NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kravtsov, Yu. A.; Bieg, B.; Bliokh, K. Yu.; Hirsch, M.
2008-03-01
Three different theoretical approaches are presented: quasi-isotropic approximation (QIA), Stokes vector formalism and complex polarization angle method, which allow describing polarization of electromagnetic waves in weakly anisotropic plasma. QIA stems directly from the Maxwell equations under assumption of weak anisotropy and has a form of coupled differential equations for the transverse components of the electromagnetic wave field. Being applied to high frequency (microwave or IR) electromagnetic waves in magnetized plasma, QIA describes combined action of Faraday and Cotton-Mouton phenomena. QIA takes into account curvature and torsion of the ray, describes normal modes conversion in the inhomogeneous plasma and allows specifying area of applicability of the method. In distinction to QIA, Stokes vector formalism (SVF) deals with quantities, quadratic in a wave field. It is shown (and this is the main result of the paper) that equation for Stokes vector evolution can be derived directly from QIA. This evidences deep unity of two seemingly different approaches. In fact QIA suggests somewhat more information than SVF; in particular, it describes the phases of both transverse components of the electromagnetic field, whereas SVF operates only with the phase difference. At last, the coupled equations of the quasi-isotropic approximation can be reduced to a single equation for complex polarization angle (CPA), which describes both the shape and orientation of the polarization ellipse. In turn, equation for CPA allows obtaining equations for traditional parameters of polarization ellipse, which in fact are equivalent to the equation for Stokes vector evolution. It is pointed out that every method under discussion has its own advantages plasma polarimetry.
Stability of polarized modes in a quasi-isotropic laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
May, A. D.; Stephan, G.
1989-12-01
The polarization states of quasi-isotropic lasers are highly sensitive to residual cavity anisotropies and to weak (parasitic) anisotropic feedback. Internal anisotropies are usually constant, whereas the effective mirror anisotropy produced by feedback is strongly frequency (phase) dependent. A model for such a laser is developed, and analytic steady-state solutions are obtained for the case when both anisotropies are parallel. The linear stability analysis is also analytic. For the 3.39-micron He-Ne laser, the theory explains the previously observed variations with frequency of the intensity of the laser, the regions of monostable linear polarization, and in the bistable region the inverse dependence of the width of the hysteresis loop on the low-signal net gain. In contrast to Lamb's (964) theory, the calculations show that the polarization flip arises from an instability in the relative phase between the vector components of a mode.
Considerations on IMRT for quasi-isotropic non-coplanar irradiation.
Bratengeier, Klaus; Seubert, Benedikt; Holubyev, Kostyantyn; Schachner, Henrik
2012-11-21
The purpose of this study was the mathematical analysis of IMRT with many non-coplanar fields for planning target volumes (PTV) surrounding nearly spherical organs at risk (OAR). Our approach is partially analogous to the well known inverse planning for a cylindrically symmetric (CS) case (Brahme et al 1982 Phys. Med. Biol. 27 1221-9) and leads to a spherically symmetric (SS) solution. For the planning study we approximated isotropic 4 Pi irradiation by a quasi-isotropic non-coplanar IMRT technique with 16 fields which we compared to a coplanar IMRT technique with 15 equidistant fields. A virtual spherical phantom contained a spherical central organ at risk which was surrounded by a PTV shaped like a spherical shell with a gap towards the spherical OAR. We compared three types of plans: (1) non-segmented inversely planned fluence distributions prior to sequencing, (2) plans obtained by direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO) with up to 120 segments (good approximation of non-segmented fluence) and (3) more practical DMPO plans with up to 64 segments. In this study we sought an analytical SS solution for the non-segmented fluence distribution in 4 Pi-geometry. For the CS case Brahme et al found that a special narrow fluence peak ('Brahme peak') has to be applied to improve dose uniformity in PTV areas adjacent to the OAR. We showed that in the SS case the peak was steeper but the area under the peak was smaller. The relevance of the peak decreased for increasing gap between the OAR and the PTV. The plan quality of the non-segmented SS plans was higher albeit the fluence distributions were less uniform. The plan quality of the segmented plans degraded if the allowed number of segments was reduced; the degradation was quicker for the SS beam arrangement than for the CS beam arrangement. For 64 segments, the SS plans delivered less uniform and more conformal dose distributions than the CS plans, ensuring better sparing of the healthy tissue. Also, the SS plans always needed less monitor units than the CS plans. In conclusion, due to substructures or steeper fluence gradients, the improved potential of quasi-isotropic SS-plan quality can only be exploited, if many segments are allowed. SS plans seem to spare normal tissue better. Further analysis of non-coplanar beam arrangements with less degree of symmetry is planned, followed by a study on non-coplanar intensity modulated arc techniques. PMID:23079604
Quasi-isotropic VHF antenna array design study for the International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Raines, J. K.
1975-01-01
Results of a study to design a quasi-isotropic VHF antenna array for the IUE satellite are presented. A free space configuration was obtained that has no nulls deeper than -6.4 dbi in each of two orthogonal polarizations. A computer program named SOAP that analyzes the electromagnetic interaction between antennas and complicated conducting bodies, such as satellites was developed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dey, S.; Karmakar, A.
2013-01-01
In this paper, a finite element method is employed to investigate the free vibration characteristics of single and multiple delaminated graphite-epoxy quasi-isotropic composite conical shells. The generalized dynamic equilibrium equation is derived from Lagrange's equation of motion neglecting Coriolis effect for moderate rotational speeds. The formulation is based on Mindlin's theory considering eight-noded isoparametric plate bending element. The multipoint constraint algorithm is employed to ensure the compatibility of deformation and equilibrium of resultant forces and moments at the delamination crack front. The QR iteration algorithm is utilized for solution of standard eigen value problem. Finite element codes are developed to obtain the natural frequencies of single and multiple delaminated quasi-isotropic composite conical shells. The mode shapes for a typical laminate configuration are also depicted. Numerical results obtained are the first known values which could serve as reference solutions for the future investigators.
Flexural stiffnesses of and dimensional stability in circular quasi-isotropic laminate mirrors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Kyung-Pyo
Composite fiber reinforced plastics are being given favorable consideration for emerging applications in large aperture telescopes, such as the Hubble telescope or communication dishes. Many lightweight mirror fabrication concepts are currently being pursued. Presently, the technology is limited because it has an incomplete understanding of the mechanics associated with quasi-isotropic laminates for diffraction-limited displacement constraints, and lack of understanding for effects of resin buffer layers on composite mirrors for high surface smoothness. In this dissertation document, radial stiffness associated with stacking sequence effects in quasi-isotropic laminates (pi/n, where n=3, 4, and 6) and dimensional stability in the composite laminates are investigated numerically. The numerical results show that directional dependency of flexural stiffness in the laminates, which is strongly associated with stacking sequences, is a significant factor causing unfavorable sinusoidal surface waviness. The maximum radial flexural stiffness variation is found as +/-12.85% in pi/3 laminate while a minimum of +/-5.63% is found in pi/4 laminate. Mechanics of maximum asymmetry by +/-2 misorientation based on ideal pi/n laminate lay-ups are evaluated and the results are compared with ideal lay-up sequence cases. The calculated extensional and flexural stiffness values from the maximum asymmetric cases are within less than 0.05%. As such, the radial flexural stiffness variations in quasi-isotropic laminates are shown to be more problematic than asymmetry caused by common manufacturing variance. The types of surface deformations in quasi-isotropic laminates associated with directional dependency of flexural stiffness are evaluated using finite element analyses. Also, fiber print-through in replicated composite mirrors and the effects of the resin buffer layer present in the mirrors for mitigation of the fiber print-through are investigated and discussed. Numerical results reveal that there will be an unfavorable sinusoidal surface deformation in each ideal p/n laminate and the shapes are strongly associated with principal fiber directions due to stacking sequence effects. The surface deformations in quasi-isotropic laminates are shown to be typical and such surface deformations are inevitable when composite mirrors are fabricated from discrete layers of anisotropic carbon fiber reinforced plastics. Moreover, the use of additional resin layers appears to more adversely influence the composite mirror substrates. The validation of predicted surface deformations and dimensional distortions are achieved by comparing experimental results on a 8-inch-diameter composite mirror sample fabricated at the University of Kansas Dept. of Aerospace Engineering (KUAE) and Bennett Optical Research (BOR). A study of quasi-homogeneous materials such as short fiber products as alternative composite materials is investigated. Furthermore, the relation between resin property effects and corresponding resin thickness effects is evaluated and discussed. The analyses provide information on alternative types of materials that primarily affect optical performance and thus are most important for precision optics. Based on the results, locally varying radial surface deformations in quasi-isotropic laminates fabricated from continuous fiber reinforced plastics distort optical performance. These surface deformations might be eliminated by utilizing short fiber materials and a soft resin system with a very low coefficient of thermal expansion compared to conventional resins.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hinkley, J. A.; O'Brien, T. K.
1991-01-01
Sixteen and thirty-two ply quasi-isotropic laminates fabricated from AS4/3501-6 were subjected to pure tension, simultaneous tension and torsion, and torsion fatigue. Layups tested were (45 sub n/-45 sub n/0 sub n/90 sub n) sub s, with n = 2 or 4. A torsion damage pattern consisting of a localized matrix crack and delaminations was characterized, and the measured torsional stiffnesses were compared with calculated values. It was found that a combination of tension and torsion led to failure at smaller loads than either type of deformation acting alone. Further work is required to determine the exact form of the failure criterion.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hinkley, J. A.; Obrien, T. K.
1992-01-01
Sixteen and thirty-two ply quasi-isotropic laminates fabricated from AS4/3501-6 were subjected to pure tension, simultaneous tension and torsion, and torsion fatigue. Layups tested were (45 sub n/-45 sub n/O sub n/90 sub n) sub s, with n = 2 or 4. A torsion damage pattern consisting of a localized matrix crack and delaminations was characterized, and the measured torsional stiffnesses were compared with calculated values. It was found that a combination of tension and torsion led to failure at smaller loads than either type of deformation acting alone. Further work is required to determine the exact form of the failure criterion.
Buckling Behavior of Compression-Loaded Quasi-Isotropic Curved Panels with a Circular Cutout
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hilburger, Mark W.; Britt, Vicki O.; Nemeth, Michael P.
1999-01-01
Results from a numerical and experimental study of the response of compression-loaded quasi-isotropic curved panels with a centrally located circular cutout are presented. The numerical results were obtained by using a geometrically nonlinear finite element analysis code. The effects of cutout size, panel curvature and initial geo- metric imperfections on the overall response of compression-loaded panels are described. In addition, results are presented from a numerical parametric study that indicate the effects of elastic circumferential edge restraints on the prebuckling and buckling response of a selected panel and these numerical results are compared to experimentally measured results. These restraints are used to identify the effects of circumferential edge restraints that are introduced by the test fixture that was used in the present study. It is shown that circumferential edge restraints can introduce substantial nonlinear prebuckling deformations into shallow compression-loaded curved panels that can results in a significant increase in buckling load.
Buckling of a sublaminate in a quasi-isotropic composite laminate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shivakumar, K. N.; Whitcomb, J. D.
1984-01-01
The buckling of an elliptic delamination embedded near the surface of a thick quasi-isotropic laminate was predicted. The thickness of the delaminated ply group (the sublaminate) was assumed to be small compared to the total laminate thickness. Finite-element and Rayleigh-Ritz methods were used for the analyses. The Rayleigh-Ritz method was found to be simple, inexpensive, and accurate, except for highly anisotropic delaminated regions. Effects of delamination shape and orientation, material anisotropy, and layup on buckling strains were examined. Results show that: (1) the stress state around the delaminated region is biaxial, which may lead to buckling when the laminate is loaded in tension; (2) buckling strains for multi-directional fiber sublaminates generally are bounded by those for the 0 deg and 90 deg unidirectional sublaminates; and (3) the direction of elongation of the sublaminate that has the lowest buckling strain correlates with the delamination growth direction.
Elastic properties and fracture strength of quasi-isotropic graphite/epoxy composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sullivan, T. L.
1977-01-01
A research program is described which was devised to determine experimentally the elastic properties in tension and bending of quasi-isotropic laminates made from high-modulus graphite fiber and epoxy. Four laminate configurations were investigated, and determinations were made of the tensile modulus, Poisson's ratio, bending stiffness, fracture strength, and fracture strain. The measured properties are compared with those predicted by laminate theory, reasons for scatter in the experimental data are discussed, and the effect of fiber misalignment on predicted elastic tensile properties is examined. The results strongly suggest that fiber misalignment in combination with variation in fiber volume content is responsible for the scatter in both elastic constants and fracture strength.
Buckling of a sublaminate in a quasi-isotropic composite laminate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shivakumar, K. N.; Whitcomb, J. D.
1985-01-01
The buckling of an elliptic delamination embedded near the surface of a thick quasi-isotropic laminate was predicted. The thickness of the delaminated ply group (the sublaminate) was assumed to be small compared to the total laminate thickness. Finite-element and Rayleigh-Ritz methods were used for the analyses. The Rayleigh-Ritz method was found to be simple, inexpensive, and accurate, except for highly anisotropic delaminated regions. Effects of delamination shape and orientation, material anisotropy, and layup on buckling strains were examined. Results show that: (1) the stress state around the delaminated region is biaxial, which may lead to buckling when the laminate is loaded in tension; (2) buckling strains for multi-directional fiber sublaminates generally are bounded by those for the 0 deg and 90 deg unidirectional sublaminates; and (3) the direction of elongation of the sublaminate that has the lowest buckling strain correlates with the delamination growth direction.
Thermo-oxidative degradation assessment in quasi-isotropic carbon fiber/epoxy composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daily, Connor; Barnard, Dan J.; Jones, Roger W.; McClelland, John F.; Bowler, Nicola
2015-03-01
Components made from polymer matrix composites (PMCs) are finding increasing use in armored vehicles for the purpose of weight savings and fuel efficiency. Often times, these PMC components are installed next to engines, or in other high-temperature environments within the vehicle. The present work investigates the change in surface chemistry and its correlation with changes in the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) due to accelerated thermo-oxidative aging of a quasi-isotropic carbon fiber reinforced epoxy laminate. Samples are aged isothermally at various temperatures whose selection is guided by degradation steps revealed by thermo-gravimetric analysis. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) photoacoustic spectroscopy is utilized to identify the chemical changes due to aging, and compression-test results reveal a non-linear decrease in ILSS with increasing aging temperature. A correlation between the FTIR and ILSS data sets suggests that nondestructive FTIR techniques may be used for assessing ILSS of PMCs.
High-Q/V Monolithic Diamond Microdisks Fabricated with Quasi-isotropic Etching.
Khanaliloo, Behzad; Mitchell, Matthew; Hryciw, Aaron C; Barclay, Paul E
2015-08-12
Optical microcavities enhance light-matter interactions and are essential for many experiments in solid state quantum optics, optomechanics, and nonlinear optics. Single crystal diamond microcavities are particularly sought after for applications involving diamond quantum emitters, such as nitrogen vacancy centers, and for experiments that benefit from diamond's excellent optical and mechanical properties. Light-matter coupling rates in experiments involving microcavities typically scale with Q/V, where Q and V are the microcavity quality-factor and mode-volume, respectively. Here we demonstrate that microdisk whispering gallery mode cavities with high Q/V can be fabricated directly from bulk single crystal diamond. By using a quasi-isotropic oxygen plasma to etch along diamond crystal planes and undercut passivated diamond structures, we create monolithic diamond microdisks. Fiber taper based measurements show that these devices support TE- and TM-like optical modes with Q > 1.1 × 10(5) and V < 11(λ/n) (3) at a wavelength of 1.5 μm. PMID:26134379
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dost, Ernest F.; Ilcewicz, Larry B.; Avery, William B.; Coxon, Brian R.
1991-01-01
Residual strength of an impacted composite laminate is dependent on details of the damage state. Stacking sequence was varied to judge its effect on damage caused by low-velocity impact. This was done for quasi-isotropic layups of a toughened composite material. Experimental observations on changes in the impact damage state and postimpact compressive performance were presented for seven different laminate stacking sequences. The applicability and limitations of analysis compared to experimental results were also discussed. Postimpact compressive behavior was found to be a strong function of the laminate stacking sequence. This relationship was found to depend on thickness, stacking sequence, size, and location of sublaminates that comprise the impact damage state. The postimpact strength for specimens with a relatively symmetric distribution of damage through the laminate thickness was accurately predicted by models that accounted for sublaminate stability and in-plane stress redistribution. An asymmetric distribution of damage in some laminate stacking sequences tended to alter specimen stability. Geometrically nonlinear finite element analysis was used to predict this behavior.
Experimental data on single-bolt joints in quasi isotropic graphite/polyimide laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wichorek, G. R.
1982-01-01
Sixteen ply, quasi-isotropic laminates of Celanese Celion 6000/PMR-15 and Celion 6000/LARC-160 with a fiber orientation of (0/45/90/-45) sub 2S were evaluated. Tensile and open hole specimens were tested at room temperature to establish laminate tensile strength and net tensile strength at an unloaded bolt hole. Double lap joint specimens with a single 4.83-mm (0.19 in.) diameter bolt torqued to 1.7 N-m (15 lbf-in.) were tested in tension at temperatures of 116 K (-250F), 297 K (75F), and 589 K (600F). The joint ratios of w/d (specimen width to hole diameter) and e/d (edge distance to hole diameter) were varied from 4 to 6 and from 2 to 4, respectively. The effect of joint geometry and temperature on failure mode and joint stresses are shown. Joint stresses calculated at maximum load for each joint geometry and test temperature are reported. Joint strength in net tension, bearing, and shear out at 116 K (-250F), 297 K (75F), and 589 K (600F) are given for the Celion 6000/PMR-15 and Celion 6000/LARC-160 laminates.
Durability-Based Design Criteria for a Quasi-Isotropic Carbon-Fiber Automotive Composite
Corum, J.M.
2002-04-17
This report provides recommended durability-based design properties and criteria for a quasi-isotropic carbon-fiber composite for possible automotive structural applications. The composite, which was made by a rapid molding process suitable for high-volume automotive applications, consisted of continuous Thornel T300 fibers (6K tow) in a Baydur 420 IMR urethane matrix. The reinforcement was in the form of four {+-}45{sup o} stitch-bonded mats in the following layup: [0/90{sup o}/{+-}45{sup o}]{sub S}. This material is the second in a progression of three candidate thermoset composites to be characterized and modeled as part of an Oak Ridge National Laboratory project entitled Durability of Carbon-Fiber Composites. The overall goal of the project, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies and is closely coordinated with the industry Automotive Composites Consortium, is to develop durability-driven design data and criteria to assure the long-term integrity of carbon-fiber-based composite systems for large automotive structural components. This document is in two parts. Part I provides the design criteria, and Part 2 provides the underlying experimental data and models. The durability issues addressed include the effects on deformation, strength, and stiffness of cyclic and sustained loads, operating temperature, automotive fluid environments, and low-energy impacts (e.g., tool drops and kickups of roadway debris). Guidance is provided for design analysis, time-dependent allowable stresses, rules for cyclic loadings, and damage tolerance design guidance, including the effects of holes. Chapter 6 provides a brief summary of the design criteria.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, Chunmei; Yu, Xia; Guo, Peiji
2014-08-01
A regularization stiffness coefficient method was verified further to optimize lay-up sequences of quasi-isotropic laminates for carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite mirrors. Firstly, the deformation due to gravity of 1G and temperature difference of 20-100C and the modal were analyzed by finite element method (FEM). Secondly, the influence of angle error of ply stacking on quasi-isotropic of bending stiffness was evaluated. Finally, an active support system of 49 actuators in circular arrangement is designed for a 500mm CFRP mirror, and its goal is to deform the spherical CFRP mirror to a parabolic. Therefore, the response functions of the actuators were gotten, and the surface form errors and stresses were calculated and analyzed. The results show that the CFRP mirrors designed by the method have a better symmetrical bending deformation under gravity and thermal load and a higher fundamental frequency, and the larger n the better symmetry (for ?/n quasi-isotropic laminates); the method reduces the sensitivity to misalignment of ply orientation for symmetric bending, and the mirror's maximum von Mises stress and maximum shear stress are less compared to those laminates not optimized in lay-up sequence.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelkar, A. D.
1984-01-01
In thin composite laminates, the first level of visible damage occurs in the back face and is called back face spalling. A plate-membrane coupling model, and a finite element model to analyze the large deformation behavior of eight-ply quasi-isotropic circular composite plates under impact type point loads are developed. The back face spalling phenomenon in thin composite plates is explained by using the plate-membrane coupling model and the finite element model in conjunction with the fracture mechanics principles. The experimental results verifying these models are presented. Several conclusions concerning the deformation behavior are reached and discussed in detail.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sohi, M. M.; Hahn, H. T.; Williams, J. G.
1986-01-01
Compressive failure mechanisms in quasi-isotropic graphite/epoxy laminates were characterized for both unnotched and notched specimens and also following damage by impact. Two types of fibers (Thornel 300 and 700) and four resin systems (Narmco 5208, American Cyanamid BP907, and Union Carbide 4901/MDA and 4901/mPDA) were studied. For all material combinations, failure of unnotched specimens was initiated by kinking of fibers in the 0-degree plies. A major difference was observed, however, in the mode of failure propagation after the 0-degree ply failure. The strength of quasi-isotropic laminates in general increased with increasing resin tensile modulus. The laminates made with Thornel 700 fibers exhibited slightly lower compressive strengths than did the laminates made with Thornel 300 fibers. The notch sensitivity as measured by the hole strength was lowest for the BP907 resin and highest for the 5208 resin. For the materials studied, however, the type of fiber had no effect on the notch sensitivity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hahn, H. Thomas; Williams, Jerry G.; Sohi, Ohsen M.
1987-01-01
Compressive failure mechanisms in quasi-isotropic graphite/epoxy laminates were characterized for both unnotched and notched specimens and also following damage by impact. Two types of fibers (Thornel 300 and 700) and four resin systems (Narmco 5208, American Cyanamid BP907, and Union Carbide 4901/MDA and 4901/mPDA) were studied. For all material combinations, failure of unnotched specimens was initiated by kinking of fibers in the 0-degree plies. A major difference was observed, however, in the mode of failure propagation after the 0-degree ply failure. The strength of quasi-isotropic laminates in general increased with increasing resin tensile modulus. The laminates made with Thornel 700 fibers exhibited slightly lower compressive strengths than did the laminates made with Thornel 300 fibers. The notch sensitivity as measured by the hole strength was lowest for the BP907 resin and highest for the 5208 resin. For the materials studied, however, the type of fiber had no effect on the notch sensitivity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hyer, M. W.; Hagaman, J. A.
1979-01-01
The results of a series of tests of graphite-polyimide honeycomb sandwich panels are presented. The panels were 1.22 m long, 0.508 m wide, and approximately 13.3 m thick. The face sheets were a T-300/PMR-15 fabric in a quasi-isotropic layup and were 0.279 mm thick. The core was Hexcel HRH 327-3/16 - 4.0 glass reinforced polyimide honeycomb, 12.7 mm thick. Three panels were used in the test: one was cut into smaller pieces for testing as beam, compression, and shear specimens; a second panel was used for plate bending tests; the third panel was used for in-plane stability tests. Presented are the experimental results of four point bending tests, short block compression tests, core transverse shear modulus, three point bending tests, vibration tests, plate bending tests, and panel stability tests. The results of the first three tests are used to predict the results of some of the other tests. The predictions and experimental results are compared, and the agreement is quite good.
Thermomechanical fatigue behavior of a quasi-isotropic SCS-6/Ti-15-3 metal matrix composite
Hart, K.A.; Mall, S. . Dept. of Aeronautics and Astronautics)
1995-01-01
As the speed of new aerospace vehicles pushes the supersonic and hypersonic envelopes, aerodynamic heating and structural strength and weight are becoming even greater design factors. Here, the response of a quasi-isotropic laminate of metal matrix composite, SCS-6/Ti-15-3 in a thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) environment was investigated. To achieve this, three sets of fatigue tests were conducted: (1) in-phase TMF (IP-TMF), (2) out-of-phase TMF (OP-TMF), and (3) isothermal fatigue (IF). The fatigue response was dependent on the test condition and the maximum stress level during cycling. The IF, IP-TMF, and OP-TMF conditions yielded shortest fatigue life at higher, intermediate and lower stress levels, respectively. Examination of the failure mode through the variation of strain or modulus during cycling, and post-mortem microscopic evaluation revealed that it was dependent on the fatigue condition and applied stress level. Higher stresses, mostly with IP-TMF and IF conditions, produced a primarily fiber dominated failure. Lower stresses, mostly with the OP-TMF condition, produced a matrix dominated failure. Also, an empirical model based on the observed damage mechanisms was developed to represent the fatigue lives for the three conditions examined here.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Illg, W.
1986-01-01
A partial-bonding interlaminar toughening concept was evaluated for resistance to impact and for behavior of a loaded hole. Perforated Mylar sheets were interleaved between all 24 plies of a graphite/epoxy quasi-isotropic lay-up. Specimens were impacted by aluminum spheres while under tensile or compressive loads. Impact-failure thresholds and residual strengths were obtained. Loaded-hole specimens were tested in three configurations that were critical in bearing, shear, or tension. Partial bonding reduced the tensile and compressive strengths of undamaged specimens by about one-third. For impact, partial bonding did not change the threshold for impact failure under tensile preload. However, under compressive preload, partial bonding caused serious degradation of impact resistance. Partial bonding reduced the maximum load-carrying capacity of all three types of loaded-hole specimens. Overall, partial bonding degraded both impact resistance and bearing strength of holes.
An approximate solution for interlaminar stresses in laminated composites: Applied mechanics program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rose, Cheryl A.; Herakovich, Carl T.
1992-01-01
An approximate solution for interlaminar stresses in finite width, laminated composites subjected to uniform extensional, and bending loads is presented. The solution is based upon the principle of minimum complementary energy and an assumed, statically admissible stress state, derived by considering local material mismatch effects and global equilibrium requirements. The stresses in each layer are approximated by polynomial functions of the thickness coordinate, multiplied by combinations of exponential functions of the in-plane coordinate, expressed in terms of fourteen unknown decay parameters. Imposing the stationary condition of the laminate complementary energy with respect to the unknown variables yields a system of fourteen non-linear algebraic equations for the parameters. Newton's method is implemented to solve this system. Once the parameters are known, the stresses can be easily determined at any point in the laminate. Results are presented for through-thickness and interlaminar stress distributions for angle-ply, cross-ply (symmetric and unsymmetric laminates), and quasi-isotropic laminates subjected to uniform extension and bending. It is shown that the solution compares well with existing finite element solutions and represents an improved approximate solution for interlaminar stresses, primarily at interfaces where global equilibrium is satisfied by the in-plane stresses, but large local mismatch in properties requires the presence of interlaminar stresses.
Elastic properties and fracture strength of quasi-isotropic graphite/epoxy composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sullivan, T. L.
1977-01-01
The layups of the studied laminates are (0, + or - 60) sub s, (0, + or - 45, 90) sub s, (0, + or - 30, + or - 60, 90) sub s (0, + or - 22 1/2, + or - 45, + or - 67 1/2, 90) sub s. The properties determined were tensile modulus, Poisson's ratio, bending stiffness, fracture strength and fracture strain. Measured properties and properties predicted using laminate theory were found to be in reasonable agreement. Reasons for data scatter were determined.
Stresses in a quasi-isotropic pin loaded connector using photoelasticity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hyer, M. W.; Liu, D. H.
1983-01-01
Birefringent glass-epoxy and a numerical stress separation scheme are used to compute the stresses in the vicinity of a pin-loaded hole. The radial and circumferential stresses at the hole edge, and the net section and shear-out stresses are computed. The numerical and experimental results are compared with the computed stresses. The fixture used to load the connector is discussed and typical isochromatic and isoclinic fringe patterns are presented. The stress-separation scheme is briefly discussed.
Stresses in a quasi-isotropic pin-loaded connector using photoelasticity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hyer, M. W.; Liu, D.
1984-01-01
Birefringent glass-epoxy and a numerical stress separation scheme are used to compute the stresses in the vicinity of a pin-loaded hole. The radial and circumferential stresses at the hole edge, and the net section and shear-out stresses are computed. The numerical and experimental results are compared with the computed stresses. The fixture used to load the connector is discussed and typical isochromatic and isoclinic fringe patterns are presented. The stress-separation scheme is briefly discussed. Previously announced in STAR as N83-33220
Delamination growth analysis in quasi-isotropic laminates under loads simulating low-velocity impact
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shivakumar, K. N.; Elber, W.
1984-01-01
A geometrically nonlinear finite-element analysis was developed to calculate the strain energy released by delamination plates during impact loading. Only the first mode of deformation, which is equivalent to static deflection, was treated. Both the impact loading and delamination in the plate were assumed to be axisymmetric. The strain energy release rate in peeling, G sub I, and shear sliding, G sub II, modes were calculated using the fracture mechanics crack closure technique. Energy release rates for various delamination sizes and locations and for various plate configurations and materials were compared. The analysis indicated that shear sliding (G sub II) was the primary mode of delamination growth. The analysis also indicated that the midplane (maximum transverse shear stress plane) delamination was more critical and would grow before any other delamination of the same size near the midplane region. The delamination growth rate was higher (neutrally stable) for a low toughness (brittle) matrix and slower (stable) for high toughness matrix. The energy release rate in the peeling mode, G sub I, for a near-surface delamination can be as high as 0.5G sub II and can contribute significantly to the delamination growth.
Minimum variance guided wave imaging in a quasi-isotropic composite plate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hall, James S.; McKeon, Peter; Satyanarayan, L.; Michaels, Jennifer E.; Declercq, Nico F.; Berthelot, Yves H.
2011-02-01
Ultrasonic guided waves are capable of rapidly interrogating large, plate-like structures for both nondestructive evaluation and structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. Distributed sparse arrays of inexpensive piezoelectric transducers offer a cost-effective way to automate the interrogation process. However, the sparse nature of the array limits the amount of information available for performing damage detection and localization. Minimum variance techniques have been incorporated into guided wave imaging to reduce the magnitude of imaging artifacts and improve the imaging performance for sparse array SHM applications. The ability of these techniques to improve imaging performance is related to the accuracy of a priori model assumptions, such as scattering characteristics and dispersion. This paper reports the application of minimum variance imaging under slightly inaccurate model assumptions, such as are expected in realistic environments. Specifically, the imaging algorithm assumes an isotropic, non-dispersive, single mode propagating environment with a scattering field independent of incident angle and frequency. In actuality, the composite material considered here is not only slightly anisotropic and dispersive but also supports multiple propagating modes, and additionally, the scattering field is dependent on the incident angle, scattered angle, and frequency. An isotropic propagation velocity is estimated via calibration prior to imaging to implement the non-dispersive model assumption. Imaging performance is presented under these inaccurate assumptions to demonstrate the robustness of minimum variance imaging to common sources of imaging artifacts.
Interpolation and Approximation Theory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kaijser, Sten
1991-01-01
Introduced are the basic ideas of interpolation and approximation theory through a combination of theory and exercises written for extramural education at the university level. Topics treated are spline methods, Lagrange interpolation, trigonometric approximation, Fourier series, and polynomial approximation. (MDH)
Rasin, A.
1994-04-01
We discuss the idea of approximate flavor symmetries. Relations between approximate flavor symmetries and natural flavor conservation and democracy models is explored. Implications for neutrino physics are also discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dutta, Soumitra
1988-01-01
A model for approximate spatial reasoning using fuzzy logic to represent the uncertainty in the environment is presented. Algorithms are developed which can be used to reason about spatial information expressed in the form of approximate linguistic descriptions similar to the kind of spatial information processed by humans. Particular attention is given to static spatial reasoning.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dutta, Soumitra
1988-01-01
Much of human reasoning is approximate in nature. Formal models of reasoning traditionally try to be precise and reject the fuzziness of concepts in natural use and replace them with non-fuzzy scientific explicata by a process of precisiation. As an alternate to this approach, it has been suggested that rather than regard human reasoning processes as themselves approximating to some more refined and exact logical process that can be carried out with mathematical precision, the essence and power of human reasoning is in its capability to grasp and use inexact concepts directly. This view is supported by the widespread fuzziness of simple everyday terms (e.g., near tall) and the complexity of ordinary tasks (e.g., cleaning a room). Spatial reasoning is an area where humans consistently reason approximately with demonstrably good results. Consider the case of crossing a traffic intersection. We have only an approximate idea of the locations and speeds of various obstacles (e.g., persons and vehicles), but we nevertheless manage to cross such traffic intersections without any harm. The details of our mental processes which enable us to carry out such intricate tasks in such apparently simple manner are not well understood. However, it is that we try to incorporate such approximate reasoning techniques in our computer systems. Approximate spatial reasoning is very important for intelligent mobile agents (e.g., robots), specially for those operating in uncertain or unknown or dynamic domains.
Approximate kernel competitive learning.
Wu, Jian-Sheng; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Lai, Jian-Huang
2015-03-01
Kernel competitive learning has been successfully used to achieve robust clustering. However, kernel competitive learning (KCL) is not scalable for large scale data processing, because (1) it has to calculate and store the full kernel matrix that is too large to be calculated and kept in the memory and (2) it cannot be computed in parallel. In this paper we develop a framework of approximate kernel competitive learning for processing large scale dataset. The proposed framework consists of two parts. First, it derives an approximate kernel competitive learning (AKCL), which learns kernel competitive learning in a subspace via sampling. We provide solid theoretical analysis on why the proposed approximation modelling would work for kernel competitive learning, and furthermore, we show that the computational complexity of AKCL is largely reduced. Second, we propose a pseudo-parallelled approximate kernel competitive learning (PAKCL) based on a set-based kernel competitive learning strategy, which overcomes the obstacle of using parallel programming in kernel competitive learning and significantly accelerates the approximate kernel competitive learning for large scale clustering. The empirical evaluation on publicly available datasets shows that the proposed AKCL and PAKCL can perform comparably as KCL, with a large reduction on computational cost. Also, the proposed methods achieve more effective clustering performance in terms of clustering precision against related approximate clustering approaches. PMID:25528318
Pincus, S M
1992-05-15
A common framework of finite state approximating Markov chains is developed for discrete time deterministic and stochastic processes. Two types of approximating chains are introduced: (i) those based on stationary conditional probabilities (time averaging) and (ii) transient, based on the percentage of the Lebesgue measure of the image of cells intersecting any given cell. For general dynamical systems, stationary measures for both approximating chains converge weakly to stationary measures for the true process as partition width converges to 0. From governing equations, transient chains and resultant approximations of all n-time unit probabilities can be computed analytically, despite typically singular true-process stationary measures (no density function). Transition probabilities between cells account explicitly for correlation between successive time increments. For dynamical systems defined by uniformly convergent maps on a compact set (e.g., logistic, Henon maps), there also is weak continuity with a control parameter. Thus all moments are continuous with parameter change, across bifurcations and chaotic regimes. Approximate entropy is seen as the information-theoretic rate of entropy for approximating Markov chains and is suggested as a parameter for turbulence; a discontinuity in the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy implies that in the physical world, some measure of coarse graining in a mixing parameter is required. PMID:11607293
Covariant approximation averaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shintani, Eigo; Arthur, Rudy; Blum, Thomas; Izubuchi, Taku; Jung, Chulwoo; Lehner, Christoph
2015-06-01
We present a new class of statistical error reduction techniques for Monte Carlo simulations. Using covariant symmetries, we show that correlation functions can be constructed from inexpensive approximations without introducing any systematic bias in the final result. We introduce a new class of covariant approximation averaging techniques, known as all-mode averaging (AMA), in which the approximation takes account of contributions of all eigenmodes through the inverse of the Dirac operator computed from the conjugate gradient method with a relaxed stopping condition. In this paper we compare the performance and computational cost of our new method with traditional methods using correlation functions and masses of the pion, nucleon, and vector meson in Nf=2 +1 lattice QCD using domain-wall fermions. This comparison indicates that AMA significantly reduces statistical errors in Monte Carlo calculations over conventional methods for the same cost.
Approximate programmable quantum processors
Hillery, Mark; Ziman, Mario; Buzek, Vladimir
2006-02-15
A quantum processor is a programmable quantum circuit in which both the data and the program, which specifies the operation that is carried out on the data, are quantum states. We study the situation in which we want to use such a processor to approximate a set of unitary operators to a specified level of precision. We measure how well an operation is performed by the process fidelity between the desired operation and the operation produced by the processor. We show how to find the program for a given processor that produces the best approximation of a particular unitary operation. We also place bounds on the dimension of the program space that is necessary to approximate a set of unitary operators to a specified level of precision.
Approximate Bayesian Computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cisewski, Jessi
2015-08-01
Explicitly specifying a likelihood function is becoming increasingly difficult for many problems in astronomy. Astronomers often specify a simpler approximate likelihood - leaving out important aspects of a more realistic model. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) provides a framework for performing inference in cases where the likelihood is not available or intractable. I will introduce ABC and explain how it can be a useful tool for astronomers. In particular, I will focus on the eccentricity distribution for a sample of exoplanets with multiple sub-populations.
Approximating Integrals Using Probability
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Maruszewski, Richard F., Jr.; Caudle, Kyle A.
2005-01-01
As part of a discussion on Monte Carlo methods, which outlines how to use probability expectations to approximate the value of a definite integral. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on this technique and then to show several examples using visual basic as a programming tool. It is an interesting method because it combines two branches of…
Approximating Integrals Using Probability
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Maruszewski, Richard F., Jr.; Caudle, Kyle A.
2005-01-01
As part of a discussion on Monte Carlo methods, which outlines how to use probability expectations to approximate the value of a definite integral. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on this technique and then to show several examples using visual basic as a programming tool. It is an interesting method because it combines two branches of
Multicriteria approximation through decomposition
Burch, C.; Krumke, S.; Marathe, M.; Phillips, C.; Sundberg, E.
1998-06-01
The authors propose a general technique called solution decomposition to devise approximation algorithms with provable performance guarantees. The technique is applicable to a large class of combinatorial optimization problems that can be formulated as integer linear programs. Two key ingredients of their technique involve finding a decomposition of a fractional solution into a convex combination of feasible integral solutions and devising generic approximation algorithms based on calls to such decompositions as oracles. The technique is closely related to randomized rounding. Their method yields as corollaries unified solutions to a number of well studied problems and it provides the first approximation algorithms with provable guarantees for a number of new problems. The particular results obtained in this paper include the following: (1) the authors demonstrate how the technique can be used to provide more understanding of previous results and new algorithms for classical problems such as Multicriteria Spanning Trees, and Suitcase Packing; (2) they also show how the ideas can be extended to apply to multicriteria optimization problems, in which they wish to minimize a certain objective function subject to one or more budget constraints. As corollaries they obtain first non-trivial multicriteria approximation algorithms for problems including the k-Hurdle and the Network Inhibition problems.
Multicriteria approximation through decomposition
Burch, C. |; Krumke, S.; Marathe, M.; Phillips, C.; Sundberg, E. |
1997-12-01
The authors propose a general technique called solution decomposition to devise approximation algorithms with provable performance guarantees. The technique is applicable to a large class of combinatorial optimization problems that can be formulated as integer linear programs. Two key ingredients of the technique involve finding a decomposition of a fractional solution into a convex combination of feasible integral solutions and devising generic approximation algorithms based on calls to such decompositions as oracles. The technique is closely related to randomized rounding. The method yields as corollaries unified solutions to a number of well studied problems and it provides the first approximation algorithms with provable guarantees for a number of new problems. The particular results obtained in this paper include the following: (1) The authors demonstrate how the technique can be used to provide more understanding of previous results and new algorithms for classical problems such as Multicriteria Spanning Trees, and Suitcase Packing. (2) They show how the ideas can be extended to apply to multicriteria optimization problems, in which they wish to minimize a certain objective function subject to one or more budget constraints. As corollaries they obtain first non-trivial multicriteria approximation algorithms for problems including the k-Hurdle and the Network Inhibition problems.
Naus, Dan J; Corum, James; Klett, Lynn B; Davenport, Mike; Battiste, Rick; Simpson, Jr., William A
2006-04-01
This report provides recommended durability-based design properties and criteria for a quais-isotropic carbon-fiber thermoplastic composite for possible automotive structural applications. The composite consisted of a PolyPhenylene Sulfide (PPS) thermoplastic matrix (Fortron's PPS - Ticona 0214B1 powder) reinforced with 16 plies of carbon-fiber unidirectional tape, [0?/90?/+45?/-45?]2S. The carbon fiber was Hexcel AS-4C and was present in a fiber volume of 53% (60%, by weight). The overall goal of the project, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Freedom Car and Vehicle Technologies and is closely coordinated with the Advanced Composites Consortium, is to develop durability-driven design data and criteria to assure the long-term integrity of carbon-fiber-based composite systems for automotive structural applications. This document is in two parts. Part 1 provides design data and correlations, while Part 2 provides the underlying experimental data and models. The durability issues addressed include the effects of short-time, cyclic, and sustained loadings; temperature; fluid environments; and low-energy impacts (e.g., tool drops and kickups of roadway debris) on deformation, strength, and stiffness. Guidance for design analysis, time-independent and time-dependent allowable stresses, rules for cyclic loadings, and damage-tolerance design guidance are provided.
Verre, Ruggero; Antosiewicz, Tomasz J; Svedendahl, Mikael; Lodewijks, Kristof; Shegai, Timur; Kll, Mikael
2014-09-23
Quasicrystals are structures that possess long-range order without being periodic. We investigate the unique characteristics of a photonic quasicrystal that consists of plasmonic Ag nanodisks arranged in a Penrose pattern. The quasicrystal scatters light in a complex but spectacular diffraction pattern that can be directly imaged in the back focal plane of an optical microscope, allowing us to assess the excitation efficiency of the various diffraction modes. Furthermore, surface plasmon polaritons can be launched almost isotropically through near-field grating coupling when the quasicrystal is positioned close to a homogeneous silver surface. We characterize the dispersion relation of the different excited plasmon modes by reflection measurements and simulations. It is demonstrated that the quasicrystal in-coupling efficiency is strongly enhanced compared to a nanoparticle array with the same particle density but only short-range lateral order. We envision that the system can be useful for a number of advanced light harvesting and optoelectronic applications. PMID:25182843
Optimizing the Zeldovich approximation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melott, Adrian L.; Pellman, Todd F.; Shandarin, Sergei F.
1994-01-01
We have recently learned that the Zeldovich approximation can be successfully used for a far wider range of gravitational instability scenarios than formerly proposed; we study here how to extend this range. In previous work (Coles, Melott and Shandarin 1993, hereafter CMS) we studied the accuracy of several analytic approximations to gravitational clustering in the mildly nonlinear regime. We found that what we called the 'truncated Zeldovich approximation' (TZA) was better than any other (except in one case the ordinary Zeldovich approximation) over a wide range from linear to mildly nonlinear (sigma approximately 3) regimes. TZA was specified by setting Fourier amplitudes equal to zero for all wavenumbers greater than k(sub nl), where k(sub nl) marks the transition to the nonlinear regime. Here, we study the cross correlation of generalized TZA with a group of n-body simulations for three shapes of window function: sharp k-truncation (as in CMS), a tophat in coordinate space, or a Gaussian. We also study the variation in the crosscorrelation as a function of initial truncation scale within each type. We find that k-truncation, which was so much better than other things tried in CMS, is the worst of these three window shapes. We find that a Gaussian window e(exp(-k(exp 2)/2k(exp 2, sub G))) applied to the initial Fourier amplitudes is the best choice. It produces a greatly improved crosscorrelation in those cases which most needed improvement, e.g. those with more small-scale power in the initial conditions. The optimum choice of kG for the Gaussian window is (a somewhat spectrum-dependent) 1 to 1.5 times k(sub nl). Although all three windows produce similar power spectra and density distribution functions after application of the Zeldovich approximation, the agreement of the phases of the Fourier components with the n-body simulation is better for the Gaussian window. We therefore ascribe the success of the best-choice Gaussian window to its superior treatment of phases in the nonlinear regime. We also report on the accuracy of particle positions and velocities produced by TZA.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merrill, W. C.
1978-01-01
The Routh approximation technique for reducing the complexity of system models was applied in the frequency domain to a 16th order, state variable model of the F100 engine and to a 43d order, transfer function model of a launch vehicle boost pump pressure regulator. The results motivate extending the frequency domain formulation of the Routh method to the time domain in order to handle the state variable formulation directly. The time domain formulation was derived and a characterization that specifies all possible Routh similarity transformations was given. The characterization was computed by solving two eigenvalue-eigenvector problems. The application of the time domain Routh technique to the state variable engine model is described, and some results are given. Additional computational problems are discussed, including an optimization procedure that can improve the approximation accuracy by taking advantage of the transformation characterization.
Topics in Metric Approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leeb, William Edward
This thesis develops effective approximations of certain metrics that occur frequently in pure and applied mathematics. We show that distances that often arise in applications, such as the Earth Mover's Distance between two probability measures, can be approximated by easily computed formulas for a wide variety of ground distances. We develop simple and easily computed characterizations both of norms measuring a function's regularity -- such as the Lipschitz norm -- and of their duals. We are particularly concerned with the tensor product of metric spaces, where the natural notion of regularity is not the Lipschitz condition but the mixed Lipschitz condition. A theme that runs throughout this thesis is that snowflake metrics (metrics raised to a power less than 1) are often better-behaved than ordinary metrics. For example, we show that snowflake metrics on finite spaces can be approximated by the average of tree metrics with a distortion bounded by intrinsic geometric characteristics of the space and not the number of points. Many of the metrics for which we characterize the Lipschitz space and its dual are snowflake metrics. We also present applications of the characterization of certain regularity norms to the problem of recovering a matrix that has been corrupted by noise. We are able to achieve an optimal rate of recovery for certain families of matrices by exploiting the relationship between mixed-variable regularity conditions and the decay of a function's coefficients in a certain orthonormal basis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sukumar, N.
2005-11-01
In this paper, the construction of scattered data approximants is studied using the principle of maximum entropy. For under-determined and ill-posed problems, Jaynes's principle of maximum information-theoretic entropy is a means for least-biased statistical inference when insufficient information is available. Consider a set of distinct nodes {xi}i=1n in Rd, and a point p with coordinate x that is located within the convex hull of the set {xi}. The convex approximation of a function u(x) is written as: uh(x) = ?i=1n ?i(x)ui, where {?i}i=1n ? 0 are known as shape functions, and uh must reproduce affine functions (d = 2): ?i=1n ?i = 1, ?i=1n ?ixi = x, ?i=1n ?iyi = y. We view the shape functions as a discrete probability distribution, and the linear constraints as the expectation of a linear function. For n > 3, the problem is under-determined. To obtain a unique solution, we compute ?i by maximizing the uncertainty H(?) = - ?i=1n ?i log ?i, subject to the above three constraints. In this approach, only the nodal coordinates are used, and neither the nodal connectivity nor any user-defined parameters are required to determine ?ithe defining characteristics of a mesh-free Galerkin approximant. Numerical results for {?i}i=1n are obtained using a convex minimization algorithm, and shape function plots are presented for different nodal configurations.
Neighbourhood approximation forests.
Konukoglu, Ender; Glocker, Ben; Zikic, Darko; Criminisi, Antonio
2012-01-01
Methods that leverage neighbourhood structures in high-dimensional image spaces have recently attracted attention. These approaches extract information from a new image using its "neighbours" in the image space equipped with an application-specific distance. Finding the neighbourhood of a given image is challenging due to large dataset sizes and costly distance evaluations. Furthermore, automatic neighbourhood search for a new image is currently not possible when the distance is based on ground truth annotations. In this article we present a general and efficient solution to these problems. "neighbourhood approximation forests" (NAF) is a supervised learning algorithm that approximates the neighbourhood structure resulting from an arbitrary distance. As NAF uses only image intensities to infer neighbours it can also be applied to distances based on ground truth annotations. We demonstrate NAF in two scenarios: (i) choosing neighbours with respect to a deformation-based distance, and (ii) age prediction from brain MRI. The experiments show NAF's approximation quality, computational advantages and use in different contexts. PMID:23286116
Chalasani, P.; Saias, I.; Jha, S.
1996-04-08
As increasingly large volumes of sophisticated options (called derivative securities) are traded in world financial markets, determining a fair price for these options has become an important and difficult computational problem. Many valuation codes use the binomial pricing model, in which the stock price is driven by a random walk. In this model, the value of an n-period option on a stock is the expected time-discounted value of the future cash flow on an n-period stock price path. Path-dependent options are particularly difficult to value since the future cash flow depends on the entire stock price path rather than on just the final stock price. Currently such options are approximately priced by Monte carlo methods with error bounds that hold only with high probability and which are reduced by increasing the number of simulation runs. In this paper the authors show that pricing an arbitrary path-dependent option is {number_sign}-P hard. They show that certain types f path-dependent options can be valued exactly in polynomial time. Asian options are path-dependent options that are particularly hard to price, and for these they design deterministic polynomial-time approximate algorithms. They show that the value of a perpetual American put option (which can be computed in constant time) is in many cases a good approximation to the value of an otherwise identical n-period American put option. In contrast to Monte Carlo methods, the algorithms have guaranteed error bounds that are polynormally small (and in some cases exponentially small) in the maturity n. For the error analysis they derive large-deviation results for random walks that may be of independent interest.
