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Sample records for quantum theoretical calculations

  1. Skin sensitization prediction using quantum chemical calculations: a theoretical model for the S(N)Ar domain.

    PubMed

    Promkatkaew, Malinee; Gleeson, Duangkamol; Hannongbua, Supa; Gleeson, M Paul

    2014-01-21

    It is widely accepted that skin sensitization begins with the sensitizer in question forming a covalent adduct with a protein electrophile or nucleophile. We investigate the use of quantum chemical methods in an attempt to rationalize the sensitization potential of chemicals of the S(N)Ar reaction domain. We calculate the full reaction profile for 23 chemicals with experimental sensitization data. For all quantitative measurements, we find that there is a good correlation between the reported pEC3 and the calculated barrier to formation of the low energy product or intermediate (r(2) = 0.64, N = 12) and a stronger one when broken down by specific subtype (r(2) > 0.9). Using a barrier cutoff of ?10 kcal/mol allows us to categorize 100% (N = 12) of the sensitizers from the nonsensitizers (N = 11), with just 1 nonsensitizer being mispredicted as a weak sensitizer (9%). This model has an accuracy of ?96%, with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of ?91%. We find that the kinetic and thermodynamic information provided by the complete profile can help in the rationalization process, giving additional insight into a chemical's potential for skin sensitization. PMID:24410586

  2. Quantum Chemical Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The current methods of quantum chemical calculations will be reviewed. The accent will be on the accuracy that can be achieved with these methods. The basis set requirements and computer resources for the various methods will be discussed. The utility of the methods will be illustrated with some examples, which include the calculation of accurate bond energies for SiF$_n$ and SiF$_n^+$ and the modeling of chemical data storage.

  3. Accurate quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    An important goal of quantum chemical calculations is to provide an understanding of chemical bonding and molecular electronic structure. A second goal, the prediction of energy differences to chemical accuracy, has been much harder to attain. First, the computational resources required to achieve such accuracy are very large, and second, it is not straightforward to demonstrate that an apparently accurate result, in terms of agreement with experiment, does not result from a cancellation of errors. Recent advances in electronic structure methodology, coupled with the power of vector supercomputers, have made it possible to solve a number of electronic structure problems exactly using the full configuration interaction (FCI) method within a subspace of the complete Hilbert space. These exact results can be used to benchmark approximate techniques that are applicable to a wider range of chemical and physical problems. The methodology of many-electron quantum chemistry is reviewed. Methods are considered in detail for performing FCI calculations. The application of FCI methods to several three-electron problems in molecular physics are discussed. A number of benchmark applications of FCI wave functions are described. Atomic basis sets and the development of improved methods for handling very large basis sets are discussed: these are then applied to a number of chemical and spectroscopic problems; to transition metals; and to problems involving potential energy surfaces. Although the experiences described give considerable grounds for optimism about the general ability to perform accurate calculations, there are several problems that have proved less tractable, at least with current computer resources, and these and possible solutions are discussed.

  4. Theoretical Calculations of Atomic Data for Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bautista, Manuel A.

    2000-01-01

    Several different approximations and techniques have been developed for the calculation of atomic structure, ionization, and excitation of atoms and ions. These techniques have been used to compute large amounts of spectroscopic data of various levels of accuracy. This paper presents a review of these theoretical methods to help non-experts in atomic physics to better understand the qualities and limitations of various data sources and assess how reliable are spectral models based on those data.

  5. Algorithmic Information Theoretic Issues in Quantum Mechanics

    E-print Network

    Algorithmic Information Theoretic Issues in Quantum Mechanics Gavriel Segre - PHD thesis October 20 of qubits one has to give up the Hilbert- Space Axiomatization of Quantum Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 III The road for quantum algorithmic randomness 104 5 The irreducibility of quantum probability

  6. Quantum cryptography -- an information theoretic security

    E-print Network

    Muhammad Nadeem

    2015-07-28

    Methods of quantum mechanics promise information-theoretic security for various protocols in cryptography. However, impossibility of some cryptographic applications such as standard bit commitment, oblivious transfer, multiparty secure computations and ideal coin tossing in quantum regime leaves an obvious question on the completeness of quantum cryptography. Instead of using wide range of rules and techniques for a variety of cryptographic applications, we demonstrate here a unified structure for quantum cryptography based on quantum non-local correlations. The unified framework achieves same goals in information-theoretic way as classical cryptography does with computational hardness. To cover the broad range of cryptographic applications, we show that the framework (i) assures secrecy by providing encryption completely unintelligible to eavesdroppers, (ii) guarantees that input from distant parties is concealed unless they are willing to reveal, (iii) assures binding, (iv) allows splitting information between several parties securely and more generally, (v) evades both quantum and classical attacks from internal as well as external eavesdropping.

  7. Numerical calculations in quantum field theories

    SciTech Connect

    Rebbi, C.

    1984-01-01

    Four lecture notes are included: (1) motivation for numerical calculations in Quantum Field Theory; (2) numerical simulation methods; (3) Monte Carlo studies of Quantum Chromo Dynamics; and (4) systems with fermions. 23 references. (WHK)

  8. Quantum transport calculations using periodic boundaryconditions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lin-Wang

    2004-06-15

    An efficient new method is presented to calculate the quantum transports using periodic boundary conditions. This method allows the use of conventional ground state ab initio programs without big changes. The computational effort is only a few times of a normal groundstate calculations, thus is makes accurate quantum transport calculations for large systems possible.

  9. Hybrid quantum teleportation: A theoretical model

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Shuntaro; Mizuta, Takahiro; Fuwa, Maria; Yoshikawa, Jun-ichi; Yonezawa, Hidehiro; Furusawa, Akira

    2014-12-04

    Hybrid quantum teleportation – continuous-variable teleportation of qubits – is a promising approach for deterministically teleporting photonic qubits. We propose how to implement it with current technology. Our theoretical model shows that faithful qubit transfer can be achieved for this teleportation by choosing an optimal gain for the teleporter’s classical channel.

  10. Numerical Object Oriented Quantum Field Theory Calculations

    E-print Network

    M. Williams

    2009-05-07

    The qft++ package is a library of C++ classes that facilitate numerical (not algebraic) quantum field theory calculations. Mathematical objects such as matrices, tensors, Dirac spinors, polarization and orbital angular momentum tensors, etc. are represented as C++ objects in qft++. The package permits construction of code which closely resembles quantum field theory expressions, allowing for quick and reliable calculations.

  11. Photophysical study and theoretical calculations of an ionic liquid crystal bearing oxadiazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedro, Jorge A.; Mora, José R.; Westphal, Eduard; Gallardo, Hugo; Fiedler, Haidi D.; Nome, Faruk

    2012-05-01

    We report a detailed photophysical study of 1-dodecyl-4-[5-(4-dodecyloxyphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-yl]pyridinium bromide (454Do), a cationic amphiphile that behaves as a fluorescent liquid crystal. Excitation and emission spectra of the probe in different environments result in significant changes in quantum yields which are correlated with changes in lifetimes and theoretical calculations.

  12. Theoretical derivation of 1/f noise in quantum chaos.

    PubMed

    Faleiro, E; Gómez, J M G; Molina, R A; Muñoz, L; Relaño, A; Retamosa, J

    2004-12-10

    It was recently conjectured that 1/f noise is a fundamental characteristic of spectral fluctuations in chaotic quantum systems. This conjecture is based on the power spectrum behavior of the excitation energy fluctuations, which is different for chaotic and integrable systems. Using random matrix theory, we derive theoretical expressions that explain without free parameters the universal behavior of the excitation energy fluctuations power spectrum. The theory gives excellent agreement with numerical calculations and reproduces to a good approximation the 1/f (1/f(2)) power law characteristic of chaotic (integrable) systems. Moreover, the theoretical results are valid for semiclassical systems as well. PMID:15697816

  13. Calculation of Bohmian quantum trajectories for STEM.

    PubMed

    Zhang, M; Ming, Y; Zeng, R G; Ding, Z J

    2015-11-01

    We present in this work the calculation of Bohmian quantum trajectories representing the wave function propagation in a crystal for a focused electron probe in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The wave function and quantum trajectories are obtained from the calculation of time-dependent Schrödinger equation by fast Fourier transformation multislice algorithm. In our work, the Bohmian quantum trajectories of a scanning probe penetrating a Cu crystal are studied as an example of this calculation scheme. The results help us to better understand the electron diffraction process in a microscopic imaging from a trajectory-based point of view. This Bohmian quantum trajectory method can be used to extend the application of classical Monte Carlo method from the study of electron interaction with amorphous solid to crystalline structure. PMID:26396064

  14. Information-theoretic postulates for quantum theory

    E-print Network

    Markus P. Mueller; Lluis Masanes

    2013-04-23

    Why are the laws of physics formulated in terms of complex Hilbert spaces? Are there natural and consistent modifications of quantum theory that could be tested experimentally? This book chapter gives a self-contained and accessible summary of our paper [New J. Phys. 13, 063001, 2011] addressing these questions, presenting the main ideas, but dropping many technical details. We show that the formalism of quantum theory can be reconstructed from four natural postulates, which do not refer to the mathematical formalism, but only to the information-theoretic content of the physical theory. Our starting point is to assume that there exist physical events (such as measurement outcomes) that happen probabilistically, yielding the mathematical framework of "convex state spaces". Then, quantum theory can be reconstructed by assuming that (i) global states are determined by correlations between local measurements, (ii) systems that carry the same amount of information have equivalent state spaces, (iii) reversible time evolution can map every pure state to every other, and (iv) positivity of probabilities is the only restriction on the possible measurements.

  15. A quantum theoretical study of polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Luke A.

    1987-01-01

    One of the most important contributions of theoretical chemistry is the correct prediction of properties of materials before any costly experimental work begins. This is especially true in the field of electrically conducting polymers. Development of the Valence Effective Hamiltonian (VEH) technique for the calculation of the band structure of polymers was initiated. The necessary VEH potentials were developed for the sulfur and oxygen atoms within the particular molecular environments and the explanation explored for the success of this approximate method in predicting the optical properties of conducting polymers.

  16. The calculation of transport properties in quantum liquids using the maximum entropy numerical

    E-print Network

    Rabani, Eran

    The calculation of transport properties in quantum liquids using the maximum entropy numerical function, combined with the maximum entropy numerical analytic continuation approach to study transport to experimental measurements and other theoretical predic- tions. Improvement of the methodology and future

  17. Quantum Theoretical Study of KCl and LiCl Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koetter, Ted; Hira, Ajit; Salazar, Justin; Jaramillo, Danelle

    2014-03-01

    This research focuses on the theoretical study of molecular clusters to examine the chemical properties of small KnClnandLinCln clusters (n = 2 - 20). The potentially important role of these molecular species in biochemical and medicinal processes is well known. This work applies the hybrid ab initio methods of quantum chemistry to derive the different alkali-halide (MnHn) geometries. Of particular interest is the competition between hexagonal ring geometries and rock salt structures. Electronic energies, rotational constants, dipole moments, and vibrational frequencies for these geometries are calculated. Magic numbers for cluster stability are identified and are related to the property of cluster compactness. Mapping of the singlet, triplet, and quintet, potential energy surfaces is performed. Calculations were performed to examine the interactions of these clusters with some atoms and molecules of biological interest, including O, O2, and Fe. Potential design of new medicinal drugs is explored.

  18. Theoretical Method of Calculating Solvent Nonequilibrium Effect on Solute Movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Ryohei; Yoshimori, Akira

    2015-12-01

    We formulate a theoretical method for studying the solvent particle dynamics around a moving solute, using time-dependent density functional theory. The theoretical method is applied to the insertion process of a large sphere into a cylindrical vessel immersed in solvent particles. For various velocities of the large sphere, we calculate the nonequilibrium spatial distribution of number density of solvent particles. We find a nonequilibrium effect on the distribution, which is characterized by the total number of solvent particles inside of the vessel. The number is 32.5% larger for a velocity of DS/2dS than for the equilibrium state, where, dS and DS are the diameter and diffusion coefficient of a solvent particle, respectively.

  19. Theoretical calculation of proton mobility for collective surface proton transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovnev, Anatoly; Eikerling, Michael

    2013-06-01

    We present a theoretical study of surface proton mobility at a minimally hydrated array of protogenic surface groups. At dense packing, the array assembles into a 2D bicomponent lattice that is formed by sulfonate anions, which are only allowed to fluctuate about fixed equilibrium positions, and mobile hydronium ions. Proton transport on the lattice proceeds by collective translocations of hydronium ions. This type of motion is described within the framework of soliton theory. Our main objective in this article is to establish the relation between microscopic surface structure and effective proton mobility. To this end, we present an approach to calculate microscopic interaction parameters that determine hydronium ion motion. The developed formalism enables us to theoretically derive an expression for soliton mobility at a given surface structure and compare it with experimentally measured mobilities.

  20. Information-theoretic interpretation of quantum error-correcting codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerf, Nicolas J.; Cleve, Richard

    1997-09-01

    Quantum error-correcting codes are analyzed from an information-theoretic perspective centered on quantum conditional and mutual entropies. This approach parallels the description of classical error correction in Shannon theory, while clarifying the differences between classical and quantum codes. More specifically, it is shown how quantum information theory accounts for the fact that ``redundant'' information can be distributed over quantum bits even though this does not violate the quantum ``no-cloning'' theorem. Such a remarkable feature, which has no counterpart for classical codes, is related to the property that the ternary mutual entropy vanishes for a tripartite system in a pure state. This information-theoretic description of quantum coding is used to derive the quantum analog of the Singleton bound on the number of logical bits that can be preserved by a code of fixed length which can recover a given number of errors.

  1. Ligand Affinities Estimated by Quantum Chemical Calculations.

    PubMed

    Söderhjelm, Pär; Kongsted, Jacob; Ryde, Ulf

    2010-05-11

    We present quantum chemical estimates of ligand-binding affinities performed, for the first time, at a level of theory for which there is a hope that dispersion and polarization effects are properly accounted for (MP2/cc-pVTZ) and at the same time effects of solvation, entropy, and sampling are included. We have studied the binding of seven biotin analogues to the avidin tetramer. The calculations have been performed by the recently developed PMISP approach (polarizable multipole interactions with supermolecular pairs), which treats electrostatic interactions by multipoles up to quadrupoles, induction by anisotropic polarizabilities, and nonclassical interactions (dispersion, exchange repulsion, etc.) by explicit quantum chemical calculations, using a fragmentation approach, except for long-range interactions that are treated by standard molecular-mechanics Lennard-Jones terms. In order to include effects of sampling, 10 snapshots from a molecular dynamics simulation are studied for each biotin analogue. Solvation energies are estimated by the polarized continuum model (PCM), coupled to the multipole-polarizability model. Entropy effects are estimated from vibrational frequencies, calculated at the molecular mechanics level. We encounter several problems, not previously discussed, illustrating that we are first to apply such a method. For example, the PCM model is, in the present implementation, questionable for large molecules, owing to the use of a surface definition that gives numerous small cavities in a protein. PMID:26615702

  2. Quantum Monte Carlo Calculations of Light Nuclei

    E-print Network

    Steven C. Pieper; R. B. Wiringa

    2001-03-06

    Accurate quantum Monte Carlo calculations of ground and low-lying excited states of light p-shell nuclei are now possible for realistic nuclear Hamiltonians that fit nucleon-nucleon scattering data. At present, results for more than 30 different (J^pi;T) states, plus isobaric analogs, in A \\leq 8 nuclei have been obtained with an excellent reproduction of the experimental energy spectrum. These microscopic calculations show that nuclear structure, including both single-particle and clustering aspects, can be explained starting from elementary two- and three-nucleon interactions. Various density and momentum distributions, electromagnetic form factors, and spectroscopic factors have also been computed, as well as electroweak capture reactions of astrophysical interest.

  3. Quantum mechanical calculations to chemical accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.

    1991-01-01

    The accuracy of current molecular-structure calculations is illustrated with examples of quantum mechanical solutions for chemical problems. Two approaches are considered: (1) the coupled-cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) with a perturbational estimate of the contribution of connected triple excitations, or CCDS(T); and (2) the multireference configuration-interaction (MRCI) approach to the correlation problem. The MRCI approach gains greater applicability by means of size-extensive modifications such as the averaged-coupled pair functional approach. The examples of solutions to chemical problems include those for C-H bond energies, the vibrational frequencies of O3, identifying the ground state of Al2 and Si2, and the Lewis-Rayleigh afterglow and the Hermann IR system of N2. Accurate molecular-wave functions can be derived from a combination of basis-set saturation studies and full configuration-interaction calculations.

  4. A theoretical model of multi-agent quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihelic, F. Matthew

    2011-05-01

    The best design for practical quantum computing is one that emulates the multi-agent quantum logic function of natural biological systems. Such systems are theorized to be based upon a quantum gate formed by a nucleic acid Szilard engine (NASE) that converts Shannon entropy of encountered molecules into useful work of nucleic acid geometric reconfiguration. This theoretical mechanism is logically and thermodynamically reversible in this special case because it is literally constructed out of the (nucleic acid) information necessary for its function, thereby allowing the nucleic acid Szilard engine to function reversibly because, since the information by which it functions exists on both sides of the theoretical mechanism simultaneously, there would be no build-up of information within the theoretical mechanism, and therefore no irreversible thermodynamic energy cost would be necessary to erase information inside the mechanism. This symmetry breaking Szilard engine function is associated with emission and/or absorption of entangled photons that can provide quantum synchronization of other nucleic acid segments within and between cells. In this manner nucleic acids can be considered as a natural model of topological quantum computing in which the nonabelian interaction of genes can be represented within quantum knot/braid theory as anyon crosses determined by entropic loss or gain that leads to changes in nucleic acid covalent bond angles. This naturally occurring biological form of topological quantum computing can serve as a model for workable man-made multi-agent quantum computing systems.

  5. Quantum Monte Carlo Calculations Applied to Magnetic Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Engelhardt

    2006-08-09

    We have calculated the equilibrium thermodynamic properties of Heisenberg spin systems using a quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) method. We have used some of these systems as models to describe recently synthesized magnetic molecules, and-upon comparing the results of these calculations with experimental data-have obtained accurate estimates for the basic parameters of these models. We have also performed calculations for other systems that are of more general interest, being relevant both for existing experimental data and for future experiments. Utilizing the concept of importance sampling, these calculations can be carried out in an arbitrarily large quantum Hilbert space, while still avoiding any approximations that would introduce systematic errors. The only errors are statistical in nature, and as such, their magnitudes are accurately estimated during the course of a simulation. Frustrated spin systems present a major challenge to the QMC method, nevertheless, in many instances progress can be made. In this chapter, the field of magnetic molecules is introduced, paying particular attention to the characteristics that distinguish magnetic molecules from other systems that are studied in condensed matter physics. We briefly outline the typical path by which we learn about magnetic molecules, which requires a close relationship between experiments and theoretical calculations. The typical experiments are introduced here, while the theoretical methods are discussed in the next chapter. Each of these theoretical methods has a considerable limitation, also described in Chapter 2, which together serve to motivate the present work. As is shown throughout the later chapters, the present QMC method is often able to provide useful information where other methods fail. In Chapter 3, the use of Monte Carlo methods in statistical physics is reviewed, building up the fundamental ideas that are necessary in order to understand the method that has been used in this work. With these ideas in hand, we then provide a detailed explanation of the current QMC method in Chapter 4. The remainder of the thesis is devoted to presenting specific results: Chapters 5 and 6 contain articles in which this method has been used to answer general questions that are relevant to broad classes of systems. Then, in Chapter 7, we provide an analysis of four different species of magnetic molecules that have recently been synthesized and studied. In all cases, comparisons between QMC calculations and experimental data allow us to distinguish a viable microscopic model and make predictions for future experiments. In Chapter 8, the infamous ''negative sign problem'' is described in detail, and we clearly indicate the limitations on QMC that are imposed by this obstacle. Finally, Chapter 9 contains a summary of the present work and the expected directions for future research.

  6. Quantum Monte Carlo Calculations for Carbon Nanotubes

    E-print Network

    Thomas Luu; Timo A. Lähde

    2015-11-16

    We show how lattice Quantum Monte Carlo can be applied to the electronic properties of carbon nanotubes in the presence of strong electron-electron correlations. We employ the path-integral formalism and use methods developed within the lattice QCD community for our numerical work. Our lattice Hamiltonian is closely related to the hexagonal Hubbard model augmented by a long-range electron-electron interaction. We apply our method to the single-quasiparticle spectrum of the (3,3) armchair nanotube configuration, and consider the effects of strong electron-electron correlations. Our approach is equally applicable to other nanotubes, as well as to other carbon nanostructures. We benchmark our Monte Carlo calculations against the two- and four-site Hubbard models, where a direct numerical solution is feasible.

  7. Calculation of the Deflection of Light Ray near the Sun with Quantum-corrected Newton's Gravitation Law

    E-print Network

    Zhen Wang

    1999-06-16

    The deflection of light ray passing near the Sun is calculated with quantum-corrected Newton's gravitation law. The satisfactory result suggests that there may exist other theoretical possibilities besides the theory of relativity.

  8. Theoretical calculations on the electron absorption spectra of selected Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) and derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du, Ping

    1993-01-01

    As a theoretical component of the joint effort with the laboratory of Dr. Lou Allamandola to search for potential candidates for interstellar organic carbon compound that are responsible for the visible diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIB's), quantum mechanical calculations were performed on the electron absorption spectra of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and derivatives. In the completed project, 15 different species of naphthalene, its hydrogen abstraction and addition derivatives, and corresponding cations and anions were studied. Using semiempirical quantum mechanical method INDO/S, the ground electronic state of each species was evaluated with restricted Hartree-Fock scheme and limited configuration interaction. The lowest energy spin state for each species was used for electron absorption calculations. Results indicate that these calculations are accurate enough to reproduce the spectra of naphthalene cation and anion observed in neon matrix. The spectral pattern of the hydrogen abstraction and addition derivatives predicted based on these results indicate that the electron configuration of the pi orbitals of these species is the dominant determinant. A combined list of 19 absorptions calculated from 4500 A to 10,400 A were compiled and suggested as potential candidates that are relevant for the DIB's absorptions. Continued studies on pyrene and derivatives revealed the ground state symmetries and multiplicities of its neutral, anionic, and cationic species. Spectral calculations show that the cation (B(sub 3g)-2) and the anion (A(sub u)-2) are more likely to have low energy absorptions in the regions between 10 kK and 20 kK, similar to naphthalene. These absorptions, together with those to be determined from the hydrogen abstraction and addition derivatives of pyrene, can be used to provide additional candidates and suggest experimental work in the search for interstellar compounds that are responsible for DIB's.

  9. Density functional calculation of the structural and electronic properties of germanium quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Anas, M. M.; Gopir, G.

    2015-04-24

    We apply first principles density functional computational methods to study the structures, densities of states (DOS), and higher occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) – lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gaps of selected free-standing Ge semiconductor quantum dots up to 1.8nm. Our calculations are performed using numerical atomic orbital approach where linear combination of atomic orbital was applied. The surfaces of the quantum dots was passivized by hydrogen atoms. We find that surface passivation does affect the electronic properties associated with the changes of surface state, electron localization, and the energy gaps of germanium nanocrystals as well as the confinement of electrons inside the quantum dots (QDs). Our study shows that the energy gaps of germanium quantum dots decreases with the increasing dot diameter. The size-dependent variations of the computed HOMO-LUMO gaps in our quantum dots model were found to be consistent with the effects of quantum confinement reported in others theoretical and experimental calculation.

  10. Quantum Molecular Dynamics calculation of electrical and thermal transport properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjarlais, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Dense, strongly-coupled plasmas, with degenerate or partially degenerate electrons--ubiquitous in high energy density physics, inertial fusion, planetary science, and warm dense matter--are very difficult to describe accurately with traditional theoretical approaches. Over the last decade, density functional based molecular dynamics, also know as quantum molecular dynamics (QMD), has emerged as a powerful tool for the study of dense quantum plasmas, providing accurate equation of state, structural, and transport properties. This talk will focus on the QMD calculation of electrical and thermal conductivities with a much higher degree of accuracy than was possible with earlier methods. Within the density functional approach, electrical and thermal conductivities are extracted directly from the electronic orbitals using the Kubo-Greenwood and Chester-Thellung formalisms, circumventing the need to define the ionization states and collision cross sections. These transport calculations have now been used to generate several wide-range transport models for use in large-scale simulation codes, allowing unprecedented simulations of complex experiments. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  11. Theoretical method for analyzing quantum dynamics of correlated photons

    SciTech Connect

    Koshino, Kazuki; Nakatani, Masatoshi

    2009-05-15

    We present a theoretical method for the efficient analysis of quantum nonlinear dynamics of correlated photons. Since correlated photons can be regarded as a superposition of uncorrelated photons, semiclassical analysis can be applied to this problem. The proposed method is demonstrated for a V-type three-level atom as a nonlinear optical system.

  12. Theoretical efficient high capacity Quantum Key Distribution Scheme

    E-print Network

    Gui Lu Long; Xiao Shu Liu

    2001-12-26

    A theoretical quantum key distribution scheme using EPR pairs is presented. This scheme is efficient in that it uses all EPR pairs in distributing the key except those chosen for checking eavesdroppers. The high capacity is achieved because each EPR pair carries 2 bits of key code.

  13. Quantum Biological Channel Modeling and Capacity Calculation

    PubMed Central

    Djordjevic, Ivan B.

    2012-01-01

    Quantum mechanics has an important role in photosynthesis, magnetoreception, and evolution. There were many attempts in an effort to explain the structure of genetic code and transfer of information from DNA to protein by using the concepts of quantum mechanics. The existing biological quantum channel models are not sufficiently general to incorporate all relevant contributions responsible for imperfect protein synthesis. Moreover, the problem of determination of quantum biological channel capacity is still an open problem. To solve these problems, we construct the operator-sum representation of biological channel based on codon basekets (basis vectors), and determine the quantum channel model suitable for study of the quantum biological channel capacity and beyond. The transcription process, DNA point mutations, insertions, deletions, and translation are interpreted as the quantum noise processes. The various types of quantum errors are classified into several broad categories: (i) storage errors that occur in DNA itself as it represents an imperfect storage of genetic information, (ii) replication errors introduced during DNA replication process, (iii) transcription errors introduced during DNA to mRNA transcription, and (iv) translation errors introduced during the translation process. By using this model, we determine the biological quantum channel capacity and compare it against corresponding classical biological channel capacity. We demonstrate that the quantum biological channel capacity is higher than the classical one, for a coherent quantum channel model, suggesting that quantum effects have an important role in biological systems. The proposed model is of crucial importance towards future study of quantum DNA error correction, developing quantum mechanical model of aging, developing the quantum mechanical models for tumors/cancer, and study of intracellular dynamics in general. PMID:25371271

  14. Entanglement as measure of electronelectron correlation in quantum chemistry calculations

    E-print Network

    Kais, Sabre

    Entanglement as measure of electron­electron correlation in quantum chemistry calculations ZhenÕ to a correlation of quantum nature. He stated that for an entangled state Ôthe best possible knowledge of the whole] there has been a quest for generating entanglement between quantum particles [10,17]. Investigation

  15. Entanglement and electron correlation in quantum chemistry calculations

    E-print Network

    Kais, Sabre

    Entanglement and electron correlation in quantum chemistry calculations Z. HUANG, H. WANG and S. Thus, entanglement might be used as an alternative measure of electron correlation in quantum chemistry. There is no doubt that entanglement lies at the heart of the foundation of quantum mechanics. Recently a desire

  16. Theoretical calculation methods for kinesin in fast axonal transport.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Hill, T L

    1988-01-01

    The method of making Monte Carlo calculations of the velocity of fast axonal transport is described and applied in a relatively simple case. These illustrative calculations are supplemented by a differential equation solution of the same problem, valid as an asymptotic limit. The latter treatment is closely related to the theory of muscle contraction. PMID:2448774

  17. Theoretical calculation of photodetachment intensities for H3O?

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Ward H.; Karlsson, Hans O.; Miller, William H.

    1996-09-01

    We have calculated total and arrangement?selected photodetachment intensities for the H3O? anion (and its deuterated form, D3O?) using a Green’s function in a discrete variable representation with absorbing boundary conditions. A multiply...

  18. Theoretical calculations and vibrational potential energy surface of 4-silaspiro(3,3)heptane

    SciTech Connect

    Ocola, Esther J.; Medders, Cross; Laane, Jaan; Meinander, Niklas

    2014-04-28

    Theoretical computations have been carried out on 4-silaspiro(3,3)heptane (SSH) in order to calculate its molecular structure and conformational energies. The molecule has two puckered four-membered rings with dihedral angles of 34.2° and a tilt angle of 9.4° between the two rings. Energy calculations were carried out for different conformations of SSH. These results allowed the generation of a two-dimensional ring-puckering potential energy surface (PES) of the form V = a(x{sub 1}{sup 4} + x{sub 2}{sup 4}) – b(x{sub 1}{sup 2} + x{sub 2}{sup 2}) + cx{sub 1}{sup 2}x{sub 2}{sup 2}, where x{sub 1} and x{sub 2} are the ring-puckering coordinates for the two rings. The presence of sufficiently high potential energy barriers prevents the molecule from undergoing pseudorotation. The quantum states, wave functions, and predicted spectra resulting from the PESs were calculated.

  19. Using the Chebychev expansion in quantum transport calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Popescu, Bogdan; Rahman, Hasan; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich

    2015-04-21

    Irradiation by laser pulses and a fluctuating surrounding liquid environment can, for example, lead to time-dependent effects in the transport through molecular junctions. From the theoretical point of view, time-dependent theories of quantum transport are still challenging. In one of these existing transport theories, the energy-dependent coupling between molecule and leads is decomposed into Lorentzian functions. This trick has successfully been combined with quantum master approaches, hierarchical formalisms, and non-equilibrium Green’s functions. The drawback of this approach is, however, its serious limitation to certain forms of the molecule-lead coupling and to higher temperatures. Tian and Chen [J. Chem. Phys. 137, 204114 (2012)] recently employed a Chebychev expansion to circumvent some of these latter problems. Here, we report on a similar approach also based on the Chebychev expansion but leading to a different set of coupled differential equations using the fact that a derivative of a zeroth-order Bessel function can again be given in terms of Bessel functions. Test calculations show the excellent numerical accuracy and stability of the presented formalism. The time span for which this Chebychev expansion scheme is valid without any restrictions on the form of the spectral density or temperature can be determined a priori.

  20. Using the Chebychev expansion in quantum transport calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Bogdan; Rahman, Hasan; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    Irradiation by laser pulses and a fluctuating surrounding liquid environment can, for example, lead to time-dependent effects in the transport through molecular junctions. From the theoretical point of view, time-dependent theories of quantum transport are still challenging. In one of these existing transport theories, the energy-dependent coupling between molecule and leads is decomposed into Lorentzian functions. This trick has successfully been combined with quantum master approaches, hierarchical formalisms, and non-equilibrium Green's functions. The drawback of this approach is, however, its serious limitation to certain forms of the molecule-lead coupling and to higher temperatures. Tian and Chen [J. Chem. Phys. 137, 204114 (2012)] recently employed a Chebychev expansion to circumvent some of these latter problems. Here, we report on a similar approach also based on the Chebychev expansion but leading to a different set of coupled differential equations using the fact that a derivative of a zeroth-order Bessel function can again be given in terms of Bessel functions. Test calculations show the excellent numerical accuracy and stability of the presented formalism. The time span for which this Chebychev expansion scheme is valid without any restrictions on the form of the spectral density or temperature can be determined a priori.

  1. Using the Chebychev expansion in quantum transport calculations.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Bogdan; Rahman, Hasan; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich

    2015-04-21

    Irradiation by laser pulses and a fluctuating surrounding liquid environment can, for example, lead to time-dependent effects in the transport through molecular junctions. From the theoretical point of view, time-dependent theories of quantum transport are still challenging. In one of these existing transport theories, the energy-dependent coupling between molecule and leads is decomposed into Lorentzian functions. This trick has successfully been combined with quantum master approaches, hierarchical formalisms, and non-equilibrium Green's functions. The drawback of this approach is, however, its serious limitation to certain forms of the molecule-lead coupling and to higher temperatures. Tian and Chen [J. Chem. Phys. 137, 204114 (2012)] recently employed a Chebychev expansion to circumvent some of these latter problems. Here, we report on a similar approach also based on the Chebychev expansion but leading to a different set of coupled differential equations using the fact that a derivative of a zeroth-order Bessel function can again be given in terms of Bessel functions. Test calculations show the excellent numerical accuracy and stability of the presented formalism. The time span for which this Chebychev expansion scheme is valid without any restrictions on the form of the spectral density or temperature can be determined a priori. PMID:25903862

  2. Potential theoretic methods for far field sound radiation calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hariharan, S. I.; Stenger, Edward J.; Scott, J. R.

    1995-01-01

    In the area of computational acoustics, procedures which accurately predict the far-field sound radiation are much sought after. A systematic development of such procedures are found in a sequence of papers by Atassi. The method presented here is an alternate approach to predicting far field sound based on simple layer potential theoretic methods. The main advantages of this method are: it requires only a simple free space Green's function, it can accommodate arbitrary shapes of Kirchoff surfaces, and is readily extendable to three-dimensional problems. Moreover, the procedure presented here, though tested for unsteady lifting airfoil problems, can easily be adapted to other areas of interest, such as jet noise radiation problems. Results are presented for lifting airfoil problems and comparisons are made with the results reported by Atassi. Direct comparisons are also made for the flat plate case.

  3. Field theoretical quantities in the fractional quantum Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curnoe, Stephanie Hythe

    This thesis studies two models of the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE), the bosonic (Chern-Simons-Landau-Ginzburg) description and the fermionic (composite fermion gauge theory) description. The bosonic theory attempts to describe the FQHE states at filling fractions nu={1/ 2n+1} while the fermionic theory attempts to describe the states at nu={p/ 2np±1} and the metallic states in between. Within the bosonic theory, the fractionally charged quasiparticles of the FQH system are vortices which appear during the breakdown of the uniform quantum Hall state. The energetics of a single vortex state are studied whereby it is shown how the system may become unstable to the formation of vortices. Numerical vortex profiles are computed by minimising the Hamiltonian. Using the fermionic theory of composite fermions interacting with gauge fluctuations, we consider two important field theoretic quantities, the self-energy and the thermodynamic potential in a finite magnetic field. We find that the conventional Luttinger-Ward treatment of the oscillatory behaviour of the thermodynamic potential is not applicable in two dimensions, for any kind of interaction. Instead we propose a new formulation which omits all crossed graphs and which necessarily includes the oscillatory self-consistent self-energy. To second order in perturbation theory, the oscillatory self-energy is calculated by retaining Landau level quantisation on the internal fermion line. The low energy form of the self-consistent self-energy is obtained by means of a new iterative procedure which is introduced here. This procedure makes use of the structure introduced by Landau level quantisation. We also investigate the structure induced in the analogous two dimensional electron-phonon problem, in order to assist our understanding of the composite fermion self-energy. In the low energy limit, it is found that the renormalised form of the composite fermion Green's function is of the same form as the unrenormalised Green's function. Therefore we argue that the principal effects of interactions may be accounted for using a field-dependent renormalised mass. The iterative procedure for finding the self-consistent self-energy is used to evaluate the renormalised gap between the Fermi energy and the first excited states, which rapidly converges in a few iterations. We find a significant departure from the asymptotic result obtained by ignoring Landau level quantisation in the regime of experimentally relevant values of the parameters. We compare our findings with measurements of the gap in fractional Hall states near nu=1/2.

  4. Theoretical calculation of zero field splitting parameters of Cr3+ doped ammonium oxalate monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kripal, Ram; Yadav, Awadhesh Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Zero field splitting parameters (ZFSPs) D and E of Cr3+ ion doped ammonium oxalate monohydrate (AOM) are calculated with formula using the superposition model. The theoretically calculated ZFSPs for Cr3+ in AOM crystal are compared with the experimental value obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Theoretical ZFSPs are in good agreement with the experimental ones. The energy band positions of optical absorption spectra of Cr3+ in AOM crystal calculated with CFA package are in good match with the experimental values.

  5. Theoretical investigation of the quantum noise in ghost imaging

    E-print Network

    Jing Cheng; Shensheng Han

    2004-08-19

    Ghost imaging is a method to nonlocally image an object by transmitting pairs of entangled photons through the object and a reference optical system respectively. We present a theoretical analysis of the quantum noise in this imaging technique. The dependence of the noise on the properties of the apertures in the imaging system are discussed and demonstrated with a numerical example. For a given source, the resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio cannot be improved at the same time .

  6. Theoretical calculation of spectra of dibutyl phthalate and dioctyl phthalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jian-Bin; Tang, Yan-Lin; Long, Zheng-Wen; Hu, Shuang-Hui; Li, Tao

    2014-05-01

    Dibutyl phthalate DBP and dioctyl phthalate DOP are the main components of the plasticizers. In order to investigate their molecular structure, chemical bond and spectrum, the geometrical parameters of the ground state and infrared (IR) spectrum are calculated using the density functional theory B3LYP method at the level of 6-311++G( d, p). On this basis, the first twenty-six excited states and the UV-Vis absorption spectra of DBP and DOP are studied using the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) in the same fundamental group and compared with the ultraviolet absorption peak of the molecules measured with UNICO UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The two kinds of molecular spectra are then classified and compared with that in reference. The results show that the strong absorption of IR spectra of DOP and DBP are produced by C-H bending in-plane vibration and C=O telescopic vibration producing. The most absorption of UV-Vis absorption spectra appears in the end absorption belt from n to ?* transition, and the stronger absorption in the E belt of benzene electronic transition from ? to ?*. There are blue shift for DOP end absorption belt from n to ?* transition and red shift for DOP E absorption belt from ? to ?* transition relative to that of DBP. This calculation results are better in accord with the spectral data measured by UNICO ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer.

  7. Modelling Quantum Theoretical Trajectories within Geometric Relativistic Theories

    E-print Network

    Stannett, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Andreka and her colleagues have described various geometrically inspired first-order theories of special and general relativity, while Szekely's PhD dissertation focuses on an intermediate logic of accelerated observers. In this paper we will attempt to incorporate a model of quantum theoretical trajectories that can reasonably claim to be physically meaningful into those theories. We have recently shown that a model of quantum trajectories, based on discrete finitary motion, is logically equivalent to Feynman's path-integral formulation when spacetime is assumed to be Euclidean. In this paper we argue that relativistic observers are subject to the same quantum illusions as in the Euclidean case: even though motion is discrete and respects no built-in 'arrow of time', observers have no choice but to perceive particle trajectories as continuous paths in spacetime. Whereas the relativistic theories presuppose continuous paths as part of their axioms, the illusion of continuity allows us to replace this axiom wi...

  8. Theoretical calculations: can Gibbs free energy for intermolecular complexes be predicted efficiently and accurately?

    PubMed

    Isayev, Olexandr; Gorb, Leonid; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2007-07-15

    The theoretical study has been performed to refine the procedure for calculations of Gibbs free energy with a relative accuracy of less than 1 kcal/mol. Three benchmark intermolecular complexes are examined via several quantum-chemical methods, including the second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation (MP2), coupled cluster (CCSD(T)), and density functional (BLYP, B3LYP) theories augmented by Dunnings correlation-consistent basis sets. The effects of electron correlation, basis set size, and anharmonicity are systematically analyzed, and the results are compared with available experimental data. The results of the calculations suggest that experimental accuracy can be reached only by extrapolation of MP2 and CCSD(T) total energies to the complete basis set. The contribution of anharmonicity to the zero point energy and TDeltaSint values is fairly small. The new, economic way to reach chemical accuracy in the calculations of the thermodynamic parameters of intermolecular interactions is proposed. In addition, interaction energy (De) and free energy change (DeltaA) for considered species have been evaluated by Carr-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) simulations and static BLYP-plane wave calculations. The free energy change along the reaction paths were determined by the thermodynamic integration/"Blue Moon Ensemble" technique. Comparison between obtained values, and available experimental and conventional ab initio results has been made. We found that the accuracy of CPMD simulations is affected by several factors, including statistical uncertainty and convergence of constrained forces (TD integration), and the nature of DFT (density functional theory) functional. The results show that CPMD technique is capable of reproducing interaction and free energy with an accuracy of 1 kcal/mol and 2-3 kcal/mol respectively. PMID:17340602

  9. Surface complex structures modelled with quantum chemical calculations: carbonate, phosphate,

    E-print Network

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Surface complex structures modelled with quantum chemical calculations: carbonate, phosphate to provide good agree- ment with experimental observations for the oxyanions carbonate, phosphate, sulphate, the interaction of species such as carbon- ate, phosphate, sulphate, arsenate and arsenite with metal oxide

  10. Theoretical calculation of nitrogen isotope equilibrium exchange fractionation factors for various NOy molecules

    E-print Network

    Michalski, Greg

    leads to numerous deleterious environmental impacts, including degradation of drinking water, soil Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, 560 Oval Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907, United States Received this limitation, computational quantum chemistry calculations of harmonic frequen- cies, reduced partition

  11. Role of information theoretic uncertainty relations in quantum theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jizba, Petr; Dunningham, Jacob A.; Joo, Jaewoo

    2015-04-01

    Uncertainty relations based on information theory for both discrete and continuous distribution functions are briefly reviewed. We extend these results to account for (differential) Rényi entropy and its related entropy power. This allows us to find a new class of information-theoretic uncertainty relations (ITURs). The potency of such uncertainty relations in quantum mechanics is illustrated with a simple two-energy-level model where they outperform both the usual Robertson-Schrödinger uncertainty relation and Shannon entropy based uncertainty relation. In the continuous case the ensuing entropy power uncertainty relations are discussed in the context of heavy tailed wave functions and Schrödinger cat states. Again, improvement over both the Robertson-Schrödinger uncertainty principle and Shannon ITUR is demonstrated in these cases. Further salient issues such as the proof of a generalized entropy power inequality and a geometric picture of information-theoretic uncertainty relations are also discussed.

  12. Characterizing quantum theory in terms of information-theoretic constraints

    E-print Network

    Rob Clifton; Jeffrey Bub; Hans Halvorson

    2003-02-19

    We show that three fundamental information-theoretic constraints--the impossibility of superluminal information transfer between two physical systems by performing measurements on one of them, the impossibility of broadcasting the information contained in an unknown physical state, and the impossibility of unconditionally secure bit commitment--suffice to entail that the observables and state space of a physical theory are quantum-mechanical. We demonstrate the converse derivation in part, and consider the implications of alternative answers to a remaining open question about nonlocality and bit commitment.

  13. Theoretical analysis of quantum ghost imaging through turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Kam Wai Clifford; Simon, D. S.; Sergienko, A. V.; Hardy, Nicholas D.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Dixon, P. Ben; Howland, Gregory A.; Howell, John C.; Eberly, Joseph H.; O'Sullivan, Malcolm N.; Rodenburg, Brandon; Boyd, Robert W.

    2011-10-15

    Atmospheric turbulence generally affects the resolution and visibility of an image in long-distance imaging. In a recent quantum ghost imaging experiment [P. B. Dixon et al., Phys. Rev. A 83, 051803 (2011)], it was found that the effect of the turbulence can nevertheless be mitigated under certain conditions. This paper gives a detailed theoretical analysis to the setup and results reported in the experiment. Entangled photons with a finite correlation area and a turbulence model beyond the phase screen approximation are considered.

  14. Quantum mechanical calculation of spectral statistics of modified Kepler problem

    E-print Network

    Tao Ma; Rostislav Serota

    2010-12-28

    Discrepancy between periodic orbit theory and numerical calculation of a modified Kepler problem is cleared by a quantum mechanical calculation. The diagonal approximation already gives a good fit for the numerical calculation. A better result yet is gained by considering the coherent interference between the classical periodic orbits and the Balian-Bloch term. This approach produces improved results for the rectangular billiards as well.

  15. DIELECTRONIC RECOMBINATION OF Fe xxiii FORMING Fe xxii: LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS AND THEORETICAL CALCULATIONS

    E-print Network

    Savin, Daniel Wolf

    forming boron-like Fe xxii via N ¼ 2 ! N 0 ¼ 2 and N ¼ 2 ! N 0 ¼ 3 core excitations. All measurements were quantum number of the core electron, l is its orbital angular mo- mentum, and j is its total angularDIELECTRONIC RECOMBINATION OF Fe xxiii FORMING Fe xxii: LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS AND THEORETICAL

  16. Studies on free energy calculations. II. A theoretical approach to molecular solvation

    E-print Network

    Mezei, Mihaly

    Studies on free energy calculations. II. A theoretical approach to molecular solvation Haluk Resat methods of performing the thermodynamic integration in solvation free energy calculations are also at the particle creation limit in obtaining quantitatively reliable results for the solvation free energies. I

  17. Theoretical calculation of the acoustic force on a patterned silicon wafer during megasonic cleaning

    E-print Network

    Deymier, Pierre

    Theoretical calculation of the acoustic force on a patterned silicon wafer during megasonic wafer immersed in water subjected to a megasonic beam. The method of calculation is based on a Green as a function of frequency and the angle the incident megasonic beam makes with the wafer surface

  18. Detailed discussions and calculations of quantum Regge calculus of Einstein-Cartan theory

    SciTech Connect

    Xue Shesheng

    2010-09-15

    This article presents detailed discussions and calculations of the recent paper 'Quantum Regge calculus of Einstein-Cartan theory' in [9]. The Euclidean space-time is discretized by a four-dimensional simplicial complex. We adopt basic tetrad and spin-connection fields to describe the simplicial complex. By introducing diffeomorphism and local Lorentz invariant holonomy fields, we construct a regularized Einstein-Cartan theory for studying the quantum dynamics of the simplicial complex and fermion fields. This regularized Einstein-Cartan action is shown to properly approach to its continuum counterpart in the continuum limit. Based on the local Lorentz invariance, we derive the dynamical equations satisfied by invariant holonomy fields. In the mean-field approximation, we show that the averaged size of 4-simplex, the element of the simplicial complex, is larger than the Planck length. This formulation provides a theoretical framework for analytical calculations and numerical simulations to study the quantum Einstein-Cartan theory.

  19. Quantum mechanical cluster calculations of critical scintillationprocesses

    SciTech Connect

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Klintenberg, Mattias K.; Weber, Marvin J.

    2000-02-22

    This paper describes the use of commercial quantum chemistrycodes to simu-late several critical scintillation processes. The crystalis modeled as a cluster of typically 50 atoms embedded in an array oftypically 5,000 point charges designed to reproduce the electrostaticfield of the infinite crystal. The Schrodinger equation is solved for theground, ionized, and excited states of the system to determine the energyand electron wavefunction. Computational methods for the followingcritical processes are described: (1) the formation and diffusion ofrelaxed holes, (2) the formation of excitons, (3) the trapping ofelectrons and holes by activator atoms, (4) the excitation of activatoratoms, and (5) thermal quenching. Examples include hole diffusion in CsI,the exciton in CsI, the excited state of CsI:Tl, the energy barrier forthe diffusion of relaxed holes in CaF2 and PbF2, and prompt hole trappingby activator atoms in CaF2:Eu and CdS:Te leading to an ultra-fast (<50ps) scintillation risetime.

  20. Nuclear Structure Calculations with Coupled Cluster Methods from Quantum Chemistry

    E-print Network

    D. J. Dean J. R. Gour; G. Hagen; M. Hjorth-Jensen; K. Kowalski; T. Papenbrock; P. Piecuch; M. Wloch

    2004-09-27

    We present several coupled-cluster calculations of ground and excited states of 4He and 16O employing methods from quantum chemistry. A comparison of coupled cluster results with the results of exact diagonalization of the hamiltonian in the same model space and other truncated shell-model calculations shows that the quantum chemistry inspired coupled cluster approximations provide an excellent description of ground and excited states of nuclei, with much less computational effort than traditional large-scale shell-model approaches. Unless truncations are made, for nuclei like 16O, full-fledged shell-model calculations with four or more major shells are not possible. However, these and even larger systems can be studied with the coupled cluster methods due to the polynomial rather than factorial scaling inherent in standard shell-model studies. This makes the coupled cluster approaches, developed in quantum chemistry, viable methods for describing weakly bound systems of interest for future nuclear facilities.

  1. Macroscopic Quantum-Type Potentials in Theoretical Systems Biology

    PubMed Central

    Nottale, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    We review in this paper the use of the theory of scale relativity and fractal space-time as a tool particularly well adapted to the possible development of a future genuine systems theoretical biology. We emphasize in particular the concept of quantum-type potentials, since, in many situations, the effect of the fractality of space—or of the underlying medium—can be reduced to the addition of such a potential energy to the classical equations of motion. Various equivalent representations—geodesic, quantum-like, fluid mechanical, stochastic—of these equations are given, as well as several forms of generalized quantum potentials. Examples of their possible intervention in high critical temperature superconductivity and in turbulence are also described, since some biological processes may be similar in some aspects to these physical phenomena. These potential extra energy contributions could have emerged in biology from the very fractal nature of the medium, or from an evolutive advantage, since they involve spontaneous properties of self-organization, morphogenesis, structuration and multi-scale integration. Finally, some examples of applications of the theory to actual biological-like processes and functions are also provided. PMID:24709901

  2. Macroscopic quantum-type potentials in theoretical systems biology.

    PubMed

    Nottale, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    We review in this paper the use of the theory of scale relativity and fractal space-time as a tool particularly well adapted to the possible development of a future genuine systems theoretical biology. We emphasize in particular the concept of quantum-type potentials, since, in many situations, the effect of the fractality of space-or of the underlying medium-can be reduced to the addition of such a potential energy to the classical equations of motion. Various equivalent representations-geodesic, quantum-like, fluid mechanical, stochastic-of these equations are given, as well as several forms of generalized quantum potentials. Examples of their possible intervention in high critical temperature superconductivity and in turbulence are also described, since some biological processes may be similar in some aspects to these physical phenomena. These potential extra energy contributions could have emerged in biology from the very fractal nature of the medium, or from an evolutive advantage, since they involve spontaneous properties of self-organization, morphogenesis, structuration and multi-scale integration. Finally, some examples of applications of the theory to actual biological-like processes and functions are also provided. PMID:24709901

  3. Theoretical calculation and vibrational spectral analysis of L-arginine trifluoroacetate.

    PubMed

    Sun, Z H; Zhang, L; Xu, D; Wang, X Q; Liu, X J; Zhang, G H

    2008-11-15

    Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectra of the nonlinear optical crystal, L-arginine trifluoroacetate (L-arginine.CF3COOH, abbreviated as LATF) have been calculated by the first-principles calculation and investigated in experiment. The calculated results are slightly different from those experimental values because of the distinction resulted from the intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The role of this type of intermolecular interaction on the crystal vibrational spectra and nonlinear optical properties has been discussed. The absorption-edge on the IR side has been estimated by the theoretical approach on basis of the calculated infrared spectrum, which will be meaningful for further research on NLO crystal. PMID:18329334

  4. Simulation of Quantum-Mechanical Measurements with Programmable Pocket Calculators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauer, G.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a method for the illustration of the statistical nature of measurements in quantum physics by means of simulation with pocket calculators. The application to examples like the double-slit experiment, Mott scattering, and the demonstration of the uncertainty relation is discussed. (Author/HM)

  5. Accelerating quantum instanton calculations of the kinetic isotope effects.

    PubMed

    Karandashev, Konstantin; Vaní?ek, Ji?í

    2015-11-21

    Path integral implementation of the quantum instanton approximation currently belongs among the most accurate methods for computing quantum rate constants and kinetic isotope effects, but its use has been limited due to the rather high computational cost. Here, we demonstrate that the efficiency of quantum instanton calculations of the kinetic isotope effects can be increased by orders of magnitude by combining two approaches: The convergence to the quantum limit is accelerated by employing high-order path integral factorizations of the Boltzmann operator, while the statistical convergence is improved by implementing virial estimators for relevant quantities. After deriving several new virial estimators for the high-order factorization and evaluating the resulting increase in efficiency, using ?H? + H?H? ? H?H? + ? H? reaction as an example, we apply the proposed method to obtain several kinetic isotope effects on CH4 + ? H ? ? CH3 + H2 forward and backward reactions. PMID:26590524

  6. Accelerating quantum instanton calculations of the kinetic isotope effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karandashev, Konstantin; Vaní?ek, Ji?í

    2015-11-01

    Path integral implementation of the quantum instanton approximation currently belongs among the most accurate methods for computing quantum rate constants and kinetic isotope effects, but its use has been limited due to the rather high computational cost. Here, we demonstrate that the efficiency of quantum instanton calculations of the kinetic isotope effects can be increased by orders of magnitude by combining two approaches: The convergence to the quantum limit is accelerated by employing high-order path integral factorizations of the Boltzmann operator, while the statistical convergence is improved by implementing virial estimators for relevant quantities. After deriving several new virial estimators for the high-order factorization and evaluating the resulting increase in efficiency, using ?H? + H?H? ? H?H? + ? H? reaction as an example, we apply the proposed method to obtain several kinetic isotope effects on CH4 + ? H ? ? CH3 + H2 forward and backward reactions.

  7. Spatially resolved photoluminescence in quantum wells with interface roughness: a theoretical description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martino, G.; Pistone, G.; Savasta, S.; Di Stefano, O.; Girlanda, R.

    2006-03-01

    We present a microscopic theoretical description of spatially resolved photoluminescence in GaAs quantum wells with interface roughness. The theory derives the kinetic equations using the excitonic wavefunctions obtained by solving numerically the effective Schrödinger equation for the excitonic centre of mass motion in the presence of disorder. The kinetic equations describe acoustic phonon scattering, radiative decay, and inhomogeneous sample excitation and/or light detection. The influence of disorder, temperature, and spatial resolution on the image formation is analysed with emphasis on the role of different interface textures. In particular, we consider two samples characterized by effective disorder potentials with different correlation lengths. Numerically calculated two-dimensional images agree with images from spatially resolved photoluminescence experiments and put forward the potential of the method for the understanding of near-field light emission from semiconductor quantum structures.

  8. Theoretical and experimental investigation of doped-channel p-type quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dalen, R.; Roberts, C.; Koenraad, P. M.; Harris, J. J.

    2000-02-01

    The influence of ionized impurity scattering on the hole mobility in ?-doped-channel AlGaAs-InGaAs quantum wells is investigated. Improvements by a factor of 2.5 were observed experimentally when moving a ?-doped impurity plane across the quantum well towards an interface, highlighting the scope of selective doping and wave-function engineering techniques to enhance the transport mobility of such devices. Theoretical hole mobility calculations were performed and reveal an overestimation of the transport mobility, common to the random-phase approximation (RPA), that is much stronger for p-type structures than for n-type structures. This effect is partially attributed to an underestimation of the screening charge distribution width. Using a lower limit for this distribution of around 50 Å, it is shown that the RPA can provide accurate predictions between samples with different impurity distributions and densities.

  9. Determination of absolute configuration of natural products: theoretical calculation of electronic circular dichroism as a tool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determination of absolute configuration (AC) is one of the most challenging features in the structure elucidation of chiral natural products, especially those with complex structures. With revolutionary advancements in the area of quantum chemical calculations of chiroptical spectroscopy over the pa...

  10. Theoretical Calculation of Electronic Circular Dichroism of a Hexahydroxydiphenoyl-Containing Flavanone Glycoside

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) was employed for theoretical calculation of electronic circular dichroism (ECD) of a hexahydroxydiphenoyl (HHDP)-containing flavanone glycoside, mattucinol-7-O-[4'',6''-O-(aS)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl]-ß-d-glucopyranoside (2). It identified the roles of t...

  11. Microcomputer Calculation of Theoretical Pre-Exponential Factors for Bimolecular Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venugopalan, Mundiyath

    1991-01-01

    Described is the application of microcomputers to predict reaction rates based on theoretical atomic and molecular properties taught in undergraduate physical chemistry. Listed is the BASIC program which computes the partition functions for any specific bimolecular reactants. These functions are then used to calculate the pre-exponential factor of…

  12. Efficient method for the calculation of dissipative quantum transport in quantum cascade lasers.

    PubMed

    Greck, Peter; Birner, Stefan; Huber, Bernhard; Vogl, Peter

    2015-03-01

    We present a novel and very efficient method for calculating quantum transport in quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). It follows the nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) framework but sidesteps the calculation of lesser self-energies by replacing them by a quasi-equilibrium expression. This method generalizes the phenomenological Büttiker probe model by taking into account individual scattering mechanisms. It is orders of magnitude more efficient than a fully self-consistent NEGF calculation for realistic devices. We apply this method to a new THz QCL design which works up to 250 K - according to our calculations. PMID:25836876

  13. Efficient hybrid-symbolic methods for quantum mechanical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, T. C.; Zhang, Wenxing

    2015-06-01

    We present hybrid symbolic-numerical tools to generate optimized numerical code for rapid prototyping and fast numerical computation starting from a computer algebra system (CAS) and tailored to any given quantum mechanical problem. Although a major focus concerns the quantum chemistry methods of H. Nakatsuji which has yielded successful and very accurate eigensolutions for small atoms and molecules, the tools are general and may be applied to any basis set calculation with a variational principle applied to its linear and non-linear parameters.

  14. TOPICAL REVIEW: Recent advances in jointed quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics calculations of biological macromolecules: schemes and applications coupled to ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagiwara, Yohsuke; Tateno, Masaru

    2010-10-01

    We review the recent research on the functional mechanisms of biological macromolecules using theoretical methodologies coupled to ab initio quantum mechanical (QM) treatments of reaction centers in proteins and nucleic acids. Since in most cases such biological molecules are large, the computational costs of performing ab initio calculations for the entire structures are prohibitive. Instead, simulations that are jointed with molecular mechanics (MM) calculations are crucial to evaluate the long-range electrostatic interactions, which significantly affect the electronic structures of biological macromolecules. Thus, we focus our attention on the methodologies/schemes and applications of jointed QM/MM calculations, and discuss the critical issues to be elucidated in biological macromolecular systems.

  15. An experimental and theoretical mechanistic study of biexciton quantum yield enhancement in single quantum dots near gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Swayandipta; Zhou, Yadong; Tian, Xiangdong; Jenkins, Julie A.; Chen, Ou; Zou, Shengli; Zhao, Jing

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we systematically investigated the plasmonic effect on blinking, photon antibunching behavior and biexciton emission of single CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) near gold nanoparticles (NPs) with a silica shell (Au@SiO2). In order to obtain a strong interaction between the plasmons and excitons, the Au@SiO2 NPs and CdSe/CdS QDs of appropriate sizes were chosen so that the plasmon resonance overlaps with the absorption and emission of the QDs. We observed that in the regime of a low excitation power, the photon antibunching and blinking properties of single QDs were modified significantly when the QDs were on the Au@SiO2 substrates compared to those on glass. Most significantly, second-order photon intensity correlation data show that the presence of plasmons increases the ratio of the biexciton quantum yield over the exciton quantum yield (QYBX/QYX). An electrodynamics model was developed to quantify the effect of plasmons on the lifetime, quantum yield, and emission intensity of the biexcitons for the QDs. Good agreement was obtained between the experimentally measured and calculated changes in QYBX/QYX due to Au@SiO2 NPs, showing the validity of the developed model. The theoretical studies also indicated that the relative position of the QDs to the Au NPs and the orientation of the electric field are important factors that regulate the emission properties of the excitons and biexcitons of QDs. The study suggests that the multiexciton emission efficiency in QD systems can be manipulated by employing properly designed plasmonic structures.In this work, we systematically investigated the plasmonic effect on blinking, photon antibunching behavior and biexciton emission of single CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) near gold nanoparticles (NPs) with a silica shell (Au@SiO2). In order to obtain a strong interaction between the plasmons and excitons, the Au@SiO2 NPs and CdSe/CdS QDs of appropriate sizes were chosen so that the plasmon resonance overlaps with the absorption and emission of the QDs. We observed that in the regime of a low excitation power, the photon antibunching and blinking properties of single QDs were modified significantly when the QDs were on the Au@SiO2 substrates compared to those on glass. Most significantly, second-order photon intensity correlation data show that the presence of plasmons increases the ratio of the biexciton quantum yield over the exciton quantum yield (QYBX/QYX). An electrodynamics model was developed to quantify the effect of plasmons on the lifetime, quantum yield, and emission intensity of the biexcitons for the QDs. Good agreement was obtained between the experimentally measured and calculated changes in QYBX/QYX due to Au@SiO2 NPs, showing the validity of the developed model. The theoretical studies also indicated that the relative position of the QDs to the Au NPs and the orientation of the electric field are important factors that regulate the emission properties of the excitons and biexcitons of QDs. The study suggests that the multiexciton emission efficiency in QD systems can be manipulated by employing properly designed plasmonic structures. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The calculation of , SEM and extinction of the Au@SiO2-5 nm substrate, g(2)(?) distribution and PL decay of QD Au@SiO2-5 nm, additional blinking traces and g(2)(?) measurements of single QDs on glass, Au@SiO2-5 nm and Au@SiO2-10 nm substrates, and the calculated |E|2, PL intensity, lifetimes and QYs of single QDs on Au NPs. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00274e

  16. Quantum mechanical calculation of Rydberg-Rydberg Auger decay rates

    E-print Network

    Kiffner, Martin; Li, Wenhui; Jaksch, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    We present quantum mechanical calculations of the Auger decay rate $\\Gamma_A$ of two Rubidium Rydberg atoms with weakly overlapping electron clouds. The two-electron wavefunction is modelled by a single Slater determinant of $nd$ Rydberg orbitals with principal quantum number $n\\le35$. The dependence of $\\Gamma_A$ on the atom-atom separation $R$ is well described by a power law $\\Gamma_A \\propto R^{\\alpha}$ and we calculate the exponents $\\alpha$ for various initial states. For atomic separations equal to the size of the Rydberg electron wave function $R_n$ we find that $\\Gamma_A \\propto n^{-5}$. We discuss the importance of Auger decay compared to other contributions to the electron dynamics in the two Rydberg atom system.

  17. The calculation of theoretical chromospheric models and predicted OSO 1 spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avrett, E. H.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical solar chromospheric and photospheric models are computed for use in analyzing OSO 8 spectra. The Vernazza, Avrett, and Loeser (1976) solar model is updated and self-consistent non-LTE number densities for H I, He I, He II, C I, Mg I, Al I, Si I, and H(-) are produced. These number densities are used in the calculation of a theoretical solar spectrum from 90 to 250 nm, including approximately 7000 lines in non-LTE. More than 60,000 lines of other elements are treated with approximate source functions.

  18. Quantum calculations of Coulomb reorientation for sub-barrier fusion.

    PubMed

    Simenel, C; Chomaz, Ph; de France, G

    2004-09-01

    Classical mechanics and time dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) calculations of heavy ions collisions are performed to study the rotation of a deformed nucleus in the Coulomb field of its partner. This reorientation is shown to be independent of the charges and relative energy of the partners. It only depends upon the deformations and inertias. TDHF calculations predict an increase by 30% of the induced rotation due to quantum effects while the nuclear contribution seems negligible. This reorientation modifies strongly the fusion cross section around the barrier for light deformed nuclei on heavy collision partners. For such nuclei a hindrance of the sub-barrier fusion is predicted. PMID:15447400

  19. Rotational isomerism of some chloroacetamides: theoretical and experimental studies through calculations, infrared and NMR.

    PubMed

    Santos, Marcela F; Braga, Carolyne B; Rozada, Thiago C; Basso, Ernani A; Fiorin, Barbara C

    2014-08-14

    The geometries involved in the conformational equilibria of 2,2-dichloro-N-cyclohexyl-N-methyl-acetamide (DCCMA) and 2-chloro-N,N-dicyclohexylacetamide (CDCA) were investigated. Theoretical calculations at the B3LYP/cc-pVDZ level of theory showed that gauche forms (ClCCO) are the most stable and the predominant conformers in isolated phase. Both compounds had the conformational behavior in solvents of different polarities estimated from theoretical calculations with the PCM (Polarizable Continuum Model), at the same level of theory, using infrared data from deconvolution of the carbonyl absorption bands and (13)C NMR spectra. Their IR spectra showed two carbonyl absorptions and that the conformer with the highest dipole moment had its population increased when the most polar solvents were used, in accordance with the theoretical calculation in solution. (1)JCH coupling constants were obtained from their NMR spectra, and revealed that there was population variation of conformers with solvent exchange. Experimental data (NMR and IR) as well as calculations including the solvent effects followed the same trend. PMID:24727174

  20. Rotational isomerism of some chloroacetamides: Theoretical and experimental studies through calculations, infrared and NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Marcela F.; Braga, Carolyne B.; Rozada, Thiago C.; Basso, Ernani A.; Fiorin, Barbara C.

