Science.gov

Sample records for quarry residuals operable

  1. Proposed plan for remedial action at the quarry residuals operable unit of the Weldon Spring Site

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    This proposed plan addresses the management of contamination present in various components of the quarry residuals operable unit (QROU) of the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri. The QROU consists of (1) residual waste at the quarry proper; (2) the Femme Osage Slough, Little Femme Osage Creek, and Femme Osage Creek; and (3) quarry groundwater located primarily north of the slough. Potential impacts to the St. Charles County well field downgradient of the quarry area are also being addressed as part of the evaluations for this operable unit. Remedial activities for the QROU will be conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. As part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process required for the QROU under CERCLA, three major evaluation documents have been prepared to support cleanup decisions for this operable unit.

  2. Baseline risk assessment for the quarry residuals operable unit of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. Cleanup of the site consists of several integrated components. The quarry residuals operable unit (QROU), consisting of the Weldon Spring quarry and its surrounding area, is one of four operable units being evaluated. In accordance with requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE is conducting a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) to determine the proper response to address various contaminated media that constitute the QROU. Specifically, the operable unit consists of the following areas and media: the residual material remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the pond water and the bulk waste; groundwater underlying the quarry and surrounding area; and other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including surface water and sediment at Femme Osage Slough, Little Femme Osage Creek, and Femme Osage Creek. An initial evaluation of conditions at the quarry area identified remaining data requirements needed to support the conceptual site exposure and hydrogeological models. These data requirements are discussed in the RI/FS work plan issued in January 1994. Soil contamination located at a property adjacent to the quarry, referred to as Vicinity Property 9 (VP9), was originally part of the scope of the QROU, as discussed in the work plan. However, a decision was subsequently made to remediate this vicinity property as part of cleanup activities for the chemical plant operable unit, as provided for in the Record of Decision (ROD). Remediation of VP9 was completed in early 1996. Hence, this baseline risk assessment (BRA) does not address VP9.

  3. Feasibility study for remedial action for the Quarry Residuals Operable Unit at the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis (Figure 1.1). Cleanup of the Weldon Spring site consists of several integrated components. The quarry residuals operable unit (QROU) is one of four operable units being evaluated. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) is being conducted to evaluate conditions and potential responses for the following areas and/or media that constitute the QROU: (1) the residual material (soil and sediment) remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the bulk waste (about 11 million L [3 million gal] of uranium-contaminated ponded water was also addressed previous to bulk waste removal); (2) other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including adjacent soil, surface water, and sediment in Femme Osage Slough and several creeks; and (3) quarry groundwater located primarily north of Femme Osage Slough. Potential impacts to the St. Charles County well field downgradient of the quarry area are also being addressed as part of QROU RI/FS evaluations. For remedial action sites, it is DOE policy to integrate values associated with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) into the CERCLA decision-making process. The analyses contained herein address NEPA values as appropriate to the actions being considered for the QROU. A work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing conceptual site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in January 1994. The RI and baseline risk assessment (BRA) reports have been completed. The RI discusses in detail the nature and extent and the fate and transport of contamination at the quarry area.

  4. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment for the quarry residuals operable unit at the Weldon Spring Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The Weldon Spring site consists of two noncontiguous areas -- the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits, and the quarry. Cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, incorporating the values of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The contents of the documents prepared for the project are not intended to represent a statement regarding the legal applicability of NEPA to remedial actions conducted under CERCLA. In accordance with the integrated CERCLA/NEPA approach, a remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment (RI/FS-EA) is being conducted to evaluate conditions and potential responses for the quarry residuals operable unit (QROU). This operable unit consists of the following areas and/or media: the residual material remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the pond water and bulk waste; underlying groundwater; and other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including adjacent soil, surface water, and sediment in Femme Osage Slough. This work plan identifies the activities within the RI/FS-EA process that are being proposed to address contamination remaining at the quarry area.

  5. Quarry residuals RI/FS scoping document. [Weldon Spring quarry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to serve as a planning tool for the implementation of the Quarry Residual Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) process and to provide direct input to revising and updating the 1988 Work Plan for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study-Environmental Impact Statement for the Weldon Spring Site (RI/FS-EIS) (Peterson et al. 1988) for this effort. The scoping process is intended to outline the tasks necessary to develop and implement activities in compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act-National Environmental Policy Act (CERCLA-NEPA) process from detailed planning through the appropriate decision document. In addition to scoping the entire process, this document will serve as the primary tool for planning and accomplishing all activities to be developed in the Quarry Residual RI/FS Work Plan. Subsequent tasks are difficult to plan at this time. 10 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Remediation of a uranium-contaminated quarry utilizing submersible, remotely operated vehicles. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, K.N.

    1992-10-22

    The Kerr Hollow Quarry (KHQ) Disposal Site on the Oak Ridge (Tennessee) Reservation was previously used to treat and dispose of pyrophoric and water-reactive wastes contaminated with small quantities of radioactive materials (almost exclusively uranium and uranium daughters) from processes at the Department of Energy-owned, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This paper describes remediation techniques utilizing a small, remotely operated submarine with an attached camera to visually locate waste containers, determine whether containers have been breached, transport small containers, and direct a larger remotely operated grappling machine to move larger waste for shredding operations. Most of the solid waste is reduced under water by a metal shredder. Non-shreddable items (e. g. , gas cylinders and larger structures) are mechanically breached under water to allow the contents to fully react. The waste is then removed from the water, monitored, the material is segregated, and transported to a temporary waste storage area until disposal.

  7. Remediation of a uranium-contaminated quarry utilizing submersible, remotely operated vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, K.N.

    1992-10-22

    The Kerr Hollow Quarry (KHQ) Disposal Site on the Oak Ridge (Tennessee) Reservation was previously used to treat and dispose of pyrophoric and water-reactive wastes contaminated with small quantities of radioactive materials (almost exclusively uranium and uranium daughters) from processes at the Department of Energy-owned, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This paper describes remediation techniques utilizing a small, remotely operated submarine with an attached camera to visually locate waste containers, determine whether containers have been breached, transport small containers, and direct a larger remotely operated grappling machine to move larger waste for shredding operations. Most of the solid waste is reduced under water by a metal shredder. Non-shreddable items (e. g. , gas cylinders and larger structures) are mechanically breached under water to allow the contents to fully react. The waste is then removed from the water, monitored, the material is segregated, and transported to a temporary waste storage area until disposal.

  8. Probabilistic prediction models for aggregate quarry siting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, G.R., Jr.; Larkins, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Weights-of-evidence (WofE) and logistic regression techniques were used in a GIS framework to predict the spatial likelihood (prospectivity) of crushed-stone aggregate quarry development. The joint conditional probability models, based on geology, transportation network, and population density variables, were defined using quarry location and time of development data for the New England States, North Carolina, and South Carolina, USA. The Quarry Operation models describe the distribution of active aggregate quarries, independent of the date of opening. The New Quarry models describe the distribution of aggregate quarries when they open. Because of the small number of new quarries developed in the study areas during the last decade, independent New Quarry models have low parameter estimate reliability. The performance of parameter estimates derived for Quarry Operation models, defined by a larger number of active quarries in the study areas, were tested and evaluated to predict the spatial likelihood of new quarry development. Population density conditions at the time of new quarry development were used to modify the population density variable in the Quarry Operation models to apply to new quarry development sites. The Quarry Operation parameters derived for the New England study area, Carolina study area, and the combined New England and Carolina study areas were all similar in magnitude and relative strength. The Quarry Operation model parameters, using the modified population density variables, were found to be a good predictor of new quarry locations. Both the aggregate industry and the land management community can use the model approach to target areas for more detailed site evaluation for quarry location. The models can be revised easily to reflect actual or anticipated changes in transportation and population features. ?? International Association for Mathematical Geology 2007.

  9. Simulation of the effects of nearby quarrying operations on ground-water flow at the South Well Field, Franklin County, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nalley, Gregory M.; Haefner, Ralph J.

    1999-01-01

    The City of Columbus, Ohio, operates a municipal well field in southern Franklin County that is adjacent to a sand and gravel mining operation. Mining operations have the potential to alter ground-water flowpaths and change the sources of water to pumped wells. Previous ground-water-flow modeling of the area has shown that water pumped from the supply wells is derived from infiltration from nearby rivers and surrounding bedrock. Some of that water flows through existing quarries. Because water quality differs among these sources and is affected by the path along which water flows to the wells, five flow conditions were simulated to evaluate the influence of different mining scenarios on sources of water as related to the size and shape of contributing recharge areas (CRAs) to wells. The first simulation was based on a revision of an existing model by Schalk (1996). The second and third simulations included one in which a 20-foot layer of undisturbed aquifer material within the quarry above the bedrock is left intact, and another in which the 20-foot layer is removed. The fourth and fifth simulations included one in which the 20-foot layer of undisturbed aquifer material is left above the bedrock and the quarry is backfilled with fine- grained sand and silt (a byproduct of the mining operations), and another in which the 20-foot layer is removed before the quarry is backfilled with the fine-grained sand and silt. The results of the five model simulations indicate that the overall volumetric budgets among models change only slightly in response to changing conditions at the quarry. The most significant change is noted in the amount of water that the aquifers gained from constant head and river leakage. This change is due to the way the quarries were simulated and lower heads in the aquifers compared to those in simulations made with earlier models. Previously published model simulations showed that the 5-year CRAs did not extend into the area of the newest sand and

  10. Remedial investigation work plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 4 (Rogers Quarry/Lower McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant includes - 800 acres near the northeast comer of the reservation and adjacent to the city of Oak Ridge (Fig. 1-1). The plant is a manufacturing and developmental engineering facility that produced components for various nuclear weapons systems and provides engineering support to other Energy Systems facilities. More than 200 contaminated sites have been identified at the Y-12 Plant that resulted from past waste management practices. Many of the sites have operable units (OUs) based on priority and on investigative and remediation requirements. This Remedial Investigation RI work plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Chestnut Ridge OU 4 consists of Rogers Quarry and Lower McCoy Branch (MCB). Rogers Quarry, which is also known as Old Rogers Quarry or Bethel Valley Quarry was used for quarrying from the late 1940s or early 1950s until about 1960. Since that time, the quarry has been used for disposal of coal ash and materials from Y-12 production operations, including classified materials. Disposal of coal ash ended in July 1993. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern, support an Ecological Risk Assessment and a Human Health Risk Assessment, support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this work plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the risk posed to human health and the environment by OU 4.

  11. INTERIOR VIEW, NORTH QUARRY, AN ACTIVE DOLOMITE QUARRY, LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, NORTH QUARRY, AN ACTIVE DOLOMITE QUARRY, LOOKING NORTH TO THE POWER PLANT OF THE HISTORIC THOMAS COKEWORKS SITE. - Wade Sand & Gravel Company, North Quarry, State Highway 78, Thomas, Jefferson County, AL

  12. Overall view of quarry from quarry wall, facing north, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overall view of quarry from quarry wall, facing north, showing work areas in background - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 4, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  13. OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING EAST WITH WESTERN QUARRY WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING EAST WITH WESTERN QUARRY WALL IN FOREGROUND - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 1, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  14. Norwegian millstone quarry landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heldal, Tom; Meyer, Gurli; Grenne, Tor

    2013-04-01

    Rotary querns and millstones were used in Norway since just after the Roman Period until the last millstone was made in the 1930s. Throughout all this time millstone mining was fundamental for daily life: millstones were needed to grind grain, our most important food source. We can find millstone quarries in many places in the country from coast to mountain. Some of them cover many square kilometers and count hundreds of quarries as physical testimonies of a long and great production history. Other quarries are small and hardly visible. Some of this history is known through written and oral tradition, but most of it is hidden and must be reconstructed from the traces we can find in the landscape today. The Millstone project has put these quarry landscapes on the map, and conducted a range of case studies, including characterization of archaeological features connected to the quarrying, interpretation of quarrying techniques and evolution of such and establishing distribution and trade patterns by the aid of geological provenance. The project also turned out to be a successful cooperation between different disciplines, in particular geology and archaeology.

  15. Landscape evolution by subglacial quarrying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugelvig, Sofie V.; Egholm, David L.; Iverson, Neal R.

    2014-05-01

    In glacial landscape evolution models, subglacial erosion rates are often related to basal sliding or ice discharge by a power-law. This relation can be justified for bedrock abrasion because rock debris transported in the basal ice drives the erosion. However, a simple relation between rates of sliding and erosion is not well supported when considering models for quarrying of rock blocks from the bed. Iverson (2012) introduced a new subglacial quarrying model that operates from the theory of adhesive wear. The model is based on the fact that cavities, with a high level of bedrock differential stress, form along the lee side of bed obstacles when the sliding velocity is to high to allow for the ice to creep around the obstacles. The erosion rate is quantified by considering the likelihood of rock fracturing on topographic bumps. The model includes a statistical treatment of the bedrock weakness: larger rock bodies have lower strengths since they have greater possibility of containing a large flaw [Jaeger and Cook, 1979]. Inclusion of this effect strongly influences the erosion rates and questions the dominant role of sliding rate in standard models for subglacial erosion. Effective pressure, average bedslope, and bedrock fracture density are primary factors that, in addition to sliding rate, influence the erosion rate of this new quarrying model [Iverson, 2012]. We have implemented the quarrying model in a depth-integrated higher-order ice-sheet model [Egholm et al. 2011], coupled to a model for glacial hydrology. In order to also include the effects of cavitation on the subglacial sliding rate, we use a sliding law proposed by Schoof (2005), which includes an upper limit for the stress that can be supported at the bed. Computational experiments show that the combined influence of pressure, sliding rate and bed slope leads to realistically looking landforms such as U-shaped valleys, cirques, hanging valleys and overdeepenings. Compared to model results using a

  16. Effects of limestone quarrying and cement-plant operations on runoff and sediment yields in the Upper Permanente Creek basin, Santa Clara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nolan, K.M.; Hill, B.R.

    1989-01-01

    High sediment loads below headwater areas of the Permanente Creek drainage basin, Santa Clara County, California, have caused flood-control problems in downstream lowland areas. Measured sediment yields in Permanente Creek, which drains areas affected by limestone quarrying and cement-plant operations, were 14 times greater than yields from the West Fork Permanente Creek, which primarily drains parkland. Part of this large disparity in yields is the result of higher runoff/unit of drainage area in the Permanente Creek Basin. Results of rainfall-runoff modeling indicate that the tendency for higher runoff from Permanente Creek results from natural differences in basin physiography. Runoff during periods of high streamflow (when most sediment is transported) is dominated by subsurface flow, which is not affected by human activities. Although artificial features created by human activities seem to have had only minor effects on runoff, they apparently have had major effects on sediment availability. Artificial features accounted for 273 acres (89%) of the 307 acres of active erosional landforms mapped in 1984. Increased availability of sediment in the Permanente Creek basin appears to be indicated by elevated intercepts of sediment-transport curves. A comparison of sediment-transport curves for the West Fork Permanente Creek with similar curves for the Permanente Creek basin under natural conditions suggests that the sediment yield from Permanente Creek is about 3.5 times higher than it would be under natural basin conditions. The increased yield apparently is due to an increase in sediment availability rather than an increase in runoff. (USGS)

  17. Assessment of whole-body vibration exposures and influencing factors for quarry haul truck drivers and loader operators

    PubMed Central

    Mayton, Alan G.; Jobes, Christopher C.; Gallagher, Sean

    2015-01-01

    To further assess vibration exposure on haul trucks (HTs) and front-end wheel loaders (FELs), follow-up investigations were conducted at two US crushed stone operations. The purpose was to: 1) evaluate factors such as load/no-load conditions, speed, load capacity, vehicle age, and seat transmissibility relative to vibration exposure; 2) compare exposure levels with existing ISO/ANSI and EUGPG guidelines. Increasing HT speed increased recorded vibration at the chassis and seat as expected. Neither vehicle load nor vehicle speed increased transmissibility. Increasing HT size and age did show transmissibility decreasing. HT dominant-axis wRMS levels (most often the y-axis, lateral or side-to-side direction) were predominantly within the health guidance caution zone (HGCZ). However, several instances showed vibration dose value (VDV) above the exposure limit value (ELV) for the ISO/ANSI guidelines. VDV levels (all dominant x-axis or fore-aft) were within and above the HGCZ for the EUGPG and above the HGCZ for ISO/ANSI guidelines. PMID:26361493

  18. A procedure to evaluate environmental rehabilitation in limestone quarries.

    PubMed

    Neri, Ana Claudia; Sánchez, Luis Enrique

    2010-11-01

    A procedure to evaluate mine rehabilitation practices during the operational phase was developed and validated. It is based on a comparison of actually observed or documented practices with internationally recommended best practices (BP). A set of 150 BP statements was derived from international guides in order to establish the benchmark. The statements are arranged in six rehabilitation programs under three categories: (1) planning (2) operational and (3) management, corresponding to the adoption of the plan-do-check-act management systems model to mine rehabilitation. The procedure consists of (i) performing technical inspections guided by a series of field forms containing BP statements; (ii) classifying evidences in five categories; and (iii) calculating conformity indexes and levels. For testing and calibration purposes, the procedure was applied to nine limestone quarries and conformity indexes were calculated for the rehabilitation programs in each quarry. Most quarries featured poor planning practices, operational practices reached high conformity levels in 50% of the cases and management practices scored moderate conformity. Despite all quarries being ISO 14001 certified, their management systems pay low attention to issues pertaining to land rehabilitation and biodiversity. The best results were achieved by a quarry whose expansion was recently submitted to the environmental impact assessment process, suggesting that public scrutiny may play a positive role in enhancing rehabilitation practices. Conformity indexes and levels can be used to chart the evolution of rehabilitation practices at regular intervals, to establish corporate goals and for communication with stakeholders. PMID:20630648

  19. Processing Gold Quarry refractory ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausen, D. M.

    1989-04-01

    The Gold Quarry deposit is the largest sediment-hosted gold deposit yet discovered on the Carlin trend in northern Nevada. However, despite the locale's vast reserves, the gold is difficult to extract from portions of the deposit. Detailed, ongoing mineralogical analyses assure proper treatment of the ore.

  20. Natural recovery of different areas of a deserted quarry in South China.

    PubMed

    Duan, Wenjun; Ren, Hai; Fu, Shenglei; Wang, Jun; Yang, Long; Zhang, Jinping

    2008-01-01

    A quarry is a surface mining operated place, which produces enormous quantities of gravel, limestone, and other materials for industrial and construction applications. Restoration and revegetation of deserted quarries are becoming increasingly important. Three areas of a typical quarry in South China: terrace for crushed materials (terrace), spoiled mound, and remaining side slope, were investigated, to compare the existing plant species and to study the relationship between environmental factors and revegetation. The plant species composition of these three areas was found to differ significantly after eight years of natural recovery. The typical plant communities found over them were composed of gramineous herbs, ferns, and shrubs. Soil organic matter, soil moisture, and soil bulk density were considered to be the major determining factors for vegetation succession. There existed abiotic and biotic thresholds during quarrying restoration. Suggestions had been presented that could have accelerated the process of natural recovery in quarries. PMID:18575134

  1. Dissemination of acrylamide monomer from polyacrylamide-based flocculant use--sand and gravel quarry case study.

    PubMed

    Touzé, Solene; Guerin, Valérie; Guezennec, Anne-Gwenaëlle; Binet, Stéphane; Togola, Anne

    2015-05-01

    Aggregate quarries play a major role in land settlement. However, like all industrial operations, they can have impacts on the environment, notably due to the use of polyacrylamide (PAM)-based flocculants, which contain residual acrylamide (AMD), a carcinogenic, mutagenic, and reprotoxic monomer. In this study, the dissemination of AMD throughout the environment has been investigated in a French quarry. The presence of AMD has been determined in the process water and in the sludge, as well as in the surrounding surface water and groundwater. From the results of several sampling campaigns carried out on this case study, we can (a) confirm that the AMD contained in the commercial product is found in the quarry's water circuit (0.41 to 5.66 μg/l); (b) show that AMD is transported to the surrounding environment, as confirmed by the contamination of a pond near the installation (0.07 to 0.08 μg/l) and the presence of AMD in groundwater (0.01 to 0.02 μg/l); and (c) show that the sludge in both the current and former settling basins contains AMD (between 4 and 26 μg/kg of dry sludge). Therefore, we demonstrated in this case study that using PAM-based flocculants leads to the release of AMD to the environment beyond the treatment plant and creates a reserve of AMD in sludge basins. PMID:25182426

  2. Operator Manual for X-ray Residual Stress Mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, M.C.

    2003-07-30

    This document is intended to serve as a operator manual for remote control of the TEC x-ray diffraction system. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with the operation of the SaraTEC{trademark} 1630 Acquisition Manager software for the TEC 1630 X-Ray Diffraction System. This manual describes the operation of the new TEC Remote Serial Control Module (RCSM) that runs on the TEC computer and Run-the-System that runs on the motion control computer. The basic goal is to add enough control of the TEC system to enable stress mapping. In stress mapping, the specimen is positioned using our X-Y-Z-Phi translation system and data is collected using the TEC system. The process is then repeated for the next position using a table of preset positions. X-Y-Z-Phi axis management is handled by ''Run-the-System'', the LabVIEW program originally developed for the Neutron Residual Stress Mapping Facility, running on a separate computer from the one that controls the TEC. Run-the-System also manages all remote start, stop, and configuration commands that are sent to the TEC system. The two computers communicate over an RS-232 serial line.

  3. Quarry Haul Road Ecological Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    This biological survey was performed to document the summer flora and fauna found along the haul road constructed as part of the remedial action for the quarry bulk waste. State and Federal species listed as threatened or endangered were noted if encountered while surveying. Sampling locations were equally spaced along the quarry haul road, and a survey for vegetation and birds conducted at each location. Bird observations were conducted as breeding bird surveys once in June of 1991, and again in June of 1992. Each year's survey includes two observations in the early morning and one late in the evening. Vegetation surveys were conducted in 1991 using quadrants and transects. mammal, reptile, and amphibian sightings were noted as encountered.

  4. The Energy-Efficient Quarry: Towards improved understanding and optimisation of energy use and minimisation of CO2 generation in the aggregates industry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Ian; White, Toby; Owen, Sarah

    2014-05-01

    Extraction and processing of rock materials to produce aggregates is carried out at some 20,000 quarries across the EU. All stages of the processing and transport of hard and dense materials inevitably consume high levels of energy and have consequent significant carbon footprints. The FP7 project "the Energy Efficient Quarry" (EE-Quarry) has been addressing this problem and has devised strategies, supported by modelling software, to assist the quarrying industry to assess and optimise its energy use, and to minimise its carbon footprint. Aggregate quarries across Europe vary enormously in the scale of the quarrying operations, the nature of the worked mineral, and the processing to produce a final market product. Nevertheless most quarries involve most or all of a series of essential stages; deposit assessment, drilling and blasting, loading and hauling, and crushing and screening. The process of determining the energy-efficiency of each stage is complex, but is broadly understood in principle and there are numerous sources of information and guidance available in the literature and on-line. More complex still is the interaction between each of these stages. For example, using a little more energy in blasting to increase fragmentation may save much greater energy in later crushing and screening, but also generate more fines material which is discarded as waste and the embedded energy in this material is lost. Thus the calculation of the embedded energy in the waste material becomes an input to the determination of the blasting strategy. Such feedback loops abound in the overall quarry optimisation. The project has involved research and demonstration operations at a number of quarries distributed across Europe carried out by all partners in the EE-Quarry project, working in collaboration with many of the major quarrying companies operating in the EU. The EE-Quarry project is developing a sophisticated modelling tool, the "EE-Quarry Model" available to the quarrying

  5. OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING NORTH, WITH UNQUARRIED GRANITE OUTCROP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING NORTH, WITH UN-QUARRIED GRANITE OUTCROP IN BACKGROUND - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 3, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  6. OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING NORTHWEST, SHOWING NORTHERN SECTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING NORTHWEST, SHOWING NORTHERN SECTION OF QUARRY - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 2, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  7. OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING NORTH, SHOWING NORTHERN SECTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING NORTH, SHOWING NORTHERN SECTION OF QUARRY - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 2, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  8. OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SOUTHERN SECTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SOUTHERN SECTION OF QUARRY - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 2, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  9. VIEW OF SMALL QUARRY FACE AND WORK AREA IN MIDDLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SMALL QUARRY FACE AND WORK AREA IN MIDDLE OF QUARRY, FACING NORTH - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 2, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  10. Overdeepening development in a glacial landscape evolution model with quarrying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugelvig, S. V.; Egholm, D. L.; Brædstrup, C. F.; Iverson, N. R.

    2013-12-01

    In glacial landscape evolution models, subglacial erosion rates are often related to basal sliding or ice discharge by a power-law. This relation can be justified when considering bed abrasion, where rock debris transported in the basal ice drives erosion. However, the relation is not well supported when considering models for quarrying of rock blocks from the bed. Field observations indicate that the principal mechanism of glacial erosion is quarrying, which emphasize the importance of a better way of implementing erosion by quarrying in glacial landscape evolution models. Iverson (2012) introduced a new model for subglacial erosion by quarrying that operates from the theory of adhesive wear. The model is based on the fact that cavities, with a high level of bedrock differential stress, form in the lee of bed obstacles when the sliding velocity is too high to allow for the ice to creep around the obstacles. The erosion rate is quantified by considering the likelihood of rock fracturing on topographic bumps. The model includes a statistical treatment of the bedrock weakness, which is neglected in previous quarrying models. Sliding rate, effective pressure, and average bedslope are the primary factors influencing the erosion rate of this new quarrying model [Iverson, 2012]. We have implemented the quarrying model in a depth-integrated higher-order ice-sheet model [Egholm et al. 2011], coupled to a model for glacial hydrology. In order to also include the effects of cavitation on the subglacial sliding rate, we use a sliding law proposed by Schoof (2005), which includes an upper limit for the stress that can be supported at the bed. Computational experiments show that the combined influence of pressure, sliding rate and bed slope leads to realistically looking landforms such as U-shaped valleys, cirques, hanging valleys and overdeepenings. The influence of the effective pressure leads naturally to overdeepenings. However, in contrast to previously used erosion models

  11. Lung Function Impact from Working in the Pre-Revolution Libyan Quarry Industry

    PubMed Central

    Draid, Marwan M.; Ben-Elhaj, Khaled M.; Ali, Ashraf M.; Schmid, Kendra K.; Gibbs, Shawn G.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the lung impact from working within the Libyan quarry industry, and if the length of work impacted the degree of degradation. Eighty three workers from eight silica quarries in the Nafusa Mountains of Libya opted to participate. These quarries were working the upper cretaceous geological structure. Eighty-five individuals who lived in Gharyan City with no affiliation to quarry operations participated as controls. Spirometry variables evaluated were Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume at 1.0 second (FEV1), FVC/FEV1 and Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF). Control and exposed groups had no differences in terms of height, weight, or smoking status (p = 0.18, 0.20, 0.98, respectively). Prior to adjustment for other variables, FVC, FEV1, and PEF are all significantly lower in the exposed group (p = 0.003, 0.009, 0.03, respectively). After adjustment for age, height, weight, and smoking status, there remain significant differences between the control and exposed groups for FVC, FEV1, and PEF. This analysis demonstrated that exposure to quarry dust has a detrimental effect on lung function, and that pre-revolution Libyan quarry workers were being exposed. This study shows that any exposure is harmful, as the reduction in lung function was not significantly associated with years of exposure. PMID:25961801

  12. Discrimination of quarry blasts and earthquakes in the vicinity of Istanbul using soft computing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldırım, Eray; Gülbağ, Ali; Horasan, Gündüz; Doğan, Emrah

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the use of feedforward neural networks (FFNNs), adaptive neural fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS), and probabilistic neural networks (PNNs) to discriminate between earthquakes and quarry blasts in Istanbul and vicinity (the Marmara region). The tectonically active Marmara region is affected by the Thrace-Eskişehir fault zone and especially the North Anatolian fault zone (NAFZ). Local MARNET stations, which were established in 1976 and are operated by the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI), record not only earthquakes that occur in the region, but also quarry blasts. There are a few quarry-blasting areas in the Gaziosmanpaşa, Çatalca, Ömerli, and Hereke regions. Analytical methods were applied to a set of 175 seismic events (2001-2004) recorded by the stations of the local seismic network (ISK, HRT, and CTT stations) operated by the KOERI National Earthquake Monitoring Center (NEMC). Out of a total of 175 records, 148 are related to quarry blasts and 27 to earthquakes. The data sets were divided into training and testing sets for each region. In all the models developed, the input vectors consist of the peak amplitude ratio (S/P ratio) and the complexity value, and the output is a determination of either earthquake or quarry blast. The success of the developed models on regional test data varies between 97.67% and 100%.

  13. Looking northwest, first floor, South Wing, Paleontology Lab. The quarry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking northwest, first floor, South Wing, Paleontology Lab. The quarry wall can be seen through the window - Quarry Visitor Center, U.S. Highway 40, 8 miles north of Jensen, Jensen, Uintah County, UT

  14. VIEW FACING NORTH OF WEST QUARRY WALL, WITH METAL MOUNTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FACING NORTH OF WEST QUARRY WALL, WITH METAL MOUNTING BOLT FOR DERRICK VISIBLE - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 1, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  15. VIEW OF SOUTHERN QUARRY, FACING SOUTH, WITH ROCK PILES IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTHERN QUARRY, FACING SOUTH, WITH ROCK PILES IN FOREGROUND - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 2, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  16. VIEW OF NORTHERN QUARRY AREA, OVERGROWN WITH VEGETATION, FACING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTHERN QUARRY AREA, OVERGROWN WITH VEGETATION, FACING WEST - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 2, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  17. View of southern quarry wall, facing west, showing multiple drill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of southern quarry wall, facing west, showing multiple drill holes on face - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 4, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  18. View of quarry work area, facing east, with broken lintel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of quarry work area, facing east, with broken lintel in foreground - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 4, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  19. View of four large bore holes on top of quarry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of four large bore holes on top of quarry wall, facing northeast - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 4, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  20. View facing east of top of quarry wall with forge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View facing east of top of quarry wall with forge site in foreground - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 4, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  1. 30 CFR 56.3131 - Pit or quarry wall perimeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pit or quarry wall perimeter. 56.3131 Section... Mining Methods § 56.3131 Pit or quarry wall perimeter. In places where persons work or travel in... stripped back for at least 10 feet from the top of the pit or quarry wall. Other conditions at or near...

  2. 30 CFR 56.3131 - Pit or quarry wall perimeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pit or quarry wall perimeter. 56.3131 Section... Mining Methods § 56.3131 Pit or quarry wall perimeter. In places where persons work or travel in... stripped back for at least 10 feet from the top of the pit or quarry wall. Other conditions at or near...

  3. 30 CFR 56.3131 - Pit or quarry wall perimeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pit or quarry wall perimeter. 56.3131 Section... Mining Methods § 56.3131 Pit or quarry wall perimeter. In places where persons work or travel in... stripped back for at least 10 feet from the top of the pit or quarry wall. Other conditions at or near...

  4. 30 CFR 56.3131 - Pit or quarry wall perimeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pit or quarry wall perimeter. 56.3131 Section... Mining Methods § 56.3131 Pit or quarry wall perimeter. In places where persons work or travel in... stripped back for at least 10 feet from the top of the pit or quarry wall. Other conditions at or near...

  5. 30 CFR 56.3131 - Pit or quarry wall perimeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pit or quarry wall perimeter. 56.3131 Section... Mining Methods § 56.3131 Pit or quarry wall perimeter. In places where persons work or travel in... stripped back for at least 10 feet from the top of the pit or quarry wall. Other conditions at or near...

  6. Noise Exposure and Hearing Capabilities of Quarry Workers in Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Gyamfi, Charles Kwame R; Amankwaa, Isaac; Owusu Sekyere, Frank; Boateng, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Although quarry operations have high economic significance, the effects they cause to the workers in terms of excessive noise production cannot be overlooked. This cross-sectional study assessed the extent of noise exposure and its influence on hearing capabilities among quarry workers in Ashanti region. Methods. The study involved 400 workers randomly selected from five quarries in Ashanti region from April to June 2012. Data was collected using structured questionnaires, physical examination, and audiological assessments. A logistic regression model was fitted to assess independent predictors of hearing loss. Results. All the machines used at the various quarries produced noise that exceeded the minimum threshold with levels ranging from 85.5 dBA to 102.7 dBA. 176 (44%) of study respondents had hearing threshold higher than 25 dBA. 18% and 2% of these were moderately (41-55 dBA) and severely (71-90 dBA) impaired, respectively. Age, duration of work, and use of earplugs independently predicted the development of hearing loss. Use of earplugs showed a protective effect on the development of hearing loss (OR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.25, 0.84). Conclusion. This study provides empirical evidence on the extent of damage caused to quarry workers as a result of excessive noise exposure. This will support the institution of appropriate protective measures to minimize this threat. PMID:26904137

  7. Noise Exposure and Hearing Capabilities of Quarry Workers in Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Gyamfi, Charles Kwame R.; Amankwaa, Isaac; Owusu Sekyere, Frank; Boateng, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Although quarry operations have high economic significance, the effects they cause to the workers in terms of excessive noise production cannot be overlooked. This cross-sectional study assessed the extent of noise exposure and its influence on hearing capabilities among quarry workers in Ashanti region. Methods. The study involved 400 workers randomly selected from five quarries in Ashanti region from April to June 2012. Data was collected using structured questionnaires, physical examination, and audiological assessments. A logistic regression model was fitted to assess independent predictors of hearing loss. Results. All the machines used at the various quarries produced noise that exceeded the minimum threshold with levels ranging from 85.5 dBA to 102.7 dBA. 176 (44%) of study respondents had hearing threshold higher than 25 dBA. 18% and 2% of these were moderately (41–55 dBA) and severely (71–90 dBA) impaired, respectively. Age, duration of work, and use of earplugs independently predicted the development of hearing loss. Use of earplugs showed a protective effect on the development of hearing loss (OR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.25, 0.84). Conclusion. This study provides empirical evidence on the extent of damage caused to quarry workers as a result of excessive noise exposure. This will support the institution of appropriate protective measures to minimize this threat. PMID:26904137

  8. POST-OPERATIONAL TREATMENT OF RESIDUAL NA COOLLANT IN EBR-2 USING CARBONATION

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, S.; Knight, C.

    2011-03-08

    At the end of 2002, the Experimental Breeder Reactor Two (EBR-II) facility became a U.S. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted site, and the RCRA permit1 compelled further treatment of the residual sodium in order to convert it into a less reactive chemical form and remove the by-products from the facility, so that a state of RCRA 'closure' for the facility may be achieved (42 U.S.C. 6901-6992k, 2002). In response to this regulatory driver, and in recognition of project budgetary and safety constraints, it was decided to treat the residual sodium in the EBR-II primary and secondary sodium systems using a process known as 'carbonation.' In early EBR-II post-operation documentation, this process is also called 'passivation.' In the carbonation process (Sherman and Henslee, 2005), the system containing residual sodium is flushed with humidified carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The water vapor in the flush gas reacts with residual sodium to form sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and the CO{sub 2} in the flush gas reacts with the newly formed NaOH to make sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3}). Hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}) is produced as a by-product. The chemical reactions occur at the exposed surface of the residual sodium. The NaHCO{sub 3} layer that forms is porous, and humidified carbon dioxide can penetrate the NaHCO{sub 3} layer to continue reacting residual sodium underneath. The rate of reaction is controlled by the thickness of the NaHCO{sub 3} surface layer, the moisture input rate, and the residual sodium exposed surface area. At the end of carbonation, approximately 780 liters of residual sodium in the EBR-II primary tank ({approx}70% of original inventory), and just under 190 liters of residual sodium in the EBR-II secondary sodium system ({approx}50% of original inventory), were converted into NaHCO{sub 3}. No bare surfaces of residual sodium remained after treatment, and all remaining residual sodium deposits are covered by a layer of NaHCO{sub 3}. From a

  9. Laser removal of graffiti from Pink Morelia Quarry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penide, J.; Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Sánchez-Castillo, A.; Comesaña, R.; del Val, J.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J.

    2013-11-01

    Morelia is an important city sited in Mexico. Its historical center reflects most of their culture and history, especially of the colonial period; in fact, it was appointed World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Sadly, there is a serious problem with graffiti in Morelia and its historical center is the worst affected since its delicate charming is definitely damaged. Hitherto, the conventional methods employed to remove graffiti from Pink Morelia Quarry (the most used building stone in Morelia) are quite aggressive to the appearance of the monuments, so actually, they are not a very good solution. In this work, we performed a study on the removal of graffiti from Pink Morelia Quarry by high power diode laser. We carried out an extensive experimental study looking for the optimal processing parameters, and compared a single-pass with a multi-pass method. Indeed, we achieved an effective cleaning without producing serious side effects in the stone. In conclusion, the multi-pass method emitting in continuous wave was revealed as the more effective operating modes to remove the graffiti.

  10. Behavior and Release of Nitrogen at Mines and Quarries in Nordic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, Teemu; Neitola, Raisa; Jermakka, Johannes; Merta, Elina; Mroueh, Ulla-Maija

    2015-04-01

    The increased extraction of mineral resources and mining activities creates added pressure on the environmental issues and a proper water management in mining areas in Finland. Among others, nitrogen compounds released from explosives or from mining processes can have a detrimental effect on the environment. Thus, this project aimed at comprehensive understanding on the nitrogen issue in the extractive industry. The project collected essential data on nitrogen compounds present in the environments of mines and quarries, and generated better understanding of the discharge and behaviour of nitrogen compounds in mining areas. The sources and balances of explosives-originated nitrogen compounds at mines and quarries of different sizes were investigated and compared. Additionally, the focus was in 'nitrogen smudging' problem of waste rocks and the intensity, as well as evolution and chemical characteristics of their nitrogen contamination. According to the results, the total load of potential nitrogen to the environment depends on the scale and type of the activity as well as the type of explosives used. The main emission sources of nitrogen are process and dewatering waters. A lysimeter study showed that the explosives originated nitrogen content of left over stones from natural stone quarrying is relatively low and ca. half of the nitrogen is leached within the first weeks after detonation. The "nitrogen smudging" of natural stone quarrying left over stones is relatively low to begin with and enhanced by the rapid flushing by rainwater, thus the residues of explosives should not be considered to prevent the utilization of otherwise mineralogically inert waste rocks of good technical quality. The overall nitrogen management should take into account the background concentrations and sensitivity of the local ecosystem. The research project "Solution for Control of Nitrogen Discharges at Mines and Quarries, (MINIMAN)" was realized during years 2012-2014 as a cooperative

  11. A computational study of particulate emissions from an open pit quarry under neutral atmospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvester, S. A.; Lowndes, I. S.; Hargreaves, D. M.

    2009-12-01

    The extraction of minerals from surface mines and quarries can produce significant fugitive dust emissions as a result of site activities such as blasting, road haulage, loading, crushing and stockpiling. If uncontrolled, these emissions can present serious environmental, health, safety and operational issues impacting both site personnel and the wider community. The dispersion of pollutant emissions within the atmosphere is principally determined by the background wind systems characterized by the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). This paper presents an overview of the construction and solution of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to replicate the development of the internal ventilation regime within a surface quarry excavation due to the presence of a neutral ABL above this excavation. This model was then used to study the dispersion and deposition of fugitive mineral dust particles generated during rock blasting operations. The paths of the mineral particles were modelled using Lagrangian particle tracking. Particles of four size fractions were released from five blast locations for eight different wind directions. The study concluded that dependent on the location of the bench blast within the quarry and the direction of the wind, a mass fraction of between 0.3 and 0.6 of the emitted mineral particles was retained within the quarry. The retention was largest when the distance from the blast location to the downwind pit boundary was greatest.

  12. INTERIOR VIEW, NORTH QUARRY, LOOKING NORTH TOWARDS THE SITE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, NORTH QUARRY, LOOKING NORTH TOWARDS THE SITE OF THE HISTORIC THOMAS FURNACES WITH ACTIVE DOLOMITE EXTRACTION ONGOING IN THE FOREGROUND. FURNACE FOUNDATION RUINS ARE PICTURED ON THE TOP LEDGE (CENTER LEFT) OF THE QUARRY. ALSO PICTURED IS THE HISTORIC THOMAS COKEWORKERS WITH (LEFT TO RIGHT) THE POWER PLANT, BOILER HOUSE, AND COKEWORKS. JUST SOUTH OF THE COKEWORKS, IS AN ACTIVE DOLOMITE CRUSHING, SIZING, AND SCREENING PLANT - Wade Sand & Gravel Company, North Quarry, State Highway 78, Thomas, Jefferson County, AL

  13. INTERIOR VIEW, NORTH QUARRY, LOOKING NORTH TOWARDS THE SITE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, NORTH QUARRY, LOOKING NORTH TOWARDS THE SITE OF THE HISTORIC THOMAS FURNACES WITH ACTIVE DOLOMITE EXTRACTION ONGOING IN THE FOREGROUND. FURNACE FOUNDATION RUINS ARE PICTURED ON THE TOP LEDGE (CENTER LEFT) OF THE QUARRY. ALSO PICTURED IS THE HISTORIC THOMAS COKEWORKS WITH (LEFT TO RIGHT) THE POWER PLANT, BOILER HOUSE, AND COKEWORKS. JUST SOUTH OF THE COKEWORKS IS AN ACTIVE DOLOMITE CRUSHING, SIZING, AND SCREENING PLANT. - Wade Sand & Gravel Company, North Quarry, State Highway 78, Thomas, Jefferson County, AL

  14. 5. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING WEST. WEST DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, QUARRIES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING WEST. WEST DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, QUARRIES TO LEFT MIDDLE GROUND OF PICTURE. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

  15. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF THIS 400' DEEP LIMESTONE QUARRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF THIS 400' DEEP LIMESTONE QUARRY PIT ("THE OLD PIT") WITH LEDGE PREPARED FOR LIMESTONE EXTRACTION. AN ELEVEN-HOLE SHOT WILL DISLODGE APPROXIMATELY 25,000 TONS OF LIMESTONE WHICH, AFTER LOADING AND CRUSHING, WILL BE USED FOR ROAD CONSTRUCTION. THE CALERA QUARRY IS ONE OF FOUR ACTIVE VULCAN MATERIALS COMPANY QUARRIES IN THE DISTRICT. VULCAN MATERIALS, A FORTUNE 500 FIRM, ESTABLISHED IN BIRMINGHAM IN 1906 AS BIRMINGHAM SLAG COMPANY, VULCAN MATERIALS IS THE NATION'S FOREMOST PRODUCER OF CONSTRUCTION AGGREGATE AND A LEADING CHEMICALS MANUFACTURER - Vulcan Material Company, Calera Quarry, 1614 Highway 84, Calera, Shelby County, AL

  16. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF THIS 400' DEEP LIMESTONE QUARRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF THIS 400' DEEP LIMESTONE QUARRY PIT ('THE OLD PIT') WITH LEDGE PREPARED FOR LIMESTONE EXTRACTION. AN ELEVEN-HOLE SHOT WILL DISLODGE APPROXIMATELY 25,000 TONS OF LIMESTONE WHICH, AFTER LOADING AND CRUSHING, WILL BE USED FOR ROAD CONSTRUCTION. THE CALERA QUARRY IS ONE OF FOUR ACTIVE VULCAN MATERIALS COMPANY QUARRIES IN THE DISTRICT. VULCAN MATERIALS, A FORTUNE 500 FIRM, ESTABLISHED IN BIRMINGHAM IN 1906 AS BIRMINGHAM SLAG COMPANY, VULCAN MATERIALS IS THE NATION'S FOREMOST PRODUCER OF CONSTRUCTION AGGREGATE AND A LEADING CHEMICALS MANUFACTURER. - Vulcan Material Company, Calera Quarry, 1614 Highway 84, Calera, Shelby County, AL

  17. 7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry...

  18. 7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry...

  19. 7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry...

  20. 7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry...

  1. 7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry...

  2. A proposed method for remote area mass quarrying

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, P.; Daniels, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Current practice in establishing quarries in remote areas with hilly or mountainous terrain tends to the use of airtracs (or similar pioneering units) drilling horizontal holes to establish a face, followed by bench development with light excavating equipment. The authors propose the use of a hybrid coyote blast design that incorporates long-round tunneling techniques. This method would, in effect, use down-the-hole (DTH) drills to advance the drift cut to the final depth, allowing longer and more rapid drift advances, and replace the cross-cut drifts with clusters of DTH holes to achieve the same explosives distribution. In cases where back wall control is a concern, the cross-cut could be augmented or even completely replaced with fan rings of DTH holes. Further, in cases where highly uniform material is required, these fan rings could be distributed throughout the rock mass. The primary advantage to this approach is a significant reduction in capital equipment and the support systems required for developing relatively large volumes of quarry material. Although drill factors will be lower than with conventional practice, explosives consumption should remain much the same. A single compressor capable of running high pressure air to operate the DTH hammer would double, at lower pressure, as the driver for pusher leg drills. A simple jack-bar system could be used for the DTH set-up, or a more elaborate mount could be designed to be attached to the mucking equipment. It is anticipated that a three man crew could easily handle the entire operation.

  3. Local seismic characteristics of the quarry blasts on the Korean peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, M.; Hahm, I.; Ryoo, Y.; Park, S.; Jeon, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Most explosion events occurred by chemical blast in order to get aggregate stone on Korean peninsula.The vibrations generated by the explosions are recorded at seismic stations operated by the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA), contaminating seismic data.To study the accurate seismic activities, source discrimination between explosion and earthquake is important to study the accurate seismic activities. In this study, we installed the portable seismometers around the quarry blast sites to understand the characteristics of seismic waveforms of quarry blasts and natural earthquakes. We collected the quarry blasting seismic data in local distance in Yeoncheon and Hoengseong regions. Then we analyzed the epicenter of magnitude, and P/S amplitude ratio of the blasts. For the analysis, we used seismic data recorded at KMA seismic network and temporary stations with portable seismographs. We precisely determined the locations using Hypoellipse and Genloc programs in order to compare the relocation results along the station azimuth and epicentral distance. The results showed high accuracy of hypocenter and improved reliability of the focal depth, that may be due to the close temporary stations. Comparison results between magnitude of this study and KMA's seismic analysis program (Antelope) shows magnitude differences of about 0.5 ~ 0.7. These differences may be due to the usage of different data set and magnitude scale. P/S amplitude spectral ratio of explosion is expected to have much higher ratio than that of earthquake (Walter et al., 1995; Zhao et al., 2008). P/S amplitude spectral ratio for each station was analyzed after we selected four micro earthquakes near the quarry blast site of Yeoncheon and Hoengseong regions. Although the spectral ratios appear to be scattered, the variation gets smaller as the epicentral distance becomes large. Study results indicate smoothly calculated P/S ratio in frequency domain and classified P/S ratio into two groups. The

  4. INTERIOR VIEW, NORTH QUARRY, LOOKING WEST. IN THE FOREGROUND ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, NORTH QUARRY, LOOKING WEST. IN THE FOREGROUND ON THE FIRST BENCH, POWDER HILLS ARE PRIMED FOR DOLOMITE EXTRACTION. ON THE SECOND BENCH, THE DRILL TEAM IS LAYING OUT THE NEXT SHOTS. - Wade Sand & Gravel Company, North Quarry, State Highway 78, Thomas, Jefferson County, AL

  5. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Republic Steel Quarry Site, Elyria, Ohio (first remedial action), September 1988. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-30

    The Republic Steel Quarry site is located in the City of Elyria in Lorain County, Ohio, southwest of Cleveland. From 1950 to 1972, approximately 200,000 gallons of waste pickle liquor (acid wastes used in steel processing) were discharged to a ditch located on the east side of the steel plant, which flowed north into the quarry. From 1972 to 1975 the ditch was used for disposing of rinse water from pickling operations. The primary contaminants of concern affecting surface water, sediments, and soil are VOCs including toluene, and metals including chromium and lead. The selected remedial action for this site includes: excavation and offsite disposal an a RCRA landfill of approximately 100 cu yds of contaminated surface soil from the pickle-liquor discharge ditch and from along the southern end of the quarry; and implementation of a five-year monitoring plan including a fish-species survey.

  6. Maximal expiratory flow volume curve in quarry workers.

    PubMed

    Subhashini, Arcot Sadagopa; Satchidhanandam, Natesa

    2002-01-01

    Maximal Expiratory Flow Volume (MEFV) curves were recorded with a computerized Spirometer (Med Spiror). Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volumes (FEV), mean and maximal flow rates were obtained in 25 quarry workers who were free from respiratory disorders and 20 healthy control subjects. All the functional values are lower in quarry workers than in the control subject, the largest reduction in quarry workers with a work duration of over 15 years, especially for FEF75. The effects are probably due to smoking rather than dust exposure. PMID:12024961

  7. Modelling long-term landscape evolution by subglacial quarrying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vej Ugelvig, Sofie; Lundbek Egholm, David; Iverson, Neal R.

    2016-04-01

    Glacial landscape-evolution models are useful tools when studying the mechanisms and long-term effects of glacial erosion. However, the difficulty of implementing the small-scale physics of abrasion and quarrying in large-scale landscape models has necessitated use of semi-empirical erosion laws, where sliding speed or total ice flux are the main parameters scaling the rate of erosion. Factors such as bed slope, effective pressure, and pre-existing fracture-density are known to also be of importance, however, especially for the mechanics of quarrying (Iverson, 2012). The objective of our study was to improve links between large-scale landscape models and the physics of subglacial quarrying. We used the quarrying model presented by Iverson (2012) to calculate the average efficiency of quarrying across many topographic steps. The computations were repeated for one million combinations of bed slope, effective pressure, and basal sliding speed. We then performed a power-law fit to the many resulting erosion rates in order to quantify the overall influence of the regional parameters (effective pressure, bed slope, and sliding rate). Based on these results we suggest a quarrying rule where, in addition to the strong influence of bedrock fracture-density, erosion rate scales with sliding speed to a power of 1, with bed slope to a power of 2, and with effective pressure to a power of 3. The high sensitivity to effective pressure implies a strong influence of meltwater hydrology on subglacial landscape evolution. To study this influence we implemented the new quarrying rule in a higher-order ice-sheet model coupled to a cavity-channel model for glacial hydrology. Computational experiments using steady-state hydrology predict that a well-drained glacier focuses quarrying in the upper parts of the glaciated catchment where water flux is small and slopes are steep, and in areas where ice is thick and the effective pressure high. Decreasing the hydraulic conductivity of

  8. Sinkhole development induced by underground quarrying, and the related hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parise, M.; Delle Rose, M.

    2009-04-01

    Sinkholes are extremely widespread in Apulia, a very flat and carbonate region, that acted as the foreland during the phases of building up of the Southern Apenninic Chain in Miocene time. This is due to the presence of soluble rocks throughout the region, that highly predispose the area to this very subtle natural hazard. In addition to the natural setting, which favours their development, sinkholes may also be induced by anthropogenic activities. In the latter sense, underground quarrying represents one of the most dangerous activities in karst areas. Apulia has a long history of quarrying. Since the roman time, the local rocks, from the Cretaceous micritic limestones to the Quaternary calcarenites, have been intensely quarried and used as building and ornamental materials. In several settings of the region, the rocks with the best petrographic characteristics are located at depths ranging from a few to some tens of meters. This caused the opening of many underground quarries, and the development of a complex network of subterranean galleries. Underground quarrying had a great impulse at the turn between the XIX and the XX century, when a large number of quarries was opened. Later on, after the Second World War, most of the quarries were progressively abandoned, even because of the first signs of instability, both underground and at the ground surface. With time, the memory of the presence and development of the underground quarries was progressively lost, with severe repercussions on the safety of the land above the excavated areas. Lack of knowledge of the subterranean pattern of galleries, combined with the expansion of the built-up areas at the surface, resulted in increasing significantly the vulnerability of exposed elements at risk. Events such as the 29 March, 2007, at Gallipoli only by chance did not result in any casualties, when a 15-mt wide and 5-mt deep sinkhole opened in a few hours at a road crossing, above the site of an old underground quarry

  9. Removal of graffiti from quarry stone by high power diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penide, J.; Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Sánchez-Castillo, A.; Comesaña, R.; del Val, J.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J.

    2013-04-01

    The integrity of architectural monuments in urban areas is threatened by numerous attacks, among which the graffiti is sometimes one of the most important. Particularly, Morelia's historic center (Mexico) (appointed World Heritage Site by UNESCO) suffers, for some years, a high number of graffiti. Most of these monuments in Morelia were built using a local stone called Pink Morelia Quarry. In this paper, we present the results of a study on the feasibility to remove the graffiti from Pink Morelia Quarry using a high power diode laser treatment. An extensive experimental analysis of the operating conditions has been carried out leading to successful results. The optimal parameters to achieve a total removal of graffiti have been determined. We concluded that continuous wave regime leads to better results than modulated wave regime, additionally, a two laser passes process demonstrated a high performance.

  10. 7. WEST DAM STRUCTURE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. QUARRIES AT BOTTOM; OUTLET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. WEST DAM STRUCTURE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. QUARRIES AT BOTTOM; OUTLET STRUCTURE UNDER CONSTRUCTION CUTTING INTO HILL AT TOP OF PICTURE. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

  11. Residual Impact of Previous Injury on Musculoskeletal Characteristics in Special Forces Operators

    PubMed Central

    Parr, Jeffrey J.; Clark, Nicholas C.; Abt, John P.; Kresta, Julie Y.; Keenan, Karen A.; Kane, Shawn F.; Lephart, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal injuries are a significant burden to United States Army Special Operations Forces. The advanced tactical skill level and physical training required of Army Special Operators highlights the need to optimize musculoskeletal characteristics to reduce the likelihood of suffering a recurrent injury. Purpose To identify the residual impact of previous injury on musculoskeletal characteristics. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods Isokinetic strength of the knee, shoulder, and back and flexibility of the shoulder and hamstrings were assessed as part of a comprehensive human performance protocol, and self-reported musculoskeletal injury history was obtained. Subjects were stratified based on previous history of low back, knee, or shoulder injury, and within-group and between-group comparisons were made for musculoskeletal variables. Results Knee injury analysis showed no significant strength or flexibility differences. Shoulder injury analysis found internal rotation strength of the healthy subjects (H) was significantly higher compared with injured (I) and uninjured (U) limbs of the injured group (H, 60.8 ± 11.5 percent body weight [%BW]; I, 54.5 ± 10.5 %BW; U, 55.5 ± 11.3 %BW) (P = .014 [H vs I] and P = .05 [H vs U]). The external rotation/internal rotation strength ratio was significantly lower in the healthy subjects compared with injured and uninjured limbs of the injured group (H, 0.653 ± 0.122; I, 0.724 ± 0.121; U, 0.724 ± 0.124) (P = .026 [H vs I] and P = .018 [H vs U]). Posterior shoulder tightness was significantly different between the injured and uninjured limb of the injured group (I, 111.6° ± 9.4°; U, 114.4° ± 9.3°; P = .008). The back injury analysis found no significant strength differences between the healthy and injured groups. Conclusion Few physical differences existed between operators with prior knee or back injury. However, operators with a previous history of shoulder injury

  12. INTERIOR VIEW, NORTH QUARRY, LOOKING WEST. IN THE FOREGROUND ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, NORTH QUARRY, LOOKING WEST. IN THE FOREGROUND ON THE FIRST BENCH, POWDER HILLS ARE PRIMED FOR DOLOMITE EXTRACTION. ON THE SECOND BENCH, THE DRILL TEAM IS LAYING OUT THE NEXT SHOTS. ON THE TOP BENCH, A 245 CATERPILLAR LOADER FILLS A 55-TON CATERPILLAR ROCK TRUCK WITH EXTRACTED DOLOMITE FOR TRANSPORT TO THE DOLOMITE CRUSHING AND SCREENING PLANT. - Wade Sand & Gravel Company, North Quarry, State Highway 78, Thomas, Jefferson County, AL

  13. Analytic hierarchy process helps select site for limestone quarry expansion in Barbados.

    PubMed

    Dey, Prasanta Kumar; Ramcharan, Eugene K

    2008-09-01

    Site selection is a key activity for quarry expansion to support cement production, and is governed by factors such as resource availability, logistics, costs, and socio-economic-environmental factors. Adequate consideration of all the factors facilitates both industrial productivity and sustainable economic growth. This study illustrates the site selection process that was undertaken for the expansion of limestone quarry operations to support cement production in Barbados. First, alternate sites with adequate resources to support a 25-year development horizon were identified. Second, technical and socio-economic-environmental factors were then identified. Third, a database was developed for each site with respect to each factor. Fourth, a hierarchical model in analytic hierarchy process (AHP) framework was then developed. Fifth, the relative ranking of the alternate sites was then derived through pair wise comparison in all the levels and through subsequent synthesizing of the results across the hierarchy through computer software (Expert Choice). The study reveals that an integrated framework using the AHP can help select a site for the quarry expansion project in Barbados. PMID:17854976

  14. Lidar applications for the detection of movements in a cave: the example of the soapstone quarry of Bocheresse, Wallis, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longchamp, Céline; Carrea, Dario; Baillfard, François Joseph; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2013-04-01

    The quarry of Bocheresse is located in the Val de Bagnes, in the Valais County (Switzerland) and was quarried for the soapstone used for the production of ovens. As the operation of the quarry is stopped nowadays, it is now a place of historical interest. Before its opening to visitors, a detailed study for the stability and movement detections was provided. This study was done by comparison of different TLS acquisitions. In such case, a Lidar Leica ScanStation 2 was used because it has the ability to make a 360° acquisition, including the roof of the cave. Three campaigns of Lidar data acquisition were provided (2008, 2009 and 2012) resulting into high resolution point clouds of the quarry. By comparison of the different datasets with PolyWorks software, four main rockfalls have been highlighted with volumes varying between 0.04 and 0.12 m3 and also blocks that have been purged and reworked materiel are clearly identified. It appears that, in 3 years, one of the wall of the cave moved forward of 1.5 cm with a maxima of 2 cm at the top. This wall presents a lot of fractures with important opening and also displacement along these fractures. In this case, Lidar shows to be a powerful tool that can be used in areas with reduced accessibility (like the roof of the cave) and were visibility is limited.

