the entanglement is maximal, classical evolution turns out to be more favorable.
Quantum Spin Hall Effect in a Triple-Well Quantum Dot System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Ping; Cao, Zhuo-Liang
2011-05-01
A scheme for generating a quantum spin Hall effect for an ensemble of electrons trapped in a triple-well quantum dot system is proposed. Light-induced effective spin-dependent gauge potential and gauge filed are both given in a real Gaussian pulses space. In our scheme, the spin Hall effect can be demonstrated by electronic population without spin-orbit coupled interaction in the absence of any magnetic fields.
A gun recoil system employing a magnetorheological fluid damper
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Z. C.; Wang, J.
2012-10-01
This research aims to design and control a full scale gun recoil buffering system which works under real firing impact loading conditions. A conventional gun recoil absorber is replaced with a controllable magnetorheological (MR) fluid damper. Through dynamic analysis of the gun recoil system, a theoretical model for optimal design and control of the MR fluid damper for impact loadings is derived. The optimal displacement, velocity and optimal design rules are obtained. By applying the optimal design theory to protect against impact loadings, an MR fluid damper for a full scale gun recoil system is designed and manufactured. An experimental study is carried out on a firing test rig which consists of a 30 mm caliber, multi-action automatic gun with an MR damper mounted to the fixed base through a sliding guide. Experimental buffering results under passive control and optimal control are obtained. By comparison, optimal control is better than passive control, because it produces smaller variation in the recoil force while achieving less displacement of the recoil body. The optimal control strategy presented in this paper is open-loop with no feedback system needed. This means that the control process is sensor-free. This is a great benefit for a buffering system under impact loading, especially for a gun recoil system which usually works in a harsh environment.
Multidimensional Quantum Tunneling in the Schwinger Effect
Cesim K. Dumlu
2015-07-24
We study the Schwinger effect, in which the external field having a spatio-temporal profile creates electron-positron pairs via multidimensional quantum tunneling. Our treatment is based on Gutzwiller's trace formula for the QED effective action, whose imaginary part is represented by a sum over complex wordlines. The worldlines are multi-periodic, and the periods of motion collectively depend on the strength of spatial and temporal inhomogeneity. We argue that Hamilton's characteristic function that leads to the correct tunneling amplitude must explicitly depend on both periods, and is represented by an average over the internal cycles of motion. We use this averaging method to calculate the pair production rate in an exponentially damped sinusoidal field, where we find that the initial conditions for each family of periodic trajectories lie on a curve in the momentum plane. The ratio of the periods, which may also be referred as the topological index, stays uniform on each curve. Calculation of tunneling amplitude using multi-periodic trajectories shows that vacuum decay rate is reduced by an order of magnitude with respect to the purely time dependent case, due to the presence of magnetic field.
Quantum Spin Hall Effect in Ultrasonic Metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mousavi, S. Hossein; Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Wang, Zheng
2015-03-01
The discovery of topological order without breaking time-reversal symmetry, such as that in Quantum Spin Hall (QSH) effect and Topological Insulators, is one of the most groundbreaking advancements of recent years in condensed matters physics. The approach to topological order without breaking time-reversal symmetry is particularly important in elastics because no natural elastic materials show linear nonreciprocal response. Here we illustrate the first elastic-wave system emulating QSH effect and demonstrate existence of topologically protected elastic edge states. The system represents an elastic metamaterial-based phononic crystal. In this crystal, we achieved degenerate linear dispersion for two sets of modes, classified by one of the system's symmetries. Then, by relaxing and removing that symmetry by deliberately engineering a gauge field emulating a strong spin-orbit coupling of QSH, we observe opening a complete topological bandgap. Finally, the hallmark of the topological order, namely the presence of one-way chiral edge waves insensitive to nonmagnetic defects and disorders, is demonstrated in such elastic metacrystals. We illustrate the unique property of these elastic edge waves to flow around sharp corners without back-reflection or localization.
Modeling the Observability of Recoiling Black Holes as Offset Quasars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blecha, Laura; Torrey, Paul; Vogelsberger, Mark; Genel, Shy; Springel, Volker; Sijacki, Debora; Snyder, Gregory; Bird, Simeon; Nelson, Dylan; Xu, Dandan; Hernquist, Lars
2015-08-01
The merger of two supermassive black holes (SMBHs) imparts a gravitational-wave (GW) recoil kick to the remnant SMBH. In extreme cases these kicks may be thousands of km/s -- enough to easily eject them from their host galaxies. Moderate recoil kicks may also cause substantial displacements of the SMBH, however. An actively-accreting, recoiling SMBH may be observable as an offset quasar. Prior to the advent of a space-based GW observatory, detections of these offset quasars may offer the best chance for identifying recent SMBH mergers. Indeed, observational searches for recoiling quasars have already identified several promising candidates. However, systematic searches for recoils are currently hampered by large uncertainties regarding how often offset quasars should be observable, where they are most likely to be found, and whether BH spin alignment prior to merger is efficient at suppressing large recoils. Motivated by this, we have developed a model for the observable population of recoiling quasars in a cosmological framework, utilizing detailed information about the progenitor galaxies from state-of-the-art cosmological hydrodynamic simulations (the Illustris Project). The model for offset quasar lifetimes includes a physically-motivated, time-dependent model for accretion onto kicked SMBHs, and results are analyzed for a range of possible BH spin alignment models. We find that the observability of offset quasars depends strongly on the efficiency of pre-merger spin alignment, with promising indications that observations of recoils could distinguish between at least the extreme limits of spin alignment models. Our results also suggest that observable offset quasars should inhabit preferred types of host galaxies, where again these populations depend on the degree of pre-merger spin alignment. These findings will be valuable for planned and future dedicated searches for recoiling quasars, and they indicate that such objects might be used to place indirect constraints on SMBH spins.
Quantum radiation by electrons in lasers and the Unruh effect
Ralf Schützhold; Clovis Maia
2010-04-14
In addition to the Larmor radiation known from classical electrodynamics, electrons in a laser field may emit pairs of entangled photons -- which is a pure quantum effect. We investigate this quantum effect and discuss why it is suppressed in comparison with the classical Larmor radiation (which is just Thomson backscattering of the laser photons). Further, we provide an intuitive explanation of this process (in a simplified setting) in terms of the Unruh effect.
Hartman effect and non-locality in quantum networks
Swarnali Bandopadhyay; A. M. Jayannavar
2004-10-16
We study the phase time for various quantum mechanical networks having potential barriers in its arms to find the generic presence of Hartman effect. In such systems it is possible to control the `super arrival' time in one of the arms by changing parameters on another, spatially separated from it. This is yet another quantum nonlocal effect. Negative time delays (time advancement) and `ultra Hartman effect' with negative saturation times have been observed in some parameter regimes.
Quantum teleportation of nonclassical wave packets: An effective multimode theory
Benichi, Hugo; Takeda, Shuntaro; Lee, Noriyuki; Furusawa, Akira
2011-07-15
We develop a simple and efficient theoretical model to understand the quantum properties of broadband continuous variable quantum teleportation. We show that, if stated properly, the problem of multimode teleportation can be simplified to teleportation of a single effective mode that describes the input state temporal characteristic. Using that model, we show how the finite bandwidth of squeezing and external noise in the classical channel affect the output teleported quantum field. We choose an approach that is especially relevant for the case of non-Gaussian nonclassical quantum states and we finally back-test our model with recent experimental results.
Scintillation of Liquid Helium for Low-Energy Nuclear Recoils
T. M. Ito; G. M. Seidel
2013-08-18
The scintillation properties of liquid helium upon the recoil of a low energy helium atom are discussed in the context of the possible use of this medium as a detector of dark matter. It is found that the prompt scintillation yield in the range of recoil energies from a few keV to 100 keV is somewhat higher than that obtained by a linear extrapolation from the measured yield for an 5 MeV alpha particle. A comparison is made of both the scintillation yield and the charge separation by an electric field for nuclear recoils and for electrons stopped in helium.
Coupled effects in quantum dot nanostructures with nonlinear strain and bridging modelling scales
Melnik, Roderick
Coupled effects in quantum dot nanostructures with nonlinear strain and bridging modelling scales reserved. Keywords: Coupled effects; Quantum dots; Multiscale methodologies; Fluid, such nanostructures are known as quantum dots and often termed by physicists as 0-dimensional structures, reflecting
Memory effects in quantum channel discrimination
Giulio Chiribella; Giacomo M. D'Ariano; Paolo Perinotti
2008-04-02
We consider quantum-memory assisted protocols for discriminating quantum channels. We show that for optimal discrimination of memory channels, memory assisted protocols are needed. This leads to a new notion of distance for channels with memory. For optimal discrimination and estimation of sets of unitary channels memory-assisted protocols are not required.
Casimir Effects in Renormalizable Quantum Field Theories
Noah Graham; Robert L. Jaffe; Herbert Weigel
2002-01-01
We present a framework for the study of one-loop quantum corrections to extended field configurations in renormalizable quantum field theories. We work in the continuum, transforming the standard Casimir sum over modes into a sum over bound states and an integral over scattering states weighted by the density of states. We express the density of states in terms of phase
Quantum Spin Hall Effect in Inverted Type II Semiconductors
Liu, Chaoxing; /Tsinghua U., Beijing /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Hughes, Taylor L.; Qi, Xiao-Liang; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Wang, Kang; /UCLA; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2010-03-19
The quantum spin Hall (QSH) state is a topologically non-trivial state of quantum matter which preserves time-reversal symmetry; it has an energy gap in the bulk, but topologically robust gapless states at the edge. Recently, this novel effect has been predicted and observed in HgTe quantum wells. In this work we predict a similar effect arising in Type-II semiconductor quantum wells made from InAs/GaSb/AlSb. Because of a rare band alignment the quantum well band structure exhibits an 'inverted' phase similar to CdTe/HgTe quantum wells, which is a QSH state when the Fermi level lies inside the gap. Due to the asymmetric structure of this quantum well, the effects of inversion symmetry breaking and inter-layer charge transfer are essential. By standard self-consistent calculations, we show that the QSH state persists when these corrections are included, and a quantum phase transition between the normal insulator and the QSH phase can be electrically tuned by the gate voltage.
Quantum confinement effects across two-dimensional planes in MoS2 quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gan, Z. X.; Liu, L. Z.; Wu, H. Y.; Hao, Y. L.; Shan, Y.; Wu, X. L.; Chu, Paul K.
2015-06-01
The low quantum yield (˜10-5) has restricted practical use of photoluminescence (PL) from MoS2 composed of a few layers, but the quantum confinement effects across two-dimensional planes are believed to be able to boost the PL intensity. In this work, PL from 2 to 9 nm MoS2 quantum dots (QDs) is excluded from the solvent and the absorption and PL spectra are shown to be consistent with the size distribution. PL from MoS2 QDs is also found to be sensitive to aggregation due to the size effect.
Observation of Quantum Effects in sub Kelvin Cold Reactions
Alon B. Henson; Sasha Gersten; Yuval Shagam; Julia Narevicius; Edvardas Narevicius
2012-08-08
There has been a long-standing quest to observe chemical reactions at low temperatures where reaction rates and pathways are governed by quantum mechanical effects. So far this field of Quantum Chemistry has been dominated by theory. The difficulty has been to realize in the laboratory low enough collisional velocities between neutral reactants, so that the quantum wave nature could be observed. We report here the first realization of merged neutral supersonic beams, and the observation of clear quantum effects in the resulting reactions. We observe orbiting resonances in the Penning ionization reaction of argon and molecular hydrogen with metastable helium leading to a sharp increase in the absolute reaction rate in the energy range corresponding to a few degrees kelvin down to 10 mK. Our method is widely applicable to many canonical chemical reactions, and will enable a breakthrough in the experimental study of Quantum Chemistry.
A cavity-mediated collective quantum effect in sonoluminescing bubbles
Almut Beige; Oleg Kim
2015-08-28
This paper discusses a collective quantum effect which might play an important role in sonoluminescence experiments. We suggest that it occurs during the final stages of the collapse phase and enhances the heating of the particles inside the bubble.
Generic Jumps of Fredholm Indices and the Quantum Hall Effect
Joseph E. Avron; Lorenzo Sadun
2000-03-05
We describe the generic behavior of Fredholm indices in the space of Toeplitz operators. We relate this behavior to certain conjectures and open problems that arise in the context of the Quantum Hall Effect.
Effects of pulse shape on rf SQUID quantum gates
Zhou, Zhongyuan; Chu, Shih-I; Han, Siyuan
2003-06-01
Effects of control-signal microwave pulse shapes on rf SQUID quantum gates are investigated. It is shown that the gate operations are mainly affected by microwave pulse area and are independent of pulse shape in the weak field limit....
Wang, Yunliang Lü, Xiaoxia
2014-02-15
The modulational instability of quantum electrostatic acoustic waves in electron-hole quantum semiconductor plasmas is investigated using the quantum hydrodynamic model, from which a modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation with damping effects is derived using the reductive perturbation method. Here, we consider the combined effects of quantum recoil, quantum degenerate pressures, as well as the exchange-correlation effect standing for the electrons (holes) spin. The modulational instability for different semiconductors (GaAs, GaSb, and InP) is discussed. The collision between electron (hole) and phonon is also investigated. The permitted maximum time for modulational instability and the damping features of quantum envelope solitary wave are all determined by the collision. The approximate solitary solution with damping effects is presented in weak collision limit. The damping properties were discussed by numerical method.
Recoil splitting of x-ray-induced optical fluorescence
Gavrilyuk, S.; Aagren, H.; Gel'mukhanov, F. [Theoretical Chemistry, School of Biotechnology, Royal Institute of Technology, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Sun, Y.-P. [Theoretical Chemistry, School of Biotechnology, Royal Institute of Technology, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); College of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, 250014 Jinan (China); Levin, S. [Institute for Physics, St. Petersburg University, Uljanovskaya 1, St. Petersburg RU-198904 (Russian Federation)
2010-03-15
We show that the anisotropy of the recoil velocity distribution of x-ray-ionized atoms or molecules leads to observable splittings in subsequent optical fluorescence or absorption when the polarization vector of the x rays is parallel to the momentum of the fluorescent photons. The order of the magnitude of the recoil-induced splitting is about 10 {mu}eV, which can be observed using Fourier or laser-absorption spectroscopic techniques.
Quantum corrections to conductivity under conditions of the integer quantum Hall effect
Greshnov, A. A., E-mail: a_greshnov@hotmail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation)
2012-06-15
Quantum corrections to the conductivity of a two-dimensional electron gas under conditions of the integer quantum Hall effect have been studied. It is shown that violation of the one-parameter scaling under conditions of quantizing magnetic fields, {omega}{sub c}{tau} Much-Greater-Than 1, occurs at a level of the perturbation theory. The results of diagrammatic calculation of the quantum correction are in agreement with the numerical dependences of the peaks in the longitudinal conductivity on the effective size of the sample, in contrast to earlier calculations based on the unitary nonlinear {sigma}-model. Due to this, consideration of Landau quantization represents a criterion for correct description of the quantum Hall effect.
Anomaly-free cosmological perturbations in effective canonical quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barrau, Aurelien; Bojowald, Martin; Calcagni, Gianluca; Grain, Julien; Kagan, Mikhail
2015-05-01
This article lays out a complete framework for an effective theory of cosmological perturbations with corrections from canonical quantum gravity. Since several examples exist for quantum-gravity effects that change the structure of space-time, the classical perturbative treatment must be rethought carefully. The present discussion provides a unified picture of several previous works, together with new treatments of higher-order perturbations and the specification of initial states.
Plasmon modes of metallic nanowires including quantum nonlocal effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moradi, Afshin
2015-03-01
The properties of electrostatic surface and bulk plasmon modes of cylindrical metallic nanowires are investigated, using the quantum hydrodynamic theory of plasmon excitation which allows an analytical study of quantum tunneling effects through the Bohm potential term. New dispersion relations are obtained for each type of mode and their differences with previous treatments based on the standard hydrodynamic model are analyzed in detail. Numerical results show by considering the quantum effects, as the value of wave number increases, the surface modes are slightly red-shifted first and then blue-shifted while the bulk modes are blue-shifted.
Complex scattering dynamics and the quantum Hall effects
Trugman, S.A.
1994-12-16
We review both classical and quantum potential scattering in two dimensions in a magnetic field, with applications to the quantum Hall effect. Classical scattering is complex, due to the approach of scattering states to an infinite number of dynamically bound states. Quantum scattering follows the classical behavior rather closely, exhibiting sharp resonances in place of the classical bound states. Extended scatterers provide a quantitative explanation for the breakdown of the QHE at a comparatively small Hall voltage as seen by Kawaji et al., and possibly for noise effects.
Oscillatory quantum screening effects on the transition bremsstrahlung radiation in quantum plasmas
Jung, Young-Dae
2011-06-15
The oscillatory screening effects on the transition bremsstrahlung radiation due to the polarization interaction between the electron and shielding cloud are investigated in dense quantum plasmas. The impact-parameter analysis with the modified Debye-Hueckel potential is applied to obtain the bremsstrahlung radiation cross section as a function of the quantum wave number, impact parameter, photon energy, and projectile energy. The results show that the oscillatory quantum screening effect strongly suppresses the transition bremsstrahlung radiation spectrum in dense quantum plasmas. It is also found that the oscillatory quantum screening effect is more significant near the maximum peak of the bremsstrahlung radiation cross section. In addition, the maximum peak of the bremsstrahlung radiation cross section is getting close to the center of the shielding cloud as increasing quantum wave number. It is interesting to note that the range of the bremsstrahlung photon energy would be broadened with an increase of the oscillatory screening effect. It is also found that the oscillatory screening effects on the transition bremsstrahlung spectrum decreases with increasing projectile energy.
Integer Quantum Hall Effect for Bosons
Todadri, Senthil
A simple physical realization of an integer quantum Hall state of interacting two dimensional bosons is provided. This is an example of a symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phase which is a generalization of the concept ...
Quantum mechanical effects on the shock Hugoniot
Bennett, B.I. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Liberman, D.A. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))
1991-01-01
Calculations of the locus of shock Hugoniot states of aluminum, using two equations of state that either omit or include a quantum mechanical treatment for the material's electronic excitations, will be presented. The difference between the loci will be analyzed in the context of a comparison between an ab initio quantum mechanical model and a semiclassical treatment of the electronic states. The theoretical results are compared with high pressure (4--300 Mbars) data. 5 refs., 2 figs.
Non-Gaussian effects on quantum entropies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santos, A. P.; Silva, R.; Alcaniz, J. S.; Anselmo, D. H. A. L.
2012-03-01
A deduction of generalized quantum entropies within the non-Gaussian frameworks, Tsallis and Kaniadakis, is derived using a generalized combinatorial method and the so-called q and ? calculus. In agreement with previous results, we also show that for the Tsallis formulation the q-quantum entropy is well-defined for values of the nonextensive parameter q lying in the interval [0,2].
Quantum dissipative effects in moving mirrors: A functional approach
Fosco, C. D.; Lombardo, F. C.; Mazzitelli, F. D.
2007-10-15
We use a functional approach to study various aspects of the quantum effective dynamics of moving, planar, dispersive mirrors, coupled to scalar or Dirac fields, in different numbers of dimensions. We first compute the Euclidean effective action, and use it to derive the imaginary part of the 'in-out' effective action. We also obtain, for the case of the real scalar field in 1+1 dimensions, the Schwinger-Keldysh effective action and a semiclassical Langevin equation that describes the motion of the mirror including noise and dissipative effects due to its coupling to the quantum fields.
K. Hagino; T. Takehi; N. Takigawa
2006-06-06
We propose the no-recoil approximation, which is valid for heavy systems, for a double folding nucleus-nucleus potential. With this approximation, the non-local knock-on exchange contribution becomes a local form. We discuss the applicability of this approximation for the elastic scattering of $^6$Li + $^{40}$Ca system. We find that, for this system and heavier, the no-recoil approximation works as good as another widely used local approximation which employs a local plane wave for the relative motion between the colliding nuclei. We also compare the results of the no-recoil calculations with those of the zero-range approximation often used to handle the knock-on exchange effect.
Scintillation efficiency measurement of Na recoils in NaI(Tl) below the DAMA/LIBRA energy threshold
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Jingke; Shields, Emily; Calaprice, Frank; Westerdale, Shawn; Froborg, Francis; Suerfu, Burkhant; Alexander, Thomas; Aprahamian, Ani; Back, Henning O.; Casarella, Clark; Fang, Xiao; Gupta, Yogesh K.; Ianni, Aldo; Lamere, Edward; Lippincott, W. Hugh; Liu, Qian; Lyons, Stephanie; Siegl, Kevin; Smith, Mallory; Tan, Wanpeng; Kolk, Bryant Vande
2015-07-01
The dark matter interpretation of the DAMA modulation signal depends on the NaI(Tl) scintillation efficiency of nuclear recoils. Previous measurements for Na recoils have large discrepancies, especially in the DAMA/LIBRA modulation energy region. We report a quenching effect measurement of Na recoils in NaI(Tl) from 3 to 52 keVnr, covering the whole DAMA/LIBRA energy region for dark matter-Na scattering interpretations. By using a low-energy, pulsed neutron beam, a double time-of-flight technique, and pulse-shape discrimination methods, we obtained the most accurate measurement of this kind for NaI(Tl) to date. The results differ significantly from the DAMA reported values at low energies but fall between the other previous measurements. We present the implications of the new quenching results for the dark matter interpretation of the DAMA modulation signal.
Scintillation efficiency measurement of Na recoils in NaI(Tl) below the DAMA/LIBRA energy threshold
Xu, Jingke; Calaprice, Frank; Westerdale, Shawn; Froborg, Francis; Suerfu, Burkhant; Alexander, Thomas; Aprahamian, Ani; Back, Henning O; Casarella, Clark; Fang, Xiao; Gupta, Yogesh K; Ianni, Aldo; Lamere, Edward; Lippincott, W Hugh; Liu, Qian; Lyons, Stephanie; Siegl, Kevin; Smith, Mallory; Tan, Wanpeng; Kolk, Bryant Vande
2015-01-01
The dark matter interpretation of the DAMA modulation signal depends on the NaI(Tl) scintillation efficiency of nuclear recoils. Previous measurements for Na recoils have large discrepancies, especially in the DAMA/LIBRA modulation energy region. We report a quenching effect measurement of Na recoils in NaI(Tl) from 3keV$_{\\text{nr}}$ to 52keV$_{\\text{nr}}$, covering the whole DAMA/LIBRA energy region for light WIMP interpretations. By using a low-energy, pulsed neutron beam, a double time-of-flight technique, and pulse-shape discrimination methods, we obtained the most accurate measurement of this kind for NaI(Tl) to date. The results differ significantly from the DAMA reported values at low energies, but fall between the other previous measurements. We present the implications of the new quenching results for the dark matter interpretation of the DAMA modulation signal.
Chaos and the quantum: how nonlinear effects can explain certain quantum paradoxes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McHarris, Wm C.
2011-07-01
In recent years we have suggested that many of the so-called paradoxes resulting from the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics could well have more logical parallels based in nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory. Perhaps quantum mechanics might not be strictly linear as has been commonly postulated, and indeed, during the past year experimentalists have discovered signatures of chaos in a definitely quantum system. As an illustration of what can go wrong when quantum effects are forced into a linear interpretation, I examine Bell-type inequalities. In conventional derivations of such inequalities, classical systems are found to impose upper limits on the statistical correlations between, say, the properties of a pair of separated but entangled particles, whereas quantum systems allow greater correlations. Numerous experiments have upheld the quantum predictions (greater statistical correlations than allowed classically), which has led to inferences such as the instantaneous transmission of information between effectively infinitely separated particles — Einstein's "spooky action-at-a-distance," incompatible with relativity. I argue that there is nothing wrong with the quantum mechanical side of such derivations (the usual point of attack by those attempting to debunk Bell-type arguments), but implicit in the derivations on the classical side is the assumption of independent, uncorrelated particles. As a result, one is comparing uncorrelated probabilities versus conditional probabilities rather than comparing classical versus quantum mechanics, making moot the experimental inferences. Further, nonlinear classical systems are known to exhibit correlations that can easily be as great as and overlap with quantum correlations — so-called nonextensive thermodynamics with its nonadditive entropy has verified this with numerous examples. Perhaps quantum mechanics does contain fundamental nonlinear elements. Nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory could well provide a bridge between the determinism so dear to Einstein and the statisical interpretation of the Copenhagen school. Einstein and Bohr both could have been right in their debates.
Common physical mechanism for integer and fractional quantum Hall effects
Jianhua wang; Kang Li; Shuming Long; Yi Yuan
2012-01-24
Integer and fractional quantum Hall effects were studied with different physics models and explained by different physical mechanisms. In this paper, the common physical mechanism for integer and fractional quantum Hall effects is studied, where a new unified formulation of integer and fractional quantum Hall effect is presented. Firstly, we introduce a 2-dimensional ideal electron gas model in the presence of strong magnetic field with symmetry gauge, and the transverse electric filed $\\varepsilon_2$ is also introduced to balance Lorentz force. Secondly, the Pauli equation is solved where the wave function and energy levels is given explicitly. Thirdly, after the calculation of the degeneracy density for 2-dimensional ideal electron gas system, the Hall resistance of the system is obtained, where the quantum Hall number $\
Characterization of control noise effects in optimal quantum unitary dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hocker, David; Brif, Constantin; Grace, Matthew D.; Donovan, Ashley; Ho, Tak-San; Tibbetts, Katharine Moore; Wu, Rebing; Rabitz, Herschel
2014-12-01
This work develops measures for quantifying the effects of field noise upon targeted unitary transformations. Robustness to noise is assessed in the framework of the quantum control landscape, which is the mapping from the control to the unitary transformation performance measure (quantum gate fidelity). Within that framework, a geometric interpretation of stochastic noise effects naturally arises, where more robust optimal controls are associated with regions of small overlap between landscape curvature and the noise correlation function. Numerical simulations of this overlap in the context of quantum information processing reveal distinct noise spectral regimes that better support robust control solutions. This perspective shows the dual importance of both noise statistics and the control form for robustness, thereby opening up new avenues of investigation on how to mitigate noise effects in quantum systems.
Characterization of control noise effects in optimal quantum unitary dynamics
David Hocker; Constantin Brif; Matthew D. Grace; Ashley Donovan; Tak-San Ho; Katharine Moore Tibbetts; Rebing Wu; Herschel Rabitz
2014-11-13
This work develops measures for quantifying the effects of field noise upon targeted unitary transformations. Robustness to noise is assessed in the framework of the quantum control landscape, which is the mapping from the control to the unitary transformation performance measure (quantum gate fidelity). Within that framework, a new geometric interpretation of stochastic noise effects naturally arises, where more robust optimal controls are associated with regions of small overlap between landscape curvature and the noise correlation function. Numerical simulations of this overlap in the context of quantum information processing reveal distinct noise spectral regimes that better support robust control solutions. This perspective shows the dual importance of both noise statistics and the control form for robustness, thereby opening up new avenues of investigation on how to mitigate noise effects in quantum systems.
Huge Quantum Gravity Effects in the Solar System
Don N. Page
2010-05-17
Normally one thinks of the motion of the planets around the Sun as a highly classical phenomenon, so that one can neglect quantum gravity in the Solar System. However, classical chaos in the planetary motion amplifies quantum uncertainties so that they become very large, giving huge quantum gravity effects. For example, evidence suggests that Uranus may eventually be ejected from the Solar System, but quantum uncertainties would make the direction at which it leaves almost entirely uncertain, and the time of its exit uncertain by about a billion billion years. For a time a billion billion years from now, there are huge quantum uncertainties whether Uranus will be within the Solar System, within the Galaxy, or even within causal contact of the Galaxy.