    2014-08-01

    The geometries involved in the conformational equilibria of 2,2-dichloro-N-cyclohexyl-N-methyl-acetamide (DCCMA) and 2-chloro-N,N-dicyclohexylacetamide (CDCA) were investigated. Theoretical calculations at the B3LYP/cc-pVDZ level of theory showed that gauche forms (Clsbnd Csbnd Cdbnd O) are the most stable and the predominant conformers in isolated phase. Both compounds had the conformational behavior in solvents of different polarities estimated from theoretical calculations with the PCM (Polarizable Continuum Model), at the same level of theory, using infrared data from deconvolution of the carbonyl absorption bands and 13C NMR spectra. Their IR spectra showed two carbonyl absorptions and that the conformer with the highest dipole moment had its population increased when the most polar solvents were used, in accordance with the theoretical calculation in solution. 1JCH coupling constants were obtained from their NMR spectra, and revealed that there was population variation of conformers with solvent exchange. Experimental data (NMR and IR) as well as calculations including the solvent effects followed the same trend.

  1. Cluster models of doped ionic crystal scintillators. Quantum calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Berrondo, M.; Rivas-Silva, J.F.; Czirr, J.B.

    1994-12-31

    The authors have performed quantum electronic ab initio calculations of clusters of alkali halides, both pure and doped. In order to estimate the pure crystal energy gap and the dopant excitation, they have considered a central cation and four shells of ions surrounding it. They have studied KCl, NaI, NaCl and KI, both pure and with a Tl{sup +} ion replacing the central alkali cation. Encouraging results are presented for absorption and emission.

  2. Quantum-mechanical DFT calculation supported Raman spectroscopic study of some amino acids in bovine insulin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tah, Bidisha; Pal, Prabir; Roy, Sourav; Dutta, Debodyuti; Mishra, Sabyashachi; Ghosh, Manash; Talapatra, G. B.

    2014-08-01

    In this article Quantum mechanical (QM) calculations by Density Functional Theory (DFT) have been performed of all amino acids present in bovine insulin. Simulated Raman spectra of those amino acids are compared with their experimental spectra and the major bands are assigned. The results are in good agreement with experiment. We have also verified the DFT results with Quantum mechanical molecular mechanics (QM/MM) results for some amino acids. QM/MM results are very similar with the DFT results. Although the theoretical calculation of individual amino acids are feasible, but the calculated Raman spectrum of whole protein molecule is difficult or even quite impossible task, since it relies on lengthy and costly quantum-chemical computation. However, we have tried to simulate the Raman spectrum of whole protein by adding the proportionate contribution of the Raman spectra of each amino acid present in this protein. In DFT calculations, only the contributions of disulphide bonds between cysteines are included but the contribution of the peptide and hydrogen bonds have not been considered. We have recorded the Raman spectra of bovine insulin using micro-Raman set up. The experimental spectrum is found to be very similar with the resultant simulated Raman spectrum with some exceptions.

  3. Quantum Monte Carlo calculation of entanglement Renyi entropies for generic quantum systems

    E-print Network

    Stephan Humeniuk; Tommaso Roscilde

    2012-03-26

    We present a general scheme for the calculation of the Renyi entropy of a subsystem in quantum many-body models that can be efficiently simulated via quantum Monte Carlo. When the simulation is performed at very low temperature, the above approach delivers the entanglement Renyi entropy of the subsystem, and it allows to explore the crossover to the thermal Renyi entropy as the temperature is increased. We implement this scheme explicitly within the Stochastic Series expansion as well as within path-integral Monte Carlo, and apply it to quantum spin and quantum rotor models. In the case of quantum spins, we show that relevant models in two dimensions with reduced symmetry (XX model or hardcore bosons, transverse-field Ising model at the quantum critical point) exhibit an area law for the scaling of the entanglement entropy.

  4. Synthesis, structure, theoretical calculations and biological activity of sulfonate active ester new derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazzali, Mohamed; Khattab, Sherine A. N.; Elnakady, Yasser A.; Al-Mekhlafi, Fahd A.; Al-Farhan, Khalid; El-Faham, Ayman

    2013-08-01

    A series of naphthyl and tolyl sulfonate ester were synthesized and characterized by H NMR. X-ray single crystal diffraction experiments established the molecular structure of three new sulfonate esters derivatives, and spectral data agree with these in solution. The observed hydrogen bonding is discussed on the basis of crystal structural analyses and DFT/MP2 geometry optimization quantum calculations. Antimicrobial activities were screened for selected compounds against three human cancer cell lines and Mosquito Culex pipiens larvae.

  5. Nuclear Radii Calculations in Various Theoretical Approaches for Nucleus-Nucleus Interactions

    E-print Network

    C. Merino; I. S. Novikov; Yu. M. Shabelski

    2009-07-10

    The information about sizes and nuclear density distributions in unstable (radioactive) nuclei is usually extracted from the data on interaction of radioactive nuclear beams with a nuclear target. We show that in the case of nucleus-nucleus collisions the values of the parameters depend rather strongly on the considered theoretical approach and on the assumption about the parametrization of the nuclear density distribution. The obtained values of root-mean-square radii (R_{rms}) for stable nuclei with atomic weights A = 12-40 vary by approximately 0.1 fm when calculated in the optical approximation, in the rigid target approximation, and using the exact expression of Glauber Theory. We present several examples of R_{rms} radii calculations using these three theoretical approaches and compare these results with the data obtained from electron-nucleus scattering.

  6. Nuclear radii calculations in various theoretical approaches for nucleus-nucleus interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Merino, C.; Novikov, I. S.; Shabelski, Yu.

    2009-12-15

    The information about sizes and nuclear density distributions in unstable (radioactive) nuclei is usually extracted from the data on interaction of radioactive nuclear beams with a nuclear target. We show that in the case of nucleus-nucleus collisions the values of the parameters depend somewhat strongly on the considered theoretical approach and on the assumption about the parametrization of the nuclear density distribution. The obtained values of root-mean-square radii (R{sub rms}) for stable nuclei with atomic weights A=12-40 vary by approximately 0.1 fm when calculated in the optical approximation, in the rigid target approximation, and using the exact expression of the Glauber theory. We present several examples of R{sub rms} radii calculations using these three theoretical approaches and compare these results with the data obtained from electron-nucleus scattering.

  7. Nuclear radii calculations in various theoretical approaches for nucleus-nucleus interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, C.; Novikov, I. S.; Shabelski, Yu.

    2009-12-01

    The information about sizes and nuclear density distributions in unstable (radioactive) nuclei is usually extracted from the data on interaction of radioactive nuclear beams with a nuclear target. We show that in the case of nucleus-nucleus collisions the values of the parameters depend somewhat strongly on the considered theoretical approach and on the assumption about the parametrization of the nuclear density distribution. The obtained values of root-mean-square radii (Rrms) for stable nuclei with atomic weights A=12-40 vary by approximately 0.1 fm when calculated in the optical approximation, in the rigid target approximation, and using the exact expression of the Glauber theory. We present several examples of Rrms radii calculations using these three theoretical approaches and compare these results with the data obtained from electron-nucleus scattering.

  8. Theoretical calculation of the low-lying electronic states of the molecule BN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Salman; Bechelany, Mikhael; Miele, Philippe; Korek, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    The potential energy curves have been investigated for the 42 singlet, triplet, and quintet lowest electronic states in the ?(±)2s+1 representation below 95,000 cm-1 of the molecule BN via CASSCF and MRCI (singly and doubly excitation with Davidson correction) calculations. Eighteen electronic states have been investigated in the present work for the first time. The harmonic frequency ?e, the internuclear distance Re, the rotational constants Be, the electronic energy with respect to the ground state Te, and the static dipole moment have been calculated. A very good agreement has been noticed by comparing the present results with those reported in the literature, theoretically as well as experimentally.

  9. Ab initio quantum transport calculations using plane waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Lekue, A.; Vergniory, M. G.; Jiang, X. W.; Wang, L. W.

    2015-08-01

    We present an ab initio method to calculate elastic quantum transport at the nanoscale. The method is based on a combination of density functional theory using plane wave nonlocal pseudopotentials and the use of auxiliary periodic boundary conditions to obtain the scattering states. The method can be applied to any applied bias voltage and the charge density and potential profile can either be calculated self-consistently, or using an approximated self-consistent field (SCF) approach. Based on the scattering states one can straightforwardly calculate the transmission coefficients and the corresponding electronic current. The overall scheme allows us to obtain accurate and numerically stable solutions for the elastic transport, with a computational time similar to that of a ground state calculation. This method is particularly suitable for calculations of tunneling currents through vacuum, that some of the nonequilibrium Greens function (NEGF) approaches based on atomic basis sets might have difficulty to deal with. Several examples are provided using this method from electron tunneling, to molecular electronics, to electronic devices: (i) On a Au nanojunction, the tunneling current dependence on the electrode-electrode distance is investigated. (ii) The tunneling through field emission resonances (FERs) is studied via an accurate description of the surface vacuum states. (iii) Based on quantum transport calculations, we have designed a molecular conformational switch, which can turn on and off a molecular junction by applying a perpendicular electric field. (iv) Finally, we have used the method to simulate tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs) based on two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), where we have studied the performance and scaling limits of such nanodevices and proposed atomic doping to enhance the transistor performance.

  10. Evolution of Black Carbon Optical Properties during Atmospheric Aging: Comparison Between Theoretical Calculations and Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, C.; Liou, K. N.; Takano, Y.; Li, Q.; Yang, P.; Zhang, R.

    2014-12-01

    The optical properties of black carbon (BC) are significantly affected by its aging process in the atmosphere. We have built a conceptual model defining three BC aging stages, including freshly emitted BC aggregates, coating by soluble material and hygroscopic growth. We apply an improved geometric-optics surface-wave approach (Liou et al., 2011; Takano et al., 2013) to calculate the absorption and scattering properties of BC at each stage and compare the theoretical results with those obtained from laboratory experiments (Zhang et al., 2008; Khalizov et al., 2009). Preliminary results show a general agreement between calculated and measured BC absorption cross sections (bias < 10%) and scattering cross sections (bias < 30%) for BC aerosols with mobility diameters of 155, 245 and 320 nm at Stages 1 and 2, where BC is coated by sulfuric acid and its water solution, respectively. We find that the calculated scattering and absorption cross sections for fresh BC aggregates (Stage 0) with different sizes are invariably larger than experimental results partly because of the uncertainty in theoretical calculations for BC with size parameters less than 1. It appears that the uncertainty in the experiment could also contribute to the discrepancy, considering that the measuring instrument missed some scattering in certain angles (0-7° and 170-180°). Finally, we will apply the conceptual model and the single-scattering results to assess the effects of BC aging processes on direct radiative forcing using observed BC vertical profiles.

  11. Evaluation of steam sterilization processes: comparing calculations using temperature data and biointegrator reduction data and calculation of theoretical temperature difference.

    PubMed

    Lundahl, Gunnel

    2007-01-01

    When calculating of the physical F121.1 degrees c-value by the equation F121.1 degrees C = t x 10(T-121.1/z the temperature (T), in combination with the z-value, influences the F121.1 degrees c-value exponentially. Because the z-value for spores of Geobacillus stearothermophilus often varies between 6 and 9, the biological F-value (F(Bio) will not always correspond to the F0-value based on temperature records from the sterilization process calculated with a z-value of 10, even if the calibration of both of them are correct. Consequently an error in calibration of thermocouples and difference in z-values influences the F121.1 degrees c-values logarithmically. The paper describes how results from measurements with different z-values can be compared. The first part describes the mathematics of a calculation program, which makes it easily possible to compare F0-values based on temperature records with the F(BIO)-value based on analysis of bioindicators such as glycerin-water-suspension sensors. For biological measurements, a suitable bioindicator with a high D121-value can be used (such a bioindicator can be manufactured as described in the article "A Method of Increasing Test Range and Accuracy of Bioindicators-Geobacillus stearothermophilus Spores"). By the mathematics and calculations described in this macro program it is possible to calculate for every position the theoretical temperature difference (deltaT(th)) needed to explain the difference in results between the thermocouple and the biointegrator. Since the temperature difference is a linear function and constant all over the process this value is an indication of the magnitude of an error. A graph and table from these calculations gives a picture of the run. The second part deals with product characteristics, the sterilization processes, loading patterns. Appropriate safety margins have to be chosen in the development phase of a sterilization process to achieve acceptable safety limits. Case studies are discussed and experiences are shared. PMID:17390699

  12. Calculation of hyperfine interaction in spherical quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakar, Yusuf; Çak?r, Bekir; Özmen, Ayhan

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we have calculated the unperturbed wavefunctions and energy eigenvalues of the ground and excited states of a spherical quantum dot, GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs, by using quantum genetic algorithm and Hartree-Fock Roothaan method. Hyperfine coupling constant and hyperfine energy of 1s, 2p, 3d and 4f levels are carried out as a function of dot radius. The results show that the hyperfine constant and hyperfine energy varies rapidly in the strong and medium confining regions as dot radius decreases. It is worth pointing out that dot radius, impurity charge and angular momentum have a strong influence on the hyperfine energy. It is also found that hyperfine energy and hyperfine splitting vary with aluminium concentration ratio x.

  13. Delay time calculation for dual-wavelength quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Hamadou, A.; Lamari, S.; Thobel, J.-L.

    2013-11-28

    In this paper, we calculate the turn-on delay (t{sub th}) and buildup (?t) times of a midinfrared quantum cascade laser operating simultaneously on two laser lines having a common upper level. The approach is based on the four-level rate equations model describing the variation of the electron number in the states and the photon number present within the cavity. We obtain simple analytical formulae for the turn-on delay and buildup times that determine the delay times and numerically apply our results to both the single and bimode states of a quantum cascade laser, in addition the effects of current injection on t{sub th} and ?t are explored.

  14. Raman and infrared spectra and theoretical calculations of dipicolinic acid, dinicotinic acid, and their dianions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, Kathleen; Laane, Jaan

    2008-11-01

    The Raman and infrared spectra of dipicolinic acid (DPA) and dinicotinic acid (DNic) and their salts (CaDPA, Na 2DPA, and CaDNic) have been recorded and the spectra have been assigned. Ab initio and DFT calculations were carried out to predict the structures and vibrational spectra and were compared to the experimental results. Because of extensive intermolecular hydrogen bonding in the crystals of these molecules, the calculated structures and spectra for the individual molecules agree only moderately well with the experimental values. Theoretical calculations were also carried out for DPA dimers and DPA·2H 2O to better understand the intermolecular interactions. The spectra do show that DPA and its calcium salt, which are present in anthrax spores, can be distinguished from the very similar DNic and CaDNic.

  15. The calculation of theoretical chromospheric models and the interpretation of solar spectra from rockets and spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avrett, E. H.

    1984-01-01

    Models and spectra of sunspots were studied, because they are important to energy balance and variability discussions. Sunspot observations in the ultraviolet region 140 to 168 nn was obtained by the NRL High Resolution Telescope and Spectrograph. Extensive photometric observations of sunspot umbrae and prenumbrae in 10 chanels covering the wavelength region 387 to 3800 nm were made. Cool star opacities and model atmospheres were computed. The Sun is the first testcase, both to check the opacity calculations against the observed solar spectrum, and to check the purely theoretical model calculation against the observed solar energy distribution. Line lists were finally completed for all the molecules that are important in computing statistical opacities for energy balance and for radiative rate calculations in the Sun (except perhaps for sunspots). Because many of these bands are incompletely analyzed in the laboratory, the energy levels are not well enough known to predict wavelengths accurately for spectrum synthesis and for detailed comparison with the observations.

  16. The Nature of Infinity in Quantum Field Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriske, Richard

    2011-05-01

    In many textbooks on Quantum Field Theory it has been noted that an infinity is taken a circle and the flux is calculated from the A field in that manner. There are of course many such examples of this sort of calculation using infinity as a circle. This author would like to point out that if the three dimensions of space are curved and the one dimension of time is not, in say a four space, infinity is the horizon, which is not a circle but rather a sphere; as long as space-time is curved uniformly, smoothly and has positive curvature. This author believes the math may be in error, since maps of the CMBR seem to indicate a ``Swiss-Cheese'' type of topology, wherein the Sphere at infinity (the Horizon of the Universe), has holes in it that can readily be seen. This author believes that these irregularities most certainly have a calculable effect on QED, QCD and Quantum Field Theory.

  17. Infinite Variance in Fermion Quantum Monte Carlo Calculations

    E-print Network

    Shi, Hao

    2015-01-01

    For important classes of many-fermion problems, quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods allow exact calculations of ground-state and finite-temperature properties, without the sign problem. The list spans condensed matter, nuclear physics, and high-energy physics, including the half-filled repulsive Hubbard model, the spin-balanced atomic Fermi gas, lattice QCD calculations at zero density with Wilson Fermions, and is growing rapidly as a number of problems have been discovered recently to be free of the sign problem. In these situations, QMC calculations are relied upon to provide definitive answers. Their results are instrumental to our ability to understand and compute properties in fundamental models important to multiple sub-areas in quantum physics. It is shown, however, that the most commonly employed algorithms in such situations turn out to have an infinite variance problem. A diverging variance causes the estimated Monte Carlo statistical error bar to be incorrect, which can render the results of the calc...

  18. Theoretical prediction of high pressure phase transition in ScC and YC: Ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, B. D.; Joshi, K. D.; Gupta, Satish C.

    2013-08-01

    The structural stability of ScC and YC has been analyzed under hydrostatic compression employing the first-principles calculations using the plane-wave pseudopotential method. The comparison of theoretically calculated enthalpies of rocksalt type (B1), primitive orthorhombic (Pmmn), and CsCl type (B2) structures as a function of pressure suggests that the B1 structure transforms to Pmmn phase instead of transforming to B2 phase that predicted by Soni et al. [J. Phys. Chem. Solids 72, 810 (2011)]. The pressure for B1 to Pmmn transition predicted for ScC and YC are ˜80 GPa and ˜30 GPa, respectively. To further substantiate the outcomes of our static lattice calculations, we have performed lattice dynamic calculations also. Our lattice dynamic calculations correctly demonstrate that the B1 phase is dynamically stable structure at ambient condition. Further, for both the carbides, we find that the Pmmn structure becomes dynamically stable around the transition pressure whereas the B2 structure remains unstable, supporting the B1 to Pmmn phase transition predicted by our static lattice calculations.

  19. Quantum Mechanical Calculations of Cytosine, Thiocytosine and Their Radical Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rashmi

    2010-08-01

    The RNA and DNA are polymer that share some interesting similarities, for instance it is well known that cytosine is the one of the common nucleic acid base. The sulfur is characterized as a very reactive element and it has been used, in chemical warfare agents. Since the genetic information is based on the sequence of the nucleic acid bases. The quantum mechanical calculations of the energies, geometries, charges and vibrational characteristics of the cytosine and thiocytosine. and their corresponding radicals were carried out by using DFT method with b3lyp/6-311++g** basis set.

  20. Importance of parametrizing constraints in quantum-mechanical variational calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Kwong T.; Bhatia, A. K.

    1992-01-01

    In variational calculations of quantum mechanics, constraints are sometimes imposed explicitly on the wave function. These constraints, which are deduced by physical arguments, are often not uniquely defined. In this work, the advantage of parametrizing constraints and letting the variational principle determine the best possible constraint for the problem is pointed out. Examples are carried out to show the surprising effectiveness of the variational method if constraints are parameterized. It is also shown that misleading results may be obtained if a constraint is not parameterized.

  1. A combined study based on experimental analyses and theoretical calculations on properties of poly (lactic acid) under annealing treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loued, W.; Wéry, J.; Dorlando, A.; Alimi, K.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, the significance of annealing, in two different atmospheres (air and vacuum), on the surface characteristics of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) films was investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements correlated to atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations of the cast PLA films show that thermal treatment under air atmosphere is responsible for a significant increase of crystallinity with the increase of temperature. However, band gap energy of the title compound is slightly affected by annealing at different temperatures. As for the untreated PLA, the molecular geometry was optimized using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) method with 6-31g (d) basis set in ground state. From the optimized geometry, HOMO and LUMO energies and quantum chemical parameters were performed at B3LYP/6-31g (d). The theoretical results, applied to simulated optical spectra of the compound, were compared to the observed ones. On the basis of theoretical vibrational analyses, the thermodynamic properties were calculated at different temperatures, revealing the correlation between internal energy (U), enthalpy (H), entropy (S), Free energy (G) and temperatures.

  2. Quantum states of confined hydrogen plasma species: Monte Carlo calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micca Longo, G.; Longo, S.; Giordano, D.

    2015-12-01

    The diffusion Monte Carlo method with symmetry-based state selection is used to calculate the quantum energy states of \\text{H}2+ confined into potential barriers of atomic dimensions (a model for these ions in solids). Special solutions are employed, permitting one to obtain satisfactory results with rather simple native code. As a test case, {{}2}{{\\Pi}u} and {{}2}{{\\Pi}g} states of \\text{H}2+ ions under spherical confinement are considered. The results are interpreted using the correlation of \\text{H}2+ states to atomic orbitals of H atoms lying on the confining surface and perturbation calculations. The method is straightforwardly applied to cavities of any shape and different hydrogen plasma species (at least one-electron ones, including H) for future studies with real crystal symmetries.

  3. Theoretical calculation of the melting curve of Cu-Zr binary alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gunawardana, K. G.S.H.; Wilson, S. R.; Mendelev, M. I.; Song, Xueyu

    2014-11-14

    Helmholtz free energies of the dominant binary crystalline solids found in the Cu-Zr system at high temperatures close to the melting curve are calculated. This theoretical approach combines fundamental measure density functional theory (applied to the hard-sphere reference system) and a perturbative approach to include the attractive interactions. The studied crystalline solids are Cu(fcc), Cu51Zr14(?), CuZr(B2), CuZr2(C11b), Zr(hcp), and Zr(bcc). The calculated Helmholtz free energies of crystalline solids are in good agreement with results from molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations. Using the same perturbation approach, the liquid phase free energies are calculated as a function of composition and temperature, from which the melting curve of the entire composition range of this system can be obtained. Phase diagrams are determined in this way for two leading embedded atom method potentials, and the results are compared with experimental data. Furthermore, theoretical melting temperatures are compared both with experimental values and with values obtained directly from MD simulations at several compositions.

  4. Theoretical study of the electronic structure with dipole moment calculations of barium monofluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohme, Samir N.; Korek, Mahmoud

    2015-12-01

    The potential energy curves have been investigated for the 41 lowest doublet and quartet electronic states in the 2s+1?± representation below 55,000 cm-1 of the molecule BaF via CASSCF and MRCI (single and double excitations with Davidson correction) calculations. Twenty-five electronic states have been studied here theoretically for the first time. The crossing and avoided crossing of 20 doublet electronic states have been studied in the region 30,000-50,000 cm-1. The harmonic frequency ?e, the internuclear distance Re, the rotational constant Be, the electronic energy with respect to the ground state Te, and the permanent and transition dipole moments have been calculated in addition to static dipole polarizability of the ground state. By using the canonical functions approach, the eigenvalue Ev, the rotational constant Bv, and the abscissas of the turning points Rmin and Rmax have been calculated for the electronic states up to the vibrational level v=98. The comparison of these values with the theoretical results available in the literature shows a very good agreement.

  5. Theoretical calculation of the melting curve of Cu-Zr binary alloys

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gunawardana, K. G.S.H.; Wilson, S. R.; Mendelev, M. I.; Song, Xueyu

    2014-11-14

    Helmholtz free energies of the dominant binary crystalline solids found in the Cu-Zr system at high temperatures close to the melting curve are calculated. This theoretical approach combines fundamental measure density functional theory (applied to the hard-sphere reference system) and a perturbative approach to include the attractive interactions. The studied crystalline solids are Cu(fcc), Cu51Zr14(?), CuZr(B2), CuZr2(C11b), Zr(hcp), and Zr(bcc). The calculated Helmholtz free energies of crystalline solids are in good agreement with results from molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations. Using the same perturbation approach, the liquid phase free energies are calculated as a function of composition and temperature, from which themore »melting curve of the entire composition range of this system can be obtained. Phase diagrams are determined in this way for two leading embedded atom method potentials, and the results are compared with experimental data. Furthermore, theoretical melting temperatures are compared both with experimental values and with values obtained directly from MD simulations at several compositions.« less

  6. A simple theoretical approach to calculate the electrical conductivity of nonideal copper plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Zaghloul, Mofreh R.

    2008-04-15

    A simple theoretical approach to calculate the electrical conductivity of partially ionized nonideal copper plasma is introduced. The densities of plasma species are calculated, to machine accuracy, including electronic excitation and allowing for high ionization states up to the atomic number of the element. Depression of ionization energies is taken into account using an interpolation formula that is valid over a wide range of densities. The formula yields the results of the Debye-Hueckel and the ion-sphere models at the limiting boundaries of low and high densities, respectively. The nonideal Coulomb logarithm is represented by an analytic wide-range formula supplemented by a specially tailored cutoff parameter. Effects of excluding excited and high ionization states on the calculation of ionization equilibrium and electrical conductivity of copper are investigated and assessed. Computational results of the electrical conductivity are compared with results from other theoretical models and available experimental measurements and showed reasonable agreement. A discussion about the choice of the ion-sphere radius is included and concerns about thermodynamic inconsistency when using the modified nonideal Saha equations are discussed and cleared.

  7. Determination of Absolute Configuration of Natural Products: Theoretical Calculation of Electronic Circular Dichroism as a Tool

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xing-Cong; Ferreira, Daneel; Ding, Yuanqing

    2013-01-01

    Determination of absolute configuration (AC) is one of the most challenging features in the structure elucidation of chiral natural products, especially those with complex structures. With revolutionary advancements in the area of quantum chemical calculations of chiroptical spectroscopy over the past decade, the time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculation of electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra has emerged as a very promising tool. The principle is simply based on the comparison of the calculated and experimental ECD spectra: the more closely they match, the more reliable conclusion for the AC assignment can be drawn. This review attempts to use several examples representing monomeric flavonoids, rotationally restricted biflavonoids, complex hexahydroxydiphenoyl-containing flavonoids, conformationally flexible and restrained sesquiterpenoids, cembrane-africanene terpenoids, dihydropyranocoumarins, alkaloids, and dihydroxanthones to illustrate the applicability of this approach in determining the AC of structurally diverse natural products. The findings clearly indicate that the TDDFT calculation of ECD spectra can quantify the contribution of individual conformers and the interaction of multiple chromophores, making it possible to determine the AC of complex chiral molecules. The calculated electronic transitions and molecular orbitals provide new insight into the interpretation of ECD spectra at the molecular level. PMID:24729741

  8. Nuclear-magnetic-resonance quantum calculations of the Jones polynomial

    SciTech Connect

    Marx, Raimund; Spoerl, Andreas; Pomplun, Nikolas; Schulte-Herbrueggen, Thomas; Glaser, Steffen J.; Fahmy, Amr; Kauffman, Louis; Lomonaco, Samuel; Myers, John M.

    2010-03-15

    The repertoire of problems theoretically solvable by a quantum computer recently expanded to include the approximate evaluation of knot invariants, specifically the Jones polynomial. The experimental implementation of this evaluation, however, involves many known experimental challenges. Here we present experimental results for a small-scale approximate evaluation of the Jones polynomial by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR); in addition, we show how to escape from the limitations of NMR approaches that employ pseudopure states. Specifically, we use two spin-1/2 nuclei of natural abundance chloroform and apply a sequence of unitary transforms representing the trefoil knot, the figure-eight knot, and the Borromean rings. After measuring the nuclear spin state of the molecule in each case, we are able to estimate the value of the Jones polynomial for each of the knots.

  9. A Quantum Theoretical Explanation for Probability Judgment Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busemeyer, Jerome R.; Pothos, Emmanuel M.; Franco, Riccardo; Trueblood, Jennifer S.

    2011-01-01

    A quantum probability model is introduced and used to explain human probability judgment errors including the conjunction and disjunction fallacies, averaging effects, unpacking effects, and order effects on inference. On the one hand, quantum theory is similar to other categorization and memory models of cognition in that it relies on vector…

  10. Rotational isomers, NBO and spectral analyses of N-(2-hydroxyethyl) phthalimide based on quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmi, A.; Balachandran, V.

    2013-02-01

    FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of N-(2-hydroxyethyl)phthalimide (NHEP) have been recorded and analyzed. The stable isomer of NHEP is determined. The optimization geometry, intermolecular hydrogen bonding, and harmonic vibrational wavenumber of NHEP have been investigated with the help of B3LYP scaled quantum mechanical (SQM) method. The infrared and Raman spectra were predicted theoretically from the calculated intensities. Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis indicates the presence of Cdbnd O⋯H in the molecule. The calculated HOMO and LUMO are important in determining such properties as molecular reactivity. Information about the size, shape, charge density distribution and site of chemical reactivity of the molecule has been obtained by mapping electron density isosurface with electrostatic potential (ESP).

  11. Theoretical and experimental calculations, Mulliken charges and thermodynamic properties of 4-chloro-2-nitroanisole.

    PubMed

    Arunagiri, C; Arivazhagan, M; Subashini, A; Maruthaiveeran, N

    2014-10-15

    The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 4-chloro-2-nitroanisole were recorded and analyzed. The vibrational wavenumbers were examined theoretically with the aid of the GAUSSIAN 09 package of programs using the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) levels of theory. The data obtained from vibrational wavenumber calculations are used to assign vibrational bands obtained in IR and Raman spectroscopy of the studied molecule. The first hyperpolarizability, NBO, HOMO-LUMO, NMR, UV, infrared intensities and Raman intensities are reported. The calculated first hyperpolarizability is comparable with the reported values of similar derivatives and is an attractive object for future studies of non-linear optics. The geometrical parameters of the title compound are in good agreement with the values of similar structures. PMID:24915766

  12. Calculation of membrane bending rigidity using field-theoretic umbrella sampling.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Y G; Müller, M

    2015-12-28

    The free-energy change of membrane shape transformations can be small, e.g., as in the case of membrane bending. Therefore, the calculation of the free-energy difference between different membrane morphologies is a challenge. Here, we discuss a computational method - field-theoretic umbrella sampling - to compute the local chemical potential of a non-equilibrium configuration and illustrate how one can apply it to study free-energy changes of membrane transformations using simulations. Specifically, the chemical potential profile of the bent membrane and the bending rigidity of membrane are calculated for a soft, coarse-grained amphiphile model and the MARTINI model of a dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) membrane. PMID:26723640

  13. Elements of information-theoretic derivation of the formalism of quantum theory

    E-print Network

    Alexei Grinbaum

    2003-09-18

    Information-theoretic derivations of the formalism of quantum theory have recently attracted much attention. We analyze the axioms underlying a few such derivations and propose a conceptual framework in which, by combining several approaches, one can retrieve more of the conventional quantum formalism.

  14. Theoretical description of quantum effects in multi-chromophoric aggregates.

    PubMed

    Zimanyi, Eric N; Silbey, Robert J

    2012-08-13

    Recent experiments on light-harvesting complexes have shown clear indication of coherent transport of excitations in these aggregates. We discuss the theoretical models that have been used to study energy transfer in molecular aggregates, beginning with the early models of Förster and Davydov and ending with the theoretical models of the present day. PMID:22753817

  15. Molecular structures of benzoic acid and 2-hydroxybenzoic acid, obtained by gas-phase electron diffraction and theoretical calculations.

    PubMed

    Aarset, Kirsten; Page, Elizabeth M; Rice, David A

    2006-07-20

    The structures of benzoic acid (C6H5COOH) and 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (C6H4OHCOOH) have been determined in the gas phase by electron diffraction using results from quantum chemical calculations to inform restraints used on the structural parameters. Theoretical methods (HF and MP2/6-311+G(d,p)) predict two conformers for benzoic acid, one which is 25.0 kJ mol(-1) (MP2) lower in energy than the other. In the low-energy form, the carboxyl group is coplanar with the phenyl ring and the O-H group eclipses the C=O bond. Theoretical calculations (HF and MP2/6-311+G(d,p)) carried out for 2-hydroxybenzoic acid gave evidence for seven stable conformers but one low-energy form (11.7 kJ mol(-1) lower in energy (MP2)) which again has the carboxyl group coplanar with the phenyl ring, the O-H of the carboxyl group eclipsing the C=O bond and the C=O of the carboxyl group oriented toward the O-H group of the phenyl ring. The effects of internal hydrogen bonding in 2-hydroxybenzoic acid can be clearly observed by comparison of pertinent structural parameters between the two compounds. These differences for 2-hydroxybenzoic acid include a shorter exocyclic C-C bond, a lengthening of the ring C-C bond between the substituents, and a shortening of the carboxylic single C-O bond. PMID:16836466

  16. Calculated quantum yield of photosynthesis of phytoplankton in the Marine Light-Mixed Layers (59 deg N, 21 deg W)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carder, K. L.; Lee, Z. P.; Marra, John; Steward, R. G.; Perry, M. J.

    1995-01-01

    The quantum yield of photosynthesis (mol C/mol photons) was calculated at six depths for the waters of the Marine Light-Mixed Layer (MLML) cruise of May 1991. As there were photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) but no spectral irradiance measurements for the primary production incubations, three ways are presented here for the calculation of the absorbed photons (AP) by phytoplankton for the purpose of calculating phi. The first is based on a simple, nonspectral model; the second is based on a nonlinear regression using measured PAR values with depth; and the third is derived through remote sensing measurements. We show that the results of phi calculated using the nonlinear regreesion method and those using remote sensing are in good agreement with each other, and are consistent with the reported values of other studies. In deep waters, however, the simple nonspectral model may cause quantum yield values much higher than theoretically possible.

  17. The actual content of quantum theoretical kinematics and mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heisenberg, W.

    1983-01-01

    First, exact definitions are supplied for the terms: position, velocity, energy, etc. (of the electron, for instance), such that they are valid also in quantum mechanics. Canonically conjugated variables are determined simultaneously only with a characteristic uncertainty. This uncertainty is the intrinsic reason for the occurrence of statistical relations in quantum mechanics. Mathematical formulation is made possible by the Dirac-Jordan theory. Beginning from the basic principles thus obtained, macroscopic processes are understood from the viewpoint of quantum mechanics. Several imaginary experiments are discussed to elucidate the theory.

  18. Uncertainties Associated with Theoretically Calculated N2-Broadened Half-Widths of H2O Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Q.; Tipping, R. H.; Gamache, R. R.

    2010-01-01

    With different choices of the cut-offs used in theoretical calculations, we have carried out extensive numerical calculations of the N2-broadend Lorentzian half-widths of the H2O lines using the modified Robert-Bonamy formalism. Based on these results, we are able to thoroughly check for convergence. We find that, with the low-order cut-offs commonly used in the literature, one is able to obtain converged values only for lines with large half-widths. Conversely, for lines with small half-widths, much higher cut-offs are necessary to guarantee convergence. We also analyse the uncertainties associated with calculated half-widths, and these are correlated as above. In general, the smaller the half-widths, the poorer the convergence and the larger the uncertainty associated with them. For convenience, one can divide all H2O lines into three categories, large, intermediate, and small, according to their half-width values. One can use this division to judge whether the calculated half-widths are converged or not, based on the cut-offs used, and also to estimate how large their uncertainties are. We conclude that with the current Robert- Bonamy formalism, for lines in category lone can achieve the accuracy requirement set by HITRAN, whereas for lines in category 3, it 'is impossible to meet this goal.

  19. Theoretical calculation (DFT), Raman and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) study of ponceau 4R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yunfei; Li, Yan; Sun, Yingying; Wang, Heya; Qian, He; Yao, Weirong

    2012-10-01

    Ponceau 4R is used as a coloring agent in many different products, such as food, drinks, medicines, cosmetics and tobacco. However, ponceau 4R also shows carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic behavior in high doses. In this work, standard Raman, theoretical Raman and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra have been used to investigate ponceau 4R. More specifically, density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been used to calculate the optimized Raman spectrum of ponceau 4R at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level. This has provided a better understanding of the optimized geometry and vibrational frequencies of this dye. In addition, the experimental spectrum of ponceau 4R has been compared with the theoretical spectrum; good agreement was obtained. Finally, it has shown that using SERS the detection limit of the ponceau 4R solution can be as low as 5 ?g/mL. This has been achieved by SERS measurements of ponceau 4R on a substrate of gold nanoparticles. The SERS peaks at 1030, 1236, 1356 and 1502 cm-1 were chosen as index for semi-quantitative analysis, showing that the SERS technique provided a useful ultrasensitive method for the detection of ponceau 4R.

  20. Investigation on the Gas-Phase Decomposition of Trichlorfon by GC-MS and Theoretical Calculation

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Kezhi; Zhang, Ningwen; Zhang, Hu; Wang, Jianmei; Qian, Mingrong

    2015-01-01

    The gas phase pyrolysis of trichlorfon was investigated by the on-line gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS) pyrolysis and theoretical calculations. Two reaction channels were proposed in the pyrolytic reaction, by analyzing the detected pyrolytic products in the total ion chromatography, including 2,2,2-trichloroacetaldehyde, dimethyl phosphite, and dichlorvos. Theoretical calculations showed that there is an intramolecular hydrogen bond between the hydroxyl group and the phosphate O atom in trichlorfon, through which the hydroxyl H atom can be easily transferred to phosphate O atom to trigger two pyrolytic channels. In path-a, migration of H atom results in direct decomposition of trichlorfon to give 2,2,2-trichloroacetaldehyde and dimethyl phosphite in one step. In path-b, migration of H atom in trichlorfon is combined with formation of the O-P bond to give an intermediate, followed by HCl elimination to afford dichlorvos. Path-a is kinetically more favorable than path-b, which is consistent with the GC-MS results. PMID:25856549

  1. Theoretical simulation of carrier capture and relaxation rates in quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yunhu; Zhang, Guoping; Guo, Ling; Li, Xiaoming; Qi, Guoqun

    2014-06-01

    Based on Auger scattering mechanism, carrier-carrier scattering dynamics between the two-dimensional carrier reservoir (also called wetting layer, i.e., WL) and the confined quantum dot ground and first excited state in quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers (QD-SOAs) are investigated theoretically in this paper. The scattering rates for independent electron and hole densities are calculated. The results show an ultra-fast carrier capture (relaxation) rate up to 1 ps-1, and there is a complex dependence of the Coulomb scattering rates on the WL electron and hole densities. In addition, due to the different effective mass and the level distribution, the scattering rates for electron and hole are very different. Finally, in order to provide a direction to control (increase or decrease) the input current in realistic QD-SOA systems, a simple method is proposed to determine the trends of the carrier recovery rates with the WL carrier densities in the vicinity of the steady-state.

  2. Theoretical simulation of carrier capture and relaxation rates in quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yunhu; Zhang, Guoping; Guo, Ling; Qi, Guoqun; Li, Xiaoming

    2014-06-14

    Based on Auger scattering mechanism, carrier-carrier scattering dynamics between the two-dimensional carrier reservoir (also called wetting layer, i.e., WL) and the confined quantum dot ground and first excited state in quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers (QD-SOAs) are investigated theoretically in this paper. The scattering rates for independent electron and hole densities are calculated. The results show an ultra-fast carrier capture (relaxation) rate up to 1 ps{sup ?1}, and there is a complex dependence of the Coulomb scattering rates on the WL electron and hole densities. In addition, due to the different effective mass and the level distribution, the scattering rates for electron and hole are very different. Finally, in order to provide a direction to control (increase or decrease) the input current in realistic QD-SOA systems, a simple method is proposed to determine the trends of the carrier recovery rates with the WL carrier densities in the vicinity of the steady-state.

  3. Pseudopotentials for quantum Monte Carlo calculations of transition metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krogel, Jaron; Santana, Juan; Kent, Paul; Reboredo, Fernando

    2015-03-01

    Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of transition metal oxides are partially limited by the availability of high quality pseudopotentials that are both accurate in QMC and compatible with major electronic structure codes, e.g. by not being overly hard in the standard planewave basis. Following insight gained from recent GW calculations, a set of neon core pseudopotentials with small cutoff radii have been created for the early transition metal elements Sc to Zn within the local density approximation of DFT. The pseudopotentials have been tested for energy consistency within QMC by calculating the first through fourth ionization potentials of the isolated transition metal (TM) atoms and the binding curve of each TM-O dimer. The vast majority of the ionization potentials fall within 0.3 eV of the experimental values, with exceptions occurring mainly for atoms with multiple unpaired d electrons where multireference effects are the strongest. The equilibrium bond lengths of the dimers are within 1% of experimental values and the binding energy errors are typically less than 0.3 eV. Given the uniform treatment of the core, the larger deviations occasionally observed may primarily reflect the limitations of a Slater-Jastrow trial wavefunction. This work is supported by the Materials Sciences & Engineering Division of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. DOE. Research by PRCK was conducted at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, which is a DOE Office of Science User Facility.

  4. Molecular thermodynamics of metabolism: quantum thermochemical calculations for key metabolites.

    PubMed

    Hadadi, N; Ataman, M; Hatzimanikatis, V; Panayiotou, C

    2015-04-28

    The present work is the first of a series of papers aiming at a coherent and unified development of the thermodynamics of metabolism and the rationalization of feasibility analysis of metabolic pathways. The focus in this part is on high-level quantum chemical calculations of the thermochemical quantities of relatively heavy metabolites such as amino acids/oligopeptides, nucleosides, saccharides and their derivatives in the ideal gas state. The results of this study will be combined with the corresponding hydration/solvation results in subsequent parts of this work in order to derive the desired thermochemical quantities in aqueous solutions. The above metabolites exist in a vast conformational/isomerization space including rotational conformers, tautomers or anomers exhibiting often multiple or cooperative intramolecular hydrogen bonding. We examine the challenges posed by these features for the reliable estimation of thermochemical quantities. We discuss conformer search, conformer distribution and averaging processes. We further consider neutral metabolites as well as protonated and deprotonated metabolites. In addition to the traditional presentation of gas-phase acidities, basicities and proton affinities, we also examine heats and free energies of ionic species. We obtain simple linear relations between the thermochemical quantities of ions and the formation quantities of their neutral counterparts. Furthermore, we compare our calculations with reliable experimental measurements and predictive calculations from the literature, when available. Finally, we discuss the next steps and perspectives for this work. PMID:25799954

  5. Fragment quantum mechanical calculation of proteins and its applications.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao; Zhu, Tong; Wang, Xianwei; Liu, Jinfeng; Zhang, John Z H

    2014-09-16

    Conspectus The desire to study molecular systems that are much larger than what the current state-of-the-art ab initio or density functional theory methods could handle has naturally led to the development of novel approximate methods, including semiempirical approaches, reduced-scaling methods, and fragmentation methods. The major computational limitation of ab initio methods is the scaling problem, because the cost of ab initio calculation scales nth power or worse with system size. In the past decade, the fragmentation approach based on chemical locality has opened a new door for developing linear-scaling quantum mechanical (QM) methods for large systems and for applications to large molecular systems such as biomolecules. The fragmentation approach is highly attractive from a computational standpoint. First, the ab initio calculation of individual fragments can be conducted almost independently, which makes it suitable for massively parallel computations. Second, the electron properties, such as density and energy, are typically combined in a linear fashion to reproduce those for the entire molecular system, which makes the overall computation scale linearly with the size of the system. In this Account, two fragmentation methods and their applications to macromolecules are described. They are the electrostatically embedded generalized molecular fractionation with conjugate caps (EE-GMFCC) method and the automated fragmentation quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (AF-QM/MM) approach. The EE-GMFCC method is developed from the MFCC approach, which was initially used to obtain accurate protein-ligand QM interaction energies. The main idea of the MFCC approach is that a pair of conjugate caps (concaps) is inserted at the location where the subsystem is divided by cutting the chemical bond. In addition, the pair of concaps is fused to form molecular species such that the overcounted effect from added concaps can be properly removed. By introducing the electrostatic embedding field in each fragment calculation and two-body interaction energy correction on top of the MFCC approach, the EE-GMFCC method is capable of accurately reproducing the QM molecular properties (such as the dipole moment, electron density, and electrostatic potential), the total energy, and the electrostatic solvation energy from full system calculations for proteins. On the other hand, the AF-QM/MM method was used for the efficient QM calculation of protein nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) parameters, including the chemical shift, chemical shift anisotropy tensor, and spin-spin coupling constant. In the AF-QM/MM approach, each amino acid and all the residues in its vicinity are automatically assigned as the QM region through a distance cutoff for each residue-centric QM/MM calculation. Local chemical properties of the central residue can be obtained from individual QM/MM calculations. The AF-QM/MM approach precisely reproduces the NMR chemical shifts of proteins in the gas phase from full system QM calculations. Furthermore, via the incorporation of implicit and explicit solvent models, the protein NMR chemical shifts calculated by the AF-QM/MM method are in excellent agreement with experimental values. The applications of the AF-QM/MM method may also be extended to more general biological systems such as DNA/RNA and protein-ligand complexes. PMID:24851673

  6. Thermochemical properties and contribution groups for ketene dimers and related structures from theoretical calculations.

    PubMed

    Morales, Giovanni; Martínez, Ramiro

    2009-07-30

    This research's main goals were to analyze ketene dimers' relative stability and expand group additivity value (GAV) methodology for estimating the thermochemical properties of high-weight ketene polymers (up to tetramers). The CBS-Q multilevel procedure and statistical thermodynamics were used for calculating the thermochemical properties of 20 cyclic structures, such as diketenes, cyclobutane-1,3-diones, cyclobut-2-enones and pyran-4-ones, as well as 57 acyclic base compounds organized into five groups. According to theoretical heat of formation predictions, diketene was found to be thermodynamically favored over cyclobutane-1,3-dione and its enol-tautomeric form (3-hydroxycyclobut-2-enone). This result did not agree with old combustion experiments. 3-Hydroxycyclobut-2-enone was found to be the least stable dimer and its reported experimental detection in solution may have been due to solvent effects. Substituted diketenes had lower stability than substituted cyclobutane-1,3-diones with an increased number of methyl substituents, suggesting that cyclobutane-1,3-dione type dimers are the major products because of thermodynamic control of alkylketene dimerization. Missing GAVs for the ketene dimers and related structures were calculated through linear regression on the 57 acyclic base compounds. Corrections for non next neighbor interactions (such as gauche, eclipses, and internal hydrogen bond) were needed for obtaining a highly accurate and precise regression model. To the best of our knowledge, the hydrogen bond correction for GAV methodology is the first reported in the literature; this correction was correlated to MP2/6-31Gdagger and HF/6-31Gdagger derived geometries to facilitate its application. GAVs assessed by the linear regression model were able to reproduce acyclic compounds' theoretical thermochemical properties and experimental heat of formation for acetylacetone. Ring formation and substituent position corrections were calculated by consecutively replacing the GAVs regarding the 20 cyclic structures' thermochemical properties. PMID:19572711

  7. Theoretical calculation of nitrogen isotope equilibrium exchange fractionation factors for various NOy molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Wendell W.; Michalski, Greg

    2015-09-01

    The nitrogen stable isotope ratio (15N/14N) of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) and its oxidation products (NOy = NOx + PAN (peroxyacetyl nitrate = C2H3NO5) + HNO3 + NO3 + HONO + N2O5 + ⋯ + particulate nitrates) has been suggested as a tool for partitioning NOx sources; however, the impact of nitrogen (N) equilibrium isotopic fractionation on 15N/14N ratios during the conversion of NOx to NOy must also be considered, but few fractionation factors for these processes have been determined. To address this limitation, computational quantum chemistry calculations of harmonic frequencies, reduced partition function ratios (15?), and N equilibrium isotope exchange fractionation factors (?A/B) were performed for various gaseous and aqueous NOy molecules in the rigid rotor and harmonic oscillator approximations using the B3LYP and EDF2 density functional methods for the mono-substitution of 15N. The calculated harmonic frequencies, 15?, and ?A/B are in good agreement with available experimental measurements, suggesting the potential to use computational methods to calculate ?A/B values for N isotope exchange processes that are difficult to measure experimentally. Additionally, the effects of solvation (water) on 15? and ?A/B were evaluated using the IEF-PCM model, and resulted in lower 15? and ?A/B values likely due to the stabilization of the NOy molecules from dispersion interactions with water. Overall, our calculated 15? and ?A/B values are accurate in the rigid rotor and harmonic oscillator approximations and will allow for the estimation of ?A/B involving various NOy molecules. These calculated ?A/B values may help to explain the trends observed in the N stable isotope ratio of NOy molecules in the atmosphere.

  8. Correlation of Calculated Excited-state Energies and Experimental Quantum Yields of Luminescent Tb(III) ?-diketonates

    SciTech Connect

    De Silva, Channa R.; Li, Jun; Zheng, Zhiping; Corrales, Louis R.

    2008-05-22

    Theoretical calculations employing time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) are used to characterize the excited states of Tb(III) ?-diketonate complexes. Calculated results are compared directly with experimental results that together show a correlation between relative quantum yields and the excited-state energies that depend on the electronic properties of the p,p’- substituent group associated with the coordinating N-donor neutral ligand. It is found that changes in the electron donating nature of the neutral ligand structure leads to shifts in the lowest triplet energy level of the complex that consequently changes the relative quantum yield. Thus providing critical direction for the synthesis of high quantum yield terbium complexes.

  9. Vibrational spectra and quantum mechanical calculations of antiretroviral drugs: Nevirapine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, A. P.; Siesler, H. W.; Wardell, S. M. S. V.; Boechat, N.; Dabbene, V.; Cuffini, S. L.

    2007-02-01

    Nevirapine (11-cyclopropyl-5,11-dihydro-4-methyl-6H-dipyrido[3,2-b:2',3'e][1,4]diazepin-6-one) is an antiretroviral drug belonging to the class of the non-nucleoside inhibitors of the HIV-1 virus reverse transcriptase. As most of this kind of antiretroviral drugs, nevirapine displays a butterfly-like conformation which is preserved in complexes with the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. In this work, we present a detailed vibrational spectroscopy investigation of nevirapine by using mid-infrared, near-infrared, and Raman spectroscopies. These data are supported by quantum mechanical calculations, which allow us to characterize completely the vibrational spectra of this compound. Based on these results, we discuss the correlation between the vibrational modes and the crystalline structure of the most stable form of nevirapine.

  10. QTAIM Analysis in the Context of Quasirelativistic Quantum Calculations.

    PubMed

    Pilmé, Julien; Renault, Eric; Bassal, Fadel; Amaouch, Mohamed; Montavon, Gilles; Galland, Nicolas

    2014-11-11

    Computational chemistry currently lacks ad hoc tools for probing the nature of chemical bonds in heavy and superheavy-atom systems where the consideration of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) effects is mandatory. We report an implementation of the Quantum Theory of Atoms-In-Molecules in the framework of two-component relativistic calculations. Used in conjunction with the topological analysis of the Electron Localization Function, we show for astatine (At) species that SOC significantly lowers At electronegativity and boosts its propensity to make charge-shift bonds. Relativistic spin-dependent effects are furthermore able to change some bonds from mainly covalent to charge-shift type. The implication of the disclosed features regarding the rationalization of the labeling protocols used in nuclear medicine for (211)At radioisotope nicely illustrates the potential of the introduced methodology for investigating the chemistry of (super)heavy elements. PMID:26584370

  11. SusyMath: A Mathematica package for quantum superfield calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, A. F.

    2007-03-01

    SusyMath is a Mathematica package for quantum superfield calculations. It defines a standard form to translate the correction to the effective action corresponding to a given supergraph into a Mathematica expression, which is then evaluated and simplified. Several functions for manipulations of these expressions are provided, and the package also has the ability to save the outcomes of its calculations in ? form. Program summaryTitle of program: SusyMath Catalogue identifier:ADYQ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADYQ_v1_0 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland, also at http://fma.if.usp.br/~alysson/SusyMath Licensing provisions: LGPL, CPC non-profit use license Programming language: Mathematica Platform: Any platform supporting Mathematica 4.0 or higher Computer tested on: PC (Athlon64 X2 +3800); 1 GB RAM Operating system under which the program has been tested: Linux (Debian 4.0); XOrg 7.0.22; Mathematica 5.2 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:42 472 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:471 596 Distribution format:tar.gz Nature of the problem: Evaluate quantum corrections to the effective action of supersymmetric field theories, formulated in the superfield formalism, both in three- and four-spacetime dimensions. Solution method: A set of procedures for integration by parts, application of the algebra of covariant derivatives and Grassman integration, along with several auxiliary functions, is introduced. Restrictions: At the moment, the background field method is not implemented, but the system is designed to be further generalized. Running time: Depends on the complexity of the problem. From seconds for simpler one-loop diagrams to several hours for simple two-loop graphs.

  12. A gambling interpretation of some quantum information-theoretic quantities

    E-print Network

    Naresh Sharma

    2013-07-17

    It is known that repeated gambling over the outcomes of independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables gives rise to alternate operational meaning of entropies in the classical case in terms of the doubling rates. We give a quantum extension of this approach for gambling over the measurement outcomes of tensor product states. Under certain parameters of the gambling setup, one can give operational meaning of von Neumann entropies. We discuss two variants of gambling when a helper is available and it is shown that the difference in their doubling rates is the quantum discord. Lastly, a quantum extension of Kelly's gambling setup in the classical case gives a doubling rate that is upper bounded by the Holevo information.

  13. Theoretical discussion for quantum computation in biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, Wolfgang

    2010-04-01

    Analysis of the brain as a physical system, that has the capacity of generating a display of every day observed experiences and contains some knowledge of the physical reality which stimulates those experiences, suggests the brain executes a self-measurement process described by quantum theory. Assuming physical reality is a universe of interacting self-measurement loops, we present a model of space as a field of cells executing such self-measurement activities. Empty space is the observable associated with the measurement of this field when the mass and charge density defining the material aspect of the cells satisfy the least action principle. Content is the observable associated with the measurement of the quantum wave function ? interpreted as mass-charge displacements. The illusion of space and its content incorporated into cognitive biological systems is evidence of self-measurement activity that can be associated with quantum operations.

  14. Quantum cognition: a new theoretical approach to psychology.

    PubMed

    Bruza, Peter D; Wang, Zheng; Busemeyer, Jerome R

    2015-07-01

    What type of probability theory best describes the way humans make judgments under uncertainty and decisions under conflict? Although rational models of cognition have become prominent and have achieved much success, they adhere to the laws of classical probability theory despite the fact that human reasoning does not always conform to these laws. For this reason we have seen the recent emergence of models based on an alternative probabilistic framework drawn from quantum theory. These quantum models show promise in addressing cognitive phenomena that have proven recalcitrant to modeling by means of classical probability theory. This review compares and contrasts probabilistic models based on Bayesian or classical versus quantum principles, and highlights the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. PMID:26058709

  15. Vibrational spectra and density functional theoretical calculations on the anti-neurodegenerative drug: Orphenadrine hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwin, Bismi; Hubert Joe, I.

    2012-11-01

    Vibrational spectral analysis and quantum chemical computations based on density functional theory have been performed on the anti-neuro-degenerative drug Orphenadrine hydrochloride. The geometry, intermolecular hydrogen bond, and harmonic vibrational frequencies of the title molecule have been investigated with the help of B3LYP method. The calculated molecular geometry has been compared with the experimental data. The various intramolecular interactions have been exposed by natural bond orbital analysis. The distribution of Mulliken atomic charges and bending of natural hybrid orbitals also reflect the presence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding. The analysis of the electron density of HOMO and LUMO gives an idea of the delocalization and low value of energy gap indicates electron transport in the molecule and thereby bioactivity. Effective docking of the drug molecule with NMDA receptor subunit 3A also enhances its bioactive nature.

  16. Electron-Ion Recombination of Fe12 + Forming Fe11 +: Laboratory Measurements and Theoretical Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, M.; Badnell, N. R.; Grieser, M.; Krantz, C.; Lestinsky, M.; Müller, A.; Novotný, O.; Repnow, R.; Schippers, S.; Wolf, A.; Savin, D. W.

    2014-06-01

    We have measured dielectronic recombination (DR) for Fe12 + forming Fe11 + using the heavy ion storage ring TSR located at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Germany. Using our results, we have calculated a plasma rate coefficient from these data that can be used for modeling astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. For the low temperatures characteristic of photoionized plasmas, the experimentally derived rate coefficient is orders of magnitude larger than the previously recommended atomic data. The existing atomic data were also about 40% smaller than our measurements at temperatures relevant for collisionally ionized plasmas. Recent state-of-the-art theory has difficulty reproducing the detailed energy dependence of the DR spectrum. However, for the Maxwellian plasma rate coefficient, recent theoretical results agree with our measurements to within about 30% for both photoionized and collisionally ionized plasmas.

  17. Synthesis, characterisation and theoretical calculations of 2,6-diaminopurine etheno derivatives.

    PubMed

    Virta, Piritta; Koch, Andreas; Roslund, Mattias U; Mattjus, Peter; Kleinpeter, Erich; Kronberg, Leif; Sjöholm, Rainer; Klika, Karel D

    2005-08-21

    Four derivatives of 2,6-diaminopurine (1) were synthesised and characterised. When 1 was reacted with chloroacetaldehyde, 5-aminoimidazo[2,1-i]purine (2), 9-aminoimidazo[2,1-b]purine (3), 9-aminoimidazo[1,2-a]purine (4) and diimidazo[2,1-b:2',1'-i]purine (5) were formed. The purified products (3-5) were fully characterised by MS, complete NMR assignments as well as fluorescence and UV spectroscopy. The purified, isolated yields of these products (3-5) varied from 2.5 to 30%. The relative stability of different tautomers was investigated by theoretical calculations. Fluorescence characteristics are also discussed and compared to the starting material 1 and a reference molecule 2-aminopurine. PMID:16186923

  18. Theoretical calculations of a compound formed by Fe(+3) and tris(catechol).

    PubMed

    Kara, ?zzet; Kara, Ye?im; Öztürk Kiraz, Asl?; Mammadov, Ramazan

    2015-10-01

    Phenolic compounds generally have special smell, easily soluble in water, organic solvents (alcohols, esters, chloroform, ethyl acetate), in aqueous solutions of bases, colorless or colorful, crystalline and amorphous materials. Phenols form colorful complexes when they form compounds with heavy metals. In this study, the structural properties of a compound formed by catechol and Fe(+3) are investigated theoretically. The electronic and thermodynamic properties of the complex were also investigated in gas phase and organic solvents at B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) and B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The formation of Fe-tris(catechol) complex compound is exothermic, and it is difficult to obtain the complex as the temperature increases. The observed and calculated FT-IR and geometric parameters spectra are in good agreement with empirical. PMID:25983060

  19. SPACON - A Theoretical Model for Calculating the Heat Transport Properties in Sphere-Pac Fuel Pins

    SciTech Connect

    Botta, F.; Hellwig, C.

    2000-06-15

    Nuclear fuel can be fabricated and used in the form of microspheres (sphere-pac fuel). The heat transport mechanisms in fuel pins containing sphere-pac fuel are however very different from those in pellet pins. They are controlled not only by the thermal conductivity of fuel, cladding, and fill gas but also by particle sizes and packing density, by their state of sintering, and by radiation and gas pressure. A theoretical model is presented accounting for all these parameters, but still simple and fast enough to be implemented into a fuel pin modeling code. The basic geometrical element for this model is derived from the orthorhombic packing. For calculation of a binary package, four different radial zones within the basic element are distinguished, i.e., neck zone, gas zone, infiltrated zone, and bypass zone. The method presented here combines an analytical one-dimensional treatment with a radial heat flow relaxation procedure simulating the second (radial) dimension. Results are compared with experimental and theoretical data from the literature. With the model presented here, sophisticated modeling of sphere-pac fuel pins is possible.

  20. Large scale exact quantum dynamics calculations: Ten thousand quantum states of acetonitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halverson, Thomas; Poirier, Bill

    2015-03-01

    'Exact' quantum dynamics (EQD) calculations of the vibrational spectrum of acetonitrile (CH3CN) are performed, using two different methods: (1) phase-space-truncated momentum-symmetrized Gaussian basis and (2) correlated truncated harmonic oscillator basis. In both cases, a simple classical phase space picture is used to optimize the selection of individual basis functions-leading to drastic reductions in basis size, in comparison with existing methods. Massive parallelization is also employed. Together, these tools-implemented into a single, easy-to-use computer code-enable a calculation of tens of thousands of vibrational states of CH3CN to an accuracy of 0.001-10 cm-1.

  1. Double Exponential Relativity Theory Coupled Theoretically with Quantum Theory?

    SciTech Connect

    Montero Garcia, Jose de la Luz; Novoa Blanco, Jesus Francisco

    2007-04-28

    Here the problem of special relativity is analyzed into the context of a new theoretical formulation: the Double Exponential Theory of Special Relativity with respect to which the current Special or Restricted Theory of Relativity (STR) turns to be a particular case only.

  2. Rationalization and Design of Enhanced Photoinduced Cycloreversion in Photochromic Dimethyldihydropyrenes by Theoretical Calculations.

    PubMed

    Boggio-Pasqua, Martial; Garavelli, Marco

    2015-06-11

    This study presents a computational investigation of the initial step of the dimethyldihydropyrene (DHP) to cyclophanediene (CPD) photoinduced ring-opening reaction using time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). In particular, the photochemical path corresponding to the formation of the CPD precursor (CPD*) on the zwitterionic state is scrutinized. The TD-DFT approach was first validated on the parent compound against accurate ab initio calculations. It confirms that CPD* formation is efficiently quenched in this system by an easily accessible S2/S1 conical intersection located in the vicinity of the CPD* minimum and leading to a locally excited state minimum responsible for DHP luminescence. Increased ring-opening quantum yields were observed in benzo[e]-fused-DHP (DHP-1), isobutenyl-DHP (DHP-2), and naphthoyl-DHP (DHP-3). The calculations show that CPD* formation is much more favorable in these systems, either due to an inversion of electronic states in DHP-1, suppressing the formation of the locally excited state, or due to efficient stabilization of CPD* on the S1 potential energy surface in DHP-2 and DHP-3. Both effects can be combined in a rationally designed benzo[e]-fused-naphthoyl-DHP (DHP-4) for which we anticipate an unprecedented efficiency. PMID:25582806

  3. Vibrationally resolved photoelectron imaging of Cu2H- and AgCuH- and theoretical calculations.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hua; Li, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Lijuan; Liu, Zhiling; Qin, Zhengbo; Wu, Xia; Tang, Zichao; Xing, Xiaopeng

    2013-02-28

    Vibrationally resolved photoelectron spectra have been obtained for Cu(2)H(-) and AgCuH(-) using photoelectron imaging at 355 nm. Two transition bands X and A are observed for each spectrum. The X bands in both spectra show the vibration progressions of the Cu-H stretching mode and the broad peaks of these progressions indicate significant structural changes from Cu(2)H(-) and AgCuH(-) to their neutral ground states. The A bands in the spectra of Cu(2)H(-) and CuAgH(-) show stretching progressions of Cu-Cu and Ag-Cu, respectively. The contours of these two progressions are pretty narrow, indicating relatively small structural changes from Cu(2)H(-) and AgCuH(-) to their neutral excited states. Calculations based on density functional theory indicate that the ground states of Cu(2)H(-) and AgCuH(-) and the first excited states of their neutrals are linear, whereas their neutral ground states are bent. The photoelectron detachment energies and vibrational frequencies from these calculations are in good agreement with the experimental observations. Especially, the theoretical predication of linear structures for the anions and the neutral excited states are supported by the spectral features of A bands, in which the bending modes are inactive. Comparisons among the vertical detachment energies of Cu(2)H(-), AgCuH(-), and their analogs help to elucidate electronic characteristics of coinage metal elements and hydrogen in small clusters. PMID:23388039

  4. A 3-D Theoretical Model for Calculating Plasma Effects in Germanium Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wenzhao; Liu, Jing; Mei, Dongming; Cubed Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    In the detection of WIMP-induced nuclear recoil with Ge detectors, the main background source is the electron recoil produced by natural radioactivity. The capability of discriminating nuclear recoil (n) from electron recoil (?) is crucial to WIMP searches. Digital pulse shape analysis is an encouraging approach to the discrimination of nuclear recoil from electron recoil since nucleus is much heavier than electron and heavier particle generates ionization more densely along its path, which forms a plasma-like cloud of charge that shields the interior from the influence of the electric field. The time needed for total disintegration of this plasma region is called plasma time. The plasma time depends on the initial density and radius of the plasma-like cloud, diffusion constant for charge carriers, and the strength of electric field. In this work, we developed a 3-D theoretical model for calculating the plasma time in Ge detectors. Using this model, we calculated the plasma time for both nuclear recoils and electron recoils to study the possibility for Ge detectors to realize n/ ? discrimination and improve detector sensitivity in detecting low-mass WIMPs. This work is supported by NSF in part by the NSF PHY-0758120, DOE Grant DE-FG02-10ER46709, and the State of South Dakota.

