Science.gov

Sample records for quasi-homogeneous initial states

  1. Kovalevskaya exponents and the space of initial conditions of a quasi-homogeneous vector field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Hayato

    2015-12-01

    Formal series solutions and the Kovalevskaya exponents of a quasi-homogeneous polynomial system of differential equations are studied by means of a weighted projective space and dynamical systems theory. A necessary and sufficient condition for the series solution to be a convergent Laurent series is given, which improves the well-known Painlevé test. In particular, if a given system has the Painlevé property, an algorithm to construct Okamoto's space of initial conditions is given. The space of initial conditions is obtained by weighted blow-ups of the weighted projective space, where the weights for the blow-ups are determined by the Kovalevskaya exponents. The results are applied to the first Painlevé hierarchy (2m-th order first Painlevé equation).

  2. Mirror Symmetry for Quasi-Homogeneous Singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathnakumara, Himal; Jarvis, Tyler

    2008-10-01

    I will present an introduction to mirror symmetry in the context of string theory. Then I will describe an instance of mirror symmetry for singularties defined by quasi-homogeneous polynomials in weighted projective spaces. Milnor rings and the FJRW (Fan-Jarvis-Ruan-Witten) rings associated with these singularities and their relation to the Landua-Ginzburg A model and the Landua-Ginzburg B model will be explained. Results of the calculations for certain singularities for which the mirror symmetry conjecture has been verified will be presented.

  3. Gravitational instability of a quasi-homogeneous plasma cloud with radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vranjes, J.

    1990-11-01

    The present consideration of small, propagating perturbations in the central region of a gas cloud takes radiative pressure into account and derives an instability criterion analogous to that of Jeans (1902). The basic state is treated locally as quasi-homogeneous; the first derivatives of all basic state quantities can accordingly be neglected, in keeping with the Poisson's equation describing the gravitational potential in the basic state. It is established that the inhomogeneity can act either to stabilize or destabilize the system, depending on the value of the second derivative of the basic state temperature.

  4. Far field of beams generated by quasi-homogeneous sources passing through polarization gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piquero, G.; Borghi, R.; Mondello, A.; Santarsiero, M.

    2001-08-01

    We analyze the polarization features of the beam, generated by a class of partially polarized quasi-homogeneous sources, which propagates through a polarization grating. Analytical expressions in the far zone for the beam coherence polarization matrix, the degree of polarization and the Stokes parameters are given. In particular, it is shown that, under some hypotheses, it is possible to completely and uniformly depolarize the beam in the far field. The influence of source parameters, such as the state of polarization, intensity and degree of coherence, on the degree of polarization and the Stokes parameters is also investigated.

  5. On the Limit Cycles Bifurcating from Piecewise Quasi-Homogeneous Differential Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shimin; Wu, Kuilin

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a class of piecewise smooth quasi-homogeneous differential systems are considered. Using the first order Melnikov function derived in [Liu & Han, 2010], we obtain a lower bound of the maximum number of limit cycles which bifurcate from the periodic annulus of the center under polynomial perturbation. The results reveal that piecewise smooth quasi-homogeneous differential systems can bifurcate more limit cycles than the smooth systems.

  6. Scattering of an electromagnetic light wave from a quasi-homogeneous medium with semisoft boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jianyang; Zhao, Daomu

    2016-08-01

    Based on the first-order Born approximation, the scattering of an electromagnetic plane wave from a relatively more realistic random medium, a quasi-homogeneous medium with semisoft boundary, has been investigated. The analytic expressions for the spectral density, the spectral degree of coherence and the spectral degree of polarization have been derived, and the effects of the characteristics of the medium and the polarization of the incident light wave on the far-zone scattered field are determined. The numerical simulations indicate that, with the increasing of the edge softness M of the medium, the spectral density presents a pattern with interference fringes, and the number, position and width of interference fringes can be modified by the parameter. It is also found that there is an obvious value saltation in the coherence profile. Besides, unlike the intensity and the coherence are significantly affected by the properties of the medium, the polarization of the scattered field is irrelevant to them due to the quasi-homogeneity and isotropy of the medium, and it is only connected with the polarization of the incident light.

  7. The ocean quasi-homogeneous layer model and global cycle of carbon dioxide in system of atmosphere-ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glushkov, Alexander; Glushkov, Alexander; Loboda, Nataliya; Khokhlov, Valery; Serbov, Nikoly; Svinarenko, Andrey

    The purpose of this paper is carrying out the detailed model of the CO2 global turnover in system of "atmosphere-ocean" with using the ocean quasi-homogeneous layer model. Practically all carried out models are functioning in the average annual regime and accounting for the carbon distribution in bio-sphere in most general form (Glushkov et al, 2003). We construct a modified model for cycle of the carbon dioxide, which allows to reproduce a season dynamics of carbon turnover in ocean with account of zone ocean structure (up quasi-homogeneous layer, thermocline and deepest layer). It is taken into account dependence of the CO2 transfer through the bounder between atmosphere and ocean upon temperature of water and air, wind velocity, buffer mechanism of the CO2 dissolution. The same program is realized for atmosphere part of whole system. It is obtained a tempo-ral and space distribution for concentration of non-organic carbon in ocean, partial press of dissolute CO2 and value of exchange on the border between atmosphere and ocean. It is estimated a role of the wind intermixing of the up ocean layer. The increasing of this effect leads to increasing the plankton mass and further particles, which are transferred by wind, contribute to more quick immersion of microscopic shells and organic material. It is fulfilled investigation of sen-sibility of the master differential equations system solutions from the model parameters. The master differential equa-tions system, describing a dynamics of the CO2 cycle, is numerically integrated by the four order Runge-Cutt method under given initial values of valuables till output of solution on periodic regime. At first it is indicated on possible real-zation of the chaos scenario in system. On our data, the difference of the average annual values for the non-organic car-bon concentration in the up quasi-homogeneous layer between equator and extreme southern zone is 0.15 mol/m3, be-tween the equator and extreme northern zone is 0

  8. Defect production and deuterium retention in quasi-homogeneously damaged tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Xu, Yuping; Zhou, Haishan; Li, Xiao-Chun; Song, Yin; Zhang, Chonghong; Li, Qichao; He, Chunqing; Luo, Guang-Nan

    2015-05-01

    To understand the deuterium (D) bulk retention behavior in plasma facing materials under reactor-relevant conditions, tungsten (W) foils were irradiated with 122 MeV 20Ne ions and then exposed to D2 gas at 773 K. A quasi-homogeneous distribution of atomic displacement damage to 0.3 dpa within a depth of 50 μm was produced in W using an energy degrader in the irradiation chamber. Results of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy showed a long positron lifetime component of ∼400 ps appeared after irradiation, indicating the formation of vacancy clusters with up to 12 vacancies in W. Thermal desorption spectra showed a broad D desorption temperature range (730-1173 K) with a high release peak at ∼1010 K for the irradiated W specimens. The amounts of D retained in the irradiated W were significantly larger than the annealed ones, which could be attributed to the trapping effects of the vacancy clusters formed by cascade collisions and the clustering of mono-vacancies.

  9. A Doppler centroid estimation algorithm for SAR systems optimized for the quasi-homogeneous source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Michael Y.

    1989-01-01

    Radar signal processing applications frequently require an estimate of the Doppler centroid of a received signal. The Doppler centroid estimate is required for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processing. It is also required for some applications involving target motion estimation and antenna pointing direction estimation. In some cases, the Doppler centroid can be accurately estimated based on available information regarding the terrain topography, the relative motion between the sensor and the terrain, and the antenna pointing direction. Often, the accuracy of the Doppler centroid estimate can be improved by analyzing the characteristics of the received SAR signal. This kind of signal processing is also referred to as clutterlock processing. A Doppler centroid estimation (DCE) algorithm is described which contains a linear estimator optimized for the type of terrain surface that can be modeled by a quasi-homogeneous source (QHS). Information on the following topics is presented: (1) an introduction to the theory of Doppler centroid estimation; (2) analysis of the performance characteristics of previously reported DCE algorithms; (3) comparison of these analysis results with experimental results; (4) a description and performance analysis of a Doppler centroid estimator which is optimized for a QHS; and (5) comparison of the performance of the optimal QHS Doppler centroid estimator with that of previously reported methods.

  10. Conditions for invariant spectrum of light generated by scattering of partially coherent wave from quasi-homogeneous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia; Wu, Pinghui; Chang, Liping

    2016-02-01

    Within the first-order Born approximation, the spectrum of light generated by the scattering of a partially coherent wave from a quasi-homogeneous (QH) medium is derived. In particular, the partially coherent incident wave is produced by Young's pinholes. It is shown that the spectrum of the scattered field is identical to the spectrum of incident plane waves if the Fourier transform of the normalized correlation coefficient (NCC) of the scattering potential satisfies a certain scaling law. The scaling law is valid when the medium size is sufficiently small compared with the space between Young' pinholes. Furthermore, comparisons are made between our conditions with the previous results.

  11. State Workforce Policy Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public/Private Ventures, Philadelphia, PA.

    Surging demand for workers, growing income inequality, and passage of welfare reforms have made work force development one of the United States' key national concerns. Public/Private Ventures has been working with various states to design work force development strategies that seek to address the concerns of many work force development specialists…

  12. Effectiveness of the Monte Carlo method in stereotactic radiation therapy applied to quasi-homogenous brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ki Mun; Jeong, Bae Kwon; Choi, Hoon Sik; Song, Jin Ho; Park, Byung-Do; Lim, Young Kyung; Jeong, Hojin

    2016-03-15

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of Monte Carlo (MC) method in stereotactic radiotherapy for brain tumor. The difference in doses predicted by the conventional Ray-tracing (Ray) and the advanced MC algorithms was comprehensively investigated through the simulations for phantom and patient data, actual measurement of dose distribution, and the retrospective analysis of 77 brain tumors patients. These investigations consistently showed that the MC algorithm overestimated the dose than the Ray algorithm and the MC overestimation was generally increased as decreasing the beams size and increasing the number of beams delivered. These results demonstrated that the advanced MC algorithm would be inaccurate than the conventional Raytracing algorithm when applied to a (quasi-) homogeneous brain tumors. Thus, caution may be needed to apply the MC method to brain radiosurgery or radiotherapy. PMID:26871473

  13. Effectiveness of the Monte Carlo method in stereotactic radiation therapy applied to quasi-homogenous brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ki Mun; Jeong, Bae Kwon; Choi, Hoon Sik; Song, Jin Ho; Park, Byung-Do; Lim, Young Kyung; Jeong, Hojin

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of Monte Carlo (MC) method in stereotactic radiotherapy for brain tumor. The difference in doses predicted by the conventional Ray-tracing (Ray) and the advanced MC algorithms was comprehensively investigated through the simulations for phantom and patient data, actual measurement of dose distribution, and the retrospective analysis of 77 brain tumors patients. These investigations consistently showed that the MC algorithm overestimated the dose than the Ray algorithm and the MC overestimation was generally increased as decreasing the beams size and increasing the number of beams delivered. These results demonstrated that the advanced MC algorithm would be inaccurate than the conventional Raytracing algorithm when applied to a (quasi-) homogeneous brain tumors. Thus, caution may be needed to apply the MC method to brain radiosurgery or radiotherapy. PMID:26871473

  14. Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettitt, Maureen; Prince, David

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative, an accountability system implemented in 2005-06 that measures students' gains in college readiness, college credits earned, and degree or certificate completion. The goal of the initiative is to increase educational attainment by focusing on the critical momentum points…

  15. On the initial state and consistency relations

    SciTech Connect

    Berezhiani, Lasha; Khoury, Justin E-mail: jkhoury@sas.upenn.edu

    2014-09-01

    We study the effect of the initial state on the consistency conditions for adiabatic perturbations. In order to be consistent with the constraints of General Relativity, the initial state must be diffeomorphism invariant. As a result, we show that initial wavefunctional/density matrix has to satisfy a Slavnov-Taylor identity similar to that of the action. We then investigate the precise ways in which modified initial states can lead to violations of the consistency relations. We find two independent sources of violations: i) the state can include initial non-Gaussianities; ii) even if the initial state is Gaussian, such as a Bogoliubov state, the modified 2-point function can modify the q-vector → 0 analyticity properties of the vertex functional and result in violations of the consistency relations.

  16. Implementing JOBS: Initial State Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, Jan L.; Lurie, Irene

    This report presents the findings from the first of three rounds of research in a projected 3-year study of the way state governments have begun to implement the new Job Opportunities and Basic Skills Training Program (JOBS). JOBS is a part of the Family Support Act of 1988 and provides employment, education, and training services that recipients…

  17. Anisotropic inflation with the nonvacuum initial state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emami, Razieh; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Zarei, Moslem

    2014-07-01

    In this work we study models of anisotropic inflation with the generalized nonvacuum initial states for the inflaton field and the gauge field. The effects of the non-Bunch-Davies initial condition on the anisotropic power spectrum and bispectrum are calculated. We show that the non-Bunch-Davies initial state can help to reduce the fine-tuning on the anisotropic power spectrum while reducing the level of anisotropic bispectrum.

  18. Final Report: Multi-State Sharing Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Begoli, Edmon; Boehmann, Brant; DeNap, Frank A

    2012-04-01

    In 2003 a joint effort between the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the U.S. Department of Justice created state and metropolitan intelligence fusion centers. These fusion centers were an effort to share law enforcement, disaster, and terrorism related information and intelligence between state and local jurisdictions and to share terrorism related intelligence between state and local law enforcement agencies and various federal entities. In 2006, DHS commissioned the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to establish and manage a groundbreaking program to assist local, state, and tribal leaders in developing the tools and methods required to anticipate and forestall terrorist events and to enhance disaster response. This program, called the Southeast Region Research Initiative (SERRI), combines science and technology with validated operational approaches to address regionally unique requirements and suggest regional solutions with the potential for national application. In 2009, SERRI sponsored the Multistate Sharing Initiative (MSSI) to assist state and metropolitan intelligence fusion centers with sharing information related to a wider variety of state interests than just terrorism. While these fusion centers have been effective at sharing data across organizations within their respective jurisdictions, their organizational structure makes bilateral communication with federal entities convenient and also allows information to be further disbursed to other local entities when appropriate. The MSSI-developed Suspicious Activity Report (SAR) sharing system allows state-to-state sharing of non-terrorism-related law enforcement and disaster information. Currently, the MSSI SAR system is deployed in Alabama, Kentucky, Tennessee, and South Carolina. About 1 year after implementation, cognizant fusion center personnel from each state were contacted to ascertain the status of their MSSI SAR systems. The overwhelming response from these individuals was that the MSSI

  19. Tunnelling from non-localised initial states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowcock, Peter; Gregory, Ruth

    1991-01-01

    An approach for calculating tunneling amplitudes from a nonlocalized initial state is presented. Generalizing the matching conditions and equations of motion to allow for complex momentum permits a description of tunneling in the presence of so-called classical motion. Possible applications of the method are presented.

  20. Kennesaw State University Classroom Technology Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHaney, Jane; Wallace, Deborah; Taylor, Beverley

    The purpose of the Kennesaw State University (KSU) Coca Cola/Board of Regents Classroom Technology Initiative was to develop preservice and inservice teachers' expertise in educational technology such as computers, presentation software, and multimedia and to teach educators to apply those skills to content instruction. Project goals were to…

  1. Fighting 'personhood' initiatives in the United States.

    PubMed

    Collins, Lee Rubin; Crockin, Susan L

    2012-06-01

    'Personhood' initiatives filed in many states within the United States threaten to impose potentially significant restrictions on infertility treatment, embryo disposition, pre-natal care, abortion, contraception, and stem-cell research, all through attempts to redefine a 'person' or 'human being' as existing from the moment of fertilization or conception, and endowed with the full legal and Constitutional rights of personhood. Virginia's recent, unsuccessful attempt to pass such legislation provides both a dramatic example of these efforts and valuable lessons in the fight against them by infertility advocates and others. Arguments over loss of infertility treatment seemed more persuasive to legislatures than did restrictions on abortion or stem cell research. Indeed, persuading legislators or voters that they could be 'pro-life' and still anti-personhood initiatives was a key strategy, and consumer efforts and media attention were instrumental. The most central lessons, however, may be the degree of intensity and coordinated strategy to shift public perception that lie behind these numerous state efforts, regardless of whether the actual initiatives are won or lost. PMID:22542604

  2. Initial state radiation experiment at MAMI

    SciTech Connect

    Mihovilovič, M.; Merkel, H.; Collaboration: A1-Collaboration

    2013-11-07

    In an attempt to contribute further insight into the discrepancy between the Lamb shift and elastic scattering determinations of the proton charge radius, a new experiment at MAMI is underway, aimed at measuring proton form-factors at very low momentum transfers by using a new technique based on initial state radiation. This paper reports on first findings of the pilot measurement performed in 2010, whose main goal was to check the feasibility of the proposed experiment and to recognize and overcome potential obstacles before running the full experiment in 2013.

  3. Grover's quantum search algorithm for an arbitrary initial mixed state

    SciTech Connect

    Biham, Eli; Kenigsberg, Dan

    2002-12-01

    The Grover quantum search algorithm is generalized to deal with an arbitrary mixed initial state. The probability to measure a marked state as a function of time is calculated, and found to depend strongly on the specific initial state. The form of the function, though, remains as it is in the case of initial pure state. We study the role of the von Neumann entropy of the initial state, and show that the entropy cannot be a measure for the usefulness of the algorithm. We give few examples and show that for some extremely mixed initial states (carrying high entropy), the generalized Grover algorithm is considerably faster than any classical algorithm.

  4. A note on initial state entanglement in inflationary cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanno, Sugumi

    2015-09-01

    We give a new interpretation of the effect of initial state entanglement on the spectrum of vacuum fluctuations. We consider an initially entangled state between two free massive scalar fields in de Sitter space. We construct the initial state by making use of a Bogoliubov transformation between the Bunch-Davies vacuum and a four-mode squeezed state, and then derive the exact power spectrum for one of the scalar fields. We demonstrate that an oscillatory spectrum hardly appears for the initially entangled state unless an ad hoc absolute value of the Bogoliubov coefficients is chosen.

  5. The glasma initial state and JIMWLK factorization

    SciTech Connect

    Gelis,F.; Lappi, T.; Venugopalan, R.

    2008-08-26

    We review recent work on understanding the next to leading order corrections to the classical fields that dominate the initial stages of a heavy ion collision. We have recently shown that the leading ln 1/x divergences of these corrections to gluon multiplicities can be factorized into the JIMWLK evolution of the color charge density distributions.

  6. Engaging Practitioners in State School Improvement Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massell, Diane; Goertz, Margaret E.; Barnes, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    For most of U.S. history, local communities were the primary arbiters of school quality. Beginning in the mid-twentieth century, states began assuming more and more control over school standards and outcomes. The question we seek to answer is whether and the extent to which a particular kind of local voice--the voice of education practitioners--is…

  7. What is the Shape of the Initial State?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Nishant; Holman, R.; Tolley, Andrew J.

    2013-07-01

    We argue that a plausible operational definition for an initial state of the universe is the initial quantum state of the curvature perturbations generated during inflation. We provide a parametrization of this state and generalize the standard in-in formalism to incorporate the structures in this state into the computation of correlators of the perturbations. Measurements of these correlators using both the cosmic microwave background as well as large scale structure probe different structures in the initial state, as they give rise to bi- and tri-spectra peaked on different shapes of triangles and quadrilaterals in momentum space. In essence, the shapes implied by the correlators feed directly into information about the shape of the initial state and what physics could have preceded inflation to set this state up.

  8. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Several State Initiatives. inForum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Eve

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the characteristics of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD); identify several federal-level FASD initiatives that emphasize education; and describe four state-level FASD initiatives that involve state education agencies (SEAs). An appendix at the end of the document provides a list of educational…

  9. 2014 Survey of States: Initiatives, Trends, and Accomplishments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shyyan, Vitaliy; Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Thurlow, Martha L.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the fourteenth survey of states by the National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO) at the University of Minnesota. Results are presented for the 50 regular states and eight of the 11 unique states. The purpose of this report is to provide a snapshot of the new initiatives, trends, accomplishments, and emerging issues…

  10. The Common Core State Standards Initiative: an Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate decision making in the Common Core State Standards Initiative as the change process moved from research, development and diffusion activities to adoption of the Common Core State Standards by the states. A decision-oriented evaluation model was used to describe the four stages of planning, structuring,…

  11. Novel QCD Effects from Initial and Final State Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2007-09-12

    Initial-state and final-state interactions which are conventionally neglected in the parton model, have a profound effect in QCD hard-scattering reactions. The effects, which arise from gluon exchange between the active and spectator quarks, cause leading-twist single-spin asymmetries, diffractive deep inelastic scattering, diffractive hard hadronic reactions, and the breakdown of the Lam-Tung relation in Drell-Yan reactions. Diffractive deep inelastic scattering also leads to nuclear shadowing and non-universal antishadowing of nuclear structure functions through multiple scattering reactions in the nuclear target. Factorization-breaking effects are particularly important for hard hadron interactions since both initial-state and final-state interactions appear. Related factorization breaking effects can also appear in exclusive electroproduction reactions and in deeply virtual Compton scattering. None of the effects of initial-state and final-state interactions are incorporated in the light-front wavefunctions of the target hadron computed in isolation.

  12. Update on the Common Core State Standards Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Bill, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    In this update the National Governors Association presents the testimony of Honorable Bill Ritter, Jr., as submitted to the U.S. House Education and Labor Committee. Ritter speaks about the Common Core State Standards Initiative, a joint project by the National Governors Association (NGA) and Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) to…

  13. State Policy Initiatives for Financing Energy Efficiency in Public Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business Officer, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Alternative financing methods (other than state financing) for developing cost-effective energy efficiency projects are discussed. It is suggested that by properly financing energy efficiency investments, state campuses can generate immediate positive cash savings. The following eight initiatives for maximizing energy savings potential are…

  14. Reading First: Lessons from Successful State Reading Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, David R.

    The Reading First initiative is a central part of the federal "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001. Reading First's primary goal is to improve reading instruction and student performance in kindergarten through grade 3. By March 2003 only half of the 50 state plans had been approved for funding. Approved states included seven Southern Regional…

  15. State Initiatives To Increase Compensation for Child Care Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twombly, Eric C.; Montilla, Maria D.; De Vita, Carol J.

    Noting that wages for child care workers are among the lowest in the U.S. labor force and that generally caregivers are offered few employee benefits, this paper summarizes proposals and programs in the 50 states and the District of Columbia to raise child care worker compensation. The paper classifies state-level initiatives into two categories:…

  16. Sensitivity of global model prediction to initial state uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miguez-Macho, Gonzalo

    The sensitivity of global and North American forecasts to uncertainties in the initial conditions is studied. The Utah Global Model is initialized with reanalysis data sets obtained from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and the European Centre for Medium- Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The differences between these analyses provide an estimate of initial uncertainty. The influence of certain scales of the initial uncertainty is tested in experiments with initial data change from NCEP to ECMWF reanalysis in a selected spectral band. Experiments are also done to determine the benefits of targeting local regions for forecast errors over North America. In these tests, NCEP initial data are replaced by ECMWF data in the considered region. The accuracy of predictions with initial data from either reanalysis only differs over the mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere, where ECMWF initialized forecasts have somewhat greater skill. Results from the spectral experiments indicate that most of this benefit is explained by initial differences of the longwave components (wavenumbers 0-15). Approximately 67% of the 120-h global forecast difference produced by changing initial data from ECMWF to NCEP reanalyses is due to initial changes only in wavenumbers 0-15, and more than 85% of this difference is produced by initial changes in wavenumbers 0-20. The results suggest that large-scale errors of the initial state may play a more prominent role than suggested in some singular vector analyses, and favor global observational coverage to resolve the long waves. Results from the regional targeting experiments indicate that for forecast errors over North America, a systematic benefit comes only when the ``targeted'' region includes most of the north Pacific, pointing again at large scale errors as being prominent, even for midrange predictions over a local area.

  17. Uniform distribution of initial states: The physical basis of probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang Kechen

    1990-02-01

    For repetitive experiments performed on a deterministic system with initial states restricted to a certain region in phase space, the relative frequency of an event has a definite value insensitive to the preparation of the experiments only if the initial states leading to that event are distributed uniformly in the prescribed region. Mechanical models of coin tossing and roulette spinning and equal a priori probability hypothesis in statistical mechanics are considered in the light of this principle. Probabilities that have arisen from uniform distributions of initial states do not necessarily submit to Kolmogorov's axioms of probability. In the finite-dimensional case, a uniform distribution in phase space either in the coarse-grained sense or in the limit sense can be formulated in a unified way.

  18. Enhanced Inflationary Trispectrum from a Non-Vacuum Initial State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agullo, I.; Navarro-Salas, J.; Parker, L.

    2015-01-01

    We work out the primordial inflationary trispectrum for curvature perturbations in models with standard kinetic terms, when the initial quantum state is not necessarily the Bunch-Davies vacuum state. The presence of initial perturbations enhances the trispectrum amplitude for squeezed configurations, in parallel to the bispectrum enhancement. For those squeezed configurations the trispectrum acquires the so-called local form, with a scale dependent amplitude that can get values larger than the prediction of the so-called Maldacena consistency relation. The enhancement factor could be as large as 106, and could reach the sensitivity of forthcoming observations, even for single-field inflationary models.

  19. Highlights from PHENIX-I: initial state and early times

    SciTech Connect

    Leitch, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    We will review the latest physics developments from PHENIX concentrating on cold nuclear matter effects, the initial state for heavy-ion collisions, and probes of the earliest stages of the hot-dense medium created in those collisions. Recent physics results from p + p and d + Au collisions; and from direct photons, quarkonia and low-mass vector mesons in A+A collisions will be highlighted. Insights from these measurements into the characteristics of the initial state and about the earliest times in heavy-ion collisions will be discussed.

  20. Initial states and infrared physics in locally de Sitter spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larjo, Klaus; Lowe, David A.

    2012-02-01

    The long wavelength physics in a de Sitter region depends on the initial quantum state. While such long wavelength physics is under control for massive fields near the Hartle-Hawking vacuum state, such initial states make unnatural assumptions about initial data outside the region of causal contact of a local observer. We argue that a reasonable approximation to a maximum entropy state, one that makes minimal assumptions outside an observer’s horizon volume, is one where a cutoff is placed on a surface bounded by timelike geodesics, just outside the horizon. For sufficiently early times, such a cutoff induces secular logarithmic divergences with the expansion of the region. For massive fields, these effects sum to finite corrections at sufficiently late times. The difference between the cutoff correlators and Hartle-Hawking correlators provides a measure of the theoretical uncertainty due to lack of knowledge of the initial state in causally disconnected regions. These differences are negligible for primordial inflation, but can become significant during epochs with very long-lived de Sitter regions, such as we may be entering now.

  1. Enhanced non-Gaussianity from excited initial states

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, R; Tolley, Andrew J E-mail: atolley@perimeterinstitute.ca

    2008-05-15

    We use the techniques of effective field theory in an expanding universe to examine the effect of choosing an excited inflationary initial state built over the Bunch-Davies state on the CMB bi-spectrum. We find that, even for Hadamard states, there are unexpected enhancements in the bi-spectrum for certain configurations in momentum space due to interactions of modes in the early stages of inflation. These enhancements can be parametrically larger than the standard ones and are potentially observable in future data. These initial state effects have a characteristic signature in l-space which distinguishes them from the usual contributions, with the enhancement being most pronounced for configurations corresponding to flattened triangles for which two momenta are collinear.

  2. Steady atomic entanglement in cavity QED without state initialization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Shengli; Zou Xubo; Yang Song; Li Chuanfeng; Guo Guangcan; Jin Chenhui

    2009-12-15

    We present a scheme for realizing a steady entanglement state between two trapped atoms, without requiring the initialization of atom-cavity system nor fine time-controlling of evolution dynamics. We show that high-fidelity entanglement of atomic state can be obtained in a period of time equal to a few times the inverse of atomic's spontaneous decay rate. The robustness against cavity decay kappa and cavity thermal field n{sub T} has also been examined.

  3. Washington State Student Achievement Initiative Policy Study: Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Davis; Wachen, John; Moore, Colleen; Shulock, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges launched a performance funding policy called the Student Achievement Initiative (SAI) both to improve public accountability by more accurately describing what students achieve from enrolling in community colleges and to provide incentives to colleges through financial rewards…

  4. Initiatives for Teacher Quality in New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, James H.; And Others

    Descriptions are given of six initiatives for improving teacher quality in New York State. Provisions, administration, funding, allowable uses of funds, and method of distribution are discussed for each of the programs. The proposed projects are involved in: a career ladder/internship program for teachers; an internship/master teacher program; an…

  5. State Scholars Initiative in Review: Promising Practices and Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In response to the demands of the changing economy and the business community's need for better-educated, more highly skilled workers, the U.S. Department of Education, through the Office of Vocational and Adult Education (OVAE), developed the State Scholars Initiative (SSI), which encourages students to take a rigorous course of study in high…

  6. State-of-the-Art in Open Courseware Initiatives Worldwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vladoiu, Monica

    2011-01-01

    We survey here the state-of-the-art in open courseware initiatives worldwide. First, the MIT OpenCourseWare project is overviewed, as it has been the real starting point of the OCW movement. Usually, open courseware refers to a free and open digital publication of high quality university level educational materials that are organized as courses,…

  7. Shock Initiation and Equation of State of Ammonium Nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, David; Sheffield, Steve; Dattelbaum, Dana; Chellappa, Raja; Velisavljevic, Nenad

    2013-06-01

    Ammonium nitrate (AN) is a widely used fertilizer and mining explosive commonly found in ammonium nitrate-fuel oil. Neat AN is a non-ideal explosive with measured detonation velocities approaching 4 km/s. Previously, we reported a thermodynamically-complete equation of state for AN based on its maximum density, and showed that near-full density AN did not initiate when subjected to shock input conditions up to 22 GPa. In this work, we extend these initial results, by presenting new Hugoniot data for intermediate density neat AN obtained from gas gun-driven plate impact experiments. AN at densities from 1.8 to 1.5 g/cm3 were impacted into LiF windows using a two-stage light gas gun. Dual VISARs were used to measure the interfacial particle velocity wave profile as a function of time following impact. The new Hugoniot data, in addition to updates to thermodynamic parameters derived from structural analysis and vibrational spectroscopy measurements in high pressure diamond anvil cell experiments, are used to refine the unreacted EOS for AN. Furthermore, shock initiation of neat AN was observed as the initial porosity increased (density decreased). Insights into the relationship(s) between initial density and shock initiation sensitivity are also presented, from evidence of shock initiation in the particle velocity profiles obtained for the lower density AN samples.

  8. Antenna subtraction at NNLO with hadronic initial states : double real radiation for initial-initial configurations with two quark flavours.

    SciTech Connect

    Boughezal, R.; Gehrmann-De Ridder, A.; Ritzmann, M.

    2011-02-01

    The antenna subtraction formalism allows to calculate QCD corrections to jet observables. Within this formalism, the subtraction terms are constructed using antenna functions describing all unresolved radiation between a pair of hard radiator partons. In this paper, we focus on the subtraction terms for double real radiation contributions to jet observables in hadron-hadron collisions evaluated at NNLO. An essential ingredient to these subtraction terms are the four-parton antenna functions with both radiators in the initial state. We outline the construction of the double real subtraction terms, classify all relevant antenna functions and describe their integration over the relevant antenna phase space. For the initial-initial antenna functions with two quark flavours, we derive the phase space master integrals and obtain the integrated antennae.

  9. Do initial conditions matter? A comparison of model climatologies generated from different initial states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spar, J.; Cohen, C.; Wu, P.

    1981-01-01

    A coarse mesh (8 by 10) 7 layer global climate model was used to compute 15 months of meteorological history in two perpetual January experiments on a water planet (without continents) with a zonally symmetric climatological January sea surface temperature field. In the first of the two water planet experiments the initial atmospheric state was a set of zonal mean values of specific humidity, temperature, and wind at each latitude. In the second experiment the model was initialized with globally uniform mean values of specific humidity and temperature on each sigma level surface, constant surface pressure (1010 mb), and zero wind everywhere. A comparison was made of the mean January climatic states generated by the two water planet experiments. The first two months of each 15 January run were discarded, and 13 month averages were computed from months 3 through 15.

  10. State and federal regulatory initiatives: Pending or underway

    SciTech Connect

    Nosenchuck, N.H.

    1994-12-31

    The author discusses some of the present and future hazardous waste management regulatory initiatives and also presents some of his personal views on hazardous waste management. The primary federal statute governing the regulation of solid and hazardous wastes is the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Subtitle C of RCRA, relating to hazardous waste management, has evolved into a command and control approach for hazardous waste generators and waste management facilities. The EPA, under RCRA, may authorize a state to administer and enforce a state hazardous waste program in lieu of the federal Subtitle C program.

  11. An Initiative to Improve Clozapine Prescribing in New York State.

    PubMed

    Carruthers, Jay; Radigan, Marleen; Erlich, Matthew D; Gu, Gyojeong; Wang, Rui; Frimpong, Eric Y; Essock, Susan M; Olfson, Mark; Castillo, Enrico G; Miller, Gregory A; Sederer, Lloyd I; Stroup, T Scott

    2016-04-01

    Clozapine remains the only medication approved for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. But underuse is the norm. In 2010, the New York State Office of Mental Health began a multifaceted initiative to promote the evidence-based use of clozapine. From 2009 to 2013, in the absence of a well-funded pharmaceutical marketing campaign, the proportion of new clozapine trials among all new outpatient antipsychotic trials increased 40% among adult New York Medicaid recipients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. The largest gains occurred in state-operated clinics. New York's experience demonstrates the feasibility of making clozapine more accessible to patients who stand to benefit most. PMID:26725299

  12. The solid state lighting initiative: An industry/DOE collaborativeeffort

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Steve

    2000-10-01

    A new era of technology is emerging in lighting. It is being propelled by the dramatic improvements in performance of solid state light sources. These sources offer an entirely new array of design aspects not achievable with current light sources. At the same time, their performance characteristics continue to improve and are expected to eclipse those of the most common light sources within the near future. High efficiency is one of these performance attributes motivating the Department of Energy (DOE) to work with the manufacturers of this new technology to create a program plan sufficiently comprehensive to support an industry-driven Solid State Lighting Initiative before Congress. The purpose of the initiative is to educate Congress about the potential of this technology to reduce the electric lighting load within the United States and, consequently, to realize the associated environmental benefits. The initiative will solicit congressional support to accelerate the development of solid state technology through investment in the research and development necessary to overcome the technical barriers that currently limit the products to niche markets. While there are multiple technologies being developed as solid state light sources, the two technologies which hold the most promise for application to general illumination are Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) and Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs). The form of these sources can be quite different from current sources, allowing exciting new design uses for the products. Being diffuse sources, OLEDs are much lower in intensity per unit area than LEDs. The manufacturing process for OLEDs lends itself to shapes that can be formed to different geometries, making possible luminous panels or flexible luminous materials. Conversely, LEDs are very intense point sources which can be integrated into a small space to create an intense source or used separately for less focused applications. Both OLED and LED sources are expected

  13. Initial-state splitting kernels in cold nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovanesyan, Grigory; Ringer, Felix; Vitev, Ivan

    2016-09-01

    We derive medium-induced splitting kernels for energetic partons that undergo interactions in dense QCD matter before a hard-scattering event at large momentum transfer Q2. Working in the framework of the effective theory SCETG, we compute the splitting kernels beyond the soft gluon approximation. We present numerical studies that compare our new results with previous findings. We expect the full medium-induced splitting kernels to be most relevant for the extension of initial-state cold nuclear matter energy loss phenomenology in both p+A and A+A collisions.

  14. Turning State Data and Research into Information: An Example from Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, David; Seppanen, Loretta; Stephens, Deborah; Stewart, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    This chapter discusses Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative, a new performance funding system for community and technical colleges. Its purposes are to improve public accountability by more accurately describing what students achieve from enrolling in state colleges each year and provide incentives through financial rewards to…

  15. The Initial State of a Primordial Anisotropic Stage of Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Minamitsuji, Masato

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the possibility that the inflationary period in the early universe was preceded by a primordial stage of strong anisotropy. In particular we focus on the simplest model of this kind, where the spacetime is described by a non-singular Kasner solution that quickly evolves into an isotropic de Sitter space, the so-called Kasner-de Sitter solution. The initial Big Bang singularity is replaced, in this case, by a horizon. We show that the extension of this metric to the region behind the horizon contains a timelike singularity which will be visible by cosmological observers. This makes it impossible to have a reliable prediction of the quantum state of the cosmological perturbations in the region of interest. In this paper we consider the possibility that this Kasner-de Sitter universe is obtained as a result of a quantum tunneling process effectively substituting the region behind the horizon by an anisotropic parent vacuum state, namely a 1+1 dimensional spacetime compactified over an internal flat torus, T2, which we take it to be of the form de Sitter2 × T2 or Minkowski2 × T2. As a first approximation to understand the effects of this anisotropic initial state, we compute the power spectrum of a massless scalar field in these backgrounds. In both cases, the spectrum converges at small scales to the isotropic scale invariant form and only present important deviations from it at the largest possible scales. We find that the decompactification scenario from M2 × T2 leads to a suppressed and slightly anisotropic power spectrum at large scales which could be related to some of the anomalies present in the current CMB data. On the other hand, the spectrum of the universe with a dS2 × T2 parent vacuum presents an enhancement in power at large scales not consistent with observations.

  16. 76 FR 20087 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; State Small Business Credit Initiative Allocation Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    .... Participating States will use the Federal funds for programs that leverage private lending to help finance small... Proposed Collection; Comment Request; State Small Business Credit Initiative Allocation Agreement AGENCY... INFORMATION: Title: State Small Business Credit Initiative Allocation Agreement. OMB Number:...

  17. Work fluctuations for Bose particles in grand canonical initial states.

    PubMed

    Yi, Juyeon; Kim, Yong Woon; Talkner, Peter

    2012-05-01

    We consider bosons in a harmonic trap and investigate the fluctuations of the work performed by an adiabatic change of the trap curvature. Depending on the reservoir conditions such as temperature and chemical potential that provide the initial equilibrium state, the exponentiated work average (EWA) defined in the context of the Crooks relation and the Jarzynski equality may diverge if the trap becomes wider. We investigate how the probability distribution function (PDF) of the work signals this divergence. It is shown that at low temperatures the PDF is highly asymmetric with a steep fall-off at one side and an exponential tail at the other side. For high temperatures it is closer to a symmetric distribution approaching a Gaussian form. These properties of the work PDF are discussed in relation to the convergence of the EWA and to the existence of the hypothetical equilibrium state to which those thermodynamic potential changes refer that enter both the Crooks relation and the Jarzynski equality. PMID:23004703

  18. The Initial State of a Primordial Anisotropic Stage of Inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Minamitsuji, Masato

    2015-06-12

    We investigate the possibility that the inflationary period in the early universe was preceded by a primordial stage of strong anisotropy. In particular we focus on the simplest model of this kind, where the spacetime is described by a non-singular Kasner solution that quickly evolves into an isotropic de Sitter space, the so-called Kasner-de Sitter solution. The initial Big Bang singularity is replaced, in this case, by a horizon. We show that the extension of this metric to the region behind the horizon contains a timelike singularity which will be visible by cosmological observers. This makes it impossible to have a reliable prediction of the quantum state of the cosmological perturbations in the region of interest. In this paper we consider the possibility that this Kasner-de Sitter universe is obtained as a result of a quantum tunneling process effectively substituting the region behind the horizon by an anisotropic parent vacuum state, namely a 1+1 dimensional spacetime compactified over an internal flat torus, T{sub 2}, which we take it to be of the form de Sitter{sub 2}×T{sub 2} or Minkowski{sub 2}×T{sub 2}. As a first approximation to understand the effects of this anisotropic initial state, we compute the power spectrum of a massless scalar field in these backgrounds. In both cases, the spectrum converges at small scales to the isotropic scale invariant form and only present important deviations from it at the largest possible scales. We find that the decompactification scenario from M{sub 2}×T{sub 2} leads to a suppressed and slightly anisotropic power spectrum at large scales which could be related to some of the anomalies present in the current CMB data. On the other hand, the spectrum of the universe with a dS{sub 2}×T{sub 2} parent vacuum presents an enhancement in power at large scales not consistent with observations.

  19. The Entrepreneurial State and Research Universities in the United States: Policy and New State-Based Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, John Aubrey

    2007-01-01

    The convergence of United States federal science and economic policy that began in earnest under the Reagan administration formed the First Stage in an emerging post-Cold War drive toward technological innovation. A frenzy of new state-based initiatives now forms the Second Stage, further promoting universities as decisive tools for economic…

  20. Initial State Helicity Correlation in Wide Angle Compton Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Donal; Keller, Dustin; Zhang, Jixie

    2015-04-01

    Whether pQCD can describe exclusive reactions at medium energies remains an area of active study. Real Compton scattering (RCS) has the potential to provide insight to this unsettled issue. A pQCD description of RCS requires the participation of three quarks and two hard gluons. However its predictions for the RCS cross sections disagree with data while calculations based on the handbag mechanism, involving a single quark coupled to the spectator through generalized parton distributions (GPDs), match the data well. The measured longitudinal polarization transfer parameter KLL is inconsistent with predictions of pQCD yet consistent with calculations of the handbag mechanism. Furthermore, Miller's approach, which includes quark and hadron helicity flip, contradicts pQCD where KLL =ALL , the initial state helicity correlation asymmetry, by finding that KLL ≠ALL . The first ever measurement of ALL (E12-14-006) has been approved to run in Jefferson Lab's Hall C and will be able to discriminate between the various models. E12-14-006 will utilize an untagged bremsstrahlung photon beam and the longitudinally polarized UVA/JLAB proton target. After a brief introduction to the physics, the experiment will be described and the expected results presented.

  1. Overdose Intake of Curcumin Initiates the Unbalanced State of Bodies.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Peiyu; Man, Shuli; Li, Jing; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Liming; Yu, Peng; Gao, Wenyuan

    2016-04-01

    Curcumin is the major active component of turmeric and widely used as a spice and coloring agent in food. However, its safety evaluation has been little investigated. To evaluate the 90-day subchronic toxicity of curcumin in rats, its general observation, clinical biochemistry, pathology, and metabolomics were evaluated. The results showed that curcumin induced liver injury through the generation of the overexpression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and the decreases of the levels of antioxidant enzyme SOD and detoxified enzyme GST. Meanwhile, for the self-protection of rats, curcumin treatment activated the transcription of Nrf-2 and elevated the expression of HO-1 to reduce tissue damage. Furthermore, curcumin significantly increased key mRNA levels of HK2, PKM2, LDHA, CES, Cpt1, Cpt2, FASN, and ATP5b and decreased levels of GLUT2 and ACC1 to enhance glycolysis and inhibit lipid metabolism and TCA cycle. Therefore, overdose or long-term intake of curcumin could initiate the unbalanced state of bodies through oxidative stress, inflammation, and metabolic disorders, which induces liver injury. Intermittent administration of curcumin is necessary in our daily lives. PMID:26978516

  2. Probes of initial-state interactions in dilepton angular distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Ralston, J.P.; Pire, B.

    1982-01-01

    We discuss the angular distribution of dileptons d sigma/d/sup 4/Qd OMEGA, emphasizing phase sensitivity as a probe of initial-state interactions in QCD. The coherent nature of Sudakov effects is discussed, along with the presence of imaginary parts related by analyticity. Angular-distribution structure functions which describe interference between longitudinal and transverse virtual photons, e.g., can be used to probe phase differences that depend on large momenta. These evolve according to exp(ic ln ln(Q/sup 2//lambda/sub QCD/sup 2/)) where Q/sup 2/ is a large scale. We report on a complete calculation at O(..cap alpha../sub s//sup 2/) of the q anti q ..-->.. ..gamma..* + gluons channel which confirms the cancellation of small (cutoff) scales, and describe a complementary experiment involving spin. We discuss the limit x ..-->.. 1 of the distribution d sigma/dQ/sup 2/dxdcos theta, and point out an unusual and interesting effect that a momentum-dependent phase can produce here.

  3. Equation of state, initiation, and detonation of pure ammonium nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, D. L.; Sheffield, S. A.; Dattelbaum, D. M.; Velisavljevic, N.; Stahl, D. B.

    2009-06-01

    Ammonium nitrate (AN) is a widely used fertilizer and mining explosive throughout the world. One of the more common explosives using AN is called ANFO, a mixture of AN prills and fuel oil in a 94:6 ratio by weight. The AN prills are specially made to absorb the fuel oil, forming a mixture that reacts under shock loading through a diffusion-controlled process, resulting in a non-ideal explosive with detonation velocities around 4 km/s. While there are a number of studies on ANFO, there are only a few studies relating to the equation of state (EOS) and detonation properties of pure AN - resulting mainly from studies of accidents that have occurred during transportation of large quantities of AN. We present the results of a series of gas gun-driven plate impact experiments on pressed AN ranging in density from 1.72 to 0.9 g/cm^3. Several of the high density experiments were performed in front surface impact geometry, in which pressed AN disks were built into the projectile front and impacted onto LiF windows. Additional experiments at low density have been done in ``half cell'' multiple magnetic gauge gun experiments. From this work a complete unreacted EOS has been developed, as well as some initiation and detonation information. Additional high pressure x-ray diffraction experiments in diamond anvil cells have provided a static isotherm for AN.

  4. State Space Initiation for Blind Mobile Terminal Position Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algeier, Vadim; Demissie, Bruno; Koch, Wolfgang; Thomä, Reiner

    2007-12-01

    Blind localization and tracking of mobile terminals in urban scenarios is an important requirement for offering new location-based services, handling emergency cases of nonsubscribed users, public safety, countering IEDs, and so forth. In this context, we propose a track-before-detect scheme taking explicitly advantage of multipath propagation in an urban terrain by using a priori information about the known locations of the main scattering objects such as buildings. This information is made available for localization and tracking by a real-time ray tracing technique based on a 2D geographic database. This allows the prediction of the directional and temporal structure of the received multipath components for an arbitrary transmitter position. We consider a single observing station where the direction and the relative time of arrival of the received multipath components can be estimated by an antenna array. By a likelihood function, which is algorithmically defined for a randomly distributed set of potential transmitter positions, these measurements are compared with those being expected by ray tracing. This likelihood function is the key component of a track-before-detect scheme providing initial state estimates for mobile transmitter tracking using a particle filtering technique.

  5. Consumer Satisfaction in Long-Term Care: State Initiatives in Nursing Homes and Assisted Living Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Timothy J.; Lucas, Judith A.; Castle, Nicholas G.; Robinson, Joanne P.; Crystal, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: We report the results of a survey of state initiatives that measure resident satisfaction in nursing homes and assisted living facilities, and we describe several model programs for legislators and public administrators contemplating the initiation of their own state programs. Design and Methods: Data on state initiatives and programs…

  6. BRIE: The Penn State Biogeochemical Research Initiative for Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, K. H.; Brantley, S. L.; Brenchley, J.

    2003-12-01

    Few scientists are prepared to address the interdisciplinary challenges of biogeochemical research due to disciplinary differences in vocabulary, technique, and scientific paradigm. Thus scientists and engineers trained in traditional disciplines bring a restricted view to the study of environmental systems, which can limit their ability to exploit new techniques and opportunities for scientific advancement. Although the literature is effusive with enthusiasm for interdisciplinary approaches to biogeochemistry, there remains the basic difficulty of cross-training geological and biological scientists. The NSF-IGERT funded Biogeochemical Research Initiative for Education (BRIE) program at Penn State is specifically designed to break down both disciplinary and institutional barriers and it has fostered cross-disciplinary collaboration and training since 1999. Students and faculty are drawn from environmental engineering, geochemistry, soil science, chemistry and microbiology, and the program is regarded on the Penn State campus as a successful example of how interdisciplinary science can best be promoted. There are currently 23 Ph.D. students funded by the program, with an additional 7 affiliated students. At present, a total of 6 students have completed doctoral degrees, and they have done so within normal timeframes. The program is "discipline-plus," whereby students enroll in traditional disciplinary degree programs, and undertake broad training via 12 credits of graduate coursework in other departments. Students are co-advised by faculty from different disciplines, and engage in interdisciplinary research facilitated by research "credit cards." Funding is available for international research experiences, travel to meetings, and other opportunities for professional development. Students help institutionalize interdisciplinary training by designing and conducting a teaching module that shares their expertise with a class in another department or discipline

  7. Health Care of Incarcerated Youth: State Programs & Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Linda S.; Sheahan, Paula M.

    This report presents the analysis and results of a survey of states' progress in meeting the goals and objectives of their state action plans on the health care of incarcerated youth. The survey questioned 48 juvenile justice professionals, health care professionals, and university faculty from across the nation concerning state progress toward…

  8. Development and Initial Psychometrics of the Korean Mood State Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang Min; Moon, Kyoung-Suk; Puig, Ana; Cho, Eunsoo; Lee, Sun Young; Back, Sun Hee; Woo, Yeon Kyoung

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe the development and psychometric properties of the Korean Mood State Inventory (KMSI), which is designed to measure the mood states of Korean college students. Factor structure, concurrent validity, and internal consistency of the KMSI scores are reported. Implications, limitations, and recommendations for future research are…

  9. Frequently Asked Questions: Common Core State Standards Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Common Core State Standards Initiative, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The document provides answers to some of the frequently asked questions about the Common Core State Standards, from how they were developed to what they mean for states and local communities. The questions are organized into the following categories: (1) Overview; (2) Process; (3) Implementation and Future Work; and (4) Content and Quality of the…

  10. Evolution of soap froth from an initial bubble crystal state to the scaling state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeto, K. Y.; Tam, W. Y.

    2000-02-01

    Soap froth evolution from an initial state consisting of mainly hexagons, to a scaling state with a time invariant distribution of cells is reported. Analysis of the two-dimensional cellular pattern as a function of time is performed using information entropy associated with the probability density function of the number of sides of the cell. We observe a period of self-organization in the cellular pattern, when the entropy is decreasing with time. To a good approximation, we also observed that the fractional entropy occupied by hexagons is time independent over the entire period of measurement, from transient, to self-organizing and the quasi-static scaling regime at long time. The universal curve relating the Aboav's parameter and the second moment of the probability density of number of edges is obeyed during the entire period of evolution. The resemblance of the pattern formation of soap froth to the evolution of bacteria culture is discussed.

  11. Evaluation of a State Initiative to Improve Child Care Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Mary A.; Riley, David A.; Adams, Diane; Edie, David

    2005-01-01

    Wisconsin's Early Childhood Excellence Initiative was a $15 million public policy effort designed in 2000 to increase child care quality for low-income children. An evaluation revealed significant improvement in classroom quality, the quality of caregiver interaction, and caregivers' beliefs about children following a complex multi-faceted…

  12. Small Island States Green Energy Initiative. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Khattak, Nasir

    1999-10-15

    This report covers the activities carried out during a one year period from 7/15/99 to 7/15/00 as part of the Small Islands Green Energy Initiative. The three activities were: 1) Energy Ministerial conference in the Caribbean; 2) Training session on renewable energy for utility engineers; and 3) Case studies compilation on renewable energy in the Caribbean.

  13. Understanding the nuclear initial state with an electron ion collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toll, Tobias

    2013-09-01

    In these proceedings I describe how a future electron-ion collider will allow us to directly measure the initial spatial distribution of gluons in heavy ions, as well as its variance ("lumpiness") in exclusive diffraction. I show the feasibility of such a measurement by means of simulated data from the novel event generator Sartre.

  14. Initial-state dependence of the quench dynamics in integrable quantum systems. III. Chaotic states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Kai; Rigol, Marcos

    2013-04-01

    We study sudden quantum quenches in which the initial states are selected to be either eigenstates of an integrable Hamiltonian that is nonmappable to a noninteracting one or a nonintegrable Hamiltonian, while the Hamiltonian after the quench is always integrable and mappable to a noninteracting one. By studying weighted energy densities and entropies, we show that quenches starting from nonintegrable (chaotic) eigenstates lead to an “ergodic” sampling of the eigenstates of the final Hamiltonian, while those starting from the integrable eigenstates do not (or at least it is not apparent for the system sizes accessible to us). This goes in parallel with the fact that the distribution of conserved quantities in the initial states is thermal in the nonintegrable cases and nonthermal in the integrable ones, and means that, in general, thermalization occurs in integrable systems when the quench starts form an eigenstate of a nonintegrable Hamiltonian (away from the edges of the spectrum), while it fails (or requires larger system sizes than those studied here to become apparent) for quenches starting at integrable points. We test those conclusions by studying the momentum distribution function of hard-core bosons after a quench.

  15. 77 FR 71344 - Texas: Final Authorization of State-initiated Changes and Incorporation by Reference of State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ...During a review of Texas' regulations, the EPA identified a variety of State-initiated changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). We have determined that these changes are minor and satisfy all requirements needed to qualify for Final authorization and are authorizing the State-initiated changes through this Direct Final action. The Solid......