Beyond the Kirchhoff approximation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rodriguez, Ernesto
1989-01-01
The three most successful models for describing scattering from random rough surfaces are the Kirchhoff approximation (KA), the small-perturbation method (SPM), and the two-scale-roughness (or composite roughness) surface-scattering (TSR) models. In this paper it is shown how these three models can be derived rigorously from one perturbation expansion based on the extinction theorem for scalar waves scattering from perfectly rigid surface. It is also shown how corrections to the KA proportional to the surface curvature and higher-order derivatives may be obtained. Using these results, the scattering cross section is derived for various surface models.
Countably QC-Approximating Posets
Mao, Xuxin; Xu, Luoshan
2014-01-01
As a generalization of countably C-approximating posets, the concept of countably QC-approximating posets is introduced. With the countably QC-approximating property, some characterizations of generalized completely distributive lattices and generalized countably approximating posets are given. The main results are as follows: (1) a complete lattice is generalized completely distributive if and only if it is countably QC-approximating and weakly generalized countably approximating; (2) a poset L having countably directed joins is generalized countably approximating if and only if the lattice ?c(L)op of all ?-Scott-closed subsets of L is weakly generalized countably approximating. PMID:25165730
Multifocus lemniscates: Approximation of curves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rakcheeva, T. A.
2010-11-01
A focal method for the continuous approximation of smooth closed plane curves is proposed. Multifocus lemniscates are used as the approximating functions. The curve to be approximated is represented by a finite set of foci inside the curve; the number and the location of the foci provide the degrees of freedom for the focal approximation. An algorithmic solution of this problem in various modifications is constructed. Proximity criteria for curves are proposed. A comparative analysis of the approximative capabilities of the focal method with the capabilities of the classical harmonic approximation method is performed.
On uniform approximation of elliptic functions by Pade approximants
Khristoforov, Denis V
2009-06-30
Diagonal Pade approximants of elliptic functions are studied. It is known that the absence of uniform convergence of such approximants is related to them having spurious poles that do not correspond to any singularities of the function being approximated. A sequence of piecewise rational functions is proposed, which is constructed from two neighbouring Pade approximants and approximates an elliptic function locally uniformly in the Stahl domain. The proof of the convergence of this sequence is based on deriving strong asymptotic formulae for the remainder function and Pade polynomials and on the analysis of the behaviour of a spurious pole. Bibliography: 23 titles.
DALI: Derivative Approximation for LIkelihoods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sellentin, Elena
2015-07-01
DALI (Derivative Approximation for LIkelihoods) is a fast approximation of non-Gaussian likelihoods. It extends the Fisher Matrix in a straightforward way and allows for a wider range of posterior shapes. The code is written in C/C++.
Taylor Approximations and Definite Integrals
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gordon, Sheldon P.
2007-01-01
We investigate the possibility of approximating the value of a definite integral by approximating the integrand rather than using numerical methods to approximate the value of the definite integral. Particular cases considered include examples where the integral is improper, such as an elliptic integral. (Contains 4 tables and 2 figures.)
Combining global and local approximations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haftka, Raphael T.
1991-01-01
A method based on a linear approximation to a scaling factor, designated the 'global-local approximation' (GLA) method, is presented and shown capable of extending the range of usefulness of derivative-based approximations to a more refined model. The GLA approach refines the conventional scaling factor by means of a linearly varying, rather than constant, scaling factor. The capabilities of the method are demonstrated for a simple beam example with a crude and more refined FEM model.
Approximate circuits for increased reliability
Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.
2015-12-22
Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.
Approximate circuits for increased reliability
Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.
2015-08-18
Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.
Metrical Diophantine approximation for quaternions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dodson, Maurice; Everitt, Brent
2014-11-01
Analogues of the classical theorems of Khintchine, Jarnik and Jarnik-Besicovitch in the metrical theory of Diophantine approximation are established for quaternions by applying results on the measure of general `lim sup' sets.
Mathematical algorithms for approximate reasoning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murphy, John H.; Chay, Seung C.; Downs, Mary M.
1988-01-01
Most state of the art expert system environments contain a single and often ad hoc strategy for approximate reasoning. Some environments provide facilities to program the approximate reasoning algorithms. However, the next generation of expert systems should have an environment which contain a choice of several mathematical algorithms for approximate reasoning. To meet the need for validatable and verifiable coding, the expert system environment must no longer depend upon ad hoc reasoning techniques but instead must include mathematically rigorous techniques for approximate reasoning. Popular approximate reasoning techniques are reviewed, including: certainty factors, belief measures, Bayesian probabilities, fuzzy logic, and Shafer-Dempster techniques for reasoning. A group of mathematically rigorous algorithms for approximate reasoning are focused on that could form the basis of a next generation expert system environment. These algorithms are based upon the axioms of set theory and probability theory. To separate these algorithms for approximate reasoning various conditions of mutual exclusivity and independence are imposed upon the assertions. Approximate reasoning algorithms presented include: reasoning with statistically independent assertions, reasoning with mutually exclusive assertions, reasoning with assertions that exhibit minimum overlay within the state space, reasoning with assertions that exhibit maximum overlay within the state space (i.e. fuzzy logic), pessimistic reasoning (i.e. worst case analysis), optimistic reasoning (i.e. best case analysis), and reasoning with assertions with absolutely no knowledge of the possible dependency among the assertions. A robust environment for expert system construction should include the two modes of inference: modus ponens and modus tollens. Modus ponens inference is based upon reasoning towards the conclusion in a statement of logical implication, whereas modus tollens inference is based upon reasoning away from the conclusion. These algorithms allow one to reason accurately with uncertain data. The above environment can replicate state-f-the-art expert system environments which provides a continuity between the current expert systems which cannot be validated or verified and future expert systems which should be both validated and verified
Wavelet Sparse Approximate Inverse Preconditioners
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chan, Tony F.; Tang, W.-P.; Wan, W. L.
1996-01-01
There is an increasing interest in using sparse approximate inverses as preconditioners for Krylov subspace iterative methods. Recent studies of Grote and Huckle and Chow and Saad also show that sparse approximate inverse preconditioner can be effective for a variety of matrices, e.g. Harwell-Boeing collections. Nonetheless a drawback is that it requires rapid decay of the inverse entries so that sparse approximate inverse is possible. However, for the class of matrices that, come from elliptic PDE problems, this assumption may not necessarily hold. Our main idea is to look for a basis, other than the standard one, such that a sparse representation of the inverse is feasible. A crucial observation is that the kind of matrices we are interested in typically have a piecewise smooth inverse. We exploit this fact, by applying wavelet techniques to construct a better sparse approximate inverse in the wavelet basis. We shall justify theoretically and numerically that our approach is effective for matrices with smooth inverse. We emphasize that in this paper we have only presented the idea of wavelet approximate inverses and demonstrated its potential but have not yet developed a highly refined and efficient algorithm.
Relativistic regular approximations revisited: An infinite-order relativistic approximation
Dyall, K.G.; van Lenthe, E.
1999-07-01
The concept of the regular approximation is presented as the neglect of the energy dependence of the exact Foldy{endash}Wouthuysen transformation of the Dirac Hamiltonian. Expansion of the normalization terms leads immediately to the zeroth-order regular approximation (ZORA) and first-order regular approximation (FORA) Hamiltonians as the zeroth- and first-order terms of the expansion. The expansion may be taken to infinite order by using an un-normalized Foldy{endash}Wouthuysen transformation, which results in the ZORA Hamiltonian and a nonunit metric. This infinite-order regular approximation, IORA, has eigenvalues which differ from the Dirac eigenvalues by order E{sup 3}/c{sup 4} for a hydrogen-like system, which is a considerable improvement over the ZORA eigenvalues, and similar to the nonvariational FORA energies. A further perturbation analysis yields a third-order correction to the IORA energies, TIORA. Results are presented for several systems including the neutral U atom. The IORA eigenvalues for all but the 1s spinor of the neutral system are superior even to the scaled ZORA energies, which are exact for the hydrogenic system. The third-order correction reduces the IORA error for the inner orbitals to a very small fraction of the Dirac eigenvalue. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}
Approximating spatially exclusive invasion processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ross, Joshua V.; Binder, Benjamin J.
2014-05-01
A number of biological processes, such as invasive plant species and cell migration, are composed of two key mechanisms: motility and reproduction. Due to the spatially exclusive interacting behavior of these processes a cellular automata (CA) model is specified to simulate a one-dimensional invasion process. Three (independence, Poisson, and 2D-Markov chain) approximations are considered that attempt to capture the average behavior of the CA. We show that our 2D-Markov chain approximation accurately predicts the state of the CA for a wide range of motility and reproduction rates.
Quantitative approximation schemes for glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mangeat, Matthieu; Zamponi, Francesco
2016-01-01
By means of a systematic expansion around the infinite-dimensional solution, we obtain an approximation scheme to compute properties of glasses in low dimensions. The resulting equations take as input the thermodynamic and structural properties of the equilibrium liquid, and from this they allow one to compute properties of the glass. They are therefore similar in spirit to the Mode Coupling approximation scheme. Our scheme becomes exact, by construction, in dimension d ?? , and it can be improved systematically by adding more terms in the expansion.
Heat pipe transient response approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reid, Robert S.
2002-01-01
A simple and concise routine that approximates the response of an alkali metal heat pipe to changes in evaporator heat transfer rate is described. This analytically based routine is compared with data from a cylindrical heat pipe with a crescent-annular wick that undergoes gradual (quasi-steady) transitions through the viscous and condenser boundary heat transfer limits. The sonic heat transfer limit can also be incorporated into this routine for heat pipes with more closely coupled condensers. The advantages and obvious limitations of this approach are discussed. For reference, a source code listing for the approximation appears at the end of this paper. .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
White, Martin
2014-04-01
This year marks the 100th anniversary of the birth of Yakov Zel'dovich. Amongst his many legacies is the Zel'dovich approximation for the growth of large-scale structure, which remains one of the most successful and insightful analytic models of structure formation. We use the Zel'dovich approximation to compute the two-point function of the matter and biased tracers, and compare to the results of N-body simulations and other Lagrangian perturbation theories. We show that Lagrangian perturbation theories converge well and that the Zel'dovich approximation provides a good fit to the N-body results except for the quadrupole moment of the halo correlation function. We extend the calculation of halo bias to third order and also consider non-local biasing schemes, none of which remove the discrepancy. We argue that a part of the discrepancy owes to an incorrect prediction of inter-halo velocity correlations. We use the Zel'dovich approximation to compute the ingredients of the Gaussian streaming model and show that this hybrid method provides a good fit to clustering of haloes in redshift space down to scales of tens of Mpc.
Pad approximations and diophantine geometry.
Chudnovsky, D V; Chudnovsky, G V
1985-04-01
Using methods of Pad approximations we prove a converse to Eisenstein's theorem on the boundedness of denominators of coefficients in the expansion of an algebraic function, for classes of functions, parametrized by meromorphic functions. This result is applied to the Tate conjecture on the effective description of isogenies for elliptic curves. PMID:16593552
Approximations to wire grid inductance.
Warne, Larry Kevin; Johnson, William Arthur; Merewether, Kimball O.
2004-06-01
By using a multipole-conformal mapping expansion for the wire currents we examine the accuracy of approximations for the transfer inductance of a one dimensional array of wires (wire grid). A simple uniform fit is constructed by introduction of the decay factor from bipolar coordinates into existing formulas for this inductance.
Pythagorean Approximations and Continued Fractions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Peralta, Javier
2008-01-01
In this article, we will show that the Pythagorean approximations of [the square root of] 2 coincide with those achieved in the 16th century by means of continued fractions. Assuming this fact and the known relation that connects the Fibonacci sequence with the golden section, we shall establish a procedure to obtain sequences of rational numbers
Chemical Laws, Idealization and Approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tobin, Emma
2013-07-01
This paper examines the notion of laws in chemistry. Vihalemm ( Found Chem 5(1):7-22, 2003) argues that the laws of chemistry are fundamentally the same as the laws of physics they are all ceteris paribus laws which are true "in ideal conditions". In contrast, Scerri (2000) contends that the laws of chemistry are fundamentally different to the laws of physics, because they involve approximations. Christie ( Stud Hist Philos Sci 25:613-629, 1994) and Christie and Christie ( Of minds and molecules. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 34-50, 2000) agree that the laws of chemistry are operationally different to the laws of physics, but claim that the distinction between exact and approximate laws is too simplistic to taxonomise them. Approximations in chemistry involve diverse kinds of activity and often what counts as a scientific law in chemistry is dictated by the context of its use in scientific practice. This paper addresses the question of what makes chemical laws distinctive independently of the separate question as to how they are related to the laws of physics. From an analysis of some candidate ceteris paribus laws in chemistry, this paper argues that there are two distinct kinds of ceteris paribus laws in chemistry; idealized and approximate chemical laws. Thus, while Christie ( Stud Hist Philos Sci 25:613-629, 1994) and Christie and Christie ( Of minds and molecules. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 34--50, 2000) are correct to point out that the candidate generalisations in chemistry are diverse and heterogeneous, a distinction between idealizations and approximations can nevertheless be used to successfully taxonomise them.
Potential of the approximation method
Amano, K.; Maruoka, A.
1996-12-31
Developing some techniques for the approximation method, we establish precise versions of the following statements concerning lower bounds for circuits that detect cliques of size s in a graph with m vertices: For 5 {le} s {le} m/4, a monotone circuit computing CLIQUE(m, s) contains at least (1/2)1.8{sup min}({radical}s-1/2,m/(4s)) gates: If a non-monotone circuit computes CLIQUE using a {open_quotes}small{close_quotes} amount of negation, then the circuit contains an exponential number of gates. The former is proved very simply using so called bottleneck counting argument within the framework of approximation, whereas the latter is verified introducing a notion of restricting negation and generalizing the sunflower contraction.
Linear approximations of nonlinear systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hunt, L. R.; Su, R.
1983-01-01
A method for designing an automatic flight controller for short and vertical takeoff aircraft is presently being developed at NASA Ames Research Center. This technique involves transformations of nonlinear systems to controllable linear systems and takes into account the nonlinearities of the aircraft. In general, the transformations cannot always be given in closed form. Using partial differential equations, an approximate linear system, called the modified tangent model, was recently introduced. A linear transformation of this tangent model to Brunovsky canonical form can be constructed, and from this an approximation of an exact transformation for the nonlinear system can be found. It is shown that a canonical expansion in Lie brackets about the point x(0) yields the same modified tangent model.
Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations
2015-01-01
In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007), for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011) and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Mikls, Erd?s and Soukup, 2013). Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes), and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Mikls, Erd?s and Soukup problem as special cases) the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS) for counting of all realizations. PMID:26161994
Neighbourhood approximation using randomized forests.
Konukoglu, Ender; Glocker, Ben; Zikic, Darko; Criminisi, Antonio
2013-10-01
Leveraging available annotated data is an essential component of many modern methods for medical image analysis. In particular, approaches making use of the "neighbourhood" structure between images for this purpose have shown significant potential. Such techniques achieve high accuracy in analysing an image by propagating information from its immediate "neighbours" within an annotated database. Despite their success in certain applications, wide use of these methods is limited due to the challenging task of determining the neighbours for an out-of-sample image. This task is either computationally expensive due to large database sizes and costly distance evaluations, or infeasible due to distance definitions over semantic information, such as ground truth annotations, which is not available for out-of-sample images. This article introduces Neighbourhood Approximation Forests (NAFs), a supervised learning algorithm providing a general and efficient approach for the task of approximate nearest neighbour retrieval for arbitrary distances. Starting from an image training database and a user-defined distance between images, the algorithm learns to use appearance-based features to cluster images approximating the neighbourhood structured induced by the distance. NAF is able to efficiently infer nearest neighbours of an out-of-sample image, even when the original distance is based on semantic information. We perform experimental evaluation in two different scenarios: (i) age prediction from brain MRI and (ii) patch-based segmentation of unregistered, arbitrary field of view CT images. The results demonstrate the performance, computational benefits, and potential of NAF for different image analysis applications. PMID:23725639
Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations.
Erd?s, Pter L; Kiss, Sndor Z; Mikls, Istvn; Soukup, Lajos
2015-01-01
In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007), for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011) and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Mikls, Erd?s and Soukup, 2013). Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes), and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Mikls, Erd?s and Soukup problem as special cases) the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS) for counting of all realizations. PMID:26161994
Computer Experiments for Function Approximations
Chang, A; Izmailov, I; Rizzo, S; Wynter, S; Alexandrov, O; Tong, C
2007-10-15
This research project falls in the domain of response surface methodology, which seeks cost-effective ways to accurately fit an approximate function to experimental data. Modeling and computer simulation are essential tools in modern science and engineering. A computer simulation can be viewed as a function that receives input from a given parameter space and produces an output. Running the simulation repeatedly amounts to an equivalent number of function evaluations, and for complex models, such function evaluations can be very time-consuming. It is then of paramount importance to intelligently choose a relatively small set of sample points in the parameter space at which to evaluate the given function, and then use this information to construct a surrogate function that is close to the original function and takes little time to evaluate. This study was divided into two parts. The first part consisted of comparing four sampling methods and two function approximation methods in terms of efficiency and accuracy for simple test functions. The sampling methods used were Monte Carlo, Quasi-Random LP{sub {tau}}, Maximin Latin Hypercubes, and Orthogonal-Array-Based Latin Hypercubes. The function approximation methods utilized were Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) and Support Vector Machines (SVM). The second part of the study concerned adaptive sampling methods with a focus on creating useful sets of sample points specifically for monotonic functions, functions with a single minimum and functions with a bounded first derivative.
Approximate reasoning using terminological models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yen, John; Vaidya, Nitin
1992-01-01
Term Subsumption Systems (TSS) form a knowledge-representation scheme in AI that can express the defining characteristics of concepts through a formal language that has a well-defined semantics and incorporates a reasoning mechanism that can deduce whether one concept subsumes another. However, TSS's have very limited ability to deal with the issue of uncertainty in knowledge bases. The objective of this research is to address issues in combining approximate reasoning with term subsumption systems. To do this, we have extended an existing AI architecture (CLASP) that is built on the top of a term subsumption system (LOOM). First, the assertional component of LOOM has been extended for asserting and representing uncertain propositions. Second, we have extended the pattern matcher of CLASP for plausible rule-based inferences. Third, an approximate reasoning model has been added to facilitate various kinds of approximate reasoning. And finally, the issue of inconsistency in truth values due to inheritance is addressed using justification of those values. This architecture enhances the reasoning capabilities of expert systems by providing support for reasoning under uncertainty using knowledge captured in TSS. Also, as definitional knowledge is explicit and separate from heuristic knowledge for plausible inferences, the maintainability of expert systems could be improved.
Approximately Independent Features of Languages
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holman, Eric W.
To facilitate the testing of models for the evolution of languages, the present paper offers a set of linguistic features that are approximately independent of each other. To find these features, the adjusted Rand index (R?) is used to estimate the degree of pairwise relationship among 130 linguistic features in a large published database. Many of the R? values prove to be near zero, as predicted for independent features, and a subset of 47 features is found with an average R? of -0.0001. These 47 features are recommended for use in statistical tests that require independent units of analysis.
Generalized Gradient Approximation Made Simple
Perdew, J.P.; Burke, K.; Ernzerhof, M.
1996-10-01
Generalized gradient approximations (GGA{close_quote}s) for the exchange-correlation energy improve upon the local spin density (LSD) description of atoms, molecules, and solids. We present a simple derivation of a simple GGA, in which all parameters (other than those in LSD) are fundamental constants. Only general features of the detailed construction underlying the Perdew-Wang 1991 (PW91) GGA are invoked. Improvements over PW91 include an accurate description of the linear response of the uniform electron gas, correct behavior under uniform scaling, and a smoother potential. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
The structural physical approximation conjecture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shultz, Fred
2016-01-01
It was conjectured that the structural physical approximation (SPA) of an optimal entanglement witness is separable (or equivalently, that the SPA of an optimal positive map is entanglement breaking). This conjecture was disproved, first for indecomposable maps and more recently for decomposable maps. The arguments in both cases are sketched along with important related results. This review includes background material on topics including entanglement witnesses, optimality, duality of cones, decomposability, and the statement and motivation for the SPA conjecture so that it should be accessible for a broad audience.
Approximate simulation of quantum channels
Beny, Cedric; Oreshkov, Ognyan
2011-08-15
Earlier, we proved a duality between two optimizations problems [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 120501 (2010)]. The primary one is, given two quantum channels M and N, to find a quantum channel R such that R White-Bullet N is optimally close to M as measured by the worst-case entanglement fidelity. The dual problem involves the information obtained by the environment through the so-called complementary channels M and N, and consists in finding a quantum channel R' such that R Prime White-Bullet cM is optimally close to N. It turns out to be easier to find an approximate solution to the dual problem in certain important situations, notably when M is the identity channel - the problem of quantum error correction - yielding a good near-optimal worst-case entanglement fidelity as well as the corresponding near-optimal correcting channel. Here we provide more detailed proofs of these results. In addition, we generalize the main theorem to the case where there are certain constraints on the implementation of R, namely, on the number of Kraus operators. We also offer a simple algebraic form for the near-optimal correction channel in the case M=id. For approximate error correction, we show that any {epsilon}-correctable channel is, up to appending an ancilla, {epsilon}-close to an exactly correctable one. We also demonstrate an application of our theorem to the problem of minimax state discrimination.
Plasma Physics Approximations in Ares
Managan, R. A.
2015-01-08
Lee & More derived analytic forms for the transport properties of a plasma. Many hydro-codes use their formulae for electrical and thermal conductivity. The coefficients are complex functions of Fermi-Dirac integrals, F_{n}( μ/θ ), the chemical potential, μ or ζ = ln(1+e^{ μ/θ} ), and the temperature, θ = kT. Since these formulae are expensive to compute, rational function approximations were fit to them. Approximations are also used to find the chemical potential, either μ or ζ . The fits use ζ as the independent variable instead of μ/θ . New fits are provided for A^{α} (ζ ),A^{β} (ζ ), ζ, f(ζ ) = (1 + e^{-μ/θ})F_{1/2}(μ/θ), F_{1/2}'/F_{1/2}, F_{c}^{α}, and F_{c}^{β}. In each case the relative error of the fit is minimized since the functions can vary by many orders of magnitude. The new fits are designed to exactly preserve the limiting values in the non-degenerate and highly degenerate limits or as ζ→ 0 or ∞. The original fits due to Lee & More and George Zimmerman are presented for comparison.
Wavelet Approximation in Data Assimilation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tangborn, Andrew; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Estimation of the state of the atmosphere with the Kalman filter remains a distant goal because of high computational cost of evolving the error covariance for both linear and nonlinear systems. Wavelet approximation is presented here as a possible solution that efficiently compresses both global and local covariance information. We demonstrate the compression characteristics on the the error correlation field from a global two-dimensional chemical constituent assimilation, and implement an adaptive wavelet approximation scheme on the assimilation of the one-dimensional Burger's equation. In the former problem, we show that 99%, of the error correlation can be represented by just 3% of the wavelet coefficients, with good representation of localized features. In the Burger's equation assimilation, the discrete linearized equations (tangent linear model) and analysis covariance are projected onto a wavelet basis and truncated to just 6%, of the coefficients. A nearly optimal forecast is achieved and we show that errors due to truncation of the dynamics are no greater than the errors due to covariance truncation.
Wavelets and distributed approximating functionals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, G. W.; Kouri, D. J.; Hoffman, D. K.
1998-07-01
A general procedure is proposed for constructing father and mother wavelets that have excellent time-frequency localization and can be used to generate entire wavelet families for use as wavelet transforms. One interesting feature of our father wavelets (scaling functions) is that they belong to a class of generalized delta sequences, which we refer to as distributed approximating functionals (DAFs). We indicate this by the notation wavelet-DAFs. Correspondingly, the mother wavelets generated from these wavelet-DAFs are appropriately called DAF-wavelets. Wavelet-DAFs can be regarded as providing a pointwise (localized) spectral method, which furnishes a bridge between the traditional global methods and local methods for solving partial differential equations. They are shown to provide extremely accurate numerical solutions for a number of nonlinear partial differential equations, including the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, for which a previous method has encountered difficulties (J. Comput. Phys. 132 (1997) 233).
Reconstruction within the Zeldovich approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
White, Martin
2015-07-01
The Zeldovich approximation, first-order Lagrangian perturbation theory, provides a good description of the clustering of matter and galaxies on large scales. The acoustic feature in the large-scale correlation function of galaxies imprinted by sound waves in the early Universe has been successfully used as a `standard ruler' to constrain the expansion history of the Universe. The standard ruler can be improved if a process known as density field reconstruction is employed. In this paper, we develop the Zeldovich formalism to compute the correlation function of biased tracers in both real and redshift space using the simplest reconstruction algorithm with a Gaussian kernel and compare to N-body simulations. The model qualitatively describes the effects of reconstruction on the simulations, though its quantitative success depends upon how redshift-space distortions are handled in the reconstruction algorithm.
Interplay of approximate planning strategies.
Huys, Quentin J M; Lally, Nall; Faulkner, Paul; Eshel, Neir; Seifritz, Erich; Gershman, Samuel J; Dayan, Peter; Roiser, Jonathan P
2015-03-10
Humans routinely formulate plans in domains so complex that even the most powerful computers are taxed. To do so, they seem to avail themselves of many strategies and heuristics that efficiently simplify, approximate, and hierarchically decompose hard tasks into simpler subtasks. Theoretical and cognitive research has revealed several such strategies; however, little is known about their establishment, interaction, and efficiency. Here, we use model-based behavioral analysis to provide a detailed examination of the performance of human subjects in a moderately deep planning task. We find that subjects exploit the structure of the domain to establish subgoals in a way that achieves a nearly maximal reduction in the cost of computing values of choices, but then combine partial searches with greedy local steps to solve subtasks, and maladaptively prune the decision trees of subtasks in a reflexive manner upon encountering salient losses. Subjects come idiosyncratically to favor particular sequences of actions to achieve subgoals, creating novel complex actions or "options." PMID:25675480
Approximating metal-insulator transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Danieli, Carlo; Rayanov, Kristian; Pavlov, Boris; Martin, Gaven; Flach, Sergej
2015-12-01
We consider quantum wave propagation in one-dimensional quasiperiodic lattices. We propose an iterative construction of quasiperiodic potentials from sequences of potentials with increasing spatial period. At each finite iteration step, the eigenstates reflect the properties of the limiting quasiperiodic potential properties up to a controlled maximum system size. We then observe approximate Metal-Insulator Transitions (MIT) at the finite iteration steps. We also report evidence on mobility edges, which are at variance to the celebrated Aubry-André model. The dynamics near the MIT shows a critical slowing down of the ballistic group velocity in the metallic phase, similar to the divergence of the localization length in the insulating phase.
Linear approximations of nonlinear systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hunt, L. R.; Su, R.
1983-01-01
The development of a method for designing an automatic flight controller for short and vertical take off aircraft is discussed. This technique involves transformations of nonlinear systems to controllable linear systems and takes into account the nonlinearities of the aircraft. In general, the transformations cannot always be given in closed form. Using partial differential equations, an approximate linear system called the modified tangent model was introduced. A linear transformation of this tangent model to Brunovsky canonical form can be constructed, and from this the linear part (about a state space point x sub 0) of an exact transformation for the nonlinear system can be found. It is shown that a canonical expansion in Lie brackets about the point x sub 0 yields the same modified tangent model.
Analytical approximations for spiral waves
Löber, Jakob Engel, Harald
2013-12-15
We propose a non-perturbative attempt to solve the kinematic equations for spiral waves in excitable media. From the eikonal equation for the wave front we derive an implicit analytical relation between rotation frequency Ω and core radius R{sub 0}. For free, rigidly rotating spiral waves our analytical prediction is in good agreement with numerical solutions of the linear eikonal equation not only for very large but also for intermediate and small values of the core radius. An equivalent Ω(R{sub +}) dependence improves the result by Keener and Tyson for spiral waves pinned to a circular defect of radius R{sub +} with Neumann boundaries at the periphery. Simultaneously, analytical approximations for the shape of free and pinned spirals are given. We discuss the reasons why the ansatz fails to correctly describe the dependence of the rotation frequency on the excitability of the medium.
IONIS: Approximate atomic photoionization intensities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heinsmki, Sami
2012-02-01
A program to compute relative atomic photoionization cross sections is presented. The code applies the output of the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method for atoms in the single active electron scheme, by computing the overlap of the bound electron states in the initial and final states. The contribution from the single-particle ionization matrix elements is assumed to be the same for each final state. This method gives rather accurate relative ionization probabilities provided the single-electron ionization matrix elements do not depend strongly on energy in the region considered. The method is especially suited for open shell atoms where electronic correlation in the ionic states is large. Program summaryProgram title: IONIS Catalogue identifier: AEKK_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKK_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1149 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 12 877 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 95 Computer: Workstations Operating system: GNU/Linux, Unix Classification: 2.2, 2.5 Nature of problem: Photoionization intensities for atoms. Solution method: The code applies the output of the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock codes Grasp92 [1] or Grasp2K [2], to compute approximate photoionization intensities. The intensity is computed within the one-electron transition approximation and by assuming that the sum of the single-particle ionization probabilities is the same for all final ionic states. Restrictions: The program gives nonzero intensities for those transitions where only one electron is removed from the initial configuration(s). Shake-type many-electron transitions are not computed. The ionized shell must be closed in the initial state. Running time: Few seconds for a large problem with a few thousand configurations.
Construction of polynomial approximation for Hansen coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vakhidov, Akmal A.
2000-01-01
The problem of constructing efficient approximations of Hansen coefficients using polynomials in terms of the eccentricity is considered. The properties of the following approximating schemes are studied in detail: approximation by fragments of Taylor series, interpolation by Lagrange polynomials, Chebyshev approximation. The accuracy of all these approximating schemes is investigated for different values of eccentricities and for different indices of the Hansen coefficients.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harris, C. E.; Morris, D. H.
1983-01-01
Notched and unnotched geometries at 16, 32, and 64-ply thicknesses of a 90/45/0-45 (ns) laminate and a 45/0/-45/90 (ns) laminate were tested in compression-compression fatigue. The fatigue life and the initiation, type, and progression of damage were determined. Interlaminar stresses generated at straight, free edges of axially loaded laminates were used to interpret the test results. The fatigue lives of the notched specimens did not appear to be a strong function of laminate stacking sequence or specimen thickness. The stress concentration at the hole dominated over the interlaminar stresses at the straight free edge. The unnotched specimens of the 90/45/0/-45 (ns) laminate with tensile interlaminar normal stresses delaminated more readily than did the 45/0/-45/90 (ns) laminate with compressive interlaminar normal stress. The life of the 16-ply unnotched specimens was lower than the 32- and 64-ply specimens. Delaminations were located at the interface where the maximum shear stress occurred regardless of the sense or magnitude of the interlaminar normal stress. An antibuckling fixture was effective in preventing out-of-plane motion without overconstraining the specimen.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Carlo, A.; Carbonell Garcia, A.
2012-07-01
The frequency response solution (SOL 111) of MSC Nastran versions prior to 2012 only allows the output of element stress components and element forces and does not allow the calculation of composite failure indices or Von-Mises stress for metallic parts. The analysis of a sandwich panel comprises several strength verifications, such as the check of facesheet and core failure as well as the check of facesheet and core local stability (shear crimping, wrinkling). In static analysis (SOL 101), MSC Nastran provides failure index output which can be used to generate fringe plots of Margins of Safety (MoS) in any post- processing tool. The other verifications (core strength and local stability) must be performed using different tools. For the dynamic analysis of sandwich panels, an analysis technique based on element forces and on failure envelope at laminate level has been developed and implemented in a Fortran program (SineMOS) which allows evaluating facesheet and core failure as well as local stability, taking into account modulus and phase information of the element forces. SineMOS is able to produce files containing information used to generate plots of minimum Margin of Safety in Patran for each failure mode. This paper shows the various steps of the analysis process, starting from the building of the failure envelope for the CFRP facesheet laminate. Finally some validation example is shown, comparing SineMOS results with results based on the application of static displacements to the nodes of the model.
Decision analysis with approximate probabilities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whalen, Thomas
1992-01-01
This paper concerns decisions under uncertainty in which the probabilities of the states of nature are only approximately known. Decision problems involving three states of nature are studied. This is due to the fact that some key issues do not arise in two-state problems, while probability spaces with more than three states of nature are essentially impossible to graph. The primary focus is on two levels of probabilistic information. In one level, the three probabilities are separately rounded to the nearest tenth. This can lead to sets of rounded probabilities which add up to 0.9, 1.0, or 1.1. In the other level, probabilities are rounded to the nearest tenth in such a way that the rounded probabilities are forced to sum to 1.0. For comparison, six additional levels of probabilistic information, previously analyzed, were also included in the present analysis. A simulation experiment compared four criteria for decisionmaking using linearly constrained probabilities (Maximin, Midpoint, Standard Laplace, and Extended Laplace) under the eight different levels of information about probability. The Extended Laplace criterion, which uses a second order maximum entropy principle, performed best overall.
Interplay of approximate planning strategies
Huys, Quentin J. M.; Lally, Níall; Faulkner, Paul; Eshel, Neir; Seifritz, Erich; Gershman, Samuel J.; Dayan, Peter; Roiser, Jonathan P.
2015-01-01
Humans routinely formulate plans in domains so complex that even the most powerful computers are taxed. To do so, they seem to avail themselves of many strategies and heuristics that efficiently simplify, approximate, and hierarchically decompose hard tasks into simpler subtasks. Theoretical and cognitive research has revealed several such strategies; however, little is known about their establishment, interaction, and efficiency. Here, we use model-based behavioral analysis to provide a detailed examination of the performance of human subjects in a moderately deep planning task. We find that subjects exploit the structure of the domain to establish subgoals in a way that achieves a nearly maximal reduction in the cost of computing values of choices, but then combine partial searches with greedy local steps to solve subtasks, and maladaptively prune the decision trees of subtasks in a reflexive manner upon encountering salient losses. Subjects come idiosyncratically to favor particular sequences of actions to achieve subgoals, creating novel complex actions or “options.” PMID:25675480
Producing approximate answers to database queries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vrbsky, Susan V.; Liu, Jane W. S.
1993-01-01
We have designed and implemented a query processor, called APPROXIMATE, that makes approximate answers available if part of the database is unavailable or if there is not enough time to produce an exact answer. The accuracy of the approximate answers produced improves monotonically with the amount of data retrieved to produce the result. The exact answer is produced if all of the needed data are available and query processing is allowed to continue until completion. The monotone query processing algorithm of APPROXIMATE works within the standard relational algebra framework and can be implemented on a relational database system with little change to the relational architecture. We describe here the approximation semantics of APPROXIMATE that serves as the basis for meaningful approximations of both set-valued and single-valued queries. We show how APPROXIMATE is implemented to make effective use of semantic information, provided by an object-oriented view of the database, and describe the additional overhead required by APPROXIMATE.
Stabilized approximations of strongly continuous semigroups
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McAllister, Sarah; Neubrander, Frank
2008-06-01
This paper introduces stabilization techniques for intrinsically unstable, high accuracy rational approximation methods for strongly continuous semigroup. The methods not only stabilize the approximations, but improve their speed of convergence by a magnitude of up to 1/2.
An approximation technique for jet impingement flow
Najafi, Mahmoud; Fincher, Donald; Rahni, Taeibi; Javadi, KH.; Massah, H.
2015-03-10
The analytical approximate solution of a non-linear jet impingement flow model will be demonstrated. We will show that this is an improvement over the series approximation obtained via the Adomian decomposition method, which is itself, a powerful method for analysing non-linear differential equations. The results of these approximations will be compared to the Runge-Kutta approximation in order to demonstrate their validity.
Energy conservation - A test for scattering approximations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Acquista, C.; Holland, A. C.
1980-01-01
The roles of the extinction theorem and energy conservation in obtaining the scattering and absorption cross sections for several light scattering approximations are explored. It is shown that the Rayleigh, Rayleigh-Gans, anomalous diffraction, geometrical optics, and Shifrin approximations all lead to reasonable values of the cross sections, while the modified Mie approximation does not. Further examination of the modified Mie approximation for the ensembles of nonspherical particles reveals additional problems with that method.
Focal approximation on the complex plane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rakcheeva, T. A.
2011-11-01
The problem of analytic approximation of a smooth closed curve specified by a set of its points on the complex plane is proposed. An algorithmic method for constructing an approximating lemniscate is proposed and investigated. This method is based on a mapping of the curve to be approximated onto the phase circle; the convergence of the method is proved. The location of the lemniscate foci inside the curve provides the degrees of freedom for the focal approximation.
Variationally consistent approximation scheme for charge transfer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Halpern, A. M.
1978-01-01
The author has developed a technique for testing various charge-transfer approximation schemes for consistency with the requirements of the Kohn variational principle for the amplitude to guarantee that the amplitude is correct to second order in the scattering wave functions. Applied to Born-type approximations for charge transfer it allows the selection of particular groups of first-, second-, and higher-Born-type terms that obey the consistency requirement, and hence yield more reliable approximation to the amplitude.
A greedy algorithm for yield surface approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bleyer, Jrmy; de Buhan, Patrick
This Note presents an approximation method for convex yield surfaces in the framework of yield design theory. The proposed algorithm constructs an approximation using a convex hull of ellipsoids such that the approximate criterion can be formulated in terms of second-order conic constraints. The algorithm can treat bounded as well as unbounded yield surfaces. Its efficiency is illustrated on two yield surfaces obtained using up-scaling procedures.
On Approximation Complexity of Metric Dimension Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hauptmann, Mathias; Schmied, Richard; Viehmann, Claus
We study the approximation complexity of the Metric Dimension problem in bounded degree, dense as well as in general graphs. For the general case, we prove that the Metric Dimension problem is not approximable within ( 1 - ? ) ln n for any ? > 0, unless NP subseteq DTIME( n^{log log n} ), and we give an approximation algorithm which matches the lower bound. Even for bounded degree instances it is APX-hard to determine (compute) the exact value of the metric dimension which we prove by constructing an approximation preserving reduction from the bounded degree Vertex Cover problem.
Diffusion approximation of neuronal models revisited.
Cupera, Jakub
2014-02-01
Leaky integrate-and-fire neuronal models with reversal potentials have a number of different diffusion approximations, each depending on the form of the amplitudes of the postsynaptic potentials. Probability distributions of the first-passage times of the membrane potential in the original model and its diffusion approximations are numerically compared in order to find which of the approximations is the most suitable one. The properties of the random amplitudes of postsynaptic potentials are discussed. It is shown on a simple example that the quality of the approximation depends directly on them. PMID:24245676
Best approximation by Heaviside perceptron networks.
Kainen, P; K?rkov, V; Vogt, A
2000-09-01
In Lp-spaces with p an integer from [1, infinity) there exists a best approximation mapping to the set of functions computable by Heaviside perceptron networks with n hidden units; however for p an integer from (1, infinity) such best approximation is not unique and cannot be continuous. PMID:11152201
Spline approximations for nonlinear hereditary control systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daniel, P. L.
1982-01-01
A sline-based approximation scheme is discussed for optimal control problems governed by nonlinear nonautonomous delay differential equations. The approximating framework reduces the original control problem to a sequence of optimization problems governed by ordinary differential equations. Convergence proofs, which appeal directly to dissipative-type estimates for the underlying nonlinear operator, are given and numerical findings are summarized.
Quirks of Stirling's Approximation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Macrae, Roderick M.; Allgeier, Benjamin M.
2013-01-01
Stirling's approximation to ln "n"! is typically introduced to physical chemistry students as a step in the derivation of the statistical expression for the entropy. However, naive application of this approximation leads to incorrect conclusions. In this article, the problem is first illustrated using a familiar "toy
Diagonal Pade approximations for initial value problems
Reusch, M.F.; Ratzan, L.; Pomphrey, N.; Park, W.
1987-06-01
Diagonal Pade approximations to the time evolution operator for initial value problems are applied in a novel way to the numerical solution of these problems by explicitly factoring the polynomials of the approximation. A remarkable gain over conventional methods in efficiency and accuracy of solution is obtained. 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.
Computing Functions by Approximating the Input
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goldberg, Mayer
2012-01-01
In computing real-valued functions, it is ordinarily assumed that the input to the function is known, and it is the output that we need to approximate. In this work, we take the opposite approach: we show how to compute the values of some transcendental functions by approximating the input to these functions, and obtaining exact answers for their
Approximation for nonresonant beam target fusion reactivities
Mikkelsen, D.R.
1988-11-01
The beam target fusion reactivity for a monoenergetic beam in a Maxwellian target is approximately evaluated for nonresonant reactions. The approximation is accurate for the DD and TT fusion reactions to better than 4% for all beam energies up to 300 keV and all ion temperatures up to 2/3 of the beam energy. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.
Quirks of Stirling's Approximation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Macrae, Roderick M.; Allgeier, Benjamin M.
2013-01-01
Stirling's approximation to ln "n"! is typically introduced to physical chemistry students as a step in the derivation of the statistical expression for the entropy. However, naive application of this approximation leads to incorrect conclusions. In this article, the problem is first illustrated using a familiar "toy…
Piecewise linear approximation for hereditary control problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Propst, Georg
1987-01-01
Finite dimensional approximations are presented for linear retarded functional differential equations by use of discontinuous piecewise linear functions. The approximation scheme is applied to optimal control problems when a quadratic cost integral has to be minimized subject to the controlled retarded system. It is shown that the approximate optimal feedback operators converge to the true ones both in case the cost integral ranges over a finite time interval as well as in the case it ranges over an infinite time interval. The arguments in the latter case rely on the fact that the piecewise linear approximations to stable systems are stable in a uniform sense. This feature is established using a vector-component stability criterion in the state space R(n) x L(2) and the favorable eigenvalue behavior of the piecewise linear approximations.
The continuum approximation in nucleation theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, David T.
1992-08-01
The continuum approximation in nucleation theory is reconsidered. It is shown that a minor change in indexing the discrete flux leads naturally to an approximation which is both simple and accurate. More complicated schemes are introduced using the formalism of spectral density (weighting) functions. Optimization of these functions produces additional approximations that minimize the errors in either the rate equation or the nucleation current. These new continuum approximations are compared to the traditional Frenkel form [Kinetic Theory of Liquids (Oxford University, Oxford, 1946)] and to the alternatives proposed by Goodrich [Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 227, 167 (1964)] and Shizgal and Barrett [J. Chem. Phys. 91, 6505 (1989)]. Results show that the new forms are more accurate. Generalization to multipath kinetics (clustering or association) is also discussed. Finally, it is shown that within the continuum approximation, nucleation is mathematically equivalent to position-dependent diffusion.
Approximate error conjugation gradient minimization methods
Kallman, Jeffrey S
2013-05-21
In one embodiment, a method includes selecting a subset of rays from a set of all rays to use in an error calculation for a constrained conjugate gradient minimization problem, calculating an approximate error using the subset of rays, and calculating a minimum in a conjugate gradient direction based on the approximate error. In another embodiment, a system includes a processor for executing logic, logic for selecting a subset of rays from a set of all rays to use in an error calculation for a constrained conjugate gradient minimization problem, logic for calculating an approximate error using the subset of rays, and logic for calculating a minimum in a conjugate gradient direction based on the approximate error. In other embodiments, computer program products, methods, and systems are described capable of using approximate error in constrained conjugate gradient minimization problems.
Polynomial approximation of Morison wave loading
Bouyssy, V.; Rackwitz, R.
1997-02-01
For offshore structures with slender elements, the modeling of random wave loads by the Morison equation yields an equation of motion which has no analytical solution for response moments except in a few limiting cases. If polynomial approximations of the Morison drag loads are introduced, some procedures are available to obtain the stationary moments of the approximate response. If the response process is fitted by non-Gaussian models such as proposed by Winterstein (1988), the first four statistical moments of the response are necessary. The paper investigates how many terms should be included in the polynomial approximation of the Morison drag loading to accurately estimate the first four response moments. It is shown that a cubic approximation of the drag loading is necessary to accurately predict the response variance for any excitation. For the fit of the first four response moments, at least a fifth-order approximation appears necessary.
An approximate model for pulsar navigation simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jovanovic, Ilija; Enright, John
2016-02-01
This paper presents an approximate model for the simulation of pulsar aided navigation systems. High fidelity simulations of these systems are computationally intensive and impractical for simulating periods of a day or more. Simulation of yearlong missions is done by abstracting navigation errors as periodic Gaussian noise injections. This paper presents an intermediary approximate model to simulate position errors for periods of several weeks, useful for building more accurate Gaussian error models. This is done by abstracting photon detection and binning, replacing it with a simple deterministic process. The approximate model enables faster computation of error injection models, allowing the error model to be inexpensively updated throughout a simulation. Testing of the approximate model revealed an optimistic performance prediction for non-millisecond pulsars with more accurate predictions for pulsars in the millisecond spectrum. This performance gap was attributed to noise which is not present in the approximate model but can be predicted and added to improve accuracy.
Frankenstein's glue: transition functions for approximate solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yunes, Nicols
2007-09-01
Approximations are commonly employed to find approximate solutions to the Einstein equations. These solutions, however, are usually only valid in some specific spacetime region. A global solution can be constructed by gluing approximate solutions together, but this procedure is difficult because discontinuities can arise, leading to large violations of the Einstein equations. In this paper, we provide an attempt to formalize this gluing scheme by studying transition functions that join approximate analytic solutions together. In particular, we propose certain sufficient conditions on these functions and prove that these conditions guarantee that the joined solution still satisfies the Einstein equations analytically to the same order as the approximate ones. An example is also provided for a binary system of non-spinning black holes, where the approximate solutions are taken to be given by a post-Newtonian expansion and a perturbed Schwarzschild solution. For this specific case, we show that if the transition functions satisfy the proposed conditions, then the joined solution does not contain any violations to the Einstein equations larger than those already inherent in the approximations. We further show that if these functions violate the proposed conditions, then the matter content of the spacetime is modified by the introduction of a matter shell, whose stress energy tensor depends on derivatives of these functions.
Development of a self-consistent approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ignatchenko, V. A.; Polukhin, D. S.
2016-03-01
A self-consistent approximation of a higher level than the standard self-consistent approximation, known in various fields of physics as the Migdal, Kraichnan or Born self-consistent approximation, is derived taking into account both the first and second terms of the series for the vertex function. In contrast to the standard approximation, the new self-consistent approximation is described by a system of two coupled nonlinear integral equations for the self-energy and the vertex function. In addition to all the diagrams with non-intersecting lines of correlation/interaction taken into account by the standard self-consistent approximation, the new approach takes into account in each term of the Green’s function expansion a significant number of diagrams with intersections of these lines. Because of this, the shape, linewidth, and amplitude of the resonance peaks of the dynamic susceptibility calculated in this approximation are much closer to the exact values of these characteristics. The advantage of the new self-consistent approach is demonstrated by the example of calculation of the dynamic susceptibility of waves in an inhomogeneous medium.
Approximate knowledge compilation: The first order case
Val, A. del
1996-12-31
Knowledge compilation procedures make a knowledge base more explicit so as make inference with respect to the compiled knowledge base tractable or at least more efficient. Most work to date in this area has been restricted to the propositional case, despite the importance of first order theories for expressing knowledge concisely. Focusing on (LUB) approximate compilation, our contribution is twofold: (1) We present a new ground algorithm for approximate compilation which can produce exponential savings with respect to the previously known algorithm. (2) We show that both ground algorithms can be lifted to the first order case preserving their correctness for approximate compilation.
Approximating Light Rays in the Schwarzschild Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semerk, O.
2015-02-01
A short formula is suggested that approximates photon trajectories in the Schwarzschild field better than other simple prescriptions from the literature. We compare it with various "low-order competitors," namely, with those following from exact formulas for small M, with one of the results based on pseudo-Newtonian potentials, with a suitably adjusted hyperbola, and with the effective and often employed approximation by Beloborodov. Our main concern is the shape of the photon trajectories at finite radii, yet asymptotic behavior is also discussed, important for lensing. An example is attached indicating that the newly suggested approximation is usableand very accuratefor practically solving the ray-deflection exercise.
APPROXIMATING LIGHT RAYS IN THE SCHWARZSCHILD FIELD
Semerák, O.