  5. A quantum theoretical approach to information processing in neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barahona da Fonseca, José; Barahona da Fonseca, Isabel; Suarez Araujo, Carmen Paz; Simões da Fonseca, José

    2000-05-01

    A reinterpretation of experimental data on learning was used to formulate a law on data acquisition similar to the Hamiltonian of a mechanical system. A matrix of costs in decision making specifies values attributable to a barrier that opposed to hypothesis formation about decision making. The interpretation of the encoding costs as frequencies of oscillatory phenomena leads to a quantum paradigm based in the models of photoelectric effect as well as of a particle against a potential barrier. Cognitive processes are envisaged as complex phenomena represented by structures linked by valence bounds. This metaphor is used to find some prerequisites to certain types of conscious experience as well as to find an explanation for some pathological distortions of cognitive operations as they are represented in the context of the isolobal model. Those quantum phenomena are understood as representing an analogue programming for specific special purpose computations. The formation of complex chemical structures within the context of isolobal theory is understood as an analog quantum paradigm for complex cognitive computations.

  6. Theoretical calculating the thermodynamic properties of solid sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture applications

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Yuhua

    2012-11-02

    Since current technologies for capturing CO{sub 2} to fight global climate change are still too energy intensive, there is a critical need for development of new materials that can capture CO{sub 2} reversibly with acceptable energy costs. Accordingly, solid sorbents have been proposed to be used for CO{sub 2} capture applications through a reversible chemical transformation. By combining thermodynamic database mining with first principles density functional theory and phonon lattice dynamics calculations, a theoretical screening methodology to identify the most promising CO{sub 2} sorbent candidates from the vast array of possible solid materials has been proposed and validated. The calculated thermodynamic properties of different classes of solid materials versus temperature and pressure changes were further used to evaluate the equilibrium properties for the CO{sub 2} adsorption/desorption cycles. According to the requirements imposed by the pre- and post- combustion technologies and based on our calculated thermodynamic properties for the CO{sub 2} capture reactions by the solids of interest, we were able to screen only those solid materials for which lower capture energy costs are expected at the desired pressure and temperature conditions. Only those selected CO{sub 2} sorbent candidates were further considered for experimental validations. The ab initio thermodynamic technique has the advantage of identifying thermodynamic properties of CO{sub 2} capture reactions without any experimental input beyond crystallographic structural information of the solid phases involved. Such methodology not only can be used to search for good candidates from existing database of solid materials, but also can provide some guidelines for synthesis new materials. In this presentation, we first introduce our screening methodology and the results on a testing set of solids with known thermodynamic properties to validate our methodology. Then, by applying our computational method to several different kinds of solid systems, we demonstrate that our methodology can predict the useful information to help developing CO{sub 2} capture Technologies.

  7. Quantum Monte Carlo Algorithms for Diagrammatic Vibrational Structure Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermes, Matthew; Hirata, So

    2015-06-01

    Convergent hierarchies of theories for calculating many-body vibrational ground and excited-state wave functions, such as Møller-Plesset perturbation theory or coupled cluster theory, tend to rely on matrix-algebraic manipulations of large, high-dimensional arrays of anharmonic force constants, tasks which require large amounts of computer storage space and which are very difficult to implement in a parallel-scalable fashion. On the other hand, existing quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods for vibrational wave functions tend to lack robust techniques for obtaining excited-state energies, especially for large systems. By exploiting analytical identities for matrix elements of position operators in a harmonic oscillator basis, we have developed stochastic implementations of the size-extensive vibrational self-consistent field (MC-XVSCF) and size-extensive vibrational Møller-Plesset second-order perturbation (MC-XVMP2) theories which do not require storing the potential energy surface (PES). The programmable equations of MC-XVSCF and MC-XVMP2 take the form of a small number of high-dimensional integrals evaluated using Metropolis Monte Carlo techniques. The associated integrands require independent evaluations of only the value, not the derivatives, of the PES at many points, a task which is trivial to parallelize. However, unlike existing vibrational QMC methods, MC-XVSCF and MC-XVMP2 can calculate anharmonic frequencies directly, rather than as a small difference between two noisy total energies, and do not require user-selected coordinates or nodal surfaces. MC-XVSCF and MC-XVMP2 can also directly sample the PES in a given approximation without analytical or grid-based approximations, enabling us to quantify the errors induced by such approximations.

  8. The information-theoretical entropy of some quantum oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, D. Pop, N.; Popov, M.

    2014-11-24

    The Wehrl entropy or the 'classical' entropy associated with a quantum system is the entropy of the probability distribution in phase space, corresponding to the Husimi Q-function in terms of coherent states. In the present paper, we shall focus our attention on the examination of the Wehrl entropy for both the pure and the mixed (thermal) states of the pseudoharmonic oscillator (PHO). The choice of the PHO is interesting because this oscillator is an intermediate between the ideal one-dimensional harmonic oscillator (HO-1D) and the more practical anharmonicone.

  9. Quantum Field Theoretic Description of Matter in the Universe

    E-print Network

    Thoma, M H

    2002-01-01

    Quantum field theory at finite temperature and density can be used for describing the physics of relativistic plasmas. Such systems are frequently encountered in astrophysical situations, such as the early Universe, Supernova explosions, and the interior of neutron stars. After a brief introduction to thermal field theory the usefulness of this approach in astrophysics will be exemplified in three different cases. First the interaction of neutrinos within a Supernova plasma will be discussed. Then the possible presence of quark matter in a neutron star core and finally the interaction of light with the Cosmic Microwave Background will be considered.

  10. Quantum Field Theoretic Description of Matter in the Universe

    E-print Network

    Markus H. Thoma

    2001-05-02

    Quantum field theory at finite temperature and density can be used for describing the physics of relativistic plasmas. Such systems are frequently encountered in astrophysical situations, such as the early Universe, Supernova explosions, and the interior of neutron stars. After a brief introduction to thermal field theory the usefulness of this approach in astrophysics will be exemplified in three different cases. First the interaction of neutrinos within a Supernova plasma will be discussed. Then the possible presence of quark matter in a neutron star core and finally the interaction of light with the Cosmic Microwave Background will be considered.

  11. Feeding biomechanics and theoretical calculations of bite force in bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) during ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Habegger, Maria L; Motta, Philip J; Huber, Daniel R; Dean, Mason N

    2012-12-01

    Evaluations of bite force, either measured directly or calculated theoretically, have been used to investigate the maximum feeding performance of a wide variety of vertebrates. However, bite force studies of fishes have focused primarily on small species due to the intractable nature of large apex predators. More massive muscles can generate higher forces and many of these fishes attain immense sizes; it is unclear how much of their biting performance is driven purely by dramatic ontogenetic increases in body size versus size-specific selection for enhanced feeding performance. In this study, we investigated biting performance and feeding biomechanics of immature and mature individuals from an ontogenetic series of an apex predator, the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas (73-285cm total length). Theoretical bite force ranged from 36 to 2128N at the most anterior bite point, and 170 to 5914N at the most posterior bite point over the ontogenetic series. Scaling patterns differed among the two age groups investigated; immature bull shark bite force scaled with positive allometry, whereas adult bite force scaled isometrically. When the bite force of C. leucas was compared to those of 12 other cartilaginous fishes, bull sharks presented the highest mass-specific bite force, greater than that of the white shark or the great hammerhead shark. A phylogenetic independent contrast analysis of anatomical and dietary variables as determinants of bite force in these 13 species indicated that the evolution of large adult bite forces in cartilaginous fishes is linked predominantly to the evolution of large body size. Multiple regressions based on mass-specific standardized contrasts suggest that the evolution of high bite forces in Chondrichthyes is further correlated with hypertrophication of the jaw adductors, increased leverage for anterior biting, and widening of the head. Lastly, we discuss the ecological significance of positive allometry in bite force as a possible "performance gain" early in the life history of C. leucas. PMID:23040789

  12. The rigorous stochastic matrix multiplication scheme for the calculations of reduced equilibrium density matrices of open multilevel quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xin

    2014-04-01

    Understanding the roles of the temporary and spatial structures of quantum functional noise in open multilevel quantum molecular systems attracts a lot of theoretical interests. I want to establish a rigorous and general framework for functional quantum noises from the constructive and computational perspectives, i.e., how to generate the random trajectories to reproduce the kernel and path ordering of the influence functional with effective Monte Carlo methods for arbitrary spectral densities. This construction approach aims to unify the existing stochastic models to rigorously describe the temporary and spatial structure of Gaussian quantum noises. In this paper, I review the Euclidean imaginary time influence functional and propose the stochastic matrix multiplication scheme to calculate reduced equilibrium density matrices (REDM). In addition, I review and discuss the Feynman-Vernon influence functional according to the Gaussian quadratic integral, particularly its imaginary part which is critical to the rigorous description of the quantum detailed balance. As a result, I establish the conditions under which the influence functional can be interpreted as the average of exponential functional operator over real-valued Gaussian processes for open multilevel quantum systems. I also show the difference between the local and nonlocal phonons within this framework. With the stochastic matrix multiplication scheme, I compare the normalized REDM with the Boltzmann equilibrium distribution for open multilevel quantum systems.

  13. The rigorous stochastic matrix multiplication scheme for the calculations of reduced equilibrium density matrices of open multilevel quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xin

    2014-04-21

    Understanding the roles of the temporary and spatial structures of quantum functional noise in open multilevel quantum molecular systems attracts a lot of theoretical interests. I want to establish a rigorous and general framework for functional quantum noises from the constructive and computational perspectives, i.e., how to generate the random trajectories to reproduce the kernel and path ordering of the influence functional with effective Monte Carlo methods for arbitrary spectral densities. This construction approach aims to unify the existing stochastic models to rigorously describe the temporary and spatial structure of Gaussian quantum noises. In this paper, I review the Euclidean imaginary time influence functional and propose the stochastic matrix multiplication scheme to calculate reduced equilibrium density matrices (REDM). In addition, I review and discuss the Feynman-Vernon influence functional according to the Gaussian quadratic integral, particularly its imaginary part which is critical to the rigorous description of the quantum detailed balance. As a result, I establish the conditions under which the influence functional can be interpreted as the average of exponential functional operator over real-valued Gaussian processes for open multilevel quantum systems. I also show the difference between the local and nonlocal phonons within this framework. With the stochastic matrix multiplication scheme, I compare the normalized REDM with the Boltzmann equilibrium distribution for open multilevel quantum systems.

  14. Calculation of the microscopic parameters of a self-induced transparency modelocked quantum cascade laser

    E-print Network

    Talukder, Muhammad Anisuzzaman

    in revised form 27 December 2012 Accepted 31 December 2012 Keywords: Quantum cascade lasers Self-induced transparency (SIT) modelocked quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) is presented and the parameters are then calculated) modelocking is a promising approach to create sub-ps pulses from mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) [1

  15. Accurate Calculations of Rotationally Inelastic Scattering Cross Sections Using Mixed Quantum/Classical Theory

    E-print Network

    Reid, Scott A.

    of rotationally inelastic scattering of molecules, we propose to use the mixed quantum/classical theory, MQCT. The idea of such mixed quantum/classical theory (MQCT) is not entirely new, but it has never been fullyAccurate Calculations of Rotationally Inelastic Scattering Cross Sections Using Mixed Quantum

  16. Quantum scattering calculations for ro-vibrational de-excitation of CO by hydrogen atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Lei; Avoird, Ad van der; Karman, Tijs; Groenenboom, Gerrit C.; Balakrishnan, N.

    2015-05-28

    We present quantum-mechanical scattering calculations for ro-vibrational relaxation of carbon monoxide (CO) in collision with hydrogen atoms. Collisional cross sections of CO ro-vibrational transitions from v = 1, j = 0 ? 30 to v? = 0, j? are calculated using the close coupling method for collision energies between 0.1 and 15?000 cm{sup ?1} based on the three-dimensional potential energy surface of Song et al. [J. Phys. Chem. A 117, 7571 (2013)]. Cross sections of transitions from v = 1, j ? 3 to v? = 0, j? are reported for the first time at this level of theory. Also calculations by the more approximate coupled states and infinite order sudden (IOS) methods are performed in order to test the applicability of these methods to H–CO ro-vibrational inelastic scattering. Vibrational de-excitation rate coefficients of CO (v = 1) are presented for the temperature range from 100 K to 3000 K and are compared with the available experimental and theoretical data. All of these results and additional rate coefficients reported in a forthcoming paper are important for including the effects of H–CO collisions in astrophysical models.

  17. Quantum scattering calculations for ro-vibrational de-excitation of CO by hydrogen atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Lei; Balakrishnan, N.; van der Avoird, Ad; Karman, Tijs; Groenenboom, Gerrit C.

    2015-05-01

    We present quantum-mechanical scattering calculations for ro-vibrational relaxation of carbon monoxide (CO) in collision with hydrogen atoms. Collisional cross sections of CO ro-vibrational transitions from v = 1, j = 0 - 30 to v' = 0, j' are calculated using the close coupling method for collision energies between 0.1 and 15 000 cm-1 based on the three-dimensional potential energy surface of Song et al. [J. Phys. Chem. A 117, 7571 (2013)]. Cross sections of transitions from v = 1, j ? 3 to v' = 0, j' are reported for the first time at this level of theory. Also calculations by the more approximate coupled states and infinite order sudden (IOS) methods are performed in order to test the applicability of these methods to H-CO ro-vibrational inelastic scattering. Vibrational de-excitation rate coefficients of CO (v = 1) are presented for the temperature range from 100 K to 3000 K and are compared with the available experimental and theoretical data. All of these results and additional rate coefficients reported in a forthcoming paper are important for including the effects of H-CO collisions in astrophysical models.

  18. Bioactive Polycyclic Tetramate Macrolactams from Lysobacter enzymogenes and Their Absolute Configurations by Theoretical ECD Calculations.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liangxiong; Wu, Ping; Wright, Stephen J; Du, Liangcheng; Wei, Xiaoyi

    2015-08-28

    Two new polycyclic tetramate macrolactams, lysobacteramides A (1) and B (2), together with HSAF (heat-stable antifungal factor, 3), 3-dehydroxy HSAF (4), and alteramide A (5) were isolated from a culture of Lysobacter enzymogenes C3 in nutrient yeast glycerol medium. Their structures were determined by MS and extensive NMR analysis. The absolute configurations of 1-5 were assigned by theoretical calculations of their ECD spectra. Although HSAF and analogues were reported from several microorganisms, their absolute configurations had not been established. The isolation and the absolute configurations of these compounds revealed new insights into the biosynthetic mechanism for formation of the polycycles. Compounds 1-4 exhibited cytotoxic activity against human carcinoma A549, HepG2, and MCF-7 cells with IC50 values ranging from 0.26 to 10.3 ?M. Compounds 2 and 3 showed antifungal activity against Fusarium verticillioides with IC50 value of 47.9 and 6.90 ?g/mL, respectively. PMID:26200218

  19. Efficient entanglement channel construction schemes for a theoretical quantum network model with d-level system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ming-Ming; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Luo, Shou-Shan; Yang, Yi-Xian

    2012-12-01

    Quantum entanglement plays an essential role in the field of quantum information and quantum computation. In quantum network, a general assumption for many quantum tasks is that the quantum entanglement has been prior shared among participants. Actually, the distribution of entanglement becomes complex in the network environment. We present a theoretical quantum network model with good scalability. Then, three efficient and perfect schemes for the entanglement channel construction are proposed. Some general results for d-level system are also given. Any two communication sites can construct an entanglement channel via Bell states with the assistance of the intermediate sites on their quantum chain. By using the established entanglement channel, n sites can efficiently and perfectly construct an entanglement channel via an n-qudit cat state. More importantly, an entanglement channel via an arbitrary n-qudit state can also be constructed among any n sites, or even among any t sites where 1 ? t ? n. The constructed multiparticle entanglement channels have many useful applications in quantum network environment.

  20. Molecular structure and nicotinic activity of arecoline. A gas electron diffraction study combined with theoretical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeshima, Tsuguhide; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Egawa, Toru; Konaka, Shigehiro

    2005-01-01

    The molecular structure of arecoline (methyl 1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-1-methylnicotinate, ? has been determined by gas electron diffraction. Diffraction patterns were taken at about 370 K. Structural constraints for the data analysis were obtained from MP2/6-31G** calculations. Vibrational mean amplitudes and shrinkage corrections were calculated from the force constants obtained from the gas-phase vibrational frequencies and the B3LYP/6-31G** calculations. The electron diffraction data were well reproduced by assuming the mixture of four conformers. The determined structural parameters ( rg (Å) and ? (°)) for the main conformer with 3 ? in parentheses are as follows: < rg(N-C ring)>=1.456(4); rg(N-C methyl)=1.451 (d.p.); rg(C dbnd6 C)=1.339(9); < rg(C-C)>=1.512(3); rg(O-C methyl)=1.434(5); rg(C(O)-O)=1.355 (d.p.); rg(C dbnd6 O)=1.209(4); the out-of-plane angle of the methyl group=50.3(23); ?C ringN ringC ring=112.8(30); ?N ringC ringC ring(H 2)=110.5(16); =118.4(5); ?C dbnd6 CC(O)=116.8(7); ?CC dbnd6 O=127.6(9); ?CC-O=109.8(8), where the angle brackets denote averaged values and d.p. denotes dependent parameters. Fixing the abundances of the minor conformers, Ax-s- cis and Ax-s- trans, at the theoretical values (13% in total), those of the Eq-s- cis and Eq-s- trans conformers were determined to be 46(16) and 41(16)%, respectively. Here Ax and Eq denote the axial and equatorial directions of the N-CH 3 bond and s- cis and s- trans show the orientation of the methoxycarbonyl group expressed by the configuration of the C dbnd6 O and C dbnd6 C bonds. The N⋯O carbonyl distances of the Eq-s- cis and Ax-s- cis conformers are 4.832(13) and 4.874(16) Å, respectively. They are close to the N⋯N distance of the most abundant conformer of nicotine, 4.885(6) Å, suggesting that the Eq-s- cis and Ax-s- cis conformers have nicotinic activity.

  1. Interaction effects on topological phase transitions via numerically exact quantum Monte Carlo calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Hsiang-Hsuan; Chua, Victor; Wang, Lei; Fiete, Gregory A.

    2014-06-01

    We theoretically study topological phase transitions in four generalized versions of the Kane-Mele-Hubbard model with up to 2×182 sites. All models are free of the fermion-sign problem allowing numerically exact quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) calculations to be performed to extremely low temperatures. We numerically compute the Z2 invariant and spin Chern number C? directly from the zero-frequency single-particle Green's functions, and study the topological phase transitions driven by the tight-binding parameters at different on-site interaction strengths. The Z2 invariant and spin Chern number, which are complementary to each another, characterize the topological phases and identify the critical points of topological phase transitions. Although the numerically determined phase boundaries are nearly identical for different system sizes, we find strong system-size dependence of the spin Chern number, where quantized values are only expected upon approaching the thermodynamic limit. For the Hubbard models we considered, the QMC results show that correlation effects lead to shifts in the phase boundaries relative to those in the noninteracting limit, without any spontaneously symmetry breaking. The interaction-induced shift is nonperturbative in the interactions and cannot be captured within a "simple" self-consistent calculation either, such as Hartree-Fock. Furthermore, our QMC calculations suggest that quantum fluctuations from interactions stabilize topological phases in systems where the one-body terms preserve the D3 symmetry of the lattice, and destabilize topological phases when the one-body terms break the D3 symmetry.

  2. NMR quantum computing: applying theoretical methods to designing enhanced systems.

    PubMed

    Mawhinney, Robert C; Schreckenbach, Georg

    2004-10-01

    Density functional theory results for chemical shifts and spin-spin coupling constants are presented for compounds currently used in NMR quantum computing experiments. Specific design criteria were examined and numerical guidelines were assessed. Using a field strength of 7.0 T, protons require a coupling constant of 4 Hz with a chemical shift separation of 0.3 ppm, whereas carbon needs a coupling constant of 25 Hz for a chemical shift difference of 10 ppm, based on the minimal coupling approximation. Using these guidelines, it was determined that 2,3-dibromothiophene is limited to only two qubits; the three qubit system bromotrifluoroethene could be expanded to five qubits and the three qubit system 2,3-dibromopropanoic acid could also be used as a six qubit system. An examination of substituent effects showed that judiciously choosing specific groups could increase the number of available qubits by removing rotational degeneracies in addition to introducing specific conformational preferences that could increase (or decrease) the magnitude of the couplings. The introduction of one site of unsaturation can lead to a marked improvement in spectroscopic properties, even increasing the number of active nuclei. PMID:15366045

  3. Toward extending photosynthetic biosignatures: quantum dynamics calculation of light harvesting complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Yu; Umemura, Masayuki; Shoji, Mitsuo; Kayanuma, Megumi; Yabana, Kazuhiro; Shiraishi, Kenji

    For detecting life from reflectance spectra on extrasolar planets, several indicators called surface biosignatures have been proposed. One of them is the vegetation red edge (VRE) which derives from surface vegetation. VRE is observed in 700-750 nm on the Earth, but there is no guarantee that exovegetation show the red edge in this wavelength. Therefore it is necessary to check the validity of current standards of VRE as the signatures. In facts, M stars (cooler than Sun) will be the main targets in future missions, it is significantly important to know on the fundamental mechanisms in photosynthetic organism such as purple bacteria which absorb longer wavelength radiation. We investigated light absorptions and excitation energy transfers (EETs) in light harvesting complexes in purple bacteria (LH2s) by using quantum dynamics simulations. In LH2, effective EET is accomplished by corporative electronic excitation of the pigments. In our theoretical model, a dipole-dipole approximation was used for the electronic interactions between pigment excitations. Quantum dynamics simulations were performed according to Liouville equation to examine the EET process. The calculated oscillator strength and the transfer time between LH2 were good agreement with the experimental values. As the system size increases, the absorption bands shifted longer and the transfer velocities became larger. When two pigments in a LHC were exchanged to another pigments with lower excitation energy, faster and intensive light collection were observed.

  4. Molecular Simulation, 1992, Vol. 9, pp, 257-261 c Gordon and Breach THEORETICAL CALCULATION OF THE LIQUID-VAPOR

    E-print Network

    Mezei, Mihaly

    proposed what he called the Gibbs ensemble [3,4], involving a dual simulation of two systems -- one of them the two. The two systems are not in physical contact, thus problems that arise with modeling the liquidMolecular Simulation, 1992, Vol. 9, pp, 257-261 c Gordon and Breach THEORETICAL CALCULATION

  5. Quantum Monte Carlo: Direct calculation of corrections to trial wave functions and their energies

    E-print Network

    Anderson, James B.

    ARTICLES Quantum Monte Carlo: Direct calculation of corrections to trial wave functions for calculating the difference between a true wave function and an analytic trial wave function 0 . The method Monte Carlo QMC method for the direct calculation of corrections to trial wave functions.1­3 We report

  6. Theoretical analysis of on-chip linear quantum optical information processing networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hach, Edwin E.; Preble, Stefan F.; Steidle, Jeffrey A.

    2015-05-01

    We present a quantum optical analysis of waveguides directionally coupled to ring resonators, an architecture realizable using silicon nanophotonics. The innate scalability of the silicon platform allows for the possibility of "on-chip" quantum computation and information processing. In this paper, we briefly review a comprehensive method for analyzing the quantum mechanical output of such a network for an arbitrary input state of the quantized, traveling electromagnetic field in the continuous wave (cw) limit. Specifically, we briefly review a recent theoretical result identifying a particular device topology that yields, via Passive Quantum Optical Feedback (PQOF), dramatic and unexpected enhancements of the Hong-Ou-Mandel Effect, an effect central to the operation of many quantum information processing systems. Next, we extend the analysis to our proposal for a scalable, on-chip realization of the Nonlinear Sign (NS) shifter essential for implementation of the Knill-Laflamme-Milburn (KLM) protocol for Linear Optical Quantum Computing (LOQC). Finally, we discuss generalizations to arbitrary networks of directionally coupled ring resonators along with possible applications is the areas of quantum metrology and sensitive photon detection.

  7. Theoretical calculations and vibrational spectra of 1,4-benzodioxan in its S 1(?, ? *) electronic excited state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Juan; Choo, Jaebum; Kwon, Ohyun; Laane, Jaan

    2007-12-01

    The structure and vibrational frequencies of 1,4-benzodioxan in its S 1(?, ? *) electronic state have been calculated using the GAUSSIAN 03 and TURBOMOLE programs. The results have been compared to experimental data and also to the ground state. Structural data for the T 1(?, ? *) state have also been calculated. The theoretical frequencies agree very well with the experimental values for the S 0 electronic ground state but are less accurate for the S 1 excited state. Nonetheless, they provide valuable guidance for excited state calculations.

  8. Extension of the Sheaf-theoretic Structure to Algebraic Quantum Field Theory

    E-print Network

    Tsubasa Takagi

    2015-10-29

    The sheaf-theoretic structure is useful in classifying no-go theorems related to non-locality and contextuality. It provides a new point of view different from conventional formularization of quantum mechanics. First, we examine a relationship between the conventional formularization and the innovative formularization. There exists an equivalence of their categories, and from the equivalence, one locality can be transformed to another as a concrete example. Next, we extend the quantum mechanics which has a finite-degree of freedom to the quantum filed theory with an infinite-degree of freedom, especially to the algebraic quantum field theory (AQFT for short). We consider about a violation of the Bell inequality in AQFT, and we show that the condition of strict spacelike separation has the same Cartesian product structure as locality of quantum mechanics. Also, we show that no-signalling property can be proved by Split Property. A local state is a sheaf which is defined by Split Property in AQFT. It induces the sheaf-theoretic structure. Finally, we show an extension of the No-Signalling theorem which depends on spacetime in AQFT.

  9. Molecular structure of cotinine studied by gas electron diffraction combined with theoretical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeshima, Tsuguhide; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Egawa, Toru; Konaka, Shigehiro

    2007-09-01

    The molecular structure of cotinine (( S)-1-methyl-5-(3-pyridinyl)-2-pyrrolidinone), the major metabolite of nicotine, has been determined at about 182 °C by gas electron diffraction combined with MP2 and DFT calculations. The diffraction data are consistent with the existence of the (ax, sc), (ax, ap), (eq, sp) and (eq, ap) conformers, where ax and eq indicate the configuration of the pyrrolidinone ring by means of the position (axial and equatorial) of the pyridine ring, and sc, sp and ap distinguish the isomers arising from the internal rotation around the bond connecting the two rings. The (CH 3)NCCC(N) dihedral angles, ?, of the (ax, sc) and (eq, sp) conformers were determined independently to be 158(12)° and 129(13)°, respectively, where the numbers in parentheses are three times the standard errors, 3 ?. According to the MP2 calculations, the corresponding dihedral angles for the (ax, ap) and (eq, ap) conformers were assumed to differ by 180° from their syn counterparts. The ratios x(ax, sc)/ x(ax, ap) and x(eq, sp)/ x(eq, ap) were taken from the theoretically estimated free energy differences, ? G, where x is the abundance of the conformer. The resultant abundances of (ax, sc), (ax, ap), (eq, sp) and (eq, ap) conformers are 34(6)%, 21% (d.p.), 28% (d.p.), and 17% (d.p.), respectively, where d.p. represents dependent parameters. The determined structural parameters ( rg (Å) and ? ? (°)) of the most abundant conformer, (ax, sc), are as follows: r(N sbnd C) pyrrol = 1.463(5); r(N sbnd C methyl) = 1.457(?); r(N sbnd C( dbnd O)) = 1.384(12); r(C dbnd O) = 1.219(5); < r(C sbnd C) pyrrol> = 1.541(3); r(C pyrrolsbnd C pyrid) = 1.521(?); < r(C sbnd C) pyrid> = 1.396(2); < r(C sbnd N) pyrid> = 1.343(?); ?(CNC) pyrrol = 113.9(11); ?CCC pyrrol(-C pyrid) = 103.6(?); ?NCO = 124.1(13); ?NC pyrrolC pyrid = 113.1(12); ?C pyrrolC pyrrolC pyrid = 113.3(?); ?(CNC) pyrid = 117.1(2); = 124.4(?); ?C methylNC( dbnd O) = ?C methylNC(-C pyrid) = 122.8(d.p.); ?NC( dbnd O)C = 107.1(d.p.); ?NC pyrrol(-C pyrid)C pyrrol = 103.0(d.p.) and ?CCC( dbnd O) = 105.2(d.p.), where ? in the parentheses means that the parameter is bound to the preceding one and < > denote average values. The puckering angle, ?, of the pyrrolidinone ring is 26(3)°. The N⋯N distances of the (ax, sc) and (eq, sp) conformers, which are 4.844(5) and 4.740(5) Å, respectively, are close to that of the most stable conformer of nicotine, 4.885(6) Å and the corresponding one of arecoline, 4.832(13) Å. It is concluded that the weak nicotinic activity of cotinine cannot be ascribed to such a small difference in the N⋯N distances.

  10. Calculation of quantum eigens with geometrical algebra rotors

    E-print Network

    Adolfas Dargys; Arturas Acus

    2015-10-14

    A practical computation method to find the eigenvalues and eigenspinors of quantum mechanical Hamiltonian is presented. The method is based on reduction of the eigenvalue equation to well known geometric algebra rotor equation and, therefore, allows to replace the usual det(H-E)=0 quantization condition by much simple vector norm preserving requirement. In order to show how it works in practice a number of examples are worked out in Cl_{3,0} (monolayer graphene and spin in the quantum well) and in Cl_{3,1} (two coupled two-level atoms and bilayer graphene) algebras.

  11. Characterization of cis-and trans-HSSOH via Rotational Spectroscopy and Quantum-Chemical Calculations

    E-print Network

    Giesen, Thomas

    Characterization of cis- and trans-HSSOH via Rotational Spectroscopy and Quantum Assisted by high-level quantum-chemical calculations, the cis and trans conformers of HSSOH have been and trans form were identified using rotational spectroscopy,4,5 and the structures could be deduced from

  12. Calculation of quantum discord and entanglement measures using the random mutations optimization algorithm

    E-print Network

    A. Yu. Chernyavskiy

    2013-04-12

    The simple and universal global optimization method based on simplified multipopulation genetic algorithm is presented. The method is applied to quantum information problems. It is compared to the genetic algorithm on standard test functions, and also tested on the calculation of quantum discord and minimal entanglement entropy, which is an entanglement measure for pure multipartite states.

  13. Quantum chemical calculation of the equilibrium structures of small metal atom clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, L. R.

    1982-01-01

    Metal atom clusters are studied based on the application of ab initio quantum mechanical approaches. Because these large 'molecular' systems pose special practical computational problems in the application of the quantum mechanical methods, there is a special need to find simplifying techniques that do not compromise the reliability of the calculations. Research is therefore directed towards various aspects of the implementation of the effective core potential technique for the removal of the metal atom core electrons from the calculations.

  14. Using experimental studies and theoretical calculations to analyze the molecular mechanism of coumarin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and cinnamic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Tiane-Jye; Su, Chia-Ching; Chen, Chung-Yi; Liou, Chyong-Huey; Lu, Li-Hwa

    2005-05-01

    Three natural products, Coumarin ( 1), p-hydroxybenzoic acid ( 2), trans-cinnamic acid ( 3) were isolated from the natural plant of indigenous cinnamon and the structures including relative stereochemistry were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and theoretical calculations. Their sterochemical structures were determined by NMR spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography. The p-hydroxybenzoic acid complex with water is reported to show the existence of two hydrogen bonds. The two hydrogen bonds are formed in the water molecule of two hydrogen-accepting oxygen of carbonyl group of the p-hydroxybenzoic acid. The intermolecular interaction two hydrogen bond of the model system of the water- p-hydroxybenzoic acid was investigated. An experimental study and a theoretical analysis using the B3LYP/6-31G* method in the GAUSSIAN-03 package program were conducted on the three natural products. The theoretical results are supplemented by experimental data. Optimal geometric structures of three compounds were also determined. The calculated molecular mechanics compared quite well with those obtained from the experimental data. The ionization potentials, highest occupied molecular orbital energy, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy, energy gaps, heat of formation, atomization energies, and vibration frequencies of the compounds were also calculated. The results of the calculations show that three natural products are stable molecules with high reactive and various other physical properties. The study also provided an explicit understanding of the sterochemical structure and thermodynamic properties of the three natural products.

  15. Theoretical performance of solar cell based on mini-bands quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Aly, Abou El-Maaty M. E-mail: ashraf.nasr@gmail.com; Nasr, A. E-mail: ashraf.nasr@gmail.com

    2014-03-21

    The tremendous amount of research in solar energy is directed toward intermediate band solar cell for its advantages compared with the conventional solar cell. The latter has lower efficiency because the photons have lower energy than the bandgap energy and cannot excite mobile carriers from the valence band to the conduction band. On the other hand, if mini intermediate band is introduced between the valence and conduction bands, then the smaller energy photons can be used to promote charge carriers transfer to the conduction band and thereby the total current increases while maintaining a large open circuit voltage. In this article, the influence of the new band on the power conversion efficiency for structure of quantum dots intermediate band solar cell is theoretically investigated and studied. The time-independent Schrödinger equation is used to determine the optimum width and location of the intermediate band. Accordingly, achievement of a maximum efficiency by changing the width of quantum dots and barrier distances is studied. Theoretical determination of the power conversion efficiency under the two different ranges of QD width is presented. From the obtained results, the maximum power conversion efficiency is about 70.42%. It is carried out for simple cubic quantum dot crystal under fully concentrated light. It is strongly dependent on the width of quantum dots and barrier distances.

  16. Theoretical oxidation state analysis of Ru-(bpy){sub 3}: Influence of water solvation and Hubbard correction in first-principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, Kyle G.; Kanai, Yosuke

    2014-07-14

    Oxidation state is a powerful concept that is widely used in chemistry and materials physics, although the concept itself is arguably ill-defined quantum mechanically. In this work, we present impartial comparison of four, well-recognized theoretical approaches based on Lowdin atomic orbital projection, Bader decomposition, maximally localized Wannier function, and occupation matrix diagonalization, for assessing how well transition metal oxidation states can be characterized. Here, we study a representative molecular complex, tris(bipyridine)ruthenium. We also consider the influence of water solvation through first-principles molecular dynamics as well as the improved electronic structure description for strongly correlated d-electrons by including Hubbard correction in density functional theory calculations.

  17. Theoretical Calculations on Sediment Transport on Titan, and the Possible Production of Streamlined Forms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burr, D. M.; Emery, J. P.; Lorenz, R. D.

    2005-01-01

    The Cassini Imaging Science System (ISS) has been returning images of Titan, along with other Saturnian satellites. Images taken through the 938 nm methane window see down to Titan's surface. One of the purposes of the Cassini mission is to investigate possible fluid cycling on Titan. Lemniscate features shown recently and radar evidence of surface flow prompted us to consider theoretically the creation by methane fluid flow of streamlined forms on Titan. This follows work by other groups in theoretical consideration of fluid motion on Titan's surface.

  18. Quantum chemical calculations for polymers and organic compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, J.; Yang, C.

    1982-01-01

    The relativistic effects of the orbiting electrons on a model compound were calculated. The computational method used was based on 'Modified Neglect of Differential Overlap' (MNDO). The compound tetracyanoplatinate was used since empirical measurement and calculations along "classical" lines had yielded many known properties. The purpose was to show that for large molecules relativity effects could not be ignored and that these effects could be calculated and yield data in closer agreement to empirical measurements. Both the energy band structure and molecular orbitals are depicted.

  19. Theoretical calculation of thermodynamic data for bcc binary alloys with the embedded-atom method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangwei, Zhang; Yifang, Ouyang

    1993-08-01

    The dilute-limit heats of solution for all binary alloys of six bcc transition metals (V, Nb, Ta, Mo, W, and Fe) have been calculated with the analytic embedded-atom model for bcc pure metals by Johnson and Oh. Cubic equations are proposed and used for providing a smooth cutoff for the calculated potential and electron density functions between second- and third-nearest neighbors in the calculation. The heats of formation for all of the binary alloys of these six bcc metals for the whole compositional range and the intermetallic compounds A3B, AB, and AB3 are also calculated. The dilute-limit heats of solution are generally in agreement with available experimental values except for Ta in W and W in Ta. The heats of formation agree well with available experimental data, ab initio calculations by Colinet, Beesound, and Pasturrel, and thermodynamic calculations with the Miedema model for Mo-Ta, Mo-Nb, and Fe-V. The heats of formation are in good agreement with thermodynamic calculations with the Miedema model for W-V, Nb-V, Ta-V, Fe-W, Mo-W, Ta-Nb, Fe-Nb, Fe-Ta, and Mo-V alloy systems. There are, however, significant differences between the heats of formation for the present work and calculations with the Miedema model for the Ta-W, Nb-W, and Fe-Mo alloy systems.

  20. Theoretical calculations for using positive electrode compression to increase lead-acid battery life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Dean B.; Schmitz, Claus

    Investigators have confirmed that applying a small amount of mechanical pressure, approximately 1 bar (10 5 Pa), to the face of the positive electrode can dramatically increase the life of deep cycled, lead acid batteries. In this paper, we calculate the pressures required to stabilize the active material in the positive electrode based on the "Agglomerate of Spheres" model. The calculations agree closely with the experimental observations. In addition to these calculations, we also provide another possible interpretation of the "Agglomerate of Spheres" model and give an improved estimate for the surface tension of lead dioxide, an important physical quantity for the model.

  1. Calculation of density functional theory (DFT) vibrational parameters of nucleotides for use in theoretical optical calculations: Herein applied to circular dichroism (CD) and absorption of polynucleotides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferber, Steven Dwight

    2005-11-01

    The Vibrational Circular Dichroism (VCD) of Nucleic Acids is a sensitive function of their conformation. DeVoe's classically derived polarizability theory allows the calculation of polymer absorption and circular dichroism spectra in any frequency range. Following the approach of Tinoco and Cech as modified by Moore and Self, calculations were done in the infrared (IR) region with theoretically derived monomer input parameters. Presented herein are calculated absorption and CD spectra for nucleic acid oligomers and polymers. These calculations improve upon earlier attempts, which utilized frequencies, intensities and normal modes from empirical analysis of the nitrogenous base of the monomers. These more complete input polarizability parameters include all contributions to specific vibrational normal modes for the entire nucleotide structure. They are derived from density functional theory (DFT) vibrational analysis on quasi-nucleotide monomers using the GAUSSIAN '98/'03 program. The normal modes are "integrated" for the first time into single virtual (DeVoe) oscillators by incorporating "fixed partial charges" in the manner of Schellman. The results include the complete set of monomer normal modes. All of these modes may be analyzed, in a manner similar to those demonstrated here (for the 1500-1800 cm-1 region). A model is utilized for the polymer/oligomer monomers which maintains the actual electrostatic charge on the adjacent protonated phosphoryl groups (hydrogen phosphate, a mono-anion). This deters the optimization from "collapsing" into a hydrogen-bonded "ball" and thereby maintains the extended (polymer-like) conformation. As well, the precise C2 "endo" conformation of the sugar ring is maintained in the DNA monomers. The analogous C3 "endo" conformation is also maintained for the RNA monomers, which are constrained by massive "anchors" at the phosphates. The complete IR absorbance spectra (0-4,000 cm-1) are calculated directly in Gaussian. Calculated VCD and Absorbance Spectra for the eight standard Ribonucleic and Deoxy-ribonucleic acid homo-polymers in the nitrogenous base absorbing region 1550-1750 cm-1 are presented. These spectra match measured spectra at least as well as spectra calculated from empirical parameters. These results demonstrate that the purely theoretical calculation, an example given herein, should serve to provide more transferable, universal parameters for the polarizability treatment of the optical properties of oligomers and polymers.

  2. Quantum entanglement of identical particles by standard information-theoretic notions

    E-print Network

    Rosario Lo Franco; Giuseppe Compagno

    2015-11-11

    Quantum entanglement of identical particles is essential in quantum information theory. Yet, its correct determination remains an open issue hindering the general understanding and exploitation of many-particle systems. Operator-based methods have been developed that attempt to overcome the issue. We introduce a state-based method which, as second quantization, does not label identical particles and presents conceptual and technical advances compared to the previous ones. It establishes the quantitative role played by arbitrary wave function overlaps, local measurements and particle nature (bosons or fermions) in assessing entanglement by notions commonly used in quantum information theory for distinguishable particles, like partial trace. Our approach furthermore shows that bringing identical particles into the same spatial location functions as an entangling gate, providing fundamental theoretical support to recent experimental observations with ultracold atoms. These results pave the way to set and interpret experiments for utilizing quantum correlations in realistic scenarios where overlap of particles can count, as in Bose-Einstein condensates, quantum dots and biological molecular aggregates.

  3. Theoretical calculations of pressure broadening coefficients for H2O perturbed by hydrogen or helium gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamache, Robert R.; Pollack, James B.

    1995-01-01

    Halfwidths were calculated for H2O with H2 as a broadening gas and were estimated for He as the broadening species. The calculations used the model of Robert and Bonamy with parabolic trajectories and all relevant terms in the interaction potential. The calculations investigated the dependence of the halfwidth on the order of the atom-atom expansion, the rotational states, and the temperature in the range 200 to 400K. Finally, calculations were performed for many transitions of interest in the 5 micrometer window region of the spectrum. The resulting data will be supplied to Dr. R. Freedman for extracting accurate water mixing ratios from the analysis of the thermal channels for the Net Flux experiment on the Galileo probe.

  4. Ocean color spectrum calculations. [theoretical models relating oceanographic parameters to upwelling radiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccluney, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    The development is considered of procedures for measuring a number of subsurface oceanographic parameters using remotely sensed ocean color data. It is proposed that the first step in this effort should be the development of adequate theoretical models relating the desired oceanographic parameters to the upwelling radiances to be observed. A portion of a contributory theoretical model is shown to be described by a modified single scattering approach based upon a simple treatment of multiple scattering. The resulting quasi-single scattering model can be used to predict the upwelling distribution of spectral radiance emerging from the sea. The shape of the radiance spectrum predicted by this model for clear ocean water shows encouraging agreement with measurments made at the edge of the Sargasso Sea off Cape Hatteras.

  5. The Calculation of Theoretical Chromospheric Models and the Interpretation of the Solar Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avrett, Eugene H.

    1998-01-01

    Since the early 1970s we have been developing the extensive computer programs needed to construct models of the solar atmosphere and to calculate detailed spectra for use in the interpretation of solar observations. This research involves two major related efforts: work by Avrett and Loeser on the Pandora computer program for non-LTE modeling of the solar atmosphere including a wide range of physical processes, and work by Rurucz on the detailed synthesis of the solar spectrum based on opacity data or over 58 million atomic and molecular lines. our goals are: to determine models of the various features observed on the Sun (sunspots, different components of quiet and active regions, and flares) by means of physically realistic models, and to calculate detailed spectra at all wavelengths that match observations of those features. These two goals are interrelated: discrepancies between calculated and observed spectra are used to determine improvements in the structure of the models, and in the detailed physical processes used in both the model calculations and the spectrum calculations. The atmospheric models obtained in this way provide not only the depth variation of various atmospheric parameters, but also a description of the internal physical processes that are responsible for non-radiative heating, and for solar activity in general.

  6. Automated Routines for Calculating Whole-Stream Metabolism: Theoretical Background and User's Guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bales, Jerad D.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2007-01-01

    In order to standardize methods and facilitate rapid calculation and archival of stream-metabolism variables, the Stream Metabolism Program was developed to calculate gross primary production, net ecosystem production, respiration, and selected other variables from continuous measurements of dissolved-oxygen concentration, water temperature, and other user-supplied information. Methods for calculating metabolism from continuous measurements of dissolved-oxygen concentration and water temperature are fairly well known, but a standard set of procedures and computation software for all aspects of the calculations were not available previously. The Stream Metabolism Program addresses this deficiency with a stand-alone executable computer program written in Visual Basic.NET?, which runs in the Microsoft Windows? environment. All equations and assumptions used in the development of the software are documented in this report. Detailed guidance on application of the software is presented, along with a summary of the data required to use the software. Data from either a single station or paired (upstream, downstream) stations can be used with the software to calculate metabolism variables.

  7. Theoretical Calculation for the Ionization of Molecules by Short Strong Laser Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, L.; Borbely, S.

    2011-10-03

    We have developed several calculation methods for the ionization of atoms and molecules by strong and ultrashort laser pulses, based on the numerical solution of the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) in the momentum space. We have performed calculations within the strong field approximation (Volkov) and using iterative and direct methods for solving the TDSE. The investigated molecules are H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 2}O. In case of the ionization of diatomic molecules the interference effects in the ejected electron spectra due to the coherent addition of the waves associated to the electrons ejected from the vicinity of different nuclei were also analysed.

  8. Comparison between Theoretical Calculation and Experimental Results of Excitation Functions for Production of Relevant Biomedical Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Menapace, E.; Birattari, C.; Bonardi, M.L.; Groppi, F.; Morzenti, S.; Zona, C.

    2005-05-24

    The radionuclide production for biomedical applications has been brought up in the years, as a special nuclear application, at INFN LASA Laboratory, particularly in co-operation with the JRC-Ispra of EC. Mainly scientific aspects concerning radiation detection and the relevant instruments, the measurements of excitation functions of the involved nuclear reactions, the requested radiochemistry studies and further applications have been investigated. On the side of the nuclear data evaluations, based on nuclear model calculations and critically selected experimental data, the appropriate competence has been developed at ENEA Division for Advanced Physics Technologies. A series of high specific activity accelerator-produced radionuclides in no-carrier-added (NCA) form, for uses in metabolic radiotherapy and for PET radiodiagnostics, are investigated. In this work, last revised measurements and model calculations are reviewed for excitation functions of natZn(d,X)64Cu, 66Ga reactions, referring to irradiation experiments at K=38 variable energy Cyclotron of JRC-Ispra. Concerning the reaction data for producing 186gRe and 211At/211gPo (including significant emission spectra) and 210At, most recent and critically selected experimental results are considered and discussed in comparison with model calculations paying special care to pre-equilibrium effects estimate and to the appropriate overall parameterization. Model calculations are presented for 226Ra(p,2n)225Ac reaction, according to the working program of the ongoing IAEA CRP on the matter.

  9. Gas-phase structure of 2,2,2-trichloroethyl chloroformate studied by electron diffraction and quantum-chemical calculations.

    PubMed

    Gil, Diego M; Tuttolomondo, María E; Blomeyer, Sebastian; Reuter, Christian G; Mitzel, Norbert W; Altabef, Aída Ben

    2016-01-01

    The molecular structure and conformational properties of 2,2,2-trichloroethyl chloroformate, ClC(O)OCH2CCl3 were determined experimentally using gas-phase electron diffraction (GED) and theoretically based on quantum-chemical calculations at the MP2 and DFT levels of theory. Further experimental measurements such as UV-visible, IR and Raman spectroscopy were complemented with the corresponding theoretical studies. All experimental results and calculations confirm the presence of two conformers namely anti-gauche (C1 symmetry) and anti-anti (Cs symmetry). The conformational preference was rationalised by NBO and AIM analyses. Molecular properties such as ionisation potential, electronegativity, chemical potential, chemical hardness and softness were deduced from HOMO-LUMO analyses. The TD-DFT approach was applied to assign the electronic transitions observed in the UV-visible spectrum. A detailed interpretation of the infrared and Raman spectra of the title compound are reported. Using calculated frequencies as a guide, IR and Raman spectra also provide evidence for the presence of both C1 and Cs conformers. PMID:26617390

  10. The three-fold theoretical basis of the Gravity Probe B gyro precession calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, Ronald J.

    2015-11-01

    The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) experiment is complete and the results are in agreement with the predictions of general relativity (GR) for both the geodetic precession, 6.6 arcsec yr?1 to about 0.3%, and the Lense–Thirring precession, 39 marcsec to about 19%. This note is concerned with the theoretical basis for the predictions. The predictions depend on three elements of gravity theory, firstly that macroscopic gravity is described by a metric theory such as GR, secondly that the Lense–Thirring metric provides an approximate description of the gravitational field of the spinning Earth, and thirdly that the spin axis of a gyroscope is parallel displaced in spacetime, which gives its equation of motion. We look at each of these three elements to show how each is solidly based on previous experiments and well-tested theory. The agreement of GP-B with theory strengthens our belief that all three elements are correct and increases our confidence in applying GR to astrophysical phenomena. Conversely, if GP-B had not verified the predictions a major theoretical quandary would have occurred.

  11. Theoretical and experimental insights into the surface chemistry of semiconductor quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Margraf, Johannes T; Ruland, Andrés; Sgobba, Vito; Guldi, Dirk M; Clark, Timothy

    2013-12-10

    We present a series of non-stoichiometric cadmium sulfide quantum-dot (QD) models. Using density functional theory (DFT) and semi-empirical molecular orbital (MO) calculations, we explore the ligand binding and exchange chemistry of these models. Their surface morphology allows for these processes to be rationalized on the atomic scale. This is corroborated by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), infrared (IR), and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). PMID:24266745

  12. Quantum-field-theoretical approach to phase-space techniques: Generalizing the positive-P representation

    SciTech Connect

    Plimak, L.I.; Fleischhauer, M.; Olsen, M.K.; Collett, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    We present an introduction to phase-space techniques (PST) based on a quantum-field-theoretical (QFT) approach. In addition to bridging the gap between PST and QFT, our approach results in a number of generalizations of the PST. First, for problems where the usual PST do not result in a genuine Fokker-Planck equation (even after phase-space doubling) and hence fail to produce a stochastic differential equation (SDE), we show how the system in question may be approximated via stochastic difference equations (S{delta}E). Second, we show that introducing sources into the SDE's (or S{delta}E's) generalizes them to a full quantum nonlinear stochastic response problem (thus generalizing Kubo's linear reaction theory to a quantum nonlinear stochastic response theory). Third, we establish general relations linking quantum response properties of the system in question to averages of operator products ordered in a way different from time normal. This extends PST to a much wider assemblage of operator products than are usually considered in phase-space approaches. In all cases, our approach yields a very simple and straightforward way of deriving stochastic equations in phase space.

  13. On the Role of Information Theoretic Uncertainty Relations in Quantum Theory

    E-print Network

    Petr Jizba; Jacob A. Dunningham; Jaewoo Joo

    2014-06-26

    Uncertainty relations based on information theory for both discrete and continuous distribution functions are briefly reviewed. We extend these results to account for (differential) R\\'{e}nyi entropy and its related entropy power. This allows us to find a new class of information-theoretic uncertainty relations (ITURs). The potency of such uncertainty relations in quantum mechanics is illustrated with a simple two-energy-level model where they outperform both the usual Robertson-Schr\\"{o}dinger uncertainty relation and Kraus-Maassen Shannon entropy based uncertainty relation. In the continuous case the ensuing entropy power uncertainty relations are discussed in the context of heavy tailed wave functions and Schr\\"odinger cat states. Again, improvement over both the Robertson-Schr\\"{o}dinger uncertainty principle and Shannon ITUR is demonstrated in these cases. Further salient issues such as the proof of a generalized entropy power inequality and a geometric picture of information-theoretic uncertainty relations are also discussed.

  14. Black hole state counting in loop quantum gravity: a number-theoretical approach.

    PubMed

    Agulló, Iván; Barbero G, J Fernando; Díaz-Polo, Jacobo; Fernández-Borja, Enrique; Villaseñor, Eduardo J S

    2008-05-30

    We give an efficient method, combining number-theoretic and combinatorial ideas, to exactly compute black hole entropy in the framework of loop quantum gravity. Along the way we provide a complete characterization of the relevant sector of the spectrum of the area operator, including degeneracies, and explicitly determine the number of solutions to the projection constraint. We use a computer implementation of the proposed algorithm to confirm and extend previous results on the detailed structure of the black hole degeneracy spectrum. PMID:18518596

  15. Effects of strain and quantum confinement in optically pumped nuclear magnetic resonance in GaAs: Interpretation guided by spin-dependent band structure calculations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wood, R. M.; Saha, D.; McCarthy, L. A.; Tokarski, III, J. T.; Sanders, G. D.; Kuhns, P. L.; McGill, S. A.; Reyes, A. P.; Reno, J. L.; Stanton, C. J.; et al

    2014-10-29

    A combined experimental-theoretical study of optically pumped NMR (OPNMR) has been performed in a GaAs/Al0.1Ga0.9As quantum well film with thermally induced biaxial strain. The photon energy dependence of the Ga-71 OPNMR signal was recorded at magnetic fields of 4.9 and 9.4 T at a temperature of 4.8-5.4 K. The data were compared to the nuclear spin polarization calculated from differential absorption to spin-up and spin-down states of the conduction band using a modified Pidgeon Brown model. Reasonable agreement between theory and experiment is obtained, facilitating assignment of features in the OPNMR energy dependence to specific interband transitions. Despite the approximationsmore »made in the quantum-mechanical model and the inexact correspondence between the experimental and calculated observables, the results provide insight into how effects of strain and quantum confinement are manifested in OPNMR signals« less

  16. Millimeterwave rotational spectrum and theoretical calculations of cis-propionic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaman, A. I.; Chakraborty, Shamik; Chakraborty, Rangana

    2015-01-01

    The millimeterwave rotational spectra of the cis conformer of propionic acid (C3H6O2) have been investigated in the ground vibrational state in the frequency range of 80.0-100.0 GHz. Many high J and K-1 (Jmax = 50, K-1 = 12) rotational lines have been assigned. A least-squares analysis of the measured and previously reported rotational transition frequencies resulted in the determination of an improved set of rotational and centrifugal distortion (CD) constants of the molecule. Detailed MP2 and DFT calculations were also carried out with various functional and basis sets to evaluate the spectroscopic constants, dipole moment, and various structural parameters of cis-propionic acid and compared with the corresponding experimental values. Potential energy surface has been calculated to identify other probable conformers in this molecule.

  17. Method and Basis Set Analysis of Oxorhenium(V) Complexes for Theoretical Calculations

    PubMed Central

    Demoin, Dustin Wayne; Li, Yawen; Jurisson, Silvia S.; Deakyne, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    A variety of method and basis set combinations has been evaluated for monooxorhenium(V) complexes with N, O, P, S, Cl, and Se donor atoms. The geometries and energies obtained are compared to both high-level computations and literature structures. These calculations show that the PBE0 method outperforms the B3LYP method with respect to both structure and energetics. The combination of 6-31G** basis set on the nonmetal atoms and LANL2TZ effective core potential on the rhenium center gives reliable equilibrium structures with minimal computational resources for both model and literature compounds. Single-point energy calculations at the PBE0/LANL2TZ,6-311+G* level of theory are recommended for energetics. PMID:23087847

  18. Quantum calculations of Coulomb reorientation for sub-barrier fusion

    E-print Network

    Simenel, C; De France, G; Simenel, Cedric; Chomaz, Philippe; France, Gilles De

    2004-01-01

    Classical mechanics and Time Dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) calculations of heavy ions collisions are performed to study the rotation of a deformed nucleus in the Coulomb field of a collision partner. We show that this Coulomb reorientation is independent on the charges and the relative energy of the partners. It only depends upon the deformations and the respective masses. Furthermore this reorientation modifies strongly the fusion cross-section around the barrier for light deformed nuclei on heavy collision partners. For such nuclei a hindrance of the sub-barrier fusion is predicted.

  19. Theoretical analysis of three methods for calculating thermal insulation of clothing from thermal manikin.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianhua

    2012-07-01

    There are three methods for calculating thermal insulation of clothing measured with a thermal manikin, i.e. the global method, the serial method, and the parallel method. Under the condition of homogeneous clothing insulation, these three methods yield the same insulation values. If the local heat flux is uniform over the manikin body, the global and serial methods provide the same insulation value. In most cases, the serial method gives a higher insulation value than the global method. There is a possibility that the insulation value from the serial method is lower than the value from the global method. The serial method always gives higher insulation value than the parallel method. The insulation value from the parallel method is higher or lower than the value from the global method, depending on the relationship between the heat loss distribution and the surface temperatures. Under the circumstance of uniform surface temperature distribution over the manikin body, the global and parallel methods give the same insulation value. If the constant surface temperature mode is used in the manikin test, the parallel method can be used to calculate the thermal insulation of clothing. If the constant heat flux mode is used in the manikin test, the serial method can be used to calculate the thermal insulation of clothing. The global method should be used for calculating thermal insulation of clothing for all manikin control modes, especially for thermal comfort regulation mode. The global method should be chosen by clothing manufacturers for labelling their products. The serial and parallel methods provide more information with respect to the different parts of clothing. PMID:22798547

  20. Quantum conductance of In nanowires on Si(1 1 1) from first principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wippermann, S.; Schmidt, W. G.; Calzolari, A.; Nardelli, M. Buongiorno; Stekolnikov, A. A.; Seino, K.; Bechstedt, F.

    2007-09-01

    The quantum conductance of the paradigmatic quasi-one-dimensional In/Si(1 1 1) surface system is calculated for 4 × 1, 4 × 2 and 8 × 2 surface reconstructions. In agreement with experiment, we find the recently suggested formation of hexagons within the In nanowires [C. Gonzalez, F. Flores, J. Ortega, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006) 136101] to drastically modify the electron transport along the In chains. In contrast, the formation of trimers barely changes the quantum conductance.

  1. Theoretical calculation of a composite pulse for 2H broadband excitation by average Hamiltonian theory

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Ming; Roopchand, Rabia; Amoureux, Jean-Paul; Chen, Qun

    2015-01-01

    Quadrupolar echo NMR spectroscopy of solids often requires RF pulse excitation that covers spectral widths exceeding 100 kHz. In a recent work we found out that a four pulse, composite pulse COM-II ( 90180¯90135¯45 ), provided robust broadband excitation for deuterium quadrupolar echo spectroscopy. Moreover, when combined with an eight step phase cycle, spectral distortions arising from finite pulse widths were greatly supressed. In this paper we report on a theoretical analysis COM-II with 8-step phase cycle by average Hamiltonian theory. This treatment is combined with the fictitious spin-1 operator formalism, and the mechanism of the 8-step phase cycling that minimizes the spectral distortions is discussed. PMID:26681896

  2. Machine learning of parameters for accurate semiempirical quantum chemical calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Dral, Pavlo O.; von Lilienfeld, O. Anatole; Thiel, Walter

    2015-04-14

    We investigate possible improvements in the accuracy of semiempirical quantum chemistry (SQC) methods through the use of machine learning (ML) models for the parameters. For a given class of compounds, ML techniques require sufficiently large training sets to develop ML models that can be used for adapting SQC parameters to reflect changes in molecular composition and geometry. The ML-SQC approach allows the automatic tuning of SQC parameters for individual molecules, thereby improving the accuracy without deteriorating transferability to molecules with molecular descriptors very different from those in the training set. The performance of this approach is demonstrated for the semiempirical OM2 method using a set of 6095 constitutional isomers C7H10O2, for which accurate ab initio atomization enthalpies are available. The ML-OM2 results show improved average accuracy and a much reduced error range compared with those of standard OM2 results, with mean absolute errors in atomization enthalpies dropping from 6.3 to 1.7 kcal/mol. They are also found to be superior to the results from specific OM2 reparameterizations (rOM2) for the same set of isomers. The ML-SQC approach thus holds promise for fast and reasonably accurate high-throughput screening of materials and molecules.

  3. Machine learning of parameters for accurate semiempirical quantum chemical calculations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dral, Pavlo O.; von Lilienfeld, O. Anatole; Argonne National Lab.; Thiel, Walter

    2015-04-14

    We investigate possible improvements in the accuracy of semiempirical quantum chemistry (SQC) methods through the use of machine learning (ML) models for the parameters. For a given class of compounds, ML techniques require sufficiently large training sets to develop ML models that can be used for adapting SQC parameters to reflect changes in molecular composition and geometry. The ML-SQC approach allows the automatic tuning of SQC parameters for individual molecules, thereby improving the accuracy without deteriorating transferability to molecules with molecular descriptors very different from those in the training set. The performance of this approach is demonstrated for the semiempiricalmore »OM2 method using a set of 6095 constitutional isomers C7H10O2, for which accurate ab initio atomization enthalpies are available. The ML-OM2 results show improved average accuracy and a much reduced error range compared with those of standard OM2 results, with mean absolute errors in atomization enthalpies dropping from 6.3 to 1.7 kcal/mol. They are also found to be superior to the results from specific OM2 reparameterizations (rOM2) for the same set of isomers. The ML-SQC approach thus holds promise for fast and reasonably accurate high-throughput screening of materials and molecules.« less

  4. Quantum Calculations of Electron Tunneling in Respiratory Complex III.

    PubMed

    Hagras, Muhammad A; Hayashi, Tomoyuki; Stuchebrukhov, Alexei A

    2015-11-19

    The most detailed and comprehensive to date study of electron transfer reactions in the respiratory complex III of aerobic cells, also known as bc1 complex, is reported. In the framework of the tunneling current theory, electron tunneling rates and atomistic tunneling pathways between different redox centers were investigated for all electron transfer reactions comprising different stages of the proton-motive Q-cycle. The calculations reveal that complex III is a smart nanomachine, which under certain conditions undergoes conformational changes gating electron transfer, or channeling electrons to specific pathways. One-electron tunneling approximation was adopted in the tunneling calculations, which were performed using hybrid Broken-Symmetry (BS) unrestricted DFT/ZINDO levels of theory. The tunneling orbitals were determined using an exact biorthogonalization scheme that uniquely separates pairs of tunneling orbitals with small overlaps out of the remaining Franck-Condon orbitals with significant overlap. Electron transfer rates in different redox pairs show exponential distance dependence, in agreement with the reported experimental data; some reactions involve coupled proton transfer. Proper treatment of a concerted two-electron bifurcated tunneling reaction at the Qo site is given. PMID:26505078

  5. Calculation of optical properties of a quantum dot embedded in a GaN/AlGaN nanocolumn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penazzi, G.; Pecchia, A.; Sacconi, F.; Di Carlo, A.

    2010-01-01

    The TiberCAD simulation tool for calculation of optical and electronic properties of nanostructured devices has been used to study spontaneous emission of a GaN quantum dot embedded in an AlGaN nanocolumn. Macroscopic calculations provide corrections to the quantum calculation, showing the role of strain and the polarization field in spectra and the electron and hole states arrangement.