  16. Stochastic switching of TiO2-based memristive devices with identical initial memory states

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we show that identical TiO2-based memristive devices that possess the same initial resistive states are only phenomenologically similar as their internal structures may vary significantly, which could render quite dissimilar switching dynamics. We experimentally demonstrated that the resistive switching of practical devices with similar initial states could occur at different programming stimuli cycles. We argue that similar memory states can be transcribed via numerous distinct active core states through the dissimilar reduced TiO2-x filamentary distributions. Our hypothesis was finally verified via simulated results of the memory state evolution, by taking into account dissimilar initial filamentary distribution. PMID:24994953

  17. Unusual initial and final state effects in quantum chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.A.

    1991-12-01

    We have constructed a number of fundamental tests which can be used to probe discrete symmetries, and their possible violations, in the required new physics'' beyond the standard model. On-going experiments with unpolarized e{sup {minus}}e{sup +} collisions contain many events for the production-decay sequence e{sup {minus}}e{sup +} {yields} Z{degrees}, {gamma}* {yields} {tau}{sup {minus}}{tau}{sup +} {yields} (A{sup {minus}X}) (B{sup +}X). From the beam referenced spin-correlation function for this sequence, the photon and Z{degrees} boson couplings of the tau lepton can be completely measured. There are four distinct tests for CP/T violation in Z{degrees} {yields} {tau}{sup {minus}}{tau}{sup +}, and in {gamma}* {yields} {tau}{sup {minus}}{tau}{sup +}. The Lorentz structure of the associated helicity amplitudes is very simple. In other research programs, we are (1) continuing to investigate our proposal that partons be identified with nearly degenerate, coherent quark-gluon jet'' states, and are (2) investigating the novel consequences of q-analogue quantization of quantum fields, and of a completeness relation for the q-analogue coherent states.

  18. 9 CFR 56.10 - Initial State response and containment plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .../H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.10 Initial State response and containment plan. (a) In order... and education programs regarding avian influenza. (b) If a State is designated a U.S. Avian Influenza Monitored State, Layers under § 146.24(a) of this chapter or a U.S. Avian Influenza Monitored State,...

  19. 9 CFR 56.10 - Initial State response and containment plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .../H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.10 Initial State response and containment plan. (a) In order... and education programs regarding avian influenza. (b) If a State is designated a U.S. Avian Influenza Monitored State, Layers under § 146.24(a) of this chapter or a U.S. Avian Influenza Monitored State,...

  20. 9 CFR 56.10 - Initial State response and containment plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .../H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.10 Initial State response and containment plan. (a) In order... and education programs regarding avian influenza. (b) If a State is designated a U.S. Avian Influenza Monitored State, Layers under § 146.24(a) of this chapter or a U.S. Avian Influenza Monitored State,...

  1. 9 CFR 56.10 - Initial State response and containment plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .../H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.10 Initial State response and containment plan. (a) In order... and education programs regarding avian influenza. (b) If a State is designated a U.S. Avian Influenza Monitored State, Layers under § 146.24(a) of this chapter or a U.S. Avian Influenza Monitored State,...

  2. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Solid-State Lighting Video

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Sunil; Edmond, John; Krames, Michael; Raman, Sudhakar

    2014-09-23

    The importance of U.S. manufacturing for clean energy technologies, such as solid-state lighting (SSL), is paramount to increasing competitiveness in a global marketplace. SSLs are poised to drive the lighting market, worldwide. In order to continue that competitiveness and support further innovation, the time to invest in U.S. manufacturing of clean energy technologies is now. Across the country, companies developing innovative clean energy technologies find competitive advantages to manufacturing in the U.S. The Department of Energy's Building Technology Office SSL Manufacturing Roadmap is just one example of how we support manufacturing through convening industry perspectives on opportunities to significantly reduce risk, improve quality, increase yields, and lower costs.

  3. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Solid-State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Sunil; Edmond, John; Krames, Michael; Raman, Sudhakar

    2014-09-23

    The importance of U.S. manufacturing for clean energy technologies, such as solid-state lighting (SSL), is paramount to increasing competitiveness in a global marketplace. SSLs are poised to drive the lighting market, worldwide. In order to continue that competitiveness and support further innovation, the time to invest in U.S. manufacturing of clean energy technologies is now. Across the country, companies developing innovative clean energy technologies find competitive advantages to manufacturing in the U.S. The Department of Energy's Building Technology Office SSL Manufacturing Roadmap is just one example of how we support manufacturing through convening industry perspectives on opportunities to significantly reduce risk, improve quality, increase yields, and lower costs.

  4. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Solid-State Lighting

    ScienceCinema

    Thomas, Sunil; Edmond, John; Krames, Michael; Raman, Sudhakar

    2014-12-03

    The importance of U.S. manufacturing for clean energy technologies, such as solid-state lighting (SSL), is paramount to increasing competitiveness in a global marketplace. SSLs are poised to drive the lighting market, worldwide. In order to continue that competitiveness and support further innovation, the time to invest in U.S. manufacturing of clean energy technologies is now. Across the country, companies developing innovative clean energy technologies find competitive advantages to manufacturing in the U.S. The Department of Energy's Building Technology Office SSL Manufacturing Roadmap is just one example of how we support manufacturing through convening industry perspectives on opportunities to significantly reduce risk, improve quality, increase yields, and lower costs.

  5. 42 CFR 1002.214 - Basis for reinstatement after State agency-initiated exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Basis for reinstatement after State agency-initiated exclusion. 1002.214 Section 1002.214 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES PROGRAM INTEGRITY-STATE-INITIATED EXCLUSIONS...

  6. 42 CFR 1002.214 - Basis for reinstatement after State agency-initiated exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis for reinstatement after State agency-initiated exclusion. 1002.214 Section 1002.214 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES PROGRAM INTEGRITY-STATE-INITIATED EXCLUSIONS...

  7. 42 CFR 1002.214 - Basis for reinstatement after State agency-initiated exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Basis for reinstatement after State agency-initiated exclusion. 1002.214 Section 1002.214 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES PROGRAM INTEGRITY-STATE-INITIATED EXCLUSIONS...

  8. 77 FR 41292 - Louisiana: Final Authorization of State-Initiated Changes and Incorporation by Reference of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ...During a review of Louisiana's regulations, the EPA identified a variety of State-initiated changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). We have determined that these changes are minor and satisfy all requirements needed to qualify for Final authorization and are authorizing the State-initiated changes through this direct Final action. In......

  9. What Can the Common Core State Standards Initiative Learn from the National Assessment Governing Board?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musick, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards Initiative (CCSSI) is a bit like the underdog candidate who wins the election when few think it possible. "Now what?" is the question facing the surprised victor. With an initial agreement for the Common Core State Standards to be developed, and visible progress toward their development and promulgation, what will…

  10. Strategic state-level nursing workforce initiatives: taking the long view.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Brenda; Rice, Rebecca; Brunell, Mary Lou; Dickson, Geri; Gloor, Eileen; Jones, Deloras; Jones, Wanda

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews long-range, strategic nursing workforce initiatives developing in 5 states. It also summarizes progress in establishing a national network of state nursing centers for sharing workforce data, and new education, workplace, and policy initiatives being undertaken by and on behalf of the nursing profession. PMID:15923980

  11. 77 FR 41348 - Louisiana: Final Authorization of State-Initiated Changes and Incorporation by Reference of State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ...During a review of Louisiana's regulations, EPA identified a variety of State-initiated changes to Louisiana's hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as amended (RCRA), for which the State had not previously sought authorization. EPA proposes to authorize the State for the program changes. In addition, EPA proposes to codify in the regulations entitled......

  12. Structure of correlated initial states that guarantee completely positive reduced dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiao-Ming

    2016-04-01

    We use the Koashi-Imoto decomposition of the degrees of freedom of joint system-environment initial states to investigate the reduced dynamics. We show that a subset of joint system-environment initial states guarantees completely positive reduced dynamics if and only if the system privately owns all quantum degrees of freedom and can locally access the classical degrees of freedom, without disturbing all joint initial states in the given subset. Furthermore, we show that the quantum mutual information for such kinds of states must be independent of the quantum degrees of freedom.

  13. Initial experience with teriparatide in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gold, Deborah T; Pantos, Barbara S; Masica, Daniel N; Misurski, Derek A; Marcus, Robert

    2006-04-01

    Teriparatide has been commercially available in the United States (US) for over 3 years. This summary spans the early experience with this therapy. As of December 31, 2005, over 235 000 patients had filled a prescription for teriparatide world-wide. Data collected from July to December 2004, from 15,000 retail pharmacies in the US, indicated that the mean age of patients was 67.5 years, and more recent data collected from January through October 2005 indicated that 90% of patients were female. According to market research conducted with prescribing physicians from February through March of 2005, it is estimated that over 80% of patients receiving prescriptions for teriparatide had already experienced one or more prior fractures. Since teriparatide is administered subcutaneously, it is important that patients receive training on the use of the teriparatide injection device (i.e., the pen device). Educational programs are available for those who have been prescribed teriparatide therapy. Patients may also contact a customer care program regarding a variety of topics, including pen device use. Based on patient feedback, design changes have been implemented in the pen device to facilitate optimal use. Updates have also been made to the prescribing information to reflect the post-marketing surveillance experience. Adverse experiences reported to date have been consistent with the current product label and with cumulative teriparatide clinical trial experience. As of December 31, 2005 no reports of pathology-confirmed osteosarcoma have been received for individuals who have been treated with teriparatide, either with the commercially available drug or in clinical trials. We are unaware of any reports of osteosarcoma in association with other preparations of teriparatide, or other peptides of parathyroid hormone, either in the setting of clinical trials or from marketed drug experience. PMID:16684431

  14. Unified analytical description of the time evolution of decay for initial states formed by wave-packet scattering and by initial decaying states in quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cordero, Sergio; Garcia-Calderon, Gaston; Romo, Roberto; Villavicencio, Jorge

    2011-10-15

    We consider a unified analytical approach for scattering and decay processes in one-dimensional resonant tunneling systems using the formalism of resonant states to address the issue of the differences and similarities in the time evolution of decay between the decay of an arbitrary state prepared initially within a system and the formation and subsequent decay of a quasistationary state in the scattering of a Gaussian wavepacket on that system. We find three distinctive regimes. A first regime, which refers only to the quasistationary state, that is characterized by a buildup time of the probability density at a given position within the internal region of the potential. Here we find that the buildup time has a dependence on position. A second regime, dominated by the exponentially decaying terms, where the decay of the quasistationary state proceeds in an almost identical fashion as for the initially prepared decaying state. And finally, a third regime that involves the transition to nonexponential decay at long times and its ulterior behavior as an inverse power of time. Here we find that the time scale of the transition occurs at different times, which implies a dependence on the parameters of the initial state.

  15. Bi-stable states of initially stressed elastic cylindrical shell structures with two piezoelectric surface layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Nie, Guo-Hua

    2015-10-01

    A theoretical model is proposed in this paper to predict the bi-stable states of initially stressed cylindrical shell structures attached by surface anisotropic piezoelectric layers. The condition for existence of bi-stability of the shell structural system is presented and analytical expressions for corresponding rolled-up radii of the stable shell are given based on the principle of minimum strain energy. The resulting solution indicates that the shell system may have two stable configurations besides its initial state under a combined action of the actuating electric field and initial stresses characterized by the bending moment. If the piezoelectric layer materials act as only sensor materials without the actuating electric field, initial stresses may produce the bi-stable states, but one corresponding to its initial state. For the shell without initial stresses, the magnitude in the actuating electric field determines the number of the stable states, one or two stable configurations besides the initial state. The theoretical prediction for the bi-stable states is verified by finite element method (FEM) simulation by using the ABAQUS code.

  16. 9 CFR 56.10 - Initial State response and containment plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .../H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.10 Initial State response and containment plan. (a) In order...) Public awareness and education programs regarding avian influenza. (b) If a State is designated a U.S. Avian Influenza Monitored State, Layers under § 146.24(a) of this chapter or a U.S. Avian...

  17. Kindergarten Readiness Impacts of the Arkansas Better Chance State Prekindergarten Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustedt, Jason T.; Jung, Kwanghee; Barnett, W. Steven; Williams, Tonya

    2015-01-01

    Enrollment in state-funded pre-K programs prior to kindergarten entry has become increasingly common. As each state develops its own model for pre-K, rigorous studies of the impacts of state-specific programs are needed. This study investigates impacts of the Arkansas Better Chance (ABC) initiative at kindergarten entry using a…

  18. UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS INITIATIVE AND BIOMARKERS DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Within the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), there are several on-going programs and projects that collect health and environmental information. The USEPA's Environmental Indicators Initiative is one such program which includes the development of environmenta...

  19. Evaluating the performance of vehicular platoon control under different network topologies of initial states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongfu; Li, Kezhi; Zheng, Taixiong; Hu, Xiangdong; Feng, Huizong; Li, Yinguo

    2016-05-01

    This study proposes a feedback-based platoon control protocol for connected autonomous vehicles (CAVs) under different network topologies of initial states. In particularly, algebraic graph theory is used to describe the network topology. Then, the leader-follower approach is used to model the interactions between CAVs. In addition, feedback-based protocol is designed to control the platoon considering the longitudinal and lateral gaps simultaneously as well as different network topologies. The stability and consensus of the vehicular platoon is analyzed using the Lyapunov technique. Effects of different network topologies of initial states on convergence time and robustness of platoon control are investigated. Results from numerical experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed protocol with respect to the position and velocity consensus in terms of the convergence time and robustness. Also, the findings of this study illustrate the convergence time of the control protocol is associated with the initial states, while the robustness is not affected by the initial states significantly.

  20. Time evolution of initial states that extend beyond the potential interaction region in quantum decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Calderón, Gastón; Villavicencio, Jorge; Hernández-Maldonado, Alberto; Romo, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the decay of initial states that possess a tail that extends beyond the interaction potential region, for potentials of arbitrary shape that vanish exactly after a distance. This is the case for a relevant class of artificial quantum structures. We obtain that along the internal interaction region, the time evolution of the decaying wave function is formed by two terms. The first one refers to the proper decay of the internal portion of the initial state, whereas the second one, that arises from the external tail, yields a transient contribution that tunnels into the internal region, builds up to a value, and then decays. We obtain that depending on the parameters of the initial state, the nonexponential tail decaying contribution may be larger than the contribution of the proper nonexponential term. These results are illustrated by an exactly solvable model and the Heidelberg potential for decay of ultracold atoms and open the possibility to control initial states in artificial decaying systems.

  1. Intensity improvement in the attosecond pulse generation with the coherent superposition initial state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Liqiang; Chu, Tianshu

    2012-03-01

    We investigate the coherent superposition initial state effect and found that when the initial active electron state is prepared in the coherent superposition of the 1s and 2s states of the He+ ion and the chirp parameter of the fundamental field in the two-color scheme is chosen to be β=0.3, the harmonic cutoff energy is remarkably extended and the harmonic yield is enhanced by at least 6 orders of magnitude compared with the case of the single 1s ground state with chirp-free pulse. An ultrabroad supercontinuum with a 458 eV bandwidth is formed, directly producing an intense isolated 34 as pulse.

  2. Initial state maximizing the nonexponentially decaying survival probability for unstable multilevel systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Manabu

    2004-09-01

    The long-time behavior of the survival probability for unstable multilevel systems that follows the power-decay law is studied based on the N -level Friedrichs model, and is shown to depend on the initial population in unstable states. A special initial state maximizing the asymptote of the survival probability at long times is found and examined by considering the spontaneous-emission process for the hydrogen atom interacting with the electromagnetic field.

  3. Structural Minimality, CP and the Initial State in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatt, Rakesh M.; Hancin-Bhatt, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    Considers the current debate on the initial state of second language (L2) acquisition and presents critical empirical evidence from Hindi learners of English-as-a-Second-Language that supports the claim that the complementizer phase (CP) is initially absent from the grammar of L2 speakers.(Author/VWL)

  4. Recent State Policy Initiatives in Education: A Supplement to "Measuring Up 2000." National Center Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuinness, Aims, Jr.

    This paper presents observations on a nationwide review of recent state education policy initiatives. The intent of the review was to identify initiatives that have been implemented since most of the data in the "Measuring Up 2000" report were collected, roughly academic year 1997-1998. The review emphasized higher education but did examine the…

  5. Initial-state Coulomb interaction in the dd{yields}{alpha}{pi}{sup 0} reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Laehde, Timo A.; Miller, Gerald A.

    2007-05-15

    The effects of initial-state Coulomb interactions in the charge-symmetry-breaking reaction dd{yields}{alpha}{pi}{sup 0} are investigated within a previously published formalism. This is a leading order effect in which the Coulomb interaction between the two initial state protons leads to the breakup of the two deuterons into a continuum state that is well connected to the final {alpha}{pi}{sup 0} state by the strong emission of a pion. As a first step, we use a simplified set of d and {alpha} wave functions and a plane-wave approximation for the initial dd state. This Coulomb mechanism, by itself, yields cross sections that are much larger than the experimental ones, and which are comparable in size to the contributions from other mechanisms. Inclusion of this mechanism is therefore necessary in a realistic calculation.

  6. Nonvacuum initial states for cosmological perturbations of quantum-mechanical origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jérôme; Riazuelo, Alain; Sakellariadou, Mairi

    2000-04-01

    In the context of inflation, nonvacuum initial states for cosmological perturbations that possess a built in scale are studied. It is demonstrated that this assumption leads to a falsifiable class of models. The question of whether they lead to conflicts with the available observations is addressed. For this purpose, the power spectrum of the Bardeen potential operator is calculated and compared with the CMBR anisotropies measurements and the redshift surveys of galaxies and clusters of galaxies. Generic predictions of the model are a high first acoustic peak, the presence of a bump in the matter power spectrum and non-Gaussian statistics. The details are controlled by the number of quanta in the nonvacuum initial state. Comparisons with observations show that there exists a window for the free parameters such that good agreement between the data and theoretical predictions is possible. However, in the case where the initial state is a state with a fixed number of quanta, it is shown that this number cannot be greater than a few. On the other hand, if the initial state is a quantum superposition, then a larger class of initial states could account for the observations, even though the state cannot be too different from the vacuum. Planned missions such as the MAP and Planck satellites and the Sloan Survey will demonstrate whether the new class of models proposed here represents a viable alternative to the standard theory.

  7. Autobiographically recalled emotional states impact forward gait initiation as a function of motivational direction.

    PubMed

    Fawver, Bradley; Hass, Chris J; Park, Kyoungshin D; Janelle, Christopher M

    2014-12-01

    The impact of self-generated affective states on self-initiated motor behavior remains unspecified. The purpose of the current study was to determine how self-generated emotional states impact forward gait initiation. Participants recalled past emotional experiences (anger, fear, happy, sad, and neutral), "relived" those emotional memories before gait initiation (GI), and then walked ∼4 m across the laboratory floor. Kinetic and kinematic data revealed GI characteristics consistent with a motivational direction hypothesis. Specifically, participants produced greater posterior-lateral displacement and velocity of their center of pressure (COP) during the initial phase of GI after self-generation of happy and anger emotional states relative to sad ones. During the second phase of GI, greater medial displacement of COP was found during the happy condition compared with sad, greater velocity was occasioned during happy and angry trials compared with sad, and greater velocity was exhibited after happy compared with fear memories. Finally, greater anterior velocity was produced by participants during the final phase of GI for happy and angry memories compared with sad ones. Steady state kinetic and kinematic data when recalling happy and angry memories (longer, faster, and more forceful stepping behavior) followed the anticipatory postural adjustments noted during GI. Together the results from GI and steady state gait provide robust evidence that self-generated emotional states impact forward gait behavior based on motivational direction. Endogenous manipulations of emotional states hold promise for clinical and performance interventions aimed at improving self-initiated movement. PMID:25151514

  8. The Common Core State Standards Initiative: An Event History Analysis of State Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaVenia, Mark; Cohen-Vogel, Lora; Lang, Laura B.

    2015-01-01

    Today, with states' near-universal adoption of the Common Core State Standards, the political system has achieved that which was not possible less than 2 decades ago. Just why this is so remains unanswered. Some observers have attributed states' embrace of the standards to the substantial financial incentives that the federal government…

  9. New Mexico State Board of Education's Consolidating Initiatives for Tomorrow's Education (CITE) Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Dept. of Education, Santa Fe.

    This report describes the New Mexico State Board of Education's Consolidating Initiatives for Tomorrow's Education (CITE) plan. The purpose of this plan is to address long-range goals for school reforms and funding, educational and educator standards, and future expectations for continued school improvement and state leadership. Each section…

  10. 76 FR 11187 - Due Date of Initial Application Requirements for State Home Construction Grant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... assistance for a State home construction project (or acquisition of an existing facility to be used as a... Construction Grant AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This document... must receive an initial application for a State Home Construction Grant in order for the application...

  11. One State's Initiative to Increase Access to Higher Education for People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mock, Martha; Love, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on a state-based initiative to engage youth with intellectual disabilities (ID), their families, universities, schools, agencies, and funders in improving access to inclusive postsecondary education (PSE). As opportunities in higher education for students with ID continue to increase across United States, there are differing…

  12. Ahead of the Curve: State Success in the Developmental Education Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altstadt, David

    2012-01-01

    Building on their work through Achieving the Dream, six states and 15 community colleges joined the Developmental Education Initiative (DEI) in 2009 to take on one of higher education's most daunting challenges: improving the success of students who enter community college academically underprepared. The states and Jobs for the Future, which…

  13. ICTs for Learning: An Overview of Systemic Initiatives in the Australian States and Territories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finger, Glenn; Trinidad, Sue

    2002-01-01

    This article provides an overview of Systemic Initiatives in the Australian States and Territories. This updated overview acknowledges the help and information provided by key contacts whom the authors contacted from each of the Australian State and Territory government education systems. In addition, the role of the Ministerial Council for…

  14. State Initiatives to Promote Technological Innovation and Economic Growth. Postsecondary Education Research Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslin, Janice

    Activities undertaken by 43 states including Maryland to promote technological innovation and economic growth and the impact of these activities are identified. Implications for Maryland are also noted in a brief section of recommendations. State initiatives include: sponsoring research and development at colleges and companies, improving the…

  15. State College and Career Readiness Initiative: Statewide Transitional Courses for College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Kenna; Murray, Renee; Smith, Janie

    2011-01-01

    Through the "Strengthening Statewide College/Career Readiness Initiative" (SSCRI), Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) has collaborated with states on state policy goals and actions needed to improve high school students' academic readiness for postsecondary study and reduce the need for remedial work. SREB created and implemented…

  16. Critical behavior of absorbing phase transitions for models in the Manna class with natural initial states.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Bub

    2014-06-01

    The critical behavior of absorbing phase transitions for two typical models in the Manna universality class, the conserved Manna model and the conserved lattice gas model, both on a square lattice, was investigated using the natural initial states. Various critical exponents were estimated using the static and dynamic simulations. The exponents characterizing dynamics of active particles differ considerably from the known exponents obtained using the random initial states, whereas those associated with the steady-state quantities remain the same. The critical exponents for both models were consistent with errors of less than 1% and satisfied the known scaling relations; thus, the known violation of scaling relations for models with a conserved field was resolved using the natural initial states. The results differed by 7%∼12% from the directed percolation values. PMID:25019750

  17. Temperature-dependent remote control of polarization and coherence intensity with sender's pure initial state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fel'dman, E. B.; Kuznetsova, E. I.; Zenchuk, A. I.

    2016-06-01

    We study the remote creation of the polarization and intensity of the first-order coherence (or coherence intensity) in long spin-1/2 chains with one-qubit sender and receiver. Therewith we use a physically motivated initial condition with the pure state of the sender and the thermodynamical equilibrium state of the other nodes. The main part of the creatable region is a one-to-one map of the initial state (control) parameters, except the small subregion twice covered by the control parameters, which appears owing to the chosen initial state. The polarization and coherence intensity behave differently in the state creation process. In particular, the coherence intensity cannot reach any significant value unless the polarization is large in long chains (unlike the short ones), but the opposite is not true. The coherence intensity vanishes with an increase in the chain length, while the polarization (by absolute value) is not sensitive to this parameter. We represent several characteristics of the creatable polarization and coherence intensity and describe their relation to the parameters of the initial state. The link to the eigenvalue-eigenvector parametrization of the receiver's state space is given.

  18. Temperature-dependent remote control of polarization and coherence intensity with sender's pure initial state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fel'dman, E. B.; Kuznetsova, E. I.; Zenchuk, A. I.

    2016-03-01

    We study the remote creation of the polarization and intensity of the first-order coherence (or coherence intensity) in long spin-1/2 chains with one-qubit sender and receiver. Therewith we use a physically motivated initial condition with the pure state of the sender and the thermodynamical equilibrium state of the other nodes. The main part of the creatable region is a one-to-one map of the initial state (control) parameters, except the small subregion twice covered by the control parameters, which appears owing to the chosen initial state. The polarization and coherence intensity behave differently in the state creation process. In particular, the coherence intensity cannot reach any significant value unless the polarization is large in long chains (unlike the short ones), but the opposite is not true. The coherence intensity vanishes with an increase in the chain length, while the polarization (by absolute value) is not sensitive to this parameter. We represent several characteristics of the creatable polarization and coherence intensity and describe their relation to the parameters of the initial state. The link to the eigenvalue-eigenvector parametrization of the receiver's state space is given.

  19. The State Youth Initiatives Project. State Education and Coordination Grants: The Early Experience. Working Paper #4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, May Long

    A study gathered information from the early 8 percent set-aside experience of 12 states during the first official period of Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) activity. The states were Connecticut, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, and South Carolina. Findings were that…

  20. Influences of Initial States on Entanglement Dynamics of Two Central Spins in a Spin Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wen-Jian; Xu, Bao-Ming; Li, Lin; Zou, Jian; Li, Hai; Shao, Bin

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the entanglement dynamics of two electronic spins coupled to a bath of nuclear spins for two special cases, one is that two central spins both interact with a common bath, and the other is that one of two spins interacts with a bath. We consider three types of initial states with different correlations between the system and the bath, i.e., quantum correlation, classical correlation, and no-correlation. We show that the initial correlations (no matter quantum correlations or classical correlations) can effectively avoid the occurrence of entanglement sudden death. Irrespective of whether both two spins or only one of the two spins interacts with the bath, the system can gain more entanglement in the process of the time evolution for initial quantum correlations. In addition, we find that the effects of the distribution of coupling constants on entanglement dynamics crucially depend on the initial state of the spin bath.

  1. 76 FR 12283 - Texas: Final Authorization of State-initiated Changes and Incorporation by Reference of State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... State of Texas initially received final authorization on December 26, 1984 (49 FR 48300), to implement... March 26, 1985 (50 FR 11858). Texas received authorization for revisions to its program, effective... (70 FR 35034). Therefore, these Federal amendments included in Texas' adoption by reference at...

  2. Scale-dependent hemispherical asymmetry from general initial state during inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Firouzjahi, Hassan; Namjoo, Mohammad Hossein; Gong, Jinn-Ouk E-mail: jinn-ouk.gong@apctp.org

    2014-11-01

    We consider a general initial state for inflation as the mechanism for generating scale-dependent hemispherical asymmetry. An observable scale-dependent non-Gaussianity is generated that leads to observable hemispherical asymmetry from the super-horizon long mode modulation. We show that the amplitude of dipole asymmetry falls off exponentially on small angular scales which can address the absence of dipole asymmetry at these scales. In addition, depending on the nature of non-vaccum initial state, the amplitude of the dipole asymmetry has oscillatory features which can be detected in a careful CMB map analysis. Furthermore, we show that the non-vacuum initial state provides a natural mechanism for enhancing the super horizon long mode perturbation as required to generate the dipole asymmetry.

  3. Quantum walks with dynamical control: graph engineering, initial state preparation and state transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitsche, Thomas; Elster, Fabian; Novotný, Jaroslav; Gábris, Aurél; Jex, Igor; Barkhofen, Sonja; Silberhorn, Christine

    2016-06-01

    Quantum walks are a well-established model for the study of coherent transport phenomena and provide a universal platform in quantum information theory. Dynamically influencing the walker’s evolution gives a high degree of flexibility for studying various applications. Here, we present time-multiplexed finite quantum walks of variable size, the preparation of non-localised input states and their dynamical evolution. As a further application, we implement a state transfer scheme for an arbitrary input state to two different output modes. The presented experiments rely on the full dynamical control of a time-multiplexed quantum walk, which includes adjustable coin operation as well as the possibility to flexibly configure the underlying graph structures.

  4. Initial-state dependence of the quench dynamics in integrable quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rigol, Marcos; Fitzpatrick, Mattias

    2011-09-15

    We identify and study classes of initial states in integrable quantum systems that, after the relaxation dynamics following a sudden quench, lead to near-thermal expectation values of few-body observables. In the systems considered here, those states are found to be insulating ground states of lattice hard-core boson Hamiltonians. We show that, as a suitable parameter in the initial Hamiltonian is changed, those states become closer to Fock states (products of single site states) as the outcome of the relaxation dynamics becomes closer to the thermal prediction. At the same time, the energy density approaches a Gaussian. Furthermore, the entropy associated with the generalized canonical and generalized grand-canonical ensembles, introduced to describe observables in integrable systems after relaxation, approaches that of the conventional canonical and grand-canonical ensembles. We argue that those classes of initial states are special because a control parameter allows one to tune the distribution of conserved quantities to approach the one in thermal equilibrium. This helps in understanding the approach of all the quantities studied to their thermal expectation values. However, a finite-size scaling analysis shows that this behavior should not be confused with thermalization as understood for nonintegrable systems.

  5. Primordial non-Gaussianities in single field inflationary models with non-trivial initial states

    SciTech Connect

    Bahrami, Sina; Flanagan, Éanna É. E-mail: eef3@cornell.edu

    2014-10-01

    We compute the non-Gaussianities that arise in single field, slow roll inflationary models arising from arbitrary homogeneous initial states, as well as subleading contributions to the power spectrum. Non Bunch-Davies vacuum initial states can arise if the transition to the single field, slow roll inflation phase occurs only shortly before observable modes left the horizon. They can also arise from new physics at high energies that has been integrated out. Our general result for the bispectrum exhibits several features that were previously seen in special cases.

  6. Effects of dephasing on quantum adiabatic pumping with nonequilibrium initial states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Longwen; Tan, Da Yang; Gong, Jiangbin

    2015-12-01

    Thouless's quantum adiabatic pumping is of fundamental interest to condensed-matter physics. It originally considered a zero-temperature equilibrium state uniformly occupying all the bands below a Fermi surface. In light of recent direct simulations of Thouless's concept in cold-atom systems, this paper investigates the dynamics of quantum adiabatic pumping subject to dephasing for rather general initial states with nonuniform populations and possibly interband coherence. Using a theory based on pure-dephasing Lindblad evolution, we find that the pumping is contributed by two parts of different nature: a dephasing-modified geometric part weighted by initial Bloch state populations and an interband-coherence-induced part compromised by dephasing, both of them being independent of the pumping time scale. The overall pumping reflects an interplay of the band topology, initial state populations, initial state coherence, and dephasing. Theoretical results are carefully checked in a Chern insulator model coupled to a pure-dephasing environment, providing a useful starting point to understand and coherently control quantum adiabatic pumping in general situations.

  7. Dynamic evolution of initial instability during non-steady-state growth.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhibo; Zheng, Wenjian; Wei, Yanhong; Song, Kuijing

    2014-06-01

    Dynamic evolution of initial instability is investigated by an analytic model obtained by modifying the theory of Warren and Langer [Phys. Rev. E 47, 2702 (1993)] and the quantitative phase-field model in directional solidification under transient conditions for realistic parameters of a dilute alloy. The evolutions of tip velocity and concentration in the liquid side of the interface predicted by the analytic model agree very well with that from the phase-field simulation in the linear growth stage of the non-steady-state growth, indicating that the model could be used as a convenient method to study the initial instability during non-steady-state growth. The influences of non-steady-state conditions which include the increasing rate of pulling speed and temperature gradient at the onset of initial instability are investigated, and we find that, the initial instability seems to depend strongly on the non-steady-state conditions and the non-steady-state history, and thus, it should be primarily considered in the study of the transient growth. PMID:25019790

  8. Dynamic evolution of initial instability during non-steady-state growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Zhibo; Zheng, Wenjian; Wei, Yanhong; Song, Kuijing

    2014-06-01

    Dynamic evolution of initial instability is investigated by an analytic model obtained by modifying the theory of Warren and Langer [Phys. Rev. E 47, 2702 (1993), 10.1103/PhysRevE.47.2702] and the quantitative phase-field model in directional solidification under transient conditions for realistic parameters of a dilute alloy. The evolutions of tip velocity and concentration in the liquid side of the interface predicted by the analytic model agree very well with that from the phase-field simulation in the linear growth stage of the non-steady-state growth, indicating that the model could be used as a convenient method to study the initial instability during non-steady-state growth. The influences of non-steady-state conditions which include the increasing rate of pulling speed and temperature gradient at the onset of initial instability are investigated, and we find that, the initial instability seems to depend strongly on the non-steady-state conditions and the non-steady-state history, and thus, it should be primarily considered in the study of the transient growth.

  9. Extracting Information about the Initial State from the Black Hole Radiation.

    PubMed

    Lochan, Kinjalk; Padmanabhan, T

    2016-02-01

    The crux of the black hole information paradox is related to the fact that the complete information about the initial state of a quantum field in a collapsing spacetime is not available to future asymptotic observers, belying the expectations from a unitary quantum theory. We study the imprints of the initial quantum state contained in a specific class of distortions of the black hole radiation and identify the classes of in states that can be partially or fully reconstructed from the information contained within. Even for the general in state, we can uncover some specific information. These results suggest that a classical collapse scenario ignores this richness of information in the resulting spectrum and a consistent quantum treatment of the entire collapse process might allow us to retrieve much more information from the spectrum of the final radiation. PMID:26894699

  10. Extracting Information about the Initial State from the Black Hole Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lochan, Kinjalk; Padmanabhan, T.

    2016-02-01

    The crux of the black hole information paradox is related to the fact that the complete information about the initial state of a quantum field in a collapsing spacetime is not available to future asymptotic observers, belying the expectations from a unitary quantum theory. We study the imprints of the initial quantum state contained in a specific class of distortions of the black hole radiation and identify the classes of in states that can be partially or fully reconstructed from the information contained within. Even for the general in state, we can uncover some specific information. These results suggest that a classical collapse scenario ignores this richness of information in the resulting spectrum and a consistent quantum treatment of the entire collapse process might allow us to retrieve much more information from the spectrum of the final radiation.

  11. Structure of an archaeal heterotrimeric initiation factor 2 reveals a nucleotide state between the GTP and the GDP states

    PubMed Central

    Yatime, Laure; Mechulam, Yves; Blanquet, Sylvain; Schmitt, Emmanuelle

    2007-01-01

    Initiation of translation in eukaryotes and in archaea involves eukaryotic/archaeal initiation factor (e/aIF)1 and the heterotrimeric initiation factor e/aIF2. In its GTP-bound form, e/aIF2 provides the initiation complex with Met–tRNAiMet. After recognition of the start codon by initiator tRNA, e/aIF1 leaves the complex. Finally, e/aIF2, now in a GDP-bound form, loses affinity for Met–tRNAiMet and dissociates from the ribosome. Here, we report a 3D structure of an aIF2 heterotrimer from the archeon Sulfolobus solfataricus obtained in the presence of GDP. Our report highlights how the two-switch regions involved in formation of the tRNA-binding site on subunit γ exchange conformational information with α and β. The zinc-binding domain of β lies close to the guanine nucleotide and directly contacts the switch 1 region. As a result, switch 1 adopts a not yet described conformation. Moreover, unexpectedly for a GDP-bound state, switch 2 has the “ON” conformation. The stability of these conformations is accounted for by a ligand, most probably a phosphate ion, bound near the nucleotide binding site. The structure suggests that this GDP–inorganic phosphate (Pi) bound state of aIF2 may be proficient for tRNA binding. Recently, it has been proposed that dissociation of eIF2 from the initiation complex is closely coupled to that of Pi from eIF2γ upon start codon recognition. The nucleotide state of aIF2 shown here is indicative of a similar mechanism in archaea. Finally, we consider the possibility that release of Pi takes place after e/aIF2γ has been informed of e/aIF1 dissociation by e/aIF2β. PMID:18000047

  12. Goals for Fourth World Peoples and Sovereignty Initiatives in the United States and New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffie, Mary Kay

    1998-01-01

    Compares national policies of the United States and New Zealand toward their indigenous populations, and sovereignty initiatives of Native Americans and Maoris. Discusses colonialist patterns, treaty relationships, historical policy trajectories, and sovereignty disputes. Examines Indian gaming and Maori land claims settlements as a means to gain…

  13. 20 CFR 658.413 - Initial handling of complaints by the State or local office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Initial handling of complaints by the State or local office. 658.413 Section 658.413 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE JOB SERVICE SYSTEM Job...

  14. UCAN: A Four-State Rural Systemic Initiative. Year Three Performance Effectiveness Review (PER).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LLamas, Vicente J.

    The Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico-Rural Systemic Initiative (UCAN-RSI) supports systemic reform of mathematics, technology, and science education for rural students in its states, focusing on schools with high enrollments of American Indian and Hispanic students. This performance effectiveness review covers UCAN's progress during its third…

  15. UCAN: A Four-State Rural Systemic Initiative. Year Four Annual Report; Year Five Strategic Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LLamas, Vicente J.

    The Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico-Rural Systemic Initiative (UCAN-RSI) supports systemic improvement in science, technology, and mathematics education for all rural students in the four states, focusing on schools that enroll large numbers of American Indian and Hispanic students. This document contains a report on UCAN's 4th year (September…

  16. World Shale Gas Resources: An Initial Assessment of 14 Regions Outside the United States

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration sponsored Advanced Resources International, Inc., to assess 48 gas shale basins in 32 countries, containing almost 70 shale gas formations. This effort has culminated in the report: World Shale Gas Resources: An Initial Assessment of 14 Regions Outside the United States.

  17. Students' Initial Knowledge State and Test Design: Towards a Valid and Reliable Test Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CoPo, Antonio Roland I.

    2015-01-01

    Designing a good test instrument involves specifications, test construction, validation, try-out, analysis and revision. The initial knowledge state of forty (40) tertiary students enrolled in Business Statistics course was determined and the same test instrument undergoes validation. The designed test instrument did not only reveal the baseline…

  18. Ahead of the Curve: State Success in the Developmental Education Initiative. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altstadt, David

    2012-01-01

    Less than 25 percent of college students who take any developmental education courses earn a credential within eight years. Over the past three years, the six states in the Developmental Education Initiative have developed and enacted unprecedented changes in policy and practice in an effort to reverse these dismal outcomes. "Ahead of the Curve"…

  19. Does Class Size Make a Difference? Recent Findings from State and District Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egelson, Paula; And Others

    Research has indicated that educators view class size as a factor in improving student learning. This publication summarizes findings about some recently implemented class-size initiatives. It highlights results from Tennessee's reduced class-size experiment of the 1980s; summarizes the efforts and results from other recent state-level initiatives…

  20. UCAN: A Four-State Rural Systemic Initiative. Year Two Performance Effectiveness Review (PER).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LLamas, Vicente J.

    The Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico-Rural Systemic Initiative (UCAN-RSI) supports systemic reform of mathematics, technology, and science education for rural students in its states, focusing on schools with high enrollments of American Indian and Hispanic students. This performance effectiveness review covers UCAN's progress during its second…

  1. SSI: Statewide Systemic Initiatives in Science, Mathematics, & Engineering. 1994-1995. State Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Directorate for Education and Human Resources.

    The National Science Foundation's (NSF) Statewide Systemic Initiatives (SSI) Program is a major effort by NSF to encourage improvements in science, mathematics, and engineering education through comprehensive systemic changes in the educational systems of the states. The SSI Program represents a strategy to strengthen the infrastructure for…

  2. Overview of the Common Core State Standards Initiatives for ELLs. TESOL Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TESOL International Association, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this issue brief is to provide a comprehensive overview of the policies behind the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and to outline some of the initiatives now in place to address the needs of English language learners (ELLs) in relation to the CCSS. This issue brief contains the appendices: (1) Assessment Consortia Time Lines; and…

  3. Cooperative Lamb shift and the cooperative decay rate for an initially detuned phased state

    SciTech Connect

    Friedberg, Richard; Manassah, Jamal T.

    2010-04-15

    The cooperative Lamb shift (CLS) is hard to measure because in samples much larger than a resonant wavelength it is much smaller, for an initially prepared resonantly phased state, than the cooperative decay rate (CDR). We show, however, that if the phasing of the initial state is detuned so that the spatial wave vector is k{sub 1} congruent with k{sub 0{+-}}O((1/R)) (where k{sub 0}={omega}{sub 0}/c is the resonant frequency), the CLS grows to 'giant' magnitudes making it comparable to the CDR. Moreover, for certain controlled values of detuning, the initial CDR becomes small so that the dynamical Lamb shift (DLS) can be measured over a considerable period of time.

  4. On the unique mapping relationship between initial and final quantum states

    SciTech Connect

    Sanz, A.S.; Miret-Artés, S.

    2013-12-15

    In its standard formulation, quantum mechanics presents a very serious inconvenience: given a quantum system, there is no possibility at all to unambiguously (causally) connect a particular feature of its final state with some specific section of its initial state. This constitutes a practical limitation, for example, in numerical analyses of quantum systems, which often make necessary the use of some extra assistance from classical methodologies. Here it is shown how the Bohmian formulation of quantum mechanics removes the ambiguity of quantum mechanics, providing a consistent and clear answer to such a question without abandoning the quantum framework. More specifically, this formulation allows to define probability tubes, along which the enclosed probability keeps constant in time all the way through as the system evolves in configuration space. These tubes have the interesting property that once their boundary is defined at a given time, they are uniquely defined at any time. As a consequence, it is possible to determine final restricted (or partial) probabilities directly from localized sets of (Bohmian) initial conditions on the system initial state. Here, these facts are illustrated by means of two simple yet physically insightful numerical examples: tunneling transmission and grating diffraction. -- Highlights: •The concept of quantum probability tube is introduced. •Quantum tubes result from the evolution of a separatrix set of initial Bohmian conditions. •Probabilities inside these sets remain constant along the corresponding quantum tubes. •Particular features of final states are then uniquely linked to specific regions of initial states. •Tunneling and grating diffraction are analyzed.

  5. Reduced hierarchical equations of motion in real and imaginary time: Correlated initial states and thermodynamic quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Tanimura, Yoshitaka

    2014-07-28

    For a system strongly coupled to a heat bath, the quantum coherence of the system and the heat bath plays an important role in the system dynamics. This is particularly true in the case of non-Markovian noise. We rigorously investigate the influence of system-bath coherence by deriving the reduced hierarchal equations of motion (HEOM), not only in real time, but also in imaginary time, which represents an inverse temperature. It is shown that the HEOM in real time obtained when we include the system-bath coherence of the initial thermal equilibrium state possess the same form as those obtained from a factorized initial state. We find that the difference in behavior of systems treated in these two manners results from the difference in initial conditions of the HEOM elements, which are defined in path integral form. We also derive HEOM along the imaginary time path to obtain the thermal equilibrium state of a system strongly coupled to a non-Markovian bath. Then, we show that the steady state hierarchy elements calculated from the real-time HEOM can be expressed in terms of the hierarchy elements calculated from the imaginary-time HEOM. Moreover, we find that the imaginary-time HEOM allow us to evaluate a number of thermodynamic variables, including the free energy, entropy, internal energy, heat capacity, and susceptibility. The expectation values of the system energy and system-bath interaction energy in the thermal equilibrium state are also evaluated.

  6. Stratospheric wind errors, initial states and forecast skill in the GLAS general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenenbaum, J.

    1983-01-01

    Relations between stratospheric wind errors, initial states and 500 mb skill are investigated using the GLAS general circulation model initialized with FGGE data. Erroneous stratospheric winds are seen in all current general circulation models, appearing also as weak shear above the subtropical jet and as cold polar stratospheres. In this study it is shown that the more anticyclonic large-scale flows are correlated with large forecast stratospheric winds. In addition, it is found that for North America the resulting errors are correlated with initial state jet stream accelerations while for East Asia the forecast winds are correlated with initial state jet strength. Using 500 mb skill scores over Europe at day 5 to measure forecast performance, it is found that both poor forecast skill and excessive stratospheric winds are correlated with more anticyclonic large-scale flows over North America. It is hypothesized that the resulting erroneous kinetic energy contributes to the poor forecast skill, and that the problem is caused by a failure in the modeling of the stratospheric energy cycle in current general circulation models independent of vertical resolution.

  7. Emotional state impacts center of pressure displacement before forward gait initiation.

    PubMed

    Fawver, Bradley; Beatty, Garrett F; Naugle, Kelly M; Hass, Chris J; Janelle, Christopher M

    2015-02-01

    Emotional states influence whole-body movements during quiet standing, gait initiation, and steady state gait. A notable gap exists, however, in understanding how emotions affect postural changes during the period preceding the execution of planned whole-body movements. The impact of emotion-induced postural reactions on forthcoming posturomotor movements remains unknown. We sought to determine the influence of emotional reactions on center of pressure (COP) displacement before the initiation of forward gait. Participants (N = 23, 14 females) stood on a force plate and initiated forward gait at the offset of an emotional image (representing five discrete categories: attack, sad faces, erotica, happy faces, and neutral objects). COP displacement in the anteroposterior direction was quantified for a 2 second period during image presentation. Following picture onset, participants produced a posterior postural response to all image types. The greatest posterior displacement was occasioned in response to attack or threat stimuli compared with happy faces and erotica images. Results suggest the impact of emotional states on gait behavior begins during the motor planning period before the preparatory phase of gait initiation, and manifests in center of pressure displacement alterations. PMID:25322476

  8. On the evolution of the cellular automaton of rule 150 from some simple initial states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macfarlane, A. J.

    2009-06-01

    The evolution Eα in discrete time t of the cellular automaton CA150 of Wolfram rule 150 is studied for certain initial states ψα. The values of the cell variables in any state ψα considered are all zero outside a principal sequence (PS) of length k within which they take on values 1a2a3⋯ak -2ak -11, where a2=1,0,…. Powerful algebraic methods are used to develop formulas for the weight, Ωα(t), i.e., the total number of cell variables with value equal to 1 at time t, of the state of Eα at time t ≥0, and of the sum Wα(N)=∑t =02N-1Ωα(t) of the weights of the first 2N states of the evolution of Eα in discrete time. The methods are described carefully. A selection of results, new here, is stated and proved for several initial states ψα with simple PSs of increasing lengths k >1. Many of them feature numbers in the Fibonacci, Lucas, and Jacobsthal sequences.

  9. An implicit steady-state initialization package for the RELAP5 computer code

    SciTech Connect

    Paulsen, M.P.; Peterson, C.E.; Odar, F.

    1995-08-01

    A direct steady-state initialization (DSSI) method has been developed and implemented in the RELAP5 hydrodynamic analysis program. It provides a means for users to specify a small set of initial conditions which are then propagated through the remainder of the system. The DSSI scheme utilizes the steady-state form of the RELAP5 balance equations for nonequilibrium two-phase flow. It also employs the RELAP5 component models and constitutive model packages for wall-to-phase and interphase momentum and heat exchange. A fully implicit solution of the linearized hydrodynamic equations is implemented. An implicit coupling scheme is used to augment the standard steady-state heat conduction solution for steam generator use. It solves the primary-side tube region energy equations, heat conduction equations, wall heat flux boundary conditions, and overall energy balance equation as a coupled system of equations and improves convergence. The DSSI method for initializing RELAP5 problems to steady-state conditions has been compared with the transient solution scheme using a suite of test problems including; adiabatic single-phase liquid and vapor flow through channels with and without healing and area changes; a heated two-phase test bundle representative of BWR core conditions; and a single-loop PWR model.

  10. Initial state dependence of convoy electrons emitted from the excited ions by resonant coherent excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuma, T.; Nakano, Y.; Metoki, K.; Hatakeyama, A.; Nakai, Y.; Komaki, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Takada, E.; Murakami, T.

    2009-11-01

    Convoy electrons emitted from 416 MeV/u heliumlike Ar16+ ions excited by three-dimensional resonant coherent excitation (3D-RCE) have been explored. The 1s electron in the ground state was excited to the 2p state by a periodic crystal field during the passage through a Si crystal and released into the continuum by collisions with target atoms to form a cusp-shaped peak in the energy distribution, referred to as convoy electron. Under the resonance condition, we found not only enhancement of the convoy electron yield but also significant narrowing in the energy distribution, reflecting the initial bound state momentum distribution of the excited ions. This suggests that RCE is well-suited to study fast ion collisions involving the specific excited state.

  11. Distinguishing Initial State-Vectors from Each Other in Histories Formulations and the PBR Argument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallden, Petros

    2013-12-01

    Following the argument of Pusey et al. (in Nature Phys. 8:476, 2012), new interest has been raised on whether one can interpret state-vectors (pure states) in a statistical way ( ψ-epistemic theories), or if each one of them corresponds to a different ontological entity. Each interpretation of quantum theory assumes different ontology and one could ask if the PBR argument carries over. Here we examine this question for histories formulations in general with particular attention to the co-event formulation. State-vectors appear as the initial state that enters into the quantum measure. While the PBR argument goes through up to a point, the failure to meet some of the assumptions they made does not allow one to reach their conclusion. However, the author believes that the "statistical interpretation" is still impossible for co-events even if this is not proven by the PBR argument.

  12. Deterministic Electrical Charge-State Initialization of Single Nitrogen-Vacancy Center in Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doi, Y.; Makino, T.; Kato, H.; Takeuchi, D.; Ogura, M.; Okushi, H.; Morishita, H.; Tashima, T.; Miwa, S.; Yamasaki, S.; Neumann, P.; Wrachtrup, J.; Suzuki, Y.; Mizuochi, N.

    2014-01-01

    Apart from applications in classical information-processing devices, the electrical control of atomic defects in solids at room temperature will have a tremendous impact on quantum devices that are based on such defects. In this study, we demonstrate the electrical manipulation of individual prominent representatives of such atomic solid-state defects, namely, the negative charge state of single nitrogen-vacancy defect centers (NV-) in diamond. We experimentally demonstrate, deterministic, purely electrical charge-state initialization of individual NV centers. The NV centers are placed in the intrinsic region of a p-i-n diode structure that facilitates the delivery of charge carriers to the defect for charge-state switching. The charge-state dynamics of a single NV center were investigated by time-resolved measurements and a nondestructive single-shot readout of the charge state. Fast charge-state switching rates (from negative to neutrally charged defects), which are greater than 0.72 ± 0.10 μs-1, were realized. Furthermore, in no-operation mode, the realized charge states were stable for presumably much more than 0.45 s. We believe that the results obtained are useful not only for ultrafast electrical control of qubits, long T2 quantum memory, and quantum sensors associated with single NV centers but also for classical memory devices based on single atomic storage bits working under ambient conditions.

  13. Robustness measure of hybrid intra-particle entanglement, discord, and classical correlation with initial Werner state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, P.; Sarkar, D.

    2016-02-01

    Quantum information processing is largely dependent on the robustness of non-classical correlations, such as entanglement and quantum discord. However, all the realistic quantum systems are thermodynamically open and lose their coherence with time through environmental interaction. The time evolution of quantum entanglement, discord, and the respective classical correlation for a single, spin-1/2 particle under spin and energy degrees of freedom, with an initial Werner state, has been investigated in the present study. The present intra-particle system is considered to be easier to produce than its inter-particle counterpart. Experimentally, this type of system may be realized in the well-known Penning trap. The most stable correlation was identified through maximization of a system-specific global objective function. Quantum discord was found to be the most stable, followed by the classical correlation. Moreover, all the correlations were observed to attain highest robustness under initial Bell state, with minimum possible dephasing and decoherence parameters.

  14. Short distance and initial state effects in inflation: Stress tensor and decoherence

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Paul R.; Molina-Paris, Carmen; Mottola, Emil

    2005-08-15

    We present a consistent low energy effective field theory framework for parametrizing the effects of novel short distance physics in inflation, and their possible observational signatures in the cosmic microwave background. We consider the class of general homogeneous, isotropic initial states for quantum scalar fields in Robertson-Walker (RW) spacetimes, subject to the requirement that their ultraviolet behavior be consistent with renormalizability of the covariantly conserved stress tensor which couples to gravity. In the functional Schroedinger picture such states are coherent, squeezed, mixed states characterized by a Gaussian density matrix. This Gaussian has parameters which approach those of the adiabatic vacuum at large wave number, and evolve in time according to an effective classical Hamiltonian. The one complex parameter family of {alpha} squeezed states in de Sitter spacetime does not fall into this UV allowed class, except for the special value of the parameter corresponding to the Bunch-Davies state. We determine the finite contributions to the inflationary power spectrum and stress tensor expectation value of general UV allowed adiabatic states, and obtain quantitative limits on the observability and backreaction effects of some recently proposed models of short distance modifications of the initial state of inflation. For all UV allowed states, the second order adiabatic basis provides a good description of particles created in the expanding RW universe. Because of the absence of particle creation for the massless, minimally coupled scalar field in de Sitter space, there is no phase decoherence in the simplest free field inflationary models. We apply adiabatic regularization to the renormalization of the decoherence functional in cosmology to corroborate this result.

  15. Short distance and initial state effects in inflation: Stress tensor and decoherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Paul R.; Molina-París, Carmen; Mottola, Emil

    2005-08-01

    We present a consistent low energy effective field theory framework for parametrizing the effects of novel short distance physics in inflation, and their possible observational signatures in the cosmic microwave background. We consider the class of general homogeneous, isotropic initial states for quantum scalar fields in Robertson-Walker (RW) spacetimes, subject to the requirement that their ultraviolet behavior be consistent with renormalizability of the covariantly conserved stress tensor which couples to gravity. In the functional Schrödinger picture such states are coherent, squeezed, mixed states characterized by a Gaussian density matrix. This Gaussian has parameters which approach those of the adiabatic vacuum at large wave number, and evolve in time according to an effective classical Hamiltonian. The one complex parameter family of α squeezed states in de Sitter spacetime does not fall into this UV allowed class, except for the special value of the parameter corresponding to the Bunch-Davies state. We determine the finite contributions to the inflationary power spectrum and stress tensor expectation value of general UV allowed adiabatic states, and obtain quantitative limits on the observability and backreaction effects of some recently proposed models of short distance modifications of the initial state of inflation. For all UV allowed states, the second order adiabatic basis provides a good description of particles created in the expanding RW universe. Because of the absence of particle creation for the massless, minimally coupled scalar field in de Sitter space, there is no phase decoherence in the simplest free field inflationary models. We apply adiabatic regularization to the renormalization of the decoherence functional in cosmology to corroborate this result.