2015-02-10
A short formula is suggested that approximates photon trajectories in the Schwarzschild field better than other simple prescriptions from the literature. We compare it with various ''low-order competitors'', namely, with those following from exact formulas for small M, with one of the results based on pseudo-Newtonian potentials, with a suitably adjusted hyperbola, and with the effective and often employed approximation by Beloborodov. Our main concern is the shape of the photon trajectories at finite radii, yet asymptotic behavior is also discussed, important for lensing. An example is attached indicating that the newly suggested approximation is usable—and very accurate—for practically solving the ray-deflection exercise.
Approximate Bruechner orbitals in electron propagator calculations
Ortiz, J.V.
1999-12-01
Orbitals and ground-state correlation amplitudes from the so-called Brueckner doubles approximation of coupled-cluster theory provide a useful reference state for electron propagator calculations. An operator manifold with hold, particle, two-hole-one-particle and two-particle-one-hole components is chosen. The resulting approximation, third-order algebraic diagrammatic construction [2ph-TDA, ADC (3)] and 3+ methods. The enhanced versatility of this approximation is demonstrated through calculations on valence ionization energies, core ionization energies, electron detachment energies of anions, and on a molecule with partial biradical character, ozone.
Approximate probability distributions of the master equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, Philipp; Grima, Ramon
2015-07-01
Master equations are common descriptions of mesoscopic systems. Analytical solutions to these equations can rarely be obtained. We here derive an analytical approximation of the time-dependent probability distribution of the master equation using orthogonal polynomials. The solution is given in two alternative formulations: a series with continuous and a series with discrete support, both of which can be systematically truncated. While both approximations satisfy the system size expansion of the master equation, the continuous distribution approximations become increasingly negative and tend to oscillations with increasing truncation order. In contrast, the discrete approximations rapidly converge to the underlying non-Gaussian distributions. The theory is shown to lead to particularly simple analytical expressions for the probability distributions of molecule numbers in metabolic reactions and gene expression systems.
Computational aspects of pseudospectral Laguerre approximations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Funaro, Daniele
1989-01-01
Pseudospectral approximations in unbounded domains by Laguerre polynomials lead to ill-conditioned algorithms. Introduced are a scaling function and appropriate numerical procedures in order to limit these unpleasant phenomena.
Approximation by the iterates of Bernstein operator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zapryanova, Teodora; Tachev, Gancho
2012-11-01
We study the degree of pointwise approximation of the iterated Bernstein operators to its limiting operator. We obtain a quantitative estimates related to the conjecture of Gonska and Raşa from 2006.
Linear source approximation in CASMO5
Ferrer, R.; Rhodes, J.; Smith, K.
2012-07-01
A Linear Source (LS) approximation has been implemented in the two-dimensional Method of Characteristics (MOC) transport solver in a prototype version of CASMO5. The LS approximation, which relies on the computation of trajectory-based spatial moments over source regions to obtain the linear source expansion coefficients, improves the solution accuracy relative to the 'flat' or constant source approximation. In addition, the LS formulation is capable of treating arbitrarily-shaped source regions and is compatible with standard Coarse-Mesh Finite Difference (CMFD) acceleration. Numerical tests presented in this paper for the C5G7 MOX benchmark show that, for comparable accuracy with respect to the reference solution, the LS approximation can reduce the run time by a factor of four and the memory requirements by a factor often relative to the FS scheme. (authors)
Linear Approximation SAR Azimuth Processing Study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lindquist, R. B.; Masnaghetti, R. K.; Belland, E.; Hance, H. V.; Weis, W. G.
1979-01-01
A segmented linear approximation of the quadratic phase function that is used to focus the synthetic antenna of a SAR was studied. Ideal focusing, using a quadratic varying phase focusing function during the time radar target histories are gathered, requires a large number of complex multiplications. These can be largely eliminated by using linear approximation techniques. The result is a reduced processor size and chip count relative to ideally focussed processing and a correspondingly increased feasibility for spaceworthy implementation. A preliminary design and sizing for a spaceworthy linear approximation SAR azimuth processor meeting requirements similar to those of the SEASAT-A SAR was developed. The study resulted in a design with approximately 1500 IC's, 1.2 cubic feet of volume, and 350 watts of power for a single look, 4000 range cell azimuth processor with 25 meters resolution.
Approximation concepts for efficient structural synthesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schmit, L. A., Jr.; Miura, H.
1976-01-01
It is shown that efficient structural synthesis capabilities can be created by using approximation concepts to mesh finite element structural analysis methods with nonlinear mathematical programming techniques. The history of the application of mathematical programming techniques to structural design optimization problems is reviewed. Several rather general approximation concepts are described along with the technical foundations of the ACCESS 1 computer program, which implements several approximation concepts. A substantial collection of structural design problems involving truss and idealized wing structures is presented. It is concluded that since the basic ideas employed in creating the ACCESS 1 program are rather general, its successful development supports the contention that the introduction of approximation concepts will lead to the emergence of a new generation of practical and efficient, large scale, structural synthesis capabilities in which finite element analysis methods and mathematical programming algorithms will play a central role.
Stochastic Approximation to Understand Simple Simulation Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Izquierdo, Segismundo S.; Izquierdo, Luis R.
2013-04-01
This paper illustrates how a deterministic approximation of a stochastic process can be usefully applied to analyse the dynamics of many simple simulation models. To demonstrate the type of results that can be obtained using this approximation, we present two illustrative examples which are meant to serve as methodological references for researchers exploring this area. Finally, we prove some convergence results for simulations of a family of evolutionary games, namely, intra-population imitation models in n-player games with arbitrary payoffs.
Polynomial approximation of functions in Sobolev spaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dupont, T.; Scott, R.
1980-01-01
Constructive proofs and several generalizations of approximation results of J. H. Bramble and S. R. Hilbert are presented. Using an averaged Taylor series, we represent a function as a polynomial plus a remainder. The remainder can be manipulated in many ways to give different types of bounds. Approximation of functions in fractional order Sobolev spaces is treated as well as the usual integer order spaces and several nonstandard Sobolev-like spaces.
Polynomial approximation of functions in Sobolev spaces
Dupont, T.; Scott, R.
1980-04-01
Constructive proofs and several generalizations of approximation results of J. H. Bramble and S. R. Hilbert are presented. Using an averaged Taylor series, we represent a function as a polynomical plus a remainder. The remainder can be manipulated in many ways to give different types of bounds. Approximation of functions in fractional order Sobolev spaces is treated as well as the usual integer order spaces and several nonstandard Sobolev-like spaces.
Exact and approximate calculation of giant resonances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vertse, T.; Liotta, R. J.; Maglione, E.
1995-02-01
Energies, sum rules and partial decay widths of giant resonances in 208Pb are calculated solving exactly the continuum RPA equations corresponding to a central Woods-Saxon potential. For comparison an approximate treatment of those quantities in terms of pole expansions of the Green function (Berggren and Mittag-Leffler) is also performed. It is found that the approximated results agree well with the exact ones. Comparison with experimental data is made and a search for physically meaningful resonances is carried out.
Rough Sets Approximations for Learning Outcomes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Encheva, Sylvia; Tumin, Sharil
Discovering dependencies between students' responses and their level of mastering of a particular skill is very important in the process of developing intelligent tutoring systems. This work is an approach to attain a higher level of certainty while following students' learning progress. Rough sets approximations are applied for assessing students understanding of a concept. Consecutive responses from each individual learner to automated tests are placed in corresponding rough sets approximations. The resulting path provides strong indication about the current level of learning outcomes.
The closure approximation in the hierarchy equations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adomian, G.
1971-01-01
The expectation of the solution process in a stochastic operator equation can be obtained from averaged equations only under very special circumstances. Conditions for validity are given and the significance and validity of the approximation in widely used hierarchy methods and the ?self-consistent field' approximation in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics are clarified. The error at any level of the hierarchy can be given and can be avoided by the use of the iterative method.
Approximate Solutions Of Equations Of Steady Diffusion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edmonds, Larry D.
1992-01-01
Rigorous analysis yields reliable criteria for "best-fit" functions. Improved "curve-fitting" method yields approximate solutions to differential equations of steady-state diffusion. Method applies to problems in which rates of diffusion depend linearly or nonlinearly on concentrations of diffusants, approximate solutions analytic or numerical, and boundary conditions of Dirichlet type, of Neumann type, or mixture of both types. Applied to equations for diffusion of charge carriers in semiconductors in which mobilities and lifetimes of charge carriers depend on concentrations.
The approximate kinetic analysis of strong condensation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zudin, Yu. B.
2015-01-01
The approximate kinetic analysis was carried out for the problem of strong condensation based on conservation equations for molecular fluxes of mass, momentum, and energy within the Knudsen layer. The closing relation was the condition for conservation of condensation flux between the Knudsen layer boundary and the mixing layer. Approximate analytical solution of the problem was obtained in the form of pressure ratio vs. temperature ratio (Mach number as a parameter). The analytical solution demonstrates a good agreement with available simulation data.
Verifying approximate solutions to differential equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Enright, W. H.
2006-01-01
It is now standard practice in computational science for large-scale simulations to be implemented and investigated in a problem solving environment (PSE) such as MATLAB or MAPLE. In such an environment, a scientist or engineer will formulate a mathematical model, approximate its solution using an appropriate numerical method, visualize the approximate solution and verify (or validate) the quality of the approximate solution. Traditionally, we have been most concerned with the development of effective numerical software for generating the approximate solution and several efficient and reliable numerical libraries are now available for use within the most widely used PSEs. On the other hand, the visualization and verification tasks have received little attention, even though each often requires as much computational effort as is involved in generating the approximate solution.In this paper, we will investigate the effectiveness of a suite of tools that we have recently introduced in the MATLAB PSE to verify approximate solutions of ordinary differential equations. We will use the notion of `effectivity index', widely used by researchers in the adaptive mesh PDE community, to quantify the credibility of our verification tools. Numerical examples will be presented to illustrate the effectiveness of these tools when applied to a standard numerical method on two model test problems.
Polynomial approximation of Morison wave loading
Bouyssy, V.; Rackwitz, R.
1995-12-31
For offshore structures with slender elements, the modeling of random wave loads by the Morison equation yields an equation of motion which admits no analytical solution except in few limit cases. This also holds for response moments. If polynomial approximations of the Morison drag loads are introduced, some procedures are available to obtain the stationary moments of the approximate response. These procedures result in large computer codes and time consuming computations if accurate approximations and large structural models are considered. If the response process is fitted by non-Gaussian models such as proposed by Winterstein (1988), the first four statistical moments of the response are necessary. In the paper the authors investigate how many terms should be included in the polynomial approximation of the Morison drag loading to accurately estimate the first four response moments. Analysis is performed in the time domain for a standardized form of the equation of motion. It is shown that a cubic approximation of the drag loading is necessary to accurately predict response variance for any excitation. For the fit of the first four response moments, at least a fifth-order approximation appears necessary. It is concluded that practical fatigue or reliability analyses can require much effort if the influence of nonlinearities in Morison loading needs to be accurately accounted for.
An improved proximity force approximation for electrostatics
Fosco, Cesar D.; Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, R8402AGP Bariloche ; Lombardo, Fernando C.; IFIBA ; Mazzitelli, Francisco D.
2012-08-15
A quite straightforward approximation for the electrostatic interaction between two perfectly conducting surfaces suggests itself when the distance between them is much smaller than the characteristic lengths associated with their shapes. Indeed, in the so called 'proximity force approximation' the electrostatic force is evaluated by first dividing each surface into a set of small flat patches, and then adding up the forces due two opposite pairs, the contributions of which are approximated as due to pairs of parallel planes. This approximation has been widely and successfully applied in different contexts, ranging from nuclear physics to Casimir effect calculations. We present here an improvement on this approximation, based on a derivative expansion for the electrostatic energy contained between the surfaces. The results obtained could be useful for discussing the geometric dependence of the electrostatic force, and also as a convenient benchmark for numerical analyses of the tip-sample electrostatic interaction in atomic force microscopes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proximity force approximation (PFA) has been widely used in different areas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PFA can be improved using a derivative expansion in the shape of the surfaces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use the improved PFA to compute electrostatic forces between conductors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results can be used as an analytic benchmark for numerical calculations in AFM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insight is provided for people who use the PFA to compute nuclear and Casimir forces.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ito, K.
1985-01-01
The stability and convergence properties of the Legendre-tau approximation for hereditary differential systems are analyzed. A characteristic equation is derived for the eigenvalues of the resulting approximate system. As a result of this derivation the uniform exponential stability of the solution semigroup is preserved under approximation. It is the key to obtaining the convergence of approximate solutions of the algebraic Riccati equation in trace norm.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ito, K.
1984-01-01
The stability and convergence properties of the Legendre-tau approximation for hereditary differential systems are analyzed. A charactristic equation is derived for the eigenvalues of the resulting approximate system. As a result of this derivation the uniform exponential stability of the solution semigroup is preserved under approximation. It is the key to obtaining the convergence of approximate solutions of the algebraic Riccati equation in trace norm.
Semiclassical initial value approximation for Green's function.
Kay, Kenneth G
2010-06-28
A semiclassical initial value approximation is obtained for the energy-dependent Green's function. For a system with f degrees of freedom the Green's function expression has the form of a (2f-1)-dimensional integral over points on the energy surface and an integral over time along classical trajectories initiated from these points. This approximation is derived by requiring an integral ansatz for Green's function to reduce to Gutzwiller's semiclassical formula when the integrations are performed by the stationary phase method. A simpler approximation is also derived involving only an (f-1)-dimensional integral over momentum variables on a Poincare surface and an integral over time. The relationship between the present expressions and an earlier initial value approximation for energy eigenfunctions is explored. Numerical tests for two-dimensional systems indicate that good accuracy can be obtained from the initial value Green's function for calculations of autocorrelation spectra and time-independent wave functions. The relative advantages of initial value approximations for the energy-dependent Green's function and the time-dependent propagator are discussed. PMID:20590184
Chisholm, Malcolm H.; Folting, Kirsten; Streib, William E.; Wu, De-Dong
1998-01-12
Hydrocarbon solutions of Mo(2)(NMe(2))(6) and 2,2'-ethylidenebis(4,6-di-tert-butylphenol), HO approximately approximately CHMe approximately approximately OH (2 equiv), react to give a mixture of two isomers, A and B, of formula Mo(2)(NMe(2))(2)(O approximately approximately CHMe approximately approximately O)(2). Both A and B are shown to contain the bridging &mgr;-O approximately approximately CHMe approximately approximately O ligands. They are diastereomers differing with respect to the positioning of the CHMe moiety as a result of ring closure with elimination of HNMe(2). Compounds A and B are thermally persistent at 100 degrees C in the solid state and in toluene, but compound A isomerizes in the presence of pyridine to the thermodynamically favored chelate isomer Mo(2)(NMe(2))(2)(eta(2)-O approximately approximately CHMe approximately approximately O)(2), C. Compound C is related to the previously characterized isomer Mo(2)(NMe(2))(2)(eta(2)-O approximately approximately CH(2) approximately approximately O)(2), where the methylene proton that is distal to the Mo-Mo triple bond is replaced by a Me group. Compound B cannot rearrange to this isomer without Mo-O bond dissociation. W(2)(NMe(2))(6) and HO approximately approximately CHMe approximately approximately OH (2 equiv) react to give W(2)(NMe(2))(2)(eta(2)-O approximately approximately CHMe approximately approximately O)(2), D, which is an analogue of C. The three molybdenum isomers A-C and tungsten complex D have been structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray studies. The results of this work are discussed in terms of the earlier work involving the related 2,2'-methylenebis(6-tert-butyl-4-methylphenoxides) and reveal that the initial ring closure reaction determines the stereochemistry of the subsequent substitution by the biphenoxide at the dinuclear center. Crystal data: for A.PhMe at -168 degrees C, a = 16.585(5) , b = 19.480(6) , c = 10.960(3) , alpha = 98.39(2) degrees, beta = 103.19(1) degrees, gamma = 91.44(2) degrees, space group P&onemacr;; for B.2PhH at -168 degrees C, a = 15.167(3) , b = 18.210(3) , c = 13.964(3) , alpha = 92.81(1) degrees, beta = 100.40(1) degrees, gamma = 71.16(1) degrees, space group P&onemacr;; for C.1.5Et(2)O at -168 degrees C, a = 16.483(3) , b = 16.817(3) , c = 14.305(2) , alpha = 106.13(1) degrees, beta = 108.80(1) degrees, gamma = 71.70(1) degrees, space group P&onemacr;; and for D at -168 degrees C, a = 14.638(2) , b = 21.188(4) , c = 10.273(2) , alpha = 94.80(1) degrees, beta = 95.05(1) degrees, gamma = 100.85(1) degrees, space group P&onemacr;. PMID:11670259
Approximation methods in gravitational-radiation theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Will, C. M.
1986-01-01
The observation of gravitational-radiation damping in the binary pulsar PSR 1913 + 16 and the ongoing experimental search for gravitational waves of extraterrestrial origin have made the theory of gravitational radiation an active branch of classical general relativity. In calculations of gravitational radiation, approximation methods play a crucial role. Recent developments are summarized in two areas in which approximations are important: (a) the quadrupole approxiamtion, which determines the energy flux and the radiation reaction forces in weak-field, slow-motion, source-within-the-near-zone systems such as the binary pulsar; and (b) the normal modes of oscillation of black holes, where the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation gives accurate estimates of the complex frequencies of the modes.
Reconfiguring smart structures using approximate heteroclinic connections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jiaying; McInnes, Colin R.
2015-10-01
A new method is investigated to reconfigure smart structures using the technique of polynomial series to approximate a true heteroclinic connection between unstable equilibria in a smart structure model. We explore the use of polynomials of varying order to first approximate the heteroclinic connection between two equal-energy, unstable equilibrium points, and then develop an inverse method to control the dynamics of the system to track the reference polynomial trajectory. It is found that high-order polynomials can provide a good approximation to heteroclinic connections and provide an efficient means of generating such trajectories. The method is used first in a simple smart structure model to illustrate the method and is then extended to a more complex model where the numerical generation of true heteroclinic connections is difficult. It is envisaged that being computationally efficient, the method could form the basis for real-time reconfiguration of smart structures using heteroclinic connections between equal-energy, unstable configurations.
Eight-moment approximation solar wind models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Olsen, Espen Lyngdal; Leer, Egil
1995-01-01
Heat conduction from the corona is important in the solar wind energy budget. Until now all hydrodynamic solar wind models have been using the collisionally dominated gas approximation for the heat conductive flux. Observations of the solar wind show particle distribution functions which deviate significantly from a Maxwellian, and it is clear that the solar wind plasma is far from collisionally dominated. We have developed a numerical model for the solar wind which solves the full equation for the heat conductive flux together with the conservation equations for mass, momentum, and energy. The equations are obtained by taking moments of the Boltzmann equation, using an 8-moment approximation for the distribution function. For low-density solar winds the 8-moment approximation models give results which differ significantly from the results obtained in models assuming the gas to be collisionally dominated. The two models give more or less the same results in high density solar winds.
On Born approximation in black hole scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batic, D.; Kelkar, N. G.; Nowakowski, M.
2011-12-01
A massless field propagating on spherically symmetric black hole metrics such as the Schwarzschild, Reissner-Nordstrm and Reissner-Nordstrm-de Sitter backgrounds is considered. In particular, explicit formulae in terms of transcendental functions for the scattering of massless scalar particles off black holes are derived within a Born approximation. It is shown that the conditions on the existence of the Born integral forbid a straightforward extraction of the quasi normal modes using the Born approximation for the scattering amplitude. Such a method has been used in literature. We suggest a novel, well defined method, to extract the large imaginary part of quasinormal modes via the Coulomb-like phase shift. Furthermore, we compare the numerically evaluated exact scattering amplitude with the Born one to find that the approximation is not very useful for the scattering of massless scalar, electromagnetic as well as gravitational waves from black holes.
Approximate solutions of the hyperbolic Kepler equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avendano, Martn; Martn-Molina, Vernica; Ortigas-Galindo, Jorge
2015-12-01
We provide an approximate zero widetilde{S}(g,L) for the hyperbolic Kepler's equation S-g {{arcsinh}}(S)-L=0 for gin (0,1) and Lin [0,? ). We prove, by using Smale's ? -theory, that Newton's method starting at our approximate zero produces a sequence that converges to the actual solution S( g, L) at quadratic speed, i.e. if S_n is the value obtained after n iterations, then |S_n-S|? 0.5^{2^n-1}|widetilde{S}-S|. The approximate zero widetilde{S}(g,L) is a piecewise-defined function involving several linear expressions and one with cubic and square roots. In bounded regions of (0,1) [0,? ) that exclude a small neighborhood of g=1, L=0, we also provide a method to construct simpler starters involving only constants.
Smooth function approximation using neural networks.
Ferrari, Silvia; Stengel, Robert F
2005-01-01
An algebraic approach for representing multidimensional nonlinear functions by feedforward neural networks is presented. In this paper, the approach is implemented for the approximation of smooth batch data containing the function's input, output, and possibly, gradient information. The training set is associated to the network adjustable parameters by nonlinear weight equations. The cascade structure of these equations reveals that they can be treated as sets of linear systems. Hence, the training process and the network approximation properties can be investigated via linear algebra. Four algorithms are developed to achieve exact or approximate matching of input-output and/or gradient-based training sets. Their application to the design of forward and feedback neurocontrollers shows that algebraic training is characterized by faster execution speeds and better generalization properties than contemporary optimization techniques. PMID:15732387
Ancilla-approximable quantum state transformations
Blass, Andreas; Gurevich, Yuri
2015-04-15
We consider the transformations of quantum states obtainable by a process of the following sort. Combine the given input state with a specially prepared initial state of an auxiliary system. Apply a unitary transformation to the combined system. Measure the state of the auxiliary subsystem. If (and only if) it is in a specified final state, consider the process successful, and take the resulting state of the original (principal) system as the result of the process. We review known information about exact realization of transformations by such a process. Then we present results about approximate realization of finite partial transformations. We not only consider primarily the issue of approximation to within a specified positive ?, but also address the question of arbitrarily close approximation.
The Cell Cycle Switch Computes Approximate Majority
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardelli, Luca; Csikász-Nagy, Attila
2012-09-01
Both computational and biological systems have to make decisions about switching from one state to another. The `Approximate Majority' computational algorithm provides the asymptotically fastest way to reach a common decision by all members of a population between two possible outcomes, where the decision approximately matches the initial relative majority. The network that regulates the mitotic entry of the cell-cycle in eukaryotes also makes a decision before it induces early mitotic processes. Here we show that the switch from inactive to active forms of the mitosis promoting Cyclin Dependent Kinases is driven by a system that is related to both the structure and the dynamics of the Approximate Majority computation. We investigate the behavior of these two switches by deterministic, stochastic and probabilistic methods and show that the steady states and temporal dynamics of the two systems are similar and they are exchangeable as components of oscillatory networks.
Exponential Approximations Using Fourier Series Partial Sums
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Banerjee, Nana S.; Geer, James F.
1997-01-01
The problem of accurately reconstructing a piece-wise smooth, 2(pi)-periodic function f and its first few derivatives, given only a truncated Fourier series representation of f, is studied and solved. The reconstruction process is divided into two steps. In the first step, the first 2N + 1 Fourier coefficients of f are used to approximate the locations and magnitudes of the discontinuities in f and its first M derivatives. This is accomplished by first finding initial estimates of these quantities based on certain properties of Gibbs phenomenon, and then refining these estimates by fitting the asymptotic form of the Fourier coefficients to the given coefficients using a least-squares approach. It is conjectured that the locations of the singularities are approximated to within O(N(sup -M-2), and the associated jump of the k(sup th) derivative of f is approximated to within O(N(sup -M-l+k), as N approaches infinity, and the method is robust. These estimates are then used with a class of singular basis functions, which have certain 'built-in' singularities, to construct a new sequence of approximations to f. Each of these new approximations is the sum of a piecewise smooth function and a new Fourier series partial sum. When N is proportional to M, it is shown that these new approximations, and their derivatives, converge exponentially in the maximum norm to f, and its corresponding derivatives, except in the union of a finite number of small open intervals containing the points of singularity of f. The total measure of these intervals decreases exponentially to zero as M approaches infinity. The technique is illustrated with several examples.
ANALOG QUANTUM NEURON FOR FUNCTIONS APPROXIMATION
A. EZHOV; A. KHROMOV; G. BERMAN
2001-05-01
We describe a system able to perform universal stochastic approximations of continuous multivariable functions in both neuron-like and quantum manner. The implementation of this model in the form of multi-barrier multiple-silt system has been earlier proposed. For the simplified waveguide variant of this model it is proved, that the system can approximate any continuous function of many variables. This theorem is also applied to the 2-input quantum neural model analogical to the schemes developed for quantum control.
Approximate average deployments versus defense parameters
Canavan, G.H.
1991-12-01
Calculations of the number of reentry vehicles (RVs) killed as a function of missile and defense parameters can be well approximated by analytic expressions that are valid for all numbers of missiles and interceptors. The approximation uniformly underestimates the effectiveness of boost-phase defenses: the discrepancies in kill rates are about 10%. If if is used to size the boost phase of two-layer defenses, the uncertainties would at worst double the demands on the midcourse layer, which is generally a minor part of the total. 4 refs., 3 figs.
HALOGEN: Approximate synthetic halo catalog generator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avila Perez, Santiago; Murray, Steven
2015-05-01
HALOGEN generates approximate synthetic halo catalogs. Written in C, it decomposes the problem of generating cosmological tracer distributions (eg. halos) into four steps: generating an approximate density field, generating the required number of tracers from a CDF over mass, placing the tracers on field particles according to a bias scheme dependent on local density, and assigning velocities to the tracers based on velocities of local particles. It also implements a default set of four models for these steps. HALOGEN uses 2LPTic (ascl:1201.005) and CUTE (ascl:1505.016); the software is flexible and can be adapted to varying cosmologies and simulation specifications.
Congruence Approximations for Entrophy Endowed Hyperbolic Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barth, Timothy J.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
Building upon the standard symmetrization theory for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws, congruence properties of the symmetrized system are explored. These congruence properties suggest variants of several stabilized numerical discretization procedures for hyperbolic equations (upwind finite-volume, Galerkin least-squares, discontinuous Galerkin) that benefit computationally from congruence approximation. Specifically, it becomes straightforward to construct the spatial discretization and Jacobian linearization for these schemes (given a small amount of derivative information) for possible use in Newton's method, discrete optimization, homotopy algorithms, etc. Some examples will be given for the compressible Euler equations and the nonrelativistic MHD equations using linear and quadratic spatial approximation.
Approximating W projection as a separable kernel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merry, Bruce
2016-02-01
W projection is a commonly used approach to allow interferometric imaging to be accelerated by fast Fourier transforms, but it can require a huge amount of storage for convolution kernels. The kernels are not separable, but we show that they can be closely approximated by separable kernels. The error scales with the fourth power of the field of view, and so is small enough to be ignored at mid- to high frequencies. We also show that hybrid imaging algorithms combining W projection with either faceting, snapshotting, or W stacking allow the error to be made arbitrarily small, making the approximation suitable even for high-resolution wide-field instruments.
Large Hierarchies from Approximate R Symmetries
Kappl, Rolf; Ratz, Michael; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai; Nilles, Hans Peter; Ramos-Sanchez, Saul; Vaudrevange, Patrick K. S.
2009-03-27
We show that hierarchically small vacuum expectation values of the superpotential in supersymmetric theories can be a consequence of an approximate R symmetry. We briefly discuss the role of such small constants in moduli stabilization and understanding the huge hierarchy between the Planck and electroweak scales.
Revisiting Twomey's approximation for peak supersaturation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shipway, B. J.
2015-04-01
Twomey's seminal 1959 paper provided lower and upper bound approximations to the estimation of peak supersaturation within an updraft and thus provides the first closed expression for the number of nucleated cloud droplets. The form of this approximation is simple, but provides a surprisingly good estimate and has subsequently been employed in more sophisticated treatments of nucleation parametrization. In the current paper, we revisit the lower bound approximation of Twomey and make a small adjustment that can be used to obtain a more accurate calculation of peak supersaturation under all potential aerosol loadings and thermodynamic conditions. In order to make full use of this improved approximation, the underlying integro-differential equation for supersaturation evolution and the condition for calculating peak supersaturation are examined. A simple rearrangement of the algebra allows for an expression to be written down that can then be solved with a single lookup table with only one independent variable for an underlying lognormal aerosol population. While multimodal aerosol with N different dispersion characteristics requires 2N+1 inputs to calculate the activation fraction, only N of these one-dimensional lookup tables are needed. No additional information is required in the lookup table to deal with additional chemical, physical or thermodynamic properties. The resulting implementation provides a relatively simple, yet computationally cheap, physically based parametrization of droplet nucleation for use in climate and Numerical Weather Prediction models.
An approximate classical unimolecular reaction rate theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Meishan; Rice, Stuart A.
1992-05-01
We describe a classical theory of unimolecular reaction rate which is derived from the analysis of Davis and Gray by use of simplifying approximations. These approximations concern the calculation of the locations of, and the fluxes of phase points across, the bottlenecks to fragmentation and to intramolecular energy transfer. The bottleneck to fragment separation is represented as a vibration-rotation state dependent separatrix, which approximation is similar to but extends and improves the approximations for the separatrix introduced by Gray, Rice, and Davis and by Zhao and Rice. The novel feature in our analysis is the representation of the bottlenecks to intramolecular energy transfer as dividing surfaces in phase space; the locations of these dividing surfaces are determined by the same conditions as locate the remnants of robust tori with frequency ratios related to the golden mean (in a two degree of freedom system these are the cantori). The flux of phase points across each dividing surface is calculated with an analytic representation instead of a stroboscopic mapping. The rate of unimolecular reaction is identified with the net rate at which phase points escape from the region of quasiperiodic bounded motion to the region of free fragment motion by consecutively crossing the dividing surfaces for intramolecular energy exchange and the separatrix. This new theory generates predictions of the rates of predissociation of the van der Waals molecules HeI2, NeI2 and ArI2 which are in very good agreement with available experimental data.
Can Distributional Approximations Give Exact Answers?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Griffiths, Martin
2013-01-01
Some mathematical activities and investigations for the classroom or the lecture theatre can appear rather contrived. This cannot, however, be levelled at the idea given here, since it is based on a perfectly sensible question concerning distributional approximations that was posed by an undergraduate student. Out of this simple question, and
Kravchuk functions for the finite oscillator approximation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Atakishiyev, Natig M.; Wolf, Kurt Bernardo
1995-01-01
Kravchuk orthogonal functions - Kravchuk polynomials multiplied by the square root of the weight function - simplify the inversion algorithm for the analysis of discrete, finite signals in harmonic oscillator components. They can be regarded as the best approximation set. As the number of sampling points increases, the Kravchuk expansion becomes the standard oscillator expansion.
Alternative approximation concepts for space frame synthesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lust, R. V.; Schmit, L. A.
1985-01-01
A structural synthesis methodology for the minimum mass design of 3-dimensionall frame-truss structures under multiple static loading conditions and subject to limits on displacements, rotations, stresses, local buckling, and element cross-sectional dimensions is presented. A variety of approximation concept options are employed to yield near optimum designs after no more than 10 structural analyses. Available options include: (A) formulation of the nonlinear mathematcal programming problem in either reciprocal section property (RSP) or cross-sectional dimension (CSD) space; (B) two alternative approximate problem structures in each design space; and (C) three distinct assumptions about element end-force variations. Fixed element, design element linking, and temporary constraint deletion features are also included. The solution of each approximate problem, in either its primal or dual form, is obtained using CONMIN, a feasible directions program. The frame-truss synthesis methodology is implemented in the COMPASS computer program and is used to solve a variety of problems. These problems were chosen so that, in addition to exercising the various approximation concepts options, the results could be compared with previously published work.
Curved Finite Elements and Curve Approximation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baart, M. L.
1985-01-01
The approximation of parameterized curves by segments of parabolas that pass through the endpoints of each curve segment arises naturally in all quadratic isoparametric transformations. While not as popular as cubics in curve design problems, the use of parabolas allows the introduction of a geometric measure of the discrepancy between given and approximating curves. The free parameters of the parabola may be used to optimize the fit, and constraints that prevent overspill and curve degeneracy are introduced. This leads to a constrained optimization problem in two varibles that can be solved quickly and reliably by a simple method that takes advantage of the special structure of the problem. For applications in the field of computer-aided design, the given curves are often cubic polynomials, and the coefficient may be calculated in closed form in terms of polynomial coefficients by using a symbolic machine language so that families of curves can be approximated with no further integration. For general curves, numerical quadrature may be used, as in the implementation where the Romberg quadrature is applied. The coefficient functions C sub 1 (gamma) and C sub 2 (gamma) are expanded as polynomials in gamma, so that for given A(s) and B(s) the integrations need only be done once. The method was used to find optimal constrained parabolic approximation to a wide variety of given curves.
Approximation of virus structure by icosahedral tilings.
Salthouse, D G; Indelicato, G; Cermelli, P; Keef, T; Twarock, R
2015-07-01
Viruses are remarkable examples of order at the nanoscale, exhibiting protein containers that in the vast majority of cases are organized with icosahedral symmetry. Janner used lattice theory to provide blueprints for the organization of material in viruses. An alternative approach is provided here in terms of icosahedral tilings, motivated by the fact that icosahedral symmetry is non-crystallographic in three dimensions. In particular, a numerical procedure is developed to approximate the capsid of icosahedral viruses by icosahedral tiles via projection of high-dimensional tiles based on the cut-and-project scheme for the construction of three-dimensional quasicrystals. The goodness of fit of our approximation is assessed using techniques related to the theory of polygonal approximation of curves. The approach is applied to a number of viral capsids and it is shown that detailed features of the capsid surface can indeed be satisfactorily described by icosahedral tilings. This work complements previous studies in which the geometry of the capsid is described by point sets generated as orbits of extensions of the icosahedral group, as such point sets are by construction related to the vertex sets of icosahedral tilings. The approximations of virus geometry derived here can serve as coarse-grained models of viral capsids as a basis for the study of virus assembly and structural transitions of viral capsids, and also provide a new perspective on the design of protein containers for nanotechnology applications. PMID:26131897
Progressive Image Coding by Hierarchical Linear Approximation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wu, Xiaolin; Fang, Yonggang
1994-01-01
Proposes a scheme of hierarchical piecewise linear approximation as an adaptive image pyramid. A progressive image coder comes naturally from the proposed image pyramid. The new pyramid is semantically more powerful than regular tessellation but syntactically simpler than free segmentation. This compromise between adaptability and complexity
Fostering Formal Commutativity Knowledge with Approximate Arithmetic
Hansen, Sonja Maria; Haider, Hilde; Eichler, Alexandra; Godau, Claudia; Frensch, Peter A.; Gaschler, Robert
2015-01-01
How can we enhance the understanding of abstract mathematical principles in elementary school? Different studies found out that nonsymbolic estimation could foster subsequent exact number processing and simple arithmetic. Taking the commutativity principle as a test case, we investigated if the approximate calculation of symbolic commutative quantities can also alter the access to procedural and conceptual knowledge of a more abstract arithmetic principle. Experiment 1 tested first graders who had not been instructed about commutativity in school yet. Approximate calculation with symbolic quantities positively influenced the use of commutativity-based shortcuts in formal arithmetic. We replicated this finding with older first graders (Experiment 2) and third graders (Experiment 3). Despite the positive effect of approximation on the spontaneous application of commutativity-based shortcuts in arithmetic problems, we found no comparable impact on the application of conceptual knowledge of the commutativity principle. Overall, our results show that the usage of a specific arithmetic principle can benefit from approximation. However, the findings also suggest that the correct use of certain procedures does not always imply conceptual understanding. Rather, the conceptual understanding of commutativity seems to lag behind procedural proficiency during elementary school. PMID:26560311
Quickly Approximating the Distance Between Two Objects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hammen, David
2009-01-01
A method of quickly approximating the distance between two objects (one smaller, regarded as a point; the other larger and complexly shaped) has been devised for use in computationally simulating motions of the objects for the purpose of planning the motions to prevent collisions.
Relativistic point interactions: Approximation by smooth potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hughes, Rhonda J.
1997-06-01
We show that the four-parameter family of one-dimensional relativistic point interactions studied by Benvegnu and D?browski may be approximated in the strong resolvent sense by smooth, local, short-range perturbations of the Dirac Hamiltonian. In addition, we prove that the nonrelativistic limits correspond to the Schrdinger point interactions studied extensively by the author and Paul Chernoff.
Approximation and compression with sparse orthonormal transforms.
Sezer, Osman Gokhan; Guleryuz, Onur G; Altunbasak, Yucel
2015-08-01
We propose a new transform design method that targets the generation of compression-optimized transforms for next-generation multimedia applications. The fundamental idea behind transform compression is to exploit regularity within signals such that redundancy is minimized subject to a fidelity cost. Multimedia signals, in particular images and video, are well known to contain a diverse set of localized structures, leading to many different types of regularity and to nonstationary signal statistics. The proposed method designs sparse orthonormal transforms (SOTs) that automatically exploit regularity over different signal structures and provides an adaptation method that determines the best representation over localized regions. Unlike earlier work that is motivated by linear approximation constructs and model-based designs that are limited to specific types of signal regularity, our work uses general nonlinear approximation ideas and a data-driven setup to significantly broaden its reach. We show that our SOT designs provide a safe and principled extension of the Karhunen-Loeve transform (KLT) by reducing to the KLT on Gaussian processes and by automatically exploiting non-Gaussian statistics to significantly improve over the KLT on more general processes. We provide an algebraic optimization framework that generates optimized designs for any desired transform structure (multiresolution, block, lapped, and so on) with significantly better n -term approximation performance. For each structure, we propose a new prototype codec and test over a database of images. Simulation results show consistent increase in compression and approximation performance compared with conventional methods. PMID:25823033
Improved approximation algorithms for tree alignment
Wang, Lusheng; Gusfield, D.
1996-12-31
Multiple sequence alignment is a task at the heart of much of current computational biology. Several different objective functions have been proposed to formalize the task of multiple sequence alignment, but efficient algorithms are lacking in each case. Thus multiple sequence alignment is one of the most critical, essentially unsolved problems in computational biology. In this paper the authors consider one of the more compelling objective functions for multiple sequence alignment, formalized as the tree alignment problems. Previously, a factor-of-two approximation method was developed for the tree alignment, which ran in cubic time (as a function of the number of fixed length strings to be aligned), along with a polynomial time approximation scheme (PTAS) for the problem. However, the PTAS had a running time which made it impractical to reduce the error bound much below two for small size biological sequences (100 characters long). In this paper the authors first develop a factor-of-two approximation algorithm which runs in quadratic time, and then use it to develop a PTAS which has a smaller guaranteed error bound and a vastly improved worst case running time compared to other schemes. With the new approximation scheme, it is now practical to guarantee an error bound of 1.583 for strings of lengths 200 characters or less. 15 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.
Sensing Position With Approximately Constant Contact Force
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sturdevant, Jay
1996-01-01
Computer-controlled electromechanical system uses number of linear variable-differential transformers (LVDTs) to measure axial positions of selected points on surface of lens, mirror, or other precise optical component with high finish. Pressures applied to pneumatically driven LVDTs adjusted to maintain small, approximately constant contact forces as positions of LVDT tips vary.
Counting independent sets using the Bethe approximation
Chertkov, Michael; Chandrasekaran, V; Gamarmik, D; Shah, D; Sin, J
2009-01-01
The authors consider the problem of counting the number of independent sets or the partition function of a hard-core model in a graph. The problem in general is computationally hard (P hard). They study the quality of the approximation provided by the Bethe free energy. Belief propagation (BP) is a message-passing algorithm can be used to compute fixed points of the Bethe approximation; however, BP is not always guarantee to converge. As the first result, they propose a simple message-passing algorithm that converges to a BP fixed pont for any grapy. They find that their algorithm converges within a multiplicative error 1 + {var_epsilon} of a fixed point in {Omicron}(n{sup 2}E{sup -4} log{sup 3}(nE{sup -1})) iterations for any bounded degree graph of n nodes. In a nutshell, the algorithm can be thought of as a modification of BP with 'time-varying' message-passing. Next, they analyze the resulting error to the number of independent sets provided by such a fixed point of the Bethe approximation. Using the recently developed loop calculus approach by Vhertkov and Chernyak, they establish that for any bounded graph with large enough girth, the error is {Omicron}(n{sup -{gamma}}) for some {gamma} > 0. As an application, they find that for random 3-regular graph, Bethe approximation of log-partition function (log of the number of independent sets) is within o(1) of corret log-partition - this is quite surprising as previous physics-based predictions were expecting an error of o(n). In sum, their results provide a systematic way to find Bethe fixed points for any graph quickly and allow for estimating error in Bethe approximation using novel combinatorial techniques.
Second derivatives for approximate spin projection methods
Thompson, Lee M.; Hratchian, Hrant P.
2015-02-07
The use of broken-symmetry electronic structure methods is required in order to obtain correct behavior of electronically strained open-shell systems, such as transition states, biradicals, and transition metals. This approach often has issues with spin contamination, which can lead to significant errors in predicted energies, geometries, and properties. Approximate projection schemes are able to correct for spin contamination and can often yield improved results. To fully make use of these methods and to carry out exploration of the potential energy surface, it is desirable to develop an efficient second energy derivative theory. In this paper, we formulate the analytical second derivatives for the Yamaguchi approximate projection scheme, building on recent work that has yielded an efficient implementation of the analytical first derivatives.
Comparison of quasilinear and WKB approximations
Mandelzweig, V.B. . E-mail: victor@phys.huji.ac.il
2006-12-15
It is shown that the quasilinearization method (QLM) sums the WKB series. The method approaches solution of the Riccati equation (obtained by casting the Schroedinger equation in a nonlinear form) by approximating the nonlinear terms by a sequence of the linear ones, and is not based on the existence of a smallness parameter. Each pth QLM iterate is expressible in a closed integral form. Its expansion in powers of h reproduces the structure of the WKB series generating an infinite number of the WKB terms. Coefficients of the first 2 {sup p} terms of the expansion are exact while coefficients of a similar number of the next terms are approximate. The quantization condition in any QLM iteration, including the first, leads to exact energies for many well known physical potentials such as the Coulomb, harmonic oscillator, Poeschl-Teller, Hulthen, Hyleraas, Morse, Eckart, etc.
Analysing organic transistors based on interface approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akiyama, Yuto; Mori, Takehiko
2014-01-01
Temperature-dependent characteristics of organic transistors are analysed thoroughly using interface approximation. In contrast to amorphous silicon transistors, it is characteristic of organic transistors that the accumulation layer is concentrated on the first monolayer, and it is appropriate to consider interface charge rather than band bending. On the basis of this model, observed characteristics of hexamethylenetetrathiafulvalene (HMTTF) and dibenzotetrathiafulvalene (DBTTF) transistors with various surface treatments are analysed, and the trap distribution is extracted. In turn, starting from a simple exponential distribution, we can reproduce the temperature-dependent transistor characteristics as well as the gate voltage dependence of the activation energy, so we can investigate various aspects of organic transistors self-consistently under the interface approximation. Small deviation from such an ideal transistor operation is discussed assuming the presence of an energetically discrete trap level, which leads to a hump in the transfer characteristics. The contact resistance is estimated by measuring the transfer characteristics up to the linear region.
Smooth polynomial approximation of spiral arcs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cripps, R. J.; Hussain, M. Z.; Zhu, S.
2010-03-01
Constructing fair curve segments using parametric polynomials is difficult due to the oscillatory nature of polynomials. Even NURBS curves can exhibit unsatisfactory curvature profiles. Curve segments with monotonic curvature profiles, for example spiral arcs, exist but are intrinsically non-polynomial in nature and thus difficult to integrate into existing CAD systems. A method of constructing an approximation to a generalised Cornu spiral (GCS) arc using non-rational quintic Bzier curves matching end points, end slopes and end curvatures is presented. By defining an objective function based on the relative error between the curvature profiles of the GCS and its Bzier approximation, a curve segment is constructed that has a monotonic curvature profile within a specified tolerance.
Capturing planar shapes by approximating their outlines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarfraz, M.; Riyazuddin, M.; Baig, M. H.
2006-05-01
A non-deterministic evolutionary approach for approximating the outlines of planar shapes has been developed. Non-uniform Rational B-splines (NURBS) have been utilized as an underlying approximation curve scheme. Simulated Annealing heuristic is used as an evolutionary methodology. In addition to independent studies of the optimization of weight and knot parameters of the NURBS, a separate scheme has also been developed for the optimization of weights and knots simultaneously. The optimized NURBS models have been fitted over the contour data of the planar shapes for the ultimate and automatic output. The output results are visually pleasing with respect to the threshold provided by the user. A web-based system has also been developed for the effective and worldwide utilization. The objective of this system is to provide the facility to visualize the output to the whole world through internet by providing the freedom to the user for various desired input parameters setting in the algorithm designed.
Approximation techniques of a selective ARQ protocol
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, B. G.
Approximations to the performance of selective automatic repeat request (ARQ) protocol with lengthy acknowledgement delays are presented. The discussion is limited to packet-switched communication systems in a single-hop environment such as found with satellite systems. It is noted that retransmission of errors after ARQ is a common situation. ARQ techniques, e.g., stop-and-wait and continuous, are outlined. A simplified queueing analysis of the selective ARQ protocol shows that exact solutions with long delays are not feasible. Two approximation models are formulated, based on known exact behavior of a system with short delays. The buffer size requirements at both ends of a communication channel are cited as significant factor for accurate analysis, and further examinations of buffer overflow and buffer lock-out probability and avoidance are recommended.
Evolutionary Algorithm in Approximation of Defuzzification Functional
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wȩgrzyn-Wolska, Katarzyna; Borzymek, Piotr; Kosi?ski, Witold
2010-09-01
The space of ordered fuzzy numbers (OFN) forms a normed space on which defuzzification functionals can be defined. They play the main role when dealing with fuzzy controllers and fuzzy inference systems. An approximation formula for a general nonlinear functional is given. If a training set is given which describes an action of the functional on OFN then a dedicated evolutionary algorithm can be presented to determine its form. Genotypes composed of chromosomes are proposed together with the fitness function and genetic operators. Some numerical experiments are also performed in the case when ordered fuzzy numbers are given in terms of step functions. For the comparison an approximation procedure with the use of artificial neural networks is also implemented.
Approximate gauge symmetry of composite vector bosons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Mahiko
2010-08-01
It can be shown in a solvable field theory model that the couplings of the composite vector bosons made of a fermion pair approach the gauge couplings in the limit of strong binding. Although this phenomenon may appear accidental and special to the vector bosons made of a fermion pair, we extend it to the case of bosons being constituents and find that the same phenomenon occurs in a more intriguing way. The functional formalism not only facilitates computation but also provides us with a better insight into the generating mechanism of approximate gauge symmetry, in particular, how the strong binding and global current conservation conspire to generate such an approximate symmetry. Remarks are made on its possible relevance or irrelevance to electroweak and higher symmetries.
Approximate methods for black hole collisions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eardley, D. M.
1986-01-01
The head-on collision of two nonrotating black holes, initially falling toward each other with speed of approach equal to escape velocity, is studied. The initial-value problem for the two-black-hole configuration is solved by giving the extrinsic curvature on a Euclidean space slice, with the equal masses of the two holes and their separation as free parameters. An approximating space-time is then constructed by stacking up a whole sequence of initial-value slices with decreasing separation between the black holes. The space-time singularities at the centers of the two black holes collide at some instant of time, and after that time the space-time so constructed is just the Schwarzschild solution with mass equal to the total mass of both black holes. The approximating space-time describes the coalescence of the event horizons, but contains no gravitational waves.
Planetary ephemerides approximation for radar astronomy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadr, R.; Shahshahani, M.
1991-02-01
The planetary ephemerides approximation for radar astronomy is discussed, and, in particular, the effect of this approximation on the performance of the programmable local oscillator (PLO) used in Goldstone Solar System Radar is presented. Four different approaches are considered and it is shown that the Gram polynomials outperform the commonly used technique based on Chebyshev polynomials. These methods are used to analyze the mean square, the phase error, and the frequency tracking error in the presence of the worst case Doppler shift that one may encounter within the solar system. It is shown that in the worst case the phase error is under one degree and the frequency tracking error less than one hertz when the frequency to the PLO is updated every millisecond.
Second derivatives for approximate spin projection methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thompson, Lee M.; Hratchian, Hrant P.
2015-02-01
The use of broken-symmetry electronic structure methods is required in order to obtain correct behavior of electronically strained open-shell systems, such as transition states, biradicals, and transition metals. This approach often has issues with spin contamination, which can lead to significant errors in predicted energies, geometries, and properties. Approximate projection schemes are able to correct for spin contamination and can often yield improved results. To fully make use of these methods and to carry out exploration of the potential energy surface, it is desirable to develop an efficient second energy derivative theory. In this paper, we formulate the analytical second derivatives for the Yamaguchi approximate projection scheme, building on recent work that has yielded an efficient implementation of the analytical first derivatives.