  6. Application of Vibrational Spectroscopy Supported by Theoretical Calculations in Identification of Amorphous and Crystalline Forms of Cefuroxime Axetil

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowska, Kornelia; Jeli?ska, Anna; Zalewski, Przemys?aw; Oszczapowicz, Irena; Sikora, Adam; Kozak, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    FT-IR and Raman scattering spectra of cefuroxime axetil were proposed for identification studies of its crystalline and amorphous forms. An analysis of experimental spectra was supported by quantum-chemical calculations performed with the use of B3LYP functional and 6-31G(d,p) as a basis set. The geometric structure of a cefuroxime axetil molecule, HOMO and LUMO orbitals, and molecular electrostatic potential were also determined by using DFT (density functional theory). The benefits of applying FT-IR and Raman scattering spectroscopy for characterization of drug subjected to degradation were discussed. PMID:25654137

  7. Calculating two-dimensional spectra with the mixed quantum-classical Ehrenfest method.

    PubMed

    van der Vegte, C P; Dijkstra, A G; Knoester, J; Jansen, T L C

    2013-07-25

    We present a mixed quantum-classical simulation approach to calculate two-dimensional spectra of coupled two-level electronic model systems. We include the change in potential energy of the classical system due to transitions in the quantum system using the Ehrenfest method. We study how this feedback of the quantum system on the classical system influences the shape of two-dimensional spectra. We show that the feedback leads to the expected Stokes shift of the energy levels in the quantum system. This subsequently leads to changes in the population transfer between quantum sites, which in turn influence the intensities of the peaks in two-dimensional spectra. The obtained spectra are compared with spectra calculated using the Hierarchical Equations of Motion method which is exact. While the spectra match perfectly for short waiting times, clear differences are found for longer waiting times. This is attributed to a violation of detailed balance between the quantum states in the Ehrenfest method. The energy of the total quantum-classical system however does obey a Boltzmann distribution, when coupled to a stochastic heat bath. PMID:23360103

  8. Proton transfer in acetaldehyde and acetaldehyde-water clusters: Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization experiment and theoretical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostko, Oleg; Troy, Tyler P.; Bandyopadhyay, Biswajit; Ahmed, Musahid

    2015-03-01

    Acetaldehyde, a probable human carcinogen and of environmental importance, upon solvation provides a test bed for understanding proton transfer pathways and catalytic mechanisms. In this study, we report on single photon vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of small acetaldehyde and acetaldehyde-water clusters. Appearance energies of protonated clusters are extracted from the experimental photoionization efficiency curves and compared to electronic structure calculations. The comparison of experimental data to computational results provides mechanistic insight into the fragmentation mechanisms of the observed mass spectra. Using deuterated water for isotopic tagging, we observe that proton transfer is mediated via acetaldehyde and not water in protonated acetaldehyde-water clusters.

  9. The calculation of theoretical chromospheric models and the interpretation of solar spectra from rockets and spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avrett, E. H.

    1985-01-01

    Solar chromospheric models are described. The models included are based on the observed spectrum, and on the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium. The calculations depend on realistic solutions of the radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations for optically thick lines and continua, and on including the effects of large numbers of lines throughout the spectrum. Although spectroheliograms show that the structure of the chromosphere is highly complex, one-dimensional models of particular features are reasonably successful in matching observed spectra. Such models were applied to the interpretation of chromospheric observations.

  10. Application of kinetic isotope effects and theoretical calculations to interesting reaction mechanisms 

    E-print Network

    Hirschi, Jennifer Sue

    2009-05-15

    of equilibrium isotope effects (EIEs) and KIEs are based upon the formulation of Bigeleisen and Mayer.25 The calculation of the KIE is represented by equation 1-4. The KIE is composed of the ( ? 2 ? 1 n n ) term which represents the product of vibrational... for several EIEs and KIEs. 10 CHAPTER II THE NORMAL RANGE FOR SECONDARY SWAIN-SCHAAD EXPONENTS WITHOUT TUNNELING OR KINETIC COMPLEXITY* An analysis is presented of the range of secondary Swain-Schaad exponents to be expected at 25 ?C...

  11. Correlation of theoretical calculations and experimental measurements of damage around a shaft in salt

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, D.E.; Holcomb, D.J.; DeVries, K.L.; Brodsky, N.S.

    1994-12-31

    Cross-hole ultrasonic measurements were made in the immediate wall of the Air Intake Shaft of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant facility. These measurements show that compressional wave speed markedly decreases at the shaft wall and then increases with radial distance from the shaft to eventually become that of solid or undamaged salt. This behavior is indicative of deformation damage or microfractures in the salt. These in situ data are compared to both laboratory measurements of wave speed as a function of volume dilatancy and to calculations based on the Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture model, with reasonable agreement.

  12. Quantum scattering calculation for reaction Br + H2 on two potential energy surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Wei-Long; Tang, Ping-Ying; Tang, Bi-Yu

    Three-dimensional time-dependent quantum wave packet calculations have been carried out for Br + H2 on a new global ab initio and a semi-empirical extended London-Eyring-Polanyi-Sato potential energy surface. It is shown that on the ab initio surface, the threshold energy is much lower, and the reaction probabilities, cross sections, and rate constants are much larger. The effects of the initial rovibrational excitation have also been studied. Comparison of rate constants with experimental measurement implies that the ab initio surface is more suitable for quantum dynamic calculation. The possible reasons and mechanism for the dynamical difference on the two PES are analyzed and discussed.

  13. ``Phantom'' Modes in Ab Initio Tunneling Calculations: Implications for Theoretical Materials Optimization, Tunneling, and Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabash, Sergey V.; Pramanik, Dipankar

    2015-03-01

    Development of low-leakage dielectrics for semiconductor industry, together with many other areas of academic and industrial research, increasingly rely upon ab initio tunneling and transport calculations. Complex band structure (CBS) is a powerful formalism to establish the nature of tunneling modes, providing both a deeper understanding and a guided optimization of materials, with practical applications ranging from screening candidate dielectrics for lowest ``ultimate leakage'' to identifying charge-neutrality levels and Fermi level pinning. We demonstrate that CBS is prone to a particular type of spurious ``phantom'' solution, previously deemed true but irrelevant because of a very fast decay. We demonstrate that (i) in complex materials, phantom modes may exhibit very slow decay (appearing as leading tunneling terms implying qualitative and huge quantitative errors), (ii) the phantom modes are spurious, (iii) unlike the pseudopotential ``ghost'' states, phantoms are an apparently unavoidable artifact of large numerical basis sets, (iv) a presumed increase in computational accuracy increases the number of phantoms, effectively corrupting the CBS results despite the higher accuracy achieved in resolving the true CBS modes and the real band structure, and (v) the phantom modes cannot be easily separated from the true CBS modes. We discuss implications for direct transport calculations. The strategy for dealing with the phantom states is discussed in the context of optimizing high-quality high- ? dielectric materials for decreased tunneling leakage.

  14. Scaled Quantum Mechanical scale factors for vibrational calculations using alternate polarized and augmented basis sets with the B3LYP density functional calculation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legler, C. R.; Brown, N. R.; Dunbar, R. A.; Harness, M. D.; Nguyen, K.; Oyewole, O.; Collier, W. B.

    2015-06-01

    The Scaled Quantum Mechanical (SQM) method of scaling calculated force constants to predict theoretically calculated vibrational frequencies is expanded to include a broad array of polarized and augmented basis sets based on the split valence 6-31G and 6-311G basis sets with the B3LYP density functional. Pulay's original choice of a single polarized 6-31G(d) basis coupled with a B3LYP functional remains the most computationally economical choice for scaled frequency calculations. But it can be improved upon with additional polarization functions and added diffuse functions for complex molecular systems. The new scale factors for the B3LYP density functional and the 6-31G, 6-31G(d), 6-31G(d,p), 6-31G+(d,p), 6-31G++(d,p), 6-311G, 6-311G(d), 6-311G(d,p), 6-311G+(d,p), 6-311G++(d,p), 6-311G(2d,p), 6-311G++(2d,p), 6-311G++(df,p) basis sets are shown. The double d polarized models did not perform as well and the source of the decreased accuracy was investigated. An alternate system of generating internal coordinates that uses the out-of plane wagging coordinate whenever it is possible; makes vibrational assignments via potential energy distributions more meaningful. Automated software to produce SQM scaled vibrational calculations from different molecular orbital packages is presented.

  15. Crystal structures and theoretical calculations of two peculiar compounds derived from 4-benzoyl-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xingchen; Wu, Xiaojing; Xu, Jiakun; Fan, Yuhua; Bi, Caifeng; Zhang, Xia; Zhang, Zhongyu

    2014-09-01

    A potassium coordination polymer [K2(PMBP)2(H2O)3]n·2nH2O (1) was prepared by reaction of 4-benzoyl-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one (HPMBP) with potassium hydroxide. The single crystal of the supermolecule C6H11NH3+·PMBP- (2) was then obtained by utilizing cyclohexylamine as the proton acceptor. It is a diketonate salt with an organic base where the PMBP- anions are stabilized by the intermolecular weak interactions (including hydrogen bonding, ?-? stacking interactions and Van der Waals forces), rather than by coordination to a metal centre. Geometrical parameters of the isolated PMBP- anion were optimized through quantum chemistry calculation to simulate the state without any disturbances or interactions. Comparison of geometric parameters of compound 1 with the optimized structure of PMBP- provides an approach to study weak intermolecular interactions in the crystal state. The coordination sites and the proton acceptors of hydrogen bonds predicted by theoretical calculations are consistent to the experimental results.

  16. Theoretical analysis on quantum interference effect in fast-light media

    E-print Network

    Xu, Datang; Huang, Guoxiang

    2015-01-01

    We make a systematic theoretical analysis on the quantum interference (QI) effects in various fast-light media (including gain-assisted $N$, gain-assisted ladder-I, and gain-assisted ladder-II atomic systems). We show that such fast-light media are capable of not only completely eliminating the absorption but also suppressing the gain of signal field, and hence provide the possibility to realize a stable propagation of the signal field with a superluminal velocity. We find that there is a destructive (constructive) QI effect in gain-assisted ladder-I (gain-assisted N) system, but no QI in the gain-assisted ladder-II system; furthermore, a crossover from destructive (constructive) QI to Autler-Townes splitting may occur for the gain-assisted ladder-I (gain-assisted N) system when the control field of the system is modulated. Our theoretical analysis can be applied to other multi-level systems, and the results obtained may have promising applications in optical and quantum information processing and transmissio...

  17. Synthesis, crystal structure, biological activity and theoretical calculations of novel isoxazole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Jin, R Y; Sun, X H; Liu, Y F; Long, W; Chen, B; Shen, S Q; Ma, H X

    2016-01-01

    Series of isoxazole derivatives were synthesized by substituted chalcones and 2-chloro-6-fluorobenzene formaldehyde oxime with 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The target compounds were determined by melting point, IR, (1)H NMR, elemental analyses and HRMS. The crystal structure of compound 3a was detected by X-ray diffraction and it crystallizes in the triclinic space group p2(1)/c with z=4. The molecular geometry of compound 3a was optimized using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) method with the 6-31G+(d,p) basis set in the ground state. From the optimized geometry of the molecule, FT-IR, FT-Raman, HOMO-LUMO and natural bond orbital (NBO) were calculated at B3LYP/6-31G+(d,p) level. Finally, the antifungal activity of the synthetic compounds were evaluated against Pythium solani, Gibberella nicotiancola, Fusarium oxysporium f.sp. niveum and Gibberella saubinetii. PMID:26218917

  18. Synthesis, crystal structure, biological activity and theoretical calculations of novel isoxazole derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, R. Y.; Sun, X. H.; Liu, Y. F.; Long, W.; Chen, B.; Shen, S. Q.; Ma, H. X.

    2016-01-01

    Series of isoxazole derivatives were synthesized by substituted chalcones and 2-chloro-6-fluorobenzene formaldehyde oxime with 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The target compounds were determined by melting point, IR, 1H NMR, elemental analyses and HRMS. The crystal structure of compound 3a was detected by X-ray diffraction and it crystallizes in the triclinic space group p2(1)/c with z = 4. The molecular geometry of compound 3a was optimized using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) method with the 6-31G+(d,p) basis set in the ground state. From the optimized geometry of the molecule, FT-IR, FT-Raman, HOMO-LUMO and natural bond orbital (NBO) were calculated at B3LYP/6-31G+(d,p) level. Finally, the antifungal activity of the synthetic compounds were evaluated against Pythium solani, Gibberella nicotiancola, Fusarium oxysporium f.sp. niveum and Gibberella saubinetii.

  19. Efficient calculation of molecular configurational entropies using an information theoretic approximation

    PubMed Central

    King, Bracken M.; Silver, Nathaniel W.; Tidor, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Accurate computation of free energy changes upon molecular binding remains a challenging problem, and changes in configurational entropy are especially difficult due both to the potentially large numbers of local minima, anharmonicity, and high-order coupling among degrees of freedom. Here we propose a new method to compute molecular entropies based on the maximum information spanning tree (MIST) approximation that we have previously developed. Estimates of high-order couplings using only low-order terms provide excellent convergence properties, and the theory is also guaranteed to bound the entropy. The theory is presented together with applications to the calculation of the entropies of a variety of small molecules and the binding entropy change for a series of HIV protease inhibitors. The MIST framework developed here is demonstrated to compare favorably with results computed using the related mutual information expansion (MIE) approach, and an analysis of similarities between the methods is presented. PMID:22229789

  20. Calculation of stress intensity factors in an isotropic multicracked plate. Part 1: Theoretical development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binienda, W. K.; Arnold, S. M.; Tan, H. Q.

    1992-01-01

    An essential part of describing the damage state and predicting the damage growth in a multicracked plate is the accurate calculation of stress intensity factors (SIF's). Here, a methodology and rigorous solution formulation for SIF's of a multicracked plate, with fully interacting cracks, subjected to a far-field arbitrary stress state is presented. The fundamental perturbation problem is derived, and the steps needed to formulate the system of singular integral equations whose solution gives rise to the evaluation of the SIF's are identified. This analytical derivation and numerical solution are obtained by using intelligent application of symbolic computations and automatic FORTRAN generation capabilities (described in the second part of this paper). As a result, a symbolic/FORTRAN package, named SYMFRAC, that is capable of providing accurate SIF's at each crack tip was developed and validated.

  1. Theoretical studies of optical gain tuning by hydrostatic pressure in GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Gladysiewicz, M.; Wartak, M. S.; Kudrawiec, R.

    2014-01-21

    In order to describe theoretically the tuning of the optical gain by hydrostatic pressure in GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells (QWs), the optical gain calculations within kp approach were developed and applied for N-containing and N-free QWs. The electronic band structure and the optical gain for GaInNAs/GaAs QW were calculated within the 10-band kp model which takes into account the interaction of electron levels in the QW with the nitrogen resonant level in GaInNAs. It has been shown that this interaction increases with the hydrostatic pressure and as a result the optical gain for GaInNAs/GaAs QW decreases by about 40% and 80% for transverse electric and transverse magnetic modes, respectively, for the hydrostatic pressure change from 0 to 40 kilobars. Such an effect is not observed for N-free QWs where the dispersion of electron and hole energies remains unchanged with the hydrostatic pressure. This is due to the fact that the conduction and valence band potentials in GaInAs/GaAs QW scale linearly with the hydrostatic pressure.

  2. Molecular dynamics of water in foods and related model systems: multinuclear spin relaxation studies and comparison with theoretical calculations.

    PubMed

    Baianu, I C; Kumosinski, T F; Bechtel, P J; Mora, A; Kakalis, L T; Yakubu, P; Myers-Betts, P; Wei, T C

    1991-01-01

    A review of recent studies of molecular dynamics of water in foods and model systems is presented, and the theoretical results are compared with experimental data obtained by several techniques. Both theoretical and experimental approaches are discussed for electrolytes, carbohydrates, and food proteins in solution. Theoretical results from Monte Carlo simulations are compared with experimental NMR relaxation data for quadrupolar nuclei such as those of deuterium and oxygen-17. Hydration studies of wheat, soybean, corn, and myofibrillar proteins by multinuclear spin relaxation techniques are discussed, and several new approaches to the analysis of the experimental data are considered. Correlation times of water motions in hydrated food systems are determined from NMR and dielectric relaxation data. The values of the correlation times for dilute solutions of electrolytes and carbohydrates estimated by NMR are in good agreement with those calculated from dielectric relaxation data, but seem to differ significantly from those proposed from Monte Carlo simulations. Several new and important results concerning the hydration of potato and cereal starches are presented, showing the very different hydration behaviors of these two major groups of starches. The combination of molecular dynamics computations with NMR relaxation techniques will hopefully stimulate novel technological developments in food engineering based on such fundamental studies. PMID:1746348

  3. Analysis and calculation of electronic properties and light absorption of defective sulfur-doped silicon and theoretical photoelectric conversion efficiency.

    PubMed

    Jiang, He; Chen, Changshui

    2015-04-23

    Most material properties can be traced to electronic structures. Black silicon produced from SF6 or sulfur powder via irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses displays decreased infrared absorption after annealing, with almost no corresponding change in visible light absorption. The high-intensity laser pulses destroy the original crystal structure, and the doping element changes the material performance. In this work, the structural and electronic properties of several sulfur-doped silicon systems are investigated using first principle calculations. Depending on the sulfur concentration (level of doping) and the behavior of the sulfur atoms in the silicon lattice, different states or an absence of states are exhibited, compared with the undoped system. Moreover, the visible-infrared light absorption intensities are structure specific. The results of our theoretical calculations show that the conversion efficiency of sulfur-doped silicon solar cells depends on the sulfur concentrations. Additionally, two types of defect configurations exhibit light absorption characteristics that differ from the other configurations. These two structures produce a rapid increase in the theoretical photoelectric conversion efficiency in the range of the specific chemical potential studied. By controlling the positions of the atomic sulfur and the sulfur concentration in the preparation process, an efficient photovoltaic (PV) material may be obtainable. PMID:25798659

  4. Theoretical investigation of lead vapor adsorption on kaolinite surfaces with DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinye; Huang, Yaji; Pan, Zhigang; Wang, Yongxing; Liu, Changqi

    2015-09-15

    Kaolinite can be used as the in-furnace sorbent/additive to adsorb lead (Pb) vapor at high temperature. In this paper, the adsorptions of Pb atom, PbO molecule and PbCl2 molecule on kaolinie surfaces were investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculation. Si surface is inert to Pb vapor adsorption while Al surfaces with dehydroxylation are active for the unsaturated Al atoms and the O atoms losing H atoms. The adsorption energy of PbO is much higher than that of Pb atom and PbCl2. Considering the energy barriers, it is easy for PbO and PbCl2 to adsorb on Al surfaces but difficult to escape. The high energy barriers of de-HCl process cause the difficulties of PbCl2 to form PbO·Al2O3·2SiO2 with kaolinite. Considering the inertia of Si atoms and the activity of Al atoms after dehydroxylation, calcination, acid/alkali treatment and some other treatment aiming at amorphous silica producing and Al activity enhancement can be used as the modification measures to improve the performance of kaolinite as the in-furnace metal capture sorbent. PMID:25880048

  5. Structural determination of vanillin, isovanillin and ethylvanillin by means of gas electron diffraction and theoretical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egawa, Toru; Kameyama, Akiyo; Takeuchi, Hiroshi

    2006-08-01

    The molecular structures of vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde), isovanillin (3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde) and ethylvanillin (3-ethoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde) were determined by means of gas electron diffraction. Among them, vanillin and ethylvanillin have a vanilla odor but isovanillin smells differently. The nozzle temperatures were 125, 173 and 146 °C, for vanillin, isovanillin and ethylvanillin, respectively. The results of MP2 and B3LYP calculations with the 6-31G** basis set were used as supporting information. The MP2 calculations predicted that vanillin and isovanillin have two stable conformers and ethylvanillin has four stable conformers. The electron diffraction data were found to be consistent with these conformational compositions. The determined structural parameters ( rg and ? ?) of vanillin are as follows: < r(C-C) ring>=1.397(4) Å; r(C 1-C aldehyde)=1.471(?) Å; r(C 3-O Me)=1.374(9) Å; r(C 4-O H)=1.361(?) Å; r(O-C Me)=1.428(?) Å; r(C dbnd6 O)=1.214(8) Å; < r(C-H)>=1.110(11) Å; r(O-H)=0.991(?) Å; ?C 6-C 1-C 2=120.6(2)°; ?C 1-C 2-C 3=118.8(?)°; ?C 1-C 6-C 5=120.1(?)°; ?C 2-C 1-C aldehyde=122.7(18)°; ?C 1-C dbnd6 O=119.4(16)°; ?C 4-C 3-O Me=112.2(12)°; ?C 3-C 4-O H=119.1(?)°; ?C 3-O-C=121.7(29)°. Those of isovanillin are as follows: < r(C-C) ring>=1.402(4) Å; r(C 1-C aldehyde)=1.479(?) Å; r(C 4-O Me)=1.369(9) Å; r(C 3-O H)=1.357(?) Å; r(O-C Me)=1.422(?) Å; r(C dbnd6 O)=1.221(9) Å; < r(C-H)>=1.114(14) Å; r(O-H)=0.995(?) Å; ?C 6-C 1-C 2=120.2(3)°; ?C 1-C 2-C 3=119.0(?)°; ?C 1-C 6-C 5=119.9(?)°; ?C 2-C 1-C aldehyde=124.6(25)°; ?C 1-C dbnd6 O=121.3(24)°; ?C 3-C 4-O Me=114.4(12)°; ?C 4-C 3-O H=121.2(?)°; ?C 4-O-C=123.8(26)°. Those of ethylvanillin are as follows: < r(C-C) ring>=1.397(6) Å; r(C 1-C aldehyde)=1.471(?) Å; r(C 3-O Et)=1.365(13) Å; r(C 4-O H)=1.352(?) Å; r(O-C Et)=1.427(?) Å; r(C-C Et)=1.494(21) Å; r(C dbnd6 O)=1.206(9) Å; < r(C-H)>=1.109(10) Å; r(O-H)=0.990(?) Å; ?C 6-C 1-C 2=120.2(3)°; ?C 1-C 2-C 3=118.4(?)°; ?C 1-C 6-C 5=119.7(?)°; ?C 2-C 1-C aldehyde=121.7(21)°; ?C 1-C dbnd6 O=128.8(22)°; ?C 4-C 3-O Et=112.8(14)°; ?C 3-C 4-O H=119.6(?)°; ?C 3-O-C=115.1(27)°; ?O-C-C Et=102.7(28)°. Angle brackets denote average values; parenthesized values are the estimated limits of error (3 ?) referring to the last significant digit; left arrows in the parentheses mean that these parameters are bound to the preceding one.

  6. Predicting Crystal Structures with Data Mining of Quantum Calculations Stefano Curtarolo,1

    E-print Network

    Curtarolo, Stefano

    Predicting Crystal Structures with Data Mining of Quantum Calculations Stefano Curtarolo,1 Dane studying a new system. This can be contrasted with data-centered methods, which mine existing data obtained from results already collected on other systems. We refer to this approach as data-mining

  7. Quantifying Desorption of Saturated Hydrocarbons from Silicon with Quantum Calculations and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    E-print Network

    Seideman, Tamar

    function, such as current-driven molecular machines [9], switches, or rectifiers [11]. Previous work hasQuantifying Desorption of Saturated Hydrocarbons from Silicon with Quantum Calculations hydrocarbon on silicon, desorption is observed at bias magnitudes as low as 2.5 V, albeit the desorption

  8. Quantum mechanical calculation of resonance tunneling in acetylene isomerization via the vinylidene intermediate

    E-print Network

    Miller, William H.

    Quantum mechanical calculation of resonance tunneling in acetylene isomerization via the vinylidene for the acetylene isomerization reaction have been computed using the direct cumulative reaction probability resonances are found in the isomerization rate. Little coupling is found between the CH2 rock reaction

  9. Young’s modulus calculations for cellulose Iß by MM3 and quantum mechanics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantum mechanics (QM) and molecular mechanics (MM) calculations were performed to elucidate Young’s moduli for a series of cellulose Iß models. Computations using the second generation empirical force field MM3 with a disaccharide cellulose model, 1,4'-O-dimethyl-ß-cellobioside (DMCB), and an analo...

  10. Multiconfigurational nuclear-electronic orbital approach: Incorporation of nuclear quantum effects in electronic structure calculations

    E-print Network

    Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    Multiconfigurational nuclear-electronic orbital approach: Incorporation of nuclear quantum effects 26 March 2002; accepted 30 May 2002 The nuclear-electronic orbital NEO method for the calculation of mixed nuclear-electronic wave functions is presented. Both electronic and nuclear molecular orbitals

  11. Phenol-benzene complexation dynamics: Quantum chemistry calculation, molecular dynamics simulations, and two dimensional IR spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Phenol-benzene complexation dynamics: Quantum chemistry calculation, molecular dynamics simulations the nature and dynamics of the phenol-benzene complex in the mixed solvent, benzene/CCl4. Under thermal used for the phenol-benzene interaction in the MD simulations is in good accord with the highest level

  12. Quantum-mechanical calculations of the stabilities of fluxional isomers of C4H7 in solution

    E-print Network

    Goddard III, William A.

    Quantum-mechanical calculations of the stabilities of fluxional isomers of C4H7 in solution Joseph calculations have been made over the years of the stabilities of the fluxional isomers of C4H7 , none have been

  13. Magnetic coupling constants of self-assembled Cu(II) [3×3] grids: alternative spin model from theoretical calculations.

    PubMed

    Calzado, Carmen J; Ben Amor, Nadia; Maynau, Daniel

    2014-07-14

    This paper reports a theoretical analysis of the electronic structure and magnetic properties of a ferromagnetic Cu(II) [3×3] grid. A two-step strategy, combining calculations on the whole grid and on binuclear fragments, has been employed to evaluate all the magnetic interactions in the grid. The calculations confirm an S = 7/2 ground state, which is in accordance with the magnetisation versus field curve and the thermal dependence of the magnetic moment data. Only the first-neighbour coupling terms present non-negligible amplitudes, all of them in agreement with the structure and arrangement of the Cu 3d magnetic orbitals. The results indicate that the dominant interaction in the system is the antiferromagnetic coupling between the ring and the central Cu sites (J3 = J4 ? -31?cm(-1)). In the ring two different interactions can be distinguished, J1 = 4.6?cm(-1) and J2 = -0.1?cm(-1), in contrast to the single J model employed in the magnetic data fit. The calculated J values have been used to determine the energy level distribution of the Heisenberg magnetic states. The effective magnetic moment versus temperature plot resulting from this ab initio energy profile is in good agreement with the experimental curve and the fitting obtained with the simplified spin model, despite the differences between these two spin models. This study underlines the role that the theoretical evaluations of the coupling constants can play on the rationalisation of the magnetic properties of these complex polynuclear systems. PMID:24965865

  14. Quantum Monte Carlo calculation of the binding energy of the beryllium dimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deible, Michael J.; Kessler, Melody; Gasperich, Kevin E.; Jordan, Kenneth D.

    2015-08-01

    The accurate calculation of the binding energy of the beryllium dimer is a challenging theoretical problem. In this study, the binding energy of Be2 is calculated using the diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) method, using single Slater determinant and multiconfigurational trial functions. DMC calculations using single-determinant trial wave functions of orbitals obtained from density functional theory calculations overestimate the binding energy, while DMC calculations using Hartree-Fock or CAS(4,8), complete active space trial functions significantly underestimate the binding energy. In order to obtain an accurate value of the binding energy of Be2 from DMC calculations, it is necessary to employ trial functions that include excitations outside the valence space. Our best estimate DMC result for the binding energy of Be2, obtained by using configuration interaction trial functions and extrapolating in the threshold for the configurations retained in the trial function, is 908 cm-1, only slightly below the 935 cm-1 value derived from experiment.

  15. Comparison of Hugoniots calculated for aluminum in the framework of three quantum-statistical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadatskiy, M. A.; Khishchenko, K. V.

    2015-11-01

    The results of calculations of thermodynamic properties of aluminum under shock compression in the framework of the Thomas-Fermi model, the Thomas-Fermi model with quantum and exchange corrections and the Hartree-Fock-Slater model are presented. The influences of the thermal motion and the interaction of ions are taken into account in the framework of three models: the ideal gas, the one-component plasma and the charged hard spheres. Calculations are performed in the pressure range from 1 to 107 GPa. Calculated Hugoniots are compared with available experimental data.

  16. Comparison of Hugoniots calculated for aluminum in the framework of three quantum-statistical models

    E-print Network

    Kadatskiy, Maxim A

    2015-01-01

    The results of calculations of thermodynamic properties of aluminum under shock compression in the framework of the Thomas--Fermi model, the Thomas--Fermi model with quantum and exchange corrections and the Hartree--Fock--Slater model are presented. The influences of the thermal motion and the interaction of ions are taken into account in the framework of three models: the ideal gas, the one-component plasma and the charged hard spheres. Calculations are performed in the pressure range from 1 to $10^7$ GPa. Calculated Hugoniots are compared with available experimental data.

  17. Structural properties and quantum effects in protonated helium clusters. II. Quantum Monte Carlo calculations for the smaller aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balta, B.; Gianturco, F. A.; Paesani, F.

    2000-04-01

    The computed interaction potential energy surface between an He atom and the ionic core unit (HHe 2) +, discussed in the preceding paper, is employed here to analyse the structures of the protonated, small clusters of He, and to evaluate the effects of quantum behaviour on the results reached in previous dynamical calculations carried out using ab initio classical dynamics. The method of the present analysis involves numerical solutions of diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) equations via random walk techniques and allows us to extract global minimum energy configurations for the quantum ground-states of the smaller clusters. The values of the zero point energy, the effect of competitive growth dynamics between various configurations and the evidence for the presence of clear shell structures in the protonated clusters are among the features from the present DMC calculations, which we discuss in this work.

  18. Theoretical calculations for structural, elastic, and thermodynamic properties of RuN{sub 2} under high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Bing; Zhou, Xiao-Lin E-mail: lkworld@126.com; Chang, Jing; Liu, Ke E-mail: lkworld@126.com

    2014-08-07

    The structural and elastic properties of RuN{sub 2} were investigated through the first-principles calculation using generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and local density approximation (LDA) within the plane-wave pseudopotential density functional theory. The obtained equilibrium structure and mechanical properties are in excellent agreement with other theoretical results. Then we compared the elastic modulus of RuN{sub 2} with several other isomorphic noble metal nitrides. Results show that RuN{sub 2} can nearly rival with OsN{sub 2} and IrN{sub 2}, which indicate RuN{sub 2} is a potentially ultra-incompressible and hard material. By the elastic stability criteria, it is predicted that RuN{sub 2} is stable in our calculations (0–100?GPa). The calculated B/G ratios indicate that RuN{sub 2} possesses brittle nature at 0?GPa and when the pressure increases to 13.4?GPa (for LDA) or 20.8?GPa (for GGA), it begins to prone to ductility. Through the quasi-harmonic Debye model, we also investigated the thermodynamic properties of RuN{sub 2}.

  19. A new theoretical method for calculating temperature and water vapor saturation ratio in an expansion cloud chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moteki, Nobuhiro; Kondo, Yutaka

    2013-06-01

    The expansion cloud chamber is a widely used apparatus for investigating the dynamics of condensational growth of aerosols and clouds. Theoretical calculations of temperature T and water vapor saturation ratio S are necessary for quantitative interpretations of experimental data obtained from the expansion cloud chamber. In this paper, we revisit the thermodynamics associated with the underlying assumptions for calculating the time-dependent temperature T(t) and saturation ratio S(t) in an expansion chamber as a function of experimentally observable parameters. We introduce an intuitive and robust method, the virtual path (VP) method, by which changes in the thermodynamic state of a moist air parcel containing cloud droplets are schematically represented on a thermodynamic diagram. The validity of the VP method is confirmed by comparisons with the differential equation (DE) method, which is a numerical simulation of real physical processes according to the time evolution equations involving T and S. In contrast to the conventional DE method, the governing equations of the VP method do not involve time t, an irrelevant parameter in the framework of classical thermodynamics. The VP method is advantageous compared to the DE method because the former is applicable to the raw experimental data acquired with a finite time resolution, allowing a robust calculation of the T and S values and the errors that are only caused by the measurement errors of the input data.

  20. Fragment quantum chemical approach to geometry optimization and vibrational spectrum calculation of proteins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinfeng; Zhang, John Z H; He, Xiao

    2016-01-21

    Geometry optimization and vibrational spectra (infrared and Raman spectra) calculations of proteins are carried out by a quantum chemical approach using the EE-GMFCC (electrostatically embedded generalized molecular fractionation with conjugate caps) method (J. Phys. Chem. A, 2013, 117, 7149). The first and second derivatives of the EE-GMFCC energy are derived and employed in geometry optimization and vibrational frequency calculations for several test systems, including a polypeptide ((GLY)6), an ?-helix (AKA), a ?-sheet (Trpzip2) and ubiquitin (76 residues with 1231 atoms). Comparison of the present results with those obtained from full system QM (quantum mechanical) calculations shows that the EE-GMFCC approach can give accurate molecular geometries, vibrational frequencies and vibrational intensities. The EE-GMFCC method is also employed to simulate the amide I vibration of proteins, which has been widely used for the analysis of peptide and protein structures, and the results are in good agreement with the experimental observations. PMID:26686896

  1. Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of the thermal conductivity of neutron star crusts

    E-print Network

    Sajad Abbar; Joe Carlson; Huaiyu Duan; Sanjay Reddy

    2015-10-09

    We use the quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) techniques to calculate the static structure function $S(q)$ of a one-component ion lattice and use it to calculate the thermal conductivity $\\kappa$ of high-density solid matter expected in the neutron star crust. By making detailed comparisons with the results for the thermal conductivity obtained using standard techniques based on the one-phonon approximation (OPA) valid at low temperature, and the multi-phonon harmonic approximation expected to be valid over a wide range of temperatures, we asses the temperature regime where $S(q)$ from QMC can be used directly to calculate $\\kappa$. We also compare the QMC results to those obtained using classical Monte Carlo to quantitatively asses the magnitude of the quantum corrections. We find that quantum effects became relevant for the calculation of $\\kappa$ at temperature $T \\lesssim 0.3 ~\\Omega_\\mathrm{P}$, where $\\Omega_\\mathrm{P}$ is the ion plasma frequency. At $T \\simeq 0.1 ~\\Omega_\\mathrm{P}$ the quantum effects suppress $\\kappa$ by about $30\\%$. The comparison with the results of the OPA indicates that dynamical information beyond the static structure is needed when $T \\lesssim 0.1~ \\Omega_\\mathrm{P}$. These quantitative comparisons help to establish QMC as a viable technique to calculate $\\kappa$ at moderate temperatures in the range $T=0.1-1~\\Omega_\\mathrm{P}$ of relevance to the study of accreting neutron stars. This finding is especially important because QMC is the only viable technique so far for calculating $\\kappa$ in multi-component systems at low-temperatures.

  2. Quantum Humor: The Playful Side of Physics at Bohr's Institute for Theoretical Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, Paul

    2012-09-01

    From the 1930s to the 1950s, a period of pivotal developments in quantum, nuclear, and particle physics, physicists at Niels Bohr's Institute for Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen took time off from their research to write humorous articles, letters, and other works. Best known is the Blegdamsvej Faust, performed in April 1932 at the close of one of the Institute's annual conferences. I also focus on the Journal of Jocular Physics, a humorous tribute to Bohr published on the occasions of his 50th, 60th, and 70th birthdays in 1935, 1945, and 1955. Contributors included Léon Rosenfeld, Victor Weisskopf, George Gamow, Oskar Klein, and Hendrik Casimir. I examine their contributions along with letters and other writings to show that they offer a window into some issues in physics at the time, such as the interpretation of complementarity and the nature of the neutrino, as well as the politics of the period.

  3. Field-theoretical Study of the Bose Polaron - Challenges for Quantum Simulation with ultracold Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Richard; Rath, Steffen Patrick

    2014-03-01

    We study the properties of the Bose polaron, an impurity strongly interacting with a Bose-Einstein condensate, using a field-theoretic approach and make predictions for the spectral function and various quasiparticle properties that can be tested in experiment. We find that most of the spectral weight is contained in a coherent attractive and a metastable repulsive polaron branch. We show that the qualitative behavior of the Bose polaron is well described by a non-selfconsistent T-matrix approximation by comparing analytical results to numerical data obtained from a fully selfconsistent T-matrix approach. The latter takes into account an infinite number of bosons excited from the condensate. Finally we discuss the implications of our results for the attempted quantum simulation of the Froehlich Hamiltonian using ultracold atoms.

  4. Field-theoretical Study of the Bose Polaron - Challenges for Quantum Simulation with ultracold Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Richard; Rath, Steffen Patrick

    2014-05-01

    We study the properties of the Bose polaron, an impurity strongly interacting with a Bose-Einstein condensate, using a field-theoretic approach and make predictions for the spectral function and various quasiparticle properties that can be tested in experiment. We find that most of the spectral weight is contained in a coherent attractive and a metastable repulsive polaron branch. We show that the qualitative behavior of the Bose polaron is well described by a non-selfconsistent T-matrix approximation by comparing analytical results to numerical data obtained from a fully selfconsistent T-matrix approach. The latter takes into account an infinite number of bosons excited from the condensate. Finally we discuss the implications of our results for the attempted quantum simulation of the Froehlich Hamiltonian using ultracold atoms.

  5. Quantum dot properties in the multiband envelope-function approximation using boundary conditions based upon first-principles quantum calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flory, Curt A.; Musgrave, Charles B.; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2008-05-01

    A number of physical processes involving quantum dots depend critically upon the “evanescent” electron eigenstate wave function that extends outside of the material surface into the surrounding region. These processes include electron tunneling through quantum dots, as well as interactions between multiple quantum dot structures. In order to unambiguously determine these evanescent fields, appropriate boundary conditions have been developed to connect the electronic solutions interior to the semiconductor quantum dot to exterior vacuum solutions. In standard envelope function theory, the interior wave function consists of products of band edge and envelope functions, and both must be considered when matching to the external solution. While the envelope functions satisfy tractable equations, the band edge functions are generally not known. In this work, symmetry arguments in the spherically symmetric approximation are used in conjunction with the known qualitative behavior of bonding and antibonding orbitals to catalog the behavior of the band edge functions at the unit cell boundary. This physical approximation allows consolidation of the influence of the band edge functions to two simple surface parameters that are incorporated into the boundary conditions and are straightforwardly computed by using numerical first-principles quantum techniques. These new boundary conditions are employed to analyze an isolated spherically symmetric semiconductor quantum dot in vacuum within the analytical model of Sercel and Vahala [Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 239 (1990); Phys. Rev. B 42, 3690 (1990)]. Results are obtained for quantum dots made of GaAs and InP, which are compared with ab initio calculations that have appeared in the literature.

  6. The potential, limitations, and challenges of divide and conquer quantum electronic structure calculations on energetic materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, Jon R.; Magyar, Rudolph J.

    2012-02-01

    High explosives are an important class of energetic materials used in many weapons applications. Even with modern computers, the simulation of the dynamic chemical reactions and energy release is exceedingly challenging. While the scale of the detonation process may be macroscopic, the dynamic bond breaking responsible for the explosive release of energy is fundamentally quantum mechanical. Thus, any method that does not adequately describe bonding is destined to lack predictive capability on some level. Performing quantum mechanics calculations on systems with more than dozens of atoms is a gargantuan task, and severe approximation schemes must be employed in practical calculations. We have developed and tested a divide and conquer (DnC) scheme to obtain total energies, forces, and harmonic frequencies within semi-empirical quantum mechanics. The method is intended as an approximate but faster solution to the full problem and is possible due to the sparsity of the density matrix in many applications. The resulting total energy calculation scales linearly as the number of subsystems, and the method provides a path-forward to quantum mechanical simulations of millions of atoms.

  7. Shock Hugoniot calculations of polymers using quantum mechanics and molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Chantawansri, Tanya L; Sirk, Timothy W; Byrd, Edward F C; Andzelm, Jan W; Rice, Betsy M

    2012-11-28

    Using quantum mechanics (QM) and classical force-field based molecular dynamics (FF), we have calculated the principle shock Hugoniot curves for numerous amorphous polymers including poly[methyl methacrylate] (PMMA), poly[styrene], polycarbonate, as well as both the amorphous and crystalline forms of poly[ethylene]. In the FF calculations, we considered a non-reactive force field (i.e., polymer consistent FF). The QM calculations were performed with density functional theory (DFT) using dispersion corrected atom centered pseudopotentials. Overall, results obtained by DFT show much better agreement with available experimental data than classical force fields. In particular, DFT calculated Hugoniot curves for PMMA up to 74 GPa are in very good agreement with experimental data, where a preliminary study of chain fracture and association was also performed. Structure analysis calculations of the radius of gyration and carbon-carbon radial distribution function were also carried out to elucidate contraction of the polymer chains with increasing pressure. PMID:23206025

  8. Electron-ion recombination of Fe{sup 12+} forming Fe{sup 11+}: Laboratory measurements and theoretical calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, M.; Novotný, O.; Savin, D. W.; Badnell, N. R.; Grieser, M.; Krantz, C.; Repnow, R.; Wolf, A.; Lestinsky, M.; Müller, A.; Schippers, S.

    2014-06-10

    We have measured dielectronic recombination (DR) for Fe{sup 12+} forming Fe{sup 11+} using the heavy ion storage ring TSR located at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Germany. Using our results, we have calculated a plasma rate coefficient from these data that can be used for modeling astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. For the low temperatures characteristic of photoionized plasmas, the experimentally derived rate coefficient is orders of magnitude larger than the previously recommended atomic data. The existing atomic data were also about 40% smaller than our measurements at temperatures relevant for collisionally ionized plasmas. Recent state-of-the-art theory has difficulty reproducing the detailed energy dependence of the DR spectrum. However, for the Maxwellian plasma rate coefficient, recent theoretical results agree with our measurements to within about 30% for both photoionized and collisionally ionized plasmas.

  9. On the controversial fitting of susceptibility curves of ferromagnetic Cu(II) cubanes: insights from theoretical calculations.

    PubMed

    Calzado, Carmen J

    2013-01-21

    This paper reports a theoretical analysis of the electronic structure and magnetic properties of a tetranuclear Cu(II) complex, [Cu(4) (HL)(4)], which has a 4+2 cubane-like structure (H(3) L=N,N'-(2-hydroxypropane-1,3-diyl)bis(acetylacetoneimine)). These theoretical calculations indicate a quintet (S=2) ground state; the energy-level distribution of the magnetic states confirm Heisenberg behaviour and correspond to an S(4) spin-spin interaction model. The dominant interaction is the ferromagnetic coupling between the pseudo-dimeric units (J(1) =22.2 cm(-1)), whilst a weak and ferromagnetic interaction is found within the pseudo-dimeric units (J(2) =1.4 cm(-1)). The amplitude and sign of these interactions are consistent with the structure and arrangement of the magnetic Cu 3d orbitals; they accurately simulate the thermal dependence of magnetic susceptibility, but do not agree with the reported J values (J(1) =38.4 cm(-1), J(2) =-18.0 cm(-1)) that result from the experimental fitting. This result is not an isolated case; many other polynuclear systems, in particular 4+2 Cu(II) cubanes, have been reported in which the fitted magnetic terms are not consistent with the geometrical features of the system. In this context, theoretical evaluation can be considered as a valuable tool in the interpretation of the macroscopic behaviour, thus providing clues for a rational and directed design of new materials with specific properties. PMID:23239096

  10. Structural determination of carvone, a component of spearmint, by means of gas electron diffraction augmented by theoretical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egawa, Toru; Kachi, Yukari; Takeshima, Tsuguhide; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Konaka, Shigehiro

    2003-10-01

    The molecular structure and conformation of carvone, a compound with a minty odor, were investigated by means of gas electron diffraction supported by theoretical calculations. Electron diffraction patterns were recorded by heating the nozzle up to 128 °C to obtain enough scattering intensity. The infrared spectrum was also measured by using an absorption cell with a path length of 10 m. The obtained molecular scattering intensities were analyzed with the aid of theoretical calculations and infrared spectroscopy. It was revealed that the experimental data are well reproduced by assuming that carvone consists of a mixture of three conformers that have the isopropenyl group in the equatorial position and mutually differ in the torsional angle around the single bond connecting the ring and the isopropenyl group. It was also found that the puckering amplitude of the ring of carvone is close to those of menthol and isomenthol, a minty compound and its nonminty isomer. The determined structural parameters ( rg and ? ?) of the most abundant conformer of carvone are as follows: < r(C-C)>=1.520(3) Å; < r(C?C)>=1.360(5) Å; r(C?O)=1.225(5) Å; < r(C-H)>=1.104(4)Å; =121.1(5)°; =110.4(5)°; ?C-CO-C=117.1(14)°; =111.1(13)°. Angle brackets denote average values and parenthesized values are the estimated limits of error (3 ?) referring to the last significant digit.

  11. Systematic study of finite-size effects in quantum Monte Carlo calculations of real metallic systems.

    PubMed

    Azadi, Sam; Foulkes, W M C

    2015-09-14

    We present a systematic and comprehensive study of finite-size effects in diffusion quantum Monte Carlo calculations of metals. Several previously introduced schemes for correcting finite-size errors are compared for accuracy and efficiency, and practical improvements are introduced. In particular, we test a simple but efficient method of finite-size correction based on an accurate combination of twist averaging and density functional theory. Our diffusion quantum Monte Carlo results for lithium and aluminum, as examples of metallic systems, demonstrate excellent agreement between all of the approaches considered. PMID:26374000

  12. Quantum Monte Carlo Calculations of Neutron Matter with Nonlocal Chiral Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roggero, Alessandro; Mukherjee, Abhishek; Pederiva, Francesco

    2014-06-01

    We present fully nonperturbative quantum Monte Carlo calculations with nonlocal chiral effective field theory (EFT) interactions for the ground-state properties of neutron matter. The equation of state, the nucleon chemical potentials, and the momentum distribution in pure neutron matter up to one and a half times the nuclear saturation density are computed with a newly optimized chiral EFT interaction at next-to-next-to-leading order. This work opens the way to systematic order by order benchmarking of chiral EFT interactions and ab initio prediction of nuclear properties while respecting the symmetries of quantum chromodynamics.

  13. Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of neutron matter with nonlocal chiral interactions.

    PubMed

    Roggero, Alessandro; Mukherjee, Abhishek; Pederiva, Francesco

    2014-06-01

    We present fully nonperturbative quantum Monte Carlo calculations with nonlocal chiral effective field theory (EFT) interactions for the ground-state properties of neutron matter. The equation of state, the nucleon chemical potentials, and the momentum distribution in pure neutron matter up to one and a half times the nuclear saturation density are computed with a newly optimized chiral EFT interaction at next-to-next-to-leading order. This work opens the way to systematic order by order benchmarking of chiral EFT interactions and ab initio prediction of nuclear properties while respecting the symmetries of quantum chromodynamics. PMID:24949752

  14. Semiclassical and quantum field theoretic bounds for traversable Lorentzian stringy wormholes

    SciTech Connect

    Nandi, Kamal Kanti; Zhang Yuanzhong; Kumar, K.B. Vijaya

    2004-09-15

    A lower bound on the size of a Lorentzian wormhole can be obtained by semiclassically introducing the Planck cutoff on the magnitude of tidal forces (Horowitz-Ross constraint). Also, an upper bound is provided by the quantum field theoretic constraint in the form of the Ford-Roman Quantum Inequality for massless minimally coupled scalar fields. To date, however, exact static solutions belonging to this scalar field theory have not been worked out to verify these bounds. To fill this gap, we examine the wormhole features of two examples from the Einstein frame description of the vacuum low energy string theory in four dimensions which is the same as the minimally coupled scalar field theory. Analyses in this paper support the conclusion of Ford and Roman that wormholes in this theory can have sizes that are indeed only a few order of magnitudes larger than the Planck scale. It is shown that the two types of bounds are also compatible. In the process, we point out a 'wormhole' analog of naked black holes.

  15. Information-theoretic security proof for quantum-key-distribution protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Renner, Renato; Gisin, Nicolas; Kraus, Barbara

    2005-07-15

    We present a technique for proving the security of quantum-key-distribution (QKD) protocols. It is based on direct information-theoretic arguments and thus also applies if no equivalent entanglement purification scheme can be found. Using this technique, we investigate a general class of QKD protocols with one-way classical post-processing. We show that, in order to analyze the full security of these protocols, it suffices to consider collective attacks. Indeed, we give new lower and upper bounds on the secret-key rate which only involve entropies of two-qubit density operators and which are thus easy to compute. As an illustration of our results, we analyze the Bennett-Brassard 1984, the six-state, and the Bennett 1992 protocols with one-way error correction and privacy amplification. Surprisingly, the performance of these protocols is increased if one of the parties adds noise to the measurement data before the error correction. In particular, this additional noise makes the protocols more robust against noise in the quantum channel.

  16. Quantum calculation of protein NMR chemical shifts based on the automated fragmentation method.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tong; Zhang, John Z H; He, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    The performance of quantum mechanical methods on the calculation of protein NMR chemical shifts is reviewed based on the recently developed automatic fragmentation quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (AF-QM/MM) approach. By using the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) model and first solvation water molecules, the influence of solvent effect is also discussed. Benefiting from the fragmentation algorithm, the AF-QM/MM approach is computationally efficient, linear-scaling with a low pre-factor, and thus can be applied to routinely calculate the ab initio NMR chemical shifts for proteins of any size. The results calculated using Density Functional Theory (DFT) show that when the solvent effect is included, this method can accurately reproduce the experimental ¹H NMR chemical shifts, while the ¹³C NMR chemical shifts are less affected by the solvent. However, although the inclusion of solvent effect shows significant improvement for ¹?N chemical shifts, the calculated values still have large deviations from the experimental observations. Our study further demonstrates that AF-QM/MM calculated results accurately reflect the dependence of ¹³C(?) NMR chemical shifts on the secondary structure of proteins, and the calculated ¹H chemical shift can be utilized to discriminate the native structure of proteins from decoys. PMID:25387959

  17. Calculation of the one-point Green's function for a -g?4 quantum field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Carl M.; Meisinger, Peter N.; Yang, Haitang

    2001-02-01

    It has recently been shown that, when properly defined, a -gx4 potential in quantum mechanics possesses a positive definite spectrum. The positivity of the spectrum is apparently due to the PT symmetry of the Hamiltonian. Furthermore, for such a theory the expectation value is not zero. This paper extends these results to a -g?4 quantum field theory in D-dimensional Euclidean space. The value of the one-point Green's function G1= in this field theory is calculated in the weak-coupling and strong-coupling regimes. Nonperturbative techniques must be used in both of these regimes. For small g, the value of G1 is dominated by a classical soliton. Strong-coupling graphical methods are used to calculate G1 for large g.

  18. A Theoretical Mechanism of Szilard Engine Function in Nucleic Acids and the Implications for Quantum Coherence in Biological Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew Mihelic, F.

    2010-12-22

    Nucleic acids theoretically possess a Szilard engine function that can convert the energy associated with the Shannon entropy of molecules for which they have coded recognition, into the useful work of geometric reconfiguration of the nucleic acid molecule. This function is logically reversible because its mechanism is literally and physically constructed out of the information necessary to reduce the Shannon entropy of such molecules, which means that this information exists on both sides of the theoretical engine, and because information is retained in the geometric degrees of freedom of the nucleic acid molecule, a quantum gate is formed through which multi-state nucleic acid qubits can interact. Entangled biophotons emitted as a consequence of symmetry breaking nucleic acid Szilard engine (NASE) function can be used to coordinate relative positioning of different nucleic acid locations, both within and between cells, thus providing the potential for quantum coherence of an entire biological system. Theoretical implications of understanding biological systems as such 'quantum adaptive systems' include the potential for multi-agent based quantum computing, and a better understanding of systemic pathologies such as cancer, as being related to a loss of systemic quantum coherence.

  19. A Theoretical Mechanism of Szilard Engine Function in Nucleic Acids and the Implications for Quantum Coherence in Biological Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthew Mihelic, F.

    2010-12-01

    Nucleic acids theoretically possess a Szilard engine function that can convert the energy associated with the Shannon entropy of molecules for which they have coded recognition, into the useful work of geometric reconfiguration of the nucleic acid molecule. This function is logically reversible because its mechanism is literally and physically constructed out of the information necessary to reduce the Shannon entropy of such molecules, which means that this information exists on both sides of the theoretical engine, and because information is retained in the geometric degrees of freedom of the nucleic acid molecule, a quantum gate is formed through which multi-state nucleic acid qubits can interact. Entangled biophotons emitted as a consequence of symmetry breaking nucleic acid Szilard engine (NASE) function can be used to coordinate relative positioning of different nucleic acid locations, both within and between cells, thus providing the potential for quantum coherence of an entire biological system. Theoretical implications of understanding biological systems as such "quantum adaptive systems" include the potential for multi-agent based quantum computing, and a better understanding of systemic pathologies such as cancer, as being related to a loss of systemic quantum coherence.

  20. A search for the quantum-chemical methods of germanium- oxygen geometric structure calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavalyan, M. Yu; Turovtsev, V. V.; Kaplunov, I. A.

    2015-10-01

    The methods of density functional theory (DFT in Kohn-Shem formalism) currently play the role of main instruments of quantum chemistry. The examination of the oxygen atoms behavior in germanium requires preliminary calibration of the functionals for less resourceintensive problems. With this end calibration of the germanium exchange and correlational functionals was made for the finite calculation of such parameters as oscillation frequencies, dipole moment, full electron energy. A correlation was found between the calculated values of Ge-O bond lengths and harmonic oscillation frequency. The functionals for further study of the oxygen behaviour in crystalline germanium were determined.

  1. Quantum Monte Carlo Calculation of the Binding Energy of Bilayer Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostaani, E.; Drummond, N. D.; Fal'ko, V. I.

    2015-09-01

    We report diffusion quantum Monte Carlo calculations of the interlayer binding energy of bilayer graphene. We find the binding energies of the A A -and A B -stacked structures at the equilibrium separation to be 11.5(9) and 17.7 (9 ) meV /atom , respectively. The out-of-plane zone-center optical phonon frequency predicted by our binding-energy curve is consistent with available experimental results. As well as assisting the modeling of interactions between graphene layers, our results will facilitate the development of van der Waals exchange-correlation functionals for density functional theory calculations.

  2. Dynamical basis sets for algebraic variational calculations in quantum-mechanical scattering theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Yan; Kouri, Donald J.; Truhlar, Donald G.; Schwenke, David W.

    1990-01-01

    New basis sets are proposed for linear algebraic variational calculations of transition amplitudes in quantum-mechanical scattering problems. These basis sets are hybrids of those that yield the Kohn variational principle (KVP) and those that yield the generalized Newton variational principle (GNVP) when substituted in Schlessinger's stationary expression for the T operator. Trial calculations show that efficiencies almost as great as that of the GNVP and much greater than the KVP can be obtained, even for basis sets with the majority of the members independent of energy.

  3. Quantum mechanical calculation of the rate constant for the reaction Alexandra Viel and Claude Leforestier

    E-print Network

    Miller, William H.

    Quantum mechanical calculation of the rate constant for the reaction H O2~OH O Alexandra Viel reaction1­12 H O2 OH O, 1 and as a realistic prototype for unimolecular dissociation13­18 [HO2]* H O2 I OH evaluation of the CRP N(E). In order to compute N(E), the Manthe and Miller21 expression N E Tr P^ E k pk E 3

  4. Helium trimer calculations with a public quantum three-body code

    SciTech Connect

    Kolganova, E. A.; Roudnev, V.; Cavagnero, M.

    2012-10-15

    We present an illustration of using a quantumthree-body code being prepared for public release. The code is based on iterative solving of the three-dimensional Faddeev equations. The code is easy to use and allows users to perform highly-accurate calculations of quantum three-body systems. The previously known results for He{sub 3} ground state are well reproduced by the code.

  5. Quantum robots and quantum computers

    SciTech Connect

    Benioff, P.

    1998-07-01

    Validation of a presumably universal theory, such as quantum mechanics, requires a quantum mechanical description of systems that carry out theoretical calculations and systems that carry out experiments. The description of quantum computers is under active development. No description of systems to carry out experiments has been given. A small step in this direction is taken here by giving a description of quantum robots as mobile systems with on board quantum computers that interact with different environments. Some properties of these systems are discussed. A specific model based on the literature descriptions of quantum Turing machines is presented.

  6. Quantum Robots and Quantum Computers

    E-print Network

    Paul Benioff

    1997-12-18

    Validation of a presumably universal theory, such as quantum mechanics, requires a quantum mechanical description of systems that carry out theoretical calculations and experiments. The description of quantum computers is under active development. No description of systems to carry out experiments has been given. A small step in this direction is taken here by giving a description of quantum robots as mobile systems with on board quantum computers that interact with environments. Some properties of these systems are discussed. A specific model based on the literature descriptions of quantum Turing machines is presented.

  7. Quantum calculations of the carrier mobility: Methodology, Matthiessen's rule, and comparison with semi-classical approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Niquet, Yann-Michel Nguyen, Viet-Hung; Duchemin, Ivan; Nier, Olivier; Rideau, Denis

    2014-02-07

    We discuss carrier mobilities in the quantum Non-Equilibrium Green's Functions (NEGF) framework. We introduce a method for the extraction of the mobility that is free from contact resistance contamination and with minimal needs for ensemble averages. We focus on silicon thin films as an illustration, although the method can be applied to various materials such as semiconductor nanowires or carbon nanostructures. We then introduce a new paradigm for the definition of the partial mobility ?{sub M} associated with a given elastic scattering mechanism “M,” taking phonons (PH) as a reference (?{sub M}{sup ?1}=?{sub PH+M}{sup ?1}??{sub PH}{sup ?1}). We argue that this definition makes better sense in a quantum transport framework as it is free from long range interference effects that can appear in purely ballistic calculations. As a matter of fact, these mobilities satisfy Matthiessen's rule for three mechanisms [e.g., surface roughness (SR), remote Coulomb scattering (RCS) and phonons] much better than the usual, single mechanism calculations. We also discuss the problems raised by the long range spatial correlations in the RCS disorder. Finally, we compare semi-classical Kubo-Greenwood (KG) and quantum NEGF calculations. We show that KG and NEGF are in reasonable agreement for phonon and RCS, yet not for SR. We discuss the reasons for these discrepancies.

  8. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding in N-salicylideneaniline: FT-IR spectrum and quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moosavi-Tekyeh, Zainab; Dastani, Najmeh

    2015-12-01

    FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of N-salicylideneaniline (SAn) and its deuterated analogue (D-SAn) are recorded, and the theoretical calculations are performed on their molecular structures and vibrational frequencies. The same calculations are performed for SAn in different solutions using the polarizable conductor continuum model (CPCM) method. Comparisons between the spectra obtained and the corresponding theoretical calculations are used to assign the vibrational frequencies for these compounds. The spectral behavior of SAn upon deuteration is also used to distinguish the positions of OH vibrational frequencies. The hydrogen bond strength of SAn is investigated by applying the atoms-in-molecules (AIM) theory, natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis, and geometry calculations. The harmonic vibrational frequencies of SAn are calculated at B3LYP and X3LYP levels of theory using 6-31G*, 6-311G**, and 6-311++G** basis sets. The AIM results support a medium hydrogen bonding in SAn. The observed ?OH/?OD and ?OH/?OD for SAn appear at 2940/2122 and 830/589 cm-1, respectively.

  9. Different topologies in three manganese-?-azido 1D compounds: magnetic behavior and DFT-quantum Monte Carlo calculations.

    PubMed

    Mautner, Franz A; Berger, Christian; Scherzer, Michael; Fischer, Roland C; Maxwell, Lindley; Ruiz, Eliseo; Vicente, Ramon

    2015-11-14

    The syntheses and structural characterization of three new monodimensional azido-bridged manganese(ii) complexes with empirical formulae [Mn(N3)2(aminopyz)2]n (1), [Mn(N3)2(4-azpy)2]n (2) and [Mn(N3)2(4-Bzpy)2]n (3) (pyz = pyrazine (1,4-diazine)), 4-azpy = 4-azidopyridine and 4-Bzpy = 4-benzoylpyridine) are reported. 1 is a monodimensional compound with double EO azido bridges, 2 is an alternating monodimensional compound with double end-on and double end-to-end azido bridges in the sequence di-EO-di-EE and 3 is a monodimensional compound with double end-on and double end-to-end azido bridges in the sequence di-EO-di-EO-diEO-di-EO-di-EE. The magnetic properties of 1-3 are reported. Periodic DFT calculations were performed to estimate the J values and quantum Monte Carlo simulations were carried out using the calculated J values to check their accuracy in comparison with the experimental magnetic measurements. From this theoretical analysis, two appealing features of the di-EO Mn(ii) compounds can be extracted: first, the exchange coupling becomes more ferromagnetic when the Mn-N-Mn bridging angle becomes larger and the spin density of the bridging nitrogen atoms has an opposite sign to that of the Mn(ii) centers. PMID:26449346

  10. From quantum chemistry and the classical theory of polar liquids to continuum approximations in molecular mechanics calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Sergio A.; Mehler, Ernest L.

    Biological macromolecules and other polymers belong to the class of mesoscopic systems, with characteristic length scale of the order of a nanometer. Although microscopic models would be the preferred choice in theoretical calculations, their use in computer simulations becomes prohibitive for large systems or long simulation times. On the other hand, the use of purely macroscopic models in the mesoscopic domain may introduce artifacts, with effects that are difficult to assess and that may compromise the reliability of the calculations. Here is proposed an approach with the aim of minimizing the empirical nature of continuum approximations of solvent effects within the scope of molecular mechanics (MM) approximations in mesoscopic systems. Using quantum chemical methods, the potential generated by the molecular electron density is first decomposed in a multicenter-multipole expansion around predetermined centers. The monopole and dipole terms of the expansion at each site create electric fields that polarize the surrounding aqueous medium whose dielectric properties can be described by the classical theory of polar liquids. Debye's theory allows a derivation of the dielectric profiles created around isolated point charges and dipoles that can incorporate Onsager reaction field corrections. A superposition of screened Coulomb potentials obtained from this theory makes possible a simple derivation of a formal expression for the total electrostatic energy and the polar component of the solvation energy of the system. A discussion is presented on the physical meaning of the model parameters, their transferability, and their convergence to calculable quantities in the limit of simple systems. The performance of this continuum approximation in computer calculations of amino acids in the context of an atomistic force field is discussed. Applications of a continuum model based on screened Coulomb potentials in multinanosecond simulations of peptides and proteins are briefly reviewed.

  11. SU-E-T-191: First Principle Calculation of Quantum Yield in Photodynamic Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Abolfath, R; Guo, F; Chen, Z; Nath, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: We present a first-principle method to calculate the spin transfer efficiency in oxygen induced by any photon fields especially in MeV energy range. The optical pumping is mediated through photosensitizers, e.g., porphyrin and/or ensemble of quantum dots. Methods: Under normal conditions, oxygen molecules are in the relatively non-reactive triplet state. In the presence of certain photosensitizer compounds such as porphyrins, electromagnetic radiation of specific wavelengths can excite oxygen to highly reactive singlet state. With selective uptake of photosensitizers by certain malignant cells, photon irradiation of phosensitized tumors can lead to selective killing of cancer cells. This is the basis of photodynamic therapy (PDT). Despite several attempts, PDT has not been clinically successful except in limited superficial cancers. Many parameters such as photon energy, conjugation with quantum dots etc. can be potentially combined with PDT in order to extend the role of PDT in cancer management. The key quantity for this optimization is the spin transfer efficiency in oxygen by any photon field. The first principle calculation model presented here, is an attempt to fill this need. We employ stochastic density matrix description of the quantum jumps and the rate equation methods in quantum optics based on Markov/Poisson processes and calculate time evolution of the population of the optically pumped singlet oxygen. Results: The results demonstrate the feasibility of our model in showing the dependence of the optical yield in generating spin-singlet oxygen on the experimental conditions. The adjustable variables can be tuned to maximize the population of the singlet oxygen hence the efficacy of the photodynamic therapy. Conclusion: The present model can be employed to fit and analyze the experimental data and possibly to assist researchers in optimizing the experimental conditions in photodynamic therapy.