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF AIR EMISSIONS AND RESIDUAL ASH FROM OPEN BURNING OF ELECTRONIC WASTES DURING SIMULATED RUDIMENTALRY RECYCLING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air emissions and residual ash measurements were made from open, uncontrolled combustion of electronic waste (e-waste) during simulations of practices associated with rudimentary e-waste recycling operations. Circuit boards and insulated wires were separately burned to simulate p...

  16. Operator-Friendly Technique and Quality Control Considerations for Indigo Colorimetric Measurement of Ozone Residual

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water ozone disinfection systems measure ozone residual concentration, C, for regulatory compliance reporting of concentration-times-time (CT), and the resultant log-inactivation of virus, Giardia and Cryptosporidium. The indigotrisulfonate (ITS) colorimetric procedure i...

  17. Exploration, mining and quarrying: Operational equipment and component. Buyers guide

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    This is a buyers guide of mining related equipment and services. The guide is broken down into an index of these goods and services and then cross referenced to a alphabetical provider list. The provider list is worldwide in scope and provides addresses, phone numbers, and fax numbers. Goods and services contain approximately 1,350 entries with a wide scope of applications to the mineral industry.

  18. Antimicrobial residues in animal waste and water resources proximal to large-scale swine and poultry feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Campagnolo, Enzo R; Johnson, Kammy R; Karpati, Adam; Rubin, Carol S; Kolpin, Dana W; Meyer, Michael T; Esteban, J Emilio; Currier, Russell W; Smith, Kathleen; Thu, Kendall M; McGeehin, Michael

    2002-11-01

    Expansion and intensification of large-scale animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the United States has resulted in concern about environmental contamination and its potential public health impacts. The objective of this investigation was to obtain background data on a broad profile of antimicrobial residues in animal wastes and surface water and groundwater proximal to large-scale swine and poultry operations. The samples were measured for antimicrobial compounds using both radioimmunoassay and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) techniques. Multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds (commonly at concentrations of > 100 microg/l) were detected in swine waste storage lagoons. In addition, multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds were detected in surface and groundwater samples collected proximal to the swine and poultry farms. This information indicates that animal waste used as fertilizer for crops may serve as a source of antimicrobial residues for the environment. Further research is required to determine if the levels of antimicrobials detected in this study are of consequence to human and/or environmental ecosystems. A comparison of the radioimmunoassay and LC/ESI-MS analytical methods documented that radioimmunoassay techniques were only appropriate for measuring residues in animal waste samples likely to contain high levels of antimicrobials. More sensitive LC/ESI-MS techniques are required in environmental samples, where low levels of antimicrobial residues are more likely. PMID:12462576

  19. Antimicrobial residues in animal waste and water resources proximal to large-scale swine and poultry feeding operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campagnolo, E.R.; Johnson, K.R.; Karpati, A.; Rubin, C.S.; Kolpin, D.W.; Meyer, M.T.; Esteban, J. Emilio; Currier, R.W.; Smith, K.; Thu, K.M.; McGeehin, M.

    2002-01-01

    Expansion and intensification of large-scale animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the United States has resulted in concern about environmental contamination and its potential public health impacts. The objective of this investigation was to obtain background data on a broad profile of antimicrobial residues in animal wastes and surface water and groundwater proximal to large-scale swine and poultry operations. The samples were measured for antimicrobial compounds using both radioimmunoassay and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) techniques. Multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds (commonly at concentrations of >100 μg/l) were detected in swine waste storage lagoons. In addition, multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds were detected in surface and groundwater samples collected proximal to the swine and poultry farms. This information indicates that animal waste used as fertilizer for crops may serve as a source of antimicrobial residues for the environment. Further research is required to determine if the levels of antimicrobials detected in this study are of consequence to human and/or environmental ecosystems. A comparison of the radioimmunoassay and LC/ESI-MS analytical methods documented that radioimmunoassay techniques were only appropriate for measuring residues in animal waste samples likely to contain high levels of antimicrobials. More sensitive LC/ESI-MS techniques are required in environmental samples, where low levels of antimicrobial residues are more likely.

  20. Blast assessment and optimization for high quarry face-blasting

    SciTech Connect

    Sames, F.; O`Meara, R.

    1996-12-01

    Where applicable, high production benches can improve efficiency in quarrying. Quality control, geological, cost or other considerations might result in the development of quarry benches higher than 30 m and sometimes up to 60 m. Production blasts on high quarry faces require a confident blast design with respect to safety, cost efficiency and minimized environmental effects. Careful pre-blast assessment of the design parameters, blast monitoring of the product performance and the environmental effects and post-blast assessment of the overall blast performance are essential for the successful implementation of the blast design. The blast geometry for high quarry faces and a blast design that often includes multiple explosive charges in a blasthole, make a reliable assessment of the blast parameters difficult. Assessment techniques, their applications and limitations are described and discussed. This will include such methods as blast surveying using laser profiling and borehole deviation measurements, blast monitoring using continuous velocity of detonation measurement systems, high speed photography and seismographs for blast performance and environmental effects. Observations of low frequency airblast and high standard deviations in ground vibration measurements are described and discussed against a background of timing assessment and frequency spectra analysis. Approaches where an optimized design was implemented based on the blast parameter assessment and modeling are presented. An improvement in blast efficiency lies in the combination of blast assessment and blast modeling, whilst adequate documentation supports the process of designing and implementing successful blasts.

  1. Specification aggregate quarry expansion: a case study demonstrating sustainable management of natural aggregate resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, William H.; Tucker, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    Many countries, provinces, territories, or states in the European Union, Australia, Canada, the United States, and elsewhere have begun implementing sustainability programs, but most of those programs stop short of sustainable management of aggregate resources. Sustainable practices do not always have to be conducted under the title of sustainability. This case study describes how Lafarge, a large multinational construction materials supplier, implemented the principles of sustainability even though there was an absence of existing local government policies or procedures addressing sustainable resource management. Jefferson County, Colorado, USA, is one of three counties in the six-county Denver, Colorado, region that has potentially available sources of crushed stone. Crushed stone comprises 30 percent of the aggregate produced in the area and plays a major role in regional aggregate resource needs. Jefferson County is home to four of the five crushed stone operations in the Denver region. Lafarge operates one of those four quarries. Lafarge recently proposed to expand its reserves by exchanging company-owned land for existing dedicated open space land adjacent to their quarry but owned by Jefferson County. A similar proposal submitted about 10 years earlier had been denied. Contrary to the earlier proposal, which was predicated on public relations, the new proposal was predicated on public trust. Although not explicitly managed under the moniker of sustainability, Lafarge used basic management principles that embody the tenets of sustainability. To achieve the goals of sustainable aggregate management where no governmental policies existed, Lafarge not only assumed their role of being a responsible corporate and environmental member of the community, but also assumed the role of facilitator to encourage and enable other stakeholders to responsibly resolve legitimate concerns regarding the Lafarge quarry proposal. Lafarge successfully presented an enlightened

  2. Multidisciplinary studies on ancient sandstone quarries of Western Sardinia (Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grillo, Silvana Maria; Del Vais, Carla; Naitza, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    The ancient coastal quarries of Mediterranean are increasingly considered geosites of multidisciplinary relevance. They are sites of historical-archaeological interest that show ancient techniques of stone extraction; they are significant for cultural heritage conservation and restoration, as sources of the stones used in ancient buildings and monuments; they are sites of geological relevance, as often retain important stratigraphic sections; they are also useful markers of secular changes in the sea level. A multisciplinary study is in progress on the ancient quarries of the Sinis region (western Sardinia island), integrating archaeological, geological, minero-petrographical data. In Sardinia, coastal quarries have been established from Punic and Roman times. Many of them exploited Quaternary sediments along the southern and western coasts of the island. They consist of middle-late Pleistocene marine conglomerates and carbonate sandstones, and of coastal (aeolian) carbonate sandstones. Sandstone blocks of different sizes have been widely used in ancient cities for buildings, defensive works, harbours, etc. Three main areas of stone extraction (San Giovanni di Sinis, Punta Maimoni, Is Arutas) have been so far recognized in the Sinis. GIS-supported mapping and documentation of the sites includes their geology and stratigraphy, the extension and layout of the quarries, and an evaluation of volumes of extracted rocks. Documented archaeological evidences include ancient extraction fronts, spoil heaps, working areas, working traces in the old fronts, transport routes of blocks, and traces of loading facilities. The study is aimed at reconstructing the relationships of the quarries with the urban areas of Sinis, as the ancient Punic-Roman city of Tharros. Consequently, a minero-petrographical characterization (optical microscopy, XRD) is performed on sandstones sampled in each quarry, and in historical buildings in Tharros and other centres of the region (Cabras

  3. Economics of Forest Residue Recovery Systems in an Eastern Oregon Logging Operation : Final Project Report, May 22, 1987 - May 22, 1989.

    SciTech Connect

    Hempill, Dallas C.

    1989-03-09

    The Kinzua Forest Residues Utilization Study was sponsored by DOE and the Kinzua Corporation, with the objectives of testing and analyzing forest residue recovery systems. The approach to the study was to identify the best candidate systems for reducing costs, determine the characteristics and economics of existing residue treatment systems (including wasting the residues), analyze and recommend improvements to the existing methods, and examine policy issues. Policy issues include examination of fuel resources, environmental impacts, mitigation of those impacts, timber management, and recommendations concerning these policy issues. The project findings are most applicable to the Kinzua operation but may be applied to other comparable Intermountain operations. 87 refs., 27 figs.

  4. Anaesthetic management for caesarean section in a case of previously operated with residual pituitary tumour

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Prerana N; Sonawane, Darshana; Appukutty, Jithesh

    2011-01-01

    Successful anaesthetic management for caesarean section in a case with previous pituitary tumour resection, with residual tumour, is reported. The pituitary gland undergoes global hyperplasia during pregnancy. Functional pituitary tumours may exhibit symptomatic enlargement during pregnancy. Growth hormone secreting tumour is associated with acromegaly which has associated anaesthetic implications of difficult airway, systemic hypertension, and diabetes and electrolyte imbalance. Intracranial space occupying lesions can increase intra cranial pressure and compromise cerebral perfusion or cause herniation. We report management of this case. PMID:22223910

  5. Long-range laser scanning and 3D imaging for the Gneiss quarries survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenker, Filippo Luca; Spataro, Alessio; Pozzoni, Maurizio; Ambrosi, Christian; Cannata, Massimiliano; Günther, Felix; Corboud, Federico

    2016-04-01

    In Canton Ticino (Southern Switzerland), the exploitation of natural stone, mostly gneisses, is an important activity of valley's economies. Nowadays, these economic activities are menaced by (i) the exploitation costs related to geological phenomena such as fractures, faults and heterogeneous rocks that hinder the processing of the stone product, (ii) continuously changing demand because of the evolving natural stone fashion and (iii) increasing administrative limits and rules acting to protect the environment. Therefore, the sustainable development of the sector for the next decades needs new and effective strategies to regulate and plan the quarries. A fundamental step in this process is the building of a 3D geological model of the quarries to constrain the volume of commercial natural stone and the volume of waste. In this context, we conducted Terrestrial Laser Scanning surveys of the quarries in the Maggia Valley to obtain a detailed 3D topography onto which the geological units were mapped. The topographic 3D model was obtained with a long-range laser scanning Riegl VZ4000 that can measure from up to 4 km of distance with a speed of 147,000 points per second. It operates with the new V-line technology, which defines the surface relief by sensing differentiated signals (echoes), even in the presence of obstacles such as vegetation. Depending on the esthetics of the gneisses, we defined seven types of natural stones that, together with faults and joints, were mapped onto the 3D models of the exploitation sites. According to the orientation of the geological limits and structures, we projected the different rock units and fractures into the excavation front. This way, we obtained a 3D geological model from which we can quantitatively estimate the volume of the seven different natural stones (with different commercial value) and waste (with low commercial value). To verify the 3D geological models and to quantify exploited rock and waste volumes the same

  6. Quarries as educational resources - a research with students of a secondary school of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipe, Fernanda; Henriques, Maria Helena

    2015-04-01

    This work describes the results obtained in a research on science education involving 18 students of Biology and Geology of the 10th grade (15 years old) of the Secondary School of Figueiró dos Vinhos (Central Portugal). Framed on the curricular topic "Earth, a very special planet", the research included the conception, implementation and evaluation of an educational intervention aiming to answer the question: "How to stimulate meaningful and relevant learning about sustainable exploitation of geological resources, namely limestone?" The intervention occurred along 8 classes of 90 minutes each, which included practical work developed in small groups (3 students/each), and several activities both in the field and in the classroom (prior and after the fieldtrip). From the methodological point of view, this research is qualitative in nature, a study-case type, with data resulting from direct observation and content analysis of the answers presented by students to questionnaires (diagnostic and intervention assessment) and to worksheets, expressly created for the research. The main goal of the intervention was that the students, by developing practical activities centered upon a field trip to an abandoned limestone quarry located close to their homes, could learn to recognize the geological impacts arising from the exploitation of geological resources and acquire skills for collecting and processing relevant information about existing rules that control the operations in quarries, in order to develop critical thinking about the nature of exploitation of these types of resources, which may hinder the promotion of sustainable development. Concerning the intervention assessment, results reinforced the idea that quarries can provide an educational resource of great value for promoting substantive knowledge on geosciences, urgently needed and consistent with the development of critical and intervenient citizens, able to decide, at the right moment, how to behave

  7. Open quarry monitoring using gap-filled LANDSAT 7 ETM SLC-OFF imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.; Raptis, Ilias

    2014-10-01

    Open quarries are at the same time a necessity but also a source of pollution. Necessity as they supply the necessary fuel for energy production and source of pollution as they affect biodiversity, vegetation cover and threaten water resources. The objective of this work is to indicate a monitoring methodology using Landsat ETM SLC off imagery. On May 31, 2003, the Scan Line Corrector (SLC), which compensates for the forward motion of Landsat 7, failed. Without an operating SLC, the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) line of sight now traces a zig-zag pattern along the satellite ground track. As a result, imaged area is duplicated, with width that increases towards the scene edge. An estimated twenty-two percent of any given scene is lost because of the SLC failure. The maximum width of the data gaps along the edge of the image would be equivalent to one full scan line, or approximately 390 to 450 meters. The precise location of the missing scan lines will vary from scene to scene. In this study a gap filling technique for Landsat ETM SLC off imagery is evaluated. Different Landsat 7 ETM+ images SLC off were restored and then compared to historical data and data from other sensors. The restored images have been used in order to monitor the expansion of an open quarry in western Peloponnese and the results are presented.

  8. Quarry monitoring using GPS measurements and UAV photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.; Koukouvelas, Ioannis; Argyropoulos, NIkolaos; Megalooikonomou, Vasileios

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this work is to indicate a monitoring methodology in order to survey the present state of the quarry sites and their evolution in time, which are the basic data needed to implement an adequate land reclamation project. The land monitoring has been realised by UAV photogrammetry and GPS measurements supported by a Geographic Information System. A six-rotor aircraft with a total weight of 6 kg carrying two small cameras has been used. Very accurate digital airphotos have been used in order to create orthophotos mosaic and DSM from the quarry planes. DGPS measurements and the data captured from the UAV are combined in GIS and the results are presented in the current study.

  9. 55. QUARRY TILE CUTTERS, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH WING. WORKERS PRESSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. QUARRY TILE CUTTERS, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH WING. WORKERS PRESSED THE CUTTERS INTO SLABS OF CLAY, LIFTED THEM ONTO DRYING BOARDS AND PRESSED THE PLUNGERS TO RELEASE THE CUT TILES. REPRODUCTIONS CUTTERS ARE NOT USED IN PRODUCTION. WOODEN FORMS FOR PRODUCING CLAY SLABS WITH ROLLING PINS REST AGAINST THE WALL. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  10. Contamination of seismicity catalogs by quarry blasts: An example from İstanbul and its vicinity, northwestern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horasan, Gündüz; Boztepe Güney, Aysun; Küsmezer, Ayşegül; Bekler, Feyza; Öğütçü, Zafer; Musaoğlu, Nebiye

    2009-01-01

    Scientists have proposed two fault systems of different ages in the Sea of Marmara: the Thrace-Eskişehir Fault Zone of Early Miocene-Early Pliocene age and the North Anatolian Fault Zone of Late Pliocene-Recent age. Different seismicity rates and extensions of these faults onto land near İstanbul have been suggested. One of the reasons for these differences is the contamination of seismicity catalogs by seismic events from quarries operated in İstanbul and its vicinity, including Gaziosmanpaşa (Cebeci and Kemerburgaz), Çatalca, Ömerli, Gebze, and Hereke. In this study, we investigated waveforms of 179 seismic events (1.8 < Md < 3.0) from the KOERI, NEMC digital database. We determined differences between earthquakes and quarry blasts based on time- and frequency-domain analyses of their seismograms (amplitude peak ratio, power ratio, and spectral amplitude ratio) and used these differences as discriminants. The results of this study indicate that 15% and 85% of the investigated seismic events are earthquakes and quarry blasts, respectively.

  11. Monitoring a quarry using high resolution data and GIS techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.; Tsombos, P. I.; Vaiopoulos, A. D.

    2010-10-01

    Active quarries near to urban centers are at the same time a necessity but also a source of pollution. Necessity as they supply to the construction companies the necessary aggregates and source of pollution as they affect biodiversity, vegetation cover and threaten water resources. The objective of this work is to indicate a monitoring methodology in order to survey the present state of the quarry sites and their evolution in time, which are the basic data needed to implement an adequate land reclamation project. The land monitoring has been realised both by using remote sensing techniques, supported by a Geographic Information System of the studied area, and by in situ surveying. The in situ surveying was able to assess the capability of the remote sensing model to describe the state of each site. High resolution satellite data from different sensors were used for the monitoring of an active quarry. More especially, Ikonos Quickbird, and Worldiew data were orthorectified and inserted in a GIS database in order to quantify the changes.

  12. Thermal-hydraulic processes involved in loss of residual heat removal during reduced inventory operation

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, C.D.; McHugh, P.R.; Naff, S.A.; Johnsen, G.W.

    1991-02-01

    This paper identifies the topics needed to understand pressurized water reactor response to an extended loss of residual heat removal event during refueling and maintenance outages. By identifying the possible plant conditions and cooling methods that would be used for each cooling mode, the controlling thermal-hydraulic processes and phenomena were identified. Controlling processes and phenomena include: gravity drain, core water boil-off, and reflux cooling processes. Important subcategories of the reflux cooling processes include: the initiation of reflux cooling from various plant conditions, the effects of air on reflux cooling, core level depression effects, issues regarding the steam generator secondaries, and the special case of boiler-condenser cooling with once-through steam generators. 25 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Asbestos exposure during quarrying and processing of serpentinites: a case study in Valmalenco, Central Alps, Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallo, A.; Rimoldi, B.

    2012-04-01

    Serpentinites are metamorphic rocks derived from ultramafics such as peridotites (lherzolites and/or harzburgites), with a typical mineralogical assemblage of antigorite, olivine, diopside and minor magnetite, chlorite and chrysotile. If the rock mass has good geotechnical properties, these stones are quarried because of their wide variety of green shades and outstanding technical properties. Excellent stones are produced in the Malenco Valley, Central Alps (northern Italy, Sondrio): here the geological set-up is dominated by the ultramafic Malenco massif (lower crust-mantle complex), exposed at the Penninic to Austroalpine boundary zone. Different processing operations give origin to valuable products like stoves, funeral monuments, design home appliances; important building element as roof slabs, tiles for floor and wall coverings constitute the main commercial line of production. In this area, good quality long fibre chrysotile asbestos was mined since the XIX century, till the seventies. The asbestos fissures (mostly slip-fiber) are well known in Valmalenco, associated to an important ENE-WSW striking fracture and hydrothermal vein system. Some actual serpentinite quarries "cross" at times tunnels of the old asbestos mines, because the fracture and vein system "guides" the extraction. At present time, this area represents an excellent example of naturally occurring asbestos (NOA). For these reasons, workers' exposure to asbestos during quarrying and processing cannot be ruled out, and must be assessed according to national laws. From 2004 to nowadays, the INAIL Regional Management of Lombardia, with the collaboration of University of Milan-Bicocca, carried out extensive monitoring campaigns both in quarries and in processing laboratories. More than 300 massive samples (rocks and veins) and 250 airborne dust samples were collected during the surveys. One of the main problems in the study of massive serpentinites is the accurate identification of the different

  14. Measurement of trace explosive residues in a surrogate operational environment: implications for tactical use of chemical sensing in C-IED operations.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Roderick R; Gregory, Kerin Clow; Hardy, Dennis; Oyler, Jonathan; Ostazeski, Stanley A; Fountain, Augustus Way

    2009-09-01

    A campaign to measure the amount of trace explosive residues in an operational military environment was conducted on May 27-31, 2007, at the National Training Center at Fort Irwin, CA, USA. The objectives of this campaign were to develop the methods needed to collect and analyze samples from tactical military settings, to use the data obtained to determine what the trace explosive signatures suggest about the potential capabilities of chemical-based means to detect IEDs, and, finally, to present a framework whereby a sound understanding of the signature science can be used to guide development of new sensing technologies and sensor concepts of operation. Through our use of combined background and threat signature data, we have performed statistical analyses to estimate upper limits of notional sensor performance that is limited only by the spatial correlation of the signature chemicals to the threats of interest. PMID:19340417

  15. Geohydrology of the Gallup's Quarry area, Plainfield, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melvin, R.L.; Stone, J.R.; Craft, P.A.; Lane, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    The geohydrology of the Gallup's Quarry area in Plainfield, Connecticut was characterized by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, to provide a preliminary framework for future remedial efforts. Gallup's Quarry, an inactive sand and gravel pit, was the site of unregulated disposal of an unknown volume of chemical wastes from at least the summer of 1977 until January 1978. Existing information collected for the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection during 1978-82 showed that ground water beneath Gallup's Quarry and adjacent land to the northwest was contaminated by organic and inorganic compounds. There is also some evidence for contamination of Mill Brook, which is located north and northwest of the disposal areas. Geologic mapping and subsurface data show that unconsolidated surficial materials up to 90 feet thick overlie fractured crystalline bedrock in most of the Gallup's Quarry area. The surficial materials consist primarily of stratified drift and till. Texture changes vertically and laterally within the stratified drift; grain size ranges from very coarse to fine. Till blankets the bedrock surface beneath the stratified drift and is a few feet to as much as 25 feet thick. Bedrock is exposed at land surface in a hill in the southeastern part of the quarry and slopes to depths of up to 90 feet beneath the area west and north of the disposal sites. The bedrock is a dark, fine-grained, fractured and jointed blastomylonite and hornblende gneiss of the Quinebaug Formation. It is likely that a west- northwest-trending fault is present in the bedrock beneath Gallup's Quarry; this fault, if present, may provide a preferential pathway for ground-water flow and contaminant transport. The principal horizontal direction of ground-water flow and movement of dissolved contaminants in the stratified drift was to the northwest of the waste-disposal areas toward Mill Brook in 1978. Estimates of average annual

  16. Empirical correlation of residual gamma radiation resulting from operation of the Health Physics Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, T.L.; Ragan, G.E.; Sims, C.S.

    1985-04-01

    An empirical equation has been developed which gives gamma dose equivalent rate as a function of time, distance, and fission yield after a pulsed operation of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) unshielded Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR). A related expression which is applicable to steady-state reactor operation has been mathematically derived from the aforementioned empirical equation. The two relations can be used to predict the gamma dose equivalent rate to within 25% for times between 1 minute and 90 minutes after reactor shutdown. Similar agreement is expected for up to several days. In most cases the relations are expected to overestimate the gamma dose equivalent rate. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Design and operation of industrial boilers fired with wood and bark residue fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Junge, D.C.

    1982-08-01

    Most of the technical reference literature concerning the design and operation of industrial wood and bark-fired boilers and supporting facilities is out of date. This publication updates existing information and includes extensive research and development data that was generated at Oregon State University. Topics covered include the state of wood combustion technology; the basic characteristics of wood fuels; the principles of wood combustion and parameters that influence combustion; fuel receiving preparation, and storage; and pollution control.

  18. USING THE SULFUR POLYMER STABILIZATION SOLIDIFICATION PROCESS TO TREAT RESIDUAL MERCURY WASTES FROM GOLD MINING OPERATIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    BOWERMAN,B.ADAMS,J.KALB,P.WAN,R.Y.LEVIER,M.

    2003-02-24

    Large quantities of mercury are generated as a by-product during the processing of gold ore following mining operations. Newmont Mining Corporation (NMC), which operates some of the world's largest gold mines, sought a method to permanently ''retire'' its mercury by-products, thereby avoiding potential environmental liability. Sulfur Polymer Stabilization-Solidification (SPSS) is an innovative technology developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for treatment of mercury and mercury contaminated materials, such as soil, sludge and debris. BNL conducted a treatability study to determine the potential applicability of SPSS for treatment of Newmont mercury, and the treated product passed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) test for toxicity. The SPSS process has been shown to be effective on radioactive and nonradioactive mercury and mercury-contaminated materials with a pilot-scale batch system capable of producing 0.03 m{sup 3} (1 ft{sup 3}) per batch. Engineering scale-up issues are discussed and material property tests addressing these issues are described.

  19. Floating bioplato for purification of waste quarry waters from mineral nitrogen compounds in the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Evdokimova, Galina A; Ivanova, Lyubov A; Mozgova, Natalia P; Myazin, Vladimir A; Fokina, Nadezhda V

    2016-08-23

    A bioplato was organized at Kirovogorskiy pond-settling of OLKON Company (the city of Olenegorsk, in Murmansk region) to reduce the content of nitrogen mineral compounds in water which come into the pond with the quarry waters after blasting operations using nitrogen compounds. The assortment of aboriginal plants was selected, a method of fixing and growing them on the water surface was developed, and observations of their vegetation were carried out. The dynamics of nitrogen compounds was determined in the laboratory and with full-scale tests. The coverage area pond by plants for the effective reduction of mineral nitrogen compounds was calculated. The use of floating bioplato helped to reduce content of ammonium and nitrite to maximum permissible levels or even lower in pond water. Also there was a tendency towards reduction of nitrate concentrations in water. The developmental technology can be used in any climatic zone with a specific assortment of plants-ameliorants. PMID:27220259

  20. POTENTIAL IMPACT OF BLENDING RESIDUAL SOLIDS FROM TANKS 18/19 MOUNDS WITH TANK 7 OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Eibling, R; Erich Hansen, E; Bradley Pickenheim, B

    2007-03-29

    High level waste tanks 18F and 19F have residual mounds of waste which may require removal before the tanks can be closed. Conventional slurry pump technology, previously used for waste removal and tank cleaning, has been incapable of removing theses mounds from tanks 18F and 19F. A mechanical cleaning method has been identified that is potentially capable of removing and transferring the mound material to tank 7F for incorporation in a sludge batch for eventual disposal in high level waste glass by the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The Savannah River National Laboratory has been requested to evaluate whether the material transferred from tanks 18F/19F by the mechanical cleaning technology can later be suspended in Tank 7F by conventional slurry pumps after mixing with high level waste sludge. The proposed mechanical cleaning process for removing the waste mounds from tanks 18 and 19 may utilize a high pressure water jet-eductor that creates a vacuum to mobilize solids. The high pressure jet is also used to transport the suspended solids. The jet-eductor system will be mounted on a mechanical crawler for movement around the bottom of tanks 18 and 19. Based on physical chemical property testing of the jet-eductor system processed IE-95 zeolite and size-reduced IE-95 zeolite, the following conclusions were made: (1) The jet-eductor system processed zeolite has a mean and median particle size (volume basis) of 115.4 and 43.3 microns in water. Preferential settling of these large particles is likely. (2) The jet-eductor system processed zeolite rapidly generates settled solid yield stresses in excess of 11,000 Pascals in caustic supernates and will not be easily retrieved from Tank 7 with the existing slurry pump technology. (3) Settled size-reduced IE-95 zeolite (less than 38 microns) in caustic supernate does not generate yield stresses in excess of 600 Pascals in less than 30 days. (4) Preferential settling of size-reduced zeolite is a function of the amount of

  1. Ecotoxicological risk assessment linked to infilling quarries with treated dredged seaport sediments.

    PubMed

    Perrodin, Yves; Donguy, Gilles; Bazin, Christine; Volatier, Laurence; Durrieu, Claude; Bony, Sylvie; Devaux, Alain; Abdelghafour, Mohammed; Moretto, Robert

    2012-08-01

    The dredged sediments of polluted seaports now raise complex management problems since it is no longer possible to discharge them into the sea. This results in the need to manage them on land, raising other types of technical, economic and environmental problems. Regarding the technical and economic dimensions, traditional waste treatment methods have proved to be poorly adapted, due to very high costs and low absorbable volumes. In this context, filling quarries in coastal areas with treated sediments could represent an interesting alternative for these materials. Nevertheless, for the environmental dimension, it is necessary to demonstrate that this possibility is harmless to inland ecosystems. Consequently, a specific ecotoxicological risk assessment methodology has been formulated and tested on three sediments taken from seaboards of France, in view to providing an operational and usable tool for the prior validation of any operation to fill quarries with treated seaport sediments. This method incorporates the formulation of a global conceptual model of the scenario studied and the definition of protocols for each of its steps: the characterisation of exposures (based on a simulation of sediment deposit), the characterisation of effects (via the study of sediments ecotoxicity), and the final ecotoxicological risk assessment performed as a calculation of a risk quotient. It includes the implementation in parallel of two types of complementary approach: the "substances" approach derived from the European methodology for assessing new substances placed on the market, and the "matrix" approach which is similar to methods developed in France to assess ecological risks in other domains (waste management, polluted site management, …). The application of this dual approach to the three sediments tested led to conclude with reliability that the project to deposit sediments "1" and "2" presented a low risk for the peripheral aquatic ecosystems while sediment "3

  2. Seismic monitoring of rockfalls at Spitz quarry (NÖ, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Puy Papí Isaba, María; Brückl, Ewald; Roncat, Andreas; Schweigl, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    In the recent past, significant rockfalls, which pose a danger to persons, railways and roads, occurred in the quarry of Spitz (NÖ-Austria). An existing seismic warning system did not fulfill the expected efficiency and reliability standards since the ratio of well-detected events to undetected events or false alarms was not satisfactory. Our aim was to analyze how a seismic warning system must be designed in order to overcome these deficiencies. A small-scale seismic network was deployed in the Spitz quarry to evaluate the possibility of improving the early-warning rockfall monitoring network by means of seismic observations. A new methodology based on seismic methods, which enables the detection and location of rockfalls above a critical size, was developed. In order to perform this task, a small-scale (200x200 m2) passive seismic network comprised of 7 monitoring seismic stations acquiring data in continuous mode was established in the quarry of Spitz so that it covered the rockfall hazard area. On the 2nd of October 2015, an induced rockfall experiment was performed. It began at 09:00 a.m (local time, 07:00 UTC) and lasted about 1.5 hours. The entire data set was analyzed using the pSysmon software. In order to locate the impact point of the rock falls, we used a procedure based on the back-projection of the maximum resultant amplitude recorded at each station of the network within a time window to every grid-point covering the whole area of interest. In order to verify the performance of the employed algorithm for detection and localization, we performed man-induced rock falls. We also used a terrestrial laser scanner and a camera, not only to draw the rockfall block trajectories, but also to determine the volume of rock lost or gained in the different areas of the quarry. This allowed us to relate the lost mass with the strength of the collision (Pseudo-magnitude) of the rockfall, and draw and rebuild their associated trajectory. The location test performed

  3. Seismic source mechanisms for quarry blasts: modelling observed Rayleigh and Love wave radiation patterns from a Texas quarry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Keith L.; Bonner, Jessie L.; Barker, Terrance

    2004-01-01

    A theoretical understanding of the mechanisms by which quarry blasts excite seismic waves is useful in understanding how quarry blast discriminants may be transported from one region to another. An experiment in Texas with well-placed seismic stations and a cooperative blasting engineer has shed light on some of the physical mechanisms of seismic excitation at short periods (0.1-3 Hz). Azimuthal radiation patterns of the 0.2-3 Hz Rayleigh and Love waves are diagnostic of two proposed mechanisms for non-isotropic radiation from quarry blasts. Observations show that the Love and Rayleigh wave radiation patterns depend upon the orientation of the quarry benches. Two possible mechanisms for non-isotropic radiation are (1) the lateral throw of spalled material and (2) the presence of the topographic bench in the quarry. The spall of material can be modelled by vertical and horizontal forces applied to the free surface with time functions proportional to the derivative of the momentum of the spalled material. We use wavenumber integration synthetics to model the explosion plus spall represented by seismic moment tensor sources plus point forces. The resulting synthetics demonstrate that the magnitude of the SH (Love) compared with the SV (fundamental Rayleigh or Rg) in the short period band (0.5-3 Hz) may be explained by the spall mechanism. Nearly all of the available mass must participate in the spall with an average velocity of 2-5 m s-1 to provide sufficient impulse to generate the observed Love waves. Love wave radiation patterns from such a mechanism are consistent with the spall mechanism. We modelled the effects of the topographic bench using 3-D linear finite-difference calculations to compute progressive elastic wavefields from explosion sources behind the quarry bench. These 3-D calculations show SH radiation patterns consistent with observations while the SV radiation patterns are not consistent with observations. We find that the radiation patterns from the

  4. Isotope characterisation of historical alabaster quarries in Western Europe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloppmann, Wolfram; Leroux, Lise; Bromblet, Philippe; Cooper, Anthony H.; Nestler, Angela; Guerrot, Catherine; Montech, Anne-Thérèse; Worley, Noel

    2015-04-01

    The origin of the raw material of gypsum alabaster artwork is still largely underinvestigated as conventional chemical and mineralogical analyses have not yielded convincing results due to the rather homogeneous composition, especially of the most wanted pure white varieties. Yet, identifying the origin of raw materials used for sculpture is crucial for art historians and museums aiming at identifying artists, rarely nominally documented before the 16th century, workshops and historic trade roads. A pilot study (Kloppmann et al., 2014) revealed the potential of multi-isotope fingerprinting of alabaster provenance, using a combination of sulphur, oxygen and strontium isotopes. Here we present an enlarged data base of isotope analyses of samples from known or suspected historical alabaster exploitations in France (Jura, Alps, Provence, Burgundy, Lorraine, Aquitaine, Paris region), Spain (Aragon and Catalonia), England (East Midlands/Nottingham region, Cumberland, N Yorkshire), Germany (Harz Mountain foreland). Strontium and sulphur isotopes appear to be particularly discriminative with a strong inter-site variability and intra-site homogeneity. Isotope ratios of both elements in seawater and associated evaporites have strongly varied over geological timescales (Claypool et al. 1980; Burke et al. 1982; Denison et al. 1998) so that W-European alabaster samples, ranging from Permian (Zechstein) to Miocene ages, show age-specific differentiation. Additionally, for both elements, non-marine sources such as sulphides, organic sulphur and strontium derived from mineral weathering provide basin- or sub-basin-specific signatures that further discriminate alabaster provenances. Oxygen isotopes provide supplementary evidence even if there is a stronger overlap of signatures. In conclusion, we consider that we have now an operational tool to distinguish the main alabaster sources for historical workshops in Western Europe. This methodology is currently applied to sculptures

  5. Quarry geotechnical report for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    This report has been prepared for the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) by the Project Management Contractor (PMC), which is MK-Ferguson Company (MK-Ferguson) with Jacobs Engineering Group (JEG) as its designated subcontractor. The Weldon Spring site (WSS) comprises the Weldon Spring quarry area and the Weldon Spring chemical plant and raffinate pit areas. This report presents the results of geotechnical investigations conducted during 1989--1990 at the proposed Weldon Spring quarry staging and water treatment facilities in the quarry area. The facilities are intended for treatment of water removed from the quarry area. An access road and a decontamination pad will be necessary for handling and transportation of bulk waste. Results of previous geotechnical investigations performed by other geoscience and environmental engineering firms in the quarry area, were reviewed, summarized and incorporated into this report. Well logging, stratigraphy data, piezometer data, elevations, and soil characteristics are also included.

  6. Environmental management of quarries as waste disposal facilities.

    PubMed

    El-Fadel, M; Sadek, S; Chahine, W

    2001-04-01

    Problems associated with the disposal of municipal solid waste have become a source of public concern worldwide as awareness of potential adverse environmental impacts and health threats from solid waste has increased. Communities are concerned about the generation and management of solid waste to the extent of refusing to allow new disposal facilities near their homes, often after witnessing the legacy of existing facilities. Under these conditions, the development of national policies for the management of solid waste becomes highly political, all while requiring appropriate technical solutions that ensure environmental protection and proper management plans that support an acceptable solution for the disposal of municipal solid waste. In some locations, the conversion of old quarries into well-engineered and controlled landfills appears as a promising solution to a continuously increasing problem, at least for many decades to come. This paper describes the environmental impacts associated with solid waste disposal in a converted quarry site and the mitigation measures that can be adopted to alleviate potential adverse impacts. Environmental management and monitoring plans are also discussed in the context of ensuring adequate environmental protection during and after the conversion process. PMID:11289451

  7. A remote underwater closure of Kerr Hollow Quarry

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the totally remote clean closure of Kerr Hollow Quarry (KHQ) on the Department of Energy Y-12 site in Oak Ridge, TN. KHQ is a flooded limestone quarry, used for the treatment of shock sensitive, water reactive, explosive, and compressed gas materials from 1960 until 1988 at which time it was closed and identified as a RCRA site. The treatment process left some 4000 containers on the bottom of KHQ. Most containers are empty; however, the remote possibility of existing unreacted materials coupled with the explosive nature of the materials themselves, dictated that KHQ be clean closed by totally remote means. The closure activity involved the use of a combination of commercially available remote underwater water equipment and the use of specially designed prototype equipment. The total cost and schedule duration will be close to the cost and schedule for an in-situ closure. This is the only totally remote RCRA closure, clean, or in-situ, ever performed. 2 figs.

  8. Equipment Operator 1 & C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Education and Training Program Development Center, Pensacola, FL.

    The Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course (RTM/NRCC) form a self-study package to assist Navy Equipment Operators First and Chief in fulfilling the requirements of their rating. (Navy Equipment Operators First and Chief direct and coordinate efforts of individuals and crews in construction, earthmoving, roadbuilding, quarrying, and…

  9. Sedimentology, stratigraphy, and depositional environment of the Crystal Geyser Dinosaur Quarry, east-central Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suarez, M.B.; Suarez, C.A.; Kirkland, J.I.; Gonzalez, Luis A.; Grandstaff, D.E.; Terry, D.O., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The Crystal Geyser Dinosaur Quarry, near Green River, Utah, is located at the base of the Lower Cretaceous (Barremian) Yellow Cat Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation. The quarry preserves a nearly monospecific accumulation of a new basal therizinosauroid, Falcarius utahensis. We used field descriptions and petrographic analysis to determine the depositional environment and development of the quarry strata. Results of these analyses suggest that the quarry represents multiple episodes of bone accumulation buried by spring and overbank flood deposits. Evidence for these previously undescribed spring deposits includes calcite macroscopic structures within the quarry strata - such as pisolites and travertine fragments - and calcite micromorphologies - including radial-fibrous, feather, and scandulitic dendrite morphologies and tufa clasts. At least two episodes of bone incorporation are preserved in the quarry based on their stratigraphic position and lithologic associations. The unique depositional setting in and around the Crystal Geyser Dinosaur Quarry appears to have been favorable for the preservation of vertebrate fossils and provides insight into early Cretaceous environments in North America. Copyright ?? 2007, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  10. Influence of quarry mining dust on PM2.5 in a city adjacent to a limestone quarry: Seasonal characteristics and source contributions.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xing; Shi, Guo-Liang; Zheng, Jun; Liu, Jia-Yuan; Shi, Xu-Rong; Xu, Jiao; Feng, Yin-Chang

    2016-04-15

    To understand the influence of quarry mining dust on particulate matter, ambient PM2.5 and quarry mining dust source samples were collected in a city near quarry facilities during 2013-2014. Samples were subject to chemical analysis for dust-related species (Al, Si, Ca, Fe, Ti), tracer metals, carbon components and water-soluble ions. Seasonal variations of PM2.5 and its main chemical components were investigated. Distinctive seasonal variations of PM2.5 were observed, with the highest PM2.5 concentrations (112.42μgm(-3)) in fall and lowest concentrations in summer (45.64μgm(-3)). For dust-related species, mass fractions of Si and Al did not show obvious seasonal variations, whereas Ca presented higher fractions in spring and summer and lower fractions in fall and winter. A combined receptor model (PMF-CMB) was applied to quantify the quarry mining dust contribution to PM2.5. Seven sources were identified, including quarry mining dust, soil dust, cement dust, coal combustion vehicles, secondary sulfate and secondary nitrate. On a yearly average basis, the contribution of quarry mining dust to PM2.5 was 6%. The contribution of soil dust to PM2.5 was comparable with cement dust (13% and 13%, respectively). Other identified sources included vehicle, secondary sulfate, secondary nitrate and coal combustion, which contributed 23, 15, 9 and 18% of the total mass, respectively. Air mass residence time (AMRT) analysis showed that northeast and southeast regions might be the major PM2.5 source during the sampling campaign. The findings of this study can be used to understand the characteristics of quarry mining dust and control strategies for PM2.5. PMID:26851880

  11. Post-closure permit application for the Kerr Hollow Quarry at the Y-12 plant

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Kerr Hollow Quarry (KHQ) is located on U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) property at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was built by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project. Until 1992, the primary mission of the Y-12 Plant was the production and fabrication of nuclear weapons components. Activities associated with these functions included production of lithium compounds, recovery of enriched uranium from scrap material, and fabrication of uranium and other materials into finished parts for assemblies. The Kerr Hollow Quarry was used for waste disposal of a variety of materials including water-reactive and shock-sensitive chemicals and compressed gas cylinders. These materials were packaged in various containers and sank under the water in the quarry due to their great weight. Disposal activities were terminated in November, 1988 due to a determination by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation that the quarry was subject to regulations under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1993. Methods of closure for the quarry were reviewed, and actions were initiated to close the quarry in accordance with closure requirements for interim status surface impoundments specified in Tennessee Rules 1200-1-11-.05(7) and 1200-1-11-.05(11). As part of these actions, efforts were made to characterize the physical and chemical nature of wastes that had been disposed of in the quarry, and to remove any containers or debris that were put into the quarry during waste disposal activities. Closure certification reports (Fraser et al. 1993 and Dames and Moore 1993) document closure activities in detail. This report contains the post-closure permit application for the Kerr Hollow Quarry site.

  12. John Tyndall's Vertical Physics: From Rock Quarries to Icy Peaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidy, Michael S.

    2010-06-01

    I analyze, through the work of the Irish physicist John Tyndall (1820-1893), the close relationship formed in the mid-nineteenth century between advances in the physical sciences and the rise of mountaineering as a sport. Along with groundbreaking experimental research in the physical sciences, Tyndall worked throughout his career to define and popularize the study of physics. He also was a pioneering mountaineer during the golden age of mountaineering. As he practiced his science, from rock quarries to the study of the blue sky, Tyndall’s interests in the fundamental forces of Nature brought him to the summits of mountains. His sojourns to the mountains, in turn, affected the manner in which he approached his researches. His science and mountaineering were tellingly mixed, and worked in unison to shape public perceptions of what physicists did during a period of increasing specialization and popularization of the field.

  13. Discrimination of earthquakes and quarry blasts in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yılmaz, Şeyda; Bayrak, Yusuf; Çınar, Hakan

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, a large number of quarry blasts have been detonated in the eastern Black Sea region. When these blasts are recorded by seismic stations, they contaminate the regional earthquake catalog. It is necessary to discriminate quarry blast records from the earthquake catalogs in order to determine the real seismicity of the region. Earthquakes and quarry blasts can be separated through different methods. These methods should be applied concurrently in order to safely distinguish these events. In this study, we discriminated quarry blasts from earthquakes in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. We used 186 seismic events recorded by the Karadeniz Technical University and Bogaziçi University Kandilli Observatory Earthquake Research Institute stations which are Trabzon, Espiye, Pazar, Borçka, Aydıntepe, and Gümüşhane between years of 2002 and 2010. For the discrimination of quarry blasts from earthquakes, we used both, statistical methods (calculation of the maximum ratio of S to P waves (S/P), complexity ( C)) and spectral methods (spectrogram calculation). These methods included measuring the maximum amplitude S/P, C, spectral ratio, and time-frequency analysis. We especially relied on two-dimensional time-frequency analysis methods to discriminate quarry blasts from earthquakes in Turkey. As a result of this study, 68 % of the examined seismic events were determined to be quarry blasts and 32 % to be earthquakes. The earthquakes occurring on land are related to small faults and the blasts are concentrated in large quarries. Nearly 40 % of the earthquakes occurred in the Black Sea, most of them are related to the Black Sea thrust belt, where the largest earthquake was observed in the time period studied. The areas with the largest earthquake potential in the eastern Black Sea region are in the sea.

  14. CONCERNS WITH THE BENEFICIAL REUSE IN AGRICULTURE OF RESIDUALS FROM MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pathogenic organisms that may be present in such residuals, processes commonly employed for controlling them; these processes' effectiveness and how extensively they are used; and issues and concerns with beneficial reuse will be discussed. Processes presently being researche...

  15. Geological 3D modeling for excavation activity in an underground marble quarry in the Apuan Alps (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanneschi, Claudio; Salvini, Riccardo; Massa, Giovanni; Riccucci, Silvia; Borsani, Angelo

    2014-08-01

    The three-dimensional laser scanning technique has recently become common in diverse working environments. Even in geology, where further development is needed, this technique is increasingly useful in tackling various problems such as stability investigations or geological and geotechnical monitoring. Three-dimensional laser scanning supplies detailed and complete geometrical information in short working times, as a result of the acquisition of a large number of data-points that accurately model the detected surfaces. Moreover, it is possible to combine these data with high quality photographic images so as to provide important information for geological applications, as follows. A working approach, that combines terrestrial laser scanning and traditional geological surveys, is presented. A three-dimensional model, that includes information about the geological structure in an underground quarry in the Apuan Alps, is realized. This procedure is adaptable to other geological contexts, and because of its operating speed and accuracy it is invaluable for optimal excavation, in which a proper planning of quarrying activity is vital for safety and commercial reasons.

  16. Influence of grazing practices on cow milk quality: a case study on the Comarnic-Poieni bauxite quarry, Romania.

    PubMed

    Lorinţ, Csaba; Rădulescu, Monica; Buia, Grigore

    2012-04-01

    The current study represents a preliminary investigation made into the influence of cattle grazing in the area of a bauxite quarry (Comarnic-Poieni, Romania) on the cow milk chemistry. Weathering and surface runoff in the bauxite quarry contaminate the local chemistry of the soil, vegetation and water. During cattle transhumance, cyclic feeding patterns occur, with grazing alternating between clean pastures and the area of the quarry. Soil and water samples were collected from the contaminated area of the quarry. Raw milk samples were collected during two stages, corresponding to the periods of grazing on clean pasture and the quarry area, respectively. Based on the obtained data, the relationship between cattle grazing and the composition of milk was interpreted. Preliminary results indicated a direct correlation of increased concentration of Al in the milk, following grazing in the bauxite quarry. PMID:21986677

  17. Comparison of the occupational safety applications in marble quarries of Carrara (Italy) and Iscehisar (Turkey) by using Elmeri method.

    PubMed

    Ersoy, Metin; Yesilkaya, Liyaddin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a brief summary is given about marble quarries in Carrara (Italy) and Iscehisar (Turkey), the Elmeri method is introduced, work accidents that can happen in marble quarries and their causes besides work safety behaviours in fields are explained, and the Elmeri monitoring method is applied and analysed. For this reason, marble quarries are divided into seven in terms of working conditions and active six quarries both in Carrara and Iscehisar areas, and work safety behaviours are analysed. Analysis process is based on True-False method; there are 18 items in total under six main topics; three items on each topic. The safety index for each section and the main topics are also calculated. According to the calculated safety indexes, Carrara area marble quarries (65.08%) are safer than Iscehisar area marble quarries (46.01%). PMID:25358899

  18. Geological-Technical and Geo-engineering Aspects of Dimensional Stone Underground Quarrying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornaro, Mauro; Lovera, Enrico

    Underground exploitation of dimensional stones is not a novelty, being long since practised, as proved by a number of historical documents and by a certain number of ancient quarrying voids throughout the world. Anyway, so far, open cast quarrying has been the most adopted practice for the excavation of dimensional stones. One primary reason that led to this situation is of course connected to the lower production costs of an open cast exploitation compared to an underground one. This cheapness has been supported by geological and technical motives: on the one hand, the relative availability of surface deposits and, on the other, the development of technologies, which often can be used only outdoor. But, nowadays, general costs of quarrying activities should be re-evaluated because new, and often proper, restrictions have been strongly rising during recent years. As a consequence of both environmental and technical restrictions, pressure will more and more arise to reduce open cast quarrying and to promote underground exploitations. The trend is already well marked for weak rocks - for instance in the extractive basin of Carrara, where about one hundred quarries are active, 30 per cent is working underground, but also in Spain, Portugal and Greece the number of underground marble quarries is increasing - but not yet for hard rock quarrying, where only few quarries are working underground all around the world. One reason has to be found in cutting technologies traditionally used. In weak rocks, diamond wire saw and chain cutter are usable, with few adaptations, in underground spaces, while drilling and blasting, the traditional exploitation method for hard stone, is not easily usable in a confined space, where often only one free face is available. Many technicians and researchers agree that two technologies will probably open the door to underground quarrying in hard rocks: diamond wire and water jet. The first one is already available; the second should still be

  19. Quarry detection monitoring wells completion report WP-166

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the activities undertaken during implementation of Work Package 166, Quarry Detection Monitoring Wells, for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial action project, Weldon Spring, Missouri. The subcontract specifications should be consulted for specific details regarding this work effort. Analytical parameters for soil samples collected for all but one borehole were analyzed for uranium, thorium, cyanide, nitroaromatics, and all Hazardous Substance List parameters including volatiles, semivolatiles, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and metals. No soil samples were collected at other borehole as per specifications. With Z exceptions, uranium results for all boreholes sampled were at background levels. Nitroaromatics and cyanide were not detected in any of the samples collected. Volatile and semivolatile organics were not detected in the soil samples collected from the boreholes, with the exception of common lab contaminants such as methylene chloride, toluene, acetone, and pathalates. All metals results were either within their natural background ranges or below the detection limit of the instrument. PCB's were not detected within any of the boreholes. Pesticides detected (aldrin and methoxychlor) at one borehole near the surface may be attributed to previous spraying of pesticides on the highway right-of-way. In conclusion, the analytical results show that only uranium was detected in significant quantities; all other results were below the detection limit, very near the detection limit, or within natural background ranges. 1 fig.

  20. Evaluation of improved materials for stationary diesel engines operating on residual and coal based fuels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Experimental results to date from an on-going research program on improved materials for stationary diesel engines using residual or coal-based fuels are presented with little discussion of conclusions about these results. Information is included on ring and liner wear, fuel oil qualities, ceramic materials, coatings, test procedures and equipment, and tribology test results. (LCL)

  1. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF DISLODGEABLE RESIDUES -- PUF ROLLER SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.18)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method to collect transferable residues from indoor floor surfaces. The sampling procedures described are applicable to bare floors or covered floor surfaces, e.g., carpeting and vinyl flooring. The samples will be collected only in the day care centers o...

  2. Natural radioactivity measurements in the granite rock of quarry sites, Johor, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alnour, I. A.; Wagiran, H.; Ibrahim, N.; Laili, Z.; Omar, M.; Hamzah, S.; Idi, Bello. Y.

    2012-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the concentration of natural radionuclides in the granite rocks of selected quarry sites in Johor state, Malaysia and their possible radiological effects. The activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K in the areas of study indicated varying values of 238U, 232Th and 40K. The highest values of 238U and 232Th concentrations (67±1 and 85±2 Bq kg-1, respectively) were observed at Kamad Quarry (IJM), whereas the highest value of 40K concentration (722±18 Bq kg-1) was detected in Kim Seng Quarry, while the values of activity concentration are lower in Hanson Quarry Products (Kulai) (25±0.5 for 238U, 24±0.5 for 232Th and 429±11 for 40K). Overall, 40K has the highest concentration in the granite rocks of the quarry sites, followed by 232Th and the least for 238U. The radium equivalent activity concentration was found in the range between 94 and 239 Bq kg-1, the absorbed dose rate was found to be in the range between 47 and 112 nGy h-1, and effective dose ranged from 58 to 137 μSv h-1. Moreover, the internal and external hazard index values were given in results lower than unity.

  3. Processing of residues and municipal waste in circulating fluidized beds: Operating experience, design concepts and future developments

    SciTech Connect

    Plass, L.; Albrecht, J.; Loeffler, J.C.

    1997-12-31

    Based on experience on processing of unconventional fuels in commercial Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) gasifiers new plant concepts for thermal treatment of residues and municipal waste are presented. Particular emphasis is put on optimizing process efficiencies and environmental performance of the overall processes. The thermal treatment of waste is carried out in two steps: Gasification in a CFB-reactor is followed by a high temperature reactor for complete breakdown of gaseous condensable hydrocarbons and for slagging of dust entrained in the CFB product gas. Major details of the process alternatives are discussed in view of economical and ecological aspects.

  4. Ecological filtering and plant traits variation across quarry geomorphological surfaces: implication for restoration.

    PubMed

    Gilardelli, Federica; Sgorbati, Sergio; Armiraglio, Stefano; Citterio, Sandra; Gentili, Rodolfo

    2015-05-01

    Revegetation patterns after quarry abandonment have been widely studied from several ecological points of view, but a trait-based approach is still lacking. The aim of this study was to characterise the plant species assemblages and the associated functional traits filtered on different geomorphological surfaces in abandoned limestone quarry areas: artificial cliffs, embankments, and platforms. We then verified if species with certain traits were better able to overcome the dispersal and environmental filters necessary for establishment. To this aim, we analyzed 113 vegetation plots and collected data on 25 morphological, ecological, and dispersal traits to detect species adaptaions across these man-made environments. As a case study, we investigated the extraction basin of Botticino (Lombardy, Italy), the second largest in Italy. The results obtained by SIMPER and CCA analyses showed that rockiness, stoniness, slope, elevation, and time of surfaces are the main filters that varied across quarries and affected plant assemblages at the macro-scale level. Across the three geomorphological surfaces (meso-scale) of quarries, more specific abiotic filters selecting species were found. In turn, traits differentiation according to the three main geomorphological surfaces of quarry emphasized that further filters acting at the micro-scale imply differences in dispersal mechanisms and resource availability. This work highlighted the utility to study species assemblages and environmental filters to address quarry restoration according to the type of geomorphological surface. The investigation of some traits (chorological form, life forms, seed dispersal,s and plant height) can furnish some interesting indications for practice individuating further abiotic filters acting at the micro-scale. PMID:25662933

  5. Ecological Filtering and Plant Traits Variation Across Quarry Geomorphological Surfaces: Implication for Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilardelli, Federica; Sgorbati, Sergio; Armiraglio, Stefano; Citterio, Sandra; Gentili, Rodolfo

    2015-05-01

    Revegetation patterns after quarry abandonment have been widely studied from several ecological points of view, but a trait-based approach is still lacking. The aim of this study was to characterise the plant species assemblages and the associated functional traits filtered on different geomorphological surfaces in abandoned limestone quarry areas: artificial cliffs, embankments, and platforms. We then verified if species with certain traits were better able to overcome the dispersal and environmental filters necessary for establishment. To this aim, we analyzed 113 vegetation plots and collected data on 25 morphological, ecological, and dispersal traits to detect species adaptaions across these man-made environments. As a case study, we investigated the extraction basin of Botticino (Lombardy, Italy), the second largest in Italy. The results obtained by SIMPER and CCA analyses showed that rockiness, stoniness, slope, elevation, and time of surfaces are the main filters that varied across quarries and affected plant assemblages at the macro-scale level. Across the three geomorphological surfaces (meso-scale) of quarries, more specific abiotic filters selecting species were found. In turn, traits differentiation according to the three main geomorphological surfaces of quarry emphasized that further filters acting at the micro-scale imply differences in dispersal mechanisms and resource availability. This work highlighted the utility to study species assemblages and environmental filters to address quarry restoration according to the type of geomorphological surface. The investigation of some traits (chorological form, life forms, seed dispersal,s and plant height) can furnish some interesting indications for practice individuating further abiotic filters acting at the micro-scale.