Planetary ephemerides approximation for radar astronomy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sadr, R.; Shahshahani, M.
1991-01-01
The planetary ephemerides approximation for radar astronomy is discussed, and, in particular, the effect of this approximation on the performance of the programmable local oscillator (PLO) used in Goldstone Solar System Radar is presented. Four different approaches are considered and it is shown that the Gram polynomials outperform the commonly used technique based on Chebyshev polynomials. These methods are used to analyze the mean square, the phase error, and the frequency tracking error in the presence of the worst case Doppler shift that one may encounter within the solar system. It is shown that in the worst case the phase error is under one degree and the frequency tracking error less than one hertz when the frequency to the PLO is updated every millisecond.
Approximate gauge symemtry of composite vector bosons
Suzuki, Mahiko
2010-06-01
It can be shown in a solvable field theory model that the couplings of the composite vector mesons made of a fermion pair approach the gauge couplings in the limit of strong binding. Although this phenomenon may appear accidental and special to the vector bosons made of a fermion pair, we extend it to the case of bosons being constituents and find that the same phenomenon occurs in more an intriguing way. The functional formalism not only facilitates computation but also provides us with a better insight into the generating mechanism of approximate gauge symmetry, in particular, how the strong binding and global current conservation conspire to generate such an approximate symmetry. Remarks are made on its possible relevance or irrelevance to electroweak and higher symmetries.
Analysing organic transistors based on interface approximation
Akiyama, Yuto; Mori, Takehiko; ACT-C, JST, Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012
2014-01-15
Temperature-dependent characteristics of organic transistors are analysed thoroughly using interface approximation. In contrast to amorphous silicon transistors, it is characteristic of organic transistors that the accumulation layer is concentrated on the first monolayer, and it is appropriate to consider interface charge rather than band bending. On the basis of this model, observed characteristics of hexamethylenetetrathiafulvalene (HMTTF) and dibenzotetrathiafulvalene (DBTTF) transistors with various surface treatments are analysed, and the trap distribution is extracted. In turn, starting from a simple exponential distribution, we can reproduce the temperature-dependent transistor characteristics as well as the gate voltage dependence of the activation energy, so we can investigate various aspects of organic transistors self-consistently under the interface approximation. Small deviation from such an ideal transistor operation is discussed assuming the presence of an energetically discrete trap level, which leads to a hump in the transfer characteristics. The contact resistance is estimated by measuring the transfer characteristics up to the linear region.
Approximated solutions to Born-Infeld dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferraro, Rafael; Nigro, Mauro
2016-02-01
The Born-Infeld equation in the plane is usefully captured in complex language. The general exact solution can be written as a combination of holomorphic and anti-holomorphic functions. However, this solution only expresses the potential in an implicit way. We rework the formulation to obtain the complex potential in an explicit way, by means of a perturbative procedure. We take care of the secular behavior common to this kind of approach, by resorting to a symmetry the equation has at the considered order of approximation. We apply the method to build approximated solutions to Born-Infeld electrodynamics. We solve for BI electromagnetic waves traveling in opposite directions. We study the propagation at interfaces, with the aim of searching for effects susceptible to experimental detection. In particular, we show that a reflected wave is produced when a wave is incident on a semi-space containing a magnetostatic field.
Parameter Biases Introduced by Approximate Gravitational Waveforms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farr, Benjamin; Coughlin, Scott; Le, John; Skeehan, Connor; Kalogera, Vicky
2013-04-01
The production of the most accurate gravitational waveforms from compact binary mergers require Einstein's equations to be solved numerically, a process far too expensive to produce the 10^7 waveforms necessary to estimate the parameters of a measured gravitational wave signal. Instead, parameter estimation depends on approximate or phenomenological waveforms to characterize measured signals. As part of the Ninja collaboration, we study the biases introduced by these methods when estimating the parameters of numerically produced waveforms.
Capacitor-Chain Successive-Approximation ADC
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cunningham, Thomas
2003-01-01
A proposed successive-approximation analog-to-digital converter (ADC) would contain a capacitively terminated chain of identical capacitor cells. Like a conventional successive-approximation ADC containing a bank of binary-scaled capacitors, the proposed ADC would store an input voltage on a sample-and-hold capacitor and would digitize the stored input voltage by finding the closest match between this voltage and a capacitively generated sum of binary fractions of a reference voltage (Vref). However, the proposed capacitor-chain ADC would offer two major advantages over a conventional binary-scaled-capacitor ADC: (1) In a conventional ADC that digitizes to n bits, the largest capacitor (representing the most significant bit) must have 2(exp n-1) times as much capacitance, and hence, approximately 2(exp n-1) times as much area as does the smallest capacitor (representing the least significant bit), so that the total capacitor area must be 2(exp n) times that of the smallest capacitor. In the proposed capacitor-chain ADC, there would be three capacitors per cell, each approximately equal to the smallest capacitor in the conventional ADC, and there would be one cell per bit. Therefore, the total capacitor area would be only about 3(exp n) times that of the smallest capacitor. The net result would be that the proposed ADC could be considerably smaller than the conventional ADC. (2) Because of edge effects, parasitic capacitances, and manufacturing tolerances, it is difficult to make capacitor banks in which the values of capacitance are scaled by powers of 2 to the required precision. In contrast, because all the capacitors in the proposed ADC would be identical, the problem of precise binary scaling would not arise.
The concept of the approximants of quasicrystals
Dong, C.
1995-07-15
The study of quasicrystals has always been associated with the research of related crystalline phases. Quasicrystalline alloys are rarely single phase and the secondary phases are usually crystalline. For example, in melt-spun ribbons of Ti{sub 2}Fe alloys, the following phases are observed: an icosahedral phase, Ti{sub 2}Fe (Ti{sub 2}Ni type), {alpha}-Ti{sub 2}Fe ({alpha}-AlMnSi type), TiFe (CsCl type, or B2 structure) and {beta}-Ti (W type, or A3 structure). Similar phases were also observed in Ti-Ni alloys. In Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystalline alloys, one finds {lambda}-Al{sub 13}Fe{sub 4}, a cubic phase (a B2 superstructure), {omega}-Al{sub 7}Cu{sub 2}Fe, {phi}-Al{sub 10}Cu{sub 10}Fe, {theta}-Al{sub 2}Cu, etc. Valence electron concentration has been proposed as a new criterion to define the approximants to quasicrystals: these should satisfy two basic requirements: (1) they possess approximately the same valence electron concentration as that of the corresponding quasicrystal; (2) they arise from the projection of a hyper crystal along rational directions. The first criterion indicates that the approximants are Hume-Rothery phases existing in an e/a-constant band in the phase diagrams; the second implies that their atomic structures are related to those of quasicrystals. According to their positions in the phase diagrams, they can be classified into two groups: the phases to the left of quasicrystal composition are complex approximants retaining some local quasi-periodic structure; those to the right include B2 and its superstructures.
Approximation methods for stochastic petri nets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jungnitz, Hauke Joerg
1992-01-01
Stochastic Marked Graphs are a concurrent decision free formalism provided with a powerful synchronization mechanism generalizing conventional Fork Join Queueing Networks. In some particular cases the analysis of the throughput can be done analytically. Otherwise the analysis suffers from the classical state explosion problem. Embedded in the divide and conquer paradigm, approximation techniques are introduced for the analysis of stochastic marked graphs and Macroplace/Macrotransition-nets (MPMT-nets), a new subclass introduced herein. MPMT-nets are a subclass of Petri nets that allow limited choice, concurrency and sharing of resources. The modeling power of MPMT is much larger than that of marked graphs, e.g., MPMT-nets can model manufacturing flow lines with unreliable machines and dataflow graphs where choice and synchronization occur. The basic idea leads to the notion of a cut to split the original net system into two subnets. The cuts lead to two aggregated net systems where one of the subnets is reduced to a single transition. A further reduction leads to a basic skeleton. The generalization of the idea leads to multiple cuts, where single cuts can be applied recursively leading to a hierarchical decomposition. Based on the decomposition, a response time approximation technique for the performance analysis is introduced. Also, delay equivalence, which has previously been introduced in the context of marked graphs by Woodside et al., Marie's method and flow equivalent aggregation are applied to the aggregated net systems. The experimental results show that response time approximation converges quickly and shows reasonable accuracy in most cases. The convergence of Marie's method and flow equivalent aggregation are applied to the aggregated net systems. The experimental results show that response time approximation converges quickly and shows reasonable accuracy in most cases. The convergence of Marie's is slower, but the accuracy is generally better. Delay equivalence often fails to converge, while flow equivalent aggregation can lead to potentially bad results if a strong dependence of the mean completion time on the interarrival process exists.
Stochastic approximation boosting for incomplete data problems.
Sexton, Joseph; Laake, Petter
2009-12-01
Boosting is a powerful approach to fitting regression models. This article describes a boosting algorithm for likelihood-based estimation with incomplete data. The algorithm combines boosting with a variant of stochastic approximation that uses Markov chain Monte Carlo to deal with the missing data. Applications to fitting generalized linear and additive models with missing covariates are given. The method is applied to the Pima Indians Diabetes Data where over half of the cases contain missing values. PMID:19432768
Microscopic justification of the equal filling approximation
Perez-Martin, Sara; Robledo, L. M.
2008-07-15
The equal filling approximation, a procedure widely used in mean-field calculations to treat the dynamics of odd nuclei in a time-reversal invariant way, is justified as the consequence of a variational principle over an average energy functional. The ideas of statistical quantum mechanics are employed in the justification. As an illustration of the method, the ground and lowest-lying states of some octupole deformed radium isotopes are computed.
Variational Bayesian Approximation methods for inverse problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohammad-Djafari, Ali
2012-09-01
Variational Bayesian Approximation (VBA) methods are recent tools for effective Bayesian computations. In this paper, these tools are used for inverse problems where the prior models include hidden variables and where where the estimation of the hyper parameters has also to be addressed. In particular two specific prior models (Student-t and mixture of Gaussian models) are considered and details of the algorithms are given.
Trigonometric approximation in Lp-norm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leindler, Lszl
2005-02-01
We shall weaken the conditions of monotonicity given by Chandra [J. MathE Anal. Appl. 275 (2002) 13-26], where he investigated trigonometrical polynomials associated with f[set membership, variant]Lip([alpha],p) (0<[alpha][less-than-or-equals, slant]1, p[greater-or-equal, slanted]1) to approximate f in Lp-norm to the degree of O(n-[alpha]) (0<[alpha][less-than-or-equals, slant]1).
Beyond the Kirchhoff approximation. II - Electromagnetic scattering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rodriguez, Ernesto
1991-01-01
In a paper by Rodriguez (1981), the momentum transfer expansion was introduced for scalar wave scattering. It was shown that this expansion can be used to obtain wavelength-dependent curvature corrections to the Kirchhoff approximation. This paper extends the momentum transfer perturbation expansion to electromagnetic waves. Curvature corrections to the surface current are obtained. Using these results, the specular field and the backscatter cross section are calculated.
Local approximation and its applications in statistics.
Schmerling, S; Peil, J
1989-01-01
For the discrete and for the continuous case, the problem of evaluating the derivatives of a function f(x) in a given interval of x is solved by local approximation method. Examples of application of the resulting numerical procedures are quoted relating the estimation of smooth function and its derivative for measured values (of a growth process), internal regression, trend elimination of time series, Bernstein polynomial, and kernel estimation of a density function. PMID:2759411
Approximations to the plasma dispersion function
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brinca, A. L.
1972-01-01
Linear wave propagation in hot collisionless plasmas is described by the linearized Vlasov and Maxwell equations. In uniform media, the utilization of spatial and temporal transforms of those equations leads to the consideration of integrals of the Hilbert transform type. Analysis and comparison of two simple approximations are provided based on the utilization of resonance velocity distributions. Application is then made to the Landau and whistler waves, along with a discussion of the results, and commentary on possible improvements.
Using Approximations to Accelerate Engineering Design Optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Torczon, Virginia; Trosset, Michael W.
1998-01-01
Optimization problems that arise in engineering design are often characterized by several features that hinder the use of standard nonlinear optimization techniques. Foremost among these features is that the functions used to define the engineering optimization problem often are computationally intensive. Within a standard nonlinear optimization algorithm, the computational expense of evaluating the functions that define the problem would necessarily be incurred for each iteration of the optimization algorithm. Faced with such prohibitive computational costs, an attractive alternative is to make use of surrogates within an optimization context since surrogates can be chosen or constructed so that they are typically much less expensive to compute. For the purposes of this paper, we will focus on the use of algebraic approximations as surrogates for the objective. In this paper we introduce the use of so-called merit functions that explicitly recognize the desirability of improving the current approximation to the objective during the course of the optimization. We define and experiment with the use of merit functions chosen to simultaneously improve both the solution to the optimization problem (the objective) and the quality of the approximation. Our goal is to further improve the effectiveness of our general approach without sacrificing any of its rigor.
Green-Ampt approximations: A comprehensive analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, Shakir; Islam, Adlul; Mishra, P. K.; Sikka, Alok K.
2016-04-01
Green-Ampt (GA) model and its modifications are widely used for simulating infiltration process. Several explicit approximate solutions to the implicit GA model have been developed with varying degree of accuracy. In this study, performance of nine explicit approximations to the GA model is compared with the implicit GA model using the published data for broad range of soil classes and infiltration time. The explicit GA models considered are Li et al. (1976) (LI), Stone et al. (1994) (ST), Salvucci and Entekhabi (1994) (SE), Parlange et al. (2002) (PA), Barry et al. (2005) (BA), Swamee et al. (2012) (SW), Ali et al. (2013) (AL), Almedeij and Esen (2014) (AE), and Vatankhah (2015) (VA). Six statistical indicators (e.g., percent relative error, maximum absolute percent relative error, average absolute percent relative errors, percent bias, index of agreement, and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency) and relative computer computation time are used for assessing the model performance. Models are ranked based on the overall performance index (OPI). The BA model is found to be the most accurate followed by the PA and VA models for variety of soil classes and infiltration periods. The AE, SW, SE, and LI model also performed comparatively better. Based on the overall performance index, the explicit models are ranked as BA > PA > VA > LI > AE > SE > SW > ST > AL. Results of this study will be helpful in selection of accurate and simple explicit approximate GA models for solving variety of hydrological problems.
Blind sensor calibration using approximate message passing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schlke, Christophe; Caltagirone, Francesco; Zdeborov, Lenka
2015-11-01
The ubiquity of approximately sparse data has led a variety of com- munities to great interest in compressed sensing algorithms. Although these are very successful and well understood for linear measurements with additive noise, applying them on real data can be problematic if imperfect sensing devices introduce deviations from this ideal signal ac- quisition process, caused by sensor decalibration or failure. We propose a message passing algorithm called calibration approximate message passing (Cal-AMP) that can treat a variety of such sensor-induced imperfections. In addition to deriving the general form of the algorithm, we numerically investigate two particular settings. In the first, a fraction of the sensors is faulty, giving readings unrelated to the signal. In the second, sensors are decalibrated and each one introduces a different multiplicative gain to the measures. Cal-AMP shares the scalability of approximate message passing, allowing to treat big sized instances of these problems, and ex- perimentally exhibits a phase transition between domains of success and failure.
Quasicrystalline decagonal and related crystalline approximant structures
Daulton, T.L.
1992-01-01
The icosahedral phase is a condensed phase of matter that has a noncrystallographic point group with long range orientational and translational order but lacks strict periodicity. Periodicity is replaced in all dimensions by a mathematically well defined quasiperiodicity. Two and one dimensional quasicrystals also form in the same metallic-alloy systems as does the icosahedral quasicrystal. The decagonal phase is an example of a two-dimensional quasicrystal that occurs with dicrete one dimensional periodicites of approximately 4 [angstrom] x (1, 2, 3, and 4). The different periodicity decagonal phases are studied with an analytical transmission electron microscope (TEM), using high resolution electron microscopy (HREM), convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED), selected area diffraction (SAD), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). X-ray powder diffraction studies are also presented. Closely related crystalline structures that approximate well the noncrystallographic symmetries of quasicrystals, were also studied. These crystals also exhibit the same discrete periodicities present in the decagonal phases. The striking similarities between the different periodicity decagonal phases, the icosahedral phase, and the crystalline approximant structures suggest that they all contain similar fundamental atomic clusters. Further, the discrete decagonal periodicities observed suggest that the decagonal structures are formed by different stacking sequences of similar atomic clusters. An atomic model that is based on distorted icosahedrally symmetric clusters that are stacked with different interpenentration depths to form the different periodicity decagonal phases is presented.
Approximation abilities of neuro-fuzzy networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mrwczy?ska, Maria
2010-01-01
The paper presents the operation of two neuro-fuzzy systems of an adaptive type, intended for solving problems of the approximation of multi-variable functions in the domain of real numbers. Neuro-fuzzy systems being a combination of the methodology of artificial neural networks and fuzzy sets operate on the basis of a set of fuzzy rules "if-then", generated by means of the self-organization of data grouping and the estimation of relations between fuzzy experiment results. The article includes a description of neuro-fuzzy systems by Takaga-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) and Wang-Mendel (WM), and in order to complement the problem in question, a hierarchical structural self-organizing method of teaching a fuzzy network. A multi-layer structure of the systems is a structure analogous to the structure of "classic" neural networks. In its final part the article presents selected areas of application of neuro-fuzzy systems in the field of geodesy and surveying engineering. Numerical examples showing how the systems work concerned: the approximation of functions of several variables to be used as algorithms in the Geographic Information Systems (the approximation of a terrain model), the transformation of coordinates, and the prediction of a time series. The accuracy characteristics of the results obtained have been taken into consideration.
l(infinity)-Approximation via Subdominants.
Chepoi; Fichet
2000-12-01
Given a vector u and a certain subset K of a real vector space E, the problem of l(infinity)-approximation involves determining an element;u in K nearest to u in the sense of the l(infinity)-error norm. The subdominant u * of u is the upper bound (if it exists) of the set {xinK : x precedesu} (we let x precedesy if all coordinates of x are smaller than or equal to the corresponding coordinates of y). We present general conditions on K under which a simple relationship between the subdominant of u and a best l(infinity)-approximation holds. We specify this result by taking as K the cone of isotonic functions defined on a poset (X, precedes), the cone of convex functions defined on a subset of ℝ(N), the cone of ultrametrics on a set X, and the cone of tree metrics on a set X with fixed distances to a given vertex. This leads to simple optimal algorithms for the problem of best l(infinity)-fitting of distances by ultrametrics and by tree metrics preserving the distances to a fixed vertex (the latter provides a 3-approximation algorithm for the problem of fitting a distance by a tree metric). This simplifies the recent results of Farach, Kannan, and Warnow (1995) and of Agarwala et al. (1996). Copyright 2000 Academic Press. PMID:11133300
Radiance modelling using the P3 approximation.
Dickey, D; Barajas, O; Brown, K; Tulip, J; Moore, R B
1998-12-01
Light dosimetry is an essential component of effective photodynamic therapy (PDT) of tumours. Present PDT light dosimetry techniques rely on fluence-based models and measurements. However, in a previous paper by Barajas et al, radiance-based light dosimetry was explored as an alternative approach. Although successful in demonstrating the use of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of radiance in tissue optical characterization, the MC proved time consuming and impractical for clinical applications. It was proposed that an analytical solution to the transport equation for radiance would be desirable as this would facilitate and increase the speed of tissue characterization. It has been found that the P3 approximation is one such potential solution. Radiance and fluence expressions based on the P3 approximation were used to optically characterize an Intralipid-based tissue phantom of varying concentration of scatterer (Intralipid) and absorber (methylene blue) using a plane wave illuminated, semi-infinite medium geometry. The results obtained compare favourably with the Grosjean approximation of fluence (a modified diffusion theory) using the same optical parameters (mu(a), mu(s), g). The results illustrate that radiance-based light dosimetry is a viable alternative approach to tissue characterization and dosimetry. It is potentially useful for clinical applications because of the limited number of invasive measurements needed and the speed at which the tissue can be characterized. PMID:9869032
Strong washout approximation to resonant leptogenesis
Garbrecht, Bjrn; Gautier, Florian; Klaric, Juraj E-mail: florian.gautier@tum.de
2014-09-01
We show that the effective decay asymmetry for resonant Leptogenesis in the strong washout regime with two sterile neutrinos and a single active flavour can in wide regions of parameter space be approximated by its late-time limit ?=Xsin(2?)/(X{sup 2}+sin{sup 2}?), where X=8??/(|Y{sub 1}|{sup 2}+|Y{sub 2}|{sup 2}), ?=4(M{sub 1}-M{sub 2})/(M{sub 1}+M{sub 2}), ?=arg(Y{sub 2}/Y{sub 1}), and M{sub 1,2}, Y{sub 1,2} are the masses and Yukawa couplings of the sterile neutrinos. This approximation in particular extends to parametric regions where |Y{sub 1,2}|{sup 2}>>?, i.e. where the width dominates the mass splitting. We generalise the formula for the effective decay asymmetry to the case of several flavours of active leptons and demonstrate how this quantity can be used to calculate the lepton asymmetry for phenomenological scenarios that are in agreement with the observed neutrino oscillations. We establish analytic criteria for the validity of the late-time approximation for the decay asymmetry and compare these with numerical results that are obtained by solving for the mixing and the oscillations of the sterile neutrinos. For phenomenologically viable models with two sterile neutrinos, we find that the flavoured effective late-time decay asymmetry can be applied throughout parameter space.
Radiance modelling using the P3 approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dickey, Dwayne; Barajas, Oscar; Brown, Kevin; Tulip, John; Moore, Ronald B.
1998-12-01
Light dosimetry is an essential component of effective photodynamic therapy (PDT) of tumours. Present PDT light dosimetry techniques rely on fluence-based models and measurements. However, in a previous paper by Barajas et al, radiance-based light dosimetry was explored as an alternative approach. Although successful in demonstrating the use of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of radiance in tissue optical characterization, the MC proved time consuming and impractical for clinical applications. It was proposed that an analytical solution to the transport equation for radiance would be desirable as this would facilitate and increase the speed of tissue characterization. It has been found that the P3 approximation is one such potential solution. Radiance and fluence expressions based on the P3 approximation were used to optically characterize an Intralipid-based tissue phantom of varying concentration of scatterer (Intralipid) and absorber (methylene blue) using a plane wave illuminated, semi-infinite medium geometry. The results obtained compare favourably with the Grosjean approximation of fluence (a modified diffusion theory) using the same optical parameters . The results illustrate that radiance-based light dosimetry is a viable alternative approach to tissue characterization and dosimetry. It is potentially useful for clinical applications because of the limited number of invasive measurements needed and the speed at which the tissue can be characterized.
Variational chemical data assimilation with approximate adjoints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Kumaresh; Sandu, Adrian
2012-03-01
Data assimilation obtains improved estimates of the state of a physical system by combining imperfect model results with sparse and noisy observations of reality. In the four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) framework, data assimilation is formulated as an optimization problem, which is solved using gradient-based optimization methods. The 4D-Var gradient is obtained by forcing the adjoint model with observation increments. The construction of the adjoint model requires considerable development effort. Moreover, the computation time associated with the adjoint model is significant (typically, a multiple of the time needed to run the forward model). In this paper we investigate the use of approximate gradients in variational data assimilation. The approximate gradients need to be sufficiently accurate to ensure that the numerical optimization algorithm makes progress toward the maximum likelihood solution. The approximate gradients are obtained through simplified adjoint models; this decreases the adjoint development effort, and reduces the CPU time and the storage requirements associated with the computation of the 4D-Var gradient. The resulting approach, named quasi-4D-Var (Q4D-Var), is illustrated on a global chemical data assimilation problem using satellite observations and the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model.
Odic, Darko; Lisboa, Juan Valle; Eisinger, Robert; Olivera, Magdalena Gonzalez; Maiche, Alejandro; Halberda, Justin
2016-01-01
What is the relationship between our intuitive sense of number (e.g., when estimating how many marbles are in a jar), and our intuitive sense of other quantities, including time (e.g., when estimating how long it has been since we last ate breakfast)? Recent work in cognitive, developmental, comparative psychology, and computational neuroscience has suggested that our representations of approximate number, time, and spatial extent are fundamentally linked and constitute a "generalized magnitude system". But, the shared behavioral and neural signatures between number, time, and space may alternatively be due to similar encoding and decision-making processes, rather than due to shared domain-general representations. In this study, we investigate the relationship between approximate number and time in a large sample of 6-8year-old children in Uruguay by examining how individual differences in the precision of number and time estimation correlate with school mathematics performance. Over four testing days, each child completed an approximate number discrimination task, an approximate time discrimination task, a digit span task, and a large battery of symbolic math tests. We replicate previous reports showing that symbolic math abilities correlate with approximate number precision and extend those findings by showing that math abilities also correlate with approximate time precision. But, contrary to approximate number and time sharing common representations, we find that each of these dimensions uniquely correlates with formal math: approximate number correlates more strongly with formal math compared to time and continues to correlate with math even when precision in time and individual differences in working memory are controlled for. These results suggest that there are important differences in the mental representations of approximate number and approximate time and further clarify the relationship between quantity representations and mathematics. PMID:26587963
Product-State Approximations to Quantum States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Harrow, Aram W.
2016-02-01
We show that for any many-body quantum state there exists an unentangled quantum state such that most of the two-body reduced density matrices are close to those of the original state. This is a statement about the monogamy of entanglement, which cannot be shared without limit in the same way as classical correlation. Our main application is to Hamiltonians that are sums of two-body terms. For such Hamiltonians we show that there exist product states with energy that is close to the ground-state energy whenever the interaction graph of the Hamiltonian has high degree. This proves the validity of mean-field theory and gives an explicitly bounded approximation error. If we allow states that are entangled within small clusters of systems but product across clusters then good approximations exist when the Hamiltonian satisfies one or more of the following properties: (1) high degree, (2) small expansion, or (3) a ground state where the blocks in the partition have sublinear entanglement. Previously this was known only in the case of small expansion or in the regime where the entanglement was close to zero. Our approximations allow an extensive error in energy, which is the scale considered by the quantum PCP (probabilistically checkable proof) and NLTS (no low-energy trivial-state) conjectures. Thus our results put restrictions on the possible Hamiltonians that could be used for a possible proof of the qPCP or NLTS conjectures. By contrast the classical PCP constructions are often based on constraint graphs with high degree. Likewise we show that the parallel repetition that is possible with classical constraint satisfaction problems cannot also be possible for quantum Hamiltonians, unless qPCP is false. The main technical tool behind our results is a collection of new classical and quantum de Finetti theorems which do not make any symmetry assumptions on the underlying states.
Shear viscosity in the postquasistatic approximation
Peralta, C.; Rosales, L.; Rodriguez-Mueller, B.; Barreto, W.
2010-05-15
We apply the postquasistatic approximation, an iterative method for the evolution of self-gravitating spheres of matter, to study the evolution of anisotropic nonadiabatic radiating and dissipative distributions in general relativity. Dissipation is described by viscosity and free-streaming radiation, assuming an equation of state to model anisotropy induced by the shear viscosity. We match the interior solution, in noncomoving coordinates, with the Vaidya exterior solution. Two simple models are presented, based on the Schwarzschild and Tolman VI solutions, in the nonadiabatic and adiabatic limit. In both cases, the eventual collapse or expansion of the distribution is mainly controlled by the anisotropy induced by the viscosity.
Fast Approximate Analysis Of Modified Antenna Structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levy, Roy
1991-01-01
Abbreviated algorithms developed for fast approximate analysis of effects of modifications in supporting structures upon root-mean-square (rms) path-length errors of paraboloidal-dish antennas. Involves combination of methods of structural-modification reanalysis with new extensions of correlation analysis to obtain revised rms path-length error. Full finite-element analysis, usually requires computer of substantial capacity, necessary only to obtain responses of unmodified structure to known external loads and to selected self-equilibrating "indicator" loads. Responses used in shortcut calculations, which, although theoretically "exact", simple enough to be performed on hand-held calculator. Useful in design, design-sensitivity analysis, and parametric studies.
Strong-field approximation in photoionization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reiss, H. R.
1991-12-01
The definition and characteristics of the strong-field environment for an atom in a laser field are specified in terms of the relevant intensity parameters. The limits of perturbation theory are set, and it is emphasized that this must be done in terms of laser field energy, not electric field strength. The formal basis and special features of the SFA (strong-field approximation) are reviewed, and it is pointed out that the three methods encompassed in the so-called KFR (Keldysh-Faisal-Reiss) technique are actually quite different. Validity conditions and some applications of the SFA are given.
Limitations and applicability of the Marchal approximation.
Ross, T Sean
2009-04-01
The Marchal approximation for the Strehl ratio versus rms wavefront distortion is widely used in atmospheric scaling law codes, but a complete derivation is absent in the open literature. I present an updated derivation of the first term in Marchal, then a complete derivation. The Strehl ratio is proportional to the square of the Fourier transform of the probability density function of the random phase noise. For Gaussian noise, the traditional Marchal formulation is the result. The more general formulation suggests a method for characterization of random phase aberrations. PMID:19340134
Corrections beyond the proximity force approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teo, L. P.; Bordag, M.; Nikolaev, V.
2011-12-01
We recalculate the first analytic correction beyond proximity force approximation for a sphere in front of a plane for a scalar field and for the electromagnetic field. We use the method of Bordag and Nikolaev [J. Phys. AJPHAC50305-4470 41, 164002 (2008)10.1088/1751-8113/41/16/164002]. We confirm their result for Dirichlet boundary conditions whereas we find a different one for Robin, Neumann and conductor boundary conditions. The difference can be traced back to a sign error. As a result, the corrections depend on the Robin parameter. Agreement is found with a very recent method of derivative expansion.
Simple analytic approximations for the Blasius problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iacono, R.; Boyd, John P.
2015-08-01
The classical boundary layer problem formulated by Heinrich Blasius more than a century ago is revisited, with the purpose of deriving simple and accurate analytical approximations to its solution. This is achieved through the combined use of a generalized Pad approach and of an integral iteration scheme devised by Hermann Weyl. The iteration scheme is also used to derive very accurate bounds for the value of the second derivative of the Blasius function at the origin, which plays a crucial role in this problem.
[Bond selective chemistry beyond the adiabatic approximation
Butler, L.J.
1993-02-28
The adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface approximation is not valid for reaction of a wide variety of energetic materials and organic fuels; coupling between electronic states of reacting species plays a key role in determining the selectivity of the chemical reactions induced. This research program initially studies this coupling in (1) selective C-Br bond fission in 1,3- bromoiodopropane, (2) C-S:S-H bond fission branching in CH[sub 3]SH, and (3) competition between bond fission channels and H[sub 2] elimination in CH[sub 3]NH[sub 2].
Fast approximate hierarchical clustering using similarity heuristics
Kull, Meelis; Vilo, Jaak
2008-01-01
Background Agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) is a common unsupervised data analysis technique used in several biological applications. Standard AHC methods require that all pairwise distances between data objects must be known. With ever-increasing data sizes this quadratic complexity poses problems that cannot be overcome by simply waiting for faster computers. Results We propose an approximate AHC algorithm HappieClust which can output a biologically meaningful clustering of a large dataset more than an order of magnitude faster than full AHC algorithms. The key to the algorithm is to limit the number of calculated pairwise distances to a carefully chosen subset of all possible distances. We choose distances using a similarity heuristic based on a small set of pivot objects. The heuristic efficiently finds pairs of similar objects and these help to mimic the greedy choices of full AHC. Quality of approximate AHC as compared to full AHC is studied with three measures. The first measure evaluates the global quality of the achieved clustering, while the second compares biological relevance using enrichment of biological functions in every subtree of the clusterings. The third measure studies how well the contents of subtrees are conserved between the clusterings. Conclusion The HappieClust algorithm is well suited for large-scale gene expression visualization and analysis both on personal computers as well as public online web applications. The software is available from the URL PMID:18822115
Function approximation using adaptive and overlapping intervals
Patil, R.B.
1995-05-01
A problem common to many disciplines is to approximate a function given only the values of the function at various points in input variable space. A method is proposed for approximating a function of several to one variable. The model takes the form of weighted averaging of overlapping basis functions defined over intervals. The number of such basis functions and their parameters (widths and centers) are automatically determined using given training data and a learning algorithm. The proposed algorithm can be seen as placing a nonuniform multidimensional grid in the input domain with overlapping cells. The non-uniformity and overlap of the cells is achieved by a learning algorithm to optimize a given objective function. This approach is motivated by the fuzzy modeling approach and a learning algorithms used for clustering and classification in pattern recognition. The basics of why and how the approach works are given. Few examples of nonlinear regression and classification are modeled. The relationship between the proposed technique, radial basis neural networks, kernel regression, probabilistic neural networks, and fuzzy modeling is explained. Finally advantages and disadvantages are discussed.
Approximating Markov Chains: What and why
Pincus, S.
1996-06-01
Much of the current study of dynamical systems is focused on geometry (e.g., chaos and bifurcations) and ergodic theory. Yet dynamical systems were originally motivated by an attempt to {open_quote}{open_quote}solve,{close_quote}{close_quote} or at least understand, a discrete-time analogue of differential equations. As such, numerical, analytical solution techniques for dynamical systems would seem desirable. We discuss an approach that provides such techniques, the approximation of dynamical systems by suitable finite state Markov Chains. Steady state distributions for these Markov Chains, a straightforward calculation, will converge to the true dynamical system steady state distribution, with appropriate limit theorems indicated. Thus (i) approximation by a computable, linear map holds the promise of vastly faster steady state solutions for nonlinear, multidimensional differential equations; (ii) the solution procedure is unaffected by the presence or absence of a probability density function for the {ital attractor}, entirely skirting singularity, fractal/multifractal, and renormalization considerations. The theoretical machinery underpinning this development also implies that under very general conditions, steady state measures are weakly continuous with control parameter evolution. This means that even though a system may change periodicity, or become chaotic in its limiting behavior, such statistical parameters as the mean, standard deviation, and tail probabilities change continuously, not abruptly with system evolution. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Analytic approximate radiation effects due to Bremsstrahlung
Ben-Zvi I.
2012-02-01
The purpose of this note is to provide analytic approximate expressions that can provide quick estimates of the various effects of the Bremsstrahlung radiation produced relatively low energy electrons, such as the dumping of the beam into the beam stop at the ERL or field emission in superconducting cavities. The purpose of this work is not to replace a dependable calculation or, better yet, a measurement under real conditions, but to provide a quick but approximate estimate for guidance purposes only. These effects include dose to personnel, ozone generation in the air volume exposed to the radiation, hydrogen generation in the beam dump water cooling system and radiation damage to near-by magnets. These expressions can be used for other purposes, but one should note that the electron beam energy range is limited. In these calculations the good range is from about 0.5 MeV to 10 MeV. To help in the application of this note, calculations are presented as a worked out example for the beam dump of the R&D Energy Recovery Linac.
Sparse approximation to the eigensubspace for discrimination.
Lai, Zhihui; Wong, Wai Keung; Jin, Zhong; Yang, Jian; Xu, Yong
2012-12-01
Two-dimensional (2-D) image-matrix-based projection methods for feature extraction are widely used in many fields of computer vision and pattern recognition. In this paper, we propose a novel framework called sparse 2-D projections (S2DP) for image feature extraction. Different from the existing 2-D feature extraction methods, S2DP iteratively learns the sparse projection matrix by using elastic net regression and singular value decomposition. Theoretical analysis shows that the optimal sparse subspace approximates the eigensubspace obtained by solving the corresponding generalized eigenequation. With the S2DP framework, many 2-D projection methods can be easily extended to sparse cases. Moreover, when each row/column of the image matrix is regarded as an independent high-dimensional vector (1-D vector), it is proven that the vector-based eigensubspace is also approximated by the sparse subspace obtained by the same method used in this paper. Theoretical analysis shows that, when compared with the vector-based sparse projection learning methods, S2DP greatly saves both computation and memory costs. This property makes S2DP more tractable for real-world applications. Experiments on well-known face databases indicate the competitive performance of the proposed S2DP over some 2-D projection methods when facial expressions, lighting conditions, and time vary. PMID:24808149
Children's Approximate Number System in Haptic Modality.
Gimbert, Fanny; Gentaz, Edouard; Camos, Valérie; Mazens, Karine
2016-01-01
The approximate number system (ANS) is a primitive system used to estimate quantities. It can process quantities in visual and auditory modalities. The aim of the present study was to examine whether ANS can process quantities presented haptically. Moreover, to assess age-related changes, two groups of children (5- and 7-year-olds) were compared. In a newly designed haptic task, children compared two arrays of dots by touching them simultaneously using both hands, without seeing them, and for limited duration to prevent counting. Using Panamath, a frequently used visual ANS task, we verified that our population exhibited the typical pattern of approximation with visual arrays: Older children outperformed younger children, and an increased ratio between the two quantities to be compared led to more accurate responses. Performance in the haptic task revealed that children, in both age-groups, were able to haptically compare two quantities above chance level, with improved performance in older compared with younger children. Moreover, our results revealed a ratio effect, a well-known signature of the ANS. These findings suggest that haptic numerical discrimination in children is dictated by the ANS, and that ANS acuity measured with a haptic task improves with age, as commonly observed with the visual task. PMID:26562876
Investigating Material Approximations in Spacecraft Radiation Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walker, Steven A.; Slaba, Tony C.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Blattnig, Steve R.
2011-01-01
During the design process, the configuration of space vehicles and habitats changes frequently and the merits of design changes must be evaluated. Methods for rapidly assessing astronaut exposure are therefore required. Typically, approximations are made to simplify the geometry and speed up the evaluation of each design. In this work, the error associated with two common approximations used to simplify space radiation vehicle analyses, scaling into equivalent materials and material reordering, are investigated. Over thirty materials commonly found in spacesuits, vehicles, and human bodies are considered. Each material is placed in a material group (aluminum, polyethylene, or tissue), and the error associated with scaling and reordering was quantified for each material. Of the scaling methods investigated, range scaling is shown to be the superior method, especially for shields less than 30 g/cm2 exposed to a solar particle event. More complicated, realistic slabs are examined to quantify the separate and combined effects of using equivalent materials and reordering. The error associated with material reordering is shown to be at least comparable to, if not greater than, the error associated with range scaling. In general, scaling and reordering errors were found to grow with the difference between the average nuclear charge of the actual material and average nuclear charge of the equivalent material. Based on this result, a different set of equivalent materials (titanium, aluminum, and tissue) are substituted for the commonly used aluminum, polyethylene, and tissue. The realistic cases are scaled and reordered using the new equivalent materials, and the reduced error is shown.
Approximation of Failure Probability Using Conditional Sampling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Giesy. Daniel P.; Crespo, Luis G.; Kenney, Sean P.
2008-01-01
In analyzing systems which depend on uncertain parameters, one technique is to partition the uncertain parameter domain into a failure set and its complement, and judge the quality of the system by estimating the probability of failure. If this is done by a sampling technique such as Monte Carlo and the probability of failure is small, accurate approximation can require so many sample points that the computational expense is prohibitive. Previous work of the authors has shown how to bound the failure event by sets of such simple geometry that their probabilities can be calculated analytically. In this paper, it is shown how to make use of these failure bounding sets and conditional sampling within them to substantially reduce the computational burden of approximating failure probability. It is also shown how the use of these sampling techniques improves the confidence intervals for the failure probability estimate for a given number of sample points and how they reduce the number of sample point analyses needed to achieve a given level of confidence.
Relaxation time approximation for relativistic dense matter
Hakim, R.; Mornas, L.; Peter, P.; Sivak, H.D. )
1992-11-15
In this article the relaxation time approximation for a system of spin-1/2 fermions is studied with a view to calculating those transport properties obeyed by relativistic dense matter such as viscosity coefficients, thermal conductivities, spin diffusion, etc. This is achieved {ital via} the use of covariant Wigner functions. The collision term is, of course, linear in the deviation of the Wigner function from equilibrium, and {ital a} priori involves arbitrary functions of the four-momentum. These functions are restricted from physical arguments and from the requirement of Lorentz invariance. The kinetic equation obeyed by the Wigner function is then split into a mass-shell constraint and true'' kinetic equations, whose solution is sought within the Chapman-Enskog approximation. It is also realized that, in a relativistic quantum framework, there exist {ital two} expansion parameters: the new parameter occurs because of the existence of a new length scale defined by the Compton wavelength; in some cases (e.g., when the effective mass of the fermions goes to zero), this last quantity can be of the order of the mean free path. From the first-order solutions and from the Landau-Lifshitz matching conditions, the main transport properties of the system are obtained as functions of the macroscopic quantities (temperature, density, polarization) {ital and} of various relaxation times to be determined elsewhere by a specific physical model. Finally, all the results obtained are discussed and suggestions for some extensions are given.
Chiral Magnetic Effect in Hydrodynamic Approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zakharov, Valentin I.
We review derivations of the chiral magnetic effect (ChME) in hydrodynamic approximation. The reader is assumed to be familiar with the basics of the effect. The main challenge now is to account for the strong interactions between the constituents of the fluid. The main result is that the ChME is not renormalized: in the hydrodynamic approximation it remains the same as for non-interacting chiral fermions moving in an external magnetic field. The key ingredients in the proof are general laws of thermodynamics and the Adler-Bardeen theorem for the chiral anomaly in external electromagnetic fields. The chiral magnetic effect in hydrodynamics represents a macroscopic manifestation of a quantum phenomenon (chiral anomaly). Moreover, one can argue that the current induced by the magnetic field is dissipation free and talk about a kind of "chiral superconductivity". More precise description is a quantum ballistic transport along magnetic field taking place in equilibrium and in absence of a driving force. The basic limitation is the exact chiral limit while temperatureexcitingly enoughdoes not seemingly matter. What is still lacking, is a detailed quantum microscopic picture for the ChME in hydrodynamics. Probably, the chiral currents propagate through lower-dimensional defects, like vortices in superfluid. In case of superfluid, the prediction for the chiral magnetic effect remains unmodified although the emerging dynamical picture differs from the standard one.
Multidimensional WKB approximation for particle tunneling
Zamastil, J.
2005-08-15
A method for obtaining the WKB wave function describing the particle tunneling outside of a two-dimensional potential well is suggested. The Cartesian coordinates (x,y) are chosen in such a way that the x axis has the direction of the probability flux at large distances from the well. The WKB wave function is then obtained by simultaneous expansion of the wave function in the coordinate y and the parameter determining the curvature of the escape path. It is argued, both physically and mathematically, that these two expansions are mutually consistent. It is shown that the method provides systematic approximation to the outgoing probability flux. Both the technical and conceptual advantages of this approach in comparison with the usual approach based on the solution of classical equations of motion are pointed out. The method is applied to the problem of the coupled anharmonic oscillators and verified through the dispersion relations.
Accelerated convergence for synchronous approximate agreement
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kearns, J. P.; Park, S. K.; Sjogren, J. A.
1988-01-01
The protocol for synchronous approximate agreement presented by Dolev et. al. exhibits the undesirable property that a faulty processor, by the dissemination of a value arbitrarily far removed from the values held by good processors, may delay the termination of the protocol by an arbitrary amount of time. Such behavior is clearly undesirable in a fault tolerant dynamic system subject to hard real-time constraints. A mechanism is presented by which editing data suspected of being from Byzantine-failed processors can lead to quicker, predictable, convergence to an agreement value. Under specific assumptions about the nature of values transmitted by failed processors relative to those transmitted by good processors, a Monte Carlo simulation is presented whose qualitative results illustrate the trade-off between accelerated convergence and the accuracy of the value agreed upon.
Anisotropic local likelihood approximations: theory, algorithms, applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katkovnik, Vladimir; Foi, Alessandro; Egiazarian, Karen O.; Astola, Jaakko T.
2005-03-01
We consider a signal restoration from observations corrupted by random noise. The local maximum likelihood technique allows to deal with quite general statistical models of signal dependent observations, relaxes the standard parametric modelling of the standard maximum likelihood, and results in flexible nonparametric regression estimation of the signal. We deal with the anisotropy of the signal using multi-window directional sectorial local polynomial approximation. The data-driven sizes of the sectorial windows, obtained by the intersection of confidence interval (ICI) algorithm, allow to form starshaped adaptive neighborhoods used for the pointwise estimation. The developed approach is quite general and is applicable for multivariable data. A fast adaptive algorithm implementation is proposed. It is applied for photon-limited imaging with the Poisson distribution of data. Simulation experiments and comparison with some of the best results in the field demonstrate an advanced performance of the developed algorithms.
Approximately diagonalizing matrices over C(Y)
Lin, Huaxin
2012-01-01
Let X be a compact metric space which is locally absolutely retract and let ?:C(X)?C(Y,Mn) be a unital homomorphism, where Y is a compact metric space with dimY?2. It is proved that there exists a sequence of n continuous maps ?i,m:Y?X (i=1,2,,n) and a sequence of sets of mutually orthogonal rank-one projections {p1,m,p2,m,,pn,m}?C(Y,Mn) such that This is closely related to the Kadison diagonal matrix question. It is also shown that this approximate diagonalization could not hold in general when dimY?3. PMID:22323593
Approximate maximum likelihood decoding of block codes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Greenberger, H. J.
1979-01-01
Approximate maximum likelihood decoding algorithms, based upon selecting a small set of candidate code words with the aid of the estimated probability of error of each received symbol, can give performance close to optimum with a reasonable amount of computation. By combining the best features of various algorithms and taking care to perform each step as efficiently as possible, a decoding scheme was developed which can decode codes which have better performance than those presently in use and yet not require an unreasonable amount of computation. The discussion of the details and tradeoffs of presently known efficient optimum and near optimum decoding algorithms leads, naturally, to the one which embodies the best features of all of them.
Exact and Approximate Probabilistic Symbolic Execution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luckow, Kasper; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Filieri, Antonio; Visser, Willem
2014-01-01
Probabilistic software analysis seeks to quantify the likelihood of reaching a target event under uncertain environments. Recent approaches compute probabilities of execution paths using symbolic execution, but do not support nondeterminism. Nondeterminism arises naturally when no suitable probabilistic model can capture a program behavior, e.g., for multithreading or distributed systems. In this work, we propose a technique, based on symbolic execution, to synthesize schedulers that resolve nondeterminism to maximize the probability of reaching a target event. To scale to large systems, we also introduce approximate algorithms to search for good schedulers, speeding up established random sampling and reinforcement learning results through the quantification of path probabilities based on symbolic execution. We implemented the techniques in Symbolic PathFinder and evaluated them on nondeterministic Java programs. We show that our algorithms significantly improve upon a state-of- the-art statistical model checking algorithm, originally developed for Markov Decision Processes.
Heat flow in the postquasistatic approximation
Rodriguez-Mueller, B.; Peralta, C.; Barreto, W.; Rosales, L.
2010-08-15
We apply the postquasistatic approximation to study the evolution of spherically symmetric fluid distributions undergoing dissipation in the form of radial heat flow. For a model that corresponds to an incompressible fluid departing from the static equilibrium, it is not possible to go far from the initial state after the emission of a small amount of energy. Initially collapsing distributions of matter are not permitted. Emission of energy can be considered as a mechanism to avoid the collapse. If the distribution collapses initially and emits one hundredth of the initial mass only the outermost layers evolve. For a model that corresponds to a highly compressed Fermi gas, only the outermost shell can evolve with a shorter hydrodynamic time scale.
Fast Approximate Quadratic Programming for Graph Matching
Vogelstein, Joshua T.; Conroy, John M.; Lyzinski, Vince; Podrazik, Louis J.; Kratzer, Steven G.; Harley, Eric T.; Fishkind, Donniell E.; Vogelstein, R. Jacob; Priebe, Carey E.
2015-01-01
Quadratic assignment problems arise in a wide variety of domains, spanning operations research, graph theory, computer vision, and neuroscience, to name a few. The graph matching problem is a special case of the quadratic assignment problem, and graph matching is increasingly important as graph-valued data is becoming more prominent. With the aim of efficiently and accurately matching the large graphs common in big data, we present our graph matching algorithm, the Fast Approximate Quadratic assignment algorithm. We empirically demonstrate that our algorithm is faster and achieves a lower objective value on over 80% of the QAPLIB benchmark library, compared with the previous state-of-the-art. Applying our algorithm to our motivating example, matching C. elegans connectomes (brain-graphs), we find that it efficiently achieves performance. PMID:25886624
Improved approximations for control augmented structural synthesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomas, H. L.; Schmit, L. A.