  12. The Renner-Teller effect in HCCCN + ( X ˜ 2 ? ) studied by zero-kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Zuyang; Sun, Wei; Wang, Jia; Mo, Yuxiang

    2015-08-01

    The spin-vibronic energy levels of the cyanoacetylene cation have been measured using the one-photon zero-kinetic energy (ZEKE) photoelectron spectroscopic method. All three degenerate vibrational modes showing vibronic coupling, i.e., Renner-Teller (RT) effect, have been observed. All the splitting spin-vibronic energy levels of the fundamental H—C?C bending vibration (v5) have been determined. The spin-vibronic energy levels of the degenerate vibrational modes have also been calculated using a diabatic model in which the harmonic terms as well as all the second-order vibronic coupling terms are used. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the experimental data and are used to assign the ZEKE spectrum. It is found that the RT effects for the H—(CC)—CN bending (v7) and the C—C?N bending (v6) vibrations are weak, whereas they are strong for the H—C?C bending (v5) vibration. The cross-mode RT couplings between any of the two degenerate vibrations are strong. The spin-orbit resolved fundamental vibrational energy levels of the C?N stretching (v2) and C—H stretching (v1) vibrations have also been observed. The spin-orbit energy splitting of the ground state has been determined for the first time as 43 ± 2 cm-1, and the ionization energy of HCCCN is found to be 93 903.5 ± 2 cm-1.

  13. Adsorption configuration of sodium 2-quinoxalinecarboxylate on iron substrate: Investigation by in situ SERS, XPS and theoretical calculation.

    PubMed

    Huo, Sheng-Juan; He, Jin-Mei; Chen, Li-Hong; Fang, Jian-Hui

    2016-03-01

    The adsorption geometry of sodium 2-quinoxalinecarboxylate (2-QC) on iron surface was investigated by in situ surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy (SERS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations predicted that 2-QC ion was a highly efficient inhibitor and N as well as O atoms were the possible adsorption centers, and theoretically offered the Raman-active band position and intensity. Potential-dependent SERS results suggested that the 2-QC strongly bonded to the iron surface via the lone pair electrons of the two O atoms of the carboxylate group in a bidentate configuration with a vertical orientation at more positive potentials; However, at -1.0V, only one O atom of the carboxylate and the neighboring N(1) atom (or very close to surface) adsorbed on the iron surface forming an unidentate configuration with a titled orientation. The ions did not remain on the iron surface at more negative potentials. PMID:26655073

  14. The molecular structure of gaseous 1,4-dioxane: An electron-diffraction reinvestigation aided by theoretical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fargher, Mitchell; Hedberg, Lise; Hedberg, Kenneth

    2014-08-01

    The structure of the molecule 1,4-dioxane (DIOX) has some features in common with other ring systems previously studied in this laboratory. In contrast to 1,4-cyclohexanedione, however, which consists both of a twisted boat form of D2 symmetry and a chair form of C2h symmetry, DIOX was reported, in two much earlier studies, to exist only as the chair form. The results of our work are in agreement with the earlier conclusions that gaseous DIOX exists either entirely, or essentially entirely (less than a few percent) in the chair form. Our work is much more extensive than the previous studies, and, aided by high-level theoretical molecular orbital- and normal-coordinate calculations, yielded the following bond distances (rg/Å) and bond angles (??/deg). = 1.104 (4), C-O = 1.420 (2), C-C = 1.514 (4), = 105.4 (55), H-C-H = 108.0 (26), C-C-O = 111.1 (3), C-O-C = 110.9 (10). The “flap” angle - the angle by which the COC plane is tilted up from the plane of the four carbon atoms - is equal to 50.6 (7)°. The structure is discussed and compared with the previous work and with predictions from theory.

  15. Quantum chemical calculation of the equilibrium structures of small metal atom clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, L. R.

    1981-01-01

    The application of ab initio quantum mechanical approaches in the study of metal atom clusters requires simplifying techniques that do not compromise the reliability of the calculations. Various aspects of the implementation of the effective core potential (ECP) technique for the removal of the metal atom core electrons from the calculation were examined. The ECP molecular integral formulae were modified to bring out the shell characteristics as a first step towards fulfilling the increasing need to speed up the computation of the ECP integrals. Work on the relationships among the derivatives of the molecular integrals that extends some of the techniques pioneered by Komornicki for the calculation of the gradients of the electronic energy was completed and a formulation of the ECP approach that quite naturally unifies the various state-of-the-art "shape- and Hamiltonian-consistent" techniques was discovered.

  16. Calculated surface, image and quantum well states in Ag/Cu(111) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejan, Doina

    2013-09-01

    The energy spectrum and the probability densities of the surface, the image and the quantum well (QW) states of the Ag/Cu(111) system have been calculated function of the thickness of the silver film. The layer by layer energy spectrum and probability densities of this system are obtained as a solution of the Schrödinger equation using the discrete variable representation (DVR). In this equation we have used an analytical one-dimensional model potential derived from the potential of Chulkov et al. [1]. Our calculated energy spectrum and probability densities of the surface, image and QW states present coverage dependence in agreement with the experiments and other calculations of the surface states.

  17. Surface Plasmons in Quantum-Sized Noble-Metal Clusters: Quantum Calculations and the Classical Picture of Charge Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissker, Hans-Christian; López-Lozano, Xóchitl

    2015-03-01

    The localized surface-plasmon resonance (LSPR) in metal clusters corresponds to a collective charge oscillation of quasi-free electrons of the metal. We use the real-time formulation of time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) with pseudopotentials to study the correspondence and differences of the quantum calculations with the classical picture. By means of animations, we discuss the real-time evolution of the electronic density for different geometries. While there is a clear correspondence between the overall picture of a charge oscillation and the actual dynamics in quantum-sized clusters, the situation is much more intricate owing to quantum effects and the atomistic inhomogeneity of the cluster. A fine pattern is present over the volume of the cluster even at moments of zero overall polarization. The difference between Ag and Au is clearly visible. Finally, we discuss the question of collective vs. molecular-like transitions; even for single transitions, the dynamics of the total density can be similar to the picture of a charge oscillation.

  18. Hybrid theory and calculation of e-N2 scattering. [quantum mechanics - nuclei (nuclear physics)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, N.; Temkin, A.

    1975-01-01

    A theory of electron-molecule scattering was developed which was a synthesis of close coupling and adiabatic-nuclei theories. The theory is shown to be a close coupling theory with respect to vibrational degrees of freedom but is a adiabatic-nuclei theory with respect to rotation. It can be applied to any number of partial waves required, and the remaining ones can be calculated purely in one or the other approximation. A theoretical criterion based on fixed-nuclei calculations and not on experiment can be given as to which partial waves and energy domains require the various approximations. The theory allows all cross sections (i.e., pure rotational, vibrational, simultaneous vibration-rotation, differential and total) to be calculated. Explicit formulae for all the cross sections are presented.

  19. Quantum mechanical binding free energy calculation for phosphopeptide inhibitors of the Lck SH2 domain.

    PubMed

    Anisimov, Victor M; Cavasotto, Claudio N

    2011-07-30

    The accurate and efficient calculation of binding free energies is essential in computational biophysics. We present a linear-scaling quantum mechanical (QM)-based end-point method termed MM/QM-COSMO to calculate binding free energies in biomolecular systems, with an improved description of entropic changes. Molecular dynamics trajectories are re-evaluated using a semiempirical Hamiltonian and a continuum solvent model; translational and rotational entropies are calculated using configurational integrals, and internal entropy is calculated using the harmonic oscillator approximation. As an application, we studied the binding of a series of phosphotyrosine tetrapeptides to the human Lck SH2 domain, a key component in intracellular signal transduction, modulation of which can have therapeutic relevance in the treatment of cancer, osteoporosis, and autoimmune diseases. Calculations with molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann, and generalized Born surface area methods showed large discrepancies with experimental data stemming from the enthalpic component, in agreement with an earlier report. The empirical force field-based solvent interaction energy scoring function yielded improved results, with average unsigned error of 3.6 kcal/mol, and a better ligand ranking. The MM/QM-COSMO method exhibited the best agreement both for absolute (average unsigned error = 0.7 kcal/mol) and relative binding free energy calculations. These results show the feasibility and promise of a full QM-based end-point method with an adequate balance of accuracy and computational efficiency. PMID:21484840

  20. Quantum Monte Carlo calculation of the binding energy of the beryllium dimer.

    PubMed

    Deible, Michael J; Kessler, Melody; Gasperich, Kevin E; Jordan, Kenneth D

    2015-08-28

    The accurate calculation of the binding energy of the beryllium dimer is a challenging theoretical problem. In this study, the binding energy of Be2 is calculated using the diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) method, using single Slater determinant and multiconfigurational trial functions. DMC calculations using single-determinant trial wave functions of orbitals obtained from density functional theory calculations overestimate the binding energy, while DMC calculations using Hartree-Fock or CAS(4,8), complete active space trial functions significantly underestimate the binding energy. In order to obtain an accurate value of the binding energy of Be2 from DMC calculations, it is necessary to employ trial functions that include excitations outside the valence space. Our best estimate DMC result for the binding energy of Be2, obtained by using configuration interaction trial functions and extrapolating in the threshold for the configurations retained in the trial function, is 908 cm(-1), only slightly below the 935 cm(-1) value derived from experiment. PMID:26328827

  1. Decades of Theoretical Work on Protonated Hydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochanski, E.; Kelterbaum, R.; Klein, S.; Rohmer, M. M.; Rahmouni, A.

    Theoretical studies on protonated hydrates (PH) are illustrative of the progress realized in theoretical chemistry over several decades. The evolution of such studies is presented. The main methods used (quantum chemistry, Monte Carlo or Molecular Dynamics calculations...) and the problems encountered are briefly recalled. Some of the results obtained are commented.

  2. Unusual mechanism for H{sub 3}{sup +} formation from ethane as obtained by femtosecond laser pulse ionization and quantum chemical calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, Peter M.; Schwarzer, Martin C.; Schirmel, Nora; Urbasch, Gunter; Frenking, Gernot; Weitzel, Karl-Michael

    2011-03-21

    The formation of H{sub 3}{sup +} from saturated hydrocarbon molecules represents a prototype of a complex chemical process, involving the breaking and the making of chemical bonds. We present a combined theoretical and experimental investigation providing for the first time an understanding of the mechanism of H{sub 3}{sup +} formation at the molecular level. The experimental approach involves femtosecond laser pulse ionization of ethane leading to H{sub 3}{sup +} ions with kinetic energies on the order of 4 to 6.5 eV. The theoretical approach involves high-level quantum chemical calculation of the complete reaction path. The calculations confirm that the process takes place on the potential energy surface of the ethane dication. A surprising result of the theoretical investigation is, that the transition state of the process can be formally regarded as a H{sub 2} molecule attached to a C{sub 2}H{sub 4}{sup 2+} entity but IRC calculations show that it belongs to the reaction channel yielding C{sub 2}H{sub 3}{sup +}+ H{sub 3}{sup +}. Experimentally measured kinetic energies of the correlated H{sub 3}{sup +} and C{sub 2}H{sub 3}{sup +} ions confirm the reaction path suggested by theory.

  3. A combined quantum-classical dynamics method for calculating thermal rate constants of chemical reactions in solution

    E-print Network

    Truong, Thanh N.

    -flux correlation function for calculating the thermal rate constants of chemical reactions in solution in this study would provide a complete tool for studying the quantum dynamics of chemical reactions the thermal chemical reaction rate constants. Furthermore, we also employ an efficient and accurate quantum

  4. Theoretical Studies of the Structure and Dynamics of Quantum Liquid Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, Michele Ann

    Quantum clusters of He and Hz are systems displaying both quantum and finite-size properties. Using variational and diffusion Monte Carlo, we investigate the energetics and structures of a variety of pure and doped clusters. First, we present results for the ground states of He _7 and (H_2)_{N } (N = 6, 7, 13 and 33). Both helium and hydrogen clusters are highly non-classical, but, because of the weaker He-He binding, H_{N} is more delocalized than (H_2)_ {N}. The He clusters are generally structureless spheres with highest particle density near the center. Although still spherical, (H_2)_{N} clusters show some internal structure with residual five-fold symmetry. We next study the rotational states of He_7 and (H_2) _7. As the angular momentum increases, these clusters evolve from spherical to toroidal. By L = 2 for He_7 and L = 6 for (H_2) _7, the clusters become metastable with respect to loss of one particle. The addition of a strongly binding dopant molecule, such as SF_6, induces structuring of the He density into solvation shells about the impurity. We demonstrate that SF_6 is located near the cluster center in He_{39,40 }. We study trial function bias and DMC convergence, showing that the amount of Monte Carlo sampling needed to converge the impurity location is much greater than for He. This distinction may explain discrepancies found in the literature. Our study of Cl_2He _{N} (N = 1, 6 and 20), contrasts isotropic and anisotropic treatments as well as the L = 0 and L = 2 rotational states. The inclusion of anisotropy lowers energies because of the gamma = pi/2 minimum in the Cl_2 -He potential. rm Cl_2H_6 has a ring of helium density, about the Cl-Cl bond, that is largely unchanged from the L = 0 to the L = 2 state. For rm Cl_2He_{20}, the helium density surrounds the central Cl_2 molecule, and both the He and Cl_2 densities delocalize under rotation. Investigation of energy transfer from an excited impurity to an embedding cluster sheds light on the quantum cluster environment. We present a new Golden Rule-based method which uses Laplace transform and DMC techniques to calculate linewidths and energy differences for energy transfer processes. Results are shown for a harmonic oscillator and for impurity-to-cluster transfer in rm Cl_2He_6. This method is general and requires no explicit knowledge of final states.

  5. Accurate quantum calculations of the reaction rates for H/D+CH4.

    PubMed

    van Harrevelt, Rob; Nyman, Gunnar; Manthe, Uwe

    2007-02-28

    In previous work [T. Wu, H. J. Werner, and U. Manthe, Science 306, 2227 (2004)], accurate quantum reaction rate calculations of the rate constant for the H+CH4-->CH3+H2 reaction have been presented. Both the electronic structure calculations and the nuclear dynamics calculations are converged with respect to the basis sets employed. In this paper, the authors apply the same methodology to an isotopic variant of this reaction: D+CH4-->CH3+HD. Accurate rate constants are presented for temperatures between 250 and 400 K. For temperatures between 400 and 800 K, they use a harmonic extrapolation to obtain approximate rate constants for H/D+CH4. The calculations suggest that the experimentally reported rate constants for D+CH4 are about a factor of 10-20 too high. For H+CH4, more accurate experiments are available and agreement is much better: the difference is less than a factor of 2.6. The kinetic isotope effect for the H/D+CH4 reactions is studied and compared with experiment and transition state theory (TST) calculations. Harmonic TST was found to provide a good description of the kinetic isotope effect. PMID:17343444

  6. Accurate quantum calculations of the reaction rates for H /D+CH4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Harrevelt, Rob; Nyman, Gunnar; Manthe, Uwe

    2007-02-01

    In previous work [T. Wu, H. J. Werner, and U. Manthe, Science 306, 2227 (2004)], accurate quantum reaction rate calculations of the rate constant for the H +CH4?CH3+H2 reaction have been presented. Both the electronic structure calculations and the nuclear dynamics calculations are converged with respect to the basis sets employed. In this paper, the authors apply the same methodology to an isotopic variant of this reaction: D +CH4?CH3+HD. Accurate rate constants are presented for temperatures between 250 and 400K. For temperatures between 400 and 800K, they use a harmonic extrapolation to obtain approximate rate constants for H /D+CH4. The calculations suggest that the experimentally reported rate constants for D +CH4 are about a factor of 10-20 too high. For H +CH4, more accurate experiments are available and agreement is much better: the difference is less than a factor of 2.6. The kinetic isotope effect for the H /D+CH4 reactions is studied and compared with experiment and transition state theory (TST) calculations. Harmonic TST was found to provide a good description of the kinetic isotope effect.

  7. Diffusion Rates for Hydrogen on Pd(111) from Molecular Quantum Dynamics Calculations.

    PubMed

    Firmino, Thiago; Marquardt, Roberto; Gatti, Fabien; Dong, Wei

    2014-12-18

    The van Hove formula for the dynamical structure factor (DSF) related to particle scattering at mobile adsorbates is extended to include the relaxation of the adsorbates' vibrational states. The total rate obtained from the DSF is assumed to be the sum of a diffusion and a relaxation rate. A simple kinetic model to support this assumption is presented. To illustrate its potential applicability, the formula is evaluated using wave functions, energies, and lifetimes of vibrational states obtained for H/Pd(111) from first-principle calculations. Results show that quantum effects can be expected to be important even at room temperature. PMID:26273973

  8. Playing the quantum shuffling game with programmable pocket calculators and microcomputers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, G.

    1981-03-01

    The utilisation of programmable calculators or microcomputers in the classroom for the quantum shuffling game may reinforce the study of statistical physics in unit 9 of the Nuffield advanced physics course since the students are themselves able to work out much more sophisticated applications of the game. Because of the higher speed of computation and the possibilities of graphical representation on the computer screen preference is given to the application of microcomputer games. Copies of the programs described may be obtained from Professor P J Black, Chelsea College Centre for Science Education, Bridges Place, London SW6 4HR or directly from the author at Tulpenweg 3, 6301 Linden, W Germany.

  9. Algebraic calculation of the resolvent of a generalized quantum oscillator in a space of dimension D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpov, K. S.; Pismak, Yu. M.

    2015-10-01

    We consider the formalism based on using the sl(2) algebra instead of the conventional Heisenberg algebra for isotropic models of quantum mechanics. The operators of the squared momentum p 2 and squared coordinates q 2 and also the dilation operator H = i( pq + qp) are used as its generators. This allows calculating with the space dimension D as an arbitrary, not necessarily integer parameter. We obtain integral representations for the resolvent and its trace for a generalized harmonic oscillator with the Hamiltonian H( a, b, c) = ap 2+ bq 2+ cH and any D and study their analytic properties for different model parameter values.

  10. How to calculate quantum quench distributions with a weighted Wang-Landau Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziraldo, Simone; Santoro, Giuseppe E.

    2015-06-01

    We present here an extension of the Wang-Landau Monte Carlo method which allows us to get very accurate estimates of the full probability distributions of several observables after a quantum quench for large systems, whenever the relevant matrix elements are calculable, but the full exponential complexity of the Hilbert space would make an exhaustive enumeration impossible beyond very limited sizes. We apply this method to quenches of free-fermion models with disorder, further corroborating the fact that a generalized Gibbs ensemble fails to capture the long-time average of many-body operators when disorder is present.

  11. An approximate framework for quantum transport calculation with model order reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Quan; Li, Jun; Yam, Chiyung; Zhang, Yu; Wong, Ngai; Chen, Guanhua

    2015-04-01

    A new approximate computational framework is proposed for computing the non-equilibrium charge density in the context of the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method for quantum mechanical transport problems. The framework consists of a new formulation, called the X-formulation, for single-energy density calculation based on the solution of sparse linear systems, and a projection-based nonlinear model order reduction (MOR) approach to address the large number of energy points required for large applied biases. The advantages of the new methods are confirmed by numerical experiments.

  12. Electric-field control of magnetism in graphene quantum dots: Ab initio calculations

    PubMed Central

    Agapito, Luis A.; Kioussis, Nicholas; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2011-01-01

    Employing ab initio calculations we predict that the magnetic states of hydrogenated diamond-shaped zigzag graphene quantum dots (GQDs), each exhibiting unique electronic structure, can be selectively tuned with gate voltage, through Stark or hybridization electric-field modulation of the spatial distribution and energy of the spin-polarized molecular orbitals, leading to transitions between these states. Electrical read-out of the GQD magnetic state can be accomplished by exploiting the distinctive electrical properties of the various magnetic configurations. PMID:21765631

  13. Progesterone and testosterone studies by neutron scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance methods and quantum chemistry calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szyczewski, A.; Ho?derna-Natkaniec, K.; Natkaniec, I.

    2004-05-01

    Inelastic incoherent neutron scattering spectra of progesterone and testosterone measured at 20 and 290 K were compared with the IR spectra measured at 290 K. The Phonon Density of States spectra display well resolved peaks of low frequency internal vibration modes up to 1200 cm -1. The quantum chemistry calculations were performed by semiempirical PM3 method and by the density functional theory method with different basic sets for isolated molecule, as well as for the dimer system of testosterone. The proposed assignment of internal vibrations of normal modes enable us to conclude about the sequence of the onset of the torsion movements of the CH 3 groups. These conclusions were correlated with the results of proton molecular dynamics studies performed by NMR method. The GAUSSIAN program had been used for calculations.

  14. Parallelizing the QUDA Library for Multi-GPU Calculations in Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Babich, Michael Clark, Balint Joo

    2010-11-01

    Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) are having a transformational effect on numerical lattice quantum chromodynamics (LQCD) calculations of importance in nuclear and particle physics. The QUDA library provides a package of mixed precision sparse matrix linear solvers for LQCD applications, supporting single GPUs based on NVIDIA's Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA). This library, interfaced to the QDP++/Chroma framework for LQCD calculations, is currently in production use on the "9g" cluster at the Jefferson Laboratory, enabling unprecedented price/performance for a range of problems in LQCD. Nevertheless, memory constraints on current GPU devices limit the problem sizes that can be tackled. In this contribution we describe the parallelization of the QUDA library onto multiple GPUs using MPI, including strategies for the overlapping of communication and computation. We report on both weak and strong scaling for up to 32 GPUs interconnected by InfiniBand, on which we sustain in excess of 4 Tflops.

  15. Quantum Matching Theory (with new complexity-theoretic, combinatorial and topical insights on the nature of the quantum entanglement)

    SciTech Connect

    Gurvits, L.

    2002-01-01

    Classical matching theory can be defined in terms of matrices with nonnegative entries. The notion of Positive operator, central in Quantum Theory, is a natural generalization of matrices with non-negative entries. Based on this point of view, we introduce a definition of perfect Quantum (operator) matching. We show that the new notion inherits many 'classical' properties, but not all of them. This new notion goes somewhere beyound matroids. For separable bipartite quantum states this new notion coinsides with the full rank property of the intersection of two corresponding geometric matroids. In the classical situation, permanents are naturally associated with perfects matchings. We introduce an analog of permanents for positive operators, called Quantum Permanent and show how this generalization of the permanent is related to the Quantum Entanglement. Besides many other things, Quantum Permanents provide new rational inequalities necessary for the separability of bipartite quantum states. Using Quantum Permanents, we give deterministic poly-time algorithm to solve Hidden Matroids Intersection Problem and indicate some 'classical' complexity difficulties associated with the Quantum Entanglement. Finally, we prove that the weak membership problem for the convex set of separable bipartite density matrices is NP-HARD.

  16. Experimental and theoretical studies of band gap alignment in GaAs{sub 1?x}Bi{sub x}/GaAs quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Kudrawiec, R. Kopaczek, J.; Polak, M. P.; Scharoch, P.; Gladysiewicz, M.; Misiewicz, J.; Richards, R. D.; Bastiman, F.; David, J. P. R.

    2014-12-21

    Band gap alignment in GaAs{sub 1?x}Bi{sub x}/GaAs quantum wells (QWs) was studied experimentally by photoreflectance (PR) and theoretically, ab initio, within the density functional theory in which the supercell based calculations are combined with the alchemical mixing approximation applied to a single atom in a supercell. In PR spectra, the optical transitions related to the excited states in the QW (i.e., the transition between the second heavy-hole and the second electron subband) were clearly observed in addition to the ground state QW transition and the GaAs barrier transition. This observation is clear experimental evidence that this is a type I QW with a deep quantum confinement in the conduction and valence bands. From the comparison of PR data with calculations of optical transitions in GaAs{sub 1?x}Bi{sub x}/GaAs QW performed for various band gap alignments, the best agreement between experimental data and theoretical calculations has been found for the valence band offset of 52?±?5%. A very similar valence band offset was obtained from ab initio calculations. These calculations show that the incorporation of Bi atoms into GaAs host modifies both the conduction and the valence band. For GaAs{sub 1?x}Bi{sub x} with 0?calculated shifts of valence and conduction bands give the variation of valence (conduction) band offset between GaAs{sub 1?x}Bi{sub x} and GaAs in the range of ?60%–40% (?40%–60%), which is in good agreement with our conclusion derived from PR measurements.

  17. Theoretical comparison of multiple quantum wells and thick-layer designs in InGaN/GaN solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cavassilas, Nicolas; Michelini, Fabienne; Bescond, Marc

    2014-08-11

    This theoretical work analyzes the photovoltaic effect in non-polar InGaN/GaN solar cells. Our electronic transport model considers quantum behaviors related to confinement, tunneling, electron-phonon, and electron-photon scatterings. Based on this model, we compare a multiple quantum wells cell with its thick-layer counterpart. We show that the structure of multiple quantum wells is a promising design providing better compromise between photon-absorption and electronic transport. This balance is necessary since these two phenomena are shown to be antagonist in nanostructure based solar cells. In these devices, we also show that phonon absorption increases the short-circuit current, while phonon emission reduces the open-circuit voltage.

  18. The optical properties and quantum chemical calculations of thienyl and furyl derivatives of pyrene.

    PubMed

    Idzik, Krzysztof R; Cywi?ski, Piotr J; Kuznik, Wojciech; Frydel, Jaroslaw; Licha, Tobias; Ratajczyk, Tomasz

    2015-09-21

    A detailed electrochemical, photophysical and theoretical study is presented for various new thienyl and furyl derivatives of pyrene. Their optical properties are described based on UV-VIS absorption and both steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. DFT and TDDFT calculations are also presented to support experimental data. The calculations results show that HOMO-LUMO orbitals are delocalized uniformly between aromatic core and aryl substituents. Good electrochemical stability of thienyl and furyl hybrids of pyrene confirm their potential application for light emitting electrochemical cells or spintronics mainly due to their beneficial optical and charge transport properties in electrochromic devices. In order to demonstrate this potential, an OLED device is presented. Synthesized compounds included in this OLED device both facilitate electron transport and act as a light emitting layer. PMID:26257127

  19. First-principles calculation of Mg(0 0 0 1) thin films: Quantum size effect and adsorption of atomic hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang-Gui; Zhang, Ping; Chan, C. K.

    2007-03-01

    We have carried out first-principles calculation of Mg(0 0 0 1) free-standing thin films to study the oscillatory quantum size effect exhibited in the surface energy, work function, interlayer relaxation, and adsorption energy of the atomic hydrogen adsorbate. The quantum well states have been shown. The calculated energetics and interlayer relaxation of clean and H-adsorbed Mg films are clearly featured by quantum oscillations as a function of the thickness of the film, with oscillation period of about eight monolayers, consistent with recent experiments. The calculated quantum size effect in H adsorption can be verified by observing the dependence of H coverage on the thickness of Mg(0 0 0 1) thin films gown on Si(1 1 1) or W(1 1 0) substrate which has been experimentally accessible.

  20. Rich Information on Quantum States and Ways to Calculate It in The Absorption Spectra of Au144 Gold Cluster Compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Lozano, Xochitl; Whetten, Robert L.; Weissker, Hans-Christian

    2015-03-01

    In recent decades, the prevalent view has been that noble-metal clusters of intermediate size necessarily have smooth optical absorption spectra of low information content in the near-IR, VIS and near-UV regions. At most, one expects a broad, smooth localized surface plasmon resonance feature. Recently, we demonstrate that, in contradistinction to the commonly held view, the optical absorption of the most widely applied gold cluster, the thiolate-protected Au144 cluster, exhibits a rich spectrum of bands that are individually visible over the entire near-IR, VIS and near-UV regions (1.0-4.0 eV), demonstrating high information content related to the quantum size effects which distinguish the nanoparticles from the bulk materials. In the calculation, the result is sensitive to the details of the structure. In the present work, we systematically compare the different structures actually used to date. We studied aspects like symmetry, geometry and type of ligands. In particular, we discuss the effect of their differences on the optical absorption spectra as well as how the theoretical methodology influences the final results.

  1. 1468 IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 41, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2005 Theoretical Investigation of Quantum-Dot Avalanche

    E-print Network

    Hayat, Majeed M.

    of Quantum-Dot Avalanche Photodiodes for Mid-infrared Applications Sanjay Krishna, Student Member, IEEE, Oh factor, infrared detector, quantum-dot detectors, responsivity. I. INTRODUCTION MID-INFRARED detectors in midwave infrared (MWIR, 3­8 m) regime and the long-wave infrared (LWIR, 8­14 m) regime. Space

  2. Calculation of gain and luminescence spectra of quantum-cascade laser structures taking into account asymmetric emission line broadening

    SciTech Connect

    Ushakov, D V; Manak, I S; Kononenko, V K

    2010-05-26

    The energy levels, wave functions, and matrix elements of optical dipole transitions are calculated numerically for superlattice quantum-cascade structures. The effect of spectral broadening on the shape of emission spectra is estimated and semiphenomenological asymmetric profiles of emission line broadening are proposed. It is shown that the electroluminescence spectra well agree with the calculated spontaneous recombination spectra. (lasers)

  3. Calculation of Double-Quantum-Coherence Two-dimensional Spectra: Distance Measurements and Orientational Correlations.

    PubMed

    Misra, Sushil K; Borbat, Peter P; Freed, Jack H

    2009-12-01

    The double quantum coherence (DQC) echo signal for two coupled nitroxides separated by distances ?10 Å, is calculated rigorously for the six-pulse sequence. Successive application of six pulses on the initial density matrix, with appropriate inter-pulse time evolution and coherence pathway selection leaves only the coherent pathways of interest. The amplitude of the echo signal following the last ? pulse can be used to obtain a one-dimensional dipolar spectrum (Pake doublet), and the echo envelope can be used to construct the two-dimensional DQC spectrum. The calculations are carried out using the product space spanned by the two electron-spin magnetic quantum numbers m(1), m(2) and the two nuclear-spin magnetic quantum numbers M(1), M(2), describing e.g. two coupled nitroxides in bilabeled proteins. The density matrix is subjected to a cascade of unitary transformations taking into account dipolar and electron exchange interactions during each pulse and during the evolution in the absence of a pulse. The unitary transformations use the eigensystem of the effective spin-Hamiltonians obtained by numerical matrix diagonalization. Simulations are carried out for a range of dipolar interactions, D, and microwave magnetic field strength B for both fixed and random orientations of the two (14)N (and (15)N) nitroxides. Relaxation effects were not included. Several examples of one- and two-dimensional Fourier transforms of the time domain signals vs. dipolar evolution and spin-echo envelope time variables are shown for illustration. Comparisons are made between 1D rigorous simulations and analytical approximations. The rigorous simulations presented here provide insights into DQC ESR spectroscopy, they serve as a standard to evaluate the results of approximate theories, and they can be employed to plan future DQC experiments. PMID:20161423

  4. Calculation of Double-Quantum-Coherence Two-dimensional Spectra: Distance Measurements and Orientational Correlations

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Sushil K.; Borbat, Peter P.; Freed, Jack H.

    2009-01-01

    The double quantum coherence (DQC) echo signal for two coupled nitroxides separated by distances ?10 Å, is calculated rigorously for the six-pulse sequence. Successive application of six pulses on the initial density matrix, with appropriate inter-pulse time evolution and coherence pathway selection leaves only the coherent pathways of interest. The amplitude of the echo signal following the last ? pulse can be used to obtain a one-dimensional dipolar spectrum (Pake doublet), and the echo envelope can be used to construct the two-dimensional DQC spectrum. The calculations are carried out using the product space spanned by the two electron-spin magnetic quantum numbers m1, m2 and the two nuclear-spin magnetic quantum numbers M1, M2, describing e.g. two coupled nitroxides in bilabeled proteins. The density matrix is subjected to a cascade of unitary transformations taking into account dipolar and electron exchange interactions during each pulse and during the evolution in the absence of a pulse. The unitary transformations use the eigensystem of the effective spin-Hamiltonians obtained by numerical matrix diagonalization. Simulations are carried out for a range of dipolar interactions, D, and microwave magnetic field strength B for both fixed and random orientations of the two 14N (and 15N) nitroxides. Relaxation effects were not included. Several examples of one- and two-dimensional Fourier transforms of the time domain signals vs. dipolar evolution and spin-echo envelope time variables are shown for illustration. Comparisons are made between 1D rigorous simulations and analytical approximations. The rigorous simulations presented here provide insights into DQC ESR spectroscopy, they serve as a standard to evaluate the results of approximate theories, and they can be employed to plan future DQC experiments. PMID:20161423

  5. Hawking Radiation in de Sitter Space: Calculation of the Reflection Coefficient for Quantum Particles

    E-print Network

    V. Red'kov; E. Ovsiyuk; G. Krylov

    2012-11-18

    Though the problem of Hawking radiation in de Sitter space-time, in particular details of penetration of a quantum mechanical particle through the de Sitter horizon, has been examined intensively there is still some vagueness in this subject. The present paper aims to clarify the situation. A known algorithm for calculation of the reflection coefficient $R_{\\epsilon j}$ on the background of the de Sitter space-time model is analyzed. It is shown that the determination of $R_{\\epsilon j}$ requires an additional constrain on quantum numbers $\\epsilon R / \\hbar c >> j$, where $R$ is a curvature radius. When taking into account this condition, the value of $R_{\\epsilon j}$ turns out to be precisely zero. It is shown that the basic instructive definition for the calculation of the reflection coefficient in de Sitter model is grounded exclusively on the use of zero order approximation in the expansion of a particle wave function in a series on small parameter $1/R^{2}$, and it demonstrated that this recipe cannot be extended on accounting for contributions of higher order terms. So the result $R_{\\epsilon j}=0$ which has been obtained from examining zero-order term persists and cannot be improved. It is claimed that the alculation of the reflection coefficient $R_{\\epsilon j}$ is not required at all because there is no barrier in the effective potential curve on the background of the de Sitter space-time, the later correlate with the fact that the problem in de Sitter space reduces to a second order differential equation with only three singular points. However all known quantum mechanical problems with potentials containing one barrier reduce to a second order differential equation with four singular points, the equation of Heun class.

  6. Effects of strain and quantum confinement in optically pumped nuclear magnetic resonance in GaAs: Interpretation guided by spin-dependent band structure calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, R. M.; Saha, D.; McCarthy, L. A.; Tokarski, III, J. T.; Sanders, G. D.; Kuhns, P. L.; McGill, S. A.; Reyes, A. P.; Reno, J. L.; Stanton, C. J.; Bowers, C. R.

    2014-10-29

    A combined experimental-theoretical study of optically pumped NMR (OPNMR) has been performed in a GaAs/Al0.1Ga0.9As quantum well film with thermally induced biaxial strain. The photon energy dependence of the Ga-71 OPNMR signal was recorded at magnetic fields of 4.9 and 9.4 T at a temperature of 4.8-5.4 K. The data were compared to the nuclear spin polarization calculated from differential absorption to spin-up and spin-down states of the conduction band using a modified Pidgeon Brown model. Reasonable agreement between theory and experiment is obtained, facilitating assignment of features in the OPNMR energy dependence to specific interband transitions. Despite the approximations made in the quantum-mechanical model and the inexact correspondence between the experimental and calculated observables, the results provide insight into how effects of strain and quantum confinement are manifested in OPNMR signals

  7. On the inclusion of prime factors to calculate the theoretical lower bounds in multiplierless single constant multiplications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troncoso Romero, David E.; Meyer-Baese, Uwe; Dolecek, Gordana Jovanovic

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an extension to the theoretical lower bounds for the number of adders and for the adder depth in multiplierless single constant multiplications (SCM). It is shown that the number of prime factors of the constants is key information to extend the current lower bounds in certain cases that have not yet been exposed. Additionally, the hidden theoretical lower bound for the number of adders required to preserve the minimum adder depth is revealed.

  8. Accurate quantum dynamics calculations of vibrational spectrum of dideuteromethane CH2D2.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hua-Gen

    2015-05-21

    We report a rigorous variational study of the infrared (IR) vibrational spectra of both CH2D2 and (13)CH2D2 isotopomers using an exact molecular Hamiltonian. Calculations are carried out using a recently developed multi-layer Lanczos algorithm based on the accurate refined Wang and Carrington potential energy surface of methane and the low-order truncated ab initio dipole moment surface of Yurchenko et al. [J. Mol. Spectrosc. 291, 69 (2013)]. All well converged 357 vibrational energy levels up to 6100 cm(-1) of CH2D2 are obtained, together with a comparison to previous calculations and 91 experimental bands available. The calculated frequencies are in excellent agreement with the experimental results and give a root-mean-square error of 0.67?cm(-1). In particular, we also compute the transition intensities from the vibrational ground state for both isotopomers. Based on the theoretical results, 20 experimental bands are suggested to be re-assigned. Surprisingly, an anomalous C isotopic effect is discovered in the n?5 modes of CH2D2. The predicted IR spectra provide useful information for understanding those unknown bands. PMID:26001461

  9. Molecular structure, vibrational, electronic and thermal properties of 4-vinylcyclohexene by quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagabalasubramanian, P. B.; Periandy, S.; Karabacak, Mehmet; Govindarajan, M.

    2015-06-01

    The solid phase FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 4-vinylcyclohexene (abbreviated as 4-VCH) have been recorded in the region 4000-100 cm-1. The optimized molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies of the fundamental modes of 4-VCH have been precisely assigned and analyzed with the aid of structure optimizations and normal coordinate force field calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) method at 6-311++G(d,p) level basis set. The theoretical frequencies were properly scaled and compared with experimentally obtained FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. Also, the effect due the substitution of vinyl group on the ring vibrational frequencies was analyzed and a detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra of this compound has been made on the basis of the calculated total energy distribution (TED). The time dependent DFT (TD-DFT) method was employed to predict its electronic properties, such as electronic transitions by UV-Visible analysis, HOMO and LUMO energies, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and various global reactivity and selectivity descriptors (chemical hardness, chemical potential, softness, electrophilicity index). Stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interaction, charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Atomic charges obtained by Mulliken population analysis and NBO analysis are compared. Thermodynamic properties (heat capacity, entropy and enthalpy) of the title compound at different temperatures are also calculated.

  10. Comparison of the results of theoretical calculations with experimental measurements from the Los Alamos free-electron laser oscillator experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, J.C.; Newnam, B.E.; Warren, R.W.; Sheffield, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison between some of the measurements made with a uniform wiggler during the Los Alamos free-electron laser oscillator experiment and the results of one-dimensional pulse propagation calculations using the mathematical model of Colson and Ride will be presented. Small-signal gain data will be discussed. Calculated output power vs. optical resonator length will be compared with data. Time-integrated optical spectral data, which show clear evidence for Raman sidebands, will be compared with calculated spectra as a function of resonator length. The calculated electron energy distribution function, using the measured electron-beam micropulse shape, and the associated extraction efficiency will be compared with measurements.

  11. Communication: Ro-vibrational control of chemical reactivity in H+CH{sub 4}? H{sub 2}+CH{sub 3} : Full-dimensional quantum dynamics calculations and a sudden model

    SciTech Connect

    Welsch, Ralph Manthe, Uwe

    2014-08-07

    The mode-selective chemistry of the title reaction is studied by full-dimensional quantum dynamics simulation on an accurate ab initio potential energy surface for vanishing total angular momentum. Using a rigorous transition state based approach and multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree wave packet propagation, initial state-selected reaction probabilities for many ro-vibrational states of methane are calculated. The theoretical results are compared with experimental trends seen in reactions of methane. An intuitive interpretation of the ro-vibrational control of the chemical reactivity provided by a sudden model based on the quantum transition state concept is discussed.

  12. One-loop calculations in quantum field theory: from Feynman diagrams to unitarity cuts

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, R. Keith; Kunszt, Zoltan; Melnikov, Kirill; Zanderighi, Giulia

    2012-09-01

    The success of the experimental program at the Tevatron re-inforced the idea that precision physics at hadron colliders is desirable and, indeed, possible. The Tevatron data strongly suggests that one-loop computations in QCD describe hard scattering well. Extrapolating this observation to the LHC, we conclude that knowledge of many short-distance processes at next-to-leading order may be required to describe the physics of hard scattering. While the field of one-loop computations is quite mature, parton multiplicities in hard LHC events are so high that traditional computational techniques become inefficient. Recently new approaches based on unitarity have been developed for calculating one-loop scattering amplitudes in quantum field theory. These methods are especially suitable for the description of multi-particle processes in QCD and are amenable to numerical implementations. We present a systematic pedagogical description of both conceptual and technical aspects of the new methods.

  13. Constraining the Skyrme energy density functional with quantum Monte Carlo calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roggero, Alessandro; Mukherjee, Abhishek; Pederiva, Francesco

    2015-11-01

    We study the problem of an impurity in fully polarized (spin-up) low-density neutron matter with the help of an accurate quantum Monte Carlo method in conjunction with a realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction derived from chiral effective field theory at next-to-next-to leading order. Our calculations show that the behavior of the proton spin-down impurity is very similar to that of a polaron in a fully polarized unitary Fermi gas. We show that our results can be used to put tight constraints on the time-odd parts of the Skyrme energy density functional, independent of the time-even parts, in the density regime relevant to neutron-rich nuclei and compact astrophysical objects such as neutron stars and supernovae.

  14. Quantum three-body calculation of nonresonant triple-? reaction rate at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, Kazuyuki; Kan, Masataka; Kamimura, Masayasu

    2010-06-01

    Triple-? reaction rate is re-evaluated by directly solving the three-body Schrödinger equation. The resonant and nonresonant processes are treated on the same footing using the continuum-discretized coupled-channels method for three-body scattering. An accurate description of the ?-? nonresonant states significantly quenches the Coulomb barrier between the first two ?-particles and the third ?-particle. Consequently, the ?-? nonresonant continuum states give a markedly larger contribution at low temperatures than that reported in previous studies. We show that Nomoto's method for three-body nonresonant capture processes, which is adopted in the NACRE compilation and many other studies, is a crude approximation of the accurate quantum three-body model calculation. We find an increase in triple-? reaction rate by 26 orders of magnitude around 107 K compared with the rate of NACRE.

  15. Quantum-mechanical calculation of carrier distribution in MOS accumulation and strong inversion layers

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chien-Wei; Hwu, Jenn-Gwo

    2013-10-15

    We derive a statistical physics model of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) and propose an accurate approximation method for calculating the quantum-mechanical effects of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structure in accumulation and strong inversion regions. We use an exponential surface potential approximation in solving the quantization energy levels and derive the function of density of states in 2D to 3D transition region by applying uncertainty principle and Schrödinger equation in k-space. The simulation results show that our approximation method and theory of density of states solve the two major problems of previous researches: the non-negligible error caused by the linear potential approximation and the inconsistency of density of states and carrier distribution in 2D to 3D transition region.

  16. Schwarzschild radius from Monte Carlo calculation of the Wilson loop in supersymmetric matrix quantum mechanics

    E-print Network

    Masanori Hanada; Akitsugu Miwa; Jun Nishimura; Shingo Takeuchi

    2008-11-13

    In the string/gauge duality it is important to understand how the space-time geometry is encoded in gauge theory observables. We address this issue in the case of the D0-brane system at finite temperature T. Based on the duality, the temporal Wilson loop operator W in gauge theory is expected to contain the information of the Schwarzschild radius R_{Sch} of the dual black hole geometry as log = R_{Sch} / (2 pi alpha' T). This translates to the power-law behavior log = 1.89 (T/lambda^{1/3})^{-3/5}, where lambda is the 't Hooft coupling constant. We calculate the Wilson loop on the gauge theory side in the strongly coupled regime by performing Monte Carlo simulation of supersymmetric matrix quantum mechanics with 16 supercharges. The results reproduce the expected power-law behavior up to a constant shift, which is explainable as alpha' corrections on the gravity side.

  17. Fast GPU-based calculations in few-body quantum scattering

    E-print Network

    Pomerantsev, V N; Rubtsova, O A; Sakhiev, S K

    2015-01-01

    A principally novel approach towards solving the few-particle (many-dimensional) quantum scattering problems is described. The approach is based on a complete discretization of few-particle continuum and usage of massively parallel computations of integral kernels for scattering equations by means of GPU. The discretization for continuous spectrum of a few-particle Hamiltonian is realized with a projection of all scattering operators and wave functions onto the stationary wave-packet basis. Such projection procedure leads to a replacement of singular multidimensional integral equations with linear matrix ones having finite matrix elements. Different aspects of the employment of a multithread GPU computing for fast calculation of the matrix kernel of the equation are studied in detail. As a result, the fully realistic three-body scattering problem above the break-up threshold is solved on an ordinary desktop PC with GPU for a rather small computational time.

  18. Electronic structure calculations of PbS quantum rods and tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Pimachev, Artem; Dahnovsky, Yuri

    2014-01-28

    We study absorption spectra, optical and HOMO-LUMO gaps, and the density of states for PbS quantum rods (QRs) and tubes (QTs). We find some similarities and also differences in QR and QT properties. For both QRs and QTs, the optical and HOMO-LUMO gaps reach the plateaus for small lengths. We find that tubes are as stable as rods. The optical spectra exhibit a peak that can be due to the electron-hole interaction or be a prototype of an S{sub e}–S{sub h} transition in the effective mass approximation. We also calculate the density of states by the density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) methods. The TDDFT density of states function is shifted towards the red side by 0.5?eV indicating the strong e-h interaction.

  19. Far-infrared collision-induced absorption in rare gas mixtures: Quantum and semi-classical calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Buryak, Ilya; Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 3 Pyzhevsky per., 119017 Moscow ; Frommhold, Lothar; Vigasin, Andrey A.

    2014-04-21

    We compare calculations of the translational collision-induced spectra and their integrated intensities of both He–Ar and Ne–Ar collisional complexes, using the quantum mechanical and a semiclassical formalism. Advanced potential energy and induced dipole functions are used for the calculations. The quantum method used is as described previously [L. Frommhold, Collision-induced Absorption in Gases (Cambridge University Press, 1993 and 2006)]. The semiclassical method is based on repeated classical atom-atom scattering calculations to simulate an ensemble average; subsequent Fourier transform then renders the binary absorption coefficient as a function of frequency. The problem of classical calculations is the violation of the principle of detailed balance, which may be introduced only artificially in classical calculations. Nevertheless, it is shown that the use of classical trajectories permits a fairly accurate reproduction of the experimental spectra, comparable to the quantum mechanical results at not too low temperatures and for collisional pairs of not too small reduced mass. Inexpensive classical calculations may thus be promising to compute spectra also of molecular pairs, or even of polyatomic collisional pairs with anisotropic intermolecular interactions, for which the quantum approach is still inefficient or impractical.

  20. Perspectives and Current the Development of Non-Born-Oppenheimer Atomic and Molecular Quantum Mechanical Variational Calculations using Explicitly Correlated Gaussian Basis Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkey, Keeper L.; Adamowicz Team

    2014-03-01

    The development of highly accurate theoretical quantum mechanics models for atomic and molecular calculations is crucial for the verification of the results of high-resolution experimental spectroscopy. High accuracy in the calculations can be achieved by not assuming the Born-Oppenheimer approximation (non-BO) and by using the variational principle. The non-relativistic Hamiltonian describing the internal state of the considered system used in the approach is obtained by separating out the center-of-mass motion from the laboratory frame Hamiltonian. The wave functions used in the calculations are expanded in terms of explicitly correlated Gaussian (ECG) functions. The optimization of the Gaussian non-linear parameters is aided by the analytical energy gradient determined with respect to these parameters. Examples of some very accurate calculations of small atoms and diatomic molecules will be presented. The presentation will also include a discussion of the extension of the approach to perform non-BO calculations of bound states of small triatomic molecules (e.g. H 3 +). Acknowledgements go to Ludwik Adamowicz for guidance and NSF for funding (DGE1-1143953).

  1. Quantum mechanical calculations related to ionization and charge transfer in DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauët, E.; Valiev, M.; Weare, J. H.; Liévin, J.

    2012-07-01

    Ionization and charge migration in DNA play crucial roles in mechanisms of DNA damage caused by ionizing radiation, oxidizing agents and photo-irradiation. Therefore, an evaluation of the ionization properties of the DNA bases is central to the full interpretation and understanding of the elementary reactive processes that occur at the molecular level during the initial exposure and afterwards. Ab initio quantum mechanical (QM) methods have been successful in providing highly accurate evaluations of key parameters, such as ionization energies (IE) of DNA bases. Hence, in this study, we performed high-level QM calculations to characterize the molecular energy levels and potential energy surfaces, which shed light on ionization and charge migration between DNA bases. In particular, we examined the IEs of guanine, the most easily oxidized base, isolated and embedded in base clusters, and investigated the mechanism of charge migration over two and three stacked guanines. The IE of guanine in the human telomere sequence has also been evaluated. We report a simple molecular orbital analysis to explain how modifications in the base sequence are expected to change the efficiency of the sequence as a hole trap. Finally, the application of a hybrid approach combining quantum mechanics with molecular mechanics brings an interesting discussion as to how the native aqueous DNA environment affects the IE threshold of nucleobases.

  2. Calculation of output characteristics of semiconductor quantum-well lasers with account for both electrons and holes

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolova, Z N; Tarasov, I S; Asryan, L V

    2014-09-30

    Using an extended theoretical model, which includes the rate equations for both electrons and holes, we have studied the output characteristics of semiconductor quantum-well lasers. We have found non-trivial dependences of electron and hole concentrations in the waveguide region of the laser on the capture velocities of both types of carriers from the waveguide region into the quantum well. We have obtained the dependences of the internal differential quantum efficiency and optical output power of the laser on the capture velocities of electrons and holes. An increase in the capture velocities has been shown to result in suppression of parasitic recombination in the waveguide region and therefore in a substantial increase in the quantum efficiency and output power. (lasers)

  3. Quantum Calculations on Salt Bridges with Water: Potentials, Structure, and Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Sing; Green, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Salt bridges are electrostatic links between acidic and basic amino acids in a protein; quantum calculations are used here to determine the energetics and other properties of one form of these species, in the presence of water molecules. The acidic groups are carboxylic acids (aspartic and glutamic acids); proteins have two bases with pK above physiological pH: one, arginine, with a guanidinium basic group, the other lysine, which is a primary amine. Only arginine is modeled here, by ethyl guanidinium, while propionic acid is used as a model for either carboxylic acid. The salt bridges are accompanied by 0-12 water molecules; for each of the 13 systems, the energy-bond distance relation, natural bond orbitals (NBO), frequency calculations allowing thermodynamic corrections to room temperature, and dielectric constant dependence, were all calculated. The water molecules were found to arrange themselves in hydrogen bonded rings anchored to the oxygens of the salt bridge components. This was not surprising in itself, but it was found that the rings lead to a periodicity in the energy, and to a 'water addition' rule. The latter shows that the initial rings, with four oxygen atoms, become five member rings when an additional water molecule becomes available, with the additional water filling in at the bond with the lowest Wiberg index, as calculated using NBO. The dielectric constant dependence is the expected hyperbola, and the fit of the energy to the inverse dielectric constant is determined. There is an energy periodicity related to ring formation upon addition of water molecules. When 10 water molecules have been added, all spaces near the salt bridge are filled, completing the first hydration shell, and a second shell starts to form. The potentials associated with salt bridges depend on their hydration, and potentials assigned without regard to local hydration are likely to cause errors as large as or larger than kBT, thus suggesting a serious problem if these potentials are used in Molecular Dynamics simulations.

  4. Quantum mechanical calculation of aqueuous uranium complexes: carbonate, phosphate, organic and biomolecular species

    PubMed Central

    Kubicki, James D; Halada, Gary P; Jha, Prashant; Phillips, Brian L

    2009-01-01

    Background Quantum mechanical calculations were performed on a variety of uranium species representing U(VI), U(V), U(IV), U-carbonates, U-phosphates, U-oxalates, U-catecholates, U-phosphodiesters, U-phosphorylated N-acetyl-glucosamine (NAG), and U-2-Keto-3-doxyoctanoate (KDO) with explicit solvation by H2O molecules. These models represent major U species in natural waters and complexes on bacterial surfaces. The model results are compared to observed EXAFS, IR, Raman and NMR spectra. Results Agreement between experiment and theory is acceptable in most cases, and the reasons for discrepancies are discussed. Calculated Gibbs free energies are used to constrain which configurations are most likely to be stable under circumneutral pH conditions. Reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) is examined for the U-carbonate and U-catechol complexes. Conclusion Results on the potential energy differences between U(V)- and U(IV)-carbonate complexes suggest that the cause of slower disproportionation in this system is electrostatic repulsion between UO2 [CO3]35- ions that must approach one another to form U(VI) and U(IV) rather than a change in thermodynamic stability. Calculations on U-catechol species are consistent with the observation that UO22+ can oxidize catechol and form quinone-like species. In addition, outer-sphere complexation is predicted to be the most stable for U-catechol interactions based on calculated energies and comparison to 13C NMR spectra. Outer-sphere complexes (i.e., ion pairs bridged by water molecules) are predicted to be comparable in Gibbs free energy to inner-sphere complexes for a model carboxylic acid. Complexation of uranyl to phosphorus-containing groups in extracellular polymeric substances is predicted to favor phosphonate groups, such as that found in phosphorylated NAG, rather than phosphodiesters, such as those in nucleic acids. PMID:19689800

  5. A theoretical vibrational spectroscopic study with density functional theory and force field refinement calculation methods on free 4-aminopyrimidine molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balci, K.; Akyuz, S.

    2005-06-01

    A detailed investigation of the geometric structure, force field, electro-optical parameters, relative IR intensities and harmonic vibrational wavenumbers of free 4-aminopyrimidine molecule (4APM) in the electronically ground state has been carried out by using both the DFT-B3LYP (with 6-31++G(d,p) double and 6-311++G(d,p) triple basis sets) and force field refinement calculation methods. The vibrational wavenumbers calculated with DFT method were scaled by using two different methods: (1) scaling with dual scaling factors, (2) deriving the scaling factors from the graph of observed versus calculated wavenumbers. In the case of force field refinement method, the force constants of the pyrimidine were slightly refined so as to fit the calculated wavenumbers to the experimental ones. In order to define the contributions of the internal coordinates of the molecule on its each normal vibrational mode, P.E.D. calculations were performed. In wavenumber and PED calculations, both methods have yield results in agreement with the experimental assignment and also with each other, particularly for ring vibrations. The relative IR intensities calculated by the force field refinement method are considerably in good agreement with experimental ones, however, the results of the IR intensities, obtained from the DFT method are found to be significantly different from the experimental values.

  6. Theoretical Limits of Photovoltaics Efficiency and Possible Improvements by Intuitive Approaches Learned from Photosynthesis and Quantum Coherence

    E-print Network

    Fahhad H Alharbi; Sabre Kais

    2014-02-09

    In this review, we present and discussed the main trends in photovoltaics with emphasize on the conversion efficiency limits. The theoretical limits of various photovoltaics device concepts are presented and analyzed using a flexible detailed balance model where more discussion emphasize is toward the losses. Also, few lessons from nature and other fields to improve the conversion efficiency in photovoltaics are presented and discussed as well. From photosynthesis, the perfect exciton transport in photosynthetic complexes can be utilized for PVs. Also, we present some lessons learned from other fields like recombination suppression by quantum coherence. For example, the coupling in photosynthetic reaction centers is used to suppress recombination in photocells.

  7. On the Theoretical Possibility of Quantum Visual Information Transfer to the Human Brain

    E-print Network

    V. Salari; M. Rahnama; J. A. Tuszynski

    2010-12-13

    The feasibility of wave function collapse in the human brain has been the subject of vigorous scientific debates since the advent of quantum theory. Scientists like Von Neumann, London, Bauer and Wigner (initially) believed that wave function collapse occurs in the brain or is caused by the mind of the observer. It is a legitimate question to ask how human brain can receive subtle external visual quantum information intact when it must pass through very noisy and complex pathways from the eye to the brain? There are several approaches to investigate information processing in the brain, each of which presents a different set of conclusions. Penrose and Hameroff have hypothesized that there is quantum information processing inside the human brain whose material substrate involves microtubules and consciousness is the result of a collective wavefunction collapse occurring in these structures. Conversely, Tegmark stated that owing to thermal decoherence there cannot be any quantum processing in neurons of the brain and processing in the brain must be classical for cognitive processes. However, Rosa and Faber presented an argument for a middle way which shows that none of the previous authors are completely right and despite the presence of decoherence, it is still possible to consider the brain to be a quantum system. Additionally, Thaheld, has concluded that quantum states of photons do collapse in the human eye and there is no possibility for collapse of visual quantum states in the brain and thus there is no possibility for the quantum state reduction in the brain. In this paper we conclude that if we accept the main essence of the above approaches taken together, each of them can provide a different part of a teleportation mechanism.

  8. Accurate quantum dynamics calculations using symmetrized Gaussians on a doubly dense Von Neumann lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halverson, Thomas; Poirier, Bill

    2012-12-01

    In a series of earlier articles [B. Poirier, J. Theor. Comput. Chem. 2, 65 (2003);, 10.1142/S0219633603000380 B. Poirier and A. Salam, J. Chem. Phys. 121, 1690 (2004);, 10.1063/1.1767511 B. Poirier and A. Salam, J. Chem. Phys. 121, 1704 (2004), 10.1063/1.1767512], a new method was introduced for performing exact quantum dynamics calculations. The method uses a "weylet" basis set (orthogonalized Weyl-Heisenberg wavelets) combined with phase space truncation, to defeat the exponential scaling of CPU effort with system dimensionality—the first method ever able to achieve this long-standing goal. Here, we develop another such method, which uses a much more convenient basis of momentum-symmetrized Gaussians. Despite being non-orthogonal, symmetrized Gaussians are collectively local, allowing for effective phase space truncation. A dimension-independent code for computing energy eigenstates of both coupled and uncoupled systems has been created, exploiting massively parallel algorithms. Results are presented for model isotropic uncoupled harmonic oscillators and coupled anharmonic oscillators up to 27 dimensions. These are compared with the previous weylet calculations (uncoupled harmonic oscillators up to 15 dimensions), and found to be essentially just as efficient. Coupled system results are also compared to corresponding exact results obtained using a harmonic oscillator basis, and also to approximate results obtained using first-order perturbation theory up to the maximum dimensionality for which the latter may be feasibly obtained (four dimensions).

  9. Quantum Monte Carlo calculation of the singlet--triplet splitting in methylene

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, P.J.; Dupuis, M.; Lester W.A. Jr.

    1985-02-15

    The fixed-node quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) method is used to calculate the total energy of CH/sub 2/ in the /sup 3/B/sub 1/ and /sup 1/A/sub 1/ states. For both states, the best QMC variationally bounded energies lie more than 15 kcal/mol (0.024 h) below the best previous variational calculations. Subtracting these energies to obtain the singlet--triplet splitting yields T/sub e/ = 9.4 +- 2.2 kcal/mol. Adjusting for zero-point energies and relativistic effects, we obtain T/sub 0/ = 8.9 +- 2.2 kcal/mol. This result is in excellent agreement with the recent direct measurements of McKellar et al. of T/sub 0/ = 9.05 +- 0.06 kcal/mol, and of Leopold et al. of approx.9 kcal/mol, as well as with recent threoretical investigations which indicate an energy gap of 9--11 kcal/mol. We summarize the QMC method, discuss a possible scheme for iteratively correcting the procedure, and note that the present results were obtained using only single determinant functions for both states, in contrast to conventional ab initio approaches which must use at least two configurations to properly describe the singlet state.

  10. Progesterone and testosterone studies by neutron-scattering methods and quantum chemistry calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holderna-Natkaniec, K.; Szyczewski, A.; Natkaniec, I.; Khavryutchenko, V. D.; Pawlukojc, A.

    Inelastic incoherent neutron scattering (IINS) and neutron diffraction spectra of progesterone and testosterone were measured simultaneously on the NERA spectrometer at the IBR-2 pulsed reactor in Dubna. Both studied samples do not indicate any phase transition in the temperature range from 20 to 290K. The IINS spectra have been transformed to the phonon density of states (PDS) in the one-phonon scattering approximation. The PDS spectra display well-resolved peaks of low-frequency internal vibration modes up to 600cm-1. The assignment of these modes was proposed taking into account the results of calculations of the structure and dynamics of isolated molecules of the investigated substances. The quantum chemistry calculations were performed by the semi-empirical PM3 method and at the restricted Hartree-Fock level with the 6-31* basis set. The lower internal modes assigned to torsional vibration of the androstane skeleton mix with the lattice vibrations. The intense bands in the PDS spectra in the frequency range from 150 to 300cm-1 are related to librations of structurally inequivalent methyl groups.

  11. Accurate quantum dynamics calculations using symmetrized Gaussians on a doubly dense Von Neumann lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, Thomas; Poirier, Bill

    2012-12-14

    In a series of earlier articles [B. Poirier, J. Theor. Comput. Chem. 2, 65 (2003); B. Poirier and A. Salam, J. Chem. Phys. 121, 1690 (2004); and ibid. 121, 1704 (2004)], a new method was introduced for performing exact quantum dynamics calculations. The method uses a 'weylet' basis set (orthogonalized Weyl-Heisenberg wavelets) combined with phase space truncation, to defeat the exponential scaling of CPU effort with system dimensionality-the first method ever able to achieve this long-standing goal. Here, we develop another such method, which uses a much more convenient basis of momentum-symmetrized Gaussians. Despite being non-orthogonal, symmetrized Gaussians are collectively local, allowing for effective phase space truncation. A dimension-independent code for computing energy eigenstates of both coupled and uncoupled systems has been created, exploiting massively parallel algorithms. Results are presented for model isotropic uncoupled harmonic oscillators and coupled anharmonic oscillators up to 27 dimensions. These are compared with the previous weylet calculations (uncoupled harmonic oscillators up to 15 dimensions), and found to be essentially just as efficient. Coupled system results are also compared to corresponding exact results obtained using a harmonic oscillator basis, and also to approximate results obtained using first-order perturbation theory up to the maximum dimensionality for which the latter may be feasibly obtained (four dimensions).

  12. A regularized and renormalized electrostatic coupling Hamiltonian for hybrid quantum-mechanical-molecular-mechanical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, P. K.; Gogonea, V.

    2005-10-01

    We describe a regularized and renormalized electrostatic coupling Hamiltonian for hybrid quantum-mechanical (QM)-molecular-mechanical (MM) calculations. To remedy the nonphysical QM/MM Coulomb interaction at short distances arising from a point electrostatic potential (ESP) charge of the MM atom and also to accommodate the effect of polarized MM atom in the coupling Hamiltonian, we propose a partial-wave expansion of the ESP charge and describe the effect of a s-wave expansion, extended over the covalent radius rc, of the MM atom. The resulting potential describes that, at short distances, large scale cancellation of Coulomb interaction arises intrinsically from the localized expansion of the MM point charge and the potential self-consistently reduces to 1/rc at zero distance providing a renormalization to the Coulomb energy near interatomic separations. Employing this renormalized Hamiltonian, we developed an interface between the Car-Parrinello molecular-dynamics program and the classical molecular-dynamics simulation program Groningen machine for chemical simulations. With this hybrid code we performed QM/MM calculations on water dimer, imidazole carbon monoxide (CO ) complex, and imidazole-heme-CO complex with CO interacting with another imidazole. The QM/MM results are in excellent agreement with experimental data for the geometry of these complexes and other computational data found in literature.

  13. Molecular structure, spectroscopic assignments and other quantum chemical calculations of anticancer drugs - A review.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, A S; Deilam, M; Sharifi-Rad, J; Ashrafi, F; Hoseini-Alfatemi, S M

    2015-01-01

    In many texts, both theoretical and experimental studies on molecular structure and spectroscopic assignments of anticancer medicines have been reported. Molecular geometry parameters have been experimentally obtained by x-ray structure determination method and optimized using computational chemistry method like density functional theory. In this review, we consider calculations based on density function theory at B3LYP/6-31G (d,p) and B3LYP/6-311++G (d,p) levels of theory. Based on optimized geometric parameters of the molecules, molecular structures (length of bonds, bond angles and torsion angles) and vibrational assignments have been obtained. Molecular stability and bond strength have been investigated by applying natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Other molecular properties such as mulliken population analysis, thermodynamic properties and polarizabitities of these drugs have been reported. Calculated energies of HOMO and LUMO show that charge transfer occurs in the molecular. Information about the size, shape, charge density distribution and site of molecular chemical reactivity has been obtained by mapping electron density isosurface of electrostatic and compared with experiment data. PMID:26638891

  14. Quantum mechanics calculation of catalytic properties of a copper sensor for prediction of flow characteristics in plasmatron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, V. L.; Kroupnov, A. A.; Vetchinkin, ?. S.

