Comparison of quantum confinement effects between quantum wires and dots
Li, Jingbo; Wang, Lin-Wang
2004-03-30
Dimensionality is an important factor to govern the electronic structures of semiconductor nanocrystals. The quantum confinement energies in one-dimensional quantum wires and zero-dimensional quantum dots are quite different. Using large-scale first-principles calculations, we systematically study the electronic structures of semiconductor (including group IV, III-V, and II-VI) surface-passivated quantum wires and dots. The band-gap energies of quantum wires and dots have the same scaling with diameter for a given material. The ratio of band-gap-increases between quantum wires and dots is material-dependent, and slightly deviates from 0.586 predicted by effective-mass approximation. Highly linear polarization of photoluminescence in quantum wires is found. The degree of polarization decreases with the increasing temperature and size.
Unmodulated spin chains as universal quantum wires
Wojcik, Antoni; Kurzynski, Pawel; Grudka, Andrzej; Luczak, Tomasz; Gdala, Tomasz; Bednarska, Malgorzata
2005-09-15
We study a quantum state transfer between two qubits interacting with the ends of a quantum wire consisting of linearly arranged spins coupled by an excitation conserving, time-independent Hamiltonian. We show that, if we control the coupling between the source and the destination qubits and the ends of the wire, the evolution of the system can lead to an almost perfect transfer even in the case in which all nearest-neighbour couplings between the internal spins of the wire are equal.
Transport in partially equilibrated inhomogeneous quantum wires.
Levchenko, A.; Micklitz, T.; Rech, J.; Matveev, K. A.; Materials Science Division; Freie Univ. Berlin; Centre de Physique Theorique
2010-01-01
We study transport properties of weakly interacting one-dimensional electron systems including on an equal footing thermal equilibration due to three-particle collisions and the effects of large-scale inhomogeneities. We show that equilibration in an inhomogeneous quantum wire is characterized by the competition of interaction processes which reduce the electrons total momentum and such which change the number of right- and left-moving electrons. We find that the combined effect of interactions and inhomogeneities can dramatically increase the resistance of the wire. In addition, we find that the interactions strongly affect the thermoelectric properties of inhomogeneous wires and calculate their thermal conductance, thermopower, and Peltier coefficient.
Electrochemical Fabrication of Metallic Quantum Wires
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tao, Nongjian
2005-01-01
The fabrication of metallic quantum wires using simple electrochemical techniques is described. The conductance of the system can be readily measured that allows one to constantly monitor the conductance during fabrication and use conductance quantization as a signature to guide the fabrication.
Spectroscopic properties of colloidal indium phosphide quantum wires
Wang, Lin-Wang; Wang, Fudong; Yu, Heng; Li, Jingbo; Hang, Qingling; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Gibbons, Patrick C.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Janes, David B.; Buhro, William E.
2008-07-11
Colloidal InP quantum wires are grown by the solution-liquid-solid (SLS) method, and passivated with the traditional quantum dots surfactants 1-hexadecylamine and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide. The size dependence of the band gaps in the wires are determined from the absorption spectra, and compared to other experimental results for InP quantum dots and wires, and to the predictions of theory. The photoluminescence behavior of the wires is also investigated. Efforts to enhance photoluminescence efficiencies through photochemical etching in the presence of HF result only in photochemical thinning or photo-oxidation, without a significant influence on quantum-wire photoluminescence. However, photo-oxidation produces residual dot and rod domains within the wires, which are luminescent. The results establish that the quantum-wire band gaps are weakly influenced by the nature of the surface passivation, and that colloidal quantum wires have intrinsically low photoluminescence efficiencies.
In situ grown quantum-wire lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coldren, L. A.; Gossard, A. C.; English, J. H.; Mui, D.; Corzine, S. W.
1994-04-01
This program concentrated on developing techniques to better understand and fabricate quantum-confined structures. The goal was to create the enabling technology for more efficient semiconductor lasers and integrated optoelectronic circuits. Over the contract period, significant advances occurred in the development of quantum-confined lasers, UHV in-situ processing technology, and the underlying theory for quantum-confined laser structures. The quantum-confined laser work included both quantum-wire laser and vertical-cavity laser development. This latter effort also required substantial improvements in the MBE growth technology. Much of this technology is now ready for transfer to industry. In fact, a number of joint projects with industry are underway, as a result of this program.
Negative excess noise in gated quantum wires
Dolcini, F.; Trauzettel, B.; Safi, I.; Grabert, H.
2009-04-23
The electrical current noise of a quantum wire is expected to increase with increasing applied voltage. We show that this intuition can be wrong. Specifically, we consider a single channel quantum wire with impurities and with a capacitive coupling to a metallic gate, and find that its excess noise, defined as the change in the noise caused by the finite voltage, can be negative at zero temperature. This feature is present both for large (c>>c{sub q}) and small (c<
Discrete versus continuous wires on quantum networks.
Aharony, Amnon; Entin-Wohlman, Ora
2009-03-26
Mesoscopic systems and large molecules are often modeled by graphs of one-dimensional wires connected at vertices. In this paper, we discuss the solutions of the Schrödinger equation on such graphs, which have been named "quantum networks". Such solutions are needed for finding the energy spectrum of single electrons on such finite systems or for finding the transmission of electrons between leads which connect such systems to reservoirs. Specifically, we compare two common approaches. In the "continuum" approach, one solves the one-dimensional Schrödinger equation on each continuous wire and then uses the Neumann-Kirchoff-de Gennes matching conditions at the vertices. Alternatively, one replaces each wire by a finite number of "atoms" and then uses the tight binding model for the solution. Here, we show that these approaches cannot generally give the same results, except for special energies, unless the lattice constant of the tight binding model tends to zero. Even in the limit of the vanishing lattice constant, the two approaches coincide only if the tight binding parameters obey very special relations. The different consequences of the two approaches are then demonstrated via the example of a T-shaped scatterer. PMID:19673064
Comparing conductance quantization in quantum wires and quantum Hall systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alekseev, Anton Yu.; Cheianov, Vadim V.; Fröhlich, Jürg
1996-12-01
We suggest a means to calculate the dc conductance of a one-dimensional electron system described by the Luttinger model. Our approach is based on the ideas of Landauer and Büttiker on transport in ballistic channels and on the methods of current algebra. We analyze in detail the way in which the system can be coupled to external reservoirs. This determines whether the conductance is renormalized or not. We provide a parallel treatment of a quantum wire and a fractional quantum Hall system on a cylinder with two widely separated edges. Although both systems are described by the same effective theory, the physical electrons are identified with different types of excitations, and hence the coupling to external reservoirs is different. As a consequence, the conductance in the wire is quantized in integer units of e2/h per spin orientation whereas the Hall conductance allows for fractional quantization.
Quantum stability and magic lengths of metal atom wires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Ping; Choi, Jin-Ho; Lan, Haiping; Cho, Jun-Hyung; Niu, Qian; Yang, Jinlong; Zhang, Zhenyu
2016-06-01
Metal atom wires represent an important class of nanomaterials in the development of future electronic devices and other functional applications. Using first-principles calculations within density functional theory, we carry out a systematic study of the quantum stability of freestanding atom wires consisting of prototypical metal elements with s -, s p -, and s d -valence electrons. We explore how the quantum mechanically confined motion and local bonding of the valence electrons in these different wire systems can dictate their overall structural stability and find that the formation energy of essentially all the wires oscillates with respect to their length measured by the number n of atoms contained in the wires, establishing the existence of highly preferred (or magic) lengths. Furthermore, different wire classes exhibit distinctively different oscillatory characteristics and quantum stabilities. Alkali metal wires possessing an unpaired s valence electron per atom exhibit simple damped even-odd oscillations. In contrast, Al and Ga wires containing three s2p1 valence electrons per atom generally display much larger and undamped even-odd energy oscillations due to stronger local bonding of the p orbitals. Among the noble metals, the s -dominant Ag wires behave similarly to the linear alkali metal wires, while Au and Pt wires distinctly prefer to be structurally zigzagged due to strong relativistic effects. These findings are discussed in connection with existing experiments and should also be instrumental in future experimental realization of different metal atom wires in freestanding or supported environments with desirable functionalities.
Universal entanglement crossover of coupled quantum wires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasseur, Romain; Jacobsen, Jesper; Saleur, Hubert
2014-03-01
We consider the entanglement between two one-dimensional quantum wires (Luttinger Liquids) coupled by tunneling through a quantum impurity. The physics of the system involves a crossover between weak and strong coupling regimes characterized by an energy scale TB, and methods of conformal field theory therefore cannot be applied. The evolution of the entanglement in this crossover has led to many numerical studies, but has remained little understood, analytically or even qualitatively. This is, in part, due to the fact that the entanglement in this case is non-perturbative in the tunneling amplitude. We argue that the correct universal scaling form of the entanglement entropy S (for an arbitrary interval containing the impurity) is ∂S / ∂lnL = f(LTB) . In the special case where the coupling to the impurity can be refermionized, we show how the universal function f(LTB) can be obtained analytically using recent results on form factors of twist fields and a defect massless-scattering formalism. Our results are carefully checked against numerical simulations. This work was supported by the the French ANR (ANR Projet 2010 Blanc SIMI 4 : DIME), the US DOE (grant number DE-FG03-01ER45908), the Quantum Materials program of LBNL (RV) and the Institut Universitaire de France (JLJ).
Nonequilibrium functional bosonization of quantum wire networks
Ngo Dinh, Stephane; Bagrets, Dmitry A.; Mirlin, Alexander D.
2012-11-15
We develop a general approach to nonequilibrium nanostructures formed by one-dimensional channels coupled by tunnel junctions and/or by impurity scattering. The formalism is based on nonequilibrium version of functional bosonization. A central role in this approach is played by the Keldysh action that has a form reminiscent of the theory of full counting statistics. To proceed with evaluation of physical observables, we assume the weak-tunneling regime and develop a real-time instanton method. A detailed exposition of the formalism is supplemented by two important applications: (i) tunneling into a biased Luttinger liquid with an impurity, and (ii) quantum Hall Fabry-Perot interferometry. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A nonequilibrium functional bosonization framework for quantum wire networks is developed Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For the study of observables in the weak tunneling regime a real-time instanton method is elaborated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We consider tunneling into a biased Luttinger liquid with an impurity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyze electronic Fabry-Perot interferometers in the integer quantum Hall regime.
Electronic Conduction through Atomic Chains, Quantum Well and Quantum Wire
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, A. C.
2011-07-01
Charge transport is dynamically and strongly linked with atomic structure, in nanostructures. We report our ab-initio calculations on electronic transport through atomic chains and the model calculations on electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering rates in presence of random impurity potential in a quantum well and in a quantum wire. We computed synthesis and ballistic transport through; (a) C and Si based atomic chains attached to metallic electrodes, (b) armchair (AC), zigzag (ZZ), mixed, rotated-AC and rotated-ZZ geometries of small molecules made of 2S, 6C & 4H atoms attaching to metallic electrodes, and (c) carbon atomic chain attached to graphene electrodes. Computed results show that synthesis of various atomic chains are practically possible and their transmission coefficients are nonzero for a wide energy range. The ab-initio calculations on electronic transport have been performed with the use of Landauer-type scattering formalism formulated in terms of Grben's functions in combination with ground-state DFT. The electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering rates have been calculated as function of excitation energy both at zero and finite temperatures for disordered 2D and 1D systems. Our model calculations suggest that electron scattering rates in a disordered system are mainly governed by effective dimensionality of a system, carrier concentration and dynamical screening effects.
Interaction-induced backscattering in short quantum wires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rieder, M.-T.; Micklitz, T.; Levchenko, A.; Matveev, K. A.
2014-10-01
We study interaction-induced backscattering in clean quantum wires with adiabatic contacts exposed to a voltage bias. Particle backscattering relaxes such systems to a fully equilibrated steady state only on length scales exponentially large in the ratio of bandwidth of excitations and temperature. Here we focus on shorter wires in which full equilibration is not accomplished. Signatures of relaxation then are due to backscattering of hole excitations close to the band bottom which perform a diffusive motion in momentum space while scattering from excitations at the Fermi level. This is reminiscent to the first passage problem of a Brownian particle and, regardless of the interaction strength, can be described by an inhomogeneous Fokker-Planck equation. From general solutions of the latter we calculate the hole backscattering rate for different wire lengths and discuss the resulting length dependence of interaction-induced correction to the conductance of a clean single channel quantum wire.
IR photodetector based on rectangular quantum wire in magnetic field
Jha, Nandan
2014-04-24
In this paper we study rectangular quantum wire based IR detector with magnetic field applied along the wires. The energy spectrum of a particle in rectangular box shows level repulsions and crossings when external magnetic field is applied. Due to this complex level dynamics, we can tune the spacing between any two levels by varying the magnetic field. This method allows user to change the detector parameters according to his/her requirements. In this paper, we numerically calculate the energy sub-band levels of the square quantum wire in constant magnetic field along the wire and quantify the possible operating wavelength range that can be obtained by varying the magnetic field. We also calculate the photon absorption probability at different magnetic fields and give the efficiency for different wavelengths if the transition is assumed between two lowest levels.
Time-Domain Simulation of Three Dimensional Quantum Wires
Mossman, Sean; Kuzyk, Mark G.
2016-01-01
A method is presented to calculate the eigenenergies and eigenfunctions of quantum wires. This is a true three-dimensional method based on a direct implementation of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. It makes no approximations to the Schrödinger equation other than the finite-difference approximation of the space and time derivatives. The accuracy of our method is tested by comparing it to analytical results in a cylindrical wire. PMID:27124603
Time-Domain Simulation of Three Dimensional Quantum Wires.
Sullivan, Dennis M; Mossman, Sean; Kuzyk, Mark G
2016-01-01
A method is presented to calculate the eigenenergies and eigenfunctions of quantum wires. This is a true three-dimensional method based on a direct implementation of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. It makes no approximations to the Schrödinger equation other than the finite-difference approximation of the space and time derivatives. The accuracy of our method is tested by comparing it to analytical results in a cylindrical wire. PMID:27124603
Multisublevel Magnetoquantum Conductance in Single and Coupled Double Quantum Wires
Lyo, Sungkwun Ken; Huang, Danhong
2001-09-15
We study the ballistic and diffusive magnetoquantum transport using a typical quantum point contact geometry for single and tunnel-coupled double wires that are wide (less than or similar to1 mum) in one perpendicular direction with densely populated sublevels and extremely confined in the other perpendicular (i.e., growth) direction. A general analytic solution to the Boltzmann equation is presented for multisublevel elastic scattering at low temperatures. The solution is employed to study interesting magnetic-field dependent behavior of the conductance such as a large enhancement and quantum oscillations of the conductance for various structures and field orientations. These phenomena originate from the following field-induced properties: magnetic confinement, displacement of the initial- and final-state wave functions for scattering, variation of the Fermi velocities, mass enhancement, depopulation of the sublevels and anticrossing (in double quantum wires). The magnetoconductance is strikingly different in long diffusive (or rough. dirty) wires from the quantized conductance in short ballistic (or clean) wires. Numerical results obtained for the rectangular confinement potentials in the growth direction are satisfactorily interpreted in terms of the analytic solutions based on harmonic confinement potentials. Some of the predicted features of the field-dependent diffusive and quantized conductances are consistent with recent data from GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs double quantum wires.
Conductivity of quantum wires in uniform magnetic fields
Sinyavskii, E. P. Khamidullin, R. A.
2006-11-15
The features of the de conductivity of quantum wires in longitudinal and transverse magnetic fields are studied for degenerate and nondegenerate electron gas. The conductivity is calculated on the basis of the Kubo formalism with regard to the elastic scattering of charge carriers at long-wavelength lattice vibrations. The final theoretical results for the conductivity are compared to the experimental data. The suggested model of quantum wires allows, among other things, an interpretation of the nonmonotonic dependence of the transverse magnetoresistance on the magnetic field.
The Quantum Socket: Wiring for Superconducting Qubits - Part 1
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McConkey, T. G.; Bejanin, J. H.; Rinehart, J. R.; Bateman, J. D.; Earnest, C. T.; McRae, C. H.; Rohanizadegan, Y.; Shiri, D.; Mariantoni, M.; Penava, B.; Breul, P.; Royak, S.; Zapatka, M.; Fowler, A. G.
Quantum systems with ten superconducting quantum bits (qubits) have been realized, making it possible to show basic quantum error correction (QEC) algorithms. However, a truly scalable architecture has not been developed yet. QEC requires a two-dimensional array of qubits, restricting any interconnection to external classical systems to the third axis. In this talk, we introduce an interconnect solution for solid-state qubits: The quantum socket. The quantum socket employs three-dimensional wires and makes it possible to connect classical electronics with quantum circuits more densely and accurately than methods based on wire bonding. The three-dimensional wires are based on spring-loaded pins engineered to insure compatibility with quantum computing applications. Extensive design work and machining was required, with focus on material quality to prevent magnetic impurities. Microwave simulations were undertaken to optimize the design, focusing on the interface between the micro-connector and an on-chip coplanar waveguide pad. Simulations revealed good performance from DC to 10 GHz and were later confirmed against experimental measurements.
Lattice thermal conductance of quantum wires with disorder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vyhmeister, Erik; Hershfield, Selman
We model the lattice thermal conductance in long quantum wires connected to two large heat baths at different temperatures in the harmonic approximation. The thermal conductance is computed with the Landauer formula for phonons, where it is related to the sum over all transmission probabilities for phonons through the wire. The net transmission probability is computed using a recursive Green function technique, which allows one to study long wires efficiently. We consider several different kinds of disorder to reduce the lattice thermal conductivity: periodic rectangular holes of varying sizes and shapes, periodic triangular holes, and narrow bands, averaged over randomness to account for variance in manufacturing. Depending on the model, the thermal conductance was reduced by 80 percent or more from the perfectly ordered wire case. Funded by NSF grant DMR-1461019.
Thermal Conductivity of Quantum Wires with Surface Roughness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hershfield, Selman; Muttalib, Khandker
Quantum wires have been shown to have greatly reduced thermal conductivity compared to bulk systems because of the increased role of surface scattering. The lattice thermal conductance and conductivity is calculated in the harmonic approximation for a long quantum wire placed between two heat baths using the Landauer formula for phonons and a recursive Green function technique to compute the transmission probabilities. The width of the wires is varied in the transverse direction so as to have a root mean square value σ and correlation length L. As observed experimentally, we find that the thermal conductance is decreased with increasing σ and increased as L increases. The full scaling of the thermal conductance as a function of σ, L, the width and the length of the sample is discussed. The simulations are also compared to approximate techniques such as modeling the surfaces as having diffusive scattering.
Ballistic transport through coupled T-shaped quantum wires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Yuh-Kae; Lin, Kao-Chin; Chuu, Der-San
2004-05-01
The ballistic conductance of a coupled T-shaped semiconductor quantum wire (CTQW) is studied. Two types of CTQW are considered, one of which is a Π-shaped quantum wire ( ΠQW) which consists of two vertical arms on the same side of the horizontal arm and the other a Π-clone quantum wire ( ΠCQW) which consists of two vertical armes on the opposite sides of the horizontal arm. The mode matching method and Landauer-Buttiker theory are employed to study the energy dependence of the ballistic conductance. Most of transmission profiles of ΠQW and ΠCQW are found to be distinguishable for large separation d between the two vertical arms. The transmission probability manifests oscillatory behavior when d is increased. When a potential is applied to the connection region, it results in decoupling or coupling effects between the two T-shaped quantum wires according to whether it is positive or negative. When magnetic field is applied to CTQW, the transmission profiles are found to be affected prominently even if the electron passes through the field free region only.
Superradiance in a two-channel quantum wire
Tayebi, A.; Zelevinsky, V.
2014-10-15
A one-dimensional, two-channel quantum wire is studied in the effective non-Hermitian Hamiltonian framework. Analytical expressions are derived for the band structure of the isolated wire. Quantum states and transport properties of the wire coupled to two ideal leads at the edges are studied in detail. The width distribution of the quasistationary states varies as a function of the coupling strength to the environment. At weak coupling, all the eigenenergies uniformly acquire small widths. The picture changes entirely at strong coupling, a certain number of states (“super-radiant”) are greatly broadened, while the rest remain long-lived states, a pure quantum mechanical effect as a consequence of quantum interference. The transition between the two regimes greatly influences the transport properties of the system. The maximum transmission through the wire occurs at the super-radiance transition. We consider also a realistic situation with energy-dependent coupling to the continuum due to the existence of decay threshold where super-radiance still plays a significant role in transport properties of the system.
Quantum wire hybridized with a single-level impurity.
Lerner, Igor V; Yudson, Vladimir I; Yurkevich, Igor V
2008-06-27
We have studied low-temperature properties of interacting electrons in a one-dimensional quantum wire (Luttinger liquid) side-hybridized with a single-level impurity. The hybridization induces a backscattering of electrons in the wire which strongly affects its low-energy properties. Using a one-loop renormalization group approach valid for a weak electron-electron interaction, we have calculated a transmission coefficient through the wire, T(epsilon), and a local density of states, nu(epsilon) at low energies epsilon. In particular, we have found that the antiresonance in T(epsilon) has a generalized Breit-Wigner shape with the effective width Gamma(epsilon) which diverges at the Fermi level. PMID:18643692
Dissipation in a Quantum Wire: Fact and Fantasy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Mukunda P.; Green, Frederick
2008-10-01
Where, and how, does energy dissipation of electrical energy take place in a ballistic wire? Fully two decades after the advent of the transmissive phenomenology of electrical conductance, this deceptively simple query remains unanswered. We revisit the quantum kinetic basis of dissipation and show its power to give a definitive answer to our query. Dissipation leaves a clear, quantitative trace in the non-equilibrium current noise of a quantum point contact; this signature has already been observed in the laboratory. We then highlight the current state of accepted understandings in the light of well-known yet seemingly contradictory measurements. The physics of mesoscopic transport rests not in coherent carrier transmission through a perfect and dissipationless metallic channel, but explicitly in their dissipative inelastic scattering at the wire's interfaces and adjacent macroscopic leads.
A Model of Resonance Scattering on Curved Quantum Wires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Exner, Pavel
A model of electron motion in a curved quantum wire of a finite length 2D attached to a pair of macroscopic electrodes is studied. Regarding the problem as a two-dimensional one, we model the electrodes as halfplanes and the quantum wire as a line segment joining them; it supports a potential which is a combination of a constant transversal-mode energy and an attractive curvature-induced term. We show that the bound states which may be present at an infinite quantum wire turn into resonances and that spectral concentration is valid as D .Translated AbstractEin Modell der Resonanzstreuung auf gekrümmten, dünnen DrähtenDas Modell einer Elektronenbewegung in einem gekrümmten, ultradünnen Draht der Länge 2D, der zwei makroskopische Elektroden verbindet, wird untersucht. Das Modell als zweidimensional betrachtend, nehmen wir die Elektroden als Halbebenen und den Draht als verbindendes Liniensegment. Das Potential ist eine Kombination aus konstanter Transversalmoden-energie und einem anziehenden, von der Krümmung hervorgerufenen Term. Wir zeigen, daß der gebundene Zustand, der im unendlich langen Draht auftreten kann, in Resonanzen übergeht, und die Spektraldichte für D gilt.