1990-01-01
A methodology for control-augmented structural synthesis is presented for structure-control systems which can be modeled as an assemblage of beam, truss, and nonstructural mass elements augmented by a noncollocated direct output feedback control system. Truss areas, beam cross sectional dimensions, nonstructural masses and rotary inertias, and controller position and velocity gains are treated simultaneously as design variables. The structural mass and a control-system performance index can be minimized simultaneously, with design constraints placed on static stresses and displacements, dynamic harmonic displacements and forces, structural frequencies, and closed-loop eigenvalues and damping ratios. Intermediate design-variable and response-quantity concepts are used to generate new approximations for displacements and actuator forces under harmonic dynamic loads and for system complex eigenvalues. This improves the overall efficiency of the procedure by reducing the number of complete analyses required for convergence. Numerical results which illustrate the effectiveness of the method are given.
Approximate Riemann solver for hypervelocity flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacobs, P. A.
1992-01-01
We describe an approximate Riemann solver for the computation of hypervelocity flows in which there are strong shocks and viscous interactions. The scheme has three stages, the first of which computes the intermediate states assuming isentropic waves. A second stage, based on the strong shock relations, may then be invoked if the pressure jump across either wave is large. The third stage interpolates the interface state from the two initial states and the intermediate states. The solver is used as part of a finite-volume code and is demonstrated on two test cases. The first is a high Mach number flow over a sphere while the second is a flow over a flow over a slender cone with an adiabatic boundary layer. In both cases the solver performs well.
Fast approximate quadratic programming for graph matching.
Vogelstein, Joshua T; Conroy, John M; Lyzinski, Vince; Podrazik, Louis J; Kratzer, Steven G; Harley, Eric T; Fishkind, Donniell E; Vogelstein, R Jacob; Priebe, Carey E
2015-01-01
Quadratic assignment problems arise in a wide variety of domains, spanning operations research, graph theory, computer vision, and neuroscience, to name a few. The graph matching problem is a special case of the quadratic assignment problem, and graph matching is increasingly important as graph-valued data is becoming more prominent. With the aim of efficiently and accurately matching the large graphs common in big data, we present our graph matching algorithm, the Fast Approximate Quadratic assignment algorithm. We empirically demonstrate that our algorithm is faster and achieves a lower objective value on over 80% of the QAPLIB benchmark library, compared with the previous state-of-the-art. Applying our algorithm to our motivating example, matching C. elegans connectomes (brain-graphs), we find that it efficiently achieves performance. PMID:25886624
An approximate Riemann solver for hypervelocity flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacobs, Peter A.
1991-01-01
We describe an approximate Riemann solver for the computation of hypervelocity flows in which there are strong shocks and viscous interactions. The scheme has three stages, the first of which computes the intermediate states assuming isentropic waves. A second stage, based on the strong shock relations, may then be invoked if the pressure jump across either wave is large. The third stage interpolates the interface state from the two initial states and the intermediate states. The solver is used as part of a finite-volume code and is demonstrated on two test cases. The first is a high Mach number flow over a sphere while the second is a flow over a slender cone with an adiabatic boundary layer. In both cases the solver performs well.
Animal Models and Integrated Nested Laplace Approximations
Holand, Anna Marie; Steinsland, Ingelin; Martino, Sara; Jensen, Henrik
2013-01-01
Animal models are generalized linear mixed models used in evolutionary biology and animal breeding to identify the genetic part of traits. Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA) is a methodology for making fast, nonsampling-based Bayesian inference for hierarchical Gaussian Markov models. In this article, we demonstrate that the INLA methodology can be used for many versions of Bayesian animal models. We analyze animal models for both synthetic case studies and house sparrow (Passer domesticus) population case studies with Gaussian, binomial, and Poisson likelihoods using INLA. Inference results are compared with results using Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. For model choice we use difference in deviance information criteria (DIC). We suggest and show how to evaluate differences in DIC by comparing them with sampling results from simulation studies. We also introduce an R package, AnimalINLA, for easy and fast inference for Bayesian Animal models using INLA. PMID:23708299
Spline Approximation of Thin Shell Dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
delRosario, R. C. H.; Smith, R. C.
1996-01-01
A spline-based method for approximating thin shell dynamics is presented here. While the method is developed in the context of the Donnell-Mushtari thin shell equations, it can be easily extended to the Byrne-Flugge-Lur'ye equations or other models for shells of revolution as warranted by applications. The primary requirements for the method include accuracy, flexibility and efficiency in smart material applications. To accomplish this, the method was designed to be flexible with regard to boundary conditions, material nonhomogeneities due to sensors and actuators, and inputs from smart material actuators such as piezoceramic patches. The accuracy of the method was also of primary concern, both to guarantee full resolution of structural dynamics and to facilitate the development of PDE-based controllers which ultimately require real-time implementation. Several numerical examples provide initial evidence demonstrating the efficacy of the method.
Robust Generalized Low Rank Approximations of Matrices
Shi, Jiarong; Yang, Wei; Zheng, Xiuyun
2015-01-01
In recent years, the intrinsic low rank structure of some datasets has been extensively exploited to reduce dimensionality, remove noise and complete the missing entries. As a well-known technique for dimensionality reduction and data compression, Generalized Low Rank Approximations of Matrices (GLRAM) claims its superiority on computation time and compression ratio over the SVD. However, GLRAM is very sensitive to sparse large noise or outliers and its robust version does not have been explored or solved yet. To address this problem, this paper proposes a robust method for GLRAM, named Robust GLRAM (RGLRAM). We first formulate RGLRAM as an l1-norm optimization problem which minimizes the l1-norm of the approximation errors. Secondly, we apply the technique of Augmented Lagrange Multipliers (ALM) to solve this l1-norm minimization problem and derive a corresponding iterative scheme. Then the weak convergence of the proposed algorithm is discussed under mild conditions. Next, we investigate a special case of RGLRAM and extend RGLRAM to a general tensor case. Finally, the extensive experiments on synthetic data show that it is possible for RGLRAM to exactly recover both the low rank and the sparse components while it may be difficult for previous state-of-the-art algorithms. We also discuss three issues on RGLRAM: the sensitivity to initialization, the generalization ability and the relationship between the running time and the size/number of matrices. Moreover, the experimental results on images of faces with large corruptions illustrate that RGLRAM obtains the best denoising and compression performance than other methods. PMID:26367116
Investigating material approximations in spacecraft radiation analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walker, Steven A.; Slaba, Tony C.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Blattnig, Steve R.
2011-07-01
During the design process, the configuration of space vehicles and habitats changes frequently and the merits of design changes must be evaluated. Methods for rapidly assessing astronaut exposure are therefore required. Typically, approximations are made to simplify the geometry and speed-up the evaluation of each design. In this work, the error associated with two common approximations used to simplify space radiation vehicle analyses, scaling into equivalent materials and material reordering, are investigated. Over thirty materials commonly found in spacesuits, vehicles, and human bodies are considered. Each material is placed in a material group (aluminum, polyethylene, or tissue), and the error associated with scaling and reordering was quantified for each material. Of the scaling methods investigated, range scaling is shown to be the superior method, especially for shields less than 30 g/cm 2 exposed to a solar particle event. More complicated, realistic slabs are examined to quantify the separate and combined effects of using equivalent materials and reordering. The error associated with material reordering is shown to be at least comparable to, if not greater than, the error associated with range scaling. In general, scaling and reordering errors were found to grow with the difference between the average nuclear charge of the actual material and average nuclear charge of the equivalent material. Based on this result, a different set of equivalent materials (titanium, aluminum, and tissue) are substituted for the commonly used aluminum, polyethylene, and tissue. The realistic cases are scaled and reordered using the new equivalent materials, and the reduced error is shown.
Suetin, S P
2002-12-31
A non-linear system of differential equations ('generalized Dubrovin system') is obtained to describe the behaviour of the zeros of polynomials orthogonal on several intervals that lie in lacunae between the intervals. The same system is shown to describe the dynamical behaviour of zeros of this kind for more general orthogonal polynomials: the denominators of the diagonal Pade approximants of meromorphic functions on a real hyperelliptic Riemann surface. On the basis of this approach several refinements of Rakhmanov's results on the convergence of diagonal Pade approximants for rational perturbations of Markov functions are obtained.
Approximate von Neumann entropy for directed graphs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Cheng; Wilson, Richard C.; Comin, Csar H.; Costa, Luciano da F.; Hancock, Edwin R.
2014-05-01
In this paper, we develop an entropy measure for assessing the structural complexity of directed graphs. Although there are many existing alternative measures for quantifying the structural properties of undirected graphs, there are relatively few corresponding measures for directed graphs. To fill this gap in the literature, we explore an alternative technique that is applicable to directed graphs. We commence by using Chung's generalization of the Laplacian of a directed graph to extend the computation of von Neumann entropy from undirected to directed graphs. We provide a simplified form of the entropy which can be expressed in terms of simple node in-degree and out-degree statistics. Moreover, we find approximate forms of the von Neumann entropy that apply to both weakly and strongly directed graphs, and that can be used to characterize network structure. We illustrate the usefulness of these simplified entropy forms defined in this paper on both artificial and real-world data sets, including structures from protein databases and high energy physics theory citation networks.
Magnetic reconnection under anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic approximation
Hirabayashi, K.; Hoshino, M.
2013-11-15
We study the formation of slow-mode shocks in collisionless magnetic reconnection by using one- and two-dimensional collisionless MHD codes based on the double adiabatic approximation and the Landau closure model. We bridge the gap between the Petschek-type MHD reconnection model accompanied by a pair of slow shocks and the observational evidence of the rare occasion of in-situ slow shock observations. Our results showed that once magnetic reconnection takes place, a firehose-sense (p{sub ∥}>p{sub ⊥}) pressure anisotropy arises in the downstream region, and the generated slow shocks are quite weak comparing with those in an isotropic MHD. In spite of the weakness of the shocks, however, the resultant reconnection rate is 10%–30% higher than that in an isotropic case. This result implies that the slow shock does not necessarily play an important role in the energy conversion in the reconnection system and is consistent with the satellite observation in the Earth's magnetosphere.
Approximate Model for Turbulent Stagnation Point Flow.
Dechant, Lawrence
2016-01-01
Here we derive an approximate turbulent self-similar model for a class of favorable pressure gradient wedge-like flows, focusing on the stagnation point limit. While the self-similar model provides a useful gross flow field estimate this approach must be combined with a near wall model is to determine skin friction and by Reynolds analogy the heat transfer coefficient. The combined approach is developed in detail for the stagnation point flow problem where turbulent skin friction and Nusselt number results are obtained. Comparison to the classical Van Driest (1958) result suggests overall reasonable agreement. Though the model is only valid near the stagnation region of cylinders and spheres it nonetheless provides a reasonable model for overall cylinder and sphere heat transfer. The enhancement effect of free stream turbulence upon the laminar flow is used to derive a similar expression which is valid for turbulent flow. Examination of free stream enhanced laminar flow suggests that the rather than enhancement of a laminar flow behavior free stream disturbance results in early transition to turbulent stagnation point behavior. Excellent agreement is shown between enhanced laminar flow and turbulent flow behavior for high levels, e.g. 5% of free stream turbulence. Finally the blunt body turbulent stagnation results are shown to provide realistic heat transfer results for turbulent jet impingement problems.
Approximate forms of daytime ionospheric conductance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ieda, A.; Oyama, S.; Vanhamki, H.; Fujii, R.; Nakamizo, A.; Amm, O.; Hori, T.; Takeda, M.; Ueno, G.; Yoshikawa, A.; Redmon, R. J.; Denig, W. F.; Kamide, Y.; Nishitani, N.
2014-12-01
The solar zenith angle (SZA) dependence of the conductance is studied and a simple theoretical form for the Hall-to-Pedersen conductance ratio is developed, using the peak plasma production height. The European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) radar observations at Troms (67 MLAT) on 30 March 2012 were used to calculate the conductance. The daytime electric conductance is associated with plasma created by solar extreme ultraviolet radiation incident on the neutral atmosphere of the Earth. However, it has been uncertain whether previous conductance models are consistent with the ideal Chapman theory for such plasma productions. We found that the SZA dependence of the conductance is consistent with the Chapman theory after simple modifications. The Pedersen conductance can be understood by approximating the plasma density height profile as being flat in the topside E region and by taking into account the upward gradient of atmospheric temperature. An additional consideration is necessary for the Hall conductance, which decreases with increasing SZA more rapidly than the Pedersen conductance. This rapid decrease is presumably caused by a thinning of the Hall conductivity layer from noon toward nighttime. We expressed this thinning in terms of the peak production height in the Chapman theory.
Grover's quantum search algorithm and Diophantine approximation
Dolev, Shahar; Pitowsky, Itamar; Tamir, Boaz
2006-02-15
In a fundamental paper [Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 325 (1997)] Grover showed how a quantum computer can find a single marked object in a database of size N by using only O({radical}(N)) queries of the oracle that identifies the object. His result was generalized to the case of finding one object in a subset of marked elements. We consider the following computational problem: A subset of marked elements is given whose number of elements is either M or K, our task is to determine which is the case. We show how to solve this problem with a high probability of success using iterations of Grover's basic step only, and no other algorithm. Let m be the required number of iterations; we prove that under certain restrictions on the sizes of M and K the estimation m<2{radical}(N)/({radical}(K)-{radical}(M)) obtains. This bound reproduces previous results based on more elaborate algorithms, and is known to be optimal up to a constant factor. Our method involves simultaneous Diophantine approximations, so that Grover's algorithm is conceptualized as an orbit of an ergodic automorphism of the torus. We comment on situations where the algorithm may be slow, and note the similarity between these cases and the problem of small divisors in classical mechanics.
Adaptive approximation of higher order posterior statistics
Lee, Wonjung
2014-02-01
Filtering is an approach for incorporating observed data into time-evolving systems. Instead of a family of Dirac delta masses that is widely used in Monte Carlo methods, we here use the Wiener chaos expansion for the parametrization of the conditioned probability distribution to solve the nonlinear filtering problem. The Wiener chaos expansion is not the best method for uncertainty propagation without observations. Nevertheless, the projection of the system variables in a fixed polynomial basis spanning the probability space might be a competitive representation in the presence of relatively frequent observations because the Wiener chaos approach not only leads to an accurate and efficient prediction for short time uncertainty quantification, but it also allows to apply several data assimilation methods that can be used to yield a better approximate filtering solution. The aim of the present paper is to investigate this hypothesis. We answer in the affirmative for the (stochastic) Lorenz-63 system based on numerical simulations in which the uncertainty quantification method and the data assimilation method are adaptively selected by whether the dynamics is driven by Brownian motion and the near-Gaussianity of the measure to be updated, respectively.
Methods for local gravity field approximation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sailor, R. V.; Tait, K. S.; Leschack, A. R.
1989-01-01
The most widely known modern method for estimating gravity field values from observed data is least-squares collocation. Its advantages are that it can make estimates at arbitrary locations based on irregularly spaced observations, and that it makes use of statistical information about errors in the input data while providing corresponding information about the quality of the output estimates. Disadvantages of collocation include the necessity of inverting square matrices of dimension equal to the number of data values and the need to assume covariance models for the gravity field and the data errors. Fourier methods are an important alternative to collocation; having the advantage of greater computational efficiency, but requiring data estimates to be on a regular grid and not using or providing statistical accuracy information. The GEOFAST algorithm is an implementation of collocation that achieves high computational efficiency by transforming the estimation equations into the frequency domain where an accurate approximation may be made to reduce the workload. The forward and inverse Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs) are utilized. The accuracy and computational efficiency of the GEOFAST algorithm is demonstrated using two sets of synthetic gravity data: marine gravity for an ocean trench region including wavelengths longer than 200 km; and local land gravity containing wavelengths as short as 5 km. These results are discussed along with issues such as the advantages of first removing reference field models before carrying out the estimation algorithm.
The time-dependent Gutzwiller approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fabrizio, Michele
2015-03-01
The time-dependent Gutzwiller Approximation (t-GA) is shown to be capable of tracking the off-equilibrium evolution both of coherent quasiparticles and of incoherent Hubbard bands. The method is used to demonstrate that the sharp dynamical crossover observed by time-dependent DMFT in the quench-dynamics of a half-filled Hubbard model can be identified within the t-GA as a genuine dynamical transition separating two distinct physical phases. This result, strictly variational for lattices of infinite coordination number, is intriguing as it actually questions the occurrence of thermalization. Next, we shall present how t-GA works in a multi-band model for V2O3 that displays a first-order Mott transition. We shall show that a physically accessible excitation pathway is able to collapse the Mott gap down and drive off-equilibrium the insulator into a metastable metal phase. Work supported by the European Union, Seventh Framework Programme, under the project GO FAST, Grant Agreement No. 280555.
A simple, approximate model of parachute inflation
Macha, J.M.
1992-01-01
A simple, approximate model of parachute inflation is described. The model is based on the traditional, practical treatment of the fluid resistance of rigid bodies in nonsteady flow, with appropriate extensions to accommodate the change in canopy inflated shape. Correlations for the steady drag and steady radial force as functions of the inflated radius are required as input to the dynamic model. In a novel approach, the radial force is expressed in terms of easily obtainable drag and reefing fine tension measurements. A series of wind tunnel experiments provides the needed correlations. Coefficients associated with the added mass of fluid are evaluated by calibrating the model against an extensive and reliable set of flight data. A parameter is introduced which appears to universally govern the strong dependence of the axial added mass coefficient on motion history. Through comparisons with flight data, the model is shown to realistically predict inflation forces for ribbon and ringslot canopies over a wide range of sizes and deployment conditions.
A simple, approximate model of parachute inflation
Macha, J.M.
1992-11-01
A simple, approximate model of parachute inflation is described. The model is based on the traditional, practical treatment of the fluid resistance of rigid bodies in nonsteady flow, with appropriate extensions to accommodate the change in canopy inflated shape. Correlations for the steady drag and steady radial force as functions of the inflated radius are required as input to the dynamic model. In a novel approach, the radial force is expressed in terms of easily obtainable drag and reefing fine tension measurements. A series of wind tunnel experiments provides the needed correlations. Coefficients associated with the added mass of fluid are evaluated by calibrating the model against an extensive and reliable set of flight data. A parameter is introduced which appears to universally govern the strong dependence of the axial added mass coefficient on motion history. Through comparisons with flight data, the model is shown to realistically predict inflation forces for ribbon and ringslot canopies over a wide range of sizes and deployment conditions.
Approximation Schemes for Scheduling with Availability Constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Bin; Huo, Yumei; Zhao, Hairong
We investigate the problems of scheduling n weighted jobs to m identical machines with availability constraints. We consider two different models of availability constraints: the preventive model where the unavailability is due to preventive machine maintenance, and the fixed job model where the unavailability is due to a priori assignment of some of the n jobs to certain machines at certain times. Both models have applications such as turnaround scheduling or overlay computing. In both models, the objective is to minimize the total weighted completion time. We assume that m is a constant, and the jobs are non-resumable. For the preventive model, it has been shown that there is no approximation algorithm if all machines have unavailable intervals even when w i = p i for all jobs. In this paper, we assume there is one machine permanently available and the processing time of each job is equal to its weight for all jobs. We develop the first PTAS when there are constant number of unavailable intervals. One main feature of our algorithm is that the classification of large and small jobs is with respect to each individual interval, thus not fixed. This classification allows us (1) to enumerate the assignments of large jobs efficiently; (2) and to move small jobs around without increasing the objective value too much, and thus derive our PTAS. Then we show that there is no FPTAS in this case unless P = NP.
Approximate stoichiometry for rich hydrocarbon mixtures
Beans, E.W. )
1993-03-01
The stoichiometry of lean mixtures can readily and accurately be determined from the assumption that all the carbon oxidizes to carbon dioxide and all the hydrogen oxidizes to water. This assumption is valid up to an equivalence ratio ([sigma]) of 0.8 and can be used with little error up to [sigma] = 1. The composition of the products of a hydrocarbon burnt in air under the foregoing assumption can be obtained from simple carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen balances. Given the composition, one can determine the energy released and/or the adiabatic flame temperature. For rich mixtures, the foregoing assumption, of course, is not valid. Hence, there is no easy way to determine the stoichiometry of the products of a rich mixture. The objective of this note is to present an equation' which will allow one to readily determine the composition of the products of rich hydrocarbon mixtures. The equation is based on equilibrium composition calculations and some assumptions regarding the characteristics of hydrocarbons. The equation gives approximate results. However, the results are sufficiently accurate for many situations. If more accuracy is wanted, one should use an equilibrium combustion program like the one by Gordon and McBride.
Configuring Airspace Sectors with Approximate Dynamic Programming
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bloem, Michael; Gupta, Pramod
2010-01-01
In response to changing traffic and staffing conditions, supervisors dynamically configure airspace sectors by assigning them to control positions. A finite horizon airspace sector configuration problem models this supervisor decision. The problem is to select an airspace configuration at each time step while considering a workload cost, a reconfiguration cost, and a constraint on the number of control positions at each time step. Three algorithms for this problem are proposed and evaluated: a myopic heuristic, an exact dynamic programming algorithm, and a rollouts approximate dynamic programming algorithm. On problem instances from current operations with only dozens of possible configurations, an exact dynamic programming solution gives the optimal cost value. The rollouts algorithm achieves costs within 2% of optimal for these instances, on average. For larger problem instances that are representative of future operations and have thousands of possible configurations, excessive computation time prohibits the use of exact dynamic programming. On such problem instances, the rollouts algorithm reduces the cost achieved by the heuristic by more than 15% on average with an acceptable computation time.
Rapid approximate inversion of airborne TEM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fullagar, Peter K.; Pears, Glenn A.; Reid, James E.; Schaa, Ralf
2015-11-01
Rapid interpretation of large airborne transient electromagnetic (ATEM) datasets is highly desirable for timely decision-making in exploration. Full solution 3D inversion of entire airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys is often still not feasible on current day PCs. Therefore, two algorithms to perform rapid approximate 3D interpretation of AEM have been developed. The loss of rigour may be of little consequence if the objective of the AEM survey is regional reconnaissance. Data coverage is often quasi-2D rather than truly 3D in such cases, belying the need for `exact' 3D inversion. Incorporation of geological constraints reduces the non-uniqueness of 3D AEM inversion. Integrated interpretation can be achieved most readily when inversion is applied to a geological model, attributed with lithology as well as conductivity. Geological models also offer several practical advantages over pure property models during inversion. In particular, they permit adjustment of geological boundaries. In addition, optimal conductivities can be determined for homogeneous units. Both algorithms described here can operate on geological models; however, they can also perform `unconstrained' inversion if the geological context is unknown. VPem1D performs 1D inversion at each ATEM data location above a 3D model. Interpretation of cover thickness is a natural application; this is illustrated via application to Spectrem data from central Australia. VPem3D performs 3D inversion on time-integrated (resistive limit) data. Conversion to resistive limits delivers a massive increase in speed since the TEM inverse problem reduces to a quasi-magnetic problem. The time evolution of the decay is lost during the conversion, but the information can be largely recovered by constructing a starting model from conductivity depth images (CDIs) or 1D inversions combined with geological constraints if available. The efficacy of the approach is demonstrated on Spectrem data from Brazil. Both separately and in combination, these programs provide new options to exploration and mining companies for rapid interpretation of ATEM surveys.
Cophylogeny Reconstruction via an Approximate Bayesian Computation
Baudet, C.; Donati, B.; Sinaimeri, B.; Crescenzi, P.; Gautier, C.; Matias, C.; Sagot, M.-F.
2015-01-01
Despite an increasingly vast literature on cophylogenetic reconstructions for studying hostparasite associations, understanding the common evolutionary history of such systems remains a problem that is far from being solved. Most algorithms for hostparasite reconciliation use an event-based model, where the events include in general (a subset of) cospeciation, duplication, loss, and host switch. All known parsimonious event-based methods then assign a cost to each type of event in order to find a reconstruction of minimum cost. The main problem with this approach is that the cost of the events strongly influences the reconciliation obtained. Some earlier approaches attempt to avoid this problem by finding a Pareto set of solutions and hence by considering event costs under some minimization constraints. To deal with this problem, we developed an algorithm, called Coala, for estimating the frequency of the events based on an approximate Bayesian computation approach. The benefits of this method are 2-fold: (i) it provides more confidence in the set of costs to be used in a reconciliation, and (ii) it allows estimation of the frequency of the events in cases where the data set consists of trees with a large number of taxa. We evaluate our method on simulated and on biological data sets. We show that in both cases, for the same pair of host and parasite trees, different sets of frequencies for the events lead to equally probable solutions. Moreover, often these solutions differ greatly in terms of the number of inferred events. It appears crucial to take this into account before attempting any further biological interpretation of such reconciliations. More generally, we also show that the set of frequencies can vary widely depending on the input host and parasite trees. Indiscriminately applying a standard vector of costs may thus not be a good strategy. PMID:25540454
Bond selective chemistry beyond the adiabatic approximation
Butler, L.J.
1993-12-01
One of the most important challenges in chemistry is to develop predictive ability for the branching between energetically allowed chemical reaction pathways. Such predictive capability, coupled with a fundamental understanding of the important molecular interactions, is essential to the development and utilization of new fuels and the design of efficient combustion processes. Existing transition state and exact quantum theories successfully predict the branching between available product channels for systems in which each reaction coordinate can be adequately described by different paths along a single adiabatic potential energy surface. In particular, unimolecular dissociation following thermal, infrared multiphoton, or overtone excitation in the ground state yields a branching between energetically allowed product channels which can be successfully predicted by the application of statistical theories, i.e. the weakest bond breaks. (The predictions are particularly good for competing reactions in which when there is no saddle point along the reaction coordinates, as in simple bond fission reactions.) The predicted lack of bond selectivity results from the assumption of rapid internal vibrational energy redistribution and the implicit use of a single adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface for the reaction. However, the adiabatic approximation is not valid for the reaction of a wide variety of energetic materials and organic fuels; coupling between the electronic states of the reacting species play a a key role in determining the selectivity of the chemical reactions induced. The work described below investigated the central role played by coupling between electronic states in polyatomic molecules in determining the selective branching between energetically allowed fragmentation pathways in two key systems.
Approximate nearest neighbors via dictionary learning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cherian, Anoop; Morellas, Vassilios; Papanikolopoulos, Nikolaos
2011-06-01
Approximate Nearest Neighbors (ANN) in high dimensional vector spaces is a fundamental, yet challenging problem in many areas of computer science, including computer vision, data mining and robotics. In this work, we investigate this problem from the perspective of compressive sensing, especially the dictionary learning aspect. High dimensional feature vectors are seldom seen to be sparse in the feature domain; examples include, but not limited to Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) descriptors, Histogram Of Gradients, Shape Contexts, etc. Compressive sensing advocates that if a given vector has a dense support in a feature space, then there should exist an alternative high dimensional subspace where the features are sparse. This idea is leveraged by dictionary learning techniques through learning an overcomplete projection from the feature space so that the vectors are sparse in the new space. The learned dictionary aids in refining the search for the nearest neighbors to a query feature vector into the most likely subspace combination indexed by its non-zero active basis elements. Since the size of the dictionary is generally very large, distinct feature vectors are most likely to have distinct non-zero basis. Utilizing this observation, we propose a novel representation of the feature vectors as tuples of non-zero dictionary indices, which then reduces the ANN search problem into hashing the tuples to an index table; thereby dramatically improving the speed of the search. A drawback of this naive approach is that it is very sensitive to feature perturbations. This can be due to two possibilities: (i) the feature vectors are corrupted by noise, (ii) the true data vectors undergo perturbations themselves. Existing dictionary learning methods address the first possibility. In this work we investigate the second possibility and approach it from a robust optimization perspective. This boils down to the problem of learning a dictionary robust to feature perturbations, viz. paving the way for a novel Robust Dictionary Learning (RDL) framework. In addition to the above model, we also propose a novel LASSO based multi-regularization hashing algorithm which utilizes the consistency properties of the non-zero active basis for increasing values of the regularization weights. Even though our algorithm is generic and has wide coverage in different areas of scientific computing, the experiments in the current work are mainly focused towards improving the speed and accuracy of ANN for SIFT descriptors, which are high-dimensional (128D) and are one of the most widely used interest point detectors in computer vision. Preliminary results from SIFT datasets show that our algorithm is far superior to the state-of-the-art techniques in ANN.
Comparison of slope approximations used in rough surface scattering.
Welton, P J
2015-02-01
Two widely used surface slope approximations are compared to an initially exact method that treats the slopes via a differential operator acting on the characteristic function. The differential operator treatment ceases to be exact when the integrand in the scattering integrals is approximated using a Gaussian directivity approximation and Fresnel phase approximation. Analysis is restricted to the Kirchhoff approximation (single scattering). One of the simpler slope approximations agrees with the more comprehensive differential operator approximation for all backscattering geometries, as well as for specular scattering geometries down to grazing angles comparable to the source beamwidth. PMID:25698054
Kaneko, K.; Schiller, A.
2007-04-15
We present a thermal and quantum-mechanical treatment of nuclear rotation using the formalism of the static path approximation plus the random-phase approximation. Naive perturbation theory fails because of the presence of zero-frequency modes resulting from dynamical symmetry breaking. Such modes lead to infrared divergences. We show that composite zero-frequency excitations are properly treated within the collective coordinate method. The resulting perturbation theory is free from infrared divergences. Without the assumption of individual random spin vectors, we derive microscopically the spin distribution of the level density. The moment of inertia is thereby related to the spin-cutoff parameter in the usual way. Explicit calculations are performed for {sup 56}Fe; various thermal properties are discussed. In particular, we demonstrate that the increase of the moment of inertia with increasing temperature is correlated with the suppression of pairing correlations.
Differential equation based method for accurate approximations in optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pritchard, Jocelyn I.; Adelman, Howard M.
1990-01-01
A method to efficiently and accurately approximate the effect of design changes on structural response is described. The key to this method is to interpret sensitivity equations as differential equations that may be solved explicitly for closed form approximations, hence, the method is denoted the Differential Equation Based (DEB) method. Approximations were developed for vibration frequencies, mode shapes and static displacements. The DEB approximation method was applied to a cantilever beam and results compared with the commonly-used linear Taylor series approximations and exact solutions. The test calculations involved perturbing the height, width, cross-sectional area, tip mass, and bending inertia of the beam. The DEB method proved to be very accurate, and in most cases, was more accurate than the linear Taylor series approximation. The method is applicable to simultaneous perturbation of several design variables. Also, the approximations may be used to calculate other system response quantities. For example, the approximations for displacements are used to approximate bending stresses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lim, Hyang-Tag; Kim, Yong-Su; Ra, Young-Sik; Bae, Joonwoo; Kim, Yoon-Ho
2012-10-01
Although important for detecting entanglement, the transpose operation cannot be directly realized in laboratory because it is a nonphysical operation. It is, however, possible to find an approximate transpose operation using the method known as the structural physical approximation (SPA); recently, SPA-based implementations of the transpose and partial transpose have been demonstrated for a single-qubit [Phys. Rev. A1050-2947PLRAAN10.1103/PhysRevA.83.020301 83, 020301(R) (2011)] and an entangled two-qubit system [Phys. Rev. Lett.0031-9007PRLTAO10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.160401 107, 160401 (2011)]. In this work, we expand SPA-transpose to a three-dimensional quantum system: a qutrit. The photonic qutrit state is encoded in the polarization, and path degrees of freedom of a single-photon and the SPA-transpose operation, which is based on measurement and preparation of quantum states, is implemented with linear optics. Our work paves the way toward entanglement detection for higher-dimensional quantum systems.
Peng, Degao; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Peng; Yang, Weitao
2014-12-07
In this article, we develop systematically second random phase approximations (RPA) and Tamm-Dancoff approximations (TDA) of particle-hole and particle-particle channels for calculating molecular excitation energies. The second particle-hole RPA/TDA can capture double excitations missed by the particle-hole RPA/TDA and time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT), while the second particle-particle RPA/TDA recovers non-highest-occupied-molecular-orbital excitations missed by the particle-particle RPA/TDA. With proper orbital restrictions, these restricted second RPAs and TDAs have a formal scaling of only O(N{sup 4}). The restricted versions of second RPAs and TDAs are tested with various small molecules to show some positive results. Data suggest that the restricted second particle-hole TDA (r2ph-TDA) has the best overall performance with a correlation coefficient similar to TDDFT, but with a larger negative bias. The negative bias of the r2ph-TDA may be induced by the unaccounted ground state correlation energy to be investigated further. Overall, the r2ph-TDA is recommended to study systems with both single and some low-lying double excitations with a moderate accuracy. Some expressions on excited state property evaluations, such as ?S{sup ^2}? are also developed and tested.
Peng, Degao; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Peng; Yang, Weitao
2014-12-01
In this article, we develop systematically second random phase approximations (RPA) and Tamm-Dancoff approximations (TDA) of particle-hole and particle-particle channels for calculating molecular excitation energies. The second particle-hole RPA/TDA can capture double excitations missed by the particle-hole RPA/TDA and time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT), while the second particle-particle RPA/TDA recovers non-highest-occupied-molecular-orbital excitations missed by the particle-particle RPA/TDA. With proper orbital restrictions, these restricted second RPAs and TDAs have a formal scaling of only O(N(4)). The restricted versions of second RPAs and TDAs are tested with various small molecules to show some positive results. Data suggest that the restricted second particle-hole TDA (r2ph-TDA) has the best overall performance with a correlation coefficient similar to TDDFT, but with a larger negative bias. The negative bias of the r2ph-TDA may be induced by the unaccounted ground state correlation energy to be investigated further. Overall, the r2ph-TDA is recommended to study systems with both single and some low-lying double excitations with a moderate accuracy. Some expressions on excited state property evaluations, such as ?S?(2)? are also developed and tested. PMID:25481124
Difference equation state approximations for nonlinear hereditary control problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosen, I. G.
1984-01-01
Discrete approximation schemes for the solution of nonlinear hereditary control problems are constructed. The methods involve approximation by a sequence of optimal control problems in which the original infinite dimensional state equation has been approximated by a finite dimensional discrete difference equation. Convergence of the state approximations is argued using linear semigroup theory and is then used to demonstrate that solutions to the approximating optimal control problems in some sense approximate solutions to the original control problem. Two schemes, one based upon piecewise constant approximation, and the other involving spline functions are discussed. Numerical results are presented, analyzed and used to compare the schemes to other available approximation methods for the solution of hereditary control problems. Previously announced in STAR as N83-33589
Difference equation state approximations for nonlinear hereditary control problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosen, I. G.
1982-01-01
Discrete approximation schemes for the solution of nonlinear hereditary control problems are constructed. The methods involve approximation by a sequence of optimal control problems in which the original infinite dimensional state equation has been approximated by a finite dimensional discrete difference equation. Convergence of the state approximations is argued using linear semigroup theory and is then used to demonstrate that solutions to the approximating optimal control problems in some sense approximate solutions to the original control problem. Two schemes, one based upon piecewise constant approximation, and the other involving spline functions are discussed. Numerical results are presented, analyzed and used to compare the schemes to other available approximation methods for the solution of hereditary control problems.
View southwest; taxi office New Canaan Railroad Station, Approximately ...
View southwest; taxi office - New Canaan Railroad Station, Approximately 200 feet southwest of intersection of Park & Elm Streets & approximately 150 feet north of Pine Street, New Canaan, Fairfield County, CT
On the average number of best approximations of linear forms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Illarionov, A. A.
2014-04-01
We obtain asymptotic formulae for the average number of best approximations of linear forms with rational coefficients and for the expectation of the number of best approximations of linear forms with real coefficients.
Pawlak Algebra and Approximate Structure on Fuzzy Lattice
Zhuang, Ying; Liu, Wenqi; Wu, Chin-Chia; Li, Jinhai
2014-01-01
The aim of this paper is to investigate the general approximation structure, weak approximation operators, and Pawlak algebra in the framework of fuzzy lattice, lattice topology, and auxiliary ordering. First, we prove that the weak approximation operator space forms a complete distributive lattice. Then we study the properties of transitive closure of approximation operators and apply them to rough set theory. We also investigate molecule Pawlak algebra and obtain some related properties. PMID:25152922
A new approximation method for stress constraints in structural synthesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vanderplaats, Garret N.; Salajegheh, Eysa
1987-01-01
A new approximation method for dealing with stress constraints in structural synthesis is presented. The finite element nodal forces are approximated and these are used to create an explicit, but often nonlinear, approximation to the original problem. The principal motivation is to create the best approximation possible, in order to reduce the number of detailed finite element analyses needed to reach the optimum. Examples are offered and compared with published results, to demonstrate the efficiency and reliability of the proposed method.
Explicitly solvable complex Chebyshev approximation problems related to sine polynomials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Freund, Roland
1989-01-01
Explicitly solvable real Chebyshev approximation problems on the unit interval are typically characterized by simple error curves. A similar principle is presented for complex approximation problems with error curves induced by sine polynomials. As an application, some new explicit formulae for complex best approximations are derived.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barth, Timothy J.; Larson, Mats G.
2000-01-01
We consider a posteriori error estimates for finite volume and finite element methods on arbitrary meshes subject to prescribed error functionals. Error estimates of this type are useful in a number of computational settings: (1) quantitative prediction of the numerical solution error, (2) adaptive meshing, and (3) load balancing of work on parallel computing architectures. Our analysis recasts the class of Godunov finite volumes schemes as a particular form of discontinuous Galerkin method utilizing broken space approximation obtained via reconstruction of cell-averaged data. In this general framework, weighted residual error bounds are readily obtained using duality arguments and Galerkin orthogonality. Additional consideration is given to issues such as nonlinearity, efficiency, and the relationship to other existing methods. Numerical examples are given throughout the talk to demonstrate the sharpness of the estimates and efficiency of the techniques. Additional information is contained in the original.
Approximating the spin distributions in capture reactions between spherical nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chushnyakova, M. V.; Gontchar, I. I.
2015-09-01
Twenty years ago an approximation for the spin distribution of the dinuclear systems formed in capture reactions with heavy ions was proposed. This approximation is used nowadays. However, since that time the experimental errors of the measured capture cross sections were reduced drastically. We show that the accuracy of the old spin distribution approximation is certainly out of date and propose a new approximation built on the dynamical modeling of the capture process. Results suggest that this new approximation might be useful especially for performing modeling of decay of excited dinuclear systems (compound nuclei) formed during heavy-ion collisions.
Mappings and accuracy for Chebyshev pseudo-spectral approximations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bayliss, Alvin; Turkel, Eli
1992-01-01
The effect of mappings on the approximation, by Chebyshev collocation, of functions which exhibit localized regions of rapid variation is studied. A general strategy is introduced whereby mappings are adaptively constructed which map specified classes of rapidly varying functions into low order polynomials which can be accurately approximated by Chebyshev polynomial expansions. A particular family of mappings constructed in this way is tested on a variety of rapidly varying functions similar to those occurring in approximations. It is shown that the mapped function can be approximated much more accurately by Chebyshev polynomial approximations than in physical space or where mappings constructed from other strategies are employed.
Complex angular momentum approximation to hard-core scattering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nussenzveig, H. M.; Wiscombe, W. J.
1991-01-01
The complex angular momentum (CAM) approximation for nonrelativistic quantum scattering by a hard sphere - a union of the recently developed CAM uniform approximation with a semiclassical WKB-like approximation valid at large angles - is shown to be remarkably accurate over the complete range of scattering angles and down to size parameters (circumference to de Broglie wavelength ratios) of order unity. The best approximations previously derivable (Fock-type) cannot reach large scattering angles where semiclassical approximations are useful; even at angles where Fock-type approximations are valid, they are typically two or more orders of magnitude less accurate than CAM. The crucial new feature responsible for the high accuracy of the CAM approximation is the treatment of large-angle diffraction associated with (1) tunneling near the edge of the scatterer, and (2) anomalous reflection.
Approximation Set of the Interval Set in Pawlak's Space
Wang, Jin; Wang, Guoyin
2014-01-01
The interval set is a special set, which describes uncertainty of an uncertain concept or set Z with its two crisp boundaries named upper-bound set and lower-bound set. In this paper, the concept of similarity degree between two interval sets is defined at first, and then the similarity degrees between an interval set and its two approximations (i.e., upper approximation set R(Z) and lower approximation set R_(Z)) are presented, respectively. The disadvantages of using upper-approximation set R(Z) or lower-approximation set R_(Z) as approximation sets of the uncertain set (uncertain concept) Z are analyzed, and a new method for looking for a better approximation set of the interval set Z is proposed. The conclusion that the approximation set R 0.5(Z) is an optimal approximation set of interval set Z is drawn and proved successfully. The change rules of R 0.5(Z) with different binary relations are analyzed in detail. Finally, a kind of crisp approximation set of the interval set Z is constructed. We hope this research work will promote the development of both the interval set model and granular computing theory. PMID:25177721
Approximate solutions for certain bidomain problems in electrocardiography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnston, Peter R.
2008-10-01
The simulation of problems in electrocardiography using the bidomain model for cardiac tissue often creates issues with satisfaction of the boundary conditions required to obtain a solution. Recent studies have proposed approximate methods for solving such problems by satisfying the boundary conditions only approximately. This paper presents an analysis of their approximations using a similar method, but one which ensures that the boundary conditions are satisfied during the whole solution process. Also considered are additional functional forms, used in the approximate solutions, which are more appropriate to specific boundary conditions. The analysis shows that the approximations introduced by Patel and Roth [Phys. Rev. E 72, 051931 (2005)] generally give accurate results. However, there are certain situations where functional forms based on the geometry of the problem under consideration can give improved approximations. It is also demonstrated that the recent methods are equivalent to different approaches to solving the same problems introduced 20years earlier.
A Lattice-Theoretic Approach to Multigranulation Approximation Space
He, Xiaoli
2014-01-01
In this paper, we mainly investigate the equivalence between multigranulation approximation space and single-granulation approximation space from the lattice-theoretic viewpoint. It is proved that multigranulation approximation space is equivalent to single-granulation approximation space if and only if the pair of multigranulation rough approximation operators (Σi=1nRi¯,Σi=1nRi_) forms an order-preserving Galois connection, if and only if the collection of lower (resp., upper) definable sets forms an (resp., union) intersection structure, if and only if the collection of multigranulation upper (lower) definable sets forms a distributive lattice when n = 2, and if and only if ∀X⊆U, Σi=1nRi_(X)=∩i=1nRi_(X). The obtained results help us gain more insights into the mathematical structure of multigranulation approximation spaces. PMID:25243226
Hybrid adaptive methods for approximating a nonconvex multidimensional Pareto frontier
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berezkin, V. E.; Kamenev, G. K.; Lotov, A. V.
2006-11-01
New hybrid methods for approximating the Pareto frontier of the feasible set of criteria vectors in nonlinear multicriteria optimization problems with nonconvex Pareto frontiers are considered. Since the approximation of the Pareto frontier is an ill-posed problem, the methods are based on approximating the Edgeworth-Pareto hull (EPH), i.e., the maximum set having the same Pareto frontier as the original feasible set of criteria vectors. The EPH approximation also makes it possible to visualize the Pareto frontier and to estimate the quality of the approximation. In the methods proposed, the statistical estimation of the quality of the current EPH approximation is combined with its improvement based on a combination of random search, local optimization, adaptive compression of the search region, and genetic algorithms.
Approximating rational triangular Bzier surfaces by polynomial triangular Bzier surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Hui-Xia; Wang, Guo-Jin
2009-06-01
An attractive method for approximating rational triangular Bzier surfaces by polynomial triangular Bzier surfaces is introduced. The main result is that the arbitrary given order derived vectors of a polynomial triangular surface converge uniformly to those of the approximated rational triangular Bzier surface as the elevated degree tends to infinity. The polynomial triangular surface is constructed as follows. Firstly, we elevate the degree of the approximated rational triangular Bzier surface, then a polynomial triangular Bzier surface is produced, which has the same order and new control points of the degree-elevated rational surface. The approximation method has theoretical significance and application value: it solves two shortcomings-fussy expression and uninsured convergence of the approximation-of Hybrid algorithms for rational polynomial curves and surfaces approximation.
Conductor impedance approximations for deep-underground mines
Tylavsky, D.J.
1987-07-01
Wagner and Evan's approximation to Carson's equations for overhead conductors has been used to approximate the impedance of conductors buried deep within the earth such as an underground mine environment. While these equations are acceptable for overhead and shallow-buried conductors, superior approximations, retaining the same general form as the Wagner and Evans approximation, may be derived. The derivation of self- and mutual-impedance equations for conductors that are enclosed in a cylindrical dielectric and surrounded by a homogeneous earth of arbitrary permeability is presented. New approximations to modified Bessel functions are presented and used to obtain approximate impedance expressions which show superior error performance. Error performance is graphically presented for self- and mutual-impedance values over a broad range of operating conditions. Emphasis is placed on the effect of nonunity relative permeability.
The selection of approximating functions for tabulated numerical data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ingram, H. L.; Hooker, W. R.
1972-01-01
A computer program was developed that selects, from a list of candidate functions, the approximating functions and associated coefficients which result in the best curve fit of a given set of numerical data. The advantages of the approach used here are: (1) Multivariable approximations can be performed. (2) Flexibility with respect to the type of approximations used is available. (3) The program is designed to choose the best terms to be used in the approximation from an arbitrary list of possible terms so that little knowledge of the proper approximating form is required. (4) Recursion relations are used in determining the coefficients of the approximating functions, which reduces the computer execution time of the program.
Multijet final states: exact results and the leading pole approximation
Ellis, R.K.; Owens, J.F.
1984-09-01
Exact results for the process gg ..-->.. ggg are compared with those obtained using the leading pole approximation. Regions of phase space where the approximation breaks down are discussed. A specific example relevant for background estimates to W boson production is presented. It is concluded that in this instance the leading pole approximation may underestimate the standard QCD background by more than a factor of two in certain kinematic regions of physical interest.
Generalized distorted-wave Born approximation for neutron reflection
Sears, V.F. )
1993-12-15
A theory is developed for the specular reflection of thermal neutrons from an arbitrary smooth surface or interface using a Green-function technique and leads to a family of Born approximations that includes both the familiar plane-wave Born approximation (PWBA) and a generalized distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA). The DWBA reduces to the PWBA if the wave-vector transfer, [ital q][sub [ital z
Approximating elliptic halo orbits based on the variation of constants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asano, Yuta; Yamada, Katsuhiko; Jikuya, Ichiro
2015-08-01
A computational procedure is presented for approximating elliptic halo orbits about the collinear equilibrium points based on the variation of constants in the sense of the second-order approximation. Simulation results show that the approximate solutions agree well with the results of two-point boundary-value problems. The existence conditions of the elliptic halo orbits are also determined with respect to the mass ratio of the primaries and the eccentricity.
An efficient electric field approximation for spiral inflector calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beli?ev, P.; Altiparmakov, D. V.
2001-01-01
This paper presents a new analytical approximation of the electric field in the spiral inflector. It is based on R-function formalism and derived according to the geometric shape of the inflector including the grounded electrodes. A comparison against finite difference solution is given in order to illustrate the validity of the approximation. Also, the results of stochastic ion beam simulation are presented. They clearly show that the proposed approximation yields a very good agreement with the real electric field.
Spatial Ability Explains the Male Advantage in Approximate Arithmetic
Wei, Wei; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhou, Xinlin
2016-01-01
Previous research has shown that females consistently outperform males in exact arithmetic, perhaps due to the former’s advantage in language processing. Much less is known about gender difference in approximate arithmetic. Given that approximate arithmetic is closely associated with visuospatial processing, which shows a male advantage we hypothesized that males would perform better than females in approximate arithmetic. In two experiments (496 children in Experiment 1 and 554 college students in Experiment 2), we found that males showed better performance in approximate arithmetic, which was accounted for by gender differences in spatial ability. PMID:27014124
Fragment molecular orbital method: use of approximate electrostatic potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakano, Tatsuya; Kaminuma, Tsuguchika; Sato, Toshiyuki; Fukuzawa, Kaori; Akiyama, Yutaka; Uebayasi, Masami; Kitaura, Kazuo
2002-01-01
Recently, we have proposed the fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method; an approximate MO method for calculating large molecules such as proteins. The method has been shown to reproduce ab initio total energies and geometries of molecules in good accuracy. The most time consuming part in the method, the calculations of environmental electrostatic potentials, were speeded up by employing the Mulliken approximation for two-electron integrals and a fractional point charge approximation. Numerical calculations on several polypeptides revealed that the approximations brought no significant loss of accuracy in the total energy of molecules and were of practical use.
Approximation functions for airblast environments from buried charges
Reichenbach, H.; Behrens, K.; Kuhl, A.L.
1993-11-01
In EMI report E 1/93, ``Airblast Environments from Buried HE-Charges,`` fit functions were used for the compact description of blastwave parameters. The coefficients of these functions were approximated by means of second order polynomials versus DOB. In most cases, the agreement with the measured data was satisfactory; to reduce remaining noticeable deviations, an approximation by polygons (i.e., piecewise-linear approximation) was used instead of polynomials. The present report describes the results of the polygon approximation and compares them to previous data. We conclude that the polygon representation leads to a better agreement with the measured data.