  6. Identification of quarries rehabilitation scenarios: a case study within the metropolitan area of Bari (Italy).

    PubMed

    Dal Sasso, Pasquale; Ottolino, Maria Antonella; Caliandro, Lucia Patrizia

    2012-06-01

    This paper addresses quarries rehabilitation issue within a Metropolitan Area. Areas where mining activity is carried out have been subjected to physical and environmental degradation linked both to pursue the building materials extraction and to the city expansion continuously asking for new areas to be developed with residential and service functions. These changes also occurred where environmental and landscape values are present. It has been therefore pointed out the issue of such areas redevelopment that, to be functionally reintegrated, must be consistently linked to the activities and the territorial local contexts characteristics. In this paper the quarries reuse issue is carried out through parameters identification able to define the quarries relationship with the neighboring towns and with their surroundings besides to identify their physical, environmental and landscaping characteristics. Quarry reuse alternatives have been identified among those consistent with the rehabilitation goals, as defined by the planning sector and internationally approved, while their selection is derived from the application of a two-step methodology: a multi-criteria analysis related to punctual parameters at a "site-specific" level, followed by a further territorial indicators checking over the wide area. This application has led to socially accepted results identifying the examined quarries for reuses ranging from agricultural-forestry and urban to functional or naturalistic. The proposed method has also proved to be suitable to address the abandoned quarries reuse problem with a systemic and consultative approach, as it is able to correlate the many variables present in the social and spatial complexity of the Metropolitan Areas. PMID:22481597

  7. Chrysotile asbestos in serpentinite quarries: a case study in Valmalenco, Central Alps, Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Alessandro; Rimoldi, Bianca

    2013-07-01

    The Valmalenco serpentinite (Central Alps, Northern Italy) is marketed worldwide as dimension and decorative stone. However, the same area was once subject to chrysotile asbestos mining, from the XIX century until 1975. Asbestos is a well-known carcinogen, and there is the possibility of releasing fibres during quarrying, subsequently exposing workers. From 2004 to 2011, extensive sampling and monitoring of quarry fronts, asbestos veins, commercial stones and airborne asbestos was carried out. Massive rock and vein samples were analyzed by a combined use of optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and quantitative electron microscopy (SEM). Asbestos is concentrated almost exclusively in discrete horizons, that coincide with the main discontinuities of the rock mass. Commercial stones without fractures and veins are practically asbestos free, whereas there is a slight contamination (sometimes exceeding the 1000 ppm threshold) close to hydrothermal selvages. Quarry floors were always quite contaminated by chrysotile "beards" detached from the surface of the blocks. The airborne asbestos concentrations (PCM and SEM) were distributed over a wide range, mostly below the occupational exposure limit of 0.1 f ml(-1). Concentrations at the quarry property border or at the closest villages were always below the environmental exposure limit of 0.002 f ml(-1). The extreme thinness of chrysotile fibrils produced during quarrying activities, and the abundance of pseudo-fibrous antigorite cleavage fragments proved the SEM-EDS analytical procedure to be the most suitable. It is of crucial importance to avoid the interception of veins during quarrying and to remove all visible asbestos from the extracted blocks, before any further processing. PMID:23770928

  8. Recycling of quarry waste as part of sustainable aggregate production: Norwegian and Italian point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Willy Danielsen, Svein; Chiappino, Claudia; Primavori, Piero; Engelsen, Christian John

    2016-04-01

    Resource preservation is one of the main challenges in Europe, together with waste management and recycling; recently several researchers are interested in the recovering of critical raw materials and secondary raw materials from landfill. Aggregate supply, even if it is not "critical" sensus stricto (s.s.), is one of the European priorities (low value but high volume needs). On the other side, the management of quarry waste , mainly from dimension stones, but also as fines from aggregate crushing, is still a matter of concern. Such materials are managed in different ways both locally and nationwide, and often they are landfilled, because of an unclear legislation and a general lack of data. Most of time the local authorities adopt the maximum precaution principle or the enterprises find it little profitable to recover them, so that the sustainable recycling of such material is not valued. Several studies have shown, depending on the material specific characteristics, the viability of recycling quarry waste into new raw materials used in glass and ceramic industries, precast concrete production, infrastructures etc. (Loudes et al. 2012, Dino&Marian 2015, Bozzola et al 2012, Dino et al. 2012, etc.). Thus, aggregate production may be one of the profitable ways to use quarry waste and is falling under the priority of EU (aggregate supply). Positive economic and environmental effects are likely to be achieved by systematic recycling of quarry waste planned by industries (industrial planning) and public authorities (national and local planning of aggregate exploitation). Today, the recycling level varies to a great extent and systematic recovery is not common among European Countries. In Italy and Norway no significant incentives on recycling or systematic approaches for local aggregate exploitation exist. The environmental consequences can be overexploitation of the natural resources, land take for the landfills, environmental contamination and landscape alteration by

  9. Indications and Timings of Re-operation for Residual or Recurrent Hemifacial Spasm after Microvascular Decompression: Personal Experience and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    HATAYAMA, Toru; KONO, Takuji; HARADA, Yoichi; YAMASHITA, Keiichi; UTSUNOMIYA, Toshifumi; HAYASHI, Mototaka; NAKAJIMA, Hiroyuki; HATANAKA, Ryo; SHIMADA, Daisuke; TAKEMURA, Atsuhito; TABATA, Hidefumi; TOBISHIMA, Hana

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed reports about the postoperative course of hemifacial spasm (HFS) after microvascular decompression (MVD), including in our own patients, and investigated treatment for delayed resolution or recurrence of HFS. Symptoms of HFS disappear after surgery in many patients, but spasm persists postoperatively in about 10–40%. Residual spasm also gradually decreases, with rates of 1–13% at 1 year postoperatively. However, because delayed resolution is uncommon after 1 year postoperatively, the following is advised: (1) In patients with residual spasms after 1 year postoperatively (incomplete cure) or who again experience spasm ≥ 1 year postoperatively (recurrence), re-operation is recommended if the spasms are worse than before MVD. (2) When re-operation is considered, preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and intraoperative videos should be reviewed to ensure that no compression due to a small artery or vein was missed, and to confirm that adhesions with the prosthesis are not causing compression. If any suspicious findings are identified, the cause must be eliminated. Moreover, because of the risk of nerve injury, decompression of the distal portion of the facial nerve should be performed only in patients in whom distal compression is strongly suspected to be the cause of symptoms. (3) Cure rates after re-operation are high, but complications such as hearing impairment and facial weakness have been reported in 10–20% of cases, so surgery must be performed with great care. PMID:26226977

  10. Analysis of noise pollution in an andesite quarry with the use of simulation studies and evaluation indices.

    PubMed

    Kosała, Krzysztof; Stępień, Bartłomiej

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the verification of two partial indices proposed for the evaluation of continuous and impulse noise pollution in quarries. These indices, together with the sound power of machines index and the noise hazard index at the workstation, are components of the global index of assessment of noise hazard in the working environment of a quarry. This paper shows the results of acoustic tests carried out in an andesite quarry. Noise generated by machines and from performed blasting works was investigated. On the basis of acoustic measurements carried out in real conditions, the sound power levels of machines and the phenomenon of explosion were determined and, based on the results, three-dimensional models of acoustic noise propagation in the quarry were developed. To assess the degree of noise pollution in the area of the quarry, the continuous and impulse noise indices were used. PMID:26652503

  11. Derivation of residual radioactive material guidelines for 13 radionuclides present in Operable Unit IV at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Faillace, E.; Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C.

    1994-12-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for 13 radionuclides (americium-241; cobalt-60; cesium-137; europium-152, -154, and -155; plutonium-238, -239, and -240; strontium-90; and uranium-234, -235, and -238) were derived for Operable Unit (OU) IV at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This site has been identified for remedial action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. Single-nuclide guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of OU IV should not exceed a dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current use and plausible future use scenarios or a dose limit of 100 mrem/yr for plausible but less likely future use scenarios. The US Department of Energy (DOE) residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for determining residual radioactive material guidelines. Four potential scenarios were considered; each assumed that, for a period of 1,000 years following remedial action, the site would be used without radiological restrictions. The four scenarios varied with regard to the type of site use, time spent at the site, and sources of food consumed.

  12. Thermal-hydraulic processes involved in loss of residual heat removal during reduced inventory operation. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, C.D.; McHugh, P.R.; Naff, S.A.; Johnsen, G.W.

    1991-02-01

    This paper identifies the topics needed to understand pressurized water reactor response to an extended loss of residual heat removal event during refueling and maintenance outages. By identifying the possible plant conditions and cooling methods that would be used for each cooling mode, the controlling thermal-hydraulic processes and phenomena were identified. Controlling processes and phenomena include: gravity drain, core water boil-off, and reflux cooling processes. Important subcategories of the reflux cooling processes include: the initiation of reflux cooling from various plant conditions, the effects of air on reflux cooling, core level depression effects, issues regarding the steam generator secondaries, and the special case of boiler-condenser cooling with once-through steam generators. 25 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Study of residual background carriers in midinfrared InAs/GaSb superlattices for uncooled detector operation

    SciTech Connect

    Haugan, H. J.; Elhamri, S.; Szmulowicz, F.; Ullrich, B.; Brown, G. J.; Mitchel, W. C.

    2008-02-18

    The midinfrared 7 ML InAs/8 ML GaSb superlattices (SLs) were grown by molecular beam epitaxy at growth temperatures between 370 and 430 deg. C in order to study the intrinsic characteristic of background carriers. Grown SLs were all residual p type with carrier densities in the low 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}, and a minimum density of 1.8x10{sup 11} cm{sup -2} was obtained from the SL grown at 400 deg. C. With increasing growth temperature, the in-plane carrier mobility decreased from 8740 to 1400 cm{sup 2}/V s due to increased interfacial roughness, while the photoluminescence intensity increased sixfold due to a decrease in the nonradiative defect densities.

  14. Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory functions among quarry workers in Edo state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Isara, Alphonsus Rukevwe; Adam, Vincent Yakubu; Aigbokhaode, Adesuwa Queen; Alenoghena, Innocent Osi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Workers in the quarry industries are exposed to hazards resulting from the inhalation of air borne particulates. The study determined the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and assessed ventilatory functions among quarry workers in Edo state, Nigeria. Methods Quarry workers (site workers and office workers) were interviewed using structured questionnaire. FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC and PEFR were measured using a KoKo Legend spirometer. Results A total of 113 quarry workers (76 exposure and 37 controls) were studied. The exposure group had significantly higher occurrence of chest tightness (35.5%) compared with 16.2% of the controls (p < 0.05). The occurrence of cough (23.7% versus 13.5%), sputum (21.1% versus 16.2%), and dyspnoea (7.9% versus 5.4%), were higher in exposure groups while wheeze (10.8% versus 10.5%) and nasal congestion (27.0% and 25.0%) were higher in the control groups. The mean (SD) FEV1, and FVC were significantly lower among the exposure compared with the control group; 2.77L (0.73) versus 3.14L (0.78), p < 0.05, and 3.48L (0.84) versus 3.89L (0.92), p < 0.05. In both groups, smokers had significantly lower mean (SD) FEV1, FVC and PEFR compared with non-smokers; 2.91L (0.77) versus 3.39L (0.69), p = 0.01, 3.61L (0.91) versus 4.26L (0.74), p < 0.05 and 6.56L (2.43) versus 7.98L (1.67), p < 0.05. Conclusion Chronic exposure to quarry dust is associated with respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function indices among quarry workers. The enforcement of the use of PPEs and periodic evaluation the lung function status of quarry workers is advocated. PMID:27347301

  15. Response of the soil physical properties to restoration techniques in limestone quarries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Miralles Mellado, Isabel; Vignozzi, Nadia; Solé-Benet, Albert

    2016-04-01

    The devastating effects of soil erosion in mining areas from arid/semiarid environments have prompted efforts geared toward an improvement of the soil physical conditions for a fast establishment of vegetal cover. Restoration practices that increase soil moisture content are essential in drylands where rainfall is irregular or insufficient in order to accelerate ecological restoration. The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of organic amendments and mulches on the soil porosity as well as their impact on infiltration, five years after the beginning of an experimental restoration from limestone quarries in Sierra de Gádor (Almería, SE Spain). Nine plots 15 x 5 m were prepared at the site in a completely randomized 2 x 3 factorial design. The first factor, organic amendment, had three levels: sewage sludge (SA), compost from domestic organic residues (CA) and no amendment (NA). The second factor, mulches, also had three levels: gravel (GM), woodchip (WM) and no mulch (NM). In each experimental plot 75 native plants (Macrochloa tenacissima, Anthyllis terniflora and Anthyllis cytisoides) were planted. Infiltration was determined from rainfall simulations and soil porosity was assessed by image analysis of soil thin sections. Total porosity and pores distribution were measured according to pore shape (regular, irregular and elongated) and size (transmission pores [50-500 μm] and fissures [>500 μm]). Natural undisturbed soils around the mine area were used as a reference soil (RS). Restoration treatments showed higher total porosity, fissures and elongated pores than RS and we observed the highest values in treatments with WM. This fact is due to the disruption caused by the application of treatments rather that a good soil structure. Each combination exhibited different values of transmission pores, being greater in the combinations of NA-GM, SA-NM and CA-WM. Infiltration increased with the increase of the total porosity, fissures and elongated pores

  16. Effects of organic amendments and mulches on soil microbial communities in quarry restoration under semiarid climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Pastorelli, Roberta; Miralles Mellado, Isabel; Fabiani, Arturo; Bastida López, Felipe; Hernández Fernández, María Teresa; García Izquierdo, Carlos; Solé Benet, Albert

    2015-04-01

    Mining activities generate loss of the quality of the environment and landscape specially in arid and semiarid Mediterranean regions. A precondition for ecosystem reclamation in such highly disturbed mining areas is the development of functional soils with appropriate levels of organic matter. In an experimental soil restoration in limestone quarries from Sierra de Gádor (Almería), SE Spain, 9 plots 15 x 5 m were prepared to test organic amendments (compost from solid urban residues-DOW-, sludge from urban water treatment-SS-, control-NA-) and different mulches (fine gravel-GM-, wood chips-WM-, control-NM-) with the aim to improve soil/substrate properties and to reduce evaporation and erosion. In each experimental plot, 75 native plants (Macrochloa tenacissima, Anthyllis terniflora and Anthyllis cytisoides) were planted. After 5 years from the start of the experiment, we evaluated how microbial community composition responded to the organic amendments and mulches. Microbial community composition of both bacteria and fungi was determined by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprinting. The results of the two-way ANOVA showed that PLFAs were significantly affected by organic amendments but not by the mulches or interaction of both factors. Experimental plots with DOW showed significantly higher level of fungal PLFAs than those with SS and NA, even higher than the reference undisturbed soil. However, any plot with organic amendments did not reach the content of bacterial PLFAs of the reference soils. The bacterial diversity (evaluated by diversity indices calculated from DGGE profiles) was greater in soil samples taken under NA and GM. Comparing these indices in fungal DGGE, we found greater values for soil samples taken under DOW and without mulches. Results from UPGMA analysis showed significant differences in the structure of soil bacterial communities from the different treatments

  17. Improved operational stability of d-psicose 3-epimerase by a novel protein engineering strategy, and d-psicose production from fruit and vegetable residues.

    PubMed

    Patel, Satya Narayan; Sharma, Manisha; Lata, Kusum; Singh, Umesh; Kumar, Vinod; Sangwan, Rajender S; Singh, Sudhir P

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present work was to improve stability of d-psicose 3-epimerase and biotransformation of fruit and vegetable residues for d-psicose production. The study established that N-terminal fusion of a yeast homolog of SUMO protein - Smt3 - can confer elevated optimal temperature and improved operational stability to d-psicose 3-epimerase. The Smt3-d-psicose 3-epimerase conjugate system exhibited relatively better catalytic efficiency, and improved productivity in terms of space-time yields of about 8.5kgL(-1)day(-1). It could serve as a promising catalytic tool for the pilot scale production of the functional sugar, d-psicose. Furthermore, a novel approach for economical production of d-psicose was developed by enzymatic and microbial bioprocessing of fruit and vegetable residues, aimed at epimerization of in situd-fructose to d-psicose. The bioprocessing led to achievement of d-psicose production to the extent of 25-35% conversion (w/w) of d-fructose contained in the sample. PMID:27235974

  18. Effect of flooding waves on a removal of pollutants from underwater quarries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubimova, Tatyana; Lepikhin, Anatoly; Parshakova, Yanina; Tiunov, Alexey

    2013-04-01

    A characteristic feature of the effects of large-scale sandy gravel extruction from water bodies is the formation of a considerable underwater quarries, that strongly changes the hydrodynamical regimes of these water bodies. Traditionally, to estimate the consequences of the formation of the quarries researchers focus on lowering of the water level at limiting hydrological regimes which have fundamental importance for ensuring the sustainability of the different water intakes. Additionally, the changes in the velocity regimes of water body are estimated from the viewpoint of minimizing the possible erosion processes. There is the Verkhnekamskoye potassium and magnesium salts deposit (the largest in Russia and the second in the world) on Kama river (Kama Reservoir) within Berezniki-Solikamsk-industrial unit. For this deposit the consideration of the formation of quarries is much more complicated because of the presence of significant natural and technogenic output of brines into the Kama reservoir. In this case it is necessary to analyze the problem of estimating the accumulation of the brines in these underwater quarries and to calculate the intensity of the removal of pollutants at their washing due to the changes in the hydrological regime of the water body. The problem of changing the hydrodynamic regime, first of all the lowering of the water level and the calculation of the flow velocity can be solved very successfully in two-and even in one-dimensional approach and the problem of washing the underwater quarries is essentially three-dimensional. In this paper we simulate the removal of contaminants from the underwater quarry. The problem is solved in the framework of unsteady approach. The calculations show that in the flow near the bottom of quarry the vortex is formed whose direction is such that the front edge of the quarry is eroded. The computations and field observations show that, the upper, rather thin (<1 m) water layer in the quarry is washed during

  19. The effects of quarry mining on the epidemiology of Schistosoma haematobium in schoolchildren, in Ishiagu, south-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nduka, F O; Etusim, P E; Nwaugo, V O; Oguariri, R M

    2006-03-01

    Over the last two decades there has been a noticeable increase in the activities of quarry-mining companies in the Ishiagu area of south-eastern Nigeria. These activities have produced an ever-growing number of abandoned quarry pits that usually quickly fill with water and appear to become suitable habitats for the freshwater snails that may act as intermediate hosts of Schistosoma haematobium. To examine the potential role of quarry mining on the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis caused by S. haematobium, urine samples were collected from 1819 schoolchildren in northern Ishiagu (an area with intense mining activities and many quarry pits) and from 252 schoolchildren in southern Ishiagu (an area with no mining activity or quarry pits). When these 2071 samples were checked for schistosome eggs, 1005 (48.5%) were found positive and 252 (25.1%) of the infected children showed visible haematuria. The children from northern Ishiagu were much more likely to be infected than the children from the south (53.3% v. 13.9%; P<0.001). Curiously, only the children from northern Ishiagu showed a gender-related difference in prevalence that was statistically significant, with boys more likely to be infected than girls (60.9% v. 38.5%; P<0.001). Although the 'children' investigated varied in age from 5 to 20 years, no statistically significant increase or decrease in prevalence with age was apparent. Four species of snails (Bulinus globosus, B. rohlfsi, B. forskalii and B. senegalensis) were found in the overall study area but B. globosus was only found in the quarry pits in northern Ishiagu and never in the water bodies of southern Ishiagu. It does appear that quarry-mining activity in the Ishiagu area is a factor in the local epidemiology of urinary schistosomiasis, with the water bodies that form in the abandoned quarry pits serving as the principal foci of transmission. PMID:16492363

  20. Quarry Haul Road Ecological Survey. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    This biological survey was performed to document the summer flora and fauna found along the haul road constructed as part of the remedial action for the quarry bulk waste. State and Federal species listed as threatened or endangered were noted if encountered while surveying. Sampling locations were equally spaced along the quarry haul road, and a survey for vegetation and birds conducted at each location. Bird observations were conducted as breeding bird surveys once in June of 1991, and again in June of 1992. Each year`s survey includes two observations in the early morning and one late in the evening. Vegetation surveys were conducted in 1991 using quadrants and transects. mammal, reptile, and amphibian sightings were noted as encountered.

  1. Hydrogeological features conditioning trophic levels of quarry lakes in western Po plain (north-western Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Castagna, Sara; Lasagna, Manuela

    2013-04-01

    Quarry lakes occur in plains areas due to the extraction of alluvial sand and gravel used for grout and concrete in the construction industry. Excavation depths can reach and intersect the groundwater surface, thus creating a lake. Because of the need to optimize efficiency, the number of active open pit mines has increased in recent years; consequently, the global number of pit lakes will increase in coming decades (Castendyk and Eary 2009; Klapper and Geller 2001; Castro and Moore 2000). Similar to natural lakes, pit lakes are subject to eutrophication process, both during and after quarrying activity; during mining activity, the eutrophic level is strongly controlled by the excavation method. In the Piedmont territory (north-western Italy) there are 70 active quarry lakes, corresponding to approximately 0.1% of the entire plain area. Quarry lakes, located primarily along the main rivers occur in alluvial deposits of the plain area and have average depths between 20 and 30 m (maximum of 60 m deep) and surface areas between 3 and 30 hectares (Castagna 2008). The present study describes the trophic status of 23 active quarry lakes in the Piedmont plain that were evaluated by applying classifications from scientific literature. Currently, the majority of the studied quarry lakes may be defined as mesotrophic or eutrophic according to the trophic state classifications. Based on historic data, lake trophic levels have increased over time, during active mining. At the end of mining activity, further deterioration of water quality was expected, especially for smaller lakes with minimal oxygen stratification and higher levels of nutrients and algal growth. In addition, the paper focuses on the pit lake water quality and pit dimension; From an environmental perspective the excavation of quarry lakes with an appreciable size will likely result in a better safeguard of water quality and enhanced possibilities for lake end use after the cessation of mining. Piedmont quarry

  2. The results of palaeontological excavations in the Sadowa Góra quarry (2012-14)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surmik, Dawid; Skreczko, Sylwia; Wolny, Mateusz

    2014-09-01

    Palaeontological fieldwork (2012-14) in the Sadowa Góra quarry carried out under the auspices of the University of Silesia, within the framework of a research project supported by the National Science Centre, helped to document the taxonomic diversity of Middle Triassic marine vertebrates from the Cracow-Silesia region. Accumulations of fossil bones are correlated with storm deposition and are time-averaged

  3. Anthropogenic sinkholes in the Marsala area (western Sicily) linked to underground quarries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonamini, M.; Di Maggio, C.; Lollino, P.; Madonia, G.; Parise, M.; Vattano, M.

    2012-04-01

    Marsala territory (western Sicily) is characterized by the presence of a Lower Pleistocene (Calabrian) calcarenite succession (Marsala Calcarenite Fm). It can be divided into three lithofacies that show the regressive evolution of the depositional system: a) coarse to fine yellow bio- and lithoclastic calcarenites, b) sands, and c) gray sandy clays. At least 80 m-thick, this succession gently dips (5-10°) towards the south and the south-west. At some locations the Marsala Calcarenite is covered by Middle and Upper Pleistocene marine terraced deposits. Since the Roman period, due to the great abundance of calcarenite rocks, and to the facility of extraction, the Marsala area has been characterized by a high number of quarries for the extraction of this building materials. Many of them were excavated underground, at depth varying from a few meters to about 25 m, and are arranged in one or two levels, following the galleries and pillars excavation technique. With time, the underground quarries have been progressively abandoned for the decay of the physical and mechanical properties of the calcarenite rock mass, the interaction with the groundwater, the high costs of extraction, and the dangers and difficulties encountered in working underground. Since the 1960's the quarries have been affected by instability processes, visible through collapses and deformations of vaults and pillars. These phenomena often propagate upward reaching the topographic surface and forming sinkholes which affect and severely damage the built-up area. In particular, two case studies of sinkholes related to different underground quarries will be analyzed in this paper. The aim is to provide a description of the most significant processes and factors responsible of the instability processes based on field surveys, as well as to understand the generation mechanisms of these anthropogenic sinkholes by means of numerical modeling, based on rock laboratory testing data, that represents in these

  4. Geology of the Carnegie museum dinosaur quarry site of Diplodocus carnegii, Sheep Creek, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brezinski, D.K.; Kollar, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    The holotype of Diplodocus carnegii Hatcher, 1901, consists of a partial skeleton (CM 84) that was recovered, along with a second partial skeleton of the same species (CM 94), from the upper 10 m of the Talking Rock facies of the Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation exposed along Bone Quarry Draw, a tributary of Sheep Creek in Albany County, Wyoming. A composite measured section of the stratigraphic interval exposed adjacent to the quarry indicates that the Brushy Basin Member in this area is a stacked succession of lithofacies consisting of hackly, greenish gray, calcareous mudstone and greenish brown, dense, fine-grained limestone. The more erosion resistant limestone layers can be traced over many hundreds of meters. Thus, these strata do not appear to represent a highly localized deposit such as a stream channel, oxbow lake, or backwater pond. The Sheep Creek succession is interpreted as representing a clastic-dominated lake where high turbidity and sediment influx produced deposition of calcareous mudstone. During drier periods the lake's turbidity decreased and limestone and dolomite precipitation replaced mud deposition. Microkarsting at the top of some limestone/ dolomite layers suggests subaerial deposition may have prevailed during these dry episodes. The quarry of D. carnegii was excavated within the top strata of one of the numerous intervals of hackly, greenish gray, calcareous mudstone that represent an ephemeral freshwater lake. The quarry strata are directly overlain by 0.3 m of dolomite-capped limestone that was deposited shortly after interment of D. carnegii in the lake mudstones. The close vertical proximity of the overlying limestone to the skeleton's stratigraphic: level suggests that the animal's carcass may have been buried beneath the drying lake deposits during a period of decreased rainfall.

  5. GPR data processing for 3D fracture mapping in a marble quarry (Thassos, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandjean, G.; Gourry, J. C.

    1996-11-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) has been successfully applied to detect and map fractures in marble quarries. The aim was to distinguish quickly intact marketable marble areas from fractured ones in order to improve quarry management. The GPR profiling method was chosen because it is non destructive and quickly provides a detailed image of the subsurface. It was performed in domains corresponding to future working areas in real quarry-exploitation conditions. Field surveying and data processing were adapted to the local characteristics of the fractures: E-W orientation, sub-vertical dip, and karst features. After the GPR profiles had been processed, using methods adapted from seismics (amplitude compensation, filtering and Fourier migration), the interpreted fractures from a 12 × 24 × 15 m zone were incorporated into a 3D model. Due to the low electrical conductivity of the marble, GPR provides penetration depths of about 8 and 15 m, and resolutions of about 1 and 5 cm for frequencies of 900 and 300 MHz respectively. The detection power thus seems to be sufficient to recommend use of this method. As requested by the quarriers, the 3D representation can be used directly by themselves to locate high- or low-quality marble areas. Comparison between the observed surface fractures and the fractures detected using GPR showed reasonable correlation.

  6. Block volume estimation from the discontinuity spacing measurements of mesozoic limestone quarries, Karaburun Peninsula, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Elci, Hakan; Turk, Necdet

    2014-01-01

    Block volumes are generally estimated by analyzing the discontinuity spacing measurements obtained either from the scan lines placed over the rock exposures or the borehole cores. Discontinuity spacing measurements made at the Mesozoic limestone quarries in Karaburun Peninsula were used to estimate the average block volumes that could be produced from them using the suggested methods in the literature. The Block Quality Designation (BQD) ratio method proposed by the authors has been found to have given in the same order of the rock block volume to the volumetric joint count (J(v)) method. Moreover, dimensions of the 2378 blocks produced between the years of 2009 and 2011 in the working quarries have been recorded. Assuming, that each block surfaces is a discontinuity, the mean block volume (V(b)), the mean volumetric joint count (J(vb)) and the mean block shape factor of the blocks are determined and compared with the estimated mean in situ block volumes (V(in)) and volumetric joint count (J(vi)) values estimated from the in situ discontinuity measurements. The established relations are presented as a chart to be used in practice for estimating the mean volume of blocks that can be obtained from a quarry site by analyzing the rock mass discontinuity spacing measurements. PMID:24696642

  7. Block Volume Estimation from the Discontinuity Spacing Measurements of Mesozoic Limestone Quarries, Karaburun Peninsula, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Elci, Hakan; Turk, Necdet

    2014-01-01

    Block volumes are generally estimated by analyzing the discontinuity spacing measurements obtained either from the scan lines placed over the rock exposures or the borehole cores. Discontinuity spacing measurements made at the Mesozoic limestone quarries in Karaburun Peninsula were used to estimate the average block volumes that could be produced from them using the suggested methods in the literature. The Block Quality Designation (BQD) ratio method proposed by the authors has been found to have given in the same order of the rock block volume to the volumetric joint count (Jv) method. Moreover, dimensions of the 2378 blocks produced between the years of 2009 and 2011 in the working quarries have been recorded. Assuming, that each block surfaces is a discontinuity, the mean block volume (Vb), the mean volumetric joint count (Jvb) and the mean block shape factor of the blocks are determined and compared with the estimated mean in situ block volumes (Vin) and volumetric joint count (Jvi) values estimated from the in situ discontinuity measurements. The established relations are presented as a chart to be used in practice for estimating the mean volume of blocks that can be obtained from a quarry site by analyzing the rock mass discontinuity spacing measurements. PMID:24696642

  8. The effects of a perturbed source on contaminant transport near the Weldon Spring quarry

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasko, D.

    1989-03-01

    The effects of a perturbed contamination source at the Weldon Spring quarry in St. Charles County, Missouri, on downstream solute concentrations were investigated using one-dimensional analytical solutions to an advection-dispersion equation developed for both constant-strength and multiple-stepped source functions. A sensitivity study using parameter base-case values and ranges consistent with the geologic conceptualization of the quarry area indicates that the parameters having the greatest effect on predicted concentrations are the distance from the quarry to the point of interest, the average linear groundwater velocity, the contaminant retardation coefficient, and the amplitude and duration of the source perturbation caused by response action activities. Use of base-case parameter value and realistic values for the amplitude and duration of the source perturbation produced a small effect on solute concentrations near the western extremity of the nearby municipal well field, as well as small uncertainties in the predicted results for the assumed model. The effect of simplifying assumptions made in deriving the analytic solution is unknown: use of a multidimensional flow and transport model and additional field work are needed to validate the model. 13 refs., 18 figs.

  9. The role of risk assessment in project planning at the Weldon Spring Quarry, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Haroun, L.A.; Peterson, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology used to prepare a baseline risk evaluation of the bulk wastes at the quarry. The DOE is proposing to remove these bulk wastes and transport them approximately 6.4 km (4 mi) to a temporary storage facility at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site. The DOE has responsibility for cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). A baseline risk evaluation is an evaluation of the potential impacts on human health and the environment that may result from exposure to releases of contaminants from a site in the absence of site remediation. This evaluation is a key component of the remedial investigation (RI) process, as identified in guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that addresses sites subject to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. Response actions at the Weldon Spring quarry are subject to CERCLA requirements because the quarry is listed on the EPA's National Priorities List (NPL).

  10. Environmental noise from surface mining operations

    SciTech Connect

    Staiano, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    A sample of five mines were observed as part of a study to determine the magnitude and sources of environmental noise from surface mining operations and to identify noise abatement methods. These mining operations consisted of: a Minnesota iron ore mine, Midwestern and Appalachian coal mines, a Missouri clay pit operation, and a Texas limestone quarry. These operations are typical of Eastern and Midwestern mining activities. This paper highlights the findings of the noise measurement portion of that study.

  11. Report on technical feasibility of underground pumped hydroelectric storage in a marble quarry site in the Northeast United States

    SciTech Connect

    Chas. T. Main, Inc.

    1982-03-01

    The technical and economic aspects of constructing a very high head underground hydroelectric pumped storage were examined at a prefeasibility level. Excavation of existing caverns in the West Rutland Vermont marble quarry would be used to construct the underground space. A plant capacity of 1200 MW and 12 h of continuous capacity were chosen as plant operating conditions. The site geology, plant design, and electrical and mechanical equipment required were considered. The study concluded that the cost of the 1200 MW underground pumped storage hydro electric project at this site even with the proposed savings from marketable material amounts to between $581 and $595 per kilowatt of installed capacity on a January 1982 pricing level. System studies performed by the planning group of the New England Power System indicate that the system could economically justify up to about $442 per kilowatt on an energy basis with no credit for capacity. To accommodate the plant with the least expensive pumping energy, a coal and nuclear generation mix of approximately 65% would have to be available before the project becomes feasible. It is not expected that this condition can be met before the year 2000 or beyond. It is therefore concluded that the West Rutland underground pumped storage facility is uneconomic at this time. Several variables however could have marked influence on future planning and should be examined on periodic basis.

  12. Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson; Boyce, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has documented schemes and operations that undergird students' understanding of fractions. This prior research was based, in large part, on small-group teaching experiments. However, written assessments are needed in order for teachers and researchers to assess students' ways of operating on a whole-class scale. In this…

  13. A methodological framework to assess the socio-economic impact of underground quarries: A case study from Belgian Limburg.

    PubMed

    Sergeant, A; Poesen, J; Duchateau, P; Vranken, L

    2016-01-15

    This study developed a methodology to assess the socio-economic impact of the presence and collapse of underground limestone quarries. For this we rely on case study evidence from Riemst, a village located in Eastern Belgium and use both secondary and primary data sources. A sinkhole inventory as well as data about the prevention costs provided by the municipality was used. To estimate the recreational values of the quarries, visitor data was obtained from the tourist office of Riemst. Next, two surveys were conducted among inhabitants and four real estate agents and one notary. The direct and indirect damages were assessed using respectively the repair cost and production and real estate value losses. The total yearly direct and indirect damage equals €415000 (±€85000) and more than half of it can be attributed to the depreciation of real estate (€230000). The quarries have recreational, cultural-historical and ecological values and thus generate societal benefits. The yearly recreational value was at least €613000 in 2012 values. The ecological and cultural-historical values augment to €180000 per year (in 2012 values). Further, our study indicates that the gains from filling up the quarries below the houses located above an underground limestone quarry outweigh the costs in the case study area. The net gain from filling up the underground quarry ranges €38700 to €101700 per house. This is only the lower bound of the net gain from filling up these underground quarries since preventive filling makes future collapses less likely so that future direct repair costs will be most likely smaller. PMID:26439649

  14. Malaria control with residual fenitrothion in Central Java, Indonesia: an operational-scale trial using both full and selective coverage treatments

    PubMed Central

    Gandahusada, S.; Fleming, G. A.; Sukamto; Damar, T.; Suwarto; Sustriayu, N.; Bang, Y. H.; Arwati, S.; Arif, H.

    1984-01-01

    An operational-scale trial, using residual fenitrothion, for control of malaria was carried out in Central Java, Indonesia, from 1980 to 1982. Two areas, each comprising about 70 km2 and a population of about 50 000, were treated with fenitrothion (40% water dispersible powder) at a target dosage of 2 g/m2 for 3 cycles at 6-monthly intervals. One area was treated with full coverage (i.e., the interiors of houses and cattle shelters were sprayed to a height of 3 m) for 2 cycles, followed by a third cycle with selective coverage (i.e., the interiors of houses were sprayed with one 75 cm horizontal swath between 10 cm and 85 cm from the floor while the cattle shelters were sprayed to a height of 3 m). The other area was treated for 3 cycles with only selective coverage. While both treatment methods reduced malaria rates and vector populations to very low levels, the full coverage treatment was more rapidly effective and also reduced the Plasmodium falciparum index. However, the selective coverage treatment was 68% less expensive than full coverage and greatly reduced the degree of cholinesterase depressions among the spraymen. The trial also showed that a dosage of 1 g/m2 with full coverage was nearly as effective as the 2 g/m2 dosage. PMID:6391717

  15. Residual stresses in material processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kozaczek, K.J.; Watkins, T.R.; Hubbard, C.R.; Wang, Xun-Li; Spooner, S.

    1994-09-01

    Material manufacturing processes often introduce residual stresses into the product. The residual stresses affect the properties of the material and often are detrimental. Therefore, the distribution and magnitude of residual stresses in the final product are usually an important factor in manufacturing process optimization or component life prediction. The present paper briefly discusses the causes of residual stresses. It then adresses the direct, nondestructive methods of residual stress measurement by X-ray and neutron diffraction. Examples are presented to demonstrate the importance of residual stress measurement in machining and joining operations.

  16. Characterizing the microbial colonization of a dolostone quarry: implications for stone biodeterioration and response to biocide treatments.

    PubMed

    Cámara, Beatriz; De los Ríos, Asuncion; Urizal, Marta; de Buergo, Mónica Alvarez; Varas, Maria Jose; Fort, Rafael; Ascaso, Carmen

    2011-08-01

    This study examines the microbial colonization of three fronts of an abandoned dolostone quarry (Redueña, Madrid, Spain) exposed to atmospheric conditions for different time periods since Roman times to the present. Through scanning electron microscopy in backscattered electron mode (SEM-BSE), endolithic colonization was predominantly detected in the most recently exposed front, while in the longer exposed quarry fronts, epilithic forms of growth were most often observed. These observations were confirmed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. Based on the distribution pattern of microbial colonization in the different quarry fronts, we then established a sequence of colonization events that took place over this long time frame. Bioalteration processes related to this sequential colonization were also identified. Characterizing these sequential processes can be useful for interpreting biodeterioration processes in historic dolostone monuments, especially those affecting constructions in the area of the Redueña stone quarry. In a second experimental stage, different biocide treatments were tested on this quarry rock to find the best way to avoid the microbial colonization effects identified. Through combined SEM-BSE/DGGE analysis, the efficacy of several biocides against the microorganisms inhabiting the dolostones was assessed after 4 and 16 months treatment. In general, all treatments were effective at reducing around 80% of the lichen cover, although effects on endolithic lithobiontic communities were dependent on how well the rock surface had been mechanically cleaned prior to treatment and gradually disappeared over time. PMID:21359558

  17. Volume Computation of a Stockpile - a Study Case Comparing GPS and Uav Measurements in AN Open Pit Quarry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raeva, P. L.; Filipova, S. L.; Filipov, D. G.

    2016-06-01

    The following paper aims to test and evaluate the accuracy of UAV data for volumetric measurements to the conventional GNSS techniques. For this purpose, an appropriate open pit quarry has been chosen. Two sets of measurements were performed. Firstly, a stockpile was measured by GNSS technologies and later other terrestrial GNSS measurements for modelling the berms of the quarry were taken. Secondly, the area of the whole quarry including the stockpile site was mapped by a UAV flight. Having considered how dynamic our world is, new techniques and methods should be presented in numerous fields. For instance, the management of an open pit quarry requires gaining, processing and storing a large amount of information which is constantly changing with time. Fast and precise acquisition of measurements regarding the process taking place in a quarry is the key to an effective and stable maintenance. In other words, this means getting an objective evaluations of the processes, using up-to-date technologies and reliable accuracy of the results. Often legislations concerning mine engineering state that the volumetric calculations are to present ±3% accuracy of the whole amount. On one hand, extremely precise measurements could be performed by GNSS technologies, however, it could be really time consuming. On the other hand, UAV photogrammetry presents a fast, accurate method for mapping large areas and calculating stockpiles volumes. The study case was performed as a part of a master thesis.

  18. Quarry blasts assessment and their environmental impacts on the nearby oil pipelines, southeast of Helwan City, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Adel M. E.; Mohamed, Abuo El-Ela A.

    2013-06-01

    Ground vibrations induced by blasting in the cement quarries are one of the fundamental problems in the quarrying industry and may cause severe damage to the nearby utilities and pipelines. Therefore, a vibration control study plays an important role in the minimization of environmental effects of blasting in quarries. The current paper presents the influence of the quarry blasts at the National Cement Company (NCC) on the two oil pipelines of SUMED Company southeast of Helwan City, by measuring the ground vibrations in terms of Peak Particle Velocity (PPV). The seismic refraction for compressional waves deduced from the shallow seismic survey and the shear wave velocity obtained from the Multi channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) technique are used to evaluate the closest site of the two pipelines to the quarry blasts. The results demonstrate that, the closest site of the two pipelines is of class B, according to the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) classification and the safe distance to avoid any environmental effects is 650 m, following the deduced Peak Particle Velocity (PPV) and scaled distance (SD) relationship (PPV = 700.08 × SD-1.225) in mm/s and the Air over Pressure (air blast) formula (air blast = 170.23 × SD-0.071) in dB. In the light of prediction analysis, the maximum allowable charge weight per delay was found to be 591 kg with damage criterion of 12.5 mm/s at the closest site of the SUMED pipelines.

  19. Residual sludge from dimensional stones: characterisation for their exploitation in civil and environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Clemente, Paolo; De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Lasagna, Manuela

    2013-04-01

    Residual sludge coming from dimensional stones working plants (diamond framesaw and ganguesaw with abrasive shots processes) represents a problem for Stone Industries. In fact the cost connected to their landfilling amounts to more than 3% of operating costs of dimensional stone working plants. Furthermore their strict feature as waste to dump (CER code 010413) contrasts the EU principles of "resource preservation" and "waste recovery". The main problems related to their management are: size distribution (fine materials, potentially asphyxial), presence of heavy metals (due to the working processes) and TPH content (due to oil machines losses). Residual sludge, considered according to Italian Legislative Decree n.152/06, can be used, as waste, for environmental restoration of derelict land or in cement plants. It is also possible to think about their systematic treatment in consortium plats for the production of Secondary Raw Materials (SRM) or "New Products" (NP, eg. artificial loam, waterproofing materials, ....). The research evidences that, on the basis of a correct sludge management, treatment and characterization, economic and environmental benefits are possible (NP or SRM in spite of waste to dump). To individuate different applications of residual sludge in civil and environmental contexts, a geotechnical (size distribution, permeability, Atterberg limits, cohesion and friction angle evaluation, Proctor soil test) characterization was foreseen. The geotechnical tests were conducted on sludge as such and on three different mixes: - Mix 1 - Bentonite clay (5-10%) added to sludge a.s (90-95%); - Mix 2 - Sludge a.s. (90-80-70%) added to coarse materials coming from crushed dimensional stones (10-20-30%); - Mix 3 - Sludge a.s. (50-70%) mixed with sand, compost, natural loam (50-30% mixture of sand, compost, natural loam). The results obtained from the four sets of tests were fundamental to evaluate: - the characteristics of the original materials; - the chance

  20. Stationary and transient thermal states of barometric pumping in the access pit of an underground quarry.

    PubMed

    Perrier, Frédéric; Le Mouël, Jean-Louis

    2016-04-15

    The transition zone between free and underground atmospheres hosts spectacular phenomena, as demonstrated by temperature measurements performed in the 4.6m diameter and 20m deep vertical access pit of an abandoned underground quarry located in Vincennes, near Paris. In summer, a stable stratification of the atmosphere is maintained, with coherent temperature variations associated with atmospheric pressure changes, with a barometric tide S2 larger than 0.1°C peak to peak. When the winter regime of turbulent cold air avalanches is initiated, stratification with pressure induced signals can be restored transiently in the upper part of the pit, while the lower part remains fully mixed and insensitive to pressure variations. The amplitude of the pressure to temperature transfer function increases with frequency below 5×10(-4)Hz, with values at 3×10(-5)Hz varying from 0.1°C·hPa(-1) at the bottom up to 2°C·hPa(-1) towards the top of the pit. These temperature variations are accounted for by cave breathing, which is pressure induced motion of air amplified by the large volume of the quarry. This understanding is supported by a numerical model including advective heat transport, heat diffusion, and heat exchange with the pit walls. Mean lifetime in the pit is of the order of 9 to 13h, and barometric pumping results in an effective ventilation rate of the quarry of the order of 10(-7)s(-1). This study illustrates the important role of barometric pumping in heat and matter transport between atmosphere and lithosphere. The resulting stationary and transient states, revealed in this pit, are probably a general feature of functioning interface systems, and therefore are an important aspect to consider in problems of contaminant transport, or the preservation of precious heritage such as rare ecosystems or painted caves. PMID:26855357

  1. Initial tree establishment on blocky quarry waste ameliorated with hydrogel or slate processing fines.

    PubMed

    Rowe, E C; Williamson, J C; Jones, D L; Holliman, P; Healey, J R

    2005-01-01

    Pocket planting reclamation techniques developed in the 1970s for revegetating blocky quarrying waste have met with very limited success, often because the low water-holding capacity of the waste and limited root development within a small volume of planting pocket material result in severe drought mortality. We tested pocket planting approaches for waste tip reclamation at Europe's largest slate quarry, and compared materials for enhancing the continuity of water- and nutrient-holding down into the interior of the waste tip. When small compost-filled pocket planting bags were placed above slate processing fines (SPF) or water absorbent cross-linked polyacrylamide gel ("hydrogel"), tree growth rates increased in comparison with pocket planting bags alone. The SPF significantly improved tree survival especially during severe drought, but survival was not enhanced by the use of hydrogel. The sorption characteristics of hydrogel indicated that its presence may help to reduce nutrient leaching, but that it may have a negative effect on nitrogen availability. A more likely explanation for the poor performance of pure hydrogel is that it did not maintain sufficient available water, because of discontinuities caused by shrinkage and movement of the hydrogel, and/or degradation of water-holding capacity with environmental exposure. However, the root growth observed in the hydrogel treatments suggests that this technique, if adapted to reduce the effects of hydrogel shrinkage by using finer-grade hydrogel, mixing it with other soil-forming material, and reducing its exposure to extremes of temperature or sunlight, might have the potential to improve the growth and survival of trees planted on sites where delivery of heavy materials such as SPF is impractical. Fine mineral processing waste is freely available at active quarries and should be seen as a key resource for reclamation schemes. PMID:15888885

  2. Role of transient water pressure in quarrying: A subglacial experiment using acoustic emissions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, D.; Hooyer, T.S.; Iverson, N.R.; Thomason, J.F.; Jackson, M.

    2006-01-01

    Probably the most important mechanism of glacial erosion is quarrying: the growth and coalescence of cracks in subglacial bedrock and dislodgement of resultant rock fragments. Although evidence indicates that erosion rates depend on sliding speed, rates of crack growth in bedrock may be enhanced by changing stresses on the bed caused by fluctuating basal water pressure in zones of ice-bed separation. To study quarrying in real time, a granite step, 12 cm high with a crack in its stoss surface, was installed at the bed of Engabreen, Norway. Acoustic emission sensors monitored crack growth events in the step as ice slid over it. Vertical stresses, water pressure, and cavity height in the lee of the step were also measured. Water was pumped to the lee of the step several times over 8 days. Pumping initially caused opening of a leeward cavity, which then closed after pumping was stopped and water pressure decreased. During cavity closure, acoustic emissions emanating mostly from the vicinity of the base of the crack in the step increased dramatically. With repeated pump tests this crack grew with time until the step's lee surface was quarried. Our experiments indicate that fluctuating water pressure caused stress thresholds required for crack growth to be exceeded. Natural basal water pressure fluctuations should also concentrate stresses on rock steps, increasing rates of crack growth. Stress changes on the bed due to water pressure fluctuations will increase in magnitude and duration with cavity size, which may help explain the effect of sliding speed on erosion rates. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Hydrogeological and hydrochemical investigation for below-sea-level quarrying at cement raw material site (Kocaeli-Darica, Turkey).

    PubMed

    Doyuran, Vedat; Karahanoğlu, Nurkan; Camur, Zeki; Topal, Tamer; Süzen, M Lütfi; Yeşilnacar, Ertan

    2003-08-01

    A research has been carried out to investigate the effects of below sea level mining on the cement raw material quality of a limestone quarry located adjacent to the shoreline near Darica-Kocaeli-Turkey. Field studies involved rock mass characterization through discontinuity surveys performed at the working benches of the quarry as well as on the core samples, monitoring of groundwater levels, performance of water pressure tests, and in-situ hydrochemical measurements. Hydrogeological data suggest that the carbonate sequence forms a poor unconfined aquifer having hydraulic conductivity values ranging between 10(-6) m/s and 10(-8) m/s. In the quarry, water seepages can only be observed at the shear zones. Electrical conductivity profiles taken from the boreholes located at various distances from the shore line indicated the present position of the salt water wedge. PMID:12929797

  4. Design approaches in quarrying and pit-mining reclamation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arbogast, Belinda F.

    1999-01-01

    art show a celebration of beauty and experience -- abstract geology. The last design approach combines art and science in a human-nature ecosystem termed integration. With environmental concerns, an operating or reclaimed mine site can no longer be considered isolated from its surroundings. Site analysis of mine works needs to go beyond site-specific information and relate to the regional context of the greater landscape. Understanding design approach can turn undesirable features (mines and pits) into something perceived as desirable by the public.

  5. Responsiveness summary for the remedial investigation/feasibility study for management of the bulk wastes at the Weldon Spring quarry, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.M.; MacDonell, M.M.

    1990-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for conducting remedial actions at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri, under its Surplus Facilities Management Program. The site consists of a quarry and a chemical plant area located about 6.4 km (4 mi) northeast of the quarry. The quarry is surrounded by the Weldon Spring Wildfire Area and is near an alluvial well field that constitutes a major source of potable water for St. Charles County; the nearest supply well is located about 0.8 km (0.5 mi) southeast of the quarry. From 1942 to 1969, the quarry was used for the disposal of various radioactively and chemically contaminated materials. Bulk wastes in the quarry consist of contaminated soils and sediments, rubble, metal debris, and equipment. As part of overall site remediation, DOE is proposing to conduct an interim remedial action at the quarry to manage the radioactively and chemically contaminated bulk wastes contained therein. Potential remedial action alternatives for managing the quarry bulk wastes have been evaluated consistent with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance for conducting remedial actions under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. The contents of these documents were developed in consultation with EPA Region VII and the state of Missouri and reflect the focused scope defined for this interim remedial action. 9 refs.

  6. Microbial aerobic and anaerobic degradation of acrylamide in sludge and water under environmental conditions--case study in a sand and gravel quarry.

    PubMed

    Guezennec, A G; Michel, C; Ozturk, S; Togola, A; Guzzo, J; Desroche, N

    2015-05-01

    Polyacrylamides (PAMs) are used in sand and gravel quarries as water purification flocculants for recycling process water in a recycling loop system where the flocculants remove fine particles in the form of sludge. The PAM-based flocculants, however, contain residual amounts of acrylamide (AMD) that did not react during the polymerization process. This acrylamide is released into the environment when the sludge is discharged into a settling basin. Here, we explore the microbial diversity and the potential for AMD biodegradation in water and sludge samples collected in a quarry site submitted to low AMD concentrations. The microbial diversity, analyzed by culture-dependent methods and the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis approach, reveals the presence of Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, and Actinobacteria, among which some species are known to have an AMD biodegradation activity. Results also show that the two main parts of the water recycling loop-the washing process and the settling basin-display significantly different bacterial profiles. The exposure time with residual AMD could, thus, be one of the parameters that lead to a selection of specific bacterial species. AMD degradation experiments with 0.5 g L(-1) AMD showed a high potential for biodegradation in all parts of the washing process, except the make-up water. The AMD biodegradation potential in samples collected from the washing process and settling basin was also analyzed taking into account on-site conditions: low (12 °C) and high (25 °C) temperatures reflecting the winter and summer seasons, and AMD concentrations of 50 μg L(-1). Batch tests showed rapid (as little as 18 h) AMD biodegradation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions at both the winter and summer temperatures, although there was a greater lag time before activity started with the AMD biodegradation at 12 °C. This study, thus, demonstrates that bacteria present in sludge and water samples exert an in situ and rapid

  7. The analysis of ground vibrations induced by bench blasting at Akyol quarry and practical blasting charts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozer, Umit; Kahriman, Ali; Aksoy, Mehmet; Adiguzel, Deniz; Karadogan, Abdulkadir

    2008-04-01

    Ground vibrations arising from excavation with blasting is one of the fundamental problems in the mining industry. Therefore, the prediction of ground vibration components plays an important role in the minimization of environmental complaints. In this study, 582 events were recorded during limestone production at a quarry (Akyol Quarry) during a period of time. The blasting parameters of these shots were also carefully recorded. During the statistical analysis of the collected data, three predictor equations proposed by the United States Bureau of Mines (USBM), Ambraseys Hendron and Langefors Kihlstrom were used to establish a relationship between peak particle velocity and scaled distance described by these prediction equations. As a result of this analysis, the most powerful relationship was determined and proposed to be used in this site. And also, this equation was used in the derivation of the practical blasting charts specific to this site as a practical way of predicting the peak particle velocity and maximum charge amount per delay for future blasting.

  8. Dispersion of TSP and PM(10) emissions from quarries in complex terrain.

    PubMed

    Tartakovsky, Dmitry; Stern, Eli; Broday, David M

    2016-01-15

    This study evaluates AERMOD and CALPUFF dispersion calculations of particulate matter emissions from stone quarries in two mountainous regions against TSP and PM10 measurements, using both observational and WRF-modeled meteorological data. Due to different model parameterization, AERMOD dispersion predictions were in better agreement with the measured concentrations than those obtained by CALPUFF. As expected, the smaller the distance between the meteorological station, the source (quarry) and the receptors, the better the predictions of both AERMOD and CALPUFF. In contrast, using in-situ wind field obtained by runs of the WRF meteorological model for the complex terrain study area provided, in general, less accurate dispersion estimates than when using (even remote) meteorological observations. In particular, using the three-dimensional WRF-modeled wind field within CALPUFF did not provide any advantage over using the two-dimensional wind field, which is the common procedure of AERMOD and CALPUFF. Dry deposition was more significant for ambient concentration estimation in AERMOD than in CALPUFF. PMID:26562341

  9. Use of the McQuarrie equation for the computation of shear viscosity via equilibrium molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chialvo, Ariel A.; Debenedetti, Pablo G.

    1991-04-01

    To date, the calculation of shear viscosity for soft-core fluids via equilibrium molecular dynamics has been done almost exclusively using the Green-Kubo formalism. The alternative mean-squared displacement approach has not been used, except for hard-sphere fluids, in which case the expression proposed by Helfand [Phys. Rev. 119, 1 (1960)] has invariably been selected. When written in the form given by McQuarrie [Statistical Mechanics (Harper & Row, New York, 1976), Chap. 21], however, the mean-squared displacement approach offers significant computational advantages over both its Green-Kubo and Helfand counterparts. In order to achieve comparable statistical significance, the number of experiments needed when using the Green-Kubo or Helfand formalisms is more than an order of magnitude higher than for the McQuarrie expression. For pairwise-additive systems with zero linear momentum, the McQuarrie method yields frame-independent shear viscosities. The hitherto unexplored McQuarrie implementation of the mean-squared displacement approach to shear-viscosity calculation thus appears superior to alternative methods currently in use.

  10. An Uncertainty Method for Probabilistic Analysis of Buildings Impacted by Rockfall in a Limestone Quarry in Fengshan, Southwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Bo; Tang, Zhaohui; Zhang, Ao; Du, Juan; Su, Hongrui; Yi, Hongqing

    2015-09-01

    Rockfall is a common occurrence in open-pit mines in China, and seriously threatens lives and buildings. The damage to buildings includes many uncertainty factors, such as the occurrence of rockfall, runout trajectory, and impact energy. A uncertainty method was used to assess the probability of rockfall impacting buildings. The process includes four steps: (A) Calculating the probability of rockfall occurrence. (B) Probability analysis of the rockfall reaching the building and its energy. (C) Calculation of the building's vulnerability to rockfall impact. (D) Probability assessment of the building collapse. (E) Design options for protecting the building from rockfall damage. The method is applied in an abandoned limestone quarry in Fengshan, southwestern China. The results indicate that rockfalls have two kinds of failure modes: slide and topple, whose failure probability is 0-0.488 in the different quarry zones. The probabilities of three buildings located at the bottom of the quarry of collapsing from rockfall impact are 0.188, 0.006, and 0.002. A rockfall platform and vegetation planting at the bottom of the quarry could prevent rockfall from reaching the buildings.