  16. Hadronic Contributions to R and G-2 from Initial-State-Radiation Data

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, Denis, 1; /Ecole Polytechnique

    2012-04-06

    I review the recent efforts to improve the precision of the prediction of the anomalous moment of the muon, in particular of the hadronic contribution of the vacuum polarization, which is the contribution with the largest uncertainty. Focus is given to the recent result for e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} by the BaBar collaboration, obtained using events with radiation in the initial state.

  17. Interaction of Cotton-Mouton and Faraday effect under different initial polarization state of incident beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzanowski, J.; Kravtsov, Yu. A.

    2010-12-01

    The evolution of polarization along the ray in homogeneous plasma is analyzed in situation when Faraday and Cotton-Mouton effects are not small and comparable with each other. On the basis of the quasi-isotropic approximation of geometrical optics method authors find the numerical solution for azimuthal and ellipticity angles of polarization ellipse and analyze how the initial state of the incident beam affects obtained results. Numerical modeling is performed for plasma parameters comparable with those acceptable for the ITER project.

  18. Event-by-event hydrodynamics and elliptic flow from fluctuating initial states

    SciTech Connect

    Holopainen, H.; Eskola, K. J.; Niemi, H.

    2011-03-15

    We develop a framework for event-by-event ideal hydrodynamics to study the differential elliptic flow, which is measured at different centralities in Au + Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Fluctuating initial energy density profiles, which here are the event-by-event analogs of the wounded nucleon profiles, are created using a Monte Carlo Glauber model. Using the same event plane method for obtaining v{sub 2} as in the data analysis, we can reproduce both the measured centrality dependence and the p{sub T} shape of charged-particle elliptic flow up to p{sub T}{approx}2 GeV. We also consider the relation of elliptic flow to the initial-state eccentricity using different reference planes and discuss the correlation between the physical event plane and the initial participant plane. Our results demonstrate that event-by-event hydrodynamics with initial-state fluctuations must be accounted for before a meaningful lower limit for viscosity can be obtained from elliptic flow data.

  19. Washington State Student Achievement Initiative: Achievement Points Analysis for Academic Years 2007-2011. CCRC-IHELP Student Achievement Initiative Policy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges launched the Student Achievement Initiative (SAI), a system-wide policy to reward colleges for improvements in student achievement. Under the SAI, since 2009, the state has awarded some funds based on how much colleges have increased student achievement relative to their own…

  20. Preparatory state and postural adjustment strategies for choice reaction step initiation.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tatsunori; Ishida, Kazuto; Tanabe, Shigeo; Nojima, Ippei

    2016-09-22

    A loud auditory stimulus (LAS) presented simultaneously with a visual imperative stimulus can reduce reaction time (RT) by automatically triggering a movement prepared in the brain and has been used to investigate a movement preparation. It is still under debate whether or not a response is prepared in advance in RT tasks involving choice responses. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the preparatory state of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) during a choice reaction step initiation. Thirteen young adults were asked to step forward in response to a visual imperative stimulus in two choice stepping conditions: (i) the responding side is not known and must be selected and (ii) the responding side is known but whether to initiate or inhibit a step response must be selected. LAS was presented randomly and simultaneously with the visual imperative stimulus. LAS significantly increased the occurrence rates of inappropriately initiated APAs while reducing the RTs of correct and incorrect trials in both task conditions, demonstrating that LAS triggered the prepared APA automatically. This observation suggests that APAs are prepared in advance and withheld from release until the appropriate timing during a choice reaction step initiation. The preparatory activity of APAs might be modulated by the inhibitory activity required by the choice tasks. The preparation strategy may be chosen for fast responses and is judged most suitable to comply with the tasks because inappropriately initiated APAs can be corrected without making complete stepping errors. PMID:27393247

  1. Complete equation of state for [beta]-HMX and implications for initiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sewell, T. D.; Menikoff, Ralph

    2003-01-01

    A thermodynamically consistent equation of state for {beta}-HMX, the stable ambient polymorph of HMX, is developed that fits isothermal compression data and the temperature dependence of the specific heat computed from molecular dynamics. The equation of state is used to assess hot-spot conditions that would result from hydrodynamic pore collapse in a shock-to-detonation transition. The hot-spot temperature is determined as a function of shock strength by solving two Riemann problems in sequence: first for the velocity and density of the jet formed when the shock overtakes the pore, and second for the stagnation state when the jet impacts the far side of the pore. For a shock pressure below 5 GPa, the stagnation temperature from the jet is below the melt temperature at ambient pressure and hence insufficient for rapid reaction. Consequently for weak shocks a dissipation mechanism in addition to shock heating is needed to generate hot spots. When the stagnation temperature is sufficiently high for rapid reaction, the shock emanating from the hot spot is computed, assuming aconstant volume burn. For initial shocks below 20 GPa, the temperature behind the second shock is below 1000K and would not propagate a detonation wave. This analysis, based solely on the equation of state of the explosive, can serve as a check on mesoscale simulations of initiation in a plastic-bonded explosive.

  2. 77 FR 20817 - Diamond State Generation Partners, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Diamond State Generation Partners, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Diamond State Generation Partners, LLC's application...

  3. Variational data assimilation for the optimized ozone initial state and the short-time forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.-Y.; Kim, D.-H.; Lee, S.-H.; Lee, H. W.

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we apply the four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation to optimize initial ozone state and to improve the predictability of air quality. The numerical modeling systems used for simulations of atmospheric condition and chemical formation are the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. The study area covers the capital region of South Korea, where the surface measurement sites are relatively evenly distributed. The 4D-Var code previously developed for the CMAQ model is modified to consider background error in matrix form, and various numerical tests are conducted. The results are evaluated with an idealized covariance function for the appropriateness of the modified codes. The background error is then constructed using the NMC method with long-term modeling results, and the characteristics of the spatial correlation scale related to local circulation is analyzed. The background error is applied in the 4D-Var research, and a surface observational assimilation is conducted to optimize the initial concentration of ozone. The statistical results for the 12 h assimilation periods and the 120 observatory sites show a 49.4 % decrease in the root mean squred error (RMSE), and a 59.9 % increase in the index of agreement (IOA). The temporal variation of spatial distribution of the analysis increments indicates that the optimized initial state of ozone concentration is transported to inland areas by the clockwise-rotating local circulation during the assimilation windows. To investigate the predictability of ozone concentration after the assimilation window, a short-time forecasting is carried out. The ratios of the RMSE with assimilation vs. that without assimilation are 8 and 13 % for the +24 and +12 h, respectively. Such a significant improvement in the forecast accuracy is obtained solely by using the optimized initial state. The potential improvement in ozone prediction for both the

  4. Variational data assimilation for the optimized ozone initial state and the short-time forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Soon-Young; Kim, Dong-Hyeok; Lee, Soon-Hwan; Lee, Hwa Woon

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we apply the four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation to optimize initial ozone state and to improve the predictability of air quality. The numerical modeling systems used for simulations of atmospheric condition and chemical formation are the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. The study area covers the capital region of South Korea, where the surface measurement sites are relatively evenly distributed. The 4D-Var code previously developed for the CMAQ model is modified to consider background error in matrix form, and various numerical tests are conducted. The results are evaluated with an idealized covariance function for the appropriateness of the modified codes. The background error is then constructed using the NMC method with long-term modeling results, and the characteristics of the spatial correlation scale related to local circulation are analyzed. The background error is applied in the 4D-Var research, and a surface observational assimilation is conducted to optimize the initial concentration of ozone. The statistical results for the 12 h assimilation periods and the 120 observatory sites show a 49.4 % decrease in the root mean squared error (RMSE), and a 59.9 % increase in the index of agreement (IOA). The temporal variation of spatial distribution of the analysis increments indicates that the optimized initial state of ozone concentration is transported to inland areas by the clockwise-rotating local circulation during the assimilation windows. To investigate the predictability of ozone concentration after the assimilation window, a short-time forecasting is carried out. The ratios of the RMSE (root mean squared error) with assimilation versus that without assimilation are 8 and 13 % for the +24 and +12 h, respectively. Such a significant improvement in the forecast accuracy is obtained solely by using the optimized initial state. The potential improvement in

  5. Variational data assimilation for the optimized ozone initial state and the short-time forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Soon-Young; Kim, Dong-Hyeok; Lee, Soon-Hwan; Lee, Hwa Woon

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we apply the four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation to optimize initial ozone state and to improve the predictability of air quality. The numerical modeling systems used for simulations of atmospheric condition and chemical formation are the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model . The study area covers the capital region of South Korea, where the surface measurement sites are relatively evenly distributed. The 4D-Var code previously developed for the CMAQ model is modified to consider background error in matrix form, and various numerical tests are conducted. The results are evaluated with an idealized covariance function for the appropriateness of the modified codes. The background error is then constructed using the NMC method with long-term modeling results, and the characteristics of the spatial correlation scale related to local circulation is analyzed. The background error is applied in the 4D-Var research, and a surface observational assimilation is conducted to optimize the initial concentration of ozone. The statistical results for the 12-hour assimilation periods and the 120 observatory sites show a 49.4% decrease in the root mean squred error (RMSE), and a 59.9% increase in the index of agreement (IOA). The temporal variation of spatial distribution of the analysis increments indicates that the optimized initial state of ozone concentration is transported to inland areas by the clockwise-rotating local circulation during the assimilation windows. To investigate the predictability of ozone concentration after the assimilation window, a short-time forecasting is carried out. The ratios of the RMSE with assimilation versus that without assimilation are 8% and 13% for the +24 and +12 hours, respectively. Such a significant improvement in the forecast accuracy is obtained solely by using the optimized initial state. The potential improvement in ozone prediction for

  6. Connecticut State University System Initiative for Nanotechnology-Related Equipment, Faculty Development and Curriculum Development

    SciTech Connect

    Broadbridge, Christine C.

    2013-03-28

    DOE grant used for partial fulfillment of necessary laboratory equipment for course enrichment and new graduate programs in nanotechnology at the four institutions of the Connecticut State University System (CSUS). Equipment in this initial phase included variable pressure scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy elemental analysis capability [at Southern Connecticut State University]; power x-ray diffractometer [at Central Connecticut State University]; a spectrophotometer and spectrofluorimeter [at Eastern Connecticut State University; and a Raman Spectrometer [at Western Connecticut State University]. DOE's funding was allocated for purchase and installation of this scientific equipment and instrumentation. Subsequently, DOE funding was allocated to fund the curriculum, faculty development and travel necessary to continue development and implementation of the System's Graduate Certificate in Nanotechnology (GCNT) program and the ConnSCU Nanotechnology Center (ConnSCU-NC) at Southern Connecticut State University. All of the established outcomes have been successfully achieved. The courses and structure of the GCNT program have been determined and the program will be completely implemented in the fall of 2013. The instrumentation has been purchased, installed and has been utilized at each campus for the implementation of the nanotechnology courses, CSUS GCNT and the ConnSCU-NC. Additional outcomes for this grant include curriculum development for non-majors as well as faculty and student research.

  7. The Impacts of State Health Reform Initiatives on Adults in New York and Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Long, Sharon K; Stockley, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the effects of health reform efforts in two large states—New York and Massachusetts. Data Sources/Study Setting National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data from 1999 to 2008. Study Design We take advantage of the “natural experiments” that occurred in New York and Massachusetts to compare health insurance coverage and health care access and use for adults before and after the implementation of the health policy changes. To control for underlying trends not related to the reform initiatives, we subtract changes in the outcomes over the same time period for comparison groups of adults who were not affected by the policy changes using a differences-in-differences framework. The analyses are conducted using multiple comparison groups and different time periods as a check on the robustness of the findings. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Nonelderly adults ages 19–64 in the NHIS. Principal Findings We find evidence of the success of the initiatives in New York and Massachusetts at expanding insurance coverage, with the greatest gains reported by the initiative that was broadest in scope—the Massachusetts push toward universal coverage. There is no evidence of improvements in access to care in New York, reflecting the small gains in coverage under that state's reform effort and the narrow focus of the initiative. In contrast, there were significant gains in access to care in Massachusetts, where the impact on insurance coverage was greater and a more comprehensive set of reforms were implemented to improve access to a full array of health care services. The estimated gains in coverage and access to care reported here for Massachusetts were achieved in the early period under health reform, before the state's reform initiative was fully implemented. Conclusions Comprehensive reform initiatives are more successful at addressing gaps in coverage and access to care than are narrower efforts, highlighting the potential gains under national

  8. A Framework for Rebuilding Initial Certification and Preparation Programs in Educational Leadership: Lessons from Whole-State Reform Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph; Moorman, Hunter N.; McCarthy, Martha

    2008-01-01

    Background/Context: This study examines the extent of reform in preparation programs in school leadership in six states employing a comprehensive, whole-state intervention design. Although no studies of these or other comprehensive reform designs are available, there is a rich context surrounding preparation reform work that informed our…

  9. Initial-state-independent equilibration at the breakdown of the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodja, Abdellah; Schmidtke, Daniel; Gemmer, Jochen

    2016-04-01

    This work aims at understanding the interplay between the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH), initial state independent equilibration, and quantum chaos in systems that do not have a direct classical counterpart. It is based on numerical investigations of asymmetric Heisenberg spin ladders with varied interaction strengths between the legs, i.e., along the rungs. The relaxation of the energy difference between the legs is investigated. Two different parameters, both intended to quantify the degree of accordance with the ETH, are computed. Both indicate violation of the ETH at large interaction strengths but at different thresholds. Indeed, the energy difference is found not to relax independently of its initial value above some critical interaction strength, which coincides with one of the thresholds. At the same point the level statistics shift from Poisson-type to Wigner-type. Hence, the system may be considered to become integrable again in the strong interaction limit.

  10. Moving science into state child and adolescent mental health systems: Illinois' evidence-informed practice initiative.

    PubMed

    Starin, Amy C; Atkins, Marc S; Wehrmann, Kathryn C; Mehta, Tara; Hesson-McInnis, Matthew S; Marinez-Lora, A; Mehlinger, Renee

    2014-01-01

    In 2005, the Illinois State Mental Health Authority embarked on an initiative to close the gap between research and practice in the children's mental health system. A stakeholder advisory council developed a plan to advance evidence informed practice through policy and program initiatives. A multilevel approach was developed to achieve this objective, which included policy change, stakeholder education, and clinician training. This article focuses on the evidence-informed training process designed following review of implementation research. The training involved in-person didactic sessions and twice-monthly telephone supervision across 6 cohorts of community based clinicians, each receiving 12 months of training. Training content initially included cognitive behavioral therapy and behavioral parent training and was adapted over the years to a practice model based on common element concepts. Evaluation based on provider and parent report indicated children treated by training clinicians generally showed superior outcomes versus both a treatment-as-usual comparison group for Cohorts 1 to 4 and the statewide child population as a whole after 90 days of care for Cohorts 5 to 6. The results indicated primarily moderate to strong effects for the evidence-based training groups. Moving a large public statewide child mental health system toward more effective services is a complex and lengthy process. These results indicate training of community mental health providers in Illinois in evidence-informed practice was moderately successful in positively impacting child-level functional outcomes. These findings also influenced state policy in committing resources to continuing the initiative, even in difficult economic times. PMID:24175571

  11. Hadron production via e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions with initial state radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Druzhinin, V. P.; Eidelman, S. I.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Solodov, E. P.

    2011-10-01

    A novel method of studying e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation into hadrons using initial state radiation at e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders is described. After a brief history of the method, its theoretical foundations are considered. Numerous experiments in which exclusive cross sections of e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation into hadrons below the center-of-mass energy of 5 GeV have been measured are presented. Some applications of the experimental results to fundamental tests of the standard model are listed.

  12. Influence of hydrostatic pressure on the ductility of copper as a function of its initial state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorov, S. A.

    2016-03-01

    The influence of hydrostatic pressure in the interval 0-250 MPa on the deformation properties of copper versus its initial state is studied. After liquid nitrogen storage, the torsion strain to fracture is found to increase when the pressure rises to 200 MPa. As the pressure rises further and reaches 250 MPa, the torsion strain to fracture drops. Preliminary torsion to a strain of 5% in opposition to torsion under pressure makes the pressure dependence of the ultimate strain linear. If the prestrain equals 25%, a rise in the pressure to 150MPa increases the ductility of the material. A further increase in the pressure to 250 MPa changes the ductility insignificantly.

  13. Multiple coherent states for first-principles semiclassical initial value representation molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ceotto, Michele; Atahan, Sule; Tantardini, Gian Franco; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2009-06-21

    A multiple coherent states implementation of the semiclassical approximation is introduced and employed to obtain the power spectra with a few classical trajectories. The method is integrated with the time-averaging semiclassical initial value representation to successfully reproduce anharmonicity and Fermi resonance splittings at a level of accuracy comparable to semiclassical simulations of thousands of trajectories. The method is tested on two different model systems with analytical potentials and implemented in conjunction with the first-principles molecular dynamics scheme to obtain the power spectrum for the carbon dioxide molecule. PMID:19548717

  14. Fast and high-fidelity optical initialization of spin state of an electron in a semiconductor quantum dot using light-hole-trion states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Parvendra; Nakajima, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    We theoretically show that under the Faraday geometry fast and high-fidelity optical initialization of electron spin (ES) state in a semiconductor quantum dot (SQD) can be realized by utilizing the light-hole (LH)-trion states. Initialization is completed within the time scale of ten nanoseconds with high fidelity, and the initialization laser pulse can be linearly, right-circularly, or left-circularly polarized. Moreover, we demonstrate that the time required for initialization can be further shortened down to a few hundreds of picoseconds if we introduce a pillar-microcavity to promote the relaxation of a LH-trion state towards the desired ES state through the Purcell effect. We also clarify the role of heavy-hole and light-hole mixing induced transitions on the fidelity of ES state initialization.

  15. Study of the exclusive initial-state-radiation production of the DD system

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Boutigny, D.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G. S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.

    2007-12-01

    A search for charmonium and other new states is performed in a study of exclusive initial-state-radiation production of DD events from electron-positron annihilations at a center-of-mass energy of 10.58 GeV. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 384 fb{sup -1} and was recorded by the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II storage ring. The DD mass spectrum shows clear evidence of the {psi}(3770) plus other structures near 3.9, 4.1, and 4.4 GeV/c{sup 2}. No evidence for Y(4260){yields}DD is observed, leading to an upper limit of B(Y(4260){yields}DD)/B(Y(4260){yields}J/{psi}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})<1.0 at 90% confidence level.

  16. Electron momentum spectroscopy of aniline taking account of nuclear dynamics in the initial electronic ground state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farasat, M.; Shojaei, S. H. R.; Morini, F.; Golzan, M. M.; Deleuze, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    The electronic structure, electron binding energy spectrum and (e, 2e) momentum distributions of aniline have been theoretically predicted at an electron impact energy of 1.500 keV on the basis of Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamical simulations, in order to account for thermally induced nuclear motions in the initial electronic ground state. Most computed momentum profiles are rather insensitive to thermally induced alterations of the molecular structure, with the exception of the profiles corresponding to two ionization bands at electron binding energies comprised between ˜10.0 and ˜12.0 eV (band C) and between ˜16.5 and ˜20.0 eV (band G). These profiles are found to be strongly influenced by nuclear dynamics in the electronic ground state, especially in the low momentum region. The obtained results show that thermal averaging smears out most generally the spectral fingerprints that are induced by nitrogen inversion.

  17. Initial states in integrable quantum field theory quenches from an integral equation hierarchy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, D. X.; Sotiriadis, S.; Takács, G.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of determining the initial state of integrable quantum field theory quenches in terms of the post-quench eigenstates. The corresponding overlaps are a fundamental input to most exact methods to treat integrable quantum quenches. We construct and examine an infinite integral equation hierarchy based on the form factor bootstrap, proposed earlier as a set of conditions determining the overlaps. Using quenches of the mass and interaction in Sinh-Gordon theory as a concrete example, we present theoretical arguments that the state has the squeezed coherent form expected for integrable quenches, and supporting an Ansatz for the solution of the hierarchy. Moreover we also develop an iterative method to solve numerically the lowest equation of the hierarchy. The iterative solution along with extensive numerical checks performed using the next equation of the hierarchy provides a strong numerical evidence that the proposed Ansatz gives a very good approximation for the solution.

  18. Study of the Exclusive Initial-State-RadiationProduction of the DDbar System

    SciTech Connect

    Collaboration, The BABAR; Aubert, B.

    2007-10-09

    A search for charmonium and other new states is performed in a study of exclusive initial-state-radiation production of D{bar D} events from electron-positron annihilations at a center-of-mass energy of 10.58 GeV. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 384 fb{sup -1} and was recorded by the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II storage ring. The D{bar D} mass spectrum shows clear evidence of the {psi}(3770) plus other structures near 3.9, 4.1, and 4.4 GeV/c2. No evidence for Y (4260) {yields} D{bar D} is observed, leading to an upper limit of {Beta}(Y (4260) {yields} D{bar D})/{Beta}(Y (4260) {yields} J/{psi}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) < 1.0 at 90% confidence level.

  19. NNSA's next generation safeguards initiative to define an effective state system of accounting and control

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Rebecca S; Sunshine, Alexander; Matthews, Caroline; Frazer, Sarah; Matthews, Carrie

    2010-01-01

    The International Nuclear Safeguards and Engagement Program (INSEP), the international outreach component of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), is a collaborative program that endeavors to strengthen international safeguards at all stages of nuclear development. One of the critical ways the program achieves this objective is through working with partners to increase the effectiveness of the State System of Accountancy for and Control of Nuclear Materials (SSAC) - the essential elements of national, regulatory and facility safeguards competencies that work as a system to provide the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the world the full assurance of the state's adherence to its safeguards agreements. INSEP provides assistance in developing a state's SSAC in a number of areas, from developing national legislation governing the possession and use of nuclear material to working with nuclear facility operators to developing good practices in waste management. INSEP has collaborated with foreign partners in peaceful nuclear applications for over two decades, but recently, it has focused its efforts on strengthening SSACs due to the growth of nuclear power worldwide, particularly in countries with limited nuclear infrastructures. This new area of focus has prompted INSEP to develop a model of SSAC competencies that will serve not only as a structure for its engagement with partner states, but also as a means to facilitate coordination with other states that provide training and assistance, and as a mechanism for evaluating the effectiveness of its work in reaching its intended objectives. While this model uses as its starting point the requirements on a State that are presented in the Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement and the Additional Protocol, it is not, in itself, a requirements document or guidance for implementing requirements. It is rather an analysis of what capabilities will be needed in a State to be able to meet requirements and to

  20. Initial excited-state dynamics of an N-alkylated indanylidene-pyrroline (NAIP) rhodopsin analog.

    PubMed

    Schapiro, Igor; Fusi, Stefania; Olivucci, Massimo; Andruniów, Tadeusz; Sasidharanpillai, Swaroop; Loppnow, Glen R

    2014-10-23

    N-Alkylated indanylidene-pyrroline-based molecular switches mimic different aspects of the light-induced retinal chromophore isomerization in rhodopsin: the vertebrate dim-light visual pigment. In particular, they display a similar ultrashort excited-state lifetime, subpicosecond photoproduct appearance time, and photoproduct vibrational coherence. To better understand the early light-induced dynamics of such systems, we measured and modeled the resonance Raman spectra of the Z-isomer of the N-methyl-4-(5'-methoxy-2',2'-dimethyl-indan-1'-ylidene)-5-methyl-2,3-dihydro-2H-pyrrolium (NAIP) switch in methanol solution. It is shown that the data, complemented with a <70 fs excited-state trajectory computation, demonstrate initial excited-state structural dynamics dominated by double-bond expansion and single-bond contraction stretches. This mode subsequently couples with the five-membered ring inversion and double-bond torsion. These results are discussed in the context of the mechanism of the excited-state photoisomerization of NAIP switches in solution and the 11-cis retinal in rhodopsin. PMID:25255466

  1. On the robustness of near term climate predictability regarding initial state uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germe, Agathe; Sévellec, Florian; Mignot, Juliette; Swingedouw, Didier; Nguyen, Sebastien

    2016-03-01

    A set of four ensemble simulations has been designed to assess the relative importance of atmospheric, oceanic, and deep ocean initial state uncertainties, as represented by spatial white noise perturbations, on seasonal to decadal prediction skills in a perfect model framework. It is found that a perturbation mimicking random oceanic uncertainties have the same impact as an atmospheric-only perturbation on the future evolution of the ensemble after the first 3 months, even if they are initially only located in the deep ocean. This is due to the fast (1 month) perturbation of the atmospheric component regardless of the initial ensemble generation strategy. The divergence of the ensemble upper-ocean characteristics is then mainly induced by ocean-atmosphere interactions. While the seasonally varying mixed layer depth allows the penetration of the different signals in the thermocline in the mid-high latitudes, the rapid adjustment of the thermocline to wind anomalies followed by Kelvin and Rossby waves adjustment dominates the growth of the ensemble spread in the tropics. These mechanisms result in similar ensemble distribution characteristics for the four ensembles design strategy at the interannual timescale.

  2. Sector Activities and Lessons Learned Around Initial Implementation of the United States National Physical Activity Plan

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Satinsky, Sara B.

    2016-01-01

    Background National plans are increasingly common but infrequently evaluated. The 2010 United States National Physical Activity Plan (NPAP) provided strategies to increase population levels of physical activity. This paper describes (i) the initial accomplishments of the NPAP sector teams, and (ii) results from a process evaluation to determine how the sectors operated, their cross-sector collaboration, challenges encountered, and positive experiences. Methods During 2011, a quarterly reporting system was developed to capture sector-level activities. A year-end interview derived more detailed information. Interviews with 12 sector leads were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed for common themes. Results The 6 sectors worked on goals from the implementation plan that focused broadly on education, promotion, intervention, policy, collaboration, and evaluation. Through year-end interviews, themes were generated around operations, goal setting, and cross-sector collaboration. Challenges to the NPAP work included lack of funding and time, the need for marketing and promotion, and organizational support. Positive experiences included collaboration, efficiency of work, enhanced community dynamic, and accomplishments toward NPAP goals. Conclusions These initial results on the NPAP sector teams can be used as a baseline assessment for future monitoring. The lessons learned may be useful to other practitioners developing evaluations around state- or national-level plans. PMID:24176800

  3. Equation of state and initial temperature of quark gluon plasma at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csanád, Máté; Májer, Imre

    2012-08-01

    In gold-gold collisions of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider a perfect fluid of strongly interacting quark gluon plasma (sQGP) is created. The time evolution of this fluid can be described by hydrodynamical models. After an expansion, hadrons are created during the freeze-out period. Their distribution reveals information about the final state. To investigate the time evolution one needs to analyze penetrating probes: e.g. direct photon observations. In this paper we analyze a 1+3 dimensional solution of relativistic hydrodynamics. We calculate momentum distribution, azimuthal asymmetry and momentum correlations of direct photons. Based on earlier fits to hadronic spectra, we compare photon calculations to measurements to determine the equations of state and the initial temperature of sQGP. We find that the initial temperature in the center of the fireball is 507±12 MeV, while for the sound speed we get c s=0.36±0.02. We also estimate a systematic error of these results. We find that the measured azimuthal asymmetry is also compatible with this model. We also predict a photon source that is significantly larger in the out direction than in the side direction.

  4. Equation of state and initial temperature of quark gluon plasma at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csanád, Máté; Májer, Imre

    2012-08-01

    In gold-gold collisions of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider a perfect fluid of strongly interacting quark gluon plasma (sQGP) is created. The time evolution of this fluid can be described by hydrodynamical models. After an expansion, hadrons are created during the freeze-out period. Their distribution reveals information about the final state. To investigate the time evolution one needs to analyze penetrating probes: e.g. direct photon observations. In this paper we analyze a 1+3 dimensional solution of relativistic hydrodynamics. We calculate momentum distribution, azimuthal asymmetry and momentum correlations of direct photons. Based on earlier fits to hadronic spectra, we compare photon calculations to measurements to determine the equations of state and the initial temperature of sQGP. We find that the initial temperature in the center of the fireball is 507±12 MeV, while for the sound speed we get c s =0.36±0.02. We also estimate a systematic error of these results. We find that the measured azimuthal asymmetry is also compatible with this model. We also predict a photon source that is significantly larger in the out direction than in the side direction.

  5. Initial-state dependence of the critical behavior in the conserved lattice gas model in one dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang Bub

    2014-06-01

    The conserved lattice gas model in one dimension, generated from various initial states, was intensively studied. The dynamic critical exponents α and ν║ associated with the decay of activeparticle densities and the correlation time, respectively, were found to depend drastically on the initial states. The perfectly-ordered initial state prepared by repeatedly placing the block `0011' yielded a standard critical behavior, with the critical exponents satisfying all the scaling relations. On the other hand, the natural initial states and the ordered initial states of blocks of odd numbers of particles yielded an exponent α slightly larger than that of an ordered state of `0011', but the data for active-particle densities did not satisfy scaling function. The exponents α and ν║ were also calculated from, respectively, the autocorrelation function and the persistence distribution of the active-particle densities, both in the steady states. The value of α was found to be close to the value for an ordered state of `0011' whereas the value of ν║ was consistent with that for the random initial states.

  6. Search for Charmonium States Decaying to J/\\psi\\gamma \\gamma $ Using Initial-State Radiation Events

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Bona, M.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.; Abrams, G.S.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Karlsruhe U., EKP /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Prairie View A-M /Princeton U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Stony Brook /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Yale U.

    2006-11-30

    We study the processes e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} (J/{psi}{gamma}{gamma}){gamma} and e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} (J/{psi}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}){gamma} where the hard photon radiated from an initial e{sup +}e{sup -} collision with center-of-mass (CM) energy near 10.58 GeV is detected. In the final state J/{psi}{gamma}{gamma} we consider J/{psi}{pi}{sup 0}, J/{psi}{eta}, {chi}{sub c1}{gamma}, and {chi}c{sub 2}{gamma} candidates. The invariant mass of the hadronic final state defines the effective e{sup +}e{sup -} CM energy in each event, so these data can be compared with direct e{sup +}e{sup -} measurements. We report 90% CL upper limits for the integrated cross section times branching fractions of the J/{psi}{gamma}{gamma} channels in the Y (4260) mass region.

  7. Initial and Final State Interaction Effects in Small-x Quark Distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Bo-Wen; Yuan, Feng

    2010-08-30

    We study the initial and final state interaction effects in the transverse momentum dependent parton distributions in the small-x saturation region. In particular, we discuss the quark distributions in the semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering, Drell-Yan lepton pair production and dijet-correlation processes in pA collisions. We calculate the quark distributions in the scalar-QED model and then extend to the color glass condensate formalism in QCD. The quark distributions are found universal between the DIS and Drell-Yan processes. On the other hand, the quark distribution from the qq'-->qq' channel contribution to the dijet-correlation process is not universal. However, we find that it can be related to the quark distribution in DIS process by a convolution with the normalized unintegrated gluon distribution in the CGC formalism in the large Nc limit.

  8. Illinois State University FOCUS Initiative: Civic Engagement and Outreach Projects in the ISU Physics Department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansher, J. A.; Holland, D. L.; Johns, G. F.; Willmitch, T. R.

    2007-05-01

    The Illinois State University Physics Department has long realized the importance of providing educational outreach opportunities to the wider community. Creating and maintaining community networks with engaging outreach projects helps us broaden the appreciation of physics, as well as encourage young students to consider careers in the sciences. A key aspect of these ISU Physics programs is that we involve our undergraduates in them, thereby fostering civic engagement in the next generation of scientists. This presentation highlights how our department promotes basic science literacy, and awareness of space physics and astronomy through several existing outreach projects. We also describe how we operate under the broader scope of the ISU FOCUS Initiative, and the NASA Solar System Ambassadors program.

  9. Localized Bioconvection Patterns and Their Initial State Dependency in Euglena gracilis Suspensions in an Annular Container

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoji, Erika; Nishimori, Hiraku; Awazu, Akinori; Izumi, Shunsuke; Iima, Makoto

    2014-04-01

    Localized patterns of bioconvection in Euglena gracilis suspensions were experimentally analyzed in an annular container. Near the critical mean density of convection, we succeeded in isolating two basic types of localized convection patterns. One was an almost stationary pattern consisting of two convection cells centered by an isolated high-density region of the microorganism where a downflow was generated, which we call a "bioconvection unit". The other was a traveling wave pattern consisting of an array of moving high-density waves bounded in a certain area. The effect of the mean density of E. gracilis on the emergence of the localized convection pattern was also examined. Near the critical mean density, we found that the emergence probability of the localized convection pattern depends on the initial state, i.e., whether E. gracilis has a uniform or localized distribution, which suggests that the system is bistable. Such bistability is often accompanied by localized structures in spatially extended dissipative systems.

  10. Binary neutron star merger simulations with different initial orbital frequency and equation of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maione, F.; De Pietri, R.; Feo, A.; Löffler, F.

    2016-09-01

    We present results from three-dimensional general relativistic simulations of binary neutron star coalescences and mergers using public codes. We considered equal mass models where the baryon mass of the two neutron stars is 1.4{M}ȯ , described by four different equations of state (EOS) for the cold nuclear matter (APR4, SLy, H4, and MS1; all parametrized as piecewise polytropes). We started the simulations from four different initial interbinary distances (40,44.3,50, and 60 km), including up to the last 16 orbits before merger. That allows us to show the effects on the gravitational wave (GW) phase evolution, radiated energy and angular momentum due to: the use of different EOS, the orbital eccentricity present in the initial data and the initial separation (in the simulation) between the two stars. Our results show that eccentricity has a major role in the discrepancy between numerical and analytical waveforms until the very last few orbits, where ‘tidal’ effects and missing high-order post-Newtonian coefficients also play a significant role. We test different methods for extrapolating the GW signal extracted at finite radii to null infinity. We show that an effective procedure for integrating the Newman–Penrose {\\psi }4 signal to obtain the GW strain h is to apply a simple high-pass digital filter to h after a time domain integration, where only the two physical motivated integration constants are introduced. That should be preferred to the more common procedures of introducing additional integration constants, integrating in the frequency domain or filtering {\\psi }4 before integration.

  11. Role of initial state and final quench temperature on aging properties in phase-ordering kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corberi, Federico; Villavicencio-Sanchez, Rodrigo

    2016-05-01

    We study numerically the two-dimensional Ising model with nonconserved dynamics quenched from an initial equilibrium state at the temperature Ti≥Tc to a final temperature Tf below the critical one. By considering processes initiating both from a disordered state at infinite temperature Ti=∞ and from the critical configurations at Ti=Tc and spanning the range of final temperatures Tf∈[0 ,Tc[ we elucidate the role played by Ti and Tf on the aging properties and, in particular, on the behavior of the autocorrelation C and of the integrated response function χ . Our results show that for any choice of Tf, while the autocorrelation function exponent λC takes a markedly different value for Ti=∞ [λC(Ti=∞ ) ≃5 /4 ] or Ti=Tc [λC(Ti=Tc) ≃1 /8 ] the response function exponents are unchanged. Supported by the outcome of the analytical solution of the solvable spherical model we interpret this fact as due to the different contributions provided to autocorrelation and response by the large-scale properties of the system. As changing Tf is considered, although this is expected to play no role in the large-scale and long-time properties of the system, we show important effects on the quantitative behavior of χ . In particular, data for quenches to Tf=0 are consistent with a value of the response function exponent λχ=1/2 λC(Ti=∞ ) =5 /8 different from the one [λχ∈(0.5 -0.56 ) ] found in a wealth of previous numerical determinations in quenches to finite final temperatures. This is interpreted as due to important preasymptotic corrections associated to Tf>0 .

  12. Fault geometries in basement-induced wrench faulting under different initial stress states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naylor, M. A.; Mandl, G.; Supesteijn, C. H. K.

    Scaled sandbox experiments were used to generate models for relative ages, dip, strike and three-dimensional shape of faults in basement-controlled wrench faulting. The basic fault sequence runs from early en échelon Riedel shears and splay faults through 'lower-angle' shears to P shears. The Riedel shears are concave upwards and define a tulip structure in cross-section. In three dimensions, each Riedel shear has a helicoidal form. The sequence of faults and three-dimensional geometry are rationalized in terms of the prevailing stress field and Coulomb-Mohr theory of shear failure. The stress state in the sedimentary overburden before wrenching begins has a substantial influence on the fault geometries and on the final complexity of the fault zone. With the maximum compressive stress (∂ 1) initially parallel to the basement fault (transtension), Riedel shears are only slightly en échelon, sub-parallel to the basement fault, steeply dipping with a reduced helicoidal aspect. Conversely, with ∂ 1 initially perpendicular to the basement fault (transpression), Riedel shears are strongly oblique to the basement fault strike, have lower dips and an exaggerated helicoidal form; the final fault zone is both wide and complex. We find good agreement between the models and both mechanical theory and natural examples of wrench faulting.

  13. Conformational Differences between Open and Closed States of the Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Complex

    PubMed Central

    Llácer, Jose L.; Hussain, Tanweer; Marler, Laura; Aitken, Colin Echeverría; Thakur, Anil; Lorsch, Jon R.; Hinnebusch, Alan G.; Ramakrishnan, V.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Translation initiation in eukaryotes begins with the formation of a pre-initiation complex (PIC) containing the 40S ribosomal subunit, eIF1, eIF1A, eIF3, ternary complex (eIF2-GTP-Met-tRNAi), and eIF5. The PIC, in an open conformation, attaches to the 5′ end of the mRNA and scans to locate the start codon, whereupon it closes to arrest scanning. We present single particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) reconstructions of 48S PICs from yeast in these open and closed states, at 6.0 Å and 4.9 Å, respectively. These reconstructions show eIF2β as well as a configuration of eIF3 that appears to encircle the 40S, occupying part of the subunit interface. Comparison of the complexes reveals a large conformational change in the 40S head from an open mRNA latch conformation to a closed one that constricts the mRNA entry channel and narrows the P site to enclose tRNAi, thus elucidating key events in start codon recognition. PMID:26212456

  14. FINAL REPORT: SUNSHINE STATE SOLAR GRID INITIATIVE (SUNGRIN) PHASE 1 (Critical Milestone Review Version)

    SciTech Connect

    Meeker, Rick; Steurer, Mischa; Li, Hui; Edrington, Chris; Dale, Steinar; Faruque, MD Omar; Schoder, Karl; McLaren, Peter G.; Liu, Liming; Ravindra, Harsha; Henry, Shawn; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Xiaohu; Springstroh, Aaron; Click, David; Reedy, Robert; Moaveni, Houtan; Davis, Kristopher; Cromer, Charlie; Pappalardo, Anthoney; Krueger, Rodica; Domijan, Alexander; Islam, Arif; Islam, Mujahidil; Damole, Ademole

    2012-03-30

    This report provides details on the activities and accomplishments of Phase 1 of the Sunshine State Solar Grid Initiative (SUNGRIN) Project for the period beginning 4/28/2010 and ending 12/31/2011. SUNGRIN is a five-phase high-penetration solar PV project within the Systems Integration (SI) area of the Solar Energy Technologies (SETP) Program, under the SunShot Initiative. SUNGRIN is focused on understanding and enabling high-penetration grid-connected solar PV through simulation assisted studies of actual Florida utility high-penetration distribution circuits as well as substations and, to a limited extent, the bulk power system. Each phase builds and expands upon the efforts of the previous phase, leading to a comprehensive examination and understanding of high-penetration solar PV issues, from the solar resource to the conversion and integration technologies to the electric power system, with Florida and it’s utility partners providing the broad range of conditions and system integration scenarios necessary to develop useful insight and solutions. This phase, Phase 1, was funded with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. This version of the final report is organized to align with statement of project objectives (SOPO) critical milestones.

  15. Planning an organizational wellness initiative at a multi-state social service agency.

    PubMed

    Miller, J Jay; Grise-Owens, Erlene; Addison, Donia; Marshall, Midaya; Trabue, Donna; Escobar-Ratliff, Laura

    2016-06-01

    Increasingly, organizations in general, and social service organizations, specifically, are recognizing the importance of planning and evaluating organizational wellness initiatives. Yet, few participatory models for carrying out these aims exist. For this study, researchers utilized concept mapping (CM) to explicate a conceptual framework for planning, and subsequently evaluating, a wellness initiative at a multi-state social service organization. CM is a participatory approach that analyzes qualitative data via multi-dimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analyses. Outputs include a number of visual depictions that allow researchers to explore complex relationships among sets of the data. Results from this study indicated that participants (N=64), all of whom were employees of the agency, conceptualized organizational wellness via an eight-cluster solution, or Concept Map. Priority areas of this framework, specifically importance and feasibility, were also explored. After a brief review of pertinent literature, this article explicates the CM methodology utilized in this study, describes results, discusses lessons learned, and identifies apt areas for future research. PMID:27003729

  16. Overview of the Common Core State Standard initiative and educational reform movement from the vantage of speech-language pathologists.

    PubMed

    Staskowski, Maureen

    2012-05-01

    Educational reform is sweeping the country. The adoption and the implementation of the Common Core State Standards in almost every state are meant to transform education. It is intended to update the way schools educate, the way students learn, and to ultimately prepare the nation's next generation for the global workplace. This article will describe the Common Core State Standard initiative and the underlying concerns about the quality of education in the United States as well as the opportunities this reform initiative affords speech-language pathologists. PMID:22538706

  17. Study of the Exclusive Initial State RadiationProduction of the D \\bar D System

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.

    2006-09-07

    A study of exclusive production of the D{bar D} system through initial-state radiation is performed in a search for charmonium states, where D = D{sup 0} or D{sup +}. The D{sup 0} mesons are reconstructed in the D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}, D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}, and D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decay modes. The D{sup +} is reconstructed through the D{sup +} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +} decay mode. The analysis makes use of an integrated luminosity of 288.5 fb{sup -1} collected by the BABAR experiment. The D{bar D} mass spectrum shows a clear {psi}(3770) signal. Further structures appear in the 3.9 and 4.1 GeV/c{sup 2} regions. No evidence is found for Y(4260) decays to D{bar D}, implying an upper limit {Beta}(Y(4260) {yields} D{bar D})/{Beta}(Y(4260) {yields} J/{psi}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) < 7.6 (95% confidence level).

  18. GeoBolivia the initiator Spatial Data Infrastructure of the Plurinational State of Bolivia's Node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina Rodriguez, Raul Fernando; Lesage, Sylvain

    2014-05-01

    Started in 2011, the GeoBolivia project (www.geo.gob.bo)aims at building the Spatial Data Infrastructure of the Plurinational State of Bolivia (IDE-EPB by its Spanish initials), as an effort of the Vice Presidency of the State to give an open access to the public geographic information of Bolivia. The first phase of the project has already been completed. It consisted in implementing an infrastructure and a geoportal for accessing the geographic information through WMS, WFS, WCS and CSW services. The project is currently in its second phase dedicated to decentralizing the structure of IDE-EPB and promoting its use throughout the Bolivian State. The whole platform uses free software and open standards. As a complement, an on-line training module was developed to undertake the transfer of the knowledge the project generated. The main software components used in the SDI are: gvSIG, QGis, uDig as GIS desktop clients; PostGreSQL and PostGIS as geographic database management system; geOrchestra as a framework containing the GeoServer map server, the GeoNetwork catalog server and the OpenLayers and Mapfish GIS webclient; MapServer as a map server for generating OpenStreetMap tiles; Debian as operating system; Apache and Tomcat as web servers. Keywords: SDI, Bolivia, GIS, free software, catalog, gvSIG, QGIS, uDig, geOrchestra, OpenLayers, Mapfish, GeoNetwork, MapServer, GeoServer, OGC, WFS, WMS, WCS, CSW, WMC.

  19. Education, Key to Economic Growth. Recent Major Education Initiatives in Support of Economic Development in New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    This report describes new major education initiatives to enhance economic development in New York State. The 1970-1987 period has seen dramatic change in the labor profile impelled by technological and market forces transforming the economy. Apart from some fairly stable sectors, the state economy is characterized by a shift from manaufacturing to…

  20. 76 FR 64341 - Silver State Solar Power North LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Silver State Solar Power North LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding of Silver State Solar Power North, LLC's application for...

  1. 77 FR 20381 - Silver State Solar Power North, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Silver State Solar Power North, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding of Silver State Solar Power North, LLC's application for...

  2. Technology, Innovation, and Regional Economic Development. Census of State Government Initiatives for High-Technology Industrial Development. Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    Census data were gathered on existing state government programs to stimulate, attract, or retain high technology industrial development. A preliminary taxonomy of program types and services indicated the range and diversity of the tactics. The census identified over 200 state and local economic development initiatives with at least some features…

  3. Same Initial States Attack in Yang et al.'s Quantum Private Comparison Protocol and the Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen-Jie; Liu, Chao; Liu, Zhi-Hao; Liu, Jing-Fa; Geng, Huan-Tong

    2014-01-01

    In Yang et al.'s literatures (J. Phys. A: Math. 42, 055305, 2009; J. Phys. A: Math. 43, 209801, 2010), a quantum private comparison protocol based on Bell states and hash function is proposed, which aims to securely compare the equality of two participants' information with the help of a dishonest third party (TP). However, this study will point out their protocol cannot resist a special kind of attack, TP's same initial states attack, which is presented in this paper. That is, the dishonest TP can disturb the comparison result without being detected through preparing the same initial states. Finally, a simple improvement is given to avoid the attack.

  4. Technical progress report. Private sector initiatives between the United States and Japan. January 1989 - December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    1990-02-01

    This annual report for calendar year 1989 describes the efforts performed under the Private Sector Initiatives contract. The report also describes those efforts that have continued with private funding after being initiated under this contract.

  5. Technical progress report. Private sector initiatives between the United States and Japan. January 1990 - December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    1993-07-01

    OAK A271 This annual report for calendar year 1990 describes the efforts performed under the Private Sector Initiatives contract. The report also describes those efforts that have continued with private funding after being initiated under this contract.

  6. Technical progress report. Private sector initiatives between the United States and Japan. January 1992 - December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    1993-08-01

    OAK A271 This annual report for calendar year 1992 describes the efforts performed under the Private Sector Initiatives contract. The report also describes those efforts that have continued with private funding after being initiated under this contract.

  7. Technical progress report. Private sector initiatives between the United States and Japan. January 1991 - December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    1993-07-01

    This annual report for calendar year 1991 describes the efforts performed under the Private Sector Initiatives contract. The report also describes those efforts that have continued with private funding after being initiated under this contract.

  8. Fate of the initial state perturbations in heavy ion collisions. II. Glauber fluctuations and sounds

    SciTech Connect

    Staig, Pilar; Shuryak, Edward

    2011-09-15

    Heavy-ion collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are well described by the (nearly ideal) hydrodynamics for average events. In the present paper we study initial state fluctuations appearing on an event-by-event basis and the propagation of perturbations induced by them. We found that (i) fluctuations of several of the lowest harmonics have comparable magnitudes and (ii) that at least all odd harmonics are correlated in phase, (iii) thus indicating the local nature of fluctuations. We argue that such local perturbations should be the source of the ''tiny bang,'' a pulse of sound propagating from it. We identify its two fundamental scales as (i) the ''sound horizon'' (analogous to the absolute ruler in cosmic microwave background and galaxy distributions) and (ii) the ''viscous horizon'' separating damped and undamped harmonics. We then qualitatively describe how one can determine them from the data and thus determine two fundamental parameters of the matter: the (average) speed of sound and viscosity. The rest of the paper explains how one can study mutual coherence of various harmonics. For that, one should go beyond the two-particle correlations to three (or more) particles. Mutual coherence is important for the picture of propagating sound waves.

  9. Penn State geoPebble system: Design,Implementation, and Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbina, J. V.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Bilen, S. G.; Fleishman, A.; Burkett, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Penn State geoPebble system is a new network of wirelessly interconnected seismic and GPS sensor nodes with flexible architecture. This network will be used for studies of ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland, as well as to investigate mountain glaciers. The network will consist of ˜150 geoPebbles that can be deployed in a user-defined spatial geometry. We present our design methodology, which has enabled us to develop these state-of- the art sensors using commercial-off-the-shelf hardware combined with custom-designed hardware and software. Each geoPebble is a self- contained, wirelessly connected sensor for collecting seismic measurements and position information. Key elements of each node encompasses a three-component seismic recorder, which includes an amplifier, filter, and 24- bit analog-to-digital converter that can sample up to 10 kHz. Each unit also includes a microphone channel to record the ground-coupled airwave. The timing for each node is available from GPS measurements and a local precision oscillator that is conditioned by the GPS timing pulses. In addition, we record the carrier-phase measurement of the L1 GPS signal in order to determine location at sub-decimeter accuracy (relative to other geoPebbles within a few kilometers radius). Each geoPebble includes 16 GB of solid-state storage, wireless communications capability to a central supervisory unit, and auxiliary measurements capability (including tilt from accelerometers, absolute orientation from magnetometers and temperature). A novel aspect of the geoPebble is a wireless charging system for the internal battery (using inductive coupling techniques). The geoPebbles include all the sensors (geophones, GPS, microphone), communications (WiFi), and power (battery and charging) internally, so the geoPebble system can operate without any cabling connections (though we do provide an external connector so that different geophones can be used). We report initial field-deployment results and

  10. How to trust a perfect stranger: predicting initial trust behavior from resting-state brain-electrical connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Notebaert, Karolien; Anderl, Christine; Teckentrup, Vanessa; Kaßecker, Anja; Windmann, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal exchanges can be understood as the updating of an initial belief about a partner. This initial level of trust is essential when it comes to establishing cooperation with an unknown partner, as cooperation cannot arise without a minimum of trust not justified by previous successful exchanges with this partner. Here we demonstrate the existence of a representation of the initial trust level before an exchange with a partner has occurred. Specifically, we can predict the Investor’s initial investment—i.e. his initial level of trust toward the unknown trustee in Round 1 of a standard 10-round Trust Game—from resting-state functional connectivity data acquired several minutes before the start of the Trust Game. Resting-state functional connectivity is, however, not significantly associated with the level of trust in later rounds, potentially mirroring the updating of the initial belief about the partner. Our results shed light on how the initial level of trust is represented. In particular, we show that a person’s initial level of trust is, at least in part, determined by brain electrical activity acquired well before the beginning of an exchange. PMID:25274577

  11. How to trust a perfect stranger: predicting initial trust behavior from resting-state brain-electrical connectivity.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Tim; Notebaert, Karolien; Anderl, Christine; Teckentrup, Vanessa; Kaßecker, Anja; Windmann, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    Reciprocal exchanges can be understood as the updating of an initial belief about a partner. This initial level of trust is essential when it comes to establishing cooperation with an unknown partner, as cooperation cannot arise without a minimum of trust not justified by previous successful exchanges with this partner. Here we demonstrate the existence of a representation of the initial trust level before an exchange with a partner has occurred. Specifically, we can predict the Investor's initial investment--i.e. his initial level of trust toward the unknown trustee in Round 1 of a standard 10-round Trust Game-from resting-state functional connectivity data acquired several minutes before the start of the Trust Game. Resting-state functional connectivity is, however, not significantly associated with the level of trust in later rounds, potentially mirroring the updating of the initial belief about the partner. Our results shed light on how the initial level of trust is represented. In particular, we show that a person's initial level of trust is, at least in part, determined by brain electrical activity acquired well before the beginning of an exchange. PMID:25274577

  12. Initial Metabolic State and Exercise-Induced Endotoxaemia Are Unrelated to Gastrointestinal Symptoms During Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Moncada-Jimènez, José; Plaisance, Eric P.; Mestek, Michael L.; Araya-Ramirez, Felipe; Ratcliff, Lance; Taylor, James K.; Grandjean, Peter W.; Aragonvargas, Luis F.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the association between the initial metabolic state and exercise-induced endotoxaemia on the appearance of gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) during exercise. Eleven males (36.6 ± 4.9 yrs, 1.7 ± 0.1 m, 74.5 ± 7.7 kg, DEXA body fat % 17.2 ± 6.6, VO2max 57.4 ± 7.4 ml·kg-1·min-1) underwent two isoenergetic diets designed to change their initial metabolic status by either depleting or maintaining their hepatic and muscular glycogen content. These diets and accompanying exercise sessions were performed by each participant in the days before completing a laboratory-based duathlon (5-km run, 30-km cycling, 10-km run). Blood samples were obtained before, immediately and 1- and 2-h following the duathlon for determination of insulin (IN), glucagon (GL), endotoxin, aspartic aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) markers. GIS were assessed by survey before and after exercise. Diet content produced a different energy status as determined by macronutrient content and the IN/GL ratio (p < 0.05), and mild exercise-induced endotoxaemia was observed in both experimental duathlons. Regardless of the diet, the AST/ALT ratio following exercise and in the recovery phase indicated hepatocyte and liver parenchyma structural damage. In spite of GIS, no significant correlations between endotoxin levels and GIS were found. In conclusion, increased markers of endotoxaemia observed with the high-intensity exercise were unrelated to hepatic function and/or GIS before and after exercise. Key points Gastrointestinal symptoms before, during, and after a competition are reported by approximately 20%-50% of the athletes participating in endurance events such as marathon, cycling and triathlon. Energy status, exercise-induced endotoxaemia and liver structural damage might be related to gastrointestinal symptoms. In this study, gastrointestinal symptoms observed before and after endurance exercise were unrelated to endotoxin levels or

  13. A State-Level Review of Diversity Initiatives in Congregate Meal Programs Established Under the Older Americans Act.

    PubMed

    Porter, Kristen E; Cahill, Sean

    2015-10-01

    The Older Americans Act (OAA) congregate meal program (CMP) targets those most at risk for nutritional deficiencies, social isolation, and institutionalization. Social minorities (racial, ethnic, cultural, and sexual minorities) are at high risk for all three. This study explores state-level diversity initiatives to welcome these social minorities in CMPs. A national survey was distributed to each State Unit on Aging, all but three states participated. The majority of states (64.6%) target CMPs to a specific racial, ethnic, or cultural minority; five states target sexual minorities (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender [LGBT]). Negative binomial regression results find state minority population percentage is a significant predictor of the number of diversity initiatives at CMPs. States with LGBT CMPs reported the highest levels of racial/ethnic/cultural diversity initiatives and high levels of statewide LGBT protective policies. Recommendations are suggested that build upon the diversification success of states to further the mission of OAA in reaching high-risk older adults. PMID:25651589

  14. A simple methodology to finance public health initiatives: reimbursement for tuberculosis directly observed therapy services in New York State.