Bethe free-energy approximations for disordered quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biazzo, I.; Ramezanpour, A.
2014-06-01
Given a locally consistent set of reduced density matrices, we construct approximate density matrices which are globally consistent with the local density matrices we started from when the trial density matrix has a tree structure. We employ the cavity method of statistical physics to find the optimal density matrix representation by slowly decreasing the temperature in an annealing algorithm, or by minimizing an approximate Bethe free energy depending on the reduced density matrices and some cavity messages originated from the Bethe approximation of the entropy. We obtain the classical Bethe expression for the entropy within a naive (mean-field) approximation of the cavity messages, which is expected to work well at high temperatures. In the next order of the approximation, we obtain another expression for the Bethe entropy depending only on the diagonal elements of the reduced density matrices. In principle, we can improve the entropy approximation by considering more accurate cavity messages in the Bethe approximation of the entropy. We compare the annealing algorithm and the naive approximation of the Bethe entropy with exact and approximate numerical simulations for small and large samples of the random transverse Ising model on random regular graphs.
Bethe free-energy approximations for disordered quantum systems.
Biazzo, I; Ramezanpour, A
2014-06-01
Given a locally consistent set of reduced density matrices, we construct approximate density matrices which are globally consistent with the local density matrices we started from when the trial density matrix has a tree structure. We employ the cavity method of statistical physics to find the optimal density matrix representation by slowly decreasing the temperature in an annealing algorithm, or by minimizing an approximate Bethe free energy depending on the reduced density matrices and some cavity messages originated from the Bethe approximation of the entropy. We obtain the classical Bethe expression for the entropy within a naive (mean-field) approximation of the cavity messages, which is expected to work well at high temperatures. In the next order of the approximation, we obtain another expression for the Bethe entropy depending only on the diagonal elements of the reduced density matrices. In principle, we can improve the entropy approximation by considering more accurate cavity messages in the Bethe approximation of the entropy. We compare the annealing algorithm and the naive approximation of the Bethe entropy with exact and approximate numerical simulations for small and large samples of the random transverse Ising model on random regular graphs. PMID:25019754
An approximation based global optimization strategy for structural synthesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sepulveda, A. E.; Schmit, L. A.
1991-01-01
A global optimization strategy for structural synthesis based on approximation concepts is presented. The methodology involves the solution of a sequence of highly accurate approximate problems using a global optimization algorithm. The global optimization algorithm implemented consists of a branch and bound strategy based on the interval evaluation of the objective function and constraint functions, combined with a local feasible directions algorithm. The approximate design optimization problems are constructed using first order approximations of selected intermediate response quantities in terms of intermediate design variables. Some numerical results for example problems are presented to illustrate the efficacy of the design procedure setforth.
Approximation of sweep surfaces by tensor product NURBS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bloomenthal, Mark; Riesenfeld, Richard F.
1992-02-01
Methods for approximating sweep surfaces by tensor product NURBS are presented. Sweep surfaces are generated by sweeping a (possibly deforming) NURBS cross-section curve along a NURBS axis curve. A general form for NURBS approximation to sweep surfaces is derived and expressed in terms of the approximation to a set of offset curves of the axis curve. The actual algorithm used to construct the surface approximation depends on the nature of the desired deformation and change in orientation that the cross-section undergoes as it is swept along the axis.
Legendre-Tau approximations for functional differential equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ito, K.; Teglas, R.
1983-01-01
The numerical approximation of solutions to linear functional differential equations are considered using the so called Legendre tau method. The functional differential equation is first reformulated as a partial differential equation with a nonlocal boundary condition involving time differentiation. The approximate solution is then represented as a truncated Legendre series with time varying coefficients which satisfy a certain system of ordinary differential equations. The method is very easy to code and yields very accurate approximations. Convergence is established, various numerical examples are presented, and comparison between the latter and cubic spline approximations is made.
Sensitivity analysis and approximation methods for general eigenvalue problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murthy, D. V.; Haftka, R. T.
1986-01-01
Optimization of dynamic systems involving complex non-hermitian matrices is often computationally expensive. Major contributors to the computational expense are the sensitivity analysis and reanalysis of a modified design. The present work seeks to alleviate this computational burden by identifying efficient sensitivity analysis and approximate reanalysis methods. For the algebraic eigenvalue problem involving non-hermitian matrices, algorithms for sensitivity analysis and approximate reanalysis are classified, compared and evaluated for efficiency and accuracy. Proper eigenvector normalization is discussed. An improved method for calculating derivatives of eigenvectors is proposed based on a more rational normalization condition and taking advantage of matrix sparsity. Important numerical aspects of this method are also discussed. To alleviate the problem of reanalysis, various approximation methods for eigenvalues are proposed and evaluated. Linear and quadratic approximations are based directly on the Taylor series. Several approximation methods are developed based on the generalized Rayleigh quotient for the eigenvalue problem. Approximation methods based on trace theorem give high accuracy without needing any derivatives. Operation counts for the computation of the approximations are given. General recommendations are made for the selection of appropriate approximation technique as a function of the matrix size, number of design variables, number of eigenvalues of interest and the number of design points at which approximation is sought.
Orthogonal polynomial approximation in higher dimensions: Applications in astrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bani Younes, Ahmad Hani Abd Alqader
We propose novel methods to utilize orthogonal polynomial approximation in higher dimension spaces, which enable us to modify classical differential equation solvers to perform high precision, long-term orbit propagation. These methods have immediate application to efficient propagation of catalogs of Resident Space Objects (RSOs) and improved accounting for the uncertainty in the ephemeris of these objects. More fundamentally, the methodology promises to be of broad utility in solving initial and two point boundary value problems from a wide class of mathematical representations of problems arising in engineering, optimal control, physical sciences and applied mathematics. We unify and extend classical results from function approximation theory and consider their utility in astrodynamics. Least square approximation, using the classical Chebyshev polynomials as basis functions, is reviewed for discrete samples of the to-be-approximated function. We extend the orthogonal approximation ideas to n-dimensions in a novel way, through the use of array algebra and Kronecker operations. Approximation of test functions illustrates the resulting algorithms and provides insight into the errors of approximation, as well as the associated errors arising when the approximations are differentiated or integrated. Two sets of applications are considered that are challenges in astrodynamics. The first application addresses local approximation of high degree and order geopotential models, replacing the global spherical harmonic series by a family of locally precise orthogonal polynomial approximations for efficient computation. A method is introduced which adapts the approximation degree radially, compatible with the truth that the highest degree approximations (to ensure maximum acceleration error < 10-9 ms-2, globally) are required near the Earths surface, whereas lower degree approximations are required as radius increases. We show that a four order of magnitude speedup is feasible, with both speed and storage efficiency op- timized using radial adaptation. The second class of problems addressed includes orbit propagation and solution of associated boundary value problems. The successive Chebyshev-Picard path approximation method is shown well-suited to solving these problems with over an order of magnitude speedup relative to known methods. Furthermore, the approach is parallel-structured so that it is suited for parallel implementation and further speedups. Used in conjunction with orthogonal Finite Element Model (FEM) gravity approximations, the Chebyshev-Picard path approximation enables truly revolutionary speedups in orbit propagation without accuracy loss.
Monotonically improving approximate answers to relational algebra queries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Kenneth P.; Liu, J. W. S.
1989-01-01
We present here a query processing method that produces approximate answers to queries posed in standard relational algebra. This method is monotone in the sense that the accuracy of the approximate result improves with the amount of time spent producing the result. This strategy enables us to trade the time to produce the result for the accuracy of the result. An approximate relational model that characterizes appromimate relations and a partial order for comparing them is developed. Relational operators which operate on and return approximate relations are defined.
Approximation of Loop Subdivision Surfaces for Fast Rendering.
Li, Guiqing; Ren, Canjiang; Zhang, Jiahua; Ma, Weiyin
2010-05-26
This paper describes an approach to the approximation of Loop subdivision surfaces for real-time rendering. The approach consists of two phases which separately construct the approximation geometry and the normal field of a subdivision surface. It firstly exploits quartic triangular Bzier patches to approximate the geometry of the subdivision surface by interpolating a grid of sampled points. To remedy the artifact of discontinuity of normal fields between adjacent patches, a continuous normal field is then reconstructed by approximating the tangent vector fields of the subdivision surfaces with quartic triangular Bzier patches. For regular triangles, the approach reproduces the associated subdivision patches, quartic 3-directional box splines. PMID:20513928
Diffusion approximation of stochastic master equations with jumps
Pellegrini, C.; Petruccione, F.
2009-12-15
In the presence of quantum measurements with direct photon detection, the evolution of open quantum systems is usually described by stochastic master equations with jumps. Heuristically, diffusion models can be obtained from these equations as an approximation. A condition for a general diffusion approximation for jump master equations is presented. This approximation is rigorously proved by using techniques for Markov processes, which are based on the convergence of Markov generators and martingale problems. This result is illustrated by rigorously obtaining the diffusion approximation for homodyne and heterodyne detection.
Differential equation based method for accurate approximations in optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pritchard, Jocelyn I.; Adelman, Howard M.
1990-01-01
This paper describes a method to efficiently and accurately approximate the effect of design changes on structural response. The key to this new method is to interpret sensitivity equations as differential equations that may be solved explicitly for closed form approximations, hence, the method is denoted the Differential Equation Based (DEB) method. Approximations were developed for vibration frequencies, mode shapes and static displacements. The DEB approximation method was applied to a cantilever beam and results compared with the commonly-used linear Taylor series approximations and exact solutions. The test calculations involved perturbing the height, width, cross-sectional area, tip mass, and bending inertia of the beam. The DEB method proved to be very accurate, and in msot cases, was more accurate than the linear Taylor series approximation. The method is applicable to simultaneous perturbation of several design variables. Also, the approximations may be used to calculate other system response quantities. For example, the approximations for displacement are used to approximate bending stresses.
Legendre-tau approximations for functional differential equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ito, K.; Teglas, R.
1986-01-01
The numerical approximation of solutions to linear retarded functional differential equations are considered using the so-called Legendre-tau method. The functional differential equation is first reformulated as a partial differential equation with a nonlocal boundary condition involving time-differentiation. The approximate solution is then represented as a truncated Legendre series with time-varying coefficients which satisfy a certain system of ordinary differential equations. The method is very easy to code and yields very accurate approximations. Convergence is established, various numerical examples are presented, and comparison between the latter and cubic spline approximation is made.
Sambataro, M.; Suhonen, J.
1997-08-01
The quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA) is reviewed and higher-order approximations are discussed with reference to {beta}-decay physics. The approach is fully developed in a boson formalism. Working within a schematic model, we first illustrate a fermion-boson mapping procedure and apply it to construct boson images of the fermion Hamiltonian at different levels of approximation. The quality of these images is tested through a comparison between approximate and exact spectra. Standard QRPA equations are derived in correspondence with the quasi-boson limit of the first-order boson Hamiltonian. The use of higher-order Hamiltonians is seen to improve considerably the stability of the approximate solutions. The mapping procedure is also applied to Fermi {beta} operators: exact and approximate transition amplitudes are discussed together with the Ikeda sum rule. The range of applicabilty of the QRPA formalism is analyzed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
36 CFR 254.11 - Exchanges at approximately equal value.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exchanges at approximately equal value. 254.11 Section 254.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Land Exchanges § 254.11 Exchanges at approximately equal value. (a) The authorized officer may exchange...
The Role of Intuitive Approximation Skills for School Math Abilities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Libertus, Melissa E.
2015-01-01
Research has shown that educated children and adults have access to two ways of representing numerical information: an approximate number system (ANS) that is present from birth and allows for quick approximations of numbers of objects encountered in one's environment, and an exact number system (ENS) that is acquired through experience and
The blind leading the blind: Mutual refinement of approximate theories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kedar, Smadar T.; Bresina, John L.; Dent, C. Lisa
1991-01-01
The mutual refinement theory, a method for refining world models in a reactive system, is described. The method detects failures, explains their causes, and repairs the approximate models which cause the failures. The approach focuses on using one approximate model to refine another.
Reply to Steele & Ferrer: Modeling Oscillation, Approximately or Exactly?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oud, Johan H. L.; Folmer, Henk
2011-01-01
This article addresses modeling oscillation in continuous time. It criticizes Steele and Ferrer's article "Latent Differential Equation Modeling of Self-Regulatory and Coregulatory Affective Processes" (2011), particularly the approximate estimation procedure applied. This procedure is the latent version of the local linear approximation procedure
Perturbation approximation for orbits in axially symmetric funnels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nauenberg, Michael
2014-11-01
A perturbation method that can be traced back to Isaac Newton is applied to obtain approximate analytic solutions for objects sliding in axially symmetric funnels in near circular orbits. Some experimental observations are presented for balls rolling in inverted cones with different opening angles, and in a funnel with a hyperbolic surface that approximately simulates the gravitational force.
Reply to Steele & Ferrer: Modeling Oscillation, Approximately or Exactly?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oud, Johan H. L.; Folmer, Henk
2011-01-01
This article addresses modeling oscillation in continuous time. It criticizes Steele and Ferrer's article "Latent Differential Equation Modeling of Self-Regulatory and Coregulatory Affective Processes" (2011), particularly the approximate estimation procedure applied. This procedure is the latent version of the local linear approximation procedure…
Recent advances in approximation concepts for optimum structural design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M.; Haftka, Raphael T.
1991-01-01
The basic approximation concepts used in structural optimization are reviewed. Some of the most recent developments in that area since the introduction of the concept in the mid-seventies are discussed. The paper distinguishes between local, medium-range, and global approximations; it covers functions approximations and problem approximations. It shows that, although the lack of comparative data established on reference test cases prevents an accurate assessment, there have been significant improvements. The largest number of developments have been in the areas of local function approximations and use of intermediate variable and response quantities. It also appears that some new methodologies are emerging which could greatly benefit from the introduction of new computer architecture.
An approximation theory for the identification of linear thermoelastic systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosen, I. G.; Su, Chien-Hua Frank
1990-01-01
An abstract approximation framework and convergence theory for the identification of thermoelastic systems is developed. Starting from an abstract operator formulation consisting of a coupled second order hyperbolic equation of elasticity and first order parabolic equation for heat conduction, well-posedness is established using linear semigroup theory in Hilbert space, and a class of parameter estimation problems is then defined involving mild solutions. The approximation framework is based upon generic Galerkin approximation of the mild solutions, and convergence of solutions of the resulting sequence of approximating finite dimensional parameter identification problems to a solution of the original infinite dimensional inverse problem is established using approximation results for operator semigroups. An example involving the basic equations of one dimensional linear thermoelasticity and a linear spline based scheme are discussed. Numerical results indicate how the approach might be used in a study of damping mechanisms in flexible structures.
Properties of the Boltzmann equation in the classical approximation
Epelbaum, Thomas; Gelis, François; Tanji, Naoto; Wu, Bin
2014-12-30
We examine the Boltzmann equation with elastic point-like scalar interactions in two different versions of the the classical approximation. Although solving numerically the Boltzmann equation with the unapproximated collision term poses no problem, this allows one to study the effect of the ultraviolet cutoff in these approximations. This cutoff dependence in the classical approximations of the Boltzmann equation is closely related to the non-renormalizability of the classical statistical approximation of the underlying quantum field theory. The kinetic theory setup that we consider here allows one to study in a much simpler way the dependence on the ultraviolet cutoff, since one has also access to the non-approximated result for comparison.
Best uniform approximation to a class of rational functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Zhitong; Yong, Jun-Hai
2007-10-01
We explicitly determine the best uniform polynomial approximation to a class of rational functions of the form 1/(x-c)2+K(a,b,c,n)/(x-c) on [a,b] represented by their Chebyshev expansion, where a, b, and c are real numbers, n-1 denotes the degree of the best approximating polynomial, and K is a constant determined by a, b, c, and n. Our result is based on the explicit determination of a phase angle [eta] in the representation of the approximation error by a trigonometric function. Moreover, we formulate an ansatz which offers a heuristic strategies to determine the best approximating polynomial to a function represented by its Chebyshev expansion. Combined with the phase angle method, this ansatz can be used to find the best uniform approximation to some more functions.
Parquet approximation for the 4x4 Hubbard cluster
Yang, Shuxiang; Fotso, Herbert; Liu, Jun; Maier, Thomas A; Tomko, Karen; D'Azevedo, Ed F; Scalettar, Richard; Pruschke, Thomas; Jarrell, Mark
2009-01-01
We present a numerical solution of the parquet approximation (PA), a conserving diagrammatic approach which is self-consistent at both the single-particle and the two-particle levels. The fully irreducible vertex is approximated by the bare interaction thus producing the simplest approximation that one can perform with the set of equations involved in the formalism. The method is applied to the Hubbard model on a half-filled 4x4 cluster. Results are compared to those obtained from Determinant Quantum Monte Carlo (DQMC), FLuctuation EXchange (FLEX), and self-consistent second-order approximation methods. This comparison shows a satisfactory agreement with DQMC and a significant improvement over the FLEX or the self-consistent second-order approximation.
Recovering the Integer Discontinuity of Density Functional Approximations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mosquera, Martin; Wasserman, Adam
2014-03-01
The derivative discontinuity (DD) of the exchange-correlation (XC) energy of density functional theory (DFT) is a consequence of the piece-wise linear dependency of the energy functional on the number of electrons of atoms or fragments that have been separated adiabatically from a molecule. Most approximations to the XC energy functional as the local-density approximation, the generalized-gradient approximation, exact exchange, among others, miss the DD or the piece-wise linear behavior, leading to inconsistencies in the analysis of molecular dissociation. We derive formal properties of the exact XC energy functional that lead to a framework to correct any density-functional approximation to display the required piece-wise linear dependency on the number of electrons and the DD. We will also illustrate how new approximation to the XC energy functionals can be developed for applications in DFT and fragment-based extensions.
Properties of the Boltzmann equation in the classical approximation
Epelbaum, Thomas; Gelis, François; Tanji, Naoto; Wu, Bin
2014-12-30
We examine the Boltzmann equation with elastic point-like scalar interactions in two different versions of the the classical approximation. Although solving numerically the Boltzmann equation with the unapproximated collision term poses no problem, this allows one to study the effect of the ultraviolet cutoff in these approximations. This cutoff dependence in the classical approximations of the Boltzmann equation is closely related to the non-renormalizability of the classical statistical approximation of the underlying quantum field theory. The kinetic theory setup that we consider here allows one to study in a much simpler way the dependence on the ultraviolet cutoff, since onemore »has also access to the non-approximated result for comparison.« less
Meromorphic approximants to complex Cauchy transforms with polar singularities
Baratchart, Laurent; Yattselev, Maxim L
2009-10-31
We study AAK-type meromorphic approximants to functions of the form F(z)={integral}(d{lambda}(t))/(z-t)+R(z), where R is a rational function and {lambda} is a complex measure with compact regular support included in (-1,1), whose argument has bounded variation on the support. The approximation is understood in the L{sup p}-norm of the unit circle, p{>=}2. We dwell on the fact that the denominators of such approximants satisfy certain non-Hermitian orthogonal relations with varying weights. They resemble the orthogonality relations that arise in the study of multipoint Pade approximants. However, the varying part of the weight implicitly depends on the orthogonal polynomials themselves, which constitutes the main novelty and the main difficulty of the undertaken analysis. We obtain that the counting measures of poles of the approximants converge to the Green equilibrium distribution on the support of {lambda} relative to the unit disc, that the approximants themselves converge in capacity to F, and that the poles of R attract at least as many poles of the approximants as their multiplicity and not much more. Bibliography: 35 titles.
Mapping biological entities using the longest approximately common prefix method
2014-01-01
Background The significant growth in the volume of electronic biomedical data in recent decades has pointed to the need for approximate string matching algorithms that can expedite tasks such as named entity recognition, duplicate detection, terminology integration, and spelling correction. The task of source integration in the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) requires considerable expert effort despite the presence of various computational tools. This problem warrants the search for a new method for approximate string matching and its UMLS-based evaluation. Results This paper introduces the Longest Approximately Common Prefix (LACP) method as an algorithm for approximate string matching that runs in linear time. We compare the LACP method for performance, precision and speed to nine other well-known string matching algorithms. As test data, we use two multiple-source samples from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) and two SNOMED Clinical Terms-based samples. In addition, we present a spell checker based on the LACP method. Conclusions The Longest Approximately Common Prefix method completes its string similarity evaluations in less time than all nine string similarity methods used for comparison. The Longest Approximately Common Prefix outperforms these nine approximate string matching methods in its Maximum F1 measure when evaluated on three out of the four datasets, and in its average precision on two of the four datasets. PMID:24928653
Pair approximations of takeover dynamics in regular population structures.
Payne, Joshua L; Eppstein, Margaret J
2009-01-01
In complex adaptive systems, the topological properties of the interaction network are strong governing influences on the rate of flow of information throughout the system. For example, in epidemiological models, the structure of the underlying contact network has a pronounced impact on the rate of spread of infectious disease throughout a population. Similarly, in evolutionary systems, the topology of potential mating interactions (i.e., population structure) affects the rate of flow of genetic information and therefore affects selective pressure. One commonly employed method for quantifying selective pressure in evolutionary algorithms is through the analysis of the dynamics with which a single favorable mutation spreads throughout the population (a.k.a. takeover time analysis). While models of takeover dynamics have been previously derived for several specific regular population structures, these models lack generality. In contrast, so-called pair approximations have been touted as a general technique for rapidly approximating the flow of information in spatially structured populations with a constant (or nearly constant) degree of nodal connectivities, such as in epidemiological and ecological studies. In this work, we reformulate takeover time analysis in terms of the well-known Susceptible-Infectious-Susceptible model of disease spread and adapt the pair approximation for takeover dynamics. Our results show that the pair approximation, as originally formulated, is insufficient for approximating pre-equilibrium dynamics, since it does not properly account for the interaction between the size and shape of the local neighborhood and the population size. After parameterizing the pair approximation to account for these influences, we demonstrate that the resulting pair approximation can serve as a general and rapid approximator for takeover dynamics on a variety of spatially-explicit regular interaction topologies with varying population sizes and varying uptake and reversion probabilities. Strengths, limitations, and potential applications of the pair approximation to evolutionary computation are discussed. PMID:19413488
Communication: Improved pair approximations in local coupled-cluster methods
Schwilk, Max; Werner, Hans-Joachim; Usvyat, Denis
2015-03-28
In local coupled cluster treatments the electron pairs can be classified according to the magnitude of their energy contributions or distances into strong, close, weak, and distant pairs. Different approximations are introduced for the latter three classes. In this communication, an improved simplified treatment of close and weak pairs is proposed, which is based on long-range cancellations of individually slowly decaying contributions in the amplitude equations. Benchmark calculations for correlation, reaction, and activation energies demonstrate that these approximations work extremely well, while pair approximations based on local second-order Møller-Plesset theory can lead to errors that are 1-2 orders of magnitude larger.
Usefulness of bound-state approximations in reaction theory
Adhikari, S.K.
1981-08-01
A bound-state approximation when applied to certain operators, such as the many-body resolvent operator for a two-body fragmentation channel, in many-body scattering equations, reduces such equations to equivalent two-body scattering equations which are supposed to provide a good description of the underlying physical process. In this paper we test several variants of bound-state approximations in the soluble three-boson Amado model and find that such approximations lead to weak and unacceptable kernels for the equivalent two-body scattering equations and hence to a poor description of the underlying many-body process.
Investigation of the nonlocal coherent-potential approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rowlands, D. A.
2006-03-01
Recently the nonlocal coherent-potential approximation (NLCPA) has been introduced by Jarrell and Krishnamurthy for describing the electronic structure of substitutionally disordered systems. The NLCPA provides systematic corrections to the widely used coherent-potential approximation (CPA) whilst preserving the full symmetry of the underlying lattice. Here an analytical and systematic numerical study of the NLCPA is presented for a one-dimensional tight-binding model Hamiltonian, and comparisons with the embedded cluster method (ECM) and molecular coherent potential approximation (MCPA) are made.
Approximate polynomial preconditioning applied to biharmonic equations on vector supercomputers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wong, Yau Shu; Jiang, Hong
1987-01-01
Applying a finite difference approximation to a biharmonic equation results in a very ill-conditioned system of equations. This paper examines the conjugate gradient method used in conjunction with the generalized and approximate polynomial preconditionings for solving such linear systems. An approximate polynomial preconditioning is introduced, and is shown to be more efficient than the generalized polynomial preconditionings. This new technique provides a simple but effective preconditioning polynomial, which is based on another coefficient matrix rather than the original matrix operator as commonly used.
Analytic Approximate Solution for Falkner-Skan Equation
Marinca, Bogdan
2014-01-01
This paper deals with the Falkner-Skan nonlinear differential equation. An analytic approximate technique, namely, optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM), is employed to propose a procedure to solve a boundary-layer problem. Our method does not depend upon small parameters and provides us with a convenient way to optimally control the convergence of the approximate solutions. The obtained results reveal that this procedure is very effective, simple, and accurate. A very good agreement was found between our approximate results and numerical solutions, which prove that OHAM is very efficient in practice, ensuring a very rapid convergence after only one iteration. PMID:24883417
Nernst effect beyond the relaxation-time approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pikulin, D. I.; Hou, Chang-Yu; Beenakker, C. W. J.
2011-07-01
Motivated by recent interest in the Nernst effect in cuprate superconductors, we calculate this magnetothermoelectric effect for an arbitrary (anisotropic) quasiparticle dispersion relation and elastic-scattering rate. The exact solution of the linearized Boltzmann equation is compared with the commonly used relaxation-time approximation. We find qualitative deficiencies in this approximation to the extent that it can get the sign wrong of the Nernst coefficient. Zimans improvement of the relaxation-time approximation, which becomes exact when the Fermi surface is isotropic, also cannot capture the combined effects of anisotropy in dispersion and scattering.
Convergence of multipoint Pade approximants of piecewise analytic functions
Buslaev, Viktor I
2013-02-28
The behaviour as n{yields}{infinity} of multipoint Pade approximants to a function which is (piecewise) holomorphic on a union of finitely many continua is investigated. The convergence of multipoint Pade approximants is proved for a function which extends holomorphically from these continua to a union of domains whose boundaries have a certain symmetry property. An analogue of Stahl's theorem is established for two-point Pade approximants to a pair of functions, either of which is a multivalued analytic function with finitely many branch points. Bibliography: 11 titles.
Quadrupole Collective Inertia in Nuclear Fission: Cranking Approximation
Baran, A.; Sheikh, J. A.; Dobaczewski, J.; Nazarewicz, Witold
2011-01-01
Collective mass tensor derived from the cranking approximation to the adiabatic time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (ATDHFB) approach is compared with that obtained in the Gaussian Overlap Approximation (GOA) to the generator coordinate method. Illustrative calculations are carried out for one-dimensional quadrupole fission pathways in ^{256}Fm. It is shown that the collective mass exhibits strong variations with the quadrupole collective coordinate. These variations are related to the changes in the intrinsic shell structure. The differences between collective inertia obtained in cranking and perturbative cranking approximations to ATDHFB, and within GOA, are discussed.
Improved approximate formulas for flux from cylindrical and rectangular sources
Wallace, O.J.; Bokharee, S.A.
1993-03-01
This report provides two new approximate formulas for the flux at detector points outside the radial and axial extensions of a homogeneous cylindrical source and improved approximate formulas for the flux at points opposite rectangular surface sources. These formulas extend the range of geometries for which analytic approximations may be used by shield design engineers to make rapid scoping studies and check more extensive calculations for reasonableness. These formulas can be used to support skeptical, independent evaluations and are also valuable teaching tools for introducing shield designers to complex shield analyses.
8. BUILDING 223 INTERIOR, EASTERN MAIN STOREROOM, FROM APPROXIMATE CENTER, ...
8. BUILDING 223 INTERIOR, EASTERN MAIN STOREROOM, FROM APPROXIMATE CENTER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, WITH VALUABLES CAGE AT LEFT BEHIND FORKLIFT. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Pier Transit Sheds, North Marginal Wharf, between First & Third Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA
11. INTERIOR, LOADING DOOR DETAIL, NORTHWEST STORAGE AREA, FROM APPROXIMATELY ...
11. INTERIOR, LOADING DOOR DETAIL, NORTHWEST STORAGE AREA, FROM APPROXIMATELY 20 FEET SOUTH OF LOADING DOOR, LOOKING NORTH. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Pier Transit Shed, South of D Street between First & Second Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA
6. BUILDING 123 INTERIOR, FROM APPROXIMATE CENTER OF BUILDING, LOOKING ...
6. BUILDING 123 INTERIOR, FROM APPROXIMATE CENTER OF BUILDING, LOOKING WEST, WITH OFFICE MEZZANINE AT WESTERN END. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Pier Transit Sheds, North Marginal Wharf, between First & Third Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA
Approximate penetration factors for nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Humblet, J.; Fowler, W. A.; Zimmerman, B. A.
1987-01-01
The ranges of validity of approximations of P(l), the penetration factor which appears in the parameterization of nuclear-reaction cross sections at low energies and is employed in the extrapolation of laboratory data to even lower energies of astrophysical interest, are investigated analytically. Consideration is given to the WKB approximation, P(l) at the energy of the total barrier, approximations derived from the asymptotic expansion of G(l) for large eta, approximations for small values of the parameter x, applications of P(l) to nuclear reactions, and the dependence of P(l) on channel radius. Numerical results are presented in tables and graphs, and parameter ranges where the danger of serious errors is high are identified.
Bounds for the adiabatic approximation with applications to quantum computation
Jansen, Sabine; Ruskai, Mary-Beth; Seiler, Ruedi
2007-10-15
We present straightforward proofs of estimates used in the adiabatic approximation. The gap dependence is analyzed explicitly. We apply the result to interpolating Hamiltonians of interest in quantum computing.
Integral approximations to classical diffusion and smoothed particle hydrodynamics
Du, Qiang; Lehoucq, R. B.; Tartakovsky, A. M.
2014-12-31
The contribution of the paper is the approximation of a classical diffusion operator by an integral equation with a volume constraint. A particular focus is on classical diffusion problems associated with Neumann boundary conditions. By exploiting this approximation, we can also approximate other quantities such as the flux out of a domain. Our analysis of the model equation on the continuum level is closely related to the recent work on nonlocal diffusion and peridynamic mechanics. In particular, we elucidate the role of a volumetric constraint as an approximation to a classical Neumann boundary condition in the presence of physical boundary.more » The volume-constrained integral equation then provides the basis for accurate and robust discretization methods. As a result, an immediate application is to the understanding and improvement of the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method.« less
An analytical preaveraging approximation for the evaluation of matrix elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kreutz, Thomas G.; Rabitz, Herschel
1989-12-01
A method is developed for the rapid numerical evaluation of matrix elements which may be averaged in order to approximately account for explicit uncertainties in the integrand caused by, for example, uncertainties in the interaction potential. The exact matrix element average is approximated by an analytically preaveraged integrand which selectively filters out high-frequency, long-range components of the original integrand. Results of this approximation are compared with the original matrix elements and their exact averages over these uncertainties. The analytical preaveraging approximation (APA) is applied first to a simple, analytically soluble integral and is then extended to treat inelastic matrix elements which utilize more complicated (and realistic) uniformized JWKB wavefunctions. APA matrix elements are computed for vibrationally inelastic transitions in Ar-N 2 scattering and are compared with exactly averaged results.
3. WESTERN STORAGE AREA, FROM EAST WALL APPROXIMATELY 50 FEET ...
3. WESTERN STORAGE AREA, FROM EAST WALL APPROXIMATELY 50 FEET NORTH OF SOUTH WALL, LOOKING WEST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Reserve Materials Storehouse, Between I & J Streets, between Fourth & Fifth Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA
Interpolation function for approximating knee joint behavior in human gait
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toth-Ta?c?u, Mirela; Pater, Flavius; Stoia, Dan Ioan
2013-10-01
Starting from the importance of analyzing the kinematic data of the lower limb in gait movement, especially the angular variation of the knee joint, the paper propose an approximation function that can be used for processing the correlation among a multitude of knee cycles. The approximation of the raw knee data was done by Lagrange polynomial interpolation on a signal acquired using Zebris Gait Analysis System. The signal used in approximation belongs to a typical subject extracted from a lot of ten investigated subjects, but the function domain of definition belongs to the entire group. The study of the knee joint kinematics plays an important role in understanding the kinematics of the gait, this articulation having the largest range of motion in whole joints, in gait. The study does not propose to find an approximation function for the adduction-abduction movement of the knee, this being considered a residual movement comparing to the flexion-extension.
Approximate inverse preconditioning of iterative methods for nonsymmetric linear systems
Benzi, M.; Tuma, M.
1996-12-31
A method for computing an incomplete factorization of the inverse of a nonsymmetric matrix A is presented. The resulting factorized sparse approximate inverse is used as a preconditioner in the iterative solution of Ax = b by Krylov subspace methods.
Justification of the Cauchy-Born Approximation of Elastodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ortner, C.; Theil, F.
2013-03-01
We present sharp convergence results for the CauchyBorn approximation of general classical atomistic interactions, for static problems with small data and for dynamic problems on a macroscopic time interval.
Non-ideal boson system in the Gaussian approximation
Tommasini, P.R.; de Toledo Piza, A.F.
1997-01-01
We investigate ground-state and thermal properties of a system of non-relativistic bosons interacting through repulsive, two-body interactions in a self-consistent Gaussian mean-field approximation which consists in writing the variationally determined density operator as the most general Gaussian functional of the quantized field operators. Finite temperature results are obtained in a grand canonical framework. Contact is made with the results of Lee, Yang, and Huang in terms of particular truncations of the Gaussian approximation. The full Gaussian approximation supports a free phase or a thermodynamically unstable phase when contact forces and a standard renormalization scheme are used. When applied to a Hamiltonian with zero range forces interpreted as an effective theory with a high momentum cutoff, the full Gaussian approximation generates a quasi-particle spectrum having an energy gap, in conflict with perturbation theory results. {copyright} 1997 Academic Press, Inc.
Approximating the ground state of gapped quantum spin systems
Michalakis, Spyridon; Hamza, Eman; Nachtergaele, Bruno; Sims, Robert
2009-01-01
We consider quantum spin systems defined on finite sets V equipped with a metric. In typical examples, V is a large, but finite subset of Z{sup d}. For finite range Hamiltonians with uniformly bounded interaction terms and a unique, gapped ground state, we demonstrate a locality property of the corresponding ground state projector. In such systems, this ground state projector can be approximated by the product of observables with quantifiable supports. In fact, given any subset {chi} {contained_in} V the ground state projector can be approximated by the product of two projections, one supported on {chi} and one supported on {chi}{sup c}, and a bounded observable supported on a boundary region in such a way that as the boundary region increases, the approximation becomes better. Such an approximation was useful in proving an area law in one dimension, and this result corresponds to a multi-dimensional analogue.
5. BUILDING 522, INTERIOR, STOREROOM, FROM APPROXIMATELY 50 FEET SOUTHEAST ...
5. BUILDING 522, INTERIOR, STOREROOM, FROM APPROXIMATELY 50 FEET SOUTHEAST OF NORTHWEST CORNER, LOOKING EAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Aeronautical Materials Storehouses, Between E & G Streets, between Fourth & Sixth Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA
6. BUILDING 522, INTERIOR, STOREROOM, FROM APPROXIMATELY TWOTHIRDS OF DISTANCE ...
6. BUILDING 522, INTERIOR, STOREROOM, FROM APPROXIMATELY TWO-THIRDS OF DISTANCE FROM EAST END, LOOKING WEST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Aeronautical Materials Storehouses, Between E & G Streets, between Fourth & Sixth Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA
4. BUILDING 422, WEST SIDE, FROM APPROXIMATELY 25 FEET SOUTHWEST ...
4. BUILDING 422, WEST SIDE, FROM APPROXIMATELY 25 FEET SOUTHWEST OF SOUTHWEST CORNER, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Aeronautical Materials Storehouses, Between E & G Streets, between Fourth & Sixth Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA
Integral approximations to classical diffusion and smoothed particle hydrodynamics
Du, Qiang; Lehoucq, R. B.; Tartakovsky, A. M.
2014-12-31
The contribution of the paper is the approximation of a classical diffusion operator by an integral equation with a volume constraint. A particular focus is on classical diffusion problems associated with Neumann boundary conditions. By exploiting this approximation, we can also approximate other quantities such as the flux out of a domain. Our analysis of the model equation on the continuum level is closely related to the recent work on nonlocal diffusion and peridynamic mechanics. In particular, we elucidate the role of a volumetric constraint as an approximation to a classical Neumann boundary condition in the presence of physical boundary. The volume-constrained integral equation then provides the basis for accurate and robust discretization methods. As a result, an immediate application is to the understanding and improvement of the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method.
Semiclassical approximation for electron impact excitation of hydrogenic ions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jung, Young-Dae
1993-01-01
The threshold behavior of the electron impact excitation cross sections for hydrogenic ions is investigated using the semiclassical approximation with the hyperbolic orbit for the projectile path, rather than the straight line path. The symmetric approximation is applied to modify the ordinary hyperbolic orbit. The modification factor due to the hyperbolic orbit approximation produces the correct energy dependence of the cross section near the excitation threshold. This result is very similar to that of the quantum mechanical case. The semiclassical enhancement factor due to this simple modification corresponds to the Coulomb focusing factor in the Born-Bethe approximation. In the high-energy limit, the semiclassical cross sections approach the Born-Bethe cross sections, with a finite cutoff in the momentum transfer for dipole transitions.
Integral approximations to classical diffusion and smoothed particle hydrodynamics
Du, Q.; Lehoucq, Richard B.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.
2015-04-01
The contribution of the paper is the approximation of a classical diffusion operator by an integral equation with a volume constraint. A particular focus is on classical diffusion problems associated with Neumann boundary conditions. By exploiting this approximation, we can also approximate other quantities such as the flux out of a domain. Our analysis of the model equation on the continuum level is closely related to the recent work on nonlocal diffusion and peridynamic mechanics. In particular, we elucidate the role of a volumetric constraint as an approximation to a classical Neumann boundary condition in the presence of physical boundary. The volume-constrained integral equation then provides the basis for accurate and robust discretization methods. An immediate application is to the understanding and improvement of the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method.
Techniques for correcting approximate finite difference solutions. [considering transonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nixon, D.
1978-01-01
A method of correcting finite-difference solutions for the effect of truncation error or the use of an approximate basic equation is presented. Applications to transonic flow problems are described and examples are given.
3. BUILDING 413, INTERIOR, EASTERN STOREROOM, FROM APPROXIMATELY 10 FEET ...
3. BUILDING 413, INTERIOR, EASTERN STOREROOM, FROM APPROXIMATELY 10 FEET EAST OF SOUTHEAST CORNER OF BUILDING, LOOKING NORTH. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Heavy Materials & Paint-Oil Storehouses, Between Fourth & Sixth streets, between B & D Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA
The estimates of approximations classes in the Lorentz space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akishev, Gabdolla
2015-09-01
Exact order estimates are obtained for the best orthogonal trigonometric approximations of the Nikol'skii-Besov classes of periodic functions of many variables in the Lorentz space with the mixed norm.
Approximating the Helium Wavefunction in Positronium-Helium Scattering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DiRienzi, Joseph; Drachman, Richard J.
2003-01-01
In the Kohn variational treatment of the positronium- hydrogen scattering problem the scattering wave function is approximated by an expansion in some appropriate basis set, but the target and projectile wave functions are known exactly. In the positronium-helium case, however, a difficulty immediately arises in that the wave function of the helium target atom is not known exactly, and there are several ways to deal with the associated eigenvalue in formulating the variational scattering equations to be solved. In this work we will use the Kohn variational principle in the static exchange approximation to d e t e e the zero-energy scattering length for the Ps-He system, using a suite of approximate target functions. The results we obtain will be compared with each other and with corresponding values found by other approximation techniques.
1. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES, FROM APPROXIMATELY 25 FEET SOUTH ...
1. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES, FROM APPROXIMATELY 25 FEET SOUTH OF SOUTHEASTERN CORNER OF BUILDING 441-B, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Heating Plant, On Northwest Corner of K Street & Fifth Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA
1. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES, FROM APPROXIMATELY 75 FEET SOUTHWEST ...
1. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES, FROM APPROXIMATELY 75 FEET SOUTHWEST OF BUILDING, LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Heating Plant, North of B Street & West of Third Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA
Perspective view looking from the northeast, from approximately the same ...
Perspective view looking from the northeast, from approximately the same vantage point as in MD-1109-K-12 - National Park Seminary, Japanese Bungalow, 2801 Linden Lane, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD
15. Looking north from east bank of ditch, approximately halfway ...
15. Looking north from east bank of ditch, approximately halfway between cement pipe to north and burned irrigation pump station to south - Natomas Ditch System, Blue Ravine Segment, Juncture of Blue Ravine & Green Valley Roads, Folsom, Sacramento County, CA
6. NORTH SIDE, FROM APPROXIMATELY 25 FEET SOUTHEAST OF SOUTHWEST ...
6. NORTH SIDE, FROM APPROXIMATELY 25 FEET SOUTHEAST OF SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING 320, LOOKING SOUTH. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Administration Building-Dental Annex-Dispensary, Between E & F Streets, East of Third Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA
An approximation for homogeneous freezing temperature of water droplets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O, K.-T.; Wood, R.
2015-11-01
In this work, based on the well-known formulae of classical nucleation theory (CNT), the temperature TNc = 1 at which the mean number of critical embryos inside a droplet is unity is derived and proposed as a new approximation for homogeneous freezing temperature of water droplets. Without consideration of time dependence and stochastic nature of the ice nucleation process, the approximation TNc = 1 is able to reproduce the dependence of homogeneous freezing temperature on drop size and water activity of aqueous drops observed in a wide range of experimental studies. We use the TNc = 1 approximation to argue that the distribution of homogeneous freezing temperatures observed in the experiments may largely be explained by the spread in the size distribution of droplets used in the particular experiment. It thus appears that this approximation is useful for predicting homogeneous freezing temperatures of water droplets in the atmosphere.
A coefficient average approximation towards Gutzwiller wavefunction formalism.
Liu, Jun; Yao, Yongxin; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Ho, Kai-Ming
2015-06-24
Gutzwiller wavefunction is a physically well-motivated trial wavefunction for describing correlated electron systems. In this work, a new approximation is introduced to facilitate the evaluation of the expectation value of any operator within the Gutzwiller wavefunction formalism. The basic idea is to make use of a specially designed average over Gutzwiller wavefunction coefficients expanded in the many-body Fock space to approximate the ratio of expectation values between a Gutzwiller wavefunction and its underlying noninteracting wavefunction. To check with the standard Gutzwiller approximation (GA), we test its performance on single band systems and find quite interesting properties. On finite systems, we noticed that it gives superior performance over GA, while on infinite systems it asymptotically approaches GA. Analytic analysis together with numerical tests are provided to support this claimed asymptotical behavior. Finally, possible improvements on the approximation and its generalization towards multiband systems are illustrated and discussed. PMID:26037145
Vacancy-rearrangement theory in the first Magnus approximation
Becker, R.L.
1984-01-01
In the present paper we employ the first Magnus approximation (M1A), a unitarized Born approximation, in semiclassical collision theory. We have found previously that the M1A gives a substantial improvement over the first Born approximation (B1A) and can give a good approximation to a full coupled channels calculation of the mean L-shell vacancy probability per electron, p/sub L/, when the L-vacancies are accompanied by a K-shell vacancy (p/sub L/ is obtained experimentally from measurements of K/sub ..cap alpha../-satellite intensities). For sufficiently strong projectile-electron interactions (sufficiently large Z/sub p/ or small v) the M1A ceases to reproduce the coupled channels results, but it is accurate over a much wider range of Z/sub p/ and v than the B1A. 27 references.
Numerical Stability and Convergence of Approximate Methods for Conservation Laws
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galkin, V. A.
We present the new approach to background of approximate methods convergence based on functional solutions theory for conservation laws. The applications to physical kinetics, gas and fluid dynamics are considered.
Generalized eikonal approximation for strong-field ionization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cajiao Vlez, F.; Krajewska, K.; Kami?ski, J. Z.
2015-05-01
We develop the eikonal perturbation theory to describe the strong-field ionization by finite laser pulses. This approach in the first order with respect to the binding potential (the so-called generalized eikonal approximation) avoids a singularity at the potential center. Thus, in contrast to the ordinary eikonal approximation, it allows one to treat rescattering phenomena in terms of quantum trajectories. We demonstrate how the first Born approximation and its domain of validity follow from eikonal perturbation theory. Using this approach, we study the coherent interference patterns in photoelectron energy spectra and their modifications induced by the interaction of photoelectrons with the atomic potential. Along with these first results, we discuss the prospects of using the generalized eikonal approximation to study strong-field ionization from multicentered atomic systems and to study other strong-field phenomena.
Bias Approximations for Complex Estimators: An Application to Redundancy Analysis.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lambert, Zarrel V.; And Others
1991-01-01
A method is presented for approximating the amount of bias in estimators with complex sampling distributions that are influenced by a variety of properties. The model is illustrated in the contexts of the bootstrap method and redundancy analysis. (SLD)
Contextual classification of multispectral image data: Approximate algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tilton, J. C. (Principal Investigator)
1980-01-01
An approximation to a classification algorithm incorporating spatial context information in a general, statistical manner is presented which is computationally less intensive. Classifications that are nearly as accurate are produced.
Duplicate view to show interior of the gymnasium from approximately ...
Duplicate view to show interior of the gymnasium from approximately the same vantage point as in MD-1109-S-12 - National Park Seminary, Gymnasium, North of Linden Lane, south of Aloha House, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD
2. NORTHWEST SIDE, OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM APPROXIMATELY 10 FEET SOUTH ...
2. NORTHWEST SIDE, OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM APPROXIMATELY 10 FEET SOUTH OF SOUTH CORNER, LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Administrative Offices, On Seventh Street East of Maritime Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA
Berkel, M. van; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Tamura, N.; Ida, K.; Zwart, H. J.; Inagaki, S.; Baar, M. R. de
2014-11-15
In this paper, a number of new explicit approximations are introduced to estimate the perturbative diffusivity (χ), convectivity (V), and damping (τ) in a cylindrical geometry. For this purpose, the harmonic components of heat waves induced by localized deposition of modulated power are used. The approximations are based upon the heat equation in a semi-infinite cylindrical domain. The approximations are based upon continued fractions, asymptotic expansions, and multiple harmonics. The relative error for the different derived approximations is presented for different values of frequency, transport coefficients, and dimensionless radius. Moreover, it is shown how combinations of different explicit formulas can yield good approximations over a wide parameter space for different cases, such as no convection and damping, only damping, and both convection and damping. This paper is the second part (Part II) of a series of three papers. In Part I, the semi-infinite slab approximations have been treated. In Part III, cylindrical approximations are treated for heat waves traveling towards the center of the plasma.
Breakdown of the dipole approximation in core losses
Lffler, S.; Ennen, I.; Tian, F.; Schattschneider, P.; Jaouen, N.
2011-01-01
The validity of the dipole approximations commonly used in the inelastic scattering theory for transmission electron microscopy is reviewed. Both experimental and numerical arguments are presented, emphasizing that the dipole approximations cause significant errors of the order of up to 25% even at small momentum transfer. This behavior is attributed mainly to non-linear contributions to the dynamic form factor due to the overlap of wave functions. PMID:21741917
Wavelet approximate inertial manifold in nonlinear solitary wave equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Lixin
2000-08-01
This paper studies the dynamical behavior of a weakly damped forced Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation in a wavelet basis and introduces the wavelet approximate inertial manifold and wavelet Galerkin solution of weakly damped forced KdV equation. The results includes theorems that for the KdV equation the wavelet approximate inertial manifold (WAIM) exists and sets up the wavelet Galerkin method of the equation. Error estimates are given by using the WAIM.
Multiple parton scattering in nuclei: Beyond helicity amplitude approximation
Zhang, Ben-Wei; Wang, Xin-Nian
2003-01-21
Multiple parton scattering and induced parton energy loss in deeply inelastic scattering (DIS) off heavy nuclei is studied within the framework of generalized factorization in perturbative QCD with a complete calculation beyond the helicity amplitude (or soft bremsstrahlung) approximation. Such a calculation gives rise to new corrections to the modified quark fragmentation functions. The effective parton energy loss is found to be reduced by a factor of 5/6 from the result of helicity amplitude approximation.
Interior, building 810, view to west from approximately midhangar. Area ...
Interior, building 810, view to west from approximately mid-hangar. Area of photo encompasses approximately 1/4 of the interior space, with the KC-10 tanker aircraft and the figures beneath it giving an idea of scale, 90mm lens plus electronic flash fill lightening. - Travis Air Force Base, B-36 Hangar, Between Woodskill Avenue & Ellis, adjacent to Taxiway V & W, Fairfield, Solano County, CA
Optimal feedback control infinite dimensional parabolic evolution systems: Approximation techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Banks, H. T.; Wang, C.