Quasiclassical theory of disordered multi-channel Majorana quantum wires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neven, Patrick; Bagrets, Dmitry; Altland, Alexander
2013-05-01
Multi-channel spin-orbit quantum wires, when subjected to a magnetic field and proximity coupled to an s-wave superconductor, may support Majorana states. We study what happens to these systems in the presence of disorder. Inspired by the widely established theoretical methods of mesoscopic superconductivity, we develop á la Eilenberger a quasiclassical approach to topological nanowires valid in the limit of strong spin-orbit coupling. We find that the ‘Majorana number’ {\\cal M} , distinguishing between the state with Majorana fermions (symmetry class B) and no Majorana fermions (class D), is given by the product of two Pfaffians of gapped quasiclassical Green's functions fixed by the right and left terminals connected to the wire. A numerical solution of the Eilenberger equations reveals that the class D disordered quantum wires are prone to the formation of the zero-energy anomaly (class D impurity spectral peak) in the local density of states that shares the key features of the Majorana peak. In this way, we confirm the robustness of our previous conclusions (Bagrets and Altland 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 109 227005) on a more restrictive system setup. Generally speaking, we find that the quasiclassical approach provides a highly efficient means to address disordered class D superconductors both in the presence and in the absence of topological structures.
Localized end states in density modulated quantum wires and rings.
Gangadharaiah, Suhas; Trifunovic, Luka; Loss, Daniel
2012-03-30
We study finite quantum wires and rings in the presence of a charge-density wave gap induced by a periodic modulation of the chemical potential. We show that the Tamm-Shockley bound states emerging at the ends of the wire are stable against weak disorder and interactions, for discrete open chains and for continuum systems. The low-energy physics can be mapped onto the Jackiw-Rebbi equations describing massive Dirac fermions and bound end states. We treat interactions via the continuum model and show that they increase the charge gap and further localize the end states. The electrons placed in the two localized states on the opposite ends of the wire can interact via exchange interactions and this setup can be used as a double quantum dot hosting spin qubits. The existence of these states could be experimentally detected through the presence of an unusual 4π Aharonov-Bohm periodicity in the spectrum and persistent current as a function of the external flux. PMID:22540720
Individual single-wall carbon nanotubes as quantum wires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tans, Sander J.; Devoret, Michel H.; Dai, Hongjie; Thess, Andreas; Smalley, Richard E.; Geerligs, L. J.; Dekker, Cees
1997-04-01
Carbon nanotubes have been regarded since their discovery1 as potential molecular quantum wires. In the case of multi-wall nanotubes, where many tubes are arranged in a coaxial fashion, the electrical properties of individual tubes have been shown to vary strongly from tube to tube2,3, and to be characterized by disorder and localization4. Single-wall nanotubes5,6 (SWNTs) have recently been obtained with high yields and structural uniformity7. Particular varieties of these highly symmetric structures have been predicted to be metallic, with electrical conduction occurring through only two electronic modes8-10. Because of the structural symmetry and stiffness of SWNTs, their molecular wavefunctions may extend over the entire tube. Here we report electrical transport measurements on individual single-wall nanotubes that confirm these theoretical predictions. We find that SWNTs indeed act as genuine quantum wires. Electrical conduction seems to occur through well separated, discrete electron states that are quantum-mechanically coherent over long distance, that is at least from contact to contact (140nm). Data in a magnetic field indicate shifting of these states due to the Zeeman effect.
Polariton dispersion of a quantum wire superlattice system
Wilson, K. S. Joseph; Revathy, V.; Amalanathan, M.; Lenin, S. Maria
2015-06-24
Superlattices have drawn considerable attention in the recent years. In this work, the behaviour of polaritons in a quantum wire superlattice is analysed both at the brillouin zone edge and at centre of the brillouin zone using LiNbO3/ LiTaO3 as an example. The significance of the polariton modes in both the cases are analysed. New modes on the polaritonic gap, where the propagation of electromagnetic wave is forbidden, is obtained in the system as suggested by some recent literature. The effect on nonlinear interactions of phonon polaritons in LiNbO3/ LiTaO3 superlattices is also discussed.
Constraints on conductances for Y-junctions of quantum wires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aristov, D. N.
2011-03-01
We consider the Y-junction, connecting three quantum wires, in the scattering states formalism. In the absence of fermionic interaction we analyze the restrictions on the values of conductance matrix, imposed by the unitarity of scattering S matrix. Using the combination of numerical and analytical results, we describe the four-dimensional body of values of reduced conductance matrix. We show that this body touches the unit sphere at six points only, in accordance with Birkhoff-von Neumann theorem. It implies that the Abelian bosonization analysis for the vanishing interaction strength can be performed only in the vicinity of these six points.
Polariton dispersion of a quantum wire superlattice system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson, K. S. Joseph; Amalanathan, M.; Revathy, V.; Lenin, S. Maria
2015-06-01
Superlattices have drawn considerable attention in the recent years. In this work, the behaviour of polaritons in a quantum wire superlattice is analysed both at the brillouin zone edge and at centre of the brillouin zone using LiNbO3/ LiTaO3 as an example. The significance of the polariton modes in both the cases are analysed. New modes on the polaritonic gap, where the propagation of electromagnetic wave is forbidden, is obtained in the system as suggested by some recent literature. The effect on nonlinear interactions of phonon polaritons in LiNbO3/ LiTaO3 superlattices is also discussed.
The Quantum Socket: Wiring for Superconducting Qubits - Part 3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mariantoni, M.; Bejianin, J. H.; McConkey, T. G.; Rinehart, J. R.; Bateman, J. D.; Earnest, C. T.; McRae, C. H.; Rohanizadegan, Y.; Shiri, D.; Penava, B.; Breul, P.; Royak, S.; Zapatka, M.; Fowler, A. G.
The implementation of a quantum computer requires quantum error correction codes, which allow to correct errors occurring on physical quantum bits (qubits). Ensemble of physical qubits will be grouped to form a logical qubit with a lower error rate. Reaching low error rates will necessitate a large number of physical qubits. Thus, a scalable qubit architecture must be developed. Superconducting qubits have been used to realize error correction. However, a truly scalable qubit architecture has yet to be demonstrated. A critical step towards scalability is the realization of a wiring method that allows to address qubits densely and accurately. A quantum socket that serves this purpose has been designed and tested at microwave frequencies. In this talk, we show results where the socket is used at millikelvin temperatures to measure an on-chip superconducting resonator. The control electronics is another fundamental element for scalability. We will present a proposal based on the quantum socket to interconnect a classical control hardware to a superconducting qubit hardware, where both are operated at millikelvin temperatures.
Quantum Monte Carlo Studies of Interaction-Induced Localization in Quantum Dots and Wires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Devrim Güçlü, A.
2009-03-01
We investigate interaction-induced localization of electrons in both quantum dots and inhomogeneous quantum wires using variational and diffusion quantum Monte Carlo methods. Quantum dots and wires are highly tunable systems that enable the study of the physics of strongly correlated electrons. With decreasing electronic density, interactions become stronger and electrons are expected to localize at their classical positions, as in Wigner crystallization in an infinite 2D system. (1) Dots: We show that the addition energy shows a clear progression from features associated with shell structure to those caused by commensurability of a Wigner crystal. This cross-over is, then, a signature of localization; it occurs near rs˜20. For higher values of rs, the configuration symmetry of the quantum dot becomes fully consistent with the classical ground state. (2) Wires: We study an inhomogeneous quasi-one-dimensional system -- a wire with two regions, one at low density and the other high. We find that strong localization occurs in the low density quantum point contact region as the gate potential is increased. The nature of the transition from high to low density depends on the density gradient -- if it is steep, a barrier develops between the two regions, causing Coulomb blockade effects. We find no evidence for ferromagnetic spin polarization for the range of parameters studied. The picture emerging here is in good agreement with the experimental measurements of tunneling between two wires. Collaborators: C. J. Umrigar (Cornell), Hong Jiang (Fritz Haber Institut), Amit Ghosal (IISER Calcutta), and H. U. Baranger (Duke).
Practicality of spin chain wiring in diamond quantum technologies.
Ping, Yuting; Lovett, Brendon W; Benjamin, Simon C; Gauger, Erik M
2013-03-01
Coupled spin chains are promising candidates for wiring up qubits in solid-state quantum computing (QC). In particular, two nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond can be connected by a chain of implanted nitrogen impurities; when driven by suitable global fields the chain can potentially enable quantum state transfer at room temperature. However, our detailed analysis of error effects suggests that foreseeable systems may fall far short of the fidelities required for QC. Fortunately the chain can function in the more modest role as a mediator of noisy entanglement, enabling QC provided that we use subsequent purification. For instance, a chain of 5 spins with interspin distances of 10 nm has finite entangling power as long as the T(2) time of the spins exceeds 0.55 ms. Moreover we show that repurposing the chain this way can remove the restriction to nearest-neighbor interactions, so eliminating the need for complicated dynamical decoupling sequences. PMID:23521240
Electron transport in coupled double quantum wells and wires
Harff, N.E.; Simmons, J.A.; Lyo, S.K.
1997-04-01
Due to inter-quantum well tunneling, coupled double quantum wells (DQWs) contain an extra degree of electronic freedom in the growth direction, giving rise to new transport phenomena not found in single electron layers. This report describes work done on coupled DQWs subject to inplane magnetic fields B{sub {parallel}}, and is based on the lead author`s doctoral thesis, successfully defended at Oregon State University on March 4, 1997. First, the conductance of closely coupled DQWs in B{sub {parallel}} is studied. B{sub {parallel}}-induced distortions in the dispersion, the density of states, and the Fermi surface are described both theoretically and experimentally, with particular attention paid to the dispersion anticrossing and resulting partial energy gap. Measurements of giant distortions in the effective mass are found to agree with theoretical calculations. Second, the Landau level spectra of coupled DQWs in tilted magnetic fields is studied. The magnetoresistance oscillations show complex beating as Landau levels from the two Fermi surface components cross the Fermi level. A third set of oscillations resulting from magnetic breakdown is observed. A semiclassical calculation of the Landau level spectra is then performed, and shown to agree exceptionally well with the data. Finally, quantum wires and quantum point contacts formed in DQW structures are investigated. Anticrossings of the one-dimensional DQW dispersion curves are predicted to have interesting transport effects in these devices. Difficulties in sample fabrication have to date prevented experimental verification. However, recently developed techniques to overcome these difficulties are described.
Quantum conductance of silicon-doped carbon wire nanojunctions
2012-01-01
Unknown quantum electronic conductance across nanojunctions made of silicon-doped carbon wires between carbon leads is investigated. This is done by an appropriate generalization of the phase field matching theory for the multi-scattering processes of electronic excitations at the nanojunction and the use of the tight-binding method. Our calculations of the electronic band structures for carbon, silicon, and diatomic silicon carbide are matched with the available corresponding density functional theory results to optimize the required tight-binding parameters. Silicon and carbon atoms are treated on the same footing by characterizing each with their corresponding orbitals. Several types of nanojunctions are analyzed to sample their behavior under different atomic configurations. We calculate for each nanojunction the individual contributions to the quantum conductance for the propagating σ, Π, and σ∗electron incidents from the carbon leads. The calculated results show a number of remarkable features, which include the influence of the ordered periodic configurations of silicon-carbon pairs and the suppression of quantum conductance due to minimum substitutional disorder and artificially organized symmetry on these nanojunctions. Our results also demonstrate that the phase field matching theory is an efficient tool to treat the quantum conductance of complex molecular nanojunctions. PMID:23130998
Electronic Transport in Quantum Wires with Magnetic Quantum Dots in Series
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Souma, S.; Lee, S. J.; Kim, N.; Kang, T. W.; Ihm, G.; Suzuki, A.
2002-03-01
Recent advances in nanofabrication allow microstructured magnetic potentials to be applied to ballistic electrons in high mobility two-dimensional electron gases (2DEG). Electronic transport in quantum wires with single magnetic quantum dot was studied by some of present authors [1], where the magnetic quantum dot is defined by two different magnetic fields B and B0 inside and outside the circular region, respectively. It was shown that the conductance properties depend strongly on whether B^* is parallel or antiparallel to B_0. In this work, we investigate the conductance of quantum wires with magnetic quantum dots in series. The each magnetic quantum dot is defined in the same way as the single dot case. Conductance is calculated numerically by applying the recursive Green's function method based on the lattice Hamiltonian. Our numerical results show the conductance modulation due to the presence of new types of quasi-bound states formed around multiple magnetic quantum dots. [1]H.-S. Sim, G. Ihm, N. Kim, and K. J. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett 87, 146601 (2001)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Micklitz, T.; Levchenko, A.; Rosch, A.
2012-07-01
We calculate the linear and nonlinear conductance of spinless fermions in clean, long quantum wires, where short-ranged interactions lead locally to equilibration. Close to the quantum phase transition, where the conductance jumps from zero to one conductance quantum, the conductance obtains a universal form governed by the ratios of temperature, bias voltage, and gate voltage. Asymptotic analytic results are compared to solutions of a Boltzmann equation which includes the effects of three-particle scattering. Surprisingly, we find that for long wires the voltage predominantly drops close to one end of the quantum wire due to a thermoelectric effect.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Xiao-Fang; Wang, Xin-Jun; Chen, Li-Qun; Li, Jian-Bo; Zhou, Wu-Xing; Zhang, Gui; Chen, Ke-Qiu
2014-06-01
We study the ballistic phonon transport and thermal conductance of six low-lying vibration modes in quantum wire modulated with quantum dot at low temperatures. A comparative analysis is made among the six vibrational modes. The results show that the transmission rates of the six vibrational modes relative to reduced frequency display periodic or quasi-periodic oscillatory behavior. Among the four acoustic modes, the thermal conductance contributed by the torsional mode is the smallest, and the thermal conductances of other acoustic modes have adjacent values. It is also found that the thermal conductance of the optical mode increases from zero monotonously. Moreover, the total thermal conductance in concavity-shaped quantum structure is lower than that in convexity-shaped quantum structure. These thermal conductance values can be adjusted by changing the structural parameters of the quantum dot.
Comparison studies of infrared photodetectors with a quantum-dot and a quantum-wire base
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El Tokhy, M. S.; Mahmoud, I. I.; Konber, H. A.
2011-12-01
This paper mainly presents a theoretical analysis for the characteristics of quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) and quantum wire infrared photodetectors (QRIPs). The paper introduces a unique mathematical model of solving Poisson's equations with the usage of Lambert W functions for infrared detectors' structures based on quantum effects. Even though QRIPs and QDIPs have been the subject of extensive researches and development during the past decade, it is still essential to implement theoretical models allowing to estimate the ultimate performance of those detectors such as photocurrent and its figure-of-merit detectivity vs. various parameter conditions such as applied voltage, number of quantum wire layers, quantum dot layers, lateral characteristic size, doping density, operation temperature, and structural parameters of the quantum dots (QDs), and quantum wires (QRs). A comparison is made between the computed results of the implemented models and fine agreements are observed. It is concluded from the obtained results that the total detectivity of QDIPs can be significantly lower than that in the QRIPs and main features of the QRIPs such as large gap between the induced photocurrent and dark current of QRIP which allows for overcoming the problems in the QDIPs. This confirms what is evaluated before in the literature. It is evident that by increasing the QD/QR absorption volume in QDIPs/QRIPs as well as by separating the dark current and photocurrents, the specific detectivity can be improved and consequently the devices can operate at higher temperatures. It is an interesting result and it may be benefit to the development of QDIP and QRIP for infrared sensing applications.
Negative tunneling magneto-resistance in quantum wires with strong spin-orbit coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Seungju; Serra, Llorenç; Choi, Mahn-Soo
2015-06-01
We consider a two-dimensional magnetic tunnel junction of the FM/I/QW(FM+SO)/I/N structure, where FM, I and QW(FM+SO) stand for a ferromagnet, an insulator and a quantum wire with both magnetic ordering and Rashba spin-orbit (SOC), respectively. The tunneling magneto-resistance (TMR) exhibits strong anisotropy and switches sign as the polarization direction varies relative to the quantum-wire axis, due to interplay among the one-dimensionality, the magnetic ordering, and the strong SOC of the quantum wire.
Study of energy eigenvalues and density of states of carriers in a triangular quantum wire
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deyasi, Arpan; Bhattacharyya, S.; Das, N. R.
2012-10-01
Energy eigenvalues and density of states of carriers in a finite barrier triangular quantum wire embedded inside a rectangular quantum wire are numerically investigated using finite difference technique (FD-Q). Time-independent Schrödinger's equation is solved with appropriate boundary conditions for computation of lowest three eigenstates. The wire is made of lower bandgap GaAs material surrounded by wider bandgap AlxGa1-xAs, and the analysis is carried out by taking into consideration of the conduction band discontinuity and effective mass mismatch at the boundaries. The eigenvalues and the density of states are plotted as function of wire dimension and mole fraction (x). The results are also compared with those obtained using rectangular quantum wire.
Externally controlled local magnetic field in a conducting mesoscopic ring coupled to a quantum wire
Maiti, Santanu K.
2015-01-14
In the present work, the possibility of regulating local magnetic field in a quantum ring is investigated theoretically. The ring is coupled to a quantum wire and subjected to an in-plane electric field. Under a finite bias voltage across the wire a net circulating current is established in the ring which produces a strong magnetic field at its centre. This magnetic field can be tuned externally in a wide range by regulating the in-plane electric field, and thus, our present system can be utilized to control magnetic field at a specific region. The feasibility of this quantum system in designing spin-based quantum devices is also analyzed.
Quantum size effects in competing charge and spin orderings of dangling bond wires on Si(001)
Lee, Ji Young; Cho, Jun-Hyung; Zhang, Zhenyu
2009-01-01
Using spin-polarized density-functional theory calculations, we investigate the competition between charge and spin orderings in dangling-bond DB wires of increasing lengths fabricated on an H-terminated Si 001 surface. For wires containing less than ten DBs as studied in recent experiments, we find antiferromagnetic AF ordering to be energetically much more favorable than charge ordering. The energy preference of AF ordering shrinks in an oscillatory way as the wire length increases and preserves its sign even for DB wires of infinite length. The oscillatory behavior can be attributed to quantum size effects as the DB electrons fill discrete quantum levels. The predicted AF ordering is in startling contrast with the prevailing picture of charge ordering due to Jahn-Teller distortion or Peierls instability for wires of finite or infinite lengths, respectively.
Correlating Electronic Transport to Atomic Structures in Self-Assembled Quantum Wires
Li, An-Ping; Qin, Shengyong; Kim, Tae Hwan; Ouyang, Wenjie; Zhang, Yanning; Weitering, Harm H; Shih, Chih-Kang; Baddorf, Arthur P; Wu, Ruiqian
2012-01-01
Quantum wires, as a smallest electronic conductor, are expected to be a fundamental component in all quantum architectures. The electronic conductance in quantum wires, however, is often dictated by structural instabilities and electron localization at the atomic scale. Here we report on the evolutions of electronic transport as a function of temperature and interwire coupling as the quantum wires of GdSi{sub 2} are self-assembled on Si(100) wire-by-wire. The correlation between structure, electronic properties, and electronic transport are examined by combining nanotransport measurements, scanning tunneling microscopy, and density functional theory calculations. A metal-insulator transition is revealed in isolated nanowires, while a robust metallic state is obtained in wire bundles at low temperature. The atomic defects lead to electron localizations in isolated nanowire, and interwire coupling stabilizes the structure and promotes the metallic states in wire bundles. This illustrates how the conductance nature of a one-dimensional system can be dramatically modified by the environmental change on the atomic scale.
The quantum pinch effect in semiconducting quantum wires: A bird’s-eye view
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kushwaha, Manvir S.
2016-01-01
Those who measure success with culmination do not seem to be aware that life is a journey not a destination. This spirit is best reflected in the unceasing failures in efforts for solving the problem of controlled thermonuclear fusion for even the simplest pinches for over decades; and the nature keeps us challenging with examples. However, these efforts have permitted researchers the obtention of a dense plasma with a lifetime that, albeit short, is sufficient to study the physics of the pinch effect, to create methods of plasma diagnostics, and to develop a modern theory of plasma processes. Most importantly, they have impregnated the solid state plasmas, particularly the electron-hole plasmas in semiconductors, which do not suffer from the issues related with the confinement and which have demonstrated their potential not only for the fundamental physics but also for the device physics. Here, we report on a two-component, cylindrical, quasi-one-dimensional quantum plasma subjected to a radial confining harmonic potential and an applied magnetic field in the symmetric gauge. It is demonstrated that such a system, as can be realized in semiconducting quantum wires, offers an excellent medium for observing the quantum pinch effect at low temperatures. An exact analytical solution of the problem allows us to make significant observations: Surprisingly, in contrast to the classical pinch effect, the particle density as well as the current density display a determinable maximum before attaining a minimum at the surface of the quantum wire. The effect will persist as long as the equilibrium pair density is sustained. Therefore, the technological promise that emerges is the route to the precise electronic devices that will control the particle beams at the nanoscale.
Magnetoresistance of One-Dimensional Subbands in Tunnel-Coupled Double Quantum Wires
Moon, J.S.; Blount, M.A.; Simmons, J.A.; Wendt, J.R.; Lyo, S.K.; Reno, J.L.
1999-08-04
The authors study the low-temperature in-plane magnetoresistance of tunnel-coupled quasi-one-dimensional quantum wires. The wires are defined by two pairs of mutually aligned split gates on opposite sides of a {le} 1 micron thick AlGaAs/GaAs double quantum well heterostructure, allowing independent control of the width of each quantum well. In the ballistic regime, when both wires are defined and the field is perpendicular to the current, a large resistance peak at {approximately}6 Tesla is observed with a strong gate voltage dependence. The data is consistent with a counting model whereby the number of subbands crossing the Fermi level changes with field due to the formation of an anticrossing in each pair of 1D subbands.
Indium segregation during III–V quantum wire and quantum dot formation on patterned substrates
Moroni, Stefano T.; Dimastrodonato, Valeria; Chung, Tung-Hsun; Juska, Gediminas; Gocalinska, Agnieszka; Pelucchi, Emanuele; Vvedensky, Dimitri D.
2015-04-28
We report a model for metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy on non-planar substrates, specifically V-grooves and pyramidal recesses, which we apply to the growth of InGaAs nanostructures. This model—based on a set of coupled reaction-diffusion equations, one for each facet in the system—accounts for the facet-dependence of all kinetic processes (e.g., precursor decomposition, adatom diffusion, and adatom lifetimes) and has been previously applied to account for the temperature-, concentration-, and temporal-dependence of AlGaAs nanostructures on GaAs (111)B surfaces with V-grooves and pyramidal recesses. In the present study, the growth of In{sub 0.12}Ga{sub 0.88}As quantum wires at the bottom of V-grooves is used to determine a set of optimized kinetic parameters. Based on these parameters, we have modeled the growth of In{sub 0.25}Ga{sub 0.75}As nanostructures formed in pyramidal site-controlled quantum-dot systems, successfully producing a qualitative explanation for the temperature-dependence of their optical properties, which have been reported in previous studies. Finally, we present scanning electron and cross-sectional atomic force microscopy images which show previously unreported facetting at the bottom of the pyramidal recesses that allow quantum dot formation.