Dual response models for the fractional quantum Hall effect
L. Cooper; I. I. Kogan; A. Lopez; R. J. Szabo
1998-01-01
It is shown that the Jain mapping between integer and fractional quantum Hall systems can be described as a dynamical renormalization of an effective Chern-Simons field theory. The effects of mirror symmetry of compactified string theory on this system are studied and it is shown that, when the gauge group is compact, the mirror map has the same effect as
Recoil Velocities from Equal-Mass Binary-Black-Hole Mergers
Michael Koppitz; Denis Pollney; Christian Reisswig; Luciano Rezzolla; Jonathan Thornburg; Peter Diener; Erik Schnetter
2007-08-08
The final evolution of a binary black-hole system gives rise to a recoil velocity if an asymmetry is present in the emitted gravitational radiation. Measurements of this effect for non-spinning binaries with unequal masses have pointed out that kick velocities $\\sim~175$ km/s can be reached for a mass ratio $\\simeq 0.36$. However, a larger recoil can be obtained for equal-mass binaries if the asymmetry is provided by the spins. Using two independent methods we show that the merger of such binaries yields velocities as large as $\\sim 440$ km/s for black holes having unequal spins that are antialigned and parallel to the orbital angular momentum.
Puckett, Andrew J R
2015-01-01
The electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon characterize the effect of its internal structure on its response to an electromagnetic probe as studied in elastic electron-nucleon scattering. These form factors are functions of the squared four-momentum transfer $Q^2$ between the electron and the proton. The two main classes of observables of this reaction are the scattering cross section and polarization asymmetries, both of which are sensitive to the form factors in different ways. When considering large momentum transfers, double-polarization observables offer superior sensitivity to the electric form factor. This thesis reports the results of a new measurement of the ratio of the electric and magnetic form factors of the proton at high momentum transfer using the recoil polarization technique. A polarized electron beam was scattered from a liquid hydrogen target, transferring polarization to the recoiling protons. These protons were detected in a magnetic spectrometer which was used to reconstruct their ...
{alpha} decay and recoil decay tagging studies of {sup 183}Tl
Raddon, P.M.; Jenkins, D.G.; O'Leary, C.D.; Simons, A.J.; Wadsworth, R.; Andreyev, A.N.; Page, R.D.; Carpenter, M.P.; Kondev, F.G.; Enqvist, T.; Greenlees, P.T.; Jones, P.M.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Kettunen, H.; Leino, M.; Leppaenen, A.-P.; Nieminen, P.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.
2004-12-01
High-spin states in the nucleus {sup 183}Tl have been studied using the recoil decay tagging and recoil tagging techniques. The data have enabled new structures to be identified which are believed to be based on prolate f{sub 7/2}, h{sub 9/2}, and oblate h{sub 9/2} configurations. In addition, the prolate i{sub 3/2} structure has also been extended. The systematics of the newly identified structures will be discussed. The {alpha} decay of {sup 183}Tl has also been investigated. Examination of both delayed and prompt {gamma} rays in coincidence with the prominent 6333-keV {alpha} decay, together with an investigation of the effects of the summing of L electrons, allow assignment of transitions and the construction of tentative low-spin decay schemes for {sup 179}Au and {sup 175}Ir.
Helium jet recoil transport setup for chemistry and nuclear applications at VECC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakrabarti, A.; Chowdhury, D. P.; Gangadharan, S.; Arunachalam, J.; Iyer, R. M.
1988-01-01
A gas jet recoil transport facility (GJRT) developed at VECC is described. A maximum transport efficiency of ˜ 90% has been obtained for Ni and Cu isotopes using cyclohexane as a dopant to the He carrier gas. A transit time of ˜ 1 s has been obtained at a distance of ˜ 12 m using a 1.6 mm i.d. tygon capillary and a pressure differential of 1 atm. The effect of various dopants, beam current and fluid dynamical parameters on the transport of different nuclides has been studied. The results indicate the role of the chemical aspects of the dopants and the recoils on the efficiency of transport. The usefulness of this system in determining (reaction) cross sections has been demonstrated for 60Cu, 60Zn, 61Zn and 159mHo.
Quantum-memory effects in the emission of quantum-dot microcavities.
Berger, C; Huttner, U; Mootz, M; Kira, M; Koch, S W; Tempel, J-S; Aßmann, M; Bayer, M; Mintairov, A M; Merz, J L
2014-08-29
The experimentally measured input-output characteristics of optically pumped semiconductor microcavities exhibits unexpected oscillations modifying the fundamentally linear slope in the excitation power regime below lasing. A systematic microscopic analysis reproduces these oscillations, identifying them as a genuine quantum-memory effect, i.e., a photon-density correlation accumulated during the excitation. With the use of projected quantum measurements, it is shown that the input-output oscillations can be controlled and enhanced by an order of magnitude when the quantum fluctuations of the pump are adjusted. PMID:25215985
Michele Allegra; Paolo Giorda; Seth Lloyd
2015-03-18
In this paper we address the problem of charaterizing coherence in dissipative (Markovian) quantum evolutions. We base our analysis on the decoherent histories formalism which is the most basic and proper approach to assess coherence properties of quantum evolutions. We introduce and test different quantifiers and we show how these are able to capture the (average) coherence of general quantum evolutions on various time scales and for different levels of environmentally induced decoherence. In order to show the effectiveness of the introduced tools, we thoroughly apply them to a paradigmatic instance of quantum process where the role of coherence is being hotly debated: exciton transport in the FMO photosynthetic complex and its most relevant trimeric subunit. Our analysis illustrates how the high efficiency of environmentally assisted transport can be traced back to the coherence properties of the evolution and the interference between pathways in the decoherent histories formalism. Indeed, we show that the bath essentially implements a quantum recoil avoiding effect on the exciton dynamics: the action of decoherence in the system is set at precisely the right level needed to preserve and sustain the benefits of the fast initial quantum delocalization of the exciton over the network, while preventing the subsequent recoil that would necessarily follow form a purely coherent dynamics. This picture becomes very clear when expressed in terms of pathways leading to the exit site: the action of the bath is seen to selectively kill the negative interference between pathways, while retaining the intial positive one.
New effects in quantum vacuum: photon undulator and transition radiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mendonça, J. T.
2009-09-01
We consider a new optical property of quantum vacuum, as predicted by quantum electrodynamics. It is associated with the propagation of an intense laser pulse, in the presence of a periodic static magnetic field. The existence of an effective charge distribution for the intense laser beam is demonstrated. The photon undulator effect results from the spacetime modulations of this effective charge. This is similar to an electron undulator, where the electron beam is replaced by a photon beam. We also discuss a closely related effect, which can be called photon transition radiation in vacuum. It is associated with the effective charge variation at a magnetic boundary. This work could lead to new experimental configurations for quantum vacuum research with future multi-Peta-Watt laser systems.
Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon
Hybrid approach for including electronic and nuclear quantum effects in molecular dynamics is presented. The electronic quantum effects are incorporated with an empirical valence bond approach. The nuclear quantum effects of the transferring hydrogen are included with a mixed quantum/classical molecular
Context effects produced by question orders reveal quantum nature of human judgments
Busemeyer, Jerome R.
, 2014) The hypothesis that human reasoning obeys the laws of quantum rather than classical probability. These findings suggest that quantum probability theory, initially invented to explain noncommutativity effects in social and behavioral science. attitude judgment | national surveys | quantum theory
Intrinsic Spin Hall Effect Induced by Quantum Phase Transition in HgCdTe Quantum Wells
Yang, Wen; Chang, Kai; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2010-03-19
Spin Hall effect can be induced both by the extrinsic impurity scattering and by the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling in the electronic structure. The HgTe/CdTe quantum well has a quantum phase transition where the electronic structure changes from normal to inverted. We show that the intrinsic spin Hall effect of the conduction band vanishes on the normal side, while it is finite on the inverted side. This difference gives a direct mechanism to experimentally distinguish the intrinsic spin Hall effect from the extrinsic one.
Path Integrals and Alternative Effective Dynamics in Loop Quantum Cosmology
Qin, Li; Ma, Yongge
2012-01-01
The alternative dynamics of loop quantum cosmology is examined by the path integral formulation. We consider the spatially flat FRW models with a massless scalar field, where the alternative quantization inherit more features from full loop quantum gravity. The path integrals can be formulated in both timeless and deparameterized frameworks. It turns out that the effective Hamiltonians derived from the two different viewpoints are equivalent to each other. Moreover, the first-order modified Friedmann equations are derived and predict quantum bounces for contracting universe, which coincide with those obtained in canonical theory.
A novel model for the fractional quantum Hall effect
A. I. Arbab
2012-05-27
A novel model of complex quantum harmonic oscillator is found to account for the observed Fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE). The sequences of the observed FQHE conductivity and charge are explained. The two sequences are found to express a quantity and its complex conjugated partner. The oscillator is found to have two degenerates states, $\\psi_n$, with angular momenta $\\pm \\,n\\,\\hbar$\\,, where $h = 2\\pi \\hbar $ is the Planck's constant, and $n$ is the principal quantum number of the oscillator. The filling factor, $i$, that Klitzing has found for the integer quantum Hall effect (IQHE) is $i=n+1$. Analytical expressions for longitudinal resistance and Hall's voltage are obtained. The width of the plateau between two states is found to be $\\Delta B=\\frac{1}{n(n+1)}\\,\\frac{n_sh}{e}\\,,$ where $n_s$ is the electron number density.
Dissipative quantum transport in macromolecules: Effective field theory approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schneider, E.; a Beccara, S.; Faccioli, P.
2013-08-01
We introduce an atomistic approach to the dissipative quantum dynamics of charged or neutral excitations propagating through macromolecular systems. Using the Feynman-Vernon path integral formalism, we analytically trace out from the density matrix the atomic coordinates and the heat bath degrees of freedom. This way we obtain an effective field theory which describes the real-time evolution of the quantum excitation and is fully consistent with the fluctuation-dissipation relation. The main advantage of the field-theoretic approach is that it allows us to avoid using the Keldysh contour formulation. This simplification makes it straightforward to derive Feynman diagrams to analytically compute the effects of the interaction of the propagating quantum excitation with the heat bath and with the molecular atomic vibrations. For illustration purposes, we apply this formalism to investigate the loss of quantum coherence of holes propagating through a poly(3-alkylthiophene) polymer.
Dissipative Quantum Transport in Macromolecules: An Effective Field Theory Approach
Schneider, E; Faccioli, P
2013-01-01
We introduce an atomistic approach to the dissipative quantum dynamics of charged or neutral excitations propagating through macromolecular systems. Using the Feynman-Vernon path integral formalism, we analytically trace out from the density matrix the atomic coordinates and the heat bath degrees of freedom. This way we obtain an effective field theory which describes the real-time evolution of the quantum excitation and is fully consistent with the fluctuation-dissipation relation. The main advantage of the field-theoretic approach is that it allows to avoid using the Keldysh contour formulation. This simplification makes it straightforward to derive Feynman diagrams to analytically compute the effects of the interaction of the propagating quantum excitation with the heat bath and with the molecular atomic vibrations. For illustration purposes, we apply this formalism to investigate the loss of quantum coherence of holes propagating through a poly(3-alkylthiophene) polymer
Stability diagram of the collective atomic recoil laser with thermal atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomczyk, H.; Schmidt, D.; Georges, C.; Slama, S.; Zimmermann, C.
2015-06-01
We experimentally investigate cold thermal atoms in a single sidedly pumped optical ring resonator for temperatures between 0.4 and 9 ? K . The threshold for collective atomic recoil lasing (CARL) is recorded for various pump-cavity detunings. The resulting stability diagram is interpreted by simulating the classical CARL equations. We find that the stability diagram for thermal atoms shows the same asymmetry as observed for Bose-Einstein condensates in previous experiments. Whereas for condensates the asymmetry is well explained by a Dicke-type quantum model we here discuss a simplified classical model. It complements the quantum model and provides an intuitive explanation based on the change in the long-range atomic interaction with pump-cavity detuning.
A toy model for quantum spin Hall effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Owerre, S. A.; Nsofini, J.
2015-09-01
In this communication, we investigate a toy model of three-dimensional topological insulator surface, coupled homogeneously to a fictitious pseudospin-1/2 particle. We show that this toy model captures the interesting features of topological insulator surface states, which include topological quantum phase transition and quantum spin Hall effect. We further incorporate an out-of-plane magnetic field and obtain the Landau levels.
Quantum Hall effect in bilayer system with array of antidots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pagnossin, I. R.; Gusev, G. M.; Sotomayor, N. M.; Seabra, A. C.; Quivy, A. A.; Lamas, T. E.; Portal, J. C.
2007-04-01
We have studied the Quantum Hall effect in a bilayer system modulated by gate-controlled antidot lattice potential. The Hall resistance shows plateaus which are quantized to anomalous multiplies of h/e2. We suggest that this complex behavior is due to the nature of the edge-states in double quantum well (DQW) structures coupled to an array of antidots: these plateaus may be originated from the coexistence of normal and counter-rotating edge-states in different layers.
An Equation of Motion with Quantum Effect in Spacetime
Jyh-Yang Wu
2009-05-26
In this paper, we shall present a new equation of motion with Quantum effect in spacetime. To do so, we propose a classical-quantum duality. We also generalize the Schordinger equation to the spacetime and obtain a relativistic wave equation. This will lead a generalization of Einstein's formula $E=m_0c^2$ in the spacetime. In general, we have $E=m_0c^2 + \\frac{\\hbar^2}{12m_0}R$ in a spacetime.
Spacetime effects on satellite-based quantum communications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bruschi, David Edward; Ralph, Timothy C.; Fuentes, Ivette; Jennewein, Thomas; Razavi, Mohsen
2014-08-01
We investigate the consequences of space-time being curved on space-based quantum communication protocols. We analyze tasks that require either the exchange of single photons in a certain entanglement distribution protocol or beams of light in a continuous-variable quantum key distribution scheme. We find that gravity affects the propagation of photons, therefore adding additional noise to the channel for the transmission of information. The effects could be measured with current technology.
Electromagnetic manipulation for the anti-Zeno effect in an engineered quantum tunneling process
Zhou Lan; Hu, F. M.; Lu Jing; Sun, C. P.
2006-09-15
We investigate the anti-Zeno phenomenon as well as the quantum Zeno effect for the irreversible quantum tunneling from a quantum dot to a ring array of quantum dots. By modeling the total system with the Anderson-Fano-Lee model, it is found that the transition from the quantum Zeno to the quantum anti-Zeno effect can happen by adjusting magnetic flux and gate voltage.
Effect of quantum statistics on the gravitational weak equivalence principle
Mousavi, S V; Home, D
2015-01-01
We study the effect of quantum statistics on the arrival time distribution of quantum particles computed through the probability current density. It is shown that symmetrization or asymmetrization of the wave function affects the arrival time distribution for even freely propagating particles. In order to investigate the effect of statistics on the weak equivalence principle in quantum mechanics (WEQ), we then compute the mean arrival time for wave packets in free fall. The violation of WEQ through the effect of statistics on the mass-dependence of the mean arrival time is clearly exhibited. We finally evaluate the effect of spin on the violation of WEQ using a different approach by including an explicit spin-dependence in the probability current distribution, and compare it with the approach using particle statistics. Our results show WEQ re-emerges smoothly in the limit of large mass.
Effect of quantum statistics on the gravitational weak equivalence principle
S. V. Mousavi; A. S. Majumdar; D. Home
2015-09-10
We study the effect of quantum statistics on the arrival time distribution of quantum particles computed through the probability current density. It is shown that symmetrization or asymmetrization of the wave function affects the arrival time distribution for even freely propagating particles. In order to investigate the effect of statistics on the weak equivalence principle in quantum mechanics (WEQ), we then compute the mean arrival time for wave packets in free fall. The violation of WEQ through the effect of statistics on the mass-dependence of the mean arrival time is clearly exhibited. We finally evaluate the effect of spin on the violation of WEQ using a different approach by including an explicit spin-dependence in the probability current distribution, and compare it with the approach using particle statistics. Our results show WEQ re-emerges smoothly in the limit of large mass.
Quantum dissipative Brownian motion and the Casimir effect.
Ingold, Gert-Ludwig; Lambrecht, Astrid; Reynaud, Serge
2009-10-01
We explore an analogy between the thermodynamics of a free dissipative quantum particle in one dimension and that of an electromagnetic field between two mirrors of finite conductivity. While a free particle isolated from its environment will effectively be in the high-temperature limit for any nonvanishing temperature, a finite coupling to the environment leads to quantum effects ensuring the correct low-temperature behavior. Even then, it is found that under appropriate circumstances the entropy can be a nonmonotonic function of the temperature. Such a scenario with its specific dependence on the ratio of temperature and damping constant also appears for the transverse electric mode in the Casimir effect. The limits of vanishing dissipation for the quantum particle and of infinite conductivity of the mirrors in the Casimir effect both turn out to be noncontinuous. PMID:19905279
Simulations of Recoiling Massive Black Holes in the Via Lactea Halo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guedes, J.; Madau, P.; Kuhlen, M.; Diemand, J.; Zemp, M.
2009-09-01
The coalescence of a massive black hole (MBH) binary leads to the gravitational-wave recoil of the system and its ejection from the galaxy core. We have carried out N-body simulations of the motion of a M BH = 3.7 × 106 M sun MBH remnant in the "Via Lactea I" simulation, a Milky Way-sized dark matter halo. The black hole receives a recoil velocity of V kick = 80, 120, 200, 300, and 400 km s-1 at redshift 1.5, and its orbit is followed for over 1 Gyr within a "live" host halo, subject only to gravity and dynamical friction against the dark matter background. We show that, owing to asphericities in the dark matter potential, the orbit of the MBH is highly nonradial, resulting in a significantly increased decay timescale compared to a spherical halo. The simulations are used to construct a semi-analytic model of the motion of the MBH in a time-varying triaxial Navarro-Frenk-White dark matter halo plus a spherical stellar bulge, where the dynamical friction force is calculated directly from the velocity dispersion tensor. Such a model should offer a realistic picture of the dynamics of kicked MBHs in situations where gas drag, friction by disk stars, and the flattening of the central cusp by the returning black hole are all negligible effects. We find that MBHs ejected with initial recoil velocities V kick gsim 500 km s-1 do not return to the host center within a Hubble time. In a Milky Way-sized galaxy, a recoiling hole carrying a gaseous disk of initial mass ~M BH may shine as a quasar for a substantial fraction of its "wandering" phase. The long decay timescales of kicked MBHs predicted by this study may thus be favorable to the detection of off-nuclear quasar activity.
Chandra High-resolution observations of CID-42, a Candidate Recoiling Supermassive Black Hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Aldcroft, T.; Trichas, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Brusa, M.; Blecha, L.; Comastri, A.; Loeb, A.; Salvato, M.; Fruscione, A.; Koekemoer, A.; Komossa, S.; Gilli, R.; Mainieri, V.; Piconcelli, E.; Vignali, C.
2012-06-01
We present Chandra High Resolution Camera observations of CID-42, a candidate recoiling supermassive black hole (SMBH) at z = 0.359 in the COSMOS survey. CID-42 shows two optical compact sources resolved in the HST/ACS image embedded in the same galaxy structure and a velocity offset of ~1300 km s-1 between the H? broad and narrow emission line, as presented by Civano et al. Two scenarios have been proposed to explain the properties of CID-42: a gravitational wave (GW) recoiling SMBH and a double Type 1/Type 2 active galactic nucleus (AGN) system, where one of the two is recoiling because of slingshot effect. In both scenarios, one of the optical nuclei hosts an unobscured AGN, while the other one, either an obscured AGN or a star-forming compact region. The X-ray Chandra data allow us to unambiguously resolve the X-ray emission and unveil the nature of the two optical sources in CID-42. We find that only one of the optical nuclei is responsible for the whole X-ray unobscured emission observed and a 3? upper limit on the flux of the second optical nucleus is measured. The upper limit on the X-ray luminosity plus the analysis of the multiwavelength spectral energy distribution indicate the presence of a star-forming region in the second source rather than an obscured SMBH, thus favoring the GW recoil scenario. However, the presence of a very obscured SMBH cannot be fully ruled out. A new X-ray feature, in a SW direction with respect to the main source, is discovered and discussed.
CHANDRA HIGH-RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS OF CID-42, A CANDIDATE RECOILING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE
Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Aldcroft, T.; Trichas, M.; Fruscione, A. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bongiorno, A.; Brusa, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Blecha, L.; Loeb, A. [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Comastri, A.; Gilli, R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, Bologna 40127 (Italy); Salvato, M.; Komossa, S. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, Excellence Cluster, Boltzmannstrass 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Koekemoer, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Mainieri, V. [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Piconcelli, E. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, Monteporzio-Catone 00040 (Italy); Vignali, C. [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, Bologna 40127 (Italy)
2012-06-10
We present Chandra High Resolution Camera observations of CID-42, a candidate recoiling supermassive black hole (SMBH) at z = 0.359 in the COSMOS survey. CID-42 shows two optical compact sources resolved in the HST/ACS image embedded in the same galaxy structure and a velocity offset of {approx}1300 km s{sup -1} between the H{beta} broad and narrow emission line, as presented by Civano et al. Two scenarios have been proposed to explain the properties of CID-42: a gravitational wave (GW) recoiling SMBH and a double Type 1/Type 2 active galactic nucleus (AGN) system, where one of the two is recoiling because of slingshot effect. In both scenarios, one of the optical nuclei hosts an unobscured AGN, while the other one, either an obscured AGN or a star-forming compact region. The X-ray Chandra data allow us to unambiguously resolve the X-ray emission and unveil the nature of the two optical sources in CID-42. We find that only one of the optical nuclei is responsible for the whole X-ray unobscured emission observed and a 3{sigma} upper limit on the flux of the second optical nucleus is measured. The upper limit on the X-ray luminosity plus the analysis of the multiwavelength spectral energy distribution indicate the presence of a star-forming region in the second source rather than an obscured SMBH, thus favoring the GW recoil scenario. However, the presence of a very obscured SMBH cannot be fully ruled out. A new X-ray feature, in a SW direction with respect to the main source, is discovered and discussed.
The quantization of topology, from quantum Hall effect to quantum gravity
Andrei T. Patrascu
2014-11-17
It is the goal of this article to extend the notion of quantization from the standard interpretation focused on non-commuting observables defined starting from classical analogues, to the topological equivalents defined in terms of coefficient groups in (co)homology. It is shown that the commutation relations between quantum observables become (non)compatibility relations between coefficient groups. The main result is the construction of a new, higher-level form of quantization, as seen from the perspective of the universal coefficient theorem. This idea brings us closer to a consistent quantization of gravity, allows for a systematic description of topology changing string interactions but also gives new, quantum-topological degrees of freedom in discussions involving quantum information. On the practical side, a possible connection to the fractional quantum Hall effect is explored.
Quantum nondemolition photon detection in circuit QED and the quantum Zeno effect
Helmer, Ferdinand; Marquardt, Florian; Mariantoni, Matteo; Solano, Enrique
2009-05-15
We analyze the detection of itinerant photons using a quantum nondemolition measurement. An important example is the dispersive detection of microwave photons in circuit quantum electrodynamics, which can be realized via the nonlinear interaction between photons inside a superconducting transmission line resonator. We show that the back action due to the continuous measurement imposes a limit on the detector efficiency in such a scheme. We illustrate this using a setup where signal photons have to enter a cavity in order to be detected dispersively. In this approach, the measurement signal is the phase shift imparted to an intense beam passing through a second cavity mode. The restrictions on the fidelity are a consequence of the quantum Zeno effect, and we discuss both analytical results and quantum trajectory simulations of the measurement process.
The Benefits of B ---> K* l+ l- Decays at Low Recoil
Christoph Bobeth; Gudrun Hiller; Danny van Dyk
2010-07-08
Using the heavy quark effective theory framework put forward by Grinstein and Pirjol we work out predictions for B -> K* l+ l-, l = (e, mu), decays for a softly recoiling K*, i.e., for large dilepton masses sqrt{q^2} of the order of the b-quark mass m_b. We work to lowest order in Lambda/Q, where Q = (m_b, sqrt{q^2}) and include the next-to-leading order corrections from the charm quark mass m_c and the strong coupling at O(m_c^2/Q^2, alpha_s). The leading Lambda/m_b corrections are parametrically suppressed. The improved Isgur-Wise form factor relations correlate the B -> K* l+ l- transversity amplitudes, which simplifies the description of the various decay observables and provides opportunities for the extraction of the electroweak short distance couplings. We propose new angular observables which have very small hadronic uncertainties. We exploit existing data on B -> K* l+ l- distributions and show that the low recoil region provides powerful additional information to the large recoil one. We find disjoint best-fit solutions, which include the Standard Model, but also beyond-the-Standard Model ones. This ambiguity can be accessed with future precision measurements.
Recoil polarization observables in the electroproduction of K mesons and ?'s from the proton
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maxwell, Oren V.
2014-09-01
A model developed previously to investigate the electromagnetic production of strangeness from the proton is used to investigate single and double recoil polarization observables in the reaction ep ?e'K+? in the relativistic impulse approximation. The formalism is based on a tree-level, effective Lagrangian model, which incorporates a variety of baryon resonances with spins up to 5/2 and the two kaon resonances, K(892) and K1(1270). The parameters of the model were fit to a large pool of photoproduction data from the CLAS, GRAAL, SAPHIR, and LEPS collaborations and to CLAS data for the virtual photoproduction structure functions ?U,?T,?L,?TT,?LT, and ?LT'. Using two different versions of this model, results are presented for three recoil polarization asymmetries that have been measured recently at CLAS. A new fit is then presented which incorporates the new polarization data in the fitted data set. Results obtained with this new fit are presented for six recoil polarization asymmetries and compared with results from one of the previous fits.
Chandra High resolution Observations of CID-42, a candidate recoiling SMBH
Civano, F; Lanzuisi, G; Aldcroft, T; Trichas, M; Bongiorno, A; Brusa, M; Blecha, L; Comastri, A; Loeb, A; Salvato, M; Fruscione, A; Koekemoer, A; Komossa, S; Gilli, R; Mainieri, V; Piconcelli, E; Vignali, C
2012-01-01
We present Chandra High Resolution Camera observations of CID-42, a candidate recoiling supermassive black hole (SMBH) at z=0.359 in the COSMOS survey. CID-42 shows two optical compact sources resolved in the HST/ACS image embedded in the same galaxy structure and a velocity offset of ~1300 km/s between the H\\beta\\ broad and narrow emission line, as presented by Civano et al. (2010). Two scenarios have been proposed to explain the properties of CID-42: a GW recoiling SMBH and a double Type 1/ Type 2 AGN system, where one of the two is recoiling because of slingshot effect. In both scenario, one of the optical nuclei hosts an unobscured AGN, while the other one, either an obscured AGN or a star forming compact region. The X-ray Chandra data allow to unambiguously resolve the X-ray emission, and unveil the nature, of the two optical sources in CID-42. We find that only one of the optical nuclei is responsible for the whole X-ray unobscured emission observed and a 3sigma upper limit on the flux of the second opt...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Z. W.; Huang, Y. L.; Hu, S. L.; Zhong, X. C.; Y Yu, H.; Gao, X. X.
2014-06-01
Nanocrystalline NdFeB magnets were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and SPS followed by HD using melt spun ribbons as the starting materials. The microstructure of SPSed and HDed magnets were analyzed. The effects of process including temperature and compression ratio on the microstructure and properties were investigated. High magnetic properties were obtained in anisotropic HDed magnets. The combination of Zn and Dy additions was successfully employed to improve the coercivity and thermal stability of the SPSed magnets. Open recoil loops were found in these magnets with Nd-rich composition and without soft magnetic phase for the first time. The relationship between the recoil loops and microstructure for SPS and HD NdFeB magnets were investigated. The investigations showed that the magnetic properties of SPS+HDed magnets are related to the extent of the aggregation of Nd-rich phase, which was formed during HD due to existence of porosity in SPSed precursor. Large local demagnetization fields induced by the Nd-rich phase aggregation leads to the open loops and significantly reduced the coercivity. By reducing the recoil loop openness, the magnetic properties of HDed NdFeB magnets were successfully improved.