    PubMed

    Klein, S J; Laufer, F N

    1995-01-01

    New York State (NYS) used Medicaid reimbursement to create incentives for health care providers to offer directly observed therapy (DOT) services for active tuberculosis (TB) disease. This resulted in proliferation of 26 new TB DOT providers and expanded capacity for the New York City (NYC). Department of Health. As a result, over 1,200 individuals now receive DOT in NYC. The reimbursement methodology was also used for other NYS public health initiatives. It is applicable for public health initiatives elsewhere. PMID:10186645

  15. Performance Incentives to Improve Community College Completion: Learning from Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative. A State Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulock, Nancy; Jenkins, Davis

    2011-01-01

    Amid growing signs of America's weakening position in the global economy, federal and state policymakers and major foundations have set ambitious goals for increasing postsecondary attainment in the United States. Given changing U.S. demographics, it has become clear that these national goals are attainable only with vastly improved outcomes among…

  16. 75 FR 36538 - Arkansas: Final Authorization of State-initiated Changes and Incorporation by Reference of State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... authorized? Arkansas initially received final authorization on January 25, 1985 (50 FR 1513), to implement... program on January 11, 1985 (50 FR 1513), effective January 25, 1985; March 27, 1990 (55 FR 11192), effective May 29, 1990; September 18, 1991 (56 FR 47153), effective November 18, 1991; October 5, 1992...

  17. Association between U.S. State AIDS Drug Assistance Program (ADAP) Features and HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation, 2001–2009

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, David B.; Buchacz, Kate; Gebo, Kelly A.; Hessol, Nancy A.; Horberg, Michael A.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Kirk, Gregory D.; Kitahata, Mari M.; Korthuis, P. Todd; Moore, Richard D.; Napravnik, Sonia; Patel, Pragna; Silverberg, Michael J.; Sterling, Timothy R.; Willig, James H.; Collier, Ann; Samji, Hasina; Thorne, Jennifer E.; Althoff, Keri N.; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Rodriguez, Benigno; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Gange, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Background U.S. state AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAPs) are federally funded to provide antiretroviral therapy (ART) as the payer of last resort to eligible persons with HIV infection. States differ regarding their financial contributions to and ways of implementing these programs, and it remains unclear how this interstate variability affects HIV treatment outcomes. Methods We analyzed data from HIV-infected individuals who were clinically-eligible for ART between 2001 and 2009 (i.e., a first reported CD4+ <350 cells/uL or AIDS-defining illness) from 14 U.S. cohorts of the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD). Using propensity score matching and Cox regression, we assessed ART initiation (within 6 months following eligibility) and virologic suppression (within 1 year) based on differences in two state ADAP features: the amount of state funding in annual ADAP budgets and the implementation of waiting lists. We performed an a priori subgroup analysis in persons with a history of injection drug use (IDU). Results Among 8,874 persons, 56% initiated ART within six months following eligibility. Persons living in states with no additional state contribution to the ADAP budget initiated ART on a less timely basis (hazard ratio [HR] 0.73, 95% CI 0.60–0.88). Living in a state with an ADAP waiting list was not associated with less timely initiation (HR 1.12, 95% CI 0.87–1.45). Neither additional state contributions nor waiting lists were significantly associated with virologic suppression. Persons with an IDU history initiated ART on a less timely basis (HR 0.67, 95% CI 0.47–0.95). Conclusions We found that living in states that did not contribute additionally to the ADAP budget was associated with delayed ART initiation when treatment was clinically indicated. Given the changing healthcare environment, continued assessment of the role of ADAPs and their features that facilitate prompt treatment is needed. PMID:24260137

  18. 77 FR 58987 - North Eastern States, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission North Eastern States, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of...

  19. The Politics of Privatization Practice: An Analysis of State-Initiated Privatization via School Restructuring Statutes in Two Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhim, Lauren Morando

    2007-01-01

    Efforts to infuse market forces into public education are based on the supposition that these forces can improve student outcomes. This assumption does not consider the politics of implementation. This article examines state-initiated school privatization and reveals factors that influence translation of theory to practice. The cases depict what…

  20. The Impact of the Common Core State Standards Initiative on Math ACT Scores of West Tennessee High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kirkland D.

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) initiative is the latest effort by educational leaders to improve educational outcomes of American students. The standards are intended to bring uniformity in educational content of what is being taught in schools across the nation in order to promote rigor and academic portability. Proponents claimed the new…

  1. Overall reaction concept in premixed, laminar, steady-state flames. II. Initial temperatures and pressures. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Coffee, T.P.; Kotlar, A.J.; Miller, M.S.

    1984-11-01

    In a previous report, the adequacy of the overall reaction model for premixed, laminar, one-dimensional, steady-state flames was examined. The single-reaction model gave quite accurate results for burning velocity. The temperature and heat-release profiles were also generally accurate. The accuracy of the major-species profiles varied from fair to good. However, the optimal overall kinetic parameters varied with the equivalence ratio. In this report, the adequacy of an overall reaction model for premixed, laminar, one-dimensional, steady-state flames is examined for variations in initial temperature and pressure. The single reaction model gives quite accurate results for burning velocity; temperature and heat-release profiles are also generally accurate; major-species profiles are reproduced with fair to good accuracy. The optimal overall parameters change with initial temperature and pressure. However, a single set of parameters are found to be accurate over a limited range of initial temperatures and pressures.

  2. An initial state perturbation experiment with the GISS model. [random error effects on numerical weather prediction models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spar, J.; Notario, J. J.; Quirk, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Monthly mean global forecasts for January 1975 have been computed with the Goddard Institute for Space Studies model from four slightly different sets of initial conditions - a 'control' state and three random perturbations thereof - to simulate the effects of initial state uncertainty on forecast quality. Differences among the forecasts are examined in terms of energetics, synoptic patterns and forecast statistics. The 'noise level' of the model predictions is depicted on global maps of standard deviations of sea level pressures, 500 mb heights and 850 mb temperatures for the set of four forecasts. Initial small-scale random errors do not appear to result in any major degradation of the large-scale monthly mean forecast beyond that generated by the model itself, nor do they appear to represent the major source of large-scale forecast error.

  3. Diabatic Initialization of Mesoscale Models in the Southeastern United States: Can 0 to 12h Warm Season QPF be Improved?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapenta, William M.; Bradshaw, Tom; Burks, Jason; Darden, Chris; Dembek, Scott

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that numerical warm season quantitative precipitation forecasts lack significant skill for numerous reasons. Some are related to the model--it may lack physical processes required to realistically simulate convection or the numerical algorithms and dynamics employed may not be adequate. Others are related to initialization-mesoscale features play an important role in convective initialization and atmospheric observation systems are incapable of properly depicting the three-dimensional stability structure at the mesoscale. The purpose of this study is to determine if a mesoscale model initialized with a diabatic initialization scheme can improve short-term (0 to 12h) warm season quantitative precipitation forecasts in the Southeastern United States. The Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS) developed at the Forecast System Laboratory is used to diabatically initialize the Pennsylvania State University/National center for Atmospheric Research (PSUNCAR) Mesoscale Model version 5 (MM5). The SPORT Center runs LAPS operationally on an hourly cycle to produce analyses on a 15 km covering the eastern 2/3 of the United States. The 20 km National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Rapid Update Cycle analyses are used for the background fields. Standard observational data are acquired from MADIS with GOES/CRAFT Nexrad data acquired from in-house feeds. The MM5 is configured on a 140 x 140 12 km grid centered on Huntsville Alabama. Preliminary results indicate that MM5 runs initialized with LAPS produce improved 6 and 12h QPF threat scores compared with those initialized with the NCEP RUC.

  4. Generation of Rydberg states of hydrogen atoms with intense laser pulses: The roles of Coulomb force and initial lateral momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin; Chen, Wenbo; Zhao, Zengxiu

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the generation of Rydberg states of hydrogen atoms with intense laser pulses by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation and by means of classical-trajectory Monte Carlo simulations. Both linearly polarized multicycle pulses and pairs of optical half-cycle pulses are used. Comparisons between these methods show that both the Coulomb force and initial lateral momentum, which have effects on the n distribution and l distribution of the population of excited states, are important in the generation of Rydberg states.

  5. Universities and the Entrepreneurial State: Politics and Policy and a New Wave of State-Based Economic Initiatives. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.14.06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, John Aubrey

    2006-01-01

    The convergence of US federal science and economic policy that began in earnest in the Reagan administration formed the first stage in an emerging post-Cold War drive toward technological innovation. A frenzy of new state-based initiatives now forms the Second Stage, further promoting universities as decisive tools for economic competitiveness.…

  6. Metrics, Dollars, and Systems Change: Learning from Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative to Design Effective Postsecondary Performance Funding Policies. A State Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Davis; Shulock, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The Student Achievement Initiative (SAI), adopted by the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges in 2007, is one of a growing number of performance funding programs that have been dubbed "performance funding 2.0." Unlike previous performance funding models, the SAI rewards colleges for students' intermediate achievements along…

  7. Evaluation of the State Energy Conservation Program from program initiation to September 1978. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heller, James N.; Grossmann, John R.; Shochet, Susan; Bresler, Joel; Duggan, Noreene

    1980-03-01

    The State Energy Conservation Program was established in 1975 to promote energy conservation and to help states develop and implement their own conservation programs. Base (5) and supplemental (3) programs required states to implement programs including: mandatory thermal-efficiency standards and insulation requirements for new and renovated buildings; mandatory lighting efficiency standards for public buildings; mandatory standards and policies affecting the procurement practices of the state and its political subdivisions; program measures to promote the availability and use of carpools, vanpools, and public transportation; a traffic law or regulation which permits a right turn-on-red; and procedures to carry out a continuing public education effort to increase awareness of energy conservation; procedures which promote effective coordination among local, state, and Federal energy conservation programs; and procedures for carrying out energy audits on buildings and industrial plants. All 50 states and Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and the District of Columbia participated in the program. The total 1980 energy savings projected by the states is about 5.9 quadrillion Btu's or about 7% of the DOE projected 1980 baseline consumption of just under 83 quads. The detailed summary is presented on the following: information the SECP evaluation; DOE response to the SECP; DOE's role in the program management process; the effectiveness of the states in managing the SECP; the status of program measure implementation; innovative state energy conservation programs; and the evaluation methodology.

  8. Ballistic quantum state transfer in spin chains: General theory for quasi-free models and arbitrary initial states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banchi, Leonardo

    2013-11-01

    Ballistic quantum information transfer through spin chains is based on the idea of making the spin dynamics ruled by collective excitations with linear dispersion relation. Unlike perfect state transfer schemes, a ballistic transmission requires only a minimal engineering of the interactions; in fact, for most practical purposes, the optimization of the couplings to the ends of the chain is sufficient to obtain an almost perfect transmission. In this work we review different ballistic quantum state transfer protocols based on the dynamics of quasi-free spin chains, and further generalize them both at zero and finite temperature. In particular, besides presenting novel analytical results for XX, XY, and Ising spin models, it is shown how, via a complete control on the first and last two qubits of the chain, destructive thermal effects can be cancelled, leading to a high-quality state transmission irrespective of the temperature.

  9. Short distance physics and initial state effects on the CMB power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Zarei, M.

    2008-12-15

    We investigate a modification in the action of inflaton due to noncommutativity leads to a nonstandard initial vacuum and oscillatory corrections in the initial power spectrum. We show that the presence of these oscillations causes a drop in the WMAP {chi}{sup 2} about {delta}{chi}{sup 2}{approx}8.5. As a bonus, from the parameter estimation done in this work, we show that the noncommutative parameters can be precisely bound to 10{sup 16} GeV or 10{sup 4} GeV depending on the inflation scale.

  10. Taxing Pennsylvania: A Family-Focused Overview of Pennsylvania Taxes. State Fiscal Analysis Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Partnerships for Children, Harrisburg.

    Noting that a state's tax policies have direct impact on a family's ability to feed, clothe, house, educate, and care for its children, this report presents an overview of taxes in the state of Pennsylvania. The report is presented in five sections. Section 1 presents the argument that it is necessary to understand the rule driving the revenue…

  11. Juvenile Justice and Students with Disabilities: State Infrastructure and Initiatives. inForum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Eve

    2006-01-01

    According to data collected in 2003 by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), just over 96,000 youth were incarcerated in juvenile correctional facilities throughout the United States (not including those being held in detention). An additional 10,000 youth were in state prisons or adult jails during the same time,…

  12. State-Based Case Studies of Assessment Initiatives in Undergraduate Education: Chronology of Critical Points.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Carol M.; Ewell, Peter T.

    The Education Commission of the States (ECS) together with the American Association for Higher Education recently conducted five case studies of state-based approaches to assessment in undergraduate education in Colorado, Missouri, New Jersey, South Dakota, and Virginia. The case studies, in turn, are part of the Missouri Governor John Ashcroft's…

  13. Collaborative Technology Initiatives for Serving Persons with Disabilities in New York State. Occasional Paper #1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Peter F.

    This paper describes the programs undertaken by the New York State Center for Learning Technologies in cooperation both with other state agencies and with private agencies to ensure that learning technologies are integrated into educational training programs for the disabled, the handicapped, and other special needs populations. Programs described…

  14. Integrating State Systemic Reforms and Chapter 1 Programs: Insights from Early Initiatives. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pechman, Ellen M.; Turnbull, Brenda J.

    This report examines the effects of early efforts to link the Elementary Secondary Education Act's (ESEA's) Chapter 1 (now Title I) programs to state and district education reforms, which are standards-based. The report focuses on how Chapter 1 standards and accountability requirements connect with new state-level standards, curricula, and…

  15. Civil Society, State, and Institutions for Young Children in Modern Japan: The Initial Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uno, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Research on the history of children and childhood in modern Japan (1868-1945) reveals that issues related to civil society, state, and the establishment of institutions for young children can be explored beyond the transatlantic world. In this essay, after briefly surveying historiography, a few basic terms, and earlier patterns of state and…

  16. Keeping the Horse before the Cart: Penn State's E-Portfolio Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Glenn; DiBiase, David

    2004-01-01

    The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) has actively promoted e-portfolio use among undergraduate students at its University Park campus since May 2002. The primary objective is to foster consensus among faculty members and students about the nature and potential benefits of portfolio practice. Guiding this effort is the vision of a…

  17. Strategic Global Advantage: The Career Academy/Technical College State Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakes, Richard D.; Burns, Janet Z.

    2012-01-01

    Georgia's legislators have approved a plan whereby public school districts in the state could convert to charter schools to tailor programs for local educational communities. The state has authorized funds for five secondary-level charter career academies that are to be positioned regionally and partnered with a postsecondary community or…

  18. REGION 5 STATE BIOASSESSMENT AND AMBIENT MONITORING PROGRAM: INITIAL EVALUATION AND REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The work product is an evaluation. The objective of this evaluaton is 1) to assess the extent to which the programs in the individual states lead to results which can be compared across the states, such that Regional status and trends evaluations can be made and 2) recommend ch...

  19. Features of State Response to Intervention Initiatives in Northeast and Islands Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-No. 083

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bocala, Candice; Mello, Daniel; Reedy, Kristin; Lacireno-Paquet, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    Response to intervention (RTI) is an approach to instruction, assessment, and intervention that enables early identification of students who are experiencing academic or behavioral difficulties. The jurisdictions served by the Regional Educational Laboratory Northeast and Islands expressed interest in a study of whether and how state education…

  20. 75 FR 47256 - Louisiana: Final Authorization of State-Initiated Changes and Incorporation by Reference of State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... waste program. The EPA will incorporate by reference into the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) those... and Permitting Division at the address shown below. You can examine copies of the materials that...

  1. 76 FR 12307 - Texas: Final Authorization of State-initiated Changes and Incorporation by Reference of State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... program. The EPA will incorporate by reference into the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) those provisions...), Multimedia Planning and Permitting Division at the address shown below. You can examine copies of...

  2. 78 FR 58988 - Louisiana: Final Authorization of State-initiated Changes and Incorporation by Reference of State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... waste program. The EPA will incorporate by reference into the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) those... and Permitting Division at the address shown below. You can examine copies of the materials that...

  3. Solar America Initiative State Working Group: Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Julie

    2012-03-30

    Through the support from the Department of Energy, NARUC has educated thousands of stakeholders, including Public Utility Commissioners, commission staff, and State energy officials on solar energy technology, implementation, and policy. During the lifetime of this grant, NARUC staff engaged stakeholders in policy discussions, technical research, site visits, and educational meetings/webinars/materials that provided valuable education and coordination on solar energy technology and policy among the States. Primary research geared toward State decision-makers enabled stakeholders to be informed on current issues and created new solar energy leaders throughout the United States. Publications including a Frequently Asked Questions guide on feed-in tariffs and a legal analysis of state implementation of feed-in tariffs gave NARUC members the capacity to understand complex issues related to the economic impacts of policies supportive of solar energy, and potential paths for implementation of technology. Technical partnerships with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) instructed NARUC members on feed-in tariff policy for four States and solar PV resource assessment in seven States, as well as economic impacts of solar energy implementation in those States. Because many of the States in these technical partnerships had negligible amounts of solar energy installed, this research gave them new capacity to understand how policies and implementation could impact their constituency. This original research produced new data now available, not only to decision-makers, but also to the public at-large including educational institutions, NGOs, consumer groups, and other citizens who have an interest in solar energy adoption in the US. Under this grant, stakeholders engaged in several dialogs. These educational opportunities brought NARUC members and other stakeholders together several times each year, shared best practices with State decision-makers, fostered

  4. Calculation of correlated initial state in the hierarchical equations of motion method using an imaginary time path integral approach

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Linze; Shi, Qiang

    2015-11-21

    Based on recent findings in the hierarchical equations of motion (HEOM) for correlated initial state [Y. Tanimura, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 044114 (2014)], we propose a new stochastic method to obtain the initial conditions for the real time HEOM propagation, which can be used further to calculate the equilibrium correlation functions and symmetrized correlation functions. The new method is derived through stochastic unraveling of the imaginary time influence functional, where a set of stochastic imaginary time HEOM are obtained. The validity of the new method is demonstrated using numerical examples including the spin-Boson model, and the Holstein model with undamped harmonic oscillator modes.

  5. Role of the Atmospheric Mean State on the Initiation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation in a Tropical Channel Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Pallav; Zhang, Chidong; Moncrieff, Mitch; Dudhia, Jimy; Caron, Julie M.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Bruyere, Cindy

    2010-06-08

    Tropical channel models, defined as models that are global in the zonal direction but bounded in the meridional direction, are particularly useful for simulating the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) and understanding its physical and dynamical basis. Influences from the extratropics through the lateral boundaries have been found to be essential to the reproduction of the initiation of certain MJO events. This led to a hypothesis that multi-year simulations using a tropical channel model would reproduce reasonable MJO statistics under the influence of prescribed lateral boundary conditions derived from global reanalyses. Interestingly, the MJO statistics in such a multi-year simulation by a high-resolution tropical channel model are not better than those from global climate models. The error in the atmospheric mean state is found to be a possible reason for the poor MJO statistics in the simulation. Nevertheless, even with a large error in the mean state, the multi-year simulation captures two MJO events previously found to be initiated by extratropical influences. However, the model does not reproduce a third event, whose initiation is not directly influenced by the extratropics. This implies that in the absence of dynamical interactions between the MJO and the lateral boundary conditions, the error in the mean state could be sufficient to prevent the MJO initiation. To explore this third MJO event further, a series of sensitivity tests are conducted. These tests show that the simulation of this event is neither critically influenced by the cumulus parameterization employed, nor the initial conditions when the model is integrated 2 weeks prior to the MJO initiation. The model captures this event when the MJO signal is already present in the initial conditions. The use of highresolution sea surface temperature does not improve the simulation of the third MJO event. A higher-resolution nested domain covering the Indo-Pacific warm pool region and including a cloud

  6. Calculation of correlated initial state in the hierarchical equations of motion method using an imaginary time path integral approach.

    PubMed

    Song, Linze; Shi, Qiang

    2015-11-21

    Based on recent findings in the hierarchical equations of motion (HEOM) for correlated initial state [Y. Tanimura, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 044114 (2014)], we propose a new stochastic method to obtain the initial conditions for the real time HEOM propagation, which can be used further to calculate the equilibrium correlation functions and symmetrized correlation functions. The new method is derived through stochastic unraveling of the imaginary time influence functional, where a set of stochastic imaginary time HEOM are obtained. The validity of the new method is demonstrated using numerical examples including the spin-Boson model, and the Holstein model with undamped harmonic oscillator modes. PMID:26590526

  7. State Initiatives for the Empowerment of Women of Rural Communities: Experiences from Eastern India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahiri-Dutt, Kuntala; Samanta, Gopa

    2002-01-01

    Discussions with women in rural areas of India analyzed government-initiated development programs regarding availability of information, suitability to women's needs, and perception of problems. Most programs were top down with little input form women; self-help approaches problematized the "self" and did not consider the realities of women's…

  8. Data-Based Decision-Making: Three State-Level Educational Leadership Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley, Van E.; Shen, Jianping; Miller, Deborah S.; Winograd, Peter N.; Rainey, John Mark; Yuan, Wenhui; Ryan, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    The accountability required by school-reform measures such as No Child Left Behind has placed increased emphasis on data analysis for appraising schools, administrators, teachers, and students. The focus of accountability-driven initiatives is developing policies and procedures that collectively influence the district, the school, and most…

  9. Developmental evaluation and the 'Stronger Economies Together' initiative in the United States.

    PubMed

    Honadle, Beth Walter; Zapata, Marisa A; Auffrey, Christopher; vom Hofe, Rainer; Looye, Johanna

    2014-04-01

    This article describes a developmental evaluation and explains its impact on the Stronger Economies Together (SET) initiative of the U.S. Department of Agriculture in collaboration with the Nation's four Regional Rural Development Centers and Land-Grant universities. Through a dynamic process, this evaluation of the early phases of an initiative led to continuous program alterations based on feedback. The relationship of the evaluation team to the initiative's coordinating team enabled seamless transfer of observations, suggestions, and recommendations to decision makers. The multidisciplinary character of the evaluation team provided a diverse set of perspectives with a depth of subject matter and knowledge from relevant fields. One lesson is that developmental evaluators must be flexible, nimble, creative, and adaptive. When expected data are imperfect or nonexistent, the team must collect alternate information and make recommendations to improve data collection. As the initiative proceeded and modifications came about, the evaluation team had to recognize the changes in the program and focus on different questions. This experience with developmental evaluation provides insights into how interdisciplinary teams may need to change course and conduct a developmental evaluation when a formative evaluation was originally envisioned. PMID:24365696

  10. Remote one-qubit-state control using the pure initial state of a two-qubit sender: Selective-region and eigenvalue creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochkin, G. A.; Zenchuk, A. I.

    2015-06-01

    We study the problem of remote one-qubit mixed state creation using a pure initial state of two-qubit sender and spin-1/2 chain as a connecting line. We express the parameters of creatable states in terms of transition amplitudes. We show that the creation of a complete receiver's state space can be achieved only in the chain engineered for the one-qubit perfect state transfer (PST) (for instance, in the fully engineered Ekert chain); the chain can be arbitrarily long in this case. As for the homogeneous chain, the creatable receiver's state region decreases quickly with the chain length. Both homogeneous chains and chains engineered for PST can be used for the purpose of selective state creation, when only the restricted part of the whole receiver's state space is of interest. Among the parameters of the receiver's state, the eigenvalue is the most hard to create and therefore deserves special study. Regarding the homogeneous spin chain, an arbitrary eigenvalue can be created only if the chain is of no more than 34 nodes. The alternating chain allows us to increase this length to up to 68 nodes.

  11. A Descriptive Analysis of State-Supported Formative Assessment Initiatives in New York and Vermont. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 112

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louie, Josephine; Sanchez, Maria Teresa; North, Charlotte; Cazabon, Mary; Melo, Daniel; Kagle, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    This study examines two state-supported formative assessment initiatives that promote a consensus definition of formative assessment endorsed by the Council of Chief State School Officers. It describes the primary components of the two initiatives and the strategies that state, district, and school leaders report using to support implementation of…

  12. A Descriptive Analysis of State-Supported Formative Assessment Initiatives in New York and Vermont. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 112

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louie, Josephine; Sanchez, Maria Teresa; North, Charlotte; Cazabon, Mary; Melo, Daniel; Kagle, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    This study examines two state-supported formative assessment initiatives that promote a consensus definition of formative assessment endorsed by the Council of Chief State School Officers. It describes the primary components of the two initiatives and the strategies that state, district, and school leaders report using to support implementation of…

  13. Regional Variation in Breast Cancer Rates in the United States (Past Initiative)

    Cancer.gov

    Five institutions are being funded to conduct research using epidemiologic and statistical methods for determining whether various factors may account for the geographic differences in breast cancer rates in the United States.

  14. Status of science education in state departments of education: An initial report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, Kenneth W.; Yager, Robert E.

    The past five years have been characterized as times of assessment in science education. One aspect of the profession where little information has been reported is the service and leadership provided by the various Departments of Education that exist as a part of the 50 state governments. Information was collected from the 50 states concerning the professional preparation of state science consultants, the nature of the positions, number of workers employed in such units, changes in support staff, facilities, and budget for each five year interval between 1960-1980. Science consultants are 46 years of age, have completed more than 10 years of classroom teaching, have been supervisors at the last level, have been in state positions for one-eight years, and have a Master's degree (half have the Ph.D.). Science consultants in the state department of education work in local schools, write proposals, assist with other administrative duties, work as members of evaluation teams. They spend two-thirds of their time in science education per se. The duties have become more general with less time spent exclusively on science education duties. The positions have become more involved with regulations, evaluations; the consultants enjoying less flexibility in their jobs. There has been a decline in terms of numbers of consultants, budget for science education; and general support for science education projects in state departments of education during the 20-year period surveyed.

  15. State initiatives in support of optics: New Mexico, a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, Arthur H.

    1992-05-01

    New Mexico is very proud of its tri-cultural heritage -- Hispanic, Native American, and Anglo, but that simple description belies the technical richness of the state. If one is in technology and thinks of New Mexico, particularly if involved in the defense community, one thinks of organizations like Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, White Sands Missile Range, and Phillips Laboratory. Phillips Laboratory is one of the new Air Force super laboratories and its activities are focused on space and missile technology. One should appreciate some statistical aspects of the impact of those organizations on New Mexico. In a recent National Science Foundation study, if one looks at R&D performance measured in dollars of activity, on an absolute scale, New Mexico ranks fourth nationally among the 50 states. It also ranks fourth nationally in the university sector in R&D performance. And those two numbers or rankings are not unrelated. You should come to appreciate how we have tried to leverage these strong technology organizations. The private sector ranks only twenty-first, and much of the economic development activity in New Mexico is now attempting to raise this standing by concentrating on the manufacturing sector. What this all means is that, among the 50 states, New Mexico ranks first in the ratio of R&D performance to gross state product. By that measure, technology is more significant to the State of New Mexico than it is to any other state in the Union.

  16. Simple model for rapidity fluctuations in the initial state of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broniowski, Wojciech; BoŻek, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Two-particle pseudorapidity correlations are analyzed in a simple model, where in the initial stage of the reaction multiple sources, extended in rapidity, are created. We show how the fluctuations of the length of the sources in rapidity generate correlations in the initial entropy deposition, which later contribute to the observed longitudinal correlations in hadron production. Our analysis, which is analytic and leads to straightforward formulas, allows us to understand the structure of the correlations, in particular to identify the component related to the fluctuation of the numbers of sources and the component from the length fluctuations. We also present the results in terms of the expansion in the basis of the Legendre polynomials. A number of further effects are discussed, such as smearing of the pseudorapidity distributions or resonance decays. Our results reproduce qualitatively and semiquantitatively the basic features of the recent measurements at the LHC.

  17. The initial state of the human gut microbiome determines its reshaping by antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Frédéric; Ouameur, Amin A; Déraspe, Maxime; Iqbal, Naeem; Gingras, Hélène; Dridi, Bédis; Leprohon, Philippe; Plante, Pier-Luc; Giroux, Richard; Bérubé, Ève; Frenette, Johanne; Boudreau, Dominique K; Simard, Jean-Luc; Chabot, Isabelle; Domingo, Marc-Christian; Trottier, Sylvie; Boissinot, Maurice; Huletsky, Ann; Roy, Paul H; Ouellette, Marc; Bergeron, Michel G; Corbeil, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Microbiome studies have demonstrated the high inter-individual diversity of the gut microbiota. However, how the initial composition of the microbiome affects the impact of antibiotics on microbial communities is relatively unexplored. To specifically address this question, we administered a second-generation cephalosporin, cefprozil, to healthy volunteers. Stool samples gathered before antibiotic exposure, at the end of the treatment and 3 months later were analysed using shotgun metagenomic sequencing. On average, 15 billion nucleotides were sequenced for each sample. We show that standard antibiotic treatment can alter the gut microbiome in a specific, reproducible and predictable manner. The most consistent effect of the antibiotic was the increase of Lachnoclostridium bolteae in 16 out of the 18 cefprozil-exposed participants. Strikingly, we identified a subgroup of participants who were enriched in the opportunistic pathogen Enterobacter cloacae after exposure to the antibiotic, an effect linked to lower initial microbiome diversity and to a Bacteroides enterotype. Although the resistance gene content of participants' microbiomes was altered by the antibiotic, the impact of cefprozil remained specific to individual participants. Resistance genes that were not detectable prior to treatment were observed after a 7-day course of antibiotic administration. Specifically, point mutations in beta-lactamase blaCfxA-6 were enriched after antibiotic treatment in several participants. This suggests that monitoring the initial composition of the microbiome before treatment could assist in the prevention of some of the adverse effects associated with antibiotics or other treatments. PMID:26359913

  18. An Asset-Based Community Initiative to Reduce Television Viewing in New York State

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Ida R.; Dennison, Barbara A.; Boyer, Penny S.; Sellers, Kathleen F.; Russo, Theresa J.; Sherwood, Nancy A.

    2007-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is an epidemic. Addressing this problem will require the input of many sectors and change in many behaviors. The “community” must be part of the solution, and the solution must be constructed on existing assets that lend strength to positive environmental change. Objective To catalyze an established asset-based community partnership to support efforts to reduce television viewing time by developing and providing alternative activities as part of a broader, 3-year study to reduce childhood obesity among preschool-aged children in rural, upstate New York. Method Asset mapping was utilized to compile an inventory of individual and community strengths upon which a partnership could be established. Facilitated focus group sessions were conducted to better understand childcare environmental policies and practices, and to guide changes conducive to health and fitness. Planning meetings and targeted outreach brought key stakeholders together for a community-participatory initiative to support positive environmental change. Results The partnership planned and initiated an array of after-school and weekend community activities for preschool-aged children and their families in the weeks preceding, during, and following a designated ‘TV Turn-off’ week in April, 2004 and March, 2005. Conclusion Methods of asset-based community development are an effective way to engage community participation in public health initiatives. PMID:17207848

  19. The influence of initial state fluctuations on heavy quark energy loss in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shanshan; Huang, Yajing; Qin, Guang-You; Bass, Steffen A.

    2015-12-01

    We study the effects of initial state fluctuations on the dynamical evolution of heavy quarks inside a quark-gluon plasma (QGP) created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The evolution of heavy quarks in QGP matter is described utilizing a modified Langevin equation that incorporates the contributions from both collisional and radiative energy loss. The spacetime evolution of the fireball medium is simulated with a (2 + 1)-dimensional viscous hydrodynamic model. We find that when the medium traversed by the heavy quark contains a fixed amount of energy, heavy quarks tend to lose more energy for greater fluctuations of the medium density. This may result in a larger suppression of heavy flavor observables in a fluctuating QGP matter than in a smooth one. The possibility of using hard probes to infer the information of initial states of heavy-ion collisions is discussed.

  20. The impact of the initial state on the kinetics of oxidation ion- modified fuel cladding alloy E110

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalin, B. A.; Volkov, N. V.; Valikov, R. A.; Yashin, A. S.; Yakutkina, T. V.

    2016-04-01

    The paper examines the impact of the initial state (the presence of impurities, surface preparation), and surface alloying on the kinetics of the oxidation of fuel cladding alloy E110. The studies concluded that the use of ionic polishing instead of traditional chemical polishing helps to reduce the rate of oxidation of zirconium alloys. Also studied the effect of alloying elements introduced in the surface layers of claddings by ion mixing on the kinetics of the oxidation of the alloy E110.

  1. The influence of normal fault on initial state of stress in rock mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajduś, Antoni; Cała, Marek; Tajduś, Krzysztof

    2016-03-01

    Determination of original state of stress in rock mass is a very difficult task for rock mechanics. Yet, original state of stress in rock mass has fundamental influence on secondary state of stress, which occurs in the vicinity of mining headings. This, in turn, is the cause of the occurrence of a number of mining hazards, i.e., seismic events, rock bursts, gas and rock outbursts, falls of roof. From experience, it is known that original state of stress depends a lot on tectonic disturbances, i.e., faults and folds. In the area of faults, a great number of seismic events occur, often of high energies. These seismic events, in many cases, are the cause of rock bursts and damage to the constructions located inside the rock mass and on the surface of the ground. To estimate the influence of fault existence on the disturbance of original state of stress in rock mass, numerical calculations were done by means of Finite Element Method. In the calculations, it was tried to determine the influence of different factors on state of stress, which occurs in the vicinity of a normal fault, i.e., the influence of normal fault inclination, deformability of rock mass, values of friction coefficient on the fault contact. Critical value of friction coefficient was also determined, when mutual dislocation of rock mass part separated by a fault is impossible. The obtained results enabled formulation of a number of conclusions, which are important in the context of seismic events and rock bursts in the area of faults.

  2. USDA food-borne virus research initiatives at Delaware State University

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA ARS Microbial Safety of Aquaculture Products Center of Excellence located on the campus of Delaware State University is conducting research geared toward; 1) improving detection methods for virus contamination of shellfish; 2) understanding how and why viruses persist within shellfish; and ...

  3. The Sustainability of a National Reading Reform Initiative in Two States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Rita M.; Dole, Janice A.; Nelson, Kristin L.; Belcastro, Elizabeth G.; Zigmond, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Although there have been any number of national reading reform efforts over the years, there is little evidence that such efforts have been sustained in schools over time. This study focused on addressing 2 questions: To what extent have Reading First schools in 2 states sustained the key elements of this reform over time? To what extent has…

  4. Job Corps. Comparison of Federal Program with State Youth Training Initiatives. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

    The General Accounting Office compared state youth training programs with the Job Corps using the four program features that, taken together, characterize the Job Corps program: (1) serving a severely disadvantaged population, (2) providing basic education instruction, (3) focusing on vocational training services, and (4) providing these services…

  5. Strategic Financing: Making the Most of the State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Cheryl D.; Flynn, Margaret J.; Stebbins, Helene

    2004-01-01

    As states build comprehensive early childhood systems, policy leaders will need to be attentive to the funding streams available to communities to achieve desired returns. Most public funding for early care and education, as well as for other health and social services for young children and their families is categorical. Categorical funding…

  6. Building Momentum--Taking Action: Southern States Collaborate on Child Care Financial Aid and Quality Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Inst. on Children and Families, Columbia, SC.

    In the year 2000, the Southern Regional Task Force on Child Care was formed with representatives from 16 southern states and the District of Columbia as well as appointments from the Southern Institute on Children and Families and the Southern Growth Policies Board to collaborate in developing an action plan to improve access to child care…

  7. 77 FR 10663 - Due Date of Initial Application Requirements for State Home Construction Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... current rules. 76 FR 11187 (Mar. 1, 2011). We proposed adopting April 15 as the due date for applications...; Alcoholism; Claims; Day care; Dental health; Drug abuse; Government contracts; Grant programs--health; Grant..., altering, or expanding State home facilities that will furnish specified types of care to veterans. VA...

  8. The Effect of a State Department of Education Teacher Mentor Initiative on Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Stephen L.; Wallace, Carolyn S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a southern state's department of education program to improve science achievement through embedded professional development of science teachers in the lowest performing schools. The Science Mentor Program provided content and inquiry-based coaching by teacher leaders to science teachers in their own…

  9. The United State of Wyoming: Teacher-to-Teacher Initiative Boosts Reading Scores Statewide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lain, Sheryl

    2014-01-01

    When teachers collaborate in schools, taking collective responsibility to improve instruction and achieve goals, student performance improves and good results happen. Wyoming is one example of a state that uses peer-to-peer professional learning with notable results. Teachers joined together to form a statewide professional community and saw the…

  10. The Educationally Disadvantaged: A National Crisis. The State Youth Initiatives Project. Working Paper #6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M.

    Available data reviewed in this paper suggest that at least 30% of elementary and secondary school students in the United States are educationally disadvantaged, and that the proportion will rise rapidly in the future. When these youth reach adulthood, their poor educational foundations will have deleterious economic and social consequences,…

  11. Florida's Dual Enrollment Initiative: How State Policy Influences Community Colleges' Service to Underrepresented Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Erika; Carroll, Charles E.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of Florida's Accelerated Mechanism Program, identifies challenges that resulted from shifting intentions behind dual enrollment policies, and shows how evolving state policy has influenced the strategies used by one college to successfully enroll underserved students and support their transition to college.

  12. Federal/State Regulatory Reform, Cost Allocation, and CATV/TELCO Distance Learning Initiatives in Connecticut.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietras, Jesse John; Murphy, Robert J.

    Distance learning in Connecticut has begun to develop in the wake of telecommunications (TELCO) infrastructure modernization. Progress in this area is reviewed and discussed. The state has not yet adopted a standardized statewide policy governing the delivery of educational telecommunications programing, and various private producers currently…

  13. Child and Adolescent Inpatient Restraint Reduction: A State Initiative to Promote Strength-Based Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBel, Janice; Stromberg, Nan; Duckworth, Ken; Kerzner, Joan; Goldstein, Robert; Weeks, Michael; Harper, Gordon; LaFlair, Lareina; Sudders, Marylou

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To reduce the use of restraint and seclusion with children and adolescents in psychiatric inpatient units by promoting a preventive, strength-based model of care. Method: The State Mental Health Authority used data analysis, quality improvement strategies, regulatory oversight, and technical assistance to develop and implement system…

  14. Improving the quality of the experimental reconstructions as the initial equilibrium state for the NIMROD code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Jacob; Kruger, Scott; NIMROD Team

    2014-10-01

    High quality equilibria are essential for extended-MHD modeling with the initial-value NIMROD code. Typically the spatial resolution requirements for extended-MHD modeling, which must resolve singular-layer physics and highly anisotropic diffusion, are more stringent than the resolution of equilibrium reconstructions from experimental discharges. With the current workflow, reconstructed fields are mapped onto the NIMROD finite-element grid, and the disparity between the coarse resolution reconstruction and the fine resolution FE grid can create artificial small-scale artifacts. Extended-MHD modeling, which contains many high-order differential operators, can be corrupted by the mapping errors. We describe efforts to re-solve the Grad-Shafranov equation with open-flux regions using the NIMEQ solver to generate a new equilibrium while using the mapped results for both an initial guess and to specify the boundary conditions. Effects on computations with and without the re-solving for force balance will be described. Work funded by US DOE.

  15. Cooperative Russian Federation -United States Near-Earth Object (NEO) Observation Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnelzer, Garry; Marshall, James; Bottke, William; Andrews, John

    On February 15, 2013, an asteroid exploded in the atmosphere near Chelyabinsk, Russia, causing significant damage and concern. Following the Chelyabinsk event, scientists and government leaders in the Russian Federation and United States have highlighted the need for collaborative efforts to quantify and characterize the potential threat from a Near Earth Objects (NEO). This paper will explore the possibility of a collaborative Russian Federation - United States program to perform a survey mission and create mechanisms and protocols for sharing of data relating to NEO threats to our planet. The joint collaboration would focus on identifying capability improvements for NEO observations using current or future space-based and/or ground-based assets of the two countries. Another part of the effort would include improvements in Bolide reporting, to include the “real-time” characterization of a NEO entry.

  16. High-Fidelity Rapid Initialization and Read-Out of an Electron Spin via the Single Donor D- Charge State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, T. F.; Weber, B.; House, M. G.; Büch, H.; Simmons, M. Y.

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate high-fidelity electron spin read-out of a precision placed single donor in silicon via spin selective tunneling to either the D+ or D- charge state of the donor. By performing read-out at the stable two electron D0↔D- charge transition we can increase the tunnel rates to a nearby single electron transistor charge sensor by nearly 2 orders of magnitude, allowing faster qubit read-out (1 ms) with minimum loss in read-out fidelity (98.4%) compared to read-out at the D+↔D0 transition (99.6%). Furthermore, we show that read-out via the D- charge state can be used to rapidly initialize the electron spin qubit in its ground state with a fidelity of FI=99.8 %.

  17. Documenting the current state of the healthy municipalities, cities and communities initiative in the americas.

    PubMed

    Arteaga, Erika; Rice, Marilyn; Franceschini, Maria Cristina

    The objective of this study was to document the challenges, achievements, and lessons learned in municipalities where the Healthy Municipalities, Cities and Communities (HMC) strategy has been implemented in the Americas. A general survey was distributed through the HMC online network and through the Pan American Health Organization country offices. Municipalities answered questions regarding the planning, implementation, and evaluation phases of the strategy. Fifty-seven municipalities answered the survey. Ninety-three percent of the municipalities had signed a written agreement of political commitment to the HMC strategy. While 60% of the surveyed municipalities reported having a local health and well being situational analysis, 70% had an HMC Action Plan and only 58% had a follow-up and evaluation plan. The activities in which municipalities are engaged under the banner of the HMC strategy vary greatly in the Americas Region with varying degrees of success. Intersectorial collaboration and evaluation continues to be a challenge for the HMC initiative. PMID:19193523

  18. Deviations of the energy-momentum tensor from equilibrium in the initial state for hydrodynamics from transport approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliinychenko, D.; Petersen, H.

    2016-03-01

    Many hybrid models of heavy ion collisions construct the initial state for hydrodynamics from transport models. Hydrodynamics requires that the energy-momentum tensor Tμ ν and four-currents jμ do not deviate considerably from the equilibrium ideal-fluid form, but the ones constructed from transport do not necessarily possess this property. In this work we investigate the space-time picture of Tμ ν deviations from equilibrium in Au+Au collisions using a coarse-grained transport approach. The collision energy is varied in the range Elab=5 -160 A GeV . The sensitivity of Tμ ν deviations from equilibrium to collision centrality, and other parameters such as the switching criterion, the amount of statistics used to construct the initial state, and the smearing parameter σ are investigated. For low statistics, deviations of Tμ ν from equilibrium are large and dominated by the effect of finite sampling. For large statistics, the pressure anisotropy plays the most significant role, while the off-diagonal components of Tμ ν are small in a large volume during the whole evolution. For all considered energies and centralities the pressure anisotropy exhibits a similar feature: there is a narrow interval of time when it rapidly drops in a considerable volume. This allows us to introduce an "isotropization time," which is found to decrease with energy and slightly increase with centrality. The isotropization times are larger than times typically used for initializing hydrodynamics.

  19. Ultrafast electron transfer reactions initiated by excited CT states of push pull perylenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Scott E.; Zhao, Yongyu; Schaller, Richard; Mulloni, Viviana; Just, Eric M.; Johnson, Robert C.; Wasielewski, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    Two new chromophores that absorb in the visible spectrum, the 9-( N-pyrrolidinyl)- and 9-( N-piperidinyl)perylene-3,4-dicarboximides, 5PMI and 6PMI, respectively, were synthesized and shown to possess lowest excited singlet states with about 70% charge transfer (CT) character. Changing the ring size of the cyclic amine from 5 to 6 significantly changes the energies of the CT states, as well as the redox potentials of the chromophores. These chromophores were linked to pyromellitimide (PI) and 1,8:4,5-naphthalenediimide (NI) electron acceptors using a single N-N bond between their respective imides to yield the corresponding donor-acceptor dyads 5PMI-PI, 5PMI-NI, 6PMI-PI, and 6PMI-NI. The donors and acceptors in these molecules are positioned relative to one another in a rod-like arrangement at fixed distances and restricted orientations. The rates of charge separation and recombination were measured using transient absorption spectroscopy. These chromophores were also used to prepare rigid donor-acceptor triads 5PMI-PI-NI and 6PMI-PI-NI, which display one- or two-step electron transfer mechanisms that depend on solvent polarity. These compounds exhibit a broad range of structure and media driven changes in electron transfer mechanism.

  20. Estimating Renewable Energy Economic Potential in the United States. Methodology and Initial Results

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Austin; Beiter, Philipp; Heimiller, Donna; Davidson, Carolyn; Denholm, Paul; Melius, Jennifer; Lopez, Anthony; Hettinger, Dylan; Mulcahy, David; Porro, Gian

    2015-07-30

    This report describes a geospatial analysis method to estimate the economic potential of several renewable resources available for electricity generation in the United States. Economic potential, one measure of renewable generation potential, may be defined in several ways. For example, one definition might be expected revenues (based on local market prices) minus generation costs, considered over the expected lifetime of the generation asset. Another definition might be generation costs relative to a benchmark (e.g., a natural gas combined cycle plant) using assumptions of fuel prices, capital cost, and plant efficiency. Economic potential in this report is defined as the subset of the available resource technical potential where the cost required to generate the electricity (which determines the minimum revenue requirements for development of the resource) is below the revenue available in terms of displaced energy and displaced capacity. The assessment is conducted at a high geospatial resolution (more than 150,000 technology-specific sites in the continental United States) to capture the significant variation in local resource, costs, and revenue potential. This metric can be a useful screening factor for understanding the economic viability of renewable generation technologies at a specific location. In contrast to many common estimates of renewable energy potential, economic potential does not consider market dynamics, customer demand, or most policy drivers that may incent renewable energy generation.

  1. The Effect of a State Department of Education Teacher Mentor Initiative on Science Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruitt, Stephen L.; Wallace, Carolyn S.

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a southern state's department of education program to improve science achievement through embedded professional development of science teachers in the lowest performing schools. The Science Mentor Program provided content and inquiry-based coaching by teacher leaders to science teachers in their own classrooms. The study analyzed the mean scale scores for the science portion of the state's high school graduation test for the years 2004 through 2007 to determine whether schools receiving the intervention scored significantly higher than comparison schools receiving no intervention. The results showed that all schools achieved significant improvement of scale scores between 2004 and 2007, but there were no significant performance differences between intervention and comparison schools, nor were there any significant differences between various subgroups in intervention and comparison schools. However, one subgroup, economically disadvantaged (ED) students, from high-level intervention schools closed the achievement gap with ED students from no-intervention schools across the period of the study. The study provides important information to guide future research on and design of large-scale professional development programs to foster inquiry-based science.

  2. Effects of equation of state on nuclear suppression and the initial entropy density of quark gluon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazumder, Surasree; Alam, Jan-e.

    2012-04-01

    We study the effects of the equation of state on the nuclear suppression of heavy flavors in quark gluon plasma and estimate the initial entropy density of the system produced in Au + Au collision at the highest Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) energy. For this purpose the experimental data on the charged-particle multiplicity and the nuclear suppression of single-electron spectra originating from the semileptonic decays of open charm and beauty mesons have been employed. We have used inputs from lattice QCD to minimize the model dependence of the results. We obtain the value of the initial entropy density, which varies from 20 to 59/fm3 depending on the value of the velocity of sound that one uses for the analysis. Our investigation leads to a conservative value of the initial entropy density of ˜20/fm3 with a corresponding initial temperature of ˜210 MeV, which is well above the value of the transition temperature predicted by lattice QCD.

  3. Black holes and fundamental fields in numerical relativity: Initial data construction and evolution of bound states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okawa, Hirotada; Witek, Helvi; Cardoso, Vitor

    2014-05-01

    Fundamental fields are a natural outcome in cosmology and particle physics and might therefore serve as a proxy for more complex interactions. The equivalence principle implies that all forms of matter gravitate, and one therefore expects relevant, universal imprints of new physics in strong field gravity, such as that encountered close to black holes. Fundamental fields in the vicinities of supermassive black holes give rise to extremely long-lived, or even unstable, configurations, which slowly extract angular momentum from the black hole or simply evolve nonlinearly over long time scales, with important implications for particle physics and gravitational-wave physics. Here, we perform a fully nonlinear study of scalar-field condensates around rotating black holes. We provide novel ways to specify initial data for the Einstein—Klein—Gordon system, with potential applications in a variety of scenarios. Our numerical results confirm the existence of long-lived bar modes, which act as lighthouses for gravitational wave emission: the scalar field condenses outside the black hole geometry and acts as a constant frequency gravitational-wave source for very long time scales. This effect could turn out to be a potential signature of beyond standard model physics and also a promising source of gravitational waves for future gravitational-wave detectors.

  4. Overcoming a limitation of deterministic dense coding with a nonmaximally entangled initial state

    SciTech Connect

    Bourdon, P. S.; Gerjuoy, E.

    2010-02-15

    Under two-party deterministic dense coding, Alice communicates (perfectly distinguishable) messages to Bob via a qudit from a pair of entangled qudits in pure state |{Psi}>. If |{Psi}> represents a maximally entangled state (i.e., each of its Schmidt coefficients is {radical}(1/d)), then Alice can convey to Bob one of d{sup 2} distinct messages. If |{Psi}> is not maximally entangled, then Ji et al. [Phys. Rev. A 73, 034307 (2006)] have shown that under the original deterministic dense-coding protocol, in which messages are encoded by unitary operations performed on Alice's qudit, it is impossible to encode d{sup 2}-1 messages. Encoding d{sup 2}-2 messages is possible; see, for example, the numerical studies by Mozes et al. [Phys. Rev. A 71, 012311 (2005)]. Answering a question raised by Wu et al. [Phys. Rev. A 73, 042311 (2006)], we show that when |{Psi}> is not maximally entangled, the communications limit of d{sup 2}-2 messages persists even when the requirement that Alice encode by unitary operations on her qudit is weakened to allow encoding by more general quantum operators. We then describe a dense-coding protocol that can overcome this limitation with high probability, assuming the largest Schmidt coefficient of |{Psi}> is sufficiently close to {radical}(1/d). In this protocol, d{sup 2}-2 of the messages are encoded via unitary operations on Alice's qudit, and the final (d{sup 2}-1)-th message is encoded via a non-trace-preserving quantum operation.

  5. The Family Medicine Residency Training Initiative in Miscarriage Management: Impact on Practice in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Darney, Blair G.; Weaver, Marcia R.; Stevens, Nancy; Kimball, Jeana; Prager, Sarah W.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Non-complicated spontaneous abortion cases should be counseled about the full range of management approaches, including uterine evacuation using manual vacuum aspiration (MVA). The Residency Training Initiative in Miscarriage Management (RTI-MM) is an intensive, multidimensional intervention designed to facilitate implementation of office-based management of spontaneous abortion using MVA in family medicine residency settings. The purpose of this study was to test the impact of the RTI-MM on self-reported use of MVA for management of spontaneous abortion. METHODS We used a pretest/posttest one group study design and a web-based, anonymous survey to collect data on knowledge, attitudes, perceived barriers, and practice of office-based management of spontaneous abortion. We used multivariable models to estimate incident relative risks and accounted for data clustering at the residency site level. RESULTS Our sample included 441 residents and faculty from 10 family medicine residency sites. Our findings show a positive association between the RTI-MM and self-reported use of MVA for management of spontaneous abortion (adjusted RR=9.11 [CI=4.20-19.78]) and were robust to model specification. Male gender, doing any type of management of spontaneous abortion (eg, expectant, medication), other on-site reproductive health training interventions, and support staff knowledge scores were also significant correlates of physician practice of MVA. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that the RTI-MM was successful in influencing the practice of management of spontaneous abortion using MVA in this population and that support staff knowledge may impact physician practice. Integrating MVA into family medicine settings would potentially improve access to evidence-based, comprehensive care for women. PMID:23378077

  6. An initial probabilistic hazard assessment of oil dispersants approved by the United States National Contingency Plan.