Center-of-mass and internal motion of excitons in quantum wires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glutsch, S.; Bechstedt, F.
The properties of excitons, which are optically excited in single or coupled quantum wires, are studied within the effective-mass approximation. The two-particle wave functions and energies obey a Schrödinger equation with screened Coulomb interaction of electron and hole and their corresponding wire confinement potentials. This equation is approximately separated into an equation for the center-of-mass motion and another one more or less for the internal motion of the electron hole pairs. This allows a representation of absorption and luminescence spectra near a quantum-well exciton transition by a generalized Elliott formula.
Silicon quantum wires on Ag(1 1 0): Fermi surface and quantum well states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valbuena, M. A.; Avila, J.; Dávila, M. E.; Leandri, C.; Aufray, B.; Le Lay, G.; Asensio, M. C.
2007-10-01
One-dimensional Si quantum wires have been grown on silver single crystals upon deposition of ˜0.25 monolayer of Si on Ag(1 1 0) surfaces. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) clearly shows parallel 1D Si chains along the [-1 1 0] Ag crystallographic direction. Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) confirms the massively parallel assembly of these selforganized Nanowires (NWs). We have characterized these nano-objects by measuring the dispersion of the NWs valence band at room temperature using Angle-Resolved PhotoEmission Spectroscopy (ARPES). Also, the Fermi Surface (FS) of the Ag(1 1 0) substrate has been mapped before and after the silicon deposition, trying to put in evidence the metallic or semiconductor character of the NWs silicon's states close to the Fermi level. Our results show the existence of well-defined quantum states associated to the silicon super-structure. Both LEED and ARUPS results confirm that the NWs have typical 1D features, however their metallic or semiconductor character could not be confirmed.
Dielectric confinement influenced screened Coulomb potential for a semiconductor quantum wire
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aharonyan, K. H.; Margaryan, N. B.
2016-01-01
A formalism of the Thomas-Fermi method has been applied for studying the screening effect due to quasi-one-dimensional electron gas in a semiconductor cylindrical quantum wire embedded in the barrier environment. With taking into account of strongly low dielectric properties of the barrier material, an applicability of the quantum wire effective interaction potential of the confined charge carriers has been revealed. Both screened quasi- one-dimensional interaction potential and effective screening length analytical expressions are derived in the first time. It is shown that in the long wavelength moderate limit dielectric confinement effect enhances strength of the screening potential depending on the both radius of the wire and effective screening length, whereas in the long wavelength strong limit the screening potential solely is determined by barrier environment dielectric properties.
Thermodynamical properties of triangular quantum wires: entropy, specific heat, and internal energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khordad, R.
2016-07-01
In the present work, thermodynamical properties of a GaAs quantum wire with equilateral triangle cross section are studied. First, the energy levels of the system are obtained by solving the Schrödinger equation. Second, the Tsallis formalism is applied to obtain entropy, internal energy, and specific heat of the system. We have found that the specific heat and entropy have certain physically meaningful values, which mean thermodynamic properties cannot take any continuous value, unlike classical thermodynamics in which they are considered as continuous quantities. Maximum of entropy increases with increasing the wire size. The specific heat is zero at special temperatures. Specific heat decreases with increasing temperature. There are several peaks in specific heat, and these are dependent on quantum wire size.
Hole Transport and Spin Effects in Cleaved-Edge-Overgrowth Quantum Wires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sulpizio, Joseph; Quay, Charis; de Picciotto, Rafi; West, K. W.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; Goldhaber-Gordon, David
2009-03-01
Transport measurements on ballistic GaAs electron wires have revealed a rich set of phenomena associated with one-dimensional (1D) quantum systems. Studies of transport in hole systems are a natural extension of these experiments due to the enhanced effective mass, g-factor, and spin-orbit coupling of holes over their electron counterparts. However, only recently has the creation of ballistic hole wire devices been possible due to breakthroughs in molecular beam epitaxy using the cleaved-edge-overgrowth (CEO) technique. We present measurements of hole transport in CEO GaAs quantum wires in magnetic field in a dilution refrigerator. Based on a simple model, we extract the g-factor for different field orientations, and also discuss evidence for observing spin-orbit coupling in a 1D system.
Magnetoresistance of One-Dimensional Subbands in Tunnel-Coupled Double Quantum Wires
Blount, M.A.; Lyo, S.K.; Moon, J.S.; Reno, J.L.; Simmons, J.A.; Wendt, J.R.
1999-04-27
We study the low-temperature in-plane magnetoresistance of tunnel-coupled quasi-one-dimensional quantum wires. The wires are defined by two pairs of mutually aligned split gates on opposite sides of a < 1 micron thick AlGaAs/GaAs double quantum well heterostructure, allowing independent control of their widths. In the ballistic regime, when both wires are defined and the field is perpendicular to the current, a large resistance peak at ~6 Tesla is observed with a strong gate voltage dependence. The data is consistent with a counting model whereby the number of subbands crossing the Fermi level changes with field due to the formation of an anticrossing in each pair of 1D subbands.
Coulomb interaction effects on the Majorana states in quantum wires.
Manolescu, A; Marinescu, D C; Stanescu, T D
2014-04-30
The stability of the Majorana modes in the presence of a repulsive interaction is studied in the standard semiconductor wire-metallic superconductor configuration. The effects of short-range Coulomb interaction, which is incorporated using a purely repulsive δ-function to model the strong screening effect due to the presence of the superconductor, are determined within a Hartree-Fock approximation of the effective Bogoliubov-De Gennes Hamiltonian that describes the low-energy physics of the wire. Through a numerical diagonalization procedure we obtain interaction corrections to the single particle eigenstates and calculate the extended topological phase diagram in terms of the chemical potential and the Zeeman energy. We find that, for a fixed Zeeman energy, the interaction shifts the phase boundaries to a higher chemical potential, whereas for a fixed chemical potential this shift can occur either at lower or higher Zeeman energies. These effects can be interpreted as a renormalization of the g-factor due to the interaction. The minimum Zeeman energy needed to realize Majorana fermions decreases with the increasing strength of the Coulomb repulsion. Furthermore, we find that in wires with multi-band occupancy this effect can be enhanced by increasing the chemical potential, i.e. by occupying higher energy bands. PMID:24722427
Molecular Spintronics: Wiring Spin Coherence between Semiconductor Quantum Dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ouyang, Min
2004-03-01
Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are attractive candidates for scalable solid state implementations of quantum information processing based on electron spin states, where a crucial requirement for practical devices is to have efficient and tunable spin coupling between them. We focus on recent femtosecond time-resolved Faraday rotation studies of self-assembled multilayer spintronic devices based on colloidal quantum dots bridged by conjugated molecules (M. Ouyang et al., Science 301, 1074 (2003)). The data reveal the instantaneous transfer of spin coherence through conjugated molecular bridges spanning quantum dots of different size over a broad range of temperature. The room temperature spin transfer efficiency exceeds 20%, which approximately doubles the value measured at T=4.5K. A molecular π-orbital mediated spin coherence transfer mechanism is proposed to provide a qualitative insight into the experimental observations, suggesting a correlation between the stereochemistry of molecules and the transfer process. The results show that conjugated molecules can be used not only as physical links for the assembly of functional networks, but also as efficient channels for shuttling quantum information. This class of structures may be useful as two-spin quantum devices operating at ambient temperatures and may offer promising opportunities for future versatile molecule-based spintronic technologies.
Preferential sites for InAsP/InP quantum wire nucleation using molecular dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nuñez-Moraleda, Bernardo; Pizarro, Joaquin; Guerrero, Elisa; Guerrero-Lebrero, Maria P.; Yáñez, Andres; Molina, Sergio Ignacio; Galindo, Pedro Luis
2014-11-01
In this paper, stress fields at the surface of the capping layer of self-assembled InAsP quantum wires grown on an InP (001) substrate have been determined from atomistic models using molecular dynamics and Stillinger-Weber potentials. To carry out these calculations, the quantum wire compositional distribution was extracted from previous works, where the As and P distributions were determined by electron energy loss spectroscopy and high-resolution aberration-corrected Z-contrast imaging. Preferential sites for the nucleation of wires on the surface of the capping layer were studied and compared with (i) previous simulations using finite element analysis to solve anisotropic elastic theory equations and (ii) experimentally measured locations of stacked wires. Preferential nucleation sites of stacked wires were determined by the maximum stress location at the MD model surface in good agreement with experimental results and those derived from finite element analysis. This indicates that MD simulations based on empirical potentials provide a suitable and flexible tool to study strain dependent atom processes.
Excitonic linewidth of organic quantum wires generated in reduced dimensionality matrices.
Barisien, Thierry; Legrand, Laurent; Mu, Zhao; Hameau, Sophie
2016-05-14
Luminescent organic quantum wires are generated in diacetylene crystalline ultra-thin films grown on orientation-inducing surfaces obtained by poly-tetrafluoroethylene (teflon) deposition. The films are characterized by atomic force microscopy showing that quasi-two-dimensional surroundings are achieved. In this particular environment, pure dephasing processes still determine the wires' homogeneous emission widths, measured using micro-photoluminescence. Coherence times that are slightly shorter in the films also exhibit a distinctive temperature dependence. A model inspired by semiconductor physics for exciton-phonon coupling accounts for the observed behaviour and evidences the role of matrix dimensionality on the coherence properties. PMID:27108759
The geometry effect on energy transfer rate in a coupled-quantum-wires structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rafee, Vahdat
2016-03-01
The geometry effect on energy transfer rate in a coupled cylindrical quantum wires system is investigated. The corrected random phase approximation by the zero-temperature static Hubbard correction is employed to calculate dielectric function of the system. The geometry effect on energy transfer rate is studied for statically and dynamically screened electron-electron interaction. Both the linear and nonlinear regimes correspond respectively to weak and strong external field are considered. The calculations show that increasing wire radius increases energy transfer rate in both the static and dynamic screening approximations for electron-electron interactions. Moreover, the same trend is predicted by the calculations for both the linear and nonlinear regimes.
InAs/InP single quantum wire formation and emission at 1.5 {mu}m
Alen, B.; Fuster, D.; Gonzalez, Y.; Gonzalez, L.; Martinez-Pastor, J.
2006-12-04
Isolated InAs/InP self-assembled quantum wires have been grown using in situ accumulated stress measurements to adjust the optimal InAs thickness. Atomic force microscopy imaging shows highly asymmetric nanostructures with average length exceeding more than ten times their width. High resolution optical investigation of as-grown samples reveals strong photoluminescence from individual quantum wires at 1.5 {mu}m. Additional sharp features are related to monolayer fluctuations of the two-dimensional InAs layer present during the early stages of the quantum wire self-assembling process.
Electron interactions and lasing in high quality GaAs single quantum wires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akiyama, Hidefumi
2002-03-01
Since the first observation of ground-state lasing in quantum wire lasers(W. Wegscheider, L. N Pfeiffer, M. M Dignam, A. Pinczuk, K. W West, S. L McCall, and R. Hull, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71), 4071 (1993)., questions about existence of band-gap renormalization and contribution of excitons to gain in lasing have been hotly argued but remain unsolved for about a decade. Here, we study these problems in highly-uniform T-shaped quantum wires (T-wires) of 14nm x 6nm cross-sectional size and lasers containing these T-wires, fabricated by the cleaved-edge overgrowth method with molecular-beam epitaxy and a recently developed annealing technique(M. Yoshita, H. Akiyama, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40), L252 (2001).. We studied PL of modulation-doped single T-wire structures with tunable 1-D electron density by electrical gating to study many-body electron interaction effects. It shows PL of 1-D neutral excitons and charged excitons at low densities, which evolves as the density increases to band-to-band optical recombination of single holes and an electron plasma with significant band-gap renormalization. In undoped twenty-T-wire samples, we found clear signatures of 1-D free excitons and 1-D continuum states in PLE spectra, and biexcitons in strongly pumped PL. We then studied twenty-T-wire lasers via optical pumping. Lasing by T-wires was observed up to about 100 K. Lasing energy was not at the free exciton energy, but at the low-energy tail of biexcitons. Therefore, origin of gain for lasing is attributed not to free excitons, but most probably to biexcitons. We finally realized a single-T-wire laser. In a laser bar of 500μm optical cavity with mirrors coated by gold, lasing was observed for 5-60 K via optical pumping. The threshold power was as low as 5 mW at 5 K, which is equivalent to 3 mA of current injection in generating electron-hole pairs in the device.
Nuclear Quantum Effects in H(+) and OH(-) Diffusion along Confined Water Wires.
Rossi, Mariana; Ceriotti, Michele; Manolopoulos, David E
2016-08-01
The diffusion of protons and hydroxide ions along water wires provides an efficient mechanism for charge transport that is exploited by biological membrane channels and shows promise for technological applications such as fuel cells. However, what is lacking for a better control and design of these systems is a thorough theoretical understanding of the diffusion process at the atomic scale. Here we focus on two aspects of this process that are often disregarded because of their high computational cost: the use of first-principles potential energy surfaces and the treatment of the nuclei as quantum particles. We consider proton and hydroxide ions in finite water wires using density functional theory augmented with an apolar cylindrical confining potential. We employ machine learning techniques to identify the charged species, thus obtaining an agnostic definition that takes explicitly into account the delocalization of the charge in the Grotthus-like mechanism. We include nuclear quantum effects (NQEs) through the thermostated ring polymer molecular dynamics method and model finite system size effects by considering Langevin dynamics on the potential of mean force of the charged species, allowing us to extract the same "universal" diffusion coefficient from simulations with different wire sizes. In the classical case, diffusion coefficients depend significantly on the potential energy surface, in particular on how dispersion forces modulate water-water distances. NQEs, however, make the diffusion less sensitive to the underlying potential and geometry of the wire. PMID:27440483
Spin-polarized current in Zeeman-split d-wave superconductor/quantum wire junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Emamipour, Hamidreza
2016-06-01
We study a thin-film quantum wire/unconventional superconductor junction in the presence of an intrinsic exchange field for a d-wave symmetry of the superconducting order parameter. A strongly spin-polarized current is generated due to an interplay between Zeeman splitting of bands and the nodal structure of the superconducting order parameter. We show that strongly spin-polarized current is achievable for both metallic and tunnel junctions. This is because of the presence of a quantum wire (one-dimensional metal) in our junction. While in two-dimensional junctions with both conventional [F. Giazotto, F. Taddei, Phys. Rev. B 77 (2008) 132501] and unconventional [J. Linder, T. Yokoyama, Y. Tanaka, A. Sudbo, Phys. Rev. B 78 (2008) 014516] pairing states, highly spin polarized current takes place just for a tunnel junction. Also, the obtained spin-polarized current is tunable in sign and magnitude in terms of exchange field and applied bias voltage.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Restrepo, R. L.; Giraldo, E.; Miranda, G. L.; Ospina, W.; Duque, C. A.
2009-12-01
The combined effects of the hydrostatic pressure and in-growth direction applied electric field on the binding energy of hydrogenic shallow-donor impurity states in parallel-coupled-GaAs- Ga1-xAlxAs-quantum-well wires are calculated using a variational procedure within the effective-mass and parabolic-band approximations. Results are obtained for several dimensions of the structure, shallow-donor impurity positions, hydrostatic pressure, and applied electric field. Our results suggest that external inputs such us hydrostatic pressure and in-growth direction electric field are two useful tools in order to modify the binding energy of a donor impurity in parallel-coupled-quantum-well wires.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Zheng; Affleck, Ian
2016-07-01
Junctions of multiple one-dimensional quantum wires of interacting electrons have received considerable theoretical attention as a basic constituent of quantum circuits. While results have been obtained on these models using bosonization and density-matrix renormalization-group (DMRG) methods, another powerful technique is based on direct perturbation theory in the bulk interactions combined with the renormalization group. This technique has so far only been applied to the case in which finite-length interacting wires are attached to noninteracting Fermi liquid leads. We extend this method to cover the case of infinite-length interacting leads, obtaining results on two- and three-lead junctions in good agreement with previous bosonization and DMRG results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, S.; Trauzettel, B.; Egger, R.
2002-11-01
We propose a Landauerlike theory for nonlinear transport in networks of one-dimensional interacting quantum wires (Luttinger liquids). A concrete example of current experimental focus is given by carbon nanotube Y junctions. Our theory has three basic ingredients that allow one to explicitly solve this transport problem: (i) radiative boundary conditions to describe the coupling to external leads, (ii) the Kirchhoff node rule describing charge conservation, and (iii) density matching conditions at every node.
Chen, S; Trauzettel, B; Egger, R
2002-11-25
We propose a Landauerlike theory for nonlinear transport in networks of one-dimensional interacting quantum wires (Luttinger liquids). A concrete example of current experimental focus is given by carbon nanotube Y junctions. Our theory has three basic ingredients that allow one to explicitly solve this transport problem: (i) radiative boundary conditions to describe the coupling to external leads, (ii) the Kirchhoff node rule describing charge conservation, and (iii) density matching conditions at every node. PMID:12485088
Huang, Danhong; Lyo, S.K.
1999-08-09
The effect of higher-order corrections to the Born approximation is studied for the previously obtained giant conductance enhancement in tunnel-coupled double quantum wires in a parallel magnetic field. The relative correction is found to be significant and depends on various effects such as the magnetic field, electron and impurity densities, impurity positions, symmetric and asymmetric doping profiles, and center barrier thickness.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Danhong; Gumbs, Godfrey
2010-05-01
When impurity and phonon scattering coexist, the Boltzmann equation has been solved accurately for nonlinear electron transport in a quantum wire. Based on the calculated nonequilibrium distribution of electrons in momentum space, the scattering effects on both the nondifferential (for a fixed dc field) and differential (for a fixed temperature) mobilities of electrons as functions of temperature and dc field have been demonstrated. The nondifferential mobility of electrons is switched from a linearly increasing function of temperature to a paraboliclike temperature dependence as the quantum wire is tuned from an impurity-dominated system to a phonon-dominated one, as described by Fang et al. [Phys. Rev. B 78, 205403 (2008)]. In addition, a maximum has been obtained in the dc field dependence of the differential mobility of electrons. The low-field differential mobility is dominated by the impurity scattering, whereas the high-field differential mobility is limited by the phonon scattering as described by Hauser et al. [Semicond. Sci. Technol. 9, 951 (1994)]. Once a quantum wire is dominated by quasielastic scattering, the peak of the momentum-space distribution function becomes sharpened and both tails of the equilibrium electron distribution centered at the Fermi edges are raised by the dc field after a redistribution of the electrons is fulfilled in a symmetric way in the low-field regime. If a quantum wire is dominated by inelastic scattering, on the other hand, the peak of the momentum-space distribution function is unchanged while both shoulders centered at the Fermi edges shift leftward correspondingly with increasing dc field through an asymmetric redistribution of the electrons even in low-field regime as described by Wirner et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2609 (1993)].
Emergent Lorentz symmetry with vanishing velocity in a critical two-subband quantum wire.
Sitte, M.; Rosch, A.; Meyer, J. S.; Matveev, K. A.; Garst, M.; Materials Science Division; Univ. zu Koln; Ohio State Univ.
2009-01-01
We consider a quantum wire with two subbands of spin-polarized electrons in the presence of strong interactions. We focus on the quantum phase transition when the second subband starts to get filled as a function of gate voltage. Performing a one-loop renormalization group analysis of the effective Hamiltonian, we identify the critical fixed-point theory as a conformal field theory having an enhanced SU(2) symmetry and central charge 3/2. While the fixed point is Lorentz invariant, the effective 'speed of light' nevertheless vanishes at low energies due to marginally irrelevant operators leading to a diverging critical specific heat coefficient.
Emergent Lorentz symmetry with vanishing velocity in a critical two-subband quantum wire.
Sitte, M; Rosch, A; Meyer, J S; Matveev, K A; Garst, M
2009-05-01
We consider a quantum wire with two subbands of spin-polarized electrons in the presence of strong interactions. We focus on the quantum phase transition when the second subband starts to get filled as a function of gate voltage. Performing a one-loop renormalization group analysis of the effective Hamiltonian, we identify the critical fixed-point theory as a conformal field theory having an enhanced SU(2) symmetry and central charge 3/2. While the fixed point is Lorentz invariant, the effective "speed of light" nevertheless vanishes at low energies due to marginally irrelevant operators leading to a diverging critical specific heat coefficient. PMID:19518804
Numerical Study of Spin-Dependent Transport Through a Magnetic Quantum Wire with Lattice Vacancy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jafari, A.; Ghoranneviss, M.
2016-03-01
The impact of lattice vacancy on the spin dependent transport properties of a magnetic-quantum wire (MQW) has been investigated. A simple tight binding Hamiltonian to describe the model is used, where the quantum wire is attached to two semi-infinite one-dimensional non-magnetic electrodes. Based on the Landauer-Buttiker formalism all the calculations are performed numerically which describe two-terminal conductance. The results suggest that in presence of vacancy the transmission reduces and vacancy creates quasilocalized states around zero energy (E f = 0). In order to investigate spin-filtering effect of (MQW), the degree of polarization in the presence and absences of vacancy has been studied. Also it is found that the effect of vacancy decreases when the size of MQW increases. The results show that a magnetic quantum wire can be used as a spin filter. The application of the predicted results may be useful in designing molecular spin-polarized transistors in the future.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaheri, Ali Hossein Mohammad
2016-06-01
In this work, we have calculated analytically the energy spectra of electrons and holes in V-grooves quantum wires. To modify wire structure, we have used the equations which suggested in the work of Inoshita et al. We introduce a new effective potential scheme which is applicable and matchable with actual interface geometry of this groove of ridge quantum wires. By applying this effective potential and considering a suitable transformed coordinate that allows the decoupling of the two-dimensional wave functions, we have calculated eigen values of the charge carriers in three states as well as the wave functions. We found that by increasing the curvature at the top of quantum wire (b) the energy eigen value decreases. Our results are in good agreement with the earlier investigations.
Symmetry-induced quantum interference effects in metalloporphyrin wires.
Ferradás, R; García-Suárez, V M; Ferrer, J
2013-08-14
We calculate the electronic and transport properties of a series of metalloporphyrin molecules sandwiched between gold electrodes using a combination of density functional theory and scattering theory. The impact of strong correlations at the central metallic atom is gauged by comparing our results obtained using conventional DFT and DFT + U approaches. The zero- and finite-bias transport properties may or may not show spin-filtering behavior, depending on the nature of the d state closest to the Fermi energy. The type of d state depends on the metallic atom and gives rise to interference effects that produce different Fano features. The inclusion of the U term opens a gap between the d states and changes the conductance and spin-filtering behavior qualitatively in some of the molecules. We explain the origin of the quantum interference effects found as due to the symmetry-dependent coupling between the d states and other molecular orbitals and propose the use of these systems as nanoscale chemical sensors. We also demonstrate that an adequate treatment of strong correlations is really necessary to correctly describe the transport properties of metalloporphyrins and similar molecular magnets. PMID:23838608
Negative differential conductance in InAs wire based double quantum dot induced by a charged AFM tip
Zhukov, A. A.; Volk, Ch.; Winden, A.; Hardtdegen, H.; Schaepers, Th.