  11. An Assessment of Spontaneous Vegetation Recovery in Aggregate Quarries in Coastal Sand Dunes in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Montoni, María Victoria; Fernández Honaine, Mariana; del Río, Julio Luis

    2014-08-01

    Sand dune quarries are a location of common aggregate mining activity developed in coastal areas, especially in the southeast Buenos Aires province, Argentina. In this article, spontaneous plant development after extraction activity ceased was evaluated. Five areas (three quarried and two natural/conservation areas) were sampled for plant cover and composition as well as sediment characterization. Different indexes, principal component analysis, and cluster analyses were applied to compare the areas. The dominant families observed in four of the five areas were Asteraceae, Poaceae, and Cyperaceae, and most of the species are commonly found in sandy and humid soils and/or modified/anthropized ones. Percentages of plant cover increased with time because of the cessation of active aggregate extraction. Indexes and multivariate analyses showed that it was possible to distinguish quarried and natural areas based on composition and vegetation cover. The distribution of plant species among the four areas responded to the presence of mining activity, but it also responded to the topographical position and consequently the depth of the groundwater level. Besides these differences, the four areas shared many native species. The results might indicate that once the activity has ceased, quarried areas may spontaneously and quickly develop a plant community with some similarities to those present in the nonquarried areas. However, given that the extracting activity involves the removal of the soil, revegetation of this type of environment depends on the presence of natural areas in the surroundings, which can serve as a source of seeds and propagules for plant regeneration.

  12. Floodplain/wetlands assessment for the interceptor trench field study near the Weldon Spring Quarry, Weldon Spring Site, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A.

    1999-12-15

    The US Department of Energy proposes to construct a groundwater interceptor trench near the Weldon Spring Quarry at the Weldon Spring Site in Missouri. The trench would be located near two palustrine wetland areas. Impacts to wetland hydrology and biotic communities are expected to be negligible. No long-term adverse impacts to floodplains are expected.

  13. Ground-water flow and ground- and surface-water interaction at the Weldon Spring quarry, St. Charles County, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Imes, J.L.; Kleeschulte, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    Ground-water-level measurements to support remedial actions were made in 37 piezometers and 19 monitoring wells during a 19-month period to assess the potential for ground-water flow from an abandoned quarry to the nearby St. Charles County well field, which withdraws water from the base of the alluvial aquifer. From 1957 to 1966, low-level radioactive waste products from the Weldon Spring chemical plant were placed in the quarry a few hundred feet north of the Missouri River alluvial plain. Uranium-based contaminants subsequently were detected in alluvial ground water south of the quarry. During all but flood conditions, lateral ground-water flow in the bedrock from the quarry, as interpreted from water-table maps, generally is southwest toward Little Femme Osage Creek or south into the alluvial aquifer. After entering the alluvial aquifer, the ground water flows southeast to east toward a ground-water depression presumably produced by pumping at the St. Charles County well field. The depression position varies depending on the Missouri River stage and probably the number and location of active wells in the St. Charles County well field.

  14. Soil-gas radon concentration monitoring in an active granite quarry from Central Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Luís.; Barbosa, Susana; Pereira, Alcides; Aumento, Fabrizio

    2010-05-01

    This study was carried out in an active quarry located nearby the town of Nelas (Central Portugal), with the primary objective of assessing the effect of regular explosions on soil-gas radon concentrations. Here, a late-orogenic Hercynian porphyritic biotite granite occurs and is exploited for the production of high quality aggregates for different building purposes. This granite is part of the Beiras batholiths, being a geochemically moderately evolved rock, slightly peraluminous, and widely known by the frequent occurrence of associated uranium mineralizations. In fact, more than 4000t of U3O8 was produced from 60 mines of the Beiras region in the last century, over a wide area of more than 10.000 km2, and thousands of anomalies related with the local accumulation of uranium in fault filling materials, metasedimentary enclaves and doleritic veins were recognized during prospecting works. The heterogeneity of uranium distribution in this rock is reflected at the test site; indeed, a gamma ray survey shows that some of the faults that occur in the quarry are slightly mineralized. A total of 7 radon monitoring stations were implemented in the quarry, at a typical depth comprised between 1 and 2 meters, in holes drilled for the purpose. Aware RM-70 pancake GM detectors were used, sensitive to alpha, beta and gamma/X-rays above 10 keV, connected to palmtop computers for data registration (1 minute interval) and power supplied by batteries. Monitoring was carried out during 6 months, in Spring/Summer conditions and the exact time of each explosion was registered manually. Several problems of data loss and power supply affected the stations during the experiment, leading to discontinuities in the records. Still the available data showed important differences in the soil-gas radon concentrations between stations, which can be explained by the heterogeneity of uranium distribution in the rock and increased local permeability. Furthermore, all stations showed a clear daily

  15. Relation of historical quarrying, material utilization and performance on buildings in Eastern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luodes, Nike M.; Pirinen, Heikki

    2016-04-01

    Finland might seem to have lower stone heritage compared to other southern European countries, but it has been the main exporter of dimension stone to the majestic buildings that made St.Petersburg a recognized cultural heritage. In Finland, though, the stone seems undervalued. The only dramatic and predominant stone buildings are those of agencies and administrations located in the towns, where the stone has been used to impress and symbolize value. Romantic style used massive bossy stone in building's full height and created fine traditional carvings. Otherwise the communities have mainly built settlements in contact with the nature, with materials easily available and of low cost, following architectonical trends of the periods and producing interesting stone details. During the past years, research has been conducted on historical buildings interconnecting scientific and artistic approach to evaluate material durability and cultural relevance of the artifacts. Generally until mid 20th century the stone has been traditionally used massive for basements and walls. The materials still present good mechanical characteristics and most often the weathering level after hundreds of years of exposure had reached only the first millimeters from the curst. Instead the old methodology for deposit exploitation has left visible signs on the buildings. Some examples are visible from Kuopio. The exploitation of small, easy-to-reach surface deposits, even if planned by local experts, has affected quality and appearance of historical buildings. As an example the excavation of shallow quarries where also weathered crop was kept as a product has characterized the basement of the Niirala school that presents change in colors due to original material more than to weathering on site. Fissuring is also visible on a couple of blocks while marks on the rocks depict the old excavation method. Most often the deposits had been in the vicinities, frequently hidden by further construction

  16. Evaluation of the physical properties, bulk density and aggregate stability of potential substrates in quarry restoration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, M.; Garcia-Orenes, F.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Garcia-Sanchez, E.

    2012-04-01

    Quarrying activity entails significant environmental impact affecting the soil, water, plants, landscape, etc. One of the most important impacts is the loss of the productive layer of the soil and its vegetation cover. However, mining activities are absolutely necessary for human development; keeping them sustainable implicates looking for viable solutions for the restoration of these areas to prevent degradation during and after the exploitation period. The aim of this study was to evaluate different substrates obtained from different mixes of sewage sludge and different mine spoils, to check how they are effective in quarry restoration, and to establish good practises in mining restoration. Also, the study tried to approach two refuses, one deriving from mining activity, as are the mine spoils that need to be reused for their valorisation, and the other, sewage sludge, obtained in the water depuration process to acquire a cheap substrate for soil rehabilitation. This preliminary work, which is included in a larger study, shows the results obtained from two physical properties studied, bulk density and aggregate stability, as key properties in the substrate structure for use in mining area restoration. Two doses of composted sewage sludge (30 and 90 Tm/Ha), both very rich in calcium carbonate, were applied to two different mine spoils under lab conditions. The first material, of poor quality, originated from the acquisition of arid particles in crushed limestone (Z). It is characterized by stable ''coarse elements'' predominance (up to 75% of its weight), and by the presence of elevated percentages of sand. The other waste material tested comes from limestone extraction (basically formed by the levels of interspersed non-limestone materials and the remains of stripped soils (D)). The results show that the high dose of sewage sludge applied to a mix of the two mine spoils significantly increased the percentage of stable aggregates by more than 50% than the control

  17. Risk of groundwater inrush in subterranean gypsum quarries: the case study of Moncalvo near Asti (North Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banzato, Cinzia; Fiorucci, Adriano; Gianotti, Alberto; de Waele, Jo; Vigna, Bartolomeo

    2010-05-01

    During the realisation of underground excavations in gypsum bedrock there is a possibility of intercepting large karst voids that can be completely filled with water under a considerable hydraulic pressure. The casual breaching of such voids can cause sudden and abundant water inrushes with consequences concerning safety of the excavation area and flooding of the tunnels. The presence of air-filled caves of great dimensions can also cause problems related to collapse of walls, ceilings and floors. In the subterranean quarry of Moncalvo d'Asti (Central Piedmont, Italy) in January 2005 an important inrush (60,000 m3 overnight) occurred causing damage to machinery and the flooding of several kilometres of underground tunnels. This inrush was caused by the breaching of a thin diaphragm of rock that separated the quarry from a large water-filled cave with water pressure of around 300 kPa along the front of the excavation. The rapid emptying of this void has caused a partial collapse of the roof of one of the largest cave chambers with the formation at the surface of a 20 metre wide sinkhole. To prevent similar phenomena to happen in the future a hydrogeological study concerning the entire gypsum mass was carried out. These investigations included monitoring of water levels intercepted by a series of boreholes, measurements of flow rates of water veins encountered by the excavations and chemical analysis of the different types of water coming from several points. This study has evidenced the presence of different drainage networks and the existence of a main karst circuit fed by diffused infiltration and recharge from the overlying marly-silty deposits and from adjacent minor less karstified systems in particularly fractured sectors of the gypsum. The waters coming from the main karst circuit are chemically very different from the waters deriving from deeper pathways. To be able to continue the excavation of gypsum in safe conditions the water levels were lowered for a

  18. The impact of pumped water from a de-watered Magnesian limestone quarry on an adjacent wetland: Thrislington, County Durham, UK.

    PubMed

    Mayes, W M; Large, A R G; Younger, P L

    2005-12-01

    Although quarrying is often cited as a potential threat to wetland systems, there is a lack of relevant, quantitative case studies in the literature. The impact of pumped groundwater discharged from a quarry into a wetland area was assessed relative to reference conditions in an adjacent fen wetland that receives only natural runoff. Analysis of vegetation patterns at the quarry wetland site, using Detrended Correspondence Analysis and the species indicator values of Ellenberg, revealed a clear disparity between community transitions in the quarry wetland and the reference site. Limited establishment of moisture-sensitive taxa, the preferential proliferation of robust wetland species and an overall shift towards lower species diversity in the quarry wetland were explicable primarily by the physico-chemical environment created by quarry dewatering. This encompassed high pH (up to 12.8), sediment-rich effluent creating a nutrient-poor substrate with poor moisture retention in the quarry wetland, and large fluctuations in water levels. PMID:15993994

  19. Potential of Hazardous Waste Encapsulation in Concrete Compound Combination with Coal Ash and Quarry Fine Additives.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Roy Nir; Anker, Yaakov; Font, Oriol; Querol, Xavier; Mastai, Yitzhak; Knop, Yaniv; Cohen, Haim

    2015-12-15

    Coal power plants are producing huge amounts of coal ash that may be applied to a variety of secondary uses. Class F fly ash may act as an excellent scrubber and fixation reagent for highly acidic wastes, which might also contain several toxic trace elements. This paper evaluates the potential of using Class F fly ashes (<20% CaO), in combination with excessive fines from the limestone quarry industry as a fixation reagent. The analysis included leaching experiments (EN12457-2) and several analytical techniques (ICP, SEM, XRD, etc.), which were used in order to investigate the fixation procedure. The fine sludge is used as a partial substitute in concrete that can be used in civil engineering projects, as it an environmentally safe product. PMID:26510011

  20. Mortality from stomach cancer in United States cement plant and quarry workers, 1950-80.

    PubMed Central

    Amandus, H E

    1986-01-01

    In 1978 a study of the mortality of United States cement plant and quarry workers was initiated. The vital status of a cohort of 5292 men who had been employed for at least five years in a cement plant between 1950 and 1980 was traced to 1 January 1980. The mortality experience was evaluated for 4231 white men for whom complete work histories and demographic information were available. Deaths from stomach cancer were significantly increased during 1965-9 but not over the entire follow up period (1950-80). Additionally, stomach cancer mortality was not significantly associated with tenure under separate control for age at follow up, latency, nativity, or year of birth. Evidence from this and other epidemiological studies has not confirmed an association between the constituents of cement plant dust exposure and death from stomach cancer. PMID:3637114

  1. D Modelling and Accuracy Assessment of Granite Quarry Using Unmmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Aguilera, D.; Fernández-Hernández, J.; Mancera-Taboada, J.; Rodríguez-Gonzálvez, P.; Hernández-López, D.; Felipe-García, B.; Gozalo-Sanz, I.; Arias-Perez, B.

    2012-07-01

    The unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are automated systems whose main characteristic is that can be remotely piloted. This property is especially interesting in those civil engineering works in which the accuracy of the model is not reachable by common aerial or satellite systems, there is a difficult accessibility to the infrastructure due to location and geometry aspects, and the economic resources are limited. This paper aims to show the research, development and application of a UAV that will generate georeferenced spatial information at low cost, high quality, and high availability. In particular, a 3D modelling and accuracy assessment of granite quarry using UAV is applied. With regard to the image-based modelling pipeline, an automatic approach supported by open source tools is performed. The process encloses the well-known image-based modelling steps: calibration, extraction and matching of features; relative and absolute orientation of images and point cloud and surface generation. Beside this, an assessment of the final model accuracy is carried out by means of terrestrial laser scanner (TLS), imaging total station (ITS) and global navigation satellite system (GNSS) in order to ensure its validity. This step follows a twofold approach: (i) firstly, using singular check points to provide a dimensional control of the model and (ii) secondly, analyzing the level of agreement between the realitybased 3D model obtained from UAV and the generated with TLS. The main goal is to establish and validate an image-based modelling workflow using UAV technology which can be applied in the surveying and monitoring of different quarries.

  2. Implications of a quarrying theory for glacial landscape evolution models (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverson, N. R.; Egholm, D. L.

    2011-12-01

    Models of glacial landscape evolution generally contain process descriptions that are conspicuously mismatched. In these models, descriptions of glacier flow are increasingly sophisticated, with clear derivation from mass, momentum and energy balances and well-known constitutive properties of ice. In contrast, bedrock erosion rules of these models are exceedingly heuristic. Erosion rate is commonly assumed to depend simply on the product of a bedrock erodibility coefficient and one of three variables: sliding velocity, ice discharge, or glacier power. A theoretical model of quarrying--thought to be the dominant process of glacial erosion--provides an explicit connection between bedrock erosion rates and glacier and bedrock characteristics. The model differs from past treatments of quarrying in that the dependence on sliding velocity arises from a treatment parallel to that used in the well-established theory of adhesive wear. Moreover, bedrock strength heterogeneity resulting from pre-glacial fractures is included using an experimentally-based Weibull distribution of rock strength. This strength distribution is predicated on the observation that larger rock bodies have lower strengths because they have a greater probability of containing a large fracture. Bedrock erosion rates increase with sliding velocity, but nonlinearity can be substantial and depends on the distribution of rock strength. Thus, bedrock susceptibility to erosion controls the form of the velocity dependence and cannot be adequately expressed with a coefficient. Perhaps more importantly, erosion rates generally increase with increasing effective pressure because diminished ice-bed separation in the lees of rock steps increases the probability of the glacier exploiting a major bedrock weakness. Erosion rates increase with increasing effective pressure even if the inverse dependence of sliding speed on effective pressure from glacier sliding rules is used in the theory. This dependence on effective

  3. Implications of a quarrying theory for glacial landscape evolution models (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverson, N. R.; Egholm, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    Models of glacial landscape evolution generally contain process descriptions that are conspicuously mismatched. In these models, descriptions of glacier flow are increasingly sophisticated, with clear derivation from mass, momentum and energy balances and well-known constitutive properties of ice. In contrast, bedrock erosion rules of these models are exceedingly heuristic. Erosion rate is commonly assumed to depend simply on the product of a bedrock erodibility coefficient and one of three variables: sliding velocity, ice discharge, or glacier power. A theoretical model of quarrying--thought to be the dominant process of glacial erosion--provides an explicit connection between bedrock erosion rates and glacier and bedrock characteristics. The model differs from past treatments of quarrying in that the dependence on sliding velocity arises from a treatment parallel to that used in the well-established theory of adhesive wear. Moreover, bedrock strength heterogeneity resulting from pre-glacial fractures is included using an experimentally-based Weibull distribution of rock strength. This strength distribution is predicated on the observation that larger rock bodies have lower strengths because they have a greater probability of containing a large fracture. Bedrock erosion rates increase with sliding velocity, but nonlinearity can be substantial and depends on the distribution of rock strength. Thus, bedrock susceptibility to erosion controls the form of the velocity dependence and cannot be adequately expressed with a coefficient. Perhaps more importantly, erosion rates generally increase with increasing effective pressure because diminished ice-bed separation in the lees of rock steps increases the probability of the glacier exploiting a major bedrock weakness. Erosion rates increase with increasing effective pressure even if the inverse dependence of sliding speed on effective pressure from glacier sliding rules is used in the theory. This dependence on effective

  4. Crop residues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop residues [e.g., corn (Zea mays) stover and small grain straw] are sometimes excluded when discussing cellulosic energy crops per se, but because of the vast area upon which they are grown and their current role in the development of cellulosic energy systems. This chapter focuses on current cor...

  5. Role of short-term follow-up magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of post-operative residual breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yili; Du, Hongwen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of short-term follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the detection of postoperative residual breast cancer. A retrospective analysis was performed on 10 patients who were diagnosed with non-malignant breast lesions by preoperative clinical, ultrasound and mammography examinations and intraoperative frozen-section pathology. These patients were finally confirmed as having malignant breast lesions by paraffin-embedded tissue histology and corresponding received second surgeries. Routine MRI, enhancement MRI and echo-planar imaging-diffusion-weighted imaging were performed on the 10 patients within 1 month after the first surgery. All the cases showed a local distortion of mammary architecture revealed by routine MRI and enhancement MRI images. The enhancement characteristics of the 10 cases were as follows: 3 cases featured stippled enhancement, 2 had small nodular enhancement, 1 showed dendritic enhancement, 1 had a ring-shaped enhancement of the cystic wall and 3 had no abnormal enhancement. The lesions of 7 cases had a type-I enhancement curve (progressive enhancement pattern) and 3 cases had a type-II curve (plateau pattern). The lesions of 4 cases had a decreased apparent diffusion coefficient. In total, 4 cases of tumor residue were diagnosed by MRI and the second pathological examination, while in 1 case the tumor residue was misdiagnosed by MRI but confirmed by the second pathological examination. In conclusion, the present study suggested that short-term follow-up MRI may be of value in the diagnosis of postoperative residual breast tumors and may be helpful for surgeons to develop an accurate surgical plan. PMID:27446586

  6. Relationship between McQuarrie and Helfand equations for the determination of shear viscosity from equilibrium molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chialvo, Ariel A.; Cummings, Peter T.; Evans, Denis J.

    1993-03-01

    A proof of the validity of the Chialvo-Debenedetti conjecture [Phys. Rev. A 43, 4289 (1991)], the crucial element to achieve an equivalence between the McQuarrie [Statistical Mechanics (Harper & Row, New York, 1976)] and Helfand [Phys. Rev. 119, 1 (1960)] shear-viscosity equations, is presented here. Some theoretical consequences of that validity are also discussed, such as the unification of most shear-viscosity expressions into one given by Andrews for first-order transport coefficients [J. Chem. Phys. 47, 3161 (1967)]. The system-size dependence of the McQuarrie shear-viscosity values is analyzed and an extrapolation method is proposed and tested to determine the asymptotic values.

  7. Comment on ``Relationship between McQuarrie and Helfand equations for the determination of shear viscosity from equilibrium molecular dynamics''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Michael P.

    1994-10-01

    In a recent paper, Chialvo, Cummings, and Evans [Phys. Rev. E 47, 1702 (1993)] attempt to relate single-particle and collective expressions, due, respectively, to McQuarrie [Statistical Mechanics (Harper and Row, New York, 1976)] and Helfand [Phys. Rev. 119, 1 (1960)] for the calculation of shear viscosities in molecular dynamics simulations. We point out that their analysis does not correspond to the simulation algorithm they actually use, that the system-size dependence they derive and the extrapolation procedure they propose are incorrect, and that they have established no relation between their analysis and the shear viscosity. Our own analysis explains the simulation results in terms of the artificial way that periodic box boundary crossings are handled. We find no support for a link between the McQuarrie formula and any valid statistical mechanical expression for the shear viscosity.

  8. Field-scale tests for determining mixing patterns associated with coarse-bubble air diffuser configurations, Egan Quarry, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hornewer, N.J.; Johnson, G.P.; Robertson, D.M.; Hondzo, Miki

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Chicago District did field-scale tests in August-September 1996 to determine mixing patterns associated with different configurations of coarse-bubble air diffusers. The tests were done in an approximately 13-meter deep quarry near Chicago, Ill. Three-dimensional velocity, water-temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, and specific-conductivity profiles were collected from locations between approximately 2 to 30 meters from the diffusers for two sets of five test configurations; one set for stratified and one set for destratified conditions in the quarry. The data-collection methods and instrumentation used to characterize mixing patterns and interactions of coarse-bubble diffusers were successful. An extensive data set was collected and is available to calibrate and verify aeration and stratification models, and to characterize basic features of bubble-plume interaction.

  9. Landscape Alteration by Pre-Pottery Neolithic Communities in the Southern Levant – The Kaizer Hilltop Quarry, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Grosman, Leore; Goren-Inbar, Naama

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on Kaizer Hill, a quarry site located in the vicinity of the city of Modiin where remains of a single prehistoric cultural entity assigned to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A were discovered. A systematic survey revealed that large-scale quarrying activities have left damage markings on the bedrock of the Hilltop and its slopes. We aim to present here our findings from the Hilltop, which are concerned with the human impact on rock surfaces and the lithic artifacts retrieved during the survey. It is evident that the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A inhabitants of the area changed their landscape forever, “stripping” the caliche surface and penetrating it in search of flint bedded in the bedrock. PMID:26960156

  10. Landscape Alteration by Pre-Pottery Neolithic Communities in the Southern Levant - The Kaizer Hilltop Quarry, Israel.

    PubMed

    Grosman, Leore; Goren-Inbar, Naama

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on Kaizer Hill, a quarry site located in the vicinity of the city of Modiin where remains of a single prehistoric cultural entity assigned to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A were discovered. A systematic survey revealed that large-scale quarrying activities have left damage markings on the bedrock of the Hilltop and its slopes. We aim to present here our findings from the Hilltop, which are concerned with the human impact on rock surfaces and the lithic artifacts retrieved during the survey. It is evident that the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A inhabitants of the area changed their landscape forever, "stripping" the caliche surface and penetrating it in search of flint bedded in the bedrock. PMID:26960156

  11. Application of an integrated geotechnical and topographic monitoring system in the Lorano marble quarry (Apuan Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvini, Riccardo; Vanneschi, Claudio; Riccucci, Silvia; Francioni, Mirko; Gullì, Domenico

    2015-07-01

    Accurate slope stability analysis is essential for human activity in high-risk geological contexts. This may, however, not be enough in the case of quarrying where the dynamic and evolving environment also requires effective monitoring. A well-designed monitoring system requires the acquisition of a huge dataset over time, improving knowledge of the study area and helping to refine prediction from stability analysis. This paper reports the implementation of an integrated monitoring system in a marble quarry in the Apuan Alps (Italy) and some of the results obtained. The equipment consists of a traditional geotechnical monitoring system (extensometers, crackmeters and clinometers) and two modern topographic monitoring systems (a terrestrial interferometer and a robotic total station). This work aims to provide in-depth knowledge of the large scale rock mass behaviour as a result of marble exploitation, thereby allowing continuous excavation. The results highlight the importance of integrating different monitoring systems.

  12. Chrysotile asbestos quantification in serpentinite quarries: a case study in Valmalenco, central Alps, northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    Outcrops of serpentinites are usually strongly fractured and cataclastic, and the rock can only be used as ballast. However, in rare cases, like in Valmalenco (Central Alps, Northern Italy), fractures are regular and well spaced, and the rock mass has good geotechnical quality, ideal conditions for the extraction of dimension stone blocks. The Valmalenco Serpentinite is marketed worldwide as dimension and decorative stone, with remarkable mechanical properties and pleasing colours and textures. However, the same area was once subject to chrysotile asbestos mining, in the form of discrete veins along the main discontinuities of the rock mass. For this reason, airborne asbestos contamination can occur during the extraction and processing cycle of the rocks, therefore it is essential to locate and quantify asbestos in the rock mass, to reduce as much as possible the exposure risk. The first step was a detailed geostructural survey of each quarry, in order to characterize the main discontinuities (orientation, spacing, linear persistence, opening, filling), with special attention to the identification of fibrous minerals. The surveys was followed by extensive sampling of massive rocks, mineralized veins and fillings of fractures, and the cutting sludge derived from diamond wire cutting. Preliminary qualitative XRPD was performed on all samples, while quantitative analysis was carried out on the most representative samples of the main rock mass discontinuities. On the other hand, XRPD is not effective in the identification of asbestos percentages of less than 2% by weight, and the accurate distinction among the various serpentine polymorphs (antigorite, lizardite, chrysotile) is very difficult (if not impossible) when they are simultaneously present, due to their very similar basic structure and the strong structural disorder. The same samples were then analyzed by SEM-EDS (fiber counting after filtration on a polycarbonate filter), for a better distinction between

  13. Comment on ``Use of the McQuarrie equation for the computation of shear viscosity via equilibrium molecular dynamics''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Michael P.; Brown, David; Masters, Andrew J.

    1994-03-01

    In a recent paper, Chialvo and Debenedetti [Phys. Rev. A 43, 4289 (1991)] consider single-particle and collective expressions due, respectively, to McQuarrie [Statistical Mechanics (Harper and Row, New York, 1976)] and Helfand [Phys. Rev. 119, 1 (1960)] for the calculation of shear viscosities in molecular-dynamics simulations. We point out an error in the discussion of origin independence in this paper, and show that the prescriptions set out in it are not related to the shear viscosity.

  14. Effect of the air hammer on the hands of stonecutters. The limestone quarries of Bedford, Indiana, revisited.

    PubMed

    Taylor, W; Wasserman, D; Behrens, V; Reynolds, D; Samueloff, S

    1984-08-01

    In the limestone quarries of Indiana, USA, pneumatic percussive hammers replaced the mallet and hammer around 1900. By 1917 the air hammer was being used exclusively for periods of eight to ten hours a shift. In 1918 Alice Hamilton investigated an unusual "disease" in these stonecutters of Bedford, Indiana, who complained of "attacks of numbness and blanching of the fingers coming on suddenly under the influence of cold and then disappearing." The prevalence of vibration induced white finger (VWF) found in this population of 38 stonecutters was 89%, with decreased light touch, pain, and temperature appreciation in advanced cases. In 1978 a VWF research team revisited these limestone quarries. During the 60 year interval the stonecutting industry had contracted from 4000 workers in 40 quarries in 1918 to 3-400 in 10 quarries in 1978, with only 50 employees remaining in the Bedford area. In a population of 30 stonecutters the prevalence of VWF in 1978 was 80%, with similar sensory loss in light touch, pain, and temperature appreciation. Between 1918 and 1978 no change had taken place in the design of the air hammers used for stonecutting. Vibration levels of 4859 metres/s2 on the chisel, and 2010 metres/s2 on the barrel were measured over a frequency range 6.3 to 1000 Hz. The fundamental frequency was 75 Hz. These measured vibration levels are outside the ISO/DIS/5349 (1979) recommended limits for human exposure to vibration transmitted to the hand. The VWF data presented in this paper, and those originally reported by Hamilton in 1918, call for an immediate redesign of stonecutting pneumatic hammers in order to remove one cause of Raynaud's phenomenon of occupational origin. PMID:6378250

  15. Einstein-Kubo-Helfand and McQuarrie relations for transport coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erpenbeck, Jerome J.

    1995-05-01

    The formal equivalence of the Green-Kubo and Einstein-Kubo-Helfand (EKH) expressions for transport coefficients is well known. For finite systems subject to periodic boundary conditions, the EKH relations are ambiguous as to whether the toroidal or infinite-checkerboard descriptions should be used for the coordinates. We first describe qualitatively the application of both descriptions to the calculation of the self-diffusion and shear viscosity coefficients. We then show that the calculation of the self-diffusion coefficient using the infinite-checkerboard EKH relation is equivalent to the Green-Kubo calculation, while the toroidal calculation is not. For shear viscosity, we find that neither the toroidal nor infinite-checkerboard calculation from the EKH relation is equivalent to the Green-Kubo calculation, even though the formal theory presumably suggests that each is correct when the long-time limit is taken after the limit of large-system size. An alternative relation for the shear viscosity of finite periodic systems is derived from the Green-Kubo formula, consisting of the infinite-checkerboard expression plus correction terms having a fundamentally more complicated dependence on the coordinates and momenta. A simple qualitative analysis of the system-size dependence of the difference between the time-dependent Green-Kubo and the infinite-checkerboard EKH shear viscosities [η(tN) and η(C)E(tN), respectively] shows this difference to be of O(N1/3) (N being the number of particles) at early times. Monte Carlo molecular dynamics calculations of η(C)E(tN) for an equimolar binary mixture of hard spheres (diameter ratio of 0.4 and mass ratio of 0.03) confirm these large differences at a few mean free times, but suggest a long-time plateau value having the magnitude of the Green-Kubo result, but the values at 70 mean free times do not approach η(tN) with increasing N. Finally, we consider the one-particle, EKH-like, McQuarrie expression for shear viscosity

  16. The stratigraphy and palaeoenvironment of the Bathonian "Great Oolite Group" of Woodeaton Quarry, Oxfordshire.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guthrie, Ronald; Stukins, Stephen; Raub, Tim

    2014-05-01

    Woodeaton Quarry, Oxfordshire, represents the most continuously exposed section of the Upper Bathonian 'Great Oolite Group' in the United Kingdom. Like most of the British Bathonian, it is lacking in reliable ammonite zonation from which to define a chronostratigraphy. The sedimentology of the succession can be broken up into two broad facies types: A clay rich, brackish lagoonal environment with intermixed freshwater-influenced flora and fauna; A marginal marine calcareous succession of an oolitic nature with periodic mud-drape intervals. The marginal marine depositional setting, the completeness of the Upper Bathonian stratigraphy and lack of biostratigraphically important macrofauna has motivated this study into the micropalaeontology of Woodeaton. The primary aims of this study are to use foraminifera and ostracods to reconstruct the palaeoenvironments and to refine the biostratigraphy of the Upper Bathonian. The studied succession commences at the top of the Taynton Limestone Formation, which fines upwards into the clay-rich Rutland Formation. Several species of marine ostracods known from the Mid-Upper Bathonian are recovered from the base of the Rutland Formation, such as Praeschuleridea confossa and Angliaecytherldea calvata, as well as fragments of fish scales and elasmobranch teeth. Freshwater influence is evident further up the Rutland Formation where freshwater charophytes, nested bivalves and ostracods of the genus Bisulcocypris have been found. The progression from the Rutland Formation's marine base into the freshwater influenced clays is clear from the varied micropalaeontological fauna. A return to marine conditions in the overlying White Limestone Formation can be observed through the increasing number of benthic foraminiferal taxa - with Spirillina and Lenticulina the most abundant - compared to the Rutland Formation. Within the Shipton and Ardley Members there are also indicative marine ostracod taxa present (including Acanthocythere

  17. Quarry identification of historical building materials by means of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence and chemometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colao, F.; Fantoni, R.; Ortiz, P.; Vazquez, M. A.; Martin, J. M.; Ortiz, R.; Idris, N.

    2010-08-01

    To characterize historical building materials according to the geographic origin of the quarries from which they have been mined, the relative content of major and trace elements were determined by means of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) techniques. 48 different specimens were studied and the entire samples' set was divided in two different groups: the first, used as reference set, was composed by samples mined from eight different quarries located in Seville province; the second group was composed by specimens of unknown provenance collected in several historical buildings and churches in the city of Seville. Data reduction and analysis on laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence measurements was performed using multivariate statistical approach, namely the Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA). A clear separation among reference sample materials mined from different quarries was observed in Principal Components (PC) score plots, then a supervised soft independent modeling of class analogy classification was trained and run, aiming to assess the provenance of unknown samples according to their elemental content. The obtained results were compared with the provenance assignments made on the basis of petrographical description. This work gives experimental evidence that laser induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements on a relatively small set of elements is a fast and effective method for the purpose of origin identification.

  18. Utilization of advanced calibration techniques in stochastic rock fall analysis of quarry slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preh, Alexander; Ahmadabadi, Morteza; Kolenprat, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    In order to study rock fall dynamics, a research project was conducted by the Vienna University of Technology and the Austrian Central Labour Inspectorate (Federal Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection). A part of this project included 277 full-scale drop tests at three different quarries in Austria and recording key parameters of the rock fall trajectories. The tests involved a total of 277 boulders ranging from 0.18 to 1.8 m in diameter and from 0.009 to 8.1 Mg in mass. The geology of these sites included strong rock belonging to igneous, metamorphic and volcanic types. In this paper the results of the tests are used for calibration and validation a new stochastic computer model. It is demonstrated that the error of the model (i.e. the difference between observed and simulated results) has a lognormal distribution. Selecting two parameters, advanced calibration techniques including Markov Chain Monte Carlo Technique, Maximum Likelihood and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) are utilized to minimize the error. Validation of the model based on the cross validation technique reveals that in general, reasonable stochastic approximations of the rock fall trajectories are obtained in all dimensions, including runout, bounce heights and velocities. The approximations are compared to the measured data in terms of median, 95% and maximum values. The results of the comparisons indicate that approximate first-order predictions, using a single set of input parameters, are possible and can be used to aid practical hazard and risk assessment.

  19. Health risk assessment linked to filling coastal quarries with treated dredged seaport sediments.

    PubMed

    Perrodin, Yves; Donguy, Gilles; Emmanuel, Evens; Winiarski, Thierry

    2014-07-01

    Dredged seaport sediments raise complex management problems since it is no longer possible to discharge them into the sea. Traditional waste treatments are poorly adapted for these materials in terms of absorbable volumes and cost. In this context, filling quarries with treated sediments appears interesting but its safety regarding human health must be demonstrated. To achieve this, a specific methodology for assessing health risks has been developed and tested on three seaport sediments. This methodology includes the development of a conceptual model of the global scenario studied and the definition of specific protocols for each of its major steps. The approach proposed includes in particular the use of metrological and experimental tools that are new in this context: (i) an experimental lysimeter for characterizing the deposit emissions, and (ii) a geological radar for identifying potential preferential pathways between the sediment deposit and the groundwater. The application of this approach on the three sediments tested for the scenario studied showed the absence of health risk associated with the consumption of groundwater for substances having a "threshold effect" (risk quotient <1), and an acceptable risk for substances having a "non-threshold effect", with the notable exception of arsenic (individual risk equal to 3.10(-6)). PMID:24742547

  20. Hydrogeologic Architecture of the San Andreas Fault near the Logan Quarry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, L.; Brodsky, E. E.; Erskine, J.; Fulton, P. M.; Carter, R.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogeologic properties of fault zones are critical to the faulting processes; however, they are not well understood and difficult to measure in situ. Recording the tidal response of water level is a useful method to measure the in-situ properties. We utilize an array of wells near the San Andreas Fault zone in the Logan Quarry to study the fault zone hydrogeologic architecture by measuring the water tidal response. The measured specific storage and permeability show that there is a localized zone near the fault with higher specific storage and larger permeability than the surrounding region. This change of properties might be related to the fault zone fracture distribution. Surprisingly, the change of the specific storage is the clearest signal. The inferred compliance contrast is consistent with prior estimates of elastic moduli change in the near-fault environment, but the hydrogeologic effects of the compliance change have never before been measured on a major active fault. The observed specific storage structure implies that the fault zone plays an important role in permeability enhancement by seismic shaking. In addition, the measured diffusivity is about 10-2 m2/s, which is comparable to the post-earthquake hydraulic diffusivity measured on the Wenchuan Earthquake Fault. This observed high diffusivity with little variability inside the fault zone might suggest the accumulated pore pressure during interseismic period distributes over a broad region.

  1. A bioremediation case of an ex-quarry area restored by paper sludge.

    PubMed

    Bonoli, Alessandra; Dall'Ara, Alice

    2012-02-20

    Most paper industry waste is in the form of sludge from paper production and recycle process paper. There has been an increasing use of paper sludge in environmental restoration, a practice that requires particular attention. This issue presents a case which demonstrates how the biogas production related to this kind of recovery system can represent a problem for environmental protection and public health. The case history relates to a former quarry area restored by means of paper sludge. After the filling, a substantial quantity of biogas was produced, with an external diffusion to sensible target as well. Initial investigations showed that the area was characterized by a large amount of paper mill sludge made unstable by anaerobic conditions. To date there are no proven technologies for this kind of treatment. In this case, for safety and naturalization as agricultural area, new methods of bioremediation were used and, in particular, an innovative physical, mechanical and biological intervention, based on bio-stabilization of paper mill sludge. The treatment is site-specific, based on the in-site paper sludge biostabilisation. To complete the intervention and in order to demonstrate its validity an important monitoring activity was performed, testing all the phases affected by the biological transformation. PMID:21945586

  2. Radionuclide migration experiments in a natural fracture in a quarried block of granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandergraaf, Tjalle T.; Drew, Douglas J.; Masuda, Sumio

    1996-02-01

    A radionuclide migration experiment was performed over a distance of 1 m in a natural fracture in a quarried block of granite. The fracture in the block was characterized hydraulically by measuring the pressure drop in borehole-to-borehole pump tests. The effective fracture volume in the block was ˜ 100 mL. A silicone coating was applied to the exterior, and the block was immersed in a tank of water to which hydrazine was added to provide a chemically reducing barrier. Migration experiments were performed at a flow rate of 2.2 mL h -1 using 85Sr, 131I, 137Cs, 144Ce, 152Eu, 237Np and 238Pu. A total of 9.5 L of groundwater was pumped through the fracture, corresponding to ˜95 fracture volumes. Only 85Sr, 131I, 137Cs, 237Np and 238Pu were observed in the eluent. Scanning of the fracture surface at the end of the migration experiment showed limited mobility of α-emitting radionuclides and of the rare-earth elements, consistent with static sorption data obtained on representative fracture surface material. The mobility of 137Cs was higher than that of the rare-earth elements, but it was lower than that of 85Sr. When samples of fracture-coating material were separated into fractions with different specific gravity, there was a clear indication of radionuclide association with mineral groups.

  3. Residual Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    10 May 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a summertime view of the south polar residual cap of Mars. In this image, mesas composed largely of solid carbon dioxide are separated from one another by irregularly-shaped depressions. The variation in brightness across this scene is a function of several factors including, but not limited to, varying proportions of dust and solid carbon dioxide, undulating topography, and differences in the roughness of the slopes versus the flat surfaces.

    Location near: 86.7oS, 343.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  4. Aminoacetylation Reaction Catalyzed by Leucyl-tRNA Synthetase Operates via a Self-Assisted Mechanism Using a Conserved Residue and the Aminoacyl Substrate.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrov, Alexey; Palencia, Andrés; Cusack, Stephen; Field, Martin

    2016-05-19

    Leucyl-tRNA synthetase catalyzes attachment of leucine amino acid to its cognate tRNA. During the second, aminoacetylation, step of the reaction, the leucyl moiety is transferred from leucyl-adenylate to the terminal A76 adenosine of tRNA. In this work, we have investigated the aminoacetylation step catalyzed by leucyl-tRNA synthase, using ab initio quantum chemical/molecular mechanical hybrid potentials in conjunction with reaction-path-location algorithms and molecular dynamics free energy simulations. We have modeled reaction mechanisms arising from both crystallographic studies and computational work. We invoke various groups as potential proton acceptors-namely, the phosphate and leucyl amino groups of leucyl-adenylate, the A76 base of tRNA, and the Asp80 and Glu532 residues of the protein-and consider both metal-assisted and metal-free reactions. Free energy calculations indicate that both the phosphate group of leucyl adenylate and Glu532 are not strong bases. This agrees with the results of the quantum chemical/molecular mechanical reaction path calculations which give high free energy barriers for the studied pathways involving these groups. A self-assisted mechanism with the leucyl amino group and Asp80 as proton acceptors is the most likely. Furthermore, in this mechanism the presence of a metal ion coordinated by the phosphate group and Glu532 strongly activates the reaction. PMID:27115861

  5. Influence of Noncompliance With Radiation Therapy Protocol Guidelines and Operative Bed Recurrences for Children With Rhabdomyosarcoma and Microscopic Residual Disease: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group

    SciTech Connect

    Million, Lynn; Anderson, James; Breneman, John; Hawkins, Douglas S.; Laurie, Fran; Michalski, Jeff; Rodeberg, David; Wharam, Moody; Wolden, Suzanne; Donaldson, Sarah S.

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: Postoperative radiation therapy (RT) is recommended for patients with rhabdomyosarcoma having microscopic disease. Sometimes RT dose/volume is reduced or omitted in an attempt to avoid late effects, particularly in young children. We reviewed operative bed recurrences to determine if noncompliance with RT protocol guidelines influenced local-regional control. Methods and Materials: All operative bed recurrences among 695 Group II rhabdomyosarcoma patients in Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group (IRS) I through IV were reviewed for deviation from RT protocol. Major/minor dose deviation was defined as >10% or 6-10% of the prescribed dose (40-60 Gy), respectively. Major/minor volume deviation was defined as tumor excluded from the RT field or treatment volume not covered by the specified margin (preoperative tumor volume and 2- to 5-cm margin), respectively. No RT was a major deviation. Results: Forty-six of 83 (55%) patients with operative bed recurrences did not receive the intended RT (39 major and 7 minor deviations). RT omission was the most frequent RT protocol deviation (19/46, 41%), followed by dose (17/46, 37%), volume (9/46, 20%), and dose and volume deviation (1/46, 2%). Only 7 operative bed recurrences occurred in IRS IV (5% local-regional failure) with only 3 RT protocol deviations. Sixty-three (76%) patients with recurrence died of disease despite retrieval therapy, including 13 of 19 nonirradiated children. Conclusion: Over half of the operative bed recurrences were associated with noncompliance; omission of RT was the most common protocol deviation. Three fourths of children die when local-regional disease is not controlled, emphasizing the importance of RT in Group II rhabdomyosarcoma.

  6. Cobalt, chromium and nickel contents in soils and plants from a serpentinite quarry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lago-Vila, M.; Arenas-Lago, D.; Rodríguez-Seijo, A.; Couce, M. L. Andrade; Vega, F. A.

    2015-03-01

    The former serpentinite quarry of Penas Albas (Moeche, Galicia, NW Spain) left behind a large amount of waste material scattered over the surrounding area, as well as tailing areas. In this area several soils were studied together with the vegetation growing spontaneously over them with the aim of identifying the bioavailability of heavy metals. The potential of spontaneous vegetation for phytoremediation and/or phytostabilization was evaluated. The pH of the soils ranges from neutral to basic, with very low organic matter and nitrogen contents. There are imbalances between exchangeable cations like potassium (K) and calcium (Ca), mainly due to high magnesium (Mg) content that can strongly limit plant production. Moreover, in all of the studied soils there are high levels of cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) (>70, >1300 and >1300 mg kg-1, respectively). They exceed the intervention limits indicated by soil guideline values. Different soil extractions were performed in order to evaluate bioavailability. CaCl2 0.01 M is the most effective extraction reagent, although the reagent that best predicts plant availability is a mixture of low molecular weight organic acids. Festuca rubra, L. is the spontaneous plant growing in the soils that accumulates the highest amount of the metals, both in shoot and roots. Festuca also has the highest translocation factor values, although they are only >1 for Cr. The bioconcentration factor is >1 in all of the cases, except in the shoot of Juncus sp. for Co and Ni. The results indicate that Festuca is a phytostabilizer of Co and Ni and an accumulator of Cr, while Juncus sp. is suitable for phytostabilization.

  7. Co, Cr and Ni contents in soils and plants from a serpentinite quarry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lago-Vila, M.; Arenas-Lago, D.; Rodríguez-Seijo, A.; Couce, M. L. Andrade; Vega, F. A.

    2014-12-01

    Several soils developed on the former serpentinite quarry of Penas Albas (Moeche, Galicia, NW Spain) were studied, together with the vegetation growing spontaneously over them. The aim of this work was to identify the bioavailability of heavy metals and to evaluate the potential of spontaneous vegetation for the phytoremediation and/or phytostabilisation of these areas. The pH of the soils ranges from neutral to basic, with very low organic matter and nitrogen contents. There are imbalances between exchangeable cations that can strongly limit plant production. Moreover, in all of the soils there are high levels of Co, Cr and Ni (> 70, > 1500, and > 1325 mg kg-1, respectively). They exceed the intervention limits indicated in different guides. Different soil extractions were performed in order to evaluate bioavailability. CaCl2 0.01 M is the most effective extraction reagent, although the reagent that best predicts plant availability is the mixture of low molecular weight organic acids. Festuca rubra, L. is the spontaneous plant growing in the soils that accumulates the highest amount of the metals, both in shoot and roots. Festuca also has the highest translocation factor values, although they are only > 1 for Cr. The bioconcentration factor is > 1 in all of the cases, except in the shoot of Juncus sp. for Co and Ni. The results indicate that Festuca is a phytostabilizer of Co and Ni and an accumulator of Cr, while Juncus sp. is suitable for phytostabilization. Both of the studied species contribute towards the phytostabilisation of the soils and their recovery, improving their characteristics and making it possible to start planting other species.

  8. Importance of Radius of Influence and its Estimation in a Limestone Quarry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soni, A. K.; Sahoo, L. K.; Ghosh, U. K.; Khond, M. V.

    2015-04-01

    Limestone mining at Lanjiberna limestone and dolomite quarry has created positive as well negative impacts on ground water. With further deepening of the mine, drawdown trend (negative effect) is observed and at the same time ground water recharge of the order of 4,527.48 m3/day, through mine pits (positive impact) is noticed. The aquifer present in the area is unconfined and mainly consists of weathered quartzite, phyllites, limestone and dolomite. To know the cumulative impact of mining on surroundings, the effective radius of influence (Re) for excavated mine area is calculated as 1,059 m. Here, it may be noted that three `concentric working pits' (Pit No. 2 & 6; Pit no 1 & 3 and Pit No 4 & 5) produces limestone at this mine and the pit-wise radius of influence (Ro) is estimated. Value of Ro for Pit-2 & 6 is 612.14 m; Pit-1 & 3 is 475 m and Pit-4 & 5 is 384.15 m. Its average i.e., Ro (for all three pits, cumulative) is estimated as 490 m. From this typical case study and estimation of Ro and Re values, it is concluded that the maximum and minimum value of overall impact/influence lies in between 0.49 and 1.05 km. These estimated values of `area of influence' are less compared to the whole mine lease area values. Local aquifer, which lies at shallower as well as at deeper depth had behaved consistently with respect to recharge and drawdown conditions. Thus, assessment of Ro and Re is extremely helpful for `integrated mine planning' to achieve targeted production, economically with minimum interruptions.

  9. Geochronological and Taxonomic Revisions of the Middle Eocene Whistler Squat Quarry (Devil’s Graveyard Formation, Texas) and Implications for the Early Uintan in Trans-Pecos Texas

    PubMed Central

    Campisano, Christopher J.; Kirk, E. Christopher; Townsend, K. E. Beth; Deino, Alan L.

    2014-01-01

    The Whistler Squat Quarry (TMM 41372) of the lower Devil’s Graveyard Formation in Trans-Pecos Texas is a middle Eocene fossil locality attributed to Uintan biochronological zone Ui1b. Specimens from the Whistler Squat Quarry were collected immediately above a volcanic tuff with prior K/Ar ages ranging from ∼47–50 Ma and below a tuff previously dated to ∼44 Ma. New 40Ar/39Ar analyses of both of the original tuff samples provide statistically indistinguishable ages of 44.88±0.04 Ma for the lower tuff and 45.04±0.10 Ma for the upper tuff. These dates are compatible with magnetically reversed sediments at the site attributable to C20r (43.505–45.942 Ma) and a stratigraphic position above a basalt dated to 46.80 Ma. Our reanalysis of mammalian specimens from the Whistler Squat Quarry and a stratigraphically equivalent locality significantly revises their faunal lists, confirms the early Uintan designation for the sites, and highlights several biogeographic and biochronological differences when compared to stratotypes in the Bridger and Uinta Formations. Previous suggestions of regional endemism in the early Uintan are supported by the recognition of six endemic taxa (26% of mammalian taxa) from the Whistler Squat Quarry alone, including three new taxa. The revised faunal list for the Whistler Squat Quarry also extends the biostratigraphic ranges of nine non-endemic mammalian taxa to Ui1b. PMID:24988115

  10. Geochronological and taxonomic revisions of the middle Eocene Whistler Squat Quarry (Devil's Graveyard Formation, Texas) and implications for the early Uintan in Trans-Pecos Texas.

    PubMed

    Campisano, Christopher J; Kirk, E Christopher; Townsend, K E Beth; Deino, Alan L

    2014-01-01

    The Whistler Squat Quarry (TMM 41372) of the lower Devil's Graveyard Formation in Trans-Pecos Texas is a middle Eocene fossil locality attributed to Uintan biochronological zone Ui1b. Specimens from the Whistler Squat Quarry were collected immediately above a volcanic tuff with prior K/Ar ages ranging from ∼47-50 Ma and below a tuff previously dated to ∼44 Ma. New 40Ar/39Ar analyses of both of the original tuff samples provide statistically indistinguishable ages of 44.88±0.04 Ma for the lower tuff and 45.04±0.10 Ma for the upper tuff. These dates are compatible with magnetically reversed sediments at the site attributable to C20r (43.505-45.942 Ma) and a stratigraphic position above a basalt dated to 46.80 Ma. Our reanalysis of mammalian specimens from the Whistler Squat Quarry and a stratigraphically equivalent locality significantly revises their faunal lists, confirms the early Uintan designation for the sites, and highlights several biogeographic and biochronological differences when compared to stratotypes in the Bridger and Uinta Formations. Previous suggestions of regional endemism in the early Uintan are supported by the recognition of six endemic taxa (26% of mammalian taxa) from the Whistler Squat Quarry alone, including three new taxa. The revised faunal list for the Whistler Squat Quarry also extends the biostratigraphic ranges of nine non-endemic mammalian taxa to Ui1b. PMID:24988115

  11. Kassite from the Diamond Jo quarry, Magnet Cove, Hot Spring County, Arkansas: the problem of cafetite and kassite.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, H.T., Jr.; Dwornik, E.J.; Milton, C.

    1986-01-01

    Small (<0.5 mm), brownish-pink platy rosettes and yellow spherules, in cavities in nepheline syenite at the Diamond Jo quarry, Magnet Cove, have been identified as kassite, CaTi2O4(OH)2, a mineral previously known only from the Kola Peninsula, USSR. The X-ray powder and single-crystal data and density of the Magnet Cove kassite correspond with those reported by earlier workers for cafetite, (Ca,Mg)(Fe,Al)2Ti4O12.4H2O, from Kola, but the chemical and physical properties correspond with those given in their description of kassite.-J.A.Z.

  12. Effect of quarry dust addition on the performance of controlled low-strength material made from industrial waste incineration bottom ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, Naganathan; Hashim, Abdul Razak; Nadzriah, Abdul Hamid Siti

    2012-06-01

    The performance of industrial waste incineration bottom ash in controlled low-strength material (CLSM) was investigated in this paper, as the quarry dust was added. CLSM mixtures were made from the industrial waste incineration bottom ash, quarry dust, and cement. Tests for fresh density, bleeding, compressive strength, shear strength, hydraulic conductivity, and excavatability were carried out. The compressive strength ranges from 60 kPa to 6790 kPa, the friction angle varies from 5° to 19°, and the cohesion is from 4 to 604 kPa. Most of the mixtures are found to be non-excavatable. It is indicated that the quarry dust addition increases the compressive strength and shear parameters, decreases bleeding, and increases the removability modulus.

  13. Weldon Spring quarry construction staging area and water treatment plant site remedial action characterization report for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The quarry construction staging area (QCSA) and water treatment plant (WTP) are located in the areas that border the western edge of the Weldon Spring quarry (WSQ). These facilities were constructed to support bulk waste removal from the WSQ. This area was contaminated with U-238, Ra-226, and Th-230 and was remediated prior to construction in order to allow release of the area for use without radiological restrictions. This report documents the methods of characterization, the remediation activities, and the post remedial action sampling methods and analytical results. 4 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Thermally Enhanced Magnetic Fabrics of Basaltic Dikes from Kapaa Quarry, Koolau Volcano, Oahu, Hawaii, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, J.; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Urrutia Fucugauchi, J.

    2007-05-01

    Progressive thermal treatment has been used to investigate the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of a wide range of lithologies. Initial results on e.g., red sandstones, glacial tillites, granites and gneisses showed that laboratory stepwise heating resulted in thermal enhancement of AMS, showing the potential of thermal treatment in studying weak AMS and masked or cryptic fabrics. Studies have however shown that heating induced changes in AMS may be more complex that simple enhancement of the magnetic fabric In general, thermal induced magneto-mineralogical alterations are complex and not well understood, and further investigation of heating induced effects in mineralogy, grain size and texture systematically investigated for different lithologies is needed. For our experiment we have used a suite of samples from eight basaltic dikes from the Kappa Quarry, Koolau volcanic range in Oahu, Hawaii. The AMS fabric was determined as part of a study to investigate the influence of hydrothermal alteration by Krasa and Herrero-Bervera (2005). They found that hydrothermal alteration changes the bulk susceptibility and anisotropy degree, but AMS ellipsoid principal axes are not affected. Since hydrothermal alteration transforms the primary Ti-poor titanomagnetites into granular intergrowths of titanomagnetites, titanomaghemite and hematite, and that samples show varying degrees of alteration, the samples react differently to laboratory stepwise heating permitting study of thermal effects on the magnetic mineralogy, and AMS parameters and principal susceptibility axes. Further, thermal treatment results in fabric enhancement with reduced axial scatter associated with weak bulk susceptibilities and anisotropy degrees in the dikes. For the AMS experiment samples were heated progressively to temperatures up to 400° C or 560° C and the AMS measured after each step. AMS parameters and bulk susceptibility show changes with increasing temperature while the AMS

  15. Ichnology of an upper carboniferous fluvio-estuarine paleovalley: The tonganoxie sandstone, buildex quarry, eastern Kansas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buatois, L.A.; Mangano, M.G.; Maples, C.G.; Lanier, Wendy E.

    1998-01-01

    Tidal rhythmites of the Tonganoxie Sandstone Member (Stranger Formation, Douglas Group) at Buildex Quarry, eastern Kansas, contain a relatively diverse ichnofauna. The assemblage includes arthropod locomotion (Dendroidichnites irregulare, Diplichnites gouldi type A and B, Diplopodichnus biformis, Kouphichnium isp., Mirandaichnium famatinense, and Stiaria intermedia), resting (Tonganoxichnus buildexensis) and feeding traces (Stiallia pilosa, Tonganoxichnus ottawensis); grazing traces (Gordia indianaensis, Helminthoidichnites tenuis, Helminthopsis hieroglyphica); feeding structures (Circulichnis montanus, Treptichnus bifurcus, Treptichnus pollardi, irregular networks), fish traces (Undichna britannica, Undichna simplicitas), tetrapod trackways, and root traces. The taxonomy of some of these ichnotaxa is briefly reviewed and emended diagnoses for Gordia indianaensis and Helminthoidichnites tenuis are proposed. Additionally, the combined name Dendroidichnites irregulare is proposed for nested chevron trackways. Traces previously regarded as produced by isopods are reinterpreted as myriapod trackways (D. gouldi type B). Trackways formerly interpreted as limulid crawling and swimming traces are assigned herein to Kouphichnium isp and Dendroidichnites irregulare, respectively. Taphonomic analysis suggests that most grazing and feeding traces were formed before the arthropod trackways and resting traces. Grazing/feeding traces were formed in a soft, probably submerged substrate. Conversely, the majority of trackways and resting traces probably were produced subaerially in a firmer, dewatered and desiccated sediment. The Buildex Quarry ichnofauna records the activity of a terrestrial and freshwater biota. The presence of this assemblage in tidal rhythmites is consistent with deposition on tidal flats in the most proximal zone of the inner estuary, between the maximum landward limit of tidal currents and the salinity limit further towards the sea.

  16. Subjective loudness of simulated quarry blast waves, with implications for the transition from impulsive to continuous sound.