Quenching Factor for Low Energy Nuclear Recoils in a Plastic Scintillator
L. Reichhart; D. Yu. Akimov; H. M. Araujo; E. J. Barnes; V. A. Belov; A. A. Burenkov; V. Chepel; A. Currie; L. DeViveiros; B. Edwards; V. Francis; C. Ghag; A. Hollingsworth; M. Horn; G. E. Kalmus; A. S. Kobyakin; A. G. Kovalenko; V. N. Lebedenko; A. Lindote; M. I. Lopes; R. Luscher; P. Majewski; A. St J. Murphy; F. Neves; S. M. Paling; J. Pinto da Cunha; R. Preece; J. J. Quenby; P. R. Scovell; C. Silva; V. N. Solovov; N. J. T. Smith; P. F. Smith; V. N. Stekhanov; T. J. Sumner; C. Thorne; R. J. Walker
2011-11-09
Plastic scintillators are widely used in industry, medicine and scientific research, including nuclear and particle physics. Although one of their most common applications is in neutron detection, experimental data on their response to low-energy nuclear recoils are scarce. Here, the relative scintillation efficiency for neutron-induced nuclear recoils in a polystyrene-based plastic scintillator (UPS-923A) is presented, exploring recoil energies between 125 keV and 850 keV. Monte Carlo simulations, incorporating light collection efficiency and energy resolution effects, are used to generate neutron scattering spectra which are matched to observed distributions of scintillation signals to parameterise the energy-dependent quenching factor. At energies above 300 keV the dependence is reasonably described using the semi-empirical formulation of Birks and a kB factor of (0.014+/-0.002) g/MeVcm^2 has been determined. Below that energy the measured quenching factor falls more steeply than predicted by the Birks formalism.
A Model of Nuclear Recoil Scintillation Efficiency in Noble Liquids
D. -M. Mei; Z. -B. Yin; L. C. Stonehill; A. Hime
2008-03-11
Scintillation efficiency of low-energy nuclear recoils in noble liquids plays a crucial role in interpreting results from some direct searches for Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) dark matter. However, the cause of a reduced scintillation efficiency relative to electronic recoils in noble liquids remains unclear at the moment. We attribute such a reduction of scintillation efficiency to two major mechanisms: 1) energy loss and 2) scintillation quenching. The former is commonly described by Lindhard's theory and the latter by Birk's saturation law. We propose to combine these two to explain the observed reduction of scintillation yield for nuclear recoils in noble liquids. Birk's constants $kB$ for argon, neon and xenon determined from existing data are used to predict noble liquid scintillator's response to low-energy nuclear recoils and low-energy electrons. We find that energy loss due to nuclear stopping power that contributes little to ionization and excitation is the dominant reduction mechanism in scintillation efficiency for nuclear recoils, but that significant additional quenching results from the nonlinear response of scintillation to the ionization density.
Submillisecond elastic recoil reveals molecular origins of fibrin fiber mechanics.
Hudson, Nathan E; Ding, Feng; Bucay, Igal; O'Brien, E Timothy; Gorkun, Oleg V; Superfine, Richard; Lord, Susan T; Dokholyan, Nikolay V; Falvo, Michael R
2013-06-18
Fibrin fibers form the structural scaffold of blood clots. Thus, their mechanical properties are of central importance to understanding hemostasis and thrombotic disease. Recent studies have revealed that fibrin fibers are elastomeric despite their high degree of molecular ordering. These results have inspired a variety of molecular models for fibrin's elasticity, ranging from reversible protein unfolding to rubber-like elasticity. An important property that has not been explored is the timescale of elastic recoil, a parameter that is critical for fibrin's mechanical function and places a temporal constraint on molecular models of fiber elasticity. Using high-frame-rate imaging and atomic force microscopy-based nanomanipulation, we measured the recoil dynamics of individual fibrin fibers and found that the recoil was orders of magnitude faster than anticipated from models involving protein refolding. We also performed steered discrete molecular-dynamics simulations to investigate the molecular origins of the observed recoil. Our results point to the unstructured ?C regions of the otherwise structured fibrin molecule as being responsible for the elastic recoil of the fibers. PMID:23790375
Quantum origin of an anomalous isotope effect in ozone formation
Reid, Scott A.
Quantum origin of an anomalous isotope effect in ozone formation D. Babikov *, B.K. Kendrick, R mechanical calculations of the ðJ ¼ 0Þ energies and lifetimes of the metastable states of ozone on a new effect in the reaction that forms ozone because of their role in the energy transfer mechanism, in which
Quantum Hall Effect in AdS/CFT
Esko Keski-Vakkuri; Per Kraus
2008-05-29
Drawing on the connection with superconductivity, we give a simple AdS realization of the quantum Hall effect. The theory includes a statistical gauge field with a Chern-Simons term, in analogy with effective field theory models of the QHE.
Ratchet effects in graphene and quantum wells with lateral superlattice
Golub, L. E.; Nalitov, A. V.; Ivchenko, E. L.; Olbrich, P.; Kamann, J.; Eroms, J.; Weiss, D.; Ganichev, S. D.
2013-12-04
Theoretical and experimental studies on the ratchet effects in graphene and in quantum wells with a lateral superlattice excited by alternating electric fields of terahertz frequency range are presented. We discuss the Seebeck ratchet effect and helicity driven photocurrents and show that the photocurrent generation is based on the combined action of a spatially periodic in-plane potential and a spatially modulated light.
Quantum vacuum effects from boundaries of designer potentials
Konopka; Tomasz
2009-01-01
Vacuum energy in quantum field theory, being the sum of zero-point energies of all field modes, is formally infinite but yet, after regularization or renormalization, can give rise to finite observable effects. One way of understanding how these effects arise is to compute the vacuum energy in an idealized system such as a large cavity divided into disjoint regions by
Do quantum effects hold together DNA condensates?
Alfredo Iorio; Samik Sen; Siddhartha Sen
2008-06-19
The classical electrostatic interaction between DNA molecules in water in the presence of counterions is reconsidered and we propose it is governed by a modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation. Quantum fluctuations are then studied and shown to lead to a vacuum interaction that is numerically computed for several configurations of many DNA strands and found to be strongly many-body. This Casimir vacuum interaction can be the ``glue'' holding together DNA molecules into aggregates.
Effective Physical Processes and Active Information in Quantum Computing
Ignazio Licata
2007-10-23
The recent debate on hypercomputation has arisen new questions both on the computational abilities of quantum systems and the Church-Turing Thesis role in Physics. We propose here the idea of "effective physical process" as the essentially physical notion of computation. By using the Bohm and Hiley active information concept we analyze the differences between the standard form (quantum gates) and the non-standard one (adiabatic and morphogenetic) of Quantum Computing, and we point out how its Super-Turing potentialities derive from an incomputable information source in accordance with Bell's constraints. On condition that we give up the formal concept of "universality", the possibility to realize quantum oracles is reachable. In this way computation is led back to the logic of physical world.
Simulating the dynamical quantum Hall effect with superconducting qubits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xu-Chen; Zhang, Dan-Wei; Xu, Peng; Yu, Yang; Zhu, Shi-Liang
2015-02-01
We propose an experimental scheme to simulate the dynamical quantum Hall effect and the related interaction-induced topological transition with a superconducting-qubit array. We show that a one-dimensional Heisenberg model with tunable parameters can be realized in an array of superconducting qubits. The quantized plateau, which is a feature of the dynamical quantum Hall effect, will emerge in the Berry curvature of the superconducting qubits as a function of the coupling strength between nearest-neighbor qubits. We numerically calculate the Berry curvatures of two-, four-, and six-qubit arrays and find that the interaction-induced topological transition can be easily observed with the simplest two-qubit array. Furthermore, we analyze some practical conditions in typical experiments for observing this dynamical quantum Hall effect.
Ar-39 recoil losses and presolar ages in Allende inclusions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Villa, I. M.; Huneke, J. C.; Wasserburg, G. J.
1983-01-01
Argon analyses were performed for five coarse-grained, Ca-Al-rich inclusions from the Allende meteorite. The samples were neutron-irradiated in evacuated ampuoles, and the Ar in the ampuoles and in the samples was analyzed. Up to 60 percent of Ar-39 was lost from the samples into the ampuoles due to recoil during neutron-irradiation; this loss resulted in substantial increases in the apparent Ar-40-Ar-39 ages of the samples. Substantial amounts of trapped Ar-36 of unknown origin were found in the inclusions, and the presence of trapped Ar-40 could not be ruled out. It is inferred that the interpretation of high Ar-40/K-40 ratios as very high (presolar) ages may be subject to question. It is noted that the degrees of Ar-39 recoil loss reported is comparable to recoil loss in terrestrial rocks and cannot be attributed to KCl contamination of the samples.
First detection of tracks of radon progeny recoils by MIMAC
Riffard, Q; Bosson, G; Bourrion, O; Descombes, T; Fourel, C; Guillaudin, O; Muraz, J -F; Colas, P; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Giomataris, I; Busto, J; Fouchez, D; Tao, C; Lebreton, L; Maire, D
2015-01-01
The MIMAC experiment is a $\\mu$-TPC matrix project for directional dark matter search. Directional detection is a strategy based on the measurement of the WIMP flux anisotropy due to the solar system motion with respect to the dark matter halo. The main purpose of MIMAC project is the measurement of the energy and the direction of nuclear recoils in 3D produced by elastic scattering of WIMPs. Since June 2012 a bi-chamber prototype is operating at the Modane underground laboratory. In this paper, we report the first ionization energy and 3D track observations of nuclear recoils produced by the radon progeny. This measurement shows the capability of the MIMAC detector and opens the possibility to explore the low energy recoil directionality signature.
First detection of tracks of radon progeny recoils by MIMAC
Q. Riffard; D. Santos; G. Bosson; O. Bourrion; T. Descombes; C. Fourel; O. Guillaudin; J. -F. Muraz; P. Colas; E. Ferrer-Ribas; I. Giomataris; J. Busto; D. Fouchez; C. Tao; L. Lebreton; D. Maire
2015-04-22
The MIMAC experiment is a $\\mu$-TPC matrix project for directional dark matter search. Directional detection is a strategy based on the measurement of the WIMP flux anisotropy due to the solar system motion with respect to the dark matter halo. The main purpose of MIMAC project is the measurement of the energy and the direction of nuclear recoils in 3D produced by elastic scattering of WIMPs. Since June 2012 a bi-chamber prototype is operating at the Modane underground laboratory. In this paper, we report the first ionization energy and 3D track observations of nuclear recoils produced by the radon progeny. This measurement shows the capability of the MIMAC detector and opens the possibility to explore the low energy recoil directionality signature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niu, X. Y.; Huang, X. L.; Shang, Y. F.; Wang, X. Y.
2015-04-01
Superposition principle plays a crucial role in quantum mechanics, thus its effects on thermodynamics is an interesting topic. Here, the effects of superpositions of quantum states on isoenergetic cycle are studied. We find superposition can improve the heat engine efficiency and release the positive work condition in general case. In the finite time process, we find the efficiency at maximum power output in superposition case is lower than the nonsuperposition case. This efficiency depends on one index of the energy spectrum of the working substance. This result does not mean the superposition discourages the heat engine performance. For fixed efficiency or fixed power, the superposition improves the power or efficiency respectively. These results show how quantum mechanical properties affect the thermodynamical cycle.
Non-Markovianity and memory effects in quantum open systems
S. C. Hou; S. L. Liang; X. X. Yi
2015-01-27
Although a number of measures for quantum non-Markovianity have been proposed recently, it is still an open question whether these measures directly characterize the memory effect of the environment, i.e., the dependence of a quantum state on its past in a time evolution. In this paper, we present a criterion and propose a measure for non-Markovianity with clear physical interpretations of the memory effect. The non-Markovianity is defined by the inequality $T(t_2,t_0)\
Quantum Zeno effect for a free-moving particle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Porras, Miguel A.; Luis, Alfredo; Gonzalo, Isabel
2014-12-01
Although the quantum Zeno effect takes its name from Zeno's arrow paradox, the effect of frequently observing the position of a freely moving particle on its motion has not been analyzed in detail in the frame of standard quantum mechanics. We study the evolution of a moving free particle while monitoring whether it lingers in a given region of space, and explain the dependence of the lingering probability on the frequency of the measurements and the initial momentum of the particle. Stopping the particle entails the emergence of Schrödinger cat states during the observed evolution, closely connected to the high-order diffraction modes in Fabry-Pérot optical resonators.
The spin Hall effect in a quantum gas.
Beeler, M C; Williams, R A; Jiménez-García, K; LeBlanc, L J; Perry, A R; Spielman, I B
2013-06-13
Electronic properties such as current flow are generally independent of the electron's spin angular momentum, an internal degree of freedom possessed by quantum particles. The spin Hall effect, first proposed 40 years ago, is an unusual class of phenomena in which flowing particles experience orthogonally directed, spin-dependent forces--analogous to the conventional Lorentz force that gives the Hall effect, but opposite in sign for two spin states. Spin Hall effects have been observed for electrons flowing in spin-orbit-coupled materials such as GaAs and InGaAs (refs 2, 3) and for laser light traversing dielectric junctions. Here we observe the spin Hall effect in a quantum-degenerate Bose gas, and use the resulting spin-dependent Lorentz forces to realize a cold-atom spin transistor. By engineering a spatially inhomogeneous spin-orbit coupling field for our quantum gas, we explicitly introduce and measure the requisite spin-dependent Lorentz forces, finding them to be in excellent agreement with our calculations. This 'atomtronic' transistor behaves as a type of velocity-insensitive adiabatic spin selector, with potential application in devices such as magnetic or inertial sensors. In addition, such techniques for creating and measuring the spin Hall effect are clear prerequisites for engineering topological insulators and detecting their associated quantized spin Hall effects in quantum gases. As implemented, our system realizes a laser-actuated analogue to the archetypal semiconductor spintronic device, the Datta-Das spin transistor. PMID:23739329
Radiation from collapsing relativistic stars. IV - Black hole recoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moncrief, V.
1980-05-01
The perturbation results of Cunningham, Moncrief, and Price (1978, 1979) are used to estimate the recoil velocities of newly formed black holes due to gravitational radiation reaction. The mixing of odd-parity quadrupole and octopole waves is primarily considered, and recoil velocities on the order of 25 km/s are obtained for the slightly nonspherical models of collapse considered by Cunningham, Moncrief, and Price. A qualitative discussion is presented of how larger velocities might be attained in more highly nonspherical collapse and results are compared with the quasi-Newtonian estimates of Bekenstein (1973).
Radiation from collapsing relativistic stars. IV. Black hole recoil
Moncrief, V.
1980-05-15
We use the perturbation results of Cunningham, Moncrief, and Price to estimate the recoil velocities of newly formed black holes due to gravitational radiation reaction. We consider primarily the mixing of odd-parity quadrupole and octopole waves and obtain recoil velocities on the order of 25 km s/sup -1/ for the slightly nonspherical models of collapse considered by Cunningham, Moncrief, and Price. We discuss qualitatively how larger velocities might be attained in more highly nonspherical collapse and briefly compare our results with the quasi-Newtonian estimages of Bekenstein.
Dynamical quantum Hall effect in the parameter space
Gritsev, V.; Polkovnikov, A.
2012-01-01
Geometric phases in quantum mechanics play an extraordinary role in broadening our understanding of fundamental significance of geometry in nature. One of the best known examples is the Berry phase [M.V. Berry (1984), Proc. Royal. Soc. London A, 392:45], which naturally emerges in quantum adiabatic evolution. So far the applicability and measurements of the Berry phase were mostly limited to systems of weakly interacting quasi-particles, where interference experiments are feasible. Here we show how one can go beyond this limitation and observe the Berry curvature, and hence the Berry phase, in generic systems as a nonadiabatic response of physical observables to the rate of change of an external parameter. These results can be interpreted as a dynamical quantum Hall effect in a parameter space. The conventional quantum Hall effect is a particular example of the general relation if one views the electric field as a rate of change of the vector potential. We illustrate our findings by analyzing the response of interacting spin chains to a rotating magnetic field. We observe the quantization of this response, which we term the rotational quantum Hall effect. PMID:22493228
Phenomenology of effective geometries from quantum gravity
Torromé, Ricardo Gallego; Liberati, Stefano
2015-01-01
In a recent paper (arXiv:1412.6000) a general mechanism for emergence of cosmological space-time geometry from a quantum gravity setting was devised and departure from standard dispersion relations for elementary particle were predicted. We elaborate here on this approach extending the results obtained in that paper and showing that generically such a framework will not lead to higher order modified dispersion relations in the matter sector. Furthermore, we shall discuss possible phenomenological constraints to this scenarios showing that space-time will have to be by nowadays classical to a very high degree in order to be consistent with current observations.
Phenomenology of effective geometries from quantum gravity
Ricardo Gallego Torromé; Marco Letizia; Stefano Liberati
2015-07-12
In a recent paper (arXiv:1412.6000) a general mechanism for emergence of cosmological space-time geometry from a quantum gravity setting was devised and departure from standard dispersion relations for elementary particle were predicted. We elaborate here on this approach extending the results obtained in that paper and showing that generically such a framework will not lead to higher order modified dispersion relations in the matter sector. Furthermore, we shall discuss possible phenomenological constraints to this scenarios showing that space-time will have to be by nowadays classical to a very high degree in order to be consistent with current observations.
Quantum trajectory approach to circuit QED: Quantum jumps and the Zeno effect
Jay Gambetta; Alexandre Blais; M. Boissonneault; A. A. Houck; D. I. Schuster; S. M. Girvin
2008-01-01
We present a theoretical study of a superconducting charge qubit dispersively coupled to a transmission line resonator. Starting from a master equation description of this coupled system and using a polaron transformation, we obtain an exact effective master equation for the qubit. We then use quantum trajectory theory to investigate the measurement of the qubit by continuous homodyne measurement of
Brom, Alrik J. van den; Rakitzis, T. Peter; Janssen, Maurice H.M. [Laser Centre and Department of Chemistry, Vrije Universiteit, de Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Physics, University of Crete and IESL-FORTH, P.O. Box 1527, 71110 Heraklion (Greece); Laser Centre and Department of Chemistry, Vrije Universiteit, de Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2004-12-15
We report the photodissociation of laboratory oriented OCS molecules. A molecular beam of OCS molecules is hexapole state-selected and spatially oriented in the electric field of a velocity map imaging lens. The oriented OCS molecules are dissociated at 230 nm with the linear polarization set at 45 deg. to the orientation direction of the OCS molecules. The CO({nu}=0,J) photofragments are quantum state-selectively ionized by the same 230 nm pulse and the angular distribution is measured using the velocity map imaging technique. The observed CO({nu}=0,J) images are strongly asymmetric and the degree of asymmetry varies with the CO rotational state J. From the observed asymmetry in the laboratory frame we can directly extract the molecular frame angles between the final photofragment recoil velocity and the permanent dipole moment and the transition dipole moment. The data for CO fragments with high rotational excitation reveal that the dissociation dynamics is highly nonaxial, even though conventional wisdom suggests that the nearly limiting {beta} parameter results from fast axial recoil dynamics. From our data we can extract the relative contribution of parallel and perpendicular transitions at 230 nm excitation.
Pseudorelativistic effects on solitons in quantum semiconductor plasma.
Wang, Yunliang; Wang, Xiaodan; Jiang, Xiangqian
2015-04-01
A theory for nonlinear excitations in quantum plasmas is presented for narrow-gap semiconductors by considering the combined effects of quantum and pseudorelativity. The system is governed by a coupled Klein-Gordon equation for the collective wave functions of the conduction electrons and Poisson's equation for the electrostatic potential. This gives a closed system, including the effects of charge separation, quantum tunneling, and pseudorelativity. By choosing the typical parameters of semiconductor InSb, the quasistationary soliton solution, which is a multipeaked dark soliton, is obtained numerically and shows depleted electron densities correlated with a localized potential. The dynamical simulation result shows that the dark soliton is stable and has a multipeaked profile, which is consistent with the quasistationary solution. The present model and results may be useful in understanding the nonlinear properties of semiconductor plasma on an ultrafast time scale. PMID:25974603
Composite Fermion Theory of Exotic Fractional Quantum Hall Effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jain, Jainendra K.
2015-03-01
The fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) arises from strong correlations between electrons when they are confined to two dimensions and exposed to a strong magnetic field. The underlying physics is the formation of topological particles called composite fermions (CFs), electron-vortex bound states whose integer quantum Hall effect explains a large majority of the observed FQHE states. In recent years, the focus has shifted to the more exotic states that originate from a weak residual interaction between composite fermions. These include chiral p-wave paired states of composite fermions at certain even denominator fractions, unconventional FQHE of composite fermions, and a series of CF crystals at low fillings. Aside from these states, we also review the FQHE in multicomponent systems, which has attracted renewed attention because of the observation of well-developed FQHE in several multivalley systems, such as graphene and AlAs quantum wells.
Entangling photons via the double quantum Zeno effect
Brinke, Nicolai ten; Osterloh, Andreas; Schuetzhold, Ralf [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Lotharstrasse 1, D-47057 Duisburg (Germany)
2011-08-15
We propose a scheme for entangling two photons via the quantum Zeno effect, which describes the inhibition of quantum evolution by frequent measurements and is based on the difference between summing amplitudes and probabilities. For a given error probability P{sub error}, our scheme requires that the one-photon loss rate {xi}{sub 1{gamma}} and the two-photon absorption rate {xi}{sub 2{gamma}} in some medium satisfy {xi}{sub 1{gamma}}/{xi}{sub 2{gamma}}=2P{sub error}{sup 2}/{pi}{sup 2}, which is significantly improved compared to previous approaches. Again based on the quantum Zeno effect, as well as coherent excitations, we present a possibility to fulfill this requirement in an otherwise linear optics setup.
Plasma wave instability in a quantum field effect transistor with magnetic field effect
Zhang, Li-Ping; Xue, Ju-Kui
2013-08-15
The current-carrying state of a nanometer Field Effect Transistor (FET) may become unstable against the generation of high-frequency plasma waves and lead to generation of terahertz radiation. In this paper, the influences of magnetic field, quantum effects, electron exchange-correlation, and thermal motion of electrons on the instability of the plasma waves in a nanometer FET are reported. We find that, while the electron exchange-correlation suppresses the radiation power, the magnetic field, the quantum effects, and the thermal motion of electrons can enhance the radiation power. The radiation frequency increases with quantum effects and thermal motion of electrons, but decreases with electron exchange-correlation effect. Interestingly, we find that magnetic field can suppress the quantum effects and the thermal motion of electrons and the radiation frequency changes non-monotonely with the magnetic field. These properties could make the nanometer FET advantageous for realization of practical terahertz oscillations.
Modeling quantum gravity effects in inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinec, Emil J.; Moore, Wynton E.
2014-07-01
Cosmological models in 1+1 dimensions are an ideal setting for investigating the quantum structure of inflationary dynamics — gravity is renormalizable, while there is room for spatial structure not present in the minisuperspace approximation. We use this fortuitous convergence to investigate the mechanism of slow-roll eternal inflation. A variant of 1+1 Liouville gravity coupled to matter is shown to model precisely the scalar sector of cosmological perturbations in 3+1 dimensions. A particular example of quintessence in 1+1d is argued on the one hand to exhibit slow-roll eternal inflation according to standard criteria; on the other hand, a field redefinition relates the model to pure de Sitter gravity coupled to a free scalar matter field with no potential. This and other examples show that the standard logic leading to slow-roll eternal inflation is not invariant under field redefinitions, thus raising concerns regarding its validity. Aspects of the quantization of Liouville gravity as a model of quantum de Sitter space are also discussed.
On the consistent effect histories approach to quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rudolph, Oliver
1996-11-01
A formulation of the consistent histories approach to quantum mechanics in terms of generalized observables (POV measures) and effect operators is provided. The usual notion of ``history'' is generalized to the notion of ``effect history.'' The space of effect histories carries the structure of a D-poset. Recent results of J. D. Maitland Wright imply that every decoherence functional defined for ordinary histories can be uniquely extended to a bi-additive decoherence functional on the space of effect histories. Omnès' logical interpretation is generalized to the present context. The result of this work considerably generalizes and simplifies the earlier formulation of the consistent effect histories approach to quantum mechanics communicated in a previous work of this author.
On the consistent effect histories approach to quantum mechanics
Rudolph, O.
1996-11-01
A formulation of the consistent histories approach to quantum mechanics in terms of generalized observables (POV measures) and effect operators is provided. The usual notion of {open_quote}{open_quote}history{close_quote}{close_quote} is generalized to the notion of {open_quote}{open_quote}effect history.{close_quote}{close_quote} The space of effect histories carries the structure of a {ital D}-poset. Recent results of J. D. Maitland Wright imply that every decoherence functional defined for ordinary histories can be uniquely extended to a bi-additive decoherence functional on the space of effect histories. Omn{grave e}s{close_quote} logical interpretation is generalized to the present context. The result of this work considerably generalizes and simplifies the earlier formulation of the consistent effect histories approach to quantum mechanics communicated in a previous work of this author. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Long-Term Evolution of and X-ray Emission from a Recoiling Supermassive Black Hole in a Disk Galaxy
Yutaka Fujita
2008-10-08
Recent numerical relativity simulations have shown that the emission of gravitational waves at the merger of two black holes gives a recoil kick to the final black hole. We follow the orbits of a recoiling supermassive black hole (SMBH) in a fixed background potential of a disk galaxy including the effect of dynamical friction. If the recoil velocity of the SMBH is smaller than the escape velocity of the galaxy, the SMBH moves around in the potential along a complex trajectory before it spirals into the galactic center through dynamical friction. We consider the accretion of gas onto the SMBH from the surrounding ISM and estimate the X-ray luminosity of the SMBH. We find that it can be larger than 3x 10^39 erg^-1 or the typical X-ray luminosity of ultra-luminous X-ray sources, when the SMBH passes the galactic disk. In particular, the luminosity could exceed ~10^46 erg s^-1, if the SMBH is ejected into the galactic disk. The average luminosity gradually increases as the SMBH spirals into the galactic center. We also estimate the probability of finding recoiling SMBHs with X-ray luminosities of >3x 10^39 erg^-1 in a disk galaxy.
ReCoIL Project and Co-Lab Modelling Tool
E. Martín; J. M. Zamarro; M. Celdrán
In this communication the European ReCoIL project will be presented together with an introduction to the system dynamics like modelling editor used in Co-Lab, a previous European project included as part of ReCoIL. ReCoIL project aims to facilitate teachers the adoption of a collaborative inquiry learning approach. In ReCoIL three former projects have participated: Co-Lab, ModellingSpace and Viten. Support to
Quantum Effects in Unimolecular Reaction Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gezelter, Joshua Daniel
1995-11-01
This work is primarily concerned with the development of models for the quantum dynamics of unimolecular isomerization and photodissociation reactions. We apply the rigorous quantum methodology of a Discrete Variable Representation (DVR)^1 with Absorbing Boundary Conditions (ABC)^2 to these models in an attempt to explain some very surprising results from a series of experiments on vibrationally excited ketene. ^3 Within the framework of these models, we are able to identify the experimental signatures of tunneling and dynamical resonances in the energy dependence of the rate of ketene isomerization. Additionally, we investigate the step-like features in the energy dependence of the rate of dissociation of triplet ketene to form ^3B_1 CH_2+{^1 Sigma^+} CO that C have been observed experimentally. These calculations provide a link between ab initio calculations of the potential energy surfaces and the experimentally observed dynamics on these surfaces. Additionally, we develop an approximate model for the partitioning of energy in the products of photodissociation reactions of large molecules with appreciable barriers to recombination. In simple bond cleavage reactions like CH_3COClto CH_3CO+Cl, the model does considerably better than other impulsive and statistical models in predicting the energy distribution in the products.^4. We also investigate ways of correcting classical mechanics to include the important quantum mechanical aspects of zero-point energy. The method we investigate ^5 is found to introduce a number of undesirable dynamical artifacts including a reduction in the above -threshold rates for simple reactions, and a strong mixing of the chaotic and regular energy domains for some model problems. We conclude by discussing some of the directions for future research in the field of theoretical chemical dynamics. ftn^1D. T. Colbert and W. H. Miller, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 1982 (1992). ^2T. Seideman and W. H. Miller, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 2499 (1992). ^3E. R. Lovejoy and C. B. Moore, J. Chem. Phys. 98, 7846 (1993); S. K. Kim, E. R. Lovejoy, and C. B. Moore, J. Chem. Phys. 102, 3202 (1995). ^4S. W. North, D. A. Blank, J. D. Gezelter, C. A. Longfellow, and Y. T. Lee, J. Chem. Phys. 102, 4447 (1995). ^5 J. M. Bowman, B. Gazdy, and Q. Sun, J. Chem. Phys. 91, 2859 (1989); W. H. Miller, W. L. Hase, and C. L. Darling, J. Chem. Phys. 91, 2863 (1989).