2012-12-15
We investigate the conductance of an InAs nanowire in the nonlinear regime in the case of low electron density where the wire is split into quantum dots connected in series. The negative differential conductance in the wire is initiated by means of a charged atomic force microscope tip adjusting the transparency of the tunneling barrier between two adjoining quantum dots. We confirm that the negative differential conductance arises due to the resonant tunneling between these two adjoining quantum dots. The influence of the transparency of the blocking barriers and the relative position of energy states in the adjoining dots on a decrease of the negative differential conductance is investigated in detail.
Growth and fabrication of quantum wells, wires, and dots for optical applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gossard, Arthur C.; Petroff, Pierre M.; Coldren, Larry A.; Tsuchiya, Masahiro
1990-05-01
Although molecular beam and vapor phase epitaxial growth techniques can control layer thicknesses and uniformity at the atomic monolayer level of precision, control of quantum structure dimensions in lateral directions parallel to epitaxial layers is more difficult, with lithographic and focused beam techniques difficult to control below dimensions of order 100 nm. This is larger than the optimum maximum size for quantum wire and dot applications, which is of order 10 nm, as required for wire and dot devices to operate in their lowest quantum state/and not to be restricted to cryogenic temperature operation. An alternate, but challenging, means of defining small lateral dimensions is the use of the periodicity of atomic terrace steps on substrate crystals that are slightly misoriented with respect to principal crystal 1 For small misorientation of a crystal surface by a radians, the distance L5 between step edges is c/a, where c is the spacing between planes of substrate atoms. For a GaAs crystal misoriented two degrees from a (1 10) direction, L5 = 8 nm and thus is of the order of magnitude needed for quantum wire devices. Lateral periodicity of a quantum structure can be produced by growth of alternate half atomic layer coverage depositions in a step flow crystal growth mode. Structures showing this lateral periodicity have previously been grown both by molecular beam epitaxy and by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition.2'3 Deviations from a perfectly ordered lateral superlattice with layers perpendicular to the surface are important and are expected when the starting surface is not smooth with regular steps, when the crystal grows in an island growth mode, when there are kinks in the step edges, and when each pair of depositions deviates from an atomic monolayer total deposition. In recent work, we have measured surface smoothness and step regularity by in situ observations of the crystal growth surface by measurement of the widths of the specularly reflected
Interaction-induced corrections to conductance and thermopower in quantum wires.
Levchenko, A.; Ristivojevic, Z.; Micklitz, T.; Materials Science Division; Theorique de l'Ecole Normale Superieure; Freie Univ. Berlin
2011-01-19
We study transport properties of weakly interacting spinless electrons in one-dimensional single-channel quantum wires. The effects of interaction manifest as three-particle collisions due to the severe constraints imposed by the conservation laws on the two-body processes. We focus on short wires where the effects of equilibration on the distribution function can be neglected and the collision integral can be treated in perturbation theory. We find that interaction-induced corrections to conductance and thermopower rely on the scattering processes that change the number of right- and left-moving electrons. The latter requires transition at the bottom of the band which is exponentially suppressed at low temperatures. Our theory is based on the scattering approach that is beyond the Luttinger-liquid limit. We emphasize the crucial role of the exchange terms in the three-particle scattering amplitude that was not discussed in previous studies.
Ultranarrow resonance in Coulomb drag between quantum wires at coinciding densities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dmitriev, A. P.; Gornyi, I. V.; Polyakov, D. G.
2016-08-01
We investigate the influence of the chemical potential mismatch Δ (different electron densities) on Coulomb drag between two parallel ballistic quantum wires. For pair collisions, the drag resistivity ρD(Δ ) shows a peculiar anomaly at Δ =0 with ρD being finite at Δ =0 and vanishing at any nonzero Δ . The "bodyless" resonance in ρD(Δ ) at zero Δ is only broadened by processes of multiparticle scattering. We analyze Coulomb drag for finite Δ in the presence of both two- and three-particle scattering within the kinetic equation framework, focusing on a Fokker-Planck picture of the interaction-induced diffusion in momentum space of the double-wire system. We describe the dependence of ρD on Δ for both weak and strong intrawire equilibration due to three-particle scattering.
Voltage-induced conversion of helical to uniform nuclear spin polarization in a quantum wire
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kornich, Viktoriia; Stano, Peter; Zyuzin, Alexander A.; Loss, Daniel
2015-05-01
We study the effect of bias voltage on the nuclear spin polarization of a ballistic wire, which contains electrons and nuclei interacting via hyperfine interaction. In equilibrium, the localized nuclear spins are helically polarized due to the electron-mediated Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction. Focusing here on nonequilibrium, we find that an applied bias voltage induces a uniform polarization, from both helically polarized and unpolarized spins available for spin flips. Once a macroscopic uniform polarization in the nuclei is established, the nuclear spin helix rotates with frequency proportional to the uniform polarization. The uniform nuclear spin polarization monotonically increases as a function of both voltage and temperature, reflecting a thermal activation behavior. Our predictions offer specific ways to test experimentally the presence of a nuclear spin helix polarization in semiconducting quantum wires.
Sales, D L; Varela, M; Pennycook, S J; Galindo, P L; González, L; González, Y; Fuster, D; Molina, S I
2010-08-13
Evolution of the size, shape and composition of self-assembled InAs/InP quantum wires through the Stranski-Krastanov transition has been determined by aberration-corrected Z-contrast imaging. High resolution compositional maps of the wires in the initial, intermediate and final formation stages are presented. (001) is the main facet at their very initial stage of formation, which is gradually reduced in favour of [114] or [118], ending with the formation of mature quantum wires with {114} facets. Significant changes in wire dimensions are measured when varying slightly the amount of InAs deposited. These results are used as input parameters to build three-dimensional models that allow calculation of the strain energy during the quantum wire formation process. The observed morphological evolution is explained in terms of the calculated elastic energy changes at the growth front. Regions of the wetting layer close to the nanostructure perimeters have higher strain energy, causing migration of As atoms towards the quantum wire terraces, where the structure is partially relaxed; the thickness of the wetting layer is reduced in these zones and the island height increases until the (001) facet is removed. PMID:20647625
Bridging coupled wires and lattice Hamiltonian for two-component bosonic quantum Hall states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fuji, Yohei; He, Yin-Chen; Bhattacharjee, Subhro; Pollmann, Frank
2016-05-01
We investigate a model of hard-core bosons with correlated hopping on the honeycomb lattice in an external magnetic field by means of a coupled-wire approach. It has been numerically shown that this model exhibits at half filling the bosonic integer quantum Hall (BIQH) state, which is a symmetry-protected topological phase protected by the U (1 ) particle conservation [Y.-C. He et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 116803 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.116803]. By combining the bosonization approach and a coupled-wire construction, we analytically confirm this finding and show that it even holds in the strongly anisotropic (quasi-one-dimensional) limit. We discuss the stability of the BIQH phase against tunnelings that break the separate particle conservations on different sublattices down to a global particle conservation. We further argue that a phase transition between two different BIQH phases is in a deconfined quantum critical point described by two copies of the (2 +1 ) -dimensional O (4 ) nonlinear sigma model with the topological θ term at θ =π . Finally, we predict a possible fractional quantum Hall state, the Halperin (221 ) state, at 1 /6 filling.
Chida, K.; Yamauchi, Y.; Arakawa, T.; Kobayashi, K.; Ono, T.; Hashisaka, M.; Nakamura, S.; Machida, T.
2013-12-04
We performed the resistively-detected nuclear magnetic resonance (RDNMR) to study the electron spin polarization in the non-equilibrium quantum Hall regime. By measuring the Knight shift, we derive source-drain bias voltage dependence of the electron spin polarization in quantum wires. The electron spin polarization shows minimum value around the threshold voltage of the dynamic nuclear polarization.
Non-Abelian topological spin liquids from arrays of quantum wires or spin chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Po-Hao; Chen, Jyong-Hao; Gomes, Pedro R. S.; Neupert, Titus; Chamon, Claudio; Mudry, Christopher
2016-05-01
We construct two-dimensional non-Abelian topologically ordered states by strongly coupling arrays of one-dimensional quantum wires via interactions. In our scheme, all charge degrees of freedom are gapped, so the construction can use either quantum wires or quantum spin chains as building blocks, with the same end result. The construction gaps the degrees of freedom in the bulk, while leaving decoupled states at the edges that are described by conformal field theories (CFT) in (1 +1 ) -dimensional space and time. We consider both the cases where time-reversal symmetry (TRS) is present or absent. When TRS is absent, the edge states are chiral and stable. We prescribe, in particular, how to arrive at all the edge states described by the unitary CFT minimal models with central charges c <1 . These non-Abelian spin liquid states have vanishing quantum Hall conductivities, but nonzero thermal ones. When TRS is present, we describe scenarios where the bulk state can be a non-Abelian, nonchiral, and gapped quantum spin liquid, or a gapless one. In the former case, we find that the edge states are also gapped. The paper provides a brief review of non-Abelian bosonization and affine current algebras, with the purpose of being self-contained. To illustrate the methods in a warm-up exercise, we recover the tenfold way classification of two-dimensional noninteracting topological insulators using the Majorana representation that naturally arises within non-Abelian bosonization. Within this scheme, the classification reduces to counting the number of null singular values of a mass matrix, with gapless edge modes present when left and right null eigenvectors exist.
Crystal-Phase Control by Solution-Solid-Solid Growth of II-VI Quantum Wires.
Wang, Fudong; Buhro, William E
2016-02-10
A simple and potentially general means of eliminating the planar defects and phase alternations that typically accompany the growth of semiconductor nanowires by catalyzed methods is reported. Nearly phase-pure, defect-free wurtzite II-VI semiconductor quantum wires are grown from solid rather than liquid catalyst nanoparticles. The solid-catalyst nanoparticles are morphologically stable during growth, which minimizes the spontaneous fluctuations in nucleation barriers between zinc blende and wurtzite phases that are responsible for the defect formation and phase alternations. Growth of single-phase (in our cases the wurtzite phase) nanowires is thus favored. PMID:26731426
Effects of spin-orbit interaction on the electronic structure of mono-layer quantum wires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaseghi, B.; Ghaffari, A.
2016-07-01
Simultaneous effects of spin-orbit interaction, external electric and magnetic fields and dimension on the electronic structure of a mono-layer quantum wire are investigated in this paper. Due to the direct effects of external electric field on the structure's symmetries and spin-orbit interaction, energy eigenvalues and functions of the system are calculated with axial or in-plane electric field. It is shown that spin-orbit interaction modifies energy eigenvalues and functions of the system with regard to external factors.
Exploring semiconductor quantum dots and wires by high resolution electron microscopy
Molina Rubio, Sergio I; Galindo, Pedro; Gonzalez, Luisa; Ripalda, JM; Varela del Arco, Maria; Pennycook, Stephen J
2010-01-01
We review in this communication our contribution to the structural characterisation of semiconductor quantum dots and wires by high resolution electron microscopy, both in phase-contrast and Z-contrast modes. We show how these techniques contribute to predict the preferential sites of nucleation of these nanostructures, and also determine the compositional distribution in 1D and 0D nanostructures. The results presented here were produced in the framework of the European Network of Excellence entitled 'Self-Assembled semiconductor Nanostructures for new Devices in photonics and Electronics (SANDiE)'.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szafran, B.; Poniedziałek, M. R.
2010-08-01
We consider electron transport in a quantum wire with a side-coupled quantum ring in a two-dimensional model that accounts for a finite width of the channels. We use the finite difference technique to solve the scattering problem as well as to determine the ring-localized states of the energy continuum. The backscattering probability exhibits Fano peaks for magnetic fields for which a ring-localized states appear at the Fermi level. We find that the width of the Fano resonances changes at high magnetic field. The width is increased (decreased) for resonant states with current circulation that produce the magnetic dipole moment that is parallel (antiparallel) to the external magnetic field. We indicate that the opposite behavior of Fano resonances due to localized states with clockwise and counterclockwise currents results from the magnetic forces which change the strength of their coupling to the channel and modify the lifetime of localized states.
Dynamical properties of spin and subbands populations in 1D quantum wire
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaseghi, B.; Khordad, R.; Golshan, M. M.
2006-10-01
In this paper we study the spin and subbands populations, as functions of time, for electrons in a quasi-1D quantum wire, with spin-orbit coupling (SOC), to which a perpendicular magnetic field is applied. The system is governed by the Hamiltonian which, in the strong magnetic field limit, resembles the Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM) in quantum optics (QO). Using a procedure similar to that in QO, we explicitly present the time-evolution operator, thereby calculating the spin states and subbands populations as functions of time. We show that the populations exhibit oscillations, depending on the interaction parameters, scale lengths and, particularly, the initial states of the system. Specifically, if the electrons are initially prepared in a maximal coherent superposition of spin states, the expectation values periodically collapse and revive. The collapse-revivals are most profound for the spin along the magnetic field and subbands populations.
Confined acoustic and optical plasmons in double-layered quantum-wire arrays with strong tunneling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dethlefsen, A. F.; Heyn, Ch.; Heitmann, D.; Schüller, C.
2006-05-01
We investigate electronic excitations in GaAs-AlxGa1-xAs double-layered quantum wire arrays with strong tunneling coupling by resonant inelastic light scattering. By applying an external electric field, we can change the one-dimensional (1D) electron density and the symmetry of the double quantum-well (DQW) structure at the same time. We identify confined optical 1D intersubband plasmons (COP) and confined acoustic 1D intersubband plasmons (CAP). Due to the tunneling coupling, the energies of the CAP exhibit a minimum for a symmetric DQW potential, whereas the energies of the COP are dominated by the total carrier density, and are nearly insensitive to the symmetry of the potential.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, C. L.; Bao, J.; Yan, Z. W.
2016-03-01
The surface and interface phonon-polaritons in freestanding rectangular quantum well wire systems consisting of polar ternary mixed crystals are investigated in the modified random-element-isodisplacement model and the Born-Huang approximation, based on the Maxwell's equations with the boundary conditions. The numerical results of the surface and interface phonon-polariton frequencies as functions of the wave-vector, geometric structure, and the composition of the ternary mixed crystals in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs and ZnxCd1-xSe/ZnSe quantum well wire systems are obtained and discussed. It is shown that there are 10 and 8 branches of surface and interface phonon-polaritons in the two quantum well wire systems respectively. The effects of the "two-mode" and "one-mode" behaviors of the ternary mixed crystals on the surface and interface phonon-polariton modes are shown in the dispersion curves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kushwaha, Manvir S.
2013-04-01
The nanofabrication technology has taught us that an m-dimensional confining potential imposed upon an n-dimensional electron gas paves the way to a quasi-(n-m)-dimensional electron gas, with m ⩽ n and 1 ⩽ n, m ⩽ 3. This is the road to the (semiconducting) quasi-n dimensional electron gas systems we have been happily traversing on now for almost two decades. Achieving quasi-one dimensional electron gas (Q-1DEG) [or quantum wire(s) for more practical purposes] led us to some mixed moments in this journey: while the reduced phase space for the scattering led us believe in the route to the faster electron devices, the proximity to the 1D systems left us in the dilemma of describing it as a Fermi liquid or as a Luttinger liquid. No one had ever suspected the potential of the former, but it took quite a while for some to convince the others on the latter. A realistic Q-1DEG system at the low temperatures is best describable as a Fermi liquid rather than as a Luttinger liquid. In the language of condensed matter physics, a critical scrutiny of Q-1DEG systems has provided us with a host of exotic (electronic, optical, and transport) phenomena unseen in their higher- or lower-dimensional counterparts. This has motivated us to undertake a systematic investigation of the inelastic electron scattering (IES) and the inelastic light scattering (ILS) from the elementary electronic excitations in quantum wires. We begin with the Kubo's correlation functions to derive the generalized dielectric function, the inverse dielectric function, and the Dyson equation for the dynamic screened potential in the framework of Bohm-Pines' random-phase approximation. These fundamental tools then lead us to develop methodically the theory of IES and ILS for the Q-1DEG systems. As an application of the general formal results, which know no bounds regarding the subband occupancy, we compute the density of states, the Fermi energy, the full excitation spectrum [comprised of intrasubband and
Electron motion induced by magnetic pulse in a bilayer quantum wire
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chwiej, T.
2016-06-01
We consider theoretical stimulation of electron motion in a quantum wire by means of ultrashort magnetic pulses of time duration between several and a few tens of picoseconds. In our considerations, an electron is confined in a nanowire which consists of two vertically stacked tunnel-coupled layers. If a magnetic pulse pierces this nanowire and its direction is parallel to the plane established by the layers, and additionally, it is perpendicular to the wire's axis, then the eigenstates of a single electron energy operator for vertical direction are hybridized by the off-diagonal terms of the full Hamiltonian. These terms depend linearly on the momentum operator, which means that such magnetically forced hybridization may induce electron motion in a nanowire. The classical counterpart of this quantum-mechanical picture is a situation in which the rotational electric field generated by a time-varying magnetic field pushes the charge densities localized in the upper and lower layers in opposite directions. We have found, however, that for an asymmetric vertical confinement in a bilayer nanowire, the major part of the single electron density starts to move in the direction of the local electric field in its layer forcing the minority part to move in this direction as well. It results in coherent motion of both densities in a particular direction. We analyze the dynamics of such motion in dependence on the time characteristics of a magnetic pulse and discuss potential applications of this effect in the construction of a magnetic valve.
Magnetotransport in p-type Ge quantum well narrow wire arrays
Newton, P. J. Llandro, J.; Mansell, R.; Barnes, C. H. W.; Holmes, S. N.; Morrison, C.; Foronda, J.; Myronov, M.; Leadley, D. R.
2015-04-27
We report magnetotransport measurements of a SiGe heterostructure containing a 20 nm p-Ge quantum well with a mobility of 800 000 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}. By dry etching arrays of wires with widths between 1.0 μm and 3.0 μm, we were able to measure the lateral depletion thickness, built-in potential, and the phase coherence length of the quantum well. Fourier analysis does not show any Rashba related spin-splitting despite clearly defined Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations being observed up to a filling factor of ν = 22. Exchange-enhanced spin-splitting is observed for filling factors below ν = 9. An analysis of boundary scattering effects indicates lateral depletion of the hole gas by 0.5 ± 0.1 μm from the etched germanium surface. The built-in potential is found to be 0.25 ± 0.04 V, presenting an energy barrier for lateral transport greater than the hole confinement energy. A large phase coherence length of 3.5 ± 0.5 μm is obtained in these wires at 1.7 K.
Mihaljevic, Miodrag J.
2007-05-15
It is shown that the security, against known-plaintext attacks, of the Yuen 2000 (Y00) quantum-encryption protocol can be considered via the wire-tap channel model assuming that the heterodyne measurement yields the sample for security evaluation. Employing the results reported on the wire-tap channel, a generic framework is proposed for developing secure Y00 instantiations. The proposed framework employs a dedicated encoding which together with inherent quantum noise at the attacker's side provides Y00 security.
Khordad, R. Bahramiyan, H.
2014-03-28
In this paper, optical phonon modes are studied within the framework of dielectric continuum approach for parallelogram and triangular quantum wires, including the derivation of the electron-phonon interaction Hamiltonian and a discussion on the effects of this interaction on the electronic energy levels. The polaronic energy shift is calculated for both ground-state and excited-state electron energy levels by applying the perturbative approach. The effects of the electron-phonon interaction on the expectation value of r{sup 2} and diamagnetic susceptibility for both quantum wires are discussed.
Spillmann, Christopher M; Ancona, Mario G; Buckhout-White, Susan; Algar, W Russ; Stewart, Michael H; Susumu, Kimihiro; Huston, Alan L; Goldman, Ellen R; Medintz, Igor L
2013-08-27
Assembling DNA-based photonic wires around semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) creates optically active hybrid architectures that exploit the unique properties of both components. DNA hybridization allows positioning of multiple, carefully arranged fluorophores that can engage in sequential energy transfer steps while the QDs provide a superior energy harvesting antenna capacity that drives a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) cascade through the structures. Although the first generation of these composites demonstrated four-sequential energy transfer steps across a distance >150 Å, the exciton transfer efficiency reaching the final, terminal dye was estimated to be only ~0.7% with no concomitant sensitized emission observed. Had the terminal Cy7 dye utilized in that construct provided a sensitized emission, we estimate that this would have equated to an overall end-to-end ET efficiency of ≤ 0.1%. In this report, we demonstrate that overall energy flow through a second generation hybrid architecture can be significantly improved by reengineering four key aspects of the composite structure: (1) making the initial DNA modification chemistry smaller and more facile to implement, (2) optimizing donor-acceptor dye pairings, (3) varying donor-acceptor dye spacing as a function of the Förster distance R0, and (4) increasing the number of DNA wires displayed around each central QD donor. These cumulative changes lead to a 2 orders of magnitude improvement in the exciton transfer efficiency to the final terminal dye in comparison to the first-generation construct. The overall end-to-end efficiency through the optimized, five-fluorophore/four-step cascaded energy transfer system now approaches 10%. The results are analyzed using Förster theory with various sources of randomness accounted for by averaging over ensembles of modeled constructs. Fits to the spectra suggest near-ideal behavior when the photonic wires have two sequential acceptor dyes (Cy3 and Cy3.5) and
Wang, Lin-Wang; Sun, Jianwei; Wang, Lin-Wang; Buhro, William E.
2008-07-11
High-quality colloidal CdTe quantum wires having purposefully controlled diameters in the range of 5-11 nm are grown by the solution-liquid-solid (SLS) method, using Bi-nanoparticle catalysts, cadmium octadecylphosphonate and trioctylphosphine telluride as precursors, and a TOPO solvent. The wires adopt the wurtzite structure, and grow along the [002] direction (parallel to the c axis). The size dependence of the band gaps in the wires are determined from the absorption spectra, and compared to the experimental results for high-quality CdTe quantum dots. In contrast to the predictions of an effective-mass approximation, particle-in-a-box model, and previous experimental results from CdSe and InP dot-wire comparisons, the band gaps of CdTe dots and wires of like diameter are found to be experimentally indistinguishable. The present results are analyzed using density functional theory under the local-density approximation by implementing a charge-patching method. The higher-level theoretical analysis finds the general existence of a threshold diameter, above which dot and wire band gaps converge. The origin and magnitude of this threshold diameter is discussed.
Electron Raman scattering in semiconductor quantum well wire of cylindrical ring geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Re., Betancourt-Riera; Ri., Betancourt-Riera; M. Nieto Jalil, J.; Riera, R.
2015-11-01
We study the electron states and the differential cross section for an electron Raman scattering process in a semiconductor quantum well wire of cylindrical ring geometry. The electron Raman scattering developed here can be used to provide direct information about the electron band structures of these confinement systems. We assume that the system grows in a GaAs/Al0.35Ga0.65As matrix. The system is modeled by considering T = 0 K and also a single parabolic conduction band, which is split into a sub-band system due to the confinement. The emission spectra are discussed for different scattering configurations, and the selection rules for the processes are also studied. Singularities in the spectra are found and interpreted.
Synthesis and characterization of lead selenide nanocrystal quantum dots and wires.