1989-01-01
A general approximation framework is discussed for computation of optimal feedback controls in linear quadratic regular problems for nonautonomous parabolic distributed parameter systems. This is done in the context of a theoretical framework using general evolution systems in infinite dimensional Hilbert spaces. Conditions are discussed for preservation under approximation of stabilizability and detectability hypotheses on the infinite dimensional system. The special case of periodic systems is also treated.
Problems with the quenched approximation in the chiral limit
Sharpe, S.R.
1992-01-01
In the quenched approximation, loops of the light singlet meson (the [eta][prime]) give rise to a type of chiral logarithm absent in full QCD. These logarithms are singular in the chiral limit, throwing doubt upon the utility of the quenched approximation. In previous work, I summed a class of diagrams, leading to non-analytic power dependencies such as [l angle][anti [psi
Approximate analysis for failure probability of structural systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Yin-Lin; Zhou, Jian-Sheng
1992-03-01
An approximate formula for calculating failure probability of structural systems is presented, which uses the lower and upper bounds of the first simple bounds to estimate the failure probability. In this formula, the correlation between each of the two failure modes of a structure is considered, but only the first failure probability of the failure modes is contained. Computations using the approximate formula are quite simple and accurate, with maximum error being within 5 percent.
Robustness of controllers designed using Galerkin type approximations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morris, K. A.
1990-01-01
One of the difficulties in designing controllers for infinite-dimensional systems arises from attempting to calculate a state for the system. It is shown that Galerkin type approximations can be used to design controllers which will perform as designed when implemented on the original infinite-dimensional system. No assumptions, other than those typically employed in numerical analysis, are made on the approximating scheme.
Approximate entropy and support vector machines for electroencephalogram signal classification
Zhang, Zhen; Zhou, Yi; Chen, Ziyi; Tian, Xianghua; Du, Shouhong; Huang, Ruimei
2013-01-01
The automatic detection and identification of electroencephalogram waves play an important role in the prediction, diagnosis and treatment of epileptic seizures. In this study, a nonlinear dynamics index–approximate entropy and a support vector machine that has strong generalization ability were applied to classify electroencephalogram signals at epileptic interictal and ictal periods. Our aim was to verify whether approximate entropy waves can be effectively applied to the automatic real-time detection of epilepsy in the electroencephalogram, and to explore its generalization ability as a classifier trained using a nonlinear dynamics index. Four patients presenting with partial epileptic seizures were included in this study. They were all diagnosed with neocortex localized epilepsy and epileptic foci were clearly observed by electroencephalogram. The electroencephalogram data form the four involved patients were segmented and the characteristic values of each segment, that is, the approximate entropy, were extracted. The support vector machine classifier was constructed with the approximate entropy extracted from one epileptic case, and then electroencephalogram waves of the other three cases were classified, reaching a 93.33% accuracy rate. Our findings suggest that the use of approximate entropy allows the automatic real-time detection of electroencephalogram data in epileptic cases. The combination of approximate entropy and support vector machines shows good generalization ability for the classification of electroencephalogram signals for epilepsy. PMID:25206493
Simple Approximations for Epidemics with Exponential and Fixed Infectious Periods.
Fowler, A C; Hollingsworth, T Dirdre
2015-08-01
Analytical approximations have generated many insights into the dynamics of epidemics, but there is only one well-known approximation which describes the dynamics of the whole epidemic. In addition, most of the well-known approximations for different aspects of the dynamics are for the classic susceptible-infected-recovered model, in which the infectious period is exponentially distributed. Whilst this assumption is useful, it is somewhat unrealistic. Equally reasonable assumptions are that the infectious period is finite and fixed or that there is a distribution of infectious periods centred round a nonzero mean. We investigate the effect of these different assumptions on the dynamics of the epidemic by deriving approximations to the whole epidemic curve. We show how the well-known sech-squared approximation for the infective population in 'weak' epidemics (where the basic reproduction rate R? ? 1) can be extended to the case of an arbitrary distribution of infectious periods having finite second moment, including as examples fixed and gamma-distributed infectious periods. Further, we show how to approximate the time course of a 'strong' epidemic, where R? ? 1, demonstrating the importance of estimating the infectious period distribution early in an epidemic. PMID:26337289
Cluster-enhanced sparse approximation of overlapping ultrasonic echoes.
Mor, Etai; Aladjem, Mayer; Azoulay, Amnon
2015-02-01
Ultrasonic pulse-echo methods have been used extensively in non-destructive testing of layered structures. In acoustic measurements on thin layers, the resulting echoes from two successive interfaces overlap in time, making it difficult to assess the individual echo parameters. Over the last decade sparse approximation methods have been extensively used to address this issue. These methods employ a large dictionary of elementary functions (atoms) and attempt to select the smallest subset of atoms (sparsest approximation) that represent the ultrasonic signal accurately. In this paper we propose the cluster-enhanced sparse approximation (CESA) method for estimating overlapping ultrasonic echoes. CESA is specifically adapted to deal with a large number of signals acquired during an ultrasonic scan. It incorporates two principal algorithms. The first is a clustering algorithm, which divides a set of signals comprising an ultrasonic scan into groups of signals that can be approximated by the same set of atoms. The second is a two-stage iterative algorithm, which alternates between update of the atoms associated with each cluster, and re-clustering of the signals according to the updated atoms. Because CESA operates on clusters of signals, it achieves improved results in terms of approximation error and computation time compared with conventional sparse methods, which operate on each signal separately. The superior ability of CESA to approximate highly overlapping ultrasonic echoes is demonstrated through simulation and experiments on adhesively bonded structures. PMID:25643086
The delta-Eddington approximation for radiative flux transfer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Joseph, J. H.; Wiscombe, W. J.; Weinman, J. A.
1976-01-01
Simple approximations, like the Eddington, are often incapable of coping with the highly asymmetric phase functions typical of particulate scattering. A simple yet accurate method called the delta-Eddington approximation is proposed for determining monochromatic radiative fluxes in an absorbing-scattering atmosphere. In this method, the governing phase function is approximated by a Dirac delta function forward scatter peak and a two-term expansion of the phase function. The fraction of scattering into the truncated forward peak is taken proportional to the square of the phase function asymmetry factor, which distinguishes the delta-Eddington approximation from others of similar nature. The transmission, reflection, and absorption predicted by the delta-Eddington approximation are compared with doubling method calculations for realistic ranges of optical depth, single-scattering albedo, surface albedo, sun angle and asymmetry factor. The approximation is shown to provide an accurate and analytically simple parameterization of radiation to replace the empirism currently encountered in many general circulation and climate models.
Validity of the Aluminum Equivalent Approximation in Space Radiation Shielding
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Badavi, Francis F.; Adams, Daniel O.; Wilson, John W.
2009-01-01
The origin of the aluminum equivalent shield approximation in space radiation analysis can be traced back to its roots in the early years of the NASA space programs (Mercury, Gemini and Apollo) wherein the primary radiobiological concern was the intense sources of ionizing radiation causing short term effects which was thought to jeopardize the safety of the crew and hence the mission. Herein, it is shown that the aluminum equivalent shield approximation, although reasonably well suited for that time period and to the application for which it was developed, is of questionable usefulness to the radiobiological concerns of routine space operations of the 21 st century which will include long stays onboard the International Space Station (ISS) and perhaps the moon. This is especially true for a risk based protection system, as appears imminent for deep space exploration where the long-term effects of Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) exposure is of primary concern. The present analysis demonstrates that sufficiently large errors in the interior particle environment of a spacecraft result from the use of the aluminum equivalent approximation, and such approximations should be avoided in future astronaut risk estimates. In this study, the aluminum equivalent approximation is evaluated as a means for estimating the particle environment within a spacecraft structure induced by the GCR radiation field. For comparison, the two extremes of the GCR environment, the 1977 solar minimum and the 2001 solar maximum, are considered. These environments are coupled to the Langley Research Center (LaRC) deterministic ionized particle transport code High charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport (HZETRN), which propagates the GCR spectra for elements with charges (Z) in the range I <= Z <= 28 (H -- Ni) and secondary neutrons through selected target materials. The coupling of the GCR extremes to HZETRN allows for the examination of the induced environment within the interior' of an idealized spacecraft as approximated by a spherical shell shield, and the effects of the aluminum equivalent approximation for a good polymeric shield material such as genetic polyethylene (PE). The shield thickness is represented by a 25 g/cm spherical shell. Although one could imagine the progression to greater thickness, the current range will be sufficient to evaluate the qualitative usefulness of the aluminum equivalent approximation. Upon establishing the inaccuracies of the aluminum equivalent approximation through numerical simulations of the GCR radiation field attenuation for PE and aluminum equivalent PE spherical shells, we Anther present results for a limited set of commercially available, hydrogen rich, multifunctional polymeric constituents to assess the effect of the aluminum equivalent approximation on their radiation attenuation response as compared to the generic PE.
Structural Reliability Analysis and Optimization: Use of Approximations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grandhi, Ramana V.; Wang, Liping
1999-01-01
This report is intended for the demonstration of function approximation concepts and their applicability in reliability analysis and design. Particularly, approximations in the calculation of the safety index, failure probability and structural optimization (modification of design variables) are developed. With this scope in mind, extensive details on probability theory are avoided. Definitions relevant to the stated objectives have been taken from standard text books. The idea of function approximations is to minimize the repetitive use of computationally intensive calculations by replacing them with simpler closed-form equations, which could be nonlinear. Typically, the approximations provide good accuracy around the points where they are constructed, and they need to be periodically updated to extend their utility. There are approximations in calculating the failure probability of a limit state function. The first one, which is most commonly discussed, is how the limit state is approximated at the design point. Most of the time this could be a first-order Taylor series expansion, also known as the First Order Reliability Method (FORM), or a second-order Taylor series expansion (paraboloid), also known as the Second Order Reliability Method (SORM). From the computational procedure point of view, this step comes after the design point identification; however, the order of approximation for the probability of failure calculation is discussed first, and it is denoted by either FORM or SORM. The other approximation of interest is how the design point, or the most probable failure point (MPP), is identified. For iteratively finding this point, again the limit state is approximated. The accuracy and efficiency of the approximations make the search process quite practical for analysis intensive approaches such as the finite element methods; therefore, the crux of this research is to develop excellent approximations for MPP identification and also different approximations including the higher-order reliability methods (HORM) for representing the failure surface. This report is divided into several parts to emphasize different segments of the structural reliability analysis and design. Broadly, it consists of mathematical foundations, methods and applications. Chapter I discusses the fundamental definitions of the probability theory, which are mostly available in standard text books. Probability density function descriptions relevant to this work are addressed. In Chapter 2, the concept and utility of function approximation are discussed for a general application in engineering analysis. Various forms of function representations and the latest developments in nonlinear adaptive approximations are presented with comparison studies. Research work accomplished in reliability analysis is presented in Chapter 3. First, the definition of safety index and most probable point of failure are introduced. Efficient ways of computing the safety index with a fewer number of iterations is emphasized. In chapter 4, the probability of failure prediction is presented using first-order, second-order and higher-order methods. System reliability methods are discussed in chapter 5. Chapter 6 presents optimization techniques for the modification and redistribution of structural sizes for improving the structural reliability. The report also contains several appendices on probability parameters.
Liu, Jian; Miller, William H.
2006-09-06
The thermal Gaussian approximation (TGA) recently developed by Mandelshtam et al has been demonstrated to be a practical way for approximating the Boltzmann operator exp(-{beta}H) for multidimensional systems. In this paper the TGA is combined with semiclassical (SC) initial value representations (IVRs) for thermal time correlation functions. Specifically, it is used with the linearized SC-IVR (LSC-IVR, equivalent to the classical Wigner model), and the 'forward-backward semiclassical dynamics' (FBSD) approximation developed by Makri et al. Use of the TGA with both of these approximate SC-IVRs allows the oscillatory part of the IVR to be integrated out explicitly, providing an extremely simple result that is readily applicable to large molecular systems. Calculation of the force-force autocorrelation for a strongly anharmonic oscillator demonstrates its accuracy, and of the velocity autocorrelation function (and thus the diffusion coefficient) of liquid neon demonstrates its applicability.
Comparison of the Radiative Two-Flux and Diffusion Approximations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spuckler, Charles M.
2006-01-01
Approximate solutions are sometimes used to determine the heat transfer and temperatures in a semitransparent material in which conduction and thermal radiation are acting. A comparison of the Milne-Eddington two-flux approximation and the diffusion approximation for combined conduction and radiation heat transfer in a ceramic material was preformed to determine the accuracy of the diffusion solution. A plane gray semitransparent layer without a substrate and a non-gray semitransparent plane layer on an opaque substrate were considered. For the plane gray layer the material is semitransparent for all wavelengths and the scattering and absorption coefficients do not vary with wavelength. For the non-gray plane layer the material is semitransparent with constant absorption and scattering coefficients up to a specified wavelength. At higher wavelengths the non-gray plane layer is assumed to be opaque. The layers are heated on one side and cooled on the other by diffuse radiation and convection. The scattering and absorption coefficients were varied. The error in the diffusion approximation compared to the Milne-Eddington two flux approximation was obtained as a function of scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient. The percent difference in interface temperatures and heat flux through the layer obtained using the Milne-Eddington two-flux and diffusion approximations are presented as a function of scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient. The largest errors occur for high scattering and low absorption except for the back surface temperature of the plane gray layer where the error is also larger at low scattering and low absorption. It is shown that the accuracy of the diffusion approximation can be improved for some scattering and absorption conditions if a reflectance obtained from a Kubelka-Munk type two flux theory is used instead of a reflection obtained from the Fresnel equation. The Kubelka-Munk reflectance accounts for surface reflection and radiation scattered back by internal scattering sites while the Fresnel reflection only accounts for surface reflections.
Berkel, M. van; Zwart, H. J.; Tamura, N.; Ida, K.; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Inagaki, S.; Baar, M. R. de
2014-11-15
In this paper, a number of new approximations are introduced to estimate the perturbative diffusivity (χ), convectivity (V), and damping (τ) in cylindrical geometry. For this purpose, the harmonic components of heat waves induced by localized deposition of modulated power are used. The approximations are based on semi-infinite slab approximations of the heat equation. The main result is the approximation of χ under the influence of V and τ based on the phase of two harmonics making the estimate less sensitive to calibration errors. To understand why the slab approximations can estimate χ well in cylindrical geometry, the relationships between heat transport models in slab and cylindrical geometry are studied. In addition, the relationship between amplitude and phase with respect to their derivatives, used to estimate χ, is discussed. The results are presented in terms of the relative error for the different derived approximations for different values of frequency, transport coefficients, and dimensionless radius. The approximations show a significant region in which χ, V, and τ can be estimated well, but also regions in which the error is large. Also, it is shown that some compensation is necessary to estimate V and τ in a cylindrical geometry. On the other hand, errors resulting from the simplified assumptions are also discussed showing that estimating realistic values for V and τ based on infinite domains will be difficult in practice. This paper is the first part (Part I) of a series of three papers. In Part II and Part III, cylindrical approximations based directly on semi-infinite cylindrical domain (outward propagating heat pulses) and inward propagating heat pulses in a cylindrical domain, respectively, will be treated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Berkel, M.; Zwart, H. J.; Tamura, N.; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Inagaki, S.; de Baar, M. R.; Ida, K.
2014-11-01
In this paper, a number of new approximations are introduced to estimate the perturbative diffusivity (χ), convectivity (V), and damping (τ) in cylindrical geometry. For this purpose, the harmonic components of heat waves induced by localized deposition of modulated power are used. The approximations are based on semi-infinite slab approximations of the heat equation. The main result is the approximation of χ under the influence of V and τ based on the phase of two harmonics making the estimate less sensitive to calibration errors. To understand why the slab approximations can estimate χ well in cylindrical geometry, the relationships between heat transport models in slab and cylindrical geometry are studied. In addition, the relationship between amplitude and phase with respect to their derivatives, used to estimate χ, is discussed. The results are presented in terms of the relative error for the different derived approximations for different values of frequency, transport coefficients, and dimensionless radius. The approximations show a significant region in which χ, V, and τ can be estimated well, but also regions in which the error is large. Also, it is shown that some compensation is necessary to estimate V and τ in a cylindrical geometry. On the other hand, errors resulting from the simplified assumptions are also discussed showing that estimating realistic values for V and τ based on infinite domains will be difficult in practice. This paper is the first part (Part I) of a series of three papers. In Part II and Part III, cylindrical approximations based directly on semi-infinite cylindrical domain (outward propagating heat pulses) and inward propagating heat pulses in a cylindrical domain, respectively, will be treated.
?-convergence Approximation of Fracture and Cavitation in Nonlinear Elasticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henao, Duvan; Mora-Corral, Carlos; Xu, Xianmin
2015-06-01
Our starting point is a variational model in nonlinear elasticity that allows for cavitation and fracture that was introduced by Henao and Mora-Corral (Arch Rational Mech Anal 197:619-655, 2010). The total energy to minimize is the sum of the elastic energy plus the energy produced by crack and surface formation. It is a free discontinuity problem, since the crack set and the set of new surface are unknowns of the problem. The expression of the functional involves a volume integral and two surface integrals, and this fact makes the problem numerically intractable. In this paper we propose an approximation (in the sense of ?-convergence) by functionals involving only volume integrals, which makes a numerical approximation by finite elements feasible. This approximation has some similarities to the Modica-Mortola approximation of the perimeter and the Ambrosio-Tortorelli approximation of the Mumford-Shah functional, but with the added difficulties typical of nonlinear elasticity, in which the deformation is assumed to be one-to-one and orientation-preserving.
?-connectedness, finite approximations, shape theory and coarse graining in hyperspaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alonso-Morn, Manuel; Cuchillo-Ibanez, Eduardo; Luzn, Ana
2008-12-01
We use upper semifinite hyperspaces of compacta to describe ?-connectedness and to compute homology from finite approximations. We find a new connection between ?-connectedness and the so-called Shape Theory. We construct a geodesically complete R-tree, by means of ?-components at different resolutions, whose behavior at infinite captures the topological structure of the space of components of a given compact metric space. We also construct inverse sequences of finite spaces using internal finite approximations of compact metric spaces. These sequences can be converted into inverse sequences of polyhedra and simplicial maps by means of what we call the Alexandroff-McCord correspondence. This correspondence allows us to relate upper semifinite hyperspaces of finite approximation with the Vietoris-Rips complexes of such approximations at different resolutions. Two motivating examples are included in the introduction. We propose this procedure as a different mathematical foundation for problems on data analysis. This process is intrinsically related to the methodology of shape theory. This paper reinforces Robinss idea of using methods from shape theory to compute homology from finite approximations.
A quantum relaxation-time approximation for finite fermion systems
Reinhard, P.-G.; Suraud, E.
2015-03-15
We propose a relaxation time approximation for the description of the dynamics of strongly excited fermion systems. Our approach is based on time-dependent density functional theory at the level of the local density approximation. This mean-field picture is augmented by collisional correlations handled in relaxation time approximation which is inspired from the corresponding semi-classical picture. The method involves the estimate of microscopic relaxation rates/times which is presently taken from the well established semi-classical experience. The relaxation time approximation implies evaluation of the instantaneous equilibrium state towards which the dynamical state is progressively driven at the pace of the microscopic relaxation time. As test case, we consider Na clusters of various sizes excited either by a swift ion projectile or by a short and intense laser pulse, driven in various dynamical regimes ranging from linear to strongly non-linear reactions. We observe a strong effect of dissipation on sensitive observables such as net ionization and angular distributions of emitted electrons. The effect is especially large for moderate excitations where typical relaxation/dissipation time scales efficiently compete with ionization for dissipating the available excitation energy. Technical details on the actual procedure to implement a working recipe of such a quantum relaxation approximation are given in appendices for completeness.
A quantum relaxation-time approximation for finite fermion systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reinhard, P.-G.; Suraud, E.
2015-03-01
We propose a relaxation time approximation for the description of the dynamics of strongly excited fermion systems. Our approach is based on time-dependent density functional theory at the level of the local density approximation. This mean-field picture is augmented by collisional correlations handled in relaxation time approximation which is inspired from the corresponding semi-classical picture. The method involves the estimate of microscopic relaxation rates/times which is presently taken from the well established semi-classical experience. The relaxation time approximation implies evaluation of the instantaneous equilibrium state towards which the dynamical state is progressively driven at the pace of the microscopic relaxation time. As test case, we consider Na clusters of various sizes excited either by a swift ion projectile or by a short and intense laser pulse, driven in various dynamical regimes ranging from linear to strongly non-linear reactions. We observe a strong effect of dissipation on sensitive observables such as net ionization and angular distributions of emitted electrons. The effect is especially large for moderate excitations where typical relaxation/dissipation time scales efficiently compete with ionization for dissipating the available excitation energy. Technical details on the actual procedure to implement a working recipe of such a quantum relaxation approximation are given in appendices for completeness.
Interfacing Relativistic and Nonrelativistic Methods: A Systematic Sequence of Approximations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dyall, Ken; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)
1997-01-01
A systematic sequence of approximations for the introduction of relativistic effects into nonrelativistic molecular finite-basis set calculations is described. The theoretical basis for the approximations is the normalized elimination of the small component (ESC) within the matrix representation of the modified Dirac equation. The key features of the normalized method are the retention of the relativistic metric and the ability to define a single matrix U relating the pseudo-large and large component coefficient matrices. This matrix is used to define a modified set of one- and two-electron integrals which have the same appearance as the integrals of the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. The first approximation fixes the ratios of the large and pseudo-large components to their atomic values, producing an expansion in atomic 4-spinors. The second approximation defines a local fine-structure constant on each atomic centre, which has the physical value for centres considered to be relativistic and zero for nonrelativistic centres. In the latter case, the 4-spinors are the positive-energy kinetic al ly-balanced solutions of the Levy-Leblond equation, and the integrals involving pseudo-large component basis functions on these centres, are set to zero. Some results are presented for test systems to illustrate the various approximations.
Rational trigonometric approximations using Fourier series partial sums
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geer, James F.
1993-01-01
A class of approximations (S(sub N,M)) to a periodic function f which uses the ideas of Pade, or rational function, approximations based on the Fourier series representation of f, rather than on the Taylor series representation of f, is introduced and studied. Each approximation S(sub N,M) is the quotient of a trigonometric polynomial of degree N and a trigonometric polynomial of degree M. The coefficients in these polynomials are determined by requiring that an appropriate number of the Fourier coefficients of S(sub N,M) agree with those of f. Explicit expressions are derived for these coefficients in terms of the Fourier coefficients of f. It is proven that these 'Fourier-Pade' approximations converge point-wise to (f(x(exp +))+f(x(exp -)))/2 more rapidly (in some cases by a factor of 1/k(exp 2M)) than the Fourier series partial sums on which they are based. The approximations are illustrated by several examples and an application to the solution of an initial, boundary value problem for the simple heat equation is presented.
Computer approximation of the spectrograms of radio sources
Smirnov, G.T.; Tsivilev, A.P.
1982-09-01
A procedure for the root-mean-square approximation of the spectrograms of radio sources is described. The max-neighborhood algorithm, which has a high convergence rate, is used to minimize the sum of squares of deviations. An analytical approximation of the Voigt function is used as the universal profile to describe spectral lines. It is shown that the systematic errors in determining line widths and amplitudes do not exceed tenths of a percent for any form of line profile from Gaussian to Lorentzian, while for lines with extended wings the uncertainty in the shape of the zero line introduces errors an order of magnitude smaller than those with the Gaussian function usually used. The approximation is carried out in an interactive mode, presuming active user participation to assign the initial approximation, the limits of variation of the parameters, and the evaluation of the approximation quality. Use of the procedure to isolate the Stark wings in the profile of the H 110..cap alpha.. recombination line from the Orion Nebula, to separate overlapping spectral lines, and analyze the effect of stray noise interference in the multiple-mirror antenna of a radio telescope is demonstrated.
APPROXIMATION ALGORITHMS FOR CLUSTERING TO MINIMIZE THE SUM OF DIAMETERS
Kopp, S.; Mortveit, H.S.; Reidys, S.M.
2000-02-01
We consider the problem of partitioning the nodes of a complete edge weighted graph into {kappa} clusters so as to minimize the sum of the diameters of the clusters. Since the problem is NP-complete, our focus is on the development of good approximation algorithms. When edge weights satisfy the triangle inequality, we present the first approximation algorithm for the problem. The approximation algorithm yields a solution that has no more than 10k clusters such the total diameter of these clusters is within a factor O(log (n/{kappa})) of the optimal value fork clusters, where n is the number of nodes in the complete graph. For any fixed {kappa}, we present an approximation algorithm that produces {kappa} clusters whose total diameter is at most twice the optimal value. When the distances are not required to satisfy the triangle inequality, we show that, unless P = NP, for any {rho} {ge} 1, there is no polynomial time approximation algorithm that can provide a performance guarantee of {rho} even when the number of clusters is fixed at 3. Other results obtained include a polynomial time algorithm for the problem when the underlying graph is a tree with edge weights.
Efficient solution of parabolic equations by Krylov approximation methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gallopoulos, E.; Saad, Y.
1990-01-01
Numerical techniques for solving parabolic equations by the method of lines is addressed. The main motivation for the proposed approach is the possibility of exploiting a high degree of parallelism in a simple manner. The basic idea of the method is to approximate the action of the evolution operator on a given state vector by means of a projection process onto a Krylov subspace. Thus, the resulting approximation consists of applying an evolution operator of a very small dimension to a known vector which is, in turn, computed accurately by exploiting well-known rational approximations to the exponential. Because the rational approximation is only applied to a small matrix, the only operations required with the original large matrix are matrix-by-vector multiplications, and as a result the algorithm can easily be parallelized and vectorized. Some relevant approximation and stability issues are discussed. We present some numerical experiments with the method and compare its performance with a few explicit and implicit algorithms.
Resonant-state-expansion Born approximation for waveguides with dispersion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doost, M. B.
2016-02-01
The resonant-state-expansion (RSE) Born approximation, a rigorous perturbative method developed for electrodynamic and quantum mechanical open systems, is further developed to treat waveguides with a Sellmeier dispersion. For media that can be described by these types of dispersion over the relevant frequency range, such as optical glass, I show that the the perturbed RSE problem can be solved by diagonalizing a second-order eigenvalue problem. In the case of a single resonance at zero frequency, this is simplified to a generalized eigenvalue problem. Results are presented using analytically solvable planar waveguides and parameters of borosilicate BK7 glass, for a perturbation in the waveguide width. The efficiency of using either an exact dispersion over all frequencies or an approximate dispersion over a narrow frequency range is compared. I included a derivation of the RSE Born approximation for waveguides to make use of the resonances calculated by the RSE.
Continuous Approximations of a Class of Piecewise Continuous Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Danca, Marius-F.
In this paper, we provide a rigorous mathematical foundation for continuous approximations of a class of systems with piecewise continuous functions. By using techniques from the theory of differential inclusions, the underlying piecewise functions can be locally or globally approximated. The approximation results can be used to model piecewise continuous-time dynamical systems of integer or fractional-order. In this way, by overcoming the lack of numerical methods for differential equations of fractional-order with discontinuous right-hand side, unattainable procedures for systems modeled by this kind of equations, such as chaos control, synchronization, anticontrol and many others, can be easily implemented. Several examples are presented and three comparative applications are studied.
Fractional derivatives: Probability interpretation and frequency response of rational approximations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tenreiro Machado, J. A.
2009-09-01
The theory of fractional calculus (FC) is a useful mathematical tool in many applied sciences. Nevertheless, only in the last decades researchers were motivated for the adoption of the FC concepts. There are several reasons for this state of affairs, namely the co-existence of different definitions and interpretations, and the necessity of approximation methods for the real time calculation of fractional derivatives (FDs). In a first part, this paper introduces a probabilistic interpretation of the fractional derivative based on the Grünwald-Letnikov definition. In a second part, the calculation of fractional derivatives through Padé fraction approximations is analyzed. It is observed that the probabilistic interpretation and the frequency response of fraction approximations of FDs reveal a clear correlation between both concepts.
Third-Born-approximation effects in electron capture
Hsin, S.H.; Lieber, M.
1987-06-01
We have calculated corrections to the strong-potential Born approximation using the distorted-wave Born formalism of Taulbjerg and Briggs. In the sense of a plane-wave Born expansion, all terms of the third Born approximation, and all ''single switching'' fourth Born terms are included, but a peaking approximation is needed to reduce the calculation to tractable form. We believe this to be the first calculation to be so complete in the Born sense. Effects of the higher terms are most visible in the valley between the Thomas peak and the forward peak. The Thomas peak is visible in the correction term even though it includes no second Born contributions. We suggest that this may be interpreted as a third Born effect with two ''hard'' collisions followed by a ''soft'' collision.
First and second order convex approximation strategies in structural optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fleury, C.
1989-01-01
In this paper, various methods based on convex approximation schemes are discussed that have demonstrated strong potential for efficient solution of structural optimization problems. First, the convex linearization method (Conlin) is briefly described, as well as one of its recent generalizations, the method of moving asymptotes (MMA). Both Conlin and MMA can be interpreted as first-order convex approximation methods that attempt to estimate the curvature of the problem functions on the basis of semiempirical rules. Attention is next directed toward methods that use diagonal second derivatives in order to provide a sound basis for building up high-quality explicit approximations of the behavior constraints. In particular, it is shown how second-order information can be effectively used without demanding a prohibitive computational cost. Various first-order and second-order approaches are compared by applying them to simple problems that have a closed form solution.
Fast approximation of self-similar network traffic
Paxson, V.
1995-01-01
Recent network traffic studies argue that network arrival processes are much more faithfully modeled using statistically self-similar processes instead of traditional Poisson processes [LTWW94a, PF94]. One difficulty in dealing with self-similar models is how to efficiently synthesize traces (sample paths) corresponding to self-similar traffic. We present a fast Fourier transform method for synthesizing approximate self-similar sample paths and assess its performance and validity. We find that the method is as fast or faster than existing methods and appears to generate a closer approximation to true self-similar sample paths than the other known fast method (Random Midpoint Displacement). We then discuss issues in using such synthesized sample paths for simulating network traffic, and how an approximation used by our method can dramatically speed up evaluation of Whittle`s estimator for H, the Hurst parameter giving the strength of long-range dependence present in a self-similar time series.
Local density approximation for the relativistic nucleon-nucleus potential
Jaminon, M.
1982-10-01
We investigate the relativistic Hartree-Fock single-particle potential in the framework of a local density approximation and of an improved local density approximation. In most cases the latter yields a better agreement between theoretical and experimental results for quantities which are characteristic of the nuclear surface. In the case of /sup 40/Ca, the energy dependence of the ratio of the strengths of the scalar and vector components of the relativistic potential in the center-of-mass system is in good agreement with that determined by the elastic scattering data analyses. In keeping with recent experimental evidence, the calculated central part of the optical-model potential has a wine-bottle bottom shape at intermediate energy. Both approximations provide a strong spin-orbit component.
Efficient algorithm for approximating one-dimensional ground states
Aharonov, Dorit; Arad, Itai; Irani, Sandy
2010-07-15
The density-matrix renormalization-group method is very effective at finding ground states of one-dimensional (1D) quantum systems in practice, but it is a heuristic method, and there is no known proof for when it works. In this article we describe an efficient classical algorithm which provably finds a good approximation of the ground state of 1D systems under well-defined conditions. More precisely, our algorithm finds a matrix product state of bond dimension D whose energy approximates the minimal energy such states can achieve. The running time is exponential in D, and so the algorithm can be considered tractable even for D, which is logarithmic in the size of the chain. The result also implies trivially that the ground state of any local commuting Hamiltonian in 1D can be approximated efficiently; we improve this to an exact algorithm.
Assessment of approximations in nonequilibrium Green's function theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kubis, T.; Vogl, P.
2011-05-01
A nonequilibrium Greens function (NEGF) method for stationary carrier dynamics in open semiconductor nanodevices is presented that includes all relevant incoherent scattering mechanisms. A consistent lead model is developed that ensures all observables to reflect intrinsic device properties. By restricting the charge self-consistent calculations to vertical transport through heterostructures, the Greens functions and self-energies can be determined very accurately. This allows us to assess many commonly used approximations, such as ballistic leads, decoupling of Dysons and Keldyshs equations, truncated or momentum-averaged self-energies, and local self-energies in the NEGF formalism in detail, and to study limiting cases such as diffusive transport in resistors. The comparison of exact and approximated NEGF calculations illustrates the physical implications and validity of common approximations and suggests numerically efficient simplifications.
Approximate Bisimulation-Based Reduction of Power System Dynamic Models
Stankovic, AM; Dukic, SD; Saric, AT
2015-05-01
In this paper we propose approximate bisimulation relations and functions for reduction of power system dynamic models in differential- algebraic (descriptor) form. The full-size dynamic model is obtained by linearization of the nonlinear transient stability model. We generalize theoretical results on approximate bisimulation relations and bisimulation functions, originally derived for a class of constrained linear systems, to linear systems in descriptor form. An algorithm for transient stability assessment is proposed and used to determine whether the power system is able to maintain the synchronism after a large disturbance. Two benchmark power systems are used to illustrate the proposed algorithm and to evaluate the applicability of approximate bisimulation relations and bisimulation functions for reduction of the power system dynamic models.
An approximate method for residual stress calculation infunctionally graded materials
Becker, T.L.
1999-06-02
Thermal residual stresses in functionally graded materials(FGMs) arise primarily from nonlinear spatial variations in the thermalexpansion coefficient, but can be significantly adjusted by variations inmodulus. Thermoelastic analysis of FGMs is complicated by such modulusgradients. A class of problems for which thermal stress solutions formaterials with constant modulus can be used as a basis for approximationsfor FGMs is discussed. The size of the error in this approximation due togradients in elastic modulus is investigated. Analytical and finiteelement solutions for the thermal stresses in various FGM geometries arecompared to results from this approximate method. In a geometry ofpractical interest, a right cylinder graded along the z-axis, the errorfor a Ni-Al2O3 FGM was found to be within 15 percent for all gradientsconsidered. The form of the approximation makes it easier to identifydesirable types of spatial nonlinearity in expansion coefficient andvariations in modulus: this would allow the manipulation of the locationof compressive stresses.
Analytical approximations for x-ray cross sections III
Biggs, F; Lighthill, R
1988-08-01
This report updates our previous work that provided analytical approximations to cross sections for both photoelectric absorption of photons by atoms and incoherent scattering of photons by atoms. This representation is convenient for use in programmable calculators and in computer programs to evaluate these cross sections numerically. The results apply to atoms of atomic numbers between 1 and 100 and for photon energiesgreater than or equal to10 eV. The photoelectric cross sections are again approximated by four-term polynomials in reciprocal powers of the photon energy. There are now more fitting intervals, however, than were used previously. The incoherent-scattering cross sections are based on the Klein-Nishina relation, but use simpler approximate equations for efficient computer evaluation. We describe the averaging scheme for applying these atomic results to any composite material. The fitting coefficients are included in tables, and the cross sections are shown graphically. 100 graphs, 1 tab.
Axially symmetric dissipative fluids in the quasi-static approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herrera, L.; di Prisco, A.; Ospino, J.; Carot, J.
2016-01-01
Using a framework based on the 1 + 3 formalism, we carry out a study on axially and reflection symmetric dissipative fluids, in the quasi-static regime. We first derive a set of invariantly defined “velocities”, which allow for an inambiguous definition of the quasi-static approximation. Next, we rewrite all the relevant equations in this approximation and extract all the possible, physically relevant, consequences ensuing the adoption of such an approximation. In particular, we show how the vorticity, the shear and the dissipative flux, may lead to situations where different kind of “velocities” change their sign within the fluid distribution with respect to their sign on the boundary surface. It is shown that states of gravitational radiation are not a priori incompatible with the quasi-static regime. However, any such state must last for an infinite period of time, thereby diminishing its physical relevance.
Global uniform semiclassical approximation for Clebsch-Gordan coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Engel, Hamutal; Kay, Kenneth G.
2008-03-01
Semiclassical integral representations, analogous to initial value expressions for the propagator, are presented for the Clebsch-Gordan angular momentum coupling coefficients. Two forms (L and R types) of the approximation are presented. For each form, new non-Gaussian expressions, which are specifically adapted to the nature of angular momentum variables, are proposed in place of the familiar Gaussian coherent state functions. With these non-Gaussian kernels, it is found that the present treatments are capable of accuracy similar to that obtained from a uniform Airy approximation. Although the present semiclassical approximations involve only real-valued angle variables, associated with sets of angular momenta that are related by ordinary, real, classical transformations, the treatments produce accurate results not only for classically allowed choices of quantum numbers but also for very strongly classically forbidden values.
Global uniform semiclassical approximation for Clebsch-Gordan coefficients.
Engel, Hamutal; Kay, Kenneth G
2008-03-01
Semiclassical integral representations, analogous to initial value expressions for the propagator, are presented for the Clebsch-Gordan angular momentum coupling coefficients. Two forms (L and R types) of the approximation are presented. For each form, new non-Gaussian expressions, which are specifically adapted to the nature of angular momentum variables, are proposed in place of the familiar Gaussian coherent state functions. With these non-Gaussian kernels, it is found that the present treatments are capable of accuracy similar to that obtained from a uniform Airy approximation. Although the present semiclassical approximations involve only real-valued angle variables, associated with sets of angular momenta that are related by ordinary, real, classical transformations, the treatments produce accurate results not only for classically allowed choices of quantum numbers but also for very strongly classically forbidden values. PMID:18331084
Galerkin approximation for inverse problems for nonautonomous nonlinear distributed systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Banks, H. T.; Reich, Simeon; Rosen, I. G.
1988-01-01
An abstract framework and convergence theory is developed for Galerkin approximation for inverse problems involving the identification of nonautonomous nonlinear distributed parameter systems. A set of relatively easily verified conditions is provided which are sufficient to guarantee the existence of optimal solutions and their approximation by a sequence of solutions to a sequence of approximating finite dimensional identification problems. The approach is based on the theory of monotone operators in Banach spaces and is applicable to a reasonably broad class of nonlinear distributed systems. Operator theoretic and variational techniques are used to establish a fundamental convergence result. An example involving evolution systems with dynamics described by nonstationary quasilinear elliptic operators along with some applications are presented and discussed.
Dual methods and approximation concepts in structural synthesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fleury, C.; Schmit, L. A., Jr.
1980-01-01
Approximation concepts and dual method algorithms are combined to create a method for minimum weight design of structural systems. Approximation concepts convert the basic mathematical programming statement of the structural synthesis problem into a sequence of explicit primal problems of separable form. These problems are solved by constructing explicit dual functions, which are maximized subject to nonnegativity constraints on the dual variables. It is shown that the joining together of approximation concepts and dual methods can be viewed as a generalized optimality criteria approach. The dual method is successfully extended to deal with pure discrete and mixed continuous-discrete design variable problems. The power of the method presented is illustrated with numerical results for example problems, including a metallic swept wing and a thin delta wing with fiber composite skins.
Dynamical cluster approximation: Nonlocal dynamics of correlated electron systems
Hettler, M. H.; Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 ; Mukherjee, M.; Jarrell, M.; Krishnamurthy, H. R.; Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012,
2000-05-15
We recently introduced the dynamical cluster approximation (DCA), a technique that includes short-ranged dynamical correlations in addition to the local dynamics of the dynamical mean-field approximation while preserving causality. The technique is based on an iterative self-consistency scheme on a finite-size periodic cluster. The dynamical mean-field approximation (exact result) is obtained by taking the cluster to a single site (the thermodynamic limit). Here, we provide details of our method, explicitly show that it is causal, systematic, {phi} derivable, and that it becomes conserving as the cluster size increases. We demonstrate the DCA by applying it to a quantum Monte Carlo and exact enumeration study of the two-dimensional Falicov-Kimball model. The resulting spectral functions preserve causality, and the spectra and the charge-density-wave transition temperature converge quickly and systematically to the thermodynamic limit as the cluster size increases. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.
Non-perturbative QCD amplitudes in quenched and eikonal approximations
Fried, H.M.; Grandou, T.; Sheu, Y.-M.
2014-05-15
Even though approximated, strong coupling non-perturbative QCD amplitudes remain very difficult to obtain. In this article, in eikonal and quenched approximations at least, physical insights are presented that rely on the newly-discovered property of effective locality. The present article also provides a more rigorous mathematical basis for the crude approximations used in the previous derivation of the binding potential of quarks and nucleons. Furthermore, the techniques of Random Matrix calculus along with Meijer G-functions are applied to analyze the generic structure of fermionic amplitudes in QCD. - Highlights: We discuss the physical insight of effective locality to QCD fermionic amplitudes. We show that an unavoidable delta function goes along with the effective locality property. The generic structure of QCD fermion amplitudes is obtained through Random Matrix calculus.
Integral approximants for functions of higher monodromic dimension
Baker, G.A. Jr.
1987-01-01
In addition to the description of multiform, locally analytic functions as covering a many sheeted version of the complex plane, Riemann also introduced the notion of considering them as describing a space whose ''monodromic'' dimension is the number of linearly independent coverings by the monogenic analytic function at each point of the complex plane. I suggest that this latter concept is natural for integral approximants (sub-class of Hermite-Pade approximants) and discuss results for both ''horizontal'' and ''diagonal'' sequences of approximants. Some theorems are now available in both cases and make clear the natural domain of convergence of the horizontal sequences is a disk centered on the origin and that of the diagonal sequences is a suitably cut complex-plane together with its identically cut pendant Riemann sheets. Some numerical examples have also been computed.
Space-angle approximations in the variational nodal method.
Lewis, E. E.; Palmiotti, G.; Taiwo, T.
1999-03-12
The variational nodal method is formulated such that the angular and spatial approximations maybe examined separately. Spherical harmonic, simplified spherical harmonic, and discrete ordinate approximations are coupled to the primal hybrid finite element treatment of the spatial variables. Within this framework, two classes of spatial trial functions are presented: (1) orthogonal polynomials for the treatment of homogeneous nodes and (2) bilinear finite subelement trial functions for the treatment of fuel assembly sized nodes in which fuel-pin cell cross sections are represented explicitly. Polynomial and subelement trial functions are applied to benchmark water-reactor problems containing MOX fuel using spherical harmonic and simplified spherical harmonic approximations. The resulting accuracy and computing costs are compared.
Two-photon dissociation/ionization beyond the adiabatic approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vardi, Amichay; Shapiro, Moshe
1996-04-01
An accurate theory of two-photon dissociation with strong laser pulses, which goes beyond the adiabatic approximation, is developed. Criteria for adiabatic behavior in two photon dissociation (enabling via adiabatic passage the complete population transfer to the continuum), are derived. We obtain the minimal pulse duration needed to ensure adiabaticity as a function of the field intensities and detuning. In addition, we develop a simple, rapidly converging, iterative scheme, built on the adiabatic approximation, for the exact solution of the two-photon dissociation problem. Each iteration step requires a computational effort that scales as N2 (N being the system dimension) for full matrices, or N log N for sparse matrices. The iterative scheme is tested by comparing it to the Runge-Kutta-Merson direct integration algorithm. It is found to work well even when the adiabatic approximation fails completely.
Higher order parabolic approximations of the reduced wave equation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcaninch, G. L.
1986-01-01
Asymptotic solutions of order k to the nth are developed for the reduced wave equation. Here k is a dimensionless wave number and n is the arbitrary order of the approximation. These approximations are an extension of geometric acoustics theory, and provide corrections to that theory in the form of multiplicative functions which satisfy parabolic partial differential equations. These corrections account for the diffraction effects caused by variation of the field normal to the ray path and the interaction of these transverse variations with the variation of the field along the ray. The theory is applied to the example of radiation from a piston, and it is demonstrated that the higher order approximations are more accurate for decreasing values of k.
Error bounded conic spline approximation for NC code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Liyong
2012-01-01
Curve fitting is an important preliminary work for data compression and path interpolator in numerical control (NC). The paper gives a simple conic spline approximation algorithm for G01 code. The algorithm is mainly formed by three steps: divide the G01 code to subsets by discrete curvature detection, find the polygon line segment approximation for each subset within a given error and finally, fit each polygon line segment approximation with a conic Bezier spline. Naturally, B-spline curve can be obtained by proper knots selection. The algorithm is designed straightforward and efficient without solving any global equation system or optimal problem. It is complete with the selection of curve's weight. To design the curve more suitable for NC, we present an interval for the weight selection and the error is then computed.
On current sheet approximations in models of eruptive flares
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bungey, T. N.; Forbes, T. G.
1994-01-01
We consider an approximation sometimes used for current sheets in flux-rope models of eruptive flares. This approximation is based on a linear expansion of the background field in the vicinity of the current sheet, and it is valid when the length of the current sheet is small compared to the scale length of the coronal magnetic field. However, we find that flux-rope models which use this approximation predict the occurrence of an eruption due to a loss of ideal-MHD equilibrium even when the corresponding exact solution shows that no such eruption occurs. Determination of whether a loss of equilibrium exists can only be obtained by including higher order terms in the expansion of the field or by using the exact solution.
An approximate geostrophic streamfunction for use in density surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McDougall, Trevor J.; Klocker, Andreas
An approximate expression is derived for the geostrophic streamfunction in approximately neutral surfaces, ?n, namely ?={1}/{2}?p?-{1}/{12}{T}/{b??}???-?0p? dp'. This expression involves the specific volume anomaly ? defined with respect to a reference point (S,?,p) on the surface, ? p and ?? are the differences in pressure and Conservative Temperature with respect to p and ?, respectively, and Tb? is the thermobaric coefficient. This geostrophic streamfunction is shown to be more accurate than previously available choices of geostrophic streamfunction such as the Montgomery streamfunction. Also, by writing expressions for the horizontal differences on a regular horizontal grid of a localized form of the above geostrophic streamfunction, an over-determined set of equations is developed and solved to numerically obtain a very accurate geostrophic streamfunction on an approximately neutral surface; the remaining error in this streamfunction is caused only by neutral helicity.
Fast Gravitational Field Model Using Adaptive Orthogonal Finite Element Approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Younes, A.; Macomber, B.; Woollands, R.; Probe, A.; Bai, X.; Junkins, J.
2013-09-01
Recent research has addressed the issue that high degree and order gravity expansions involve tens of thousands of terms in a theoretically infinite order spherical harmonic expansion (some gravity models extend to degree and order 200 with over 30,000 terms) which in principle must be computed at every integration step to obtain the acceleration consistent with the gravity model. We propose to evaluate these gravity model interpolation models and use them in conjunction with the modified Picard path approximation methods. It was decided to consider analogous orthogonal approximation methods to interpolate, an FEM model, high (degree, order) gravity fields, by replacing the global spherical harmonic series by a family of locally precise orthogonal polynomial approximations for efficient computation. Our preliminary results showed that time to compute the state of the art (degree and order 200) spherical harmonic gravity is reduced by 4 to 5 orders of magnitude while maintaining > 9 digits of accuracy. Most of the gain is due to adopting the orthogonal FEM approach, but radial adaptation of the approximation degree gains an additional order of magnitude speedup. The efficient data base storage/access of the local coefficients is studied, which utilizes porting the algorithm to the NVIDIA GPU. This paper will address the accuracy and efficiency in both a C++ serial PC architecture as well as a PC/GPU architecture. The Adaptive Orthogonal Finite Element Gravity Model (AOFEGM) is expected to have broad potential for speeding the trajectory propagation algorithms; for example, used in conjunction with orthogonal Finite Element Model (FEM) gravity approximations, the Chebyshev-Picard path approximation enables truly revolutionary speedups in orbit propagation without accuracy loss.
Theory of periodically specified problems: Complexity and approximability
Marathe, M.V.; Hunt, H.B. III; Stearns, R.E.; Rosenkrantz, D.J.
1997-12-05
We study the complexity and the efficient approximability of graph and satisfiability problems when specified using various kinds of periodic specifications studied. The general results obtained include the following: (1) We characterize the complexities of several basic generalized CNF satisfiability problems SAT(S) [Sc78], when instances are specified using various kinds of 1- and 2-dimensional periodic specifications. We outline how this characterization can be used to prove a number of new hardness results for the complexity classes DSPACE(n), NSPACE(n), DEXPTIME, NEXPTIME, EXPSPACE etc. These results can be used to prove in a unified way the hardness of a number of combinatorial problems when instances are specified succinctly using various succient specifications considered in the literature. As one corollary, we show that a number of basic NP-hard problems because EXPSPACE-hard when inputs are represented using 1-dimensional infinite periodic wide specifications. This answers a long standing open question posed by Orlin. (2) We outline a simple yet a general technique to devise approximation algorithms with provable worst case performance guarantees for a number of combinatorial problems specified periodically. Our efficient approximation algorithms and schemes are based on extensions of the ideas and represent the first non-trivial characterization of a class of problems having an {epsilon}-approximation (or PTAS) for periodically specified NEXPTIME-hard problems. Two of properties of our results are: (i) For the first time, efficient approximation algorithms and schemes have been developed for natural NEXPTIME-complete problems. (ii) Our results are the first polynomial time approximation algorithms with good performance guarantees for hard problems specified using various kinds of periodic specifications considered in this paper.