Thermal non-equilibrium effects in quantum reflection
Viola Druzhinina; Marcel Mudrich; Florian Arnecke; Javier Madronero; Andreas Buchleitner
2009-03-19
We show that the quantum reflection coefficient of ultracold heavy atoms scattering off a dielectric surface can be tuned in a wide range by suitable choice of surface and environment temperatures. This effect results from a temperature dependent long-range repulsive part of the van der Waals-Casimir-Polder-Lifshitz atom-surface interaction potential.
Quantum Gravity Effect in Torsion Driven Inflation and CP violation
Sayantan Choudhury; Barun Kumar Pal; Banasri Basu; Pratul Bandyopadhyay
2015-10-10
We have derived an effective potential for inflationary scenario from torsion and quantum gravity correction in terms of the scalar field hidden in torsion. A strict bound on the CP violating $\\theta$ parameter, ${\\cal O}(10^{-10})<\\theta<{\\cal O}(10^{-9})$ has been obtained, using {\\tt Planck+WMAP9} best fit cosmological parameters.
Novel quantum transport effects in single-molecule transistors
von Oppen, Felix
for pair tunneling. 1 Sketch of molecular electronics In recent years, electronic transport throughNovel quantum transport effects in single-molecule transistors Felix von Oppen and Jens Koch@physik.fu-berlin.de, Jens.Koch@physik.fu-berlin.de Abstract. Transport through single molecules differs from transport
Cerenkov's Effect and Neutrino Oscillations in Loop Quantum Gravity
G. Lambiase
2003-01-16
Bounds on the scale parameter {\\cal L} arising in loop quantum gravity theory are derived in the framework of Cerenkov's effect and neutrino oscillations. Assuming that {\\cal L} is an universal constant, we infer {\\cal L}> 10^{-18}eV^{-1}, a bound compatible with ones inferred in different physical context.
Low energy theorems of quantum gravity from effective field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donoghue, John F.; Holstein, Barry R.
2015-10-01
In this survey, we review some of the low energy quantum predictions of general relativity which are independent of details of the yet unknown high-energy completion of the gravitational interaction. Such predictions can be extracted using the techniques of effective field theory.
The Performance of the HRIBF Recoil Mass Spectrometry
Ginter, T.N.
1998-11-13
The Recoil Mass Spectrometer (RMS) is a mass separator located at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This paper describes the RMS, its performance, its detector systems, and discusses some experiments to illustrate its capabilities.
Detection system for the St. George recoil mass separator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalkal, S.; Hinnefeld, J.; Morales, L.; Robertson, D.; Stech, E.; Berg, G. P. A.; Gorres, J.; Couder, M.; Wiescher, M.
2012-10-01
The St. George recoil mass separator is designed for the study of low energy (?,?) reactions of astrophysical interest in inverse kinematics. The energy range of recoils will be 0.07 to 0.9 MeV/nucleon. A detection system is being developed for separating the recoils from the residual scattered beam at the focal plane. The detection system will consist of two position sensitive microchannel plate (MCPs) timing detectors separated by 50cm followed by a single sided silicon strip detector. Simulations were performed using the codes SIMION and GEANT4. Different designs for guiding the secondary electrons emitted from a thin carbon foil to the MCP were studied in the simulations. Good timing and position resolution and minimization of transmission loss due to grids were key factors in selecting the final design. Time of flight will be recorded between the two MCPs. The delay line technique will be used for extracting the position information from the MCPs. The energy of the recoils will be recorded by the Si detector. A dedicated vacuum chamber and the modular design of the detection system will facilitate future improvements and customization for particular experiments.
Accurate Simulations of Pb Recoils in SuperCDMS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Redl, P.
2014-09-01
SuperCDMS is a direct detection search for WIMPs, currently operating a 9 kg array of germanium detectors in the Soudan Underground Laboratory. The detectors, known as iZIPs, are cylindrical in shape and each flat surface is instrumented with both ionization and phonon sensors. Charge and phonon information is collected for each event, and comparing the energy collected in the phonon sensors to the charge sensors gives excellent discrimination power between nuclear recoil and electron recoil events. Furthermore, this technology provides excellent discrimination between surface and bulk events. In order to show the surface event rejection capability of these detectors, two Pb sources were installed facing two of the detectors currently operating in the Soudan experimental run. The Pb decays to Bi, which in turn decays to Po. The Po decays by alpha emission, yielding a recoiling Pb ion with 103 keV kinetic energy and an alpha particle with 5.4 MeV kinetic energy. We used the non-standard Screened Nuclear Recoil Physics List (Mendenhall and Weller, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 227:420-430, 2005) in Geant4 (Agostinelli et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 506:250-303, 2003) to simulate all of the above decays and achieve excellent agreement with experiment. The focus of this paper is the simulation of the Po decay.
Elastic recoil detection (ERD) with extremely heavy ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forster, J. S.; Currie, P. J.; Davies, J. A.; Siegele, R.; Wallace, S. G.; Zelenitsky, D.
1996-06-01
Extremely heavy-ion beams such as 209Bi in elastic recoil detection (ERD) make ERD a uniquely valuable technique for thin-film analysis of elements with mass ? 100. We report ERD measurements of compositional analysis of dinosaur eggshells and bones. We also show the capability of the ERD technique on studies of thin-film, high-temperature superconductors.
Scintillation response of liquid xenon to low energy nuclear recoils
Aprile, E.; Giboni, K.L.; Majewski, P.; Ni, K.; Yamashita, M.; Hasty, R.; Manzur, A.; McKinsey, D.N.
2005-10-01
Liquid Xenon (LXe) is expected to be an excellent target and detection medium to search for dark matter in the form of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). We have measured the scintillation efficiency of nuclear recoils with kinetic energy between 10.4 and 56.5 keV relative to that of 122 keV gamma rays from {sup 57}Co. The scintillation yield of 56.5 keV recoils was also measured as a function of applied electric field, and compared to that of gamma rays and alpha particles. The Xe recoils were produced by elastic scattering of 2.4 MeV neutrons in liquid xenon at a variety of scattering angles. The relative scintillation efficiency is 0.130{+-}0.024 and 0.227{+-}0.016 for the lowest and highest energy recoils, respectively. This is about 15% less than the value predicted by Lindhard, based on nuclear quenching. Our results are in good agreement with more recent theoretical predictions that consider the additional reduction of scintillation yield due to biexcitonic collisions in LXe.
Quantum confinement effects on charge-transfer between PbS quantum dots and 4-mercaptopyridine
Fu Xiaoqi; Pan Yi; Lombardi, John R.; Wang Xin
2011-01-14
We obtain the surface enhanced Raman spectra of 4-mercaptopyridine on lead sulfide (PbS) quantum dots as a function of nanoparticle size and excitation wavelength. The nanoparticle radii are selected to be less than the exciton Bohr radius of PbS, enabling the observation of quantum confinement effects on the spectrum. We utilize the variation of nontotally symmetric modes of both b{sub 1} and b{sub 2} symmetry as compared to the totally symmetric a{sub 1} modes to measure the degree of charge-transfer between the molecule and quantum dot. We find both size dependent and wavelength dependent resonances in the range of these measurements, and attribute them to charge-transfer resonances which are responsible for the Raman enhancement.
Vortices in superconducting films: Statistics and fractional quantum Hall effect
Dziarmaga, J. [Jagellonian University, Institute of Physics, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)] [Jagellonian University, Institute of Physics, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)
1996-03-01
We present a derivation of the Berry phase picked up during exchange of parallel vortices. This derivation is based on the Bogolubov{endash}de Gennes formalism. The origin of the Magnus force is also critically reanalyzed. The Magnus force can be interpreted as an interaction with the effective magnetic field. The effective magnetic field may be even of the order 10{sup 6}{ital T}/A. We discuss a possibility of the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) in vortex systems. As the real magnetic field is varied to drive changes in vortex density, the vortex density will prefer to stay at some quantized values. The mere existence of the FQHE does not depend on vortex quantum statistics, although the pattern of the plateaux does. We also discuss how the density of anyonic vortices can lower the effective strengh of the Magnus force, what might be observable in measurements of Hall resistivity. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Effects of quantum fluctuations of metric on the universe
Rong-Jia Yang
2015-06-09
We consider a model of modified gravity from the nonperturbative quantization of a metric. We obtain the modified gravitational field equations and the modified conservational equations. We apply it to the FLRW spacetime and find that due to the quantum fluctuations a bounce universe can be obtained and a decelerated expansion can also possibly be obtained even in a dark energy dominated epoch. We also discuss the effects of quantum fluctuations on inflation parameters, such as slow-roll parameters, spectral index, and the spectrum of the primordial curvature perturbation.
Tunneling in Polymer Quantization and the Quantum Zeno Effect
Durmus Ali Demir; Ozan Sargin
2014-09-25
As an application of the polymer quantization scheme, in this work we investigate the one dimensional quantum mechanical tunneling phenomenon from the perspective of polymer representation of a non-relativistic point particle and derive the transmission and reflection coefficients. Since any tunneling phenomenon inevitably evokes a tunneling time we attempt an analytical calculation of tunneling times by defining an operator well suited in discrete spatial geometry. The results that we come up with hint at appearance of the Quantum Zeno Effect in polymer framework.
The Quantum Hall Effect in Supersymmetric Chern-Simons Theories
Tong, David
2015-01-01
In d=2+1 dimensions, there exist gauge theories which are supersymmetric but non-relativistic. We solve the simplest U(1) gauge theory in this class and show that the low-energy physics is that of the fractional quantum Hall effect, with ground states given by the Laughlin wavefunctions. We do this by quantising the vortices and relating them to the quantum Hall matrix model. We further construct coherent state representations of the excitations of vortices. These are quasi-holes. By an explicit computation of the Berry phase, without resorting to a plasma analogy, we show that these excitations have fractional charge and spin.
Nuclear Quantum Vibrational Effects in Shock Hugoniot Temperatures
Goldman, N; Reed, E; Fried, L E
2009-07-23
We present a straightforward method for the inclusion of quantum nuclear vibrational effects in molecular dynamics calculations of shock Hugoniot temperatures. Using a Grueneisen equation of state and a quasiharmonic approximation to the vibrational energies, we derive a simple, post-processing method for calculation of the quantum corrected Hugoniot temperatures. We have used our novel technique on ab initio simulations of shock compressed water. Our results indicate significantly closer agreement with all available experimental temperature data. Our formalism and technique can be easily applied to a number of different shock compressed molecular liquids or solids.
The mechanics of elastic loading and recoil in anuran jumping.
Astley, Henry C; Roberts, Thomas J
2014-12-15
Many animals use catapult mechanisms to produce extremely rapid movements for escape or prey capture, resulting in power outputs far beyond the limits of muscle. In these catapults, muscle contraction loads elastic structures, which then recoil to release the stored energy extremely rapidly. Many arthropods employ anatomical 'catch mechanisms' to lock the joint in place during the loading period, which can then be released to allow joint motion via elastic recoil. Jumping vertebrates lack a clear anatomical catch, yet face the same requirement to load the elastic structure prior to movement. There are several potential mechanisms to allow loading of vertebrate elastic structures, including the gravitational load of the body, a variable mechanical advantage, and moments generated by the musculature of proximal joints. To test these hypothesized mechanisms, we collected simultaneous 3D kinematics via X-ray Reconstruction of Moving Morphology (XROMM) and single-foot forces during the jumps of three Rana pipiens. We calculated joint mechanical advantage, moment and power using inverse dynamics at the ankle, knee, hip and ilio-sacral joints. We found that the increasing proximal joint moments early in the jump allowed for high ankle muscle forces and elastic pre-loading, and the subsequent reduction in these moments allowed the ankle to extend using elastic recoil. Mechanical advantage also changed throughout the jump, with the muscle contracting against a poor mechanical advantage early in the jump during loading and a higher mechanical advantage late in the jump during recoil. These 'dynamic catch mechanisms' serve to resist joint motion during elastic loading, then allow it during elastic recoil, functioning as a catch mechanism based on the balance and orientation of forces throughout the limb rather than an anatomical catch. PMID:25520385
Quantum Hall effect in graphene decorated with disordered multilayer patches
Nam, Youngwoo; Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg ; Sun, Jie Lindvall, Niclas; Kireev, Dmitry; Yurgens, August; Jae Yang, Seung; Rae Park, Chong; Woo Park, Yung
2013-12-02
Quantum Hall effect (QHE) is observed in graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition using platinum catalyst. The QHE is even seen in samples which are irregularly decorated with disordered multilayer graphene patches and have very low mobility (<500 cm{sup 2}V{sup ?1}s{sup ?1}). The effect does not seem to depend on electronic mobility and uniformity of the resulting material, which indicates the robustness of QHE in graphene.
Universal Effective Quantum Number for Centrally Symmetric Problems
A. A. Lobashev; N. N. Trunov
2007-10-29
An effective quantum number determining with high accuracy the levels ordering in arbitrary centrally symmetric potentials for any space dimensionality is introduced and calculated by means of certain universal methods based on the known estimates for the total number of the bound states in the same potential for various dimensionality. Coincidence with some known exact results is demonstrated. The effective number is used for constructing the periodical system of the atomic electron shells.
Quantum corrections to spin effects in general relativity
G. G. Kirilin
2005-07-16
Quantum power corrections to the gravitational spin-orbit and spin-spin interactions, as well as to the Lense-Thirring effect, were found for particles of spin 1/2. These corrections arise from diagrams of second order in Newton gravitational constant G with two massless particles in the unitary cut in the t-channel. The corrections obtained differ from the previous calculation of the corrections to spin effects for rotating compound bodies with spinless constituents.
The Quantum Spin Hall Effect: Theory and Experiment
Konig, Markus; Buhmann, Hartmut; Molenkamp, Laurens W.; Hughes, Taylor L.; Liu, Chao-Xing; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2010-03-19
The search for topologically non-trivial states of matter has become an important goal for condensed matter physics. Recently, a new class of topological insulators has been proposed. These topological insulators have an insulating gap in the bulk, but have topologically protected edge states due to the time reversal symmetry. In two dimensions the helical edge states give rise to the quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect, in the absence of any external magnetic field. Here we review a recent theory which predicts that the QSH state can be realized in HgTe/CdTe semiconductor quantum wells. By varying the thickness of the quantum well, the band structure changes from a normal to an 'inverted' type at a critical thickness d{sub c}. We present an analytical solution of the helical edge states and explicitly demonstrate their topological stability. We also review the recent experimental observation of the QSH state in HgTe/(Hg,Cd)Te quantum wells. We review both the fabrication of the sample and the experimental setup. For thin quantum wells with well width d{sub QW} < 6.3 nm, the insulating regime shows the conventional behavior of vanishingly small conductance at low temperature. However, for thicker quantum wells (d{sub QW} > 6.3 nm), the nominally insulating regime shows a plateau of residual conductance close to 2e{sup 2}/h. The residual conductance is independent of the sample width, indicating that it is caused by edge states. Furthermore, the residual conductance is destroyed by a small external magnetic field. The quantum phase transition at the critical thickness, d{sub c} = 6.3 nm, is also independently determined from the occurrence of a magnetic field induced insulator to metal transition.
Possible observational windows for quantum effects from black holes
Steven B. Giddings
2014-10-28
Quantum information transfer necessary to reconcile black hole evaporation with quantum mechanics, while approximately preserving regular near-horizon geometry, can be simply parameterized in terms of couplings of the black hole internal state to quantum fields of the black hole atmosphere. The necessity of transferring sufficient information for unitarization sets the strengths of these couplings. Such couplings via the stress tensor offer apparently significant advantages, and behave like quantum fluctuations of the effective metric near the horizon. At the requisite strength, these fluctuations, while soft (low energy/momentum), have significant magnitude, and so can deflect near-horizon geodesics that span distances of order the black hole radius. Thus, the presence of such couplings can result in effects that could be detected or constrained by observation: disruption of near-horizon accretion flows, scintillation of light passing close to the black hole, and alteration of gravitational wave emission from inspirals. These effects could in particular distort features of Sgr A* expected to be observed, e.g., by the Event Horizon Telescope, such as the black hole shadow and photon ring.
Quantum Hall effect in graphene with twisted bilayer stripe defects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Löfwander, Tomas; San-Jose, Pablo; Prada, Elsa
2013-05-01
We analyze the quantum Hall effect in single layer graphene with bilayer stripe defects. Such defects are often encountered at steps in the substrate of graphene grown on silicon carbide. We show that AB or AA stacked bilayer stripes result in large Hall conductivity fluctuations that destroy the quantum Hall plateaux. The fluctuations are a result of the coupling of edge states at opposite edges through currents traversing the stripe. Upon rotation of the second layer with respect to the continuous monolayer (a twisted-bilayer stripe defect), such currents decouple from the extended edge states and develop into long-lived discrete quasibound states circulating around the perimeter of the stripe. Backscattering of edge modes then occurs only at precise resonant energies, and hence the quantum Hall plateaux are recovered as twist angle grows.
On the Convergence in Effective Loop Quantum Cosmology
Corichi, Alejandro; Vukasinac, Tatjana; Zapata, Jose Antonio
2010-07-12
In Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC) there is a discreteness parameter {lambda}, that has been heuristically associated to a fundamental granularity of quantum geometry. It is also possible to consider {lambda} as a regulator in the same spirit as that used in lattice field theory, where it specifies a regular lattice in the real line. A particular quantization of the k = 0 FLRW loop cosmological model yields a completely solvable model, known as solvable loop quantum cosmology(sLQC). In this contribution, we consider effective classical theories motivated by sLQC and study their {lambda}-dependence, with a special interest on the limit {lambda}{yields}0 and the role of the evolution parameter in the convergence of such limit.
Large-scale quantum effects in biological systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mesquita, Marcus V.; Vasconcellos, Áurea R.; Luzzi, Roberto; Mascarenhas, Sergio
Particular aspects of large-scale quantum effects in biological systems, such as biopolymers and also microtubules in the cytoskeleton of neurons which can have relevance in brain functioning, are discussed. The microscopic (quantum mechanical) and macroscopic (quantum statistical mechanical) aspects, and the emergence of complex behavior, are described. This phenomena consists of the large-scale coherent process of Fröhlich-Bose-Einstein condensation in open and sufficiently far-from-equilibrium biopolymers. Associated with this phenomenon is the presence of Schrödinger-Davydov solitons, which propagate, undistorted and undamped, when embedded in the Fröhlich-Bose-Einstein condensate, thus allowing for the transmission of signals at long distances, involving a question relevant to bioenergetics.
Effective time-independent analysis for quantum kicked systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bandyopadhyay, Jayendra N.; Guha Sarkar, Tapomoy
2015-03-01
We present a mapping of potentially chaotic time-dependent quantum kicked systems to an equivalent approximate effective time-independent scenario, whereby the system is rendered integrable. The time evolution is factorized into an initial kick, followed by an evolution dictated by a time-independent Hamiltonian and a final kick. This method is applied to the kicked top model. The effective time-independent Hamiltonian thus obtained does not suffer from spurious divergences encountered if the traditional Baker-Cambell-Hausdorff treatment is used. The quasienergy spectrum of the Floquet operator is found to be in excellent agreement with the energy levels of the effective Hamiltonian for a wide range of system parameters. The density of states for the effective system exhibits sharp peaklike features, pointing towards quantum criticality. The dynamics in the classical limit of the integrable effective Hamiltonian shows remarkable agreement with the nonintegrable map corresponding to the actual time-dependent system in the nonchaotic regime. This suggests that the effective Hamiltonian serves as a substitute for the actual system in the nonchaotic regime at both the quantum and classical level.
A. T. Dellis; I. K. Kominis
2012-05-22
Magnetic-sensitive radical-ion-pair reactions are understood to underlie the biochemical magnetic compass used by avian species for navigation. Recent experiments have provided growing evidence for the radical-ion-pair magnetoreception mechanism, while recent theoretical advances have unravelled the quantum nature of radical-ion-pair reactions, which were shown to manifest a host of quantum-information-science concepts and effects, like quantum measurement, quantum jumps and the quantum Zeno effect. We here show that the quantum Zeno effect provides for the robustness of the avian compass mechanism, and immunizes it's magnetic and angular sensitivity against the deleterious and molecule-specific exchange and dipolar interactions.
A holographic model for the fractional quantum Hall effect
Matthew Lippert; Rene Meyer; Anastasios Taliotis
2014-12-23
Experimental data for fractional quantum Hall systems can to a large extent be explained by assuming the existence of a modular symmetry group commuting with the renormalization group flow and hence mapping different phases of two-dimensional electron gases into each other. Based on this insight, we construct a phenomenological holographic model which captures many features of the fractional quantum Hall effect. Using an SL(2,Z)-invariant Einstein-Maxwell-axio-dilaton theory capturing the important modular transformation properties of quantum Hall physics, we find dyonic diatonic black hole solutions which are gapped and have a Hall conductivity equal to the filling fraction, as expected for quantum Hall states. We also provide several technical results on the general behavior of the gauge field fluctuations around these dyonic dilatonic black hole solutions: We specify a sufficient criterion for IR normalizability of the fluctuations, demonstrate the preservation of the gap under the SL(2,Z) action, and prove that the singularity of the fluctuation problem in the presence of a magnetic field is an accessory singularity. We finish with a preliminary investigation of the possible IR scaling solutions of our model and some speculations on how they could be important for the observed universality of quantum Hall transitions.
A holographic model for the fractional quantum Hall effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lippert, Matthew; Meyer, René; Taliotis, Anastasios
2015-01-01
Experimental data for fractional quantum Hall systems can to a large extent be explained by assuming the existence of a ?0(2) modular symmetry group commuting with the renormalization group flow and hence mapping different phases of two-dimensional electron gases into each other. Based on this insight, we construct a phenomenological holographic model which captures many features of the fractional quantum Hall effect. Using an -invariant Einstein-Maxwell-axio-dilaton theory capturing the important modular transformation properties of quantum Hall physics, we find dyonic diatonic black hole solutions which are gapped and have a Hall conductivity equal to the filling fraction, as expected for quantum Hall states. We also provide several technical results on the general behavior of the gauge field fluctuations around these dyonic dilatonic black hole solutions: we specify a sufficient criterion for IR normalizability of the fluctuations, demonstrate the preservation of the gap under the action, and prove that the singularity of the fluctuation problem in the presence of a magnetic field is an accessory singularity. We finish with a preliminary investigation of the possible IR scaling solutions of our model and some speculations on how they could be important for the observed universality of quantum Hall transitions.
Effect of uniform acceleration on multiplayer quantum game
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goudarzi, H.; Beyrami, S.
2012-06-01
We investigate the influence of the Unruh effect on three-qubit quantum games. In particular, we interpret the quantum Prisoners’ Dilemma, which is a famous, non-zero sum game both for entangled and unentangled initial states and show that the acceleration of non-inertial frames disturbs the symmetry of the game. Using the various strategies, the novel Nash equilibrium is obtained at infinite acceleration (r = ?/4). As a remarkable point, it is shown that in our three-player system, in contrast to the two-player quantum game in non-inertial frames (see Khan et al 2011 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44 355302), there is not a dominant strategy (even classical strategy) in the game and choosing the quantum strategy by each player can be the dominant strategy depending on the kind of strategy chosen by others. Since the entangled states of particles play an important role in the quantum game, finally we argue that the results of the players depend on the degree of entanglement in the initial state of the game.
Theoretical investigation of quantum-confined Stark effect in nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blanton, Christopher J.
The two main objectives of this dissertation are the systematic development of explicitly correlated electron-hole wave function based methods and the application of these methods to chemical systems with an emphasis on nanoparticles. The understanding of the basic physics of excited electronic states is an important consideration when developing new methods and applications. In this dissertation, excited electronic states were studied using the electron-hole quasiparticle representation. Theoretical treatment of electronic excitation in large quantum dots and nanoparticles is challenging because of the large number of electrons in the system. The quasiparticle representation provides an alternative representation that can partially alleviate the computational bottleneck associated with investigating these systems. However, in this representation, the effects of electron-hole correlation must be understood in order to accurately describe the system's optical and electronic properties. The electron-hole wave function consists of two separate mathematical components which are the explicitly correlated part of the wave function and the reference wave function which is operated on by the explicitly correlated operator. This dissertation presents theoretical development of both of these components. In the first part, a systematic formulation for deriving the explicitly correlated form of the electron-hole wave function was performed. Towards that goal, the electron-hole correlation length was defined using the electron-hole cumulant. The construction of explicitly correlated wave function was improved by the introduction of the electron-hole correlation length which was determined using the electron-hole cumulant. The electron-hole correlation length allowed the determination of parameters in the explicitly correlated operator without the performance of energy minimizations. In the second part, the electron-hole reference wave function was improved by combining full configuration electron-hole wave function with the explicitly correlated operator. The developed methods were used to investigate the quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) and the effect of pH on the optical properties of quantum dots. The effect of applied electric fields on nanoparticles is known as the quantum-confined Stark effect. In this dissertation, the effect of both homogeneous and inhomogeneous electric fields on the optical and electronic properties of quantum dots was investigated. The effect of electric fields on the optical and electronic properties of a GaAs quantum dot was determined by combining the variational polaron transformation with the explicitly correlated electron-hole wave function. The presence of charged ligands also influenced the optical properties of quantum dot and this effect is known as the ligand-induced quantum-confined Stark effect. In this dissertation, the effect of pH on the optical properties of functionalized quantum dots were investigated by first calculating the charged states of the surface ligands at a given pH and then performing electron-hole explicitly correlated wave function based calculations in the electrostatic field generated by the charged ligands. Theoretical methods developed in this dissertation have impacted the field of computational nanoscience by reducing the computational bottleneck to investigate nanoparticles and by providing novel avenues for improving accuracy of existing methods.
Effect of quantum therapy on pork quality
Bodnár, Martin; Nagy, Jozef; Popelka, Peter; Koréneková, Beáta; Ma?anga, Ján; Nagyová, Alena
2011-01-01
In this study the impact of quantum therapy on meat quality of slaughtered pigs was investigated. For this purpose the pigs were treated with different doses of magnet-infrared-laser (MIL) radiation. Animals were divided into four groups according to radiation doses (4096, 512, and 64 Hz, and control without application), which were applied in the lumbar area of musculus longissimus dorsi (loin) at various time intervals prior to the slaughter (14 d, 24 h, and 1 h). Animals were slaughtered and the meat quality was evaluated by determining of pH value (1, 3, and 24 h post slaughter), drip loss, colour, and lactic acid and phosphoric acid amounts. MIL therapy can be used in various fields of veterinary medicine as are surgery and orthopaedics, internal medicine, dentistry, pulmonology, gastroenterology, gynaecology, urology, nephrology, and dermatology. The results achieved showed that MIL radiation used in a short period before slaughter (1 h) can cause a change in the meat quality, as reflected by the non-standard development of pH values, increases in drip loss, and changes of meat colour. PMID:22042653
Observational Selection Effects in Quantum Cosmology
Don N. Page
2007-12-13
Scientific theories need to be testable by observations, say using Bayes' theorem. A complete theory needs at least the three parts of dynamical laws for specified physical variables, the correct solution of the dynamical laws (boundary conditions), and the connection with observations or experience or conscious perceptions (laws of psycho-physical parallelism). Principles are proposed for Bayesian meta-theories. One framework that obeys these principles is Sensible Quantum Mechanics (SQM), which is discussed. In principle, it allows one to test between single-history and many-worlds theories, and to discuss threats to certain theories from fake universes and Boltzmann brains. The threat of fake universes may be dismissed if one doubts the substrate-independence of consciousness, which seems very implausible in the SQM framework. Boltzmann brains seem more problematic, though there are many conceivable solutions. SQM also suggests the possibility that past steps along our evolutionary ancestry may be so rare that they have occurred nowhere else within the part of the universe that we can observe.