Seo, Weonsik; Yun, Ju-Hyung; Park, Yun Chang; Han, Chang-Soo; Lee, Jihye; Jeong, Sohee
2011-05-01
Lead chalcogenide nanocrystalline materials offer possibilities of improving the efficiency of various optoelectric/thermoelectric applications, especially in solar cells, by generating more carriers with incoming photons, or by extending the bandgap toward the infra-red region. In this work, we suggest the synthetic approach of creating extended PbSe structures which shows better performances when incorporated into an electric device. Firstly, we synthesized monodisperse cubic-structured single-crystalline lead selenide nanocrystal quantum dots using lead acetate and oleic acid in non-coordinating solvent without additional surfactants. Also, single-crystal cubic PbSe nanowires were synthesized in a mixture of surfactants such as trioctylphosphine and phenyl ether. Morphologies of wires and dots were precisely controlled via reaction temperature and the surface ligands. Phenyl ether was found to facilitate the oriented attachment. Further, current-voltage characteristics of drop-casted 2D arrays of nanocrystalline materials were examined. PMID:21780455
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giuliano, Domenico; Nava, Andrea
2015-09-01
Making a combined use of bosonization and fermionization techniques, we build nonlocal transformations between dual fermion operators, describing junctions of strongly interacting spinful one-dimensional quantum wires. Our approach allows for trading strongly interacting (in the original coordinates) fermionic Hamiltonians for weakly interacting (in the dual coordinates) ones. It enables us to generalize to the strongly interacting regime the fermionic renormalization group approach to weakly interacting junctions. As a result, on one hand, we are able to pertinently complement the information about the phase diagram of the junction obtained within the bosonization approach; on the other hand, we map out the full crossover of the conductance tensors between any two fixed points in the phase diagram connected by a renormalization group trajectory.
Dirac electrons in graphene-based quantum wires and quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peres, N. M. R.; Rodrigues, J. N. B.; Stauber, T.; Lopes dos Santos, J. M. B.
2009-08-01
In this paper we analyse the electronic properties of Dirac electrons in finite-size ribbons and in circular and hexagonal quantum dots. We show that due to the formation of sub-bands in the ribbons it is possible to spatially localize some of the electronic modes using a p-n-p junction. We also show that scattering of confined Dirac electrons in a narrow channel by an infinitely massive wall induces mode mixing, giving a qualitative reason for the fact that an analytical solution to the spectrum of Dirac electrons confined in a square box has not yet been found. A first attempt to solve this problem is presented. We find that only the trivial case k = 0 has a solution that does not require the existence of evanescent modes. We also study the spectrum of quantum dots of graphene in a perpendicular magnetic field. This problem is studied in the Dirac approximation, and its solution requires a numerical method whose details are given. The formation of Landau levels in the dot is discussed. The inclusion of the Coulomb interaction among the electrons is considered at the self-consistent Hartree level, taking into account the interaction with an image charge density necessary to keep the back-gate electrode at zero potential. The effect of a radial confining potential is discussed. The density of states of circular and hexagonal quantum dots, described by the full tight-binding model, is studied using the Lanczos algorithm. This is necessary to access the detailed shape of the density of states close to the Dirac point when one studies large systems. Our study reveals that zero-energy edge states are also present in graphene quantum dots. Our results are relevant for experimental research in graphene nanostructures. The style of writing is pedagogical, in the hope that newcomers to the subject will find this paper a good starting point for their research.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herrle, Thomas; Haneder, Stephan; Wegscheider, Werner
2006-05-01
We calculated the material gain and the threshold current density for quantum wire intersubband laser structures. In quantum cascade laser devices with active regions of lower dimensionality a reduction of the nonradiative losses and consequently an increase in the material gain and a reduction of the threshold current density is predicted. In our calculations of the material gain and the threshold current density for a realistic quantum wire intersubband laser structure fabricated by the cleaved edge overgrowth (CEO) technique, however, it turns out that excited states formed in those structures even reduce the material gain compared to conventional quantum well cascade lasers. The threshold current density also turns out to be increased due to the reduced material gain on the one hand and due to a small optical confinement factor in such structures on the other hand. The main consequence for the design of such quantum wire laser structures is to avoid the formation of excited states to be able to benefit from the reduction of the dimensionality of the electron system in terms of reduced nonradiative losses.
(In,Ga)As sidewall quantum wires on shallow-patterned InP (311)A
Zhou, D.; Noetzel, R.; Gong, Q.; Offermans, P.; Koenraad, P.M.; Veldhoven, P.J. van; Otten, F.W.M. van; Eijkemans, T.J.; Wolter, J.H.
2005-03-15
(In,Ga)As sidewall quantum wires (QWires) are realized by chemical beam epitaxy along [01-1] mesa stripes on shallow-patterned InP (311)A substrates. The QWires exhibit strong lateral carrier confinement due to larger thickness and In composition compared to the adjacent quantum wells, as determined by cross-sectional scanning-tunneling microscopy and microphotoluminescence (micro-PL) spectroscopy. The PL of the (In,Ga)As QWires with InP and quaternary (Ga,In)(As,P) barriers reveals narrow linewidth, high efficiency, and large lateral carrier confinement energies of 60-70 meV. The QWires are stacked in growth direction with identical PL peak emission energy. The PL emission energy is not only controlled by the (In,Ga)As layer thickness but also by the patterned mesa height. Stacked (In,Ga)As QWires with quaternary barriers exhibit room temperature PL emission at 1.55 {mu}m in the technologically important wavelength region for telecommunication applications.
Self-assembled GaN quantum wires on GaN/AlN nanowire templates.
Arbiol, Jordi; Magen, Cesar; Becker, Pascal; Jacopin, Gwénolé; Chernikov, Alexey; Schäfer, Sören; Furtmayr, Florian; Tchernycheva, Maria; Rigutti, Lorenzo; Teubert, Jörg; Chatterjee, Sangam; Morante, Joan R; Eickhoff, Martin
2012-12-01
We present a novel approach for self-assembled growth of GaN quantum wires (QWRs) exhibiting strong confinement in two spatial dimensions. The GaN QWRs are formed by selective nucleation on {112[combining macron]0} (a-plane) facets formed at the six intersections of {11[combining macron]00} (m-plane) sidewalls of AlN/GaN nanowires used as a template. Based on microscopy observations we have developed a 3D model explaining the growth mechanism of QWRs. We show that the QWR formation is governed by self-limited pseudomorphic growth on the side facets of the nanowires (NWs). Quantum confinement in the QWRs is confirmed by the observation of narrow photoluminescence lines originating from individual QWRs with emission energies up to 4.4 eV. Time-resolved photoluminescence studies reveal a short decay time (~120 ps) of the QWR emission. Capping of the QWRs with AlN allows enhancement of the photoluminescence, which is blue-shifted due to compressive strain. The emission energies from single QWRs are modelled assuming a triangular cross-section resulting from self-limited growth on a-plane facets. Comparison with the experimental results yields an average QWR diameter of about 2.7 nm in agreement with structural characterization. The presented results open a new route towards controlled realization of one-dimensional semiconductor quantum structures with a high potential both for fundamental studies and for applications in electronics and in UV light generation. PMID:23100169
Crystal-phase quantum dots in GaN quantum wires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corfdir, Pierre; Hauswald, Christian; Marquardt, Oliver; Flissikowski, Timur; Zettler, Johannes K.; Fernández-Garrido, Sergio; Geelhaar, Lutz; Grahn, Holger T.; Brandt, Oliver
2016-03-01
We study the nature of excitons bound to I1 basal plane stacking faults in ensembles of ultrathin GaN nanowires by continuous-wave and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. These ultrathin nanowires, obtained by the thermal decomposition of spontaneously formed GaN nanowire ensembles, are tapered and have tip diameters down to 6 nm. With decreasing nanowire diameter, we observe a strong blueshift of the transition originating from the radiative decay of stacking fault-bound excitons. Moreover, the radiative lifetime of this transition in the ultrathin nanowires is independent of temperature up to 60 K and significantly longer than that of the corresponding transition in as-grown nanowires. These findings reveal a zero-dimensional character of the confined exciton state and thus demonstrate that I1 stacking faults in ultrathin nanowires act as genuine quantum dots.
Das, Tanmoy
2016-07-27
We study directional dependent band gap evolutions and metal-insulator transitions (MITs) in model quantum wire systems within the spin-orbit density wave (SODW) model. The evolution of MIT is studied as a function of varying anisotropy between the intra-wire hopping ([Formula: see text]) and inter-wire hopping ([Formula: see text]) with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. We find that as long as the anisotropy ratio ([Formula: see text]) remains below 0.5, and the Fermi surface nesting is tuned to [Formula: see text], an exotic SODW induced MIT easily develops, with its critical interaction strength increasing with increasing anisotropy. As [Formula: see text] (2D system), the nesting vector switches to [Formula: see text], making this state again suitable for an isotropic MIT. Finally, we discuss various physical consequences and possible applications of the directional dependent MIT. PMID:27248294
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Tanmoy
2016-07-01
We study directional dependent band gap evolutions and metal–insulator transitions (MITs) in model quantum wire systems within the spin–orbit density wave (SODW) model. The evolution of MIT is studied as a function of varying anisotropy between the intra-wire hopping ({{t}\\parallel} ) and inter-wire hopping ({{t}\\bot} ) with Rashba spin–orbit coupling. We find that as long as the anisotropy ratio (β ={{t}\\bot}/{{t}\\parallel} ) remains below 0.5, and the Fermi surface nesting is tuned to {{\\mathbf{Q}}1}=≤ft(π,0\\right) , an exotic SODW induced MIT easily develops, with its critical interaction strength increasing with increasing anisotropy. As β \\to 1 (2D system), the nesting vector switches to {{\\mathbf{Q}}2}=≤ft(π,π \\right) , making this state again suitable for an isotropic MIT. Finally, we discuss various physical consequences and possible applications of the directional dependent MIT.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panmand, Rajendra P.; Kumar, Ganapathy; Mahajan, Satish M.; Kulkarni, Milind V.; Amalnerkar, D. P.; Kale, Bharat B.; Gosavi, Suresh. W.
2011-02-01
We report optical studies with magneto-optic properties of Bi2S3 quantum dot/wires-glass nanocomposite. The size of the Q-dot was observed to be in the range 3-15 nm along with 11 nm Q-wires. Optical study clearly demonstrated the size quantization effect with drastic band gap variation with size. Faraday rotation tests on the glass nanocomposites show variation in Verdet constant with Q-dot size. Bi2S3 Q-dot/wires glass nanocomposite demonstrated 190 times enhanced Verdet constant compared to the host glass. Prima facie observations exemplify the significant enhancement in Verdet constant of Q-dot glass nanocomposites and will have potential application in magneto-optical devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saravanan, S.; Peter, A. John
2016-05-01
Intense high frequency laser field induced electronic and optical properties of heavy hole exciton in the InAs0.8P0.2/InP quantum wire is studied taking into account the geometrical confinement effect. Laser field related exciton binding energies and the optical band gap in the InAs0.8P0.2/InP quantum well wire are investigated. The optical gain, for the interband optical transition, as a function of photon energy, in the InAs0.8P0.2/InP quantum wire, is obtained in the presence of intense laser field. The compact density matrix method is employed to obtain the optical gain. The obtained optical gain in group III-V narrow quantum wire can be applied for achieving the preferred telecommunication wavelength.
One-dimensional electronic systems in ultra-fine mesa etched InGaAs-InAlAs-InP quantum wires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kern, K.; Demel, T.; Heitmann, D.; Grambow, P.; Ploog, K.; Razeghi, M.
1990-04-01
Quantum wire structures have been prepared by deep mesa etching of modulation doped InGaAs-InAlAs-InP heterostructures. In very narrow wires (width t ≈ 300 nm) it was possible to realize one-dimensional electronic systems (IDES) with quantum confined energy levels. The separation of the ID subbands was, as determined from magnetic depopulation, about 2.5 meV.
Magnetic memory of a single-molecule quantum magnet wired to a gold surface.
Mannini, Matteo; Pineider, Francesco; Sainctavit, Philippe; Danieli, Chiara; Otero, Edwige; Sciancalepore, Corrado; Talarico, Anna Maria; Arrio, Marie-Anne; Cornia, Andrea; Gatteschi, Dante; Sessoli, Roberta
2009-03-01
In the field of molecular spintronics, the use of magnetic molecules for information technology is a main target and the observation of magnetic hysteresis on individual molecules organized on surfaces is a necessary step to develop molecular memory arrays. Although simple paramagnetic molecules can show surface-induced magnetic ordering and hysteresis when deposited on ferromagnetic surfaces, information storage at the molecular level requires molecules exhibiting an intrinsic remnant magnetization, like the so-called single-molecule magnets (SMMs). These have been intensively investigated for their rich quantum behaviour but no magnetic hysteresis has been so far reported for monolayers of SMMs on various non-magnetic substrates, most probably owing to the chemical instability of clusters on surfaces. Using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism synchrotron-based techniques, pushed to the limits in sensitivity and operated at sub-kelvin temperatures, we have now found that robust, tailor-made Fe(4) complexes retain magnetic hysteresis at gold surfaces. Our results demonstrate that isolated SMMs can be used for storing information. The road is now open to address individual molecules wired to a conducting surface in their blocked magnetization state, thereby enabling investigation of the elementary interactions between electron transport and magnetism degrees of freedom at the molecular scale. PMID:19182788
Magnetic memory of a single-molecule quantum magnet wired to a gold surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mannini, Matteo; Pineider, Francesco; Sainctavit, Philippe; Danieli, Chiara; Otero, Edwige; Sciancalepore, Corrado; Talarico, Anna Maria; Arrio, Marie-Anne; Cornia, Andrea; Gatteschi, Dante; Sessoli, Roberta
2009-03-01
In the field of molecular spintronics, the use of magnetic molecules for information technology is a main target and the observation of magnetic hysteresis on individual molecules organized on surfaces is a necessary step to develop molecular memory arrays. Although simple paramagnetic molecules can show surface-induced magnetic ordering and hysteresis when deposited on ferromagnetic surfaces, information storage at the molecular level requires molecules exhibiting an intrinsic remnant magnetization, like the so-called single-molecule magnets (SMMs). These have been intensively investigated for their rich quantum behaviour but no magnetic hysteresis has been so far reported for monolayers of SMMs on various non-magnetic substrates, most probably owing to the chemical instability of clusters on surfaces. Using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism synchrotron-based techniques, pushed to the limits in sensitivity and operated at sub-kelvin temperatures, we have now found that robust, tailor-made Fe4 complexes retain magnetic hysteresis at gold surfaces. Our results demonstrate that isolated SMMs can be used for storing information. The road is now open to address individual molecules wired to a conducting surface in their blocked magnetization state, thereby enabling investigation of the elementary interactions between electron transport and magnetism degrees of freedom at the molecular scale.
Inelastic electron and Raman scattering from the collective excitations in quantum wires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kushwaha, Manvir
2014-03-01
The nanofabrication technology has taught us that an m-dimensional confining potential imposed upon an n-dimensional electron gas paves the way to a quasi-(n- m)-dimensional electron gas, with m <= n and 1 <= n , m <= 3 . This is the road to the (semiconducting) quasi- n dimensional electron gas systems we have been happily traversing on now for almost two decades. Achieving quasi-one dimensional electron gas (Q-1DEG) led us to some mixed moments in this journey: while the reduced phase space for the scattering led us believe in the route to the faster electron devices, the proximity to the 1D systems left us in the dilemma of describing it as a Fermi liquid or as a Luttinger liquid. No one had ever suspected the potential of the former, but it took quite a while for some to convince the others on the latter. A realistic Q-1DEG system at the low temperatures is best describable as a Fermi liquid rather than as a Luttinger liquid. This has motivated us to employ the Bohm-Pines' full RPA to develop a systematic methodology for the inelastic electron and light scattering from the collective (plasmon) excitations in Q-1DEG [or quantum wires]. We will discuss in detail the results published in AIP Advances 3, 042103 (2013).
Rashba-Zeeman-effect-induced spin filtering energy windows in a quantum wire
Xiao, Xianbo Nie, Wenjie; Chen, Zhaoxia; Zhou, Guanghui; Li, Fei
2014-06-14
We perform a numerical study on the spin-resolved transport in a quantum wire (QW) under the modulation of both Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and a perpendicular magnetic field by using the developed Usuki transfer-matrix method in combination with the Landauer-Büttiker formalism. Wide spin filtering energy windows can be achieved in this system for unpolarized spin injection. In addition, both the width of energy window and the magnitude of spin conductance within these energy windows can be tuned by varying Rashba SOC strength, which can be apprehended by analyzing the energy dispersions and spin-polarized density distributions inside the QW, respectively. Further study also demonstrates that these Rashba-SOC-controlled spin filtering energy windows show a strong robustness against disorders. These findings may not only benefit to further understand the spin-dependent transport properties of a QW in the presence of external fields but also provide a theoretical instruction to design a spin filter device.
Why a Magnetized Quantum Wire can Act as AN Optical Amplifier
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kushwaha, Manvir
We discuss the fundamental issues associated with the magnetoplasmon excitations in a semiconducting quantum wire characterized by a harmonic confining potential and subjected to an applied (perpendicular) magnetic field. The problem involves two length scales: l0 =√{ ℏ /m*ω0 } and lc =√{ ℏ /m*ωc } , which characterize the strengths of the confinement and the magnetic field (B). Essentially, we focus on the device aspects of the intersubband collective (magnetoroton) excitation, which observes a negative group velocity between maxon and roton. Existence of the negative group velocity is a clear manifestation of a medium with population inversion brought about due to a metastable state caused by the magnetic field that satisfies the condition B >Bth ; Bth being the threshold value below which the magnetoroton does not exist. A medium with an inverted population has the remarkable ability of amplifying a small optical signal of definite wavelength. An extensive scrutiny of the gain coefficient suggests an interesting and important application: the electronic device designed on the basis of such magnetoroton modes can act as an optical amplifier1.
Slipko, Valeriy A.; Pershin, Yuriy V.
2011-10-15
In this paper we use a spin kinetic equation to study spin-polarization dynamics in one-dimensional (1D) wires and 2D channels. The spin kinetic equation is valid in both diffusive and ballistic spin transport regimes and therefore is more general than the usual spin drift-diffusion equations. In particular, we demonstrate that in infinite 1D wires with Rashba spin-orbit interaction the exponential spin-relaxation decay can be modulated by an oscillating function. In the case of spin relaxation in finite length 1D wires, it is shown that an initially homogeneous spin polarization spontaneously transforms into a persistent spin helix. We find that a propagating spin-polarization profile reflects from a system boundary and returns back to its initial position similarly to the reflectance of sound waves from an obstacle. The Green's function of the spin kinetic equation is derived for both finite and infinite 1D systems. Moreover, we demonstrate explicitly that the spin relaxation in specifically oriented 2D channels with Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions of equal strength occurs similarly to that in 1D wires of finite length. Finally, a simple transformation mapping 1D spin kinetic equation into the Klein-Gordon equation with an imaginary mass is found thus establishing an interesting connection between semiconductor spintronics and relativistic quantum mechanics.
Optical properties of stacked InGaAs sidewall quantum wires in InGaAsP/InP
Zhou, D.; Noetzel, R.; Otten, F.W.M. van; Eijkemans, T.J.; Wolter, J.H.
2006-05-15
We report on the optical properties of threefold stacked InGaAs sidewall quantum wires (QWires) with quaternary InGaAsP barriers grown on shallow-patterned InP (311)A substrates by chemical beam epitaxy. Temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) reveals efficient carrier transfer from the adjacent quantum wells (QWells) into the QWires at low temperature, thermally activated repopulation of the QWells at higher temperature, and negligible localization of carriers along the QWires. Strong broadening of power dependent PL indicates enhanced state filling in the QWires compared to that in the QWells. Clear linear polarization of the PL from the QWires confirms the lateral quantum confinement of carriers. These results demonstrate excellent optical quality of the sidewall QWire structures with room temperature PL peak wavelength at 1.55 {mu}m for applications in fiber-based optical telecommunication systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Y.; Li, G. H.; Zhang, W.; Zhu, Z. M.; Han, H. X.; Wang, Z. P.; Zhou, W.; Wang, Z. G.
2000-02-01
Self-ordering of quasi-quantum wires in multilayer InAlAs/AlGaAs nanostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy is identified. The chain-like structures along the [ 1 1¯ 0 ] direction formed by coalescence of quantum dots were observed. The photoluminescence of the nanostructures is partially polarized along the [1 1¯ 0] direction. The polarization ratio depends on the wavelength and the maximum polarization is on the lower energy side. The maximum polarization increases from 0.32 at 10 K to 0.53 at 100 K, and the energy position of maximum polarization moves near to PL peak with increasing temperature. They are all related to the existence of isolated islands and quasi-quantum wires in our sample. This result provides a novel approach to produce narrow quantum wires.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karaaslan, Y.; Gisi, B.; Sakiroglu, S.; Kasapoglu, E.; Sari, H.; Sokmen, I.
2016-05-01
We investigate the effects of Rashba spin-orbit interaction on the optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes associated with transitions between the first two lower-lying electronic levels in double quantum wire. The wire system represented by a symmetric, double quartic-well confinement potential is subjected to a perpendicular magnetic field. The analytical expressions of the linear and third-order nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes are obtained by using the compact-density matrix formalism and iterative scheme. Optical properties are investigated as a function of structural parameter, magnetic field, Rashba spin-orbit interaction and photon energies. Numerical results reveal that competing effects between spin-orbit interaction and magnetic field modify strongly the optical properties and can be altered by these parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Emamipour, Hamidreza; Mehrabzad, Narges
2016-07-01
We study tunneling conductance in a quantum wire-insulator-ferromagnetic d-wave superconductor junction. The results show that exchange field of superconductor has a strong impact on tunneling spectra depending on the junction parameters. We have found a gap like structure in the tunneling limit when we have an interface normal to the (100) axis of superconductor. In the case of (110) axis of superconductor, there is not any zero- bias conductance peaks in tunneling spectra. For a metallic junction the dips disappear.
NMR response of nuclear-spin helix in quantum wires with hyperfine and spin-orbit interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stano, Peter; Loss, Daniel
2014-11-01
We calculate the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) response of a quantum wire where at low temperature a self-sustained electron-nuclear spin order is created. Our model includes the electron mediated Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) exchange, electron spin-orbit interactions, nuclear dipolar interactions, and the static and oscillating NMR fields, all of which play an essential role. The paramagnet to helimagnet transition in the nuclear system is reflected in an unusual response: it absorbs at a frequency given by the internal RKKY exchange field, rather than the external static field, whereas the latter leads to a splitting of the resonance peak.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
B, Gisi; S, Sakiroglu; İ, Sokmen
2016-01-01
In this work, we investigate the effects of interplay of spin-orbit interaction and in-plane magnetic fields on the electronic structure and spin texturing of parabolically confined quantum wire. Numerical results reveal that the competing effects between Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions and the external magnetic field lead to a complicated energy spectrum. We find that the spin texturing owing to the coupling between subbands can be modified by the strength of spin-orbit couplings as well as the magnitude and the orientation angle of the external magnetic field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deyasi, Arpan; Bhattacharyya, S.; Das, N. R.