    2015-12-01

    Basing on quantum-mechanical calculations within cluster models, rate coefficients of elementary steps of the complete system of heterogeneous catalytic recombination of dissociated oxygen on the copper oxide surface were determined. They were used for calculation of dependence of the effective coefficient of oxygen atom heterogeneous catalytic recombination on the temperature and partial pressure in a wide range of conditions at the surface. It has been established that its value substantially varies depending on the conditions at the surface.

  15. Theoretical study on flueggenines A and B: A comparison of calculated spectroscopic properties with IR, UV and ECD experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chang-Xin; Mo, Jian-Xia; Wang, Xue-Yao; Zhang, Jian; Gan, Li-She

    2011-03-01

    Using DFT at the B3LYP/6-31+G (d) level, DFT-D at the wb97xd/tzvpp level and TD-DFT at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level, computational analysis of the first examples of naturally occurring dimeric indolizidine alkaloids, flueggenines A and B, accomplished the simulation and interpretation of their IR, UV and ECD spectra. Compared with the experimental ones, the calculated IR and UV spectra allowed the reinforcement of the carbon skeletons and functional groups. Calculation of the ECD spectra assured the formerly assigned absolute configurations for flueggenines A and B.

  16. Scanning tunneling microscopy observation and theoretical calculation of the adsorption of adenine on Si(100)2 × 1 surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasaya, Megumi; Tabata, Hitoshi; Kawai, Tomoji

    1995-11-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images of adenine molecules on Si(100)2 × 1 surfaces have shown for the first time that the adenine is adsorbed on a Si dimer row. The double bright molecular images are located on the neighboring two Si dimer rows and have ellipsoidal shapes. An extended Hückel molecular orbital calculation of the adenine adsorbed on the Si cluster gives the form of the hybridized orbital in this system. This calculation explains the adsorption site and the surface local density of states corresponding to the observed STM images.

  17. Protonation/deprotonation process of Emodin in aqueous solution and pKa determination: UV/Visible spectrophotometric titration and quantum/molecular mechanics calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, Antonio R.; Duarte, Evandro L.; Lamy, M. Teresa; Coutinho, Kaline

    2014-08-01

    We combined theoretical and experimental studies to elucidate the important deprotonation process of Emodin in water. We used the UV/Visible spectrophotometric titration curves to obtain its pKa values, pKa1 = 8.0 ± 0.1 and pKa2 = 10.9 ± 0.2. Additionally, we obtained the pKa values of Emodin in the water-methanol mixture (1:3v/v). We give a new interpretation of the experimental data, obtaining apparent pKa1 = 6.2 ± 0.1, pKa2 = 8.3 ± 0.1 and pKa3 > 12.7. Performing quantum mechanics calculations for all possible deprotonation sites and tautomeric isomers of Emodin in vacuum and in water, we identified the sites of the first and second deprotonation. We calculated the standard deprotonation free energy of Emodin in water and the pKa1, using an explicit model of the solvent, with Free Energy Perturbation theory in Monte Carlo simulations obtaining, ?Gaq = 12.1 ± 1.4 kcal/mol and pKa1 = 8.7 ± 0.9. With the polarizable continuum model for the solvent, we obtained ?Gaq = 11.6 ± 1.0 kcal/mol and pKa1 = 8.3 ± 0.7. Both solvent models gave theoretical results in very good agreement with the experimental values.

  18. Ab initio quantum Monte Carlo calculations of spin superexchange in cuprates: the benchmarking case of Ca2CuO3

    SciTech Connect

    Foyevtsova, Kateryna; Krogel, Jaron T; Kim, Jeongnim; Kent, Paul R; Dagotto, Elbio R; Reboredo, Fernando A

    2014-01-01

    In view of the continuous theoretical efforts aimed at an accurate microscopic description of the strongly correlated transition metal oxides and related materials, we show that with continuum quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) calculations it is possible to obtain the value of the spin superexchange coupling constant of a copper oxide in a quantitatively excellent agreement with experiment. The variational nature of the QMC total energy allows us to identify the best trial wave function out of the available pool of wave functions, which makes the approach essentially free from adjustable parameters and thus truly ab initio. The present results on magnetic interactions suggest that QMC is capable of accurately describing ground state properties of strongly correlated materials.

  19. Quantum-chemical calculations and electron diffraction study of the equilibrium molecular structure of vitamin K3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaikin, L. S.; Tikhonov, D. S.; Grikina, O. E.; Rykov, A. N.; Stepanov, N. F.

    2014-05-01

    The equilibrium molecular structure of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (vitamin K3) having C s symmetry is experimentally characterized for the first time by means of gas-phase electron diffraction using quantum-chemical calculations and data on the vibrational spectra of related compounds.

  20. Proposal of a Communications Theory of Quantum Mechanics. Theoretical Examination of the 'Gyromagnetic Ratio'

    SciTech Connect

    Coogan, Anthony

    2009-03-09

    Is the 'Two-Slit' experiment best explained by aliasing, first solved by Harry Nyquist (1926)? Does light reflected by an electron rotate through double the angle through which the electron itself rotates? Can a barchart represent the uncertainty principle?A very simple model of quantum mechanics is presented.

  1. Theoretical study of quantum capacitance and associated delay in armchair-edge graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Asif; Hossain, Md. Faruque; Rana, Md. Sohel; Kouzani, Abbas Z.

    2015-09-01

    This work presents a comprehensive investigation of the quantum capacitance and the associated effects on the carrier transit delay in armchair-edge graphene nanoribbons (A-GNRs) based on semi-analytical method. We emphasize on the realistic analysis of bandgap with taking edge effects into account by means of modified tight binding (TB) model. The results show that the edge effects have significant influence in defining the bandgap which is a necessary input in the accurate analyses of capacitance. The quantum capacitance is discussed in both nondegenerate (low gate voltage) and degenerate (high gate voltage) regimes. We observe that the classical capacitance limits the total gate (external) capacitance in the degenerate regime, whereas, quantum capacitance limits the external gate capacitance in the nondegenerate regime. The influence of gate capacitances on the gate delay is studied extensively to demonstrate the optimization of switching time. Moreover, the high-field behavior of a GNR is studied in the degenerate and nondegenerate regimes. We find that a smaller intrinsic capacitance appears in the channel due to high velocity carrier, which limits the quantum capacitance and thus limit the gate delay. Such detail analysis of GNRs considering a realistic model would be useful for the optimized design of GNR-based nanoelectronic devices.

  2. Derivation of the Rules of Quantum Mechanics from Information-Theoretic Axioms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fivel, Daniel I.

    2012-02-01

    Conventional quantum mechanics with a complex Hilbert space and the Born Rule is derived from five axioms describing experimentally observable properties of probability distributions for the outcome of measurements. Axioms I, II, III are common to quantum mechanics and hidden variable theories. Axiom IV recognizes a phenomenon, first noted by von Neumann (in Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1955) and independently by Turing (Teuscher and Hofstadter, Alan Turing: Life and Legacy of a Great Thinker, Springer, Berlin, 2004), in which the increase in entropy resulting from a measurement is reduced by a suitable intermediate measurement. This is shown to be impossible for local hidden variable theories. Axiom IV, together with the first three, almost suffice to deduce the conventional rules but allow some exotic, alternatives such as real or quaternionic quantum mechanics. Axiom V recognizes a property of the distribution of outcomes of random measurements on qubits which holds only in the complex Hilbert space model. It is then shown that the five axioms also imply the conventional rules for any finite dimension.

  3. The Impact of Quantum Theoretical Models of Consciousness on the Study of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andris, James F.

    This paper abstracts and discusses the approaches of five educational theorists who have used quantum theory as a model for educational phenomena, sets forth and uses metatheoretical criteria to evaluate the work of these theorists, and states guidelines for further work in this domain. The paper abstracts and discusses the works of the following…

  4. A simplified quantum theoretical derivation of the Unruh and Hawking temperature

    E-print Network

    Vladan Pankovic; Darko Kapor

    2015-03-05

    In this work we suggest a sufficiently simple for understanding "without knowing the details of the quantum gravity" and quite correct deduction of the Unruh temperature (but not whole Unruh radiation process!). Firstly, we shall directly apply usual consequences of the Unruh radiation and temperature at surface gravity of a large spherical physical system and we shall show that corresponding thermal energy can be formally quite correctly presented as the potential energy absolute value of the classical gravitational interaction between this large and a small quantum system with well defined characteristics. Secondly, we shall inversely "postulate" small quantum system with necessary well defined characteristics and then, after "supposition" on the equivalence between potential energy absolute value of its gravitational interaction with large system with thermal energy, we shall obtain exact value of the Unruh temperature. Moreover, by very simple and correct application of suggested formalism (with small quantum system) at thermodynamic laws, we shall successfully study other thermodynamic characteristics, especially entropy, characteristic for Unruh and Hawking radiation

  5. Relevance of silicate surface morphology in interstellar H2 formation. Insights from quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-Ruiz, Javier; Martínez-González, José Ángel; Sodupe, Mariona; Ugliengo, Piero; Rimola, Albert

    2015-10-01

    The adsorption of H atoms and their recombination to form an H2 molecule on slab models of the crystalline Mg2SiO4 forsterite (001) and (110) surfaces was studied by means of quantum mechanical calculations based on periodic density functional theory (DFT). Present results are compared with those previously reported for the most stable (010) surface, showing the relevance of the surface morphology and their stability on the H2 formation. Different H chemisorption states were identified, mostly on the outermost O atoms of the surfaces. In agreement with the higher instability of the (001) and (110) surfaces, the calculated adsorption energies are larger than those for the (010) surface. Computed energy barriers for the H hopping on these surfaces are exceedingly high to occur at the very low temperatures of deep space. For the adsorption of two H atoms, the most stable complexes are those in which the H atoms form Mg-H and SiOH surface groups. From these complexes, we did not identify energetically feasible paths for H2 formation through a Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism on the (001) surface because the initial states are more stable than the final products. However, on the (110) surface one path was found to be exoergic with very low energy barriers. This differs to that observed for the (010) surface, for which two feasible Langmuir-Hinshelwood-based channels were identified. H2 formation through the Eley-Rideal mechanism was also simulated, in which an incoming H atom impinges on a pre-adsorbed H atom at the (001) and (110) surfaces in a barrierless way.

  6. Thermal Decomposition of NCN: Shock-Tube Study, Quantum Chemical Calculations, and Master-Equation Modeling.

    PubMed

    Busch, Anna; González-García, Núria; Lendvay, György; Olzmann, Matthias

    2015-07-16

    The thermal decomposition of cyanonitrene, NCN, was studied behind reflected shock waves in the temperature range 1790-2960 K at pressures near 1 and 4 bar. Highly diluted mixtures of NCN3 in argon were shock-heated to produce NCN, and concentration-time profiles of C atoms as reaction product were monitored with atomic resonance absorption spectroscopy at 156.1 nm. Calibration was performed with methane pyrolysis experiments. Rate coefficients for the reaction (3)NCN + M ? (3)C + N2 + M (R1) were determined from the initial slopes of the C atom concentration-time profiles. Reaction R1 was found to be in the low-pressure regime at the conditions of the experiments. The temperature dependence of the bimolecular rate coefficient can be expressed with the following Arrhenius equation: k1(bim) = (4.2 ± 2.1) × 10(14) exp[-242.3 kJ mol(-1)/(RT)] cm(3) mol(-1) s(-1). The rate coefficients were analyzed by using a master equation with specific rate coefficients from RRKM theory. The necessary molecular data and energies were calculated with quantum chemical methods up to the CCSD(T)/CBS//CCSD/cc-pVTZ level of theory. From the topography of the potential energy surface, it follows that reaction R1 proceeds via isomerization of NCN to CNN and subsequent C-N bond fission along a collinear reaction coordinate without a tight transition state. The calculations reproduce the magnitude and temperature dependence of the rate coefficient and confirm that reaction R1 is in the low-pressure regime under our experimental conditions. PMID:25853321

  7. Theoretical basis for quantum simulation with a planar ionic crystal in a Penning trap using a triangular rotating wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, A.; Yoshimura, B.; Freericks, J. K.

    2015-10-01

    One of the challenges with quantum simulation in ion traps is that the effective spin-spin exchange couplings are not uniform across the lattice. This can be particularly important in Penning-trap realizations where the presence of an ellipsoidal boundary at the edge of the trap leads to dislocations in the crystal. By adding an additional anharmonic potential to better control interion spacing, and a triangular-shaped rotating wall potential to reduce the appearance of dislocations, one can achieve better uniformity of the ionic positions. In this work, we calculate the axial phonon frequencies and the spin-spin interactions driven by a spin-dependent optical dipole force, and discuss what effects the more uniform ion spacing have on the spin simulation properties of Penning-trap quantum simulators. Indeed, we find that the spin-spin interactions behave more like a power law for a wide range of parameters.

  8. Vibrational spectra, structure, and theoretical calculations of 2-chloro- and 3-chloropyridine and 2-bromo- and 3-bromopyridine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boopalachandran, Praveenkumar; Sheu, Hong-Li; Laane, Jaan

    2012-09-01

    The infrared and Raman spectra of 2-chloropyridine, 3-chloropyridine, 2-bromopyridine, and 3-bromopyridine have been recorded and assigned. Density functional theory calculations (B3LYP with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set) produce excellent agreement with the experimental values. Ab initio calculations (MP2 with the cc-pVTZ basis set) were utilized to compute the molecular structures, which were compared to those of pyridine and the corresponding fluoropyridines. All of the 2-halopyridines show a shortening of the N-C(2) bond resulting from the halogen substitution on the C(2) carbon atom. All of the other ring bond distances for the 2-halopyridines and 3-halopyridines are little different from pyridine itself.

  9. Calculational and experimental investigations of void effect -- A simple theoretical model for space-dependent leakage treatment of heterogeneous assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Benoist, P.; Petrovic, I. ); Mondot, J. )

    1994-12-01

    This method, which takes into account the influence of assembly heterogeneity on neutron leakage, is based on the heterogeneous B[sub 1] formalism, which assumes the existence of a fundamental mode in an infinite and regular lattice of heterogeneous assemblies. A simplified formalism, TIBERE, is presented that allows one to define directional space-dependent leakage coefficients. This method, introduced for two-dimensional x-y geometry in the APOLLO-2 multigroup transport code, uses classical and directional first-flight collision probabilities. One can now define leakage cross sections as additional absorption cross sections that have space and energy dependence, as well as all other cross sections. Hence, one obtains perfectly consistent reaction and leakage rates used in an equivalence procedure, determining cell-homogenized parameters for a whole core calculation. The study of this refined heterogeneous leakage treatment was undertaken because of the insufficiency of the homogeneous leakage model, especially in cases when an assembly contain voided zones or almost voided zones, i.e., zones with a long mean free path, so that the streaming effect may become important. The fission rate comparison between the EPICURE reactor experimental results and the results of the corresponding whole reactor calculations were accomplished, with leakages calculated by the homogeneous and the TIBERE procedures of the APOLLO-2 code.

  10. Path integral calculation of thermal rate constants within the quantum instanton approximation: Application to the HCH4\\H2CH3 hydrogen

    E-print Network

    Miller, William H.

    Yamamoto, and William H. Millera) Department of Chemistry and Kenneth S. Pitzer Center for Theoretical and recalibrated version of the Jordan­ Gilbert potential surface. The quantum instanton rate is evaluated using

  11. Schwarzschild radius from Monte Carlo calculation of the Wilson loop in supersymmetric matrix quantum mechanics.

    PubMed

    Hanada, Masanori; Miwa, Akitsugu; Nishimura, Jun; Takeuchi, Shingo

    2009-05-01

    In the string-gauge duality it is important to understand how the space-time geometry is encoded in gauge theory observables. We address this issue in the case of the D0-brane system at finite temperature T. Based on the duality, the temporal Wilson loop W in gauge theory is expected to contain the information of the Schwarzschild radius RSch of the dual black hole geometry as log(W)=RSch/(2pialpha'T). This translates to the power-law behavior log(W)=1.89(T/lambda 1/3)-3/5, where lambda is the 't Hooft coupling constant. We calculate the Wilson loop on the gauge theory side in the strongly coupled regime by performing Monte Carlo simulations of supersymmetric matrix quantum mechanics with 16 supercharges. The results reproduce the expected power-law behavior up to a constant shift, which is explainable as alpha' corrections on the gravity side. Our conclusion also demonstrates manifestly the fuzzball picture of black holes. PMID:19518857

  12. Quantum three-body calculation of the nonresonant triple-?reaction rate at low temperatures

    E-print Network

    Kazuyuki Ogata; Masataka Kan; Masayasu Kamimura

    2009-07-22

    The triple-\\alpha reaction rate is re-evaluated by directly solving the three-body Schr\\"odinger equation. The resonant and nonresonant processes are treated on the same footing using the continuum-discretized coupled-channels method for three-body scattering. Accurate description of the \\alpha-\\alpha nonresonant states significantly quenches the Coulomb barrier between the two-\\alpha's and the third \\alpha particle. Consequently, the \\alpha-\\alpha nonresonant continuum states below the resonance at 92.04 keV, i.e., the ground state of 8Be, give markedly larger contribution at low temperatures than in foregoing studies. We show that Nomoto's method for three-body nonresonant capture processes, which is adopted in the NACRE compilation and many other studies, is a crude approximation of the accurate quantum three-body model calculation. We find about 20 orders-of-magnitude enhancement of the triple-\\alpha reaction rate around 10^7 K compared to the rate of NACRE.

  13. A general rigorous quantum dynamics algorithm to calculate vibrational energy levels of pentaatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hua-Gen

    2009-08-01

    An exact variational algorithm is presented for calculating vibrational energy levels of pentaatomic molecules without any dynamical approximation. The quantum mechanical Hamiltonian of the system is expressed in a set of orthogonal coordinates defined by four scattering vectors in the body-fixed frame. The eigenvalue problem is solved using a two-layer Lanczos iterative diagonalization method in a mixed grid/basis set. A direct product potential-optimized discrete variable representation (PO-DVR) basis is used for the radial coordinates while a non-direct product finite basis representation (FBR) is employed for the angular variables. The two-layer Lanczos method requires only the actions of the Hamiltonian operator on the Lanczos vectors, where the potential-vector products are accomplished via a pseudo-spectral transform technique. By using Jacobi, Radau and orthogonal satellite vectors, we have proposed 21 types of orthogonal coordinate systems so that the algorithm is capable of describing most five-atom systems with small and/or large amplitude vibrational motions. Finally, an universal program ( PetroVib) has been developed. Its applications to the molecules CH and HO2-, and the van der Waals cluster HeCl are also discussed.

  14. Properties of Solar Thermal Fuels by Accurate Quantum Monte Carlo Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saritas, Kayahan; Ataca, Can; Grossman, Jeffrey C.

    2014-03-01

    Efficient utilization of the sun as a renewable and clean energy source is one of the major goals of this century due to increasing energy demand and environmental impact. Solar thermal fuels are materials that capture and store the sun's energy in the form of chemical bonds, which can then be released as heat on demand and charged again. Previous work on solar thermal fuels faced challenges related to the cyclability of the fuel over time, as well as the need for higher energy densities. Recently, it was shown that by templating photoswitches onto carbon nanostructures, both high energy density as well as high stability can be achieved. In this work, we explore alternative molecules to azobenzene in such a nano-templated system. We employ the highly accurate quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) method to predict the energy storage potential for each molecule. Our calculations show that in many cases the level of accuracy provided by density functional theory (DFT) is sufficient. However, in some cases, such as dihydroazulene, the drastic change in conjugation upon light absorption causes the DFT predictions to be inconsistent and incorrect. For this case, we compare our QMC results for the geometric structure, band gap and reaction enthalpy with different DFT functionals.

  15. AFNMR: automated fragmentation quantum mechanical calculation of NMR chemical shifts for biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Swails, Jason; Zhu, Tong; He, Xiao; Case, David A

    2015-10-01

    We evaluate the performance of the automated fragmentation quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics approach (AF-QM/MM) on the calculation of protein and nucleic acid NMR chemical shifts. The AF-QM/MM approach models solvent effects implicitly through a set of surface charges computed using the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, and it can also be combined with an explicit solvent model through the placement of water molecules in the first solvation shell around the solute; the latter substantially improves the accuracy of chemical shift prediction of protons involved in hydrogen bonding with solvent. We also compare the performance of AF-QM/MM on proteins and nucleic acids with two leading empirical chemical shift prediction programs SHIFTS and SHIFTX2. Although the empirical programs outperform AF-QM/MM in predicting chemical shifts, the differences are in some cases small, and the latter can be applied to chemical shifts on biomolecules which are outside the training set employed by the empirical programs, such as structures containing ligands, metal centers, and non-standard residues. The AF-QM/MM described here is implemented in version 5 of the SHIFTS software, and is fully automated, so that only a structure in PDB format is required as input. PMID:26232926

  16. Set of molecular models based on quantum mechanical ab initio calculations and thermodynamic data.

    PubMed

    Eckl, Bernhard; Vrabec, Jadran; Hasse, Hans

    2008-10-01

    A parametrization strategy for molecular models on the basis of force fields is proposed, which allows a rapid development of models for small molecules by using results from quantum mechanical (QM) ab initio calculations and thermodynamic data. The geometry of the molecular models is specified according to the atom positions determined by QM energy minimization. The electrostatic interactions are modeled by reducing the electron density distribution to point dipoles and point quadrupoles located in the center of mass of the molecules. Dispersive and repulsive interactions are described by Lennard-Jones sites, for which the parameters are iteratively optimized to experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data, i.e., vapor pressure, saturated liquid density, and enthalpy of vaporization of the considered substance. The proposed modeling strategy was applied to a sample set of ten molecules from different substance classes. New molecular models are presented for iso-butane, cyclohexane, formaldehyde, dimethyl ether, sulfur dioxide, dimethyl sulfide, thiophene, hydrogen cyanide, acetonitrile, and nitromethane. Most of the models are able to describe the experimental VLE data with deviations of a few percent. PMID:18793022

  17. THE IONIC PATHWAYS OF LITHIUM CHEMISTRY IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE: QUANTUM CALCULATIONS FOR LiH{sup +} REACTING WITH H

    SciTech Connect

    Bovino, S.; Gianturco, F. A.; Stoecklin, T.

    2010-01-10

    To better understand the overall role of lithium chemistry in the early universe, reactive quantum calculations involving LiH{sup +} have been carried out and rate coefficients have been obtained. The reactive quantum calculations have been performed using a negative imaginary potential method. Infinite-order sudden approximation and the coupled state approximation have been used to simplify the angular coupling dynamics. Rate coefficients are obtained from the reactive cross sections by further integration over Boltzmann distribution of velocities. The results from the present calculations suggest that, at low redshifts (z), LiH{sup +} should be amenable to observation as imprinted on the cosmic background radiation, in contrast with its neutral counterpart. At higher z, the ionic species may disappear through both depletion reaction and three-body break-up processes.

  18. Line Coupling Effects in the Isotropic Raman Spectra of N2: A Quantum Calculation at Room Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thibault, Franck; Boulet, Christian; Ma, Qiancheng

    2014-01-01

    We present quantum calculations of the relaxation matrix for the Q branch of N2 at room temperature using a recently proposed N2-N2 rigid rotor potential. Close coupling calculations were complemented by coupled states studies at high energies and provide about 10200 two-body state-to state cross sections from which the needed one-body cross-sections may be obtained. For such temperatures, convergence has to be thoroughly analyzed since such conditions are close to the limit of current computational feasibility. This has been done using complementary calculations based on the energy corrected sudden formalism. Agreement of these quantum predictions with experimental data is good, but the main goal of this work is to provide a benchmark relaxation matrix for testing more approximate methods which remain of a great utility for complex molecular systems at room (and higher) temperatures.

  19. Line coupling effects in the isotropic Raman spectra of N{sub 2}: A quantum calculation at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Thibault, Franck; Boulet, Christian; Ma, Qiancheng

    2014-01-28

    We present quantum calculations of the relaxation matrix for the Q branch of N{sub 2} at room temperature using a recently proposed N{sub 2}-N{sub 2} rigid rotor potential. Close coupling calculations were complemented by coupled states studies at high energies and provide about 10?200 two-body state-to state cross sections from which the needed one-body cross-sections may be obtained. For such temperatures, convergence has to be thoroughly analyzed since such conditions are close to the limit of current computational feasibility. This has been done using complementary calculations based on the energy corrected sudden formalism. Agreement of these quantum predictions with experimental data is good, but the main goal of this work is to provide a benchmark relaxation matrix for testing more approximate methods which remain of a great utility for complex molecular systems at room (and higher) temperatures.

  20. Rate coefficient of CN formation through radiative association: A theoretical study of quantum effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antipov, Sergey V.; Sjölander, Tobias; Nyman, Gunnar; Gustafsson, Magnus

    2009-08-01

    Radiative association of CN is simulated using a quantum dynamical as well as a semiclassical approach. A comparison of the resulting energy-resolved cross sections reveals striking quantum effects that are due to shape resonances. These, in turn, arise because of states that are quasibound by the centrifugal barrier. The quantal rate coefficient for temperatures from 40 to 1900 K has been computed using the Breit-Wigner theory to account for the resonances. Comparison with the results obtained by Singh and Andreazza [Astrophys. J. 537, 261 (2000)] shows that the semiclassical method, which completely omits the shape resonances, is accurate to within 25% above room temperature. At lower temperatures the contribution from the shape resonances to the radiative association rate is more significant.

  1. Quantum dynamics calculations on atom-diatom collisions: bosons versus fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutson, Jeremy M.

    2006-05-01

    We have obtained new potential energy surfaces and carried out full quantum dynamics calculations for spin-polarized Li + Li2 [1] and K + K2 [2] collisions for both bosonic and fermionic isotopes. These are ``reactive'' scattering collisions because they include all possible arrangement channels. They are carried out in hyperspherical coordinates [3], which allow the full boson or fermion symmetry to be imposed. The potential energy surfaces are highly non-additive [4]. Our calculations give very high quenching rates for alkali dimers in excited vibrational states. For the low vibrationally excited states that we can handle at present, we do not see any suppression of inelastic scattering for fermionic atoms, even when the scattering length is large and positive. The low-temperature inelastic rate coefficients are typically above 10-10 cm^3 s-1. We conclude that Pauli blocking occurs only for molecules formed in the highest vibrational state in the potential well. Our results have important implications for experiments aimed at transferring molecules to lower vibrational states. We expect that it will be necessary to transfer them directly to the ground vibrational state for them to be long-lived. Molecules produced in any intermediate vibrational state are likely to be ejected from the trap very quickly. We have also carried out calculations for mixed-isotope collisions involving alkali dimers [5]. For ^7Li colliding with either ^6Li2 or ^6Li^7Li, reactive scattering is possible even when the molecule is in its lowest rovibrational state because of the change in zero-point energy. For ^7Li + ^6Li^7Li, there is only one reactive channel and the reactive scattering rate is suppressed by a factor of 50 compares to the vibrational relaxation rates. [1] M. T. Cvitas et al., PRL 94, 033201 (2005). [2] G. Qu'em'ener et al., PRA 71, 032722 (2005). [3] P. Sold'an et al., PRL 89, 153201 (2002). [4] P. Sold'an et al., PRA. 67, 054702 (2003). [5] M. T. Cvitas et al., PRL 94, 200402 (2005).

  2. Azo dicarboxylates are not conjugated: X-ray crystal structure and theoretical calculations on di-t-butylazodicarboxylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goh, Mean See; Rintoul, Llew; Pfrunder, Michael C.; McMurtrie, John C.; Arnold, Dennis P.

    2015-10-01

    The X-ray crystal structure of trans-di-t-butyl azodicarboxylate (DTBAD, 2) was determined and this revealed that the torsion angle between the Ndbnd N and Cdbnd O double bonds is 84.0(2)°, and that between the anti-disposed Cdbnd O vectors is 180°. This is the first report of the solid state structure of an azodicarboxylate ester. The molecule was subjected to Density Functional Theory geometry optimization at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level in cyclohexane medium, and the global minimum structure agreed in principle with that determined in the solid state by crystallography. The N-C(O) torsion angle in the optimized structure is 107.7°, and the Cdbnd O vectors lie in an anti relationship. Similar calculations on the unknown cis-Ndbnd N isomer revealed an optimum geometry whose energy is predicted to lie only 11.9 kJ/mol higher than that of the trans isomer. M062X/6-311+G(d) model chemistry was used to determine relative electronic energies and to conduct Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) calculations. Exploration of the energetics of rotations about the N-C(O) bonds revealed a clear preference for near-orthogonality in azodicarboxylates, and suggests almost complete absence of classical conjugation between the neighbouring ? bonds. Electronic transitions were simulated using the time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d) level, and the weak band in the near-UV for 2 in cyclohexane was reproduced in the calculations. The electronic isolation of the Ndbnd N bond may be important in the numerous applications of azodicarboxylates in organic synthesis, and the small energy difference between the trans and cis isomers implies the likely involvement of the latter in the successful photochemical diaza-Diels-Alder reaction of diethyl azodicarboxylate with 1,3-cyclohexadiene.

  3. Theoretical and experimental investigation of the nonlinear dynamical trends of passively mode-locked quantum dot lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghunathan, Ravi

    In recent years, passively mode-locked quantum dot lasers have shown great promise as compact, efficient and reliable pulsed sources of light for a range of precision and high performance applications, such as high bit-rate optical communications, diverse waveform generation, metrology, and clock distribution in high-performance computing (HPC) processors. For such applications, stable optical pulses with short picosecond pulse durations and multi-gigahertz repetition rates are required. In addition, a low pulse-to-pulse timing jitter is also necessary to prevent errors arising from the ambiguity between neighboring pulses. In order to optimize pulse quality in terms of optical characteristics such as pulse shape and pulse train behavior, as well as RF characteristics such as phase noise and timing jitter, understanding the nonlinear output dynamics of such devices is of critical importance, not only to get a sense of the regimes of operation where device output might be stable or unstable, but also to gain insight into the parameters that influence the output characteristics the most, and how they can be accessed and exploited to optimize design and performance for next generation applications. In this dissertation, theoretical and experimental studies have been combined to investigate the dynamical trends of two-section passively mode-locked quantum dot lasers. On the theoretical side, a novel numerical modeling scheme is presented as a powerful and versatile framework to study the nonlinear dynamics specific to a device, with device-specific parameters extracted over a range of operating conditions. The practical utility of this scheme is then demonstrated, first, in an analytical capability to interpret and explain dynamical trends observed in experiment, and subsequently, as a predictive tool to guide experiment to operate in a desired dynamical regime. Modeling results are compared to experimental findings where possible. Finally, optical feedback from an external reflector is experimentally studied as an additional control mechanism over the output dynamics of the device, and shown to enable invaluable insight into the behavior of the RF and optical spectra of the output. Together, the theoretical and experimental findings of this dissertation are shown to offer a systematic approach to understand, control and exploit the dynamical trends of passively mode-locked two-section quantum dot lasers.

  4. A Initio Calculations Performed on Carbon Monoxide Adsorption on the IRON(100) Surface and Complementing Theoretical Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meehan, Timothy Erickson

    1992-01-01

    Unrestricted Hartree-Fock calculations were performed on Fe_{x}CO clusters to model the CO(alpha_1), CO(alpha_2), and CO( alpha_3) adsorptions on the Fe(100) surface. Clusters of FeCO(C_{4v}) and a multiplicity of 5, Fe_2 CO(C_{2v}) and a multiplicity of 7, and Fe_2CO(C _{s}) and a multiplicity of 7, were constructed to model, respectively, the adsorption for the on top site, bridging site, and tilted CO structure at the 4-fold site. The CO position was optimized with respect to the Fe bulk distances using gradient techniques and the partial geometry optimization. CO stretching frequencies were calculated for each optimized geometry, and we find no evidence supporting CO adsorption in the bridging site. Using a full basis set the calculated CO stretching frequencies for the FeCO(C_{4v}), Fe_2CO(C_ {2v}), and the Fe_2 CO(C_{s}) clusters are 1992, 1767, and 771 cm^{ -1}, respectively. The CSOV analysis was executed to analyze the major orbital interactions between the CO and Fe_{x} clusters. For both Fe_2CO clusters, the CO pi^* perpendicular to the Fe _2 axis had a more significant contribution involving the pi backdonation from the Fe_2 clusters. Furthermore, the spin minority d electrons are mainly responsible for the pi backdonation. Due to problems with SCF convergence incurred during the Fe_{x}CO studies, we were forced to investigate a number of different techniques to achieve SCF convergence. Therefore, techniques that generate starting guesses of the eigenvectors for the SCF procedure and techniques used to accelerate SCF convergence are reviewed. The standard guesses of H _{core} and charge build -up are examined, and we introduce a new incremental cluster method for generating starting guesses for large clusters. The standard techniques of extrapolation, DIIS, damping, level shifting, restrict, and symmetry blocking are examined, and we also developed the hacker method and partial geometry optimization as new techniques to achieve SCF convergence. Results of the review indicate that the most important element for obtaining SCF convergence is the starting guess. A procedure for performing transition metal cluster calculations is outlined.

  5. Molecular structure of actein: 13C CPMAS NMR, IR, X-ray diffraction studies and theoretical DFT-GIAO calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamróz, Marta K.; B?k, Joanna; Gli?ski, Jan A.; Koczorowska, Agnieszka; Wawer, Iwona

    2009-09-01

    Actein is a prominent triterpene glycoside occurring in Actaea racemosa. The triterpene glycosides are believed to be responsible for the estrogenic activity of an extract prepared from this herb. We determined in the crystal structure of actein by X-ray crystallography to be monoclinic P2(1) chiral space group. Refining the disorder, we determined 70% and 30% of contributions of ( S)- and ( R)-actein, respectively. The IR and Raman spectra suggest that actein forms at least four different types of hydrogen bonds. The 13C NMR spectra of actein were recorded both in solution and solid state. The 13C CPMAS spectrum of actein displays multiplet signals, in agreement with the crystallographic data. The NMR shielding constants were calculated for actein using GIAO approach and a variety of basis sets: 6-31G**, 6-311G**, 6-31+G**, cc-pVDZ, cc-pVDZ-su1 and 6-31G**-su1, as well as IGLO approach combined with the IGLO II basis set. The best results (RMSD of 1.6 ppm and maximum error of 3.4 ppm) were obtained with the 6-31G**-su1 basis set. The calculations of the shielding constants are helpful in the interpretation of the 13C CPMAS NMR spectra of actein and actein's analogues.

  6. Theoretical calculation of the electronic structure and the optical spectrum of CrF 2-6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orellana, S. Gutiérrez; Pueyo, L.

    1984-11-01

    The electronic structure of the CrF 2-6 cluster has been analyzed by solving the Hartree-Fock equations on several electronic states, at five values of R, the metal-ligand distance in the a1 g vibration. The methodology of J. W. RICHARDSON, T. F. SOULES, D. M. VAUGTH, AND R. R. POWELL ( Phys. Rev. B4, 1721 (1971)) has been used. The computed Re is in close agreement with the observed value in alkali hexafluorochromates(IV). The nuclear potentials of the d2 triplets are almost parallel to the ground state potential, giving rise to a weak R-dependence of the spin-allowed transitions and a negligible contribution of the a1 g progression to the vibrational structure of the broad bands. The absorption spectrum has been discussed in terms of the results of different SCF calculations. A new assignment is proposed that avoids most of the earlier difficulties of the spectral interpretation. The best calculated spectrum agrees with the one observed in Rb 2CrF 6 within 1.5 kK.

  7. Novel Method for Calculating a Nonsubjective Informative Prior for a Bayesian Model in Toxicology Screening: A Theoretical Framework.

    PubMed

    Woldegebriel, Michael

    2015-11-17

    In toxicology screening (forensic, food-safety), due to several analytical errors (e.g., retention time shift, lack of repeatability in m/z scans, etc.), the ability to confidently identify/confirm a compound remains a challenge. Due to these uncertainties, a probabilistic approach is currently preferred. However, if a probabilistic approach is followed, the only statistical method that is capable of estimating the probability of whether the compound of interest (COI) is present/absent in a given sample is Bayesian statistics. Bayes' theorem can combine prior information (prior probability) with data (likelihood) to give an optimal probability (posterior probability) reflecting the presence/absence of the COI. In this work, a novel method for calculating an informative prior probability for a Bayesian model in targeted toxicology screening is introduced. In contrast to earlier proposals making use of literature citation rates and the prior knowledge of the analyst, this method presents a thorough and nonsubjective approach. The formulation approaches the probability calculation as a clustering and random draw problem that incorporates few analytical method parameters meticulously estimated to reflect sensitivity and specificity of the system. The practicality of the method has been demonstrated and validated using real data and simulated analytical techniques. PMID:26482700

  8. FeynDyn: A MATLAB program for fast numerical Feynman integral calculations for open quantum system dynamics on GPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dattani, Nikesh S.

    2013-12-01

    This MATLAB program calculates the dynamics of the reduced density matrix of an open quantum system modeled either by the Feynman-Vernon model or the Caldeira-Leggett model. The user gives the program a Hamiltonian matrix that describes the open quantum system as if it were in isolation, a matrix of the same size that describes how that system couples to its environment, and a spectral distribution function and temperature describing the environment’s influence on it, in addition to the open quantum system’s initial density matrix and a grid of times. With this, the program returns the reduced density matrix of the open quantum system at all moments specified by that grid of times (or just the last moment specified by the grid of times if the user makes this choice). This overall calculation can be divided into two stages: the setup of the Feynman integral, and the actual calculation of the Feynman integral for time propagation of the density matrix. When this program calculates this propagation on a multi-core CPU, it is this propagation that is usually the rate-limiting step of the calculation, but when it is calculated on a GPU, the propagation is calculated so quickly that the setup of the Feynman integral can actually become the rate-limiting step. The overhead of transferring information from the CPU to the GPU and back seems to have a negligible effect on the overall runtime of the program. When the required information cannot fit on the GPU, the user can choose to run the entire program on a CPU. Catalogue identifier: AEPX_v1_0. Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEPX_v1_0.html. Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland. Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html. No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 703. No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 11026. Distribution format: tar.gz. Programming language: MATLAB R2012a. Computer: See “Operating system”. Operating system: Any operating system that can run MATLAB R2007a or above. Classification: 4.4. Nature of problem: Calculating the dynamics of the reduced density operator of an open quantum system. Solution method: Numerical Feynman integral. Running time: Depends on the input parameters. See the main text for examples.

  9. Theoretical study on electromagnetically induced transparency in molecular aggregate models using quantum Liouville equation method

    SciTech Connect

    Minami, Takuya; Nakano, Masayoshi

    2015-01-22

    Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), which is known as an efficient control method of optical absorption property, is investigated using the polarizability spectra and population dynamics obtained by solving the quantum Liouville equation. In order to clarify the intermolecular interaction effect on EIT, we examine several molecular aggregate models composed of three-state monomers with the dipole-dipole coupling. On the basis of the present results, we discuss the applicability of EIT in molecular aggregate systems to a new type of optical switch.

  10. Segmented crystalline scintillators: Empirical and theoretical investigation of a high quantum efficiency EPID based on an initial engineering prototype CsI(Tl) detector

    SciTech Connect

    Sawant, Amit; Antonuk, Larry E.; El-Mohri, Youcef; Zhao Qihua; Wang Yi; Li Yixin; Du Hong; Perna, Louis

    2006-04-15

    Modern-day radiotherapy relies on highly sophisticated forms of image guidance in order to implement increasingly conformal treatment plans and achieve precise dose delivery. One of the most important goals of such image guidance is to delineate the clinical target volume from surrounding normal tissue during patient setup and dose delivery, thereby avoiding dependence on surrogates such as bony landmarks. In order to achieve this goal, it is necessary to integrate highly efficient imaging technology, capable of resolving soft-tissue contrast at very low doses, within the treatment setup. In this paper we report on the development of one such modality, which comprises a nonoptimized, prototype electronic portal imaging device (EPID) based on a 40 mm thick, segmented crystalline CsI(Tl) detector incorporated into an indirect-detection active matrix flat panel imager (AMFPI). The segmented detector consists of a matrix of 160x160 optically isolated, crystalline CsI(Tl) elements spaced at 1016 {mu}m pitch. The detector was coupled to an indirect detection-based active matrix array having a pixel pitch of 508 {mu}m, with each detector element registered to 2x2 array pixels. The performance of the prototype imager was evaluated under very low-dose radiotherapy conditions and compared to that of a conventional megavoltage AMFPI based on a Lanex Fast-B phosphor screen. Detailed quantitative measurements were performed in order to determine the x-ray sensitivity, modulation transfer function, noise power spectrum, and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). In addition, images of a contrast-detail phantom and an anthropomorphic head phantom were also acquired. The prototype imager exhibited approximately 22 times higher zero-frequency DQE ({approx}22%) compared to that of the conventional AMFPI ({approx}1%). The measured zero-frequency DQE was found to be lower than theoretical upper limits ({approx}27%) calculated from Monte Carlo simulations, which were based solely on the x-ray energy absorbed in the detector--indicating the presence of optical Swank noise. Moreover, due to the nonoptimized nature of this prototype, the spatial resolution was observed to be significantly lower than theoretical expectations. Nevertheless, due to its high quantum efficiency ({approx}55%), the prototype imager exhibited significantly higher DQE than that of the conventional AMFPI across all spatial frequencies. In addition, the frequency-dependent DQE was observed to be relatively invariant with respect to the amount of incident radiation, indicating x-ray quantum limited behavior. Images of the contrast-detail phantom and the head phantom obtained using the prototype system exhibit good visualization of relatively large, low-contrast features, and appear significantly less noisy compared to similar images from a conventional AMFPI. Finally, Monte Carlo-based theoretical calculations indicate that, with proper optimization, further, significant improvements in the DQE performance of such imagers could be achieved. It is strongly anticipated that the realization of optimized versions of such very high-DQE EPIDs would enable megavoltage projection imaging at very low doses, and tomographic imaging from a 'beam's eye view' at clinically acceptable doses.

  11. Theoretic calculation for understanding the oxidation process of 1,4-dimethoxybenzene-based compounds as redox shuttles for overcharge protection of lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Tiantian; Xing, Lidan; Li, Weishan; Peng, Bin; Xu, Mengqing; Gu, Fenglong; Hu, Shejun

    2011-05-19

    The effect of substituents on the oxidation potential for the one-electron reaction of 1,4-dimethoxybenzene was understood with a theoretical calculation based on density functional theory (DFT) at the level of B3LYP/6-311+G(d). It is found that the oxidation potential for the one-electron reaction of 1,4-dimethoxybenzene is 4.13 V (vs Li/Li(+)) and can be changed from 3.8 to 5.9 V (vs Li/Li(+)) by substituting electron-donating or electron-withdrawing groups for the hydrogen atoms on the aromatic ring. These potentials are in the range of the limited potentials for the lithium ion batteries using different cathode materials, and thus the substituted compounds can be selected as the redox shuttles for the overcharge prevention of these batteries. The oxidation potential of 1,4-dimethoxybenzene decreases when the hydrogen atoms are replaced with electron-donating groups but increases when replaced with electron-withdrawing groups. The further oxidation of these substituted compounds was also analyzed on the basis of the theoretic calculation. PMID:21517049

  12. Ion-molecule reactions involving HCO+ and N2H+: Isotopologue equilibria from new theoretical calculations and consequences for interstellar isotope fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mladenovi?, M.; Roueff, E.

    2014-06-01

    Aims: We revisit with new augmented accuracy the theoretical dynamics of basic isotope exchange reactions involved in the 12C/13C, 16O/18O, and 14N/15N balance because these reactions have already been studied experimentally in great detail. Methods: Electronic structure methods were employed to explore potential energy surfaces, full-dimensional rovibrational calculations to compute rovibrational energy levels that are numerically exact, and chemical network models to estimate the abundance ratios under interstellar conditions. Results: New exothermicities, derived for HCO+ reacting with CO, provide rate coefficients markedly different from previous theoretical values in particular at low temperatures, resulting in new abundance ratios relevant for carbon chemistry networks. In concrete terms, we obtain a reduction in the abundance of H12C18O+ and an increase in the abundance of H13C16O+ and D13C16O+. In all studied cases, the reaction of the ion with a neutral polarizable molecule proceeds through the intermediate proton-bound complex found to be very stable. For the complexes OCH+··· CO, OCH+··· OC, COHOC+, N2··· HCO+, N2H+··· OC, and N2HN2+, we also calculated vibrational frequencies and dissociation energies. Conclusions: The linear proton-bound complexes possess sizeable dipole moments, which may facilitate their detection.

  13. Nuclear Quantum Effects in Ice Phases and Water from First Principles Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pamuk, Betul

    Despite the simplicity of the molecule, condensed phases of water show many physical anomalies, some of which are still unexplained to date. This thesis focuses on one striking anomaly that has been largely neglected and never explained. When hydrogen (1H) is replaced by deuterium (2 D), zero point fluctuations of the heavy isotope causes ice to expand, whereas in normal isotope effect, heavy isotope causes volume contraction. Furthermore, in a normal isotope effect, the shift in volume should decrease with increasing temperature, while, in ice, the volume shift increases with increasing temperature and persists up to the melting temperature and also exists in liquid water. In this dissertation, nuclear quantum effects on structural and cohesive properties of different ice polymorphs are investigated. We show that the anomalous isotope effect is well described by first principles density functional theory with van der Waals (vdW-DF) functionals within the quasi-harmonic approximation. Our theoretical modeling explains how the competition between the intra- and inter-molecular bonding of ice leads to an anomalous isotope effect in the volume and bulk modulus of ice. In addition, we predict a normal isotope effect when 16O is replaced by 18O, which is experimentally confirmed. Furthermore, the transition from proton disordered hexagonal phase, ice Ih to proton ordered hexagonal phase, ice XI occurs with a temperature difference between 1H and 2D of 6K, in good agreement with experimental value of 4K. We explain, for first time for that this temperature difference is entirely due to the zero point energy. In the second half of this thesis, we expand our study to the other ice phases: ice Ic, ice IX, ice II, ice VIII, clathrate hydrates, and low and high density amorphous ices. We employ the methodology that we have developed to investigate the isotope effect in structures with different configurations. We show that there is a transition from anomalous isotope effect to normal isotope effect in these structures as the density increases. We analyse the bonding mechanism of these structures and make links to the most important anomalies of liquid water.

  14. Feature Article: Thermodynamic properties from ab-initio calculations: New theoretical developments, and applications to various materials systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fähnle, Manfred; Drautz, Ralf; Lechermann, Frank; Singer, Reinhard; Diaz-Ortiz, Alejandro; Dosch, Helmut

    2005-05-01

    The cover picture from the Feature Article [1] depicts the calculated landscape of lowest formation energies for the ternary compound system Ni-Fe-Al. The figure shows for each composition the difference in the formation energy (in meV/atom) for the respective homogeneous configuration with lowest energy on the bcc and the fcc parent lattice. The phases on the fcc lattice dominate the Ni- and Al-rich regions of the Gibbs triangle.The first author Manfred Fähnle is Professor at the University of Stuttgart and member of the theory group of the department of Prof. Schütz at the Max-Planck-Institut für Metallforschung in Stuttgart. In 1980 he was awarded with the Otto-Hahn medal of the Max-Planck Society and in 1985 he received the Academy Award for Physics of the University of Göttingen. His present research interests are the static and dynamic properties of bulk and nanostructured magnetic systems, as well as the ab-initio statistical mechanics of alloys.

  15. Ab Initio Quantum Calculations of Reactions in Astrophysical Ices: Acetaldehyde and Acetone with Ammonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Woon, D. E.

    2009-06-01

    Complex organic molecules, including amino acid precursors, have been observed in young stellar objects. Both laboratory and theoretical studies have shown that ice chemistry can play an important role in low-temperature synthetic pathways, with water serving as a catalyst that can significantly enhance reaction rates by lowering barriers or eliminating them altogether. Reactions between carbonyl species and ammonia are particularly promising, as shown in previous studies of the formaldehyde-ammonia reaction. In this study, we explore the reactions of ammonia with two larger carbonyl species, acetaldehyde and acetone, embedded in a water ice cluster. To examine the explicit impact of the water, we gradually increase the size of the cluster from 4H_2O to 12H_2O. Cluster calculations were performed at the MP2/{6-31}+G^{**} or B3LYP/{6-31}+G^{**} level. In order to account for the electrostatic contribution from bulk ice, the Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM) and Isodensity Surface Polarized Continuum Model (IPCM) were used to model reaction field solvation effects. For both acetaldehyde and acetone, the reactant is a charge transfer complex (a partial charge-transfer complex in small clusters and full proton-transfer complex in larger clusters). Rearrangement to amino-hydroxylated products can occur by surmounting a small reaction barrier. Stereo-selectivity is observed in the case of acetaldehyde. P. Ehrenfreund and S. B. Charnley, Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 38, 427 (2000). W. A. Schutte, L. J. Allamandola, and S. A. Sandford, Science 259, 1143 (1993) W. A. Schutte, L. J. Allamandola, and S. A. Sandford, Icarus 104, 118 (1993) D. E. Woon, Icarus 142, 550 (1999) S. P. Walch, C. W. Bauschicher, Jr., A. Ricca and E. L. O. Bakes, Chem. Phys. Lett, 333, 6 (2001)

  16. ``Additive'' cooperativity of hydrogen bonds in complexes of catechol with proton acceptors in the gas phase: FTIR spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varfolomeev, Mikhail A.; Klimovitskii, Alexander E.; Abaidullina, Dilyara I.; Madzhidov, Timur I.; Solomonov, Boris N.

    2012-06-01

    Experimental study of hydrogen bond cooperativity in hetero-complexes in the gas phase was carried out by IR-spectroscopy method. Stretching vibration frequencies of Osbnd H groups in phenol and catechol molecules as well as of their complexes with nitriles and ethers were determined in the gas phase using a specially designed cell. Osbnd H groups experimental frequency shifts in the complexes of catechol induced by the formation of intermolecular hydrogen bonds are significantly higher than in the complexes of phenol due to the hydrogen bond cooperativity. It was shown that the cooperativity factors of hydrogen bonds in the complexes of catechol with nitriles and ethers in the gas phase are approximately the same. Quantum chemical calculations of the studied systems have been performed using density functional theory (DFT) methods. It was shown, that theoretically obtained cooperativity factors of hydrogen bonds in the complexes of catechol with proton acceptors are in good agreement with experimental values. Cooperative effects lead to a strengthening of intermolecular hydrogen bonds in the complexes of catechol on about 30%, despite the significant difference in the proton acceptor ability of the bases. The analysis within quantum theory of atoms in molecules was carried out for the explanation of this fact.

  17. Theoretical Calculations and Simulations of Interaction of X-Rays with High-Z Nanomoities for Use in Cancer Radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Sara N.; Pradhan, Anil K.; Nahar, Sultana N.

    2013-06-01

    When used with X-ray radiotherapy, heavy elements (high atomic number Z or HZ) such as gold(Au) and platinum(Pt) have the potential to greatly sensitize and enhance the damage to tumor tissues. While HZ radiosensitization has been shown to be higly effective in reducing tumor sizes, much work still needs to be done to determine the ideal X-ray energy/energy spectrum. The likelihood of photoelectric absorption of X-rays that result in the production of cell-killing Auger electrons relative to the photon scatter in an HZ sensitized tumor has to be determined for treatments using X-rays from various sources and energies to assess their efficacy. In this report, we present computations that outline the dependence of photoelectric absorption on X-ray energy. The relative X-ray absorption by a radiosensitized tumor was calculated to contrast the efficacy of different X-ray sources in Auger electron production at different tumor depths. Enhanced photoabsorption of low-energy X-rays from broadband sources in the keV range is shown to be much higher than from those in the MeV range. In addition, with the use of the Monte Carlo code package Geant4, we present the total X-ray energy deposited into a radiosensitized tumor located at different depths in a phantom. The enhancement in radiation dose deposition will also be analysed at the microscopic cellular level to determine the HZ radiosensitizer concentration required. Potential use of monochromatic X-rays for more precise HZ radiosensitization will also be described.

  18. Mechanism of Selective Oxidation of Propene to Acrolein on Bismuth Molybdates from Quantum Mechanical Calculations

    E-print Network

    Goddard III, William A.

    Mechanism of Selective Oxidation of Propene to Acrolein on Bismuth Molybdates from Quantum by bismuth molybdates, we report quantum mechanical studies (at the DFT/ B3LYP/LACVP** level) of various reaction steps on bismuth oxide (Bi4O6/Bi4O7) and molybdenum oxide (Mo3O9) cluster models. For CH

  19. Mechanism of Selective Ammoxidation of Propene to Acrylonitrile on Bismuth Molybdates from Quantum Mechanical Calculations

    E-print Network

    Goddard III, William A.

    Mechanism of Selective Ammoxidation of Propene to Acrylonitrile on Bismuth Molybdates from Quantum ammoxidation of propene to acrylonitrile by bismuth molybdates, we report quantum mechanical studies (using stages of this industry, acrylonitrile was produced by propene on simple bismuth and molybdenum oxide

  20. Theoretical foundation for real-time prostate localization using an inductively coupled transmitter and a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer system.

    PubMed

    McGary, John E

    2004-01-01

    Real-time, 3D localization of the prostate for intensity-modulated radiotherapy can be accomplished with passively charged radio frequency transmitters and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometers. The overall system design consists of an external dipole antenna as a power source for charging a microchip implant transmitter and SQUID magnetometers for signal detection. An external dipole antenna charges an on-chip capacitor through inductive coupling in the near field region through a small implant inductor. The charge and discharge sequence between the external antenna and the implant circuit can be defined by half duplex, full duplex, or sequential operations. The resulting implant discharge current creates an alternating magnetic field through the inductor. The field is detected by the surrounding magnetometers, and the location of the implant transmitter can be calculated. Problems associated with this system design are interrelated with the signal strength at the detectors, detector sensitivity, and charge time of the implant capacitor. The physical parameters required for optimizing the system for real-time applications are the operating frequency, implant inductance and capacitance, the external dipole current and loop radius, the detector distance, and mutual inductance. Consequently, the sequential operating mode is the best choice for real-time localization for constraints requiring positioning within 1 s due to the mutual inductance and detector sensitivity. We present the theoretical foundation for designing a real-time, 3D prostate localization system including the associated physical parameters and demonstrate the feasibility and physical limitations for such a system. PMID:15738919

  1. A multiprecision matrix calculation library and its extension library for a matrix-product-state simulation of quantum computing

    E-print Network

    Akira SaiToh

    2011-11-14

    A C++ library, named ZKCM, has been developed for the purpose of multiprecision matrix calculations, which is based on the GNU MP and MPFR libraries. It is especially convenient for writing programs involving tensor-product operations, tracing-out operations, and singular-value decompositions. Its extension library, ZKCM_QC, for simulating quantum computing has been developed using the time-dependent matrix-product-state simulation method. This report gives a brief introduction to the libraries with sample programs.

  2. ELECTRON-IMPACT EXCITATION OF Cr II: A THEORETICAL CALCULATION OF EFFECTIVE COLLISION STRENGTHS FOR OPTICALLY ALLOWED TRANSITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Wasson, I. R.; Ramsbottom, C. A.; Scott, M. P.

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we present electron-impact excitation collision strengths and Maxwellian averaged effective collision strengths for the complicated iron-peak ion Cr II. We consider specifically the allowed lines for transitions from the 3d {sup 5} and 3d {sup 4}4s even parity configuration states to the 3d {sup 4}4p odd parity configuration levels. The parallel suite of R-Matrix packages, RMATRX II, which have recently been extended to allow for the inclusion of relativistic effects, were used to compute the collision cross sections. A total of 108 LS{pi}/280 J{pi} levels from the basis configurations 3d {sup 5}, 3d {sup 4}4s, and 3d {sup 4}4p were included in the wavefunction representation of the target including all doublet, quartet, and sextet terms. Configuration interaction and correlation effects were carefully considered by the inclusion of seven more configurations and a pseudo-corrector 4d-bar type orbital. The 10 configurations incorporated into the Cr II model thus listed are 3d {sup 5}, 3d {sup 4}4s, 3d {sup 4}4p, 3d {sup 3}4s {sup 2}, 3d {sup 3}4p {sup 2}, 3d {sup 3}4s4p, 3d{sup 4}4d-bar, 3d{sup 3}4s4d-bar, 3d{sup 3}4p4d-bar, and 3d{sup 3}4d-bar{sup 2}, constituting the largest Cr II target model considered to date in a scattering calculation. The Maxwellian averaged effective collision strengths are computed for a wide range of electron temperatures 2000-100,000 K which are astrophysically significant. Care has been taken to ensure that the partial wave contributions to the collision strengths for these allowed lines have converged with 'top-up' from the Burgess-Tully sum rule incorporated. Comparisons are made with the results of Bautista et al. and significant differences are found for some of the optically allowed lines considered.

  3. Comparison of Oxygen Gauche Effects in Poly(Oxyethylene) and Poly(ethylene terephtylene) Based on Quantum Chemistry Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, Richard; Han, Jie; Yoon, Do; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The so-called oxygen gauche effect in poly(oxyethylene) (POE) and its model molecules such as 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) and diglyme (CH3OC2H4OC2H4OCH3) is manifested in the preference for gauche C-C bond conformations over trans. This has also been observed for poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). Our previous quantum chemistry calculations demonstrated that the large C-C gauche population in DME is due, in part, to a low-lying tg +/- g+ conformer that exhibits a substantial 1,5 CH ... O attraction. New calculations will be described that demonstrate the accuracy of the original quantum chemistry calculations. In addition, an extension of this work to model molecules for PET will be presented. It is seen that the C-C gauche preference is much stronger in 1,2 diacetoxyethane than in DME. In addition, there exist low-lying tg +/- g+/- and g+/-g+/-g+/- conformers that exhibit 1,5 CH ... O attractions involving the carbonyl oxygens. It is expected that the -O-C-C-O- torsional properties will be quite different in these two polymers. The quantum chemistry results are used to parameterize rotational isomeric states models (RIS) and force fields for molecular dynamics simulations of these polymers.

  4. Molecular structure, spectroscopic characterization of (S)-2-Oxopyrrolidin-1-yl Butanamide and ab initio, DFT based quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramya, T.; Gunasekaran, S.; Ramkumaar, G. R.

    2015-10-01

    The experimental and theoretical spectra of (S)-2-Oxopyrrolidin-1-yl Butanamide (S2OPB) were studied. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of S2OPB in the solid phase were recorded and analyzed in the range 4000-450 and 5000-50 cm-1 respectively. The structural and spectroscopic analyses of S2OPB were calculated using ab initio Hartree Fock (HF) and density functional theory calculations (B3PW91, B3LYP) with 6-31G(d,p) basis set. A complete vibrational interpretation has been made on the basis of the calculated Potential Energy Distribution (PED). The HF, B3LYP and B3PW91 methods based NMR calculation has been used to assign the 1H NMR and 13C NMR chemical shift of S2OPB. Comparative study on UV-Vis spectral analysis between the experimental and theoretical (B3PW91, B3LYP) methods and the global chemical parameters and local descriptor of reactivity through the Fukui function were performed. Finally the thermodynamic properties of S2OPB were calculated at different temperatures and the corresponding relations between the properties and temperature were also studied.

  5. Molecular structure, spectroscopic characterization of (S)-2-Oxopyrrolidin-1-yl Butanamide and ab initio, DFT based quantum chemical calculations.

    PubMed

    Ramya, T; Gunasekaran, S; Ramkumaar, G R

    2015-10-01

    The experimental and theoretical spectra of (S)-2-Oxopyrrolidin-1-yl Butanamide (S2OPB) were studied. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of S2OPB in the solid phase were recorded and analyzed in the range 4000-450 and 5000-50 cm(-1) respectively. The structural and spectroscopic analyses of S2OPB were calculated using ab initio Hartree Fock (HF) and density functional theory calculations (B3PW91, B3LYP) with 6-31G(d,p) basis set. A complete vibrational interpretation has been made on the basis of the calculated Potential Energy Distribution (PED). The HF, B3LYP and B3PW91 methods based NMR calculation has been used to assign the (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR chemical shift of S2OPB. Comparative study on UV-Vis spectral analysis between the experimental and theoretical (B3PW91, B3LYP) methods and the global chemical parameters and local descriptor of reactivity through the Fukui function were performed. Finally the thermodynamic properties of S2OPB were calculated at different temperatures and the corresponding relations between the properties and temperature were also studied. PMID:25956325

  6. Theoretical study of quantum molecular reaction dynamics and of the effects of intense laser radiation on a diatomic molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Dardi, P.S.

    1984-11-01

    Within the very broad field of molecular dynamics, we have concentrated on two simple yet important systems. The systems are simple enough so that they are adequately described with a single Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface and that the dynamics can be calculated accurately. They are important because they give insight into solving more complicated systems. First we discuss H + H/sub 2/ reactive scattering. We present an exact formalism for atom-diatom reactive scattering which avoids the problem of finding a coordinate system appropriate for both reactants and products. We present computational results for collinear H + H/sub 2/ reactive scattering which agree very well with previous calculations. We also present a coupled channel distorted wave Born approximation for atom-diatom reactive scattering which we show is a first order approximation to our exact formalism. We present coupled channel DWBA results for three dimensional H + H/sub 2/ reactive scattering. The second system is an isolated HF molecule in an intense laser field. Using classical trajectories and quantum dynamics, we look at energy absorbed and transition probabilities as a function of the laser pulse time and also averaged over the pulse time. Calculations are performed for both rotating and nonrotating HF. We examine one and two photon absorption about the fundamental frequency, multiphoton absorption, and overtone absorption. 127 references, 31 figures, 12 tables.

  7. Mixed quantum classical calculation of proton transfer reaction rates: From deep tunneling to over the barrier regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Weiwei; Xu, Yang; Zhu, Lili; Shi, Qiang

    2014-05-07

    We present mixed quantum classical calculations of the proton transfer (PT) reaction rates represented by a double well system coupled to a dissipative bath. The rate constants are calculated within the so called nontraditional view of the PT reaction, where the proton motion is quantized and the solvent polarization is used as the reaction coordinate. Quantization of the proton degree of freedom results in a problem of non-adiabatic dynamics. By employing the reactive flux formulation of the rate constant, the initial sampling starts from the transition state defined using the collective reaction coordinate. Dynamics of the collective reaction coordinate is treated classically as over damped diffusive motion, for which the equation of motion can be derived using the path integral, or the mixed quantum classical Liouville equation methods. The calculated mixed quantum classical rate constants agree well with the results from the numerically exact hierarchical equation of motion approach for a broad range of model parameters. Moreover, we are able to obtain contributions from each vibrational state to the total reaction rate, which helps to understand the reaction mechanism from the deep tunneling to over the barrier regimes. The numerical results are also compared with those from existing approximate theories based on calculations of the non-adiabatic transmission coefficients. It is found that the two-surface Landau-Zener formula works well in calculating the transmission coefficients in the deep tunneling regime, where the crossing point between the two lowest vibrational states dominates the total reaction rate. When multiple vibrational levels are involved, including additional crossing points on the free energy surfaces is important to obtain the correct reaction rate using the Landau-Zener formula.

  8. Quantum Mechanical Calculations of Charge Effects on gating the KcsA channel

    SciTech Connect

    Kariev, Alisher M.; Znamenskiy, Vasiliy S.; Green, Michael E.