Liu, Jia; Wu, Jian; Czasch, Achim; Zeng, Heping
2009-07-20
We demonstrate warm target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy for the fragmentation dynamics of the warm hydrogen molecules at room temperature. The thermal movement effect of the warm molecule is removed by using a correction algorithm in the momentum space. Based on the reconstructed three-dimensional momentum vectors as well as the kinetic energy release spectra, different vibrational states of the H(2)(+) ground state are clearly visible and the internuclear separation for charge resonance enhanced ionization of the second electron is identified. The results show adequate accordance with the former experiments using other techniques. PMID:19654636
Isupov, V.K.; Gavrilov, V.V.
1987-11-01
A study has been made on the thermal annealing of stabilization products from recoil bromine-82 atoms in neutron-irradiated ammonium perbromate. Paper and ion-exchange chromatography show that the oxidation of /sup 82/Br/sup -/ to /sup 82/BrO/sub 3//sup -/ in that case occurs only to a small extent, in contrast to alkali-metal perbromates. The effect is ascribed to metastable radiolysis products from the ammonium group. The pyrolysis of ammonium perbromate has also been examined.
Memory effects in attenuation and amplification quantum processes
Lupo, Cosmo; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Mancini, Stefano
2010-09-15
With increasing communication rates via quantum channels, memory effects become unavoidable whenever the use rate of the channel is comparable to the typical relaxation time of the channel environment. We introduce a model of a bosonic memory channel, describing correlated noise effects in quantum-optical processes via attenuating or amplifying media. To study such a channel model, we make use of a proper set of collective field variables, which allows us to unravel the memory effects, mapping the n-fold concatenation of the memory channel to a unitarily equivalent, direct product of n single-mode bosonic channels. We hence estimate the channel capacities by relying on known results for the memoryless setting. Our findings show that the model is characterized by two different regimes, in which the cross correlations induced by the noise among different channel uses are either exponentially enhanced or exponentially reduced.
Quantum anti-Zeno effect without rotating wave approximation
Ai Qing; Sun, C. P.; Li Yong; Zheng Hang
2010-04-15
In this article, we systematically study the spontaneous decay phenomenon of a two-level system under the influences of both its environment and repetitive measurements. In order to clarify some well-established conclusions about the quantum Zeno effect (QZE) and the quantum anti-Zeno effect (QAZE), we do not use the rotating wave approximation (RWA) in obtaining an effective Hamiltonian. We examine various spectral distributions by making use of our present approach in comparison with other approaches. It is found that with respect to a bare excited state even without the RWA, the QAZE can still happen for some cases, for example, the interacting spectra of hydrogen. However, for a physical excited state, which is a renormalized dressed state of the atomic state, the QAZE disappears and only the QZE remains. These discoveries inevitably show a transition from the QZE to the QAZE as the measurement interval changes.
Memory effects in attenuation and amplification quantum processes
Cosmo Lupo; Vittorio Giovannetti; Stefano Mancini
2010-10-05
With increasing communication rates via quantum channels, memory effects become unavoidable whenever the use rate of the channel is comparable to the typical relaxation time of the channel environment. We introduce a model of a bosonic memory channel, describing correlated noise effects in quantum-optical processes via attenuating or amplifying media. To study such a channel model, we make use of a proper set of collective field variables, which allows us to unravel the memory effects, mapping the n-fold concatenation of the memory channel to a unitarily equivalent, direct product of n single-mode bosonic channels. We hence estimate the channel capacities by relying on known results for the memoryless setting. Our findings show that the model is characterized by two different regimes, in which the cross correlations induced by the noise among different channel uses are either exponentially enhanced or exponentially reduced.
Running of Newton's Constant and Quantum Gravitational Effects
David Reeb
2009-01-20
Newton's gravitational constant is shown to be a running coupling constant, much like the familiar running gauge couplings of the Standard Model. This implies that, in models with appropriate particle content, the true Planck scale, i.e. the scale at which quantum gravity effects become important, can have a value different from 10^19 GeV, which would be expected from naive dimensional analysis. Then, two scenarios involving this running effect are presented. The first one is a model which employs huge particle content to realize quantum gravity at the TeV scale in 4 dimensions, thereby solving the hierarchy problem of the Standard Model. Secondly, effects of the running of Newton's constant in grand unified theories are examined and shown to introduce new significant uncertainties in their predictions, but possibly also to provide better gauge coupling unification results in some cases.
Jet Extinction from Non-Perturbative Quantum Gravity Effects
Can Kilic; Amitabh Lath; Keith Rose; Scott Thomas
2013-12-17
The infrared-ultraviolet properties of quantum gravity suggest on very general grounds that hard short distance scattering processes are highly suppressed for center of mass scattering energies beyond the fundamental Planck scale. If this scale is not too far above the electroweak scale, these non-perturbative quantum gravity effects could be manifest as an extinction of high transverse momentum jets at the LHC. To model these effects we implement an Extinction Monte Carlo modification of the Pythia event generator based on a large damping Veneziano form factor modification of hard QCD scattering processes. Using this we illustrate the leading effects of extinction on the inclusive jet transverse momentum spectrum at the LHC. We estimate that an extinction mass scale of up to roughly half the center of mass beam collision energy could be probed with high statistics data.
Evanescent radiation, quantum mechanics and the Casimir effect
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schatten, Kenneth H.
1989-01-01
An attempt to bridge the gap between classical and quantum mechanics and to explain the Casimir effect is presented. The general nature of chaotic motion is discussed from two points of view: the first uses catastrophe theory and strange attractors to describe the deterministic view of this motion; the underlying framework for chaos in these classical dynamic systems is their extreme sensitivity to initial conditions. The second interpretation refers to randomness associated with probabilistic dynamics, as for Brownian motion. The present approach to understanding evanescent radiation and its relation to the Casimir effect corresponds to the first interpretation, whereas stochastic electrodynamics corresponds to the second viewpoint. The nonlinear behavior of the electromagnetic field is also studied. This well-understood behavior is utilized to examine the motions of two orbiting charges and shows a closeness between the classical behavior and the quantum uncertainty principle. The evanescent radiation is used to help explain the Casimir effect.
Magnetic quantum ratchet effect in Si-MOSFETs.
Ganichev, S D; Tarasenko, S A; Karch, J; Kamann, J; Kvon, Z D
2014-06-25
We report on the observation of magnetic quantum ratchet effect in metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect-transistors on silicon surface (Si-MOSFETs). We show that the excitation of an unbiased transistor by ac electric field of terahertz radiation at normal incidence leads to a direct electric current between the source and drain contacts if the transistor is subjected to an in-plane magnetic field. The current rises linearly with the magnetic field strength and quadratically with the ac electric field amplitude. It depends on the polarization state of the ac field and can be induced by both linearly and circularly polarized radiation. We present the quasi-classical and quantum theories of the observed effect and show that the current originates from the Lorentz force acting upon carriers in asymmetric inversion channels of the transistors. PMID:24888735
Quantum anti-Zeno effect without rotating wave approximation
Qing Ai; Yong Li; Hang Zheng; C. P. Sun
2010-04-19
In this paper, we systematically study the spontaneous decay phenomenon of a two-level system under the influences of both its environment and continuous measurements. In order to clarify some well-established conclusions about the quantum Zeno effect (QZE) and the quantum anti-Zeno effect (QAZE), we do not use the rotating wave approximation (RWA) in obtaining an effective Hamiltonian. We examine various spectral distributions by making use of our present approach in comparison with other approaches. It is found that with respect to a bare excited state even without the RWA, the QAZE can still happen for some cases, e.g., the interacting spectra of hydrogen. But for a physical excited state, which is a renormalized dressed state of the atomic state, the QAZE disappears and only the QZE remains. These discoveries inevitably show a transition from the QZE to the QAZE as the measurement interval changes.
Effective Masses for Donor Binding Energies in Quantum Well Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajashabala, S.; Navaneethakrishnan, K.
The donor ionization energies in a quantum well and quantum dot with finite and infinite barriers are estimated for different well dimensions. Using the effective mass (EM) approximation, calculations are presented with constant effective mass and position dependent effective masses that are different for finite and infinite cases. Our results reduce to an approximate form used by X. H. Qi et al., Phys. Rev. B 58 (1998) 10578 in the finite barrier model and that of L. E. Oliveira and L. M. Falicov, Phys. Rev. B 34 (1986) 8676 in the infinite barrier case. Results are presented by taking the GaAs quantum well as an example. The use of constant effective mass of 0.067m0 is justified for well dimensions ?a* where a* is an effective Bohr radius which is about 100 Å. While Qi et al. found a maximum of 22% variation in the binding energies due to mass variation, we obtained nearly 100% variation when mass variations are included correctly.
Loop quantum cosmology of Bianchi IX: Effective dynamics
Alejandro Corichi; Edison Montoya
2015-02-09
We study numerically the solutions to the effective equations of Bianchi IX spacetimes within Loop Quantum Cosmology. We consider Bianchi IX models with and without inverse triad corrections whose matter content is a scalar field without mass. The solutions are classified using the classical observables. We show that both effective theories --with lapse N=V and N=1-- solve the big bang singularity and reproduce the classical dynamics far from the bounce. Moreover, due to the spatial compactness, there is an infinity number of bounces and recollapses. We study the limit of large volume and show that both effective theories reproduce the same dynamics, thus recovering general relativity. We implement a procedure to identify amongst the Bianchi IX solutions, those that behave like k=0,1 FLRW as well as Bianchi I, II, and VII_0 models. The effective solutions exhibit Bianchi I phases with Bianchi II transitions and also Bianchi VII_0 phases, which had not been studied before, at the quantum nor effective level. We comment on the possible implications of these results for a quantum modification to the classical BKL behaviour.
Quantum spin Hall effect in nanostructures based on cadmium fluoride
Bagraev, N. T., E-mail: Bagraev@mail.ioffe.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Guimbitskaya, O. N. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University (Russian Federation); Klyachkin, L. E.; Koudryavtsev, A. A.; Malyarenko, A. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Romanov, V. V. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University (Russian Federation); Ryskin, A. I.; Shcheulin, A. S. [St. Petersburg State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics, and Optics (Russian Federation)
2010-10-15
Tunneling current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and temperature dependences of static magnetic susceptibility and specific heat of the CdB{sub x}F{sub 2-x}/p-CdF{sub 2}-QW/CdB{sub x}F{sub 2-x} planar sandwich structures formed on the surface of an n-CdF{sub 2} crystal have been studied in order to identify superconducting properties of the CdB{sub x}F{sub 2-x} {delta} barriers confining the p-type CdF{sub 2} ultranarrow quantum well. Comparative analysis of current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and conductance-voltage dependences (measured at the temperatures, respectively, below and above the critical temperature of superconducting transition) indicates that there is an interrelation between quantization of supercurrent and dimensional quantization of holes in the p-CdF{sub 2} ultranarrow quantum well. It is noteworthy that detection of the Josephson peak of current in each hole subband is accompanied by the appearance of the spectrum of the multiple Andreev reflection (MAR). A high degree of spin polarization of holes in the edge channels along the perimeter of the p-CdF{sub 2} ultranarrow quantum well appears as a result of MAR and makes it possible to identify the quantum spin Hall effect I-V characteristics; this effect becomes pronounced in the case of detection of nonzero conductance at the zero voltage applied to the vertical gate in the Hall geometry of the experiment. Within the energy range of superconducting gap, the I-V characteristics of the spin transistor and quantum spin Hall effect are controlled by the MAR spectrum appearing as the voltage applied to the vertical gate is varied. Beyond the range of the superconducting gap, the observed I-V characteristic of the quantum spin Hall effect is represented by a quantum conductance staircase with a height of the steps equal to e{sub 2}/h; this height is interrelated with the Aharonov-Casher oscillations of longitudinal and depends on the voltage applied to the vertical gate.
Quantum electrodynamic effects in finite space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dobiasch, P.; Walther, H.
The modifications of various quantum properties due to a discrete structure of the modes of the vacuum electromagnetic field are discussed. In contrast to the usual case of a continuous spectrum of the free space fluctuations, we consider physical systems in a resonator or in a wave guide. It is shown that the relaxation time of the system can be increased ot decreased, by increasing or decreasing the density of modes with respect to the case of unperturbed vacuum. On the other hand, we predict level shifts due to the reduced mass of the electron and deviations from the Lambshift for hydrogen in a wave guide, which can be detected with the presently feasible high resolution spectroscopy. We propose an experimental set-up. Nous discutons les modifications de diverses propriétés quantiques sous l'influence d'une structure de modes discrets du champ électromagnétique dans le vide. En comparaison du cas habituel d'un spectre continu des fluctuations du vide dans l'espace libre, nous considérons ici des systèmes physiques dans un résonateur ou un guide d'ondes. Il est démontré que le temps de relaxation du système peut être prolongé ou raccourci, ceci en augmentant ou diminuant la densité des modes par rapport à sa valeur dans le vide non-perturbé. D'autre part, nous prédisons des déplacements de niveau dus à la masse réduite de l'électron et des déviations du Lamb shift pour des atomes d'hydrogène dans un guide d'ondes, qui peuvent être détectées grâce à la haute résolution accessible actuellement en spectroscopie. Nous présentons un dispositif expérimental.
Nonlinear Fano effect in semiconductor quantum dots: Detecting weak interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Govorov, Alexander
2008-03-01
The Fano interference effect appears when a discrete state of an atom or quantum dot couples with a continuum of states. In self-assembled quantum dots, the coupling may come from the tunnelling or Auger processes [1,2,3]. This study develops a theory of Fano effect in self-organized quantum dots under the condition of strong optical pumping. Our theory shows that the Fano effect becomes greatly enhanced in the nonlinear regime. In the linear regime, if the dot-continuum interaction is very weak, the optical detection of Fano effect is impossible because of the Heisenberg principle. In other words, in the linear regime, a finite lifetime of an exciton creates an energy uncertainty and the Fano interference effect becomes invisible. However, in the nonlinear regime, the natural radiative broadening does not play the main role and even a very weak dot-continuum interaction becomes apparent. This nonlinear method can be used to detect very weak interactions between a two-level system (or qu-bit) and a continuum of states of any nature. The nonlinear Fano effect in InGaAs quantum dots has been observed in the recent experiments performed in Munich and Edinburgh [3]. This study was performed in collaboration with: W. Zhang, M. Kroner, K. Karrai, and R. J. Warburton. [1] A.O. Govorov, R. J. Warburton, and K. Karrai, Phys. Rev. B RC, 67, 241307 (2003). [2] K. Karrai et al., Nature 427, 135 (2004). [3] M. Kroner et al., submitted to Nature.
Quantum system under periodic perturbation: Effect of environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hotta, M.; Joichi, I.; Matsumoto, Sh.; Yoshimura, M.
1997-04-01
In many physical situations the behavior of a quantum system is affected by interaction with a larger environment. We develop, using the method of an influence functional, how to deduce the density matrix of the quantum system incorporating the effect of environment. After introducing the characterization of the environment by spectral weight, we first devise schemes to approximate the spectral weight, and then a perturbation method in field theory models, in order to approximately describe the environment. All of these approximate models may be classified as extended Ohmic models of dissipation whose differences are in the high frequency part. The quantum system we deal with in the present work is a general class of harmonic oscillators with an arbitrary time-dependent frequency. The late time behavior of the system is well described by an approximation that employs a localized friction in the dissipative part of the correlation function appearing in the influence functional. The density matrix of the quantum system is then determined in terms of a single classical solution obtained with the time-dependent frequency. With this one can compute the entropy, the energy distribution function, and other physical quantities of the system in a closed form. A specific application is made to the case of a periodically varying frequency. This dynamical system has a remarkable property when the environmental interaction is switched off: The effect of the parametric resonance gives rise to an exponential growth of the populated number in higher excitation levels, or particle production in field theory models. The effect of the environment is investigated for this dynamical system and it is demonstrated that there exists a critical strength of the friction for the parametric effect. In the model of a periodically oscillating field coupled to a system quantum field, it is verified that the parametric effect occurs in medium, with a somewhat diminished rate, if the relaxation time scale of the system field towards thermalization given by the friction term is larger than the time scale of the coherent parametric amplification. The effect persists until the back reaction against the periodic oscillation stops particle production. The resulting energy distribution of produced particles described by a universal function deviates from the thermal one, having an average energy that exponentially increases with time. The dynamical system driven by the parametric oscillator thus maintains and does not lose its quantum nature even in thermal bath. In the present work analytic formulas of how physical quantities behave at late times both in the high and in the low temperature regions are given, along with the results of a numerical computation displaying time evolution.
Hatef, Ali; Singh, Mahi R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6 A 3K7 (Canada)
2010-06-15
We have studied the effect of plasma energy on the absorption coefficient of metallic photonic crystals doped with an ensemble of three-level quantum dots, which are interacting with each other via dipole-dipole interaction. The quantum dots are also interacting with coupled plasma-photon modes present in the system. A probe laser field is applied in order to study the absorption coefficient. We also consider the effect of quantum interference in our simulations, whereby two absorbed photons interfere with one another. Here the density matrix method has been used to calculate the steady-state and transient behavior of the absorption coefficient for the system. Two different field configurations are considered in our numerical simulations. In the first configuration, a probe field couples the ground state and two closely excited states. Absorption occurs due to transitions from the ground state to the two excited states. It is found that the position of the transparent peak moves when the plasma energy is changed. In other words, changing the plasma energy causes the system to switch between a transparent and an absorbing state. The strong coupling between plasmons and the quantum dots is responsible for this phenomenon. In the second configuration, the probe field couples with only one excited state, while a pump field couples to the other excited state. The transition between excited states is dipole forbidden. We observed that the peak in the absorption profile splits into two and also that the system exhibits gain with inversion due to the change in the plasma frequency, which is caused by quantum interference and coherence. These are interesting results and can be used make nanoscale plasma devices.
Measurements of Scintillation Efficiency and Pulse-Shape for Low Energy Recoils in Liquid Xenon
Akimov, D Y; Davidge, D; Dawson, J; Howard, A S; Ivaniouchenkov, Yu; Jones, W G; Joshi, M; Kudryavtsev, V A; Lawson, T B; Lebedenko, V; Lehner, M J; Lightfoot, P K; Liubarsky, I; Lüscher, R; McMillan, J E; Peak, C D; Quenby, J J; Spooner, N J C; Sumner, T J; Tovey, Daniel R; Ward, C K
2002-01-01
Results of observations of low energy nuclear and electron recoil events in liquid xenon scintillator detectors are given. The relative scintillation efficiency for nuclear recoils is 0.22 +/- 0.01 in the recoil energy range 40 keV - 70 keV. Under the assumption of a single dominant decay component to the scintillation pulse-shape the log-normal mean parameter T0 of the maximum likelihood estimator of the decay time constant for 6 keV < Eee < 30 keV nuclear recoil events is equal to 21.0 ns +/- 0.5 ns. It is observed that for electron recoils T0 rises slowly with energy, having a value ~ 30 ns at Eee ~ 15 keV. Electron and nuclear recoil pulse-shapes are found to be well fitted by single exponential functions although some evidence is found for a double exponential form for the nuclear recoil pulse-shape.
Relativistic Doppler effect in quantum communication
Asher Peres; Daniel R. Terno
2003-04-06
When an electromagnetic signal propagates in vacuo, a polarization detector cannot be rigorously perpendicular to the wave vector because of diffraction effects. The vacuum behaves as a noisy channel, even if the detectors are perfect. The ``noise'' can however be reduced and nearly cancelled by a relative motion of the observer toward the source. The standard definition of a reduced density matrix fails for photon polarization, because the transversality condition behaves like a superselection rule. We can however define an effective reduced density matrix which corresponds to a restricted class of positive operator-valued measures. There are no pure photon qubits, and no exactly orthogonal qubit states.
Quantum effects in the hot electron microbolometer
Tang, A.; Richards, P.L.
1994-10-01
The theory of the hot electron microbolometer proposed by Nahum et al. assumed that the photon energy is thermalized in the electrons in the Cu absorber before relaxing to the lattice. Since the photons initially excite individual electrons to K{omega}>>k{sub B}T, however, direct relaxation of these hot electrons to phonons must also be considered. Theoretical estimates suggest that this extra relaxation channel increases the effective thermal conductance for K{omega}>>k{sub B}T and influences bolometer noise. Calculations of these effects are presented which predict very useful performance both for ground-based and spacebased astronomical photometry at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths.
Danil Doubochinski; Jonathan Tennenbaum
2007-11-30
Einstein, De Broglie and others hoped that the schism between classical and quantum physics might one day be overcome by a theory taking into account the essential nonlinearity of elementary physical processes. However, neither their attempts, nor subsequent ones were able to supply a unifying principle that could serve as a starting-point for a coherent understanding of both microphysical and macroscopic phenomena. In the late 1960s the phenomenon of amplitude quantization, or Macroscopic Quantum Effect (MQE), was discovered in a class of nonlinear oscillating systems in which two or more subsystems are coupled to each other by interactions having a specific phase-dependent character -- so-called argumental interactions. Experimental and theoretical studies of the MQE, carried out up to the present time, suggest the possibility of a new conceptual framework for physics, which would provide a bridge between classical and quantum physics, replacing the Newtonian notion of "force" by a new conception of physical interaction. The present paper presents a brief introduction to the MQE and some ideas about its possible significance in the search for new approaches to the understanding of quantum phenomena.
Mesoscopic effects in quantum phases of ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices
Carr, L. D.; Schirmer, D. G. [Department of Physics, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Joint Quantum Institute, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Wall, M. L. [Department of Physics, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Brown, R. C.; Williams, J. E.; Clark, Charles W. [Joint Quantum Institute, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)
2010-01-15
We present a wide array of quantum measures on numerical solutions of one-dimensional Bose- and Fermi-Hubbard Hamiltonians for finite-size systems with open boundary conditions. Finite-size effects are highly relevant to ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices, where an external trap creates smaller effective regions in the form of the celebrated 'wedding cake' structure and the local density approximation is often not applicable. Specifically, for the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian we calculate number, quantum depletion, local von Neumann entropy, generalized entanglement or Q measure, fidelity, and fidelity susceptibility; for the Fermi-Hubbard Hamiltonian we also calculate the pairing correlations, magnetization, charge-density correlations, and antiferromagnetic structure factor. Our numerical method is imaginary time propagation via time-evolving block decimation. As part of our study we provide a careful comparison of canonical versus grand canonical ensembles and Gutzwiller versus entangled simulations. The most striking effect of finite size occurs for bosons: we observe a strong blurring of the tips of the Mott lobes accompanied by higher depletion, and show how the location of the first Mott lobe tip approaches the thermodynamic value as a function of system size.
39Ar and 37Ar recoil loss during neutron irradiation of sanidine and plagioclase
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jourdan, Fred; Matzel, Jennifer P.; Renne, Paul R.
2007-06-01
The 40Ar/ 39Ar dating technique requires the activation of 39Ar via neutron irradiation. The energy produced by the reaction is transferred to the daughter atom as kinetic energy and triggers its displacement, known as the recoil effect. Significant amounts of 39Ar and 37Ar can be lost from minerals leading to spurious ages and biased age spectra. Through two experiments, we present direct measurement of the recoil-induced 39Ar and 37Ar losses on Fish Canyon sanidine and plagioclase. We use multi-grain populations with discrete sizes ranging from 210 to <5 ?m. One population consists of a mixture between sanidine and plagioclase, and the other includes pure sanidine. We show that 39Ar loss (depletion factor) for sanidine is ˜3% for the smallest fraction. Age spectra of fractions smaller than ˜50 ?m show slight departure from flat plateau-age spectrum usually observed for large sanidine. This departure is roughly proportional to the size of the grain but does not show typical 39Ar loss age spectra. The calculated thickness of the total depletion layer d0(sanidine) is 0.035 ± 0.012 (2 ?). This is equivalent to a mean depth of the partial depletion layer ( x0) of 0.070 ± 0.024 ?m. The latter value is indistinguishable from previous values of ˜0.07-0.09 ?m obtained by argon implantation experiments and simulation results. We show that it is possible to adequately correct ages from 39Ar ejection loss provided that the d0-value and the size range of the minerals are sufficiently constrained. As exemplified by similar calculations performed on results obtained in a similar study of GA1550 biotite [Paine J. H., Nomade S., and Renne P. R. (2006) Quantification of 39Ar recoil ejection from GA1550 biotite during neutron irradiation as a function of grain dimensions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta70, 1507-1517.], the d0(biotite) is 0.46 ± 0.06 ?m. The significant difference between empirical results on biotite and sanidine, along with different simulation results, suggests that for biotite, crystal structures and lattice defects of the stopping medium and possibly subsequent thermal degassing (due to ˜150-200 °C temperature in the reactor or extraction line bake out) must play an important role in 39Ar loss. The second experiment suggests that 37Ar recoil can substantially affect the age via the interference corrections with results that suggest up to ˜98% of 37Ar can be ejected from the ˜5 ?m grain dimension. Further investigation of silicates of various compositions and structures are required to better understand (and correct) the recoil and recoil-induced effects on both 39Ar and 37Ar and their influences on 40Ar/ 39Ar dating.
Effects of quantum stress tensor fluctuations with compact extra dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borgman, J.; Ford, L. H.
2004-12-01
The effects of compact extra dimensions upon quantum stress tensor fluctuations are discussed. It is argued that as the compactification volume decreases, these fluctuations increase in magnitude. In principle, this would have the potential to create observable effects, such as luminosity fluctuations or angular blurring of distant sources, and lead to constraints upon Kaluza-Klein theories. However, the dependence of the four-dimensional Newton’s constant upon the compactification volume causes the gravitational effects of the stress tensor fluctuations to be finite in the limit of small volume. Consequently, no observational constraints upon Kaluza-Klein theories are obtained.
Effective Schrödinger equation for fast driven quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tretyakov, Nikolay P.; Aguero, Maximo A.
2015-08-01
Effective Schrödinger equations, governing the mean movement of a system influenced by fast oscillating external perturbation, are derived. The method represents a direct and straightforward quantum extension of the Kapitza’s approach provided in the Schrödinger picture. First-order terms (over inverse frequency of external driving) in effective Hamiltonians that cannot be eliminated by a unitary transformation, have been derived. Additional terms, in comparison with a standard equation, are similar to those found in the classical case and they may be responsible for a variety of new interesting effects.
Charge fractionalization in the integer quantum Hall effect.
Inoue, Hiroyuki; Grivnin, Anna; Ofek, Nissim; Neder, Izhar; Heiblum, Moty; Umansky, Vladimir; Mahalu, Diana
2014-04-25
We report an observation, via sensitive shot noise measurements, of charge fractionalization of chiral edge electrons in the integer quantum Hall effect regime. Such fractionalization results solely from interchannel Coulomb interaction, leading electrons to decompose to excitations carrying fractional charges. The experiment was performed by guiding a partitioned current carrying edge channel in proximity to another unbiased edge channel, leading to shot noise in the unbiased edge channel without net current, which exhibited an unconventional dependence on the partitioning. The determination of the fractional excitations, as well as the relative velocities of the two original (prior to the interaction) channels, relied on a recent theory pertaining to this measurement. Our result exemplifies the correlated nature of multiple chiral edge channels in the integer quantum Hall effect regime. PMID:24815662
Nonlocal Quantum Effects with Bose-Einstein Condensates
Laloee, F. [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, ENS, UPMC, CNRS, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Mullin, W. J. [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States)
2007-10-12
We study theoretically the properties of two Bose-Einstein condensates in different spin states, represented by a double Fock state. Individual measurements of the spins of the particles are performed in transverse directions, giving access to the relative phase of the condensates. Initially, this phase is completely undefined, and the first measurements provide random results. But a fixed value of this phase rapidly emerges under the effect of the successive quantum measurements, giving rise to a quasiclassical situation where all spins have parallel transverse orientations. If the number of measurements reaches its maximum (the number of particles), quantum effects show up again, giving rise to violations of Bell type inequalities. The violation of Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities with an arbitrarily large number of spins may be comparable (or even equal) to that obtained with two spins.