    PubMed

    Berninger, Jason P; Williams, E Spencer; Brooks, Bryan W

    2011-07-01

    Dispersants are commonly applied during oil spill mitigation efforts; however, these industrial chemicals may present risks to aquatic organisms individually and when mixed with oil. Fourteen dispersants are listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). Availability of environmental effects information for such agents is limited, and individual components of dispersants are largely proprietary. Probabilistic hazard assessment approaches including Chemical Toxicity Distributions (CTDs) may be useful as an initial step toward prioritizing environmental hazards from the use of dispersants. In the present study, we applied the CTD approach to two acute toxicity datasets: NCP (the contingency plan dataset) and DHOS (a subset of NCP listed dispersants reevaluated subsequent to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill). These datasets contained median lethal concentration (LC50) values for dispersants alone and dispersant:oil mixtures, in two standard marine test species, Menidia beryllina and Mysidopsis bahia. These CTDs suggest that dispersants alone are generally less toxic than oil. In contrast, most dispersant:oil mixtures are more toxic than oil alone. For the two datasets (treated separately because of differing methodologies), CTDs would predict 95% of dispersant:oil mixtures to have acute toxicity values above 0.32 and 0.76 mg/L for Mysidopsis and 0.33 mg/L and 1.06 mg/L for Menidia (for DHOS and NCP, respectively). These findings demonstrate the utility of CTDs as a means to evaluate the comparative ecotoxicity of dispersants alone and in mixture with different oil types. The approaches presented here also provide valuable tools for prioritizing prospective and retrospective environmental assessments of oil dispersants. PMID:21425326

  7. The Effect of a State Department of Education Teacher Mentor Initiative on Science Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruitt, Stephen L.

    This study analyzed a state department of education's ability to have actual influence over the improvement of science achievement and proficiency by having direct relationships with science teachers in Georgia's lowest performing schools. The study employed a mixed ANOVA analysis of the mean scale scores and proficiency rates of the science portion of the Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT) for the years 2004 through 2007 to determine if the intervention by the Science Mentor Program (SMP) had significant effect on the science achievement and proficiency within the cohort of schools, as compared to a set of schools receiving no intervention, on various subgroups within the schools, and on various levels of intervention within the SMP. All data used in this study are available to the public through the Georgia Department of Education (GaDOE). SMP schools were selected based on their level of intervention for three consecutive years. Non-SMP schools were selected based on demographic similarities in economically disadvantaged, white, African-American, and students with disabilities to ensure a match of pairings for analyses. The results of this study showed significant improvement of scale scores and proficiency rates between 2004 and 2007. The study showed significant increases in all schools regardless of treatment. The study also showed significant differences in performance within the subgroups. Males, white, non-Economically Disadvantaged, and regular education students were all found to have significantly better performance in both achievement and proficiency rate. Economically Disadvantaged students were found to have a significant difference with regard to treatment groups. There was a significant difference between the mean scale score and proficiency rates of Economically Disadvantaged students in schools receiving high-intervention and schools receiving no-intervention. Further analysis showed that the only significant difference was in 2004, the

  8. Oxidation State of Iron in the Izu-Bonin Arc Initial Magma and Its Influence Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Arculus, R. J.; Brandl, P. A.; Hamada, M.; Savov, I. P.; Zhu, S.; Hickey-Vargas, R.; Tepley, F. J., III; Meffre, S.; Yogodzinski, G. M.; McCarthy, A.; Barth, A. P.; Kanayama, K.; Kusano, Y.; Sun, W.

    2014-12-01

    The redox state of mantle-derived magmas is a controversial issue, especially whether island arc basalts are more oxidized than those from mid-ocean ridges. Usually, arc magmas have higher Fe3+/Fe2+ and calculated oxygen fugacity (fO2) than mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB). It is the high fO2 of arc magma that apparently delays onset of sulfide fractionation and sequestration of precious/base metals thereby facilitating the formation of many giant gold-copper deposits typically associated with subduction zones. But due to a paucity of Fe3+/Fe2+ data for primary mantle-derived arc magmas, the cause for high fO2 of these magma types is still controversial; causes may include inter alia subduction-released oxidized material addition to the mantle wedge source of arc magma, partial melting of subducted slab, and redox changes occurring during ascent of the magma. Fortunately, IODP expedition 351 drilling at IODP Site U1438 in the Amami-Sankaku Basin of the northwestern Philipine Sea, adjacent to the proto-Izu-Bonin Arc at the Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR), recovered not only volcaniclastics derived from the inception of Izu-Bonin Mariana (IBM) arc in the Eocene, but also similar materials for the Arc's subsequent evolution through to the Late Oligocene and abandonment of the KPR as a remnant arc. Samples of the pre-Arc oceanic crustal basement were also recovered enabling us to determine the fO2of the mantle preceding arc inception. As the oxidation state of iron in basaltic glass directly relates to the fO2 , the Fe3+/∑Fe ratio [Fe3+/(Fe3++ Fe2+)] of basaltic glass are quantified by synchrotron-facilitated micro X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy to reflect its fO2. Fe K-edge µ-XANES spectra were recorded in fluorescence mode at Beamline 15U1, Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF). Synthetic silicate glass with known Fe3+/∑Fe ratio was used in data handling. The experimental results as well as preliminary data from IODP Expedition 351

  9. Initial Performance Characterization for a Thermalized Neutron Beam for Neutron Capture Therapy Research at Washington State University

    SciTech Connect

    David W. Nigg; P.E> Sloan; J.R. Venhuizen; C.A. Wemple

    2005-11-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Washington State University (WSU) have constructed a new epithermal-neutron beam for collaborative Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) preclinical research at the WSU TRIGATM research reactor facility1. More recently, additional beamline components were developed to permit the optional thermalization of the beam for certain types of studies where it is advantageous to use a thermal neutron source rather than an epithermal source. This article summarizes the results of some initial neutronic performance measurements for the thermalized system, with a comparison to the expected performance from the design computations.

  10. Multiple coherent states semiclassical initial value representation spectra calculations of lateral interactions for CO on Cu(100).

    PubMed

    Ceotto, Michele; Dell'Angelo, David; Tantardini, Gian Franco

    2010-08-01

    Lateral interactions between carbon monoxide molecules adsorbed on a copper Cu(100) surface are investigated via semiclassical initial value representation (SC-IVR) molecular dynamics. A previous analytical potential is extended to include long-range dipole interactions between coadsorbed molecules and preliminary classical simulations were performed to tune the potential parameters. Then, the spectra for several coadsorbed molecules are calculated using the multiple coherent states approximation of the time-averaging representation of the SC-IVR propagator. Results show strong resonances between coadsorbed molecules as observed by past experiments. Resonances turn into dephasing when isotopical substitutions are performed. PMID:20707543

  11. Initiation of diverse epigenetic states during nuclear programming of the Drosophila body plan.

    PubMed

    Boija, Ann; Mannervik, Mattias

    2016-08-01

    Epigenetic patterns of histone modifications contribute to the maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression. Here, we show that such modifications also accompany the specification of cell identities by the NF-κB transcription factor Dorsal in the precellular Drosophila embryo. We provide evidence that the maternal pioneer factor, Zelda, is responsible for establishing poised RNA polymerase at Dorsal target genes before Dorsal-mediated zygotic activation. At the onset of cell specification, Dorsal recruits the CBP/p300 coactivator to the regulatory regions of defined target genes in the presumptive neuroectoderm, resulting in their histone acetylation and transcriptional activation. These genes are inactive in the mesoderm due to transcriptional quenching by the Snail repressor, which precludes recruitment of CBP and prevents histone acetylation. By contrast, inactivation of the same enhancers in the dorsal ectoderm is associated with Polycomb-repressed H3K27me3 chromatin. Thus, the Dorsal morphogen gradient produces three distinct histone signatures including two modes of transcriptional repression, active repression (hypoacetylation), and inactivity (H3K27me3). Whereas histone hypoacetylation is associated with a poised polymerase, H3K27me3 displaces polymerase from chromatin. Our results link different modes of RNA polymerase regulation to separate epigenetic patterns and demonstrate that developmental determinants orchestrate differential chromatin states, providing new insights into the link between epigenetics and developmental patterning. PMID:27439862

  12. Coordinating across scales: Building a regional marsh bird monitoring program from national and state Initiatives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shriver, G.W.; Sauer, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Salt marsh breeding bird populations (rails, bitterns, sparrows, etc.) in eastern North America are high conservation priorities in need of site specific and regional monitoring designed to detect population changes over time. The present status and trends of these species are unknown but anecdotal evidence of declines in many of the species has raised conservation concerns. Most of these species are listed as conservation priorities on comprehensive wildlife plans throughout the eastern U.S. National Wildlife Refuges, National Park Service units, and other wildlife conservation areas provide important salt marsh habitat. To meet management needs for these areas, and to assist regional conservation planning, survey designs are being developed to estimate abundance and population trends for these breeding bird species. The primary purpose of this project is to develop a hierarchical sampling frame for salt marsh birds in Bird Conservation Region (BCR) 30 that will provide the ability to estimate species population abundances on 1) specific sites (i.e. National Parks and National Wildlife Refuges), 2) within states or regions, and 3) within BCR 30. The entire breeding range of Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed and Coastal Plain Swamp sparrows are within BCR 30, providing an opportunity to detect population trends within the entire breeding ranges of two priority species.

  13. Measurement of e+e-→γ χc J via initial state radiation at Belle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Y. L.; Wang, X. L.; Yuan, C. Z.; Shen, C. P.; Wang, P.; Abdesselam, A.; Adachi, I.; Aihara, H.; Al Said, S.; Asner, D. M.; Aushev, T.; Babu, V.; Badhrees, I.; Bansal, V.; Bhardwaj, V.; Biswal, J.; Bozek, A.; Bračko, M.; Chen, A.; Cheon, B. G.; Chistov, R.; Cho, K.; Chobanova, V.; Choi, S.-K.; Cinabro, D.; Dalseno, J.; Danilov, M.; Doležal, Z.; Drutskoy, A.; Dutta, D.; Eidelman, S.; Farhat, H.; Fast, J. E.; Ferber, T.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gaur, V.; Gabyshev, N.; Garmash, A.; Getzkow, D.; Gillard, R.; Glattauer, R.; Goh, Y. M.; Goldenzweig, P.; Golob, B.; Haba, J.; Hayasaka, K.; Hayashii, H.; He, X. H.; Horiguchi, T.; Hou, W.-S.; Iijima, T.; Ishikawa, A.; Jaegle, I.; Joffe, D.; Joo, K. K.; Kichimi, H.; Kim, D. Y.; Kim, J. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, K. T.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. J.; Kinoshita, K.; Ko, B. R.; Kodyš, P.; Križan, P.; Krokovny, P.; Lewis, P.; Li Gioi, L.; Libby, J.; Liventsev, D.; Lukin, P.; Masuda, M.; Matvienko, D.; Miyabayashi, K.; Miyata, H.; Mizuk, R.; Moll, A.; Moon, H. K.; Mussa, R.; Nakano, E.; Nakao, M.; Nayak, M.; Nisar, N. K.; Nishida, S.; Ogawa, S.; Okuno, S.; Ostrowicz, W.; Pakhlov, P.; Pakhlova, G.; Pal, B.; Park, H.; Pedlar, T. K.; Pestotnik, R.; Petrič, M.; Piilonen, L. E.; Pulvermacher, C.; Ribežl, E.; Ritter, M.; Rostomyan, A.; Sahoo, H.; Sakai, Y.; Sandilya, S.; Santelj, L.; Sanuki, T.; Schneider, O.; Schnell, G.; Schwanda, C.; Senyo, K.; Sevior, M. E.; Shapkin, M.; Shebalin, V.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shiu, J.-G.; Shwartz, B.; Simon, F.; Sohn, Y.-S.; Sokolov, A.; Solovieva, E.; Stanič, S.; Steder, M.; Sumihama, M.; Tamponi, U.; Teramoto, Y.; Uchida, M.; Uehara, S.; Uglov, T.; Unno, Y.; Uno, S.; Usov, Y.; Van Hulse, C.; Vanhoefer, P.; Varner, G.; Vossen, A.; Wagner, M. N.; Watanabe, Y.; Williams, K. M.; Yashchenko, S.; Yook, Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhilich, V.; Zhulanov, V.; Zupanc, A.; Belle Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The process e+e-→γ χc J (J =1 , 2) is studied via initial state radiation using 980 fb-1 of data at and around the ϒ (n S ) (n =1 , 2, 3, 4, 5) resonances collected with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e+e- collider. No significant signal is observed except from ψ (2 S ) decays. Upper limits on the cross sections between √{s }=3.80 and 5.56 GeV are determined at the 90% credibility level, which range from a few pb to a few tens of pb. We also set upper limits on the decay rate of the vector charmonium [ψ (4040 ), ψ (4160 ), and ψ (4415 )] and charmoniumlike [Y (4260 ), Y (4360 ), and Y (4660 )] states to γ χc J.

  14. Librarian-initiated HIV/AIDS prevention intervention program outcome in rural communities in Oyo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ajuwon, G A; Komolafe-Opadeji, H O; Ikhizama, B

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to meet the HIV/AIDS information and service needs of citizens living in selected rural, underserved communities in Oyo State, Nigeria. This was a librarian-initiated intervention program (pre-post) study of heads of rural households in Oyo State. A questionnaire was used for pre- and post-intervention assessment. The education covered knowledge about HIV/AIDS, routes of transmission, prevention strategies, and attitude toward persons living with HIV. It increased participants' knowledge about AIDS and improved attitude toward those living with HIV. Provision and dissemination of information on HIV/AIDS through librarians to rural settlers is an important prevention strategy and librarians can make major contributions. PMID:25228485

  15. An Analysis of Current Energy Policy Initiatives in New Mexico. What are the Potential Impacts to the State's Water Resources?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klise, G. T.; Hart, W. E.; Kobos, P. H.; Malczynski, L. A.; Tidwell, V. C.

    2008-12-01

    Population in New Mexico is increasing rapidly with recent projections showing that the state will add more than 1 million people by 2035. This growth will create a demand for additional energy and water supplies that have yet to be developed. New Mexico currently exports about 50% of the energy generated within the state to neighboring states, and existing power plants predominately utilize traditional fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas. Because traditional electric generation technologies utilize large quantities of water, New Mexico can also be seen as exporting water for the benefit of electricity consumed in neighboring states. As it is, both surface water and groundwater supplies are stretched thin and these internal and external stresses stemming from population growth will have a substantial impact on the state's water resources. In 2004, the Governor laid out a plan to make New Mexico a "Clean Energy State" by implementing renewable portfolio standards, developing renewable energy transmission infrastructure, creating an alternative energy innovation fund and creating state specific tax credits for renewable energy production and manufacturing. Recent work in the National Energy-Water Roadmap has pointed out that certain renewable sources of energy utilize less water than traditional power plants, and technological fixes to existing power plants will result in less water consumption. If New Mexico carries out its energy initiative, what will be the impacts to the state's water resources? Will it be possible to meet competing demands for this water? These questions and others will be analyzed in a decision-support tool that can look at the connection between both the physical and economic systems to see what the tradeoffs might be as a result of specific policy decisions. The ability to plan for future energy needs and understanding potential impacts to the state's limited water resources will be an invaluable tool for decision-makers in New

  16. The initial and final states of electron and energy transfer processes: Diabatization as motivated by system-solvent interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Subotnik, Joseph E.; Cave, Robert J.; Steele, Ryan P.; Shenvi, Neil

    2009-06-21

    For a system which undergoes electron or energy transfer in a polar solvent, we define the diabatic states to be the initial and final states of the system, before and after the nonequilibrium transfer process. We consider two models for the system-solvent interactions: A solvent which is linearly polarized in space and a solvent which responds linearly to the system. From these models, we derive two new schemes for obtaining diabatic states from ab initio calculations of the isolated system in the absence of solvent. These algorithms resemble standard approaches for orbital localization, namely, the Boys and Edmiston-Ruedenberg (ER) formalisms. We show that Boys localization is appropriate for describing electron transfer [Subotnik et al., J. Chem. Phys. 129, 244101 (2008)] while ER describes both electron and energy transfer. Neither the Boys nor the ER methods require definitions of donor or acceptor fragments and both are computationally inexpensive. We investigate one chemical example, the case of oligomethylphenyl-3, and we provide attachment/detachment plots whereby the ER diabatic states are seen to have localized electron-hole pairs.

  17. Towards scaling laws for subduction initiation on terrestrial planets: constraints from two-dimensional steady-state convection simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Teresa; Solomatov, Viatcheslav S.

    2015-12-01

    The strongly temperature-dependent viscosity of rocks leads to the formation of nearly rigid lithospheric plates. Previous studies showed that a very low yield stress might be necessary to weaken and mobilize the plates, for example, due to water. However, the magnitude of the yield stress remains poorly understood. While the convective stresses below the lithosphere are relatively small, sublithospheric convection can induce large stresses in the lithosphere indirectly, through thermal thinning of the lithosphere. The magnitude of the thermal thinning, the stresses associated with it, and the critical yield stress to initiate subduction depend on several factors including the viscosity law, the Rayleigh number, and the aspect ratio of the convective cells. We conduct a systematic numerical analysis of lithospheric stresses and other convective parameters for single steady-state convection cells. Such cells can be considered as part of a multi-cell, time-dependent convective system. This allows us a better control of convective solutions and a relatively simple scaling analysis. We find that subduction initiation depends much stronger on the aspect ratio than in previous studies and speculate that plate tectonics initiation may not necessarily require significant weakening and can, at least in principle, start if a sufficiently long cell develops during planetary evolution.

  18. Initial state geometry and fluctuations in deformed and asymmetric nuclear collisions in the IP-Glasma framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenke, Björn; Tribedy, Prithwish; Venugopalan, Raju

    2014-11-01

    The IP-Glasma model of initial conditions based on the ab initio color glass condensate framework successfully explains most of the bulk features of the global data for various systems like p+p, p+A and A+A over a wide range of energies. We employ this framework to study deformed U+U collisions, asymmetric Cu+Au collisions and the effect of deformation in Au+Au collisions at RHIC. A combined study of these heavy ion systems with varying initial geometries can provide a unique opportunity to determine the origin of different sources of fluctuations that affect global observables like multiplicity and flow. We study the sensitivity of multiplicity, eccentricity and their event-by-event distributions to the details of initial state geometry. Results are compared to a two-component MC-Glauber model implementation that includes Negative-Binomial multiplicity fluctuations. We argue that the measurements of global observables for these systems at RHIC can constrain the mechanism of multi-particle production.

  19. Exclusive Production of Ds Ds-, Ds* Ds-, and Ds* Ds*- via e e- Annihilation with Initial-State-Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    del Amo Sanchez, P.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Hooberman, B.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I.L.; Tanabe, T.; /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Paris U., VI-VII /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Southern Methodist U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2010-10-27

    The authors perform a study of exclusive production of D{sub s}{sup +}D{sub s}{sup -}, D*{sub s}{sup +}D{sub s}{sup -}, and D*{sub s}{sup +}D*{sub s}{sup -} final states in initial-state-radiation events from e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilations at a center-of-mass energy near 10.58 GeV, to search for charmonium 1{sup --} states. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 525 fb{sup -1} and was recorded by the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II storage ring. The D{sub s}{sup +} D{sub s}{sup -}, D*{sub s}{sup +}D{sub s}{sup -}, and D*{sub s}{sup +}D*{sub s}{sup -} mass spectra show evidence of the known {psi} resonances. Limits are extracted for the branching ratios of the decays X(4260) {yields} D{sub s}{sup (*)+}D{sub s}{sup (*)-}.

  20. A Strategic Planning Guide for State-Level Early Childhood Systems-Building Initiatives: From Resources to Results for Young Children and Their Families. Building State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems Series. Number 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullis, Ericka; Sutherland, Carol; Uyeda, Kimberly; Halfon, Neal

    2004-01-01

    The State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems (SECCS) Initiative represents a unique opportunity to improve the quality of life for young children and their families, and support them in reaching their full potential. Under the SECCS Initiative, state mother and child health agencies are being asked to apply MCH experience and expertise to a…

  1. Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI): a successful start to a national program in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, E.; Jung, R.E.; Bailey, L.L.; Adams, M.J.; Corn, P.S.; Dodd, C.K., Jr.; Fellers, G.M.; Sandinski, W.J.; Schwalbe, C.R.; Walls, S.C.; Fisher, R.N.; Gallant, A.L.; Battaglin, W.A.; Green, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    Most research to assess amphibian declines has focused on local-scale projects on one or a few species. The Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI) is a national program in the United States mandated by congressional directive and implemented by the U.S. Department of the Interior (specifically the U.S. Geological Survey, USGS). Program goals are to monitor changes in populations of amphibians across U.S. Department of the Interior lands and to address research questions related to amphibian declines using a hierarchical framework of base-, mid- and apex-level monitoring sites. ARMI is currently monitoring 83 amphibian species (29% of species in the U.S.) at mid- and apex-level areas. We chart the progress of this 5-year-old program and provide an example of mid-level monitoring from 1 of the 7 ARMI regions.

  2. Exclusive Initial-State-Radiation Production of the DDbar,D*Dbar, and D*D*bar Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I.L.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DSM, DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2009-06-19

    We perform a study of the exclusive production of D{bar D}, D*{bar D}, and D*{bar D}* in initial-state-radiation events, from e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilations at a center-of-mass energy near 10.58 GeV, to search for charmonium and possible new resonances. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 384 fb{sup -1} and was recorded by the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II storage rings. The D{bar D}, D*{bar D}, and D*{bar D}* mass spectra show clear evidence of several {psi} resonances. However, there is no evidence for Y(4260) {yields} D*{bar D} or Y(4260) {yields} D*{bar D}*.

  3. On Baryon-Antibaryon Cross Sections from Initial State Radiation Processes at BABAR and their Surprising Threshold Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Pacetti, Simone

    2015-04-14

    BABAR has measured with unprecedented accuracy the e+e- → pp-bar and e+e- → ΛΛ-bar cross sections by means of the initial state radiation technique, which has the advantages of good efficiency and energy resolution, and full angular acceptance in the threshold region. A striking feature of these cross sections is their non-vanishing values at threshold. In the case of charged baryons, the phenomenon is well understood in terms of the Coulomb interaction between the outgoing baryon and antibaryon. However, such an effect is not expected for neutral baryons. We suggest a simple explanation for both charged and neutral baryon pairs based on Coulomb interactions at the valence quark level.

  4. Fast initialization of the spin state of an electron in a quantum dot in the Voigt configuration.

    PubMed

    Emary, C; Xu, Xiaodong; Steel, D G; Saikin, S; Sham, L J

    2007-01-26

    We consider the initialization of the spin state of a single electron trapped in a self-assembled quantum dot via optical pumping of a trion level. We show that with a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the growth direction of the dot, a near-unity fidelity can be obtained in a time equal to a few times the inverse of the spin-conserving trion relaxation rate. This method is several orders of magnitude faster than with the field aligned parallel, since this configuration must rely on a slow hole spin-flip mechanism. This increase in speed does result in a limit on the maximum obtainable fidelity, but we show that for InAs dots, the error is very small. PMID:17358809

  5. Numerical modeling of the initial state and matching of well test data from the Zunil geothermal field, Guatemala

    SciTech Connect

    Menzies, A.J.; Granados, E.E.; Sanyal, .K.; Merida-I., L.; Caicedo-A, A.

    1991-01-01

    A significant amount of geoscientific and reservoir engineering data have been collected from the Zunil geothermal field since 1973. The data have been used to define a conceptual model for the field which has formed the basis for the construction of a three dimensional numerical simulation model. The numerical model has successfully matched both the initial state of the reservoir, as indicated by subsurface temperature and pressure distributions within the presently drilled area, and available well test data. The well test data include short and long term discharge tests and a comprehensive pressure interference test. Calibration of the model will continue during 1991 when the results from drilling and testing of three additional deep wells are available. The model will then be used to study various long term production scenarios for the proposed 15 MW power development.

  6. Initial-state fluctuations from midperipheral to ultracentral collisions in an event-by-event transport approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumari, S.; Guardo, G. L.; Scardina, F.; Greco, V.

    2015-11-01

    We have developed a relativistic kinetic transport approach that incorporates initial-state fluctuations allowing to study the buildup of elliptic flow v2 and high-order harmonics v3, v4, and v5 for a fluid at fixed η /s (T ) . We study the effect of the η /s ratio and its T dependence on the buildup of the vn(pT) for two different beam energies: RHIC for Au+Au at √{s }=200 GeV and LHC for Pb+Pb at √{s }=2.76 TeV . We find that for the two different beam energies considered the suppression of the vn(pT) due to the viscosity of the medium have different contributions coming from the crossover or QGP phase. Our study reveals that only in ultracentral collisions (0 -0.2 %) the vn(pT) have a stronger sensitivity to the T dependence of η /s in the QGP phase and this sensitivity increases with the order of the harmonic n . Moreover, the study of the correlations between the initial spatial anisotropies ɛn and the final flow coefficients vn shows that at LHC energies there is more correlation than at RHIC energies. The degree of correlation increases from peripheral to central collisions, but only in ultracentral collisions at LHC, we find that the linear correlation coefficient C (n ,n )≈1 for n =2 ,3 ,4 , and 5. This suggests that the final correlations in the (vn,vm) space reflect the initial correlations in the (ɛn,ɛm) space.

  7. Gender-based health interventions in the United States: An overview of the coalition for healthier community initiative.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Stephanie; Walker, Elaine M

    2015-08-01

    Health disparities by gender constitute an important yet often overlooked aspect of health around the globe. Within the United States, there is both a paucity of research as well as planned programs that take into account how socio-cultural roles and expectations for men and women may differentially affect symptoms, access to care, and treatment. Viewing women's health exclusively as a function of sex (i.e., biological) differences represents a narrow understanding that does not fully explain gaps in health disparities between men and women. In September 2010, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) launched a national initiative entitled the Coalition for a Healthier Community (CHC) to employ a gender-based framework in several urban, suburban and rural communities across the nation. The Office on Women's Health (OWH) within the DHHS funded 10 coalitions to ultimately improve the health of women and girls utilizing a gender-based approach. This article provides an overview of the initiative and the focus of the special issue. PMID:25773577

  8. When Is a Diffusion Profile Not a Diffusion Profile? the Importance of Initial State Assumptions in Diffusion Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, D. J.; Chamberlain, K. J.; Kahl, M.; Potts, N. J.; Pankhurst, M. J.; Wilson, C. J. N.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past 20 years, diffusion chronometers have evolved from a niche tool into one of routine application, with more practitioners, new tools and increasingly large datasets. As we expand the horizons of diffusional geochronometry, it is worth taking stock of developments in methodologies and data acquisition, and taking time to revisit the underpinnings of the technique. Data collected as part of recent projects on Campi Flegrei, the Bishop Tuff and Fimmvörðuháls-Eyjafjallajökull are here used to investigate the initial state assumption, an absolutely vital aspect underpinning most diffusional work and one that is rarely evaluated despite its fundamental importance. To illustrate the nature of the problem we consider two widely-used element-mineral systems for felsic and mafic systems, respectively. First, barium and strontium profiles within sanidine crystals, modelled independently, can give strongly contrasting timescales from the same crystal zone. We can reconcile the datasets only for a situation where the initial boundary within the crystal was not a sharp step function, but relatively fuzzy before diffusion onset. This fuzziness effectively starts both chronometers off with an apparent, and false, pre-existing timescale, impacting the slower-diffusing barium much more strongly than the faster-diffusing strontium, yielding thousands of years of non-existent diffusion history. By combining both elements, a starting width of tens of microns can be shown, shortening the true diffusive timescales from tens of thousands of years to hundreds. Second, in olivine, we encounter different growth-related problems. Here, Fe-Mg interdiffusion occurs at a rate comparable to growth, with the compound nature of zonation making it difficult to extract the diffusion component. This requires a treatment of changing boundary conditions and sequential growth to generate the curvature seen in natural data, in order to recover timescales for anything but the outermost

  9. The Movement for National Academic Standards: A Comparison of the Common Core State Standards Initiative in the USA and the National Curriculum in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the nature of activities in the change process undertaken by two initiatives to produce national standards in academic disciplines, national assessments and accountability measures. The Common Core State Standards Initiative, a project coordinated by the National Governors Association and the Council of…

  10. ZFHX4 interacts with the NuRD core member CHD4 and regulates the glioblastoma tumor initiating cell state

    PubMed Central

    Chudnovsky, Yakov; Kim, Dohoon; Zheng, Siyuan; Whyte, Warren A.; Bansal, Mukesh; Bray, Mark-Anthony; Gopal, Shuba; Theisen, Matthew A.; Bilodeau, Steve; Thiru, Prathapan; Muffat, Julien; Yilmaz, Omer H.; Mitalipova, Maya; Woolard, Kevin; Lee, Jeongwu; Nishimura, Riko; Sakata, Nobuo; Fine, Howard A.; Carpenter, Anne E.; Silver, Serena J.; Verhaak, Roel G. W.; Califano, Andrea; Young, Richard A.; Ligon, Keith L.; Mellinghoff, Ingo K.; Root, David E.; Sabatini, David M.; Hahn, William C.; Chheda, Milan G.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Glioblastomas (GBM) harbor subpopulations of therapy-resistant tumor initiating cells (TICs) that are self-renewing and multipotent. To understand the regulation of the TIC state, we performed an image-based screen for genes regulating GBM TIC maintenance and identified ZFHX4, a 397-kDa transcription factor. ZFHX4 is required to maintain TIC-associated and normal human neural precursor cell phenotypes in vitro, suggesting that ZFHX4 regulates differentiation, and its suppression increases glioma-free survival in intracranial xenografts. ZFHX4 interacts with CHD4, a core member of the NuRD (nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase) complex. ZFHX4 and CHD4 bind to overlapping sets of genomic loci and control similar gene expression programs. Using expression data derived from GBM patients, we found that ZFHX4 significantly affects CHD4-mediated gene expression perturbations, which defines ZFHX4 as a master regulator of CHD4. These observations define ZFHX4 as a regulatory factor that links the chromatin remodeling NuRD complex and the GBM TIC state. PMID:24440720

  11. Classification of resting, anticipation and movement states in self-initiated arm movements for EEG brain computer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, Miguel; Montesano, Luis; Minguez, Javier

    2011-01-01

    In the last years, there has been an increasing interest in using Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) within motor rehabilitation therapies that use robotic devices or functional electro stimulation to help or guide the efforts of the patient to move her body. A crucial step of these therapies is to provide help to the user just when she is actually trying to accomplish a certain motion or task One of the most promising applications of BCI systems in this context is its ability to measure the user intentions and actions to trigger the rehabilitation devices accordingly. This paper studies the single-trial classification based on EEG measurements of three basic states during the execution of self-initiated motion: rest, motion preparation (or anticipation) and motion. We conducted an experiment where the participants had to reach at their will eight different locations from a fixed starting position. Results for seven healthy subjects show that it is possible to achieve good classification rates given that features are carefully selected for each subject and for each pair of states. PMID:22255775

  12. Competing feedbacks drive state transitions during initial catchment evolution: Examples from post-mining landscape and ecosystems evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinz, Christoph; Wolfgang, Schaaf; Werner, Gerwin

    2014-05-01

    Within the context of severely disturbed landscapes with little or no ecological memory, such as post-mining landscapes, we propose a simple framework that explains the catchment evolution as a result of competing feedbacks influenced by the initial conditions and the atmospheric drivers such as rainfall intermittency and intensity. The first stage of the evolution is dominated by abiotic feedbacks triggered by rainfall and subsequent fluid flow causing particle mobilisation on the surface and in the subsurface leading to flow concentration or in some instances to densification of surface and subsurface substrates. Subsequently, abiotic-biotic feedbacks start to compete in the sense that biological activity generally stabilizes substrate by preventing particle mobilisation and hence contribute to converting the substrate to a habitat. We suggest that these competing feedbacks may generate alternative stable states in particular under semi-arid and arid climatic conditions, while in temperate often energy limited environments biological process "outcompete" abiotic processes leading to a stable state, in particular from the water balance point of view for comparable geomorphic situations. To illustrate this framework, we provide examples from post-mining landscapes, in which soil, water and vegetation was monitored. In case of arid regions in Australia, we provide evidence that the initial conditions of a mine waste disposal "locked" the system into a state that was limited by water and nutrient storage capacity while at the same time it was stable from a geomorphic point of view for the observation period. The cause of the system to be locked in, is the very high hydraulic conductivity of the substrate, that has not undergone any changes during the first years. In contrast to this case study, we illustrate how this framework explains the evolution of an artificial catchment (Hühnerwasser Catchment) in Lusatia (150 km southeast of Berlin, Germany). During the

  13. The Nanomaterial Data Curation Initiative: A collaborative approach to assessing, evaluating, and advancing the state of the field

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Christina M; Hoover, Mark D; Harper, Stacey L

    2015-01-01

    Summary The Nanomaterial Data Curation Initiative (NDCI), a project of the National Cancer Informatics Program Nanotechnology Working Group (NCIP NanoWG), explores the critical aspect of data curation within the development of informatics approaches to understanding nanomaterial behavior. Data repositories and tools for integrating and interrogating complex nanomaterial datasets are gaining widespread interest, with multiple projects now appearing in the US and the EU. Even in these early stages of development, a single common aspect shared across all nanoinformatics resources is that data must be curated into them. Through exploration of sub-topics related to all activities necessary to enable, execute, and improve the curation process, the NDCI will provide a substantive analysis of nanomaterial data curation itself, as well as a platform for multiple other important discussions to advance the field of nanoinformatics. This article outlines the NDCI project and lays the foundation for a series of papers on nanomaterial data curation. The NDCI purpose is to: 1) present and evaluate the current state of nanomaterial data curation across the field on multiple specific data curation topics, 2) propose ways to leverage and advance progress for both individual efforts and the nanomaterial data community as a whole, and 3) provide opportunities for similar publication series on the details of the interactive needs and workflows of data customers, data creators, and data analysts. Initial responses from stakeholder liaisons throughout the nanoinformatics community reveal a shared view that it will be critical to focus on integration of datasets with specific orientation toward the purposes for which the individual resources were created, as well as the purpose for integrating multiple resources. Early acknowledgement and undertaking of complex topics such as uncertainty, reproducibility, and interoperability is proposed as an important path to addressing key challenges

  14. Elastic constants of solids and fluids with initial pressure via a unified approach based on equations-of-state.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, John H

    2014-07-01

    The second and third-order Brugger elastic constants are obtained for liquids and ideal gases having an initial hydrostatic pressure p1. For liquids the second-order elastic constants are C₁₁=A+p₁, C₁₂=A-p₁, and the third-order constants are C₁₁₁=-(B+5A+3p₁), C₁₁₂=-(B+A-p₁), and C₁₂₃=A-B-p₁, where A and B are the Beyer expansion coefficients in the liquid equation of state. For ideal gases the second-order constants are C₁₁=p₁γ+p₁, C₁₂=p₁γ-p₁, and the third-order constants are C₁₁₁=-p₁(γ(2)+4γ+3), C₁₁₂=-p₁(γ(2)-1), and C₁₂₃=-p₁ (γ(2)-2γ+1), where γ is the ratio of specific heats. The inequality of C₁₁ and C₁₂ results in a nonzero shear constant C₄₄=(1/2)(C₁₁-C₁₂)=p₁ for both liquids and gases. For water at standard temperature and pressure the ratio of terms p₁/A contributing to the second-order constants is approximately 4.3×10(-5). For atmospheric gases the ratio of corresponding terms is approximately 0.7. Analytical expressions that include initial stresses are derived for the material 'nonlinearity parameters' associated with harmonic generation and acoustoelasticity for fluids and solids of arbitrary crystal symmetry. The expressions are used to validate the relationships for the elastic constants of fluids. PMID:24502870

  15. Stimulated desorption of F{sup +} and Cl{sup +} from Si surfaces: Initial excitations and final-state effects

    SciTech Connect

    Yarmoff, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    Many photochemically-induced surface reactions result from stimulated desorption, in which a photon or electron induces an electronic excitation to a repulsive state, leading to the removal of a lightly-bound surface species. In this work, photon stimulated desorption (PSD) and electron stimulated desorption (ESD) of positive halogen ions from silicon surfaces are investigated in order to determine (1) which initial excitations give rise to ion desorption, and (2) how do ion-surface interactions affect the trajectory of the exiting ions? To investigate (1), the PSD yield of F{sup +} and Cl{sup +} ions from Si was measured as a function of the incident photon energy. It was found that for both adsorbed F and Cl, excitations of the anion lead to ion desorption. For cation excitations, however, ion desorption was observed only for F{sup +}. This discrepancy appears to be related to the ionicity of the original bond. For (2), ESD of Cl{sup +} from Si(111) was looked at first, as the yield is primarily along the surface normal. Angle-resolved kinetic energy distribution enabled determination of the image charge interaction strength and the anisotropy in ion neutralization. This method was then applied to Si(100), for which off-normal desorption occurs. It was found that the angular and energy distributions of desorbed F{sup +} and Cl{sup +} are markedly different. When ion-surface interactions are taken into account, however, the initial surface bond angles appear to be the same. The major difference between F{sup +} and Cl{sup +} is actually a much larger neutralization probability for Cl{sup +}, which severely distorts the measured ion distribution.

  16. Elastic Constants of Solids and Fluids with Initial Pressure via a Unified Approach Based on Equations-of-State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H.

    2014-01-01

    The second and third-order Brugger elastic constants are obtained for liquids and ideal gases having an initial hydrostatic pressure p(sub 1). For liquids the second-order elastic constants are C(sub 11) = A + p(sub 1), C(sub 12) = A -- p(sub 1), and the third-order constants are C(sub 111) = --(B + 5A + 3p(sub 1)), C(sub 112) = --(B + A -- p(sub 1)), and C(sub 123) = A -- B -- p1, where A and B are the Beyer expansion coefficients in the liquid equation of state. For ideal gases the second order constants are C(sub 11) = p(sub 1)gamma + p9sub 1), C(sub 12) = p(sub 1)gamma -- p(sub 1), and the third-order constants are C(sub 111) = p(sub 1)(gamma(2) + 4gamma + 3), C(sub 112) = --p(sub 1)(gamma(2) -- 1), and C(sub 123) = --p(sub 1) (gamma(2) -- 2gamma + 1), where gamma is the ratio of specific heats. The inequality of C(sub 11) and C(sub 12) results in a nonzero shear constant C(sub 44) = (1/2)(C(sub 11) C(sub 12)) = p(sub 1) for both liquids and gases. For water at standard temperature and pressure the ratio of terms p1/A contributing to the second-order constants is approximately 4.3 x 10(-5). For atmospheric gases the ratio of corresponding terms is approximately 0.7. Analytical expressions that include initial stresses are derived for the material 'nonlinearity parameters' associated with harmonic generation and acoustoelasticity for fluids and solids of arbitrary crystal symmetry. The expressions are used to validate the relationships for the elastic constants of fluids.

  17. Smoothing the Path: Changing State Policies to Support Early College High School. Case Studies from Georgia, Ohio, Texas, and Utah. Early College High School Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobs for the Future, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Smoothing the Path" describes successful state-level strategies and policy lessons that have been learned in four states during the development of schools that integrate secondary and postsecondary education. Statewide efforts in the multi-year Early College High School Initiative, which began in Ohio and Utah in 2002 and in Texas and Georgia in…

  18. Effect of initial-state target polarization on the single ionization of helium by 1-keV electron impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shi-Yan; Ma, Xiao-Yan; Li, Xia; Miao, Xiang-Yang; Jia, Xiang-Fu

    2012-07-01

    We report new results of triple differential cross sections for the single ionization of helium by 1-KeV electron impact at the ejection energy of 10 eV. Investigations have been made for both the perpendicular plane and the plane perpendicular to the momentum transfer geometries. The present calculation is based on the three-Coulomb wave function. Here we have also incorporated the effect of target polarization in the initial state. A comparison is made between the present calculation with the results of other theoretical methods and a recent experiment [Dürr M, Dimopoulou C, Najjari B, Dorn A, Bartschat K, Bray I, Fursa D V, Chen Z, Madison D H and Ullrich J 2008 Phys. Rev. A 77 032717]. At an impact energy of 1 KeV, the target polarization is found to induce a substantial change of the cross section for the ionization process. We observe that the effect of target polarization plays a dominant role in deciding the shape of triple differential cross sections.

  19. Study of the pi+pi-J//psi Mass Spectrum Via Initial State Radiation at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, Bernard; /

    2008-08-15

    We present an update of the study of the Y(4260) resonance, produced in the process e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} {gamma}{sub ISR} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} J/{psi} using initial-state radiation events at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} storage rings. This study is based on 454 fb{sup -1} of data recorded with the BABAR detector at a center-of-mass energy in the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance region. From a fit with a single non-relativistic Breit-Wigner shape we obtain updated parameters for the Y(4260) resonance which are m{sub Y} = 4252 {+-} 6{sub -3}{sup +2} MeV/c{sup 2} and {Lambda}{sub Y} = 105 {+-} 18{sub -6}{sup +4} MeV/c{sup 2}; we also measure {Beta}({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} J/{psi}){Lambda}{sub e{sup +}e{sup -}} = (7.5 {+-} 0.9 {+-} 0.8) eV. We cannot confirm the recent BELLE observation of a broad structure around 4.05GeV/c{sup 2} in this decay mode.

  20. GR@PPA 2.8: Initial-state jet matching for weak-boson production processes at hadron collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odaka, Shigeru; Kurihara, Yoshimasa

    2012-04-01

    The initial-state jet matching method introduced in our previous studies has been applied to the event generation of single W and Z production processes and diboson (WW, WZ and ZZ) production processes at hadron collisions in the framework of the GR@PPA event generator. The generated events reproduce the transverse momentum spectra of weak bosons continuously in the entire kinematical region. The matrix elements (ME) for hard interactions are still at the tree level. As in previous versions, the decays of weak bosons are included in the matrix elements. Therefore, spin correlations and phase-space effects in the decay of weak bosons are exact at the tree level. The program package includes custom-made parton shower programs as well as ME-based hard interaction generators in order to achieve self-consistent jet matching. The generated events can be passed to general-purpose event generators to make the simulation proceed down to the hadron level. Catalogue identifier: ADRH_v3_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADRH_v3_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 112 146 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 596 667 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran; with some included libraries coded in C and C++ Computer: All Operating system: Any UNIX-like system RAM: 1.6 Mega bytes at minimum Classification: 11.2 Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADRH_v2_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 175 (2006) 665 External routines: Bash and Perl for the setup, and CERNLIB, ROOT, LHAPDF, PYTHIA according to the user's choice. Does the new version supersede the previous version?: No, this version supports only a part of the processes included in the previous versions. Nature of problem: We

  1. INDEX - A New United States and Republic of Indonesia Partnership For Exploration of Indonesia's Seas: 2010 Initial Results Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, S. R.; Wirasantosa, S.; Baker, E. T.; Brainard, R. E.; Butterfield, D.; Djamaluddin, R.; Fryer, P.; Holden, J.; McDonough, J.; Potter, J.; Russell, C. W.; Shank, T. M.; Tunnicliffe, V.

    2010-12-01

    INDEX - A New United States and Republic of Indonesia Partnership For Exploration of Indonesia’s Seas: 2010 Initial Results Overview S. Hammond, S. Wirasantosa, E. Baker, R. Brainard, D. Butterfield, R. Djamaluddin, P. Fryer, J. Holden, J. McDonough, J. Potter, C. Russell, T. Shank, V. Tunnicliffe Through a Memorandum of Understanding between the Republic of Indonesia’s (RI) Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries and the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,the NOAA Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research has begun a formal 5-year partnership with the RI’s Agency for Marine and Fisheries Research for the purpose of exploring Indonesia’s seas. This summer, a US and Indonesian science and technical team, using the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer and the RI Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology's ship Baruna Jaya IV, conducted the first year’s cruises to areas in the Sulawesi and Maluku seas. These were the maiden international expeditions for the Okeanos Explorer (EX) and the first international implementation of the ship’s broad-band, high-definition video “telepresence” system which enabled members of an onshore science and technical team to participate in real-time from Exploration Command Centers in the US and in Jakarta. The EX operated in two areas, one along the western flanks of the Sangihe Arc and the other north of the Talaud Islands. The principal objectives of the cruises were to, (1) produce high-resolution bathymetric maps of both areas using the EX’s EM302 sonar, (2) conduct CTD/rosette surveys of the water column in areas that appeared to have the potential for volcanic and/or hydrothermal activity, and (3) use a two-body ROV system to acquire high-definition video of selected seafloor features and benthic fauna. Among the most interesting features acoustically and visually mapped along the western flank of the Sangihe Arc were several discrete volcanic cones with varying surficial morphologies and

  2. Photoelectron spin polarization in the Bi2Te3 (0001) topological insulator: Initial- and final-state effects in the photoemission process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibel, Christoph; Braun, Jürgen; Maaß, Henriette; Bentmann, Hendrik; Minár, Jan; Kuznetsova, Tatyana V.; Kokh, Konstantin A.; Tereshchenko, Oleg E.; Okuda, Taichi; Ebert, Hubert; Reinert, Friedrich

    2016-06-01

    The photoelectron spin polarization in angle-resolved photoemission from the topological surface state in Bi2Te3 (0001) has been investigated in a combined experimental and theoretical study. Our measurements show significant photon-energy-dependent deviations in the three-dimensional spin polarization of the photoelectron when compared to the expected intrinsic spin polarization of the surface state. The experimental observations are in line with relativistic one-step photoemission calculations. Our theoretical analysis confirms that spin-orbit coupling in the initial-state wave functions in combination with the dipole selection rules strongly influences the photoelectron spin polarization. Furthermore, spin-dependent final-state effects are found to influence the spin polarization significantly. A quantitative access to the three-dimensional spin-polarization vector in topological insulators is thus challenged by a complex interplay of initial- and final-state effects in the photoemission process.

  3. Alabama's Education Coalition Focuses on Supporting the State's Math, Science and Technology Initiative and on Building Distance Learning Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denson, R. L.

    2003-12-01

    The Alabama Math Science Technology Educational Coalition (AMSTEC) was formed as a non-profit after a 1998 NASA Linking Leaders program brought in education and corporate leaders to address systemic education reform in Alabama public schools. AMSTEC was instrumental in the creation of the Alabama Math Science Technology Initiative (AMSTI), a K-12 program designed using data from national and international research and local teacher survey. In the face of dwindling government support in a state ranked last in education funding, AMSTEC believes that its best hope for improved STEM education lies in strengthening its community/industry partnerships and building upon the Department of Education's newly created AMSTI program. NASA's GLOBE program is the primary earth science education component being integrated into AMSTI. AMSTI is structured to provide teachers with (1) the materials, equipment, technology and supplies necessary to deliver high quality, inquiry-based instruction; (2) professional development linked directly to the educational resources with the intent of strengthening content knowledge, instructional strategies, and use of assessment tools; and (3) on-site support and mentoring throughout the year in the interest of achieving these goals. Roles for community partners to support these objectives far exceed that of mere funding - especially in the area of mentoring and professional development. Currently, AMSTEC consists of 100+ members including classroom teachers and district officers, education department representatives from higher educational institutions, policy makers and administrators, and government and industry representatives. AMSTEC remains partially tied to NASA fiscally and is administratively housed by the National Space Science and Technology Center's Earth System Science Center. AMSTEC's partnership emphasis is focused on increasing corporate and industry participation to support the implementation of AMSTI and its hub

  4. Building Links: Developer Initiatives for Financing Child Care. Child Care Action Campaign. CCAC Special Report #2: State Financing Alternatives Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichman, Caroline; And Others

    This report evaluates the impact of two types of initiatives for involving real estate developers in building or supporting new child care facilities. These initiatives are: (1) linkage, a legislative mandate that requires developers to construct a child care space or contribute to a child care fund; and (2) bonuses, or zoning incentives that…

  5. The role of the transition state in polyatomic reactions: Initial state-selected reaction probabilities of the H + CH{sub 4} → H{sub 2} + CH{sub 3} reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Welsch, Ralph Manthe, Uwe

    2014-11-07

    Full-dimensional calculations of initial state-selected reaction probabilities on an accurate ab initio potential energy surface (PES) have been communicated recently [R. Welsch and U. Manthe, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 051102 (2014)]. These calculations use the quantum transition state concept, the multi-layer multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree approach, and graphics processing units to speed up the potential evaluation. Here further results of these calculations and an extended analysis are presented. State-selected reaction probabilities are given for many initial ro-vibrational states. The role of the vibrational states of the activated complex is analyzed in detail. It is found that rotationally cold methane mainly reacts via the ground state of the activated complex while rotationally excited methane mostly reacts via H–H–CH{sub 3}-bending excited states of the activated complex. Analyzing the different contributions to the reactivity of the vibrationally states of methane, a complex pattern is found. Comparison with initial state-selected reaction probabilities computed on the semi-empirical Jordan-Gilbert PES reveals the dependence of the results on the specific PES.

  6. Nailing Jello to the Wall. Forum: What Progress Are the States Making in Initiating Higher Education Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Dan

    The relationship between state government and higher education institutions is discussed. It is noted that, by and large, state governments have left colleges alone until the past two decades. State intrusions have taken the form of accountability statutes, budgeting, performance audits, program review, minimum standards, sunset laws, and more…

  7. Evidence of the Adoption and Implementation of a Statewide Childhood Obesity Prevention Initiative in the New York State WIC Program: The "NY Fit WIC" Process Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekhobo, Jackson P.; Egglefield, Katherine; Edmunds, Lynn S.; Shackman, Gene

    2012-01-01

    Process evaluations are critical in determining whether outcome evaluations are warranted. This study assessed the extent to which a childhood obesity prevention initiative, "NY Fit WIC", was adopted and implemented by the New York State Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC). Process data came from qualitative…

  8. How Can VET Systems Meet the Challenges of Innovation and New Skill Requirements? An Exploration of State and Territory Initiatives in Australia. Working Paper No. 59

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrier, Fran

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on a Centre for the Economics of Education and Training (CEET) project that explored policies, programs and other initiatives by Australia's states and territories to support innovation, and to build vocational education and training (VET) capability to respond to its effects on skill needs. The project was undertaken in late…

  9. UCAN: A Four-State Rural Systemic Initiative. UCAN Measures of Progress toward Full Implementation: A Guide for Schools/Communities Involved in Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LLamas, Vicente J.

    The Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico-Rural Systemic Initiative (UCAN-RSI) supports standards-based reform in mathematics, technology, and science education for rural students in its states. This guide provides UCAN schools and communities with a set of measures that describe the location of a school/community on the developmental continuum of…

  10. Librarian-Initiated Publications Discovery: How Do Digital Depository Librarians Discover and Select Web-Based Government Publications for State Digital Depositories?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chi-Shiou; Eschenfelder, Kristin R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of librarian initiated publications discovery (LIPD) in U.S. state digital depository programs using the OCLC Digital Archive to preserve web-based government publications for permanent public access. This paper describes a model of LIPD processes based on empirical investigations of four OCLC DA-based digital…

  11. L2 vs. L3 Initial State: A Comparative Study of the Acquisition of French DPs by Vietnamese Monolinguals and Cantonese-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Yan-Kit Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares the initial state of second language acquisition (L2A) and third language acquisition (L3A) from the generative linguistics perspective. We examine the acquisition of the Determiner Phrase (DP) by two groups of beginning French learners: an L2 group (native speakers of Vietnamese who do not speak any English) and an L3 group…

  12. The Nanomaterial Data Curation Initiative: A Collaborative Approach to Assessing, Evaluating, and Advancing the State of the Field

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Nanomaterial Data Curation Initiative (NDCI) explores the critical aspect of data curation within the development of informatics approaches to understanding nanomaterial behavior. Data repositories and tools for integrating and interrogating complex nanomaterial datasets are...

  13. Correlates of Initiation of Treatment for Chronic Hepatitis C Infection in United States Veterans, 2004–2009

    PubMed Central

    Haroldsen, Candace; Carter, Marjorie E.; LaFleur, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    We describe the rates and predictors of initiation of treatment for chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection in a large cohort of HCV positive Veterans seen in U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2009. In addition, we identify the relationship between homelessness among these Veterans and treatment initiation. Univariate and multivariable Cox Proportional Hazards regression models with time-varying covariates were used to identify predictors of initiation of treatment with pegylated interferon alpha plus ribavirin. Of the 101,444 HCV treatment-naïve Veterans during the study period, rates of initiation of treatment among homeless and non-homeless Veterans with HCV were low and clinically similar (6.2% vs. 7.4%, p<0.0001). For all U.S. Veterans, being diagnosed with genotype 2 or 3, black or other/unknown race, having Medicare or other insurance increased the risk of treatment. Veterans with age ≥50 years, drug abuse, diabetes, and hemoglobin < 10 g/dL showed lower rates of treatment. Initiation of treatment for HCV in homeless Veterans is low; similar factors predicted initiation of treatment. Additionally, exposure to treatment with medications for diabetes predicted lower rates of treatment. As newer therapies become available for HCV, these results may inform further studies and guide strategies to increase treatment rates in all U.S. Veterans and those who experience homelessness. PMID:26167690

  14. Correlates of Initiation of Treatment for Chronic Hepatitis C Infection in United States Veterans, 2004-2009.

    PubMed

    Gundlapalli, Adi V; Nelson, Richard E; Haroldsen, Candace; Carter, Marjorie E; LaFleur, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    We describe the rates and predictors of initiation of treatment for chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection in a large cohort of HCV positive Veterans seen in U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2009. In addition, we identify the relationship between homelessness among these Veterans and treatment initiation. Univariate and multivariable Cox Proportional Hazards regression models with time-varying covariates were used to identify predictors of initiation of treatment with pegylated interferon alpha plus ribavirin. Of the 101,444 HCV treatment-naïve Veterans during the study period, rates of initiation of treatment among homeless and non-homeless Veterans with HCV were low and clinically similar (6.2% vs. 7.4%, p<0.0001). For all U.S. Veterans, being diagnosed with genotype 2 or 3, black or other/unknown race, having Medicare or other insurance increased the risk of treatment. Veterans with age ≥50 years, drug abuse, diabetes, and hemoglobin < 10 g/dL showed lower rates of treatment. Initiation of treatment for HCV in homeless Veterans is low; similar factors predicted initiation of treatment. Additionally, exposure to treatment with medications for diabetes predicted lower rates of treatment. As newer therapies become available for HCV, these results may inform further studies and guide strategies to increase treatment rates in all U.S. Veterans and those who experience homelessness. PMID:26167690

  15. Spectroscopic investigations of neptunium`s and plutonium`s oxidation states in sol-gel glasses as a function of initial valance and thermal history

    SciTech Connect

    Stump, N.A.; Haire, R.G.; Dai, S.