    2007-02-06

    The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. A series of ab initio (density functional) calculations were carried out on side chains of a set of amino acids, plus water, from the (intracellular) gating region of the KcsA K+ channel. Their atomic coordinates, except hydrogen, are known from X-ray structures [D.A. Doyle, J.M. Cabral, R.A. Pfuetzner, A. Kuo, J.M. Gulbis, S.L. Cohen, B.T. Chait, R. MacKinnon, The structure of the potassium channel: molecular basis of K+ conduction and selectivity, Science 280 (1998) 69–77; R. MacKinnon, S.L. Cohen, A. Kuo, A. Lee, B.T. Chait, Structural conservation in prokaryotic and eukaryotic potassium channels, Science 280 (1998) 106–109; Y. Jiang, A. Lee, J. Chen, M. Cadene, B.T. Chait, R. MacKinnon, The open pore conformation of potassium channels. Nature 417 (2001) 523–526], as are the coordinates of some water oxygen atoms. The 1k4c structure is used for the starting coordinates. Quantum mechanical optimization, in spite of the starting configuration, places the atoms in positions much closer to the 1j95, more tightly closed, configuration. This state shows four water molecules forming a “basket” under the Q119 side chains, blocking the channel. When a hydrated K+ approaches this “basket”, the optimized system shows a strong set of hydrogen bonds with the K+ at defined positions, preventing further approach of the K+ to the basket. This optimized structure with hydrated K+ added shows an ice-like 12 molecule nanocrystal of water. If the water molecules exchange, unless they do it as a group, the channel will remain blocked. The “basket” itself appears to be very stable, although it is possible that the K+ with its hydrating water molecules may be more mobile, capable of withdrawing from the gate. It is also not surprising that water essentially freezes, or forms a kind of glue, in a nanometer space; this agrees with experimental results on a rather different, but similarly sized (nm dimensions) system [K.B. Jinesh, J.W.M. Frenken, Capillary condensation in atomic scale friction: how water acts like a glue, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006) 166103/1–4].

  9. Nanowire terahertz quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Grange, Thomas

    2014-10-06

    Quantum cascade lasers made of nanowire axial heterostructures are proposed. The dissipative quantum dynamics of their carriers is theoretically investigated using non-equilibrium Green functions. Their transport and gain properties are calculated for varying nanowire thickness, from the classical-wire regime to the quantum-wire regime. Our calculation shows that the lateral quantum confinement provided by the nanowires allows an increase of the maximum operation temperature and a strong reduction of the current density threshold compared to conventional terahertz quantum cascade lasers.

  10. Synergy of atom-probe structural data and quantum-mechanical calculations in a theory-guided design of extreme-stiffness superlattices containing metastable phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friák, M.; Tytko, D.; Holec, D.; Choi, P.-P.; Eisenlohr, P.; Raabe, D.; Neugebauer, J.

    2015-09-01

    A theory-guided materials design of nano-scaled superlattices containing metastable phases is critically important for future development of advanced lamellar composites with application-dictated stiffness and hardness. Our study combining theoretical and experimental methods exemplifies the strength of this approach for the case of the elastic properties of AlN/CrN superlattices that were deposited by reactive radio-frequency magnetron sputtering with a bilayer period of 4 nm. Importantly, CrN stabilizes AlN in a metastable B1 (rock salt) cubic phase only in the form of a layer that is very thin, up to a few nanometers. Due to the fact that B1-AlN crystals do not exist as bulk materials, experimental data for this phase are not available. Therefore, quantum-mechanical calculations have been applied to simulate an AlN/CrN superlattice with a similar bilayer period. The ab initio predicted Young's modulus (428 GPa) along the [001] direction is in excellent agreement with measured nano-indentation values (408 ± 32 GPa). Aiming at a future rapid high-throughput materials design of superlattices, we have also tested predictions obtained within linear-elasticity continuum modeling using elastic properties of B1-CrN and B1-AlN phases as input. Using single-crystal elastic constants from ab initio calculations for both phases, we demonstrate the reliability of this approach to design nano-patterned coherent superlattices with unprecedented and potentially superior properties.

  11. Predicted phototoxicities of carbon nano-material by quantum mechanical calculations.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The basis of this research is obtaining the best quantum mechanical structure of carbon nanomaterials and is fundamental in determining their other properties. Therefore, their predictive phototoxicity is directly related to the materials’ structure. The results of this project w...

  12. Analytic calculation of Witten index in D=2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills quantum mechanics

    E-print Network

    Piotr Korcyl

    2011-01-04

    We propose a method for the evaluation of Witten index in D=2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills quantum mechanics. We rederive a known result for the SU(2) gauge group and generalize it to any SU(N) gauge group.

  13. The influence of interfaces and intra-band transitions on the band gap of CdS/HgS and GaN/X (X=InN, In0.33Ga0.67N) core/shell/shell quantum dot quantum well - A theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, P.; Senthilkumar, L.

    2015-11-01

    A theoretical model is presented to calculate the 1s-1s transition energy of an exciton in spherically layered semiconductor quantum-dot quantum-well (QDQW), based on the LCAO variational method using effective mass approximation. The confinement energies of electron and hole and the Coulombic interaction energy between them are calculated for CdS/HgS/CdS, GaN/X/GaN (X=InN, In0.33Ga0.67N) (QDQW) with core/shell/shell structures. The results of the proposed model effectively accommodates the polarization effects at the interfaces of different semiconductor materials in a core/shell/shell structure and elucidates the significant influence of interfaces on the band gap with consistency among previous theoretical and experimental results. The wave function of exciton studied shows significant differences with other theory. The change in the band gap of QDQW is attributed to the exciton excitations by thermal occupation of the lowest dark exciton states at different temperatures. In addition, based on Quantum Confined Stark Effect (QCSE) the effect of high electric field on the charge carriers and the corresponding changes in the band gap has been investigated. The applied electric field provides strong overlap between the electron and hole wave functions as well as increases the binding energy of the exciton, which eventually decreases the band gap.

  14. Theoretical prediction of hydrogen-bond basicity pKBHX using quantum chemical topology descriptors.

    PubMed

    Green, Anthony J; Popelier, Paul L A

    2014-02-24

    Hydrogen bonding plays an important role in the interaction of biological molecules and their local environment. Hydrogen-bond strengths have been described in terms of basicities by several different scales. The pKBHX scale has been developed with the interests of medicinal chemists in mind. The scale uses equilibrium constants of acid···base complexes to describe basicity and is therefore linked to Gibbs free energy. Site specific data for polyfunctional bases are also available. The pKBHX scale applies to all hydrogen-bond donors (HBDs) where the HBD functional group is either OH, NH, or NH+. It has been found that pKBHX can be described in terms of a descriptor defined by quantum chemical topology, ?E(H), which is the change in atomic energy of the hydrogen atom upon complexation. Essentially the computed energy of the HBD hydrogen atom correlates with a set of 41 HBAs for five common HBDs, water (r2=0.96), methanol (r2=0.95), 4-fluorophenol (r2=0.91), serine (r2=0.93), and methylamine (r2=0.97). The connection between experiment and computation was strengthened with the finding that there is no relationship between ?E(H) and pKBHX when hydrogen fluoride was used as the HBD. Using the methanol model, pKBHX predictions were made for an external set of bases yielding r2=0.90. Furthermore, the basicities of polyfunctional bases correlate with ?E(H), giving r2=0.93. This model is promising for the future of computation in fragment-based drug design. Not only has a model been established that links computation to experiment, but the model may also be extrapolated to predict external experimental pKBHX values. PMID:24460383

  15. Theoretical Prediction of Hydrogen-Bond Basicity pKBHX Using Quantum Chemical Topology Descriptors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen bonding plays an important role in the interaction of biological molecules and their local environment. Hydrogen-bond strengths have been described in terms of basicities by several different scales. The pKBHX scale has been developed with the interests of medicinal chemists in mind. The scale uses equilibrium constants of acid···base complexes to describe basicity and is therefore linked to Gibbs free energy. Site specific data for polyfunctional bases are also available. The pKBHX scale applies to all hydrogen-bond donors (HBDs) where the HBD functional group is either OH, NH, or NH+. It has been found that pKBHX can be described in terms of a descriptor defined by quantum chemical topology, ?E(H), which is the change in atomic energy of the hydrogen atom upon complexation. Essentially the computed energy of the HBD hydrogen atom correlates with a set of 41 HBAs for five common HBDs, water (r2 = 0.96), methanol (r2 = 0.95), 4-fluorophenol (r2 = 0.91), serine (r2 = 0.93), and methylamine (r2 = 0.97). The connection between experiment and computation was strengthened with the finding that there is no relationship between ?E(H) and pKBHX when hydrogen fluoride was used as the HBD. Using the methanol model, pKBHX predictions were made for an external set of bases yielding r2 = 0.90. Furthermore, the basicities of polyfunctional bases correlate with ?E(H), giving r2 = 0.93. This model is promising for the future of computation in fragment-based drug design. Not only has a model been established that links computation to experiment, but the model may also be extrapolated to predict external experimental pKBHX values. PMID:24460383

  16. Theoretical investigation of the electronic structure and quantum transport in the graphene-C(111) diamond surface system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selli, Daniele; Baburin, Igor; Leoni, Stefano; Zhu, Zhen; Tománek, David; Seifert, Gotthard

    2013-10-01

    We investigate the interaction of a graphene monolayer with the C(111) diamond surface using ab initio density functional theory. To accommodate the lattice mismatch between graphene and diamond, the overlayer deforms into a wavy structure that binds strongly to the diamond substrate. The detached ridges of the wavy graphene overlayer behave electronically as free-standing polyacetylene chains with delocalized ? electrons, separated by regions containing only sp3 carbon atoms covalently bonded to the (111) diamond surface. We performed quantum transport calculations for different geometries of the system to study how the buckling of the graphene layer and the associated bonding to the diamond substrate affect the transport properties. The system displays high carrier mobility along the ridges and a wide transport gap in the direction normal to the ridges. These intriguing, strongly anisotropic transport properties qualify the hybrid graphene-diamond system as a viable candidate for electronic nanodevices.

  17. Theoretical investigation of the electronic structure and quantum transport in the graphene-C(111) diamond surface system.

    PubMed

    Selli, Daniele; Baburin, Igor; Leoni, Stefano; Zhu, Zhen; Tománek, David; Seifert, Gotthard

    2013-10-30

    We investigate the interaction of a graphene monolayer with the C(111) diamond surface using ab initio density functional theory. To accommodate the lattice mismatch between graphene and diamond, the overlayer deforms into a wavy structure that binds strongly to the diamond substrate. The detached ridges of the wavy graphene overlayer behave electronically as free-standing polyacetylene chains with delocalized ? electrons, separated by regions containing only sp(3) carbon atoms covalently bonded to the (111) diamond surface. We performed quantum transport calculations for different geometries of the system to study how the buckling of the graphene layer and the associated bonding to the diamond substrate affect the transport properties. The system displays high carrier mobility along the ridges and a wide transport gap in the direction normal to the ridges. These intriguing, strongly anisotropic transport properties qualify the hybrid graphene-diamond system as a viable candidate for electronic nanodevices. PMID:24096938

  18. Interaction analysis of HIV-1 antibody 2G12 and Man9GlcNAc2 ligand: Theoretical calculations by fragment molecular orbital and MD methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Yuka; Ueno-Noto, Kaori; Takano, Keiko

    2013-07-01

    In HIV-1 infection, human antibody 2G12 is capable of recognizing the high-mannose glycans on the HIV-1 surface glycoprotein, gp120. To investigate the ligand binding mechanisms of antibody 2G12 with glycans aiming for the contribution to the medications, we carried out classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and ab initio fragment molecular orbital (FMO) calculations on the antibody 2G12 complex with its high-mannose ligand. We found that Mannose D1 of the ligand had the largest binding affinity with the antibody, which was well consistent with experimental reports. Furthermore, significant roles of Mannose 4 and 4? in the ligand binding were theoretically indicated.

  19. IR and Py-GC/MS spectral simulation of polymer film by quantum chemical and quantum molecular dynamics calculations using the polymer models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Kazunaka; Hayashi, Koichiro; Ida, Tomonori; Takemura, Tetsuo

    2014-12-01

    We have simulated IR and pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry (Py-GCMS) spectra of six polymers (PE, PP, PS, PET, N6, PVDF) with the density-functional theory and quantum molecular dynamics calculations on model oligomers. In the former calculations, experimental harmonic frequencies of the polymers have been assigned from the simulated IR spectra. In the latter QMD calculations on thermal decomposition of polymer models, the approximated mass spectra of six (PE, PP, PS, PET, N6, PVDF) polymers were almost in good accordance with the experimental results in Py-GC/MS, although we adjusted the decomposition temperatures to 2240, 2520, and 2800 K as the average absolute deviation of 8%.

  20. Convergence of normal mode variational calculations of methane spectra: Theoretical linelist in the icosad range computed from potential energy and dipole moment surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, Michaël; Nikitin, Andrei V.; Tyuterev, Vladimir G.

    2015-10-01

    Accurate basis set convergence of first-principles predictions of rotationally resolved spectra at high energy range is a common challenging issue for variational methods. In this paper, a detailed convergence study for the methane spectra is presented both for vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom as well as for intensities. For this purpose, we use our previously reported nine-dimensional potential energy and dipole moment surfaces of the methane molecule [Nikitin et al. Chem Phys Lett 2011;501:179-86; 2013;565:5-11]. Vibration-rotation calculations were carried out using variational normal mode approach with a full account of the Td symmetry. The aim was to obtain accurate theoretical methane line lists for the wavenumber range beyond currently available spectra analyses. The focus of this paper is the complicated icosad range (6280-7900 cm-1) containing 20 bands and 134 sub-bands where over 90% of experimental lines still remain unassigned. We provide variational line lists converged to a "spectroscopic precision" for icosad transitions for T=80 K and T=296 K. The first one contains 70 300 lines and the second one 286 170 lines with the intensity cut-off 10-29cm-1 /(moleculecm-2) with Jmax=18. An average error in line positions of theoretical predictions up to J=15 is estimated as 0.2-0.5 cm-1 from the comparisons with currently analyzed bands. Ab initio line strength calculations give the integrated intensity 4.37 ×10-20cm-1 /(moleculecm-2) at T=80 K for the sum of all icosad bands. This is to be compared to the integrated intensity 4.36 ×10-20cm-1 /(moleculecm-2) of the experimental icosad line list recorded in Grenoble University [Campargue et al., J Mol Spectrosc 2013;291:16-22] using very sensitive laser techniques. The shapes of absorption bands are also in a good qualitative agreement with experimental spectra.

  1. Revisiting the nitrosyl complex of myoglobin by high-field pulse EPR spectroscopy and quantum mechanical calculations.

    PubMed

    Radoul, Marina; Sundararajan, Mahesh; Potapov, Alexey; Riplinger, Christoph; Neese, Frank; Goldfarb, Daniella

    2010-07-14

    The binding of NO to reduced myoglobin in solution results in the formation of two paramagnetic nitrosyl myoglobin (MbNO) complexes: one with a rhombic g-factor and the other with an axial one, referred to as the R- and A-forms. In spite of past extensive studies of MbNO by crystallography, spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations it is still not clear what factors determine the appearance of the two forms. In this work we applied a combination of state of the art quantum chemical calculations and high field pulsed EPR spectroscopy (W-band, 3.4 T/95 GHz) to further characterize the two forms. Specifically, we have used (1)H and (2)H electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy to identify and characterize the H-bond to the NO, and hyperfine sub-level correlation (HYSCORE) spectroscopy to determine the hyperfine and quadrupole interactions of the Fe(ii) coordinated (14)N of the proximal histidine (14)N(His93). The calculations employed quantum mechanics (QM), particularly density functional theory (DFT) methods in combination with molecular mechanics (MM) force-field to model the protein environment. Through QM/MM calculations of the EPR parameters we have explored their dependence on several geometrical factors of the Fe-NO bond and found those that reproduce the best experimental results. The spread of the W-band EPR spectrum of MbNO due to the g-anisotropy is large and there is a significant part of the spectrum where the R-form is the sole contributor. This allowed us to resolve some new characteristics of the R-form: (i) a NO-H hydrogen bond has been detected and characterized and through QM/MM calculations has been unambiguously assigned to (epsilon2)H(His64). (ii) The complete hyperfine and quadrupole interactions of (14)N(His93) have been determined and correlated with structural parameters again using QM/MM calculations. The agreement between the experimental results and calculations varied between excellent and good, depending on the EPR parameter in question. As for the more elusive A-form, the results only suggest that it does have a (14)N(His93) ligand with a hyperfine comparable to that of the R-form and it has less hydrogen bonding interaction with His(64). The calculations also established the orientation of the principal g-values, finding that they are closely related to the orientation of the NO bond. This information is essential for deriving structural information from the experimental orientation selective HYSCORE and ENDOR data. PMID:20490401

  2. Theoretical foundations and applications of the Loop-Tree Duality in Quantum Field Theories

    E-print Network

    Sebastian Buchta

    2015-09-23

    The Loop-Tree Duality (LTD) is a novel perturbative method in QFT that establishes a relation between loop-level and tree-level scattering amplitudes. This is achieved by directly applying the Residue Theorem to the loop-energy-integration. The result is a sum over all possible single cuts of the Feynman diagram in consideration integrated over a modified phase space. These single-cut integrals, called Dual contributions, are in fact tree-level objects and thus give rise to the opportunity of bringing loop- and tree-contributions together, treating them simultaneously in a common Monte Carlo event generator. Initially introduced for one-loop scalar integrals, the applicability of the LTD has been expanded ever since. In this thesis, we show how to deal with Feynman graphs beyond simple poles by taking advantage of Integration By Parts (IBP) relations. Furthermore, we investigate the cancellation of singularities among Dual contributions as well as between real and virtual corrections. For the first time, a numerical implementation of the LTD was done in the form of a computer program that calculates one-loop scattering diagrams. We present details on the contour deformation employed alongside the results for scalar integrals up to the pentagon- and tensor integrals up to the hexagon-level.

  3. Coupling coefficient calculation for GaSb-based quantum well distributed feedback lasers with laterally coupled gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. B.; Xu, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Song, G. F.; Chen, L. H.

    2012-12-01

    We calculated the coupling coefficient of different types of laterally coupled distributed feedback (LC-DFB) structures with coupled-wave theory and the two-dimensional semivectorial finite difference method. Effects neglected in previous studies such as other partial waves, the ohmic contact and metal contact layers are taken into account in this calculation. The LC-DFB structure with metal gratings is especially studied due to its advantage over index-coupled structures. The dependence of coupling coefficient on structure parameters is theoretically calculated such as grating order, ridge width, thickness of the residual cladding layer, grating depth and lateral proximity of gratings to the ridge waveguide. A complex-coupled GaSb-based 2 µm LC-DFB structure is optimized to achieve a high coupling coefficient of 14.5 cm-1.

  4. Quantum confined Stark effect in Gaussian quantum wells: A tight-binding study

    SciTech Connect

    Ramírez-Morales, A.; Martínez-Orozco, J. C.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I.

    2014-05-15

    The main characteristics of the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) are studied theoretically in quantum wells of Gaussian profile. The semi-empirical tight-binding model and the Green function formalism are applied in the numerical calculations. A comparison of the QCSE in quantum wells with different kinds of confining potential is presented.

  5. Quantum mechanical calculation of electric fields and vibrational Stark shifts at active site of human aldose reductase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianwei; Zhang, John Z. H.; He, Xiao

    2015-11-01

    Recent advance in biophysics has made it possible to directly measure site-specific electric field at internal sites of proteins using molecular probes with C = O or C?N groups in the context of vibrational Stark effect. These measurements directly probe changes of electric field at specific protein sites due to, e.g., mutation and are very useful in protein design. Computational simulation of the Stark effect based on force fields such as AMBER and OPLS, while providing good insight, shows large errors in comparison to experimental measurement due to inherent difficulties associated with point charge based representation of force fields. In this study, quantum mechanical calculation of protein's internal electrostatic properties and vibrational Stark shifts was carried out by using electrostatically embedded generalized molecular fractionation with conjugate caps method. Quantum calculated change of mutation-induced electric field and vibrational Stark shift is reported at the internal probing site of enzyme human aldose reductase. The quantum result is in much better agreement with experimental data than those predicted by force fields, underscoring the deficiency of traditional point charge models describing intra-protein electrostatic properties.

  6. Quantum mechanical calculation of electric fields and vibrational Stark shifts at active site of human aldose reductase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianwei; Zhang, John Z H; He, Xiao

    2015-11-14

    Recent advance in biophysics has made it possible to directly measure site-specific electric field at internal sites of proteins using molecular probes with C = O or C?N groups in the context of vibrational Stark effect. These measurements directly probe changes of electric field at specific protein sites due to, e.g., mutation and are very useful in protein design. Computational simulation of the Stark effect based on force fields such as AMBER and OPLS, while providing good insight, shows large errors in comparison to experimental measurement due to inherent difficulties associated with point charge based representation of force fields. In this study, quantum mechanical calculation of protein's internal electrostatic properties and vibrational Stark shifts was carried out by using electrostatically embedded generalized molecular fractionation with conjugate caps method. Quantum calculated change of mutation-induced electric field and vibrational Stark shift is reported at the internal probing site of enzyme human aldose reductase. The quantum result is in much better agreement with experimental data than those predicted by force fields, underscoring the deficiency of traditional point charge models describing intra-protein electrostatic properties. PMID:26567650

  7. PREFACE: Proceedings of the First International Workshop on the Theoretical Calculation of ELNES and XANES (TEX2008) (Nagoya, Japan, 2-4 July 2008) Proceedings of the First International Workshop on the Theoretical Calculation of ELNES and XANES (TEX2008) (Nagoya, Japan, 2-4 July 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Isao; Mizoguchi, Teruyasu; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki

    2009-03-01

    Both electron energy loss near edge structure (ELNES) spectroscopy and x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy provide information on the local structural and chemical environments of selected elements of interest. Recent technological progress in scanning transmission electron microscopy has enabled ELNES measurements with atomic column spatial resolution. Very dilute concentrations (nanograms per milliliter or ppb level) of dopants can be observed using third-generation synchrotron facilities when x-ray fluorescence is measured with highly efficient detectors. With such technical developments, ELNES and XANES have become established as essential tools in a large number of fields of natural science, including condensed matter physics, chemistry, mineralogy and materials science. In addition to these developments in experimental methodology, notable progress in reproducing spectra using theoretical methods has recently been made. Using first-principles methods, one can analyze and interpret spectra without reference to experiment. This is quite important since we are often interested in the analysis of exotic materials or specific atoms located at lattice discontinuities such as surfaces and interfaces, where appropriate experimental data are difficult to obtain. Using the structures predicted by reliable first-principles calculations, one can calculate theoretical ELNES and XANES spectra without too much difficulty even in such cases. Despite the fact that ELNES and XANES probe the same phenomenon—essentially the electric dipole transition from a core orbital to an unoccupied band—there have not been many opportunities for researchers in the two areas to meet and discuss. Theoretical calculations of ELNES spectra have been mainly confined to the electron microscopy community. On the other hand, the theory of XANES has been developed principally by researchers in the x-ray community. Publications describing the methods have been written more-or-less independently by the two communities. The three-day workshop on the Theoretical Calculation of ELNES and XANES (TEX2008) was planned to help remedy this situation. It aimed to demonstrate capability of state-of-the-art theoretical techniques to explain and predict ELNES and XANES spectra, and to allow deep discussion between scientists in the two communities. It also provided an excellent opportunity to introduce experimentalists to the computational techniques available. Invited talks and poster presentations by leading scientists were given on the first day, which was followed by tutorial sessions for five computer programs on the second and third days. Excellent lectures were given by Peter Blaha (Vienna, Austria) on the WIEN2k code, Chris J Pickard (St Andrews, UK) on the CASTEP code, John J Rehr (Seattle, USA) on the FEFF8 code, Frank de Groot (Utrecht, The Netherlands) on the CTM4XAS code, and Hidekazu Ikeno (Kyoto, Japan) on the first-principles CI-multiplet code. Thanks to the enthusiastic participation of more than 100 scientists from around the world, the workshop was a complete success. The aim of this special issue in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter is to share with the readers the most up-to-date knowledge presented at the workshop. We believe this will prove useful as a reference for researchers in many different fields, as well as an overview of the current status and future directions of theoretical calculations for ELNES and XANES. TEX2008 was a satellite meeting of the First International Symposium on Advanced Microscopy and Theoretical Calculations (AMTC1) (Nagoya, Japan, 29-30 June 2008), which was held in commemoration of the establishment of the Nanostuctures Research Laboratory (NSRL) at the Japan Fine Ceramics Center (JFCC) and as a daughter event of EXPO 2005, Aichi, Japan. A Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas 'Nano Materials Science for Atomic-Scale Modification' from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports and Technology (MEXT) and support from the Chubu Economic Federation for the workshop are grate

  8. Synthesis and Conformational Analysis of 3-Methyl-3-silatetrahydropyran by GED, FTIR, NMR, and Theoretical Calculations: Comparative Analysis of 1-Hetero-3-methyl-3-silacyclohexanes.

    PubMed

    Shainyan, Bagrat A; Kirpichenko, Svetlana V; Chipanina, Nina N; Oznobikhina, Larisa P; Kleinpeter, Erich; Shlykov, Sergey A; Osadchiy, Dmitriy Yu

    2015-12-18

    3-Methyl-3-silatetrahydropyran 1 was synthesized and its molecular structure and conformational behavior was studied by gas-phase electron diffraction (GED), FTIR, low temperature (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, and by theoretical calculations (DFT, MP2). Two conformers, 1-ax and 1-eq, were located on the potential energy surface. In the gas phase, a slight predominance of the axial conformer was determined, with the ratio 1-ax:1-eq = 54(9):46(9) (from GED) or 53:47 or 61:39 (from IR). In solution, LT NMR spectroscopy at 103 K gives the ratio 1-ax:1-eq = 35:65 (-?G°103 = 0.13 kcal/mol). Simulation of solvent effects using the PCM continuum model or by calculation of the corresponding solvent-solute complexes allowed us to rationalize the experimentally observed opposite conformational predominance of the conformers of 3-methyl-3-silatetrahydropyran in the gas phase and in solution. Comparative analysis of the effect of heteroatom in 1-hetero-3-methyl-3-silacyclohexanes on the structure, stereoelectronic interactions, and relative energies of the conformers is done. PMID:26587759

  9. Fluorescence excitation and ultraviolet absorption spectra and theoretical calculations for benzocyclobutane: Vibrations and structure of its excited S{sub 1}(?,?{sup *}) electronic state

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Hee Won; Ocola, Esther J.; Laane, Jaan; Kim, Sunghwan

    2014-01-21

    The fluorescence excitation spectra of jet-cooled benzocyclobutane have been recorded and together with its ultraviolet absorption spectra have been used to assign the vibrational frequencies for this molecule in its S{sub 1}(?,?{sup *}) electronic excited state. Theoretical calculations at the CASSCF(6,6)/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory were carried out to compute the structure of the molecule in its excited state. The calculated structure was compared to that of the molecule in its electronic ground state as well as to the structures of related molecules in their S{sub 0} and S{sub 1}(?,?{sup *}) electronic states. In each case the decreased ? bonding in the electronic excited states results in longer carbon-carbon bonds in the benzene ring. The skeletal vibrational frequencies in the electronic excited state were readily assigned and these were compared to the ground state and to the frequencies of five similar molecules. The vibrational levels in both S{sub 0} and S{sub 1}(?,?{sup *}) states were remarkably harmonic in contrast to the other bicyclic molecules. The decreases in the frequencies of the out-of-plane skeletal modes reflect the increased floppiness of these bicyclic molecules in their S{sub 1}(?,?{sup *}) excited state.

  10. Studies on adsorption of mono- and multi-chromophoric hemicyanine dyes on silver nanoparticles by surface-enhanced resonance raman and theoretical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Nandita; Thomas, Susy; Kapoor, Sudhir; Mishra, Amaresh; Wategaonkar, Sanjay; Mukherjee, Tulsi

    2008-11-01

    Structural and vibrational properties of mono- and multichromophoric hemicyanine (HC) dyes in solution and adsorbed on silver-coated films have been investigated using optical absorption and resonance Raman scattering techniques, with interpretations aided by theoretical calculations. This is the first report on the Raman spectroscopic studies of multichromophoric HC derivatives. The structure of the monomer, N-propyl-4-(p-N,N-dimethylamino styryl)pyridinium bromide (HC3), and its charged and neutral silver complexes (HC3-Ag) in the ground electronic (S0) state were optimized using density functional calculations with the B3LYP method using the 6-31G* and LANL2DZ basis sets. The ground state structure of N-hexyl-4-(p-N,N-dimethylamino styryl)pyridinium bromide (HC6) and multichromophoric HC dyes were computed using the HF /6-31G* method. The negligible shift or broadening observed in the electronic absorption and resonance Raman spectra in solution with increasing size of the HC chromophore suggests that the excitations are localized within individual monomer units in bis and tetra chromophores. However, in the tris chromophore, considerable redshift and broadening were observed, indicating a significant electronic interaction between the nonbonded electrons of the N atom and the aromatic ?-system that is supported by the calculated excitation energies using the time-dependent density functional theory method. The effect of HC dye concentration on the electronic absorption spectra of the silver-coated film showed significant broadening, which was attributed to the formation of H- and J-aggregates in addition to the formation of a metal-molecule complex. A considerable redshift along various vibrations observed in the surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) spectra of the HC derivatives indicates that adsorption on the silver surface leads to a considerable interaction of the electron rich moiety of HC derivatives with the silver surface. The enhancement of various in-plane and out-of-plane vibrations, along with slight broadening and redshifts observed in the SERRS spectra, suggests that binding of the HC dyes to the silver surface occurs through the aromatic ?-system attached to the electron rich dimethylamino group, with the ring lying almost parallel to the silver surface. Theoretical results have further indicated adsorption via chemisorption for the charged HC3-Ag complexes and by physisorption for the neutral HC3-Ag complexes.

  11. Localization of firearm projectiles in the human body using a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer: A theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall Barbosa, C.

    2004-06-01

    A technique had been previously developed, based on magnetic field measurements using a superconducting quantum interference device sensor, to localize in three dimensions steel needles lost in the human body. In all six cases that were treated until now, the technique allowed easy surgical localization of the needles with high accuracy. The technique decreases, by a large factor, the surgery time for foreign body extraction, and also reduces the generally high odds of failure. The method is accurate, noninvasive, and innocuous, and with clear clinical importance. Despite the importance of needle localization, the most prevalent foreign body in the modern society is the firearm projectile (bullet), generally composed of lead, a paramagnetic material, thus not presenting a remanent magnetic field as steel needles do. On the other hand, since lead is a good conductor, eddy current detection techniques can be employed, by applying an alternating magnetic field with the aid of excitation coils. The primary field induces eddy currents on the lead, which in turn generate a secondary magnetic field that can be detected by a magnetometer, and give information about position and volume of the conducting foreign body. In this article we present a theoretical study for the development of a localization technique for lead bullets inside the human body. Initially, we present a model for the secondary magnetic field generated by the bullet, given a known applied field. After that, we study possible excitation systems, and propose a localization algorithm based on the detected magnetic field.

  12. Comprehensive comparison and experimental validation of band-structure calculation methods in III-V semiconductor quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerveas, George; Caruso, Enrico; Baccarani, Giorgio; Czornomaz, Lukas; Daix, Nicolas; Esseni, David; Gnani, Elena; Gnudi, Antonio; Grassi, Roberto; Luisier, Mathieu; Markussen, Troels; Osgnach, Patrik; Palestri, Pierpaolo; Schenk, Andreas; Selmi, Luca; Sousa, Marilyne; Stokbro, Kurt; Visciarelli, Michele

    2016-01-01

    We present and thoroughly compare band-structures computed with density functional theory, tight-binding, k · p and non-parabolic effective mass models. Parameter sets for the non-parabolic ?, the L and X valleys and intervalley bandgaps are extracted for bulk InAs, GaAs and InGaAs. We then consider quantum-wells with thickness ranging from 3 nm to 10 nm and the bandgap dependence on film thickness is compared with experiments for In0.53Ga0.47 As quantum-wells. The impact of the band-structure on the drain current of nanoscale MOSFETs is simulated with ballistic transport models, the results provide a rigorous assessment of III-V semiconductor band structure calculation methods and calibrated band parameters for device simulations.

  13. Studies on the Conformational Landscape of Tert-Butyl Acetate Using Microwave Spectroscopy and Quantum Chemical Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, YueYue; Mouhib, Halima; Li, Guohua; Stahl, Wolfgang; Kleiner, Isabelle

    2014-06-01

    The tert-Butyl acetate molecule was studied using a combination of quantum chemical calculations and molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy in the 9 to 14 GHz range. Due to its rather rigid frame, the molecule possesses only two different conformers: one of Cs and one of C1 symmetry. According to ab initio calculations, the Cs conformer is 46 kJ/mol lower in energy and is the one observed in the supersonic jet. We report on the structure and dynamics of the most abundant conformer of tert-butyl acetate, with accurate rotational and centrifugal distortion constants. Additionally, the barrier to internal rotation of the acetyl methyl group was determined. Splittings due to the internal rotation of the methyl group of up to 1.3 GHz were observed in the spectrum. Using the programs XIAM and BELGI-Cs, we determine the barrier height to be about 113 cm-1 and compare the molecular parameters obtained from these two codes. Additionally, the experimental rotational constants were used to validate numerous quantum chemical calculations. This study is part of a larger project which aims at determining the lowest energy conformers of organic esters and ketones which are of interest for flavor or perfume synthetic applications Project partly supported by the PHC PROCOPE 25059YB.

  14. Higher accuracy quantum Monte Carlo calculations of the barrier for the HH2 reaction

    E-print Network

    Anderson, James B.

    of 10. As in the previous studies, the Green's function quantum Monte Carlo method with an ``exact configuration interaction method. The lowest-energy expectation value for the energy at the saddle point Monte Carlo methods.1­3 The energy at the saddle point in the barrier to reaction was previously

  15. Assembling gas-phase reaction mechanisms for high temperature inorganic systems based on quantum chemistry calculations

    E-print Network

    Swihart, Mark T.

    of atmospheric chemistry. The gas phase chemistry of many processes in high-temperature inorganic systems, from [1­6]. The gas phase chemistry of many processes in high- temperature inorganic systems, fromAssembling gas-phase reaction mechanisms for high temperature inorganic systems based on quantum

  16. Quantum mechanical calculations of reactive scattering cross sections in bimolecular encounters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirkle, J. C., Jr.

    1967-01-01

    Study applies the nonequilibrium collision theory of reaction rates to the estimation of rate constants for simple reactions. The complications in the quantum mechanical description of chemical reactions and the care needed in approximating the exact wave function for the collision are shown.

  17. Scalar Matter Coupled to Quantum Gravity in the Causal Approach. One-Loop Calculations and Perturbative Gauge Invariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grillo, Nicola

    2001-02-01

    Quantum gravity coupled to scalar massive matter fields is investigated in the framework of causal perturbation theory using the Epstein-Glaser regularization/renormalization scheme. Detailed one-loop calculations include the matter loop graviton self-energy and the matter self-energy. The condition of perturbative operator gauge invariance to second order implies the usual Slavnov-Ward identities for the graviton two-point connected Green function in the loop graph sector and generates the correct quartic graviton-matter interaction in the tree graph sector. The mass zero case is also discussed.

  18. Electron-Ion Recombination of Fe X Forming Fe IX and of Fe XI Forming Fe X: Laboratory Measurements and Theoretical Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestinsky, M.; Badnell, N. R.; Bernhardt, D.; Grieser, M.; Hoffmann, J.; Luki?, D.; Müller, A.; Orlov, D. A.; Repnow, R.; Savin, D. W.; Schmidt, E. W.; Schnell, M.; Schippers, S.; Wolf, A.; Yu, D.

    2009-06-01

    We have measured electron-ion recombination for Fe9+ forming Fe8+ and for Fe10+ forming Fe9+ using a merged beams arrangement at the TSR heavy-ion storage ring in Heidelberg, Germany. The measured merged beams recombination rate coefficients (MBRRC) for relative energies from 0 to 75 eV are presented, covering all dielectronic recombination (DR) resonances associated with 3s ? 3p and 3p ? 3d core transitions in the spectroscopic species Fe X and Fe XI, respectively. We compare our experimental results to state-of-the-art multiconfiguration Breit-Pauli (MCBP) calculations and find significant differences. Poor agreement between the measured and theoretical resonance structure is seen for collision energies below 48 eV for Fe X and below 35 eV for Fe XI. The integrated resonance strengths, though, are in reasonable agreement. At higher energies, good agreement is seen for the resonance structure but for the resonance strengths theory is significantly larger than experiment by a factor of ? 1.5 (2) for Fe X (Fe XI). From the measured MBRRC, we have extracted the DR contributions and transform them into plasma recombination rate coefficients (PRRCs) for astrophysical plasmas with temperatures in the range of 102-107 K. This range spans across the regimes where each ion forms in photoionized or in collisionally ionized plasmas. For both temperature regimes, the experimental uncertainties are 25% at a 90% confidence level. As expected based on predictions from active galactic nucleus observations as well as our previous laboratory and theoretical work on M-shell iron, the formerly recommended DR data severely underestimated the rate coefficient at temperatures relevant for photoionized gas. At these temperatures relevant for photoionized gas, we find agreement between our experimental results and MCBP theory. This is somewhat surprising given the poor agreement in MBRRC resonance structure. At the higher temperatures relevant for collisionally ionized gas, the MCBP calculations yield an Fe XI DR rate coefficient that is significantly larger than the experimentally derived one. We present parameterized fits to our experimentally derived DR PRRC for ease of inclusion into astrophysical modeling codes.

  19. A new method of calculation in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentalha, Zine el abidine; Moumen, Larabi; Ouahrani, Tarik

    2014-07-01

    The electron-electron and electron-background interaction energies are calculated analytically for systems with up to N = 6 electrons. The method consists of describing the position vectors of electrons using complex coordinates and all the interaction energies with complex notation, whereby simplifications become possible. As is known, in this type of calculation, complicated expressions involving integrals over many variables are encountered and the trick of using complex coordinates greatly facilitates the exact calculation of various quantities. Contrary to previous analytical calculations, using complex coordinates avoids complicated trigonometric functions from appearing in the integrand, simplifying the exact evaluation of the integrals. The method we have used can be straightforwardly extended to larger systems with N > 6 electrons.

  20. Quantum chemical calculation of the equilibrium structures of small metal atom clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, L. R.

    1981-01-01

    A decomposition of the molecular energy is presented that is motivated by the atom superposition and electron delocalization physical model of chemical binding. The energy appears in physically transparent form consisting of a classical electrostatic interaction, a zero order two electron exchange interaction, a relaxation energy, and the atomic energies. Detailed formulae are derived in zero and first order of approximation. The formulation extends beyond first order to any chosen level of approximation leading, in principle, to the exact energy. The structure of this energy decomposition lends itself to the fullest utilization of the solutions to the atomic sub problems to simplify the calculation of the molecular energy. If nonlinear relaxation effects remain minor, the molecular energy calculation requires at most the calculation of two center, two electron integrals. This scheme thus affords the prospects of substantially reducing the computational effort required for the calculation of molecular energies.

  1. Quantum self-consistent calculation of the differential capacitance of a semiconductor film

    SciTech Connect

    Tsurikov, D. E. Yafyasov, A. M.

    2013-09-15

    A fast scheme for calculating the surface differential capacitance of a semiconductor film with an ohmic contact on the rear side is proposed within the self-consistent solution of the Schroedinger and Poisson equations. The method is considered using germanium as an example. Comparison with the results of the phenomenological calculation revealed the specifics of size-quantization effects on the capacitance-voltage characteristic of the film.

  2. How Iron-Containing Proteins Control Dioxygen Chemistry: A Detailed Atomic Level Description Via Accurate Quantum Chemical and Mixed Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Calculations.

    SciTech Connect

    Friesner, Richard A.; Baik, Mu-Hyun; Gherman, Benjamin F.; Guallar, Victor; Wirstam, Maria E.; Murphy, Robert B.; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2003-03-01

    Over the past several years, rapid advances in computational hardware, quantum chemical methods, and mixed quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) techniques have made it possible to model accurately the interaction of ligands with metal-containing proteins at an atomic level of detail. In this paper, we describe the application of our computational methodology, based on density functional (DFT) quantum chemical methods, to two diiron-containing proteins that interact with dioxygen: methane monooxygenase (MMO) and hemerythrin (Hr). Although the active sites are structurally related, the biological function differs substantially. MMO is an enzyme found in methanotrophic bacteria and hydroxylates aliphatic C-H bonds, whereas Hr is a carrier protein for dioxygen used by a number of marine invertebrates. Quantitative descriptions of the structures and energetics of key intermediates and transition states involved in the reaction with dioxygen are provided, allowing their mechanisms to be compared and contrasted in detail. An in-depth understanding of how the chemical identity of the first ligand coordination shell, structural features, electrostatic and van der Waals interactions of more distant shells control ligand binding and reactive chemistry is provided, affording a systematic analysis of how iron-containing proteins process dioxygen. Extensive contact with experiment is made in both systems, and a remarkable degree of accuracy and robustness of the calculations is obtained from both a qualitative and quantitative perspective.

  3. Quantum mechanical calculations of charge effects on gating the KcsA channel.

    PubMed

    Kariev, Alisher M; Znamenskiy, Vasiliy S; Green, Michael E

    2007-05-01

    A series of ab initio (density functional) calculations were carried out on side chains of a set of amino acids, plus water, from the (intracellular) gating region of the KcsA K(+) channel. Their atomic coordinates, except hydrogen, are known from X-ray structures [D.A. Doyle, J.M. Cabral, R.A. Pfuetzner, A. Kuo, J.M. Gulbis, S.L. Cohen, B.T. Chait, R. MacKinnon, The structure of the potassium channel: molecular basis of K(+) conduction and selectivity, Science 280 (1998) 69-77; R. MacKinnon, S.L. Cohen, A. Kuo, A. Lee, B.T. Chait, Structural conservation in prokaryotic and eukaryotic potassium channels, Science 280 (1998) 106-109; Y. Jiang, A. Lee, J. Chen, M. Cadene, B.T. Chait, R. MacKinnon, The open pore conformation of potassium channels. Nature 417 (2001) 523-526], as are the coordinates of some water oxygen atoms. The 1k4c structure is used for the starting coordinates. Quantum mechanical optimization, in spite of the starting configuration, places the atoms in positions much closer to the 1j95, more tightly closed, configuration. This state shows four water molecules forming a "basket" under the Q119 side chains, blocking the channel. When a hydrated K(+) approaches this "basket", the optimized system shows a strong set of hydrogen bonds with the K(+) at defined positions, preventing further approach of the K(+) to the basket. This optimized structure with hydrated K(+) added shows an ice-like 12 molecule nanocrystal of water. If the water molecules exchange, unless they do it as a group, the channel will remain blocked. The "basket" itself appears to be very stable, although it is possible that the K(+) with its hydrating water molecules may be more mobile, capable of withdrawing from the gate. It is also not surprising that water essentially freezes, or forms a kind of glue, in a nanometer space; this agrees with experimental results on a rather different, but similarly sized (nm dimensions) system [K.B. Jinesh, J.W.M. Frenken, Capillary condensation in atomic scale friction: how water acts like a glue, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006) 166103/1-4]. It also agrees qualitatively with simulations on channels [A. Anishkin, S. Sukharev, Water dynamics and dewetting transitions in the small mechanosensitive channel MscS, Biophys. J. 86 (2004) 2883-2895; O. Beckstein, M.S.P. Sansom, Liquid-vapor oscillations of water in hydrophobic nanopores, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 100 (2003) 7063-7068] and on featureless channel-like systems [J. Lu, M.E. Green, Simulation of water in a pore with charges: application to a gating mechanism for ion channels, Prog. Colloid Polym. Sci. 103 (1997) 121-129], in that it forms a boundary on water that is not obvious from the liquid state. The idea that a structure is stable, even if individual molecules exchange, is well known, for example from the hydration shell of ions. We show that when charges are added in the form of protons to the domains (one proton per domain), the optimized structure is open. No stable water hydrogen bonds hold it together; an opening of 11.0 A appears, measured diagonally between non-neighboring domains as glutamine 119 carbonyl O-O distance. This is comparable to the opening in the MthK potassium channel structure that is generally agreed to be open. The appearance of the opening is in rather good agreement with that found by Perozo and coworkers. In contrast, in the uncharged structure this diagonal distance is 6.5 A, and the water "basket" constricts the uncharged opening still further, with the ice-like structure that couples the K(+) ion to the gating region freezing the entrance to the channel. Comparison with our earlier model for voltage gated channels suggests that a similar mechanism may apply in those channels. PMID:17336921

  4. Vibrations and reorientations of NH3 molecules in [Mn(NH3)6](ClO4)2 studied by infrared spectroscopy and theoretical (DFT) calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetma?czyk, Joanna; Hetma?czyk, ?ukasz; Migda?-Mikuli, Anna; Mikuli, Edward

    2015-02-01

    The vibrational and reorientational motions of NH3 ligands and ClO4- anions were investigated by Fourier transform middle-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) in the high- and low-temperature phases of [Mn(NH3)6](ClO4)2. The temperature dependencies of full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the infrared bands at: 591 and 3385 cm-1, associated with: ?r(NH3) and ?as(N-H) modes, respectively, indicate that there exist fast (correlation times ?R ? 10-12-10-13 s) reorientational motions of NH3 ligands, with a mean values of activation energies: 7.8 and 4.5 kJ mol-1, in the phase I and II, respectively. These reorientational motions of NH3 ligands are only slightly disturbed in the phase transition region and do not significantly contribute to the phase transition mechanism. Fourier transform far-infrared and middle-infrared spectra with decreasing of temperature indicated characteristic changes at the vicinity of PT at TCc = 137.6 K (on cooling), which suggested lowering of the crystal structure symmetry. Infrared spectra of [Mn(NH3)6](ClO4)2 were recorded and interpreted by comparison with respective theoretical spectra calculated using DFT method (B3LYP functional, LANL2DZ ECP basis set (on Mn atom) and 6-311 + G(d,p) basis set (on H, N, Cl, O atoms) for the isolated equilibrium two models (Model 1 - separate isolated [Mn(NH3)6]2+ cation and ClO4- anion and Model 2 - [Mn(NH3)6(ClO4)2] complex system). Calculated optical spectra show a good agreement with the experimental infrared spectra (FT-FIR and FT-MIR) for the both models.

  5. Calculation of broadband time histories of ground motion, Part II: Kinematic and dynamic modeling using theoretical Green's functions and comparison with the 1994 northridge earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartzell, S.; Guatteri, Mariagiovanna; Mai, P.M.; Liu, P.-C.; Fisk, M. R.

    2005-01-01

    In the evolution of methods for calculating synthetic time histories of ground motion for postulated earthquakes, kinematic source models have dominated to date because of their ease of application. Dynamic models, however, which incorporate a physical relationship between important faulting parameters of stress drop, slip, rupture velocity, and rise time, are becoming more accessible. This article compares a class of kinematic models based on the summation of a fractal distribution of subevent sizes with a dynamic model based on the slip-weakening friction law. Kinematic modeling is done for the frequency band 0.2 to 10.0. Hz, dynamic models are calculated from 0.2 to 2.0. Hz. The strong motion data set for the 1994 Northridge earthquake is used to evaluate and compare the synthetic time histories. Source models are propagated to the far field by convolution with 1D and 3D theoretical Green's functions. In addition, the kinematic model is used to evaluate the importance of propagation path effects: velocity structure, scattering, and nonlinearity. At present, the kinematic model gives a better broadband fit to the Northridge ground motion than the simple slip-weakening dynamic model. In general, the dynamic model over-predicts rise times and produces insufficient shorter-period energy. Within the context of the slip-weakening model, the Northridge ground motion requires a short slip-weakening distance, on the order of 0.15 m or less. A more complex dynamic model including rate weakening or one that allows shorter rise times near the hypocenter may fit the data better.

  6. Cadmium(II) and Copper(II) coordination polymers based on 5-(Pyrazinyl) tetrazolate ligand: Structure, photoluminescence, theoretical calculations and magnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hui-Fen; Yang, Wen-Bin; Lin, Lang; Guo, Xiang-Guang; Dui, Xue-jing; Wu, Xiao-Yuan; Lu, Can-Zhong; Zhang, Cui-Juan

    2013-05-01

    Two ??-tetrazolyl bridged metal complexes, ([CdI(PTZ)(H?O)]·H?O)?1 and ([Cu(PTZ)?]·H?O)?2 (HPTZ=5-(pyrazinyl) tetrazolate), were hydrothermally synthesized and fully characterized by X-ray crystallography, elemental analyses and spectrum techniques. In 1, cadmium ions are bridged by tridentate ??-?²N2,N5:?¹N1 chelating PTZ? ligand and halide linkers into an infinite 1D chain, while in 2 copper ions are connected by tridentate ??-?²N7,N12:?¹N8 and bidentate ??-?¹N1:?¹N2 chelating-bridging PTZ? ligands to form a 1D castellated chain structure. Compound 1 displays phosphorescence with a lifetime of ~7.74 ms in the visible region, and the origin of the luminescent emission is primary assigned to the combination of ligand-centered emission, metal-to-ligand charge transfer and ligand-to-ligand charge transfer, which has been probed by the density of states (DOS) calculations. Magnetic measurement reveals that compound 2 displays an anti-ferromagnetic ordering. - Graphical abstract: Two new complexes based on 5-(pyrazinyl) tertrazolate, namely ([CdI(PTZ)(H2O)]·H2O)n and ([Cu(PTZ)2]·H2O)n have been synthesized and characterized. Compound 1 exhibits interesting green luminescence. Compound 2 displays an anti-ferromagnetic ordering. Highlights: • We report two novel 1D ??-tetrazolyl bridged Cd(II) and Cu(II) compounds. • The cadmium(II) compound exhibits a green luminescence. • Theoretical calculations were conducted to elucidate the green luminescence. • The Cu(II) compound exhibits an anti-ferromagnetic ordering.

  7. Multiple Environment Single System Quantum Mechanical/Molecular Mechanical (MESS-QM/MM) Calculations. 1. Estimation of Polarization Energies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In combined quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) free energy calculations, it is often advantageous to have a frozen geometry for the quantum mechanical (QM) region. For such multiple-environment single-system (MESS) cases, two schemes are proposed here for estimating the polarization energy: the first scheme, termed MESS-E, involves a Roothaan step extrapolation of the self-consistent field (SCF) energy; whereas the other scheme, termed MESS-H, employs a Newton–Raphson correction using an approximate inverse electronic Hessian of the QM region (which is constructed only once). Both schemes are extremely efficient, because the expensive Fock updates and SCF iterations in standard QM/MM calculations are completely avoided at each configuration. They produce reasonably accurate QM/MM polarization energies: MESS-E can predict the polarization energy within 0.25 kcal/mol in terms of the mean signed error for two of our test cases, solvated methanol and solvated ?-alanine, using the M06-2X or ?B97X-D functionals; MESS-H can reproduce the polarization energy within 0.2 kcal/mol for these two cases and for the oxyluciferin–luciferase complex, if the approximate inverse electronic Hessians are constructed with sufficient accuracy. PMID:25321186

  8. Characterizing Surface Acidic Sites in Mesoporous-Silica-Supported Tungsten Oxide Catalysts Using Solid State NMR and Quantum Chemistry Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jian Z.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Wang, Yong; Hu, Mary Y.; Turcu, Romulus VF; Peden, Charles HF

    2011-10-18

    The acidic sites in dispersed tungsten oxide supported on SBA-15 mesoporous silica were investigated using a combination of pyridine titration, both fast-, and slow-MAS {sup 15}N NMR, static {sup 2}H NMR, and quantum chemistry calculations. It is found that the bridged acidic -OH groups in surface adsorbed tungsten dimers (i.e., W-OH-W) are the Broensted acid sites. The unusually strong acidity of these Broensted acid sites is confirmed by quantum chemistry calculations. In contrast, terminal W-OH sites are very stable and only weakly acidic as are terminal Si-OH sites. Furthermore, molecular interactions between pyridine molecules and the dimer Broensted and terminal W-OH sites for dispersed tungsten oxide species is strong. This results in restricted molecular motion for the interacting pyridine molecules even at room temperature, i.e., a reorientation mainly about the molecular 2-fold axis. This restricted reorientation makes it possible to estimate the relative ratio of the Broensted (tungsten dimer) to the weakly acidic terminal W-OH sites in the catalyst using the slow-MAS {sup 1}H-{sup 15}N CP PASS method.

  9. MATLAB-based program for optimization of quantum cascade laser active region parameters and calculation of output characteristics in magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiljani?, J.; Žeželj, M.; Milanovi?, V.; Radovanovi?, J.; Stankovi?, I.

    2014-03-01

    A strong magnetic field applied along the growth direction of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) active region gives rise to a spectrum of discrete energy states, the Landau levels. By combining quantum engineering of a QCL with a static magnetic field, we can selectively inhibit/enhance non-radiative electron relaxation process between the relevant Landau levels of a triple quantum well and realize a tunable surface emitting device. An efficient numerical algorithm implementation is presented of optimization of GaAs/AlGaAs QCL region parameters and calculation of output properties in the magnetic field. Both theoretical analysis and MATLAB implementation are given for LO-phonon and interface roughness scattering mechanisms on the operation of QCL. At elevated temperatures, electrons in the relevant laser states absorb/emit more LO-phonons which results in reduction of the optical gain. The decrease in the optical gain is moderated by the occurrence of interface roughness scattering, which remains unchanged with increasing temperature. Using the calculated scattering rates as input data, rate equations can be solved and population inversion and the optical gain obtained. Incorporation of the interface roughness scattering mechanism into the model did not create new resonant peaks of the optical gain. However, it resulted in shifting the existing peaks positions and overall reduction of the optical gain. Catalogue identifier: AERL_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AERL_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 37763 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2757956 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: MATLAB. Computer: Any capable of running MATLAB version R2010a or higher. Operating system: Any platform supporting MATLAB version R2010a or higher. RAM: Minimum required is 1 GB. Memory usage increases for less intense magnetic fields. Classification: 15. Nature of problem: The nature of the problem is to provide an efficient numerical algorithm implementation for optimization of GaAs/AlGaAs QCL active region parameters and calculation of output properties in the magnetic field. Solution method: The optimization of the QCL laser performance at selected wavelength is performed at entire free-parameters space using simulated annealing algorithm. The scattering rates are calculated in the presence and without magnetic field and used as coefficients in rate equations. The standard MATLAB procedures were used to solve iteratively this system of equations and obtain distribution of electron densities over electronic states. Restrictions: The machine must provide the necessary main memory which decreases roughly quadratically with the increase of the magnetic field intensity. Running time: Optimization time on Intel 3 GHz processor is about 2×104 s. The calculation time of laser output properties for values set automatically in GUI is 5×104 s.

  10. Calculation of absorption spectra involving multiple excited states: Approximate methods based on the mixed quantum classical Liouville equation

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Shuming; Xie, Weiwei; Zhu, Lili; Shi, Qiang

    2014-02-28

    We investigate the calculation of absorption spectra based on the mixed quantum classical Liouville equation (MQCL) methods. It has been shown previously that, for a single excited state, the averaged classical dynamics approach to calculate the linear and nonlinear spectroscopy can be derived using the MQCL formalism. This work focuses on problems involving multiple coupled excited state surfaces, such as in molecular aggregates and in the cases of coupled electronic states. A new equation of motion to calculate the dipole-dipole correlation functions within the MQCL formalism is first presented. Two approximate methods are then proposed to solve the resulted equations of motion. The first approximation results in a mean field approach, where the nuclear dynamics is governed by averaged forces depending on the instantaneous electronic states. A modification to the mean field approach based on first order moment expansion is also proposed. Numerical examples including calculation of the absorption spectra of Frenkel exciton models of molecular aggregates, and the pyrazine molecule are presented.

  11. Quantum mechanical calculations of state-to-state cross sections and rate constants for the F + DCl ? Cl + DF reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Bulut, Niyazi; K?os, Jacek; Roncero, Octavio

    2015-06-07

    We present accurate state-to-state quantum wave packet calculations of integral cross sections and rate constants for the title reaction. Calculations are carried out on the best available ground 1{sup 2}A? global adiabatic potential energy surface of Deskevich et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 124, 224303 (2006)]. Converged state-to-state reaction cross sections have been calculated for collision energies up to 0.5 eV and different initial rotational and vibrational excitations, DCl(v = 0, j = 0 ? 1; v = 1, j = 0). Also, initial-state resolved rate constants of the title reaction have been calculated in a temperature range of 100-400 K. It is found that the initial rotational excitation of the DCl molecule does not enhance reactivity, in contract to the reaction with the isotopologue HCl in which initial rotational excitation produces an important enhancement. These differences between the isotopologue reactions are analyzed in detail and attributed to the presence of resonances for HCl(v = 0, j), absent in the case of DCl(v = 0, j). For vibrational excited DCl(v = 1, j), however, the reaction cross section increases noticeably, what is also explained by another resonance.

  12. New algorithms for field-theoretic block copolymer simulations: Progress on using adaptive-mesh refinement and sparse matrix solvers in SCFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sides, Scott; Jamroz, Ben; Crockett, Robert; Pletzer, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    Self-consistent field theory (SCFT) for dense polymer melts has been highly successful in describing complex morphologies in block copolymers. Field-theoretic simulations such as these are able to access large length and time scales that are difficult or impossible for particle-based simulations such as molecular dynamics. The modified diffusion equations that arise as a consequence of the coarse-graining procedure in the SCF theory can be efficiently solved with a pseudo-spectral (PS) method that uses fast-Fourier transforms on uniform Cartesian grids. However, PS methods can be difficult to apply in many block copolymer SCFT simulations (eg. confinement, interface adsorption) in which small spatial regions might require finer resolution than most of the simulation grid. Progress on using new solver algorithms to address these problems will be presented. The Tech-X Chompst project aims at marrying the best of adaptive mesh refinement with linear matrix solver algorithms. The Tech-X code PolySwift++ is an SCFT simulation platform that leverages ongoing development in coupling Chombo, a package for solving PDEs via block-structured AMR calculations and embedded boundaries, with PETSc, a toolkit that includes a large assortment of sparse linear solvers.

  13. Theoretical study on low dielectric loss perovskites Ba(Zn1/3Ta2/3)O3 by first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Atsushi; Higai, Shin'ichi; Kageyama, Keisuke; Higuchi, Yukio; Shiratsuyu, Kosuke

    2015-10-01

    We performed first-principles theoretical calculations on microwave dielectric compounds Ba(Zn1/3Ta2/3)O3, to clarify the origin of high Q characteristics in the Zn/Ta ordered structure. It was found that Zn atoms suppress the intrinsic ferroelectric nature of Slater mode vibration in TaO6 octahedra. This results in the improvement of harmonicity in lattice vibration. There are two important mechanisms. One is the compression of TaO6 octahedra by adjacent ZnO6, and then the double-well potential that TaO6 originally has is narrowed to be single-well with higher harmonicity. The other is the weakening of the covalent character of Ta-O bonds by adjacent Zn atoms, which is the origin of the double-well potential. In the fully ordered Ba(Zn1/3Ta2/3)O3, all Ta atoms are adjacent to Zn atoms, where Zn atoms have the maximum effect on improving harmonicity. Thus, highly ordered Ba(Zn1/3Ta2/3)O3 with prolonged heat treatment exhibits a high Q value.

  14. FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: How Gamow calculated the temperature of the background radiation or a few words about the fine art of theoretical physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernin, Artur D.

    1994-08-01

    In a paper published in 1953, i.e., more than a decade before the observational discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation, George Gamow predicted theoretically the temperature of this radiation. He estimated it to be 7 K, which is very close to the subsequently measured value of about 3 K. Gamow found the present temperature of the background radiation on the basis of general formulas of cosmological dynamics. This prediction was in no way related to primordial nucleosynthesis.This circumstance has and is still causing misunderstanding in those cases in which the authors have raised doubts about Gamow's results, although an actual error has never been demonstrated. A detailed analysis makes it possible to understand how Gamow's calculation is possible. The problem lies in the fact that Gamow makes a certain additional implicit assumption which allows him to dispense with information on nucleosynthesis. This assumption is discussed in the context of the state of cosmology in the period from the fifties to the seventies, and of the current status of this branch of science.

  15. Many physical properties of a molecule can be calculated as expectation values of a corresponding quantum mechanical operator. The evaluation of other properties can be

    E-print Network

    Simons, Jack

    Chapter 20 Many physical properties of a molecule can be calculated as expectation values of a corresponding quantum mechanical operator. The evaluation of other properties can be formulated in terms perturbation. I. Calculations of Properties Other Than the Energy There are, of course, properties other than

  16. Theoretical vibrational spectra of OH(-)(H2O)2: the effect of quantum distribution and vibrational coupling.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Yudai; Kawashima, Yukio; Takahashi, Kaito; Tachikawa, Masanori

    2015-09-23

    We performed ab initio path integral molecular dynamics simulations for the hydroxide-water cluster, OH(-)(H2O)2, at 50 K, 100 K, and 150 K to investigate its flexible structure. From our simulations, we found that nuclear quantum effects enhance hydroxide hydrogen atom inversion and the conformational change between isomers occurs by simultaneous rotation of the free hydrogen atom. We propose the importance of including the transition state conformer with C2 symmetry, for the description of this system at temperatures realized in predissociation experiments. Temperature dependence of relative populations of each conformer along with multidimensional vibrational calculations were used to simulate the vibrational spectra and compare with the experimental spectra of Johnson and coworkers. We assign the doublet peaks seen in the experiment at 2500 to 3000 cm(-1), as the mixture of the ionic hydrogen bonded OH stretching overtone, ionic hydrogen bonded OH bending overtone, and the combination band of the ionic hydrogen bonded OH stretch and bend, which are modulated by the van der Waals OO vibrations. We concluded that for OH(-)(H2O)2, the vibrational couplings between the ionic hydrogen bonded motion and floppy modes contribute to the broadening of peaks observed in the 2500 to 3000 cm(-1) region. PMID:26365920

  17. Spin dynamics with Solid State NMR and GPU calculations: Loschmidt Echoes, Intrinsic Decoherence and Quantum Dynamical Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastawski, Horacio M.

    2015-03-01

    After overviewing argentine Condensed Matter Physics outside the Metropolitan area I will focus on the Loschmidt Echo [LE], a concept developed and pursed at Córdoba. It is the recovered fraction of a localized excitation after a spreading period followed by an imperfect time reversal procedure. In Solid State NMR, the LE has allowed us to quantify the decoherence and irreversibility induced by an uncontrolled environment. Notably complex many-body dynamics makes the system particularly sensitive to environmental disturbances presenting a decoherence rate that becomes perturbation independent beyond some small threshold. These experiments and the theoretical analysis based on the Feynman's path integral, summarized at a tutorial level, fueled the field of dynamical quantum chaos [4]. The quest for a perturbation independent decoherence as an emergent phenomenon in thermodynamic limit, lead us to discuss other dynamical observables that depend non-analytically on the environment strength, i.e. that undergo a quantum dynamical phase transition QDPT. GPU based high performance computing boosts the evaluation of the LE, allowing us to asses thermalization and how the Metal-Insulator transition (also a QDPT) emerges in interacting many-body systems. Financing institutions: CONICET, SeCyT-UNC, ANPCyT, MinCyT-Cor and Antorchas.

  18. Quantum chemical calculations and analysis of FTIR, FT-Raman and UV-Vis spectra of temozolomide molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Sheeraz Ahmad; Ahmad, Shabbir

    2015-11-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical study of the structure, vibrational and electronic spectra of temozolomide molecule, which is largely used in the treatment of brain tumours, is presented. FTIR (4000-400 cm-1) and FT-Raman spectra (4000?50 cm-1) have been recorded and analysed using anharmonic frequency calculations using VPT2, VSCF and CC-VSCF levels of theory within B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) framework. Anharmonic methods give accurate frequencies of fundamental modes, overtones as well as Fermi resonances and account for coupling of different modes. The anharmonic frequencies calculated using VPT2 and CC-VSCF methods show better agreement with the experimental data. Harmonic frequencies including solvent effects are also computed using IEF-PCM model. The magnitudes of coupling between pair of modes have been calculated using coupling integral based on 2MR-QFF approximation. Intermolecular interactions are discussed for three possible dimers of temozolomide. UV-Vis spectrum, examined in ethanol solvent, is compared with the calculated spectrum at TD-DFT/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. The electronic properties, such as excitation energy, frontier molecular orbital energies and the assignments of the absorption bands are also discussed.