    PubMed

    Niedzwiecki, A; Ribner, H S

    1979-05-01

    The tradeoff between amplitude and duration for equal loudness was explored for idealized quarry blast waves. An extended low-frequency response loudspeaker-driven simulation booth was employed with computer-generated imput test signals. In place of actual irregular blast waves, the simulated signatures were composed of sequences of identical shock-decay impulses of 25 ms duration and 0.2 ms rise time. Sequences of 1--16 impulses yielded overall durations of 25--400 ms. At the short durations the loudness was found to increase 2 dB for each doubling of duration; above 100 ms the increase was progressively lower, approaching as an asymptote the level for continuous sound. The results were compared with theoretical predictions: for this purpose the spectral method of Johnson and Robinson, well varified in our earlier studies of sonic boom impulses, was used. The shorter quarry blast judgments (T less than or equal to 100 ms) were found to be in very good agreement in terms of relative loudness levels. With an ad hoc--but physically plausible--modification (including adjustment of the critical integration time of the ear) the predictive method was extended to encompass the long duration signals as well. Thus the applicability of the method has been demonstrated for other types of transient sounds than the N wave; and the extension of the method tentatively appears to bridge the range between impulsive and continuous sounds of similar spectral content. PMID:458043

  17. The residual caries dilemma.

    PubMed

    Weerheijm, K L; Groen, H J

    1999-12-01

    Restorative dentistry is based on the assumption that bacterial infection of demineralized dentine should prompt operative intervention. One of the concepts of practical dentistry is to create a favourable environment for caries arrest with minimal operative intervention. The progress of remaining primary caries is key to any discussion of this concept. This discussion is important for the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach, since the removal of all carious dentine is sometimes difficult using hand instruments only. In this paper the results of possible measures to guard against the effects of residual carious and its consequences are reviewed, in order to obtain an impression of the justification for (in)complete excavation of occlusal dentinal caries. Three types of measure are considered: isolating the caries process from the oral environment, excavating the carious dentine, and using a cariostatic filling material. Each of these measures contributes to the arrest of the caries process. However, none of these measures can arrest this process by itself. A combination of all three seems necessary. It is concluded that although residual caries does not seem to be the criterion for rerestoration, one has to strive for as complete caries removal as possible. If this cannot be fulfilled the sealing capacities of the filling material seem to be more important than its cariostatic properties. PMID:10600078

  18. Biofouling of granite-rapakivi in St. Petersburg monuments and in the quarry in Russia and Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasov, Dmitry; Panova, Elena; Alampieva, Elena; Olhovaya, Elena; Popova, Tatyana; Vlasov, Alexey; Zelenskaya, Marina

    2013-04-01

    Granite-rapakivi was widely used in the architecture of St. Petersburg: the facades of buildings, embankments of rivers and canals, bridges, sculptural monuments, pedestals, facing the metro stations. This stone is rapidly destroyed due to the peculiarities of its structure. Biofouling of granite is insufficiently studied. Cause the destruction of granite can be bacteria, microscopic algae, fungi, mosses, lichens, higher plants, invertebrates and vertebrates. They often form specific lithobiotic communities that contribute to the destruction of granite-rapakivi. The objects of research were monuments of St. Petersburg (granite sculpture, facades, facing embankments) as well as granite-rapakivi quarries in Russia and Finland, where the stone was quarried for use in St. Petersburg. Sampling was carried out from the most typical biofouling sites. Different methods were applied for the study of damaged granite: petrographic analysis, light and scanning electron microscopy, methods for detection and identification of microorganisms, X-ray microprobe analysis. As result the main forms of granite destruction were described: fractures, ovoid weathering, granular disintegration, surface films, crusts and layers, pitting and fouling. Lichens, mosses, herbaceous and micromycetes were dominated on the granite-rapakivi in quarries. For example, in a Monferran quarry (Virolahti region) the complicated lithobiotic community was revealed. It included 30 species of micromycetes, 31 species of lichens, 10 species of moss. Bacteriological analysis showed the dominance of bacteria Bacillus, and actinomycetes in microbial biofilms. More than 100 species of plants were found on the granite embankments in St. Petersburg. They were confined to the cracks, seams of granite blocks. Plants and mosses were common to the granite embankments of rivers and canals in the central (historical) part of the city. Dimensions of mosses depend on the area of the deepening which they occupy. The most

  19. Residue management at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    Olencz, J.

    1995-12-31

    Past plutonium production and manufacturing operations conducted at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) produced a variety of plutonium-contaminated by-product materials. Residues are a category of these materials and were categorized as {open_quotes}materials in-process{close_quotes} to be recovered due to their inherent plutonium concentrations. In 1989 all RFETS plutonium production and manufacturing operations were curtailed. This report describes the management of plutonium bearing liquid and solid wastes.

  20. Optical systolic array processor using residue arithmetic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, J.; Casasent, D.

    1983-01-01

    The use of residue arithmetic to increase the accuracy and reduce the dynamic range requirements of optical matrix-vector processors is evaluated. It is determined that matrix-vector operations and iterative algorithms can be performed totally in residue notation. A new parallel residue quantizer circuit is developed which significantly improves the performance of the systolic array feedback processor. Results are presented of a computer simulation of this system used to solve a set of three simultaneous equations.

  1. Assessment of secondary residues. Engineering and economic analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Leuschner, A.P.; West, C.E.; Ashare, E.

    1981-08-01

    Secondary agricultural residues are defined as those residues resulting from biomass processing to produce primary products; e.g., whey from cheese processing, vegetable processing wastes, and residues from pulp and paper processing. The analyses consist of specific case studies investigating the costs of converting liquid and/or solid residue streams to methane and/or ethanol. Several economically feasible examples were found: methane production from potato processing liquid residues, ethanol from potato processing solid residues, methane from cheese processing wastes, and methane from poultry processing liquid wastes. In facilities which operate year round, energy recovery is often feasible, whereas in seasonal operations, economic feasibility is not possible. Economic feasibility of energy production from secondary residues is strongly dependent on the current use of the solid and liquid residue. If the solid residue is sold as an animal feed, energy production is usually not economical. High solid and liquid residue disposal costs often make energy conversion economically feasible.

  2. Ground-water levels, water quality, and potential effects of toxic-substance spills or cessation of quarry dewatering near a municipal ground-water supply, southeastern Franklin County, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedam, A.C.; Eberts, S.M.; Bair, E.S.

    1989-01-01

    A newly completed municipal ground-water supply that produces from a sand and gravel aquifer in southern Franklin County, Ohio, may be susceptible to potential sources of pollution. Among these are spills of toxic substances that could enter recharge areas of the aquifer or be carried by surface drainage and subsequently enter the aquifer by induced infiltration. Ground water of degraded quality also is present in the vicinity of several landfills located upstream from the municipal supply. Local dewatering by quarrying operations has created a ground-water divide which, at present, prevents direct movement of the degraded ground water to the municipal supply. In addition, the dewatering has held water levels at the largest landfills below the base of the landfill. Should the dewatering cease, concern would be raised regarding the rise of water levels at this landfills and transport of contaminants through the aquifer to the Scioto River and subsequently by the river to the well field. From June 1984 through July 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Columbus, Ohio, investigated the relations among the ground-water supply and potential sources of contamination by means of an observation-well network and a program of measuring water levels and sampling for water quality. Sample collections included those made to determine the baseline levels of organic chemicals and metals, as well as periodic sampling and analysis for common constituents to evaluate any changes taking place in the system. Finally, a steady-state, three-dimensional numerical model was used to determine ground-water flow directions and average ground-water velocities to asses potential effects of toxic-substance spills. The model also was used to simulate changes in the ground-water flow system that could result if part or all of the quarry dewatering ceased. Few of the organic-chemical and metal constituents analyzed for were present at detectable levels. With respect to

  3. Maps showing mines, quarries, oil and gas activity, and sample localities in and near the Sipsey Wilderness and additions, Lawrence and Winston Counties, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Mory, P.C.; Behum, P.T.; Ross, R.B. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    This report presents the results of a mineral survey of the Sipsey Wilderness and additions, William B. Bankhead National Forest, Lawrence and Winston Counties, Alabama. The survey includes: limestone quarrying, coal mining, and oil and gas activity. 7 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  4. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 7): Weldon Spring Quarry/Plant/Pits (USDOE), Weldon Spring, MO. (Second remedial action), September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    The 226-acre Weldon Spring Quarry/Plant/Pits (USDOE) site is a former ordnance works and chemical plant near the city of Weldon Spring in St. Charles County, Missouri. The site is divided into two noncontiguous areas: a 217-acre chemical plant area, comprised of various buildings, ponds and four raffinate pits, and a 9-acre quarry, which forms a valley wall at the edge of the Missouri River floodplain. Since the early 1940s, the site has been used by various government agencies for chemical and ordnance processing with chemical and radioactive waste disposal in the quarry. From 1941 to 1946, the site was an Army ordnance works used for the production of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) explosives. The selected interim remedial action for the site includes excavating an estimated 95,000 cubic yards of chemically and radioactively contaminated bulk wastes from the quarry and temporarily storing the wastes onsite in the chemical plant area; and implementing site access restrictions. The estimated total cost for the remedial action is $11,000,000.

  5. Utilization of corn residues for production of the polysaccharide schizophyllan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abundant corn residues include fiber from wet milling operations and distillers' dried grains from dry grind ethanol plants. Biorefineries of the future will utilize such residues for the production of valuable bioproducts, particularly those traditionally produced from fossil fuels. Schizophyllan...

  6. Goldquarryite, a new Cd-bearing phosphate mineral from the Gold Quarry mine, Eureka County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, Andrew C.; Cooper, M.A.; Hawthorne, F.C.; Gault, Robert A.; Jensen, M.C.; Foord, E.E.

    2003-01-01

    Goldquarryite, idealized formula CuCd2Al3(PO44F2(H2O)10(H2O 2, structure-derived formula (Cu0.70???0.30??1.00(Cd1.68Ca0.32??2.00Al3 (PO44F2(H2O)10[(H2O 1.60F0.40]??2.00, is triclinic, space group P1, with unit-cell parameters derived from crystal structure: a = 6.787(1), b = 9.082(2), c = 10.113(2) A??, ?? = 101.40(1)??, ?? = 104.27(1)??, ?? = 102.51(1)??, V = 568.7(3) A??3, a:b:c: = 0.7473:1:1.1135, Z = 1. The strongest seven reflections in the X-ray powder-diffraction pattern are [d(A??)(I)(hkl)]: 9.433(100)(001); 4.726(30)(002); 3.700(30)(022); 3.173(30b)(122, 113, 120, 003); 3.010(30)(122, 212); 2.896(30)(211); 2.820(50)(022). The mineral occurs on a single specimen collected from the 5,425-foot bench, Gold Quarry mine, Eureka County, Nevada, as isolated clusters of radiating sprays of crystals and as compact parallel crystal aggregates, which are both found on and between breccia fragments. Sprays and aggregates never exceed 3 mm in longest dimension and typically average about 0.5 mm in size. Goldquarryite is a late-stage supergene mineral associated with opal, carbonate-fluorapatite and hewettite, on a host rock composed principally of brecciated and hydrothermally rounded jasperoid fragments which have been lightly cemented by late-stage silicification. Individual euhedral crystals are acicular to bladed, elongate [100], with a length-to-width ratio of approximately 20:1; the maximum size is 1.5 mm but most crystals do not exceed 0.4 mm in length. Forms are {010}, {001} major and {100} very minor. The mineral is pleochroic; translucent (masses) to transparent (crystals); very pale blue to blue-gray (crystals) or blue (masses); with a white streak and a vitreous to glassy luster. Goldquarryite is brittle, lacks cleavage, has an irregular fracture, and is nonfluorescent; hardness (Mohs') is estimated at 3-4; measured density is 2.78(1) g/cm3 (sink-float techniques using methylene iodide-acetone mixtures), calculated density is 2.81 g/cm3 (for formula and unit

  7. Hydraulic Binding Between Structural Elements and Groundwater Circulation in a Volcanic Aquifer : Insights from Riano Quarries District (Rome Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, David; Preziosi, Elisabetta; Ghergo, Stefano; Parrone, Daniele; Amalfitano, Stefano; Bruna Petrangeli, Anna; Zoppini, Annamaria

    2016-04-01

    A field survey and laboratory analysis of fracture systems crosscutting volcanic rocks was performed in the North-East of Rome urban area (Central Italy) to assess the hydraulic binding between structural elements, groundwater circulation and geochemistry. Fracture features (orientation, density, apertures, length and spacing) as well as groundwater heads and geochemical characteristics of rock and groundwater were analysed. We present and discuss the macro and mesostructural deformation pattern of the Riano quarries district (Central Italy) to highlight the close relationships between geological heterogeneity and water circulation. Laboratory analyses were carried out on rock samples: using XRF, microwave acid digestion and diffractometer to identify the chemical and mineralogical characters of the outcropping rock samples with a special focus on altered bands of fractures. On water samples using ICP-OES for major cations, ICP-MS for trace elements, IC for major anions and Spectrophotometry for NO2, PO4, NH4 . A total of 26 quarries with different dimension, shape and depth were examined by both remote and field analyses. Despite all the quarries were realized within the same tuff formation interval, a different fracture spatial distribution was recognized. From North to South a progressively increment of fracture density was observed. It was possible to observe a close relationship between orientation, spatial distribution and length. For each single fractured set, a 5° max orientation variation was observed, suggesting that fracture genesis was likely related to an extensional/transtensional tectonic process. Most of the fractures directly examined show an alteration band with different colors and thickness around the whole fracture shape. A preliminary overview of the laboratory results highlights that altered and unaltered tuffs (belonging to the same formation) show different chemical compositions. In particular, an enrichment of Mn, accompanied by a

  8. A Combined Remote Sensing-Numerical Modelling Approach to the Stability Analysis of Delabole Slate Quarry, Cornwall, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havaej, Mohsen; Coggan, John; Stead, Doug; Elmo, Davide

    2016-04-01

    Rock slope geometry and discontinuity properties are among the most important factors in realistic rock slope analysis yet they are often oversimplified in numerical simulations. This is primarily due to the difficulties in obtaining accurate structural and geometrical data as well as the stochastic representation of discontinuities. Recent improvements in both digital data acquisition and incorporation of discrete fracture network data into numerical modelling software have provided better tools to capture rock mass characteristics, slope geometries and digital terrain models allowing more effective modelling of rock slopes. Advantages of using improved data acquisition technology include safer and faster data collection, greater areal coverage, and accurate data geo-referencing far exceed limitations due to orientation bias and occlusion. A key benefit of a detailed point cloud dataset is the ability to measure and evaluate discontinuity characteristics such as orientation, spacing/intensity and persistence. This data can be used to develop a discrete fracture network which can be imported into the numerical simulations to study the influence of the stochastic nature of the discontinuities on the failure mechanism. We demonstrate the application of digital terrestrial photogrammetry in discontinuity characterization and distinct element simulations within a slate quarry. An accurately geo-referenced photogrammetry model is used to derive the slope geometry and to characterize geological structures. We first show how a discontinuity dataset, obtained from a photogrammetry model can be used to characterize discontinuities and to develop discrete fracture networks. A deterministic three-dimensional distinct element model is then used to investigate the effect of some key input parameters (friction angle, spacing and persistence) on the stability of the quarry slope model. Finally, adopting a stochastic approach, discrete fracture networks are used as input for 3D

  9. Environmental rehabilitation of dismissed quarry areas in the Emilia Apennines (Italy) based on the exploitation of geosites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldati, Mauro; Coratza, Paola; Vandelli, Vittoria

    2016-04-01

    The landscape modifications induced by human activity in the past 50 years, due to quarrying in the catchment of Rio della Rocca (Province of Reggio Emilia, northern Italy) and plans for its environmental rehabilitation, are illustrated. The study area is located in the northern Apennines margin, specifically in the municipality of Castellarano, and is characterised by a great variety of abiotic environments and high biodiversity. As regards the geological aspects of the area, the main lithological outcrops consists of yellow sandstones belonging to the Epi-Ligurian Sequence (Upper Eocene - Lower Oligocene) and grey clays (Lower Pliocene - Lower Pleistocene) of the marine units of the Apennine margin. From a geomorphological viewpoint, the landscape evolution of this valley has been deeply influenced by the presence of rocks with different mechanical behaviour, gravitational and rainwash processes and, more recently, human activities. The latter have played a fundamental role in modelling the physical landscape of the area in recent times. In the Sassuolo area (Province of Modena), very close to the study area, there is the largest tile making district in the world, which was developed during the '60s and '70s of the 20th century, partly thanks to the wide availability of clayey raw materials with suitable technological properties. Since the mid-1950s the study area has been affected by intense quarrying activities which have largely modified its environmental and, in particular, geomorphological features. In the 1970s, three clay pits and four sandstone quarries were active in the area. The clay pits were used for tile production whereas the sandstone materials were utilised in large part for the building industry. This production scenario has radically changed during the past twenty years, with the progressive abandonment of quarries due to the introduction of ever-more restrictive environmental policies, imposing rigorous planning on mining activities

  10. Dry fermentation of agricultural residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewell, W. J.; Chandler, J. A.; Dellorto, S.; Fanfoni, K. J.; Fast, S.; Jackson, D.; Kabrick, R. M.

    1981-09-01

    A dry fermentation process is discussed which converts agricultural residues to methane, using the residues in their as produced state. The process appears to simplify and enhance the possibilities for using crop residues as an energy source. The major process variables investigated include temperature, the amount and type of inoculum, buffer requirements, compaction, and pretreatment to control the initial available organic components that create pH problems. A pilot-scale reactor operation on corn stover at a temperature of 550 C, with 25 percent initial total solids, a seed-to-feed ratio of 2.5 percent, and a buffer-to-feed ratio of 8 percent achieved 33 percent total volatile solids destruction in 60 days. Volumetric biogas yields from this unit were greater than 1 vol/vol day for 12 days, and greater than 0.5 vol/vol day for 32 days, at a substrate density of 169 kg/m (3).

  11. Recovery of transuranics from process residues

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J.H.; Gray, L.W.

    1987-01-01

    Process residues are generated at both the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) and the Savannah River Plant (SRP) during aqueous chemical and pyrochemical operations. Frequently, process operations will result in either impure products or produce residues sufficiently contaminated with transuranics to be nondiscardable as waste. Purification and recovery flowsheets for process residues have been developed to generate solutions compatible with subsequent Purex operations and either solid or liquid waste suitable for disposal. The ''scrub alloy'' and the ''anode heel alloy'' are examples of materials generated at RFP which have been processed at SRP using the developed recovery flowsheets. Examples of process residues being generated at SRP for which flowsheets are under development include LECO crucibles and alpha-contaminated hydraulic oil.

  12. Evaluation of AERMOD and CALPUFF for predicting ambient concentrations of total suspended particulate matter (TSP) emissions from a quarry in complex terrain.

    PubMed

    Tartakovsky, Dmitry; Broday, David M; Stern, Eli

    2013-08-01

    Concentrations of particulate emissions from a quarry located in hilly terrain were calculated by two common atmospheric dispersion models, AERMOD and CALPUFF. Evaluation of these models for emissions from quarries/open pit mines that are located in complex topography is missing from the literature. Due to severe uncertainties in the input parameters, numerous scenarios were simulated and model sensitivity was studied. Model results were compared among themselves, and to measured total suspended particulate (TSP). For a wide range of meteorological and topographical conditions studied, AERMOD predictions were in a better agreement with the measurements than those obtained by CALPUFF. The use of AERMOD's "Open pit" tool seems unnecessary when accurate digital topographic data are available. Onsite meteorological data are shown to be crucial for reliable dispersion calculations in complex terrain. PMID:23673194

  13. A multidisciplinary study of the Lower Cretaceous Cedar Mountain Formation, Mussentuchit Wash, Utah: a determination of the paleoenvironment and paleoecology of the Eolambia caroljonesa dinosaur quarry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, J.R., Jr.; Brinkman, D.; Nichols, D.J.; Layer, P.; Burge, D.; Thayn, D.

    2007-01-01

    A quarry within the Cedar Mountain Formation in Mussentuchit Wash, Emery County, Utah, produced a fossil assemblage containing the remains of at least eight juvenile iguanodontid dinosaurs (Eolambia caroljonesa). The Cedar Mountain Formation lies stratigraphically between the Tithonian-Berriasian (Upper Jurassic) Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation and the Cenomanian (Upper Cretaceous) Dakota Formation. Detailed stratigraphic, sedimentological, geochronological, palynological, and paleontological data have been collected along a measured section at the site of the Cifelli #2 Eolambia caroljonesa Quarry. These data provide a chronostratigraphic and a biostratigraphic framework for the Cedar Mountain Formation and allow a detailed reconstruction of the paleoenvironment and the paleoecology of the local paleogeographic area from which E. caroljonesa have been recovered. Three 40Ar/39Ar ages ranging from 96.7 to 98.5 Ma have been obtained three stratigraphically distinct altered volcanic ash layers within the Mussentuchit Member, one of which passes through the E. caroljonesa quarry, that indicate that the quarry is latest Albian in age and that the stratigraphic boundary between the Mussentuchit Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation and the overlying Dakota Formation is at or near the Albian/Cenomanian boundary. Sedimentological and biostratigraphic data suggest that significant long-term and short-term climatic changes are recorded in the Cedar Mountain Formation. During deposition of the lower part of the formation, climatic conditions were warm and arid to semi-arid. During deposition of the upper part of the formation, conditions became more humid. The progressive change in climatic conditions was probably related to the transgression of the Mowry Sea from the north. Cyclic sedimentation in the Mussentuchit Member suggests high-frequency changes from wet to dry periods. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Developing a Planting Medium from Solid Waste Compost and Construction and Demolition Rubble for Use in Quarry Rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assaf, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    The combination of construction, demolition and excavation (CDE) waste along with the increase in solid waste generation has put a major stress on Lebanon and on the management of its solid waste. Compounding this problem are the issues of quarries closure and rehabilitation and a decrease in forest and vegetative cover. This research aims to provide an integrated solution to the stated problem by developing a "soil mix" derived from a mélange of the organic matter of the solid waste (compost), the CDE waste, and soil. Excavation and construction debris were ground to several sizes and mixed with compost and soil at different ratios. Replicates of these mixes and a set of control (regular soil) were used. In this mix, native and indicator plants are planted (in pots). The plant species used are Mathiolla crassifolia and Zea mays (Corn). Results have shown successful growth of both corn and Mathiolla seedlings in the mixes with higher amounts of construction rubble and compost i.e. Rubble: Soil: Compost Ratio of 2:1:1 and 1:0:1. However treatments with no compost and with less quantities of rubble demonstrated the inability of the soil used to sustain plant growth alone (1:1:1 and 1:1:0). Last but not least, the control consisting of soil only ended up being the weakest mix with yellow corn leaves and small Mathiolla seedlings fifty days after planting and fertilizing. Additionally, soil analysis, rubble and compost analysis were conducted. The samples were tested for heavy metals, nutrient availability and values of pH and EC. No contamination has been reported and an abundance of macronutrients and micronutrients was documented for the soil and compost. High alkalinity is due to the presence of concrete and the high percentage of Calcium Carbonate in Lebanese soils. Accordingly, the most adequate mixes for planting are treatments A (2:1:1) and B (1:0:1) and they should be pursued for a pilot scale study to test their potential use in quarry rehabilitation and

  15. Carbonate measurements in PM10 near the marble quarries of Carrara (Italy) by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and source apportionment by positive matrix factorization (PMF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuccia, E.; Piazzalunga, A.; Bernardoni, V.; Brambilla, L.; Fermo, P.; Massabò, D.; Molteni, U.; Prati, P.; Valli, G.; Vecchi, R.

    2011-11-01

    The concentration of carbonates in atmospheric Particulate Matter (PM) is usually quite low. The surroundings of marble quarries are peculiar sites where the impact of carbonates in PM levels can be significant. We present here the results of a PM10 sampling campaign performed in Carrara (Italy). The town lies between the famous marble quarries and the harbour: about 1000 trucks per day transport marble blocks and debris from the quarries to the harbour passing through the town centre. PM10 was collected on daily basis on PTFE filters analyzed by Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) and Ion-Chromatography (IC). Carbonate concentration was measured by a non-destructive Infrared Spectroscopy analysis (FT-IR). Time series of elemental (Na-Pb by ED-XRF), ionic (SO 42-, NH 4+ by ion-chromatography) and carbonate (by FT-IR) concentration values were merged in a unique data set and a PMF analysis singled out the major PM10 sources in the area. Marble transportation turned out to be the major pollution source in the town accounting to PM10 for about 36%; this corresponded to a CaCO 3 average level of about 8 μg m -3 during working days. The FT-IR analysis was a crucial part of the work and an ad-hoc analytical procedure was specifically set up, calibrated, and tested as described in the text.

  16. The effect of a zero-concentration sink on contaminant transport and remedial-action designs for the Weldon Spring quarry, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasko, D.

    1990-04-01

    One-dimensional analytical expressions are developed to simulate two processes in a homogeneous porous medium: contaminant transport through a porous medium that has a zero-concentration sink located at a finite distance from a step-function source; and contaminant transport through a porous medium that has an initial steady-state distribution corresponding to a constant strength source and zero-concentration sink separated by a finite distance. The governing equations are cast in dimensionless form, making use of the flow system's Peclet number. Evaluation of the analytical expressions is accomplished by numerical inversion of Laplace-space concentrations using either a full Fourier series approach with acceleration, or the Stehfest algorithm. The analytical expressions are used to evaluate possible contaminant conditions at the Weldon Spring quarry near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The following results have been found: contaminant concentrations should be at or near steady-state conditions; the spatial distribution of contaminants should be a function of the flow system's Peclet number; contaminant concentrations near the Femme Osage Slough should approach zero; contaminant concentrations near the quarry during dewatering and bulk-waste removal should monotonically decrease with time; and the spatial distribution of contaminants during remedial activities should be relatively flat, especially near the dewatering pumps. Future work will entail evaluating existing radionuclide or chemical concentration data to determine the applicability of the proposed contaminant transport model and to improve the hydrogeological conceptualization of the quarry area and vicinity. 20 refs., 27 figs.

  17. The Punta Lucero Quarry site (Zierbena, Bizkaia): a window into the Middle Pleistocene in the Northern Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Sala, Nohemi; Arceredillo, Diego; García, Nuria; Martínez-Pillado, Virginia; Rios-Garaizar, Joseba; Garate, Diego; Solar, Gonzalo; Libano, Iñaki

    2015-08-01

    The period between the end of the Early Pleistocene and the mid-Middle Pleistocene (roughly between 1.0 and 0.4 Ma BP) is of great interest in Western Europe. It witnessed several climatic oscillations and changes in the fauna, the demise of a hominin species and the appearance of another, along with important cultural and technological changes. Thus, the few available sites with these chronologies is vital to the understanding of the tempo and mode of these changes. Middle Pleistocene sites in the Northern Iberian Peninsula are very rare. Here we present the study of the site found at the Punta Lucero Quarry (Biscay province, Northern Iberian Peninsula), which includes for the first time the complete collection from the site. The fossil association from this site includes several ungulates, such as a Megacerine deer, Cervus elaphus, large bovids (likely both Bos primigenius and Bison sp. are present), Stephanorhinus sp., and carnivores, such as Homotherium latidens, Panthera gombaszoegensis, Canis mosbachensis and Vulpes sp. This association is typical of a middle Middle Pleistocene chronology and would be the oldest macro-mammal site in the Eastern Cantabrian region. This site would likely correspond to a chronology after Mode 1 technological complex and before the arrival of Mode 2 technology in this region. Thus, it offers a glimpse into the paleoecological conditions slightly prior to or contemporaneous with the first Acheulian makers in the northern fringe of the Iberian Peninsula.

  18. Geoarchaeology at Gilman Falls: An Archaic Quarry and Manufacturing Site in Central Maine, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanger, D.; Kelley, A.R.; Berry, H.N., IV

    2001-01-01

    Interdisciplinary investigations at the Milford Reservoir, central Maine, resulted in excavation and analysis of a Middle Archaic quarry and manufacturing site at Gilman Falls, dated to between 7300 and 6300 yr B.P. Lithological analysis indicates that the majority of the artifacts came from very local outcrops, providing low-grade metamorphic rocks. Native Americans used a specialized technique to reduce the granofels and other rocks to long rods, artifacts commonly placed in local cemeteries. The Gilman Falls site was largely abandoned once these artifacts were no longer in vogue. Therefore, access to particular bedrock outcrops seems to have played an important role in site selection. Gilman Falls and other early to middle Holocene sites are preserved where bedrock sill dams ponded water that deposited fine sand. Early site sedimentation history is paralleled by a drainage change in the headwaters of the Penobscot River. Evidence for lower mid-Holocene lake levels and a period of higher temperatures and lower precipitation may correlate with the sedimentation history. ?? 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. Catalytic combustion of residual fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, D. L.; Tacina, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    A noble metal catalytic reactor was tested using two grades of petroleum derived residual fuels at specified inlet air temperatures, pressures, and reference velocities. Combustion efficiencies greater than 99.5 percent were obtained. Steady state operation of the catalytic reactor required inlet air temperatures of at least 800 K. At lower inlet air temperatures, upstream burning in the premixing zone occurred which was probably caused by fuel deposition and accumulation on the premixing zone walls. Increasing the inlet air temperature prevented this occurrence. Both residual fuels contained about 0.5 percent nitrogen by weight. NO sub x emissions ranged from 50 to 110 ppm by volume at 15 percent excess O2. Conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NO sub x ranged from 25 to 50 percent.

  20. Vitrification of NAC process residue

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, R.A.; Whittington, K.F.; Peters, R.D.

    1995-12-31

    Vitrification tests have been performed with simulated waste compositions formulated to represent the residue which would be obtained from the treatment of low-level, nitrate wastes from Hanford and Oak Ridge by the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process. The tests were designed to demonstrate the feasibility of vitrifying NAC residue and to quantify the impact of the NAC process on the volume of vitrified waste. The residue from NAC treatment of low-level nitrate wastes consists primarily of oxides of aluminum and sodium. High alumina glasses were formulated to maximize the waste loading of the NAC product. Transparent glasses with up to 35 wt% alumina, and even higher contents in opaque glasses, were obtained at melting temperatures of 1,200 C to 1,400 C. A modified TCLP leach test showed the high alumina glasses to have good chemical durability, leaching significantly less than either the ARM-1 or the DWPF-EA high-level waste reference glasses. A significant increase in the final waste volume would be a major result of the NAC process on LLW vitrification. For Hanford wastes, NAC-treatment of nitrate wastes followed by vitrification of the residue will increase the final volume of vitrified waste by 50% to 90%; for Melton Valley waste from Oak Ridge, the increase in final glass volume will be 260% to 280%. The increase in volume is relative to direct vitrification of the waste in a 20 wt% Na{sub 2}O glass formulation. The increase in waste volume directly affects not only disposal costs, but also operating and/or capital costs. Larger plant size, longer operating time, and additional energy and additive costs are direct results of increases in waste volume. Such increases may be balanced by beneficial impacts on the vitrification process; however, those effects are outside the scope of this report.

  1. Vitrification of NAC process residue

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, R.A.; Whittington, K.F.; Peters, R.D.

    1995-09-01

    Vitrification tests have been performed with simulated waste compositions formulated to represent the residue which would be obtained from the treatment of low-level, nitrate wastes from Hanford and Oak Ridge by the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process. The tests were designed to demonstrate the feasibility of vitrifying NAC residue and to quantify the impact of the NAC process on the volume of vitrified waste. The residue from NAC treatment of low-level nitrate wastes consists primarily of oxides of aluminum and sodium. High alumina glasses were formulated to maximize the waste loading of the NAC product. Transparent glasses with up to 35 wt% alumina, and even higher contents in opaque glasses, were obtained at melting temperatures of 1200{degrees}C to 1400{degrees}C. A modified TCLP leach test showed the high alumina glasses to have good chemical durability, leaching significantly less than either the ARM-1 or the DWPF-EA high-level waste reference glasses. A significant increase in the final waste volume would be a major result of the NAC process on LLW vitrification. For Hanford wastes, NAC-treatment of nitrate wastes followed by vitrification of the residue will increase the final volume of vitrified waste by 50% to 90%; for Melton Valley waste from Oak Ridge, the increase in final glass volume will be 260% to 280%. The increase in volume is relative to direct vitrification of the waste in a 20 wt% Na{sub 2}O glass formulation. The increase in waste volume directly affects not only disposal costs, but also operating and/or capital costs. Larger plant size, longer operating time, and additional energy and additive costs are direct results of increases in waste volume. Such increases may be balanced by beneficial impacts on the vitrification process; however, those effects are outside the scope of this report.

  2. Evaluation of Wheel Loaders in Open Pit Marble Quarrying by Using the AHP and Topsis Approaches / Ocena pracy ładowarki na podwoziu kołowym w odkrywkowej kopalni marmuru w oparciu o metody AHP i topsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kun, Mete; Topaloǧlu, Şeyda; Malli, Tahir

    2013-03-01

    The marble mining in Turkey has been rising since the early 80's. In relation to that, the marble income has become noticeably bigger than those of other mining sectors. In recent years, marble and natural stone export composes half of the total mine export with a value of two billion dollars. This rapid development observed in marble operation has increased the importance of mining economics, income-expenditure balance and cost analysis. The most important cost elements observed in marble quarrying are machinery and equipment, labor costs and geological structures of the field. The aim of this study is to is to propose a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) approach to evaluate the wheel loader alternatives and select the best loader under multiple criteria. A two-step methodology based on two MCDM methods, which are namely the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS), are used in the evaluation procedure. More precisely, AHP is applied to determine the relative weights of evaluation criteria and TOPSIS is applied to rank the wheel loader alternatives. The proposed approach also provides a relatively simple and very well suited decision making tool for this type of decision making problems.

  3. Effects of processing on carbendazim residue in Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Xia, Erdong; Tao, Wuqun; Yao, Xi; Wang, Jin; Tang, Feng

    2016-07-01

    Samples of Pleurotus ostreatus were exposed to fungicide carbendazim to study the effect of processing on the residues. In most cases, processing operations led to a significant decrease in residue levels in the finished products, particularly through washing, drying, and cooking processes. The results indicated that rinsing under running tap water led to more than 70.30% loss in carbendazim residues. When dried under sunlight could remove more than 70.30% residues. There was a 63.90-97.14% reduction after steaming, with processing time extending, the removal rates increased especially for lower initial residue level samples. The residue was almost completely removed by frying combined with microwave heating. Furthermore, boiling the mushrooms reduced the residue in the mushroom and no carbendazim residues were determined in the broth. PMID:27386113

  4. Total organic carbon and humus fractions in restored soils from limestone quarries in semiarid climate, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Miralles Mellado, Isabel; Ángel Domene Ruiz, Miguel; Solé Benet, Albert

    2016-04-01

    Mining activities generate erosion and loss of plant cover and soil organic matter (SOM), especially in arid and semiarid Mediterranean regions. A precondition for ecosystem restoration in such highly disturbed areas is the development of functional soils with sufficient organic matter. But the SOM quality is also important to long-term C stabilization. The resistance to biodegradation of recalcitrant organic matter fractions has been reported to depend on some intrinsic structural factors of humic acid substances and formation of amorphous organo-mineral recalcitrant complexes. In an experimental soil restoration in limestone quarries in the Sierra de Gádor (Almería), SE Spain, several combinations of organic amendments (sewage sludge and compost from domestic organic waste) and mulches (gravel and woodchip) were added in experimental plots using a factorial design. In each plot, 75 native plants (Anthyllis cytisoides, A. terniflora and Macrochloa tenacissima) were planted and five years after the start of the experiment total organic carbon (TOC), physico-chemical soil properties and organic C fractions (particulate organic matter, H3PO4-fulvic fraction, fulvic acids (FA), humic acids (HA) and humin) were analyzed. We observed significant differences between treatments related to the TOC content and the HA/FA ratio. Compost amendments increased the TOC, HA content and HA/FA ratio, even higher than in natural undisturbed soils, indicating an effective clay humus-complex pointing to progressively increasing organic matter quality. Soils with sewage sludge showed the lowest TOC and HA/FA ratio and accumulated a lower HA proportion indicating poorer organic matter quality and comparatively lower resilience than in natural soils and soils amended with compost.

  5. Spatial heterogeneity of high-resolution Chalk groundwater geochemistry - Underground quarry at Saint Martin-le-Noeud, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barhoum, S.; Valdès, D.; Guérin, R.; Marlin, C.; Vitale, Q.; Benmamar, J.; Gombert, P.

    2014-11-01

    Chalk groundwater is an important aquifer resource in France because it accounts for a production of 12 million m3 y-1 with a large proportion reserved for drinking water. Processes occurring in the unsaturated zone (UZ) and the overlying superficial formations have a high impact on Chalk groundwater geochemistry and require better understanding. The study site is a former underground Chalk quarry located near Beauvais (France) that extends over 1200 m in length, at a depth ranging from 20 to 30 m. The water table intersects the cavity creating 15 underground “lake” that give access to the Chalk groundwater. Lakes geochemistry has been studied: water samples were collected in July 2013 and major ion concentrations were analyzed. UZ and clay-with-flints thickness above each lake were estimated qualitatively using an electromagnetic sensor (EM31) and Underground GPS. The results unexpectedly showed that groundwater quality varied widely in spatial terms for both allochthonous and autochthonous ions (e.g., HCO3- ranged from 2.03 to 4.43 meq L-1, NO3- ranged from 0.21 to 1.33 meq L-1). Principal component analysis indicated the impact of agricultural land use on water quality, with the intake of NO3- as well as SO42-, Cl- and Ca2+. Chalk groundwater geochemistry is compared with the nature and structure of the UZ. We highlight correlations (1) between thick clay-with-flints layers and the ions Mg2+ and K+, and (2) between UZ thickness and Na+. In conclusion, this paper identifies various ion sources (agriculture, clay-with-flints and Chalk) and demonstrates different processes in the UZ: dissolution, ionic exchange and solute storage.

  6. Interfacial residual thermal strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasen, M.; Santoyo, R.

    A method has been developed for assessing the influence of polymer chemical composition and of processing parameters on the magnitude of residual stress developed in glass-fibre-reinforced composites subjected to various cure cycles and subsequently cooled to cryogenic temperatures. The test method was applied to nine resin types, including epoxy, vinyl ester, polyester, cyanate ester and phenolic formulations. Results suggest that polyester resin develops substantially less overall residual strain than do the other resin systems.

  7. Alteration, evaluation and use of extremaduran granite residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarrán-Liso, C.; Jordán-Vidal, M. M.; Sanfeliu-Montolio, T.; Liso-Rubio, M. J.

    2006-04-01

    The necessity of eliminating debris from a granite quarry has awakened an interest in applications of by-products, called “marginal arids”, in different fields, like construction and foundations for roadways, restoration, material for the manufacture of artificial rocks, and artesian products etc. Conclusions obtained from the results of tests carried out by X-ray diffraction of granite quarry by-products in Extremadura, Spain, submitted to different treatments, are established. Test pieces from two quarries are analyzed and compared generally and specifically, for commercial use. Finally, conclusions relating to essays in test pieces and mineral dynamics of marginal arid granite are exposed.

  8. Risk evaluation and exposure control of mineral dust containing free crystalline silica: a study case at a quarry in the Recife Metropolitan Area.

    PubMed

    Lira, Mario; Kohlman Rabbani, E; Barkokébas Junior, Beda; Lago, Eliane

    2012-01-01

    During the production of aggregates at quarry sites, elevated quantities of micro-particulate mineral dust are produced in all stages of the process. This dust contains appreciable amounts of free crystalline silica in a variety of forms which, if maintained suspended in the air in the work environment, expose the workers to the risk of developing occupational silicosis, which causes reduced ability to work and potential shortening of lifespan. This study was conducted to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate workers' exposure to mineral dust containing free crystalline silica at a midsized quarry in the Recife metropolitan area, in the State of Pernambuco. It involved evaluation of the industrial process, collection and analysis of representative dust samples, and interviews with the management team of the company with the intent to assess the compliance of the company with Regulatory Standard (NR) 22--Occupational safety and health in mining. In order to assist the company in managing risks related to dust exposure, three protocols were developed, implemented and made available, the first based on NR 22, from which the company was also given an economic safety indicator, the second based on the recommendations and requirements of Fundacentro to implement a Respiratory Protection Program and, finally, an assessment protocol with respect to the guidelines of the International Labor Organization to implement a health and safety management system. This study also showed the inadequacy of the formula for calculating tolerance limits in Brazilian legislation when compared with the more strict internationally accepted control parameters. From the laboratory results, unhealthy conditions at the quarry site were confirmed and technical and administrative measures were suggested to reduce and control dust exposure at acceptable levels, such as the implementation of an occupational health and safety management system, integrated with other management systems. From these

  9. Seasonal-scale abrasion and quarrying patterns from a two-dimensional ice-flow model coupled to distributed and channelized subglacial drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaud, Flavien; Flowers, Gwenn E.; Pimentel, Sam

    2014-08-01

    Field data and numerical modeling show that glaciations have the potential either to enhance relief or to dampen topography. We aim to model the effect of the subglacial hydraulic system on spatiotemporal patterns of glacial erosion by abrasion and quarrying on time scales commensurate with drainage system fluctuations (e.g., seasonal to annual). We use a numerical model that incorporates a dual-morphology subglacial drainage system coupled to a higher-order ice-flow model and process-specific erosion laws. The subglacial drainage system allows for a dynamic transition between two morphologies: the distributed system, characterized by an increase in basal water pressure with discharge, and the channelized system, which exhibits a decrease in equilibrium water pressure with increasing discharge. We apply the model to a simple synthetic glacier geometry, drive it with prescribed meltwater input variations, and compute sliding and erosion rates over a seasonal cycle. When both distributed and channelized systems are included, abrasion and sliding maxima migrate ~ 20% up-glacier compared to simulations with distributed drainage only. Power-law sliding generally yields to a broader response of abrasion to water pressure changes along the flowline compared to Coulomb-friction sliding. Multi-day variations in meltwater input elicit a stronger abrasion response than either diurnal- or seasonal variations alone for the same total input volume. An increase in water input volume leads to increased abrasion. We find that ice thickness commensurate with ice sheet outlet glaciers can hinder the up-glacier migration of abrasion. Quarrying patterns computed with a recently published law differ markedly from calculated abrasion patterns, with effective pressure being a stronger determinant than sliding speeds of quarrying rates. These variations in calculated patterns of instantaneous erosion as a function of hydrology-, sliding-, and erosion-model formulation, as well as model

  10. Establishment of vegetation in constructed wetlands using biosolids and quarry fines

    SciTech Connect

    Danehy, T.P.; Zick, R.; Brenner, F.; Chmielewski, J.; Dunn, M.H.; Cooper, D.C.

    1999-07-01

    A common problem with constructing wetlands on abandoned mine sties is the lack of adequate soil needed to establish vegetation. One component of a full-scale passive treatment system built at Jennings Environmental Education Center in Brady Township, Butler County, PA addressed this issue through the development of a field trial to find an inexpensive alternative substrate for wetland plants. A simple soil recipe was followed which called for the mixing of an inorganic material with a nutrient-rich organic material. The inorganic constituent used was silt-size pond cleanings from a sand and gravel operation. The organic material used was a composted product made from exceptional-quality biosolids. Both soil components were obtained from local sources (less than 16 kilometers (12 miles) from the site) and mixed on site with a Caterpillar 963 track loader. The soil was used to construct a channel wetland 3 meters (10 feet) wide by 61 meters (200 feet) long. A seed mixture which contained 24 different wetland plant species native to western Pennsylvania was added to the substrate prior to releasing the water from the vertical flow system into the wetland. After one year, the vegetation was studied to determine the percent cover and species composition in order to document the effectiveness of this method of wetland construction. The preliminary results of this study indicate that this is an effective means to establish and sustain wetland vegetation. The addition of a fabricated substrate consisting of composted biosolids and silt can be a very effective method to establish dense and diverse vegetation in a constructed wetland.

  11. Benefits and operational concerns of rural health clinics.

    PubMed

    Fogel, L A; MacQuarrie, C

    1994-11-01

    In 1977, Congress enacted the Rural Health Clinic Act in an effort to make healthcare more accessible in underserved rural areas. Changes in the regulations affecting these clinics, such as offering incentives to start and staff the facilities, have been enacted in a series of Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Acts beginning in 1987. As a result, the last few years have seen the number of clinics double. In this article, authors Lawrence A. Fogel and Cindy MacQuarrie examine the advantages offered by rural health clinics and review the operational issues involved in setting up and running them. PMID:10146094

  12. Use of Borehole-Radar Methods to Monitor a Steam-Enhanced Remediation Pilot Study at a Quarry at the Former Loring Air Force Base, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregoire, Colette; Joesten, Peter K.; Lane, Jr., John W.

    2007-01-01

    Single-hole radar reflection and crosshole radar tomography surveys were used in conjunction with conventional borehole-geophysical methods to evaluate the effectiveness of borehole-radar methods for monitoring the movement of steam and heat through fractured bedrock. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), conducted surveys in an abandoned limestone quarry at the former Loring Air Force Base during a field-scale, steam-enhanced remediation (SER) pilot project conducted by the USEPA, the U.S. Air Force, and the Maine Department of Environmental Protection to study the viability of SER to remediate non-aqueous phase liquid contamination in fractured bedrock. Numerical modeling and field experiments indicate that borehole-radar methods have the potential to monitor the presence of steam and to measure large temperature changes in the limestone matrix during SER operations. Based on modeling results, the replacement of water by steam in fractures should produce a decrease in radar reflectivity (amplitude of the reflected wave) by a factor of 10 and a change in reflection polarity. In addition, heating the limestone matrix should increase the bulk electrical conductivity and decrease the bulk dielectric permittivity. These changes result in an increase in radar attenuation and an increase in radar-wave propagation velocity, respectively. Single-hole radar reflection and crosshole radar tomography data were collected in two boreholes using 100-megahertz antennas before the start of steam injection, about 10 days after the steam injection began, and 2 months later, near the end of the injection. Fluid temperature logs show that the temperature of the fluid in the boreholes increased by 10?C (degrees Celsius) in one borehole and 40?C in the other; maximum temperatures were measured near the bottom of the boreholes. The results of the numerical modeling were used to interpret the borehole-radar data. Analyses of the

  13. Re-refiner fluidizes tank residue using portable mixer

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-05

    Mohawk Lubricants Ltd. returned a 12,000 gal storage tank to service by fluidizing and removing 8,000 gal of 4-year-old residue. A portable mixer, manufactured by Pulsair Systems Inc., Bellevue, Wash., was used to cut lighter oil into the partially gelled residue, thus enabling Mohawk to pump it from the tank. While consulting with Pulsair regarding blending operations at its North Vancouver, B.C., used motor oil plant, Mohawk described the gelled residue. The company wished to place the residue storage tank back into service and either sell the removed residue or run it through the re-refining process. The material involved is the distillation-tower bottoms from used oil processing what Mohawk calls tar residue.'' Mohawk had attempted to fluidize the residue at one time by applying steam, but the procedure did not produce a mixture that could be pumped out of the tank. The paper describes the fluidization procedures and their results.

  14. Urban tree residues: Results of the first national inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Whittier, J.; Rue, D.; Haase, S.

    1994-12-31

    The volume and characteristics of urban tree residues associated with tree pruning and other urban forestry activities have never been well documented, yet disposal of this residue is subject to increasing regulatory actions. The regulatory actions have a considerable impact on the activities of commercial, utility, and municipal tree care operations. This paper reports the results of the first national inventory of the volume and characteristics of urban tree residues. Residues are classified as follows: chips, logs, mixed wood, tops and brush, leaves, lawn clippings, and stumps. Generators of residues include the following: commercial tree care firms, municipal park and recreation departments, municipal tree care divisions, county tree care divisions, electric/telephone utility power line maintenance departments, nurseries, orchards, and landscapers. The national inventory assesses volume, characteristics, and disposal of the residues on both a regional basis as well as by size of metropolitan area. Finally, irregular residue inputs associated with natural disasters are discussed.

  15. Changes in the chemical composition of an acidic soil treated with marble quarry and marble cutting wastes.

    PubMed

    Tozsin, Gulsen; Oztas, Taskin; Arol, Ali Ihsan; Kalkan, Ekrem

    2015-11-01

    Soil acidity greatly affects the availability of plant nutrients. The level of soil acidity can be adjusted by treating the soil with certain additives. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of marble quarry waste (MQW) and marble cutting waste (MCW) on the chemical composition and the acidity of a soil. Marble wastes at different rates were applied to an acid soil. Their effectiveness in neutralizing the soil pH was compared with that of agricultural lime. The changes in the chemical composition of the soil were also evaluated with column test at the end of a 75-day incubation period. The results indicated that the MQW and MCW applications significantly increased the soil pH (from 4.71 up to 6.54), the CaCO3 content (from 0.33% up to 0.75%), and the exchangeable Ca (from 14.79 cmol kg(-1) up to 21.18 cmol kg(-1)) and Na (from 0.57 cmol kg(-1) up to 1.07 cmol kg(-1)) contents, but decreased the exchangeable K (from 0.46 cmol kg(-1) down to 0.28 cmol kg(-1)), the plant-available P (from 25.56 mg L(-1) down to 16.62 mg L(-1)), and the extractable Fe (from 259.43 mg L(-1) down to 55.4 mg L(-1)), Cu (from 1.97 mg L(-1) down to 1.42 mg L(-1)), Mn (from 17.89 mg L(-1) down to 4.61 mg L(-1)) and Zn (from 7.88 mg L(-1) down to 1.56 mg L(-1)) contents. In addition, the Cd (from 0.060 mg L(-1) down to 0.046 mg L(-1)), Ni (from 0.337 mg L(-1) down to 0.092 mg L(-1)) and Pb (from 28.00 mg L(-1) down to 20.08 mg L(-1)) concentrations decreased upon the treatment of the soil with marble wastes. PMID:26246275

  16. Variable mineral composition of metamorphic rocks from a single quarry compared to their ASR potential (Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stastna, Aneta; Sachlova, Sarka; Pertold, Zdenek; Nekvasilova, Zuzana; Prikryl, Richard

    2013-04-01

    The alkali-silica reaction (ASR) is one of the most damaging factors for concrete structures. ASR originates due to the presence of reactive silica (SiO2) that reacts with alkaline ions under wet conditions. The reaction mechanism consists of four different steps: initial attack of OH- compounds on SiO2 at aggregate-cement paste boundary; formation of silanol groups at SiO2 surface; formation of siloxane groups and their polymerization; adsorption of alkaline and Ca2+ ions and formation of alkali-silica gels. Alkali-silica gels tend to absorb water molecules and swell causing increasing internal pressures in concrete and microcracking. The most reactive aggregates are mainly composed of amorphous and/or fine-grained SiO2-rich phases. In the Czech Republic, ASR was observed in deteriorating concrete structures containing very fine-grained quartz (quartz in tuffaceous sandstones and greywackes), as well as quartz indicating variable degree of deformation (quartz in quartzite, granodiorite and various metamorphic rock types). In this study, mineralogical-petrographic methods (polarizing, electron and cathodoluminescence microscopy) were combined with the accelerated mortar bar test (following the standard ASTM C1260), with the aim to quantify the ASR potential, as well as to distinguish reactive mineral phases. Different aggregate varieties from the Těchobuz quarry (Moldanubian Zone, Czech Republic) have been compared. Mineralogical-petrographic characteristics permit a distinction between 1) medium-grained plagioclase quartzite and 2) fine-grained biotite-plagioclase-quartz paragneiss and 3) fine-grained calc-silicate rock. Mineralogical composition of the first type is quartz + Ca-plagioclase + K-feldspar + biotite + chlorite + diopside + pyrite + apatite + titanite ± calcite. The second type has mineral assemblage including quartz + Ca-plagioclase + K-feldspar + biotite + chlorite + pyrite + tourmaline + apatite + titanite ± calcite. The third type contains

  17. Devonian Terrestrial Revolution: the palaeoenvironment of the oldest known tetrapod tracks, Zachełmie Quarry, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedźwiedzki, G.

    2012-04-01

    Numerous trackways and isolated prints with digit impressions, which are similar to the foot anatomy of early tetrapods such as Ichthyostega, were found on the three dolomite bed-surfaces in the lower part of the Wojciechowice Formation exposed in the Zachełmie Quarry in the Holy Cross Mountains (south-central Poland), (Niedźwiedzki et al., 2010). The age of the tetrapod track-bearing strata is well-constrained, but the detailed sedimentology of the lower section with tetrapod ichnites is still under study. The Wojciechowice Formation represent one of the first carbonate stages of a transgressive succession that begins with Early Devonian continental to marginal marine clastics and culminates in the development of a Givetian coral-stromatoporoid carbonate platform. The tetrapod track-bearing complex is composed of grey to reddish, thin- to medium-bedded dolomitic shales and marly dolomite mudstones. These deposits from the tetrapod track-bearing horizon lack definitive marine body fossils, and may have formed in a marginal marine environment, e.g. around a coastal lagoon. Mudcracks, columnar peds, root traces, and microbially induced sedimentary structures were found in three distinct pedotypes of very weakly to weakly developed paleosols (Retallack, 2011). Conodonts of the costatus zone (mid-Eifelian) were found 20 m above the uppermost surface with tetrapod tracks in limestones of the upper Wojciechowice Formation, which contain also brachiopod and crinoidal debris. The overlying Kowala Formation is a marine coral limestone and dolostone. The parts of profile with tetrapod ichnites and invertebrate and conodont fossils contain also records of invertebrate traces. Seven ichnotaxa are distributed among four recognized ichnoassemblages. The recognized ichnocoenoses are typical for the shallow-marine (Cruziana ichnofacies) and land-water transitional (Skolithos/Psilonichnus ichnofacies) carbonate depositional environments. The ichnocoenoses are dominated by trace

  18. Close proximity gunshot residues.

    PubMed

    Thornton, J I

    1986-04-01

    Intuitively, a hand held in close proximity to a firearm at the instant of discharge will intercept a significant amount of gunshot residue, even though the hand did not actually come into contact with the weapon. There is, however, little information specifically described in the forensic science literature concerning the residue levels which might be encountered in such an instance. The present work confirms that antimony levels consistent with an individual having fired or handled a firearm may be intercepted by a hand held in close proximity. PMID:3711843

  19. Sustainable System for Residual Hazards Management

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke; Jerry L. Harbour

    2004-06-01

    Hazardous, radioactive and other toxic substances have routinely been generated and subsequently disposed of in the shallow subsurface throughout the world. Many of today’s waste management techniques do not eliminate the problem, but rather only concentrate or contain the hazardous contaminants. Residual hazards result from the presence of hazardous and/or contaminated material that remains on-site following active operations or the completion of remedial actions. Residual hazards pose continued risk to humans and the environment and represent a significant and chronic problem that require continuous longterm management (i.e. >1000 years). To protect human health and safeguard the natural environment, a sustainable system is required for the proper management of residual hazards. A sustainable system for the management of residual hazards will require the integration of engineered, institutional and land-use controls to isolate residual contaminants and thus minimize the associated hazards. Engineered controls are physical modifications to the natural setting and ecosystem, including the site, facility, and/or the residual materials themselves, in order to reduce or eliminate the potential for exposure to contaminants of concern (COCs). Institutional controls are processes, instruments, and mechanisms designed to influence human behavior and activity. System failure can involve hazardous material escaping from the confinement because of system degradation (i.e., chronic or acute degradation) or by externalintrusion of the biosphere into the contaminated material because of the loss of institutional control. An ongoing analysis of contemporary and historic sites suggests that the significance of the loss of institutional controls is a critical pathway because decisions made during the operations/remedial action phase, as well as decisions made throughout the residual hazards management period, are key to the longterm success of the prescribed system. In fact

  20. Geochemical and lithostratigraphic constraints on the formation of pillow-dominated tindars from Undirhlíðar quarry, Reykjanes Peninsula, southwest Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Meagen; Edwards, Benjamin; Hauksdóttir, Steinunn; Alcorn, Rebecca; Bowman, Lindsey

    2014-07-01

    Undirhlíðar quarry on the Reykjanes Peninsula in southwest Iceland exposes an almost complete cross-section of a pillow-dominated tindar. Detailed mapping and geochemical analyses of the quarry walls show that glaciovolcanic lithologies are controlled not only by ice conditions, but also by complex changes in magmatic conditions. Undirhlíðar's glaciovolcanic deposits are dominated by pillow lavas (Lp1-3) but also include dikes (Ld1-3) and shallow intrusions, and interbedded tuff (T), lapilli tuff (LT) and tuff-breccia (TB). Lithostratigraphic variations record shifts in eruptive vents and styles, including evidence for explosive subaqueous activity. Petrographically, the units can be subdivided into plagioclase-phyric and olivine-phyric, while compositionally the units define two trace element populations: (1) incompatible element-enriched (LaN/SmN ~ 1.6; Nb/Zr ~ 0.15) rocks comprising the lower (older) pillow units (Lp1-2), and (2) less-enriched (LaN/SmN ~ 1.3; Nb/Zr ~ 0.125) units including dikes (Ld1-3), west wall pillows (LpW), and the upper (younger) pillow units (Lp3). The combined lithostratigraphic, petrographic, and geochemical relationships suggest a four-stage model for the formation of Undirhlíðar: (1) an initial effusive phase (Lp1-2) that built the bulk of the ridge, which erupted olivine-free, incompatible element-enriched lava, (2) an explosive phase, which generated lenses of TB and LT, now exposed on the eastern side of the ridge, (3) a second effusive phase (Ld1-2, LpW) exposed in the west side of the quarry, which intruded the initial effusive deposits and erupted pillow lavas that drape over the western edge of the existing ridge; this effusive phase is distinguished from the first as a less-enriched magma bearing large olivine phenocrysts, and (4) a final effusion on the east side of the quarry, which intruded (Ld3) units LT and TB, and erupted a capping layer of pillow lavas (Lp3). The products of this effusive event are genetically

  1. How spatial variations of chalk groundwater geochemistry are related to superficial formations and infiltration processes of unsaturated zone (quarry of Saint Martin le Noeud, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barhoum, Sarah; Valdès-Lao, Danièle; Guérin, Roger; Gombert, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Chalk is complex because of its dual porosity and because of superficial layers more or less thick and more or less permeable. Furthermore there is few knowledge in understanding of groundwater infiltration and dissolution processes in the chalk unsaturated zone (UZ). The role of superficial formations has to be studied especially. The experimental site is an ancient underground quarry of chalk which extends over 1200 m long and 150 m wide (30 m depth) in Saint Martin le Noeud, south of Beauvais, France. This quarry is particularly interesting to study infiltration and dissolution processes indeed this site allows to access to the interface between the unsaturated zone and the saturated zone. Water percolates from the top of the quarry more or less depending on the season. Water table outcrops in the cave and makes about 20 underground lakes. Above the quarry chalk is covered clay-with-flints (CWF) and loess, in surface there are cultivated crops fields. On the first year of the study, physicochemical parameters: temperature, depth, pH, conductivity were recorded in seven lakes with high frequency (every hour). During the same period we sampled the 20 lakes water every month to measure major ions. During this sampling period, percolation was not sufficient to collect percolated water. Results of underground GPS, electric resistivity tomography and observations of three borehole showed that thickness unsaturated zone and that the thicknesses of the superficial formations vary a lot spatially. Three interesting points (separated by less than 1 km) are presented: the above the Pedro lake (25 m of UZ, a few cm of CWF), above the Stalactites lake (30 m of UZ, more than 2.40 m of CWF); above the Blue lake (35 m depth, 60 cm of CWF). First results of chemistry showed that the temporal variation is very low during the first year but there spatial variation is very important at quarry scale. The geochemistry of the lakes are very different: HCO3- varies from 100 to 250mg

  2. CROP-RESIDUE MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our agricultural production system is under increasing pressure to provide low cost, high quality food, fiber and biofuels while maintaining and preserving the environment. Increased interest in crop residues for production system sustainability is related to the recognition that the soil, water and...