    1996-12-01

    Several oxidation states of neptunium and plutonium, Pu(III),Pu (IV), PU(VI), Np(IV), Np(V) and Np (VI), were studied in glasses prepared by a sol-gel technology. The oxidation state of these actinides was determined primarily by absorption spectrometry and followed as a function of the solidification process, subsequent aging and thermal treatments. It was determined that the initial oxidation state of the actinides in the starting solutions was essentially maintained through the solidification process to form the glasses. However, during densification and removal of residual solvents at elevated temperatures, both actinides in the different sol-gel products converted completely to their tetravalent states. These results are discussed in terms of our findings in comparable studies that only the tetravalent states of plutonium and neptunium are formed in glasses prepared by dissolving their dioxides in different molten- glass formulations.

  16. Geothermal Data Collection and Interpretation in the State of Alabama: Early Results from the ARRA Geothermal Energy Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hills, D. J.; Osborne, T. E.; McIntyre, M. R.; Pashin, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    The Geological Survey of Alabama (GSA) is expanding its efforts to collect, develop, maintain, and analyze statewide geothermal data and to make this information widely and easily accessible to the public through the National Geothermal Data System. The online availability of this data will aid in the effective development of geothermal energy applications and reduce the risks associated with the initial stages of geothermal project development. To this end, the GSA is participating in a collaborative project that the Arizona Geological Survey is coordinating in cooperation with the Association of American State Geologists and with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy as part of the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act. Wells drilled for the exploration and production of hydrocarbons are the primary sources of geothermal data in Alabama. To date, more than 1,200 wells in coalbed methane (CBM) fields in the Black Warrior Basin (BWB) have been examined, in addition to over 500 conventional wells in the basin. Pottsville Formation (Pennsylvanian) bottom-hole temperatures (BHTs) range from less than 80°F to more than 140°F in wells reaching total depth between 1,000 and 6,000 feet (ft). Temperature and depth correlate with a coefficient of determination (r2) of 0.72, reflecting significant variation of the modern geothermal gradient. Mapping and statistical analysis confirm that geothermal gradient in the CBM fairway is typically between 6 and 12°F/1,000 ft. BHTs in the conventional wells penetrating the BWB show even greater variation, with temperature and depth correlating with an r2 of only 0.27. This variability owes to numerous factors, including stratigraphy, lithology, thermal conductivity, and geothermal gradient. Indeed, these wells reach total depth between 500 and 12,000 ft in carbonate and siliciclastic formations ranging in age from Cambrian to Mississippian. The Cambrian section is dominated by low conductivity shale, whereas the Ordovician

  17. The Effects of the Washington State Education Reform on Schools and Classrooms: Initial Findings. RAND Documented Briefing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stecher, Brian M.; Chun, Tammi; Barron, Sheila; Ross, Karen

    A growing number of states are implementing standards-based accountability systems in their efforts to improve student achievement. Policymakers in these states believe that standards-based reforms that include high-stakes testing can be powerful tools to change what is happening in schools and classrooms. This study is part of ongoing research…

  18. Electromagnetic radiation as a probe of the initial state and of viscous dynamics in relativistic nuclear collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vujanovic, Gojko; Paquet, Jean-François; Denicol, Gabriel S.; Luzum, Matthew; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles

    2016-07-01

    The penetrating nature of electromagnetic signals makes them suitable probes to explore the properties of the strongly interacting medium created in relativistic nuclear collisions. We examine the effects of the initial conditions and shear relaxation time on the spectra and flow coefficients of electromagnetic probes, using an event-by-event 3+1-dimensional viscous hydrodynamic simulation (music).

  19. AN EXAMINATION OF CITIZEN PARTICIPATION AND PROCEDURAL FAIRNESS IN LARGE-SCALE URBAN TREE PLANTING INITIATIVES IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will result in a typology of the degrees and forms of citizen participation in large-scale urban tree planting initiatives. It also will identify specific aspects of urban tree planting processes that residents perceive as fair and unfair, which will provide ad...

  20. State-to-state photodissociation of carbonyl sulfide ({nu}{sub 2}=0,1|JlM). II. The effect of initial bending on coherence of S({sup 1}D{sub 2}) polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Brom, Alrik J. van den; Rakitzis, T. Peter; Janssen, Maurice H. M.

    2005-10-22

    Photodissociation studies using ion imaging are reported, measuring the coherence of the polarization of the S({sup 1}D{sub 2}) fragment from the photolysis of single-quantum state-selected carbonyl sulfide (OCS) at 223 and 230 nm. A hexapole state-selector focuses a molecular beam of OCS parent molecules in the ground state ({nu}{sub 2}=0 vertical bar JM=10) or in the first excited bending state ({nu}{sub 2}=1 vertical bar JlM=111). At 230 nm photolysis the Im[a{sub 1}{sup (1p}{sub arallel}{sup ,perpendicular})] moment for the fast S({sup 1}D{sub 2}) channel increases by about 50% when the initial OCS parent state changes from the vibrationless ground state to the first excited bending state. No dependence on the initial bending state is found for photolysis at 223 nm. We observe separate rings in the slow channel of the velocity distribution of S({sup 1}D{sub 2}) correlating to single CO(J) rotational states. The additional available energy for photolysis at 223 nm is found to be channeled mostly into the CO(J) rotational motion. An improved value for the OC-S bond energy D{sub 0}=4.292 eV is reported.

  1. Risk factors for initial respiratory disease in United States' feedlots based on producer-collected daily morbidity counts.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Michael W; Dargatz, David A; Wagner, Bruce A

    2008-04-01

    The incidence of initial respiratory disease was followed for 12 weeks in 122 pens of feedlot cattle, based on producer-collected daily morbidity counts. Weekly incidence density was calculated based on the number of new cases and the population at risk. Incidence density was greatest in the 1st week after arrival and decreased in following weeks. Weekly incidence rate varied between pens and over time from 0 to 27.7 cases per 100 animal weeks at risk. A negative binomial model controlling for multiple events within pens and over time was used to model effects on the number of new cases. Mixed gender groups, cattle from multiple sources and increasing distance shipped were associated with increased risk for initial respiratory morbidity. Heavier entry weight was associated with decreased morbidity risk. These factors may be useful in categorizing groups of calves into risk groups for targeted purchase and management decision making. PMID:18481546

  2. Experimental preparation of the initial state of Xe+-N laser-induced collisional charge transfer system: Multi-photon resonant ionization of xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongying; Lu, Zhenzhong; Fan, Rongwei; Chen, Deying

    2009-05-01

    A novel one-color Xe+-N laser induced collisional charge transfer system is proposed, and preparation of the initial state of the system, i.e., Xe+ is experimentally implemented through resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) by ˜440 nm dye laser. The REMPI of Xe is experimentally investigated through time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry and the intensity dependence of Xe+ is obtained, aiming at the preparation of Xe+. The resonant ionization spectra of Xe at ˜440 nm under several different conditions are measured, showing the impacts of mode purification and source pressure on the resonant ionization spectrum. The results indicate the feasibility of preparing the initial state of the Xe+-N system by ˜440 nm multi-photon resonant ionization, which prepares for a further experiment of laser-induced collisional charge transfer.

  3. Planning for the State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems Initiative (SECCS): An Environmental Scan of Opportunities and Readiness for Building Systems. Building State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems Series, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halfon, Neal; Uyeda, Kimberly; Inkelas, Moira; Kumar, Vani; Tullis, Ericka; Rice, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    This report outlines the national and state environmental context for the SECCS Initiative in supporting MCH strategic planning in early childhood systems building. This strategic context has implications for roles, relationships, and activities within a planning process and ultimately an implementation process. It summarizes the opportunities and…

  4. Snapshot of sequential SNARE assembling states between membranes shows that N-terminal transient assembly initializes fusion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong Jian; Li, Feng; Rodriguez, Nicolas; Lafosse, Xavier; Gourier, Christine; Perez, Eric; Pincet, Frederic

    2016-03-29

    Many prominent biological processes are driven by protein assembling between membranes. Understanding the mechanisms then entails determining the assembling pathway of the involved proteins. Because the intermediates are by nature transient and located in the intermembrane space, this determination is generally a very difficult, not to say intractable, problem. Here, by designing a setup with sphere/plane geometry, we have been able to freeze one transient state in which the N-terminal domains of SNARE proteins are assembled. A single camera frame is sufficient to obtain the complete probability of this state with the transmembrane distance. We show that it forms when membranes are 20 nm apart and stabilizes by further assembling of the SNAREs at 8 nm. This setup that fixes the intermembrane distance, and thereby the transient states, while optically probing the level of molecular assembly by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) can be used to characterize any other transient transmembrane complexes. PMID:26979957

  5. Health information technology and health information exchange in New York State: new initiatives in implementation and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kern, Lisa M; Kaushal, Rainu

    2007-12-01

    More research is needed to understand the effects of health information technology (HIT) and health information exchange (HIE) on quality, safety, efficiency, finances, consumers and providers in community-based settings. New York State is investing heavily in HIT and HIE adoption through the HEAL NY program. It has already provided $53 million in seed money and requires that grantee organizations match the funds. HITEC (The Health Information Technology Evaluation Collaborative) was established to measure systematically the effects of HIT and HIE on consumers, providers, health care quality, patient safety, public health, and financial return on investment in New York State, as no individual grantee is able to conduct cross-cutting evaluations. The results of these evaluations should inform decisions made by leaders in HIT and HIE in New York State and across the nation. PMID:17945542

  6. AmericaView - A State-Based Remote Sensing Initiative Integrating Remote Sensing Data Into Geospatial Education and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodge, R. L.; Lawrence, R.

    2007-12-01

    AmericaView (AV) is a national program created to advance the availability, timely distribution, and widespread use of land remote sensing data, especially among users within the university and government communities. Since the 1970s the federal government and private sector have spent billions of dollars on satellite-based earth observing systems, but distribution of data and development of real-world applications have been tough issues for the government and the academic research communities. It has often been hard for researchers to use or even access the data, particularly at smaller schools or research facilities, hindering applied research and current and future workforce development. Many state and local agencies working with applied research programs have not been able to effectively integrate remote sensing data into their geospatial management or decision-support programs. AV addresses these issues through a partnership between the U.S. Geological Survey and the AmericaView Consortium, which is a 501c3 non-profit comprised of university-led, state-based consortia. AmericaView is the federal government's partner in achieving the program vision and goals, which focus both on making data available in usable, cost-effective formats and on helping the university, secondary-education, and public sectors in each state identify, develop, and implement the kinds of remote sensing applications each state needs most. AV is developing applied remote sensing research programs in each of its thirty StateViews. Partner academic institutions are creating internships programs involving students and faculty with applications development, in cooperation with local, state, and federal government agencies. Education and training outreach programs are improving workforce preparation at K-12, post-secondary, and professional levels. Data distribution and sharing infrastructure that leverages funding and avoids duplication is enabling practical archive expansion and distribution

  7. A Professional Learning Community for the New Teacher Professionalism: The Case of a State-Led Initiative in Singapore Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Daphnee; Lee, Wing On

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore the empirical fit of two PLC models, using Singapore as a case. Insights emerged from documentary analyses and interviews with state-affiliated agents from the Academy of Singapore Teachers. The proposed DuFour--Fullan model, despite policy aspirations, remains largely DuFour-predominant in practice. Aspirations for a…

  8. Initial efforts to develop a national strategy to protect crop wild relatives native or naturalized in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, the call to conserve crop wild relatives has been driven by habitat degradation fueled by exponential population growth. Today, we have a clarion call for action, as historic impetuses are compounded by the forecast of global climate change. In the United States efforts have been movin...

  9. Evaluation of a Statewide Initiative in the United States to Prevent/Reduce Sexual Harassment in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weist, Mark D.; Bryant, Yaphet U.; Dantzler, Joyce; Martin, Saran; D'Amico, Marie; Griffith, Brian; Gallun, Betsy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify best practices in the implementation of school-based sexual violence prevention education. Design/methodology/approach: A three-phase plan was implemented to evaluate the Sexual Harassment/Assault Prevention Project (SHAPP) in one state in the USA. First, a structured review of the prevention…

  10. What We See: A Department of Education's View of a State-Sponsored Urban School Improvement Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reece, Gary T.; Alvarez, Frank R.

    This paper presents the State of New Jersey Board of Education's evaluation of the Operation School Renewal (OSR) Program, a multi-year assistance program involving the urban school districts of Trenton, East Orange, and Neptune Township (New Jersey). Goals included the following: (1) attendance improvement; (2) reduction of disruptive pupil…

  11. 75 FR 79419 - Training and Employment Guidance (TEGL) Letter No. 13-10: Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 State Initial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... Funds to States; Final Rule,'' (75 FR 16988- 17002, April 2, 2010); TEGL No. 6-09, ``Instructions for... funds for training, job search, and relocation allowances. 2. References. The Trade and Globalization... Globalization Adjustment Assistance Act of 2009''; Training and Employment Guidance Letter (TEGL) No....

  12. What Educational Initiatives Contribute to Higher than Expected Achievement in Student Performance for Public Schools in the State of Indiana?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Thomas Allen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the areas of teaching methods, teacher-student relationships, school structure, school-community partnerships or school leadership were significantly embedded in practice and acted as a change agent among school systems that achieve higher than expected results on their state standardized testing…

  13. Correlates and contexts of U.S. injection drug initiation among undocumented Mexican migrant men who were deported from the United States

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Angela M.; Lozada, Remedios; Pollini, Robin A.; Rangel, Gudelia; Ojeda, Victoria D.

    2012-01-01

    Preventing the onset of injection drug use is important in controlling the spread of HIV and other blood borne infections. Undocumented migrants in the United States face social, economic, and legal stressors that may contribute to substance abuse. Little is known about undocumented migrants’ drug abuse trajectories including injection initiation. To examine the correlates and contexts of U.S. injection initiation among undocumented migrants, we administered quantitative surveys (n=309) and qualitative interviews (n=23) on migration and drug abuse experiences to deported male injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana, Mexico. U.S. injection initiation was independently associated with ever using drugs in Mexico pre-migration, younger age at first U.S. migration, and U.S. incarceration. Participants’ qualitative interviews contextualized quantitative findings and demonstrated the significance of social contexts surrounding U.S. injection initiation experiences. HIV prevention programs may prevent/delay U.S. injection initiation by addressing socio-economic and migration-related stressors experienced by undocumented migrants. PMID:22246511

  14. Electronic coupling between photo-excited stacked bases in DNA and RNA strands with emphasis on the bright states initially populated.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Lisbeth Munksgaard; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Nielsen, Steen Brøndsted

    2013-08-01

    In biology the interplay between multiple light-absorbers gives rise to complex quantum effects such as superposition states that are of extreme importance for life, both for harvesting solar energy and likely protecting nucleic acids from radiation damage. Still the characteristics of these states and their quantum dynamics are a much debated issue. While the electronic properties of single bases are fairly well understood, the situation for strands is complicated by the fact that stacked bases electronically couple when photoexcited. These newly arising states are denoted as exciton states and are simply linear combinations of localised wavefunctions that involve N - 1 ground-state bases and one base in its excited state (cf. the Frenkel exciton model). There is disagreement over the number of bases, N, that coherently couple, i.e., the spatial extent of the exciton, and how electronic deexcitation back to the ground state occurs. The importance of dark charge-transfer states has been inferred both from time-resolved fluorescence and transient absorption experiments. These states were suggested to be responsible for long deexcitation times but it is unclear whether 'long' is tens of picoseconds or nanoseconds. In this review paper, we focus on the bright states initially populated and discuss their nature based on information obtained from systematic absorption and circular dichroism experiments on single strands of different lengths. Our results from the last five years are compared with those from other groups, and are discussed in the context of successive deexcitation schemes. Pieces to the puzzle have come from different experiments and theory but a complete description has yet to emerge. As such the story about DNA/RNA photophysical decay mechanisms resembles the tale about the blind men and the elephant where all see the beast in different, correct but incomplete ways. PMID:23545881

  15. Supramolecular cobaloxime assemblies for H{sub 2} photocatalysis: an initial solution state structure-function analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Mulfort, K. L.; Tiede, D. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this report, we have investigated the correlations between structure and light-induced electron transfer of one known and three new axially coordinated cobaloxime-based supramolecular photocatalysts for the reduction of protons to hydrogen. Solution-phase X-ray scattering and ultrafast transient optical spectroscopy analyses were used in tandem to correlate the self-assembled photocatalysts structural integrity in solution with electron transfer and charge separation between the photosensitizer and catalyst fragments. Biphasic excited state decay kinetics were observed for several of the assemblies, suggesting that configurational dispersion plays a role in limiting photoinduced electron transfer. Notably, an assembly featuring a 'push-pull' donor-photosensitizer-acceptor triad motif exhibits considerable ultrafast excited state quenching and, of the assemblies examined, presents the strongest opportunity for efficient solar energy conversion. These results will assist in the design and development of next-generation supramolecular photocatalyst architectures.

  16. State-resolved product detection in the overtone vibration initiated unimolecular decomposition of HOOH(6. nu. /sub OH/)

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, T.R.; Hayden, C.C.; Crim, F.F.

    1984-11-15

    Excitation of reactant overtone vibrations in combination with laser induced fluorescence detection of unimolecular decomposition products permits measurements of reactant vibrational overtone excitation spectra and product state distributions for selectively excited hydrogen peroxide and its partially deuterated analog. The hydrogen peroxide excitation spectrum in the region of the fifth OH overtone vibration (6..nu../sub OH/) shows a pure local mode feature along with several others that are apparently combinations of a local mode vibration with a normal mode vibration. The product state distributions show substantial energy release into rotation with some molecules having rotational excitation approaching the limit of the total energy available. A statistical calculation incorporating conservation of total angular momentum and energy describes the observed distributions quite well for excitation of the pure local mode vibration. The products from excitation of a combination transition are in a distribution of states that differs qualitatively from a statistical outcome, possibly indicating selective energy coupling on the time scale of the unimolecular reaction.

  17. Prediction of maintenance dose required to attain a desired drug concentration at steady-state from a single determination of concentration after an initial dose.

    PubMed

    Slattery, J T; Gibaldi, M; Koup, J R

    1980-01-01

    Strong correlations have been reported between drug concentrations at steady-state and a single drug concentration determined sometime after an initial dose for lithium, nortriptyline, imipramine, desipramine, choramphenicol and theophylline. The mathematical basis of these relationships suggests that a one point method for predicting steady-state drug concentrations and individual dosing requirements should be widely applicable to most drugs and should be valid for patients having a wide range of drug half-lives. A method is presented for evaluating the optimum time of blood sampling to determine a drug concentration in serum of plasma that best correlates with steady-state levels and for defining the range of drug half-lives beyond which the predictive approach is likely to give poor results. PMID:7398172

  18. Development of the Water-Analysis Screening Tool Used in the Initial Screening for the Pennsylvania State Water Plan Update of 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuckey, Marla H.

    2008-01-01

    The Water Resources Planning Act, Act 220 of 2002, requires the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP) to update the State Water Plan by 2008. As part of this update, a water-analysis screening tool (WAST) was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the PaDEP, to provide assistance to the state in the identification of critical water-planning areas. The WAST has two primary inputs: net withdrawals and the initial screening criteria. A comprehensive water-use database that includes data from registration, estimation, discharge monitoring reports, mining data, and other sources was developed as input into the WAST. Water use in the following categories was estimated using water-use factors: residential, industrial, commercial, agriculture, and golf courses. A percentage of the 7-day, 10-year low flow is used for the initial screenings using the WAST to identify potential critical water-planning areas. This quantity, or initial screening criteria, is 50 percent of the 7-day, 10-year low flow for most streams. Using a basic water-balance equation, a screening indicator is calculated that indicates the potential influences of net withdrawals on aquatic-resource uses for watersheds generally larger than 15 square miles. Points representing outlets of these watersheds are colored-coded within the WAST to show the screening criteria for each watershed.

  19. Survival Impact of Increasing Time to Treatment Initiation for Patients With Head and Neck Cancer in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Colin T.; Handorf, Elizabeth A.; Egleston, Brian L.; Wang, Lora S.; Mehra, Ranee; Flieder, Douglas B.; Ridge, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the overall survival (OS) impact from increasing time to treatment initiation (TTI) for patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Methods Using the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB), we examined patients who received curative therapy for the following sites: oral tongue, oropharynx, larynx, and hypopharynx. TTI was the number of days from diagnosis to initiation of curative treatment. The effect of TTI on OS was determined by using Cox regression models (MVA). Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) identified TTI thresholds via conditional inference trees to estimate the greatest differences in OS on the basis of randomly selected training and validation sets, and repeated this 1,000 times to ensure robustness of TTI thresholds. Results A total of 51,655 patients were included. On MVA, TTI of 61 to 90 days versus less than 30 days (hazard ratio [HR], 1.13; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.19) independently increased mortality risk. TTI of 67 days appeared as the optimal threshold on the training RPA, statistical significance was confirmed in the validation set (P < .001), and the 67-day TTI was the optimal threshold in 54% of repeated simulations. Overall, 96% of simulations validated two optimal TTI thresholds, with ranges of 46 to 52 days and 62 to 67 days. The median OS for TTI of 46 to 52 days or fewer versus 53 to 67 days versus greater than 67 days was 71.9 months (95% CI, 70.3 to 73.5 months) versus 61 months (95% CI, 57 to 66.1 months) versus 46.6 months (95% CI, 42.8 to 50.7 months), respectively (P < .001). In the most recent year with available data (2011), 25% of patients had TTI of greater than 46 days. Conclusion TTI independently affects survival. One in four patients experienced treatment delay. TTI of greater than 46 to 52 days introduced an increased risk of death that was most consistently detrimental beyond 60 days. Prolonged TTI is currently affecting survival. PMID:26628469

  20. Unusual initial and final state effects in quantum chromodynamics. Annual progress report, July 15, 1991--December 20, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.A.

    1991-12-01

    We have constructed a number of fundamental tests which can be used to probe discrete symmetries, and their possible violations, in the required ``new physics`` beyond the standard model. On-going experiments with unpolarized e{sup {minus}}e{sup +} collisions contain many events for the production-decay sequence e{sup {minus}}e{sup +} {yields} Z{degrees}, {gamma}* {yields} {tau}{sup {minus}}{tau}{sup +} {yields} (A{sup {minus}X}) (B{sup +}X). From the beam referenced spin-correlation function for this sequence, the photon and Z{degrees} boson couplings of the tau lepton can be completely measured. There are four distinct tests for CP/T violation in Z{degrees} {yields} {tau}{sup {minus}}{tau}{sup +}, and in {gamma}* {yields} {tau}{sup {minus}}{tau}{sup +}. The Lorentz structure of the associated helicity amplitudes is very simple. In other research programs, we are (1) continuing to investigate our proposal that partons be identified with nearly degenerate, coherent quark-gluon ``jet`` states, and are (2) investigating the novel consequences of q-analogue quantization of quantum fields, and of a completeness relation for the q-analogue coherent states.

  1. Flow behavior within the 12-cc Penn State pulsatile pediatric ventricular assist device: an experimental study of the initial design.

    PubMed

    Manning, Keefe B; Wivholm, Brandon D; Yang, Ning; Fontaine, Arnold A; Deutsch, Steven

    2008-06-01

    Planar particle image velocimetry was used to explore the flow behavior of the newly designed 12-cc Penn State pneumatic pediatric assist pump. Wall shear maps complemented the velocity data. Bjork-Shiley Monostrut 17-mm mechanical heart valves were used in the inlet and outlet ports. In comparison with larger Penn State pumps, the 12-cc device is not only smaller but has reduced valve effective orifice areas and more highly angled valve ports. In contrast to results from the larger pumps, the flow field was highly three dimensional during early diastole with poorer penetration by the valve inlet jet. This led to a later start to a "wall washing" rotational pattern. A significant separation region, never before observed, was created upstream of the outlet valve leaflet during late diastole--effectively reducing the area and increasing the pressure drop through the valve. Wall shear maps suggest that regions of low shear might persist throughout the cycle at the bottom of the pump on the outlet side. An attempt to improve the flow field characteristics by exploring different valves, valve orientations and inlet valve angles, systolic/diastolic flow timing, and perhaps a larger outlet valve was planned. PMID:18422800

  2. Altered baseline brain activity with 72 h of simulated microgravity--initial evidence from resting-state fMRI.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yang; Zhang, Jinsong; Huang, Zhiping; Xi, Yibin; Zhang, Qianru; Zhu, Tianli; Liu, Xufeng

    2012-01-01

    To provide the basis and reference to further insights into the neural activity of the human brain in a microgravity environment, we discuss the amplitude changes of low-frequency brain activity fluctuations using a simulated microgravity model. Twelve male participants between 24 and 31 years old received resting-state fMRI scans in both a normal condition and after 72 hours in a -6° head down tilt (HDT). A paired sample t-test was used to test the amplitude differences of low-frequency brain activity fluctuations between these two conditions. With 72 hours in a -6° HDT, the participants showed a decreased amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations in the left thalamus compared with the normal condition (a combined threshold of P<0.005 and a minimum cluster size of 351 mm(3) (13 voxels), which corresponded with the corrected threshold of P<0.05 determined by AlphaSim). Our findings indicate that a gravity change-induced redistribution of body fluid may disrupt the function of the left thalamus in the resting state, which may contribute to reduced motor control abilities and multiple executive functions in astronauts in a microgravity environment. PMID:23285086

  3. The International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group thymic initiative: a state-of-the-art study of thymic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Detterbeck, Frank; Korst, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Thymic malignancies are relatively rare tumors. A general lack of knowledge, misconceptions about benignancy, confusion about the definition of terms, and variability in reporting of outcomes have further hampered progress in these diseases. The International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group has emerged to counter these challenges and has brought together a worldwide multidisciplinary community determined to improve outcomes for these patients. Although the organization is young (initiated in 2010), major early accomplishments have created a foundation and infrastructure for scientific research. These include consensus definitions of terms, an unprecedented global database, development of practical clinical resources and, together with the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, development of proposals for the first formal stage classification of these malignant tumors. Many articles have been published or are under way, and a second phase of projects building on the early success is proceeding. The greatest accomplishment of the International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group lies in the establishment of an open culture of collaboration and the engagement of a broad group of individuals united by a common mission. It is a testament to what can be achieved, despite ongoing and inherent challenges, by determination and a collective effort. PMID:25837546

  4. Republic of Bulgaria Sreden Iskar Cascade hydropower development. Application for participation under the United States Initiative on Joint Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    Interest in water resources and hydropower has been low in Bulgaria for over 20 years and only about 33% of the potential hydropower available to the Country are currently being utilized. This is due in part to past design practices that utilized large reservoirs to regulate runoff and create the necessary head. The Iskar River does not allow for the typical design. However, in recent years, technical advancement in machinery design and more efficient turbine-generators has led to the development of low-head hydro projects. Studies determined that the Iskar Cascade can support low-head hydro development and could provide as much as 93 MW of capacity. This project will initially consist of the construction of three hydroelectric facilities along a 120-km section of the Iskar river in western Bulgaria. Each facility will consist of a powerhouse (housing a turbine and generator), an embankment dam, a concrete spillway with regulating gates, a fish passage, and associated transformers and switchgear. This report gives a description of the project, its sources of funding for specific measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, forecasts of greenhouse gas emissions with and without these specific measures, and other environmental considerations.

  5. Fluorescent lamp recycling initiatives in the United States and a recycling proposal based on extended producer responsibility and product stewardship concepts.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Geraldo Tr; Chang, Shoou-Yuh

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of mercury-containing lamp (MCL) recycling initiatives currently available in the world, especially in the United States. The majority of MCLs contain mercury which is a neurotoxin, a persistent pollutant in the environment, and can bioaccumulate in the food chain. Although there are some recycling options in the United States, collection rates are still at 23% of all potential used MCLs. This shows that citizens are either indifferent to or unaware of the recycling alternatives. On the other hand, MCL recycling seems not to be a cost-effective process and, for this reason, in the United States, take-back programmes are still sponsored only by consumers or municipalities. A few retailers have recently initiated limited take-back alternatives and manufacturers have not yet supported financially any consistent recycling alternative in the country. Considering successful experiences, this paper makes a suggestion for an MCL recycling system based on the concepts of extended producer responsibility and product stewardship. A manufacturer-importer advance recycling fee is proposed to finance the collection and recycling system while a MCL-energy recycling fee supported by the energy sector creates a lamp refund process. 'PRO Lamp', a producer responsibility organization, will manage the entire system through a widespread public-private agreement. PMID:20837557

  6. Continuous detection of the self-initiated walking pre-movement state from EEG correlates without session-to-session recalibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioana Sburlea, Andreea; Montesano, Luis; Minguez, Javier

    2015-06-01

    Objective. Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) as a rehabilitation tool have been used to restore functions in patients with motor impairments by actively involving the central nervous system and triggering prosthetic devices according to the detected pre-movement state. However, since EEG signals are highly variable between subjects and recording sessions, typically a BCI is calibrated at the beginning of each session. This process is inconvenient especially for patients suffering locomotor disabilities in maintaining a bipedal position for a longer time. This paper presents a continuous EEG decoder of a pre-movement state in self-initiated walking and the usage of this decoder from session to session without recalibrating. Approach. Ten healthy subjects performed a self-initiated walking task during three sessions, with an intersession interval of one week. The implementation of our continuous decoder is based on the combination of movement-related cortical potential (MRCP) and event-related desynchronization (ERD) features with sparse classification models. Main results. During intrasession our technique detects the pre-movement state with 70% accuracy. Moreover this decoder can be applied from session to session without recalibration, with a decrease in performance of about 4% on a one- or two-week intersession interval. Significance. Our detection model operates in a continuous manner, which makes it a straightforward asset for rehabilitation scenarios. By using both temporal and spectral information we attained higher detection rates than the ones obtained with the MRCP and ERD detection models, both during the intrasession and intersession conditions.

  7. National Initiatives to Improve Healthcare Outcomes: A Comparative Study of Health Delivery Systems in Slovakia and the United States.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Robert; Caplanova, Anetta; Novak, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    While the United States and Slovakia offer different healthcare delivery systems, each country faces the same challenges of improving the health status of their populations. The authors explore the impact of their respective systems on the health of their populations and compare the health outcomes of both nations. They point out that socioeconomic factors play a far more important role in determining population health outcomes than do the structures of the systems surrounding the care delivery. The authors illustrate this finding through a comparison of the poverty and education levels of a selected minority group from each country in relation to the health outcomes for each population group. The comparison reveals that education is a more influential determinant in a population's health outcomes, than the improved access to care offered by a universal system. PMID:26684681

  8. Assistance to Oil and Gas State Agencies and Industry through Continuation of Environmental and Production Data Management and a Water Regulatory Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Grunewald, Ben; Arthur, Dan; Langhus, Bruce; Gillespie, Tom; Binder, Ben; Warner, Don; Roberts, Jim; Cox, D.O.

    2002-05-31

    This grant project was a major step toward completion of the Risk Based Data Management System (RBDMS) project. Additionally the project addresses the needs identified during the projects initial phases. By implementing this project, the following outcomes were sought: (1) State regulatory agencies implemented more formalized environmental risk management practices as they pertain to the production of oil and gas, and injection via Class II wells. (2) Enhancement of oil and gas production by implementing a management system supporting the saving of abandoned or idle wells located in areas with a relatively low environmental risk of endangering underground sources of drinking water (USDWs) in a particular state. (3) Verification that protection of USDWs is adequate and additional restrictions of requirements are not necessary in areas with a relatively low environmental risk. (4) Standardization of data and information maintained by state regulatory agencies and decrease the regulatory cost burden on producers operating in multiple states, and (5) Development of a system for electronic data transfer among operators and state regulatory agencies and reduction of overall operator reporting burdens.

  9. Reversible Phase Change Characteristics of Cr-Doped Sb2Te3 Films with Different Initial States Induced by Femtosecond Pulses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Jiang, Minghui; Liu, Bo; Wang, Yang; Zheng, Yonghui; Song, Sannian; Wu, Yiqun; Song, Zhitang; Feng, Songlin

    2016-08-17

    As a kind of chalcogenide alloy, phase change material has been widely used as novel storage medium in optical disk or electrical memory. In this paper, femtosecond pulses are used to study the reversible phase transition processes of Cr-doped Sb2Te3 films with different initial states. The SET processes are all induced by multiple pulses and relate to the increase of crystallized partial in the irradiated spot. When the Cr concentration is 5.3 at % or 10.5 at %, the crystallization mechanism is still growth-dominated as Sb2Te3, which is beneficial for high speed and high density storage, whereas the necessary crystallization energy increases with more Cr-dopants, leading to higher amorphous thermal stability. RESET results by multiple pulses show that Cr-dopants will not increase the power consumption, and the increase in Cr-dopants could greatly increase the antioxidant capacity. Single-pulse experiments show that the RESET process involves the competition of melting/amorphization and recrystallization. The reversible SET/RESET results on different initial states are quite different from each other, which is mainly due to the different surroundings around the irradiated spot. Crystalline surroundings provide higher thermal conductivity and lead to easier crystallization, whereas amorphous surroundings were the reverse. All in all, Cr-doped Sb2Te3 films with suitable composition have advantages for storage with high density, better thermal stability, and lower power consumption; and the suitable initial states could ensure better reversible phase transition performances. PMID:27459421

  10. Occurrence of pesticides in shallow groundwater of the United States: initial results from the National Water-Quality Assessment program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolpin, Dana W.; Barbash, Jack E.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    The first phase of intensive data collection for the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) was completed during 1993−1995 in 20 major hydrologic basins of the United States. Groundwater land-use studies, designed to sample recently recharged groundwater (generally within 10 years) beneath specific land-use and hydrogeologic settings, are a major component of the groundwater quality as sessment for NAWQA. Pesticide results from the 41 land-use studies conducted during 1993−1995 indicate that pesticides were commonly detected in shallow groundwater, having been found at 54.4% of the 1034 sites sampled in agricultural and urban settings across the United States. Pesticide concentrations were generally low, with over 95% of the detections at concentrations less than 1 μg/L. Of the 46 pesticide compounds examined, 39 were detected. The compounds detected most frequently were atrazine (38.2%), deethylatrazine (34.2%), simazine (18.0%), metolachlor (14.6%), and prometon (13.9%). Statistically significant relations were observed between frequencies of detection and the use, mobility, and persistence of these compounds. Pesticides were commonly detected in both agricultural (56.4%; 813 sites) and urban (46.6%; 221 sites) settings. Frequent detections of pesticides in urban areas indicate that, as is the case with agricultural pesticide use in agricultural areas, urban and suburban pesticide use significantly contribute to pesticide occurrence in shallow groundwater. Although pesticides were detected in groundwater sampled in urban areas and all nine of the agricultural land-use categories examined, significant variations in occurrence were observed among these categories. Maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water were exceeded for only one pesticide (atrazine, 3 μg/L) at a single location. However, MCLs have been established for only 25 of the 46 pesticide compounds examined, do not cover pesticide

  11. Single electron capture cross sections for protons colliding with neon and methane targets: effects of the initial vibrational state of CH4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera-Trujillo, R.; Hernández, L.; Hernández, E. M.; Hinojosa, G.

    2016-02-01

    The process of neutralization of ions induced by collisions is crucial to understanding the chemical evolution of interstellar gas. However, the role of the initial vibrational state of the target molecule is not completely understood. In this work, we carry out a combined experimental and theoretical study of the vibrational target effects on the single electron charge exchange cross sections for protons colliding with CH4 in the keV energy region. We complement our study by analyzing the single electron capture from the iso-electronic neon atom to discern similarities and differences. For our experimental study, we use the growth-rate method for the determination of the single electron capture cross section on both systems. For the theoretical study, we use an electron-nuclear dynamics approach for the time evolution of the system wave function to find out the final projectile charge state. We report charge exchange probabilities and cross sections for H+ projectiles when colliding on both targets. We find that these ten-electron systems would have an asymptotically similar charge exchange cross section at high collision energies and would differentiate in the intermediate to low collision energies due to the energetics of the valence electrons and initial vibrational state. In the case of the protons colliding with CH4, we find that it is easier to capture an electron from a CH4 target than from the Ne. Furthermore, we find that low vibrational states have a higher contribution to the electron capture cross section as the collision energy is reduced. We stress the importance of taking into account the initial bending and stretching vibrational modes in the study of the electron capture process. For the neon target, the high ionization potential of the valence electrons produces a smaller charge exchange cross section for low proton collision energies when compared to the CH4 target. We report good comparison to available experimental data. We expect our findings

  12. Spectroscopic and theoretical studies on the nucleophilic substitution of 2,3-dichloronaphthoquinone with para-substituted anilines in solid state via initial charge transfer complexation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satheshkumar, Angupillai; Elango, Kuppanagounder P.

    2012-12-01

    Various spectroscopy techniques (UV-Vis, DRS, FT-IR, 1H NMR, LC-MS) and theoretical computations have been employed to investigate the mechanism of the nucleophilic substitution reaction of 2,3-dichloronaphthoquinone (DCNQ) with para-substituted anilines in solid state under base- and solvent-free conditions against traditional synthetic routes. The initial formations of electron donor acceptor (EDA) adduct between DCNQ and aniline was found to be the driving force for the substitution reaction to occur in solid phase.

  13. Initial growth of leguminous trees and shrubs in a cut gold mined area in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Dias, L.E.; Campello, E.F.C.; Ribeiro, E.S. Jr.; Mello, J.W.V.

    1999-07-01

    In an opencast gold mining in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, leguminous trees and shrubs were used to revegetate an acid cut mined area. the substrate was high in pyrite content (3%) and received 50 cm of covered material in two layers: (1) insulating layer of 20 cm where clay or a mining refuse (MR) was used to prevent the pyrite oxidation, and (2) an upper layer with 30 cm formed by topsoil or topsoil + urban compost (3:1 v/v). After the application of the cover materials, planting holes were manually made spaced by 1 x 1 m. Each hole received limestone (100 g), rock phosphate (150 g), potassium chloride (45 g) and cattle manure (2 L). Fifteen leguminous species were planted an each plot (15 x 8 m), spaced by 1.0 x 1.0 m (one specie per row). Sixteen months after the planting the plants were evaluated and the results showed an effect of substrate on the plants survival, height, and diameter. The use of clay as insulating layer was better than mining refuse and the plants did not respond to the addition of urban compost to the topsoil. Among the evaluated species, Thephrosia sinapau, Erytrina verna, Dipterix alata and Stryphnodenadrum guyanensis showed a mortality rate of 100% after 16 months while Sesbania marginata, Acacaia holosericea, Mimosa pellita, Acacia crassicarpa, Acacia mangium and Acacia angustissima exhibited more adaptation capacity to the acid substrate. Analyses from the substrate showed higher exchangeable acidity (Al{sup 3+}) for the plots receiving MR as insulating layer. This study has applications for the acid mine drainage from coal mines of Brazil.

  14. Measurements of e+e-→K+K-η, K+K-π0, and Ks0K±π∓ cross sections using initial state radiation events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Boutigny, D.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Tico, J. Garra; Grauges, E.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G. S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Button-Shafer, J.; Cahn, R. N.; Groysman, Y.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kadyk, J. A.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kukartsev, G.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Lynch, G.; Mir, L. M.; Orimoto, T. J.; Osipenkov, I. L.; Ronan, M. T.; Tackmann, K.; Tanabe, T.; Wenzel, W. A.; Del Amo Sanchez, P.; Hawkes, C. M.; Watson, A. T.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Walker, D.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T.; Fulsom, B. G.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Barrett, M.; Khan, A.; Saleem, M.; Teodorescu, L.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Bondioli, M.; Curry, S.; Eschrich, I.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Lund, P.; Mandelkern, M.; Martin, E. C.; Stoker, D. P.; Abachi, S.; Buchanan, C.; Gary, J. W.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Shen, B. C.; Vitug, G. M.; Zhang, L.; Paar, H. P.; Rahatlou, S.; Sharma, V.; Berryhill, J. W.; Campagnari, C.; Cunha, A.; Dahmes, B.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Richman, J. D.; Beck, T. W.; Eisner, A. M.; Flacco, C. J.; Heusch, C. A.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Schalk, T.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Wilson, M. G.; Winstrom, L. O.; Chen, E.; Cheng, C. H.; Fang, F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Narsky, I.; Piatenko, T.; Porter, F. C.; Andreassen, R.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Mishra, K.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Blanc, F.; Bloom, P. C.; Chen, S.; Ford, W. T.; Hirschauer, J. F.; Kreisel, A.; Nagel, M.; Nauenberg, U.; Olivas, A.; Smith, J. G.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Zhang, J.; Gabareen, A. M.; Soffer, A.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Winklmeier, F.; Altenburg, D. D.; Feltresi, E.; Hauke, A.; Jasper, H.; Merkel, J.; Petzold, A.; Spaan, B.; Wacker, K.; Klose, V.; Kobel, M. J.; Lacker, H. M.; Mader, W. F.; Nogowski, R.; Schubert, J.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Sundermann, J. E.; Volk, A.; Bernard, D.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Latour, E.; Lombardo, V.; Thiebaux, Ch.; Verderi, M.; Clark, P. J.; Gradl, W.; Muheim, F.; Playfer, S.; Robertson, A. I.; Watson, J. E.; Xie, Y.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Franchini, P.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Prencipe, E.; Santoro, V.; Anulli, F.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Buzzo, A.; Contri, R.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macri, M. M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Santroni, A.; Tosi, S.; Chaisanguanthum, K. S.; Morii, M.; Wu, J.; Dubitzky, R. S.; Marks, J.; Schenk, S.; Uwer, U.; Bard, D. J.; Dauncey, P. D.; Flack, R. L.; Nash, J. A.; Panduro Vazquez, W.; Tibbetts, M.; Behera, P. K.; Chai, X.; Charles, M. J.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Dong, L.; Eyges, V.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rubin, A. E.; Gao, Y. Y.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Lae, C. K.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Schott, G.; Arnaud, N.; Béquilleux, J.; D'Orazio, A.; Davier, M.; Grosdidier, G.; Höcker, A.; Lepeltier, V.; Le Diberder, F.; Lutz, A. M.; Pruvot, S.; Rodier, S.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Serrano, J.; Sordini, V.; Stocchi, A.; Wang, L.; Wang, W. F.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Bingham, I.; Burke, J. P.; Chavez, C. A.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Schofield, K. C.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; George, K. A.; di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Cowan, G.; Flaecher, H. U.; Hopkins, D. A.; Paramesvaran, S.; Salvatore, F.; Wren, A. C.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Allison, J.; Barlow, N. R.; Barlow, R. J.; Chia, Y. M.; Edgar, C. L.; Lafferty, G. D.; West, T. J.; Yi, J. I.; Anderson, J.; Chen, C.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Simi, G.; Tuggle, J. M.; Dallapiccola, C.; Hertzbach, S. S.; Li, X.; Moore, T. B.; Salvati, E.; Saremi, S.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Fisher, P. H.; Koeneke, K.; Sciolla, G.; Spitznagel, M.; Taylor, F.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Zhao, M.; Zheng, Y.; McLachlin, S. E.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Lazzaro, A.; Palombo, F.; Bauer, J. M.; Cremaldi, L.; Eschenburg, V.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Sanders, D. A.; Summers, D. J.; Zhao, H. W.; Brunet, S.; Côté, D.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; Viaud, F. B.; Nicholson, H.; de Nardo, G.; Fabozzi, F.; Lista, L.; Monorchio, D.; Sciacca, C.; Baak, M. A.; Raven, G.; Snoek, H. L.; Jessop, C. P.; Knoepfel, K. J.; Losecco, J. M.; Benelli, G.; Corwin, L. A.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Morris, J. P.; Rahimi, A. M.; Regensburger, J. J.; Sekula, S. J.; Wong, Q. K.; Blount, N. L.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Igonkina, O.; Kolb, J. A.; Lu, M.; Rahmat, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Strube, J.; Torrence, E.; Gagliardi, N.; Gaz, A.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Pompili, A.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Voci, C.; Ben-Haim, E.; Briand, H.; Calderini, G.; Chauveau, J.; David, P.; Del Buono, L.; de La Vaissière, Ch.; Hamon, O.; Leruste, Ph.; Malclès, J.; Ocariz, J.; Perez, A.; Prendki, J.; Gladney, L.; Biasini, M.; Covarelli, R.; Manoni, E.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Carpinelli, M.; Cenci, R.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Mazur, M. A.; Morganti, M.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Biesiada, J.; Elmer, P.; Lau, Y. P.; Lu, C.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Baracchini, E.; Bellini, F.; Cavoto, G.; Del Re, D.; di Marco, E.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Jackson, P. D.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Morganti, S.; Piredda, G.; Polci, F.; Renga, F.; Voena, C.; Ebert, M.; Hartmann, T.; Schröder, H.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Castelli, G.; Franek, B.; Olaiya, E. O.; Roethel, W.; Wilson, F. F.; Emery, S.; Escalier, M.; Gaidot, A.; Ganzhur, S. F.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Kozanecki, W.; Vasseur, G.; Yèche, Ch.; Zito, M.; Chen, X. R.; Liu, H.; Park, W.; Purohit, M. V.; White, R. M.; Wilson, J. R.; Allen, M. T.; Aston, D.; Bartoldus, R.; Bechtle, P.; Claus, R.; Coleman, J. P.; Convery, M. R.; Dingfelder, J. C.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dunwoodie, W.; Field, R. C.; Glanzman, T.; Gowdy, S. J.; Graham, M. T.; Grenier, P.; Hast, C.; Innes, W. R.; Kaminski, J.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, H.; Kim, P.; Kocian, M. L.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Li, S.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Marsiske, H.; Messner, R.; Muller, D. R.; Nelson, S.; O'Grady, C. P.; Ofte, I.; Perazzo, A.; Perl, M.; Pulliam, T.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schindler, R. H.; Schwiening, J.; Snyder, A.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Suzuki, K.; Swain, S. K.; Thompson, J. M.; Va'Vra, J.; Wagner, A. P.; Weaver, M.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wright, D. H.; Yarritu, A. K.; Yi, K.; Young, C. C.; Ziegler, V.; Burchat, P. R.; Edwards, A. J.; Majewski, S. A.; Miyashita, T. S.; Petersen, B. A.; Wilden, L.; Ahmed, S.; Alam, M. S.; Bula, R.; Ernst, J. A.; Pan, B.; Saeed, M. A.; Wappler, F. R.; Zain, S. B.; Spanier, S. M.; Wogsland, B. J.; Eckmann, R.; Ritchie, J. L.; Ruland, A. M.; Schilling, C. J.; Schwitters, R. F.; Izen, J. M.; Lou, X. C.; Ye, S.; Bianchi, F.; Gallo, F.; Gamba, D.; Pelliccioni, M.; Bomben, M.; Bosisio, L.; Cartaro, C.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Azzolini, V.; Lopez-March, N.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Milanes, D. A.; Oyanguren, A.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bhuyan, B.; Hamano, K.; Kowalewski, R.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Sobie, R. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Ilic, J.; Latham, T. E.; Mohanty, G. B.; Band, H. R.; Chen, X.; Dasu, S.; Flood, K. T.; Hollar, J. J.; Kutter, P. E.; Pan, Y.; Pierini, M.; Prepost, R.; Wu, S. L.; Neal, H.

    2008-05-01

    This paper reports measurements of processes: e+e-→γKS0K±π∓, e+e-→γK+K-π0, e+e-→γϕη, and e+e-→γϕπ0. The initial-state radiated photon allows to cover the hadronic final state in the energy range from thresholds up to ≈4.6GeV. The overall size of the data sample analyzed is 232fb-1, collected by the BABAR detector running at the PEP-II e+e- storage ring. From the Dalitz plot analysis of the KS0K±π∓ final state, moduli, and relative phase of the isoscalar and the isovector components of the e+e-→KK*(892) cross section are determined. Parameters of ϕ and ρ recurrences are also measured, using a global fitting procedure which exploits the interconnection among amplitudes, moduli, and phases of the e+e-→KS0K±π∓, K+K-π0, ϕη final states. The cross section for the OZI-forbidden process e+e-→ϕπ0, and the J/ψ branching fractions to KK*(892) and K+K-η are also measured.

  15. Characteristics of federally licensed firearms retailers and retail establishments in the United States: initial findings from the firearms licensee survey.

    PubMed

    Wintemute, Garen J

    2013-02-01

    Firearms have widely supported legitimate purposes but are also frequently used in violent crimes. Owners and senior executives of federally licensed firearms dealers and pawnbrokers are a potentially valuable source of information on retail commerce in firearms, links between legal and illegal commerce, and policies designed to prevent the firearms they sell from being used in crimes. To our knowledge, there has been no prior effort to gather such information. In 2011, we conducted the Firearms Licensee Survey on a probability sample of 1,601 licensed dealers and pawnbrokers in the United States believed to sell 50 or more firearms per year. This article presents details of the design and execution of the survey and describes the characteristics of the respondents and their business establishments. The survey was conducted by mail, using methods developed by Dillman and others. Our response rate was 36.9 % (591 respondents), similar to that for other establishment surveys using similar methods. Respondents had a median age of 54; 89 % were male, 97.6 % were White, and 98.1 % were non-Hispanic. Those who held licenses under their own names had been licensed for a median of 18 years. A large majority of 96.3 % agreed that "private ownership of guns is essential for a free society"; just over half (54.9 %) believed that "it is too easy for criminals to get guns in this country." A match between the job and a personal interest in the shooting sports was the highest-ranking reason for working as a firearms retailer; the highest-ranking concerns were that "there are too many 'gun control' regulations" and that "the government might confiscate my guns." Most respondents (64.3 %) were gun dealers, with significant variation by region. Residential dealers accounted for 25.6 % of all dealers in the Midwest. Median annual sales volume was 200 firearms for both dealers and pawnbrokers. Dealers appeared more likely than pawnbrokers to specialize; they were more likely

  16. Electromagnetic probes of a pure-glue initial state in nucleus-nucleus collisions at energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vovchenko, V.; Karpenko, Iu. A.; Gorenstein, M. I.; Satarov, L. M.; Mishustin, I. N.; Kämpfer, B.; Stoecker, H.

    2016-08-01

    Partonic matter produced in the early stage of ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is assumed to be composed mainly of gluons, and quarks and antiquarks are produced at later times. To study the implications of such a scenario, the dynamical evolution of a chemically nonequilibrated system is described by ideal (2+1)-dimensional hydrodynamics with a time dependent (anti)quark fugacity. The equation of state interpolates linearly between the lattice data for the pure gluonic matter and the lattice data for the chemically equilibrated quark-gluon plasma. The spectra and elliptic flows of thermal dileptons and photons are calculated for central Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider energy of √{sN N}=2.76 TeV. We test the sensitivity of the results to the choice of equilibration time, including also the case where the complete chemical equilibrium of partons is reached already at the initial stage. It is shown that a suppression of quarks at early times leads to a significant reduction of the yield of the thermal dileptons, but only to a rather modest suppression of the pT distribution of direct photons. It is demonstrated that an enhancement of photon and dilepton elliptic flows might serve as a promising signature of the pure-glue initial state.

  17. Initial results from the NASA Lewis Bumpy Torus experiment. [of steady-state ion heating method based on modified Penning discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.; Richardson, R. W.; Gerdin, G. A.

    1973-01-01

    Initial results were obtained from low power operation of the NASA Lewis Bumpy Torus experiment, in which a steady-state ion heating method based on the modified Penning discharge is applied in a bumpy torus confinement geometry. The magnet facility consists of 12 superconducting coils, each 19 cm i.d. and capable of 3.0 T, equally spaced in a toroidal array 1.52 m in major diameter. A 18 cm i.d. anode ring is located at each of the 12 midplanes and is maintained at high positive potentials by a dc power supply. Initial observations indicate electron temperatures from 10 to 150 eV, and ion kinetic temperatures from 200 eV to 1200 eV. Two modes of operation were observed, which depend on background pressure, and have different radial density profiles. Steady state neutron production was observed. The ion heating process in the bumpy torus appears to parallel closely the mechanism observed when the modified Penning discharge was operated in a simple magnetic mirror field.

  18. Initialize and Weak-Program Erasing Scheme for High-Performance and High-Reliability Ferroelectric NAND Flash Solid-State Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyaji, Kousuke; Yajima, Ryoji; Hatanaka, Teruyoshi; Takahashi, Mitsue; Sakai, Shigeki; Takeuchi, Ken

    Initialize and weak-program erasing scheme is proposed to achieve high-performance and high-reliability Ferroelectric (Fe-) NAND flash solid-state drive (SSD). Bit-by-bit erase VTH control is achieved by the proposed erasing scheme and history effects in Fe-NAND is also suppressed. History effects change the future erase VTH shift characteristics by the past program voltage. The proposed erasing scheme decreases VTH shift variation due to history effects from ±40% to ±2% and the erase VTH distribution width is reduced from over 0.4V to 0.045V. As a result, the read and VPASS disturbance decrease by 42% and 37%, respectively. The proposed erasing scheme is immune to VTH variations and voltage stress. The proposed erasing scheme also suppresses the power and bandwidth degradation of SSD.