2014-06-01
In this paper, electron energies in core-shell quantum wires (CSQW) of rectangular, triangular, T-shaped, H-shaped and circular geometries are numerically computed by solving a time-independent Schrödinger equation using the finite difference technique. Computation is performed for both normal and inverted structures of CSQW, taking into account Kane-type nonparabolicity, conduction band discontinuity, and effective mass mismatch at the hetero-interface. Sparse, structured Hamiltonian matrices are produced for the calculation of energy eigenvalues and intersubband transition energies. Comparative study reveals that for a given core width of normal CSQW, the eigenenergy is the highest for the triangular geometry and the lowest for the rectangular geometry. For inverted CSQW, the ground-state energy of the triangular wire decreases with increasing core width, unlike other geometries. Studies on the intersubband transition energy show that for triangular and H-shaped inverted CSQW, it varies in a direction opposite to that of other inverted structures. Suitable tailoring of wire dimensions indicates the possibility of tuning the transition energy for photonic applications.
M-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells on GaN wires for electroluminescent devices.
Koester, Robert; Hwang, Jun-Seok; Salomon, Damien; Chen, Xiaojun; Bougerol, Catherine; Barnes, Jean-Paul; Dang, Daniel Le Si; Rigutti, Lorenzo; de Luna Bugallo, Andres; Jacopin, Gwénolé; Tchernycheva, Maria; Durand, Christophe; Eymery, Joël
2011-11-01
Nonpolar InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) grown on the {11-00} sidewalls of c-axis GaN wires have been grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy on c-sapphire substrates. The structural properties of single wires are studied in detail by scanning transmission electron microscopy and in a more original way by secondary ion mass spectroscopy to quantify defects, thickness (1-8 nm) and In-composition in the wells (∼16%). The core-shell MQW light emission characteristics (390-420 nm at 5 K) were investigated by cathodo- and photoluminescence demonstrating the absence of the quantum Stark effect as expected due to the nonpolar orientation. Finally, these radial nonpolar quantum wells were used in room-temperature single-wire electroluminescent devices emitting at 392 nm by exploiting sidewall emission. PMID:21967509
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vernek, Edson; Ruiz-Tijerina, David; da Silva, Luis D.; Egues, José Carlos
2015-09-01
Quantum dot attached to topological wires has become an interesting setup to study Majorana bound state in condensed matter[1]. One of the major advantage of using a quantum dot for this purpose is that it provides a suitable manner to study the interplay between Majorana bound states and the Kondo effect. Recently we have shown that a non-interacting quantum dot side-connected to a 1D topological superconductor and to metallic normal leads can sustain a Majorana mode even when the dot is empty. This is due to the Majorana bound state of the wire leaking into the quantum dot. Now we investigate the system for the case in which the quantum dot is interacting[3]. We explore the signatures of a Majorana zero-mode leaking into the quantum dot, using a recursive Green's function approach. We then study the Kondo regime using numerical renormalization group calculations. In this regime, we show that a "0.5" contribution to the conductance appears in system due to the presence of the Majorana mode, and that it persists for a wide range of the dot parameters. In the particle-hole symmetric point, in which the Kondo effect is more robust, the total conductance reaches 3e^2/2h, clearly indicating the coexistence of a Majorana mode and the Kondo resonance in the dot. However, the Kondo effect is suppressed by a gate voltage that detunes the dot from its particle-hole symmetric point as well as by a Zeeman field. The Majorana mode, on the other hand, is almost insensitive to both of them. We show that the zero-bias conductance as a function of the magnetic field follows a well-known universal curve. This can be observed experimentally, and we propose that this universality followed by a persistent conductance of 0.5,e^2/h are evidence for the presence of Majorana-Kondo physics. This work is supported by the Brazilians agencies FAPESP, CNPq and FAPEMIG. [1] A. Y. Kitaev, Ann.Phys. {bf 303}, 2 (2003). [2] E. Vernek, P.H. Penteado, A. C. Seridonio, J. C. Egues, Phys. Rev. B {bf
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Yu; Li, Qiang; Chang, Shih-Pang; Hsu, Wen-Da; Lau, Kei May
2016-06-01
We report InGaAs quasi-quantum wires embedded in planar InP nanowires grown on (001) silicon emitting in the 1550 nm communication band. An array of highly ordered InP nanowire with semi-rhombic cross-section was obtained in pre-defined silicon V-grooves through selective-area hetero-epitaxy. The 8% lattice mismatch between InP and Si was accommodated by an ultra-thin stacking disordered InP/GaAs nucleation layer. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope characterizations suggest excellent crystalline quality of the nanowires. By exploiting the morphological evolution of the InP and a self-limiting growth process in the V-grooves, we grew embedded InGaAs quantum-wells and quasi-quantum-wires with tunable shape and position. Room temperature analysis reveals substantially improved photoluminescence in the quasi-quantum wires as compared to the quantum-well reference, due to the reduced intrusion defects and enhanced quantum confinement. These results show great promise for integration of III-V based long wavelength nanowire lasers on the well-established (001) Si platform.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zhe; Jiang, Liwei; Zheng, Yisong
2016-07-01
By means of a numerical diagonalization approach, we calculate the electronic structure of a three-dimensional topological insulator (3DTI) quantum wire (QW) in the presence of a magnetic field. The QW can be viewed as a 3DTI film with lateral surfaces, when its rectangular cross section has a large aspect ratio. Our calculation indicates that nonchiral edge states emerge because of the confined states at the lateral surfaces. These states completely cover the valence band region among the Landau levels, which reasonably account for the absence of the ν <-1 quantum Hall effect in the relevant experimental works. In an ultrathin 3DTI film, inversion between the electron-type and hole-type bands occurs, which leads to the so-called pseudo-spin Hall effect. In a 3DTI QW with a square cross section, a tilting magnetic field can establish well-defined Landau levels in all four surfaces. In such a case, the quantum Hall edge states are localized at the square corners, characterized by the linearly crossing one-dimensional band profile. And they can be shifted between the adjacent corners by simply rotating the magnetic field.
Liu, Zhe; Jiang, Liwei; Zheng, Yisong
2016-07-13
By means of a numerical diagonalization approach, we calculate the electronic structure of a three-dimensional topological insulator (3DTI) quantum wire (QW) in the presence of a magnetic field. The QW can be viewed as a 3DTI film with lateral surfaces, when its rectangular cross section has a large aspect ratio. Our calculation indicates that nonchiral edge states emerge because of the confined states at the lateral surfaces. These states completely cover the valence band region among the Landau levels, which reasonably account for the absence of the [Formula: see text] quantum Hall effect in the relevant experimental works. In an ultrathin 3DTI film, inversion between the electron-type and hole-type bands occurs, which leads to the so-called pseudo-spin Hall effect. In a 3DTI QW with a square cross section, a tilting magnetic field can establish well-defined Landau levels in all four surfaces. In such a case, the quantum Hall edge states are localized at the square corners, characterized by the linearly crossing one-dimensional band profile. And they can be shifted between the adjacent corners by simply rotating the magnetic field. PMID:27195483
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thu Huong, Nguyen; Quang Bau, Nguyen; Hung, Le Thai; Hung, Dao Manh
2016-06-01
The Hall coefficient (HC) of a strong electromagnetic wave (EMW) caused by confined electrons in a rectangular quantum wire (RQW) is theoretically studied by using the quantum kinetic equation for electrons. The problem is considered in the case of electrons - acoustic phonons scattering. Wave function and energy spectrum in a RQW are different from those in a cylindrical quantum wire (CQW) or two dimensional systems (2D). Therefore analytical expressions for the HC in a RQW is obtained, different from CQW or 2D. Numerical calculations are carried out with a specific GaAs/GaAsAl RQW to show clearly the dependence of HC on a length Lx (Ly) RQW with different low temperature values. We can see that the length Lx (Ly) increases in value within the domain that HC increases. The HC reaches a peak before slightly decreases when the length Lx (Ly) continues going up. However, the HC depends on the radius and the length of CQW and wire size of RQW Lx and Ly at different values of temperatures; this is the fundamental difference between CQW and RQW. If the length Lx (Ly) continues to increase, the HC remains constant. It means that HC is no longer dependent on the length of quantum wires (This behavior is similar to the case of the independence of the HC on the length in bulk semiconductor).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moraga, Luis; Henriquez, Ricardo; Solis, Basilio
2015-08-01
We calculate the electrical conductivity of a metallic sample under the effects of distributed impurities and a random distribution of grain boundaries by means of a quantum mechanical procedure based on Kubo formula. Grain boundaries are represented either by a one-dimensional regular array of Dirac delta potentials (Mayadas and Shatzkes model) or by its three-dimensional extension (Szczyrbowski and Schmalzbauer model). We give formulas expressing the conductivity of bulk samples, thin films and thin wires of rectangular cross-sections in the case when the samples are bounded by perfectly flat surfaces. We find that, even in the absence of surface roughness, the conductivity in thin samples is reduced from its bulk value. If there are too many grain boundaries per unit length, or their scattering strength is high enough, there is a critical value Rc of the reflectivity R of an individual boundary such that the electrical conductivity vanishes for R >Rc. Also, the conductivity of thin wires shows a stepwise dependence on R. The effect of weak random variations in the strength or separation of the grain boundaries is computed by means of the method of correlation length. Finally, the resistivity of nanometric polycrystalline tungsten films reported in Choi et al. J. Appl. Phys. (2014) 115 104308 is tentatively analyzed by means of the present formalism.
Edwards, D M; Wessely, O
2009-04-01
An extended Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation is introduced to describe the dynamics of inhomogeneous magnetization in a current-carrying wire. The coefficients of all the terms in this equation are calculated quantum-mechanically for a simple model which includes impurity scattering. This is done by comparing the energies and lifetimes of a spin wave calculated from the LLG equation and from the explicit model. Two terms are of particular importance since they describe non-adiabatic spin-transfer torque and damping processes which do not rely on spin-orbit coupling. It is shown that these terms may have a significant influence on the velocity of a current-driven domain wall and they become dominant in the case of a narrow wall. PMID:21825349
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edwards, D. M.; Wessely, O.
2009-04-01
An extended Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation is introduced to describe the dynamics of inhomogeneous magnetization in a current-carrying wire. The coefficients of all the terms in this equation are calculated quantum-mechanically for a simple model which includes impurity scattering. This is done by comparing the energies and lifetimes of a spin wave calculated from the LLG equation and from the explicit model. Two terms are of particular importance since they describe non-adiabatic spin-transfer torque and damping processes which do not rely on spin-orbit coupling. It is shown that these terms may have a significant influence on the velocity of a current-driven domain wall and they become dominant in the case of a narrow wall.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, Ts; Donchev, V.; Angelova, T.; Cros, A.; Cantarero, A.; Shtinkov, N.; Borissov, K.; Fuster, D.; González, Y.; González, L.
2010-11-01
The optical properties of multi-layer InAs/InP quantum wires (QWRs) with two different spacer thicknesses have been investigated by means of room temperature surface photovoltage (SPV) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies, combined with empirical tight binding electronic structure calculations and structural data. The SPV and PL spectra reveal several features, which energy positions are in good agreement. They have been ascribed to excitonic transitions, which take place in the QWR families with heights differing by an integer number of monolayers. Comparing the experimental results with the theoretical ones, we have estimated the QWR family heights and the average atomic concentration of phosphorus in the QWRs. From the simultaneous analysis of the SPV amplitude and phase spectra, based on our vector model for SPV signal representation, a deeper understanding of the SPV results and of the mechanisms of carrier separation in the sample is obtained.
Wurtzite GaAs Quantum Wires: One-Dimensional Subband Formation.
Vainorius, Neimantas; Lehmann, Sebastian; Gustafsson, Anders; Samuelson, Lars; Dick, Kimberly A; Pistol, Mats-Erik
2016-04-13
It is of contemporary interest to fabricate nanowires having quantum confinement and one-dimensional subband formation. This is due to a host of applications, for example, in optical devices, and in quantum optics. We have here fabricated and optically investigated narrow, down to 10 nm diameter, wurtzite GaAs nanowires which show strong quantum confinement and the formation of one-dimensional subbands. The fabrication was bottom up and in one step using the vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism. Combining photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy with transmission electron microscopy on the same individual nanowires, we were able to extract the effective masses of the electrons in the two lowest conduction bands as well as the effective masses of the holes in the two highest valence bands. Our results, combined with earlier demonstrations of thin crystal phase nanodots in GaAs, set the stage for the fabrication of crystal phase quantum dots having full three-dimensional confinement. PMID:27004550
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Danga, J. E.; Kenfack, S. C.; Fai, L. C.
2016-05-01
Landau–Zener–Stückelberg interferometry is extensively investigated in a 3D heterostructure magnetic quantum wire. Local magnetic fields are used to coherently manipulate and control a qubit’s quantum state. For our numerical calculations, a parabolic confinement is assumed. Energy eigenvalues, non-adiabatic and adiabatic transition probabilities are calculated from the diabatic and adiabatic bases for two-level systems. Here, we show that the spatial crossing between interspin levels becomes a spatial anticrossing if the two spin states are coupled by external fields, and that consequently, due to the spin dependence of the harmonic confinement, it will undergo Landau–Zener–Stückelberg interference. It is shown that the system undergoes nonadiabatic Landau–Zener dynamics for a strong confinement in a strong external field, whereas a weak external field induces adiabatic Landau–Zener transition dynamics. Our system allows the coupling strength between the level states at the anti(crossing) point to be modulated. This system allows one to tune the wire’s parabolic confinement potential using experimentally accessible parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Topalović, D. B.; Arsoski, V. V.; Pavlović, S.; Čukarić, N. A.; Tadić, M. Ž.; Peeters, F. M.
2016-01-01
We use the Galerkin approach and the finite-element method to numerically solve the effective-mass Schrödinger equation. The accuracy of the solution is explored as it varies with the range of the numerical domain. The model potentials are those of interdiffused semiconductor quantum wells and axially symmetric quantum wires. Also, the model of a linear harmonic oscillator is considered for comparison reasons. It is demonstrated that the absolute error of the electron ground state energy level exhibits a minimum at a certain domain range, which is thus considered to be optimal. This range is found to depend on the number of mesh nodes N approximately as α0 logeα1(α2N), where the values of the constants α0, α1, and α2 are determined by fitting the numerical data. And the optimal range is found to be a weak function of the diffusion length. Moreover, it was demonstrated that a domain range adaptation to the optimal value leads to substantial improvement of accuracy of the solution of the Schrödinger equation. Supported by the Ministry of Education, Science, and Technological Development of Serbia and the Flemish fund for Scientific Research (FWO Vlaanderen)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishida, Toshio; Notomi, Masaya; Iga, Ryuzo; Tamamura, Toshiaki
1992-12-01
We have evaluated the resolution of the positive electron-beam (E-beam) resist ZEP-520 using finely focused E-beam exposure for the application of quantum wire fabrication in a large area. Compared with the poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA) resist conventionally used for nanofabrication, ZEP resist shows almost the same resolution under sensitivity improvement of one order of magnitude, and the throughput is increased by a factor of more than 100 by introducing a highly bright Zr/O/W thermal field emitter as an E-beam source. Other excellent performance characteristics, such as high dry-etching durability and process stability, allow us to apply ZEP resist for larger-area, high-density quantum wire fabrication. By both wet chemical etching and dry-etching combined with CBE selective growth, InGaAs nanostructures as small as 15 nm can be obtained with a pitch of 70 nm over several hundred μm squares.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakiroglu, S.; Gisi, B.; Karaaslan, Y.; Kasapoglu, E.; Sari, H.; Sokmen, I.
2016-07-01
In this work, we investigate the intersubband optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes for transitions between the lower-lying electronic levels of double quantum wires formed by a symmetric, double quartic-well potential. The system is subjected to an external in-plane magnetic field and Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings are taken into account. The analytical expressions of the linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients and refractive index changes are obtained by using the compact density-matrix approach and iterative method. The dependence of the optical characteristics on the magnetic field, spin-orbit interactions, quantum wire radius, structural parameter and photon energies has been examined. Numerical results exhibit that the optical properties are considerably sensitive to the strength and orientation of magnetic field as well as to the spin-orbit couplings and thus can be controlled by these parameters.
Localized states in a semiconductor quantum ring with a tangent wire
Yang, F.; Wu, M. W.
2014-08-28
We extend a special kind of localized state trapped at the intersection due to the geometric confinement, first proposed in a three-terminal-opening T-shaped structure [L. A. Openov, Europhys. Lett. 55, 539 (2001)], into a ring geometry with a tangent connection to the wire. In this ring geometry, there exists one localized state trapped at the intersection with energy lying inside the lowest subband. We systematically study this localized state and the resulting Fano-type interference due to the coupling between this localized state and the continuum ones. It is found that the increase of inner radius of the ring weakens the coupling to the continuum ones and the asymmetric Fano dip fades away. A wide energy gap in transmission appears due to the interplay of two types of antiresonances: the Fano-type antiresonance and the structure antiresonance. The size of this antiresonance gap can be modulated by adjusting the magnetic flux. Moreover, a large transmission amplitude can be obtained in the same gap area. The strong robustness of the antiresonance gap is demonstrated and shows the feasibility of the proposed geometry for a real application.
Nature of the many-body excitations in a quantum wire: Theory and experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsyplyatyev, O.; Schofield, A. J.; Jin, Y.; Moreno, M.; Tan, W. K.; Anirban, A. S.; Ford, C. J. B.; Griffiths, J. P.; Farrer, I.; Jones, G. A. C.; Ritchie, D. A.
2016-02-01
The natural excitations of an interacting one-dimensional system at low energy are the hydrodynamic modes of a Luttinger liquid, protected by the Lorentz invariance of the linear dispersion. We show that beyond low energies, where the quadratic dispersion reduces the symmetry to Galilean, the main character of the many-body excitations changes into a hierarchy: calculations of dynamic correlation functions for fermions (without spin) show that the spectral weights of the excitations are proportional to powers of R2/L2 , where R is a length-scale related to interactions and L is the system length. Thus only small numbers of excitations carry the principal spectral power in representative regions on the energy-momentum planes. We have analyzed the spectral function in detail and have shown that the first-level (strongest) excitations form a mode with parabolic dispersion, like that of a renormalized single particle. The second-level excitations produce a singular power-law line shape to the first-level mode and multiple power laws at the spectral edge. We have illustrated a crossover to a Luttinger liquid at low energy by calculating the local density of states through all energy scales: from linear to nonlinear, and to above the chemical potential energies. In order to test this model, we have carried out experiments to measure the momentum-resolved tunneling of electrons (fermions with spin) from/to a wire formed within a GaAs heterostructure. We observe a well-resolved spin-charge separation at low energy with appreciable interaction strength and only a parabolic dispersion of the first-level mode at higher energies. We find a structure resembling the second-level excitations, which dies away rapidly at high momentum in line with the theoretical predictions here.
Self-aligned silicon quantum wires on Ag(1 1 0)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leandri, C.; Lay, G. Le; Aufray, B.; Girardeaux, C.; Avila, J.; Dávila, M. E.; Asensio, M. C.; Ottaviani, C.; Cricenti, A.
2005-01-01
Upon deposition of silicon onto the (1 1 0) surface of a silver crystal we have grown massively parallel one-dimensional Si nanowires. They are imaged in scanning tunnelling microscopy as straight, high aspect ratio, nanostructures, all with the same characteristic width of 16 Å, perfectly aligned along the atomic troughs of the bare surface. Low energy electron diffraction confirms the massively parallel assembly of these self-organized nanowires. Photoemission reveals striking quantized states dispersing only along the length of the nanowires, and extremely sharp, two-components, Si 2p core levels. This demonstrates that in the large ensemble each individual nanowire is a well-defined quantum object comprising only two distinct silicon atomic environments. We suggest that this self-assembled array of highly perfect Si nanowires provides a simple, atomically precise, novel template that may impact a wide range of applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyo, S. K.; Huang, D.; Pan, W.
2008-03-01
We present rigorous theoretical results for the time-dependent and steady-state nonlinear DC current of an electron gas in a periodically modulated one-dimensional semiconductor quantum wire in a high electric field. The theoretical model considers electron-phonon and impurity scattering microscopically in the degenerate and the nondegenerate regime in a tight-binding model. The time-dependent oscillatory and saturation (i.e., steady-state) currents are studied as a function of the field, the radius of the wire, the elastic scattering rate, the lattice period, and the temperature. The radius controls the inelastic scattering rate. The distinctive roles of elastic and inelastic scattering for the current are contrasted and examined. Finally, we compare the results with those from an exact analytic formalism based on a relaxation-time model.
Spin-orbit coupling in GaxIn1-xAs/InP two-dimensional electron gases and quantum wire structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schäpers, Th; Guzenko, V. A.; Bringer, A.; Akabori, M.; Hagedorn, M.; Hardtdegen, H.
2009-06-01
In this work, the effect of spin-orbit coupling in two-dimensional electron gases and quantum wire structures is discussed. First, the theoretical framework is introduced including spin-orbit coupling due to structural inversion asymmetry, the so-called Rashba effect, as well as the Dresselhaus term. The latter originates from bulk inversion asymmetry. With regard to wire structures, special attention is devoted to the influence of the particular shape of the confinement potential on the energy spectrum. As a model system GaxIn1-xAs/InP heterostructures are chosen, where different thicknesses of the strained Ga0.23In0.77As channel layer were introduced, in order to adjust the strength of the spin-orbit coupling. Hall bar structures as well as sets of identical wires with different widths were prepared. In two-dimensional electron gases, the strength of the spin-orbit coupling was extracted by analyzing the characteristic beating pattern in the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. In addition, the weak antilocalization was utilized to obtain information on the spin-orbit coupling. It is shown that for decreasing width of the strained layer the Rashba effect, which dominates in our layer systems, is increased. This behavior is attributed to the larger interface contribution if the electron wavefunction is strongly confined. The measurements on the wire structures revealed a transition from weak antilocalization to weak localization if the wire width is decreased. This effect is attributed to an enhanced spin diffusion length for strongly confined systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Chongyun; Chen, Yonghai; Ma, Hui; Yu, Jinling; Liu, Yu
2011-06-01
In this letter we investigated the InAs/InAlAs quantum wires (QWRs) superlattice by optically exciting the structure with near-infrared radiation. By varying the helicity of the radiation at room temperature we observed the circular photogalvanic effect related to the C2v symmetry of the structure, which could be attributed to the formation of a quasi-two-dimensional system underlying in the vicinity of the QWRs pattern. The ratio of Rashba and Dresselhaus terms shows an evolution of the spin-orbit interaction in quasi-two-dimensional structure with the QWR layer deposition thickness.
Jiang Chongyun; Chen Yonghai; Ma Hui; Yu Jinling; Liu Yu
2011-06-06
In this letter we investigated the InAs/InAlAs quantum wires (QWRs) superlattice by optically exciting the structure with near-infrared radiation. By varying the helicity of the radiation at room temperature we observed the circular photogalvanic effect related to the C{sub 2v} symmetry of the structure, which could be attributed to the formation of a quasi-two-dimensional system underlying in the vicinity of the QWRs pattern. The ratio of Rashba and Dresselhaus terms shows an evolution of the spin-orbit interaction in quasi-two-dimensional structure with the QWR layer deposition thickness.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, T. G.; Ogura, M.