  3. Catalytic combustion with incompletely vaporized residual fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosfjord, T. J.

    1981-01-01

    Catalytic combustion of fuel lean mixtures of incompletely vaporized residual fuel and air was investigated. The 7.6 cm diameter, graded cell reactor was constructed from zirconia spinel substrate and catalyzed with a noble metal catalyst. Streams of luminous particles exited the rector as a result of fuel deposition and carbonization on the substrate. Similar results were obtained with blends of No. 6 and No. 2 oil. Blends of shale residual oil and No. 2 oil resulted in stable operation. In shale oil blends the combustor performance degraded with a reduced degree of fuel vaporization. In tests performed with No. 2 oil a similar effect was observed.

  4. Mining the Metadata Quarries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Stuart A., Ed.; Guenther, Rebecca; McCallum, Sally; Greenberg, Jane; Tennis, Joseph T.; Jun, Wang

    2003-01-01

    This special section of the "Bulletin" includes an introduction and the following articles: "New Metadata Standards for Digital Resources: MODS (Metadata Object and Description Schema) and METS (Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard)"; "Metadata Generation: Processes, People and Tools"; "Data Collection for Controlled Vocabulary…

  5. Initial deactivation of residue hydrometallation catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Gualda, G.; Kasztelan, S.

    1995-12-31

    A strong deactivation of residue hydrodemetallization catalysts is usually observed in the first days of a run. We report in this work a comparative study of the deactivation of a NiMo/alumina catalyst with a special pore structure so-called {open_quotes}chestnut burr{close_quotes} by coke and metal+coke deposits. The former set of samples were prepared in batch reactor by varying operating conditions and the latter set of samples were prepared in continuous flow reactor in both cases using a Safaniya atmospheric residue. Various methods were employed to characterize the deposits (TEM, XPS, EPMA, Surface area measurements, porosimetry, etc...) including catalytic tests of the used catalyst with various model reactants, it has been found that metal deposits are responsible for the initial deactivation of the residue hydrodametallation catalyst used in this work.

  6. Structural and palaeomagnetic Analysis of the Koolau Dyke Swarm Exposed in the Kapa'a Quarry, Oahu: Implications for the Structural Evolution of Kilauea - Type Volcanic Rift Zones.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, S. J.; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Knight, M. D.

    2003-12-01

    The Koolau dyke swarms, exposed within the Kailua embayment on the northeastern side of Oahu, have been interpreted as feeders to rift zones in the Koolau volcano, analagous to the rift zones of Kilauea volcano (Walker, 1987), that developed prior to the giant Nuuanu lateral collapse at about 2.0 Ma. Systematic determination of cross-cutting relationships between Koolau dykes has proved difficult because of dense vegetation and rapid weathering in the humid tropical climate of windward Oahu. For this study we have concentrated on exposures of the dykes in the large (450 m wide and 200m deep) Kapa'a quarry, about 3 km NE of the near vertical Nuuanu Pali escarpment. Kapa'a quarry was chosen for this study because it has large, freshly exposed sections nearly perpendicular to the dyke swarm trend in hydrothermally altered but largely unweathered rocks. The hydrothermal alteration indicates that the dykes exposed in the quarry were emplaced well below a high water table resulting from trapping of water between dykes: this high water table may have played a part in the eventual collapse. The excellent exposure at Kapa'a allows systematic, accurate determination of structural data and cross-cutting relationships for every dyke in the measured sections. These data were collected for 171 dykes, of which 10 dykes have so far been sampled for palaeomagnetic analysis (i.e remanence and petrofabrics). Most dykes at Kapa'a dip steeply, from around 70 degrees SW (away from the unstable flank of the volcano) through vertical to 50 degrees NE (towards the unstable flank). NE dipping dykes are more abundant overall. Groups of SW - dipping dykes alternate with groups of subvertical to NE - dipping dykes, suggesting a quasi-periodic alternation of the stress regime within the Koolau volcano. Dyke dilations were typically subhorizontal. A final group of dykes, cross-cutting all the others, dip from 50 degrees NE to as little as 35 degrees NE, and dilated in a steeply SW - plunging

  7. SRC Residual fuel oils

    DOEpatents

    Tewari, Krishna C.; Foster, Edward P.

    1985-01-01

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  8. Residual Neuromuscular Blockade.

    PubMed

    Plummer-Roberts, Anna L; Trost, Christina; Collins, Shawn; Hewer, Ian

    2016-02-01

    This article provides an update on residual neuromuscular blockade for nurse anesthetists. The neuromuscular junction, pharmacology for producing and reversing neuromuscular blockade, monitoring sites and methods, and patient implications relating to incomplete reversal of neuromuscular blockade are reviewed. Overall recommendations include using multiple settings when employing a peripheral nerve stimulator for monitoring return of neuromuscular function and administering pharmacologic reversal when the train-of-four ratio is below 0.9. PMID:26939390

  9. Energy from rice residues

    SciTech Connect

    Mahin, D.B.

    1990-03-01

    Developing countries produce millions of tons of rice husks and straw as a byproduct of harvesting rice. Although some of these rice residues are used for fuel or other purposes, most are burned for disposal or just dumped. However, since the mid- 1980's, industrial plants for rice residue utilization have been installed in several countries and are planned in a number of others. The report provides information on systems to produce energy from rice residues that are commercially available in the United States, Europe, and various developing countries, with an emphasis on those currently used or sold on an international level. Specifically reviewed are the use of rice husks to produce: (1) industrial process heat either directly from furnaces or by generating low pressure steam in boilers; (2) mechanical and electrical power for rice milling via steam engine systems, steam turbine/generator systems, and gasifier/engine systems; and (3) electric power for the grid. The outlook for producing energy from rice straw is also assessed. In addition, the prospects for the use of energy from husks or straw in the processing of rice bran are reviewed.

  10. Demonstration of catalytic combustion with residual fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodds, W. J.; Ekstedt, E. E.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to demonstrate catalytic combustion of a residual fuel oil. Three catalytic reactors, including a baseline configuration and two backup configurations based on baseline test results, were operated on No. 6 fuel oil. All reactors were multielement configurations consisting of ceramic honeycomb catalyzed with palladium on stabilized alumina. Stable operation on residual oil was demonstrated with the baseline configuration at a reactor inlet temperature of about 825 K (1025 F). At low inlet temperature, operation was precluded by apparent plugging of the catalytic reactor with residual oil. Reduced plugging tendency was demonstrated in the backup reactors by increasing the size of the catalyst channels at the reactor inlet, but plugging still occurred at inlet temperature below 725 K (845 F). Operation at the original design inlet temperature of 589 K (600 F) could not be demonstrated. Combustion efficiency above 99.5% was obtained with less than 5% reactor pressure drop. Thermally formed NO sub x levels were very low (less than 0.5 g NO2/kg fuel) but nearly 100% conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NO sub x was observed.

  11. Nonparametric inference on median residual life function.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jong-Hyeon; Jung, Sin-Ho; Costantino, Joseph P

    2008-03-01

    A simple approach to the estimation of the median residual lifetime is proposed for a single group by inverting a function of the Kaplan-Meier estimators. A test statistic is proposed to compare two median residual lifetimes at any fixed time point. The test statistic does not involve estimation of the underlying probability density function of failure times under censoring. Extensive simulation studies are performed to validate the proposed test statistic in terms of type I error probabilities and powers at various time points. One of the oldest data sets from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP), which has more than a quarter century of follow-up, is used to illustrate the method. The analysis results indicate that, without systematic post-operative therapy, a significant difference in median residual lifetimes between node-negative and node-positive breast cancer patients persists for about 10 years after surgery. The new estimates of the median residual lifetime could serve as a baseline for physicians to explain any incremental effects of post-operative treatments in terms of delaying breast cancer recurrence or prolonging remaining lifetimes of breast cancer patients. PMID:17501936

  12. Annual report of 1991 groundwater monitoring data for the Kerr Hollow Quarry and Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin at the Y-12 Plant: Ground water surface elevations

    SciTech Connect

    Shevenell, L.; Switek, J.

    1992-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a summary and interpretation of hydraulic head measurements obtained from wells surrounding the Kerr Hollow Quarry and Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin sites at the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Periodic water level observations are presented using hydrographs and water table contour maps based on data obtained from quarterly sampling during calendar year 1991. Generalized, preliminary interpretation of results are presented. The two sites covered by this report have interim status under the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). A subset of the wells at each rate are used for groundwater monitoring purposes under the requirements of RCRA. A discussion of the up-gradient and down-gradient directions for each of the sites is included.

  13. RESIDUAL LIMB VOLUME CHANGE: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF MEASUREMENT AND MANAGEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, JE; Fatone, S

    2014-01-01

    Management of residual limb volume affects decisions regarding timing of fit of the first prosthesis, when a new prosthetic socket is needed, design of a prosthetic socket, and prescription of accommodation strategies for daily volume fluctuations. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess what is known about measurement and management of residual limb volume change in persons with lower-limb amputation. Publications that met inclusion criteria were grouped into three categories: (I) descriptions of residual limb volume measurement techniques; (II) studies on people with lower-limb amputation investigating the effect of residual limb volume change on clinical care; and (III) studies of residual limb volume management techniques or descriptions of techniques for accommodating or controlling residual limb volume. The review showed that many techniques for the measurement of residual limb volume have been described but clinical use is limited largely because current techniques lack adequate resolution and in-socket measurement capability. Overall, there is limited evidence regarding the management of residual limb volume, and the evidence available focuses primarily on adults with trans-tibial amputation in the early post-operative phase. While we can draw some insights from the available research about residual limb volume measurement and management, further research is required. PMID:22068373

  14. Residual gas analyzer calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilienkamp, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    A technique which employs known gas mixtures to calibrate the residual gas analyzer (RGA) is described. The mass spectra from the RGA are recorded for each gas mixture. This mass spectra data and the mixture composition data each form a matrix. From the two matrices the calibration matrix may be computed. The matrix mathematics requires the number of calibration gas mixtures be equal to or greater than the number of gases included in the calibration. This technique was evaluated using a mathematical model of an RGA to generate the mass spectra. This model included shot noise errors in the mass spectra. Errors in the gas concentrations were also included in the valuation. The effects of these errors was studied by varying their magnitudes and comparing the resulting calibrations. Several methods of evaluating an actual calibration are presented. The effects of the number of gases in then, the composition of the calibration mixture, and the number of mixtures used are discussed.

  15. Chemical Stabilization of Hanford Tank Residual Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Um, Wooyong; Williams, Benjamin D.; Bowden, Mark E.; Gartman, Brandy N.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Buck, Edgar C.; Mausolf, Edward J.

    2014-03-01

    Three different chemical treatment methods were tested for their ability to stabilize residual waste from Hanford tank C-202 for reducing contaminant release (Tc, Cr, and U in particular). The three treatment methods tested were lime addition [Ca(OH)2], an in-situ Ceramicrete waste form based on chemically bonded phosphate ceramics, and a ferrous iron/goethite treatment. These approaches rely on formation of insoluble forms of the contaminants of concern (lime addition and ceramicrete) and chemical reduction followed by co-precipitation (ferrous iron/goethite incorporation treatment). The results have demonstrated that release of the three most significant mobile contaminants of concern from tank residual wastes can be dramatically reduced after treatment compared to contact with simulated grout porewater without treatment. For uranium, all three treatments methods reduced the leachable uranium concentrations by well over three orders of magnitude. In the case of uranium and technetium, released concentrations were well below their respective MCLs for the wastes tested. For tank C-202 residual waste, chromium release concentrations were above the MCL but were considerably reduced relative to untreated tank waste. This innovative approach has the potential to revolutionize Hanford’s tank retrieval process, by allowing larger volumes of residual waste to be left in tanks while providing an acceptably low level of risk with respect to contaminant release that is protective of the environment and human health. Such an approach could enable DOE to realize significant cost savings through streamlined retrieval and closure operations.

  16. The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) in the Dababiya Quarry Section, Egypt: New evidence for environmental changes from mineralogical and geochemical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, P.; Scheibner, C.; Speijer, R. P.

    2009-04-01

    In the Dababiya Quarry section, the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) consists of a succession of five characteristic beds that can be traced throughout eastern Egypt. The base of these beds defines the Global boundary Stratotype Section and and Point (GSSP) of the Eocene. Previous studies of mineralogical and geochemical proxies have suggested a period of euxinic conditions from the onset of the PETM up to the beginning of the recovery phase (Aubry et al., 2007). Dupuis et al. (2003) described prominent mineralogical changes (increase of illite and chlorite-smectite mixed layers) that occurred contemporaneous to the maximum negative carbon isotope values. A sea-level fall immediately preceding the onset of the PETM, followed by a sea-level rise and enhanced upwelling during the PETM is postulated in Egypt (Speijer and Wagner, 2002). However, a detailed study of the Dababiya Quarry beds, and specifically their element geochemistry, is currently lacking. Therefore, we investigated the Dababiya Quarry section by X-ray diffractometry (XRD; bulk rock and clay mineralogy) as well as by X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF; major and trace elements and rare earth elements, REE) to detail the succession of environmental events during the PETM. (i) The absence of carbonate (as low as <2 wt%) in the basal event bed 1 indicates severe carbonate dissolution. A sharp short-lived increase in siliciclastic detritus (PETM) as well as an increase of chlorite and illite as well as well-crystallized smectite suggest deposition during low sea-level and increased weathering rates. Event bed 1 is also strongly deprived in REEs and shows high Zr/Rb ratios, indicative for input of coarse siliciclastic detritus. (ii) Subsequently, during the peak phase of the PETM, i.e. during the maximum negative shift of the Carbon Isotope Excursion ("CIE"), a short-lived period of pronounced anoxic sedimentary conditions is indicated by sediment lamination, absence of benthic life, elevated TOC

  17. Materials recovery from shredder residues

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, E. J.; Jody, B. J.; Pomykala, J., Jr.

    2000-07-24

    Each year, about five (5) million ton of shredder residues are landfilled in the US. Similar quantities are landfilled in Europe and the Pacific Rim. Landfilling of these residues results in a cost to the existing recycling industry and also represents a loss of material resources that are otherwise recyclable. In this paper, the authors outline the resources recoverable from typical shredder residues and describe technology that they have developed to recover these resources.

  18. Microwave emission and crop residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; O'Neill, Peggy E.

    1991-01-01

    A series of controlled experiments were conducted to determine the significance of crop residues or stubble in estimating the emission of the underlying soil. Observations using truck-mounted L and C band passive microwave radiometers showed that for dry wheat and soybeans the dry residue caused negligible attenuation of the background emission. Green residues, with water contents typical of standing crops, did have a significant effect on the background emission. Results for these green residues also indicated that extremes in plant structure, as created using parallel and perpendicular stalk orientations, can cause very large differences in the degree of attenuation.

  19. Investigation of Fossil Insect Systematics of Specimens Collected at the Clare Quarry Site in the Florissant Fossil Beds, Florissant, Colorado from 1996 to Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cancellare, J. A.; Villalobos, J. I.; Lemone, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Clare Quarry is located in the town of Florissant, Teller County, Colorado, approximately 30 miles west of Colorado Springs on State Highway 27. The elevation at the quarry face is 2500 meters ASL. Ar40/Ar39 dating of the upper beds of the Florissant Formation indicates an age of 34.07 +/- 0.10 Ma.An Oreodont fossil jaw and other mammalian fossils place the formation in the Chadronian Age.The basin in which the formation lies is undergirded by Wall Mountain Tuff dated at 37Ma, which sits on Pike's Peak Granite, which is dated at1080 Ma. In the Late Eocene the Florissant region was lacustrine in nature due to the damning of the river valley which runs north into Florissant. The ash and lahars from volcanic eruptions from the Thirty-nine Mile Volcano Field formed impoundments that produced shallow lakes for what is thought to been a period for 5000 years. Repeated ash falls placed plant matter and insect material in the lakes and streams that were formed intermittently during the period. The ash layers in the Florissant Formation are very fine grained, and contain diatomaceous mats that formed on the lake deposited ash layers aiding in the preservation of plant and insects material. Previous work on Florissant Fossils has been done by Lesquereaux (plants) 1878, Scudder (insects) 1890, and Mc Ginitie (plants) 1953. This project began 17 years ago and has consisted of collection trips ranging from one to eight days in the summers at a proprietary quarry owned land adjacent to The Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument. The collection consists of 2700 catalogued plants, insects, and fish fossils. Of this number, 513 are insect fossils (19% of the total collection). Quality of preservation ranges from very poor to very good with the average qualitative evaluation between poor to fair. The largest series identied to family are Tipulids (Craneflies) with 23 specimens in the series. In this series wing venation is often incomplete and smaller characters including

  20. Kink zone localization, structurally-controlled instability, and large-scale rock slope failure at the Mt. Gorsa porphyry quarry (Trentino, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agliardi, F.; Crosta, G. B.; Meloni, F.; Valle, C.; Rivolta, C.; Leva, D.

    2012-04-01

    Rock slope failure is controlled by rock mass strength and anisotropy, and by slope-scale persistent fractures with different spacing, eventually resulting in complex mechanisms as large-scale flexural toppling, block toppling, and kink band slumping. Despite these mechanisms have been studied, their interplay in large rock slope failure is often difficult to ascertain in complex geological settings. We studied the 250 m high porphyry quarry slopes of Mt. Gorsa (Trentino, Italy). Two slopes facing to N and E are carved in Permian rhyolithic ignimbrites, providing spectacular exposures of the inherited geological structure. Despite the strong intact rock, rock mass has a complex structure due to the occurrence of thermal cooling joints, persistent tectonic fractures, and joint sets. Evidence of ongoing displacement of the northern quarry face in 2003 motivated geotechnical and geophysical site investigation, and the initiation of displacement monitoring activities. GB-InSAR measurements using a LiSALab system captured large-scale slope dilation involving 400.000 m3. Further GB-InSAR measurements have been carried out since 2010. In order to understand the mechanisms governing large-scale deformation and failure of the northern slope, we carried out a comprehensive field and modelling study exploiting terrestrial photo mapping, field structural analysis and discontinuity surveys at different locations. On the northern face, 190 Geological Strength Index (GSI) surveys along benches, DEM structural analysis (COLTOP3D), and analysis of GB-InSAR data were carried out, and relationships among rock mass quality, 2003 landslide extent, and measured displacements established. Data show that slope instability is locally constrained by close and persistent cooling joints steeply dipping to the south (K1), persistent fault surfaces moderately dipping to the NNW (K2), and joint sets steeply dipping to NE and WNW (K3 and K4). NNW-dipping, top-to-N kink bands up to 2m wide also

  1. MINIMIZING WASTE AND COST IN DISPOSITION OF LEGACY RESIDUES

    SciTech Connect

    J. BALKEY; M. ROBINSON

    2001-05-01

    Research is being conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) which is directed toward development of a quantitative basis for disposition of actinide-bearing process residues (both legacy residues and residues generated from ongoing programmatic operations). This research is focused in two directions: (1) identifying minimum negative consequence (waste, dose, cost) dispositions working within regulatory safeguards termination criteria, and (2) evaluating logistics/consequences of across-the-board residue discards such as authorized at Rocky Flats under a safeguards termination variance. The first approach emphasizes Laboratory commitments to environmental stewardship, worker safety, and fiscal responsibility. This approach has been described as the Plutonium Disposition Methodology (PDM) in deference to direction provided by DOE Albuquerque. The second approach is born of the need to expedite removal of residues from storage for programmatic and reasons and residue storage safety concerns. Any disposition path selected must preserve the legal distinction between residues as Special Nuclear Material (SNM) and discardable materials as waste in order to insure the continuing viability of Laboratory plutonium processing facilities for national security operations.

  2. Thermal behavior of the mass and residue of hyperons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizi, K.; Kaya, G.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the mass and residue of Σ, Λ and Ξ hyperons at finite temperature in the framework of thermal QCD sum rules. In our calculation, we take into account the additional operators coming up at finite temperature. We find the temperature-dependent continuum threshold for each hyperon using the obtained sum rules for their mass and residue. The numerical results demonstrate that the mass and residue of the particles under consideration remain stable up to a certain temperature, after which they decrease by increasing the temperature.

  3. The ratio between corner frequencies of source spectra of P- and S-waves—a new discriminant between earthquakes and quarry blasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ataeva, G.; Gitterman, Y.; Shapira, A.

    2016-07-01

    This study analyzes and compares the P- and S-wave displacement spectra from local earthquakes and explosions of similar magnitudes. We propose a new approach to discrimination between low-magnitude shallow earthquakes and explosions by using ratios of P- to S-wave corner frequencies as a criterion. We have explored 2430 digital records of the Israeli Seismic Network (ISN) from 456 local events (226 earthquakes, 230 quarry blasts, and a few underwater explosions) of magnitudes Md = 1.4-3.4, which occurred at distances up to 250 km during 2001-2013 years. P-wave and S-wave displacement spectra were computed for all events following Brune's source model of earthquakes (1970, 1971) and applying the distance correction coefficients (Shapira and Hofstetter, Teconophysics 217:217-226, 1993; Ataeva G, Shapira A, Hofstetter A, J Seismol 19:389-401, 2015), The corner frequencies and moment magnitudes were determined using multiple stations for each event, and then the comparative analysis was performed. The analysis showed that both P-wave and especially S-wave displacement spectra of quarry blasts demonstrate the corner frequencies lower than those obtained from earthquakes of similar magnitudes. A clear separation between earthquake and explosion populations was obtained for ratios of P- to S-wave corner frequency f 0(P)/f 0(S). The ratios were computed for each event with corner frequencies f 0 of P- and S-wave, which were obtained from the measured f {0/I} at individual stations, then corrected for distance and finally averaged. We obtained empirically the average estimation of f 0(P)/f 0(S) = 1.23 for all used earthquakes, and 1.86 for all explosions. We found that the difference in the ratios can be an effective discrimination parameter which does not depend on estimated moment magnitude M w . The new multi-station Corner Frequency Discriminant (CFD) for earthquakes and explosions in Israel was developed based on ratios P- to S-wave corner frequencies f 0(P)/f 0(S

  4. On tide-induced lagrangian residual current and residual transport: 1. Lagrangian residual current

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feng, Shizuo; Cheng, Ralph T.; Pangen, Xi

    1986-01-01

    Residual currents in tidal estuaries and coastal embayments have been recognized as fundamental factors which affect the long-term transport processes. It has been pointed out by previous studies that it is more relevant to use a Lagrangian mean velocity than an Eulerian mean velocity to determine the movements of water masses. Under weakly nonlinear approximation, the parameter k, which is the ratio of the net displacement of a labeled water mass in one tidal cycle to the tidal excursion, is assumed to be small. Solutions for tides, tidal current, and residual current have been considered for two-dimensional, barotropic estuaries and coastal seas. Particular attention has been paid to the distinction between the Lagrangian and Eulerian residual currents. When k is small, the first-order Lagrangian residual is shown to be the sum of the Eulerian residual current and the Stokes drift. The Lagrangian residual drift velocity or the second-order Lagrangian residual current has been shown to be dependent on the phase of tidal current. The Lagrangian drift velocity is induced by nonlinear interactions between tides, tidal currents, and the first-order residual currents, and it takes the form of an ellipse on a hodograph plane. Several examples are given to further demonstrate the unique properties of the Lagrangian residual current.

  5. Environmental risk evaluation of the use of mine spoils and treated sewage sludge in the ecological restoration of limestone quarries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordán, M. M.; Pina, S.; García-Orenes, F.; Almendro-Candel, M. B.; García-Sánchez, E.

    2008-07-01

    The ecologic restoration criteria in areas degraded from extraction activities require making use of their mine spoils. These materials do not meet fertility conditions to guarantee restoration success and therefore, need the incorporation of organic amendments to obtain efficient substratum. Reducing the deficiencies in the organic material and restoration material nutrients with the contribution of treated sewage sludge is proposed in this work. This experiment was based on a controlled study using columns. The work was conducted with two mine spoils, both very rich in calcium carbonate. The first mineral, of poor quality, came from the formation of aggregates of crushed limestone ( Z). The other residual material examined originated in limestone extraction, formed by the levels of interspersed non-limestone materials and the remains of stripped soils ( D). Two treatments were undertaken (30,000 and 90,000 kg/ha of sewage sludge), in addition to a control treatment. The water contribution was carried out with a device that simulated either short-duration rain or a flooding irrigation system in order to cover the surface and then percolate through the soil. The collection of leached water took place 24 h after the applications. Different parameters of the leached water were determined, including pH, electrical conductivity, nitrate anions, ammonium, phosphates, sulphates and chlorides. The values obtained for each irrigation application are discussed, and the nitrate values obtained were very elevated.

  6. The Importance of Sampling Strategies on AMS Determination of Dykes II. Further Examples from the Kapaa Quarry, Koolau Volcano, Oahu, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Borunda, R.; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Canon-Tapia, E.

    2012-12-01

    Recent work has suggested the convenience of dyke sampling along several profiles parallel and perpendicular to its walls to increase the probability of determining a geologically significant magma flow direction using anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements. For this work, we have resampled in great detail some dykes from the Kapaa Quarry, Koolau Volcano in Oahu Hawaii, comparing the results of a more detailed sampling scheme with those obtained previously with a traditional sampling scheme. In addition to the AMS results we will show magnetic properties, including magnetic grain sizes, Curie points and AMS measured at two different frequencies on a new MFK1-FA Spinner Kappabridge. Our results thus far provide further empirical evidence supporting the occurrence of a definite cyclic fabric acquisition during the emplacement of at least some of the dykes. This cyclic behavior can be captured using the new sampling scheme, but might be easily overlooked if the simple, more traditional sampling scheme is used. Consequently, previous claims concerning the advantages of adopting a more complex sampling scheme are justified since this approach can serve to reduce the uncertainty in the interpretation of AMS results.

  7. Assessment of the phytotoxicity of seaport sediments in the framework of a quarry-deposit scenario: germination tests of sediments aged artificially by column leaching.

    PubMed

    Bedell, J-P; Bazin, C; Sarrazin, B; Perrodin, Y

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the Sustainable Management of Sediments Dredged in Seaports (SEDIGEST) project is to assess the risks of treated port sediments for terrestrial ecosystems when deposited in quarries. We simulated the "ageing" of these sediments up to the "moment" when plants can germinate. Sediments were leached by water percolating through a laboratory column. Sediments 1 and 2, taken from the port of Toulon (France), were dried and aired. Sediment 3, taken from the port of Guilvinec (France), was stabilised with lime. Phytotoxicity was evaluated on the three artificially aged sediments using germination and early development tests (48 h to 7 days) by Phytotoxkit F(TM) bioassays. The three dilutions tested were performed with the reference "ISO substrate" and with Lolium perenne sp. (rye grass), Sinapis alba (white mustard), and Lepidium sativum (watercress). The tests performed with sediments 1 and 2 showed (1) a decrease of their toxicity to the germination of the species selected following leaching and (2) that L. perenne was the most sensitive species. The tests performed with sediment 3 showed that it was improper for colonisation even after leaching simulating 16 months of ageing. These germination tests on aged sediments identified the effects of leaching and made it possible to appreciate the capacity of the sediments to allow colonisation by plants. PMID:23456254

  8. Source and depositional processes of coarse-grained limestone event beds in Frasnian slope deposits (Kostomłoty-Mogiłki quarry, Holy Cross Mountains, Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vierek, Aleksandra

    2010-10-01

    The Kostomłoty-Mogiłki succession is situated in the Kostomłoty transitional zone between the shallow-water Kielce stromatoporoid-coral platform and the deeper Łysogóry basin. In the Kostomłoty-Mogiłki quarry, the upper part of the Szydłówek Beds and Kostomłoty Beds are exposed. The Middle-Upper Frasnian Kostomłoty Beds are composed of shales, micritic and nodular limestones with abundant intercalations of detrital limestones. The dark shales and the micritic and nodular limestones record background sedimentation. The interbedded laminated and detrital limestones reflect high-energy deposition (= event beds). These event beds comprise laminated calcisiltites, fine-grained calcarenites, coarse-grained grain-supported calcirudites fabrics, and matrix-supported calcirudites. The material of these event beds was supplied by both erosion of the carbonate-platform margin and cannibalistic erosion of penecontemporaneous detrital limestones building the slope of this platform. Storms and the tectonic activity were likely the main causes of erosion. Combined and gravity flows were the transporting mechanisms involved in the reworking and redeposition.

  9. Pleistocene Hominins as a Resource for Carnivores: A c. 500,000-Year-Old Human Femur Bearing Tooth-Marks in North Africa (Thomas Quarry I, Morocco)

    PubMed Central

    Daujeard, Camille; Geraads, Denis; Gallotti, Rosalia; Lefèvre, David; Mohib, Abderrahim; Raynal, Jean-Paul; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    In many Middle Pleistocene sites, the co-occurrence of hominins with carnivores, who both contributed to faunal accumulations, suggests competition for resources as well as for living spaces. Despite this, there is very little evidence of direct interaction between them to-date. Recently, a human femoral diaphysis has been recognized in South-West of Casablanca (Morocco), in the locality called Thomas Quarry I. This site is famous for its Middle Pleistocene fossil hominins considered representatives of Homo rhodesiensis. The bone was discovered in Unit 4 of the Grotte à Hominidés (GH), dated to c. 500 ky and was associated with Acheulean artefacts and a rich mammalian fauna. Anatomically, it fits well within the group of known early Middle Pleistocene Homo, but its chief point of interest is that the diaphyseal ends display numerous tooth marks showing that it had been consumed shortly after death by a large carnivore, probably a hyena. This bone represents the first evidence of consumption of human remains by carnivores in the cave. Whether predated or scavenged, this chewed femur indicates that humans were a resource for carnivores, underlining their close relationships during the Middle Pleistocene in Atlantic Morocco. PMID:27120202

  10. Public health assessment for Weldon Spring quarry/plant/pits (USDOE) St. Charles, St. Charles County, Missouri, region 7. Cerclis No. MO3210090004. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (chemical plant site), is a former uranium processing facility located in eastern Missouri on the property of the former U.S. Army Weldon Spring Ordnance Works. Surface water, soil, sludge, sediment, and groundwater within the chemical plant site contain chemical and radioactive contaminants. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) reviewed on-site chemical exposure information and site conditions. ATSDR also prepared several Health Consultations on chemical and radioactive contaminants in areas on and off the DOE chemical plant site. ATSDR also reviewed on-site and off-site radiological exposure information and conditions. The exposure scenarios ATSDR evaluated include: trespassers swimming in quarry or raffinate pits; reservists performing field activities in the training area; anglers fishing, hunters haunting, and hikers hiking in the conservation areas; residents drinking from off-site private wells; staff and students attending the Francis Howell High School; and consumers of crops (e.g., corn) grown in conservation areas.

  11. Environmental and economic evaluation of energy recovery from agricultural and forestry residues

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    Four conversion methods and five residues are examined in this report, which describes six model systems: hydrolysis of corn residues, pyrolysis of corn residues, combustion of cotton-ginning residues, pyrolysis of wheat residues, fermentation of molasses, and combustion of pulp and papermill wastes. Estimates of material and energy flows for those systems are given per 10/sup 12/ Btu of recovered energy. Regional effects are incorporated by addressing the regionalized production of the residues. A national scope cannot be provided for every residue considered because of the biological and physical constraints of crop production. Thus, regionalization of the model systems to the primary production region for the crop from which the residue is obtained has been undertaken. The associated environmental consequences of residue utilization are then assessed for the production region. In addition, the environmental impacts of operating the model systems are examined by quantifying the residuals generated and the land, water, and material requirements per 10/sup 12/ Btu of energy generated. On the basis of estimates found in the literature, capital, operating, and maintenance cost estimates are given for the model systems. These data are also computed on the basis of 10/sup 12/ Btu of energy recovered. The cost, residual, material, land, and water data were then organized into a format acceptable for input into the SEAS data management program. The study indicates that the most serious environmental impacts arise from residue removal rather than from conversion.

  12. Universality in Protein Residue Networks

    PubMed Central

    Estrada, Ernesto

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Residue networks representing 595 nonhomologous proteins are studied. These networks exhibit universal topological characteristics as they belong to the topological class of modular networks formed by several highly interconnected clusters separated by topological cavities. There are some networks that tend to deviate from this universality. These networks represent small-size proteins having <200 residues. This article explains such differences in terms of the domain structure of these proteins. On the other hand, the topological cavities characterizing proteins residue networks match very well with protein binding sites. This study investigates the effect of the cutoff value used in building the residue network. For small cutoff values, <5 Å, the cavities found are very large corresponding almost to the whole protein surface. On the contrary, for large cutoff value, >10.0 Å, only very large cavities are detected and the networks look very homogeneous. These findings are useful for practical purposes as well as for identifying protein-like complex networks. Finally, this article shows that the main topological class of residue networks is not reproduced by random networks growing according to Erdös-Rényi model or the preferential attachment method of Barabási-Albert. However, the Watts-Strogatz model reproduces very well the topological class as well as other topological properties of residue network. A more biologically appealing modification of the Watts-Strogatz model to describe residue networks is proposed. PMID:20197043

  13. Residual waste volume measurement for Hanford underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Berglin, E.J.

    1996-08-21

    The Acquire Commercial Technology for Retrieval program seeks commercial solutions to measure any waste residual (i.e., heel)left after waste retrieval operations of underground radioactive storage tanks. The technology identified should operate in a range of waste depth thickness of 0 - 6 inches. This report provides a description of the need, requirements, and constraints for the residual waste volume measurement system; describes a logical approach to measuring waste volume; provides a brief review and assessment of available technologies; and outlines a set of integrated tests that will evaluate the performance of candidate technologies.

  14. Safety assessment of drug residues

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, B.A.

    1980-05-15

    The safety assessment of drug residues is part of the process for defining the conditions for the safe use of drugs in food-producing animals. The information needed to assess the safety of drug residues is provided by chemical and toxicity tests. Toxicity tests are conducted to identify the type of effect produced and to determine the exposure concentrations that would be expected not to produce the effect. These tests include acute, subacute, and chronic toxicity tests, as well as reproduction studies and other special tests. The results are used to find an acceptable daily intake for drug residues that can be used to set a tolerance.

  15. Costs for alternative grain-residue-collection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaim, S. J.; Neenan, B.; Dauve, J.; Mapp, H. P., Jr.

    1981-06-01

    The costs for systems for corn and soybean production in Iowa are examined. All machinery field operations, fuel, other inputs, and labor requirements are identified for the base case with no residue harvest, and for residue harvest by stacks and large round bales, with the owner's equipment and for custom harvest. These five cases were developed for corn and soybeans for conventional and reduced tillage practices. Harvesting alternatives are compared on the basis of costs, fuel input requirements, and gross energy balances of residues collected less energy inputs. The cost of collecting corn and soybean residues varies widely over the collection and tillage systems examined. Other effects constant, the reduced tillage practice leads to a lower cost of harvest than conventional tillage, and stacks are always cheaper than large round bales; however, the former difference is greater than the latter.

  16. Residual Resistance Data from Cavity Production Projects at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Gianluigi Ciovati, Rongli Geng, John Mammosser, Jeffrey Saunders

    2010-11-01

    A fundamental limitation towards achieving high quality factors in superconducting radio-frequency cavities is the so-called residual resistance. Understanding and controlling the residual resistance has important implications towards improving the efficiency and reduce the operating cost of continuous wave superconducting linear accelerators. In this contribution we will report on the residual resistance values obtained from measurements of the quality factor of a large set of cavities, with resonant frequency between 805 MHz and 1.5 GHz, all of them processed and tested at Jefferson Lab. Surface treatments included both buffered chemical polishing and electropolishing. The results indicate an approximate value of the residual resistance of about 7-10 n Omega.

  17. Using State Estimation Residuals to Detect Abnormal SCADA Data

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Jian; Chen, Yousu; Huang, Zhenyu; Wong, Pak C.

    2010-06-14

    Detection of manipulated supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data is critically important for the safe and secure operation of modern power systems. In this paper, a methodology of detecting manipulated SCADA data based on state estimation residuals is presented. A framework of the proposed methodology is described. Instead of using original SCADA measurements as the bad data sources, the residuals calculated based on the results of the state estimator are used as the input for the outlier detection process. The BACON algorithm is applied to detect outliers in the state estimation residuals. The IEEE 118-bus system is used as a test case to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. The accuracy of the BACON method is compared with that of the 3-σ method for the simulated SCADA measurements and residuals.

  18. Americium recovery from reduction residues

    DOEpatents

    Conner, W.V.; Proctor, S.G.

    1973-12-25

    A process for separation and recovery of americium values from container or bomb'' reduction residues comprising dissolving the residues in a suitable acid, adjusting the hydrogen ion concentration to a desired level by adding a base, precipitating the americium as americium oxalate by adding oxalic acid, digesting the solution, separating the precipitate, and thereafter calcining the americium oxalate precipitate to form americium oxide. (Official Gazette)

  19. DISSOLUTION OF NEPTUNIUM OXIDE RESIDUES

    SciTech Connect

    Kyser, E

    2009-01-12

    This report describes the development of a dissolution flowsheet for neptunium (Np) oxide (NpO{sub 2}) residues (i.e., various NpO{sub 2} sources, HB-Line glovebox sweepings, and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) thermogravimetric analysis samples). Samples of each type of materials proposed for processing were dissolved in a closed laboratory apparatus and the rate and total quantity of off-gas were measured. Samples of the off-gas were also analyzed. The quantity and type of solids remaining (when visible) were determined after post-dissolution filtration of the solution. Recommended conditions for dissolution of the NpO{sub 2} residues are: Solution Matrix and Loading: {approx}50 g Np/L (750 g Np in 15 L of dissolver solution), using 8 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), 0.025 M potassium fluoride (KF) at greater than 100 C for at least 3 hours. Off-gas: Analysis of the off-gas indicated nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) as the only identified components. No hydrogen (H{sub 2}) was detected. The molar ratio of off-gas produced per mole of Np dissolved ranged from 0.25 to 0.4 moles of gas per mole of Np dissolved. A peak off-gas rate of {approx}0.1 scfm/kg bulk oxide was observed. Residual Solids: Pure NpO{sub 2} dissolved with little or no residue with the proposed flowsheet but the NpCo and both sweepings samples left visible solid residue after dissolution. For the NpCo and Part II Sweepings samples the residue amounted to {approx}1% of the initial material, but for the Part I Sweepings sample, the residue amounted to {approx}8 % of the initial material. These residues contained primarily aluminum (Al) and silicon (Si) compounds that did not completely dissolve under the flowsheet conditions. The residues from both sweepings samples contained minor amounts of plutonium (Pu) particles. Overall, the undissolved Np and Pu particles in the residues were a very small fraction of the total solids.

  20. Mixing Construction, Demolition and Excavation Waste and Solid Waste Compost for the Derivation of a Planting Medium for Use in the Rehabilitation of Quarries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assaf, Eleni

    2015-04-01

    Lebanon's very high population density has been increasing since the end of the civil war in the early 1990s reaching 416.36 people per square kilometer. Furthermore, the influx of refugees from conflicts in the region has increased the resident population significantly. All these are exerting pressure on the country's natural resources, pushing the Lebanese to convert more forest and agricultural land into roads, buildings and houses. This has led to a building boom and rapid urbanization which in turn has created a demand for construction material - mainly rock, gravel, sand, etc. nearly all of which are locally acquired through quarrying to the tune of three million cubic meters annually. This boom has been interrupted by a war with Israel in 2006 which resulted in thousands of tonnes of debris. The increase in population has also led to an increase in solid waste generation with 1.57 million tonnes of solid waste generated in Lebanon per year. The combination of construction, demolition and excavation (CDE) waste along with the increase in solid waste generation has put a major stress on the country and on the management of its solid waste. Compounding this problem are the issues of quarries closure and rehabilitation and a decrease in forest and vegetative cover. The on-going research reported in this paper aims to provide an integrated solution to the stated problem by developing a "soil mix" derived from a mélange of the organic matter of the solid waste (compost), the CDE waste, and soil. Excavation and construction debris were ground to several sizes and mixed with compost and soil at different ratios. Replicates of these mixes and a set of control (regular soil) were used. In this mix, native and indicator plants are planted (in pots) from which the most productive mix will be selected for further testing at field level in later experiments. The plant species used are Mathiolla crassifolia, a native Lebanese plant and Zea mays (Corn), which is commonly

  1. Thermal decomposition dynamics and severity of microalgae residues in torrefaction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Huang, Ming-Yueh; Chang, Jo-Shu; Chen, Chun-Yen

    2014-10-01

    To figure out the torrefaction characteristics and weight loss dynamics of microalgae residues, the thermogravimetric analyses of two microalgae (Chlamydomonas sp. JSC4 and Chlorella sorokiniana CY1) residues are carried out. A parameter of torrefaction severity index (TSI) in the range of 0-1, in terms of weight loss ratio between a certain operation and a reference operation, is defined to indicate the degree of biomass thermal degradation due to torrefaction. The TSI profiles of the two residues are similar to each other; therefore, the parameter may be used to describe the torrefaction extents of various biomass materials. The curvature of TSI profile along light torrefaction is slight, elucidating its slight impact on biomass thermal degradation. The sharp curvature along severe torrefaction in the initial pretreatment period reveals that biomass upgraded with high temperature and short duration is more effective than using low temperature with long duration. PMID:25058302

  2. The Influence of Land Subsidence, Quarrying, Drainage, Irrigation and Forest Fire on Groundwater Resources and Biodiversity Along the Southern Po Plain Coastal Zone (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonellini, M. A.; Mollema, P. N.

    2014-12-01

    The coastal zone of the southern Po plain is characterized by low lying land, which is reclaimed to permit settlements and agriculture. The history, tourism resorts and peculiar coastal environments make this territory attractive and valuable. Natural and fluid-extraction-induced land subsidence along with coastal erosion are major problems. Touristic development has strongly modified the landscape; coastal dunes have been in part removed to make room for hotels and quarrying has caused the formation of gravel pit lakes close to the shoreline. Protected natural areas include a belt of coastal dunes, wetlands, and the internal historical forests of San Vitale and Classe. The dunes have largely lost their original vegetation ecosystem, because years ago they have been colonized with pine trees to protect the adjacent farmland from sea spray. These pine forests are currently a fire hazard. Land reclamation drainage keeps the water table artificially low. Results of these anthropogenic disturbances on the hydrology include a decrease in infiltration rates, loss of freshwater surface bodies, encroachment of saltwater inland from the river estuaries, salinization of the aquifer, wetlands and soil with a loss in plant and aquatic species biodiversity. Feedback mechanisms are complex: as land subsidence continues, drainage increases at the same pace promoting sea-water intrusion. The salinity of the groundwater does not allow for plant species richness nor for the survival of large pine trees. Farmland irrigation and fires in the pine forests, on the other hand, allow for increased infiltration and freshening of the aquifer and at the same time promote plant species diversity. Our work shows that the characteristics of the southern Po coastal zone require integrated management of economic activities, natural areas, and resources. This approach is different from the ad hoc measures taken so far, because it requires long term planning and setting a priority of objectives.

  3. Particle size distributions, size concentration relationships, and adherence to hands of selected geologic media derived from mining, smelting, and quarrying activities.

    PubMed

    Bergstrom, Carolyn; Shirai, Jeffry; Kissel, John

    2011-09-15

    Hand-to-mouth activity, especially in children, is a potentially significant pathway of exposure to soil contaminants. Hand-mouthing behavior is of particular concern in areas impacted by mining, smelting, and quarrying activities as these activities may lead to elevated levels of heavy metals in soil. In order to estimate potential exposures to contaminated geologic media attributable to hand-to-mouth contact, it is useful to characterize adherence of those media to skin, as contaminant concentrations in adhered media may differ greatly from unfractionated, whole media concentrations. Such an investigation has been undertaken to aid estimation of exposures to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc in nine different geologic media collected in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. After establishing the particle size distribution of each medium (fractions <63 μm, 63-150 μm, 150-250 μm, and 250 μm-2mm were determined) and target elemental concentrations within each particle size fraction, an active handling protocol involving six volunteers was conducted. Wet media always adhered to a greater extent than dry media and adhered media generally had higher elemental concentrations than bulk media. Regression analyses suggest smaller particle fractions may have higher elemental concentrations. Results of application of a maximum likelihood estimation technique generally indicate that handling of dry media leads to preferential adherence of smaller particle sizes, while handling of wet media does not. Because adhered material can differ greatly in particle size distribution from that found in bulk material, use of bulk concentrations in exposure calculations may lead to poor estimation of actual exposures. Since lead has historically been a metal of particular concern, EPA's Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) Model was used to examine the potential consequences of evaluating ingestion of the selected media assuming concentrations in adhering versus

  4. Residual stresses in welded plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Edward L.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a simple model which could be used to study residual stress. The mechanism that results in residual stresses in the welding process starts with the deposition of molten weld metal which heats the immediately adjacent material. After solidification of weld material, normal thermal shrinkage is resisted by the adjacent, cooler material. When the thermal strain exceeds the elastic strain corresponding to the yield point stress, the stress level is limited by this value, which decreases with increasing temperature. Cooling then causes elastic unloading which is restrained by the adjoining material. Permanent plastic strain occurs, and tension is caused in the region immediately adjacent to the weld material. Compression arises in the metal farther from the weld in order to maintain overall static equilibrium. Subsequent repair welds may add to the level of residual stresses. The level of residual stress is related to the onset of fracture during welding. Thus, it is of great importance to be able to predict the level of residual stresses remaining after a weld procedure, and to determine the factors, such as weld speed, temperature, direction, and number of passes, which may affect the magnitude of remaining residual stress. It was hoped to use traditional analytical modeling techniques so that it would be easier to comprehend the effect of these variables on the resulting stress. This approach was chosen in place of finite element methods so as to facilitate the understanding of the physical processes. The accuracy of the results was checked with some existing experimental studies giving residual stress levels found from x-ray diffraction measurements.

  5. Residual deformations in ocular tissues

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ruoya; Raykin, Julia; Gleason, Rudolph L.; Ethier, C. Ross

    2015-01-01

    Residual deformations strongly influence the local biomechanical environment in a number of connective tissues. The sclera is known to be biomechanically important in healthy and diseased eyes, such as in glaucoma. Here, we study the residual deformations of the sclera, as well as the adjacent choroid and retina. Using freshly harvested porcine eyes, we developed two approaches of quantifying residual deformations in the spherically shaped tissues of interest. The first consisted of punching discs from the posterior wall of the eye and quantifying the changes in the area and eccentricity of these samples. The second consisted of cutting a ring from the equatorial sclera and making stress-relieving cuts in it. Measurements of curvature were made before and after the stress-relieving cuts. Using the first approach, we observed a 42% areal contraction of the choroid, but only modest contractions of the sclera and retina. The observed contractions were asymmetric. In the second approach, we observed an opening of the scleral rings (approx. 10% decrease in curvature). We conclude that residual bending deformations are present in the sclera, which we speculate may be due to radially heterogeneous growth and remodelling of the tissue during normal development. Further, residual areal deformations present in the choroid may be due to the network of elastic fibres in this tissue and residual deformations in the constituent vascular bed. Future studies of ocular biomechanics should attempt to include effects of these residual deformations into mechanical models in order to gain a better understanding of the biomechanics of the ocular wall. PMID:25740853

  6. Transfer of heavy metals to biota after remediation of contaminated soils with calcareous residues.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Martínez-Sánchez, Maria Jose; Agudo, Ines; Gonzalez, Eva; Perez-Espinosa, Victor; Belen Martínez, Lucia; Hernández, Carmen; García-Fernandez, Antonio Juan; Bech, Jaime

    2013-04-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate the assimilation of heavy metals by three types of horticultural plants (broccoli, lettuce and leek), different parts of which are destined for human and farm animals consumption (leaves, roots, fruits). Five consecutive crops of each vegetable were obtained in greenhouse. In a second stage, experiments were carried out with rabbits fed with such vegetables. The plants were cultivated in four types of soil. The first one was contaminated by heavy metals (S1), the second was a uncontaminated soil (blank soil) (S2), the third was the material obtained by mixing S1 with residues coming from demolition and construction activities (S3); while the fourth was the result of remediating S1 with lime residues coming from quarries (S4). The total metal content (As, Pb, Cd and Zn) of the soil samples, rizosphere, leached water and vegetable samples, were measured, and both the translocation and bioconcentration factors (TF and BCF, respectively) were calculated. In the second stage, the effect caused in rabbits fed with the vegetables was monitorized using both external observation and the analysis of blood, urine, and the levels of metals in muscles, liver and kidney. The statistical analysis of the results obtained showed that there were no significant differences in the heavy metal levels for the vegetables cultivated in S2, S3 and S4. The results for soil sample S1 did not have a normal distribution since the growing of the vegetables were not homogeneous and also strongly dependent on the type of vegetal. As regards the effect caused in rabbits, significant differences were observed for the animals fed with plants cultivated in S1 compared with the others.

  7. Clean Chip Residual: A New Substrate Component for Growing Annuals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted at Auburn University in Auburn, Ala. and the USDA-ARS Southern Horticultural Laboratory in Poplarville, Miss. to evaluate Clean Chip Residual (CCR) as an alternative greenhouse substrate component for annual bedding plant production. CCR is a by-product of in-field forest oper...

  8. Ensemble Kalman filtering with residual nudging: some recent progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiaodong; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2014-05-01

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is an efficient algorithm for many data assimilation problems. In certain circumstances, however, divergence of the EnKF might be spotted. In previous studies (Luo and Hoteit, 2012, 2013b,a), the authors proposed an observation-space based strategy, called residual nudging, in order to improve the stability of the EnKF when dealing with linear observation operators. The main idea behind residual nudging is to monitor, and if necessary, adjust the distances (misfits) between the real observations and the simulated ones of the state estimates, in the hope that by doing so one may be able to obtain better estimation accuracy. In a more present study (Luo and Hoteit, 2014), residual nudging is extended and modified in order to handle nonlinear observation operators. Such extension and modification result in an iterative filtering framework that is able to achieve the objective of residual nudging in the presence of nonlinear observation operators, under suitable conditions. The 40 dimensional Lorenz 96 model is used to illustrate the performance of the iterative filter. Numerical results show that, while a normal EnKF may diverge in the presence of nonlinear observation operators, the proposed iterative filter performs very stably and leads to reasonable estimation accuracies under various experiment settings. REFERENCES Luo, X. and H. Hoteit, 2014: Ensemble kalman filtering with residual nudging: an extension to the state estimation problems with nonlinear observation operators. Submitted. Luo, X. and I. Hoteit, 2012: Ensemble Kalman filtering with residual nudging. Tellus A, 64, 17130, open access, doi:10.3402/tellusa.v64i0.17130. Luo, X. and I. Hoteit, 2013a: Covariance inflation in the ensemble Kalman filter: a residual nudging perspective and some implications. Mon. Wea. Rev., 141, 3360-3368, doi:10.1175/MWR-D-13-00067.1. Luo, X. and I. Hoteit, 2013b: Efficient particle filtering through residual nudging. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor

  9. Geological Control on Stability of Excavated Rock Slope at Jeruklegi Claystone Quarry, Cilacap Regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Dok, Atitkagna; Pramumijoyo, Subagyo; Faisal Fathani, Teuku

    2010-05-01

    PT. Holcim Indonesia Tbk is a well-known company for cement production in Cilacap, Central Java, Indonesia. In cement manufacturing, certain raw materials such as limestone, claystone and other supplementary materials are required. In a mean time, the company is conducting claystone mining to support the cement industry. Currently, the exploitation has covered the area of approximately 103 ha. Due to the increment need of more claystone to achieve the expecting amount of cement production, the company plans to extend existing mining site up to 250 ha with maximum depth of +10m above the sea level. However, such development may eventually lead to major slope failures which essentially affect the sustainability and the safety of the mine. Understanding that various negative impacts may appear during the mining operation, which possibly result in personal injury, potential life loss, property damage and other socio-economic consequences, it is crucial to assess slope stability conditions of the mining pit to ensure safety of the mine. The study is mainly focused on analysis of the rock mass behaviours under specific geological control and earthquake trigger through the application of finite element method. Based on the assessment result, the zone where covered by discontinuous rock mass, absorbent lithology and steep slope geometry in combination with presence of groundwater, is estimated to be potential to slope movement in form of rock falls and/or rock slides which could be possibly predicted to occur as a consequence of heavy rainfall intensity, un-controlled slope excavation and ground vibration. And, the stable slope inclination is suggested not to be steeper than 60˚, with the maximum width of 3m and maximum height of 6m.

  10. Chemistry of combined residual chlorination

    SciTech Connect

    Leao, S.F.; Selleck, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The decay of the combined chlorine residual was investigated in this work. Recent concerns about the formation of undesirable compounds such as chloroform with free residual chlorination have focused attention on the alternative use of combined residual chlorination. This work investigates the applicability of reactions proposed to describe the transformations and decay of the combined residual with time. Sodium hypochlorite was added to buffered solutions of ammonia with the chlorine residual being monitored over periods extending up to 10 days. The reaction was studied at four initial concentrations of hypochlorite of 100, 50, 25 and 10 mg/L as Cl/sub 2/ with molar application ratios of chlorine to ammonia, defined herein as M ratios, of 0.90, 0.50, 0.25 and 0.05 at each hypochlorite dose. Sixty-eight experiments were conducted at the pH of 6.6 and 7.2. The conclusions are: (1) in the absence of free chlorine, the concentration of NH/sub 3/ does not seem to affect the rate of disappearance of the residual other than through the formation of NHCl/sub 2/ by NH/sub 2/Cl hydrolysis; (2) the reaction between NHCl/sub 2/ and NH/sub 4//sup +/ to form NH/sub 2/Cl is either much slower than reported by Gray et. al. or the mechanism is different with a rate limiting step not involving NH/sub 3/ or NH/sub 4//sup +/; (3) a redox reaction in addition to the first-order decomposition of NHCl/sub 2/ appears necessary. Model simulation results indicated that a reaction of the type NH/sub 2/Cl + NHCl/sub 2/ ..-->.. P added to the first-order NHCl/sub 2/ decomposition can explain the results observed except at the higher chlorine doses.

  11. 40 CFR 1065.705 - Residual and intermediate residual fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... specifications for fuels meeting the definition of residual fuel in 40 CFR 80.2, including fuels marketed as... 991.0 1010.0 ISO 3675 or ISO 12185 (see also ISO 8217). Kinematic viscosity at 50 °C, max cSt 30.0...

  12. Collection of sugarcane crop residue for energy

    SciTech Connect

    Eiland, B.R.; Clayton, J.E.

    1982-12-01

    Crop residue left after sugarcane harvesting was recovered using a forage harvester and a large round baler. The quantity, bulk density and moisture content of the crop residue was determined in four fields. Crop residue from 7 ha was burned in boilers at a sugar mill. Samples of this residue were tested by a laboratory and compared to sugarcane bagasse.

  13. Residual Structures in Latent Growth Curve Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, Kevin J.; Widaman, Keith F.

    2010-01-01

    Several alternatives are available for specifying the residual structure in latent growth curve modeling. Two specifications involve uncorrelated residuals and represent the most commonly used residual structures. The first, building on repeated measures analysis of variance and common specifications in multilevel models, forces residual variances…

  14. Improved descriptions of herbaceous perennial growth and residue creation for RUSLE2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The methods commonly used in earlier versions of RUSLE and in other resource management modeling tools calculate residue production only in response to operations or during periods of canopy decline, but these methods result in underestimation of residue amounts and overestimation of soil erosion fr...