  19. Measurement of the e+e- → π+π- cross section between 600 and 900 MeV using initial state radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; De Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Eren, E. E.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. Y.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, X. Q.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kühn, W.; Kupsc, A.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. M.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales Morales, C.; Moriya, K.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Santoro, V.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrié, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Song, W. M.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.

    2016-02-01

    We extract the e+e- →π+π- cross section in the energy range between 600 and 900 MeV, exploiting the method of initial state radiation. A data set with an integrated luminosity of 2.93 fb-1 taken at a center-of-mass energy of 3.773 GeV with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII collider is used. The cross section is measured with a systematic uncertainty of 0.9%. We extract the pion form factor |Fπ | 2 as well as the contribution of the measured cross section to the leading-order hadronic vacuum polarization contribution to (g - 2) μ. We find this value to be aμππ, LO (600- 900MeV) = (368.2 ±2.5stat ±3.3sys) ṡ10-10, which is between the corresponding values using the BaBar or KLOE data.

  20. Precise measurement of the e+e- --> pi+pi-(gamma) cross section with the initial state radiation method at BABAR.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prencipe, E; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Garra Tico, J; Grauges, E; Martinelli, M; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Hooberman, B; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Lynch, G; Osipenkov, I L; Tackmann, K; Tanabe, T; Hawkes, C M; Soni, N; Watson, A T; Koch, H; Schroeder, T; Asgeirsson, D J; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Barrett, M; Khan, A; Randle-Conde, A; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Buzykaev, A R; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Atmacan, H; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Vitug, G M; Yasin, Z; Sharma, V; Campagnari, C; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Martinez, A J; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Wang, L; Winstrom, L O; Cheng, C H; Doll, D A; Echenard, B; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Ongmongkolkul, P; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Bloom, P C; Ford, W T; Gaz, A; Hirschauer, J F; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Smith, J G; Wagner, S R; Ayad, R; Toki, W H; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Karbach, T M; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Kobel, M J; Nogowski, R; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Bernard, D; Latour, E; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Playfer, S; Watson, J E; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Fioravanti, E; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Munerato, M; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Santoro, V; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Contri, R; Guido, E; Lo Vetere, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Tosi, S; Morii, M; Adametz, A; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bernlochner, F U; Lacker, H M; Lueck, T; Volk, A; Dauncey, P D; Tibbetts, M; Behera, P K; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gao, Y Y; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Arnaud, N; D'Orazio, A; Davier, M; Derkach, D; Firmino da Costa, J; Grosdidier, G; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Malaescu, B; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wang, L L; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bingham, I; Burke, J P; Chavez, C A; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Clarke, C K; Di Lodovico, F; Sacco, R; Sigamani, M; Cowan, G; Paramesvaran, S; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Fritsch, M; Gradl, W; Hafner, A; Alwyn, K E; Bailey, D; Barlow, R J; Jackson, G; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Dallapiccola, C; Salvati, E; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Fisher, P H; Henderson, S W; Sciolla, G; Spitznagel, M; Yamamoto, R K; Zhao, M; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Schram, M; Biassoni, P; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Stracka, S; Cremaldi, L; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sonnek, P; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Nguyen, X; Simard, M; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, G; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Onorato, G; Sciacca, C; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Knoepfel, K J; LoSecco, J M; Wang, W F; Corwin, L A; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Sekula, S J; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Castelli, G; Gagliardi, N; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; del Amo Sanchez, P; Ben-Haim, E; Bonneaud, G R; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Marchiori, G; Ocariz, J; Perez, A; Prendki, J; Sitt, S; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Lopes Pegna, D; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Anulli, F; Baracchini, E; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P D; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Renga, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Hartmann, T; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Emery, S; Esteve, L; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bard, D J; Bartoldus, R; Benitez, J F; Cenci, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Franco Sevilla, M; Fulsom, B G; Gabareen, A M; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Innes, W R; Kaminski, J; Kelsey, M H; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Lindquist, B; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; Neal, H; Nelson, S; O'Grady, C P; Ofte, I; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; West, C A; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Wulsin, H W; Yarritu, A K; Young, C C; Ziegler, V; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; White, R M; Wilson, J R; Bellis, M; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Miyashita, T S; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Zain, S B; Soffer, A; Spanier, S M; Wogsland, B J; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Wray, B C; Drummond, B W; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Bianchi, F; Gamba, D; Pelliccioni, M; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martinez-Vidal, F; Milanes, D A; Oyanguren, A; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Choi, H H F; Hamano, K; King, G J; Kowalewski, R; Lewczuk, M J; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Gershon, T J; Harrison, P F; Ilic, J; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Puccio, E M T; Band, H R; Chen, X; Dasu, S; Flood, K T; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Vuosalo, C O; Wu, S L

    2009-12-01

    A precise measurement of the cross section of the process e(+)e(-) --> pi(+)pi(-)(gamma) from threshold to an energy of 3 GeV is obtained with the initial state radiation (ISR) method using 232 fb(-1) of data collected with the BABAR detector at e(+)e(-) center-of-mass energies near 10.6 GeV. The ISR luminosity is determined from a study of the leptonic process e(+)e(-) --> mu(+)mu(-)gamma(gamma). The leading-order hadronic contribution to the muon magnetic anomaly calculated using the pipi cross section measured from threshold to 1.8 GeV is (514.1 +/- 2.2(stat) +/- 3.1(syst)) x 10(-10). PMID:20366141

  1. Precise Measurement of the e+e-→π+π-(γ) Cross Section with the Initial State Radiation Method at BABAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, B.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Hooberman, B.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I. L.; Tackmann, K.; Tanabe, T.; Hawkes, C. M.; Soni, N.; Watson, A. T.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Barrett, M.; Khan, A.; Randle-Conde, A.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Bondioli, M.; Curry, S.; Eschrich, I.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Lund, P.; Mandelkern, M.; Martin, E. C.; Stoker, D. P.; Atmacan, H.; Gary, J. W.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Vitug, G. M.; Yasin, Z.; Sharma, V.; Campagnari, C.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Mazur, M. A.; Richman, J. D.; Beck, T. W.; Eisner, A. M.; Heusch, C. A.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Schalk, T.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Wang, L.; Winstrom, L. O.; Cheng, C. H.; Doll, D. A.; Echenard, B.; Fang, F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Narsky, I.; Ongmongkolkul, P.; Piatenko, T.; Porter, F. C.; Andreassen, R.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Mishra, K.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Bloom, P. C.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Hirschauer, J. F.; Nagel, M.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, S. R.; Ayad, R.; Toki, W. H.; Feltresi, E.; Hauke, A.; Jasper, H.; Karbach, T. M.; Merkel, J.; Petzold, A.; Spaan, B.; Wacker, K.; Kobel, M. J.; Nogowski, R.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Bernard, D.; Latour, E.; Verderi, M.; Clark, P. J.; Playfer, S.; Watson, J. E.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Franchini, P.; Luppi, E.; Munerato, M.; Negrini, M.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Contri, R.; Guido, E.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Morii, M.; Adametz, A.; Marks, J.; Schenk, S.; Uwer, U.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Lacker, H. M.; Lueck, T.; Volk, A.; Dauncey, P. D.; Tibbetts, M.; Behera, P. K.; Charles, M. J.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Dong, L.; Eyges, V.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rubin, A. E.; Gao, Y. Y.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Arnaud, N.; D'Orazio, A.; Davier, M.; Derkach, D.; Firmino da Costa, J.; Grosdidier, G.; Le Diberder, F.; Lepeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.; Malaescu, B.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Serrano, J.; Sordini, V.; Stocchi, A.; Wang, L. L.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Bingham, I.; Burke, J. P.; Chavez, C. A.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; Clarke, C. K.; di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Sigamani, M.; Cowan, G.; Paramesvaran, S.; Wren, A. C.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Hafner, A.; Alwyn, K. E.; Bailey, D.; Barlow, R. J.; Jackson, G.; Lafferty, G. D.; West, T. J.; Yi, J. I.; Anderson, J.; Chen, C.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Simi, G.; Tuggle, J. M.; Dallapiccola, C.; Salvati, E.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Fisher, P. H.; Henderson, S. W.; Sciolla, G.; Spitznagel, M.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Zhao, M.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Schram, M.; Biassoni, P.; Lazzaro, A.; Lombardo, V.; Palombo, F.; Stracka, S.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Sonnek, P.; Summers, D. J.; Zhao, H. W.; Nguyen, X.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; Nicholson, H.; de Nardo, G.; Lista, L.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Sciacca, C.; Raven, G.; Snoek, H. L.; Jessop, C. P.; Knoepfel, K. J.; Losecco, J. M.; Wang, W. F.; Corwin, L. A.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Morris, J. P.; Rahimi, A. M.; Sekula, S. J.; Blount, N. L.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Igonkina, O.; Kolb, J. A.; Lu, M.; Rahmat, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Strube, J.; Torrence, E.; Castelli, G.; Gagliardi, N.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Voci, C.; Del Amo Sanchez, P.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Briand, H.; Chauveau, J.; Hamon, O.; Leruste, Ph.; Marchiori, G.; Ocariz, J.; Perez, A.; Prendki, J.; Sitt, S.; Gladney, L.; Biasini, M.; Manoni, E.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Morganti, M.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Lu, C.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Anulli, F.; Baracchini, E.; Cavoto, G.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Jackson, P. D.; Li Gioi, L.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Morganti, S.; Piredda, G.; Renga, F.; Voena, C.; Ebert, M.; Hartmann, T.; Schröder, H.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Franek, B.; Olaiya, E. O.; Wilson, F. F.; Emery, S.; Esteve, L.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Kozanecki, W.; Vasseur, G.; Yèche, Ch.; Zito, M.; Allen, M. T.; Aston, D.; Bard, D. J.; Bartoldus, R.; Benitez, J. F.; Cenci, R.; Coleman, J. P.; Convery, M. R.; Dingfelder, J. C.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dunwoodie, W.; Field, R. C.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gabareen, A. M.; Graham, M. T.; Grenier, P.; Hast, C.; Innes, W. R.; Kaminski, J.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, H.; Kim, P.; Kocian, M. L.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Li, S.; Lindquist, B.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Marsiske, H.; Messner, R.; Muller, D. R.; Neal, H.; Nelson, S.; O'Grady, C. P.; Ofte, I.; Perl, M.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schindler, R. H.; Schwiening, J.; Snyder, A.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Suzuki, K.; Swain, S. K.; Thompson, J. M.; Va'Vra, J.; Wagner, A. P.; Weaver, M.; West, C. A.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wright, D. H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Yarritu, A. K.; Young, C. C.; Ziegler, V.; Chen, X. R.; Liu, H.; Park, W.; Purohit, M. V.; White, R. M.; Wilson, J. R.; Bellis, M.; Burchat, P. R.; Edwards, A. J.; Miyashita, T. S.; Ahmed, S.; Alam, M. S.; Ernst, J. A.; Pan, B.; Saeed, M. A.; Zain, S. B.; Soffer, A.; Spanier, S. M.; Wogsland, B. J.; Eckmann, R.; Ritchie, J. L.; Ruland, A. M.; Schilling, C. J.; Schwitters, R. F.; Wray, B. C.; Drummond, B. W.; Izen, J. M.; Lou, X. C.; Bianchi, F.; Gamba, D.; Pelliccioni, M.; Bomben, M.; Bosisio, L.; Cartaro, C.; Della Ricca, G.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Azzolini, V.; Lopez-March, N.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Milanes, D. A.; Oyanguren, A.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bhuyan, B.; Choi, H. H. F.; Hamano, K.; King, G. J.; Kowalewski, R.; Lewczuk, M. J.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Sobie, R. J.; Gershon, T. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Ilic, J.; Latham, T. E.; Mohanty, G. B.; Puccio, E. M. T.; Band, H. R.; Chen, X.; Dasu, S.; Flood, K. T.; Pan, Y.; Prepost, R.; Vuosalo, C. O.; Wu, S. L.

    2009-12-01

    A precise measurement of the cross section of the process e+e-→π+π-(γ) from threshold to an energy of 3 GeV is obtained with the initial state radiation (ISR) method using 232fb-1 of data collected with the BABAR detector at e+e- center-of-mass energies near 10.6 GeV. The ISR luminosity is determined from a study of the leptonic process e+e-→μ+μ-γ(γ). The leading-order hadronic contribution to the muon magnetic anomaly calculated using the ππ cross section measured from threshold to 1.8 GeV is (514.1±2.2(stat)±3.1(syst))×10-10.

  2. Microdrill Initiative - Initial Market Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Spears & Associates, Inc

    2003-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is launching a major research and development initiative to create a small, fast, inexpensive and environmentally friendly rig for drilling 5000 feet boreholes to investigate potential oil and gas reservoirs. DOE wishes to get input from petroleum industry operators, service companies and equipment suppliers on the operation and application of this coiled-tubing-based drilling unit. To that end, DOE has asked Spears & Associates, Inc. (SAI) to prepare a special state-of-the-market report and assist during a DOE-sponsored project-scoping workshop in Albuquerque near the end of April 2003. The scope of the project is four-fold: (1) Evaluate the history, status and future of demand for very small bore-hole drilling; (2) Measure the market for coiled tubing drilling and describe the state-of-the-art; (3) Identify companies and individuals who should have an interest in micro drilling and invite them to the DOE workshop; and (4) Participate in 3 concurrent workshop sessions, record and evaluate participant comments and report workshop conclusions.

  3. A Structure at 2175 MeV in e+e- to \\phif_0(980) Observed via Initial-State Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.

    2006-10-17

    We study the initial-state-radiation processes e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{gamma} and e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma} using an integrated luminosity of 232 fb{sup -1} collected at the {Upsilon}(4S) mass with the BABAR detector at SLAC. Even though these reactions are dominated by intermediate states with excited kaons, we are able to study for the first time the cross section for e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} {phi}(1020)f{sub 0}(980) as a function of center-of-mass energy. We observe a structure near threshold consistent with a 1{sup --} resonance with mass m=2.175 {+-} 0.010 {+-} 0.015 GeV/c{sup 2} and width {Lambda} = 58 {+-} 16 {+-} 20 MeV. We observe no Y (4260) signal and set a limit of {Beta}{sub Y{yields}{phi}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}} {center_dot} {Lambda}{sub ee}{sup Y} < 0.4 eV (90% confidence level), which excludes some models.

  4. The HNCO heat of formation and the N{endash}H and C{endash}N bond enthalpies from initial state selected photodissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.S.; Berghout, H.L.; Crim, F.F.

    1996-11-01

    We measure upper limits for the bond enthalpies of the N{endash}H and C{endash}N bonds in HNCO by observation of photodissociation appearance thresholds for the NCO ({ital X}{sup 2}{Pi}) and NH ({ital a}{sup 1}{Delta}) fragments from initially selected HNCO vibrational states. The upper limit of the dissociation energy of the H{endash}N bond is {ital D}{sub 0}(H{endash}NCO){le}109.6{plus_minus}0.4 kcal/mol and that of the N{endash}C bond is {ital D}{sub 0} (HN{endash}CO){le}122.1{plus_minus}0.3 kcal/mol. Observation of unrelaxed fragment quantum state distributions at fixed energies supports the bond enthalpy measurement. The two appearance thresholds, together with known heats of formation of NH, NCO, H, and CO, provide two independent methods of calculating the HNCO heat of formation. Both methods give a value of {Delta}H{sub {ital f}{sub 0}}{sup 0} (HNCO){ge}{minus}27.7{plus_minus}1.1 kcal/mol. The consistency of the two methods for calculating {Delta}H{sub {ital f}{sub 0}}{sup 0} (HNCO) suggests that the actual bond enthalpies for the N{endash}H and C{endash}N bonds are close to the upper limits from the measurement. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Distributions of intramolecular distances in the reduced and denatured states of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A. Folding initiation structures in the C-terminal portions of the reduced protein.

    PubMed

    Navon, A; Ittah, V; Landsman, P; Scheraga, H A; Haas, E

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to characterize the reduced state of RNase A (r-RNase A) in terms of (i) intramolecular distances, (ii) the sequence of formation of stable loops in the initial stages of folding, and (iii) the unfolding transitions induced by GdnHCl. This is accomplished by identifying specific subdomain structures and local and long-range interactions that direct the folding process of this protein and lead to the native fold and formation of the disulfide bonds. Eleven pairs of dispersed sites in the RNase A molecule were labeled with fluorescent donor and acceptor probes, and the distributions of intramolecular distances (IDDs) were determined by means of time-resolved dynamic nonradiative excitation energy transfer (TR-FRET) measurements. The mutants were designed to search for (a) a possible nonrandom fold of the backbone in the collapsed state and (b) possible loops stabilized by long-range interactions. It was found that, under folding conditions, (i) the labeled mutants of r-RNase A in refolding buffer (the R(N) state) exhibit features of specific (nonrandom) compact but very dispersed subdomain structures (indicated by short mean distances, broad IDDs, and a weak dependence of the mean distances on segment length), (ii) the backbone fold in the C-terminal beta-like portion of the molecule appears to adopt a native-like overall fold, (iii) the N-terminal alpha-like portion of the chain is separated from the C-terminal core by very large intramolecular distances, larger than those in the crystal structure, and (iv) perturbations by addition of GdnHCl reveal several conformational transitions in different sections of the chain. Addition of GdnHCl to the native disulfide-intact protein provided a reference state for the extent of expansion of intramolecular distances under denaturing conditions. In conclusion, r-RNase A under folding conditions (the R(N) state) is poised for the final folding step(s) with a native-like trace of the chain

  6. Evaluating the Quality of Colorectal Cancer Care in the State of Florida: Results From the Florida Initiative for Quality Cancer Care

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Erin M.; Jacobsen, Paul B.; Malafa, Mokenge; Fulp, William; Fletcher, Michelle; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Smith, Jesusa Corazon R.; Brown, Richard; Levine, Richard; Cartwright, Thomas; Abesada-Terk, Guillermo; Kim, George; Alemany, Carlos; Faig, Douglas; Sharp, Philip; Markham, Merry-Jennifer; Shibata, David

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The Florida Initiative for Quality Cancer Care (FIQCC) was established to evaluate the quality of cancer care at the regional level across the state of Florida. This study assessed adherence to validated quality indicators in colorectal cancer (CRC) and the variability in adherence by practice site, volume, and patient age. Methods: The FIQCC is a consortium of 11 medical oncology practices in Florida. Medical record reviews were conducted for 507 patients diagnosed with CRC and seen as new medical oncology patients in 2006. Thirty-five indicators were evaluated individually and categorized across clinical domains and components of care. Results: The mean adherence for 19 of 35 individual indicators was > 85%. Pathology reports were compliant on reporting depth of tumor invasion (96%; range, 86% to 100%), grade (93%; range, 72% to 100%), and status of proximal and distal surgical resection margins (97%; range. 86% to 100%); however, documentation of lymphovascular and perineural invasion did not meet adherence standards (76%; range, 53% to 100% and 39%; range, 5% to 83%, respectively). Among patients with nonmetastatic rectal cancer, documentation of the status of surgical radial margins was consistently low across sites (42%; range, 0% to 100%; P = .19). Documentation of planned treatment regimens for adjuvant chemotherapy was noted in only 58% of eligible patients. Conclusion: In this large regional initiative, we found high levels of adherence to more than half of the established quality indicators. Although the quality of care delivered within FIQCC practices seems to be high, several components of care were identified that warrant further scrutiny on both a systemic level and at individual centers. PMID:23180990

  7. The Potential for Elimination of Racial-Ethnic Disparities in HIV Treatment Initiation in the Medicaid Population among 14 Southern States

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shun; McGoy, Shanell L.; Dawes, Daniel; Fransua, Mesfin; Rust, George; Satcher, David

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to explore the racial and ethnic disparities in initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ARV treatment or ART) among HIV-infected Medicaid enrollees 18–64 years of age in 14 southern states which have high prevalence of HIV/AIDS and high racial disparities in HIV treatment access and mortality. Methods We used Medicaid claims data from 2005 to 2007 for a retrospective cohort study. We compared frequency variances of HIV treatment uptake among persons of different racial- ethnic groups using univariate and multivariate methods. The unadjusted odds ratio was estimated through multinomial logistic regression. The multinomial logistic regression model was repeated with adjustment for multiple covariates. Results Of the 23,801 Medicaid enrollees who met criteria for initiation of ARV treatment, only one third (34.6%) received ART consistent with national guideline treatment protocols, and 21.5% received some ARV medication, but with sub-optimal treatment profiles. There was no significant difference in the proportion of people who received ARV treatment between black (35.8%) and non-Hispanic whites (35.7%), but Hispanic/Latino persons (26%) were significantly less likely to receive ARV treatment. Conclusions Overall ARV treatment levels for all segments of the population are less than optimal. Among the Medicaid population there are no racial HIV treatment disparities between Black and White persons living with HIV, which suggests the potential relevance of Medicaid to currently uninsured populations, and the potential to achieve similar levels of equality within Medicaid for Hispanic/Latino enrollees and other segments of the Medicaid population. PMID:24769625

  8. Mismatch recognition-coupled stabilization of Msh2-Msh6 in an ATP-bound state at the initiation of DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Antony, Edwin; Hingorani, Manju M

    2003-07-01

    Mismatch repair proteins correct errors in DNA via an ATP-driven process. In eukaryotes, the Msh2-Msh6 complex recognizes base pair mismatches and small insertion/deletions in DNA and initiates repair. Both Msh2 and Msh6 proteins contain Walker ATP-binding motifs that are necessary for repair activity. To understand how these proteins couple ATP binding and hydrolysis to DNA binding/mismatch recognition, the ATPase activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Msh2-Msh6 was examined under pre-steady-state conditions. Acid-quench experiments revealed that in the absence of DNA, Msh2-Msh6 hydrolyzes ATP rapidly (burst rate = 3 s(-1) at 20 degrees C) and then undergoes a slow step in the pathway that limits catalytic turnover (k(cat) = 0.1 s(-1)). ATP is hydrolyzed similarly in the presence of fully matched duplex DNA; however, in the presence of a G:T mismatch or +T insertion-containing DNA, ATP hydrolysis is severely suppressed (rate = 0.1 s(-1)). Pulse-chase experiments revealed that Msh2-Msh6 binds ATP rapidly in the absence or in the presence of DNA (rate = 0.1 microM(-1) s(-1)), indicating that for the Msh2-Msh6.mismatched DNA complex, a step after ATP binding but before or at ATP hydrolysis is the rate-limiting step in the pathway. Thus, mismatch recognition is coupled to a dramatic increase in the residence time of ATP on Msh2-Msh6. This mismatch-induced, stable ATP-bound state of Msh2-Msh6 likely signals downstream events in the repair pathway. PMID:12820877

  9. Developing a public health-tracking system for follow-up of newborn screening metabolic conditions: a four-state pilot project structure and initial findings

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, Cynthia F.; Mai, Cara T.; Nabukera, Sarah K.; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Feuchtbaum, Lisa; Romitti, Paul A.; Wang, Ying; Piper, Kimberly Noble; Olney, Richard S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to describe the methods, cases, and initial results of a pilot project using existing public health data collection programs (birth defect surveillance or newborn screening) to conduct long-term follow-up of children with metabolic disorders. Methods California, Iowa, New York, and Utah expanded birth defect surveillance or newborn screening programs to collect long-term follow-up data on 19 metabolic disorders. Data elements to monitor health status and services delivered were identified, and record abstraction and data linkages were conducted. Children were followed up through to the age of 3 years. Results A total of 261 metabolic cases were diagnosed in 1,343,696 live births (19.4 cases/100,000; 95% confidence interval = 17.1–21.8). Four deaths were identified. Children with fatty acid oxidation disorders had a higher percentage of health service encounters compared with children with other disorders of at least one health service encounter (hospitalization, emergency room, metabolic clinic, genetic service provider, or social worker) except for hospitalizations; children with organic acid disorders had a higher percentage of at least one hospitalization during their third year of life than children with other disorders. Conclusion Existing public health data programs can be leveraged to conduct population-based newborn screening long-term follow-up. This approach is flexible according to state needs and resources. These data will enable the states in assessing health burden, assuring access to services, and supporting policy development. PMID:24310309

  10. An Urban Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton.

    New Jersey's urban initiative has two components. The first is a broad-based program that addresses critical issues common to most urban districts Statewide. The second is a comprehensive program (Operation School Renewal) that concentrates the State's resources in three urban districts. The concentrated initiative, Operation School Renewal, will…

  11. Community Marriage Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, William J.; Anderson, Jared R.

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the development of community marriage initiatives and their relationship with family professionals, with particular emphasis on sociohistorical context. We describe five leading community marriage initiatives, discuss the state of the evaluation research, and propose new directions for this promising area of work.

  12. Community-based strategies for immunizing the "hard-to-reach" child: the New York State immunization and primary health care initiative.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Z; Findley, S; McPhillips, S; Penachio, M; Silver, P

    1995-01-01

    The 1989-1991 measles epidemic in New York City drew attention to the low immunization coverage rates found in urban neighborhoods. This article describes a joint initiative of the New York State Department of Health and the Columbia University School of Public Health to mobilize parents to fully immunize their children. Eleven community-based organizations (CBOs) used a variety of outreach strategies to identify and enroll underimmunized children in primary care. They enrolled 4,555 children, of whom 75% needed at least one basic vaccine dose to be up-to-date for their age. Enrolled children were followed by CBOs to ensure compliance with appointments. After nine months of program operation, 73% of children in an evaluation sample were up-to-date for age for their immunizations. Immunization coverage increases were greatest for the youngest children, for whom coverage rates more than doubled in the first nine months of program operation. Ninety-one percent of these "hard to reach" children were tracked successfully by CBOs. This article compares the strategies used by the community organizations and concludes with suggestions for improvements of future community-based mobilization programs. PMID:7669356

  13. Initial-state geometry and fluctuations in Au + Au, Cu + Au, and U + U collisions at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenke, Björn; Tribedy, Prithwish; Venugopalan, Raju

    2014-06-01

    We study within the IP-Glasma and two-component MC-Glauber models the effects of initial-state geometry and fluctuations on multiplicities and eccentricities for several collision species at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). These include copper-gold (Cu + Au), gold-gold (Au + Au), and uranium-uranium (U + U) collisions. The multiplicity densities per participant pair are very similar in all systems studied. Ellipticities vary strongly between collision systems, most significantly for central collisions, while fluctuation driven odd moments vary little between systems. Event-by-event distributions of eccentricities in mid-central collisions are wider in Cu + Au relative to Au + Au and U + U systems. An anticorrelation between multiplicity and eccentricity is observed in ultracentral U + U collisions which is weaker in the IP-Glasma model than the two-component MC-Glauber model. In ultracentral Au + Au collisions the two models predict opposite signs for the slope of this correlation. Measurements of elliptic flow as a function of multiplicity in such central events can therefore be used to discriminate between models with qualitatively different particle production mechanisms.

  14. Nonuniform Liouville transformers for quasi-homogeneous optical fields. Final technical report, September 25, 1989--January 22, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Jannson, T.

    1993-03-01

    During the last two decades, there have been dramatic improvements in the development of optical sources. Examples of this development range from semiconductor laser diodes to free electron beam lasers and synchrotron radiation. Before these developments, standards for the measurement of basic optical parameters (quantities) were less demanding. Now, however, there is a fundamental need for new, reliable methods for providing fast quantitative results for a very broad variety of optical systems and sources. This is particularly true for partially coherent optical beams, since all optical sources are either fully or partially spatially coherent (including Lambertian sources). Until now, there has been no satisfactory solution to this problem. During the last two decades, however, the foundations of physical radiometry have been developed by Walther, Wolf and co-workers. By integrating physical optics, statistical optics and conventional radiometry, this body of work provides necessary tools for the evaluation of radiometric quantities for partially coherent optical beams propagating through optical systems. In this program, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) demonstrated the viability of such a radiometric approach for the specific case of generalized energy concentrators called Liouville transformers. We believe that this radiometric approach is necessary to fully characterize any type of optical system since it takes into account the partial coherence of radiation. 90 refs., 57 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Waveguide CO{sub 2} laser with a quasi-homogeneous distribution of the output radiation intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Vlasenko, S A; Gurin, O V; Degtyarev, A V; Maslov, Vyacheslav A; Svich, V A; Topkov, A N

    2013-05-31

    An experimental sample of a waveguide CO{sub 2} laser with a quasi-uniform profile of the output radiation intensity is designed on the basis of a waveguide quasi-optical cavity of a new type comprising the generic confocal cavity with a nonuniform mirror and the hollow waveguide with the dimensions satisfying the conditions for self-imaging the quasi-uniform field. The surface of the mirror has the discrete large-scale absorbing nonuniformities. Results of theoretical and experimental investigations of spatial-energy characteristics of the laser in using uniform or amplitude-stepped reflecting mirrors are presented. (lasers)

  16. Research Initiatives

    Cancer.gov

    This page provides detailed information about currently funded RFA initiatives both led by DCCPS, and those led by other NIH Institutes and Centers (I/Cs) that include DCCPS as a partner. Each initiative includes a table of funded grants and a map that shows the location of funded institutions.

  17. Funds Fuel Graduation Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    In the first wave of funding under a revitalized high school graduation initiative, the U.S. Department of Education is betting nearly $50 million that it can help states and school districts find better ways to hang onto students who might drop out and bring back those who have disappeared without diplomas. Twenty-nine states and districts won…

  18. The National Research Initiative Competitive Grants Program in animal reproduction: changes in priorities and scope relevant to United States animal agriculture.

    PubMed

    Mirando, M A

    2007-03-01

    The National Research Initiative (NRI) Competitive Grants Program is the USDA's major competitive grants program and is administered by the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service. The NRI was authorized by the US Congress in the 1990 Farm Bill at a funding level of $500 million; however, the maximal NRI appropriation was $181.17 million in fiscal year (FY) 2006. Across all programs, the NRI is mandated to use 40% of its funding to support mission-linked research. Since its inception in 1991, the NRI has funded competitive grants in the discipline of animal reproduction. Before 2004, the Animal Reproduction Program funded a broad range of projects encompassing almost every subdiscipline in reproductive biology of farm animals, including aquatic species important to the aquaculture industry and laboratory animals. During FY 2004, the NRI Animal Reproduction Program narrowed the focus of its funding priorities to 5 issue-based topics in an effort to make greater measurable improvements in a few high-impact areas over the next 10 years. Funding priorities were narrowed further in FY 2006 to 3 subdisciplines based, in part, on recommendations that emerged from a stakeholder workshop conducted by Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service in August 2004. In FY 2003, Congress authorized expenditure of up to 20% of the funds appropriated to the NRI to support projects that integrate at least 2 of the 3 functions of research, education, and extension. In FY 2004, the Animal Reproduction Program included a funding priority for integrated projects focused primarily on infertility in dairy cattle. The program funded its first integrated project in FY 2005. During FY 2002, increased emphasis on justification for the use of model systems (e.g., laboratory animals and in vitro systems) was included in the NRI request for applications. In FY 2006, applications proposing to primarily utilize nonagricultural animal models were excluded from

  19. EUROANDRILL Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florindo, Fabio; Steering Committee, Euroandrill

    2010-05-01

    EuroANDRILL is a new initiative to create a European network with the goal to increase future involvement of European countries in the ANDRILL [ANtarctic geological DRILLing] Programme. Antarctica has been heavily glaciated for approximately 34 million years, but its ice sheets have fluctuated considerably and are one of the major driving forces for changes in climate throughout the Cenozoic Era. The spatial scale and temporal pattern of these fluctuations is subject to considerable debate. Understanding the response of large ice masses to climatic forcing is of vital importance because ice volume variations drive global sea level changes and also alter the capacity of ice sheets and sea-ice to act as major heat sinks/insulators. It is particularly important to assess the stability of the cryosphere in the face of rising CO2 levels, as modelling of the climate shift from a warm, vegetated Antarctica to a cold, ice-covered state 34 million years ago suggests a powerful greenhouse gas influence. As Antarctica is the major driver of Earth's climate and sea level, much effort has been expended in deriving models of its behaviour. Some of these models have been successfully validated against modern conditions. EuroANDRILL will provide a coherent, integrated platform for European leadership and involvement in the international ANDRILL programme. The coordination and networking provided by EuroANDRILL will seek to expand participation by European nations, institutions, and individual scientists in the study of the geologic history of the polar regions and their paleoclimatic significance. During the IPY, ANDRILL has been a highly visible and successful programme. This programme seeks to expand on this legacy beyond the IPY and make these contributions sustainable in the European Research Area through networking of research projects and future planning efforts, which establish Europe as a key player in future polar sediment and rock drilling. EuroANDRILL is set up under

  20. Compilation of watershed models for tributaries to the Great Lakes, United States, as of 2010, and identification of watersheds for future modeling for the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coon, William F.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Soong, David T.; Sharpe, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) during 2009–10, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compiled a list of existing watershed models that had been created for tributaries within the United States that drain to the Great Lakes. Established Federal programs that are overseen by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) are responsible for most of the existing watershed models for specific tributaries. The NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) uses the Large Basin Runoff Model to provide data for the management of water levels in the Great Lakes by estimating United States and Canadian inflows to the Great Lakes from 121 large watersheds. GLERL also simulates streamflows in 34 U.S. watersheds by a grid-based model, the Distributed Large Basin Runoff Model. The NOAA National Weather Service uses the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting model to predict flows at river forecast sites. The USACE created or funded the creation of models for at least 30 tributaries to the Great Lakes to better understand sediment erosion, transport, and aggradation processes that affect Federal navigation channels and harbors. Many of the USACE hydrologic models have been coupled with hydrodynamic and sediment-transport models that simulate the processes in the stream and harbor near the mouth of the modeled tributary. Some models either have been applied or have the capability of being applied across the entire Great Lakes Basin; they are (1) the SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model, which was developed by the USGS; (2) the High Impact Targeting (HIT) and Digital Watershed models, which were developed by the Institute of Water Research at Michigan State University; (3) the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment (L–THIA) model, which was developed by researchers at Purdue University; and (4) the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model, which was

  1. The Final Report and Findings of the Safe School Initiative: Implications for the Prevention of School Attacks in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vossekuil, Bryan; Fein, Robert A.; Reddy, Marisa; Borum, Randy; Modzeleski, William

    2004-01-01

    The "Safe School Initiative" was implemented through the Secret Service's National Threat Assessment Center and the Department of Education's Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program. The "Initiative" drew from the Secret Service's experience in studying and preventing assassination and other types of targeted violence and the Department of Education's…

  2. Radiography of magnetically-driven implosions of initially solid beryllium cylindrical shells for equation-of-state studies at the Z pulsed-power facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Ryan

    2011-06-01

    The Z accelerator delivers approximately 4-MV, 26-MA electrical pulses with adjustable current rise times of 100--600 ns, as well as adjustable pulse waveforms. The magnetic pressure produced is used for various applications, including magnetically-driven implosions. The Z-Beamlet Laser (ZBL) is a pulsed (0.3-1.5 ns), multi-kJ, TW-class Nd:glass laser system that provides x-ray radiography capabilities for Z experiments. This talk focuses primarily on the radiography diagnostic used to study the magnetically-driven implosions of initially solid cylindrical shells (also referred to as ``liners''). Specifically, we discuss the 6.151-keV monochromatic backlighting system and its use in obtaining radiographs of imploding beryllium (Be) liners. The high transmission efficiency of 6.151-keV photons in Be allowed us to obtain radiographs with finite transmission throughout the radial extent of the imploding liners. Abel inverting these data, we have obtained time-resolved measurements of the imploding liner's density as a function of both axial and radial location throughout the field of view. These data are allowing us to study magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) growth for inertial-confinement-fusion applications, as well as compression-wave propagation for equation-of-state studies (see talks by R.L. Lemke and M.R. Martin). Additionally, Z's pulse-shaping capabilities have enabled us to obtain data for both shock- and quasi-isentropically-compressed Be. Example data from MRT, shock-compression, and quasi-isentropic-compression experiments will be shown. We will also discuss planned upgrades to 25-keV radiography that will allow us to study materials with opacities beyond that of beryllium. This work was done in collaboration with R.W. Lemke, M.R. Martin, J.-P. Davis, M.D. Knudson, D.B. Sinars, S.A. Slutz, C.A. Jennings, M.E. Cuneo, D.G. Flicker, and M.C. Herrmann. Sandia is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin company, for the US

  3. Native American Program Initiatives at the College and University Level. Hearing before the Committee on Indian Affairs. United States Senate, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session on Addressing the Needs in Indian Country Pertaining to Native American Program Initiatives at the College and University Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Indian Affairs.

    A Senate committee hearing received testimony to showcase Native American program initiatives at the college and university level. Program representatives presented information on the characteristics and accomplishments of their programs. The Institute of Tribal Government at Portland State University (Oregon) provides intensive 3-day training…

  4. Effect of semiclassical molecular initial ground state configuration on the neutron spectra in the interactions of p+Al, Fe, and Zr at 1.2 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Waged, Khaled

    2005-04-01

    We studied the effect of the semiclassical molecular initial ground state configuration of the nucleus on the neutron spectra for p+Al, Fe, and Zr at 1.2 GeV by using an improved ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics (ImUrQMD) model. Compared to the standard UrQMD version, it incorporates: (i) Pauli potential (ii) a medium modified NN{yields}N{delta} angular distribution, and (iii) a statistical multifragmentation decay model as an afterburner. It is shown that the slow evaporated, cascade, and quasielastic (inelastic) peaks of neutrons are all sensitive to different initialization procedures. Therefore, the implementation of a proper semiclassical ground state initialization in the ImUrQMD model is of importance for the description of all the neutron spectra in proton-induced reactions at intermediate energies ({approx_equal}1GeV)

  5. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Federated States of Micronesia; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Federated States of Micronesia, a sovereign nation and U.S.-associated state in the western Pacific Ocean. The Federated States of Micronesia’s electricity rates for residential customers exceed $0.48 U.S. dollars (USD)/per kilowatt-hour (kWh), nearly four times the average U.S. residential rate of $0.13 USD/kWh.

  6. H. J. RES. 431: A Joint Resolution to establish that it is the policy of the United States to encourage and support conservation efforts initiated by Brazil to protect the Amazon forest, and that the United States should redouble its efforts to reduce its pollution of the global environment. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, First Session, November 2, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    H.J.RES.431: A Joint Resolution to establish that it is the policy of the United States to encourage and support conservation efforts initiated by Brazil to protect the Amazon forest, and that the United States should redouble its efforts to reduce its pollution of the global environment.

  7. Applying Bayesian parameter estimation to relativistic heavy-ion collisions: Simultaneous characterization of the initial state and quark-gluon plasma medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhard, Jonah E.; Moreland, J. Scott; Bass, Steffen A.; Liu, Jia; Heinz, Ulrich

    2016-08-01

    We quantitatively estimate properties of the quark-gluon plasma created in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions utilizing Bayesian statistics and a multiparameter model-to-data comparison. The study is performed using a recently developed parametric initial condition model, TRENTo, which interpolates among a general class of particle production schemes, and a modern hybrid model which couples viscous hydrodynamics to a hadronic cascade. We calibrate the model to multiplicity, transverse momentum, and flow data and report constraints on the parametrized initial conditions and the temperature-dependent transport coefficients of the quark-gluon plasma. We show that initial entropy deposition is consistent with a saturation-based picture, extract a relation between the minimum value and slope of the temperature-dependent specific shear viscosity, and find a clear signal for a nonzero bulk viscosity.

  8. Newspapers in New York. Recommendations for an Initial Statewide Plan of Data Collecting and Entry Prepared for the New York State Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danky (James) & Associates, Stoughton, WI.

    This report presents consultants' recommendations for the statewide collection and entry in the OCLC database of bibliographic data on New York state newspapers as part of a national United States newspaper cataloging project. The consulting team was asked to focus principally on two activities: first, the newspaper collection of the New York…

  9. SCB initiator

    DOEpatents

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W.; Renlund, Anita M.; Stanton, Philip L.

    1994-01-01

    A detonator for high explosives initiated by mechanical impact includes a cylindrical barrel, a layer of flyer material mechanically covering the barrel at one end, and a semiconductor bridge ignitor including a pair of electrically conductive pads connected by a semiconductor bridge. The bridge is in operational contact with the layer, whereby ignition of said bridge forces a portion of the layer through the barrel to detonate the explosive. Input means are provided for igniting the semiconductor bridge ignitor.

  10. SCB initiator

    DOEpatents

    Bickes Jr., Robert W.; Renlund, Anita M.; Stanton, Philip L.

    1994-11-01

    A detonator for high explosives initiated by mechanical impact includes a cylindrical barrel, a layer of flyer material mechanically covering the barrel at one end, and a semiconductor bridge ignitor including a pair of electrically conductive pads connected by a semiconductor bridge. The bridge is in operational contact with the layer, whereby ignition of said bridge forces a portion of the layer through the barrel to detonate the explosive. Input means are provided for igniting the semiconductor bridge ignitor.

  11. Career Technical Education Pathways Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2013

    2013-01-01

    California's education system--the largest in the United States--is an essential resource for ensuring strong economic growth in the state. The Career Technical Education Pathways Initiative (referred to as the Initiative in this report), which became law in 2005, brings together community colleges, K-12 school districts, employers, organized…

  12. What Will Be the Impact of Programs of Study? A Preliminary Assessment Based on Similar Previous Initiatives, State Plans for Implementation, and Career Development Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Morgan V.; Kosine, Natalie R.

    2008-01-01

    This publication provides background to inform the implementation of Programs of Study (POS) as required by grantees of funds authorized under the Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Improvement Act of 2006. The report is a review of the evidence on the effectiveness of previous similar initiatives and an examination of the implications…

  13. The Strengthening Families Initiative and Child Care Quality Improvement: How Strengthening Families Influenced Change in Child Care Programs in One State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, Anne; Klerman, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: This study investigated how the Strengthening Families through Early Care and Education initiative in Illinois (SFI) influenced change in 4 child care programs. Findings indicate that SFI influenced quality improvements through 4 primary pathways: (a) Learning Networks, (b) the quality of training, (c) the engagement of program…

  14. Faculty Roles, Responsibilities, and Involvement in Campus Safety Initiatives as Perceived by Faculty and Administrators: A Case Study at a Large State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollings, Meda Janeen

    2010-01-01

    The study addressed the problem of campus safety and the extent to which faculty and administrators are aware of institutional security policies. Further, the research compared perceptions of administrators and faculty regarding faculty awareness of and involvement in campus safety policy initiatives. The research sought to determine if the…

  15. Improving Numerical Weather Predictions of Summertime Precipitation Over the Southeastern U.S. Through a High-Resolution Initialization of the Surface State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Kumar, Sujay V.; Krikishen, Jayanthi; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2011-01-01

    It is hypothesized that high-resolution, accurate representations of surface properties such as soil moisture and sea surface temperature are necessary to improve simulations of summertime pulse-type convective precipitation in high resolution models. This paper presents model verification results of a case study period from June-August 2008 over the Southeastern U.S. using the Weather Research and Forecasting numerical weather prediction model. Experimental simulations initialized with high-resolution land surface fields from the NASA Land Information System (LIS) and sea surface temperature (SST) derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are compared to a set of control simulations initialized with interpolated fields from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction 12-km North American Mesoscale model. The LIS land surface and MODIS SSTs provide a more detailed surface initialization at a resolution comparable to the 4-km model grid spacing. Soil moisture from the LIS spin-up run is shown to respond better to the extreme rainfall of Tropical Storm Fay in August 2008 over the Florida peninsula. The LIS has slightly lower errors and higher anomaly correlations in the top soil layer, but exhibits a stronger dry bias in the root zone. The model sensitivity to the alternative surface initial conditions is examined for a sample case, showing that the LIS/MODIS data substantially impact surface and boundary layer properties.

  16. Expanding Support for Education in Fragile States: What Role for the Education for All-Fast Track Initiative? CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 30

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turrent, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    The new international aid architecture was established to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of development aid by emphasising country ownership, alignment with national priorities and the harmonisation of donor processes. These features are evident in the Education for All-Fast Track Initiative [EFA-FTI], a global partnership between donor…

  17. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    2013-04-01

    The initiative will strategically focus and rally EERE’s clean energy technology offices and Advanced Manufacturing Office around the urgent competitive opportunity for the United States to be the leader in the clean energy manufacturing industries and jobs of today and tomorrow.

  18. Department-Initiated Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Anne; De Geest, Els

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the activity of three secondary school mathematics departments in England in self-initiated states of change that led to overall improvements in students' achievements when compared to previous cohorts. This took place without intervention and without their participation in external projects. They provide examples of…

  19. Focusing educational initiatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, George K.

    1990-01-01

    The United States will soon be facing a critical shortage of aerospace scientists and engineers. To address this problem, Space Grant Colleges can assist in focusing interest in existing educational initiatives and in creating new educational opportunities, particularly for women and underrepresented minorities.

  20. Resting-State Regional Cerebral Blood Flow During Adolescence: Associations with Initiation of Substance Use and Prediction of Future Use Disorders*

    PubMed Central

    Ramage, Amy E.; Lin, Ai-Ling; Olvera, Rene L.; Fox, Peter T.; Williamson, Douglas E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescence is a period of developmental flux when brain systems are vulnerable to influences of early substance use, which in turn relays increased risk for substance use disorders. Our study intent was to assess adolescent regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) as it relates to current and future alcohol use. The aim was to identify brain-based predictors for initiation of alcohol use and onset of future substance use disorders. Methods Quantitative rCBF was assessed in 100 adolescents (age 12-15). Prospective behavioral assessments were conducted annually over a three-year follow-up period to characterize onset of alcohol initiation, future drinking patterns and use disorders. Comparisons amongst use groups (i.e., Current-, Future-, and Non-alcohol Using adolescents) identified rCBF associated with initiation of alcohol use. Regression by future drinking patterns identified rCBF predictive of heavier drinking. Survival analysis determined whether or not baseline rCBF predicted later development of use disorders. Results Baseline rCBF was decreased to the parietal cortex and increased to mesolimbic regions in adolescents currently using alcohol as well as those who would use alcohol in the future. Higher baseline rCBF to the left fusiform gyrus and lower rCBF to the right inferior parietal cortex and left cerebellum was associated with future drinking patterns as well as predicted the onset of alcohol and substance use disorders in this cohort. Conclusions Variations in resting rCBF to regions within reward and default mode or control networks appear to represent trait markers of alcohol use initiation and is predictive of future development of use disorders. PMID:25682478

  1. Phosphorylation state of a Tob/BTG protein, FOG-3, regulates initiation and maintenance of the Caenorhabditis elegans sperm fate program

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myon-Hee; Won Kim, Kyung; Morgan, Clinton T.; Morgan, Dyan E.; Kimble, Judith

    2011-01-01

    FOG-3, the single Caenorhabditis elegans Tob/BTG protein, directs germ cells to adopt the sperm fate at the expense of oogenesis. Importantly, FOG-3 activity must be maintained for the continued production of sperm that is typical of the male sex. Vertebrate Tob proteins have antiproliferative activity and ERK phosphorylation of Tob proteins has been proposed to abrogate “antiproliferative” activity. Here we investigate FOG-3 phosphorylation and its effect on sperm fate specification. We found both phosphorylated and unphosphorylated forms of FOG-3 in nematodes. We then interrogated the role of FOG-3 phosphorylation in sperm fate specification. Specifically, we assayed FOG-3 transgenes for rescue of a fog-3 null mutant. Wild-type FOG-3 rescued both initiation and maintenance of sperm fate specification. A FOG-3 mutant with its four consensus ERK phosphorylation sites substituted to alanines, called FOG-3(4A), rescued partially: sperm were made transiently but not continuously in both sexes. A different FOG-3 mutant with its sites substituted to glutamates, called FOG-3(4E), had no rescuing activity on its own, but together with FOG-3(4A) rescue was complete. Thus, when FOG-3(4A) and FOG-3(4E) were both introduced into the same animals, sperm fate specification was not only initiated but also maintained, resulting in continuous spermatogenesis in males. Our findings suggest that unphosphorylated FOG-3 initiates the sperm fate program and that phosphorylated FOG-3 maintains that program for continued sperm production typical of males. We discuss implications of our results for Tob/BTG proteins in vertebrates. PMID:21571637

  2. Child Care: States Have Undertaken a Variety of Quality Improvement Initiatives, but More Evaluations of Effectiveness Are Needed. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaul, Marnie S.

    Expressing concern for the quality of care supported by Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) funds, welfare reform legislation required states to set aside at least 4 percent of their total grant to improve child care quality and availability. In preparation for reauthorizing CCDF, this General Accounting Office report was commissioned to…

  3. State Plan for Postsecondary Vocational Technical Education. 2001 Report on Progress toward the Statewide Public Policy Initiatives and Goals for Missouri Postsecondary Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Coordinating Board for Higher Education, Jefferson City.

    In April 1998, Missouri's Coordinating Board for Higher Education established basic indicators against which outcomes of the state's investments in postsecondary technical education are measured. One year later, the Coordinating Board approved a set of performance measures to be used to guide research on the results of Missouri's postsecondary…

  4. Advancing High-Quality Professional Learning through Collective Bargaining and State Policy: An Initial Review and Recommendations to Support Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Frank, Valerie, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This publication is the result of an 18-month project that brought together teams from six states--Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, and Texas--along with their national organizations in a groundbreaking partnership to identify collective bargaining language and policies that support high-quality professional development.…

  5. Work and Family in the United States: A Policy Initiative. A Report of the Family Policy Panel of the Economic Policy Council of UNA-USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Association of the United States of America, New York, NY.

    As part of its world employment project, the Economic Policy Council of the United Nations Association of the United States formed the family policy panel to further examine the extent of ongoing changes affecting the family, the workplace, and the economy. In its work, the family policy panel concentrated on five issues considered central to the…

  6. Empowering People as a Matter of Policy: Five Years of Success of a State-Initiated Regional Alliance Network for Middle School Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teitel, Lee

    In 1992, Massachusetts's Department of Education established five regional alliances throughout the state to support middle-school restructuring and reform. The project began with 50 schools and colleges and grew to include 11 alliances comprised of more than 165 schools and colleges. A statewide case study that describes the alliances, the…

  7. Sequential Transition Patterns of Preschoolers' Social Interactions during Child-Initiated Play: Is Parallel-Aware Play a Bidirectional Bridge to Other Play States?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Clyde C.; Anderson, Genan T.; Porter, Christin L.; Hart, Craig, H.; Wouden-Miller, Melissa

    2003-01-01

    Explored the simultaneous sequential transition patterns of preschoolers' social play within classroom settings. Found that the proportion of social-play states did not vary during play episodes even when accounting for type of activity center, gender, and SES. Found a reciprocal relationship between parallel-aware and other social-play states…

  8. Initial Perceptions of English as a Second Language Educators on Including Students with Limited English Proficiency in Minnesota's High Standards. State Assessment Series, Minnesota Report 33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swierzbin, Bonnie; Liu, Kristin; Thurlow, Martha

    This report presents findings from an investigation of the perceptions, beliefs, and expectations of English-as-a-Second- Language (ESL) educators as they work toward including students with limited English proficiency (LEP) in Minnesota's High Standards. More and more states are implementing standards-based educational systems in which all…

  9. Louisiana: Status Summary of Statewide Library Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coco, Carolyn, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This summary of library initiatives in Louisiana relating to information technology describes academic library initiatives; multitype library initiatives, including library networks that provide access to the Internet; the state library and public library initiatives, including interlibrary loan services; school library initiatives; and state…

  10. Openness initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, S.S.

    1995-12-31

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: {open_quotes}Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?{close_quotes} To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts.

  11. Building on Individual, State, and Federal Initiatives for Advance Care Planning, an Integral Component of Palliative and End-of-Life Cancer Care

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Andrew S.; Volandes, Angelo E.; O'Reilly, Eileen M.