2000-01-01
High characteristic temperature ( To=˜322 K) is demonstrated near room-temperature with V-grooved, AlGaAs-GaAs multiple quantum wire (QWR) lasers grown by flow rate modulation epitaxy. The wavelength tuning rate of temperature Δλ/Δ T measured for 300 μm long uncoated lasers is ˜0.19 nm/°C and that of injection current Δ λ/Δ I is extremely small, in between 0.02 and 0.03 nm/mA in the temperature range 10 to 70°C.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others
This module is the first in a series of three wiring publications; it serves as the foundation for students enrolled in a wiring program. It is a prerequisite to either "Residential Wiring" or "Commercial and Industrial Wiring." The module contains 16 instructional units that cover the following topics: occupational introduction; general safety;…
Watzinger, H.; Glaser, M.; Zhang, J. J.; Daruka, I.; Schäffler, F.
2014-07-01
Isolated in-plane wires on Si(001) are promising nanostructures for quantum transport applications. They can be fabricated in a catalyst-free process by thermal annealing of self-organized Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} hut clusters. Here, we report on the influence of composition and small substrate miscuts on the unilateral wire growth during annealing at 570 °C. The addition of up to 20% of Si mainly affects the growth kinetics in the presence of energetically favorable sinks for diffusing Ge atoms, but does not significantly change the wire base width. For the investigated substrate miscuts of <0.12°, we find geometry-induced wire tapering, but no strong influence on the wire lengths. Miscuts <0.02° lead to almost perfect quantum wires terminated by virtually step-free (105) and (001) facets over lengths of several 100 nm. Generally, the investigated Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} wires are metastable: Annealing at ≥600 °C under otherwise identical conditions leads to the well-known coexistence of Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} pyramids and domes.
Self-assembled InAs quantum wire lasers on (001)InP at 1.6 {mu}m
Suarez, F.; Fuster, D.; Gonzalez, L.; Gonzalez, Y.; Garcia, J. M.; Dotor, M. L.
2006-08-28
In this work, the authors present results on the growth by atomic layer molecular beam epitaxy and characterization of lasers with one and three stacked layers of InAs quantum wires (QWRs) as active zone and aluminum-free waveguides on (001) InP substrates. The separated confinement heterostructure consists of n-p InP claddings and a waveguide formed by short period superlattices of (InP){sub 5}/(GaInAs){sub 4} lattice matched to the InP substrate. The optimum growth conditions (substrate temperature and As and P pressures) have been determined to obtain waveguides with a flat surface in order to get a uniform QWR distribution. Lasing emission is observed at a wavelength of {approx}1.66 {mu}m up to 270 K from 15x3000 {mu}m{sup 2} devices, with a threshold current density at that temperature of 2 kA/cm{sup 2}.
Correa, J. D.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.; Duque, C. A.
2014-06-07
We report a study on the optical absorption coefficient associated to hydrogenic impurity interstate transitions in zinc-blende GaN quantum wires of cylindrical shape taking into account the effects of externally applied static electric and magnetic fields. The electron states emerge within the effective mass approximation, via the exact diagonalization of the donor-impurity Hamiltonian with parabolic confinement and external field effects. The nonlinear optical absorption is calculated using a recently derived expression for the dielectric susceptibility, obtained via a nonperturbative solution of the density-matrix Bloch equation. Our results show that this treatment eliminates not only the intensity-dependent bleaching effect but also the change in sign of the nonlinear contribution due to the combined effect of asymmetric impurity location and the applied electric field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yumak, A.; Goumri-Said, Souraya; Khan, Wilayat; Boubaker, Karem; Petkova, P.
2016-07-01
ZnO quantum well wires (QWW) have grown on glass substrates by an inexpensive, simplified and enhanced spray pyrolysis technique then doped by Vanadium. The effects of V-doping on the structural, morphological and optical properties of the QWW were investigated experimentally and theoretically. The accuracy of control can be achieved on functional performance by adjusting vanadium doping extent. The incorporation of Vanadium in ZnO-QWW induced the formation of band tailing in states. The interactions with phonons and the presence of a tail absorption profile are following the empirical Urbach law. The electronic structure using density functional theory have shown the changes induced by vanadium doping in ZnO-QWW, where the phonon band structure and density of states were reported. The DFT results showed a good agreement with the lattice compatibility theory as well as with the experimental results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Correa, J. D.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.; Duque, C. A.
2014-06-01
We report a study on the optical absorption coefficient associated to hydrogenic impurity interstate transitions in zinc-blende GaN quantum wires of cylindrical shape taking into account the effects of externally applied static electric and magnetic fields. The electron states emerge within the effective mass approximation, via the exact diagonalization of the donor-impurity Hamiltonian with parabolic confinement and external field effects. The nonlinear optical absorption is calculated using a recently derived expression for the dielectric susceptibility, obtained via a nonperturbative solution of the density-matrix Bloch equation. Our results show that this treatment eliminates not only the intensity-dependent bleaching effect but also the change in sign of the nonlinear contribution due to the combined effect of asymmetric impurity location and the applied electric field.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Taylor, Mark
The second in a series of three curriculum packages on wiring, these materials for a five-unit course were developed to prepare postsecondary students for entry-level employment in the residential wiring trade. The five units are: (1) blueprint reading and load calculations; (2) rough-in; (3) service; (4) trim out and troubleshooting; and (5) load…
Atac, Muzaffer
1989-01-01
A wire chamber or proportional counter device, such as Geiger-Mueller tube or drift chamber, improved with a gas mixture providing a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Swanquist, Barry
1998-01-01
Discusses how today's technology is encouraging schools to invest in furnishings that are adaptable to computer use and telecommunications access. Explores issues concerning modularity, wiring management, ergonomics, durability, price, and aesthetics. (GR)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DeLoughry, Thomas J.
1995-01-01
The University of California at Santa Cruz has completed a successful test of a wireless computer network that would enable students and professors to get on line from anywhere on campus. The network, linked by radio waves, could save millions of dollars in campus wiring costs and would better meet student and faculty information needs. (MSE)
Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire
Brandon, E.D.; Hooper, F.M.; Reichenbach, M.L.
1992-08-11
A device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than 0.04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut. 1 figure.
Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire
Brandon, Eldon D.; Hooper, Frederick M.; Reichenbach, Marvin L.
1992-01-01
A device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than 0.04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut.
Nonuniversal metallic behavior of superconducting wires
Renn, S.R.; Duan, J.
1996-04-01
We calculate the low temperature resistance of a narrow superconducting wire associated with quantum mechanical phase slippage. Particular attention is payed to the effects of Coulomb interactions. Using a renormalization group approach, we obtain the temperature dependent resistance. The results show that, near the superconductor-insulator transition, the wire displays quasimetallic behavior characterized by a small but finite low temperature resistance. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Razwick, Jerry
2003-01-01
Although wired glass is extremely common in school buildings, the International Building Code adopted new standards that eliminate the use of traditional wired glass in K-12 schools, daycare centers, and athletic facilities. Wired glass breaks easily, and the wires can cause significant injuries by forming dangerous snags when the glass breaks.…
Bowden, Gordon; /SLAC
2005-09-06
Stretched wires are beginning to play an important role in the alignment of accelerators and synchrotron light sources. Stretched wires are proposed for the alignment of the 130 meter long LCLS undulator. Wire position technology has reached sub-micron resolution yet analyses of perturbations to wire straightness are hard to find. This paper considers possible deviations of stretched wire from the simple 2-dimensional catenary form.
Concealed wire tracing apparatus
Kronberg, James W.
1994-01-01
An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burke, Christopher S.
2011-01-01
Wire-testing issues, such as the gripping strains imposed on the wire, play a critical role in obtaining clean data. In a standard test frame fitted with flat wedge grips, the gripping action alone creates stresses on the wire specimen that cause the wire to fail at the grip location. A new test frame, which is outfitted with a vacuum chamber, negated the use of any conventional commercially available wire test fixtures, as only 7 in. (17.8 cm) existed between the grip faces. An innovative grip fixture was designed to test thin gauge wire for a variety of applications in an existing Instron test frame outfitted with a vacuum chamber.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lundquist, Ray A.; Leidecker, Henning
1998-01-01
The allowable operating currents of electrical wiring when used in the space vacuum environment is predominantly determined by the maximum operating temperature of the wire insulation. For Kapton insulated wire this value is 200 C. Guidelines provided in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Preferred Parts List (PPL) limit the operating current of wire within vacuum to ensure the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded. For 20 AWG wire, these operating parameters are: (1) 3.7 amps per wire; (2) bundle of 15 or more wires; (3) 70 C environment: and (4) vacuum of 10(exp -5) torr or less. To determine the behavior and temperature of electrical wire at different operating conditions, a thermal vacuum test was performed on a representative electrical harness of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power distribution system. This paper describes the test and the results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lundquist, Ray A.; Leidecker, Henning
1999-01-01
The allowable operating currents of electrical wiring when used in the space vacuum environment is predominantly determined by the maximum operating temperature of the wire insulation. For Kapton insulated wire this value is 200 degree C. Guidelines provided in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Preferred Parts List (PPL) limit the operating current of wire within vacuum to ensure the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded. For 20 AWG wire, these operating parameters are: (1) 3.7 amps per wire (2) bundle of 15 or more wires (3) 70 C environment (4) vacuum of 10(exp -5) torr or less To determine the behavior and temperature of electrical wire at different operating conditions, a thermal vacuum test was performed on a representative electrical harness of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power distribution system. This paper describes the test and the results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lundquist, Ray A.; Leidecker, Henning
1998-01-01
The allowable operating currents of electrical wiring when used in the space vacuum environment is predominantly determined by the maximum operating temperature of the wire insulation. For Kapton insulated wire this value is 200 C. Guidelines provided in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Preferred Parts List (PPL) limit the operating current of wire within vacuum to ensure the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded. For 20 AWG wire, these operating parameters are: 3.7 amps per wire, bundle of 15 or more wires, 70 C environment, and vacuum of 10(exp -5) torr or less. To determine the behavior and temperature of electrical wire at different operating conditions, a thermal vacuum test was performed on a representative electrical harness of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power distribution system. This paper describes the test and the results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1983-01-01
NASA-developed space shuttle technology is used in a laser wire stripper designed by Raytheon Company. Laser beams cut through insulation on a wire without damaging conductive metal, because laser radiation that melts plastic insulation is reflected by the metal. The laser process is fast, clean, precise and repeatable. It eliminates quality control problems and the expense of rejected wiring.
Magnetism and spin-polarized transport in carbon atomic wires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Z. Y.; Sheng, W.; Ning, Z. Y.; Zhang, Z. H.; Yang, Z. Q.; Guo, H.
2009-09-01
We report ab initio calculations of magnetic and spin-polarized quantum transport properties of pure and nitrogen-doped carbon atomic wires. For finite-sized wires with even number of carbon atoms, total magnetic moment of 2μB is found. On the other hand, wires with odd number atoms have no net magnetic moment. Doped with one or two nitrogen atom(s), the carbon atomic wires exhibit a spin-density-wave-like state. The magnetic properties can be rationalized through bonding patterns and unpaired states. When the wire is sandwiched between Au electrodes to form a transport junction, perfect spin filtering effect can be induced by slightly straining the wire.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papp, E.; Micu, C.; Racolta, D.
2013-11-01
In this paper one deals with the theoretical derivation of energy bands and of related wavefunctions characterizing quasi 1D semiconductor heterostructures, such as InAs quantum wire models. Such models get characterized this time by equal coupling strength superpositions of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions of dimensionless magnitude a under the influence of in-plane magnetic fields of magnitude B. We found that the orientations of the field can be selected by virtue of symmetry requirements. For this purpose one resorts to spin conservations, but alternative conditions providing sensible simplifications of the energy-band formula can be reasonably accounted for. Besides the wavenumber k relying on the 1D electron, one deals with the spin-like s=±1 factors in the front of the square root term of the energy. Having obtained the spinorial wavefunction, opens the way to the derivation of spin precession effects. For this purpose one resorts to the projections of the wavenumber operator on complementary spin states. Such projections are responsible for related displacements proceeding along the Ox-axis. This results in a 2D rotation matrix providing both the precession angle as well as the precession axis.
Papp, E.; Micu, C.; Racolta, D.
2013-11-13
In this paper one deals with the theoretical derivation of energy bands and of related wavefunctions characterizing quasi 1D semiconductor heterostructures, such as InAs quantum wire models. Such models get characterized this time by equal coupling strength superpositions of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions of dimensionless magnitude a under the influence of in-plane magnetic fields of magnitude B. We found that the orientations of the field can be selected by virtue of symmetry requirements. For this purpose one resorts to spin conservations, but alternative conditions providing sensible simplifications of the energy-band formula can be reasonably accounted for. Besides the wavenumber k relying on the 1D electron, one deals with the spin-like s=±1 factors in the front of the square root term of the energy. Having obtained the spinorial wavefunction, opens the way to the derivation of spin precession effects. For this purpose one resorts to the projections of the wavenumber operator on complementary spin states. Such projections are responsible for related displacements proceeding along the Ox-axis. This results in a 2D rotation matrix providing both the precession angle as well as the precession axis.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Green, G.; Mattauch, R. J. (Inventor)
1983-01-01
A method is described for forming sharp tips on thin wires, in particular phosphor bronze wires of diameters such as one-thousandth inch used to contact micron size Schottky barrier diodes, which enables close control of tip shape and which avoids the use of highly toxic solutions. The method includes dipping an end of a phosphor bronze wire into a dilute solution of sulfamic acid and applying a current through the wire to electrochemically etch it. The humidity in the room is controlled to a level of less than 50%, and the voltage applied between the wire and another electrode in the solutions is a half wave rectified voltage. The current through the wire is monitored, and the process is stopped when the current falls to a predetermined low level.
Falce, Louis R.; Ives, R. Lawrence
2007-12-25
A plurality of high atomic number wires are sintered together to form a porous rod that is parted into porous disks which will be used as x-ray targets. A thermally conductive material is introduced into the pores of the rod, and when a stream of electrons impinges on the sintered wire target and generates x-rays, the heat generated by the impinging x-rays is removed by the thermally conductive material interspersed in the pores of the wires.
Zhang, X.G.; Hwang, J.
1997-02-01
A novel method for corrosion protection of rebar in concrete is reported wherein it is galvanically protected by attaching a zinc wire along its length. The self-corrosion and galvanic-corrosion loss of the zinc wire is dependent on the water/cement ratio, the size of the cathode, and the concrete cover thickness. The wire acts as a sacrificial anode when the rebar embedded in concrete is exposed to corrosive environments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semenov, Andrew G.; Zaikin, Andrei D.
2016-07-01
Quantum phase slips (QPSs) generate voltage fluctuations in superconducting nanowires. Employing the Keldysh technique and making use of the phase-charge duality arguments, we develop a theory of QPS-induced voltage noise in such nanowires. We demonstrate that quantum tunneling of the magnetic flux quanta across the wire yields quantum shot noise which obeys Poisson statistics and is characterized by a power-law dependence of its spectrum SΩ on the external bias. In long wires, SΩ decreases with increasing frequency Ω and vanishes beyond a threshold value of Ω at T →0 . The quantum coherent nature of QPS noise yields nonmonotonous dependence of SΩ on T at small Ω .
Concealed wire tracing apparatus
Kronberg, J.W.
1994-05-31
An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface is disclosed. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest. 4 figs.
Weld Wire Investigation Summary
Cunningham, M.A.
1999-03-22
After GTA welding reservoir A production/process prove-in assemblies, X-ray examination detected a lack of sidewall fusion. After examining several possible causes, it was determined that the weld wire filler metal was responsible, particularly the wire cleaning process. The final conclusion was that the filler wire must be abrasively cleaned in a particular manner to perform as required. The abrasive process was incorporated into the wire material specification, ensuring consistency for all reservoir GTA welding at AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM and T).
Gibson, G.H.; Smits, R.G.; Eberhard, P.H.
1982-08-31
A device for uncovering imperfections in electrical conducting wire, particularly superconducting wire, by detecting variations in eddy currents. Eddy currents effect the magnetic field in a gap of an inductor, contained in a modified commercial ferrite core, through which the wire being tested is passed. A small increase or decrease in the amount of conductive material, such as copper, in a fixed cross section of wire will unbalance a bridge used to measure the impedance of the inductor, tripping a detector and sounding an alarm.
1998 wire development workshop proceedings
1998-04-01
This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development.
VIEW SOUTHEASTBUILDING 4 NO. 1 WIRE MILL (1871) WIRE DRAWING ...
VIEW SOUTHEAST-BUILDING 4 NO. 1 WIRE MILL (1871) WIRE DRAWING MACHINE - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turner-Evans, Dan
Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction
Commercial and Industrial Wiring.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary
This module is the third in a series of three wiring publications, includes additional technical knowledge and applications required for job entry in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. The module contains 15 instructional units that cover the following topics: blueprint reading and load calculations; tools and equipment; service;…
Barr, Paul; Butcher, Lola; Hoppszallern, Suzanna
2016-07-01
This year's IT survey shows that hospitals are aggressively fighting cyber crime and looking for ways to use data to help in the transition to value-based care. Find out who made the 2016 lists of Most Wired, Most Advanced, Most Improved and Most Wired-Small and Rural. PMID:27526506
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aspden, H.
1985-02-01
Graneau's recent interpretation of the exploding wire phenomenon as an electrodynamic effect verifying Ampère's classical formulation is questioned. Instead, it is shown that the rupturing force arising from the imbalance of the self-induced electromotive force and the ohmic potential during an explosive current surge will account for the wire breaking into several segments, as is observed.
Water Desalination with Wires.
Porada, S; Sales, B B; Hamelers, H V M; Biesheuvel, P M
2012-06-21
We show the significant potential of water desalination using a novel capacitive wire-based technology in which anode/cathode wire pairs are constructed from coating a thin porous carbon electrode layer on top of electrically conducting rods (or wires). By alternately dipping an array of electrode pairs in freshwater with and in brine without an applied cell voltage, we create an ion adsorption/desorption cycle. We show experimentally how in six subsequent cycles we can reduce the salinity of 20 mM feed (brackish) water by a factor of 3, while application of a cation exchange membrane on the cathode wires makes the desalination factor increase to 4. Theoretical modeling rationalizes the experimental findings, and predicts that system performance can be significantly enhanced by material modifications. To treat large volumes of water, multiple stacks of wire pairs can be used simultaneously in a "merry-go-round" operational mode. PMID:26285717
International space station wire program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
May, Todd
1995-01-01
Hardware provider wire systems and current wire insulation issues for the International Space Station (ISS) program are discussed in this viewgraph presentation. Wire insulation issues include silicone wire contamination, Tefzel cold temperature flexibility, and Russian polyimide wire insulation. ISS is a complex program with hardware developed and managed by many countries and hundreds of contractors. Most of the obvious wire insulation issues are known by contractors and have been precluded by proper selection.
Majorana fermions in noisy Kitaev wires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Ying; Cai, Zi; Baranov, Mikhail A.; Zoller, Peter
2015-10-01
Robustness of edge states and non-Abelian excitations of topological states of matter promises quantum memory and quantum processing, which are naturally immune to microscopic imperfections such as static disorder. However, topological properties will not in general protect quantum systems from time-dependent disorder or noise. Here we take the example of a network of Kitaev wires with Majorana edge modes storing qubits to investigate the effects of classical noise in the crossover from the quasistatic to the fast fluctuation regime. We present detailed results for the Majorana edge correlations, and fidelity of braiding operations for both global and local noise sources preserving parity symmetry, such as random chemical potentials and phase fluctuations. While in general noise will induce heating and dephasing, we identify examples of long-lived quantum correlations in the presence of fast noise due to motional narrowing, where external noise drives the system rapidly between the topological and nontopological phases.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Medelius, Petro; Jolley, Scott; Fitzpatrick, Lilliana; Vinje, Rubiela; Williams, Martha; Clayton, LaNetra; Roberson, Luke; Smith, Trent; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo
2007-01-01
Wiring is a major operational component on aerospace hardware that accounts for substantial weight and volumetric space. Over time wire insulation can age and fail, often leading to catastrophic events such as system failure or fire. The next generation of wiring must be reliable and sustainable over long periods of time. These features will be achieved by the development of a wire insulation capable of autonomous self-healing that mitigates failure before it reaches a catastrophic level. In order to develop a self-healing insulation material, three steps must occur. First, methods of bonding similar materials must be developed that are capable of being initiated autonomously. This process will lead to the development of a manual repair system for polyimide wire insulation. Second, ways to initiate these bonding methods that lead to materials that are similar to the primary insulation must be developed. Finally, steps one and two must be integrated to produce a material that has no residues from the process that degrades the insulating properties of the final repaired insulation. The self-healing technology, teamed with the ability to identify and locate damage, will greatly improve reliability and safety of electrical wiring of critical systems. This paper will address these topics, discuss the results of preliminary testing, and remaining development issues related to self-healing wire insulation.
Nanowire terahertz quantum cascade lasers
Grange, Thomas
2014-10-06
Quantum cascade lasers made of nanowire axial heterostructures are proposed. The dissipative quantum dynamics of their carriers is theoretically investigated using non-equilibrium Green functions. Their transport and gain properties are calculated for varying nanowire thickness, from the classical-wire regime to the quantum-wire regime. Our calculation shows that the lateral quantum confinement provided by the nanowires allows an increase of the maximum operation temperature and a strong reduction of the current density threshold compared to conventional terahertz quantum cascade lasers.
Orbiter Kapton wire operational requirements and experience
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peterson, R. V.
1994-01-01
The agenda of this presentation includes the Orbiter wire selection requirements, the Orbiter wire usage, fabrication and test requirements, typical wiring installations, Kapton wire experience, NASA Kapton wire testing, summary, and backup data.
Dual wire weld feed proportioner
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nugent, R. E.
1968-01-01
Dual feed mechanism enables proportioning of two different weld feed wires during automated TIG welding to produce a weld alloy deposit of the desired composition. The wires are fed into the weld simultaneously. The relative feed rates of the wires and the wire diameters determine the weld deposit composition.
Splicing Wires Permanently With Explosives
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bement, Laurence J.; Kushnick, Anne C.
1990-01-01
Explosive joining process developed to splice wires by enclosing and metallurgically bonding wires within copper sheets. Joints exhibit many desirable characteristics, 100-percent conductivity and strength, no heat-induced annealing, no susceptibility to corrosion in contacts between dissimilar metals, and stability at high temperature. Used to join wires to terminals, as well as to splice wires. Applicable to telecommunications industry, in which millions of small wires spliced annually.
Meigs, Richard A.
1995-01-01
A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus.
Meigs, R.A.
1995-09-19
A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus. 13 figs.
Meigs, R.A.
1993-08-31
A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus.
Dielectric coated wire antennas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Richmond, J. H.; Newman, E. H.