Heat capacity of water: A signature of nuclear quantum effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vega, C.; Conde, M. M.; McBride, C.; Abascal, J. L. F.; Noya, E. G.; Ramirez, R.; Sesé, L. M.
2010-01-01
In this note we present results for the heat capacity at constant pressure for the TIP4PQ/2005 model, as obtained from path-integral simulations. The model does a rather good job of describing both the heat capacity of ice Ih and of liquid water. Classical simulations using the TIP4P/2005, TIP3P, TIP4P, TIP4P-Ew, simple point charge/extended, and TIP5P models are unable to reproduce the heat capacity of water. Given that classical simulations do not satisfy the third law of thermodynamics, one would expect such a failure at low temperatures. However, it seems that for water, nuclear quantum effects influence the heat capacities all the way up to room temperature. The failure of classical simulations to reproduce Cp points to the necessity of incorporating nuclear quantum effects to describe this property accurately.
High-Dimensional Quantum Hall Effect in String Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fabinger, M.
2002-06-01
We construct a string theory realization of the 4+1d quantum Hall effect recently discovered by Zhang and Hu. The string theory picture contains coincident D4- branes forming an S4 and having D0-branes (i.e. instantons) in their world-volume. The charged particles are modeled as string ends. Their configuration space approaches in the large n limit a CP3, which is an S2 fibration over S4, the extra S2 being made out of the Chan-Paton degrees of freedom. An alternative matrix theory description involves the fuzzy S4. We also find that there is a hierarchy of quantum Hall effects in odd-dimensional space times, generalizing the known cases in 2 + 1d and 4 + 1d.
Indium arsenide quantum wire trigate metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor
Gilbert, Matthew
Indium arsenide quantum wire trigate metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor M. J-consistent ballistic quantum mechanical simulation of an indium arsenide InAs quantum wire metal oxide semiconductor must devise an alternative solution to the bulk silicon metal oxide semiconductor field effect
Casimir effects for classical and quantum liquids in slab geometry: A brief review
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biswas, Shyamal
2015-05-01
We analytically explore Casimir effects for confinement of classical and quantum fluctuations in slab (film) geometry (i) for classical (critical) fluctuations over 4He liquid around the ? point, and (ii) for quantum (phonon) fluctuations of Bogoliubov excitations over an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate. We also briefly review Casimir effects for confinement of quantum vacuum fluctuations confined to two plates of different geometries.
Reentrant Quantum Hall Effect and Anisotropic Transport in a Bilayer System at High Filling Factors
Gusev, Guennady
Reentrant Quantum Hall Effect and Anisotropic Transport in a Bilayer System at High Filling Factors 17 May 2007; published 20 September 2007) We report on the measurements of the quantum Hall effect is the Landau index number, in the presence of the in-plane magnetic field. The quantum Hall states
Nonlocal Effective Field Equations for Quantum Cosmology
Herbert W. Hamber; Ruth M. Williams
2005-06-29
The possibility that the strength of gravitational interactions might slowly increase with distance, is explored by formulating a set of effective field equations, which incorporate the gravitational, vacuum-polarization induced, running of Newton's constant $G$. The resulting long distance (or large time) behaviour depends on only one adjustable parameter $\\xi$, and the implications for the Robertson-Walker universe are calculated, predicting an accelerated power-law expansion at later times $t \\sim \\xi \\sim 1/H$.
Casimir effect in quantum field theory
Bernard Kay
1979-01-01
A new conceptual foundation for renormalizing T\\/sub munu\\/ on locally flat space-times: to obtain the so-called Casimir effect: is presented. The Casimir ground state is viewed locally as a (nonvacuum) state on Minkowski space-time and the expectation value of the normal-ordered T\\/sub munu\\/ is taken. The same ideas allow us to treat, for the first time, self-interacting fields for arbitrary
Andrew J. R. Puckett
2015-08-06
The electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon characterize the effect of its internal structure on its response to an electromagnetic probe as studied in elastic electron-nucleon scattering. These form factors are functions of the squared four-momentum transfer $Q^2$ between the electron and the proton. The two main classes of observables of this reaction are the scattering cross section and polarization asymmetries, both of which are sensitive to the form factors in different ways. When considering large momentum transfers, double-polarization observables offer superior sensitivity to the electric form factor. This thesis reports the results of a new measurement of the ratio of the electric and magnetic form factors of the proton at high momentum transfer using the recoil polarization technique. A polarized electron beam was scattered from a liquid hydrogen target, transferring polarization to the recoiling protons. These protons were detected in a magnetic spectrometer which was used to reconstruct their kinematics, including their scattering angles and momenta, and the position of the interaction vertex. A proton polarimeter measured the polarization of the recoiling protons by measuring the azimuthal asymmetry in the angular distribution of protons scattered in CH$_2$ analyzers. The scattered electron was detected in a large-acceptance electromagnetic calorimeter in order to suppress inelastic backgrounds. The measured ratio of the transverse and longitudinal polarization components of the scattered proton is directly proportional to the ratio of form factors $G_E^p/G_M^p$. The measurements reported in this thesis took place at $Q^2=$5.2, 6.7, and 8.5 GeV$^2$, and represent the most accurate measurements of $G_E^p$ in this $Q^2$ region to date.
Andrew Puckett
2010-02-01
The electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon characterize the effect of its internal structure on its response to an electromagnetic probe as studied in elastic electronnucleon scattering. These form factors are functions of the squared four-momentum transfer Q2 between the electron and the proton. The two main classes of observables of this reaction are the scattering cross section and polarization asymmetries, both of which are sensitive to the form factors in different ways. When considering large f momentum transfers, double-polarization observables offer superior sensitivity to the electric form factor. This thesis reports the results of a new measurement of the ratio of the electric and magnetic form factors of the proton at high momentum transfer using the recoil polarization technique. A polarized electron beam was scattered from a liquid hydrogen target, transferring polarization to the recoiling protons. These protons were detected in a magnetic spectrometer which was used to reconstruct their kinematics, including their scattering angles and momenta, and the position of the interaction vertex. A proton polarimeter measured the polarization of the recoiling protons by measuring the azimuthal asymmetry in the angular distribution of protons scattered in CH2 analyzers. The scattered electron was detected in a large acceptance electromagnetic calorimeter in order to suppress inelastic backgrounds. The measured ratio of the transverse and longitudinal polarization components of the scattered proton is directly proportional to the ratio of form factors GpE=GpM. The measurements reported in this thesis took place at Q2 =5.2, 6.7, and 8.5 GeV2, and represent the most accurate measurements of GpE in this Q2 region to date.
Ezawa, Motohiko [Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)
2013-12-04
Silicene is a monolayer of silicon atoms forming a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice, which shares almost every remarkable property with graphene. The low energy dynamics is described by Dirac electrons, but they are massive due to relatively large spin-orbit interactions. I will explain the following properties of silicene: 1) The band structure is controllable by applying an electric field. 2) Silicene undergoes a phase transition from a topological insulator to a band insulator by applying external electric field. 3) The topological phase transition can be detected experimentally by way of diamagnetism. 4) There is a novel valley-spin selection rules revealed by way of photon absorption. 5) Silicene yields a remarkably many phases such as quantum anomalous Hall phase and valley polarized metal when the exchange field is additionally introduced. 6) A silicon nanotubes can be used to convey spin currents under an electric field.
Improvements of the DRAGON recoil separator at ISAC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vockenhuber, C.; Buchmann, L.; Caggiano, J.; Chen, A. A.; D'Auria, J. M.; Davis, C. A.; Greife, U.; Hussein, A.; Hutcheon, D. A.; Ottewell, D.; Ouellet, C. O.; Parikh, A.; Pearson, J.; Ruiz, C.; Ruprecht, G.; Trinczek, M.; Zylberberg, J.
2008-10-01
The DRAGON (Detector of Recoils And Gammas Of Nuclear reactions) is used to measure radiative proton and alpha capture reaction rates involving both stable and radioactive, heavy-ion reactants at the TRIUMF-ISAC high intensity radioactive beam facility. Completed in 2001 it has been used for several challenging studies for nuclear astrophysics, e.g. 12C(?, ?)16O, 21Na(p, ?)22Mg, 26gAl(p, ?)27Si and 40Ca(?, ?)44Ti. Since initial operation, a number of improvements have been incorporated which are described here. These include a beam centering monitor based on a CCD camera, a mechanical iris to skim of beam halo, a solid state stripper acting as a charge state booster for beams with A ? 30, beta and gamma detectors to monitor beam intensity and to determine beam contamination in experiments with radioactive beam and the ionization chamber for both recoil identification and isobar separation.
Recoiled Proton Tagged Knockout Reaction for {sup 8}He
Ye, Y.; Cao, Z.; Xiao, J.; Jiang, D.; Zheng, T.; Hua, H.; Ge, Y.; Li, X.; Lou, J.; Li, Q.; Lv, L.; Qiao, R.; You, H.; Chen, R.; Sakurai, H.; Otsu, H.; Li, Z.; Nishimura, M.; Sakaguchi, S.; Baba, H.
2010-05-12
Recently recoiled proton tagged knockout reaction experiments were carried-out for {sup 8}He at 82 MeV/nucleon. The purpose of the experiment are: (1) Through the core knocked out technique, to study the correlation of the valence neutrons in the ground state of {sup 8}He. This should provide new experimental information to the neutron coupling and neutron matter, including the BCS pairing and BEC pairing. (2) Through the valence neutron knocked out technique, to study the resonant states {sup 7}He and the related single particle states. This will be complementary to the previous similar measurement but with better selection of the reaction mechanism.Some new recoiled proton telescopes and the forward neutron spectrometer was applied in the experiment. Performance of the detection system and very preliminary experimental results are shown here.
Tidal Disruption Flares from Recoiling Supermassive Black Holes
Stefanie Komossa; David Merritt
2008-07-01
Supermassive black holes ejected from galaxy nuclei by gravitational wave recoil will carry a retinue of bound stars, even in the absence of an accretion disk. We discuss the observable signatures related to these stars, with an emphasis on electromagnetic flares from stars that are tidally disrupted by the black hole. We calculate disruption rates for the bound, and the unbound, stars. The rates are smaller than, but comparable to, rates for non-recoiling black holes. A key observational consequence is the existence of powerful off-nuclear and intergalactic X-ray flares. We also discuss other observable signatures associated with the bound stars, including episodic X-ray emission from accretion due to stellar mass loss; intergalactic supernovae; and feedback trails.
Radiation effects on strain compensated quantum dot solar cells
Cory D. Cress; Christopher G. Bailey; Seth M. Hubbard; David M. Wilt; Sheila G. Bailey; Ryne P. Raffaelle
2008-01-01
The effects of alpha-particle irradiation on the current-voltage characteristics and spectral responsivity of GaAs-based p-type \\/ intrinsic \\/ n-type solar cell devices containing 5-layers of InAs quantum dots (QD) grown with strain-compensation layers were investigated. The devices were subjected to ?4.2 MeV alpha-particle irradiation and the variation in the air mass zero short circuit current, open circuit voltage, fill factor,
Probing quantum-vacuum geometrical effects with cold atoms.
Dalvit, Diego A R; Neto, Paulo A Maia; Lambrecht, Astrid; Reynaud, Serge
2008-02-01
The lateral Casimir-Polder force between an atom and a corrugated surface should allow one to study experimentally nontrivial geometrical effects in the electromagnetic quantum vacuum. Here, we derive the theoretical expression of this force in the scattering approach. We show that large corrections to the "proximity force approximation" could be measured using present-day technology with a Bose-Einstein condensate used as a vacuum field sensor. PMID:18352246
Inflationary back-reaction effects from Relativistic Quantum Geometry
Bellini, Mauricio
2015-01-01
We study the dynamics of scalar metric fluctuations in a non-perturbative variational formalism recently introduced, by which the dynamics of an geometrical scalar field $\\theta$, describes the quantum geometrical effects on a Weylian-like manifold with respect to a background Riemannian space-time. In this letter we have examined an example in the framework of inflationary cosmology. The resulting spectral predictions are in very good agreement with observations and other models of inflation.
Inflationary back-reaction effects from Relativistic Quantum Geometry
Mauricio Bellini
2015-09-19
We study the dynamics of scalar metric fluctuations in a non-perturbative variational formalism recently introduced, by which the dynamics of an geometrical scalar field $\\theta$, describes the quantum geometrical effects on a Weylian-like manifold with respect to a background Riemannian space-time. In this letter we have examined an example in the framework of inflationary cosmology. The resulting spectral predictions are in very good agreement with observations and other models of inflation.
Quantum-Tunneling-Induced Kondo Effect in Single Molecular Magnets
C. Romeike; M. R. Wegewijs; W. Hofstetter; H. Schoeller
2006-01-01
We consider transport through a single-molecule magnet strongly coupled to metallic electrodes. We demonstrate that, for a half-integer spin of the molecule, electron and spin tunneling cooperate to produce both quantum tunneling of the magnetic moment and a Kondo effect in the linear conductance. The Kondo temperature depends sensitively on the ratio of the transverse and easy-axis anisotropies in a
Magnetotransport in Dirac metals: chiral magnetic effect and quantum oscillations
Gustavo M. Monteiro; Alexander G. Abanov; Dmitri E. Kharzeev
2015-07-17
Dirac metals are characterized by the linear dispersion of fermionic quasi-particles, with the Dirac point hidden inside a Fermi surface. We study the magnetotransport in these materials using chiral kinetic theory to describe within the same framework both the negative magnetoresistance caused by chiral magnetic effect and quantum oscillations in the magnetoresistance due to the existence of the Fermi surface. We discuss the relevance of obtained results to recent measurements on ${\\rm Cd_3As_2}$.
Magnetotransport in Dirac metals: chiral magnetic effect and quantum oscillations
Monteiro, Gustavo M; Kharzeev, Dmitri E
2015-01-01
Dirac metals are characterized by the linear dispersion of fermionic quasi-particles, with the Dirac point hidden inside a Fermi surface. We study the magnetotransport in these materials using chiral kinetic theory to describe within the same framework both the negative magnetoresistance caused by chiral magnetic effect and quantum oscillations in the magnetoresistance due to the existence of the Fermi surface. We discuss the relevance of obtained results to recent measurements on ${\\rm Cd_3As_2}$.
Noise effects in perfect transmission of quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benatti, Fabio; Floreanini, Roberto; Karimipour, Vahid
2012-12-01
A recent scheme for perfect transmission of quantum states through quasi-one-dimensional chains requires application of global control at regular intervals of time. We study the effect of stochastic noise in this control and find that the scheme is robust for reasonable values of disorder. Both uncorrelated and correlated noise in the external control are studied, and it is remarkably found that the efficiency of the protocol is much higher in the presence of correlated noise.
Field-effect tunable quantum dots on silicon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alsmeier, J.; Batke, E.; Kotthaus, J. P.
1990-04-01
A versatile dual gate structure on silicon is presented in which a periodic array of electron disks with diameters in the 100 nm range can be induced by field effect. With far infrared spectroscopy at low temperatures we demonstrate that the disks containing 20 to 350 electrons can be tuned from quasi-two-dimensional behavior to quantum dot behavior by electric and magnetic fields.
Casimir effect: An avatar of the quantum vacuum
Kuloth V. Shajesh
2008-01-01
In this dissertation we study the Casimir effect, which is demonstrated to be a manifestation of the quantum vacuum. The boundary conditions are imposed by constructing delta-function potentials, so-called semitransparent boundaries. The coupling to the delta-function potential reduces to the Dirichlet boundary condition in the strong coupling limit. In the case of electrodynamics the strong coupling limit corresponds to metallic
Probing Quantum-Vacuum Geometrical Effects with Cold Atoms
Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Neto, Paulo A. Maia; Lambrecht, Astrid; Reynaud, Serge
2008-02-01
The lateral Casimir-Polder force between an atom and a corrugated surface should allow one to study experimentally nontrivial geometrical effects in the electromagnetic quantum vacuum. Here, we derive the theoretical expression of this force in the scattering approach. We show that large corrections to the 'proximity force approximation' could be measured using present-day technology with a Bose-Einstein condensate used as a vacuum field sensor.
Transverse Stark effect of electrons in a semiconducting quantum wire
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vazquez, Gerardo J.; del Castillo-Mussot, Marcelo; Spector, Harold N.
2003-03-01
We investigate the effect of an electric field applied transverse to the axis of a cylindrical quantum wire on the energy levels of electrons using an infinite confining potential well model. For wide wires the Stark shift of the energy levels increases linearly with the electric field, but for narrow wires the Stark shift of the energy levels does not change much with the electric field. Also, at higher electric fields, the Stark shift of the energy levels increases with increasing wire radius.
Robust electron pairing in the integer quantum hall effect regime.
Choi, H K; Sivan, I; Rosenblatt, A; Heiblum, M; Umansky, V; Mahalu, D
2015-01-01
Electron pairing is a rare phenomenon appearing only in a few unique physical systems; for example, superconductors and Kondo-correlated quantum dots. Here, we report on an unexpected electron pairing in the integer quantum Hall effect regime. The pairing takes place within an interfering edge channel in an electronic Fabry-Perot interferometer at a wide range of bulk filling factors, between 2 and 5. We report on three main observations: high-visibility Aharonov-Bohm conductance oscillations with magnetic flux periodicity equal to half the magnetic flux quantum; an interfering quasiparticle charge equal to twice the elementary electron charge as revealed by quantum shot noise measurements, and full dephasing of the pairs' interference by induced dephasing of the adjacent inner edge channel-a manifestation of inter-channel entanglement. Although this pairing phenomenon clearly results from inter-channel interaction, the exact mechanism that leads to electron-electron attraction within a single edge channel is not clear. We believe that substantial efforts are needed in order to clarify these intriguing and unexpected findings. PMID:26096516
Robust electron pairing in the integer quantum hall effect regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, H. K.; Sivan, I.; Rosenblatt, A.; Heiblum, M.; Umansky, V.; Mahalu, D.
2015-06-01
Electron pairing is a rare phenomenon appearing only in a few unique physical systems; for example, superconductors and Kondo-correlated quantum dots. Here, we report on an unexpected electron pairing in the integer quantum Hall effect regime. The pairing takes place within an interfering edge channel in an electronic Fabry-Perot interferometer at a wide range of bulk filling factors, between 2 and 5. We report on three main observations: high-visibility Aharonov-Bohm conductance oscillations with magnetic flux periodicity equal to half the magnetic flux quantum; an interfering quasiparticle charge equal to twice the elementary electron charge as revealed by quantum shot noise measurements, and full dephasing of the pairs' interference by induced dephasing of the adjacent inner edge channel--a manifestation of inter-channel entanglement. Although this pairing phenomenon clearly results from inter-channel interaction, the exact mechanism that leads to electron-electron attraction within a single edge channel is not clear. We believe that substantial efforts are needed in order to clarify these intriguing and unexpected findings.
Effective Degrees of Freedom in Low-Energy Quantum Chromodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plessas, Willibald
2013-08-01
Confinement and spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry are assumed to generate the governing degrees of freedom of low-energy quantum chromodynamics. On this basis a relativistic constituent-quark model is constructed and formulated along an invariant mass operator within Poincaré-invariant quantum mechanics. The model is effectively applied to the spectroscopy of all known baryons of flavors u, d, s, c and b. The mass-operator eigenstates are furthermore tested with regard to the baryon electromagnetic and axial form factors. Through using the point form of relativistic quantum mechanics, these observables are obtained in a manifestly covariant manner. For all light and strange baryon ground states the electroweak structures are reproduced either in good agreement with phenomenology or, if no experimental data exist, in consistency with results available from lattice quantum chromodynamics. It is concluded that the relativistic constituent-quark model, relying on {QQQ} Fock states only, provides a universal framework for the description of low-energy baryons. The most important ingredients are spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking and strict relativistic invariance.
Magnetic proton recoil spectrometer for fusion plasma neutrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Källne, Jan; Enge, Harald
1992-01-01
The design of a magnetic proton recoil (MPR) spectrometer for measurement of thermonuclear neutrons is presented. It is shown to have sufficient energy resolution and efficiency for use in the diagnosis of tokamak fusion plasmas. The overall performance is substantially higher than offered by conventional techniques, particularly, with regard to count rate capability, signal selectivity, background discrimination and calibrations. Some of the unique measurement capabilities of the MPR spectrometer for burning plasma studies in deuterium-tritium are illustrated.
Recoiling supermassive black holes: a search in the nearby universe
Lena, D.; Robinson, A.; Axon, D. J.; Merritt, D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester Institute of Technology, 84 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623-5603 (United States); Marconi, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 2, I-50125, Firenze (Italy); Capetti, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino, Strada Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese (Italy); Batcheldor, D., E-mail: dxl1840@g.rit.edu [Department of Physics and Space Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 West University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States)
2014-11-10
The coalescence of a binary black hole can be accompanied by a large gravitational recoil due to anisotropic emission of gravitational waves. A recoiling supermassive black hole (SBH) can subsequently undergo long-lived oscillations in the potential well of its host galaxy, suggesting that offset SBHs may be common in the cores of massive ellipticals. We have analyzed Hubble Space Telescope archival images of 14 nearby core ellipticals, finding evidence for small (? 10 pc) displacements between the active galactic nucleus (AGN; the location of the SBH) and the center of the galaxy (the mean photocenter) in 10 of them. Excluding objects that may be affected by large-scale isophotal asymmetries, we consider six galaxies to have detected displacements, including M87, where a displacement was previously reported by Batcheldor et al. In individual objects, these displacements can be attributed to residual gravitational recoil oscillations following a major or minor merger within the last few gigayears. For plausible merger rates, however, there is a high probability of larger displacements than those observed, if SBH coalescence took place in these galaxies. Remarkably, the AGN-photocenter displacements are approximately aligned with the radio source axis in four of the six galaxies with displacements, including three of the four having relatively powerful kiloparsec-scale jets. This suggests intrinsic asymmetries in radio jet power as a possible displacement mechanism, although approximate alignments are also expected for gravitational recoil. Orbital motion in SBH binaries and interactions with massive perturbers can produce the observed displacement amplitudes but do not offer a ready explanation for the alignments.
Time-of-flight direct recoil ion scattering spectrometer
Krauss, Alan R. (Naperville, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Lamich, George J. (Orland Park, IL)
1994-01-01
A time of flight direct recoil and ion scattering spectrometer beam line (10). The beam line (10) includes an ion source (12) which injects ions into pulse deflection regions (14) and (16) separated by a drift space (18). A final optics stage includes an ion lens and deflection plate assembly (22). The ion pulse length and pulse interval are determined by computerized adjustment of the timing between the voltage pulses applied to the pulsed deflection regions (14) and (16).
Recoiling Supermassive Black Holes: a search in the Nearby Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lena, Davide; Robinson, Andrew; Marconi, Alessandro; Axon, David; Capetti, Alessandro; Merritt, David; Batcheldor, Daniel
2015-01-01
The coalescence of a binary black hole can be accompanied by a large gravitational recoil due to anisotropic emission of gravitational waves. A recoiling supermassive black hole (SBH) can subsequently undergo long-lived oscillations in the potential well of its host galaxy, suggesting that offset SBHs may be common in the cores of massive ellipticals. We have analyzed HST archival images of 14 nearby core ellipticals, finding evidence for small (<=10 pc) displacements between the AGN (locating the SBH) and the center of the galaxy (the mean photocenter) in 10 of them. Excluding objects that may be affected by large-scale isophotal asymmetries, we consider six galaxies to have detected displacements, including M87, where a displacement was previously reported by Batcheldor et al. 2010. In individual objects, these displacements can be attributed to residual gravitational recoil oscillations following a major or minor merger within the last few Gyr. For plausible merger rates, however, there is a high probability of larger displacements than those observed, if SBH coalescence took place in these galaxies. Remarkably, the AGN-photocenter displacements are approximately aligned with the radio source axis in four of the six galaxies with displacements, including three of the four having relatively powerful kpc-scale jets. This suggests intrinsic asymmetries in radio jet power as a possible displacement mechanism, although approximate alignments are also expected for gravitational recoil. Orbital motion in SBH binaries and interactions with massive perturbers can produce the observed displacement amplitudes but do not offer a ready explanation for the alignments.
Recoiling Supermassive Black Holes: A Search in the Nearby Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lena, D.; Robinson, A.; Marconi, A.; Axon, D. J.; Capetti, A.; Merritt, D.; Batcheldor, D.
2014-11-01
The coalescence of a binary black hole can be accompanied by a large gravitational recoil due to anisotropic emission of gravitational waves. A recoiling supermassive black hole (SBH) can subsequently undergo long-lived oscillations in the potential well of its host galaxy, suggesting that offset SBHs may be common in the cores of massive ellipticals. We have analyzed Hubble Space Telescope archival images of 14 nearby core ellipticals, finding evidence for small (lsim 10 pc) displacements between the active galactic nucleus (AGN; the location of the SBH) and the center of the galaxy (the mean photocenter) in 10 of them. Excluding objects that may be affected by large-scale isophotal asymmetries, we consider six galaxies to have detected displacements, including M87, where a displacement was previously reported by Batcheldor et al. In individual objects, these displacements can be attributed to residual gravitational recoil oscillations following a major or minor merger within the last few gigayears. For plausible merger rates, however, there is a high probability of larger displacements than those observed, if SBH coalescence took place in these galaxies. Remarkably, the AGN-photocenter displacements are approximately aligned with the radio source axis in four of the six galaxies with displacements, including three of the four having relatively powerful kiloparsec-scale jets. This suggests intrinsic asymmetries in radio jet power as a possible displacement mechanism, although approximate alignments are also expected for gravitational recoil. Orbital motion in SBH binaries and interactions with massive perturbers can produce the observed displacement amplitudes but do not offer a ready explanation for the alignments.
Quantum instanton evaluation of the kinetic isotope effects
Vanicek, Jiri; Miller, William H.; Castillo, Jesus F.; Aoiz, F.Javier
2005-04-19
A general quantum-mechanical method for computing kinetic isotope effects is presented. The method is based on the quantum instanton approximation for the rate constant and on the path integral Metropolis Monte-Carlo evaluation of the Boltzmann operator matrix elements. It computes the kinetic isotope effect directly, using a thermodynamic integration with respect to the mass of the isotope, thus avoiding the more computationally expensive process of computing the individual rate constants. The method is more accurate than variational transition-state theories or the semiclassical instanton method since it does not assume a single reaction path and does not use a semiclassical approximation of the Boltzmann operator. While the general Monte-Carlo implementation makes the method accessible to systems with a large number of atoms, we present numerical results for the Eckart barrier and for the collinear and full three-dimensional isotope variants of the hydrogen exchange reaction H+H{sub 2} {yields} H{sub 2}+H. In all seven test cases, for temperatures between 250 K and 600 K, the error of the quantum instanton approximation for the kinetic isotope effects is less than {approx}10%.
Phase transitions and quantum effects in adsorbed monolayers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nielaba, P.