  15. 46 CFR 148.330 - Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings... Materials § 148.330 Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings. (a) The shipper must inform the cognizant Coast Guard Captain of the Port in advance of any cargo transfer operations involving zinc...

  16. 46 CFR 148.330 - Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings... Materials § 148.330 Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings. (a) The shipper must inform the cognizant Coast Guard Captain of the Port in advance of any cargo transfer operations involving zinc...

  17. 46 CFR 148.330 - Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings... Materials § 148.330 Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings. (a) The shipper must inform the cognizant Coast Guard Captain of the Port in advance of any cargo transfer operations involving zinc...

  18. Method of characterizing residual stress in ferromagnetic materials using a pulse histogram of acoustic emission signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkung, Min (Inventor); Yost, William T. (Inventor); Kushnick, Peter W. (Inventor); Grainger, John L. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    The invention is a method and apparatus for characterizing residual uniaxial stress in a ferromagnetic test member by distinguishing between residual stresses resulting from positive (tension) forces and negative (compression) forces by using the distinct and known magnetoacoustic (MAC) and a magnetoacoustic emission (MAE) measurement circuit means. A switch permits the selective operation of the respective circuit means.

  19. Survey of Forest Residual Availability for Nursery Production in the Southeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Residual chipping material (also called clean chip residual or CCR) has potential use as a growth substrate in the nursery and greenhouse horticultural industries. A survey was conducted in the Southeast U.S. of companies conducting in-field chipping operations on pine plantations for the production...

  20. IMPROVED TECHNIQUES FOR RESIDUAL OZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eight analytical methods for the determination of residual ozone in water are evaluated. Four are iodometric methods based on the reduction of ozone by iodide ion: the iodometric method, the amperometric method, the arsenic (III) back titration method, and the N, N-diethyl-p-phen...

  1. Leptogenesis and residual CP symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peng; Ding, Gui-Jun; King, Stephen F.

    2016-03-01

    We discuss flavour dependent leptogenesis in the framework of lepton flavour models based on discrete flavour and CP symmetries applied to the type-I seesaw model. Working in the flavour basis, we analyse the case of two general residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, which corresponds to all possible semi-direct models based on a preserved Z 2 in the neutrino sector, together with a CP symmetry, which constrains the PMNS matrix up to a single free parameter which may be fixed by the reactor angle. We systematically study and classify this case for all possible residual CP symmetries, and show that the R-matrix is tightly constrained up to a single free parameter, with only certain forms being consistent with successful leptogenesis, leading to possible connections between leptogenesis and PMNS parameters. The formalism is completely general in the sense that the two residual CP symmetries could result from any high energy discrete flavour theory which respects any CP symmetry. As a simple example, we apply the formalism to a high energy S 4 flavour symmetry with a generalized CP symmetry, broken to two residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, recovering familiar results for PMNS predictions, together with new results for flavour dependent leptogenesis.

  2. Pyrotechnic reaction residue particle analysis.

    PubMed

    Kosanke, Kenneth L; Dujay, Richard C; Kosanke, Bonnie J

    2006-03-01

    Pyrotechnic reaction residue particle (PRRP) production, sampling and analysis are all very similar to that for primer gunshot residue. In both cases, the preferred method of analysis uses scanning electron microscopy to locate suspect particles and then uses energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy to characterize the particle's constituent chemical elements. There are relatively few times when standard micro-analytical chemistry performed on pyrotechnic residues may not provide sufficient information for forensic investigators. However, on those occasions, PRRP analysis provides a greatly improved ability to discriminate between materials of pyrotechnic origin and other unrelated substances also present. The greater specificity of PRRP analysis is the result of its analyzing a large number of individual micron-sized particles, rather than producing only a single integrated result such as produced using standard micro-analytical chemistry. For example, PRRP analyses are used to demonstrate its ability to successfully (1) discriminate between pyrotechnic residues and unrelated background contamination, (2) identify that two different pyrotechnic compositions had previously been exploded within the same device, and (3) establish the chronology of an incident involving two separate and closely occurring explosions. PMID:16566762

  3. Residual stresses and vector hysteresis modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ktena, Aphrodite

    2016-04-01

    Residual stresses in magnetic materials, whether the result of processing or intentional loading, leave their footprint on macroscopic data, such hysteresis loops and differential permeability measurements. A Preisach-type vector model is used to reproduce the phenomenology observed based on assumptions deduced from the data: internal stresses lead to smaller and misaligned grains, hence increased domain wall pinning and angular dispersion of local easy axes, favouring rotation as a magnetization reversal mechanism; misaligned grains contribute to magnetostatic fields opposing the direction of the applied field. The model is using a vector operator which accounts for both reversible and irreversible processes; the Preisach concept for interactions for the role of stress related demagnetizing fields; and a characteristic probability density function which is constructed as a weighed sum of constituent functions: the material is modeled as consisting of various subsystems, e.g. reversal mechanisms or areas subject to strong/weak long range interactions and each subsystem is represented by a constituent probability density function. Our assumptions are validated since the model reproduces the hysteresis loops and differential permeability curves observed experimentally and calculations involving rotating inputs at various residual stress levels are consistent and in agreement with experimental evidence.

  4. Macromammalian faunas, biochronology and palaeoecology of the early Pleistocene Main Quarry hominin-bearing deposits of the Drimolen Palaeocave System, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Herries, Andy I.R.; Menter, Colin G.

    2016-01-01

    The Drimolen Palaeocave System Main Quarry deposits (DMQ) are some of the most prolific hominin and primate-bearing deposits in the Fossil Hominids of South Africa UNESCO World Heritage Site. Discovered in the 1990s, excavations into the DMQ have yielded a demographically diverse sample of Paranthropus robustus (including DNH 7, the most complete cranium of the species recovered to date), early Homo, Papio hamadryas robinsoni and Cercopithecoides williamsi. Alongside the hominin and primate sample is a diverse macromammalian assemblage, but prior publications have only provided a provisional species list and an analysis of the carnivores recovered prior to 2008. Here we present the first description and analysis of the non-primate macromammalian faunas from the DMQ, including all 826 taxonomically identifiable specimens catalogued from over two decades of excavation. We also provide a biochronological interpretation of the DMQ deposits and an initial discussion of local palaeoecology based on taxon representation.The current DMQ assemblage consists of the remains of minimally 147 individuals from 9 Orders and 14 Families of mammals. The carnivore assemblage described here is even more diverse than established in prior publications, including the identification of Megantereon whitei, Lycyaenops silberbergi, and first evidence for the occurrence of Dinofelis cf. barlowi and Dinofelis aff. piveteaui within a single South African site deposit. The cetartiodactyl assemblage is dominated by bovids, with the specimen composition unique in the high recovery of horn cores and dominance of Antidorcas recki remains. Other cetartiodactyl and perissodactyl taxa are represented by few specimens, as are Hystrix and Procavia; the latter somewhat surprisingly so given their common occurrence at penecontemporaneous deposits in the region. Equally unusual (particularly given the size of the sample) is the identification of single specimens of giraffoid, elephantid and aardvark

  5. Macromammalian faunas, biochronology and palaeoecology of the early Pleistocene Main Quarry hominin-bearing deposits of the Drimolen Palaeocave System, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Adams, Justin W; Rovinsky, Douglass S; Herries, Andy I R; Menter, Colin G

    2016-01-01

    The Drimolen Palaeocave System Main Quarry deposits (DMQ) are some of the most prolific hominin and primate-bearing deposits in the Fossil Hominids of South Africa UNESCO World Heritage Site. Discovered in the 1990s, excavations into the DMQ have yielded a demographically diverse sample of Paranthropus robustus (including DNH 7, the most complete cranium of the species recovered to date), early Homo, Papio hamadryas robinsoni and Cercopithecoides williamsi. Alongside the hominin and primate sample is a diverse macromammalian assemblage, but prior publications have only provided a provisional species list and an analysis of the carnivores recovered prior to 2008. Here we present the first description and analysis of the non-primate macromammalian faunas from the DMQ, including all 826 taxonomically identifiable specimens catalogued from over two decades of excavation. We also provide a biochronological interpretation of the DMQ deposits and an initial discussion of local palaeoecology based on taxon representation.The current DMQ assemblage consists of the remains of minimally 147 individuals from 9 Orders and 14 Families of mammals. The carnivore assemblage described here is even more diverse than established in prior publications, including the identification of Megantereon whitei, Lycyaenops silberbergi, and first evidence for the occurrence of Dinofelis cf. barlowi and Dinofelis aff. piveteaui within a single South African site deposit. The cetartiodactyl assemblage is dominated by bovids, with the specimen composition unique in the high recovery of horn cores and dominance of Antidorcas recki remains. Other cetartiodactyl and perissodactyl taxa are represented by few specimens, as are Hystrix and Procavia; the latter somewhat surprisingly so given their common occurrence at penecontemporaneous deposits in the region. Equally unusual (particularly given the size of the sample) is the identification of single specimens of giraffoid, elephantid and aardvark

  6. Automated gunshot residue particle search and characterization.

    PubMed

    Tillman, W L

    1987-01-01

    The main disadvantage to gunshot residue (GSR) particle analysis utilizing scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) instrumentation has been the excessive operator time required for search and identification. This study uses an automated particle search and characterization program for unattended GSR search and identification. This system allows for automatic matrix search, particle sizing, chemical typing, and spectral aquisition with subsequent storage of data to disk for later operator review and verification. This work describes various aspects of the program, determines appropriate parameters adequate for both unique and characteristic GSR particle identification, and evaluates the reliability of data obtained. Samples are collected via the tape lift method from test-firings of .38, .32, .25, and .22 caliber handguns at time after firing intervals of 0 to 6 h. Unique GSR particles are consistently and correctly identified by this method on tape lift samples taken up to 4 h after firing. False positive results of unique GSR particles are not encountered on control handblank samples. This technique appears to provide the forensic science community with an operator-free method of reliable GSR particle search and an improved analyst-time-per-case ratio. PMID:3819690

  7. Using State Estimation Residuals to Detect Abnormal SCADA Data

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Jian; Chen, Yousu; Huang, Zhenyu; Wong, Pak C.

    2010-04-30

    Detection of abnormal supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data is critically important for safe and secure operation of modern power systems. In this paper, a methodology of abnormal SCADA data detection based on state estimation residuals is presented. Preceded with a brief overview of outlier detection methods and bad SCADA data detection for state estimation, the framework of the proposed methodology is described. Instead of using original SCADA measurements as the bad data sources, the residuals calculated based on the results of the state estimator are used as the input for the outlier detection algorithm. The BACON algorithm is applied to the outlier detection task. The IEEE 118-bus system is used as a test base to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. The accuracy of the BACON method is compared with that of the 3-σ method for the simulated SCADA measurements and residuals.

  8. Technique for the determination of asphaltenes in crude oil residues

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, C.D.; Huff, G.S.; Gharfeh, S.G.

    1986-12-01

    Recently, the authors reported a method for the determination of saturates, aromatics, and resins in deasphaltened crude oil residues by high-performance liquid chromatography using a flame ionization detector. The present work describes a filtration technique for the determination of asphaltenes in crude oil residues using disposable Millex filters. This technique reduces the filtration, washing, and equilibration time needed for asphaltene determination. Six crude oil residues that varied widely in asphaltene content were used to evaluate the precision of this technique. The values obtained by Millex filters were compared to the values obtained by a conventional method using filter papers. Agreement between the two methods was very good. Several methods have been reported for the separation and determination of asphaltenes. Speight et al. made a survey of the different asphaltene procedures and conducted the experimental work to determine the optimum conditions for asphaltene separation and determination. The operating parameters recommended by Speight were used in this work.

  9. Field emitter based extractor gauges and residual gas analyzers

    SciTech Connect

    Changkun Dong; G. Rao Myneni

    1999-04-01

    Attempts at using the Spindt-type molybdenum field emitter arrays in the extractor gauges and a residual gas analyzer are presented in this article. The sensitivity of the fuel emitter gauge is as high as 11 Torr{sup -1}. The departure from linearity of the pressure versus ion current measurements did not exceed 10% over the pressure range of 10{sup -10} - 10{sup -6} Torr. Stable sensitivities for nitrogen, helium, and hydrogen were achieved below 10{sup -7} Torr with the field emitter residual gas analyzer. The slightly reduced emission current and sensitivity, after long-term operation, are of concern and need to be addressed. Residual gas spectra indicate that when using field emitters, the electron stimulated desorption ions (O{sup +}, F{sup +}, and Cl{sup +}) are reduced as compared to those made using a hot filament source.

  10. Residual Resistivity of Dilute Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vora, Aditya M.

    The residual resistivity for 156 dilute alloys of 19 hosts of different groups of the periodic table has been studied on the basis of the single parametric model potential formalism. Ashcroft's empty core model (EMC) potential is explored for the first time with five different local field correction functions, viz, Hartree (H), Taylor (T), Ichimaru-Utsumi (IU), Farid et al. (F), and Sarkar et al. (S) to investigate the effect of the exchange and correlation on the aforesaid properties. The comparison of the presently computed outcomes with the available theoretical and experimental data is highly encouraging. The investigation of residual resistivity is found to be quite sensitive to the selection of local field correction function, showing a significant variation with the change in the function.

  11. Primer residues deposited by handguns.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R; Guileyardo, J M; Stone, I C; Hall, V; Fletcher, L

    1994-12-01

    There is much anecdotal information being disseminated, even offered in expert witness testimony, concerning the deposit of primer residues on the hands of persons in front of the muzzle of handguns. We present data for 9 mm and 380 Auto pistols and for a 38 caliber revolver depicting the procedure for obtaining wipings taken from targets representing the hands of a gunshot victim. These wipings from pork tissue were then analyzed for the primer residue metals antimony, barium, and lead. The data show that the two primary metals, antimony and barium, are deposited on the targets out to 4 feet for the pistols and out to three feet for the 38-caliber revolver. Testing will continue in actual cases with the gun and ammunition involved in the shooting. PMID:7879775

  12. Limits of adaptation, residual interferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mokry, Miroslav (Editor); Erickson, J. C., Jr.; Goodyer, Michael J.; Mignosi, Andre; Russo, Giuseppe P.; Smith, J.; Wedemeyer, Erich H.; Newman, Perry A.

    1990-01-01

    Methods of determining linear residual wall interference appear to be well established theoretically; however they need to be validated, for example by comparative studies of test data on the same model in different adaptive-wall wind tunnels as well as in passive, ventilated-wall tunnels. The GARTEur CAST 7 and the CAST 10/DOA 2 investigations are excellent examples of such comparative studies. Results to date in both one-variable and two-variable methods for nonlinear wall interference indicate that a great deal more research and validation are required. The status in 2D flow is advanced over that in 3D flow as is the case generally with adaptive-wall development. Nevertheless, it is now well established that for transonic testing with extensive supercritical flow present, significant wall interference is likely to exist in conventional ventilated test sections. Consequently, residual correction procedures require further development hand-in-hand with further adaptive-wall development.

  13. Evaluation of residue drum storage safety risks

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, W.V.

    1994-06-17

    A study was conducted to determine if any potential safety problems exist in the residue drum backlog at the Rocky Flats Plant. Plutonium residues stored in 55-gallon drums were packaged for short-term storage until the residues could be processed for plutonium recovery. These residues have now been determined by the Department of Energy to be waste materials, and the residues will remain in storage until plans for disposal of the material can be developed. The packaging configurations which were safe for short-term storage may not be safe for long-term storage. Interviews with Rocky Flats personnel involved with packaging the residues reveal that more than one packaging configuration was used for some of the residues. A tabulation of packaging configurations was developed based on the information obtained from the interviews. A number of potential safety problems were identified during this study, including hydrogen generation from some residues and residue packaging materials, contamination containment loss, metal residue packaging container corrosion, and pyrophoric plutonium compound formation. Risk factors were developed for evaluating the risk potential of the various residue categories, and the residues in storage at Rocky Flats were ranked by risk potential. Preliminary drum head space gas sampling studies have demonstrated the potential for formation of flammable hydrogen-oxygen mixtures in some residue drums.

  14. Effect of improving flue gas cleaning on characteristics and immobilisation of APC residues from MSW incineration.

    PubMed

    Geysen, D; Vandecasteele, C; Jaspers, M; Brouwers, E; Wauters, G

    2006-01-16

    The flue gas cleaning system of a MSW incinerator with a capacity of 350 kt/year was changed to improve the HCl elimination efficiency. Instead of the semi-wet operating spray reactor and subsequent baghouse, a two-step wet flue gas cleaning was added behind the baghouse. Elemental composition, X-ray powder diffraction patterns and TGA measurements showed that the resulting APC residue was totally different from the former residue. As a consequence, leaching characteristics of both residues also differed and another treatment was required prior to disposal. For the former residue, mainly leaching of Pb (>100 mg/l), necessitated treatment prior to landfilling. The lower alkalinity of the new residue resulted in a leachate pH of 9.7 and a Pb concentration of 0.8 mg/l. The leachate pH of the former residue was 12.4. The leaching of Pb and Zn increased above 100 mg/l when immobilising the new residue with cement. Better results were obtained when immobilising with micro silica. The high CaCl2 x 2H2O content of the new residue brought along clogging of the bag filter system. Adding 1.4% of CaO (or 1.9% of Ca(OH)2) to the residue already improved these inconveniences but again significantly changed the leaching behaviour of the residue. PMID:16386367

  15. Microwave calcination for plutonium immobilization and residue stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, M.J.; Rising, T.L.; Roushey, W.J.; Sprenger, G.S.

    1995-12-01

    In the late 1980`s development was begun on a process using microwave energy to vitrify low level mixed waste sludge and transuranic mixed waste sludge generated in Building 374 at Rocky Flats. This process was shown to produce a dense, highly durable waste form. With the cessation of weapons production at Rocky Flats, the emphasis has changed from treatment of low level and TRU wastes to stabilizaiton of plutonium oxide and residues. This equipment is versatile and can be used as a heat source to calcine, react or vitrify many types of residues and oxides. It has natural economies in that it heats only the material to be treated, significantly reducing cycle times over conventional furnaces. It is inexpensive to operate in that most of the working components remain outside of any necessary contamination enclosure and therefore can easily be maintained. Limited testing has been successfully performed on cerium oxide (as a surrogate for plutonium oxide), surrogate electrorefining salts, surrogate residue sludge and residue ash. Future plans also include tests on ion exchange resins. In an attempt to further the usefullness of this technology, a mobile, self-contained microwave melting system is currently under development and expected to be operational at Rocky Flats Enviromental Technology Site by the 4th quarter of FY96.

  16. Recycle of plastics from auto shredder residue: incentives and barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Curlee, T.R.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the work that has been done recently in the area of plastics recycling has focused on technological questions, and to a great extent this work has been successful. However, the degree to which recycling processes will be adopted by the market place will depend not only on technological developments but also on non-technological incentives and barriers to recycle. This paper focuses on waste plastics from the residue of auto shredders and discusses the incentives and barriers to the recycling of these plastics from three main perspectives: (1) the physical composition of shredder residue; (2) the private firm that operates a shredder and the firm that might utilize shredder residue in a recycling operation; and (3) society, which may or may not have an incentive to promote a level of recycle greater than the level provided by private firms. From each perspective significant incentives, as well as barriers, are identified that may have a pronounced impact on the degree to which plastics from shredder residue are ultimately disposed or recycled. 31 references, 5 tables.

  17. PESTICIDE RESIDUE RECOVERIES FROM SURFACE WIPES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure is a consequence of pesticide use indoors with a primary source resulting from residue deposition on household surfaces. Accurate measurements of surface residues is essential for estimating exposure from different routes. Various procedures have been developed ...

  18. 48 CFR 250.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Residual powers. 250.104 Section 250.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Contractual Actions 250.104 Residual powers....

  19. 48 CFR 1850.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Residual powers. 1850.104 Section 1850.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION... 1850.104 Residual powers....

  20. 48 CFR 250.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Residual powers. 250.104 Section 250.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Contractual Actions 250.104 Residual powers....

  1. 48 CFR 1850.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Residual powers. 1850.104 Section 1850.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION... 1850.104 Residual powers....

  2. 48 CFR 970.5001 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Residual powers. 970.5001 Section 970.5001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY....5001 Residual powers....

  3. 48 CFR 250.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Residual powers. 250.104 Section 250.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Contractual Actions 250.104 Residual powers....

  4. 48 CFR 970.5001 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Residual powers. 970.5001 Section 970.5001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY....5001 Residual powers....

  5. 48 CFR 970.5001 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Residual powers. 970.5001 Section 970.5001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY....5001 Residual powers....

  6. 48 CFR 970.5001 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Residual powers. 970.5001 Section 970.5001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY....5001 Residual powers....

  7. 48 CFR 1850.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Residual powers. 1850.104 Section 1850.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION... 1850.104 Residual powers....

  8. 48 CFR 250.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Residual powers. 250.104 Section 250.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Contractual Actions 250.104 Residual powers....

  9. 48 CFR 250.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Residual powers. 250.104 Section 250.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Contractual Actions 250.104 Residual powers....

  10. 48 CFR 970.5001 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Residual powers. 970.5001 Section 970.5001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY....5001 Residual powers....

  11. 40 CFR 1065.705 - Residual and intermediate residual fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... specifications for fuels meeting the definition of residual fuel in 40 CFR 80.2, including fuels marketed as...). Kinematic viscosity at 50 °C, max cSt 30.0 80.0 180.0 380.0 700.0 ISO 3104:1994/Cor 1:1997. Flash point, min... ISO 6245. Water, max (m3/m3)% 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 ISO 3733. Sulfur, max (kg/kg)% 3.50 4.00 4.50 4.50...

  12. 40 CFR 1065.705 - Residual and intermediate residual fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... specifications for fuels meeting the definition of residual fuel in 40 CFR 80.2, including fuels marketed as...). Kinematic viscosity at 50 °C, max cSt 30.0 80.0 180.0 380.0 700.0 ISO 3104:1994/Cor 1:1997. Flash point, min... ISO 6245. Water, max (m3/m3)% 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 ISO 3733. Sulfur, max (kg/kg)% 3.50 4.00 4.50 4.50...

  13. 40 CFR 1065.705 - Residual and intermediate residual fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specifications for fuels meeting the definition of residual fuel in 40 CFR 80.2, including fuels marketed as...). Kinematic viscosity at 50 °C, max cSt 30.0 80.0 180.0 380.0 700.0 ISO 3104:1994/Cor 1:1997. Flash point, min... ISO 6245. Water, max (m3/m3)% 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 ISO 3733. Sulfur, max (kg/kg)% 3.50 4.00 4.50 4.50...

  14. 40 CFR 1065.705 - Residual and intermediate residual fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... specifications for fuels meeting the definition of residual fuel in 40 CFR 80.2, including fuels marketed as...). Kinematic viscosity at 50 °C, max cSt 30.0 80.0 180.0 380.0 700.0 ISO 3104:1994/Cor 1:1997. Flash point, min... ISO 6245. Water, max (m3/m3)% 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 ISO 3733. Sulfur, max (kg/kg)% 3.50 4.00 4.50 4.50...

  15. SPECIATION OF ELEMENTS IN INCINERATION RESIDUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Knowledge as to the speciation of elements in incineration residues is important for the successful management and utilization of the residues and for modelling and predicting their leaching behavior. s part of a larger research effort on speciation in combustion residues, ESP as...

  16. COMPOSITION AND DECOMPOSITION OF PEANUT RESIDUES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited information exists on the mineralizable nitrogen (N) content of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) residue. The objective of this study was to determine the N contribution of pre- and post harvest peanut residue on two soil types. Aboveground peanut residue (cv. Georgia Green) was collected prio...

  17. 9 CFR 311.39 - Biological residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Biological residues. 311.39 Section... Biological residues. Carcasses, organs, or other parts of carcasses of livestock shall be condemned if it is determined that they are adulterated because of the presence of any biological residues....

  18. 9 CFR 311.39 - Biological residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Biological residues. 311.39 Section... Biological residues. Carcasses, organs, or other parts of carcasses of livestock shall be condemned if it is determined that they are adulterated because of the presence of any biological residues....

  19. 9 CFR 311.39 - Biological residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Biological residues. 311.39 Section... Biological residues. Carcasses, organs, or other parts of carcasses of livestock shall be condemned if it is determined that they are adulterated because of the presence of any biological residues....

  20. 9 CFR 311.39 - Biological residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Biological residues. 311.39 Section... Biological residues. Carcasses, organs, or other parts of carcasses of livestock shall be condemned if it is determined that they are adulterated because of the presence of any biological residues....

  1. 9 CFR 311.39 - Biological residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biological residues. 311.39 Section... Biological residues. Carcasses, organs, or other parts of carcasses of livestock shall be condemned if it is determined that they are adulterated because of the presence of any biological residues....

  2. Management of post-harvest residue blanket

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Timely and effective residue management is essential for maximum sugar yields. Several studies were implemented in 2003 and harvested in 2004 in an effort to increase the effectiveness of residue management practices. Six studies were conducted to determine the effect of residue removal timing a...

  3. 48 CFR 50.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Residual powers. 50.104... EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Extraordinary Contractual Actions 50.104 Residual powers. This section prescribes standards and procedures for exercising residual powers under Pub. L....

  4. 48 CFR 50.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Residual powers. 50.104... EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Extraordinary Contractual Actions 50.104 Residual powers. This section prescribes standards and procedures for exercising residual powers under Pub. L....

  5. 48 CFR 50.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Residual powers. 50.104... EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Extraordinary Contractual Actions 50.104 Residual powers. This section prescribes standards and procedures for exercising residual powers under Pub. L....

  6. 48 CFR 50.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Residual powers. 50.104... EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Extraordinary Contractual Actions 50.104 Residual powers. This section prescribes standards and procedures for exercising residual powers under Pub. L....

  7. 48 CFR 50.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Residual powers. 50.104... EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Extraordinary Contractual Actions 50.104 Residual powers. This section prescribes standards and procedures for exercising residual powers under Pub. L....

  8. Microbial degradation of post-harvest residues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of post-harvest residues, produced during the green cane harvesting of sugarcane in Louisiana, has become an increasingly important issue for producers, particularly in areas where burning of the residues is banned or restricted. If the residues, which range from 4-8 tonnes per hectare, ...

  9. Microcomputer applications for concurrent aggregate mine operation and reclamation planning

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, B.K.

    1990-02-01

    As ever increasing need exists for the planning of aggregate mine operations and reclamation. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate microcomputer applications to assist in the development of a concurrent aggregate mine operation and reclamation plan. The thesis is divided into sections that encompassed three aspects. The first, Section 1 -- concurrent Aggregate Mine Operation and Reclamation Planning, examines the possibility of organizing the operation and reclamation of aggregate mining into a single plan or set of plans. The second section of the thesis, Section 2 -- Microcomputer Applications, describes the use of microcomputers within the mining industry and the landscape architecture profession. This section contains a review of the current types of programs and how they are used. The programs that were used for the case study and their applications and characteristics are also explored. The third and final section of the thesis, Section 3 -- Alden Quarry Case Study, applies the concepts of the first two sections to a practical situation. 35 refs., 49 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Ground Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastman, Randy

    2000-01-01

    The contents include: 1) Integrated Space Transportation; 2) Fourth Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Research; 3) Ground Operations; 4) Ground Operations Technologies; 5) Sensors; and 6) Umbilicals. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  11. Fat Residue and Use-Wear Found on Acheulian Biface and Scraper Associated with Butchered Elephant Remains at the Site of Revadim, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Solodenko, Natalya; Zupancich, Andrea; Cesaro, Stella Nunziante; Marder, Ofer; Lemorini, Cristina; Barkai, Ran

    2015-01-01

    The archaeological record indicates that elephants must have played a significant role in early human diet and culture during Palaeolithic times in the Old World. However, the nature of interactions between early humans and elephants is still under discussion. Elephant remains are found in Palaeolithic sites, both open-air and cave sites, in Europe, Asia, the Levant, and Africa. In some cases elephant and mammoth remains indicate evidence for butchering and marrow extraction performed by humans. Revadim Quarry (Israel) is a Late Acheulian site where elephant remains were found in association with characteristic Lower Palaeolithic flint tools. In this paper we present results regarding the use of Palaeolithic tools in processing animal carcasses and rare identification of fat residue preserved on Lower Palaeolithic tools. Our results shed new light on the use of Palaeolithic stone tools and provide, for the first time, direct evidence (residue) of animal exploitation through the use of an Acheulian biface and a scraper. The association of an elephant rib bearing cut marks with these tools may reinforce the view suggesting the use of Palaeolithic stone tools in the consumption of large game. PMID:25786123

  12. Fat residue and use-wear found on Acheulian biface and scraper associated with butchered elephant remains at the site of Revadim, Israel.

    PubMed

    Solodenko, Natalya; Zupancich, Andrea; Cesaro, Stella Nunziante; Marder, Ofer; Lemorini, Cristina; Barkai, Ran

    2015-01-01

    The archaeological record indicates that elephants must have played a significant role in early human diet and culture during Palaeolithic times in the Old World. However, the nature of interactions between early humans and elephants is still under discussion. Elephant remains are found in Palaeolithic sites, both open-air and cave sites, in Europe, Asia, the Levant, and Africa. In some cases elephant and mammoth remains indicate evidence for butchering and marrow extraction performed by humans. Revadim Quarry (Israel) is a Late Acheulian site where elephant remains were found in association with characteristic Lower Palaeolithic flint tools. In this paper we present results regarding the use of Palaeolithic tools in processing animal carcasses and rare identification of fat residue preserved on Lower Palaeolithic tools. Our results shed new light on the use of Palaeolithic stone tools and provide, for the first time, direct evidence (residue) of animal exploitation through the use of an Acheulian biface and a scraper. The association of an elephant rib bearing cut marks with these tools may reinforce the view suggesting the use of Palaeolithic stone tools in the consumption of large game. PMID:25786123

  13. Paleoenvironments of the Lower Aptian Paja Formation at the Curití Quarry Section (Santander, Colombia), Evidence from Redox-Sensitive Trace Elements and Microfacies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaona Narvaez, T.; Maurrasse, F. J.; Sanchez-hernandez, Y.

    2013-05-01

    We present new evidence from redox-sensitive trace elements for variations in the ancient oxygen levels within a 14m thick section of Barremian-Aptian sediments at the Curití Quarry, Santander, Colombia. The succession includes the top 1.56m of the carbonate-dominated Rosablanca Formation (mid and Upper Barremian), uncomformably overlain by the base of the mudrock-dominated Paja Formation in beds that postdate Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a. Trace element analysis by LA-ICP-MS was carried out on 23 samples for geochemical redox indicators. The boundary bed between the two units is a phosphatic and pyritic biomicrite with condensed mid, Upper Barremian, and Lower Aptian? benthic and nektonic fossil assemblages. These beds display low TOC (0.16%), high P content (2%), low V/Cr (0.67), high Ni/Co ratio (21.09 ), intermediate V/(V+Ni) ratio (0.61 ), high U/Th ratio (1.7), and low V/Mo (1.14) driven by low V and low Mo concentrations. The above geochemical values are interpreted as revealing the effect of low sedimentary rates at the site inducing low preservation of organic matter, and phosphatization in a shallow marine environment with variable oxygenation levels though time, fluctuating from fully oxygenated to anoxic. The richest interval in OM (TOC: 3.91- 8.19%), from 3.7 to 5.4m, within the Lower Aptian beds of Paja Fm, includes organic-rich clay shales and crystalline clayey limestones. These beds are devoid of benthic foraminifera and macrofossils, but include rare ostracods, scarce phosphatic fish remains, calcispheres, and planktonic foraminifera. The interval shows consistently high values in the ratios of Ni/Co (6.43-17.31) and V/Cr (1.28-1.94). V/Cr and Ni/Co ratios would suggest suboxic to anoxic conditions in the water column during deposition within that time interval. In the same segment the V/(V+Ni) ratio range from 0.6 to 0.67, and the V/Mo show values between 2.25 and 4.48. Variations through time of these two ratios show a very similar behavior, and V

  14. Residual energy applications program systems analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Yngve, P.W.

    1980-10-01

    Current DOE plans call for building an Energy Applied Systems Test (EAST) Facility at the Savannah River Plant in close proximity to the 140 to 150/sup 0/F waste heat from one of several operating nuclear reactors. The waste water flow from each reactor, approximately 165,000 gpm, provides a unique opportunity to test the performance and operating characteristics of large-scale waste heat power generation and heat pump system concepts. This report provides a preliminary description of the potential end-use market, parametric data on heat pump and the power generation system technology, a preliminary listing of EAST Facility requirements, and an example of an integrated industrial park utilizing the technology to maximize economic pay back. The parametric heat pump analysis concluded that dual-fluid Rankine cycle heat pumps with capacities as high as 400 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/h, can utilize large sources of low temperature residual heat to provide 300/sup 0/F saturatd steam for an industrial park. The before tax return on investment for this concept is 36.2%. The analysis also concluded that smaller modular heat pumps could fulfill the same objective while sacrificing only a moderate rate of return. The parametric power generation analysis concluded that multi-pressure Rankine cycle systems not only are superior to single pressure systems, but can also be developed for large systems (approx. = 17 MW/sub e/). This same technology is applicable to smaller systems at the sacrifice of higher investment per unit output.

  15. Wood residues: trash or treasure

    SciTech Connect

    Bolgiano, C.

    1983-12-01

    Forest residues have acquired new economic value since the growth of the wood-energy markets has prompted private woodlot owners to begin managing and harvesting their forests after nearly a century of neglect. Estimates place half the commercial forests as overstocked, with poor-quality trees and unmarketable varieties, as well as standing dead or fallen trees and slash which are aesthetically bad. Overzealous cleansing of the forest floor, however, will deplete forests soils of nutrients and expose them to erosion in addition to destroying wildlife habitat. A compromise is needed to balance the ecological and economic benefits. (DCK)

  16. Process to recycle shredder residue

    DOEpatents

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    2001-01-01

    A system and process for recycling shredder residue, in which separating any polyurethane foam materials are first separated. Then separate a fines fraction of less than about 1/4 inch leaving a plastics-rich fraction. Thereafter, the plastics rich fraction is sequentially contacted with a series of solvents beginning with one or more of hexane or an alcohol to remove automotive fluids; acetone to remove ABS; one or more of EDC, THF or a ketone having a boiling point of not greater than about 125.degree. C. to remove PVC; and one or more of xylene or toluene to remove polypropylene and polyethylene. The solvents are recovered and recycled.

  17. Organochlorine residues in starlings, 1972.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, P R; Barbehenn, K R

    1975-03-01

    During the fall of 1972 starlings were collected from 130 sites in conjunction with the National Pesticide Monitoring Program. They were analyzed for DDT and its metabolites, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, benzene hexachloride, polychlorinated biphenyls and, for the first time in the series, oxychlordane and HCB. Mean DDT and dieldrin residue levels have declined significantly since 1967 and a regression analysis suggests that levels of DDT and its metabolites should fall below a mean of 0.1 ppm for the 1974 starling collection. PMID:1161450

  18. Assessing plant residue decomposition in soil using DRIFT spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouellette, Lance; Van Eerd, Laura; Voroney, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Assessment of the decomposition of plant residues typically involves the use of tracer techniques combined with measurements of soil respiration. This laboratory study evaluated use of Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy for its potential to assess plant residue decomposition in soil. A sandy loam soil (Orthic Humic Gleysol) obtained from a field research plot was passed through a 4.75 mm sieve moist (~70% of field capacity) to remove larger crop residues. The experimental design consisted of a randomized complete block with four replicates of ten above-ground cover crop residue-corn stover combinations, where sampling time was blocked. Two incubations were set up for 1) Drift analysis: field moist soil (250 g ODW) was placed in 500 mL glass jars, and 2) CO2 evolution: 100 g (ODW) was placed in 2 L jars. Soils were amended with the plant residues (oven-dried at 60°C and ground to <2 mm) at rates equivalent to field mean above-ground biomass yields, then moistened to 60% water holding capacity and incubated in the dark at 22±3°C. Measurements for DRIFT and CO2-C evolved were taken after 0.5, 2, 4, 7, 10, 15, 22, 29, 36, 43, 50 64 and 72 d. DRIFT spectral data (100co-added scans per sample) were recorded with a Varian Cary 660 FT-IR Spectrometer equipped with an EasiDiff Diffuse Reflectance accessory operated at a resolution of 4 cm-1 over the mid-infrared spectrum from 4000 to 400 cm-1. DRIFT spectra of amended soils indicated peak areas of aliphatics at 2930 cm‑1, of aromatics at 1620, and 1530 cm‑1 and of polysaccharides at 1106 and 1036 cm-1. Evolved CO2 was measured by the alkali trap method (1 M NaOH); the amount of plant residue-C remaining in soil was calculated from the difference in the quantity of plant residue C added and the additional CO2-C evolved from the amended soil. First-order model parameters of the change in polysaccharide peak area over the incubation were related to those generated from the plant residue C decay

  19. 40 CFR 180.519 - Bromide ion and residual bromine; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bromide ion and residual bromine... Tolerances § 180.519 Bromide ion and residual bromine; tolerances for residues. (a) General. The food additives, bromide ion and residual bromine, may be present in water, potable in accordance with...

  20. 40 CFR 180.519 - Bromide ion and residual bromine; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bromide ion and residual bromine... Tolerances § 180.519 Bromide ion and residual bromine; tolerances for residues. (a) General. The food additives, bromide ion and residual bromine, may be present in water, potable in accordance with...

  1. 40 CFR 180.519 - Bromide ion and residual bromine; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bromide ion and residual bromine... Tolerances § 180.519 Bromide ion and residual bromine; tolerances for residues. (a) General. The food additives, bromide ion and residual bromine, may be present in water, potable in accordance with...

  2. 40 CFR 180.519 - Bromide ion and residual bromine; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bromide ion and residual bromine... Tolerances § 180.519 Bromide ion and residual bromine; tolerances for residues. (a) General. The food additives, bromide ion and residual bromine, may be present in water, potable in accordance with...

  3. 40 CFR 180.519 - Bromide ion and residual bromine; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bromide ion and residual bromine... Tolerances § 180.519 Bromide ion and residual bromine; tolerances for residues. (a) General. The food additives, bromide ion and residual bromine, may be present in water, potable in accordance with...

  4. Managing residual limb hyperhidrosis in wounded warriors.

    PubMed

    Pace, Sarah; Kentosh, Joshua

    2016-06-01

    Residual limb dermatologic problems are a common concern among young active traumatic amputee patients who strive to maintain an active lifestyle. Hyperhidrosis of residual limbs is a recognized inciting factor that often contributes to residual limb dermatoses and is driven by the design of the prosthetic liner covering the residual limb. Treatment of hyperhidrosis in this population presents a unique challenge. Several accepted treatments of hyperhidrosis can offer some relief but have been limited by lack of results or side-effect profiles. Microwave thermal ablation has presented an enticing potential for residual limb hyperhidrosis. PMID:27416083

  5. Fiber-optic polymer residue monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeifer, K.B.; Jarecki, R.L. Jr.; Dalton, T.J.

    1998-10-01

    Semiconductor processing tools that use a plasma to etch polysilicon or oxides produce residue polymers that build up on the exposed surfaces of the processing chamber. These residues are generally stressed and with time can cause flaking onto wafers resulting in yield loss. Currently, residue buildup is not monitored, and chambers are cleaned at regular intervals resulting in excess downtime for the tool. In addition, knowledge of the residue buildup rate and index of refraction is useful in determining the state of health of the chamber process. The authors have developed a novel optical fiber-based robust sensor that allows measurement of the residue polymer buildup while not affecting the plasma process.

  6. Residual radiation studies at AP0

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander J Elwyn et al.

    2002-06-19

    The radiation environment at the NuMI experiment has received a lot of attention in the last few years in preparation for project construction. One important issue is the induced radioactivation of the components in the beam line and the shielding materials. This arises from irradiation by hadrons that are generated in the target. Since the level of the residual activity has to be considered when determining access procedures for maintenance during NuMI operation, an understanding of the properties of the remnant radiation is important. To this end, experimental studies were performed in the target vault at AP0 which is similar in design to the NuMI target area. Here 120 GeV protons bombard a target, generating the hadrons that produce the induced radioactivity. Two sets of samples each consisting of three small cylindrical or rectangular solids of iron and steel, one sample of aluminum, and one of concrete were irradiated. One set was hung just below the bottom of a module near the lithium lens (in-vault), and the other was placed on top of the modules downstream of this location (above-vault), just beneath the movable concrete roof of the vault at AP0. Further, four thin activation foils of Au, Au+Cd, In, and Al (along with small disks of the same iron, aluminum, and concrete samples discussed above) were mounted on four 10.2 cm diameter Al disks, one placed on the in-vault module and three at above-vault downstream locations as well. The radioactivity of all these materials on the 10.2 cm Al disks was determined at the Radioisotope Analysis Facility in an attempt to characterize the radionuclides produced during irradiation. The activities of the thin foils were employed in an effort to unfold a spectrum of the neutrons produced during the hadronic cascades in the target. The MARS Monte Carlo code (MO95, MO00) was used to predict and analyze the residual radiation produced during the beam irradiation. New subroutines have been developed for the MARS14 version

  7. Fate of asphaltenes during hydroprocessing of heavy petroleum residues

    SciTech Connect

    Stanislaus, A.; Absi-Halabi, M.; Khan, Z.

    1994-12-31

    Formation of coke like sediments or particulates is a serious problem in the hydroprocessing of heavy residues for high conversion. The sediments can cause both operability problems and rapid catalyst deactivation. The macromolecules of the heavy feedstocks such as asphaltenes are believed to contribute significantly to sediment formation and coke deposition. As part of an extensive research program on the factors which influence sludge or solids formation during residue hydroprocessing, the authors have examined the nature of changes that take place in the characteristics of the asphaltenic fraction of Kuwait vacuum residue under different operating conditions. The studies revealed that sediment formation is the result of reduction in solubilization efficiency of asphaltenes in the product medium compared with feedstock. Molecular size distribution of the product asphaltenes showed that operating at high temperatures enhanced depolymerization and fragmentation of asphaltenes to low molecular weight materials. A portion of the low molecular weight asphaltene fragments with relatively low H/C ratio resisted further cracking even at high temperatures and led to the formation of coke like sediments. Large pore catalysts were observed to reduce the problem of sediments formation. The role of catalyst pore size on asphaltenes conversion is discussed.

  8. Schwartz operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyl, M.; Kiukas, J.; Werner, R. F.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce Schwartz operators as a non-commutative analog of Schwartz functions and provide a detailed discussion of their properties. We equip them, in particular, with a number of different (but equivalent) families of seminorms which turns the space of Schwartz operators into a Fréchet space. The study of the topological dual leads to non-commutative tempered distributions which are discussed in detail as well. We show, in particular, that the latter can be identified with a certain class of quadratic forms, therefore making operations like products with bounded (and also some unbounded) operators and quantum harmonic analysis available to objects which are otherwise too singular for being a Hilbert space operator. Finally, we show how the new methods can be applied by studying operator moment problems and convergence properties of fluctuation operators.

  9. 40 CFR 180.432 - Lactofen; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Lactofen; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide... for residues of the herbicide lactofen, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on...

  10. 40 CFR 180.432 - Lactofen; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Lactofen; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide... for residues of the herbicide lactofen, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on...

  11. 40 CFR 180.432 - Lactofen; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Lactofen; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide... for residues of the herbicide lactofen, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on...

  12. 40 CFR 180.432 - Lactofen; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Lactofen; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide... for residues of the herbicide lactofen, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on...

  13. Effect of Chinese traditional cooking on eight pesticides residue during cowpea processing.

    PubMed

    Huan, Zhibo; Xu, Zhi; Jiang, Wayne; Chen, Zhiqiang; Luo, Jinhui

    2015-03-01

    Thermal processing can concentrate residues or convert residues to more toxic metabolites in food. Chinese traditional cooking pays more attention to thermal processing and more vegetables were eaten after thermal processing. In this study, the effect of Chinese traditional cooking (washing, blanching, stir-frying, frying and combined operations) on eight pesticides residues (pyridaben, procymidone, chlorothalonil, difenoconazole, α-cypermethrin, bifenthrin, S-fenvalerate and λ-cyhalothrin) in cowpea which was one of the most important legume crops in China was examined. Result showed washing and blanching could reduce residues with low Kow while stir-frying and frying were more effective to residues with high Kow; stir-frying and frying could concentrate residues with low Kow; the residue levels in oil increased following increasing frying time and frequency especially the residues with high Kow; one metabolite studied in this paper was not detected. Blanching (5 min) followed by stir-frying (3 min) was the most effective combined operation. PMID:25306325

  14. RESIDUAL STRESSES IN 3013 CONTAINERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.; Dunn, K.

    2009-11-10

    The DOE Complex is packaging plutonium-bearing materials for storage and eventual disposition or disposal. The materials are handled according to the DOE-STD-3013 which outlines general requirements for stabilization, packaging and long-term storage. The storage vessels for the plutonium-bearing materials are termed 3013 containers. Stress corrosion cracking has been identified as a potential container degradation mode and this work determined that the residual stresses in the containers are sufficient to support such cracking. Sections of the 3013 outer, inner, and convenience containers, in both the as-fabricated condition and the closure welded condition, were evaluated per ASTM standard G-36. The standard requires exposure to a boiling magnesium chloride solution, which is an aggressive testing solution. Tests in a less aggressive 40% calcium chloride solution were also conducted. These tests were used to reveal the relative stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of the as fabricated 3013 containers. Significant cracking was observed in all containers in areas near welds and transitions in the container diameter. Stress corrosion cracks developed in both the lid and the body of gas tungsten arc welded and laser closure welded containers. The development of stress corrosion cracks in the as-fabricated and in the closure welded container samples demonstrates that the residual stresses in the 3013 containers are sufficient to support stress corrosion cracking if the environmental conditions inside the containers do not preclude the cracking process.

  15. Residual number processing in dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia - a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts - is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia. PMID:24266008

  16. System Study: Residual Heat Removal 1998–2013

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-02-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the residual heat removal (RHR) system in two modes of operation (low-pressure injection in response to a large loss-of-coolant accident and post-trip shutdown-cooling) at 104 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant trends were identified in the RHR results.

  17. Cold vacuum drying residual free water test description

    SciTech Connect

    Pajunen, A.L.

    1997-12-23

    Residual free water expected to remain in a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) after processing in the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility is investigated based on three alternative models of fuel crevices. Tests and operating conditions for the CVD process are defined based on the analysis of these models. The models consider water pockets constrained by cladding defects, water constrained in a pore or crack by flow through a porous bed, and water constrained in pores by diffusion. An analysis of comparative reaction rate constraints is also presented indicating that a pressure rise test can be used to show MCO`s will be thermally stable at operating temperatures up to 75 C.

  18. Air cleaning performance of a new environmentally controlled primary crusher operator booth

    PubMed Central

    Organiscak, J.A.; Cecala, A.B.; Zimmer, J.A.; Holen, B.; Baregi, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) cooperated with 3M Company in the design and testing of a new environmentally controlled primary crusher operator booth at the company’s Wausau granite quarry near Wausau, WI. This quarry had an older crusher booth without a central heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system, and without an air filtration and pressurization system. A new replacement operator booth was designed and installed by 3M based on design considerations from past NIOSH research on enclosed cab filtration systems. NIOSH conducted pre-testing of the old booth and post-testing of the new booth to assess the new filtration and pressurization system’s effectiveness in controlling airborne dusts and particulates. The booth’s dust and particulate control effectiveness is described by its protection factor, expressed as a ratio of the outside to inside concentrations measured during testing. Results indicate that the old booth provided negligible airborne respirable dust protection and low particulate protection from the outside environment. The newly installed booth provided average respirable dust protection factors from 2 to 25 over five shifts of dust sampling with occasional worker ingress and egress from the booth, allowing some unfiltered contaminants to enter the enclosure. Shorter-term particle count testing outside and inside the booth under near-steady-state conditions, with no workers entering or exiting the booth, resulted in protection factors from 35 to 127 on 0.3- to 1.0-μm respirable size particulates under various HVAC airflow operating conditions. PMID:26937052

  19. European experience in transport/storage cask for vitrified residues

    SciTech Connect

    Otton, Camille; Sicard, Damien

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Because of the evolution of burnup of spent fuel to be reprocessed, the high activity vitrified residues would not be transported in the existing cask designs. Therefore, TN International has decided in the late nineties to develop a brand new design of casks with optimized capacity able to store and transport the most active and hottest canisters: the TN{sup TM}81 casks currently in use in Switzerland and the TN{sup TM}85 cask which shall permit in the near future in Germany the storage and the transport of the most active vitrified residues defining a thermal power of 56 kW (kilowatts). The challenges for the TN{sup TM}81 and TN{sup TM}85 cask designs were that the geometry entry data were very restrictive and were combined with a fairly wide range set by the AREVA NC Specification relative to vitrified residue canister. The TN{sup TM}81 and the TN{sup TM}85 casks have been designed to fully anticipate shipment constraints of the present vitrified residue production. It also used the feedback of current shipments and the operational constraints and experience of receiving and shipping facilities. The casks had to fit as much as possible in the existing procedures for the already existing flasks such as the TN{sup TM}28 cask and TS 28 V cask, all along the logistics chain of loading, unloading, transport and maintenance. (authors)

  20. Effect of residual stress on modal patterns of MEMS vibratory gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Shankar; Panchal, Abha; Kumar, Manoj; Pal, Ramjay; Bhan, R. K.

    2016-04-01

    Deep boron diffusion often induces residual stress in bulk micromachined MEMS structures, which may affect the MEMS devices operation. In this study, we studied the modal patterns of MEMS vibratory gyroscope under the residual stress (100 - 1000 MPa). Modal patterns and modal frequencies of the gyro are found to be dependent on the residual stress values. Without any residual stress, the modal frequencies drive and sense modeswere found to be 20.06 kHz and 20.36 kHz respectively. In presence of 450 MPa residual stress, the modal frequencies of the drive and sense modes were changed to 42.75 kHz and 43.07 kHz respectively.

  1. Detection of organic residues on food processing equipment surfaces by spectral imaging method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic residues remaining attached to equipment surfaces during poultry processing operations can potentially generate cross-contamination and thus increase the risk of unsafe food for consumers. Current pre-operational sanitation monitoring mainly relies on human visual inspection, which is subje...

  2. Comparison of Indoor Residual Spray Equipment for Malaria Control in Liberia.

    PubMed

    Obenauer, Peter J; Farooq, Mohammad; Knapp, Jennifer A; Yans, Matthew W; Santana, Luis A; Richardson, Alec G; Nador, Nadoris N; Diclaro, Joseph W

    2015-12-01

    We describe and compare a new innovative backpack compressed-air sprayer (JQSX-12) to a Stihl® 450 backpack mist blower and a manually operated compression sprayer for its effectiveness as an alternative operational tool for indoor residual insecticide application to control malaria in Liberia. Advantages and physical characteristics of each sprayer and their spray atomization parameters are discussed. PMID:26675465

  3. Warehousing Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on warehousing operations is designed to provide instruction in the procedures used in warehousing operations. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI students and a study guide (guidelines to complete the course). The 22-hour…

  4. Operational Amplifiers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foxcroft, G. E.

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the introduction of low cost equipment into high school and college physical science classes. Examines the properties of an "ideal" operational amplifier and discusses how it might be used under saturated and non-saturated conditions. Notes the action of a "real" operational amplifier. (TW)

  5. Operational efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, Dan; Davis, Tom; Griffin, Sandy

    1990-01-01

    Space transportation avionics technology operational efficiency issues are presented in viewgraph form. Information is given on ascent flight design, autonomous spacecraft control, operations management systems, advanced mission control, telerobotics/telepresence, advanced software integration, advanced test/checkout systems, advanced training systems, and systems monitoring.

  6. Business & Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with John D. Musso, executive director of the Association of School Business Officials (ASBO) International. Musso talks about trends and issues that will most affect school business and operations in 2007 and beyond. Despite the challenges facing school operations, he believes that the key to being successful at…

  7. Residual stress patterns in steel welds

    SciTech Connect

    Spooner, S.; Hubbard, C.R.; Wang, X.L.; David, S.A.; Holden, T.M.; Root, J.H.; Swainson, I.

    1994-12-31

    Neutron strain scanning of residual stress is a valuable nondestructive tool for evaluation of residual stress in welds. The penetrating characteristic of neutrons permits mapping of strain patterns with a spatial resolution approaching 1mm at depths of 20mm in steels. While the overall patterns of the residual stress tensor in a weld are understood, the detailed patterns depend on welding process parameters and the effects of solid state transformation. The residual strain profiles in two multi-pass austenitic welds and a ferritic steel weld are presented. The stress-free lattice parameters within the fusion zone and the adjacent heat affected zone in the two austenitic welds show that the interpretation of residual stress from strains are affected by welding parameters. An interpretation of the residual strain pattern in the ferritic steel plate can be made using the strain measurements of a Gleeble test bar which has undergone the solid state austenite decomposition.

  8. Analysis of residual disease following preoperative radiotherapy versus initial surgery in endometrial carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, C.K.; Stryker, J.A.; Nahhas, W.A.; Cunningham, D.E.; Mortel, R.

    1982-02-01

    A clinicopathologic study of residual disease following pre-operative radiotherapy (RT) in 67 patients and initial surgery in 40 patients with early invasive endometrial carcinoma is presented. In 10%, extrauterine spread was found at operation. In 10% of patients, the histologic type, and in 19% the grade of tumor, differed between the curettage and hysterectomy specimens. Pre-op RT altered the depth of myometrial invasion and frequency of vascular invasion, but there was no evidence that irradiation itself affected the histologic type or grade of tumor. The patients with residual tumor after pre-op RT had significantly more cancer-related deaths than those without residual disease. The high risk factors were deep myometrial invasion and residual disease outside the uterus. Vascular invasion did not affect the prognosis in this series. The importance of surgical-pathologic staging by initial surgery is discussed.

  9. Identification of kinetically hot residues in proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Demirel, M. C.; Atilgan, A. R.; Jernigan, R. L.; Erman, B.; Bahar, I.

    1998-01-01

    A number of recent studies called attention to the presence of kinetically important residues underlying the formation and stabilization of folding nuclei in proteins, and to the possible existence of a correlation between conserved residues and those participating in the folding nuclei. Here, we use the Gaussian network model (GNM), which recently proved useful in describing the dynamic characteristics of proteins for identifying the kinetically hot residues in folded structures. These are the residues involved in the highest frequency fluctuations near the native state coordinates. Their high frequency is a manifestation of the steepness of the energy landscape near their native state positions. The theory is applied to a series of proteins whose kinetically important residues have been extensively explored: chymotrypsin inhibitor 2, cytochrome c, and related C2 proteins. Most of the residues previously pointed out to underlie the folding process of these proteins, and to be critically important for the stabilization of the tertiary fold, are correctly identified, indicating a correlation between the kinetic hot spots and the early forming structural elements in proteins. Additionally, a strong correlation between kinetically hot residues and loci of conserved residues is observed. Finally, residues that may be important for the stability of the tertiary structure of CheY are proposed. PMID:9865946

  10. Particulate residue separators for harvesting devices

    DOEpatents

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Wright, Christopher T.; Hess, John R.

    2010-06-29

    A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include a plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams which are formed by the harvesting device and which travel, at least in part, along the plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly which is located in partially occluding relation relative to the plenum, and which substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

  11. Methods of separating particulate residue streams

    DOEpatents

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Wright, Christopher T.; Hess, J. Richard

    2011-04-05

    A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include an air plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams that are formed by the harvesting device and that travel, at least in part, along the air plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly that is located in partially occluding relation relative to the air plenum and that substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

  12. Description of clean chip residual forest harvest and its availability for horticultural uses in the southeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Residual chipping material (also called clean chip residual or CCR) has potential use as a growth substrate in the nursery and greenhouse horticultural industries. A survey was conducted in the Southeast U.S. among companies conducting chipping operations on pine plantations for the production of pu...

  13. Residual mosquito barrier treatments on U.S. military camouflage netting in a southern California desert environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Treating perimeters of vegetation with residual insecticides for protection from mosquito vectors has potential for U.S. military force health protection. However, for current U.S. military operations in hot-arid environments with little or no vegetation, residual applications on portable artificial...

  14. Creation Of The Residual Stress By Influence Of Wear Of Cutting Tool And Their Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordík, Marek; Čilliková, Mária; Mrazik, Jozef; Martinček, Juraj; Janota, Miroslav; Nicielnik, Henryk

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper is analysis of turned bearing ring made of material 14109 (DIN 100Cr6) without heat treatment. For the analysis a mechanical destructive method was chosen. Analysis focused on existence and character of residual stresses after turning operation of bearing ring by tool with different level of wear. The experiment reveals the relationships between residual stress creation and cutting tool wear.

  15. Residual fatigue life of metallic materials with a long service life

    SciTech Connect

    Koupak, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    The concept of residual life is discussed as most widely used in assessing the additional resource of materials of power station structural elements after they have exceeded their calculated life. No methods have been developed which provide a highly reliable solution of numerical problems involved in determining the residual life of materials damaged in operation of steam-piping straight sections or their bends. Stuctural state of a material can not be predicted in time. The possibility of the use of the equation of linear summation for the evaluation of residual life is considered and presented.