1976-01-01
An electrically thin dielectric insulating shell on an antenna composed of electrically thin circular cylindrical wires is examined. A moment method solution is obtained, and the insulating shell is modeled by equivalent volume polarization currents. These polarization currents are related in a simple manner to the surface charge density on the wire antenna. In this way the insulating shell causes no new unknowns to be introduced, and the size of the impedance matrix is the same as for the uninsulated wires. The insulation is accounted for entirely through a modification of the symmetric impedance matrix. This modification influences the current distribution, impedance, efficiency, field patterns, and scattering properties. The theory is compared with measurement for dielectric coated antennas in air.
2. TYPICAL OVERHEAD WIRE CONSTRUCTION CURVE GUY WIRE ARRANGEMENT ...
2. TYPICAL OVERHEAD WIRE CONSTRUCTION - CURVE GUY WIRE ARRANGEMENT (ABANDONED WEST LEG OF WYE AT SIXTH AVENUE AND PINE STREET) - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Trackage, Yakima, Yakima County, WA
Gannon, J.; Crawford, C.; Finley, D.; Flora, R.; Groves, T.; MacPherson, M.
1989-03-01
Transverse beam profile measurement systems called ''Flying Wires'' have been installed and made operational in the Fermilab Main Ring and Tevatron accelerators. These devices are used routinely to measure the emittance of both protons and antiprotons throughout the fill process, and for emittance growth measurements during stores. In the Tevatron, the individual transverse profiles of six proton and six antiproton bunches are obtained simultaneously, with a single pass of the wire through the beam. Essential features of the hardware, software, and system operation are explained in the rest of the paper. 3 refs., 4 figs.
Wiring for space applications program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hammoud, Ahmad
1994-01-01
The insulation testing and analysis consists of: identifying and prioritizing NASA wiring requirements; selecting candidate wiring constructions; developing test matrix and formulating test program; managing, coordinating, and conducting tests; and analyzing and documenting data, establishing guidelines and recommendations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Byrom, Elizabeth, Ed.; Bingham, Margaret, Ed.; Bowman, Gloria, Ed.; Shoemaker, Dan, Ed.
2002-01-01
This document presents the 3 2002 issues of the newsletter "NewsWire," (volume 5). Issue Number One focuses on collaborative Web projects. This issue begins with descriptions of four individual projects: "iEARN"; "Operation RubyThroat"; "Follow the Polar Huskies!"; and "Log in Your Animal Roadkill!" Features that follow include: "Bringing the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others
This guide is designed to assist teachers conducting a foundation course to prepare students for additional courses of training for entry-level employment in either the residential or commercial and industrial wiring trades. Included in the guide are 17 instructional units and the following sections of information for teachers: guidelines in using…
Atac, M.
1987-05-12
An improved gas mixture for use with proportional counter devices, such as Geiger-Mueller tubes and drift chambers. The improved gas mixture provides a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor. 2 figs.
Residential Wiring. Second Edition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Taylor, Mark; And Others
This guide is designed to assist teachers conducting a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in the residential wiring trade. Included in the guide are six instructional units and the following sections of information for teachers: guidelines in using the unit components; academic and workplace skills classifications and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Panettieri, Joseph C.
2006-01-01
The wireless bandwagon is rolling across Mississippi, picking up a fresh load of converts and turning calamity into opportunity. Traditional wired school networks, many of which unraveled during Hurricane Katrina, are giving way to advanced wireless mesh networks that frequently include voice-over-IP (VoIP) capabilities. Vendor funding is helping…
Caroviologens: Towards molecular wires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blanchard-Desce, M.; Arrhenius, T. S.; Dvolaïtzky, M.; Kugimiya, S.-I.; Lazrak, T.; Lehn, J.-M.
1992-07-01
Bispyridinium conjugated polyenes of different lengths and charges have been synthesized. Since they combine the features of carotenoids and of viologens, they have been termed caroviologens. Such molecules, possessing an extended conjugated chain fitted with polar electroactive endgroups, and having a length sufficient to span a lipid membrane could function as transmembrane electron channels, i.e., as molecular wires.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dean, W. T.; Stringer, E. J.
1979-01-01
Crimp-type connectors reduce assembly and disassembly time. With design, no switch preparation is necessary and socket contracts are crimped to wires inserted in module attached to back of toggle switch engaging pins inside module to make electrical connections. Wires are easily removed with standard detachment tool. Design can accommodate wires of any gage and as many terminals can be placed on switch as wire gage and switch dimensions will allow.
Wire EDM for Refractory Materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zellars, G. R.; Harris, F. E.; Lowell, C. E.; Pollman, W. M.; Rys, V. J.; Wills, R. J.
1982-01-01
In an attempt to reduce fabrication time and costs, Wire Electrical Discharge Machine (Wire EDM) method was investigated as tool for fabricating matched blade roots and disk slots. Eight high-strength nickel-base superalloys were used. Computer-controlled Wire EDM technique provided high quality surfaces with excellent dimensional tolerances. Wire EDM method offers potential for substantial reductions in fabrication costs for "hard to machine" alloys and electrically conductive materials in specific high-precision applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dickinson, S. C.
1983-04-01
Several methods for producing hot-wire probes are described. Discussion includes the manufacture of probe bodies, soldering plated wires to the prongs etching Walaston type wires, and finishing the probe. This report is written as an instruction manual for researchers who desire to produce or repair their own sensors.
1997 wire development workshop: Proceedings
1997-04-01
This conference is divided into the following sections: (1) First Generation Wires I; (2) First Generation Wires II; (3) Coated conductors I; and (4) Coated conductors II. Applications of the superconducting wires include fault current limiters, superconducting motors, transformers, and power transmission lines.
Silver-sheathed multifilament wires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, C. T.; Goretta, K. C.; Shi, D.; Lanagan, M. T.; Poeppel, R. B.
1991-01-01
The process for manufacturing Ag-sheathed multifilament superconducting wires was investigated. Bi2Sr(1.7)CaCu2O(x), Pb-doped Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O(x), or YBa2Cu3O(x) powders were packed into Ag tubes and swaged into long wires. Pieces were cut from each wire, packed into a second Ag tube and swaged or rolled into multifilament wires. Each wire was then sintered to produce a superconductor. Processing considerations included the sheath workability, effects of compacting and residual stresses, and heat treatment schedules. The superconducting properties of the Bi-based wires were superior to those of the YBa2Cu3O(x) wires at 4.2 K, but not at 77 K.
Wire insulation defect detector
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Greulich, Owen R. (Inventor)
2004-01-01
Wiring defects are located by detecting a reflected signal that is developed when an arc occurs through the defect to a nearby ground. The time between the generation of the signal and the return of the reflected signal provides an indication of the distance of the arc (and therefore the defect) from the signal source. To ensure arcing, a signal is repeated at gradually increasing voltages while the wire being tested and a nearby ground are immersed in a conductive medium. In order to ensure that the arcing occurs at an identifiable time, the signal whose reflection is to be detected is always made to reach the highest potential yet seen by the system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amin, Mustafa A.; Baumann, Daniel
2016-02-01
We provide a statistical framework for characterizing stochastic particle production in the early universe via a precise correspondence to current conduction in wires with impurities. Our approach is particularly useful when the microphysics is uncertain and the dynamics are complex, but only coarse-grained information is of interest. We study scenarios with multiple interacting fields and derive the evolution of the particle occupation numbers from a Fokker-Planck equation. At late times, the typical occupation numbers grow exponentially which is the analog of Anderson localization for disordered wires. Some statistical features of the occupation numbers show hints of universality in the limit of a large number of interactions and/or a large number of fields. For test cases, excellent agreement is found between our analytic results and numerical simulations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1979-01-01
Straightening teeth is an arduous process requiring months, often years, of applying corrective pressure by means of arch wires-better known as brace-which may have to be changed several times in the course of treatment. A new method has been developed by Dr. George Andreasen, orthodontist and dental scientist at the University of Iowa. The key is a new type of arch wire material, called Nitinol, with exceptional elasticity which helps reduce the required number of brace changes. An alloy of nickel and titanium, Nitinol was originally developed for aerospace applications by the Naval Ordnance Laboratory, now the Naval Surface Weapons Laboratory, White Oaks, Maryland. NASA subsequently conducted additional research on the properties of Nitinol and on procedures for processing the metal.
Wiring for aerospace applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Christian, J. L., Jr.; Dickman, J. E.; Bercaw, R. W.; Myers, I. T.; Hammoud, A. N.; Stavnes, M.; Evans, J.
1992-01-01
In this paper, the authors summarize the current state of knowledge of arc propagation in aerospace power wiring and efforts by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) towards the understanding of the arc tracking phenomena in space environments. Recommendations will be made for additional testing. A database of the performance of commonly used insulating materials will be developed to support the design of advanced high power missions, such as Space Station Freedom and Lunar/Mars Exploration.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reynolds, L.; Tweed, H.
1972-01-01
The work performed entailed the design, development, construction and testing of a 4000 word by 18 bit random access, NDRO plated wire memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft imput/output unit and central processing unit. The primary design parameters, in order of importance, were high reliability, low power, volume and weight. A single memory unit, referred to as a qualification model, was delivered.
Dual wire welding torch and method
Diez, Fernando Martinez; Stump, Kevin S.; Ludewig, Howard W.; Kilty, Alan L.; Robinson, Matthew M.; Egland, Keith M.
2009-04-28
A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.
Unpacking of a Crumpled Wire from Two-Dimensional Cavities
Sobral, Thiago A.; Gomes, Marcelo A. F.; Machado, Núbia R.; Brito, Valdemiro P.
2015-01-01
The physics of tightly packed structures of a wire and other threadlike materials confined in cavities has been explored in recent years in connection with crumpled systems and a number of topics ranging from applications to DNA packing in viral capsids and surgical interventions with catheter to analogies with the electron gas at finite temperature and with theories of two-dimensional quantum gravity. When a long piece of wire is injected into two-dimensional cavities, it bends and originates in the jammed limit a series of closed structures that we call loops. In this work we study the extraction of a crumpled tightly packed wire from a circular cavity aiming to remove loops individually. The size of each removed loop, the maximum value of the force needed to unpack each loop, and the total length of the extracted wire were measured and related to an exponential growth and a mean field model consistent with the literature of crumpled wires. Scaling laws for this process are reported and the relationship between the processes of packing and unpacking of wire is commented upon. PMID:26047315
Unpacking of a Crumpled Wire from Two-Dimensional Cavities.
Sobral, Thiago A; Gomes, Marcelo A F; Machado, Núbia R; Brito, Valdemiro P
2015-01-01
The physics of tightly packed structures of a wire and other threadlike materials confined in cavities has been explored in recent years in connection with crumpled systems and a number of topics ranging from applications to DNA packing in viral capsids and surgical interventions with catheter to analogies with the electron gas at finite temperature and with theories of two-dimensional quantum gravity. When a long piece of wire is injected into two-dimensional cavities, it bends and originates in the jammed limit a series of closed structures that we call loops. In this work we study the extraction of a crumpled tightly packed wire from a circular cavity aiming to remove loops individually. The size of each removed loop, the maximum value of the force needed to unpack each loop, and the total length of the extracted wire were measured and related to an exponential growth and a mean field model consistent with the literature of crumpled wires. Scaling laws for this process are reported and the relationship between the processes of packing and unpacking of wire is commented upon. PMID:26047315
Wire detecting apparatus and method
Kronberg, J.W.
1991-12-31
This invention is comprised of an apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receiver`s position with respect to the wiring. The receiver`s audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receiver`s coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring`s concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest.
Manually Operated Welding Wire Feeder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rybicki, Daniel J. (Inventor)
2001-01-01
A manual welding wire feeder apparatus comprising a bendable elongate metal frame with a feed roller mounted at the center thereof for rotation about an axis transverse to the longitudinal axis of the frame. The frame ends are turned up as tabs and each provided with openings in alignment with each other and the mid-width center of the roller surface. The tab openings are sized to accommodate welding wire and each extends to a side edge of the tab, both opening on the same side of the frame, whereby welding wire can be side-loaded onto the frame. On the side of the frame, opposite the roller a lock ring handle is attached tangentially and is rotatable about the attachment point and an axis perpendicular to the frame. The device is grasped in the hand normally used to hold the wire. A finger is placed through the loop ring and the frame positioned across the palm and lower fingers. The thumb is positioned atop the wire so it can be moved from the back of the frame across the roller, and towards the front. In doing so, the wire is advanced at a steady rate in axial alignment with the tab openings and roller. To accommodate different wire diameters the frame is bendable about its center in the plane of the frame axis and wire so as to keep the wire in sufficient tension against the roller and to keep the wire fixed when the frame is tilted and thumb pressure released.
Wire Array Solar Cells: Fabrication and Photoelectrochemical Studies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spurgeon, Joshua Michael
/polymer composite films showed that their energy-conversion properties were comparable to those of an array attached to the growth substrate. High quantum efficiencies were observed relative to the packing density of the wires, particularly with illumination at high angles of incidence. The results indicate that an inexpensive, solid-state Si wire array solar cell is possible, and a plan is presented to develop one.
Making Superconducting Welds between Superconducting Wires
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Penanen, Konstantin I.; Eom, Byeong Ho
2008-01-01
A technique for making superconducting joints between wires made of dissimilar superconducting metals has been devised. The technique is especially suitable for fabrication of superconducting circuits needed to support persistent electric currents in electromagnets in diverse cryogenic applications. Examples of such electromagnets include those in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems and in superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). Sometimes, it is desirable to fabricate different parts of a persistent-current-supporting superconducting loop from different metals. For example, a sensory coil in a SQUID might be made of Pb, a Pb/Sn alloy, or a Cu wire plated with Pb/Sn, while the connections to the sensory coil might be made via Nb or Nb/Ti wires. Conventional wire-bonding techniques, including resistance spot welding and pressed contact, are not workable because of large differences between the hardnesses and melting temperatures of the different metals. The present technique is not subject to this limitation. The present technique involves the use (1) of a cheap, miniature, easy-to-operate, capacitor-discharging welding apparatus that has an Nb or Nb/Ti tip and operates with a continuous local flow of gaseous helium and (2) preparation of a joint in a special spark-discharge welding geometry. In a typical application, a piece of Nb foil about 25 m thick is rolled to form a tube, into which is inserted a wire that one seeks to weld to the tube (see figure). The tube can be slightly crimped for mechanical stability. Then a spark weld is made by use of the aforementioned apparatus with energy and time settings chosen to melt a small section of the niobium foil. The energy setting corresponds to the setting of a voltage to which the capacitor is charged. In an experiment, the technique was used to weld an Nb foil to a copper wire coated with a Pb/Sn soft solder, which is superconducting. The joint was evaluated as
Metering Wheel-Wire Track Wire Boom Deployment Mechanism
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Granoff, Mark S.
2014-01-01
The NASA MMS Spin Plane Double Probe (SDP) Deployer utilizes a helical path, rotating Metering Wheel and a spring loaded Wire "Holding" Track to pay out a "fixed end" 57 meter x 1.5 mm diameter Wire Boom stored between concentric storage cylinders. Unlike rotating spool type storage devices, the storage cylinders remain stationary, and the boom wire is uncoiled along the length of the cylinder via the rotation of the Metering Wheel. This uncoiling action avoids the need for slip-ring contacts since the ends of the wire can remain stationary. Conventional fixed electrical connectors (Micro-D type) are used to terminate to operational electronics.
Va'Vra, J.
1986-02-01
This paper makes an overview of the wire chamber aging problems as a function of various chamber design parameters. It emphasizes the chemistry point of view and many examples are drawn from the plasma chemistry field as a guidance for a possible effort in the wire chamber field. The paper emphasizes the necessity of variable tuning, the importance of purity of the wire chamber environment, as well as it provides a practical list of presently known recommendations. In addition, several models of the wire chamber aging are qualitatively discussed. The paper is based on a summary talk given at the Wire Chamber Aging Workshop held at LBL, Berkeley on January 16-17, 1986. Presented also at Wire Chamber Conference, Vienna, February 25-28, 1986. 74 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.
Cherniak, Christopher
2012-01-01
Combinatorial network optimization theory concerns minimization of connection costs among interconnected components in systems such as electronic circuits. As an organization principle, similar wiring minimization can be observed at various levels of nervous systems, invertebrate and vertebrate, including primate, from placement of the entire brain in the body down to the subcellular level of neuron arbor geometry. In some cases, the minimization appears either perfect, or as good as can be detected with current methods. One question such best-of-all-possible-brains results raise is, what is the map of such optimization, does it have a distinct neural domain? PMID:22230636
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carpenter, K. H.
1974-01-01
The design, construction, and test history of a 4096 word by 18 bit random access NDRO Plated Wire Memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft input/output and central processing unit is reported. A technical and functional description is given along with diagrams illustrating layout and systems operation. Test data is shown on the procedures and results of system level and memory stack testing, and hybrid circuit screening. A comparison of the most significant physical and performance characteristics of the memory unit versus the specified requirements is also included.
Texture development in Galfenol wire
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boesenberg, A. J.; Restorff, J. B.; Wun-Fogle, M.; Sailsbury, H.; Summers, E.
2013-05-01
Galfenol (Fe-Ga alloy) wire fabrication provides a low cost alternative to directional solidification methods. This work evaluates the compositional dependence of the wire drawing suitability of Fe-Ga and characterizes the microstructural and magnetic properties of these wires. Wire has been produced with Ga contents between 10 at. % and 17 at. % to allow determination of the ductile to brittle transition (DTBT) in wire manufacture. Published results on chill cast bend specimens indicated that a DTBT occurs at roughly 15 at. % Ga. This DTBT was observed under tensile loading with a corresponding change in fracture behavior from transverse fracture to intergranular fracture. For improved magnetostrictive performance, higher Ga contents are desired, closer to the 17 at. % Ga evaluated in this work. Electron backscattered diffraction B-H loop and resonance measurements as a function of magnetic field (to determine modulus and coupling factor) are presented for as-drawn, furnace, and direct current (DC) annealed wire. Galfenol wire produced via traditional drawing methods is found to have a strong <110> (α) texture parallel to the drawing direction. As-drawn wire was observed to have a lower magnetic permeability and larger hysteresis than DC annealed wire. This is attributed to the presence of a large volume of crystalline defects; such as vacancies and dislocations.
49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury....
49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury....
49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY... of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from...
49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury....
49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury....
49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY... of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from...
49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury....
Two-Wire to Four-Wire Audio Converter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Talley, G. L., Jr; Seale, B. L.
1983-01-01
Simple circuit provides interface between normally incompatible voicecommunication lines. Circuit maintains 40 dB of isolation between input and output halves of four-wire line permitting two-wire line to be connected. Balancing potentiometer, Rg, adjusts gain of IC2 to null feed through from input to output. Adjustment is done on workbench just after assembly.
Grains and wires of d-wave superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nunner, Tamara S.; Hirschfeld, P. J.
2006-01-01
We investigate Andreev states in grains of d-wave superconductors and compare them with a previous analysis of d-wave quantum wires. For perfect nesting a zero-energy Andreev bound state exists for geometries containing an odd number of (110)-layers. Away from perfect nesting the Andreev resonance broadens and its resonance frequency becomes finite for small grains. With increasing system size the resonance frequency approaches zero at least when we assume a constant order parameter throughout the grain. This is contrary to (110)-wires, where the Andreev state occurs at zero energy for all wire widths. Multiple reflections from surfaces with different orientations give rise to interesting interference effects and modify the Andreev states near corners.
Weakly coupled molecular photonic wires: synthesis and excited-state energy-transfer dynamics.
Ambroise, Arounaguiry; Kirmaier, Christine; Wagner, Richard W; Loewe, Robert S; Bocian, David F; Holten, Dewey; Lindsey, Jonathan S
2002-05-31
Molecular photonic wires, which absorb light and undergo excited-state energy transfer, are of interest as biomimetic models for photosynthetic light-harvesting systems and as molecular devices with potential applications in materials chemistry. We describe the stepwise synthesis of four molecular photonic wires. Each wire consists of an input unit, transmission element, and output unit. The input unit consists of a boron-dipyrrin dye or a perylene-monoimide dye (linked either at the N-imide or the C9 position); the transmission element consists of one or three zinc porphyrins affording short or long wires, respectively; and the output unit consists of a free base (Fb) porphyrin. The components in the arrays are joined in a linear architecture via diarylethyne linkers (an ethynylphenyl linker is attached to the C9-linked perylene). The wires have been examined by static absorption, static fluorescence, and time-resolved absorption spectroscopy. Each wire (with the exception of the C9-linked perylene wire) exhibits a visible absorption spectrum that is the sum of the spectra of the component parts, indicating the relatively weak electronic coupling between the components. Excitation of each wire at the wavelength where the input unit absorbs preferentially (typically 480-520 nm) results in emission almost exclusively from the Fb porphyrin. The static emission and time-resolved data indicate that the overall rate constants and quantum efficiencies for end-to-end (i.e., input to output) energy transfer are as follows: perylene-(N-imide)-linked short wire, (33 ps)(-1) and >99%; perylene-(C9)-linked short wire, (26 ps)(-1) and >99%; boron-dipyrrin-based long wire, (190 ps)(-1) and 81%; perylene-(N-imide)-linked long wire, (175 ps)(-1) and 86%. Collectively, the studies provide valuable insight into the singlet-singlet excited-state energy-transfer properties in weakly coupled molecular photonic wires. PMID:12027698
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vázquez, M.
2001-06-01
An overview of the present state of the art on the preparation techniques, outstanding magnetic properties and applications of soft magnetic micro and nanowires is presented. Rapid solidification techniques (in-rotating-water quenching and drawing methods) to fabricate amorphous microwires with diameter in the range from 100 down to 1 μm are first described. Electrodeposition is also employed to prepare composite microtubes (magnetic coatings) and to fill porous membranes (diameter of the order of 0.1 μm). Magnetic behaviours of interest are related to the different hysteresis loops of samples: square-shaped loops typical of bistable behaviour, and nearly non-hysteretic loop with well-defined transverse anisotropy field. The role played by magnetic dipolar interactions in the magnetic behaviour of arrays of micro and nanowires is described. A particular analysis is done on the giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect in the radio and microwave frequency ranges exhibited by ultrasoft microwires. Finally, a few examples of applications are introduced for magnetostrictive and non-magnetostrictive wires, they are: “magnetoelastic pens”, micromotors; DC current-sensors based on GMI, and sharpened amorphous wire tips in spin polarised scanning tunneling microscopy.
Improved superconducting magnet wire
Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.
1983-08-16
This invention is directed to a superconducting tape or wire composed of alternating layers of copper and a niobium-containing superconductor such as niobium of NbTi, Nb/sub 3/Sn or Nb/sub 3/Ge. In general, each layer of the niobium-containing superconductor has a thickness in the range of about 0.05 to 1.5 times its coherence length (which for Nb/sub 3/Si is 41 A) with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170 to 600 A. With the use of very thin layers of the niobium composition having a thickness within the desired range, the critical field (H/sub c/) may be increased by factors of 2 to 4. Also, the thin layers of the superconductor permit the resulting tape or wire to exhibit suitable ductility for winding on a magnet core. These compositions are also characterized by relatively high values of critical temperature and therefore will exhibit a combination of useful properties as superconductors.