  19. Multi-level quantum electrodynamic calculation of spontaneous emission and small signal gain in high voltage free electron lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C. S.; Fluhler, H. U.

    1991-12-01

    Using the Weisskopf-Wigner technique, a self consistent quantum electrodynamic (SCQED) theory of spontaneous emission of radiation and single photon small signal gain is developed for high voltage free electron lasers (FEL). Excellent agreement is obtained simultaneously to our knowledge for the first time between the predictions and the experimental observations for lineshift, linewidth and gain. The SCQED theory predicts lineshift and broadening due to quantum mechanical effects for linear, helical and tapered undulator FELs which are not predicted by the classical/conventional FEL theories, but which have been observed 4,5,18,22,23,45,46. Excellent agreement is obtained between the SCQED theory predicted spontaneous emission spectra and the 1980?81 ACO FEL4,18, ACO Optical Klystron FEL45,46, Stanford 10.6 ?m FEL22 and Stanford 3.4 ?m FEL23 experimental spectra. This agreement is much better than the prediction from the classical/conventional FEL theory which gives errors of many tens of percent. We show that the spontaneous emission spectrum obtained from classical/conventional FEL theories is valid only in the limit of a short undulator containing a small number of periods. The small signal gain derived from the SCQED theory is shown to reduce to Colson's gain formula12,34 in the classical limit. However, the SCQED theory predicts significant reductions in the small signal gain which agree well with the ACO gain data5, and are not predicted well by Colson's formula. Due to the non-neglible finite electron state lifetime, it is discovered that a fundamental physical gain limit exists which is universal to all types of FELs within the limits of the single photon transition scheme considered (i.e. if multiphoton effects are ignored). Finally, the implications of the theoretically obtained results are discussed for practical conditions of experimental interest. It is shown that under practical experimental conditions quantum effects can be quite important in the FEL.

  20. Quantum mechanical calculations of vibrational population inversion in chemical reactions - Numerically exact L-squared-amplitude-density study of the H2Br reactive system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Y. C.; Zhang, J. Z. H.; Kouri, D. J.; Haug, K.; Schwenke, D. W.

    1988-01-01

    Numerically exact, fully three-dimensional quantum mechanicl reactive scattering calculations are reported for the H2Br system. Both the exchange (H + H-prime Br to H-prime + HBr) and abstraction (H + HBR to H2 + Br) reaction channels are included in the calculations. The present results are the first completely converged three-dimensional quantum calculations for a system involving a highly exoergic reaction channel (the abstraction process). It is found that the production of vibrationally hot H2 in the abstraction reaction, and hence the extent of population inversion in the products, is a sensitive function of initial HBr rotational state and collision energy.

  1. Calculation of rotational--vibrational preionization in H/sub 2/ by multichannel quantum defect theory

    SciTech Connect

    Jungen, C.; Dill, D.

    1980-10-01

    Multichannel quantum defect theory is adapted to treat simultaneous rotational and vibrational preionization in H/sub 2/. The strongly preionized spectrum between the N/sup +/=0 and N/sup +/=2 rotational thresholds of photoionization of H/sub 2/X/sup 1/..sigma../sub g//sup +/(J''=0, v''=0) to produce H/sub 2//sup +/X/sup 2/..sigma../sub g//sup +/(N/sup +/, v/sup +/=0) is computed as example and good agreement is obtained with the photoionization data of Dehmer and Chupka.

  2. Mechanism of tungsten-dependent acetylene hydratase from quantum chemical calculations

    E-print Network

    Liao, Rongzhen

    . Based on the calculations, we propose a new mechanism in which the acetylene substrate first displaces the W-coordinated water mole- cule, and then undergoes a nucleophilic attack by the water mole- cule the hydroxyl group of the vinyl alcohol to the -carbon. Asp13 is thus a key player in the mechanism, but also W

  3. Quantum calculations of the electro-optical parameters of haloid ethers, esters, amides and carbamates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furer, V. L.

    1992-03-01

    Force and electro-optical parameters of haloid ethers, esters, amides and carbamates were calculated using the MINDO/3 method. The obtained values of parameters, frequencies and intensities of bands in IR spectra are in good accordance with experiment. The changes of molecular parameters due to the electronic interactions and conformational transitions are discussed.

  4. Calculation of Planetary Precession from Quantum-corrected Newton's Gravitation Law

    E-print Network

    Zhen Wang

    1998-04-29

    With consideration of quantization of space, we relate Newton's gravitation with the Second Law of thermodynamics. This leads to a correction to its original form, which takes into consideration the role of classical measurement. Our calculation shows this corrected form of gravitation can give explanation for planetary precession.

  5. Calculating solution redox free energies with ab initio quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical minimum free energy path method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiancheng; Hu, Hao; Hu, Xiangqian; Yang, Weitao

    2009-04-01

    A quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical minimum free energy path (QM/MM-MFEP) method was developed to calculate the redox free energies of large systems in solution with greatly enhanced efficiency for conformation sampling. The QM/MM-MFEP method describes the thermodynamics of a system on the potential of mean force surface of the solute degrees of freedom. The molecular dynamics (MD) sampling is only carried out with the QM subsystem fixed. It thus avoids "on-the-fly" QM calculations and thus overcomes the high computational cost in the direct QM/MM MD sampling. In the applications to two metal complexes in aqueous solution, the new QM/MM-MFEP method yielded redox free energies in good agreement with those calculated from the direct QM/MM MD method. Two larger biologically important redox molecules, lumichrome and riboflavin, were further investigated to demonstrate the efficiency of the method. The enhanced efficiency and uncompromised accuracy are especially significant for biochemical systems. The QM/MM-MFEP method thus provides an efficient approach to free energy simulation of complex electron transfer reactions.

  6. Calculating solution redox free energies with ab initio quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical minimum free energy path method

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng Xiancheng; Hu Hao; Hu Xiangqian; Yang Weitao

    2009-04-28

    A quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical minimum free energy path (QM/MM-MFEP) method was developed to calculate the redox free energies of large systems in solution with greatly enhanced efficiency for conformation sampling. The QM/MM-MFEP method describes the thermodynamics of a system on the potential of mean force surface of the solute degrees of freedom. The molecular dynamics (MD) sampling is only carried out with the QM subsystem fixed. It thus avoids 'on-the-fly' QM calculations and thus overcomes the high computational cost in the direct QM/MM MD sampling. In the applications to two metal complexes in aqueous solution, the new QM/MM-MFEP method yielded redox free energies in good agreement with those calculated from the direct QM/MM MD method. Two larger biologically important redox molecules, lumichrome and riboflavin, were further investigated to demonstrate the efficiency of the method. The enhanced efficiency and uncompromised accuracy are especially significant for biochemical systems. The QM/MM-MFEP method thus provides an efficient approach to free energy simulation of complex electron transfer reactions.

  7. Studies on vibrational, NMR spectra and quantum chemical calculations of N-Succinopyridine: An organic nonlinear optical material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, V.; Thirupugalmani, K.; Brahadeeswaran, S.

    2013-10-01

    Single crystals of N-Succinopyridine (NSP) have been grown from water using solution growth method by isothermal solvent evaporation technique. The solid state Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrum of the grown crystal shows a broad absorption extending from 3450 down to 400 cm-1, due to H-bond vibrations and other characteristic vibrations. Fourier Transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectrum of NSP single crystal shows Raman intensities ranging from 3100 to 100 cm-1 due the characteristics vibrations of functional groups present in NSP. The proton and carbon positions of NSP have been described by 1H and 13C NMR spectrum respectively. Ab initio quantum chemical calculations on NSP have been performed by density functional theory (DFT) calculations using B3LYP method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The predicted first hyperpolarizability is found to be 1.29 times greater than that of urea and suggests that the title compound could be an attractive material for nonlinear optical applications. The calculated HOMO-LUMO energies show that charge transfers occur within the molecule and other related molecular properties. Molecular properties such as Mulliken population analysis, thermodynamic functions and perturbation theory energy analysis have also been reported. Electrostatic potential map (ESP) of NSP obtained by electron density isosurface provided the information about the size, shape, charge density distribution and site of chemical reactivity of the title molecule. The molecular stability and bond strength have been investigated through the Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis.

  8. Structural properties and enthalpy of formation of magnesium hydride from quantum Monte Carlo calculations

    E-print Network

    Alfè, Dario

    calculations to study the structural properties of magnesium hydride MgH2 , including the pressure of both the Mg and the MgH2 crystals. The cohesive energy of the Mg crystal is found to be 1.51 1 eV and agrees perfectly with the experimental value of 1.51 eV. The enthalpy of formation of MgH2 from Mg bulk

  9. Quantum Calculation of Inelastic CO Collisions with H. III. Rate Coefficients for Ro-vibrational Transitions

    E-print Network

    Song, L; Walker, K M; Stancil, P C; Thi, W F; Kamp, I; van der Avoird, A; Groenenboom, G C

    2015-01-01

    We present calculated rate coefficients for ro-vibrational transitions of CO in collisions with H atoms for a gas temperature range of 10 K $\\leq T \\leq$ 3000 K, based on the recent three-dimensional ab initio H-CO interaction potential of Song et al(2013). Rate coefficients for ro-vibrational $v=1,j=0-30 \\rightarrow v'=0, j'$ transitions were obtained from scattering cross sections previously computed with the close-coupling method by Song et al(2015). Combining these with the rate coefficients for vibrational $v=1-5 \\rightarrow v' < v$ quenching obtained with the infinite-order sudden approximation, we propose a new extrapolation scheme that yields the rate coefficients for ro-vibrational $v=2-5,j=0-30 \\rightarrow v',j'$ de-excitation. Cross sections and rate coefficients for ro-vibrational $v=2, j=0-30 \\rightarrow v'=1,j'$ transitions calculated with the close-coupling method confirm the effectiveness of this extrapolation scheme. Our calculated and extrapolated rates are very different from those that ...

  10. Theoretical Revision and Experimental Comparison of Quantum Yield for Transmission-Mode GaAlAs/GaAs Photocathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Feng; Zhang, Yi-Jun; Cheng, Hong-Chang; Zhao, Jing; Xiong, Ya-Juan; Chang, Ben-Kang

    2011-04-01

    The quantum yield formula for uniform-doping GaAlAs/GaAs transmission-mode photocathodes is revised by taking into account the light absorption in the window layer. By using the revised quantum yield formula, the domestic and ITT's experimental quantum yield curves are fitted and the fitted curves match well with the experimental curves. In addition, the fit results show that the integral sensitivity and quantum yield of domestic image intensifier tube has achieved 2130?A/lm and 45%, nearly reaching ITT's third generation level in 2002, whereas the discrepancy in cathode performance is mainly embodied in the electron diffusion length and back interface recombination velocity.

  11. Theoretical Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2007-04-01

    The theoretical issues in the interpretation of the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes are highlighted. The results of these measurements are confronted with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. The link of the nucleon-to-Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is also discussed.

  12. Estimation of the thermodynamic properties of functional groups and biomolecules using quantum chemical/statistical thermodynamic calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Weisin

    The scarcity and sustainability of energy sources have always been a concern while seeking for alternative fuels. Biofuels have drawn the attention of various researchers due to their abundancy and renewability. Understanding the physical and chemical properties of these molecules is essential to determining their potential as alternative fuels or fuel additives. In this work, the properties of these molecules are predicted through methods developed from quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics theories. The heats of formations are calculated with the Gaussian program and combined with the Benson group contribution method to predict the Benson parameters of unknown functional groups in a molecule. The methods developed are used to expand the Benson database and improve the practicability of the group contribution method. The heats of formations are also used to predict and correlate heat capacities across a range of temperatures and energy densities in this study.

  13. Quantum Calculation of Inelastic CO Collisions with H. III. Rate Coefficients for Ro-vibrational Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, L.; Balakrishnan, N.; Walker, K. M.; Stancil, P. C.; Thi, W. F.; Kamp, I.; van der Avoird, A.; Groenenboom, G. C.

    2015-11-01

    We present calculated rate coefficients for ro-vibrational transitions of CO in collisions with H atoms for a gas temperature range of 10 K ? T ? 3000 K, based on the recent three-dimensional ab initio H–CO interaction potential of Song et al. Rate coefficients for ro-vibrational v=1,j=0-30\\to v\\prime =0,j\\prime transitions were obtained from scattering cross sections previously computed with the close-coupling (CC) method by Song et al. Combining these with the rate coefficients for vibrational v=1-5\\to v\\prime \\lt v quenching obtained with the infinite-order sudden approximation, we propose a new extrapolation scheme that yields the rate coefficients for ro-vibrational v=2-5,j=0-30\\to v\\prime ,j\\prime de-excitation. Cross sections and rate coefficients for ro-vibrational v=2,j=0-30\\to v\\prime =1,j\\prime transitions calculated with the CC method confirm the effectiveness of this extrapolation scheme. Our calculated and extrapolated rates are very different from those that have been adopted in the modeling of many astrophysical environments. The current work provides the most comprehensive and accurate set of ro-vibrational de-excitation rate coefficients for the astrophysical modeling of the H–CO collision system. The application of the previously available and new data sets in astrophysical slab models shows that the line fluxes typically change by 20%–70% in high temperature environments (800 K) with an H/H2 ratio of 1; larger changes occur for lower temperatures.

  14. Quantum chemical calculations on metal dications solvated by formaldehyde, acetone and DMSO ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Nahas, Ahmed M.

    2002-10-01

    Ab initio and DFT calculations have been carried out to explore the thermodynamic and/or kinetic stabilities of M 2+L complexes (M=Be, Mg, Ca, and Zn, L=formaldehyde, acetone, and DMSO). Based on the computational data, all of the investigated monoligated doubly charged metal cation complexes are expected to be observable in the gas phase. In addition to thermodynamic stability, the kinetic energy barriers further stabilize the monoligated doubly charged metal cations. Thermodynamically unstable complexes are stabilized by Coulomb barriers. Monoligated metal dications have been classified into metastable and thermodynamically stable species. Comparison with experiments indicates agreement for magnesium and calcium containing systems.

  15. Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of electroweak transition matrix elements in A = 6,7 nuclei

    E-print Network

    Muslema Pervin; Steven C. Pieper; R. B. Wiringa

    2007-12-03

    Green's function Monte Carlo calculations of magnetic dipole, electric quadrupole, Fermi, and Gamow-Teller transition matrix elements are reported for A=6,7 nuclei. The matrix elements are extrapolated from mixed estimates that bracket the relevant electroweak operator between variational Monte Carlo and GFMC propagated wave functions. Because they are off-diagonal terms, two mixed estimates are required for each transition, with a VMC initial (final) state paired with a GFMC final (initial) state. The realistic Argonne v18 two-nucleon and Illinois-2 three-nucleon interactions are used to generate the nuclear states. In most cases we find good agreement with experimental data.

  16. Calculation of the electron two-slit experiment using a quantum mechanical variational principle

    E-print Network

    Alan K. Harrison

    2012-08-02

    A nonlocal relativistic variational principle (VP) has recently been proposed as an alternative to the Dirac wave equation of standard quantum mechanics. We apply that principle to the electron two-slit experiment. The detection system is modelled as a screen made of atoms, any one of which can be excited by the incident electron, but we avoid restricting the detection mechanism further. The VP is shown to predict that, at the time the electron reaches the screen, its wavefunction will be localized to the neighborhood of a single atom, resulting in a position-type measurement. In an ensemble of such experiments ("identically prepared" except that the initial phase of the wavefunction--the hidden variable in the VP formulation--is sampled over the expected uniform distribution), the distribution of measured positions will reproduce the interference pattern predicted by the Dirac equation. We also demonstrate that with a detection system designed fundamentally to detect the electron's transverse wavelength rather than its position, the VP predicts that one such mode will be detected, that is, a wavelength measurement will result. Finally, it is shown that these results are unchanged in the "delayed choice" variant of the experiment.

  17. Calculation of the electron two-slit experiment using a quantum mechanical variational principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Alan K.

    2012-11-01

    A nonlocal relativistic variational principle (VP) has recently been proposed as an alternative to the Dirac wave equation of standard quantum mechanics. We apply that principle to the electron two-slit experiment. The detection system is modeled as a screen made of atoms, any one of which can be excited by the incident electron, but we avoid restricting the detection mechanism further. The VP is shown to predict that, at the time the electron reaches the screen, its wavefunction will be localized to the neighborhood of a single atom, resulting in a position-type measurement. In an ensemble of such experiments (‘identically prepared’ except that the initial phase of the wavefunction—the hidden variable in the VP formulation—is sampled over the expected uniform distribution), the distribution of measured positions will reproduce the interference pattern predicted by the Dirac equation. We also demonstrate that with a detection system designed fundamentally to detect the electron's transverse wavelength rather than its position, the VP predicts that one such mode will be detected, that is, a wavelength measurement will result. Finally, it is shown that these results are unchanged in the ‘delayed choice’ variant of the experiment.

  18. Calculation of the electron two slit experiment using a quantum mechanical variational principle

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Alan K.

    2012-04-17

    A nonlocal relativistic variational principle (VP) has recently been proposed as an alternative to the Dirac wave equation of standard quantum mechanics. We apply that principle to the electron two-slit experiment. The detection system is modelled as a screen made of atoms, any one of which can be excited by the incident electron, but we avoid restricting the detection mechanism further. The VP is shown to predict that, at the time the electron reaches the screen, its wavefunction will be localized to the neighborhood of a single atom, resulting in a position-type measurement. In an ensemble of such experiments ('identically prepared' except that the initial phase of the wavefunction - the hidden variable in the VP formulation - is sampled over the expected uniform distribution), the distribution of measured positions will reproduce the interference pattern predicted by the Dirac equation. We also demonstrate that with a detection system designed fundamentally to detect the electron's transverse wavelength rather than its position, the VP predicts that one such mode will be detected, that is, a wavelength measurement will result. Finally, it is shown that these results are unchanged in the 'delayed choice' variant of the experiment.

  19. Piezo-optic tensor of crystals from quantum-mechanical calculations.

    PubMed

    Erba, A; Ruggiero, M T; Korter, T M; Dovesi, R

    2015-10-14

    An automated computational strategy is devised for the ab initio determination of the full fourth-rank piezo-optic tensor of crystals belonging to any space group of symmetry. Elastic stiffness and compliance constants are obtained as numerical first derivatives of analytical energy gradients with respect to the strain and photo-elastic constants as numerical derivatives of analytical dielectric tensor components, which are in turn computed through a Coupled-Perturbed-Hartree-Fock/Kohn-Sham approach, with respect to the strain. Both point and translation symmetries are exploited at all steps of the calculation, within the framework of periodic boundary conditions. The scheme is applied to the determination of the full set of ten symmetry-independent piezo-optic constants of calcium tungstate CaWO4, which have recently been experimentally reconstructed. Present calculations unambiguously determine the absolute sign (positive) of the ?61 constant, confirm the reliability of 6 out of 10 experimentally determined constants and provide new, more accurate values for the remaining 4 constants. PMID:26472386

  20. Piezo-optic tensor of crystals from quantum-mechanical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erba, A.; Ruggiero, M. T.; Korter, T. M.; Dovesi, R.

    2015-10-01

    An automated computational strategy is devised for the ab initio determination of the full fourth-rank piezo-optic tensor of crystals belonging to any space group of symmetry. Elastic stiffness and compliance constants are obtained as numerical first derivatives of analytical energy gradients with respect to the strain and photo-elastic constants as numerical derivatives of analytical dielectric tensor components, which are in turn computed through a Coupled-Perturbed-Hartree-Fock/Kohn-Sham approach, with respect to the strain. Both point and translation symmetries are exploited at all steps of the calculation, within the framework of periodic boundary conditions. The scheme is applied to the determination of the full set of ten symmetry-independent piezo-optic constants of calcium tungstate CaWO4, which have recently been experimentally reconstructed. Present calculations unambiguously determine the absolute sign (positive) of the ?61 constant, confirm the reliability of 6 out of 10 experimentally determined constants and provide new, more accurate values for the remaining 4 constants.

  1. Protein-Protein Interactions from Linear-Scaling First Principles Quantum Mechanical Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Daniel; Skylaris, Chris-Kriton; Rajendra, Eeson; Venkitaraman, Ashok; Payne, Mike

    2010-03-01

    A modification of the MM-PBSA technique for calculating binding affinities of biomolecular complexes is presented. Classical molecular dynamics is used to explore the motion of the extended interface between two peptides derived from the BRC4 repeat of BRCA2 and the eukaryotic recombinase RAD51. The resulting trajectory is sampled using the linear-scaling density functional theory code, onetep, to determine from first principles, and with high computational efficiency, the relative free energies of binding of the ˜2800 atom receptor-ligand complexes. This new method provides the basis for computational interrogation of protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions, within fields ranging from chemical biological studies to small molecule binding behaviour, with both unprecedented chemical accuracy and affordable computational expense.

  2. Protein-protein interactions from linear-scaling first-principles quantum-mechanical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, D. J.; Skylaris, C.-K.; Rajendra, E.; Venkitaraman, A. R.; Payne, M. C.

    2010-08-01

    A modification of the MM-PBSA technique for calculating binding affinities of biomolecular complexes is presented. Classical molecular dynamics is used to explore the motion of the extended interface between two peptides derived from the BRC4 repeat of BRCA2 and the eukaryotic recombinase RAD51. The resulting trajectory is sampled using the linear-scaling density functional theory code, onetep, to determine from first principles, and with high computational efficiency, the relative free energies of binding of the ~2800 atom receptor-ligand complexes. This new method provides the basis for computational interrogation of protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions within fields ranging from chemical biological studies to small-molecule binding behaviour, with both unprecedented chemical accuracy and affordable computational expense.

  3. Chemisorption on cobalt surfaces: The effect of subsurface rhenium atoms from quantum chemical cluster model calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakken, Vebjørn; Rytter, Erling; Swang, Ole

    2011-03-01

    We have calculated chemisorption energies for different sorbates on cluster models for a number of sites on pure and subsurface rhenium-doped cobalt surfaces. Bonding energies follow the trend water < CO < propyl < methyl < hydrogen < hydroxyl, and are in good agreement with experimental results where available. The results indicate that for single-bond radicals (hydrogen, alkyl, hydroxyl), rhenium inclusion stabilizes the chemisorbed species. Further, the stabilization leads to a greater number of sites being energetically close to the most stable ones, possibly enhancing surface mobility of chemisorbed species. Hydrogen is less stabilized by rhenium substitution compared to propyl, indicating a possible mechanism for the greater yield of long-chained hydrocarbons afforded by rhenium-doped catalysts. For carbon monoxide, the results are less conclusive as rhenium substitution does not influence chemisorption energies so strongly.

  4. Water dimer equilibrium constant calculation: A quantum formulation including metastable states

    SciTech Connect

    Leforestier, Claude

    2014-02-21

    We present a full quantum evaluation of the water second virial coefficient B(T) based on the Takahashi-Imada second order approximation. As the associated trace Tr[e{sup ??H{sub A}{sub B}}?e{sup ??H{sub A}{sub B}{sup o}}] is performed in the coordinate representation, it does also include contribution from the whole continuum, i.e., resonances and collision pairs of monomers. This approach is compared to a Path Integral Monte Carlo evaluation of this coefficient by Schenter [J. Chem. Phys. 117, 6573 (2002)] for the TIP4P potential and shown to give extremely close results in the low temperature range (250–450 K) reported. Using a recent ab initio flexible potential for the water dimer, this new formulation leads to very good agreement with experimental values over the whole range of temperatures available. The virial coefficient is then used in the well known relation K{sub p}(T) = ?(B(T) ? b{sub M})/RT where the excluded volume b{sub M} is assimilated to the second virial coefficient of pure water monomer vapor and approximated from the inner repulsive part of the interaction potential. This definition, which renders b{sub M} temperature dependent, allows us to retrieve the 38?cm{sup 3}?mol{sup ?1} value commonly used, at room temperature. The resulting values for K{sub p}(T) are in agreement with available experimental data obtained from infrared absorption spectra of water vapor.

  5. Nuclei-selected NMR shielding calculations: a sublinear-scaling quantum-chemical method.

    PubMed

    Beer, Matthias; Kussmann, Jörg; Ochsenfeld, Christian

    2011-02-21

    An ab initio method for the direct calculation of NMR shieldings for selected nuclei at the Hartree-Fock and density-functional theory level is presented. Our method shows a computational effort scaling only sublinearly with molecular size, as it is motivated by the physical consideration that the chemical shielding is dominated by its local environment. The key feature of our method is to avoid the conventionally performed calculation of all NMR shieldings but instead to solve directly for specific nuclear shieldings. This has important implications not only for the study of large molecules, but also for the simulation of solvent effects and molecular dynamics, since often just a few shieldings are of interest. Our theory relies on two major aspects both necessary to provide a sublinear scaling behavior: First, an alternative expression for the shielding tensor is derived, which involves the response density matrix with respect to the nuclear magnetic moment instead of the response to the external magnetic field. Second, as unphysical long-range contributions occur within the description of distributed gauge origin methods that do not influence the final expectation value, we present a screening procedure to truncate the B-field dependent basis set, which is crucial in order to ensure an early onset of the sublinear scaling. The screening is in line with the r(-2) distance decay of Biot-Savarts law for induced magnetic fields. Our present truncation relies on the introduced concept of "individual gauge shielding contributions" applied to a reformulated shielding tensor, the latter consisting of gauge-invariant terms. The presented method is generally applicable and shows typical speed-ups of about one order of magnitude; moreover, due to the reduced scaling behavior of O(1) as compared to O(N), the wins become larger with increasing system size. We illustrate the validity of our method for several test systems, including ring-current dominated systems and biomolecules with more than 1000 atoms. PMID:21341823

  6. NMR study and quantum mechanical calculations on the 2-[(2-aminoethyl)amino]-ethanol-H 2O-CO 2 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsen, Jana P.; da Silva, Eirik F.; Krane, Jostein; Svendsen, Hallvard F.

    2008-04-01

    13C and 1H NMR spectra were obtained for AEEA (2-[(2-aminoethyl)amino]-ethanol)-H2O-CO2 systems and quantum mechanical calculations were carried out for the different AEEA species. The results suggest that the main AEEA species under the conditions studied are free amine, primary carbamate, and secondary carbamate. There is also some indication that a dicarbamate species is formed, this species does however only appear to be formed in small amounts. Comparison between experimental data and quantum mechanical calculations suggest that most AEEA species take on conforms with some degree of intramolecular hydrogen bonding.

  7. Comparison Of Quantum Mechanical And Classical Trajectory Calculations Of Cross Sections For Ion-Atom Impact Ionization of Negative - And Positive -Ions For Heavy Ion Fusion Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Igor D. Kaganovich; Edward A. Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson

    2003-05-15

    Stripping cross sections in nitrogen have been calculated using the classical trajectory approximation and the Born approximation of quantum mechanics for the outer shell electrons of 3.2GeV I{sup -} and Cs{sup +} ions. A large difference in cross section, up to a factor of six, calculated in quantum mechanics and classical mechanics, has been obtained. Because at such high velocities the Born approximation is well validated, the classical trajectory approach fails to correctly predict the stripping cross sections at high energies for electron orbitals with low ionization potential.

  8. Theoretical analysis of geometry and NMR isotope shift in hydrogen-bonding center of photoactive yellow protein by combination of multicomponent quantum mechanics and ONIOM scheme.

    PubMed

    Kanematsu, Yusuke; Tachikawa, Masanori

    2014-11-14

    Multicomponent quantum mechanical (MC_QM) calculation has been extended with ONIOM (our own N-layered integrated molecular orbital + molecular mechanics) scheme [ONIOM(MC_QM:MM)] to take account of both the nuclear quantum effect and the surrounding environment effect. The authors have demonstrated the first implementation and application of ONIOM(MC_QM:MM) method for the analysis of the geometry and the isotope shift in hydrogen-bonding center of photoactive yellow protein. ONIOM(MC_QM:MM) calculation for a model with deprotonated Arg52 reproduced the elongation of O-H bond of Glu46 observed by neutron diffraction crystallography. Among the unique isotope shifts in different conditions, the model with protonated Arg52 with solvent effect reasonably provided the best agreement with the corresponding experimental values from liquid NMR measurement. Our results implied the availability of ONIOM(MC_QM:MM) to distinguish the local environment around hydrogen bonds in a biomolecule. PMID:25399161

  9. Theoretical analysis of geometry and NMR isotope shift in hydrogen-bonding center of photoactive yellow protein by combination of multicomponent quantum mechanics and ONIOM scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Kanematsu, Yusuke; Tachikawa, Masanori

    2014-11-14

    Multicomponent quantum mechanical (MC-QM) calculation has been extended with ONIOM (our own N-layered integrated molecular orbital + molecular mechanics) scheme [ONIOM(MC-QM:MM)] to take account of both the nuclear quantum effect and the surrounding environment effect. The authors have demonstrated the first implementation and application of ONIOM(MC-QM:MM) method for the analysis of the geometry and the isotope shift in hydrogen-bonding center of photoactive yellow protein. ONIOM(MC-QM:MM) calculation for a model with deprotonated Arg52 reproduced the elongation of O–H bond of Glu46 observed by neutron diffraction crystallography. Among the unique isotope shifts in different conditions, the model with protonated Arg52 with solvent effect reasonably provided the best agreement with the corresponding experimental values from liquid NMR measurement. Our results implied the availability of ONIOM(MC-QM:MM) to distinguish the local environment around hydrogen bonds in a biomolecule.

  10. Quantum Chemical Calculations Using Accelerators: Migrating Matrix Operations to the NVIDIA Kepler GPU and the Intel Xeon Phi.

    PubMed

    Leang, Sarom S; Rendell, Alistair P; Gordon, Mark S

    2014-03-11

    Increasingly, modern computer systems comprise a multicore general-purpose processor augmented with a number of special purpose devices or accelerators connected via an external interface such as a PCI bus. The NVIDIA Kepler Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) and the Intel Phi are two examples of such accelerators. Accelerators offer peak performances that can be well above those of the host processor. How to exploit this heterogeneous environment for legacy application codes is not, however, straightforward. This paper considers how matrix operations in typical quantum chemical calculations can be migrated to the GPU and Phi systems. Double precision general matrix multiply operations are endemic in electronic structure calculations, especially methods that include electron correlation, such as density functional theory, second order perturbation theory, and coupled cluster theory. The use of approaches that automatically determine whether to use the host or an accelerator, based on problem size, is explored, with computations that are occurring on the accelerator and/or the host. For data-transfers over PCI-e, the GPU provides the best overall performance for data sizes up to 4096 MB with consistent upload and download rates between 5-5.6 GB/s and 5.4-6.3 GB/s, respectively. The GPU outperforms the Phi for both square and nonsquare matrix multiplications. PMID:26580169

  11. Quantum mechanics calculations of the thermodynamically controlled coverage and structure of alkyl monolayers on Si(111) surfaces.

    PubMed

    Nemanick, E Joseph; Solares, Santiago D; Goddard, William A; Lewis, Nathan S

    2006-08-01

    The heat of formation, Delta E, for silicon (111) surfaces terminated with increasing densities of the alkyl groups CH3- (methyl), C2H5- (ethyl), (CH3)2CH- (isopropyl), (CH3)3C- (tert-butyl), CH3(CH2)5- (hexyl), CH3(CH2)7- (octyl), and C6H5- (phenyl) was calculated using quantum mechanics (QM) methods, with unalkylated sites being H-terminated. The free energy, Delta G, for the formation of both Si-C and Si-H bonds from Si-Cl model compounds was also calculated using QM, with four separate Si-H formation mechanisms proposed, to give overall Delta G(S) values for the formation of alkylated Si(111) surfaces through a two step chlorination/alkylation method. The data are in good agreement with measurements of the packing densities for alkylated surfaces formed through this technique, for Si-H free energies of formation, Delta G(H), corresponding to a reaction mechanism including the elimination of two H atoms and the formation of a C=C double bond in either unreacted alkyl Grignard groups or tetrahydrofuran solvent. PMID:16869594

  12. Rotational Spectroscopy and Quantum Chemical Calculations of a Fruit Ester: the Microwave Spectrum of n-BUTYL Acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attig, T.; Sutikdja, L. W.; Kannengiesser, R.; Stahl, W.; Kleiner, I.

    2013-06-01

    In the course of our studies on a number of aliphatic ester molecules and natural substances, the rotational spectrum of n-butyl acetate (CH_{3}-COO-C_4H_9) has been recorded for the first time in the 10-13.5 GHz frequency range, using the MB-FTMW spectrometer in Aachen, with an instrumental uncertainty of a few kHz for unblended lines. Three conformers were observed. The main conformer with C_{1} symmetry has a strong spectrum. The other two conformers have C_{s} and C_{1} symmetries. Their intensities are considerably weaker. The quantum chemical calculations of specific conformers were carried out at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level, and for the main conformer different levels of theory were calculated. To analyze the internal rotation of the acetyl methyl groups the codes XIAM (based on the Combined Axis Method) and BELGI (based on the Rho-Axis-Method) were used to model the large amplitude motion. The molecular structures of the three conformers were determined and the values of the experimental rotational constants were compared with those obtained by ab initio methods. For all conformers torsional barriers of approximately 100 cm^{-1} were found. This study is part of a larger project which aims at determining the lowest energy conformers and their structures of organic esters and ketones which are of interest for flavour or perfume synthetic applications. Project partly supported by the PHC PROCOPE 25059YB

  13. Mechanism of Magnetostructural Transitions in Copper-Nitroxide-Based Switchable Molecular Magnets: Insights from ab Initio Quantum Chemistry Calculations.

    PubMed

    Jung, Julie; Guennic, Boris Le; Fedin, Matvey V; Ovcharenko, Victor I; Calzado, Carmen J

    2015-07-20

    The gradual magnetostructural transition in breathing crystals based on copper(II) and pyrazolyl-substituted nitronyl nitroxides has been analyzed by means of DDCI quantum chemistry calculations. The magnetic coupling constants (J) within the spin triads of Cu(hfac)2L(Bu)·0.5C8H18 have been evaluated for the X-ray structures reported at different temperatures. The coupling is strongly antiferromagnetic at low temperature and becomes ferromagnetic when the temperature increases. The intercluster magnetic coupling (J') is antiferromagnetic and shows a marked dependence on temperature. The magnetostructural transition can be reproduced using the calculated J values for each structure in the simulation of the magnetic susceptibility. However, the ?(T) curve can be improved nicely by considering the coexistence of two phases in the transition region, whose ratio varies with temperature corresponding to both the weakly and strongly coupled spin states. These results complement a recent VT-FTIR study on the parent Cu(hfac)2L(Pr) compound with a gradual magnetostructural transition. PMID:26125503

  14. Ab initio molecular dynamics with noisy and cheap quantum Monte Carlo forces: accurate calculation of vibrational frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ye; Sorella, Sandro

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a general and efficient method for the calculation of vibrational frequencies of electronic systems, ranging from molecules to solids. By performing damped molecular dynamics with ab initio forces, we show that quantum vibrational frequencies can be evaluated by diagonalizing the time averaged position-position or force-force correlation matrices, although the ionic motion is treated on the classical level within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The novelty of our approach is to evaluate atomic forces with QMC by means of a highly accurate and correlated variational wave function which is optimized simultaneously during the dynamics. QMC is an accurate and promising many-body technique for electronic structure calculation thanks to massively parallel computers. However, since infinite statistics is not feasible, property evaluation may be affected by large noise that is difficult to harness. Our approach controls the QMC stochastic bias systematically and gives very accurate results with moderate computational effort, namely even with noisy forces. We prove the accuracy and efficiency of our method on the water monomer[A. Zen et al., JCTC 9 (2013) 4332] and dimer. We are currently working on the challenging problem of simulating liquid water at ambient conditions.

  15. Theoretical Characterization of the Spectral Density of the Water-Soluble Chlorophyll-Binding Protein from Combined Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Rosnik, Andreana M; Curutchet, Carles

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, both experimentalists and theorists have worked to develop methods to describe pigment-protein coupling in photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes in order to understand the molecular basis of quantum coherence effects observed in photosynthesis. Here we present an improved strategy based on the combination of quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and excited-state calculations to predict the spectral density of electronic-vibrational coupling. We study the water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein (WSCP) reconstituted with Chl a or Chl b pigments as the system of interest and compare our work with data obtained by Pieper and co-workers from differential fluorescence line-narrowing spectra ( Pieper et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2011 , 115 ( 14 ), 4042 - 4052 ) . Our results demonstrate that the use of QM/MM MD simulations where the nuclear positions are still propagated at the classical level leads to a striking improvement of the predicted spectral densities in the middle- and high-frequency regions, where they nearly reach quantitative accuracy. This demonstrates that the so-called "geometry mismatch" problem related to the use of low-quality structures in QM calculations, not the quantum features of pigments high-frequency motions, causes the failure of previous studies relying on similar protocols. Thus, this work paves the way toward quantitative predictions of pigment-protein coupling and the comprehension of quantum coherence effects in photosynthesis. PMID:26610205

  16. Molecular structure, spectroscopic characterization, HOMO and LUMO analysis of 3,3'-diaminobenzidine with DFT quantum chemical calculations.

    PubMed

    Karabacak, Mehmet; Bilgili, Sibel; Atac, Ahmet

    2015-11-01

    In this work, infrared, Raman and UV spectra of 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (3,3-DAB) were carried out by using density functional theory (DFT)/B3LYP method with 6-311G(d,p) basis set. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra were recorded in the region 4000-400 and 4000-50 cm(-1), respectively. The geometrical parameters, energies and wavenumbers were obtained and fundamental vibrations were assigned on the basis of the potential energy distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes. The UV spectrum of the investigated compound was recorded in the range of 200-400 nm in ethanol and water solutions. The electronic properties, such as excitation energies, absorption wavelengths, HOMO and LUMO energies were performed by DFT/B3LYP approach and the results were compared with experimental observations. Thermodynamic properties, Mulliken atomic charges and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) were calculated for the title molecule. Also the nonlinear optical properties of 3,3-DAB molecule were explored theoretically. As a result, the calculated results were compared with the observed values and generally found to be in good agreement. PMID:26026306

  17. Predicting skin sensitization potency for Michael acceptors in the LLNA using quantum mechanics calculations.

    PubMed

    Enoch, S J; Roberts, D W

    2013-05-20

    This study outlines the development of a series of quantitative mechanistic models enabling skin sensitization potency in the LLNA to be predicted for direct acting Michael acceptors. These models utilized several computational descriptors based on knowledge of the Michael addition reaction mechanism. The key descriptor was calculated using density functional theory and modeled the stability of the reaction intermediate. A second descriptor relating to the available surface area at the site of the reaction was also found to be important. Several poorly predicted compounds were identified, and in all cases, these could be rationalized mechanistically. The analysis of these compounds allowed a well-defined mechanistically driven applicability domain to be developed. The study showed that in silico quantitative mechanistic models, with a well-defined applicability domain, can be used to predict skin sensitization potency in the LLNA. The approach presented has the potential to be of use as part of a weight of evidence approach for predicting skin sensitization without the use of animals in risk assessment. PMID:23611145

  18. Amino acid analogues bind to carbon nanotube via ?-? interactions: Comparison of molecular mechanical and quantum mechanical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zaixing; Wang, Zhigang; Tian, Xingling; Xiu, Peng; Zhou, Ruhong

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the interaction between carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and biomolecules is essential to the CNT-based nanotechnology and biotechnology. Some recent experiments have suggested that the ?-? stacking interactions between protein's aromatic residues and CNTs might play a key role in their binding, which raises interest in large scale modeling of protein-CNT complexes and associated ?-? interactions at atomic detail. However, there is concern on the accuracy of classical fixed-charge molecular force fields due to their classical treatments and lack of polarizability. Here, we study the binding of three aromatic residue analogues (mimicking phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) and benzene to a single-walled CNT, and compare the molecular mechanical (MM) calculations using three popular fixed-charge force fields (OPLSAA, AMBER, and CHARMM), with quantum mechanical (QM) calculations using the density-functional tight-binding method with the inclusion of dispersion correction (DFTB-D). Two typical configurations commonly found in ?-? interactions are used, one with the aromatic rings parallel to the CNT surface (flat), and the other perpendicular (edge). Our calculations reveal that compared to the QM results the MM approaches can appropriately reproduce the strength of ?-? interactions for both configurations, and more importantly, the energy difference between them, indicating that the various contributions to ?-? interactions have been implicitly included in the van der Waals parameters of the standard MM force fields. Meanwhile, these MM models are less accurate in predicting the exact structural binding patterns (matching surface), meaning there are still rooms to be improved. In addition, we have provided a comprehensive and reliable QM picture for the ?-? interactions of aromatic molecules with CNTs in gas phase, which might be used as a benchmark for future force field developments.

  19. Self-interaction-free density-functional theoretical study of the electronic structure of spherical and vertical quantum dots

    E-print Network

    Jiang, T. F.; Tong, Xiao-Min; Chu, Shih-I

    2001-01-09

    We study the electronic structure and shell-filling effects of both spherical and vertical quantum dots by means of the density functional theory (DFT) with optimized effective potential (OEP) and self-interaction-correction (SIC) recently developed...

  20. Characterization of the Active Site of DNA Polymerase Beta by Molecular Dynamics and Quantum Chemical Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Rittenhouse, Robert C.; Apostoluk, Wlodzimierz K.; Miller, John H.; Straatsma, TP

    2003-11-15

    It is well established that the fully formed polymerase active site of the DNA repair enzyme, polymerase b (pol b), including two bound Mg2+ cations and the nucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) substrate, exists at only one point in the catalytic cycle just prior to the chemical nucleotidyl transfer step. The structure of the active conformation has been the subject of much interest as it relates to the mechanism of the chemical step and also to the question of fidelity assurance. While crystal structures of ternary pol b - (primer-template) DNA - dNTP complexes have provided the main structural features of the active site, they are necessarily incomplete due to intentional alterations, e.g. removal of the 3?OH groups from primer and substrate, that were needed to obtain a structure from mid-cycle. Working from the crystal structure closest to the fully formed active site, (pdb: 1bpy), two MD simulations of the solvated ternary complex were performed; one with the missing 3?OH?s restored, via modeling, to the primer and substrate, and the other without restoration of the 3?OH?s. The results of the simulations, taken together with ab initio optimizations on simplified active site models, indicate that the missing primer 3?OH in the crystal structure is responsible for a significant perturbation in the coordination sphere of the catalytic cation and allow us to suggest several corrections and additions to the active site structure as observed by crystallography. In addition, the calculations help to resolve questions that have been raised regarding the protonation states of coordinating ligands.

  1. A program for performing exact quantum dynamics calculations using cylindrical polar coordinates: A nanotube application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skouteris, Dimitris; Gervasi, Osvaldo; Laganà, Antonio

    2009-03-01

    A program that uses the time-dependent wavepacket method to study the motion of structureless particles in a force field of quasi-cylindrical symmetry is presented here. The program utilises cylindrical polar coordinates to express the wavepacket, which is subsequently propagated using a Chebyshev expansion of the Schrödinger propagator. Time-dependent exit flux as well as energy-dependent S matrix elements can be obtained for all states of the particle (describing its angular momentum component along the nanotube axis and the excitation of the radial degree of freedom in the cylinder). The program has been used to study the motion of an H atom across a carbon nanotube. Program summaryProgram title: CYLWAVE Catalogue identifier: AECL_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECL_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3673 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 35 237 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77 Computer: RISC workstations Operating system: UNIX RAM: 120 MBytes Classification: 16.7, 16.10 External routines: SUNSOFT performance library (not essential) TFFT2D.F (Temperton Fast Fourier Transform), BESSJ.F (from Numerical Recipes, for the calculation of Bessel functions) (included in the distribution file). Nature of problem: Time evolution of the state of a structureless particle in a quasicylindrical potential. Solution method: Time dependent wavepacket propagation. Running time: 50000 secs. The test run supplied with the distribution takes about 10 minutes to complete.

  2. Quantum mechanical calculations and spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV) investigations, molecular orbital, NLO, NBO, NLMO and MESP analysis of 4-[5-(4-methylphenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl] benzene-1-sulfonamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindasamy, P.; Gunasekaran, S.

    2015-02-01

    The molecular structural parameters and vibrational frequencies of the fundamental modes of 4-[5-(4-methylphenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl] benzene-1-sulfonamide(abbreviated as 4MPTFM1HPB1SA) have been obtained using Density functional theory (DFT) technique in the B3LYP approximation with 6-311G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets. Detailed vibrational assignments of the observed FT-IR and FT-Raman bands have been proposed on the basis of potential energy distribution (PED). The difference between the observed and the calculated wavenumbers values are very small. The theoretically predicted FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of the title molecule have been constructed. The molecular electrostatic potential has been mapped primarily for predicting sites and relative reactivities toward electrophilic and nucleophilic attack. The intramolecular contacts have been interpreted using Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) and Natural Localized Molecular Orbital (NLMO) analysis. Important non-linear properties such as electric dipolemoment and first hyperpolarizability of 4MPTFM1HPB1SA have been computed using B3LYP quantum chemical calculation. The absorption wavelength, energy and oscillator's strength are calculated by TD-DFT and 4MPTFM1HPB1SA is approach complement with the experimental findings. The temperature dependence of thermodynamic properties has been analyzed. The Natural charges, Frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs), chemical hardness (?), chemical potential (?), Electro negativity (?) and electrophilicity values (?) are calculated and reported.

  3. Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences @ Heriot-Watt University Our research interests are wide ranging from theoretical studies into quantum physics,

    E-print Network

    Painter, Kevin

    ://cm-dtc.supa.ac.uk/ 3) James Watt (ORSAS) Scholarships: These are University awards providing full university- 1 - Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences @ Heriot-Watt University Our research interests

  4. Single crystal XRD, vibrational and quantum chemical calculation of pharmaceutical drug paracetamol: A new synthesis form.

    PubMed

    Anitha, R; Gunasekaran, M; Kumar, S Suresh; Athimoolam, S; Sridhar, B

    2015-11-01

    The common house hold pharmaceutical drug, paracetamol (PAR), has been synthesized from 4-chloroaniline as a first ever report. After the synthesis, good quality single crystals were obtained for slow evaporation technique under the room temperature. The crystal and molecular structures were re-determined by the single crystal X-ray diffraction. The vibrational spectral measurements were carried out using FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy in the range of 4000-400 cm(-1). The single crystal X-ray studies shows that the drug crystallized in the monoclinic system polymorph (Form-I). The crystal packing is dominated by N-H?O and O-H?O classical hydrogen bonds. The ac diagonal of the unit cell features two chain C(7) and C(9) motifs running in the opposite directions. These two chain motifs are cross-linked to each other to form a ring R4(4)(22) motif and a chain C2(2)(6) motif which is running along the a-axis of the unit cell. Along with the classical hydrogen bonds, the methyl group forms a weak C-H?O interactions in the crystal packing. It offers the support for molecular assembly especially in the hydrophilic regions. Further, the strength of the hydrogen bonds are studied the shifting of vibrational bands. Geometrical optimizations of the drug molecule were done by the Density Functional Theory (DFT) using the B3LYP function and Hartree-Fock (HF) level with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The optimized molecular geometry and computed vibrational spectra are compared with experimental results which show significant agreement. The factor group analysis of the molecule was carried out by the various molecular symmetry, site and factor group species using the standard correlation method. The Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis was carried out to interpret hyperconjugative interaction and intramolecular charge transfer (ICT). The chemical softness, chemical hardness, electro-negativity, chemical potential and electrophilicity index of the molecule were found out first time by HOMO-LUMO plot. The frontier orbitals shows lower band gap values signify the possible biological/pharmaceutical activity of the molecule. The thermodynamical properties are also obtained from the calculated frequencies of the optimized structures. PMID:26072380

  5. Wave packet and statistical quantum calculations for the He + NeH{sup +} ? HeH{sup +} + Ne reaction on the ground electronic state

    SciTech Connect

    Koner, Debasish; Panda, Aditya N.; Barrios, Lizandra; González-Lezana, Tomás

    2014-09-21

    A real wave packet based time-dependent method and a statistical quantum method have been used to study the He + NeH{sup +} (v, j) reaction with the reactant in various ro-vibrational states, on a recently calculated ab initio ground state potential energy surface. Both the wave packet and statistical quantum calculations were carried out within the centrifugal sudden approximation as well as using the exact Hamiltonian. Quantum reaction probabilities exhibit dense oscillatory pattern for smaller total angular momentum values, which is a signature of resonances in a complex forming mechanism for the title reaction. Significant differences, found between exact and approximate quantum reaction cross sections, highlight the importance of inclusion of Coriolis coupling in the calculations. Statistical results are in fairly good agreement with the exact quantum results, for ground ro-vibrational states of the reactant. Vibrational excitation greatly enhances the reaction cross sections, whereas rotational excitation has relatively small effect on the reaction. The nature of the reaction cross section curves is dependent on the initial vibrational state of the reactant and is typical of a late barrier type potential energy profile.

  6. The Scales of Time, Length, Mass, Energy, and Other Fundamental Physical Quantities in the Atomic World and the Use of Atomic Units in Quantum Mechanical Calculations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Boon K.; Li, Wai-Kee

    2011-01-01

    This article is divided into two parts. In the first part, the atomic unit (au) system is introduced and the scales of time, space (length), and speed, as well as those of mass and energy, in the atomic world are discussed. In the second part, the utility of atomic units in quantum mechanical and spectroscopic calculations is illustrated with…

  7. Kinetic Analyses Combining Quantum Chemical and Quantum Statistical Methods: Some Case Studies

    E-print Network

    Nguyen, Minh Tho

    Kinetic Analyses Combining Quantum Chemical and Quantum Statistical Methods: Some Case Studies Minh In this article we present a theoretical approach to the kinetic analyses of chemical reactions by combining calculations in kinetic analysis. Introduction Many chemical processes such as the addition of radicals

  8. On the calculation of line strengths, oscillator strengths and lifetimes for very large principal quantum numbers in hydrogenic atoms and ions by the McLean-Watson formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hey, J. D.

    2014-08-01

    As a sequel to an earlier study (Hey 2009 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42 125701), we consider further the application of the line strength formula derived by Watson (2006 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39 L291) to transitions arising from states of very high principal quantum number in hydrogenic atoms and ions (Rydberg-Rydberg transitions, n > 1000). It is shown how apparent difficulties associated with the use of recurrence relations, derived (Hey 2006 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39 2641) by the ladder operator technique of Infeld and Hull (1951 Rev. Mod. Phys. 23 21), may be eliminated by a very simple numerical device, whereby this method may readily be applied up to n ? 10 000. Beyond this range, programming of the method may entail greater care and complexity. The use of the numerically efficient McLean-Watson formula for such cases is again illustrated by the determination of radiative lifetimes and comparison of present results with those from an asymptotic formula. The question of the influence on the results of the omission or inclusion of fine structure is considered by comparison with calculations based on the standard Condon-Shortley line strength formula. Interest in this work on the radial matrix elements for large n and n? is related to measurements of radio recombination lines from tenuous space plasmas, e.g. Stepkin et al (2007 Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 374 852), Bell et al (2011 Astrophys. Space Sci. 333 377), to the calculation of electron impact broadening parameters for such spectra (Watson 2006 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39 1889) and comparison with other theoretical methods (Peach 2014 Adv. Space Res. in press), to the modelling of physical processes in H II regions (Roshi et al 2012 Astrophys. J. 749 49), and the evaluation bound-bound transitions from states of high n during primordial cosmological recombination (Grin and Hirata 2010 Phys. Rev. D 81 083005, Ali-Haïmoud and Hirata 2010 Phys. Rev. D 82 063521, Ali-Haïmoud 2013 Phys. Rev. D 87 023526).

  9. Quantum-chemical calculations of the electronic structure of 2-amino-1,3-dicyano-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Józefowicz, M; Bajorek, A; Pietrzak, M; Heldt, J R

    2013-09-01

    The UV-Visible absorption spectra of six, newly synthesized donor-substituted 2-amino-1,3-dicyano-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalene have been measured in methylcyclohexane (MCH) and assigned with the help of quantum-chemical calculations. Our calculations have been performed to assess information regarding the electronic state energy values, corresponding oscillator strengths, x-, y-, z-components of the transition dipole moments and molecular orbitals involved in the main electronic transitions of the studied compounds. Additionally, the experimental absorption transition dipole moments were calculated, on the basis of spectroscopic data, and compared with results of our quantum-chemical calculations. On the basis of the experimental results and quantum-chemical calculations, it was shown that the long-wavelength absorption band involves an overlap of three electronic transitions of different character. For all studied donor-acceptor (D-A) compounds in vapour-phase, the long-wavelength transition (S0?S1) does not possess charge transfer character, whereas the S0?S2 transition possesses electron transfer character e.g., ?-electrons of the acceptor moiety are moved to the donor part. Moreover, it is found that the electronic structure of the studied biphenyl derivatives can be approximately described within composite-model of decoupled moieties: donor and acceptor. PMID:23719413

  10. Energy benchmarks for methane-water systems from quantum Monte Carlo and second-order Møller-Plesset calculations.

    PubMed

    Gillan, M J; Alfè, D; Manby, F R

    2015-09-14

    The quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) technique is used to generate accurate energy benchmarks for methane-water clusters containing a single methane monomer and up to 20 water monomers. The benchmarks for each type of cluster are computed for a set of geometries drawn from molecular dynamics simulations. The accuracy of QMC is expected to be comparable with that of coupled-cluster calculations, and this is confirmed by comparisons for the CH4-H2O dimer. The benchmarks are used to assess the accuracy of the second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) approximation close to the complete basis-set limit. A recently developed embedded many-body technique is shown to give an efficient procedure for computing basis-set converged MP2 energies for the large clusters. It is found that MP2 values for the methane binding energies and the cohesive energies of the water clusters without methane are in close agreement with the QMC benchmarks, but the agreement is aided by partial cancelation between 2-body and beyond-2-body errors of MP2. The embedding approach allows MP2 to be applied without loss of accuracy to the methane hydrate crystal, and it is shown that the resulting methane binding energy and the cohesive energy of the water lattice agree almost exactly with recently reported QMC values. PMID:26374005

  11. Energy benchmarks for methane-water systems from quantum Monte Carlo and second-order Møller-Plesset calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillan, M. J.; Alfè, D.; Manby, F. R.

    2015-09-01

    The quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) technique is used to generate accurate energy benchmarks for methane-water clusters containing a single methane monomer and up to 20 water monomers. The benchmarks for each type of cluster are computed for a set of geometries drawn from molecular dynamics simulations. The accuracy of QMC is expected to be comparable with that of coupled-cluster calculations, and this is confirmed by comparisons for the CH4-H2O dimer. The benchmarks are used to assess the accuracy of the second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) approximation close to the complete basis-set limit. A recently developed embedded many-body technique is shown to give an efficient procedure for computing basis-set converged MP2 energies for the large clusters. It is found that MP2 values for the methane binding energies and the cohesive energies of the water clusters without methane are in close agreement with the QMC benchmarks, but the agreement is aided by partial cancelation between 2-body and beyond-2-body errors of MP2. The embedding approach allows MP2 to be applied without loss of accuracy to the methane hydrate crystal, and it is shown that the resulting methane binding energy and the cohesive energy of the water lattice agree almost exactly with recently reported QMC values.

  12. Quantum Effects of Electric Fields and Potentials on Electron Motion: An Introduction to Theoretical and Practical Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matteucci, G.

    2007-01-01

    In the so-called electric Aharonov-Bohm effect, a quantum interference pattern shift is produced when electrons move in an electric field free region but, at the same time, in the presence of a time-dependent electric potential. Analogous fringe shifts are observed in interference experiments where electrons, travelling through an electrostatic…

  13. Indeterministic Quantum Gravity and Cosmology X. Probability-Theoretic Aspect: A Hidden Selector for Quantum Jumps, or How the Universe Plays the Game of Chance

    E-print Network

    Vladimir S. Mashkevich

    1998-02-10

    This paper is a sequel to the series of papers [gr-qc/9409010, gr-qc/9505034, gr-qc/9603022, gr-qc/9609035, gr-qc/9609046, gr-qc/9704033, gr-qc/9704038, gr-qc/9708014, gr-qc/9802016]. The problem of the meaning of objective a priori probability for individual random trials without repetition is considered. A sequence of such trials, namely quantum jumps, is realized in indeterministic dynamics of the universe. A hidden selector for the quantum jumps is constructed.

  14. The energetics of the isomeric 1- and 2-naphthoic acids: context, quantum chemical calculations and thermochemical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chickos, James S.; Hillesheim, Dorothea M.; Verevkin, Sergey P.; Roux, Maria Victoria; Temprado, Manuel; Segura, Marta; Notario, Rafael; Demasters, Douglas E.; Liebman, Joel F.

    2003-01-01

    The isomeric 1- and 2-naphthoic acids are at the confluence of diverse concepts, techniques and classes of organic compounds. Summing the results of literature measurements of the enthalpy of formation of their solids and of our new sublimation enthalpies (using both the transpiration (transference) and combined correlation-gas chromatography-fusion enthalpy methods) reported herein, we derive gas phase enthalpies of formation of - 222.7 ± 1.3 and - 231.1 ± 1.7 kJ mol- 1. This corresponds to 2-naphthoic acid being more stable than its 1-isomer by 8.4 kJ mol- 1. We also performed MP2(full)/6-31G(d) calculations which resulted in enthalpies of formation of -217.2 ± 1.8 and -228.8 ± 1.8 kJ mol- 1 for 1- and 2-naphthoic acid and a difference of 11.6 kJ mol- 1, respectively. We are encouraged by the agreement between the results of contemporary thermochemical and computational theoretical practice.

  15. Molecular structure and conformational analysis of 3-methyl-3-silathiane by gas phase electron diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlykov, Sergey A.; Osadchiy, Dmitriy Yu.; Chipanina, Nina N.; Oznobikhina, Larisa P.; Shainyan, Bagrat A.

    2015-11-01

    Molecular structure and conformational behavior of 3-methyl-3-silathiane 1 was studied by gas phase electron diffraction, FTIR and theoretical calculations (DFT, MP2). Two conformers, 1-ax and 1-eq, were located on the potential energy surface. GED, FTIR and Raman spectroscopic measurements in the gas phase and in heptane solution, as well as the MP2/cc-pVTZ calculations give nearly the same ratio of the conformers 1-ax:1-eq of ca. 3:2. The GED experimental geometric and vibrational parameters of 1 are well predicted by theoretical calculations at MP2/6-311G** level. The results of FTIR spectroscopy are indicative of the increase of population of 1-eq conformer on lowering the temperature or on going to a polar medium.

  16. Sampling of quantum dynamics at long time.

    PubMed

    Sergi, Alessandro; Petruccione, Francesco

    2010-03-01

    The principle of energy conservation leads to a generalized choice of transition probability in a piecewise adiabatic representation of quantum(-classical) dynamics. Significant improvement (almost an order of magnitude, depending on the parameters of the calculation) over previous schemes is achieved. Perspectives for theoretical calculations in coherent many-body systems are opened. PMID:20365793

  17. Vibrational Spectra, Theoretical Calculations, and Structures of Cyclic Silanes, 2,4,7-Trioxa(3.3.0)Octane and Botryococcenes 

    E-print Network

    Chun, Hye Jin

    2014-12-08

    The vibrational spectra and structures of several cyclic silanes and a bicyclic molecule have been investigated with high-level ab initio and density function theory (DFT) calculations. In addition, the Raman spectra of botryococcene hydrocarbons...

  18. Conformational Properties of 1-Halogenated-1-Silacyclohexanes, C5H10SiHX (X = Cl, Br, I): Gas Electron Diffraction, Low-Temperature NMR, Temperature-Dependent Raman Spectroscopy, and Quantum-Chemical Calculations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The molecular structures of axial and equatorial conformers of cyclo-C5H10SiHX (X = Cl, Br, I) as well as the thermodynamic equilibrium between these species was investigated by means of gas electron diffraction, dynamic nuclear magnetic resonance, temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy, and quantum-chemical calculations applying CCSD(T), MP2, and DFT methods. According to the experimental and calculated results, all three compounds exist as a mixture of two chair conformers of the six-membered ring. The two chair forms of Cs symmetry differ in the axial or equatorial position of the X atom. In all cases, the axial conformer is preferred over the equatorial one. When the experimental uncertainties are taken into account, all of the experimental and theoretical results for the conformational energy (Eaxial – Eequatorial) fit into a remarkably narrow range of ?0.50 ± 0.15 kcal mol–1. It was found by NBO analysis that the axial conformers are unfavorable in terms of steric energy and conjugation effects and that they are stabilized mainly by electrostatic interactions. The conformational energies for C6H11X and cyclo-C5H10SiHX (X = F, Cl, Br, I, At) were compared using CCSD(T) calculations. In both series, fluorine is predicted to have a lower conformational preference (cyclohexane equatorial, silacyclohexane axial) than Cl, Br, and I. It is predicted that astatine would behave very similarly to Cl, Br, and I within each series. PMID:24353364

  19. Conformational Properties of 1-Halogenated-1-Silacyclohexanes, C5H10SiHX (X = Cl, Br, I): Gas Electron Diffraction, Low-Temperature NMR, Temperature-Dependent Raman Spectroscopy, and Quantum-Chemical Calculations.

    PubMed

    Wallevik, Sunna Ó; Bjornsson, Ragnar; Kvaran, Agúst; Jonsdottir, Sigridur; Arnason, Ingvar; Belyakov, Alexander V; Kern, Thomas; Hassler, Karl

    2013-12-01

    The molecular structures of axial and equatorial conformers of cyclo-C5H10SiHX (X = Cl, Br, I) as well as the thermodynamic equilibrium between these species was investigated by means of gas electron diffraction, dynamic nuclear magnetic resonance, temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy, and quantum-chemical calculations applying CCSD(T), MP2, and DFT methods. According to the experimental and calculated results, all three compounds exist as a mixture of two chair conformers of the six-membered ring. The two chair forms of Cs symmetry differ in the axial or equatorial position of the X atom. In all cases, the axial conformer is preferred over the equatorial one. When the experimental uncertainties are taken into account, all of the experimental and theoretical results for the conformational energy (E axial - E equatorial) fit into a remarkably narrow range of -0.50 ± 0.15 kcal mol(-1). It was found by NBO analysis that the axial conformers are unfavorable in terms of steric energy and conjugation effects and that they are stabilized mainly by electrostatic interactions. The conformational energies for C6H11X and cyclo-C5H10SiHX (X = F, Cl, Br, I, At) were compared using CCSD(T) calculations. In both series, fluorine is predicted to have a lower conformational preference (cyclohexane equatorial, silacyclohexane axial) than Cl, Br, and I. It is predicted that astatine would behave very similarly to Cl, Br, and I within each series. PMID:24353364

  20. Theoretical study of the quantum noise in phase-sensitive heterodyne detection with a bichromatic local oscillator

    E-print Network

    Sheng Feng; Dechao He; Heng Fan

    2015-06-24

    A traditional heterodyne detector, as a phase-insensitive device, suffers the well-known 3 dB noise penalty caused by image sideband vacuum. In contrast, a heterodyne detector with a bichromatic local oscillator, as a phase-sensitive device, should be exempted from the 3 dB noise penalty, in spite of the existence of the image sideband vacuum. Assuming coherent light at the input, we develop in this work a theory to describe the quantum nature of the phase-sensitive heterodyne detector, in a good agreement with experiment. The absence of the quantum noise of the image vacuum modes in the heterodyne detector may be explained by that the studied detector senses only a single field of light, i.e., the signal field, according to the theory developed.