    2011-01-01

    Federal and state provisions for advance care planning—the process by which patients, families, and medical professionals plan for future and, in particular, end-of-life care—continue to receive attention. Such planning remains an integral component of palliative care, complementing the recognition and treatment of pain and other symptoms that patients with advanced malignancies and their families encounter. Historically, advance care planning interventions (particularly those involving advance directives) have been unable to consistently demonstrate positive outcomes for patients with life-threatening illnesses. However, more recent literature, including that on patients with cancer, illustrates that both patients and caregivers report improved quality of life and less distress after discussions with their health care teams about end-of-life care. Herein, we discuss recent federal and state public policy that focuses on advance care planning, suggesting the promise for care delivery improvements and the means by which existing barriers might be surmounted. These care delivery issues apply to several disease states but are particularly pertinent to the adult oncology setting. PMID:22379415

  12. The dimer state of GyrB is an active form: implications for the initial complex assembly and processive strand passage

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jinjun; Zhang, Zhiping; Mitchenall, Lesley A.; Maxwell, Anthony; Deng, Jiaoyu; Zhang, Hongtai; Zhou, Ying; Chen, Yuan-yuan; Wang, Da-Cheng; Zhang, Xian-En; Bi, Lijun

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study, we presented the dimer structure of DNA gyrase B′ domain (GyrB C-terminal domain) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and proposed a ‘sluice-like’ model for T-segment transport. However, the role of the dimer structure is still not well understood. Cross-linking and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments showed that the dimer structure exists both in the B′ protein and in the full-length GyrB in solution. The cross-linked dimer of GyrB bound GyrA very weakly, but bound dsDNA with a much higher affinity than that of the monomer state. Using cross-linking and far-western analyses, the dimer state of GyrB was found to be involved in the ternary GyrA–GyrB–DNA complex. The results of mutational studies reveal that the dimer structure represents a state before DNA cleavage. Additionally, these results suggest that the dimer might also be present between the cleavage and reunion steps during processive transport. PMID:21745817

  13. State Policy Initiatives for Reducing Teen and Adult Nonmarital Childbearing: Family Planning to Family Caps. New Federalism: Issues and Options for States. An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies, Series A, No. A-43.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertheimer, Richard; Jager, Justin; Moore, Kristin Anderson

    This paper presents data from a survey of all 50 states that examined specific programs and policies being pursued at the state level to discourage teenage and nonmarital childbearing. Overall, the teen childbearing rate has continued to fall, and in 1999 it was the lowest on record. Some research points to a relationship between welfare policies…

  14. Tracing bacterial metabolism using multi-nuclear (1H, 2H, and 13C) Solid State NMR: Realizing an Idea Initiated by James Scott

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cody, G.; Fogel, M. L.; Jin, K.; Griffen, P.; Steele, A.; Wang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Approximately 6 years ago, while at the Geophysical Laboratory, James Scott became interested in the application of Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to study bacterial metabolism. As often happens, other experiments intervened and the NMR experiments were not pursued. We have revisited Jame's question and find that using a multi-nuclear approach (1H, 2H, and 13C Solid State NMR) on laboratory cell culture has some distinct advantages. Our experiments involved batch cultures of E. coli (MG1655) harvested at stationary phase. In all experiments the growth medium consisted of MOPS medium for enterobacteria, where the substrate is glucose. In one set of experiments, 10 % of the water was D2O; in another 10 % of the glucose was per-deuterated. The control experiment used both water and glucose at natural isotopic abundance. A kill control of dead E. coli immersed in pure D2O for an extended period exhibited no deuterium incorporation. In both deuterium enriched experiments, considerable incorporation of deuterium into E. coli's biomolecular constituents was detected via 2H Solid State NMR. In the case of the D2O enriched experiment, 58 % of the incorporated deuterium is observed in a sharp peak at a frequency of 0.31 ppm, consistent with D incorporation in the cell membrane lipids, the remainder is observed in a broad peak at a higher frequency (centered at 5.4 ppm, but spanning out to beyond 10 ppm) that is consistent with D incorporation into predominantly DNA and RNA. In the case of the D-glucose experiments, 61 % of the deuterium is observed in a sharp resonance peak at 0.34 ppm, also consistent with D incorporation into membrane lipids, the remainder of the D is observed at a broad resonance peak centered at 4.3 ppm, consistent with D enrichment in glycogen. Deuterium abundance in the E. coli cells grown in 10 % D2O is nearly 2X greater than that grown with 10 % D-glucose. Very subtle differences are observed in both the 1H and 13C solid-state

  15. IDAHO BIODIESEL INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECT DOE'S INITIATIVE ON COOPERATIVE PROGRAMS WITH STATES FOR RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION GRANT NO. DE-FC36-02GO12021. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    CROCKETT, JOHN

    2006-12-31

    The Idaho Energy Division issued a Request for Proposal (RFP) on March 14, 2006, inviting qualified licensed fuel wholesalers, fuel retailers, and vehicle fleet operators to provide proposals to construct and/or install infrastructure for biodiesel utilization in Idaho. The intent was to improve the ability of private and/or non-Federal public entities in Idaho to store, transport, or offer for sale biodiesel within the state. The RFP provided up $100,000 for co-funding the projects with a minimum 50% cash cost match. Four contracts were subsequetnly awarded that resulted in three new bidodiesel storage facilities immediately serving about 45 fueling stations from Sandpoint to Boise. The project also attracted considerable media attention and Idaho became more knowledgeable about biodiesel.

  16. Surveillance for Asian H5N1 avian influenza in the United States. The government initiates early detection efforts in wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ip, Hon S.; Slota, Paul G.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing concern over the potential for migratory birds to introduce the Asian H5N1 strain of avian influenza to North America prompted the White House Policy Coordinating Committee for Pandemic Influenza Preparedness to request that the U.S. Departments of Agriculture (USDA) and Interior (DOI) develop a plan for the early detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the United States. To promote coordination among wildlife, agriculture, and human health agencies on HPAI surveillance efforts, the two Departments worked with representatives from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the International Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies, and the Alaska Department of Fish and Game to develop the U.S. Interagency Strategic Plan for Early Detection of Asian H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Wild Migratory Birds.

  17. Exposure assessment and initial intervention regarding fish consumption of tribal members of the Upper Great Lakes Region in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dellinger, John A

    2004-07-01

    The Ojibwe Health Study (OHS) has concluded 10 years of data collection and exposure assessment. Eight hundred and twenty-two participants from tribes in the states of Wisconsin, Michigan, and Minnesota (USA) completed fish consumption and environmental risk perception questionnaires. Many participants provided hair and blood samples for mercury and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) residue analyses as body burden indicators of these persistent environmental pollutants. Fish were collected by the tribal organizations and contaminants were analyzed for numerous tribal reports and professional environmental journal articles, these data were used by the Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission to produce tribal-specific geographic information systems maps as part of a public health intervention strategy. These maps are currently available at for six Wisconsin tribes that regularly harvest walleye. To determine the health impacts (if any) of pollutants on cancer, diabetes, and reproduction, it was necessary to know the recent trends in key indicators such as cancer mortality ratios and birth gender ratios. The Great Lakes Inter-Tribal Council provided the OHS and each participating tribe in Wisconsin and Michigan with a health profile. Total fish consumption (estimated by recall) for 720 tribal participants was self-reported as 60 g/day, but the highest actual consumption was measured as 11.2 g/day in one of the tribal groups. The highest blood concentrations in tribal participants were 18.6 ppb total serum PCBs and 11.8 ppb total blood mercury. Ninety percent of the participants had less than 3.8 ppb total serum PCBs and 2.6 ppb total blood mercury. Compared to other studies of subsistence fishing populations, these exposures were only moderately elevated and not high enough to warrant widespread restrictions on diets. Furthermore, the benefits of eating a fish diet must be continually emphasized. However, sport fishermen and their families who consume larger and

  18. Initial analysis from a lidar observation campaign of sugar cane fires in the central and western portion of the São Paulo State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Lopes, Fábio Juliano; Held, Gerhard; Nakaema, Walter M.; Rodrigues, Patricia F.; Bassan, Jose M.; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2011-11-01

    The central and western portion of the Sao Paulo State has large areas of sugar cane plantations, and due to the growing demand for biofuels, the production is increasing every year. During the harvest period some plantation areas are burnt a few hours before the manual cutting, causing significant quantities of biomass burning aerosol to be injected into the atmosphere. During August 2010, a field campaign has been carried out in Ourinhos, situated in the south-western region of Sao Paulo State. A 2-channel Raman Lidar system and two meteorological S-Band Doppler Radars are used to indentify and quantify the biomass burning plumes. In addiction, CALIPSO Satellite observations were used to compare the aerosol optical properties detected in that region with those retrieved by Raman Lidar system. Although the campaign yielded 30 days of measurements, this paper will be focusing only one case study, when aerosols released from nearby sugar cane fires were detected by the Lidar system during a CALIPSO overpass. The meteorological radar, installed in Bauru, approximately 110 km northeast from the experimental site, had recorded "echoes" (dense smoke comprising aerosols) from several fires occurring close to the Raman Lidar system, which also detected an intense load of aerosol in the atmosphere. HYSPLIT model forward trajectories presented a strong indication that both instruments have measured the same air masss parcels, corroborated with the Lidar Ratio values from the 532 nm elastic and 607 nm Raman N2 channel analyses and data retrieved from CALIPSO have indicated the predominance of aerosol from biomass burning sources.

  19. Detection of abnormal resting-state networks in individual patients suffering from focal epilepsy: an initial step toward individual connectivity assessment

    PubMed Central

    Dansereau, Christian L.; Bellec, Pierre; Lee, Kangjoo; Pittau, Francesca; Gotman, Jean; Grova, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The spatial coherence of spontaneous slow fluctuations in the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal at rest is routinely used to characterize the underlying resting-state networks (RSNs). Studies have demonstrated that these patterns are organized in space and highly reproducible from subject to subject. Moreover, RSNs reorganizations have been suggested in pathological conditions. Comparisons of RSNs organization have been performed between groups of subjects but have rarely been applied at the individual level, a step required for clinical application. Defining the notion of modularity as the organization of brain activity in stable networks, we propose Detection of Abnormal Networks in Individuals (DANI) to identify modularity changes at the individual level. The stability of each RSN was estimated using a spatial clustering method: Bootstrap Analysis of Stable Clusters (BASC) (Bellec et al., 2010). Our contributions consisted in (i) providing functional maps of the most stable cores of each networks and (ii) in detecting “abnormal” individual changes in networks organization when compared to a population of healthy controls. DANI was first evaluated using realistic simulated data, showing that focussing on a conservative core size (50% most stable regions) improved the sensitivity to detect modularity changes. DANI was then applied to resting state fMRI data of six patients with focal epilepsy who underwent multimodal assessment using simultaneous EEG/fMRI acquisition followed by surgery. Only patient with a seizure free outcome were selected and the resected area was identified using a post-operative MRI. DANI automatically detected abnormal changes in 5 out of 6 patients, with excellent sensitivity, showing for each of them at least one “abnormal” lateralized network closely related to the epileptic focus. For each patient, we also detected some distant networks as abnormal, suggesting some remote reorganization in the epileptic brain. PMID

  20. Racial/Ethnic disparities in association between dietary quality and incident diabetes in postmenopausal women in the United States: The Women's Health Initiative 1993- 2005

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Yongxia; Tinker, Lesley; Olendzki, Barbara C.; Hébert, James R.; Balasubramanian, Raji; Rosal, Milagros C.; Hingle, Melanie; Song, Yiqing; Schneider, Kristin L.; Liu, Simin; Sims, Stacy; Ockene, Judith K.; Sepavich, Deidre M.; Shikany, James M.; Persuitte, Gioia; Ma, Yunsheng

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of dietary quality and risk of incident diabetes overall and by race/ethnicity among postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). Research Methods & Procedures The WHI recruited 161,808 postmenopausal women between 1993 and 1998, and followed them until 2005. Incident diabetes was determined annually over an average of 7.6 years from enrollment. At baseline, all participants completed a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Dietary quality was assessed by the Alternate Healthy Eating Index, (AHEI) calculated from the baseline FFQ responses. Results There were 10,307 incident cases of self-reported treated diabetes over 1,172,761 person-years of follow-up. Most participants did not meet the AHEI dietary goals; i.e., only 0.1% of women met or exceeded the recommended consumption of vegetables, and few (17.3%) met or exceeded the recommended level for total fiber. After adjusting for potential confounders, women in the highest quintile of the AHEI score were 24% less likely to develop diabetes relative to women in the lowest quintile of AHEI [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.76 (95% CI: 0.70-0.82)]. This association was observed in Whites [HR= 0.74 (95% CI: 0.68-0.82)] and Hispanics [HR= 0.68 (95% CI: 0.46-0.99)] but not in Blacks [HR= 0.85 (95% CI: 0.69-1.05)] or Asians [HR= 0.88 (95% CI: 0.57-1.38)]. Conclusion These findings support a protective role of healthful eating choices in reducing the risk of developing diabetes, after adjusting for other lifestyle factors, in White and Hispanic postmenopausal women. Future studies are needed to investigate the relationship between dietary quality and risk of diabetes among Blacks and Asians in relationship to other lifestyle factors. PMID:23697968

  1. Initial Design Calculations for a Detection System that will Observe Resonant Excitation of the 680 keV state in 238U

    SciTech Connect

    Pruet, J; Hagmann, C

    2007-01-26

    We present calculations and design considerations for a detection system that could be used to observe nuclear resonance fluorescence in {sup 238}U. This is intended as part of an experiment in which a nearly monochromatic beam of light incident on a thin foil of natural uranium resonantly populates the state at 680 keV in {sup 238}U. The beam of light is generated via Compton upscattering of laser light incident on a beam of relativistic electrons. This light source has excellent energy and angular resolution. In the current design study we suppose photons emitted following de-excitation of excited nuclei to be observed by a segmented array of BGO crystals. Monte Carlo calculations are used to inform estimates for the design and performance of this detector system. We find that each detector in this array should be shielded by about 2 cm of lead. The signal to background ratio for each of the BGO crystals is larger than ten. The probability that a single detector observes a resonant photon during a single pulse of the light source is near unity.

  2. Initial assessment of patient handoff in accredited general surgery residency programs in the United States and Canada: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Abdulaziz M.; Paulus, Jessica K.; Vassiliou, Melina C.; Parsons, Susan K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Communication errors are considered one of the major causes of sentinel events. Our aim was to assess the process of patient handoff among junior surgical residents and to determine ways in which to improve the handoff process. Methods We conducted nationwide surveys that included all accredited general surgery residency programs in the United States and Canada. Results Of the 244 American and 17 Canadian accredited surgical residency programs contacted, 65 (27%) and 12 (71%), respectively, participated in the survey. Of the American and Canadian respondents, 66% and 69%, respectively, were from postgraduate year (PGY) 1, and 32% and 29%, respectively, were from PGY 2; 85 (77%) and 50 (96%), respectively, had not received any training about patient handoff before their surgical residency, and 27% and 64%, respectively, reported that the existing handoff system at their institutions did not adequately protect patient safety. Moreover, 29% of American respondents and 37% of Canadian respondents thought that the existing handoffs did not support continuity of patient care. Of the American residents, 67% and 6% reported receiving an incomplete handoff that resulted in minor and major patient harm, respectively. These results mirrored those from Canadian residents (63% minor and 7% major harm). The most frequent factor reported to improve the patient handoff process was standardization of the verbal handoff. Conclusion Our survey results indicate that the current patient handoff system contributes to patient harm. More efforts are needed to establish standardized forms of verbal and written handoff to ensure patient safety and continuity of care. PMID:26204366

  3. Silane-initiated nucleation in chemically active plasmas: validation of density functionals, mechanisms, and pressure-dependent variational transition state calculations.

    PubMed

    Bao, Junwei Lucas; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-04-21

    The growth of anionic silicon hydride clusters is a critically important process in nanodusty plasmas. In the current study, we focus on the formation of homologs of silylene (Sin+1H2n+2(-), n = 3, 4) and silyl (SinH2n+1(-), n = 4, 5) anions via anion-neutral reaction pathways. Species like silyl or silylene anions and their related elementary reactions, which are involved in the formation of silicon hydride clusters, were not used in developing exchange-correlation (xc) density functionals (i.e., they were not included in the training set of semiempirical density functionals); therefore, we explored the accuracy of various widely used xc density functionals based on reaction energies and barrier heights. Among the 21 density functionals we tested, M06-2X has the best performance for a hybrid functional, and MN15-L has the best performance for a local functional. Thermal rate constants of the elementary reactions involved in the reaction mechanism are calculated using M06-2X and multistructural canonical variational transition state theory with the small-curvature tunneling approximation (MS-CVT/SCT). The pressure dependence of unimolecular isomerization reactions is treated with system-specific quantum RRK theory (SS-QRRK) and the Lindemann-Hinshelwood mechanism. PMID:27009479

  4. An initial SPARROW model of land use and in-stream controls on total organic carbon in streams of the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Alexander, Richard B.; Smith, Richard A.; Boyer, Elizabeth W.; Shwarz, Grogory E.; Chung, Susie

    2010-01-01

    Watersheds play many important roles in the carbon cycle: (1) they are a site for both terrestrial and aquatic carbon dioxide (CO2) removal through photosynthesis; (2) they transport living and decomposing organic carbon in streams and groundwater; and (3) they store organic carbon for widely varying lengths of time as a function of many biogeochemical factors. Using the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Spatially Referenced Regression on Watershed Attributes (SPARROW) model, along with long-term monitoring data on total organic carbon (TOC), this research quantitatively estimates the sources, transport, and fate of the long-term mean annual load of TOC in streams of the conterminous United States. The model simulations use surrogate measures of the major terrestrial and aquatic sources of organic carbon to estimate the long-term mean annual load of TOC in streams. The estimated carbon sources in the model are associated with four land uses (urban, cultivated, forest, and wetlands) and autochthonous fixation of carbon (stream photosynthesis). Stream photosynthesis is determined by reach-level application of an empirical model of stream chlorophyll based on total phosphorus concentration, and a mechanistic model of photosynthetic rate based on chlorophyll, average daily solar irradiance, water column light attenuation, and reach dimensions. It was found that the estimate of in-stream photosynthesis is a major contributor to the mean annual TOC load per unit of drainage area (that is, yield) in large streams, with a median share of about 60 percent of the total mean annual carbon load in streams with mean flows above 500 cubic feet per second. The interquartile range of the model predictions of TOC from in-stream photosynthesis is from 0.1 to 0.4 grams (g) carbon (C) per square meter (m-2) per day (day-1) for the approximately 62,000 stream reaches in the continental United States, which compares favorably with the reported literature range for net carbon fixation by

  5. Duration of Adulthood Overweight, Obesity, and Cancer Risk in the Women’s Health Initiative: A Longitudinal Study from the United States

    PubMed Central

    Stefanick, Marcia L.; Johnson, Karen C.; Lane, Dorothy S.; LeBlanc, Erin S.; Prentice, Ross; Rohan, Thomas E.; Snively, Beverly M.; Vitolins, Mara; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Anton-Culver, Hoda

    2016-01-01

    Background High body mass index (BMI) has become the leading risk factor of disease burden in high-income countries. While recent studies have suggested that the risk of cancer related to obesity is mediated by time, insights into the dose-response relationship and the cumulative impact of overweight and obesity during the life course on cancer risk remain scarce. To our knowledge, this study is the first to assess the impact of adulthood overweight and obesity duration on the risk of cancer in a large cohort of postmenopausal women. Methods and Findings Participants from the observational study of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) with BMI information from at least three occasions during follow-up, free of cancer at baseline, and with complete covariate information were included (n = 73,913). Trajectories of BMI across ages were estimated using a quadratic growth model; overweight duration (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2), obesity duration (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2), and weighted cumulative overweight and obese years, which take into account the degree of overweight and obesity over time (a measure similar to pack-years of cigarette smoking), were calculated using predicted BMIs. Cox proportional hazard models were applied to determine the cancer risk associated with overweight and obesity duration. In secondary analyses, the influence of important effect modifiers and confounders, such as smoking status, postmenopausal hormone use, and ethnicity, was assessed. A longer duration of overweight was significantly associated with the incidence of all obesity-related cancers (hazard ratio [HR] per 10-y increment: 1.07, 95% CI 1.06–1.09). For postmenopausal breast and endometrial cancer, every 10-y increase in adulthood overweight duration was associated with a 5% and 17% increase in risk, respectively. On adjusting for intensity of overweight, these figures rose to 8% and 37%, respectively. Risks of postmenopausal breast and endometrial cancer related to overweight duration were much

  6. Full-dimensional and reduced-dimensional calculations of initial state-selected reaction probabilities studying the H + CH{sub 4} → H{sub 2} + CH{sub 3} reaction on a neural network PES

    SciTech Connect

    Welsch, Ralph Manthe, Uwe

    2015-02-14

    Initial state-selected reaction probabilities of the H + CH{sub 4} → H{sub 2} + CH{sub 3} reaction are calculated in full and reduced dimensionality on a recent neural network potential [X. Xu, J. Chen, and D. H. Zhang, Chin. J. Chem. Phys. 27, 373 (2014)]. The quantum dynamics calculation employs the quantum transition state concept and the multi-layer multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree approach and rigorously studies the reaction for vanishing total angular momentum (J = 0). The calculations investigate the accuracy of the neutral network potential and study the effect resulting from a reduced-dimensional treatment. Very good agreement is found between the present results obtained on the neural network potential and previous results obtained on a Shepard interpolated potential energy surface. The reduced-dimensional calculations only consider motion in eight degrees of freedom and retain the C{sub 3v} symmetry of the methyl fragment. Considering reaction starting from the vibrational ground state of methane, the reaction probabilities calculated in reduced dimensionality are moderately shifted in energy compared to the full-dimensional ones but otherwise agree rather well. Similar agreement is also found if reaction probabilities averaged over similar types of vibrational excitation of the methane reactant are considered. In contrast, significant differences between reduced and full-dimensional results are found for reaction probabilities starting specifically from symmetric stretching, asymmetric (f{sub 2}-symmetric) stretching, or e-symmetric bending excited states of methane.

  7. Cross Sections for the Reactions e+e to K+ K- pi+pi-, K+ K- pi0pi0, and K+ K- K+ K- Measured Using Initial-State Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Milanes, D.A.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I.L.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D.J.; /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /Frascati /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Harvey Mudd Coll. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U., Comp. Sci. Dept. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Southern Methodist U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2011-08-19

    We study the processes e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}-{gamma}, K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}, and K{sup +}K{sup -}K{sup +}K{sup -}{gamma}, where the photon is radiated from the initial state. About 84000, 8000, and 4200 fully reconstructed events, respectively, are selected from 454 fb{sup -1} of BABAR data. The invariant mass of the hadronic final state defines the e{sup +}e{sup -} center-of-mass energy, so that the K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{gamma} data can be compared with direct measurements of the e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} reaction. No direct measurements exist for the e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} or e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}K{sup +}K{sup -} reactions, and we present an update of our previous result with doubled statistics. Studying the structure of these events, we find contributions from a number of intermediate states, and extract their cross sections. In particular, we perform a more detailed study of the e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} {phi}(1020){pi}{pi}{gamma} reaction, and confirm the presence of the Y (2175) resonance in the {phi}(1020)f{sub 0}(980) and K{sup +}K{sup -} f{sub 0}(980) modes. In the charmonium region, we observe the J/{psi} in all three final states and in several intermediate states, as well as the {phi}(2S) in some modes, and measure the corresponding branching fractions.

  8. The e+e- to to K+ K- \\pi+\\pi-, K+ K- \\pi0\\pi0 and K+ K- K+ K- Cross Sections Measured with Initial-State Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Boutigny, D.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G.S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Button-Shafer, J.; Cahn, R.N.; /Energy Sci. Network /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Leipzig, Tech. Hochsch. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /Frascati /Genoa U. /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Karlsruhe U. /Paris U., VI-VII /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Concordia U., Montreal /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /Pisa U. /Prairie View A-M /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DSM, DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /Trieste U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Yale U.

    2007-05-04

    We study the processes e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{gamma}, K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma} and K{sup +}K{sup -}K{sup +}K{sup -}{gamma}, where the photon is radiated from the initial state. About 34600, 4400 and 2300 fully reconstructed events respectively, are selected from 232 fb{sup -1} of BABAR data. The invariant mass of the hadronic final state defines the effective e{sup +}e{sup -} center-of-mass energy, so that the K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{gamma} data can be compared with direct measurements of the e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{gamma} reaction; no direct measurements exist for the e{sub +}e{sub -} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma} or e{sub +}e{sub -} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}K{sup +}K{sup -} reactions. Studying the structure of these events, we find contributions from a number of intermediate states, and we extract their cross sections where possible. In particular, we isolate the contribution from e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} {phi}(1020)f{sub 0}(980) and study its structure near threshold. In the charmonium region, we observe the J/{psi} in all three final states and several intermediate states, as well as the {psi}/(2S) in some modes, and measure the corresponding branching fractions. We see no signal for the Y(4260) and obtain an upper limit of {Beta}{sub Y(4260){yields}{phi}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}} {center_dot} {Lambda}{sub ee}{sup Y} < 0.4 eV at 90% C.L.

  9. Feedback stabilization initiative

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Much progress has been made in attaining high confinement regimes in magnetic confinement devices. These operating modes tend to be transient, however, due to the onset of MHD instabilities, and their stabilization is critical for improved performance at steady state. This report describes the Feedback Stabilization Initiative (FSI), a broad-based, multi-institutional effort to develop and implement methods for raising the achievable plasma betas through active MHD feedback stabilization. A key element in this proposed effort is the Feedback Stabilization Experiment (FSX), a medium-sized, national facility that would be specifically dedicated to demonstrating beta improvement in reactor relevant plasmas by using a variety of MHD feedback stabilization schemes.

  10. UCAN: A Four-State Rural Systemic Initiative. First Year Report (August 31, 1996); First Year Analysis (August 31, 1996); Year Two Annual Report (September 1, 1997); Third Year Report (September 1, 1998); Year Three Annual Report Executive Summary (September 1, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LLamas, Vicente J.

    Since September 1995, the Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico-Rural Systemic Initiative (UCAN-RSI) has promoted systemic reform to improve science, technology, and mathematics education for all rural students in its states. Initially, UCAN targeted 159,000 students in over 430 rural, primarily American Indian or Hispanic, communities. These…

  11. Initial conditions and quantum cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartle, James B.

    1987-01-01

    A theory of initial conditions is necessary for a complete explanation of the presently observed large scale structural features of the universe, and a quantum theory of cosmology is probably needed for its formulation. The kinematics of quantum cosmology are reviewed, and some candidates for a law of initial conditions are discussed. The proposal that the quantum state of a closed universe is the natural analog of the ground state for closed cosmologies and is specified by a Euclidean sum over histories is sketched. When implemented in simple models, this proposal is consistent with the most important large-scale observations.

  12. Career Technical Education Pathways Initiative Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2014

    2014-01-01

    California's education system--the largest in the United States--is an essential resource for ensuring strong economic growth in the state. The Career Technical Education Pathways Initiative (the Initiative) became law in 2005 with Senate Bills 70 and 1133 and provided more than $380 million over eight years to improve career technical education…

  13. Instrumented Pipeline Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

    2010-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

  14. Initiatives for proliferation prevention

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    Preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a central part of US national security policy. A principal instrument of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) program for securing weapons of mass destruction technology and expertise and removing incentives for scientists, engineers and technicians in the newly independent states (NIS) of the former Soviet Union to go to rogue countries or assist terrorist groups is the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP). IPP was initiated pursuant to the 1994 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act. IPP is a nonproliferation program with a commercialization strategy. IPP seeks to enhance US national security and to achieve nonproliferation objectives by engaging scientists, engineers and technicians from former NIS weapons institutes; redirecting their activities in cooperatively-developed, commercially viable non-weapons related projects. These projects lead to commercial and economic benefits for both the NIS and the US IPP projects are funded in Russian, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. This booklet offers an overview of the IPP program as well as a sampling of some of the projects which are currently underway.

  15. Quantum Measurement and Initial Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoica, Ovidiu Cristinel

    2016-03-01

    Quantum measurement finds the observed system in a collapsed state, rather than in the state predicted by the Schrödinger equation. Yet there is a relatively spread opinion that the wavefunction collapse can be explained by unitary evolution (for instance in the decoherence approach, if we take into account the environment). In this article it is proven a mathematical result which severely restricts the initial conditions for which measurements have definite outcomes, if pure unitary evolution is assumed. This no-go theorem remains true even if we take the environment into account. The result does not forbid a unitary description of the measurement process, it only shows that such a description is possible only for very restricted initial conditions. The existence of such restrictions of the initial conditions can be understood in the four-dimensional block universe perspective, as a requirement of global self-consistency of the solutions of the Schrödinger equation.

  16. The Plus 50 Initiative Evaluation: Initiative Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Community Colleges (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC), with funding from The Atlantic Philanthropies, created the Plus 50 Initiative (2008-2012). This initiative was designed to build the capacity of community colleges nationwide to develop programming that engages the plus 50 learner. This report contains: (1) An overview of the Plus 50…

  17. Structural evolution and membrane interaction of the 40-residue β amyloid peptides: differences in the initial proximity between peptides and the membrane bilayer studied by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Wei; Akinlolu, Rumonat D; Nam, Mimi; Shu, Nicolas

    2014-12-01

    Interactions between the β amyloid (Aβ) peptides and cellular membranes have severe consequences such as neuronal cell disruption and therefore may play important roles in Alzheimer's disease. Understanding the structural basis behind such interactions, however, is hindered by the complexity of the Aβ-membrane systems. In particular, because the Aβ peptides are partially incorporated in the membrane bilayer after enzymatic cleavage, there are multiple possibilities in terms of the initial proximity between the peptides and membranes. Structural studies using in vitro model systems with either externally added or preincorporated Aβ in membrane bilayers resulted in distinct evolution pathways. Previous work has shown that the externally added Aβ formed long and mature filaments, while preincorporated Aβ generated short and curvy fibrils. In this study, we perform detailed characterizations on the structural evolution and membrane interaction for these two pathways, using a combination of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and other techniques. For the externally added Aβ, we determined the residue-specific structural evolution during the fibrillation process. While the entire fibrillation process for the externally added Aβ was slow, the preincorporated Aβ generated Aβ-lipid complexes rapidly. Specific interactions between the lipids and peptides were observed, suggesting the colocalization of lipids and peptides within the complex. Formation of such a complex induced molecular-level changes in the lipid bilayer, which may serve as a possible mechanism of membrane disruption. PMID:25397729

  18. Urban Environment Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Urban Environment Initiative (UEI), has been established as part of a Cooperative Agreement with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The UEI is part of NASA's overall High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) and the Information Infrastructure Technology Applications (IITA) programs. The goal of the UEI is to provide public access to Earth Science information and promote its use with a focus on the environment of urban areas. This goal will be accomplished through collaborative efforts of the UEI team with both community-based and local/regional governmental organizations. The UEI team is comprised of four organizations representing private industry, NASA, and universities: Prime Technologies Service Corporation, NASA's Minority University Space Interdisciplinary Network (MU-SPIN) California State University, at Los Angeles, and Central State University (Wilberforce, OH). "Urban Environment" refers to the web of environmental, economic, and social factors that combine to create the urban world in which we live. Examples of these factors are population distribution, neighborhood demographic profiles, economic resources, business activities, location and concentration of environmental hazards and various pollutants, proximity and level of urban services, which form the basis of the urban environment and ultimately affect our lives and experiences. The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing allows data to be visualized in the forms of maps and spatial images. The use of these tools allow analysis of information about urban environments. Also included are descriptions of the four query types which will assist in understanding the maps.

  19. Heat fluctuations and initial ensembles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwangmoo; Kwon, Chulan; Park, Hyunggyu

    2014-09-01

    Time-integrated quantities such as work and heat increase incessantly in time during nonequilibrium processes near steady states. In the long-time limit, the average values of work and heat become asymptotically equivalent to each other, since they only differ by a finite energy change in average. However, the fluctuation theorem (FT) for the heat is found not to hold with the equilibrium initial ensemble, while the FT for the work holds. This reveals an intriguing effect of everlasting initial memory stored in rare events. We revisit the problem of a Brownian particle in a harmonic potential dragged with a constant velocity, which is in contact with a thermal reservoir. The heat and work fluctuations are investigated with initial Boltzmann ensembles at temperatures generally different from the reservoir temperature. We find that, in the infinite-time limit, the FT for the work is fully recovered for arbitrary initial temperatures, while the heat fluctuations significantly deviate from the FT characteristics except for the infinite initial-temperature limit (a uniform initial ensemble). Furthermore, we succeed in calculating finite-time corrections to the heat and work distributions analytically, using the modified saddle point integral method recently developed by us. Interestingly, we find noncommutativity between the infinite-time limit and the infinite-initial-temperature limit for the probability distribution function (PDF) of the heat. PMID:25314405

  20. Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Breger, Dwayne; Rizzo, Rob

    2011-09-20

    In the state’s Electricity Restructuring Act of 1998, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts recognized the opportunity and strategic benefits to diversifying its electric generation capacity with renewable energy. Through this legislation, the Commonwealth established one of the nation’s first Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard (RPS) programs, mandating the increasing use of renewable resources in its energy mix. Bioenergy, meeting low emissions and advanced technology standards, was recognized as an eligible renewable energy technology. Stimulated by the state’s RPS program, several project development groups have been looking seriously at building large woody biomass generation units in western Massachusetts to utilize the woody biomass resource. As a direct result of this development, numerous stakeholders have raised concerns and have prompted the state to take a leadership position in pursuing a science based analysis of biomass impacts on forest and carbon emissions, and proceed through a rulemaking process to establish prudent policy to support biomass development which can contribute to the state’s carbon reduction commitments and maintain safeguards for forest sustainability. The Massachusetts Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Initiative (SFBI) was funded by the Department of Energy and started by the Department of Energy Resources before these contentious biomass issues were fully raised in the state, and continued throughout the substantive periods of this policy development. Thereby, while SFBI maintained its focus on the initially proposed Scope of Work, some aspects of this scope were expanded or realigned to meet the needs for groundbreaking research and policy development being advanced by DOER. SFBI provided DOER and the Commonwealth with a foundation of state specific information on biomass technology and the biomass industry and markets, the most comprehensive biomass fuel supply assessment for the region, the economic development impact

  1. Glennan Microsystems Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brillson, Leonard J.

    2002-01-01

    During the 2001-2002 award period, we performed research on Pt/Ti/bare 6H-SiC and bare 4H-SiC interfaces in order to identify their electronic properties as a function of surface preparation. The overall aim of this work is to optimize the electronic properties of metal contacts to SiC as well as the active SiC material itself as a function of surface preparation and subsequent processing. Initially, this work has involved identifying bare surface, subsurface, and metal induced gap states at the metal-SiC contact and correlating energies and densities of deep levels with Schottky barrier heights. We used low energy electron-excited nanoluminescence (LEEN) spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) in order to correlate electronic states and energy bands with chemical composition, bonding, and crystal structure. A major development has been the discovery of polytype transformations that occur in 4H-SiC under standard microelectronic process conditions used to fabricate SiC devices. Our results are consistent with the stacking fault generation, defect formation, and consequent degradation of SiC recently reported for state-of-the-art ABB commercial diodes under localized electrical stress. Our results highlight the importance of -optimizing process conditions and material properties - anneal times, temperatures and doping to control such structural changes within epitaxial SiC layers. Thus far, we have established threshold times and temperatures beyond which 4H-SiC exhibits 3C-SiC transformation bands for a subset of dopant concentrations and process conditions. On the basis of this temperature time behavior, we have been able to establish an activation energy of approximately 2.5 eV for polytype transformation and dislocation motion. Work continues to establish the fundamental mechanisms underlying the polytype changes and its dependence on material parameters.

  2. Initialized Fractional Calculus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the need for a nonconstant initialization for the fractional calculus and establishes a basic definition set for the initialized fractional differintegral. This definition set allows the formalization of an initialized fractional calculus. Two basis calculi are considered; the Riemann-Liouville and the Grunwald fractional calculi. Two forms of initialization, terminal and side are developed.

  3. A mechanical energy analysis of gait initiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. A.; Verstraete, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of gait initiation (the transient state between standing and walking) is an important diagnostic tool to study pathologic gait and to evaluate prosthetic devices. While past studies have quantified mechanical energy of the body during steady-state gait, to date no one has computed the mechanical energy of the body during gait initiation. In this study, gait initiation in seven normal male subjects was studied using a mechanical energy analysis to compute total body energy. The data showed three separate states: quiet standing, gait initiation, and steady-state gait. During gait initiation, the trends in the energy data for the individual segments were similar to those seen during steady-state gait (and in Winter DA, Quanbury AO, Reimer GD. Analysis of instantaneous energy of normal gait. J Biochem 1976;9:253-257), but diminished in amplitude. However, these amplitudes increased to those seen in steady-state during the gait initiation event (GIE), with the greatest increase occurring in the second step due to the push-off of the foundation leg. The baseline level of mechanical energy was due to the potential energy of the individual segments, while the cyclic nature of the data was indicative of the kinetic energy of the particular leg in swing phase during that step. The data presented showed differences in energy trends during gait initiation from those of steady state, thereby demonstrating the importance of this event in the study of locomotion.

  4. MONTANA PALLADIUM RESEARCH INITIATIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, John; McCloskey, Jay; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark; Snyder, Stuart; Gurney, Brian

    2012-05-09

    Project Objective: The overarching objective of the Montana Palladium Research Initiative is to perform scientific research on the properties and uses of palladium in the context of the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program. The purpose of the research will be to explore possible palladium as an alternative to platinum in hydrogen-economy applications. To achieve this objective, the Initiatives activities will focus on several cutting-edge research approaches across a range of disciplines, including metallurgy, biomimetics, instrumentation development, and systems analysis. Background: Platinum-group elements (PGEs) play significant roles in processing hydrogen, an element that shows high potential to address this need in the U.S. and the world for inexpensive, reliable, clean energy. Platinum, however, is a very expensive component of current and planned systems, so less-expensive alternatives that have similar physical properties are being sought. To this end, several tasks have been defined under the rubric of the Montana Palladium Research Iniative. This broad swath of activities will allow progress on several fronts. The membrane-related activities of Task 1 employs state-of-the-art and leading-edge technologies to develop new, ceramic-substrate metallic membranes for the production of high-purity hydrogen, and develop techniques for the production of thin, defect-free platinum group element catalytic membranes for energy production and pollution control. The biomimetic work in Task 2 explores the use of substrate-attached hydrogen-producing enzymes and the encapsulation of palladium in virion-based protein coats to determine their utility for distributed hydrogen production. Task 3 work involves developing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a real-time, in situ diagnostic technique to characterize PGEs nanoparticles for process monitoring and control. The systems engineering work in task 4 will

  5. Initiation complex structure and promoter proofreading.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Bushnell, David A; Silva, Daniel-Adriano; Huang, Xuhui; Kornberg, Roger D

    2011-07-29

    The initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II is a multistage process. X-ray crystal structures of transcription complexes containing short RNAs reveal three structural states: one with 2- and 3-nucleotide RNAs, in which only the 3'-end of the RNA is detectable; a second state with 4- and 5-nucleotide RNAs, with an RNA-DNA hybrid in a grossly distorted conformation; and a third state with RNAs of 6 nucleotides and longer, essentially the same as a stable elongating complex. The transition from the first to the second state correlates with a markedly reduced frequency of abortive initiation. The transition from the second to the third state correlates with partial "bubble collapse" and promoter escape. Polymerase structure is permissive for abortive initiation, thereby setting a lower limit on polymerase-promoter complex lifetime and allowing the dissociation of nonspecific complexes. Abortive initiation may be viewed as promoter proofreading, and the structural transitions as checkpoints for promoter control. PMID:21798951

  6. Modeling Initiation in Exploding Bridgewire Detonators

    SciTech Connect

    Hrousis, C A

    2005-05-18

    One- and two-dimensional models of initiation in detonators are being developed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of aged and modified detonator designs. The models focus on accurate description of the initiator, whether it be an EBW (exploding bridgewire) that directly initiates a high explosive powder or an EBF (exploding bridgefoil) that sends an inert flyer into a dense HE pellet. The explosion of the initiator is simulated using detailed MHD equations of state as opposed to specific action-based phenomenological descriptions. The HE is modeled using the best available JWL equations of state. Results to date have been promising, however, work is still in progress.

  7. ALOS-2 initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kankaku, Yukihiro; Suzuki, Shinichi; Shimada, Masanobu

    2015-10-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2) was launched from Tanegashima Space Center by H-IIA rocket successfully on 24th May 2014. ALOS-2 carries the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2) as the state-of-the-art L-band SAR system which succeeds to PALSAR onboard ALOS. PALSAR-2 uses almost whole bandwidth allocated for L-band active sensor of Earth Exploration Satellites Service specified by the Radio Regulation in order to realize the high resolution observation, and also, it transmits more than 6 kW power for lower Noise Equivalent Sigma Zero using 180 TRMs driven by Gallium Nitride (GaN) amplifier which is the first use in space. Furthermore, because ALOS-2 carries the SAR system only, PALSAR-2 antenna can be mounted under the satellite body. It enables to observe right-/left-looking observation by satellite maneuvering. And the high accuracy orbit control to maintain the satellite within 500 m radius tube against the reference orbit enables high coherence for the InSAR processing. Using these new technologies, ALOS-2 has been operating to fulfill the mission requirements such as disaster monitoring and so on. This document introduces the initial result of ALOS-2 from the first year operation.

  8. Moon-Mars Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-06-01

    On 27 May, the AGU Council unanimously adopted a position statement on NASA's strategic plan released in February 2005:: "A New Age of Exploration: NASA's Direction for 2005 and Beyond". This strategy incorporates U.S. President Bush's vision for manned space flight to Moon and Mars as described in "A Renewed Spirit of Discovery: The President's Vision for U.S. Space Exploration" announced in January 2004. The statement was drafted by a panel chaired by Eric Barron of Penn State University. AGU calls for the U.S. Administration, Congress, and NASA to continue their commitment to innovative Earth and space science programs. This commitment has placed the U.S. in an international leadership position. It enables environmental stewardship, promotes economic vitality, engages the next generation of scientists and engineers, protects life and property, and fosters exploration. It is, however, threatened by new financial demands placed on NASA by the return to human space flight using the space shuttle, finishing the space station, and launching the Moon-Mars initiative.

  9. APEC Smart Grid Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Bloyd, Cary N.

    2012-03-01

    This brief paper describes the activities of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Smart Grid Initiative (ASGI) which is being led by the U.S. and developed by the APEC Energy Working Group. In the paper, I describe the origin of the initiative and briefly mention the four major elements of the initiative along with existing APEC projects which support it.

  10. Initial Events in Bacterial Transcription Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Ruff, Emily F.; Record, M. Thomas; Artsimovitch, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Transcription initiation is a highly regulated step of gene expression. Here, we discuss the series of large conformational changes set in motion by initial specific binding of bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) to promoter DNA and their relevance for regulation. Bending and wrapping of the upstream duplex facilitates bending of the downstream duplex into the active site cleft, nucleating opening of 13 bp in the cleft. The rate-determining opening step, driven by binding free energy, forms an unstable open complex, probably with the template strand in the active site. At some promoters, this initial open complex is greatly stabilized by rearrangements of the discriminator region between the −10 element and +1 base of the nontemplate strand and of mobile in-cleft and downstream elements of RNAP. The rate of open complex formation is regulated by effects on the rapidly-reversible steps preceding DNA opening, while open complex lifetime is regulated by effects on the stabilization of the initial open complex. Intrinsic DNA opening-closing appears less regulated. This noncovalent mechanism and its regulation exhibit many analogies to mechanisms of enzyme catalysis. PMID:26023916

  11. Proposed Initiatives in Educational R&D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mervine, Kay; Sproull, Lee

    This document presents a compilation of suggested research and development initiatives abstracted from current educational R&D planning and policy documents. The objectives is to create a reasonably thorough picture of the current state of proposed possibilities and priorities in educational R&D. Each initiative abstract includes, whenever…

  12. 40 CFR 35.2212 - Project initiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... subagreement(s) for building all significant elements of the project (see 40 CFR 33.211). (Approved by the... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Project initiation. 35.2212 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2212 Project initiation....

  13. 40 CFR 35.2212 - Project initiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... subagreement(s) for building all significant elements of the project (see 40 CFR 33.211). (Approved by the... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Project initiation. 35.2212 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2212 Project initiation....

  14. 40 CFR 35.2212 - Project initiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... subagreement(s) for building all significant elements of the project (see 40 CFR 33.211). (Approved by the... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Project initiation. 35.2212 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2212 Project initiation....

  15. 40 CFR 35.2212 - Project initiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... subagreement(s) for building all significant elements of the project (see 40 CFR 33.211). (Approved by the... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Project initiation. 35.2212 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2212 Project initiation....

  16. 40 CFR 35.2212 - Project initiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... subagreement(s) for building all significant elements of the project (see 40 CFR 33.211). (Approved by the... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Project initiation. 35.2212 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2212 Project initiation....

  17. 39 CFR 963.18 - Initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Initial decision. 963.18 Section 963.18 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO VIOLATIONS OF THE PANDERING ADVERTISEMENTS STATUTE, 39 U.S.C. 3008 § 963.18 Initial decision. Unless given orally...

  18. 39 CFR 953.12 - Initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Initial decision. 953.12 Section 953.12 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO MAILABILITY § 953.12 Initial decision. Unless given orally at the conclusion of the hearing, the Administrative...

  19. 39 CFR 963.18 - Initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initial decision. 963.18 Section 963.18 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO VIOLATIONS OF THE PANDERING ADVERTISEMENTS STATUTE, 39 U.S.C. 3008 § 963.18 Initial decision. Unless given orally...

  20. 39 CFR 954.19 - Initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Initial decision. 954.19 Section 954.19 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.19 Initial decision. (a) Upon request...

  1. 39 CFR 954.19 - Initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Initial decision. 954.19 Section 954.19 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.19 Initial decision. (a) Upon request...

  2. 39 CFR 954.19 - Initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Initial decision. 954.19 Section 954.19 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.19 Initial decision. (a) Upon request...

  3. 39 CFR 954.19 - Initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Initial decision. 954.19 Section 954.19 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.19 Initial decision. (a) Upon request...

  4. Hispanics: Challenges and Opportunities. A Look at the Demographic, Economic, Social, and Political Situation of Hispanics in the United States Today, and at the Ford Foundation's Initiatives to Address the Needs and Impact of this Growing Population. Working Paper No. 435.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    The Hispanic population in the United States is growing in numbers, is characterized by diversity, and its growing impact on American society has caused the Ford Foundation to explore new Foundation initiatives. The 1980 census counted 14.6 million Hispanics on the U.S. mainland: 60% Mexican American, 14% Puerto Rican, 6% Cuban, and 20% other. The…

  5. The national geomagnetic initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Earth's magnetic field, through its variability over a spectrum of spatial and temporal scales, contains fundamental information on the solid Earth and geospace environment (the latter comprising the atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere). Integrated studies of the geomagnetic field have the potential to address a wide range of important processes in the deep mantle and core, asthenosphere, lithosphere, oceans, and the solar-terrestrial environment. These studies have direct applications to important societal problems, including resource assessment and exploration, natural hazard mitigation, safe navigation, and the maintenance and survivability of communications and power systems on the ground and in space. Studies of the Earth's magnetic field are supported by a variety of federal and state agencies as well as by private industry. Both basic and applied research is presently supported by several federal agencies, including the National Science Foundation (NSF), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) (through the Navy, Air Force, and Defense Mapping Agency). Although each agency has a unique, well-defined mission in geomagnetic studies, many areas of interest overlap. For example, NASA, the Navy, and USGS collaborate closely in the development of main field reference models. NASA, NSF, and the Air Force collaborate in space physics. These interagency linkages need to be strengthened. Over the past decade, new opportunities for fundamental advances in geomagnetic research have emerged as a result of three factors: well-posed, first-order scientific questions; increased interrelation of research activities dealing with geomagnetic phenomena; and recent developments in technology. These new opportunities can be exploited through a national geomagnetic initiative to define objectives and

  6. Holographic thermalization with initial long range correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shu

    2016-01-01

    We studied the evolution of the Wightman correlator in a thermalizing state modeled by AdS3 -Vaidya background. We gave a prescription for calculating the Wightman correlator in coordinate space without using any approximation. For equal-time correlator ⟨ O (v ,x )O (v ,0 )⟩ , we obtained an enhancement factor v2 due to long range correlation present in the initial state. This was missed by previous studies based on geodesic approximation. We found that the long range correlation in initial state does not lead to significant modification to thermalization time as compared to known results with generic initial state. We also studied the spatially integrated Wightman correlator and showed evidence on the distinction between long distance and small momentum physics for an out-of-equilibrium state. We also calculated the radiation spectrum of particles weakly coupled to O and found that lower frequency mode approaches thermal spectrum faster than high frequency mode.

  7. Holographic thermalization with initial long range correlation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lin, Shu

    2016-01-19

    Here, we studied the evolution of the Wightman correlator in a thermalizing state modeled by AdS3-Vaidya background. A prescription was given for calculating the Wightman correlator in coordinate space without using any approximation. For equal-time correlator , we obtained an enhancement factor v2 due to long range correlation present in the initial state. This was missed by previous studies based on geodesic approximation. Moreover, we found that the long range correlation in initial state does not lead to significant modification to thermalization time as compared to known results with generic initial state. We also studied the spatially integrated Wightman correlatormore » and showed evidence on the distinction between long distance and small momentum physics for an out-of-equilibrium state. We also calculated the radiation spectrum of particles weakly coupled to O and found that lower frequency mode approaches thermal spectrum faster than high frequency mode.« less

  8. Progress in Initiator Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Hrousis, C A; Christensen, J S

    2009-05-04

    There is great interest in applying magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation techniques to the designs of electrical high explosive (HE) initiators, for the purpose of better understanding a design's sensitivities, optimizing its performance, and/or predicting its useful lifetime. Two MHD-capable LLNL codes, CALE and ALE3D, are being used to simulate the process of ohmic heating, vaporization, and plasma formation in the bridge of an initiator, be it an exploding bridgewire (EBW), exploding bridgefoil (EBF) or slapper type initiator. The initiation of the HE is simulated using Tarver Ignition & Growth reactive flow models. 1-D, 2-D and 3-D models have been constructed and studied. The models provide some intuitive explanation of the initiation process and are useful for evaluating the potential impact of identified aging mechanisms (such as the growth of intermetallic compounds or powder sintering). The end product of this work is a simulation capability for evaluating margin in proposed, modified or aged initiation system designs.

  9. A Review of the Properties of Nb3Sn and Their Variation with A15Composition, Morphology and Strain State

    SciTech Connect

    Godeke, Arno

    2006-03-27

    Significant efforts can be found throughout the literature to optimize the current carrying capacity of Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting wires. The achievable transport current density in wires depends on the A15 composition, morphology and strain state. The A15 sections in wires contain, due to compositional inhomogeneities resulting from solid state diffusion A15 formation reactions, a distribution of superconducting properties. The A15 grain size can be different from wire to wire and is also not necessarily homogeneous across the A15 regions. Strain is always present in composite wires, and the strain state changes as a result of thermal contraction differences and Lorentz forces in magnet systems. To optimize the transport properties it is thus required to identify how composition, grain size and strain state influence the superconducting properties. This is not accurately possible in inhomogeneous and spatially complex systems such as wires. This article therefore gives an overview of the available literature on simplified, well defined(quasi--)homogeneous laboratory samples. After more than 50 years of research on superconductivity in Nb{sub 3}Sn, a significant amount of results are available, but these are scattered over a multitude of publications. Two reviews exist on the basic properties of A15 materials in general, but no specific review for Nb{sub 3}Sn is available. This article is intended to provide such an overview. It starts with a basic description of the Niobium--Tin intermetallic. After this it maps the influence of Sn content on the electron--phonon interaction strength and on the field-temperature phase boundary. The literature on the influence of Cu, Ti and Ta additions will then be briefly summarized.This is followed by a review on the effects of grain size and strain. The article is concluded with a summary of the main results.

  10. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  11. Prioritizing Scientific Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahcall, John N.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is the way in which a limited number of astronomy research initiatives were chosen and prioritized based on a consensus of members from the Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee. A list of recommended equipment initiatives and estimated costs is provided. (KR)

  12. Illinois: Prevention Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Illinois Prevention Initiative provides grants to home-based and center-based programs to expand access to the Early Head Start (EHS) model as well as other birth to 3 models. The goal is to serve additional children birth to age 3 and help grantees increase program quality. The initiative to expand access to EHS and other models was…

  13. Maine Leading Initiative for Multistate Tech. Buys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2013-01-01

    A group of states has joined forces to arrange the purchase of an unusually comprehensive set of educational-technology devices and services, in a compact that could foreshadow other cooperative efforts by state and local governments attempting to turn the digital-procurement process to their advantage. The initial partners in the multistate…

  14. 20 CFR 229.65 - Initial reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY..., State, or Local Law or Plan § 229.65 Initial reduction. (a) When reduction is effective. A benefit... under a Federal, State, or local law or plan (public disability benefit). The reduction is...

  15. Graduation: From National Initiative to Base Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Sherry C.; Peterson, Donna J.; Roebuck, James C.

    2003-01-01

    The growth of the Children, Youth and Families At Risk National Initiative into a base program was charted through a survey documenting changes in 22 participating states' ability to develop and sustain programs. Data from 1997-1998 and 2000-2001 reveal gains in four of six components: statewide commitment, individuals' understanding of states'…

  16. 78 FR 60256 - Initial Patent Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Initial Patent Applications ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing efforts to..., United States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450. Federal...

  17. Current State and Local Initiatives To Support Student Learning: Early Childhood Programs and Innovative Programs To Better Address the Needs of Youth. Selected Presentations from an "Ensuring Student Success through Collaboration Network" Conference (Louisville, Kentucky, September 12-15, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Burton

    The Ensuring Student Success Through Collaboration Network, administered by the Council of Chief State School Officers, is comprised of teams of state and local leaders from Arkansas, California, Iowa, Kentucky, Missouri, Oregon, and Washington and works to connect education improvement efforts with other human service reforms, economic…

  18. 31 CFR 92.14 - Initiation of action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initiation of action. 92.14 Section 92.14 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance UNITED STATES MINT... the United States Mint § 92.14 Initiation of action. (a) When an employee of the United States...

  19. HST Replacement Battery Initial Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krol, Stan; Waldo, Greg; Hollandsworth, Roger

    2009-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) original Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH2) batteries were replaced during the Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) after 19 years and one month on orbit.The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the findings from the assessment of the initial sm4 replacement battery performance. The batteries are described, the 0 C capacity is reviewed, descriptions, charts and tables reviewing the State Of Charge (SOC) Performance, the Battery Voltage Performance, the battery impedance, the minimum voltage performance, the thermal performance, the battery current, and the battery system recharge ratio,

  20. Autonomous aircraft initiative study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewett, Marle D.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a consulting effort to aid NASA Ames-Dryden in defining a new initiative in aircraft automation are described. The initiative described is a multi-year, multi-center technology development and flight demonstration program. The initiative features the further development of technologies in aircraft automation already being pursued at multiple NASA centers and Department of Defense (DoD) research and Development (R and D) facilities. The proposed initiative involves the development of technologies in intelligent systems, guidance, control, software development, airborne computing, navigation, communications, sensors, unmanned vehicles, and air traffic control. It involves the integration and implementation of these technologies to the extent necessary to conduct selected and incremental flight demonstrations.