1996-01-01
Phase transitions in absorbed (two-dimensional) fluids and in absorbed layers of linear molecules are studied with a combination of path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC), Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo (GEMC), and finite size scaling techniques. For a classical (nonadditive) hard-disk fluid the “critical” nonadditivities, where the entropy-driven phase separations set in, are presented. For a fluid with internal quantum states the gas-liquid coexistence region, tricritical, and triple points can be determined, and a comparison with density functional (DFT) results shows good agreement for the freezing densities. Linear N 2 molecules adsorbed on graphite (in the ?3 × ?3 structure) show a transition from a high-temperature phase to a low-temperature phase with herringbone ordering of the orientational degrees of freedom. The order of the transition is determined in the anisotropic planar rotor model as a weak first-order transition. The effect of quantum fluctuations on the herringbone transition is quantified by PIMC and classical simulational methods. The values of the order parameter at low temperatures and the transition temperature are both lowered by roughly 10% due to quantum effects. Rounding effects of the phase transition in adsorbed layers of (N2) x (CO)1, for × < 7% are analyzed by Monte Carlo ( MC) methods, and the ground state ordering for the transition in the adsorbed pure CO system is discussed, from ab initio potentials.
Recoil-induced Resonances as All-optical Switches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narducci, F. A.; Desavage, S. A.; Gordon, K. H.; Duncan, D. L.; Welch, G. R.; Davis, J. P.
2010-03-01
We have measured recoil-induced resonances (RIR) [1,2] in our system of laser-cooled 85Rb atoms. Although this technique has been demonstrated to be useful for the purpose of extracting the cloud temperature [3], our aim was to demonstrate an all optical switch based on recoil-induced resonances. In addition to a very narrow ``free-space'' recoil-induced resonance of approximately 15 kHz, we also discovered a much broader resonance (˜30 MHz), caused by standing waves established by our trapping fields. We compare and contrast the switching dynamics of these two resonances and demonstrate optical switching using both resonances. Finally, we consider the applicability of the narrow, free-space resonance to the slowing of a weak probe field. [1] J. Guo, P.R. Berman, B. Dubetsky and G. Grynberg PRA, 46, 1426 (1992). [2] (a) P. Verkerk, B. Loumis, C. Salomon, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J. Courtois PRL, 68, 3861 (1992). (b) G. Grynberg, J-Y Courtois, B. Lounis, P. Verkerk PRL, 72, 3017 (1994). [3] (a) T. Brzozowski, M. Brzozowska, J. Zachorowski, M. Zawada, W. Gawlik PRA, 71, 013401 (2005). (b) M. Brzozowska, T. Brzozowski J. Zachorowski, W. Gawlik PRA, 72, 061401(R), (2005).
The recoil proton polarization in. pi. p elastic scattering
Seftor, C.J.
1988-09-01
The polarization of the recoil proton for ..pi../sup +/p and ..pi../sup -/p elastic scattering has been measured for various angles at 547 MeV/c and 625 MeV/c by a collaboration involving The George Washington University; the University of California, Los Angeles; and Abilene Christian University. The experiment was performed at the P/sup 3/ East experimental area of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. Beam intensities varied from 0.4 to 1.0 x 10/sup 7/ ..pi../sup -/'s/sec and from 3.0 to 10.0 x 10/sup 7/ ..pi../sup +/'s/sec. The beam spot size at the target was 1 cm in the horizontal direction by 2.5 cm in the vertical direction. A liquid-hydrogen target was used in a flask 5.7 cm in diameter and 10 cm high. The scattered pion and recoil proton were detected in coincidence using the Large Acceptance Spectrometer (LAS) to detect and momentum analyze the pions and the JANUS recoil proton polarimeter to detect and measure the polarization of the protons. Results from this experiment are compared with previous measurements of the polarization, with analyzing power data previously taken by this group, and to partial-wave analysis predictions. 12 refs., 53 figs., 18 tabs.
Nuclear recoil energy spectrum of finite-sized dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Anffany
2012-10-01
Research has shown that direct dark matter detection experiments can distinguish between pointlike and finite-sized dark-matter candidates, both of which are of theoretical interests. In particular, there is an additional form factor in the typical cross section of finite-sized dark matter, causing the nuclear recoil energy spectrum of finite-sized dark matter to decrease more rapidly with the recoil energy than that of pointlike dark matter. Since the spectrum of finite-sized dark matter peaks below 1 keV, which is the common experimental threshold, and falls off rapidly at higher energies, detector with sub-keV threshold is necessary. The current goal of TEXONO-CDEX research program, on the studies of low energy neutrino and dark matter physics at Kuo-Sheng Reactor Neutrino Laboratory and China Jin-Ping Underground Laboratory, is to open the sub-keV detector window with germanium detectors. This work derives a model-independent, theoretical prediction of the nuclear recoil energy spectrum of finite-sized dark matter and is working toward using the predicted spectrum to analyze the experimental data of TEXONO-CDEX, in hope to substantiate or rule out dark matter candidates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chien, Chih-Chun; Metcalf, Mekena; di Ventra, Massimiliano; Chern, Gia-Wei
2015-05-01
The realizations of interesting optical lattices for ultracold atoms provide opportunities for investigating geometric effects on many-body physics. Thesquare, triangular, honeycomb, kagome lattices, and other geometries have been experimentally demonstrated. When the atoms are driven out of equilibrium by manipulations of the density or trapping potential, their quantum transport can be monitored and fundamental questions regarding transport in isolated systems can be addressed unambiguously. We found that the propagation velocity of the matter wave representing the flowing atoms can be accelerated by tuning the lattice geometry. This acceleration is a pure quantum effect because no shorter path is created as the geometry changes. For lattice geometries supporting a dispersionless flat band, the localized atoms in the flat band do not participate in transport but interfere with the mobile atoms. We found a generic insulating phase exhibiting a density jump in the profile that can be dynamically generated. Interesting spatial patterns may emerge if those flat-band lattices are manipulated, and an analogue of geometric frustration in quantum transport will be presented.
Spatial confinement effects on quantum harmonic oscillator I: Nonlinear coherent state approach
M. Bagheri Harouni; R. Roknizadeh; M. H. Naderi
2011-12-11
In this paper we study some basic quantum confinement effects through investigation of a deformed harmonic oscillator algebra. We show that spatial confinement effects on a quantum harmonic oscillator can be represented by a deformation function within the framework of nonlinear coherent states theory. We construct the coherent states associated with the spatially confined quantum harmonic oscillator in a one-dimensional infinite well and examine some of their quantum statistical properties, including sub-poissonian statistics and quadrature squeezing.
Quantum Hall effect in a quantum point contact at Landau filling fraction ?=52
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, Jeffrey; Radu, Iuliana; Zumbühl, Dominik; Levenson-Falk, Eli; Kastner, Marc; Marcus, Charles; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken
2007-03-01
We study the transport properties of quantum point contacts (QPC) fabricated on a GaAs/AlGaAs two dimensional electron gas that exhibits excellent bulk fractional quantum Hall effect, including a strong plateau in the Hall resistance at Landau level filling fraction ?= 52. We find that the ?=52 plateau is identifiable in point contacts with lithographic separations as small as 0.8 microns, but is not present in a 0.5 micron QPC. We study the temperature and dc-current-bias dependence of the ?=52 plateau---as well as neighboring fractional and integer plateaus---in the QPC. We also discuss our method to study the QPC at one filling fraction while the bulk remains at a higher filling fraction. Research supported in part by Microsoft Corporation, Project Q, and HCRP at Harvard University, and ARO (W911NF-05-1-0062), the NSEC program of the NSF (PHY-0117795) and NSF (DMR-0353209) at MIT.
8 ? -periodic Josephson effects in a quantum dot/ quantum spin-Hall josephson junction system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hui, Hoi-Yin; Sau, Jay
2015-03-01
Josephson junctions made of conventional s-wave superconductors display 2 ? periodicity. On the other hand, 4 ? -periodic fractional Josephson effect is known to be a characteristic signature of topological superconductors and Majorana fermions [1]. Zhang and Kane have shown that Josephson junctions made of topological superconductors are 8 ? -periodic if interaction is used to avoid dissipation [2]. Here we present a general argument for how time-reversal symmetry and Z2 non-trivial topology constrains the Josephson periodicity to be 8 ? . We then illustrate this through a microscopic model of a quantum dot in a quantum spin-hall Josephson junction. Work supported by NSF-JQI-PFC, LPS-CMTC and Microsoft Q.
Aharonov-Bohm effect in the tunnelling of a quantum rotor in a linear Paul trap.
Noguchi, Atsushi; Shikano, Yutaka; Toyoda, Kenji; Urabe, Shinji
2014-01-01
Quantum tunnelling is a common fundamental quantum mechanical phenomenon that originates from the wave-like characteristics of quantum particles. Although the quantum tunnelling effect was first observed 85 years ago, some questions regarding the dynamics of quantum tunnelling remain unresolved. Here we realize a quantum tunnelling system using two-dimensional ionic structures in a linear Paul trap. We demonstrate that the charged particles in this quantum tunnelling system are coupled to the vector potential of a magnetic field throughout the entire process, even during quantum tunnelling, as indicated by the manifestation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect in this system. The tunnelling rate of the structures periodically depends on the strength of the magnetic field, whose period is the same as the magnetic flux quantum ?0 through the rotor [(0.99 ± 0.07) × ?0]. PMID:24820051
Recoil correction to the proton finite-size contribution to the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karshenboim, Savely G.; Korzinin, Evgeny Yu.; Shelyuto, Valery A.; Ivanov, Vladimir G.
2015-04-01
The Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen was measured some time ago to a high accuracy. The theoretical prediction of this value is very sensitive to the proton finite-size effects. The proton radius extracted from muonic hydrogen is in contradiction with the results extracted from elastic electron-proton scattering. That creates a certain problem for the interpretation of the results from the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift. For the latter we need also to take into account the two-photon-exchange contribution with the proton finite size involved. The only way to describe it relies on the data from the scattering, which may produce an internal inconsistency of theory. Recently the leading proton-finite-size contribution to the two-photon exchange was found within the external field approximation. The recoil part of the two-photon-exchange has not been considered. Here we revisit calculation of the external-field part and take the recoil correction to the finite-size effects into account.
Quantum System under Periodic Perturbation: Effect of Environment
M. Hotta; I. Joichi; Sh. Matsumoto; M. Yoshimura
1997-02-19
In many physical situations the behavior of a quantum system is affected by interaction with a larger environment. We develop, using the method of influence functional, how to deduce the density matrix of the quantum system incorporating the effect of environment. After introducing characterization of the environment by spectral weight, we first devise schemes to approximate the spectral weight, and then a perturbation method in field theory models, in order to approximately describe the environment. All of these approximate models may be classified as extended Ohmic models of dissipation whose differences are in the high frequency part. The quantum system we deal with in the present work is a general class of harmonic oscillators with arbitrary time dependent frequency. The late time behavior of the system is well described by an approximation that employs a localized friction in the dissipative part of the correlation function appearing in the influence functional. The density matrix of the quantum system is then determined in terms of a single classical solution obtained with the time dependent frequency. With this one can compute the entropy, the energy distribution function, and other physical quantities of the system in a closed form. Specific application is made to the case of periodically varying frequency. This dynamical system has a remarkable property when the environmental interaction is switched off: Effect of the parametric resonance gives rise to an exponential growth of the populated number in higher excitation levels, or particle production in field theory models. The effect of the environment is investigated for this dynamical system and it is demonstrated that there exists
Nakajima, Y; Long, M; Nygren, D; Oliveira, C; Renner, J
2015-01-01
Directional sensitivity is one of the most important aspects of WIMP dark matter searches. Yet, making the direction of nuclear recoil visible with large target masses is a challenge. To achieve this, we are exploring a new method of detecting directions of short nuclear recoil tracks in high-pressure Xe gas, down to a few micron long, by utilizing columnar recombination. Columnar recombination changes the scintillation and ionization yields depending on the angle between a track and the electric field direction. In order to realize this, efficient cooling of electrons is essential. Trimethylamine(TMA) is one of the candidate additives to gaseous Xe in order to enhance the effect, not only by efficiently cooling the electrons, but also by increasing the amount of columnar recombination by Penning transfer. We performed a detailed simulation of ionization electrons transport created by nuclear recoils in a Xe + TMA gas mixture, and evaluated the size of the columnar recombination signal. The results show that ...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sisterson, J. M.
2005-01-01
Cosmic rays interact with extraterrestrial materials to produce a variety of spallation products. If these cosmogenic nuclides are produced within an inclusion in such material, then an important consideration is the loss of the product nuclei, which recoil out of the inclusion. Of course, at the same time, some atoms of the product nuclei under study may be knocked into the inclusion from the surrounding material, which is likely to have a different composition to that of the inclusion [1]. For example, Ne-21 would be produced in presolar grains, such as SiC, when irradiated in interstellar space. However, to calculate a presolar age, one needs to know how much 21Ne is retained in the grain. For small grains, the recoil losses might be large [2, 3] To study this effect under laboratory conditions, recoil measurements were made using protons with energies from 66 - 1600 MeV on Si, Al and Ba targets [3, 4, 5].
Effective State Metamorphosis in Semi-Classical Loop Quantum Cosmology
Singh, P
2005-01-01
Modification to the behavior of geometrical density at short scales is a key result of loop quantum cosmology, responsible for an interesting phenomenology in the very early universe. We demonstrate the way a perfect fluid with arbitrary equation of state incorporates this change in its effective dynamics in the loop modified phase. We show that irrespective of the choice of matter component, stress-energy conservation law generically implies that classical equation of state metamorphoses itself to an effective negative equation of state below a critical scale determined by the theory.
Griffiths phase in the thermal quantum Hall effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mildenberger, A.; Evers, F.; Narayanan, R.; Mirlin, A. D.; Damle, K.
2006-03-01
Two-dimensional disordered superconductors with broken spin-rotation and time-reversal invariance, e.g., with px+ipy pairing, can exhibit plateaus in the thermal Hall coefficient (the thermal quantum Hall effect). Our numerical simulations show that the Hall insulating regions of the phase diagram can support a sub-phase where the quasiparticle density of states is divergent at zero energy, ?(E)˜?E?1/z-1 , with a nonuniversal exponent z>1 , due to the effects of rare configurations of disorder (Griffiths phase).
Correlation effects in a discrete quantum random walk
J. B. Stang; A. T. Rezakhani; B. C. Sanders
2008-09-05
We introduce history-dependent discrete-time quantum random walk models by adding uncorrelated memory terms and also by modifying Hamiltonian of the walker to include couplings with memory-keeping agents. We next numerically study the correlation effects in these models. We also propose a correlation exponent as a relevant and promising tool for investigation of correlation or memory (hence non-Markovian) effects. Our analysis can easily be applied to more realistic models in which different regimes may emerge because of competition between different underlying physical mechanisms.
Complex scattering dynamics and the integer quantum Hall effect
Trugman, S.A.; Waugh, F.R.
1987-01-01
The effect of a magnetic field on potential scattering is investigated microscopically. A magnetic field renders the scattering of a classical charged particle far more complex than previously suspected. Consequences include possible 1/f noise and an explanation of the observed breakdown of the quantum Hall effect at large currents. A particular scatterer is described by a discontinuous one dimensional Hamiltonian map, a class of maps that has not previously been studied. A renormalization group analysis indicates that singular behavior arises from the interplay of electron orbits that are periodic and orbits that are quasiperiodic.
An Effective Hamiltonian Approach to Quantum Random Walk
Debajyoti Sarkar; Niladri Paul; Kaushik Bhattacharya; Tarun Kanti Ghosh
2015-09-18
In this article we present an effective Hamiltonian approach for Discrete Time Quantum Random Walk. A form of the Hamiltonian for one dimensional quantum walk has been prescribed, utilizing the fact that Hamiltonians are the generators of time translations. Then an attempt has been made to generalize the techniques to higher dimensions. We find that the Hamiltonian can be written as the sum of a Weyl Hamiltonian and a Dirac comb potential. The time evolution operator obtained from this prescribed Hamiltonian is in complete agreement with that of the standard approach. But in higher dimension we find that the time evolution operator is additive, instead of being multiplicative \\cite{Chandrasekhar:2013SREP08229}. We showed that in case of two-step walk, effectively the time evolution operator can have multiplicative form. In case of a square lattice, quantum walk has been studied computationally for different coins and the results for both the additive and the multiplicative approaches have been compared. Using the Graphene Hamiltonian the walk has been studied on a Graphene lattice and we conclude the preference of additive approach over the multiplicative one.
Anyons and the quantum Hall effect-A pedagogical review
Stern, Ady [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)], E-mail: Adiel.Stern@Weizmann.ac.il
2008-01-15
The dichotomy between fermions and bosons is at the root of many physical phenomena, from metallic conduction of electricity to super-fluidity, and from the periodic table to coherent propagation of light. The dichotomy originates from the symmetry of the quantum mechanical wave function to the interchange of two identical particles. In systems that are confined to two spatial dimensions particles that are neither fermions nor bosons, coined 'anyons', may exist. The fractional quantum Hall effect offers an experimental system where this possibility is realized. In this paper we present the concept of anyons, we explain why the observation of the fractional quantum Hall effect almost forces the notion of anyons upon us, and we review several possible ways for a direct observation of the physics of anyons. Furthermore, we devote a large part of the paper to non-abelian anyons, motivating their existence from the point of view of trial wave functions, giving a simple exposition of their relation to conformal field theories, and reviewing several proposals for their direct observation.
Effective State Metamorphosis in Semi-Classical Loop Quantum Cosmology
Parampreet Singh
2005-08-29
Modification to the behavior of geometrical density at short scales is a key result of loop quantum cosmology, responsible for an interesting phenomenology in the very early universe. We demonstrate the way matter with arbitrary scale factor dependence in Hamiltonian incorporates this change in its effective dynamics in the loop modified phase. For generic matter, the equation of state starts varying near a critical scale factor, becomes negative below it and violates strong energy condition. This opens a new avenue to generalize various phenomenological applications in loop quantum cosmology. We show that different ways to define energy density may yield radically different results, especially for the case corresponding to classical dust. We also discuss implications for frequency dispersion induced by modification to geometric density at small scales.
Effects of Quantum Error Correction on Entanglement Sudden Death
Muhammed Yönaç; J. H. Eberly
2013-09-03
We investigate the effects of error correction on non-local quantum coherence as a function of time, extending the study by Sainz and Bj\\"ork. We consider error correction of amplitude damping, pure phase damping and combinations of amplitude and phase damping as they affect both fidelity and quantum entanglement. Initial two-qubit entanglement is encoded in arbitrary real superpositions of both \\Phi-type and \\Psi-type Bell states. Our main focus is on the possibility of delay or prevention of ESD (early stage decoherence, or entanglement sudden death). We obtain the onset times for ESD as a function of the state-superposition mixing angle. Error correction affects entanglement and fidelity differently, and we exhibit initial entangled states for which error correction increases fidelity but decreases entanglement, and vice versa.
Nuclear quantum effects and hydrogen bond fluctuations in water
Ceriotti, Michele; Cuny, Jérôme; Parrinello, Michele; Manolopoulos, David E.
2013-01-01
The hydrogen bond (HB) is central to our understanding of the properties of water. However, despite intense theoretical and experimental study, it continues to hold some surprises. Here, we show from an analysis of ab initio simulations that take proper account of nuclear quantum effects that the hydrogen-bonded protons in liquid water experience significant excursions in the direction of the acceptor oxygen atoms. This generates a small but nonnegligible fraction of transient autoprotolysis events that are not seen in simulations with classical nuclei. These events are associated with major rearrangements of the electronic density, as revealed by an analysis of the computed Wannier centers and 1H chemical shifts. We also show that the quantum fluctuations exhibit significant correlations across neighboring HBs, consistent with an ephemeral shuttling of protons along water wires. We end by suggesting possible implications for our understanding of how perturbations (solvated ions, interfaces, and confinement) might affect the HB network in water. PMID:24014589
Post-Newtonian gravitational effects in quantum interferometry
Aharon Brodutch; Alexei Gilchrist; Thomas Guff; Alexander R. H. Smith; Daniel R. Terno
2014-12-08
We investigate general properties of optical interferometry in stationary spacetimes and apply the obtained results focusing on quantum-optical experiments in near-Earth environments. We provide a rigorous expression for the {gravitationally induced} phase difference and adapt the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism for calculations of polarization rotation. We investigate two optical versions of the Colella-Overhauser-Werner experiment and show that the phase difference is independent of the post-Newtonian parameter $\\gamma$, making it a possible candidate for an optical test of the Einstein equivalence principle. Polarization rotation provides an example of the quantum clock variable, and while related to the optical Lense-Thirring effects, shows a qualitatively different behaviour.
Effects of dopants on the band structure of quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meulenberg, Robert; Wright, Joshua; Lawson, Stuart
2014-03-01
Understanding the role that chemical dopants play in modifying the properties of quantum dots (QDs) has been an active field of research for the last decade. In this presentation, we will discuss our efforts towards investigating the effects of copper doping in CdSe QDs. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy measurements provide conclusive evidence for substitutional doping of Cu in the CdSe lattice. EXAFS suggests the local coordination environment is reduced, likely due to surface doping. Both x-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) and theoretical modeling are used to examine effects of hybridization on the conduction band minimum (CBM) in doped CdSe quantum dots (QDs). Experimentally, Cd M3-edge XANES provides evidence for a lowering of the CB minimum for Cu doped CdSe QDs that is dependent on Cu concentration. Theoretical modeling suggests the effects of hybridization between Cu and Cd atoms in the QD can explain our experimental results. The hybridization effect leads to active emissive states below the CBM resulting in tunable near-infrared photoluminescence. Our work shows that a simple chemical model can provide a predictive tool towards probing the effects of hybridization on the CB levels in QDs.
Loop quantum cosmology of Bianchi IX: Effective dynamics
Corichi, Alejandro
2015-01-01
We study numerically the solutions to the effective equations of Bianchi IX spacetimes within Loop Quantum Cosmology. We consider Bianchi IX models with and without inverse triad corrections whose matter content is a scalar field without mass. The solutions are classified using the classical observables. We show that both effective theories --with lapse N=V and N=1-- solve the big bang singularity and reproduce the classical dynamics far from the bounce. Moreover, due to the spatial compactness, there is an infinity number of bounces and recollapses. We study the limit of large volume and show that both effective theories reproduce the same dynamics, thus recovering general relativity. We implement a procedure to identify amongst the Bianchi IX solutions, those that behave like k=0,1 FLRW as well as Bianchi I, II, and VII_0 models. The effective solutions exhibit Bianchi I phases with Bianchi II transitions and also Bianchi VII_0 phases, which had not been studied before, at the quantum nor effective level. W...
More Benefits of Semileptonic Rare B Decays at Low Recoil: CP Violation
Christoph Bobeth; Gudrun Hiller; Danny van Dyk
2011-12-08
We present a systematic analysis of the angular distribution of Bbar -> Kbar^\\ast (-> Kbar pi) l^+ l^- decays with l = e, mu in the low recoil region (i.e. at high dilepton invariant masses of the order of the mass of the b-quark) to account model-independently for CP violation beyond the Standard Model, working to next-to-leading order QCD. From the employed heavy quark effective theory framework we identify the key CP observables with reduced hadronic uncertainties. Since some of the CP asymmetries are CP-odd they can be measured without B-flavour tagging. This is particularly beneficial for Bbar_s,B_s -> phi(-> K^+ K^-) l^+ l^- decays, which are not self-tagging, and we work out the corresponding time-integrated CP asymmetries. Presently available experimental constraints allow the proposed CP asymmetries to be sizeable, up to values of the order ~ 0.2, while the corresponding Standard Model values receive a strong parametric suppression at the level of O(10^-4). Furthermore, we work out the allowed ranges of the short-distance (Wilson) coefficients C_9,C_10 in the presence of CP violation beyond the Standard Model but no further Dirac structures. We find the Bbar_s -> mu^+ mu^- branching ratio to be below 9*10^-9 (at 95% CL). Possibilities to check the performance of the theoretical low recoil framework are pointed out.
Recoil-emanation theory applied to radon release from mineral grains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semkow, Thomas M.
1990-02-01
In this paper the ?-recoil emanation theory is presented as a major mechanism for Rn release from solid materials. The basic theory is developed for Rn emanation from geometrical shapes: spheres and cylinders having variable thickness of precursor-Ra containing material. Subsequently, a sphere-pore model of emanation from mineral grains (like those in rocks, soils, etc.) is developed. In this model a surface of the grain is constructed as a superposition of in- and out-directed spherical caps and cylindrical pores. The model incorporates processes like Rn embedding, pore overlap, water effect and emanation from the edges. Using such a geometrical model it is shown how the Rn emanating-power measurements can give a clue to the Ra distribution and surface properties of the samples. In particular, it is shown that for grains reasonably larger than the recoil range and for surface Ra distribution, the emanating power is independent of the grain size but the total Ra concentration varies with the reciprocal of the grain size. The opposite is true for Ra distributed uniformly throughout the volume of the grain. It is shown how the Rn emanating power is related to the surface porosity of the grain. Also, implications are made with respect to U transport in nature, and with respect to low emanating power from lunar soil. Finally, a failure of the emanation theory is discussed to reproduce emanation curves for the samples having high specific surface areas and Ra distributed throughout the volume.
Gilman, Casey A; Bartlett, Michael D; Gillis, Gary B; Irschick, Duncan J
2012-01-15
Jumping is a common form of locomotion for many arboreal animals. Many species of the arboreal lizard genus Anolis occupy habitats in which they must jump to and from unsteady perches, e.g. narrow branches, vines, grass and leaves. Anoles therefore often use compliant perches that could alter jump performance. In this study we conducted a small survey of the compliance of perches used by the arboreal green anole Anolis carolinensis in the wild (N=54 perches) and then, using perches within the range of compliances used by this species, investigated how perch compliance (flexibility) affects the key jumping variables jump distance, takeoff duration, takeoff angle, takeoff speed and landing angle in A. carolinensis in the laboratory (N=11). We observed that lizards lost contact with compliant horizontal perches prior to perch recoil, and increased perch compliance resulted in decreased jump distance and takeoff speed, likely because of the loss of kinetic energy to the flexion of the perch. However, the most striking effect of perch compliance was an unexpected one; perch recoil following takeoff resulted in the lizards being struck on the tail by the perch, even on the narrowest perches. This interaction between the perch and the tail significantly altered body positioning during flight and landing. These results suggest that although the use of compliant perches in the wild is common for this species, jumping from these perches is potentially costly and may affect survival and behavior, particularly in the largest individuals. PMID:22189765
Ground-state cooling of a trapped ion by quantum interference pathways
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Jian-Qi; Duan, Qian-Heng; Guo, Chu; Wu, Chun-Wang; Wu, Wei; Chen, Ping-Xing
2014-10-01
We investigate the possibility of enhancement of cooling a trapped ion by combining the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) effect with the standing-wave coupling. Our study shows that the quantum destructive interference which is caused by the EIT effect and the standing-wave coupling can cancel all the dominant heating effects if appropriate parameters are chosen. The analytical predictions and numerical simulations show that the final temperature can be much lower than the recoil energy. In addition, this fast-cooling scheme is robust against fluctuations of the strength of the laser beams, which makes it more feasible for experimental realization.
Effect of quantum nuclear motion on hydrogen bonding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McKenzie, Ross H.; Bekker, Christiaan; Athokpam, Bijyalaxmi; Ramesh, Sai G.
2014-05-01
This work considers how the properties of hydrogen bonded complexes, X-H⋯Y, are modified by the quantum motion of the shared proton. Using a simple two-diabatic state model Hamiltonian, the analysis of the symmetric case, where the donor (X) and acceptor (Y) have the same proton affinity, is carried out. For quantitative comparisons, a parametrization specific to the O-H⋯O complexes is used. The vibrational energy levels of the one-dimensional ground state adiabatic potential of the model are used to make quantitative comparisons with a vast body of condensed phase data, spanning a donor-acceptor separation (R) range of about 2.4 - 3.0 Å, i.e., from strong to weak hydrogen bonds. The position of the proton (which determines the X-H bond length) and its longitudinal vibrational frequency, along with the isotope effects in both are described quantitatively. An analysis of the secondary geometric isotope effect, using a simple extension of the two-state model, yields an improved agreement of the predicted variation with R of frequency isotope effects. The role of bending modes is also considered: their quantum effects compete with those of the stretching mode for weak to moderate H-bond strengths. In spite of the economy in the parametrization of the model used, it offers key insights into the defining features of H-bonds, and semi-quantitatively captures several trends.