Computing gap free Pareto front approximations with stochastic search algorithms.
Schtze, Oliver; Laumanns, Marco; Tantar, Emilia; Coello, Carlos A Coello; Talbi, El-Ghazali
2010-01-01
Recently, a convergence proof of stochastic search algorithms toward finite size Pareto set approximations of continuous multi-objective optimization problems has been given. The focus was on obtaining a finite approximation that captures the entire solution set in some suitable sense, which was defined by the concept of epsilon-dominance. Though bounds on the quality of the limit approximation-which are entirely determined by the archiving strategy and the value of epsilon-have been obtained, the strategies do not guarantee to obtain a gap free approximation of the Pareto front. That is, such approximations A can reveal gaps in the sense that points f in the Pareto front can exist such that the distance of f to any image point F(a), a epsilon A, is "large." Since such gap free approximations are desirable in certain applications, and the related archiving strategies can be advantageous when memetic strategies are included in the search process, we are aiming in this work for such methods. We present two novel strategies that accomplish this task in the probabilistic sense and under mild assumptions on the stochastic search algorithm. In addition to the convergence proofs, we give some numerical results to visualize the behavior of the different archiving strategies. Finally, we demonstrate the potential for a possible hybridization of a given stochastic search algorithm with a particular local search strategy-multi-objective continuation methods-by showing that the concept of epsilon-dominance can be integrated into this approach in a suitable way. PMID:20064024
Solving the infeasible trust-region problem using approximations.
Renaud, John E.; Perez, Victor M.; Eldred, Michael Scott
2004-07-01
The use of optimization in engineering design has fueled the development of algorithms for specific engineering needs. When the simulations are expensive to evaluate or the outputs present some noise, the direct use of nonlinear optimizers is not advisable, since the optimization process will be expensive and may result in premature convergence. The use of approximations for both cases is an alternative investigated by many researchers including the authors. When approximations are present, a model management is required for proper convergence of the algorithm. In nonlinear programming, the use of trust-regions for globalization of a local algorithm has been proven effective. The same approach has been used to manage the local move limits in sequential approximate optimization frameworks as in Alexandrov et al., Giunta and Eldred, Perez et al. , Rodriguez et al., etc. The experience in the mathematical community has shown that more effective algorithms can be obtained by the specific inclusion of the constraints (SQP type of algorithms) rather than by using a penalty function as in the augmented Lagrangian formulation. The presence of explicit constraints in the local problem bounded by the trust region, however, may have no feasible solution. In order to remedy this problem the mathematical community has developed different versions of a composite steps approach. This approach consists of a normal step to reduce the amount of constraint violation and a tangential step to minimize the objective function maintaining the level of constraint violation attained at the normal step. Two of the authors have developed a different approach for a sequential approximate optimization framework using homotopy ideas to relax the constraints. This algorithm called interior-point trust-region sequential approximate optimization (IPTRSAO) presents some similarities to the two normal-tangential steps algorithms. In this paper, a description of the similarities is presented and an expansion of the two steps algorithm is presented for the case of approximations.
A study of Gaussian approximations of fluorescence microscopy PSF models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Bo; Zerubia, Josiane; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe
2006-02-01
Despite the availability of rigorous physical models of microscopy point spread functions (PSFs), approximative PSFs, particularly separable Gaussian approximations are widely used in practical microscopic data processing. In fact, compared with a physical PSF model, which usually involves non-trivial terms such as integrals and infinite series, a Gaussian function has the advantage that it is much simpler and can be computed much faster. Moreover, due to its special analytical form, a Gaussian PSF is often preferred to facilitate the analysis of theoretical models such as Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) process and of processing algorithms such as EM deconvolution. However, in these works, the selection of Gaussian parameters and the approximation accuracy were rarely investigated. In this paper, we present a comprehensive study of Gaussian approximations for diffraction-limited 2D/3D paraxial/non-paraxial PSFs of Wide Field Fluorescence Microscopy (WFFM), Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (LSCM) and Disk Scanning Confocal Microscopy (DSCM) described using the Debye integral. Besides providing an optimal Gaussian parameter for the 2D paraxial WFFM PSF case, we further derive nearly optimal parameters in explicit forms for each of the other cases, based on Maclaurin series matching. Numerical results show that the accuracy of the 2D approximations is very high (Relative Squared Error (RSE) < 2% in WFFM, < 0.3% in LSCM and < 4% in DSCM). For the 3D PSFs, the approximations are average in WFFM (RSE ~= 16-20%), accurate in DSCM (RSE~= 3-6%) and nearly perfect in LSCM (RSE ~= 0.3-0.5%).
Biased random walk models for chemotaxis and related diffusion approximations.
Alt, W
1980-04-01
Stochastic models of biased random walk are discussed, which describe the behavior of chemosensitive cells like bacteria or leukocytes in the gradient of a chemotactic factor. In particular the turning frequency and turn angle distribution are derived from certain biological hypotheses on the background of related experimental observations. Under suitable assumptions it is shown that solutions of the underlying differential-integral equation approximately satisfy the well-known Patlak-Keller-Segel diffusion equation, whose coefficients can be expressed in terms of the microscopic parameters. By an appropriate energy functional a precise error estimation of the diffusion approximation is given within the framework of singular perturbation theory. PMID:7365332
Dynamical nonlocal coherent-potential approximation for itinerant electron magnetism.
Rowlands, D A; Zhang, Yu-Zhong
2014-11-26
A dynamical generalisation of the nonlocal coherent-potential approximation is derived based upon the functional integral approach to the interacting electron problem. The free energy is proven to be variational with respect to the self-energy provided a self-consistency condition on a cluster of sites is satisfied. In the present work, calculations are performed within the static approximation and the effect of the nonlocal physics on the formation of the local moment state in a simple model is investigated. The results reveal the importance of the dynamical correlations. PMID:25351678
Rational-spline approximation with automatic tension adjustment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schiess, J. R.; Kerr, P. A.
1984-01-01
An algorithm for weighted least-squares approximation with rational splines is presented. A rational spline is a cubic function containing a distinct tension parameter for each interval defined by two consecutive knots. For zero tension, the rational spline is identical to a cubic spline; for very large tension, the rational spline is a linear function. The approximation algorithm incorporates an algorithm which automatically adjusts the tension on each interval to fulfill a user-specified criterion. Finally, an example is presented comparing results of the rational spline with those of the cubic spline.
Approximation in control of flexible structures, theory and application
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gibson, J. S.
1983-01-01
The sense in which the feedback control law based on an approximate finite dimensional model of a continuous structure approximates a control law which is optimal for the distributed, or infinite dimensional, model of the structure is studied. From the analysis of the various control and stability issues associated with this basis question, useful information for designing finite dimensional compensators which produce near-optimal performance in infinite dimensional systems is gained. Some of the important predictions that can be made about large-order finite dimensional control laws, using the theory of infinite dimensional Riccati equations are indicated.
Quark propagator in a truncation scheme beyond the rainbow approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Hui-Feng; Wang, Qing
2016-01-01
The quark propagator is studied under a truncation scheme beyond the rainbow approximation by dressing the quark-gluon vertex nonperturbatively. It is found that, in the chiral limit with dynamical symmetry breaking, the dynamical quark mass and the quark condensate are significantly enhanced due to the non-Abelian contribution arising from the three-gluon interaction compared to those under the rainbow approximation, and the critical strength of the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking is much lowered. The Abelian contribution is much smaller than the non-Abelian contribution. A technical issue on removing the ultraviolet divergences, including the overlapping divergences, is discussed.
A generalized Zel'dovich approximation to gravitational instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giavalisco, M.; Mancinelli, B.; Mancinelli, P. J.; Yahil, A.
1993-07-01
The orbits of particles undergoing gravitational instability are parameterized by generalizing the Zel'dovich approximation to a series expansion of arbitrary accuracy in the nonlinear regime. The coefficients of this series are determined from an action principle, or, more generally, from moments of the equation of motion. It is shown that the series is more rapidly convergent than previous nonlinear approximations. The method therefore provides a practical means of determining particle orbits, even for highly nonlinear perturbations. As an alternative, we also outline how the nonlinear dynamics may be computed as a field theory in which the evolution of the density and the velocity is determined in fixed comoving Eulerian coordinates.
Analytical Approximation of Spectrum for Pulse X-ray Tubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vavilov, S.; Koshkin, G.; Udod, V.; Fofanof, O.
2016-01-01
Among the main characteristics of the pulsed X-ray apparatuses the spectral energy characteristics are the most important ones: the spectral distribution of the photon energy, effective and maximum energy of quanta. Knowing the spectral characteristics of the radiation of pulse sources is very important for the practical use of them in non-destructive testing. We have attempted on the analytical approximation of the pulsed X-ray apparatuses spectra obtained in the different experimental papers. The results of the analytical approximation of energy spectrum for pulse X-ray tube are presented. Obtained formulas are adequate to experimental data and can be used by designing pulsed X-ray apparatuses.
Thin-lens approximation for radial gradient-index lenses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bociort, Florian
1996-05-01
Expressions for the Seidel aberrations of thin radial gradient-index (GRIN) lenses having a similar structure with the corresponding expressions for thin homogeneous lenses are obtained. By enabling a direct analysis of the relationship between aberrations and lens data, the thin-lens approximation provides new insight into the possibilities and limitations of aberration correction for simple optical systems using radial gradients. It is found for instance that, as in the homogeneous case, within the frame of this approximation the astigmatism of single radial GRIN lenses cannot be corrected if spherical aberration and coma are corrected or if the aperture stop is located at the lens.
Fourier-Jacobi harmonic analysis and approximation of functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Platonov, S. S.
2014-02-01
We use the methods of Fourier-Jacobi harmonic analysis to study problems of the approximation of functions by algebraic polynomials in weighted function spaces on \\lbrack -1,1 \\rbrack . We prove analogues of Jackson's direct theorem for the moduli of smoothness of all orders constructed on the basis of Jacobi generalized translations. The moduli of smoothness are shown to be equivalent to K-functionals constructed from Sobolev-type spaces. We define Nikol'skii-Besov spaces for the Jacobi generalized translation and describe them in terms of best approximations. We also prove analogues of some inverse theorems of Stechkin.
Intermediate boundary conditions for LOD, ADI and approximate factorization methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leveque, R. J.
1985-01-01
A general approach to determining the correct intermediate boundary conditions for dimensional splitting methods is presented. The intermediate solution U is viewed as a second order accurate approximation to a modified equation. Deriving the modified equation and using the relationship between this equation and the original equation allows us to determine the correct boundary conditions for U*. This technique is illustrated by applying it to locally one dimensional (LOD) and alternating direction implicit (ADI) methods for the heat equation in two and three space dimensions. The approximate factorization method is considered in slightly more generality.
An approximate method for calculating aircraft downwash on parachute trajectories
Strickland, J.H.
1989-01-01
An approximate method for calculating velocities induced by aircraft on parachute trajectories is presented herein. A simple system of quadrilateral vortex panels is used to model the aircraft wing and its wake. The purpose of this work is to provide a simple analytical tool which can be used to approximate the effect of aircraft-induced velocities on parachute performance. Performance issues such as turnover and wake recontact may be strongly influenced by velocities induced by the wake of the delivering aircraft, especially if the aircraft is maneuvering at the time of parachute deployment. 7 refs., 9 figs.
Rational approximations to solutions of linear differential equations
Chudnovsky, D. V.; Chudnovsky, G. V.
1983-01-01
Rational approximations of Pad and Pad type to solutions of differential equations are considered. One of the main results is a theorem stating that a simultaneous approximation to arbitrary solutions of linear differential equations over C(x) cannot be better than trivial ones implied by the Dirichlet box principle. This constitutes, in particular, the solution in the linear case of Kolchin's problem that the Roth's theorem holds for arbitrary solutions of algebraic differential equations. Complete effective proofs for several valuations are presented based on the Wronskian methods and graded subrings of Picard-Vessiot extensions. PMID:16593357
An approximation concepts method for space frame synthesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mills-Curran, W. C.; Lust, R. V.; Schmit, L. A.
1982-01-01
A method is presented for the minimum mass design of three dimensional space frames constructed of thin walled rectangular cross-section members. Constraints on nodal displacements and rotations, material stress, local buckling, and cross sectional dimensions are included. A high quality separable approximate problem is formed in terms of the reciprocals of the four section properties of the frame element cross section, replacing all implicit functions with simplified explicit relations. The cross sectional dimensions are efficiently calculated without using multilevel techniques. Several test problems are solved, demonstrating that a series of approximate problem solutions converge rapidly to an optimal design.
On the rotating wave approximation in the adiabatic limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larson, Jonas
2013-03-01
I revisit a longstanding question in quantum optics; when is the rotating wave approximation justified? In terms of the Jaynes-Cummings and Rabi models I demonstrate that the approximation in general breaks down in the adiabatic limit regardless of system parameters. This is explicitly shown by comparing Berry phases of the two models, where it is found that this geometrical phase is strictly zero in the Rabi model contrary to the non-trivial Berry phase of the Jaynes-Cummings model. The source of this surprising result is traced back to different topologies in the two models.
Compressibility Corrections to Closure Approximations for Turbulent Flow Simulations
Cloutman, L D
2003-02-01
We summarize some modifications to the usual closure approximations for statistical models of turbulence that are necessary for use with compressible fluids at all Mach numbers. We concentrate here on the gradient-flu approximation for the turbulent heat flux, on the buoyancy production of turbulence kinetic energy, and on a modification of the Smagorinsky model to include buoyancy. In all cases, there are pressure gradient terms that do not appear in the incompressible models and are usually omitted in compressible-flow models. Omission of these terms allows unphysical rates of entropy change.
On the approximation of crack shapes found during inservice inspection
Bhate, S.R.; Chawla, D.S.; Kushwaha, H.S.
1997-04-01
This paper addresses the characterization of axial internal flaw found during inservice inspection of a pipe. J-integral distribution for various flaw shapes is obtained using line spring finite, element method. The peak J-value and its distribution across the crack is found to be characteristic feature of each shape. The triangular shape yields peak J-value away from the center, the point of depth. The elliptic approximation results in large overestimate of J-value for unsymmetric flaws. Triangular approximation is recommended for such flaws so that further service can be obtained from the component.
Are there approximate relations among transverse momentum dependent distribution functions?
Harutyun AVAKIAN; Anatoli Efremov; Klaus Goeke; Andreas Metz; Peter Schweitzer; Tobias Teckentrup
2007-10-11
Certain {\\sl exact} relations among transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions due to QCD equations of motion turn into {\\sl approximate} ones upon the neglect of pure twist-3 terms. On the basis of available data from HERMES we test the practical usefulness of one such ``Wandzura-Wilczek-type approximation'', namely of that connecting $h_{1L}^{\\perp(1)a}(x)$ to $h_L^a(x)$, and discuss how it can be further tested by future CLAS and COMPASS data.
Integrable approximation of regular islands: The iterative canonical transformation method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lbner, Clemens; Lck, Steffen; Bcker, Arnd; Ketzmerick, Roland
2013-12-01
Generic Hamiltonian systems have a mixed phase space, where classically disjoint regions of regular and chaotic motion coexist. We present an iterative method to construct an integrable approximation Hreg, which resembles the regular dynamics of a given mixed system H and extends it into the chaotic region. The method is based on the construction of an integrable approximation in action representation which is then improved in phase space by iterative applications of canonical transformations. This method works for strongly perturbed systems and arbitrary degrees of freedom. We apply it to the standard map and the cosine billiard.
Integrable approximation of regular regions with a nonlinear resonance chain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kullig, Julius; Lbner, Clemens; Mertig, Normann; Bcker, Arnd; Ketzmerick, Roland
2014-11-01
Generic Hamiltonian systems have a mixed phase space where regions of regular and chaotic motion coexist. We present a method for constructing an integrable approximation to such regular phase-space regions including a nonlinear resonance chain. This approach generalizes the recently introduced iterative canonical transformation method. In the first step of the method a normal-form Hamiltonian with a resonance chain is adapted such that actions and frequencies match with those of the nonintegrable system. In the second step a sequence of canonical transformations is applied to the integrable approximation to match the shape of regular tori. We demonstrate the method for the generic standard map at various parameters.
Superfluidity of heated Fermi systems in the static fluctuation approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khamzin, A. A.; Nikitin, A. S.; Sitdikov, A. S.
2015-10-01
Superfluidity properties of heated finite Fermi systems are studied in the static fluctuation approximation, which is an original method. This method relies on a single and controlled approximation, which permits taking correctly into account quasiparticle correlations and thereby going beyond the independent-quasiparticle model. A closed self-consistent set of equations for calculating correlation functions at finite temperature is obtained for a finite Fermi system described by the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer Hamiltonian. An equation for the energy gap is found with allowance for fluctuation effects. It is shown that the phase transition to the supefluid state is smeared upon the inclusion of fluctuations.
Some special series in ultraspherical polynomials and their approximation properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharapudinov, I. I.
2014-10-01
Using the explicit form of a limiting ultraspherical series \\sumk=0^? f_k-1\\widehat P_k-1(x), which was established by us in [1], we consider new, more general, special series in ultraspherical Jacobi polynomials and their approximation properties. We show that as an approximation tool, these series compare favourably with Fourier series in Jacobi polynomials. At the same time, they admit a simple construction, which in important particular cases enables one to use the fast Fourier transform for the numerical realization of their partial sums.
Exponentially accurate approximations to piece-wise smooth periodic functions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Greer, James; Banerjee, Saheb
1995-01-01
A family of simple, periodic basis functions with 'built-in' discontinuities are introduced, and their properties are analyzed and discussed. Some of their potential usefulness is illustrated in conjunction with the Fourier series representations of functions with discontinuities. In particular, it is demonstrated how they can be used to construct a sequence of approximations which converges exponentially in the maximum norm to a piece-wise smooth function. The theory is illustrated with several examples and the results are discussed in the context of other sequences of functions which can be used to approximate discontinuous functions.
Prince William Forest Park American Beech , Approximately one mile ...
Prince William Forest Park American Beech , Approximately one mile from visitors center, south bank of the south fork of Quantico Creek, about 75 yards upstream from its confluence with Quantico Creek, Near Birch Bluff Trail, Triangle, Prince William County, VA
Efficient variational Bayesian approximation method based on subspace optimization.
Zheng, Yuling; Fraysse, Aurlia; Rodet, Thomas
2015-02-01
Variational Bayesian approximations have been widely used in fully Bayesian inference for approximating an intractable posterior distribution by a separable one. Nevertheless, the classical variational Bayesian approximation (VBA) method suffers from slow convergence to the approximate solution when tackling large dimensional problems. To address this problem, we propose in this paper a more efficient VBA method. Actually, variational Bayesian issue can be seen as a functional optimization problem. The proposed method is based on the adaptation of subspace optimization methods in Hilbert spaces to the involved function space, in order to solve this optimization problem in an iterative way. The aim is to determine an optimal direction at each iteration in order to get a more efficient method. We highlight the efficiency of our new VBA method and demonstrate its application to image processing by considering an ill-posed linear inverse problem using a total variation prior. Comparisons with state of the art variational Bayesian methods through a numerical example show a notable improvement in computation time. PMID:25532179
10. INTERIOR, NORTHEAST STORAGE AREA, FROM APPROXIMATELY 15 FEET SOUTHWEST ...
10. INTERIOR, NORTHEAST STORAGE AREA, FROM APPROXIMATELY 15 FEET SOUTHWEST OF NORTHEAST CORNER, LOOKING WEST-SOUTHWEST, WITH CONNECTING DOORWAYS IN FAR WALL. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Pier Transit Shed, South of D Street between First & Second Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA
Analytical approximation to the turn-to-turn quench propagation
Lopez, G.
1990-09-01
Using a gross approximation for the flow of heat in a one-dimensional model, an analytical expression is obtained for the turn-to-turn time delay to quench other nearby conductors. This expression agrees qualitatively with the experimental data of the SSC R D dipole magnets. 7 refs., 2 figs.
Young Children "Solve for X" Using the Approximate Number System
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kibbe, Melissa M.; Feigenson, Lisa
2015-01-01
The Approximate Number System (ANS) supports basic arithmetic computation in early childhood, but it is unclear whether the ANS also supports the more complex computations introduced later in formal education. "Solving for x" in addend-unknown problems is notoriously difficult for children, who often struggle with these types of problems…
Approximation algorithms for the fixed-topology phylogenetic number problem
Cryan, M.; Goldberg, L.A.; Phillips, C.A.
1997-04-01
In the {ell}-phylogeny problem, one wishes to construct an evolutionary tree for a set of species represented by characters, in which each state of each character induces no more than {ell} connected components. The authors consider the fixed-topology version of this problem for fixed-topologies of arbitrary degree. This version of the problem is known to be NP-complete for {ell} {ge} 3 even for degree-3 trees in which no state labels more than {ell} + 1 leaves (and therefore there is a trivial {ell} + 1 phylogeny). They give a 2-approximation algorithm for all {ell} {ge} 3 for arbitrary input topologies and they given an optimal approximation algorithm that constructs a 4-phylogeny when a 3-phylogeny exists. Dynamic programming techniques, which are typically used in fixed-topology problems, cannot be applied to {ell}-phylogeny problems. The 2-approximation algorithm is the first application of linear programming to approximation algorithms for phylogeny problems. They extend their results to a related problem in which characters are polymorphic.
1. ONTARIO MINE IS LOCATED ALONG FAR RIGHT ROADWAY APPROXIMATELY ...
1. ONTARIO MINE IS LOCATED ALONG FAR RIGHT ROADWAY APPROXIMATELY 100 YARDS FROM CAMERA POSITION. TAILING PILE DOWN SLOPE AND WEST OF CAMERA POSITION IN ID-31-C-44. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Ontario Mine, Northwest side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID
A method of approximating range size of small mammals
Stickel, L.F.
1965-01-01
In summary, trap success trends appear to provide a useful approximation to range size of easily trapped small mammals such as Peromyscus. The scale of measurement can be adjusted as desired. Further explorations of the usefulness of the plan should be made and modifications possibly developed before adoption.
Animating Nested Taylor Polynomials to Approximate a Function
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mazzone, Eric F.; Piper, Bruce R.
2010-01-01
The way that Taylor polynomials approximate functions can be demonstrated by moving the center point while keeping the degree fixed. These animations are particularly nice when the Taylor polynomials do not intersect and form a nested family. We prove a result that shows when this nesting occurs. The animations can be shown in class or
Basis Function Approximation of Transonic Aerodynamic Influence Coefficient Matrix
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, Wesley W.; Pak, Chan-gi
2011-01-01
A technique for approximating the modal aerodynamic influence coefficients matrices by using basis functions has been developed and validated. An application of the resulting approximated modal aerodynamic influence coefficients matrix for a flutter analysis in transonic speed regime has been demonstrated. This methodology can be applied to the unsteady subsonic, transonic, and supersonic aerodynamics. The method requires the unsteady aerodynamics in frequency-domain. The flutter solution can be found by the classic methods, such as rational function approximation, k, p-k, p, root-locus et cetera. The unsteady aeroelastic analysis for design optimization using unsteady transonic aerodynamic approximation is being demonstrated using the ZAERO flutter solver (ZONA Technology Incorporated, Scottsdale, Arizona). The technique presented has been shown to offer consistent flutter speed prediction on an aerostructures test wing 2 configuration with negligible loss in precision in transonic speed regime. These results may have practical significance in the analysis of aircraft aeroelastic calculation and could lead to a more efficient design optimization cycle.
Application of Approximate Unsteady Aerodynamics for Flutter Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pak, Chan-gi; Li, Wesley W.
2010-01-01
A technique for approximating the modal aerodynamic influence coefficient (AIC) matrices by using basis functions has been developed. A process for using the resulting approximated modal AIC matrix in aeroelastic analysis has also been developed. The method requires the unsteady aerodynamics in frequency domain, and this methodology can be applied to the unsteady subsonic, transonic, and supersonic aerodynamics. The flutter solution can be found by the classic methods, such as rational function approximation, k, p-k, p, root locus et cetera. The unsteady aeroelastic analysis using unsteady subsonic aerodynamic approximation is demonstrated herein. The technique presented is shown to offer consistent flutter speed prediction on an aerostructures test wing (ATW) 2 and a hybrid wing body (HWB) type of vehicle configuration with negligible loss in precision. This method computes AICs that are functions of the changing parameters being studied and are generated within minutes of CPU time instead of hours. These results may have practical application in parametric flutter analyses as well as more efficient multidisciplinary design and optimization studies.
A Simple Geometric Approach to Approximating the Gini Coefficient
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kasper, Hirschel; Golden, John
2008-01-01
The author shows how a quick approximation of the Lorenz curve's Gini coefficient can be calculated empirically using numerical data presented in cumulative income quintiles. When the technique here was used to estimate 621 income quintile/Gini coefficient observations from the Deninger and Squire/World Bank data set, this approach performed
14. INTERIOR, EASTERN PORTION OF SHOP AREA, FROM APPROXIMATELY 50 ...
14. INTERIOR, EASTERN PORTION OF SHOP AREA, FROM APPROXIMATELY 50 FEET WEST OF SOUTHEAST CORNER OF BUILDING, LOOKING WEST, WITH LARGE 'LAZY BRUINS' AT CENTER. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Lumber Storage & Box Factory, East of Fifth Street, between H & I Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA
Calculating Resonance Positions and Widths Using the Siegert Approximation Method
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rapedius, Kevin
2011-01-01
Here, we present complex resonance states (or Siegert states) that describe the tunnelling decay of a trapped quantum particle from an intuitive point of view that naturally leads to the easily applicable Siegert approximation method. This can be used for analytical and numerical calculations of complex resonances of both the linear and nonlinear…
Polynomial Approximation of Functions: Historical Perspective and New Tools
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kidron, Ivy
2003-01-01
This paper examines the effect of applying symbolic computation and graphics to enhance students' ability to move from a visual interpretation of mathematical concepts to formal reasoning. The mathematics topics involved, Approximation and Interpolation, were taught according to their historical development, and the students tried to follow the
On the Routh approximation technique and least squares errors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aburdene, M. F.; Singh, R.-N. P.
1979-01-01
A new method for calculating the coefficients of the numerator polynomial of the direct Routh approximation method (DRAM) using the least square error criterion is formulated. The necessary conditions have been obtained in terms of algebraic equations. The method is useful for low frequency as well as high frequency reduced-order models.
1. VIEW ALONG APPROXIMATE CENTERLINE OF PROPOSED NEW BRIDGE. FLUME ...
1. VIEW ALONG APPROXIMATE CENTERLINE OF PROPOSED NEW BRIDGE. FLUME AT RIGHT CENTER IS FED FROM SMALL DIVERSION DAM ON MIDDLE FORK OF TULE RIVER, LOOKING SOUTH. (65mm lens) - Tule River Hydroelectric Complex, Tule River Bridge, Spanning North Fork of Middle Fork of Tule River, Springville, Tulare County, CA
Bose gases, BoseEinstein condensation, and the Bogoliubov approximation
Seiringer, Robert
2014-07-15
We review recent progress towards a rigorous understanding of the Bogoliubov approximation for bosonic quantum many-body systems. We focus, in particular, on the excitation spectrum of a Bose gas in the mean-field (Hartree) limit. A list of open problems will be discussed at the end.
The Inertial Property of Approximately Inertial Frames of Reference
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chubykalo, Andrew E.; Espinoza, Augusto; Kosyakov, B. P.
2011-01-01
Is it possible to compare approximately inertial frames in the inertial property? If this is the case, the inertial property becomes a measurable quantity. We give a positive answer to this question, and discuss the general principle of design of devices for making the required measurements. This paper is intended for advanced undergraduate and
4. WEST PORTION OF SOUTH SIDE, OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM APPROXIMATELY ...
4. WEST PORTION OF SOUTH SIDE, OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM APPROXIMATELY 30 FEET WEST OF SOUTHWEST CORNER, LOOKING EAST, WITH WEST SIDE OF BUILDING 123 AT RIGHT BEYOND LIGHTING POLE. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Pier Transit Shed, South of D Street between First & Second Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA
Is Approximate Number Precision a Stable Predictor of Math Ability?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Libertus, Melissa E.; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin
2013-01-01
Previous research shows that children's ability to estimate numbers of items using their Approximate Number System (ANS) predicts later math ability. To more closely examine the predictive role of early ANS acuity on later abilities, we assessed the ANS acuity, math ability, and expressive vocabulary of preschoolers twice, six months apart. We
Analytic Approximations for the Extrapolation of Lattice Data
Masjuan, Pere
2010-12-22
We present analytic approximations of chiral SU(3) amplitudes for the extrapolation of lattice data to the physical masses and the determination of Next-to-Next-to-Leading-Order low-energy constants. Lattice data for the ratio F{sub K}/F{sub {pi}} is used to test the method.
An application of artificial neural networks to experimental data approximation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meade, Andrew J., Jr.
1993-01-01
As an initial step in the evaluation of networks, a feedforward architecture is trained to approximate experimental data by the backpropagation algorithm. Several drawbacks were detected and an alternative learning algorithm was then developed to partially address the drawbacks. This noniterative algorithm has a number of advantages over the backpropagation method and is easily implemented on existing hardware.
Approximate analytic solutions for the optical pumping of fluorescent dyes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lawandy, N. M.
1978-01-01
A general technique for solving a system of rate equations describing the interaction of an electromagnetic field and a molecular system is presented. The method is used to obtain approximate time-dependent solutions for the upper-level population of fluorescent dyes in the presence of a pump field.
A composite medium approximation for unsaturated flow in layered sediments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pruess, Karsten
2004-06-01
Saturated-unsaturated flow in strictly layered sediments proceeds via conductors in parallel in the direction parallel to bedding, and via resistors in series in the direction perpendicular to bedding. On sufficiently small scales of space and time, flow in such media will be subject to approximate capillary equilibrium locally, which provides a basis for approximating the effective hydraulic conductivity of a composite multi-layer medium in terms of the conductivities of the individual layers. Equations for the hydraulic conductivity tensor in "composite medium approximation" (COMA) are given in a coordinate system aligned with bedding. Hydraulic conductivity parallel to bedding is generally larger than in the perpendicular direction. The anisotropy depends on the spread of the conductivity distribution, and tends to increase for dryer conditions. The COMA model was implemented in a multi-phase flow simulator and tested by comparison with high-resolution simulations in which all layering heterogeneity is resolved explicitly. Under favorable conditions, COMA is found to accurately represent sub-grid scale flow and transport processes, providing a practical method for simulating field-scale flow and transport in layered media. The approximation improves when layers are thinner, and when flow rates are smaller.
APPROXIMATION OF SURFACES IN QUANTITATIVE 3-D RECONSTRUCTIONS
In serial section reconstructions a series of planar profiles are taken representing curves on the surface of the structure to be reconstructed. or a number of quantitative serial section methods, approximation of a surface is done by the formation of tiles between points of adja...
8. BUILDING 522, INTERIOR, STOREROOM (NORTHERN PORTION), FROM APPROXIMATELY TWOTHIRDS ...
8. BUILDING 522, INTERIOR, STOREROOM (NORTHERN PORTION), FROM APPROXIMATELY TWO-THIRDS DISTANCE FROM EAST END, LOOKING EAST, WITH WINDOW-OPENING APPARATUS ALONG WALL TO LEFT, AND CONVEYOR APPARATUS IN FOREGROUND. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Aeronautical Materials Storehouses, Between E & G Streets, between Fourth & Sixth Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA
11. BUILDING 522, INTERIOR, SOUTH MEZZANINE, FROM SOUTH WALL APPROXIMATELY ...
11. BUILDING 522, INTERIOR, SOUTH MEZZANINE, FROM SOUTH WALL APPROXIMATELY ONE-THIRD OF DISTANCE WEST FROM EAST END, LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Aeronautical Materials Storehouses, Between E & G Streets, between Fourth & Sixth Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA
Stochastic Approximation Methods for Latent Regression Item Response Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
von Davier, Matthias; Sinharay, Sandip
2010-01-01
This article presents an application of a stochastic approximation expectation maximization (EM) algorithm using a Metropolis-Hastings (MH) sampler to estimate the parameters of an item response latent regression model. Latent regression item response models are extensions of item response theory (IRT) to a latent variable model with covariates
A simple analytic approximation for dusty Stroemgren spheres
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Petrosian, V.; Silk, J.; Field, G. B.
1972-01-01
An analytic approximation is illustrated to Stromgren's solution for H II regions which permits explicit exhibition of the effects of internal dust on the ionization structure. Far infrared observations of H II regions are accounted for in terms of true absorption by internal dust of a significant fraction of the Lyman continuum photons.
22. Photographic copy of 1889 linen drawing of reservoir. Approximately ...
22. Photographic copy of 1889 linen drawing of reservoir. Approximately two and a half feet by four feet. Delineator unknown, original currently located in the Sangre de Cristo Water Company files. - Two Mile Reservoir, Santa Fe River, intersection of Canyon & Cerro Gordo Roads, Santa Fe, Santa Fe County, NM
The approximate scaling law of the cochlea box model.
Vetesnk, A; Nobili, R
2006-12-01
The hydrodynamic box-model of the cochlea is reconsidered here for the primary purpose of studying in detail the approximate scaling law that governs tonotopic responses in the frequency domain. "Scaling law" here means that any two solutions representing waveforms elicited by tones of equal amplitudes differ only by a complex factor depending on frequency. It is shown that this property holds with excellent approximation almost all along the basilar membrane (BM) length, with the exception of a small region adjacent to the BM base. The analytical expression of the approximate law is explicitly given and compared to numerical solutions carried out on a virtually exact implementation of the model. It differs significantly from that derived by Sondhi in 1978, which suffers from an inaccuracy in the hyperbolic approximation of the exact Green's function. Since the cochleae of mammals do not exhibit the scaling properties of the box model, the subject presented here may appear to be just an academic exercise. The results of our study, however, are significant in that a more general scaling law should hold for real cochleae. To support this hypothesis, an argument related to the problem of cochlear amplifier-gain stabilization is advanced. PMID:17008036
The Inertial Property of Approximately Inertial Frames of Reference
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chubykalo, Andrew E.; Espinoza, Augusto; Kosyakov, B. P.
2011-01-01
Is it possible to compare approximately inertial frames in the inertial property? If this is the case, the inertial property becomes a measurable quantity. We give a positive answer to this question, and discuss the general principle of design of devices for making the required measurements. This paper is intended for advanced undergraduate and…
Approximating Attractors of Boolean Networks by Iterative CTL Model Checking
Klarner, Hannes; Siebert, Heike
2015-01-01
This paper introduces the notion of approximating asynchronous attractors of Boolean networks by minimal trap spaces. We define three criteria for determining the quality of an approximation: “faithfulness” which requires that the oscillating variables of all attractors in a trap space correspond to their dimensions, “univocality” which requires that there is a unique attractor in each trap space, and “completeness” which requires that there are no attractors outside of a given set of trap spaces. Each is a reachability property for which we give equivalent model checking queries. Whereas faithfulness and univocality can be decided by model checking the corresponding subnetworks, the naive query for completeness must be evaluated on the full state space. Our main result is an alternative approach which is based on the iterative refinement of an initially poor approximation. The algorithm detects so-called autonomous sets in the interaction graph, variables that contain all their regulators, and considers their intersection and extension in order to perform model checking on the smallest possible state spaces. A benchmark, in which we apply the algorithm to 18 published Boolean networks, is given. In each case, the minimal trap spaces are faithful, univocal, and complete, which suggests that they are in general good approximations for the asymptotics of Boolean networks. PMID:26442247
4. BUILDING 413, INTERIOR, CENTRAL STOREROOM, FROM APPROXIMATELY 30 FEET ...
4. BUILDING 413, INTERIOR, CENTRAL STOREROOM, FROM APPROXIMATELY 30 FEET NORTH OF SOUTH WALL, LOOKING WEST, WITH TWO WESTERN STOREROOMS THROUGH FIREDOORS. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Heavy Materials & Paint-Oil Storehouses, Between Fourth & Sixth streets, between B & D Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA
Joseph Boussinesq et son approximation : un aperu actuel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeytounian, Radyadour Kh.
2003-08-01
A hundred years ago, in his 1903 volume II of the monograph devoted to 'Thorie Analytique de la Chaleur', Joseph Valentin Boussinesq observes that: "The v ariations of density can be ignored except were they are multiplied by the acceleration of gravity in equation of motion for the vertical component of the velocity vector." A spectacular consequence of this Boussinesq observation (called, in 1916, by Rayleigh, the 'Boussinesq approximation') is the possibility to work with a quasi-incompressible system of coupled dynamic, (Navier) and thermal (Fourier) equations where buoyancy is the main driving force. After a few words on the life of Boussinesq and on his observation, the applicability of this approximation is briefly discussed for various thermal, geophysical, astrophysical and magnetohydrodynamic problems in the framework of 'Boussinesquian fluid dynamics'. An important part of our contemporary view is devoted to a logical (100 years later) justification of this Boussinesq approximation for a perfect gas and an ideal liquid in the framework of an asymptotic modelling of the full fluid dynamics (Euler and Navier-Stokes-Fourier) equations with especially careful attention given to the validity of this approximation. To cite this article: R.Kh. Zeytounian, C. R. Mecanique 331 (2003).
Face recognition using sparse approximated nearest points between image sets.
Hu, Yiqun; Mian, Ajmal S; Owens, Robyn
2012-10-01
We propose an efficient and robust solution for image set classification. A joint representation of an image set is proposed which includes the image samples of the set and their affine hull model. The model accounts for unseen appearances in the form of affine combinations of sample images. To calculate the between-set distance, we introduce the Sparse Approximated Nearest Point (SANP). SANPs are the nearest points of two image sets such that each point can be sparsely approximated by the image samples of its respective set. This novel sparse formulation enforces sparsity on the sample coefficients and jointly optimizes the nearest points as well as their sparse approximations. Unlike standard sparse coding, the data to be sparsely approximated are not fixed. A convex formulation is proposed to find the optimal SANPs between two sets and the accelerated proximal gradient method is adapted to efficiently solve this optimization. We also derive the kernel extension of the SANP and propose an algorithm for dynamically tuning the RBF kernel parameter while matching each pair of image sets. Comprehensive experiments on the UCSD/Honda, CMU MoBo, and YouTube Celebrities face datasets show that our method consistently outperforms the state of the art. PMID:22213765
On the constrained Chebyshev approximation problem on ellipses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Freund, Roland; Fischer, Bernd
1988-01-01
Constrained Chebyshev approximation problems of the type with minimum (p is an element of Pi(sub n):p(c)=1) and maximum (z is an element of E) with /p(z)/ are considered. Here Pi(sub n) denotes the set of all complex polynomials of degree at most n, E is any ellipse in the complex plane, and c is an element of C/E. Such approximation problems arise in the context of optimizing semi-iterative methods for the solution of large, sparse systems of linear equations Ax=b with complex non-Hermitian coefficient matrices A. The problem of obtaining optimal polynomial preconditioners for conjugate gradient type methods for Ax=b also leads to problems of this type. A new family of polynomials -- q(sub n)(z;c), n is an element of N, and c is an element of C/E -- are introduced as the polynomials which are optimal for a modified version of the Chebyshev approximation problem with Pi(sub n) replaced by a certain subfamily. Some simple properties of q(sub n) are also listed. A necessary and sufficient condition for q(sub n) to be the extremal polynomial for the approximation problem is then derived. Finally, it is shown that q(sub n) is indeed optimal for the problem for all fixed n whenever the distance between c and E is sufficiently large. Results of some numerical tests are presented.
Approximation of the exponential integral (well function) using sampling methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baalousha, Husam Musa
2015-04-01
Exponential integral (also known as well function) is often used in hydrogeology to solve Theis and Hantush equations. Many methods have been developed to approximate the exponential integral. Most of these methods are based on numerical approximations and are valid for a certain range of the argument value. This paper presents a new approach to approximate the exponential integral. The new approach is based on sampling methods. Three different sampling methods; Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS), Orthogonal Array (OA), and Orthogonal Array-based Latin Hypercube (OA-LH) have been used to approximate the function. Different argument values, covering a wide range, have been used. The results of sampling methods were compared with results obtained by Mathematica software, which was used as a benchmark. All three sampling methods converge to the result obtained by Mathematica, at different rates. It was found that the orthogonal array (OA) method has the fastest convergence rate compared with LHS and OA-LH. The root mean square error RMSE of OA was in the order of 1E-08. This method can be used with any argument value, and can be used to solve other integrals in hydrogeology such as the leaky aquifer integral.
Matchsimile: A Flexible Approximate Matching Tool for Searching Proper Names.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Navarro, Gonzalo; Baeza-Yates, Ricardo; Arcoverde, Joao Marcelo Azevedo
2003-01-01
Presents the architecture and algorithms behind Matchsimile, an approximate string matching lookup tool designed for extracting person and company names from large texts. Highlights include name formation rules, defining the search problem, system architecture, recognizing pattern words, recognizing whole patterns, and performance. (Author/MES)
Meta-regression approximations to reduce publication selection bias.
Stanley, T D; Doucouliagos, Hristos
2014-03-01
Publication selection bias is a serious challenge to the integrity of all empirical sciences. We derive meta-regression approximations to reduce this bias. Our approach employs Taylor polynomial approximations to the conditional mean of a truncated distribution. A quadratic approximation without a linear term, precision-effect estimate with standard error (PEESE), is shown to have the smallest bias and mean squared error in most cases and to outperform conventional meta-analysis estimators, often by a great deal. Monte Carlo simulations also demonstrate how a new hybrid estimator that conditionally combines PEESE and the Egger regression intercept can provide a practical solution to publication selection bias. PEESE is easily expanded to accommodate systematic heterogeneity along with complex and differential publication selection bias that is related to moderator variables. By providing an intuitive reason for these approximations, we can also explain why the Egger regression works so well and when it does not. These meta-regression methods are applied to several policy-relevant areas of research including antidepressant effectiveness, the value of a statistical life, the minimum wage, and nicotine replacement therapy. PMID:26054026
Basis Function Approximation of Transonic Aerodynamic Influence Coefficient Matrix
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, Wesley Waisang; Pak, Chan-Gi
2010-01-01
A technique for approximating the modal aerodynamic influence coefficients [AIC] matrices by using basis functions has been developed and validated. An application of the resulting approximated modal AIC matrix for a flutter analysis in transonic speed regime has been demonstrated. This methodology can be applied to the unsteady subsonic, transonic and supersonic aerodynamics. The method requires the unsteady aerodynamics in frequency-domain. The flutter solution can be found by the classic methods, such as rational function approximation, k, p-k, p, root-locus et cetera. The unsteady aeroelastic analysis for design optimization using unsteady transonic aerodynamic approximation is being demonstrated using the ZAERO(TradeMark) flutter solver (ZONA Technology Incorporated, Scottsdale, Arizona). The technique presented has been shown to offer consistent flutter speed prediction on an aerostructures test wing [ATW] 2 configuration with negligible loss in precision in transonic speed regime. These results may have practical significance in the analysis of aircraft aeroelastic calculation and could lead to a more efficient design optimization cycle
Laplace Approximation for Divisive Gaussian Processes for Nonstationary Regression.
Munoz-Gonzalez, Luis; Lazaro-Gredilla, Miguel; Figueiras-Vidal, Anibal R
2016-03-01
The standard Gaussian Process regression (GP) is usually formulated under stationary hypotheses: The noise power is considered constant throughout the input space and the covariance of the prior distribution is typically modeled as depending only on the difference between input samples. These assumptions can be too restrictive and unrealistic for many real-world problems. Although nonstationarity can be achieved using specific covariance functions, they require a prior knowledge of the kind of nonstationarity, not available for most applications. In this paper we propose to use the Laplace approximation to make inference in a divisive GP model to perform nonstationary regression, including heteroscedastic noise cases. The log-concavity of the likelihood ensures a unimodal posterior and makes that the Laplace approximation converges to a unique maximum. The characteristics of the likelihood also allow to obtain accurate posterior approximations when compared to the Expectation Propagation (EP) approximations and the asymptotically exact posterior provided by a Markov Chain Monte Carlo implementation with Elliptical Slice Sampling (ESS), but at a reduced computational load with respect to both, EP and ESS. PMID:26890623
Adequacy of selected evapotranspiration approximations for hydrologic simulation
Sumner, D.M.
2006-01-01
Evapotranspiration (ET) approximations, usually based on computed potential ET (PET) and diverse PET-to-ET conceptualizations, are routinely used in hydrologic analyses. This study presents an approach to incorporate measured (actual) ET data, increasingly available using micrometeorological methods, to define the adequacy of ET approximations for hydrologic simulation. The approach is demonstrated at a site where eddy correlation-measured ET values were available. A baseline hydrologic model incorporating measured ET values was used to evaluate the sensitivity of simulated water levels, subsurface recharge, and surface runoff to error in four ET approximations. An annually invariant pattern of mean monthly vegetation coefficients was shown to be most effective, despite the substantial year-to-year variation in measured vegetation coefficients. The temporal variability of available water (precipitation minus ET) at the humid, subtropical site was largely controlled by the relatively high temporal variability of precipitation, benefiting the effectiveness of coarse ET approximations, a result that is likely to prevail at other humid sites.
Bit-Vector Representation of Dominance-Based Approximation Space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chan, Chien-Chung; Tzeng, Gwo-Hshiung
Dominance-based Rough Set Approach (DRSA) introduced by Greco et al. is an extension of Pawlak's classical rough set theory by using dominance relations in place of equivalence relations for approximating sets of preference ordered decision classes. The elementary granules in DRSA are P-dominating and P-dominated sets. Recently, Chan and Tzeng introduced the concept of indexed blocks for representing dominance-based approximation space with generalized dominance relations on evaluations of objects. This paper shows how to derive indexed blocks from P-dominating and P-dominated sets in DRSA. Approximations are generalized to any family of decision classes in terms of indexed blocks formulated as binary neighborhood systems. We present algorithms for generating indexed blocks from multi-criteria decision tables and for encoding indexed blocks as bit-vectors to facilitate the computation of approximations and rule generation. A new form of representing decision rules by using interval and set-difference operators is introduced, and we give a procedure of how to generate this type of rules that can be implemented as SQL queries.
1. Photocopy of photograph, showing a view approximately northnorthwest of ...
1. Photocopy of photograph, showing a view approximately north-northwest of the sixteen original kilns. Photographer and date unknown, but believed to be ca. 1895. Courtesy of Felicia Nichols, Pocatello, Id. - Warren King Charcoal Kilns, 5 miles west of Idaho Highway 28, Targhee National Forest, Leadore, Lemhi County, ID
A composite medium approximation for unsaturated flow in layered sediments.
TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information
Pruess K
2004-06-01
Saturated-unsaturated flow in strictly layered sediments proceeds via conductors in parallel in the direction parallel to bedding, and via resistors in series in the direction perpendicular to bedding. On sufficiently small scales of space and time, flow in such media will be subject to approximate capillary equilibrium locally, which provides a basis for approximating the effective hydraulic conductivity of a composite multi-layer medium in terms of the conductivities of the individual layers. Equations for the hydraulic conductivity tensor in "composite medium approximation" (COMA) are given in a coordinate system aligned with bedding. Hydraulic conductivity parallel to bedding is generally larger than in the perpendicular direction. The anisotropy depends on the spread of the conductivity distribution, and tends to increase for dryer conditions. The COMA model was implemented in a multi-phase flow simulator and tested by comparison with high-resolution simulations in which all layering heterogeneity is resolved explicitly. Under favorable conditions, COMA is found to accurately represent sub-grid scale flow and transport processes, providing a practical method for simulating field-scale flow and transport in layered media. The approximation improves when layers are thinner, and when flow rates are smaller.
43 CFR 2201.5 - Exchanges at approximately equal value.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
...; (2) The value of the lands to be conveyed out of Federal ownership is not more than $150,000 as based... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) EXCHANGES: GENERAL... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exchanges at approximately equal...
New approximating results for data with errors in both variables
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bogdanova, N.; Todorov, S.
2015-05-01
We introduce new data from mineral water probe Lenovo Bulgaria, measured with errors in both variables. We apply our Orthonormal Polynomial Expansion Method (OPEM), based on Forsythe recurrence formula to describe the data in the new error corridor. The development of OPEM gives the approximating curves and their derivatives in optimal orthonormal and usual expansions including the errors in both variables with special criteria.