  16. Performance of Silica Gel in the Role of Residual Air Drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jan, Darrell L.; Hogan, John A.; Koss, Brian; Palmer, Gary H.; Richardson, Justine; Linggi, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) is a necessary step in air revitalization and is often accomplished with sorbent materials. Since moisture competes with CO2 in sorbent materials, it is necessary to remove the water first. This is typically accomplished in two stages: bulk removal and residual drying. Silica gel is used as the bulk drying material in the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) in operation on ISS. There has been some speculation that silica gel may also be capable of serving as the residual drying material. This paper will describe test apparatus and procedures for determining the performance of silica gel in residual air drying.

  17. Partitioning Residue-derived and Residue-induced Emissions of N2O Using 15N-labelled Crop Residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, R. E.; Carverhill, J.; Lemke, R.; Knight, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Estimates of N2O emissions in Canada indicate that 17% of all agriculture-based emissions are associated with the decomposition of crop residues. However, research specific to the western Canadian prairies (including Saskatchewan) has shown that the N2O emission factor for N sources in this region typically ranges between 0.2 and 0.6%, which is well below the current IPCC default emission factor of 1.0%. Thus, it stands to reason that emissions from crop residues should also be lower than those calculated using the current IPCC emission factor. Current data indicates that residue decomposition, N mineralization and N2O production are affected by a number of factors such as C:N ratio and chemical composition of the residue, soil type, and soil water content; thus, a bench-scale incubation study was conducted to examine the effects of soil type and water content on N2O emissions associated with the decomposition of different crop residues. The study was carried out using soils from the Black, Dark Brown, Brown, and Gray soil zones and was conducted at both 50% and 70% water-filled pore space (WFPS); the soils were amended with 15N-labeled residues of wheat, pea, canola, and flax, or with an equivalent amount of 15N-labeled urea; 15N2O production was monitored using a Picarro G5101-i isotopic N2O analyzer. Crop residue additions to the soils resulted in both direct and indirect emissions of N2O, with residue derived emissions (RDE; measured as 15N2O) generally exceeding residue-induced emissions (RIE) at 50% WFPS—with RDEs ranging from 42% to 88% (mean = 58%) of the total N2O. Conversely, at 70% WFPS, RDEs were generally lower than RIEs—ranging from 21% to 83% (mean = 48%). Whereas both water content and soil type had an impact on N2O production, there was a clear and consistent trend in the emission factors for the residues; i.e., emissions were always greatest for the canola residue and lowest for the wheat residue and urea fertilizer; and intermediate for pea

  18. Progress in stabilization of plutonium and residues since DNFSB recommendation 94-1

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, J.M.; Dustin, D.F.

    1998-03-03

    There are approximately 100 metric tons of residues at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site containing approximately 3 metric tons of plutonium. The residues are byproducts of past plutonium operations incinerator ash; pyrochemical salts; graphite; sand, slag, and crucible; and miscellaneous forms of combustibles, glass, metal, and sludges. In September 1993, a report was released (Reference 1) which identified concerns with the chemical stability of the residues and with the integrity of packaging. In May 1997, the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board published recommendation 94-1 citing a concern for the residue stability and requiring that the possibly unstable residues be processed within 3 years and all others within 5 years. A risk categorization scheme was developed which assigned a numerical risk to each residue type based on the probability and consequence of occurrence of failures associated with the hazards identified. The residues were ranked for priority of stabilization actions. Urgent concerns were resolved. All residue drums were vented to eliminate the potential for hydrogen and other explosive gas accumulation. Leaded rubber gloves and ion exchange resins were washed to eliminate the explosion potential. An aggressive characterization program was implemented to search for any additional safety or environmental concerns and to gain more definitive information concerning the choice of processes for stabilization and disposition of the residues. This paper provides background on the safety issues and summarizes recent characterization data. The residue processing and disposition plans, including schedule and cost, are also summarized in the paper. Finally, the paper addresses initiatives undertaken by Safe Sites of Colorado to accelerate the residue program.

  19. Operant Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Staddon, J. E. R.; Cerutti, D. T.

    2005-01-01

    Operant behavior is behavior “controlled” by its consequences. In practice, operant conditioning is the study of reversible behavior maintained by reinforcement schedules. We review empirical studies and theoretical approaches to two large classes of operant behavior: interval timing and choice. We discuss cognitive versus behavioral approaches to timing, the “gap” experiment and its implications, proportional timing and Weber's law, temporal dynamics and linear waiting, and the problem of simple chain-interval schedules. We review the long history of research on operant choice: the matching law, its extensions and problems, concurrent chain schedules, and self-control. We point out how linear waiting may be involved in timing, choice, and reinforcement schedules generally. There are prospects for a unified approach to all these areas. PMID:12415075

  20. Vacuum pyrolysis of bark residues and primary sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Pakdel, H.; Couture, G.; Roy, C. )

    1994-07-01

    Black spruce bark residues and primary sludges derived from the operation of the Daishowa pulp and paper plant in Quebec City, PQ, were processed by vacuum pyrolysis in a laboratory-scale batch reactor. The pyrolysis oil, water, charcoal, and gas were recovered and analyzed. The bark residues yielded 30.6% oil and 34.1% charcoal, and the primary sludges gave 40.1% oil and 30.1% charcoal on a feedstock air-dry basis. The oil phases recovered from the two pyrolysis experiments were fractionated into eight fractions; they were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Both pyrolysis oil samples had a high content of phenolic compounds. These oils contained various fine chemicals that have possible commercial potential. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as long- and short-chain carboxylic acids, are also present in both pyrolysis oils.

  1. An OFDM-Based Speech Encryption System without Residual Intelligibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Der-Chang; Chiu, Jung-Hui

    Since an FFT-based speech encryption system retains a considerable residual intelligibility, such as talk spurts and the original intonation in the encrypted speech, this makes it easy for eavesdroppers to deduce the information contents from the encrypted speech. In this letter, we propose a new technique based on the combination of an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) scheme and an appropriate QAM mapping method to remove the residual intelligibility from the encrypted speech by permuting several frequency components. In addition, the proposed OFDM-based speech encryption system needs only two FFT operations instead of the four required by the FFT-based speech encryption system. Simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of this proposed technique.

  2. Recovery of Lunar Surface Access Module Residual and Reserve Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notardonato, William U.

    2007-01-01

    The Vision for Space Exploration calls for human exploration of the lunar surface in the 2020 timeframe. Sustained human exploration of the lunar surface will require supply, storage, and distribution of consumables for a variety of mission elements. These elements include propulsion systems for ascent and descent stages, life support for habitats and extra-vehicular activity, and reactants for power systems. NASA KSC has been tasked to develop technologies and strategies for consumables transfer for lunar exploration as part of the Exploration Technology Development Program. This paper will investigate details of operational concepts to scavenge residual propellants from the lunar descent propulsion system. Predictions on the mass of residuals and reserves are made. Estimates of heat transfer and boiloff rates are calculated and transient tank thermodynamic issues post-engine cutoff are modeled. Recovery and storage options including cryogenic liquid, vapor and water are discussed, and possible reuse of LSAM assets is presented.

  3. Assessment of secondary crop residues. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ashare, E.; Leuschner, A.P.; West, C.E.; Langton, B.

    1981-03-01

    This report is the first of three reports assessing the feasibility of converting secondary agricultural residues to energy in the form of either methane gas or ethyl alcohol. Secondary agricultural residues are defined in this study as those residues resulting from biomass processing to produce primary products; e.g., whey from cheese processing, vegetable processing wastes, residues from paper pulping, etc. This report summarizes the first two phases of this study, data compilation, and evaluation. Subsequent reports will analyze the technical and economic feasibility of converting these residues to energy and the implementability of this technology. The industries for which data has been compiled in this report include vegetable, fruit, seafood, meat, poultry, and dairy processing and the pulp, paper, and paperboard industry. The data collected include raw product input, final processed product output, residue types, and quantity, residue concentration, biodegradability, seasonality of production, and geographic distribution of processing facilities. In general, these industries produce a relatively solid residue ranging in total solids concentration from 10 to 50% and a dilute liquid residue with an organic content (measured as COD or BOD) ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand mg/l. Due to the significant quantities of residues generated in each of the industries, it appears that the potential exists for generating a substantial quantity of energy. For a particular industry this quantity of energy can range from only one percent upwards to nearly thirty-five percent of the total processing energy required. The total processing energy required for the industries included in this study is approximately 2.5 quads per year. The potential energy which can be generated from these industrial residues will be 0.05 to 0.10 quads per year or approximately 2 to 4 percent of the total demand.

  4. A Benchmark Study on Casting Residual Stress

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Eric M.; Watkins, Thomas R; Schmidlin, Joshua E; Dutler, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Stringent regulatory requirements, such as Tier IV norms, have pushed the cast iron for automotive applications to its limit. The castings need to be designed with closer tolerances by incorporating hitherto unknowns, such as residual stresses arising due to thermal gradients, phase and microstructural changes during solidification phenomenon. Residual stresses were earlier neglected in the casting designs by incorporating large factors of safety. Experimental measurement of residual stress in a casting through neutron or X-ray diffraction, sectioning or hole drilling, magnetic, electric or photoelastic measurements is very difficult and time consuming exercise. A detailed multi-physics model, incorporating thermo-mechanical and phase transformation phenomenon, provides an attractive alternative to assess the residual stresses generated during casting. However, before relying on the simulation methodology, it is important to rigorously validate the prediction capability by comparing it to experimental measurements. In the present work, a benchmark study was undertaken for casting residual stress measurements through neutron diffraction, which was subsequently used to validate the accuracy of simulation prediction. The stress lattice specimen geometry was designed such that subsequent castings would generate adequate residual stresses during solidification and cooling, without any cracks. The residual stresses in the cast specimen were measured using neutron diffraction. Considering the difficulty in accessing the neutron diffraction facility, these measurements can be considered as benchmark for casting simulation validations. Simulations were performed using the identical specimen geometry and casting conditions for predictions of residual stresses. The simulation predictions were found to agree well with the experimentally measured residual stresses. The experimentally validated model can be subsequently used to predict residual stresses in different cast

  5. Monitoring of residual stresses in injection-molded plastics with holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Lilia A.; Hornberger, Lee E.

    2002-01-01

    Residual stresses are often trapped in injection-molded plastic parts due to the rapid cooling of the material in this manufacturing process. These stresses are a common source of failure in plastic components in automobiles, appliances and computers and are difficult to measure with conventional residual-stress experimental methods. Real-time holographic interferometry appears to be a viable technique to identify and monitor these stresses in plastic parts. In this investigation, holographic interferometry was used to monitor the relaxation of residual stresses in the plastic-molded actuator arm of a computer hard drive. In the first phase of this study, the relaxation of these residual stresses as a function of temperature was observed. In the second phase, the time to completely relax the residual stresses in the plastic part at an elevated temperature, the annealing temperature, was determined. In the third phase of this investigation, the rate of relaxation of these residual stresses as a function of time at various operating temperatures, was studied. Based on the results of this study, holographic interferometry appears to be a powerful research tool in the study of residual stresses in plastic parts. It also has the potential to be a practical tool for the inspection of manufactured plastic parts for the presence of residual stress.

  6. Assessing item fit for unidimensional item response theory models using residuals from estimated item response functions.

    PubMed

    Haberman, Shelby J; Sinharay, Sandip; Chon, Kyong Hee

    2013-07-01

    Residual analysis (e.g. Hambleton & Swaminathan, Item response theory: principles and applications, Kluwer Academic, Boston, 1985; Hambleton, Swaminathan, & Rogers, Fundamentals of item response theory, Sage, Newbury Park, 1991) is a popular method to assess fit of item response theory (IRT) models. We suggest a form of residual analysis that may be applied to assess item fit for unidimensional IRT models. The residual analysis consists of a comparison of the maximum-likelihood estimate of the item characteristic curve with an alternative ratio estimate of the item characteristic curve. The large sample distribution of the residual is proved to be standardized normal when the IRT model fits the data. We compare the performance of our suggested residual to the standardized residual of Hambleton et al. (Fundamentals of item response theory, Sage, Newbury Park, 1991) in a detailed simulation study. We then calculate our suggested residuals using data from an operational test. The residuals appear to be useful in assessing the item fit for unidimensional IRT models. PMID:25106393

  7. Molecular bacterial diversity of a forest soil under residue management regimes in subtropical Australia.

    PubMed

    He, Jizheng; Xu, Zhihong; Hughes, Jane

    2006-01-01

    A major operational change in exotic pine plantations of subtropical Australia has been the decision to retain postharvest residues on site. A long-term field experiment was established in February 1996 to examine the impacts of residue management regimes [i.e. the postharvest residues removed (G0R), natural amount of residues retained (G1R) and residue quantity doubled and retained (G2R)] on tree growth (F1 hybrid pine) and sustainable soil management. Twelve soil samples, which included the above three residue regimes with four replicates, were collected at plantation age 6.4 years. A 16S rRNA gene clone library was established following soil community DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction amplification and cloning. A total of 324 clones, including 27 from each sample, were randomly selected and sequenced to represent the bacterial composition and diversity of the clone library and thus the soil bacterial community under the residue management regimes. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that Acidobacteria (37.6%) and Proteobacteria (35.6%) were the dominant components of the soil bacterial community, followed by Actinobacteria (14.7%), Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia (7.3%), Unclassified Bacteria (3.8%) and Gemmatimonadetes (1.0%). Analysis of molecular variance revealed that there was no significant difference in bacterial composition and diversity among the residue management regimes or their replicated samples. PMID:16420613

  8. Characterization Report on Sand, Slag, and Crucible Residues and on Fluoride Residues

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, A.M.

    1999-02-10

    This paper reports on the chemical characterization of the sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C) residues and the fluoride residues that may be shipped from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) to Savannah River Site (SRS).

  9. 46 CFR 153.1608 - Calculation of total NLS residue and clingage NLS residue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MATERIALS Test and Calculation Procedures for Determining Stripping Quantity, Clingage NLS Residue, and... NLS residue for each tank is calculated by adding the stripping quantity and the clingage NLS...

  10. 46 CFR 153.1608 - Calculation of total NLS residue and clingage NLS residue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MATERIALS Test and Calculation Procedures for Determining Stripping Quantity, Clingage NLS Residue, and... NLS residue for each tank is calculated by adding the stripping quantity and the clingage NLS...

  11. 46 CFR 153.1608 - Calculation of total NLS residue and clingage NLS residue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MATERIALS Test and Calculation Procedures for Determining Stripping Quantity, Clingage NLS Residue, and... NLS residue for each tank is calculated by adding the stripping quantity and the clingage NLS...

  12. 46 CFR 153.1608 - Calculation of total NLS residue and clingage NLS residue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MATERIALS Test and Calculation Procedures for Determining Stripping Quantity, Clingage NLS Residue, and... NLS residue for each tank is calculated by adding the stripping quantity and the clingage NLS...

  13. Problems, Perseverance, and Mathematical Residue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thom, Jennifer S.; Pirie, Susan E. B.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a study in which three 3rd grade students were presented with the volume of cuboids. Examines the problem solving actions students demonstrate and analyzes students' strategies and solutions. Explores the connection between spatial structuring and the use of numerical operation. Considers perseverance and control emerging when solving…

  14. Gunshot residue, ten years later.

    PubMed

    Wilber, C G; Lantz, R K; Sulik, P L

    1991-09-01

    Gunshot residues may be central to a competent reconstruction of a shooting incident. When a young boy was shot in the neck by a playmate using a .22-caliber single-action revolver, permanent paralysis from mid-thorax downward ensued. Ten years later the victim sued the importer, the vendor, the German manufacturer, and the shooter's family. Investigative reports indicated "horseplay" and questionable emergency medical team care. Depositions were contradictory. The entry wound, removed at surgery, was fixed and processed for slides. The histopathologist referred to "black pigment granules" in the wound track. The 10-year-old slides and block were retrieved. The coverslip was removed from a representative slide that was examined under the scanning, x-ray dispersive microscope. The black granules contained amounts of lead, barium, and antimony far beyond any normal range. The firing range had to have been no greater than 6-12 in (15.24-30.48 cm). The case was promptly settled out of court. PMID:1750390

  15. The Gatekeeper Residue and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ryan; Song, Yifan; Fox, Anna M.W.; Hillesland, Heidi K.; Zhang, Zhongsheng; Vidadala, RamaSubbaRao; Merritt, Ethan A.; Lau, Audrey O.T.; Maly, Dustin J.; Fan, Erkang; Barrett, Lynn K.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Ojo, Kayode K.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Specific roles of individual CDPKs vary, but in general, they mediate essential biological functions necessary for parasite's survival. A comparative analysis of the structural-activity relationships (SAR) of Neospora caninum, Eimeria tenella and Babesia bovis Calcium-dependent Protein kinases (CDPKs) together with those of Plasmodium falciparum, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Toxoplasma gondii was performed by screening against 333 Bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs). Structural modeling and experimental data revealed that residues other than the gatekeeper influence compound-protein interactions resulting in distinct sensitivity profiles. We subsequently defined potential amino-acid structural influences within the ATP binding cavity for each orthologue necessary for consideration in the development of broad-spectrum apicomplexan CDPK inhibitors. Although the BKI library was developed for specific inhibition of glycine gatekeeper CDPKs combined with low inhibition of threonine gatekeeper human SRC kinase; some library compounds exhibit activity against serine or threonine containing CDPKs. Divergent BKI sensitivity of CDPK homologs could be explained on the basis of differences in the size and orientation of the hydrophobic pocket and specific variation at other amino-acid positions within the ATP binding cavity. In particular, BbCDPK4 and PfCDPK1 are sensitive to a larger fraction of compounds than EtCDPK1 despite the presence of threonine gatekeeper in all the three CDPKs. PMID:24927073

  16. Thermal Insulation from Hardwood Residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sable, I.; Grinfelds, U.; Vikele, L.; Rozenberga, L.; Zeps, M.; Luguza, S.

    2015-11-01

    Adequate heat is one of the prerequisites for human wellbeing; therefore, building insulation is required in places where the outside temperature is not suitable for living. The climate change, with its rising temperatures and longer dry periods, promotes enlargement of the regions with conditions more convenient for hardwood species than for softwood species. Birch (Betula pendula) is the most common hardwood species in Latvia. The aim of this work was to obtain birch fibres from wood residues of plywood production and to form low-density thermal insulation boards. Board formation and production was done in the presence of water; natural binder, fire retardant and fungicide were added in different concentrations. Board properties such as density, transportability or resistance to particulate loss, thermal conductivity and reaction to fire were investigated. This study included thermal insulation boards with the density of 102-120 kg/m3; a strong correlation between density and the binder amount was found. Transportability also improved with the addition of a binder, and 0.1-0.5% of the binder was the most appropriate amount for this purpose. The measured thermal conductivity was in the range of 0.040-0.043 W/(m·K). Fire resistance increased with adding the fire retardant. We concluded that birch fibres are applicable for thermal insulation board production, and it is possible to diversify board properties, changing the amount of different additives.

  17. 40 CFR 240.208-3 - Recommended procedures: Operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the quality of the bottom ash at least twice per shift and record in the operating log the estimated percentage of unburned combustibles. (b) If residue or fly ash is collected in a wet condition, it should be drained of free moisture. Transportation of residue and fly ash should be by means that prevent the...

  18. 40 CFR 240.208-3 - Recommended procedures: Operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality of the bottom ash at least twice per shift and record in the operating log the estimated percentage of unburned combustibles. (b) If residue or fly ash is collected in a wet condition, it should be drained of free moisture. Transportation of residue and fly ash should be by means that prevent the...

  19. 40 CFR 240.208-3 - Recommended procedures: Operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the quality of the bottom ash at least twice per shift and record in the operating log the estimated percentage of unburned combustibles. (b) If residue or fly ash is collected in a wet condition, it should be drained of free moisture. Transportation of residue and fly ash should be by means that prevent the...

  20. Tank 12H residuals sample analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L. N.; Shine, E. P.; Diprete, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.

    2015-06-11

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 12H final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Eleven Tank 12H floor and mound residual material samples and three cooling coil scrape samples were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August of 2014.

  1. Photoelastic measurements of residual stresses for NDE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redner, Alex S.

    1988-01-01

    Photoelastic measurements of residual strains are used extensively in the QC and inspection of transparent materials. A new method of measurements, based on Spectral Contents Analysis, is described in this paper. The method uses a personal computer for photoelastic data acquisition, eliminating personal skill and subjectivity. the new tool should make the measurements of residual strains for QC simpler and more reliable.

  2. Crop Residues: The Rest of the Story

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recent scientific publication stated that to remove CO2 from the atmosphere, the most permanent and rapid solution would be to sink crop residues to the ocean floor where they would be buried in deep ocean sediments. However, mitigating rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations by removing crop residu...

  3. Soil water evaporation and crop residues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop residues have value when left in the field and also when removed from the field and sold as a commodity. Reducing soil water evaporation (E) is one of the benefits of leaving crop residues in place. E was measured beneath a corn canopy at the soil suface with nearly full coverage by corn stover...

  4. BOOSTER CHLORINATION FOR MANAGING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Booster chlorination is an approach to residual maintenance in which chlorine is applied at strategic locations within the distribution system. Situations in which booster chlorination may be most effective for maintaining a residual are explained informally in the context of a ...

  5. 40 CFR 240.208 - Residue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Residue. 240.208 Section 240.208 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.208 Residue....

  6. 40 CFR 240.208 - Residue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Residue. 240.208 Section 240.208 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.208 Residue....

  7. 40 CFR 240.208 - Residue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Residue. 240.208 Section 240.208 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.208 Residue....

  8. 40 CFR 240.208 - Residue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Residue. 240.208 Section 240.208 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.208 Residue....

  9. RECOVERY OF URANIUM VALUES FROM RESIDUES

    DOEpatents

    Schaap, W.B.

    1959-08-18

    A process is described for the recovery of uranium from insoluble oxide residues resistant to repeated leaching with mineral acids. The residue is treated with gaseous hydrogen fluoride, then with hydrogen and again with hydrogen fluoride, preferably at 500 to 700 deg C, prior to the mineral acid leaching.

  10. 40 CFR 158.2290 - Residue chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Health Administration in 29 CFR 1910.1200 must accompany analytical standards. 3. Data are required if a... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Residue chemistry. 158.2290 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Antimicrobial Pesticide Data Requirements § 158.2290 Residue chemistry. (a)...

  11. 40 CFR 158.2290 - Residue chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Health Administration in 29 CFR 1910.1200 must accompany analytical standards. 3. Data are required if a... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Residue chemistry. 158.2290 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Antimicrobial Pesticide Data Requirements § 158.2290 Residue chemistry. (a)...

  12. CHARACTERISTICS AND TREATABILITY OF URBAN RUNOFF RESIDUALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was undertaken to determine the character of urban stormwater runoff (UR) residuals as well as handling and disposal techniques. Samples of UR residuals for this study were obtained from a field-assembled sedimentation basin in Racine, WI, swirl and helical bend solids...

  13. 40 CFR 240.208 - Residue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Residue. 240.208 Section 240.208 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.208 Residue....

  14. Does Bt Corn Really Produce Tougher Residues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bt corn hybrids produce insecticidal proteins that are derived from a bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis. There have been concerns that Bt corn hybrids produce residues that are relatively resistant to decomposition. We conducted four experiments that examined the decomposition of corn residues und...

  15. Distribution of veterinary drug residues among muscles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration sets tolerances for veterinary drug residues in muscle, but does not specify which muscle should be sampled for analysis. The goal of this research was to determine if antibiotic residue levels are dependent on muscle type. In this study, penicillin G (Pen G) d...

  16. Measurment Of Residual Stress In Ferromagnetic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkung, Min; Yost, William T.; Kushnick, Peter W.; Grainger, John L.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetoacoustic (MAC) and magnetoacoustic emission (MAE) techniques combined to provide complete characterization of residual stresses in ferromagnetic structural materials. Combination of MAC and MAE techniques makes it possible to characterize residual tension and compression without being limited by surface conditions and unavailability of calibration standards. Significant in field of characterization of materials as well as detection of fatigue failure.

  17. Unicystic ameloblastoma arising from a residual cyst

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Amit D; Manjunatha, Bhari Sharanesha; Khurana, Neha M; Shah, Navin

    2014-01-01

    Intraoral swellings involving alveolar ridges in edentulous patients are clinically diagnosed as residual cysts, traumatic bone cysts, Stafne's jaw bone cavity, ameloblastoma and metastatic tumours of the jaw. This case report describes a residual cyst in a 68-year-old edentulous male patient which was enucleated and histopathologically confirmed as a unicystic ameloblastoma. PMID:25199192

  18. Should the Functional Residual Capacity be Ignored?

    PubMed Central

    Selvi E, Chandra; K.V Rao, Kuppu; Malathi

    2013-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: The functional residual capacity was given the least importance than the other lung volume parameters. Studies have revealed the restrictive pattern of lung disease in patients with liver cirrhosis. We aimed to analyze the importance of the functional residual capacity and other lung volumes of cirrhotic patients. Subjects and Methods: Forty (40) patients with cirrhosis (Child’s-B) were enrolled in this study. The vital capacity was measured by an instrument called V02 Max 22. The other lung volumes which were measured were derived parameters. The functional residual capacity was measured by the nitrogen wash-out method. Results: The measured value of the functional residual capacity was below normal as compared to the reference value. The total lung capacity and the vital capacity were positively correlated with the functional residual capacity. The residual volume was found to be increased in twelve out of forty cirrhotic patients. Conclusion: The functional residual capacity can be determined by the compliance of the lung and the chest wall. The patients with a reduced functional residual capacity may be suffering from dyspnoea, probably due to the restrictive pattern of the lung disease. Hence, the reduced lung volumes of the subjects may be due to the abnormalities in the mechanics of ventilation. PMID:23450122

  19. Crop residues: a resource for whom?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop residues represent an important on-farm resource, which are now being considered a harvestable commodity contributing to bio-fuel production. This review of literature looks at how crop residues contribute to soil properties and processes, water conservation and quality, on-farm forage availab...

  20. Nationwide residues of organochlorines in starlings, 1974

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.

    1976-01-01

    Organochlorine residues in starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) from 126 collection sites were monitored during the fall of 1974. DDE, DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), and benzene hexachloride were present in all samples. Dieldrin, heptachlor expoxide, hexachlorobenzene, and oxychlordane were present in approximately 97% of the samples. DDE, dieldrin, and PCB residues in starlings were significantly lower than they had been in 1972.

  1. 48 CFR 1450.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Residual powers. 1450.104 Section 1450.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Extraordinary Contractual Actions 1450.104 Residual powers....

  2. 48 CFR 1450.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Residual powers. 1450.104 Section 1450.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Extraordinary Contractual Actions 1450.104 Residual powers....

  3. 48 CFR 1450.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Residual powers. 1450.104 Section 1450.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Extraordinary Contractual Actions 1450.104 Residual powers....

  4. 48 CFR 1450.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Residual powers. 1450.104 Section 1450.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Extraordinary Contractual Actions 1450.104 Residual powers....

  5. 48 CFR 1450.104 - Residual powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Residual powers. 1450.104 Section 1450.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Extraordinary Contractual Actions 1450.104 Residual powers....

  6. Residue management: Back to the roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Addressing the issues of climate change and sustainable biomass feedstocks have soil as a common theme. Managing crop residues is directly related to soil management. Understanding how soil and crop residue management interact provides insight on how to assure agricultural soil can serve as a carbon...

  7. Nationwide residues of organochlorines in starlings, 1974.

    PubMed

    White, D H

    1976-06-01

    Organochlorine residues in starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) from 126 collection sites were monitored during the fall of 1974. DDE, DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), and benzene hexachloride were present in all samples. Dieldrin, heptachlor expoxide, hexachlorobenzene, and oxychlordane were present in approximately 97% of the samples. DDE, dieldrin, and PCB residues in starlings were significantly lower than they had been in 1972. PMID:940731

  8. Residuals Management and Water Pollution Control Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.

    This pamphlet addresses the problems associated with residuals and water quality especially as it relates to the National Water Pollution Control Program. The types of residuals and appropriate management systems are discussed. Additionally, one section is devoted to the role of citizen participation in developing management programs. (CS)

  9. 46 CFR 153.1608 - Calculation of total NLS residue and clingage NLS residue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of total NLS residue and clingage NLS residue. 153.1608 Section 153.1608 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... MATERIALS Test and Calculation Procedures for Determining Stripping Quantity, Clingage NLS Residue,...

  10. Residuals and the Residual-Based Statistic for Testing Goodness of Fit of Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foldnes, Njal; Foss, Tron; Olsson, Ulf Henning

    2012-01-01

    The residuals obtained from fitting a structural equation model are crucial ingredients in obtaining chi-square goodness-of-fit statistics for the model. The authors present a didactic discussion of the residuals, obtaining a geometrical interpretation by recognizing the residuals as the result of oblique projections. This sheds light on the…

  11. Process for treatment of residual gas

    SciTech Connect

    Nolden, K.

    1980-01-01

    A process is disclosed for the treatment of the residual gases which are produced when hydrogen sulfide is reduced, by combustion, to elementary sulfur by the Claus process. The residual gases are fed through a heated conduit and gas scrubber, wherein the temperature of those residual gases are maintained above the melting point of sulfur. A portion of the raw coke oven gas condensate is admitted to the gas scrubber to be returned to the coke oven battery main from the flushing liquid separator as flushing liquor. The residual gases are then conducted through the coke oven gas purification process equipment along with the raw coke oven gas where the residual gases are intermixed with the raw coke oven gas prior to tar separation.

  12. Residual stress measurement in YBCO thin films.

    SciTech Connect

    Cheon, J. H.; Singh, J. P.

    2002-05-13

    Residual stress in YBCO films on Ag and Hastelloy C substrates was determined by using 3-D optical interferometry and laser scanning to measure the change in curvature radius before and after film deposition. The residual stress was obtained by appropriate analysis of curvature measurements. Consistent with residual thermal stress calculations based on the thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between the substrates and YBCO film, the measured residual stress in the YBCO film on Hastelloy C substrate was tensile, while it was compressive on the Ag substrate. The stress values measured by the two techniques were generally in good agreement, suggesting that optical interferometry and laser scanning have promise for measuring residual stresses in thin films.

  13. Applied Operations Research: Operator's Assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Stuart K.

    2015-01-01

    NASA operates high value critical equipment (HVCE) that requires trouble shooting, periodic maintenance and continued monitoring by Operations staff. The complexity HVCE and information required to maintain and trouble shoot HVCE to assure continued mission success as paper is voluminous. Training on new HVCE is commensurate with the need for equipment maintenance. LaRC Research Directorate has undertaken a proactive research to support Operations staff by initiation of the development and prototyping an electronic computer based portable maintenance aid (Operator's Assistant). This research established a goal with multiple objectives and a working prototype was developed. The research identified affordable solutions; constraints; demonstrated use of commercial off the shelf software; use of the US Coast Guard maintenance solution; NASA Procedure Representation Language; and the identification of computer system strategies; where these demonstrations and capabilities support the Operator, and maintenance. The results revealed validation against measures of effectiveness and overall proved a substantial training and capability sustainment tool. The research indicated that the OA could be deployed operationally at the LaRC Compressor Station with an expectation of satisfactorily results and to obtain additional lessons learned prior to deployment at other LaRC Research Directorate Facilities. The research revealed projected cost and time savings.

  14. Gunshot residue preservation in seawater.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Anne-Christine; Hoogewerff, Jurian; Athens, Josie; Obertova, Zuzana; Duncan, Warwick; Waddell, Neil; Kieser, Jules

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about the persistence of gunshot residue (GSR) in soft tissue and bones during decomposition in marine environments. For a better understanding, qualitative and quantitative data were obtained on GSR retention on soft tissue and bony gunshot wounds (GSWs). A quantity of 36 fleshed and 36 defleshed bovine ribs were shot at contact range with 0.22 calibre hollow point ammunition using a Stirling 0.22 calibre long rifle. Bone specimens in triplicate were placed in three environments: submerged, intertidal and in supralittoral zone. Sets of triplicates were recovered on day 3, 10, 24 and 38, and analysed with scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX), and inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The SEM-EDX recorded GSR-indicative particles surrounding the bullet entrance on all bone types (fleshed and defleshed) in all environments throughout the study. GSR-unique particles were only detected on the supralittoral bones. The ICP-MS analysis showed faster GSR loss on submerged than intertidal and supralittoral defleshed specimens. Fleshed specimens showed a faster GSR loss on intertidal than submerged and supralittoral specimens. In conclusion, the GSR disappeared faster from submerged and intertidal than non-submerged specimens. The difference of detection of GSR between analysed specimens (defleshed versus fleshed) disappeared upon defleshing. This study highlights the potential of finding evidence of GSR in a submerged body and the potential of microscopic and analytical methods for examining suspected GSW in highly decomposed bodies in marine habitats. PMID:26115226

  15. Recycling of auto shredder residue.

    PubMed

    Nourreddine, Menad

    2007-01-31

    Currently, about 75% of end-of-life vehicle's (ELV) total weight is recycled in EU countries. The remaining 25%, which is called auto shredder residues (ASR) or auto fluff, is disposed of as landfill because of its complexity. It is a major challenge to reduce this percentage of obsolete cars. The European draft directive states that by the year 2006, only 15% of the vehicle's weight can be disposed of at landfill sites and by 2015, this will be reduced to 5%. The draft directive states that a further 10% can be incinerated. The quantities of shredder fluff are likely to increase in the coming years. This is because of the growing number of cars being scrapped, coupled with the increase in the amount of plastics used in cars. In Sweden, some current projects are focusing on recycling of ASR material. In this paper some different alternatives for using this material are reported. The hypothetical injection of ASR into a blast furnace concentrating on ASR's effect to some blast furnace (BF) parameters has been completed using a blast furnace mass balance model. As a result, in principle, ASR can be used as reducing agent in the BF process if certain conditions are met. The particle size of ASR material must be controlled to ensure optimal gasification of the material in the raceway. Regarding the chemical composition of ASR, the non-ferrous content can affect the pig iron quality, which is difficult to rectify at a later point. The most attractive recycling alternative is to use the products obtained from pyrolysis of ASR in appropriate metallurgical processes. PMID:16600493

  16. Operation Galileo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Operation Galileo education program took off with the first of four flights on board a U.S. Air Force C-130 transport aircraft from Keesler Air Force Base, Miss. Teachers from Mississippi and Louisiana participated in the program which aims to enhance math and science education of high-risk students by allowing junior high and middle school teachers, students and parents to fly in cargo and tanker aircraft during routine training missions. The Air Force Reserve created Operation Galileo, which was implemented by NASA's Educator Resource Center at Stennis.

  17. Operation Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohl, K. Robert

    The needs of teachers for high-demand and seasonal films have been met by a cooperative effort of the Berks County Educational Television Committee, local school districts, the Berks and Suburban TV cable companies and the Berks County Intermediate Unit in a project called Operation Cooperation. Regionalization of the instructional media services…

  18. Operating Efficiently

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The ailing economy has spared few schools and universities. Faced with funding cutbacks, most education administrators have had to make difficult choices about where to allocate dwindling resources. Even in the best of financial times, educating students is the first priority. When money is tight, school maintenance and operations (M&O) programs…

  19. Reburning Characteristics of Residual Carbon in Fly Ash from CFB Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. H.; Luo, H. H.; Chen, H. P.; Yang, H. P.; Wang, X. H.

    The content of residual carbon in fly ash of CFB boilers is a litter high especially when low-grade coal, such as lean coal, anthracite coal, gangue, etc. is in service, which greatly influences the efficiency of boilers and fly ash further disposal. Reburn of fly ash through collection, recirculation in CFB furnace or external combustor is a possibly effective strategy to decrease the carbon content, mainly depending on the residual carbon reactivity. In this work, the combustion properties of residual carbon in fly ash and corresponding original coal from large commercial CFB boilers (Kaifeng (440t/h), and Fenyi (410t/h), all in china) are comparably investigated through experiments. The residual carbon involved was firstly extracted and enriched from fly ash by means of floating elutriation to mitigate the influence of ash and minerals on the combustion behavior of residual carbon. Then, the combustion characteristic of two residual carbons and the original coal particles was analyzed with thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA, STA409C from Nestch, Germany). It was observed that the ignition temperature of the residual carbon is much higher than that of original coal sample, and the combustion reactivity of residual carbon is not only dependent on the original coal property, but also the operating conditions. The influence of oxygen content and heating rate was also studied in TGA. The O2 concentration is set as 20%, 30%, 40% and 70% respectively in O2/N2 gas mixture with the flow rate of 100ml/min. It was found that higher oxygen content is favor for decreasing ignition temperature, accelerating the combustion rate of residual carbon. And about 40% of oxygen concentration is experimentally suggested as an optimal value when oxygen-enriched combustion is put into practice for decreasing residual carbon content of fly ash in CFB boilers.

  20. A Conceptual Evaluation of Sustainable Variable-Rate Agricultural Residue Removal

    SciTech Connect

    David J. Muth, Jr.; K. M. Bryden

    2012-10-01

    Agricultural residues have near-term potential as a feedstock for bioenergy production, but their removal must be managed carefully to maintain soil health and productivity. Recent studies have shown that subfield scale variability in soil properties (e.g., slope, texture, and organic matter content) that affect grain yield significantly affect the amount of residue that can be sustainably removed from different areas within a single field. This modeling study examines the concept of variable-rate residue removal equipment that would be capable of on-the-fly residue removal rate adjustments ranging from 0 to 80%. Thirteen residue removal rates (0% and 25–80% in 5% increments) were simulated using a subfield scale integrated modeling framework that evaluates residue removal sustainability considering wind erosion, water erosion, and soil carbon constraints. Three Iowa fields with diverse soil, slope, and grain yield characteristics were examined and showed sustainable, variable-rate agricultural residue removal that averaged 2.35, 7.69, and 5.62 Mg ha-1, respectively. In contrast, the projected sustainable removal rates using rake and bale removal for the entire field averaged 0.0, 6.40, and 5.06 Mg ha-1, respectively. The modeling procedure also projected that variable-rate residue harvest would result in 100% of the land area in all three fields being managed in a sustainable manner, whereas Field 1 could not be sustainably managed using rake and bale removal, and only 83 and 62% of the land area in Fields 2 and 3 would be managed sustainably using a rake and bale operation for the entire field. In addition, it was found that residue removal adjustments of 40 to 65% are sufficient to collect 90% of the sustainably available agricultural residue.

  1. Structure-based identification of catalytic residues

    PubMed Central

    Yahalom, Ran; Reshef, Dan; Wiener, Ayana; Frankel, Sagiv; Kalisman, Nir; Lerner, Boaz; Keasar, Chen

    2011-01-01

    The identification of catalytic residues is an essential step in functional characterization of enzymes. We present a purely structural approach to this problem, which is motivated by the difficulty of evolution-based methods to annotate structural genomics targets that have few or no homologs in the databases. Our approach combines a state-of-the-art support vector machine (SVM) classifier with novel structural features that augment structural clues by spatial averaging and Z-scoring. Special attention is paid to the class imbalance problem that stems from the overwhelming number of non-catalytic residues in enzymes compared to catalytic residues. This problem is tackled by: 1) optimizing the classifier to maximize a performance criterion that considers both type I and type II errors in the classification of catalytic and non-catalytic residues; 2) under-sampling non-catalytic residues before SVM training; and 3) during SVM training, penalizing errors in learning catalytic residues more than errors in learning non-catalytic residues. Tested on four enzyme datasets – one specifically designed by us to mimic the structural genomics scenario and three previously-evaluated datasets – our structure-based classifier is never inferior to similar structure-based classifiers and comparable to classifiers that use both structural and evolutionary features. In addition to evaluation of the performance of catalytic residue identification, we also present detailed case studies on three proteins. This analysis suggests that many false positive predictions may correspond to binding sites and other functional residues. A web server that implements the method, our own-designed database, and the source code of the programs are publicly available at http://www.cs.bgu.ac.il/~meshi/functionPrediction. PMID:21491495

  2. Structure-based identification of catalytic residues.

    PubMed

    Yahalom, Ran; Reshef, Dan; Wiener, Ayana; Frankel, Sagiv; Kalisman, Nir; Lerner, Boaz; Keasar, Chen

    2011-06-01

    The identification of catalytic residues is an essential step in functional characterization of enzymes. We present a purely structural approach to this problem, which is motivated by the difficulty of evolution-based methods to annotate structural genomics targets that have few or no homologs in the databases. Our approach combines a state-of-the-art support vector machine (SVM) classifier with novel structural features that augment structural clues by spatial averaging and Z scoring. Special attention is paid to the class imbalance problem that stems from the overwhelming number of non-catalytic residues in enzymes compared to catalytic residues. This problem is tackled by: (1) optimizing the classifier to maximize a performance criterion that considers both Type I and Type II errors in the classification of catalytic and non-catalytic residues; (2) under-sampling non-catalytic residues before SVM training; and (3) during SVM training, penalizing errors in learning catalytic residues more than errors in learning non-catalytic residues. Tested on four enzyme datasets, one specifically designed by us to mimic the structural genomics scenario and three previously evaluated datasets, our structure-based classifier is never inferior to similar structure-based classifiers and comparable to classifiers that use both structural and evolutionary features. In addition to the evaluation of the performance of catalytic residue identification, we also present detailed case studies on three proteins. This analysis suggests that many false positive predictions may correspond to binding sites and other functional residues. A web server that implements the method, our own-designed database, and the source code of the programs are publicly available at http://www.cs.bgu.ac.il/∼meshi/functionPrediction. PMID:21491495

  3. Radon transform on a space over a residue class ring

    SciTech Connect

    Molchanov, Vladimir F

    2012-05-31

    The functions on a space of dimension N over the residue class ring Z{sub n} modulo n that are invariant with respect to the group GL(N,Z{sub n}) form a commutative convolution algebra. We describe the structure of this algebra and find the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the operators of multiplication by elements of this algebra. The results thus obtained are applied to solve the inverse problem for the hyperplane Radon transform on Z{sup N}{sub n}. Bibliography: 2 titles.

  4. Fighting the Residual Polarization Loss in the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.; Ahrens, L. A.; Bai, M.; Brown, K.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J. W.; Lin, F.; Luccio, A. U.; MacKay, W. W.; Roser, T.; Tepikian, S.; Tsoupas, N.; Yip, K.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.

    2009-08-04

    A dual partial snake scheme has been used for AGS polarized proton operation for several years. It has provided polarized proton beams with 1.5x10{sup 11} protons per bunch and 65% polarization for the RHIC spin program. There is still residual polarization loss due to both snake resonances and horizontal resonances as shown in the data. Several schemes were tested or proposed in the AGS to mitigate the loss, such as putting horizontal tune into the spin tune gap, injection into a accelerating bucket, and tune jump across the horizontal resonances. This paper presents the experiment and simulation results and analyses.

  5. Characteristics and performance of several mass spectrometer residual gas analyzers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultzman, W. W.

    1974-01-01

    The operation and properties of various mass-spectrometer residual gas analyzers for use in vacuum measurements were analyzed in terms of efficiencies of ion extraction, ion separation and transmission, and ion collection. Types of instruments studied were magnetic sector, omegatron, quadrupole, and monopole. Experimental results presented include absolute sensitivity to argon, relative sensitivity to 10 gases, and cracking patterns for these gases. It is shown that the properties are strongly dependent on instrument range, resolution, and the particular voltages, currents, or field intensities used to control the instrument.

  6. Residual entanglement of accelerated fermions is not nonlocal

    SciTech Connect

    Friis, Nicolai; Koehler, Philipp; Bertlmann, Reinhold A.; Martin-Martinez, Eduardo

    2011-12-15

    We analyze the operational meaning of the residual entanglement in noninertial fermionic systems in terms of the achievable violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality. We demonstrate that the quantum correlations of fermions, which were previously found to survive in the infinite acceleration limit, cannot be considered to be nonlocal. The entanglement shared by an inertial and an accelerated observer cannot be utilized for the violation of the CHSH inequality in case of high accelerations. Our results are shown to extend beyond the single-mode approximation commonly used in the literature.

  7. Magnetic Barkhausen noise analysis of residual stress and carburization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, D. M.; Stevens, K. J.; Kaiser, A. B.

    2001-04-01

    Magnetic Barkhausen noise analysis is an effective non-destructive testing technique for determining both residual stress and carburization, with potential for improving the accuracy of remaining-life estimates of critical components in operational plant such as that used in thermal power stations and the petrochemical industry. We have measured Barkhausen noise in magnetic Durehete 1055 samples under stress and in carburized ethylene pyrolysis tubes. The Barkhausen power as a function of applied field is modeled using Sablik's function for Barkhausen power as a function of irreversible differential permeability (μirr); the Jiles-Atherton model of hysteresis is used to determine μirr as a function of applied field.

  8. [Occurrence of pesticide residues in raspberries in 2000-2005].

    PubMed

    Sadło, Stanisław; Szpyrka, Ewa; Rogozińska, Krystyna; Rupar, Julian; Kuźmenko, Arletta

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to present occurrence of pesticide residues in raspberries in 2000-2005. Gas chromatographic and spectroscopy methods were used. The most frequently found were tolylfluanid residues (43% of the analysed samples), procymidone residues (33%), pyrimethanil residues (15%), ethylenebisdithiocarbamates (EBDC) residues (8%) and iprodione residues (5%), while insecticides (mainly synthetic pyrethroids) cypermethrin residues (6%) and bifenthrin (4%). In 8 % of analysed samples EBDC residues exceeded the national Maximum Residue Level established for raspberries. On relatively the highest level EBDC occurred. PMID:18246655

  9. Residual stresses in injection molded products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, K. M. B.

    2015-12-01

    During the molding process residual stresses are formed due to thermal contraction during cooling as well as the local pressure history during solidification. In this paper a simple analytical model is reviewed which relates residual stresses, product shrinkage as well as warpage to the temperature and pressure histories during molding. Precise excimer laser layer removal measurements were performed to verify the predicted residual stress distributions. In addition, detailed shrinkage and warpage measurements on a large series of polymers and for different molding conditions were performed and are shown to compare well with the model predictions.

  10. Simple approach for ranking structure determining residues

    PubMed Central

    Luna-Martínez, Oscar D.; Vidal-Limón, Abraham; Villalba-Velázquez, Miryam I.; Sánchez-Alcalá, Rosalba; Garduño-Juárez, Ramón; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2016-01-01

    Mutating residues has been a common task in order to study structural properties of the protein of interest. Here, we propose and validate a simple method that allows the identification of structural determinants; i.e., residues essential for preservation of the stability of global structure, regardless of the protein topology. This method evaluates all of the residues in a 3D structure of a given globular protein by ranking them according to their connectivity and movement restrictions without topology constraints. Our results matched up with sequence-based predictors that look up for intrinsically disordered segments, suggesting that protein disorder can also be described with the proposed methodology. PMID:27366642

  11. Diazinon residues in insects from sprayed tobacco

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stromborg, K.L.; Beyer, W.N.; Kolbe, E.

    1982-01-01

    Pooled samples of tobacco hornworms collected from a field sprayed with 0.84 kg/ha of diazinon were analyzed for residues at various intervals after application. No residues of the toxic metabolite diazoxon were detected (sensitivity 0.5 ppm) in any sample. Only one sample exceeded 1.0 ppm of the parent compound and was collected 4 hours after spraying. Residues declined over time (P<0.01) and none were detected (sensitivity 0.1 ppm) 18 days after spraying. the potential hazard to birds eating these insects appeared to be minimal.

  12. Identification of residues by infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, T.E.; Ayala, N.L.; Jin, Hong; Drumheller, C.T.

    1997-12-31

    Mid-infrared spectroscopy of surfaces can be a very powerful technique for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of surface residues. The goal of this work was to study the application of diffuse reflectance mid-infrared spectroscopy to the identification of pesticide, herbicide, and explosive residues on surfaces. A field portable diffuse reflectance spectrometer was used to collect the mid-infrared spectra of clean surfaces and contaminated surfaces. These spectra were used as calibration sets to develop automated data analysis to classify or to identify residues on samples. In this presentation, the instrumentation and data process algorithms will be discussed.

  13. Simple approach for ranking structure determining residues.

    PubMed

    Luna-Martínez, Oscar D; Vidal-Limón, Abraham; Villalba-Velázquez, Miryam I; Sánchez-Alcalá, Rosalba; Garduño-Juárez, Ramón; Uversky, Vladimir N; Becerril, Baltazar

    2016-01-01

    Mutating residues has been a common task in order to study structural properties of the protein of interest. Here, we propose and validate a simple method that allows the identification of structural determinants; i.e., residues essential for preservation of the stability of global structure, regardless of the protein topology. This method evaluates all of the residues in a 3D structure of a given globular protein by ranking them according to their connectivity and movement restrictions without topology constraints. Our results matched up with sequence-based predictors that look up for intrinsically disordered segments, suggesting that protein disorder can also be described with the proposed methodology. PMID:27366642

  14. Partial stream digestion of residual municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    De Baere, L

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of residual municipal solid waste (MSW) has become more important than the digestion of source separated biowaste. More than 52% of the capacity available in Europe was designed for digestion of residual municipal waste by the end of 2006, while this was only 13% in 1998. Partial digestion of residual waste organics, by which only a part of the organics is digested, has been implemented to reduce the need for dewatering and subsequent wastewater treatment. The digestate coming from part of the organics is immediately mixed with the non-digested organic fraction. This organic fraction is drier and still contains a lot of energy which can be used to dry the digestate during the aerobic composting of the mixture of digested and undigested organics. Such a MBT-plant has been operating for over a year whereby 2/3 of the organics (including sludge cake) are digested (25,000 t/year) and mixed after digestion with the remaining 1/3 of the organics. Biogas production averages 125.7 Nm2 per ton fed and contained 56.2% of methane. The mixture of digestate and non-digested organics is aerated in tunnels during 4 to 6 weeks. The stabilized end product is landfilled, meeting the stringent German standards for inert landfills. By using a dry fermentation able to produce a digestate at 35% solids, there is no need for dewatering the digestate so that no wastewater is produced. PMID:18441435

  15. Some organochlorine pesticide residues in fish species in Konya, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kalyoncu, Leyla; Agca, Ihsan; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman

    2009-02-01

    The levels of organochlorine pesticides were measured in 18 fish species from Konya markets, Turkey. These species were selected on the basis of their importance to local human fish consumption. The extracted residues were analyzed on a micro capillary gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector. Total 14 different organochlorine pesticides were determined. These residues were detected in all fish species, except in trout, horse mackerel and bonito. DDT and its metabolites and HCH were the predominant contaminants in fish muscles. The mean concentrations of summation operator DDT were in the range between 0.0008 and 0.0828 microg g(-1). DDT was the predominant residue in Sparus aurata. Detectable levels of HCH, aldrin, and heptachlor were found in most samples. However, dieldrin, endrin, beta endosulfan, p-p' DDT, and p-p' DDD were not found in Salmo trutta. The mean of endrin ranged from 0.0040 microg g(-1) (Triglia lineate) to 0.0326 microg g(-1) (Trachurus trachurus). These results give no indication of important health risks associated with the consumption of these fishes in Konya markets. PMID:19103455

  16. Effect of kinetics on residue curve maps for reactive distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Venimadhavan, G.; Buzad, G.; Doherty, M.F.; Malone, M.F. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-11-01

    A class of models is derived for studying the effects of chemical kinetics on residue curve maps for reactive distillation. Activity-based rate and phase equilibrium expressions provide an accurate and thermodynamically consistent description of composition changes in nonideal, reacting vapor-liquid mixtures. For certain strategies of operation, which dictate the rate of product removal, the model equations are nonautonomous, leading to unusual dynamic behavior. However, for a certain special product removal policy, the effects of kinetics can be described by a single parameter, the Damkoehler number, which measures the rate of reaction relative to product removal. For small values of the Damkoehler number, the nonreactive simple distillation residue curve map is recovered and the singular points are the pure components and azeotropes in the nonreactive mixture. A bifurcation analysis shows the deformation and, in some cases, the disappearance of these singular points as the Damkoehler number is increased until the equilibrium reactive residue curve map is recovered at large values. A model problem for the reactive distillation of methyl tert-butyl ether from isobutene and methanol is solved.

  17. Modelling Of Residual Stresses Induced By High Speed Milling Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmaison, Olivier; Mocellin, Katia; Jardin, Nicolas

    2011-05-01

    Maintenance processes used in heavy industries often include high speed milling operations. The reliability of the post-process material state has to be studied. Numerical simulation appears to be a very interesting way to supply an efficient residual stresses (RS) distribution prediction. Because the adiabatic shear band and the serrated chip shaping are features of the austenitic stainless steel high speed machining, a 2D high speed orthogonal cutting model is briefly presented. This finite element model, developed on Forge® software, is based on data taken from Outeiro & al.'s paper [1]. A new behaviour law fully coupling Johnson-Cook's constitutive law and Latham and Cockcroft's damage model is detailed in this paper. It ensures results that fit those found in literature. Then, the numerical tools used on the 2D model are integrated to a 3D high speed milling model. Residual stresses distribution is analysed, on the surface and into the depth of the material. Various revolutions and passes of the two teeth hemispheric mill on the workpiece are simulated. Thus the sensitivity of the residual stresses generation to the cutting conditions can be discussed. In order to validate the 3D model, a comparison of the cutting forces measured by EDF R&D to those given by numerical simulations is achieved.

  18. Autofocus correction of SAR images exhibiting excessive residual migration.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2005-03-01

    Relatively small motion measurement errors manifest themselves principally as a phase error in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) complex data samples, and if large enough become observable as a smearing, blurring, or other degradation in the image. The phase error function can be measured and then deconvolved from the original data to compensate for the presumed motion error, ultimately resulting in a well-focused image. Techniques that do this are termed 'autofocus' algorithms. A very popular autofocus algorithm is the Phase Gradient Autofocus (PGA) algorithm. The nearly universal, and typically reasonable, assumption is that the motion errors are less than the range resolution of the radar, allowing solely a phase correction to suffice. Very large relative motion measurement errors manifest themselves as an unexpected additional shifting or migration of target locations beyond any deterministic migration during the course of the synthetic aperture. Degradation in images from data exhibiting errors of this magnitude are substantial, often rendering the image completely useless. When residual range migration due to either real or apparent motion errors exceeds the range resolution, conventional autofocus algorithms fail. Excessive residual migration is increasingly encountered as resolutions become finer, less expensive inertial sensors are used, and operating ranges become longer (due to atmospheric phenomena). A new migration-correction autofocus algorithm has been developed that estimates the excessive residual migration and applies phase and frequency corrections to properly focus the image. This overcomes the conventional constraint that motion errors not exceed the SAR range resolution.

  19. Engineered Surfaces for Mitigation of Insect Residue Adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siochi, Emilie J.; Smith, Joseph G.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Gardner, J. M.; Penner, Ronald K.; Connell, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance of laminar flow under operational flight conditions is being investigated under NASA s Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Program. Among the challenges with natural laminar flow is the accretion of residues from insect impacts incurred during takeoff or landing. Depending on air speed, temperature, and wing structure, the critical residue height for laminar flow disruption can be as low as 4 microns near the leading edge. In this study, engineered surfaces designed to minimize insect residue adhesion were examined. The coatings studied included chemical compositions containing functional groups typically associated with abhesive (non-stick) surfaces. To reduce surface contact by liquids and enhance abhesion, the engineered surfaces consisted of these coatings doped with particulate additives to generate random surface topography, as well as coatings applied to laser ablated surfaces having precision patterned topographies. Performance evaluation of these surfaces included contact angle goniometry of pristine coatings and profilometry of surfaces after insect impacts were incurred in laboratory scale tests, wind tunnel tests and flight tests. The results illustrate the complexity of designing antifouling surfaces for effective insect contamination mitigation under dynamic conditions and suggest that superhydrophobic surfaces may not be the most effective solution for preventing insect contamination on aircraft wing leading edges.

  20. Residual gas fluorescence monitor for relativistic heavy ions at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, T.; Gassner, D.; Minty, M.

    2013-10-01

    A residual gas fluorescence beam profile monitor at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has successfully recorded beam images of various species of relativistic heavy ions during FY2012 operations. These fully striped ions include gold, copper, and uranium at 100, 99.9, and 96.4GeV/n, respectively. Their beam profiles give an independent measurement of the RHIC beam size and emittance. We estimated their corresponding fluorescence cross sections to be 2.1×10-16, 1.8×10-17, and 2.6×10-16cm2, and obtained their rms transverse beam sizes of 0.36, 0.37, 0.24 mm for gold, copper, and uranium ions, respectively. They are the smallest ion beam width, thus lowest beam emittance, ever produced at RHIC or any other high-energy heavy ion colliders. These extremely small beam sizes may have reached a fundamental limit to residual gas fluorescence based beam profile monitor. Nevertheless, this beam diagnostic technique, utilizing the beam-induced fluorescence from residual gas where hydrogen is still the dominant constituent in nearly all vacuum systems, represents a passive, robust, truly noninvasive, monitor for high-energy ion beams.