Effect of quantum nuclear motion on hydrogen bonding.
McKenzie, Ross H; Bekker, Christiaan; Athokpam, Bijyalaxmi; Ramesh, Sai G
2014-05-01
This work considers how the properties of hydrogen bonded complexes, X-H?Y, are modified by the quantum motion of the shared proton. Using a simple two-diabatic state model Hamiltonian, the analysis of the symmetric case, where the donor (X) and acceptor (Y) have the same proton affinity, is carried out. For quantitative comparisons, a parametrization specific to the O-H?O complexes is used. The vibrational energy levels of the one-dimensional ground state adiabatic potential of the model are used to make quantitative comparisons with a vast body of condensed phase data, spanning a donor-acceptor separation (R) range of about 2.4-3.0 Å, i.e., from strong to weak hydrogen bonds. The position of the proton (which determines the X-H bond length) and its longitudinal vibrational frequency, along with the isotope effects in both are described quantitatively. An analysis of the secondary geometric isotope effect, using a simple extension of the two-state model, yields an improved agreement of the predicted variation with R of frequency isotope effects. The role of bending modes is also considered: their quantum effects compete with those of the stretching mode for weak to moderate H-bond strengths. In spite of the economy in the parametrization of the model used, it offers key insights into the defining features of H-bonds, and semi-quantitatively captures several trends. PMID:24811647
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Hongwei
2015-08-01
We consider the gravitational effect of quantum wave packets when quantum mechanics, gravity, and thermodynamics are simultaneously considered. Under the assumption of a thermodynamic origin of gravity, we propose a general equation to describe the gravitational effect of quantum wave packets. In the classical limit, this equation agrees with Newton's law of gravitation. For quantum wave packets, however, it predicts a repulsive gravitational effect. We propose an experimental scheme using superfluid helium to test this repulsive gravitational effect. Our studies show that, with present technology such as superconducting gravimetry and cold atom interferometry, tests of the repulsive gravitational effect for superfluid helium are within experimental reach.
CHAPTER 5. QUANTUM-EFFECT AND HOT-ELECTRON DEVICES Dept. of Electrical Engineering
Luryi, Serge
- 1 - CHAPTER 5. QUANTUM-EFFECT AND HOT-ELECTRON DEVICES S. Luryi Dept. of Electrical Engineering) STRUCTURES 5.2.1 Quantum Mechanical Tunneling 7 5.2.2 Two-Terminal RT Structures 13 5.2.3 Three-Terminal RT.1 INTRODUCTION Quantum mechanics underpins all of semiconductor physics at both the atomic level of electrons
The effects of electron temperature in terahertz quantum cascade laser predictions
Massachusetts at Lowell, University of
The effects of electron temperature in terahertz quantum cascade laser predictions Philip along with a description of the complete QCL prediction code. Keywords: quantum cascade lasers, terahertz, electron temperature, device modelling 1. INTRODUCTION A quantum cascade laser (QCL) is a type
Nonequilibrium phonon effects in midinfrared quantum cascade lasers Y. B. Shi and I. Knezevic
Knezevic, Irena
Nonequilibrium phonon effects in midinfrared quantum cascade lasers Y. B. Shi and I. Knezevic transport and output characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103113 (2008); 10.1063/1.2927469 Comparative analysis of resonant phonon THz quantum cascade lasers J. Appl. Phys
Possible astrophysical observables of quantum gravity effects near black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pen, Ue-Li; Broderick, Avery E.
2014-12-01
Recent implications of results from quantum information theory applied to black holes have led to the confusing conclusions that require either abandoning the equivalence principle (e.g. the firewall picture), or locality, or even more unpalatable options. The recent discovery of a pulsar orbiting a black hole opens up new possibilities for tests of theories of gravity. We examine possible observational effects of semiclassical quantum gravity in the vicinity of black holes, as probed by pulsars and event horizon telescope imaging of flares. In some cases, pulsar radiation may be observable at wavelengths only two orders of magnitude shorter than the Hawking radiation, so precision interferometry of lensed pulsar images may shed light on the quantum gravitational processes and interaction of Hawking radiation with the space-time near the black hole. This paper discusses the impact on the pulsar radiation interference pattern, which is observable through the modulation index in the foreseeable future, and discusses a possible classical limit of non-locality.
Recoil ion charge state distribution following the beta(sup +) decay of {sup 21}Na
Scielzo, Nicholas D.; Freedman, Stuart J.; Fujikawa, Brian K.; Vetter, Paul A.
2003-01-03
The charge state distribution following the positron decay of 21Na has been measured, with a larger than expected fraction of the daughter 21Ne in positive charge states. No dependence on either the positron or recoil nucleus energy is observed. The data is compared to a simple model based on the sudden approximation. Calculations suggest a small but important contribution from recoil ionization has important consequences for precision beta decay correlation experiments detecting recoil ions.
Disorder effects in the quantum Hall effect of graphene p-n junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jian; Shen, Shun-Qing
2008-11-01
The quantum Hall effect in graphene p-n junctions is studied numerically with emphasis on the effect of disorder at the interface of two adjacent regions. Conductance plateaus are found to be attached to the intensity of the disorder and are accompanied by universal conductance fluctuations in the bipolar regime, which is in good agreement with theoretical predictions of the random matrix theory on quantum chaotic cavities. The calculated Fano factors can be used in an experimental identification of the underlying transport character.
Quantum Hall Effect (QHE) in ABA stacked trilayer graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stepanov, Petr; Barlas, Yafis; Gillgren, Nathaniel; Taniguchi, Takashi; Lau, Jeanie
2015-03-01
Since its experimental discovery in 2004 graphene was under extensive research as a promising counterpart of silicon for the future electronics application as well as an excellent model of 2 dimensional electron gas. Here we investigate quantum Hall effect in ABA trilayer graphene - hexagonal boron nitride heterostructures. Landau Levels (LL) crossings at low filling factors were observed and explored at different external electric fields. The formation of the QH states as an interaction of monlayer-like and bilayer-like branches will be discussed. We will present the most recent experimental results.
Vector Theory of Gravity: quantum and classical effects, renormalization
V. N. Borodikhin
2012-10-26
In this work, we make quantization of gravitation interaction within the framework of a vector theory of gravitation for the first time. The work demonstrates that this theory meets the requirement of renormalizability. Here we consider some quantum effects, particularly graviton scattering on fermion and corrections to the Newton's. Gravitational energy sign changing mechanism and classical transition on small scale is discussed. It is shown that within this theory black holes of Schwarzschield hole type can exist. Problem of dark energy structure and acceleration of Universe expansion is investigated. We also consider the behavior of binary pulsars in the vector theory of gravitation.
Computational Investigation of Quantum Size Effects in Gold Nanoparticles
None
2010-01-01
Electron density perturbation from carbon monoxide adsorption on a multi-hundred atom gold nanoparticle. The perturbation causes significant quantum size effects in CO catalysis on gold particles. Science: Jeff Greeley and Nick Romero, Argonne National Laboratory; Jesper Kleis, Karsten Jacobsen, Jens Nørskov, Technical University of Denmark? Visualization: Joseph Insley, Argonne National Laboratory This research used resources of the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility at Argonne National Laboratory, which is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Dept. of Energy under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.
Coulomb effects in optically excited semiconductor quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Yiping Z.; Lindberg, Johan M.; Koch, Stephan W.; Peyghambarian, Nasser
1990-05-01
The linear and nonlinear optical properties of semiconductor microcrystallites are analyzed taking into account the Coulomb interaction between the carriers and the influence of surface charges. A numerical matrix diagonalization method is used to evaluate the energy eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenstates. It is predicted that excited two-pair states lead to a pronounced induced absorption on the high energy side of the one-pair resonance. This prediction is confirmed by femtosecond and nanosecond experiments in CdSe and CdS quantum dots. Additionally, effects of traps or impurities and external dc electric fields are discussed.
Scalar spin chirality and quantum hall effect on triangular lattices
Martin, Ivar; Batista, Cristian D
2008-01-01
We study the Kondo Lattice and Hubbard models on a triangular lattice for band filling factor 3/4. We show that a simple non-coplanar chiral spin ordering (scalar spin chirality) is naturally realized in both models due to perfect nesting of the fermi surface. The resulting triple-Q magnetic ordering is a natural counterpart of the collinear Neel ordering of the half-filled square lattice Hubbard model. We show that the obtained chiral phase exhibits a spontaneous quantum Hall-effect with {sigma}{sub xy} = e{sup 2}/h.
Resonance effects in the nonadiabatic nonlinear quantum dimer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tiwari, M.; Seletskiy, D. V.; Kenkre, V. M.
2011-05-01
The quantum nonlinear dimer consisting of an electron shuttling between two sites and in weak interaction with vibrations, is studied numerically under the application of a DC electric field. A field-induced resonance phenomenon between the vibrations and the electronic oscillations is found to influence the electronic transport greatly. For initial delocalization of the electron, resonance has the effect of a dramatic increase in the transport. Nonlinear frequency mixing is identified as the main mechanism that influences transport. A characterization of the frequency spectrum is also presented.
Quantum Effects in Nanoscale MOSFET Devices at Low Temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Day, Alexandra
2014-03-01
MOSFET transistors are a key component of virtually all modern electronic devices. Today's most advanced MOSFETs are small enough that quantum mechanical effects become relevant when considering their function and use. This project, completed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology as part of a Society of Physics Students internship, presents a first step in describing the theoretical behavior of nanoscale MOSFETs at low temperature. I acknowledge generous support from the Society of Physics Students and the National Institute of Standards and Technology.
Quantum anomalous Hall effect in topological insulator memory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jalil, Mansoor B. A.; Tan, S. G.; Siu, Z. B.
2015-05-01
We theoretically investigate the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) in a magnetically coupled three-dimensional-topological insulator (3D-TI) system. We apply the generalized spin-orbit coupling Hamiltonian to obtain the Hall conductivity ?xy of the system. The underlying topology of the QAHE phenomenon is then analyzed to show the quantization of ?xy and its relation to the Berry phase of the system. Finally, we analyze the feasibility of utilizing ?xy as a memory read-out in a 3D-TI based memory at finite temperatures, with comparison to known magnetically doped 3D-TIs.
Measurements of Scintillation Efficiency and Pulse-Shape for Low Energy Recoils in Liquid Xenon
D. Akimov; A. Bewick; D. Davidge; J. Dawson; A. S. Howard; I. Ivaniouchenkov; W. G. Jones; M. Joshi; V. A. Kudryavtsev; T. B. Lawson; V. Lebedenko; M. J. Lehner; P. K. Lightfoot; I. Liubarsky; R. Luscher; J. E. McMillan; C. D. Peak; J. J. Quenby; N. J. C. Spooner; T. J. Sumner; D. R. Tovey; C. K. Ward
2001-06-08
Results of observations of low energy nuclear and electron recoil events in liquid xenon scintillator detectors are given. The relative scintillation efficiency for nuclear recoils is 0.22 +/- 0.01 in the recoil energy range 40 keV - 70 keV. Under the assumption of a single dominant decay component to the scintillation pulse-shape the log-normal mean parameter T0 of the maximum likelihood estimator of the decay time constant for 6 keV pulse-shapes are found to be well fitted by single exponential functions although some evidence is found for a double exponential form for the nuclear recoil pulse-shape.
Quantum Zeno and Zeno-like effects in nitrogen vacancy centers
Jing Qiu; Yang-Yang Wang; Zhang-Qi Yin; Mei Zhang; Qing Ai; Fu-Guo Deng
2015-08-19
We present a proposal to realize the quantum Zeno effect and quantum Zeno-like effect in a $\\mathrm{^{13}C}$ nuclear spin by controlling a proximal electron spin of a nitrogen vacancy (NV) center. The measurement is performed by applying a microwave pulse to induce the transition between different electronic spin states. Under the practical experimental conditions, our calculations properly show that there exist both quantum Zeno and Zeno-like effects in an NV center.
(7)Be-recoil radiolabelling of industrially manufactured silica nanoparticles.
Holzwarth, Uwe; Bellido, Elena; Dalmiglio, Matteo; Kozempel, Jan; Cotogno, Giulio; Gibson, Neil
2014-01-01
Radiolabelling of industrially manufactured nanoparticles is useful for nanoparticle dosimetry in biodistribution or cellular uptake studies for hazard and risk assessment. Ideally for such purposes, any chemical processing post production should be avoided as it may change the physico-chemical characteristics of the industrially manufactured species. In many cases, proton irradiation of nanoparticles allows radiolabelling by transmutation of a tiny fraction of their constituent atoms into radionuclides. However, not all types of nanoparticles offer nuclear reactions leading to radionuclides with adequate radiotracer properties. We describe here a process whereby in such cases nanoparticles can be labelled with (7)Be, which exhibits a physical half-life of 53.29 days and emits ?-rays of 478 keV energy, and is suitable for most radiotracer studies. (7)Be is produced via the proton-induced nuclear reaction (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be in a fine-grained lithium compound with which the nanoparticles are mixed. The high recoil energy of (7)Be atoms gives them a range that allows the (7)Be-recoils to be transferred from the lithium compound into the nanoparticles by recoil implantation. The nanoparticles can be recovered from the mixture by dissolving the lithium compound and subsequent filtration or centrifugation. The method has been applied to radiolabel industrially manufactured SiO2 nanoparticles. The process can be controlled in such a way that no alterations of the (7)Be-labelled nanoparticles are detectable by dynamic light scattering, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. Moreover, cyclotrons with maximum proton energies of 17-18 MeV that are available in most medical research centres could be used for this purpose. PMID:25285032
Observing the Quantum Spin Hall Effect with Ultracold Atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaishnav, J. Y.; Stanescu, Tudor D.; Clark, Charles W.; Galitski, Victor
2009-03-01
The quantum spin Hall (QSH) state is a topologically nontrivial state of matter proposed to exist in certain 2-D systems with spin-orbit coupling. While the electronic states of a QSH insulator are gapped in the bulk, a QSH insulator is characterized by gapless edge states of different spins which counterpropagate at a given edge; the spin is correlated with the direction of propagation. Recent proposals ootnotetextT. D. Stanescu, C. Zhang, V. Galitski, Physical Review Letters 99, 110403 (2007), J. Y. Vaishnav, Charles W. Clark, Physical Review Letters 100, 153002 (2008). suggest that synthetic spin-orbit couplings can be created for cold atoms moving in spatially varying light fields. Here, we identify an optical lattice setup which generates an effective QSH effect for cold, multilevel atoms. We also discuss methods for experimental detection of the atomic QSH effect.
Semianalytical quantum model for graphene field-effect transistors
Pugnaghi, Claudio; Grassi, Roberto Gnudi, Antonio; Di Lecce, Valerio; Gnani, Elena; Reggiani, Susanna; Baccarani, Giorgio
2014-09-21
We develop a semianalytical model for monolayer graphene field-effect transistors in the ballistic limit. Two types of devices are considered: in the first device, the source and drain regions are doped by charge transfer with Schottky contacts, while, in the second device, the source and drain regions are doped electrostatically by a back gate. The model captures two important effects that influence the operation of both devices: (i) the finite density of states in the source and drain regions, which limits the number of states available for transport and can be responsible for negative output differential resistance effects, and (ii) quantum tunneling across the potential steps at the source-channel and drain-channel interfaces. By comparison with a self-consistent non-equilibrium Green's function solver, we show that our model provides very accurate results for both types of devices, in the bias region of quasi-saturation as well as in that of negative differential resistance.
Effects of quantum dots in polymerase chain reaction.
Wang, Libing; Zhu, Yingyue; Jiang, Yuan; Qiao, Ruirui; Zhu, Shuifang; Chen, Wei; Xu, Chuanlai
2009-05-28
The effects of quantum dots (QDs) on the elimination of nonspecific amplification of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were investigated. It was found that QDs could increase the specificity of the PCR at different annealing temperatures and with DNA templates of different lengths. The effects of QDs on the efficiency of the PCR were also studied, and the results showed that there was no enhancement. The mechanisms underlying these effects are discussed. This method could be used to modify the amplification results of the conventional PCR. Furthermore, this technology could make the PCR more widely applicable, especially in the multi-PCR reaction system with different annealing temperatures. This is of great significance for gene diagnosis. PMID:19408916
Path Integral and Effective Hamiltonian in Loop Quantum Cosmology
Haiyun Huang; Yongge Ma; Li Qin
2011-06-27
We study the path integral formulation of Friedmann universe filled with a massless scalar field in loop quantum cosmology. All the isotropic models of $k=0,+1,-1$ are considered. To construct the path integrals in the timeless framework, a multiple group-averaging approach is proposed. Meanwhile, since the transition amplitude in the deparameterized framework can be expressed in terms of group-averaging, the path integrals can be formulated for both deparameterized and timeless frameworks. Their relation is clarified. It turns out that the effective Hamiltonian derived from the path integral in deparameterized framework is equivalent to the effective Hamiltonian constraint derived from the path integral in timeless framework, since they lead to same equations of motion. Moreover, the effective Hamiltonian constraints of above models derived in canonical theory are confirmed by the path integral formulation.
Edge states and integer quantum Hall effect in topological insulator thin films.
Zhang, Song-Bo; Lu, Hai-Zhou; Shen, Shun-Qing
2015-01-01
The integer quantum Hall effect is a topological state of quantum matter in two dimensions, and has recently been observed in three-dimensional topological insulator thin films. Here we study the Landau levels and edge states of surface Dirac fermions in topological insulators under strong magnetic field. We examine the formation of the quantum plateaux of the Hall conductance and find two different patterns, in one pattern the filling number covers all integers while only odd integers in the other. We focus on the quantum plateau closest to zero energy and demonstrate the breakdown of the quantum spin Hall effect resulting from structure inversion asymmetry. The phase diagrams of the quantum Hall states are presented as functions of magnetic field, gate voltage and chemical potential. This work establishes an intuitive picture of the edge states to understand the integer quantum Hall effect for Dirac electrons in topological insulator thin films. PMID:26304795
Edge states and integer quantum Hall effect in topological insulator thin films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Song-Bo; Lu, Hai-Zhou; Shen, Shun-Qing
2015-08-01
The integer quantum Hall effect is a topological state of quantum matter in two dimensions, and has recently been observed in three-dimensional topological insulator thin films. Here we study the Landau levels and edge states of surface Dirac fermions in topological insulators under strong magnetic field. We examine the formation of the quantum plateaux of the Hall conductance and find two different patterns, in one pattern the filling number covers all integers while only odd integers in the other. We focus on the quantum plateau closest to zero energy and demonstrate the breakdown of the quantum spin Hall effect resulting from structure inversion asymmetry. The phase diagrams of the quantum Hall states are presented as functions of magnetic field, gate voltage and chemical potential. This work establishes an intuitive picture of the edge states to understand the integer quantum Hall effect for Dirac electrons in topological insulator thin films.
Edge states and integer quantum Hall effect in topological insulator thin films
Zhang, Song-Bo; Lu, Hai-Zhou; Shen, Shun-Qing
2015-01-01
The integer quantum Hall effect is a topological state of quantum matter in two dimensions, and has recently been observed in three-dimensional topological insulator thin films. Here we study the Landau levels and edge states of surface Dirac fermions in topological insulators under strong magnetic field. We examine the formation of the quantum plateaux of the Hall conductance and find two different patterns, in one pattern the filling number covers all integers while only odd integers in the other. We focus on the quantum plateau closest to zero energy and demonstrate the breakdown of the quantum spin Hall effect resulting from structure inversion asymmetry. The phase diagrams of the quantum Hall states are presented as functions of magnetic field, gate voltage and chemical potential. This work establishes an intuitive picture of the edge states to understand the integer quantum Hall effect for Dirac electrons in topological insulator thin films. PMID:26304795
Measurement of DT neutron emission from TFTR with helium-4 proportional recoil counters
McCauley, J.S.; Strachan, J.D. (Princeton University, Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States))
1992-10-01
The DT neutron emission from Triton Burnup has been measured with four helium-4 proportional counters in TFTR's Multichannel Neutron Collimator. The operating characteristics of an alpha'' recoil proportional counter are presented. The theoretical response function of these detectors, which is complicated by the strong anisotropy of the ({ital n},{alpha}) reaction, is compared with the measured response of these detectors from TFTR. A computer simulation predicts wall and end effects. The frequency responses of the detector and electronics have also been tested. A model predicts the saturation effects seen during high-power plasmas. The calibration techniques for this detector array will be discussed. The detectors have been used to measure the radial profile of the 1 MeV tritons produced by the {ital d}({ital d},{ital p}){ital t} fusion reaction. The burnup produces 14 MeV neutrons in the {ital d}({ital t},{ital n}){alpha} fusion reaction.
Quantum noise effects with Kerr-nonlinearity enhancement in coupled gain-loss waveguides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Bing; Yan, Shu-Bin; Wang, Jing; Xiao, Min
2015-05-01
It is generally difficult to study the dynamical properties of a quantum system with both inherent quantum noises and nonperturbative nonlinearity. Due to the possibly drastic intensity increase of an input coherent light in gain-loss waveguide couplers with parity-time (PT ) symmetry, the Kerr effect from a nonlinearity added into the system can be greatly enhanced and is expected to create macroscopic entangled states of the output light fields with huge photon numbers. Meanwhile, quantum noises also coexist with the amplification and dissipation of the light fields. Under the interplay between the quantum noises and nonlinearity, the quantum dynamical behaviors of the systems become rather complicated. However, the important quantum noise effects have been mostly neglected in previous studies about nonlinear PT -symmetric systems. Here we present a solution to this nonperturbative quantum nonlinear problem, showing the real-time evolution of the system observables. The enhanced Kerr nonlinearity is found to give rise to a previously unknown decoherence effect that is irrelevant to the quantum noises and imposes a limit on the emergence of macroscopic nonclassicality. In contrast to what happens in linear systems, the quantum noises exert significant impact on the system dynamics and can create nonclassical light field states in conjunction with the enhanced Kerr nonlinearity. This study on the noise involved in quantum nonlinear dynamics of coupled gain-loss waveguides can help to better understand the quantum noise effects in many nonlinear systems.
Efficient Multi-Dimensional Simulation of Quantum Confinement Effects in Advanced MOS Devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biegel, Bryan A.; Ancona, Mario G.; Rafferty, Conor S.; Yu, Zhiping
2000-01-01
We investigate the density-gradient (DG) transport model for efficient multi-dimensional simulation of quantum confinement effects in advanced MOS devices. The formulation of the DG model is described as a quantum correction ot the classical drift-diffusion model. Quantum confinement effects are shown to be significant in sub-100nm MOSFETs. In thin-oxide MOS capacitors, quantum effects may reduce gate capacitance by 25% or more. As a result, the inclusion of quantum effects may reduce gate capacitance by 25% or more. As a result, the inclusion of quantum effects in simulations dramatically improves the match between C-V simulations and measurements for oxide thickness down to 2 nm. Significant quantum corrections also occur in the I-V characteristics of short-channel (30 to 100 nm) n-MOSFETs, with current drive reduced by up to 70%. This effect is shown to result from reduced inversion charge due to quantum confinement of electrons in the channel. Also, subthreshold slope is degraded by 15 to 20 mV/decade with the inclusion of quantum effects via the density-gradient model, and short channel effects (in particular, drain-induced barrier lowering) are noticeably increased.
The Casimir effect: from quantum to critical fluctuations
Andrea Gambassi
2008-12-04
The Casimir effect in quantum electrodynamics (QED) is perhaps the best-known example of fluctuation-induced long-ranged force acting on objects (conducting plates) immersed in a fluctuating medium (quantum electromagnetic field in vacuum). A similar effect emerges in statistical physics, where the force acting, e.g., on colloidal particles immersed in a binary liquid mixture is affected by the classical thermal fluctuations occurring in the surrounding medium. The resulting Casimir-like force acquires universal features upon approaching a critical point of the medium and becomes long-ranged at criticality. In turn, this universality allows one to investigate theoretically the temperature dependence of the force via representative models and to stringently test the corresponding predictions in experiments. In contrast to QED, the Casimir force resulting from critical fluctuations can be easily tuned with respect to strength and sign by surface treatments and temperature control. We present some recent advances in the theoretical study of the universal properties of the critical Casimir force arising in thin films. The corresponding predictions compare very well with the experimental results obtained for wetting layers of various fluids. We discuss how the Casimir force between a colloidal particle and a planar wall immersed in a binary liquid mixture has been measured with femto-Newton accuracy, comparing these experimental results with the corresponding theoretical predictions.
Mixing effects in the crystallization of supercooled quantum binary liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kühnel, M.; Fernández, J. M.; Tramonto, F.; Tejeda, G.; Moreno, E.; Kalinin, A.; Nava, M.; Galli, D. E.; Montero, S.; Grisenti, R. E.
2015-08-01
By means of Raman spectroscopy of liquid microjets, we have investigated the crystallization process of supercooled quantum liquid mixtures composed of parahydrogen (pH2) or orthodeuterium (oD2) diluted with small amounts of neon. We show that the introduction of the Ne impurities affects the crystallization kinetics in terms of a significant reduction of the measured pH2 and oD2 crystal growth rates, similarly to what found in our previous work on supercooled pH2-oD2 liquid mixtures [Kühnel et al., Phys. Rev. B 89, 180201(R) (2014)]. Our experimental results, in combination with path-integral simulations of the supercooled liquid mixtures, suggest in particular a correlation between the measured growth rates and the ratio of the effective particle sizes originating from quantum delocalization effects. We further show that the crystalline structure of the mixtures is also affected to a large extent by the presence of the Ne impurities, which likely initiate the freezing process through the formation of Ne-rich crystallites.
Mixing effects in the crystallization of supercooled quantum binary liquids.
Kühnel, M; Fernández, J M; Tramonto, F; Tejeda, G; Moreno, E; Kalinin, A; Nava, M; Galli, D E; Montero, S; Grisenti, R E
2015-08-14
By means of Raman spectroscopy of liquid microjets, we have investigated the crystallization process of supercooled quantum liquid mixtures composed of parahydrogen (pH2) or orthodeuterium (oD2) diluted with small amounts of neon. We show that the introduction of the Ne impurities affects the crystallization kinetics in terms of a significant reduction of the measured pH2 and oD2 crystal growth rates, similarly to what found in our previous work on supercooled pH2-oD2 liquid mixtures [Kühnel et al., Phys. Rev. B 89, 180201(R) (2014)]. Our experimental results, in combination with path-integral simulations of the supercooled liquid mixtures, suggest in particular a correlation between the measured growth rates and the ratio of the effective particle sizes originating from quantum delocalization effects. We further show that the crystalline structure of the mixtures is also affected to a large extent by the presence of the Ne impurities, which likely initiate the freezing process through the formation of Ne-rich crystallites. PMID:26277142
Oscillation and recoil of single and consecutively printed droplets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xin; Chhasatia, Viral; Sun, Ying
2012-11-01
Drops are often used as building blocks for line and pattern printing where their interactions play an important role in determining the morphology and properties of deposited functional materials. In this study, the impact, spreading and oscillation of single and consecutively printed drops on substrates of different wettabilities are examined using a high speed camera. The results show that, for a single droplet impacting at a low Weber number, both the inertia and surface tension play important roles in the initial spreading stage before the droplet starts to oscillate. On a substrate of higher wettability, drop oscillation is damped down faster due to stronger viscous dissipation resulted from a longer liquid oscillation path. It is also found that when a drop impacting on an evaporating sessile drop sitting on a hydrophobic substrate, recoil of the combined drop is observed, in contrast to no recoil for the impact of a single drop under the same condition. Furthermore, a single-degree-of-freedom vibration model for the height of oscillating single and combined drops on a hydrophobic substrate is established. The results show that as viscosity of liquid increases, damping of drop oscillation becomes faster, and the combined drop oscillates longer compared to a single drop.